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Sample records for cerebrovascular mental stress

  1. Chronic Stress Decreases Cerebrovascular Responses During Rat Hindlimb Electrical Stimulation

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sohee; Kang, Bok-Man; Shin, Min-Kyoo; Min, Jiwoong; Heo, Chaejeong; Lee, Yubu; Baeg, Eunha; Suh, Minah

    2015-01-01

    Repeated stress is one of the major risk factors for cerebrovascular disease, including stroke, and vascular dementia. However, the functional alterations in the cerebral hemodynamic response induced by chronic stress have not been clarified. Here, we investigated the in vivo cerebral hemodynamic changes and accompanying cellular and molecular changes in chronically stressed rats. After 3 weeks of restraint stress, the elicitation of stress was verified by behavioral despair in the forced swimming test and by physical indicators of stress. The evoked changes in the cerebral blood volume and pial artery responses following hindpaw electrical stimulation were measured using optical intrinsic signal imaging. We observed that, compared to the control group, animals under chronic restraint stress exhibited a decreased hemodynamic response, with a smaller pial arterial dilation in the somatosensory cortex during hindpaw electrical stimulation. The effect of chronic restraint stress on vasomodulator enzymes, including neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) and heme oxygenase-2 (HO-2), was assessed in the somatosensory cortex. Chronic restraint stress downregulated nNOS and HO-2 compared to the control group. In addition, we examined the subtypes of cells that can explain the environmental changes due to the decreased vasomodulators. The expression of parvalbumin in GABAergic interneurons and glutamate receptor-1 in neurons were decreased, whereas the microglial activation was increased. Our results suggest that the chronic stress-induced alterations in cerebral vascular function and the modulations of the cellular expression in the neuro-vasomodulatory system may be crucial contributing factors in the development of various vascular-induced conditions in the brain. PMID:26778944

  2. Oxidative stress upregulates the NMDA receptor on cerebrovascular endothelium.

    PubMed

    Betzen, Christian; White, Robin; Zehendner, Christoph M; Pietrowski, Eweline; Bender, Bianca; Luhmann, Heiko J; Kuhlmann, Christoph R W

    2009-10-15

    N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDA-R)-mediated oxidative stress has been implicated in blood-brain barrier (BBB) disruption in a variety of neuropathological diseases. Although some interactions between both phenomena have been elucidated, possible influences of reactive oxygen species (ROS) on the NMDA-R itself have so far been neglected. The objective of this study was to examine how the cerebroendothelial NMDA-R is affected by exposure to oxidative stress and to assess possible influences on BBB integrity. RT-PCR confirmed several NMDA-R subunits (NR1, NR2B-D) expressed in the bEnd3 cell line (murine cerebrovascular endothelial cells). NR1 protein expression after exposure to ROS was observed via in-cell Western. The functionality of the expressed NMDA-R was determined by measuring DiBAC fluorescence in ROS-preexposed cells upon stimulation with the specific agonist NMDA. Finally, the effects on barrier integrity were evaluated using the ECIS system to detect changes in monolayer impedance upon NMDA-R stimulation after exposure to ROS. The expression of NR1 significantly (p<0.001) increased 72 h after 30 min exposure to superoxide (+33.8+/-7.5%), peroxynitrite (+84.9+/-10.7%), or hydrogen peroxide (+92.8+/-7.6%), resulting in increased cellular response to NMDA-R stimulation and diminished monolayer impedance. We conclude that oxidative stress upregulates NMDA-R on cerebrovascular endothelium and thus heightens susceptibility to glutamate-induced BBB disruption.

  3. Economic Stress and Mental Health

    PubMed Central

    Butts, Hugh F.

    1979-01-01

    This paper correlates economic stress with minority status, resource allocations for mental health programs, and vulnerability to mental disability. Several hypotheses are advanced: 1. A major and recurring psychological pattern of the American national character is prowhite, antiblack paranoia. 2. Mental health fiscal allocations and programmatic determinations in ghetto, lower socioeconomic, minority-populated urban areas are predicated on political and racist considerations, the underlying motivation being to keep minorities at greater risk of mental disability. 3. Economic privation and stress increase vulnerability to mental illness, especially in a minority population for whom health, mental health, educational, and social services are grossly inadequate. 4. Poverty and economic stress combine with health systems that are unresponsive to the needs of blacks and other minorities, resulting in the perpetuation of disabilities and other conditions in blacks that are potentially preventable. 5. Health and mental health resources should be increased rather than diminished during periods of economic stress, especially in the public sector. 6. In order to provide each citizen with access to quality health and mental health care regardless of race and/or economic status, there must be enacted a national health insurance program based on tax-levy monies that will cover all aspects of health and mental health care. 7. Racism and social status will continue to be powerful determinants of the quality of service that white professionals render to black patients and to poor white patients, unless our training institutions mount a massive campaign to train appropriately and to include significant numbers of minority candidates and trainees in the effort. To date this effort is virtually nonexistent. PMID:439171

  4. Vestibulosympathetic reflex during mental stress

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carter, Jason R.; Ray, Chester A.; Cooke, William H.

    2002-01-01

    Increases in sympathetic neural activity occur independently with either vestibular or mental stimulation, but it is unknown whether sympathetic activation is additive or inhibitive when both stressors are combined. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the combined effects of vestibular and mental stimulation on sympathetic neural activation and arterial pressure in humans. Muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA), arterial pressure, and heart rate were recorded in 10 healthy volunteers in the prone position during 1) head-down rotation (HDR), 2) mental stress (MS; using arithmetic), and 3) combined HDR and MS. HDR significantly (P < 0.05) increased MSNA (9 +/- 2 to 13 +/- 2 bursts/min). MS significantly increased MSNA (8 +/- 2 to 13 +/- 2 bursts/min) and mean arterial pressure (87 +/- 2 to 101 +/- 2 mmHg). Combined HDR and MS significantly increased MSNA (9 +/- 1 to 16 +/- 2 bursts/min) and mean arterial pressure (89 +/- 2 to 100 +/- 3 mmHg). Increases in MSNA (7 +/- 1 bursts/min) during the combination trial were not different from the algebraic sum of each trial performed alone (8 +/- 2 bursts/min). We conclude that the interaction for MSNA and arterial pressure is additive during combined vestibular and mental stimulation. Therefore, vestibular- and stress-mediated increases of MSNA appear to occur independently in humans.

  5. No Myocardial Vulnerability to Mental Stress in Takotsubo Stress Cardiomyopathy

    PubMed Central

    Collste, Olov; Tornvall, Per; Sundin, Örjan; Alam, Mahbubul; Frick, Mats

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Due to the frequent use of coronary angiography the awareness of Takotsubo stress cardiomyopathy (TSC) has increased although the exact pathophysiology of TSC is still largely unknown. Our objective was to investigate the effects of mental stress on myocardial function, heart rate variability (HRV) and salivary cortisol (SC) in TSC patients. Design This study is a case-control study and a sub-study of the Stockholm Myocardial Infarction with Normal Coronaries (SMINC) study. Setting Mental stress test was performed more than 6 months after the acute event in TSC patients and age- and sex-matched controls. Standard echocardiography and tissue Doppler imaging (TDI) - derived time-phases of cardiac cycle were recorded to calculate myocardial performance index (MPI) to assess ventricular function before and during mental stress. Holter-ECG recording was made to estimate HRV before, during and after mental stress. SC was measured at baseline, before and 20 minutes after mental stress. Subjects Twenty-two TSC patients and 22 sex-and age-matched controls were recruited from the SMINC-study and investigated with a mental stress test. All TSC patients had a previous normal cardiovascular magnetic resonance investigation. Results There were no significant differences at rest or during mental stress for left and right ventricular MPI or other standard diastolic variables between TSC patients and controls. HRV did not differ between TSC patients and controls. There was a trend towards less increase in SC after mental stress in TSC patients compared to controls. Conclusion Mental stress did not induce a significant difference in myocardial function or HRV response between TSC and controls. Moreover, no significant difference could be seen in SC response at baseline, during or after mental stress. This study indicates that myocardial vulnerability to mental stress does not persist in TSC patients. PMID:24695370

  6. [Stress, mental disorders and coronary heart disease].

    PubMed

    Lederbogen, F; Ströhle, A

    2012-11-01

    There are numerous associations between stress, mental disorders and coronary heart disease (CHD). Exposure to an acute stressor leads to activation of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal and sympathoadrenal systems and chronic stressors are associated with sustained functional changes of these systems. Experiencing acute and chronic stress is paralleled by an increased incidence of mental disorders with the most consistent evidence on the triggering of major depressive episodes. Various mental disorders, including depression, anxiety and schizophrenia, are associated with an increased risk of CHD. Furthermore, acute and chronic stressors have been identified as risk factors or triggers of acute coronary syndromes. Thus therapeutic strategies aim at reducing subjective stress experience, therapy of mental disorders and treatment of cardiac risk factors known to be more prevalent in increased stress states and mental disorders.

  7. Sympathoneural and Adrenomedullary Responses to Mental Stress

    PubMed Central

    Carter, Jason R.; Goldstein, David S.

    2017-01-01

    This concept-based review provides historical perspectives and updates about sympathetic noradrenergic and sympathetic adrenergic responses to mental stress. The topic of this review has incited perennial debate, because of disagreements over definitions, controversial inferences, and limited availability of relevant measurement tools. The discussion begins appropriately with Cannon's "homeostasis" and his pioneering work in the area. This is followed by mental stress as a scientific idea and the relatively new notions of allostasis and allostatic load. Experimental models of mental stress in rodents and humans are discussed, with particular attention to ethical constraints in humans. Sections follow on sympathoneural to mental stress, reactivity of catecholamine systems, clinical pathophysiologic states, and the cardiovascular reactivity hypothesis. Future advancement of the field will require integrative approaches and coordinated efforts between physiologists and psychologists on this interdisciplinary topic. PMID:25589266

  8. Acute exercise stress reveals cerebrovascular benefits associated with moderate gains in cardiorespiratory fitness.

    PubMed

    Brugniaux, Julien V; Marley, Christopher J; Hodson, Danielle A; New, Karl J; Bailey, Damian M

    2014-12-01

    Elevated cardiorespiratory fitness improves resting cerebral perfusion, although to what extent this is further amplified during acute exposure to exercise stress and the corresponding implications for cerebral oxygenation remain unknown. To examine this, we recruited 12 moderately active and 12 sedentary healthy males. Middle cerebral artery blood velocity (MCAv) and prefrontal cortical oxyhemoglobin (cO(2)Hb) concentration were monitored continuously at rest and throughout an incremental cycling test to exhaustion. Despite a subtle elevation in the maximal oxygen uptake (active: 52±9 ml/kg per minute versus sedentary: 33±5 ml/kg per minute, P<0.05), resting MCAv was not different between groups. However, more marked increases in both MCAv (+28±13% versus +18±6%, P<0.05) and cO(2)Hb (+5±4% versus -2±3%, P<0.05) were observed in the active group during the transition from low- to moderate-intensity exercise. Collectively, these findings indicate that the long-term benefits associated with moderate increase in physical activity are not observed in the resting state and only become apparent when the cerebrovasculature is challenged by acute exertional stress. This has important clinical implications when assessing the true extent of cerebrovascular adaptation.

  9. Cerebrovascular expression of proteins related to inflammation, oxidative stress and neurotoxicity is altered with aging

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Most neurodegenerative diseases are age-related disorders; however, how aging predisposes the brain to disease has not been adequately addressed. The objective of this study is to determine whether expression of proteins in the cerebromicrovasculature related to inflammation, oxidative stress and neurotoxicity is altered with aging. Methods Brain microvessels are isolated from Fischer 344 rats at 6, 12, 18 and 24 months of age. Levels of interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-6 RNA are determined by RT-PCR and release of cytokines into the media by ELISA. Vessel conditioned media are also screened by ELISA for IL-1α, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), tumor necrosis factor-α, (TNFα), and interferon γ (IFNγ). Immunofluorescent analysis of brain sections for IL-1β and IL-6 is performed. Results Expression of IL-1β and IL-6, both at RNA and protein levels, significantly (p < 0.01) decreases with age. Levels of MCP-1, TNFα, IL-1α, and IFNγ are significantly (p < 0.05-0.01) lower in 24 month old rats compared to 6 month old animals. Immunofluorescent analysis of brain vessels also shows a decline in IL-1β and IL-6 in aged rats. An increase in oxidative stress, assessed by increased carbonyl formation, as well as a decrease in the antioxidant protein manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) is evident in vessels of aged animals. Finally, addition of microvessel conditioned media from aged rats to neuronal cultures evokes significant (p < 0.001) neurotoxicity. Conclusions These data demonstrate that cerebrovascular expression of proteins related to inflammation, oxidative stress and neurotoxicity is altered with aging and suggest that the microvasculature may contribute to functional changes in the aging brain. PMID:20937133

  10. Mental stress and human cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Esler, Murray

    2017-03-01

    The London physician and neuroanatomist Thomas Willis in the 17th century correctly attributed the source of emotions to the brain, not the heart as believed in antiquity. Contemporary research documents the phenomenon of "triggered" heart disease, when the autonomic nervous system control of the heart by the brain goes awry, producing heart disease of sudden onset, precipitated by acute emotional upheaval. This can take the form of, variously, cardiac arrhythmias, myocardial infarction, Takotsubo cardiomyopathy and sudden death. Chronic psychological distress also can have adverse cardiovascular consequences, in the causal linkage of depressive illness to heart disease, and in the probable causation of atherosclerosis and hypertension by chronic mental stress. In patients with essential hypertension, stress biomarkers are present. The sympathetic nervous system is the usual mediator between these acute and chronic psychological substrates and cardiovascular disease.

  11. Forearm sympathetic withdrawal and vasodilatation during mental stress in humans.

    PubMed Central

    Halliwill, J R; Lawler, L A; Eickhoff, T J; Dietz, N M; Nauss, L A; Joyner, M J

    1997-01-01

    1. In humans, mental stress elicits vasodilatation in the muscle vascular beds of the forearm that may be neurally mediated. We sought to determine the extent to which this vasodilatation is due to sympathetic withdrawal, active neurogenic vasodilatation, or beta-adrenergically mediated vasodilatation. 2. We simultaneously measured forearm blood flow and muscle sympathetic nerve traffic to the forearm during mental stress in humans. In a second study, we measured forearm blood flow responses to mental stress after selective blockade of alpha-adrenergic neurotransmission in one forearm. In a final study, we measured forearm blood flow responses to mental stress after unilateral anaesthetic blockade of the stellate ganglion, alone or in combination with selective beta-adrenergic receptor blockade of the forearm. 3. During mental stress, muscle sympathetic nerve activity decreased from 5113 +/- 788 to 1509 +/- 494 total integrated activity min-1 (P < 0.05) and forearm vascular resistance decreased from 96 +/- 29 to 33 +/- 7 mmHg (dl of tissue) min ml-1 (P < 0.05). Considerable vasodilation was still elicited by mental stress after selective blockade of alpha-adrenergic neurotransmission. Vasodilatation also occurred during mental stress after stellate ganglion blockade. This dilatation was reduced by selective blockade of beta-adrenergic receptors in the forearm. 4. Our results support a role for both sympathetic withdrawal and beta-adrenergic vasodilatation as the major causes of the forearm vasodilatation during mental stress in humans. PMID:9350631

  12. Job stress and mental health among nonregular workers in Korea: What dimensions of job stress are associated with mental health?

    PubMed

    Park, Soo Kyung; Rhee, Min-Kyoung; Barak, Michàlle Mor

    2016-01-01

    Although nonregular workers experience higher job stress, poorer mental health, and different job stress dimensions relative to regular workers, little is known about which job stress dimensions are associated with poor mental health among nonregular workers. This study investigated the association between job stress dimensions and mental health among Korean nonregular workers. Data were collected from 333 nonregular workers in Seoul and Gyeonggi Province, and logistic regression analysis was conducted. Results of the study indicated that high job insecurity and lack of rewards had stronger associations with poor mental health than other dimensions of job stress when controlling for sociodemographic and psychosocial variables. It is important for the government and organizations to improve job security and reward systems to reduce job stress among nonregular workers and ultimately alleviate their mental health issues.

  13. Role of the sympathetic nervous system in cerebrovascular responses to air-jet stress in rats.

    PubMed

    Revel, Aurélia; Oréa, Valérie; Chapuis, Bruno; Barrès, Christian; Julien, Claude

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the role of sympathetic nerves in the control of cerebral hemodynamics during air-jet stress. In adult male Sprague-Dawley rats, blood flow velocity (pulsed Doppler) was measured in both internal carotid arteries 1 week after excision of one superior cervical ganglion. Blood pressure (BP) and carotid blood flows (CBFs) were simultaneously recorded during exposure to air-jet stress. In 5 out of 13 rats, stress was applied after β(2)-adrenoceptor blockade with ICI 118551 (0.4 mg/kg, then 0.2 mg/kg/h, i.v). Stress evoked an immediate rise in BP, CBFs, and vascular conductances. Vasodilatation was much larger on the denervated side than on the intact side (mean ± SEM: 78 ± 7 versus 19 ± 4%; P < 0.02) and lasted about 10 s. Thereafter, blood flows returned to or near normal and showed parallel variations while BP remained elevated. There was, therefore, a net vasoconstriction on both sides. In ICI 118551-treated rats, the initial vasodilatation was not significantly reduced on the denervated side (64 ± 4%), but the subsequent vasoconstriction was enhanced (P < 0.05) on both sides. In conclusion, air-jet stress evokes an immediate, short-lasting vasodilatation through a mechanism unrelated to β(2)-adrenoceptor stimulation. Sympathetic nerves powerfully limit this phenomenon, and thus contribute to protect the cerebral circulation from stress-induced BP surges.

  14. Ethnic Differences in Adolescents' Mental Distress, Social Stress, and Resources

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choi, Heeseung; Meininger, Janet C.; Roberts, Robert E.

    2006-01-01

    Limited data on ethnic group differences among young adolescents exist regarding the prevalence of mental distress, social stress, and resources. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to examine ethnic differences among African American (AA), European American (EA), Hispanic American (HA), and Asian American adolescents in mental distress,…

  15. Migrant Farmworker Stress: Mental Health Implications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hiott, Ann E.; Grzywacz, Joseph G.; Davis, Stephen W.; Quandt, Sara A.; Arcury, Thomas A.

    2008-01-01

    Context: The number of Latinos in rural regions of the United States is increasing. Little is known about factors that undermine the mental health of this segment of the rural population. Purpose: The goal of this study is to determine which stressors inherent in farmwork and the farmworker lifestyle contribute to poor mental health. Methods: An…

  16. Angina and Mental Stress-Induced Myocardial Ischemia

    PubMed Central

    Pimple, Pratik; Shah, Amit J.; Rooks, Cherie; Bremner, J. Douglas; Nye, Jonathon; Ibeanu, Ijeoma; Raggi, Paolo; Vaccarino, Viola

    2015-01-01

    Objective Mental stress-induced myocardial ischemia is a common phenomenon in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) and an emerging prognostic factor. Mental stress ischemia is correlated with ambulatory ischemia. However, whether it is related to angina symptoms during daily life has not been examined. Methods We assessed angina-frequency (past month) in 98 post-myocardial infarction (MI) subjects (age 18-60 years) using the Seattle Angina Questionnaire. Patients underwent [99mTc]sestamibi SPECT perfusion imaging at rest, after mental stress, and after exercise/pharmacological stress. Summed scores of perfusion abnormalities were obtained by observer-independent software. A summed-difference score (SDS), the difference between stress and rest scores, was used to quantify myocardial ischemia under both stress conditions. Results The mean age was 50 years, 50% were female and 60% were non-white. After adjustment for age, sex, smoking, CAD-severity, depressive, anger and anxiety symptoms, each 1-point increase in mental-stress SDS was associated with 1.73-unit increase in the angina-frequency score (95% CI: 0.09-3.37) and 17% higher odds of being in a higher angina-frequency category (OR: 1.17, 95% CI: 1.00-1.38). Depressive symptoms were associated with 12% higher odds of being in a higher angina-frequency category (OR: 1.12, 95% CI: 1.03-1.21). In contrast, exercise/pharmacological stress-induced SDS was not associated with angina-frequency. Conclusion Among young and middle-aged post-MI patients, myocardial ischemia induced by mental stress in the lab, but not by exercise/pharmacological stress, is associated with higher frequency of retrospectively reported angina during the day. Psychosocial stressors related to mental stress ischemia may be important contributory factor to daily angina. PMID:25727240

  17. Towards mental stress detection using wearable physiological sensors.

    PubMed

    Wijsman, Jacqueline; Grundlehner, Bernard; Liu, Hao; Hermens, Hermie; Penders, Julien

    2011-01-01

    Early mental stress detection can prevent many stress related health problems. This study aimed at using a wearable sensor system to measure physiological signals and detect mental stress. Three different stress conditions were presented to a healthy subject group. During the procedure, ECG, respiration, skin conductance, and EMG of the trapezius muscles were recorded. In total, 19 physiological features were calculated from these signals. After normalization of the feature values and analysis of correlations among these features, a subset of 9 features was selected for further analysis. Principal component analysis reduced these 9 features to 7 principal components (PCs). Using these PCs and different classifiers, a consistent classification accuracy between stress and non stress conditions of almost 80% was found. This suggests that a promising feature subset was found for future development of a personalized stress monitor.

  18. Frontal midline theta oscillations during mental arithmetic: effects of stress.

    PubMed

    Gärtner, Matti; Grimm, Simone; Bajbouj, Malek

    2015-01-01

    Complex cognitive tasks such as mental arithmetic heavily rely on intact, well-coordinated prefrontal cortex (PFC) function. Converging evidence suggests that frontal midline theta (FMT) oscillations play an important role during the execution of such PFC-dependent tasks. Additionally, it is well-established that acute stress impairs PFC function, and recent evidence suggests that FMT is decreased under stress. In this EEG study, we investigated FMT oscillations during a mental arithmetic task that was carried out in a stressful and a neutral control condition. Our results show late-onset, sustained FMT increases during mental arithmetic. In the neutral condition FMT started to increase earlier than in the stress condition. Direct comparison of the conditions quantified this difference by showing stronger FMT increases in the neutral condition in an early time window. Between-subject correlation analysis showed that attenuated FMT under stress was related to slowed reaction times. Our results suggest that FMT is associated with stimulus independent mental processes during the natural and complex PFC-dependent task of mental arithmetic, and is a possible marker for intact PFC function that is disrupted under stress.

  19. Contribution of mental workload to job stress in industrial workers.

    PubMed

    González-Muñoz, Elvia Luz; Gutiérrez-Martínez, Rodolfo E

    2007-01-01

    This study's central objective is to determine how several individual, organizational and ergonomic factors influence the relationship between job stress and mental workload for workers in an electronics company. A cross-sectional study was made as a test of hypotheses regarding that relationship. The sample is composed of 95 workers, of both sexes, from the electronics industry in the metropolitan zone of Guadalajara, Jalisco, Mexico. Ergonomic conditions were evaluated with the Ergonomic Evaluation List, stress was evaluated by administering the SWS-Survey to groups of subjects, and mental workload was evaluated with the NASA-TLX Workload Index. Using Cochran's and Mantel-Haenzsel statistics, the odds ratio for each of the independent variables was {e}stimated as a risk factor for job stress, and analysis was later conducted by means of logistic regression for those risks found to be significant. Of the 95 worker participants, 26.3% presented a high level of job stress and 17.9% of the workers were found to present high levels of mental workload. The results show that working hours, mental demand, temporal demand, and frustration when faced with a given task may be considered risk factors for job stress.

  20. Occupational Stress, Mental Health Status and Stress Management Behaviors among Secondary School Teachers in Hong Kong

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leung, Sharron S. K.; Mak, Yim Wah; Chui, Ying Yu; Chiang, Vico C. L.; Lee, Angel C. K.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: This study aimed to examine occupational stress and mental health among secondary school teachers in Hong Kong, and to identify the differences between those actively engaged in stress management behaviors and those who were not. Design: Survey design was adopted using validated instruments including Occupational Stress Inventory…

  1. Mental Toughness in Competitive Tennis: Relationships with Resilience and Stress

    PubMed Central

    Cowden, Richard G.; Meyer-Weitz, Anna; Oppong Asante, Kwaku

    2016-01-01

    The present study investigated the relationships between mental toughness (MT), resilience, and stress among competitive South African tennis players. A total of 351 tennis players participating at various competitive standards completed the Sports Mental Toughness Questionnaire, the Resilience Scale for Adults, and a modified version of the Recovery-Stress Questionnaire for Athletes. The results indicated that total MT was positively associated with total resilience (r = 0.59), but negatively associated with total stress (r = -0.44). The resilience subscales of perception of self, perception of future, social competence, and social resources, but not family cohesion, significantly predicted total MT (R2 = 0.35). Both total resilience and total MT significantly predicted total stress (R2 = 0.21). Based on the findings, interrelations between MT and resilience are explored, implications outlined, and additional research is suggested to ascertain the contextual relevance and outcomes associated with each construct in sport. PMID:27014132

  2. Mental Toughness in Competitive Tennis: Relationships with Resilience and Stress.

    PubMed

    Cowden, Richard G; Meyer-Weitz, Anna; Oppong Asante, Kwaku

    2016-01-01

    The present study investigated the relationships between mental toughness (MT), resilience, and stress among competitive South African tennis players. A total of 351 tennis players participating at various competitive standards completed the Sports Mental Toughness Questionnaire, the Resilience Scale for Adults, and a modified version of the Recovery-Stress Questionnaire for Athletes. The results indicated that total MT was positively associated with total resilience (r = 0.59), but negatively associated with total stress (r = -0.44). The resilience subscales of perception of self, perception of future, social competence, and social resources, but not family cohesion, significantly predicted total MT (R (2) = 0.35). Both total resilience and total MT significantly predicted total stress (R (2) = 0.21). Based on the findings, interrelations between MT and resilience are explored, implications outlined, and additional research is suggested to ascertain the contextual relevance and outcomes associated with each construct in sport.

  3. Association between Anger and Mental Stress-Induced Myocardial Ischemia

    PubMed Central

    Pimple, Pratik; Shah, Amit; Rooks, Cherie; Bremner, J. Douglas; Nye, Jonathon; Ibeanu, Ijeoma; Murrah, Nancy; Shallenberger, Lucy; Kelley, Mary; Raggi, Paolo; Vaccarino, Viola

    2014-01-01

    Background Mental stress-induced myocardial ischemia is associated with adverse prognosis in coronary artery disease patients. Anger is thought to be a trigger of acute coronary syndromes and is associated with increased cardiovascular risk; however, little direct evidence exists for a link between anger and myocardial ischemia. Methods [99mTc]sestamibi single-photon emission tomography was performed at rest, after mental stress (a social stressor with a speech task), and after exercise/pharmacological stress. Summed scores of perfusion abnormalities were obtained by observer-independent software. A summed difference score, the difference between stress and rest scores, was used to quantify myocardial ischemia under both stress conditions. The Spielberger's State-Trait Anger Expression Inventory was used to assess different anger dimensions. Results The mean age was 50 years, 50% were female and 60% were non-white. After adjusting for demographic factors, smoking, coronary artery disease severity, depressive and anxiety symptoms, each interquartile range increment in state-anger score was associated with 0.36 units adjusted increase in ischemia as measured by the summed difference score (95% CI: 0.14-0.59); the corresponding association for trait-anger was 0.95 (95% CI: 0.21-1.69). Anger expression scales were not associated ischemia. None of the anger dimensions were related to ischemia during exercise/pharmacological stress. Conclusion Anger, both as an emotional state and as a personality trait, is significantly associated with propensity to develop myocardial ischemia during mental stress, but not during exercise/pharmacological stress. Patients with this psychological profile may be at increased risk for silent ischemia induced by emotional stress and this may translate into worse prognosis. PMID:25497256

  4. Adolescent Stress: The Relationship between Stress and Mental Health Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grant, Kathryn E.; Behling, Steven; Gipson, Polly Y.; Ford, Rebecca E.

    2005-01-01

    Although low levels of stressful life experiences are considered to be a normal part of development, higher levels can constitute a threat to the well-being and healthy development of children and adolescents. Adolescents are exposed to increased rates of stressful life experiences and there is some evidence that increases in stressors account, at…

  5. Endocannabinoids in cerebrovascular regulation.

    PubMed

    Benyó, Zoltán; Ruisanchez, Éva; Leszl-Ishiguro, Miriam; Sándor, Péter; Pacher, Pál

    2016-04-01

    The cerebral blood flow is tightly regulated by myogenic, endothelial, metabolic, and neural mechanisms under physiological conditions, and a large body of recent evidence indicates that inflammatory pathways have a major influence on the cerebral blood perfusion in certain central nervous system disorders, like hemorrhagic and ischemic stroke, traumatic brain injury, and vascular dementia. All major cell types involved in cerebrovascular control pathways (i.e., smooth muscle, endothelium, neurons, astrocytes, pericytes, microglia, and leukocytes) are capable of synthesizing endocannabinoids and/or express some or several of their target proteins [i.e., the cannabinoid 1 and 2 (CB1 and CB2) receptors and the transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1 ion channel]. Therefore, the endocannabinoid system may importantly modulate the regulation of cerebral circulation under physiological and pathophysiological conditions in a very complex manner. Experimental data accumulated since the late 1990s indicate that the direct effect of cannabinoids on cerebral vessels is vasodilation mediated, at least in part, by CB1 receptors. Cannabinoid-induced cerebrovascular relaxation involves both a direct inhibition of smooth muscle contractility and a release of vasodilator mediator(s) from the endothelium. However, under stress conditions (e.g., in conscious restrained animals or during hypoxia and hypercapnia), cannabinoid receptor activation was shown to induce a reduction of the cerebral blood flow, probably via inhibition of the electrical and/or metabolic activity of neurons. Finally, in certain cerebrovascular pathologies (e.g., subarachnoid hemorrhage, as well as traumatic and ischemic brain injury), activation of CB2 (and probably yet unidentified non-CB1/non-CB2) receptors appear to improve the blood perfusion of the brain via attenuating vascular inflammation.

  6. Endocannabinoids in cerebrovascular regulation

    PubMed Central

    Ruisanchez, Éva; Leszl-Ishiguro, Miriam; Sándor, Péter; Pacher, Pál

    2016-01-01

    The cerebral blood flow is tightly regulated by myogenic, endothelial, metabolic, and neural mechanisms under physiological conditions, and a large body of recent evidence indicates that inflammatory pathways have a major influence on the cerebral blood perfusion in certain central nervous system disorders, like hemorrhagic and ischemic stroke, traumatic brain injury, and vascular dementia. All major cell types involved in cerebrovascular control pathways (i.e., smooth muscle, endothelium, neurons, astrocytes, pericytes, microglia, and leukocytes) are capable of synthesizing endocannabinoids and/or express some or several of their target proteins [i.e., the cannabinoid 1 and 2 (CB1 and CB2) receptors and the transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1 ion channel]. Therefore, the endocannabinoid system may importantly modulate the regulation of cerebral circulation under physiological and pathophysiological conditions in a very complex manner. Experimental data accumulated since the late 1990s indicate that the direct effect of cannabinoids on cerebral vessels is vasodilation mediated, at least in part, by CB1 receptors. Cannabinoid-induced cerebrovascular relaxation involves both a direct inhibition of smooth muscle contractility and a release of vasodilator mediator(s) from the endothelium. However, under stress conditions (e.g., in conscious restrained animals or during hypoxia and hypercapnia), cannabinoid receptor activation was shown to induce a reduction of the cerebral blood flow, probably via inhibition of the electrical and/or metabolic activity of neurons. Finally, in certain cerebrovascular pathologies (e.g., subarachnoid hemorrhage, as well as traumatic and ischemic brain injury), activation of CB2 (and probably yet unidentified non-CB1/non-CB2) receptors appear to improve the blood perfusion of the brain via attenuating vascular inflammation. PMID:26825517

  7. A stress-coping model of mental illness stigma: I. Predictors of cognitive stress appraisal.

    PubMed

    Rüsch, Nicolas; Corrigan, Patrick W; Wassel, Abigail; Michaels, Patrick; Olschewski, Manfred; Wilkniss, Sandra; Batia, Karen

    2009-05-01

    Stigma can be a major stressor for individuals with schizophrenia and other mental illnesses. It is unclear, however, why some stigmatized individuals appraise stigma as more stressful, while others feel they can cope with the potential harm posed by public prejudice. We tested the hypothesis that the level of perceived public stigma and personal factors such as rejection sensitivity, perceived legitimacy of discrimination and ingroup perceptions (group value; group identification; entitativity, or the perception of the ingroup of people with mental illness as a coherent unit) predict the cognitive appraisal of stigma as a stressor. Stigma stress appraisal refers to perceived stigma-related harm exceeding perceived coping resources. Stress appraisal, stress predictors and social cue recognition were assessed in 85 people with schizophrenia, schizoaffective or affective disorders. Stress appraisal did not differ between diagnostic subgroups, but was positively correlated with rejection sensitivity. Higher levels of perceived societal stigma and holding the group of people with mental illness in low regard (low group value) independently predicted high stigma stress appraisal. These predictors remained significant after controlling for social cognitive deficits, depressive symptoms and diagnosis. Our findings support the model that public and personal factors predict stigma stress appraisal among people with mental illness, independent of diagnosis and clinical symptoms. Interventions that aim to reduce the impact of stigma on people with mental illness could focus on variables such as rejection sensitivity, a personal vulnerability factor, low group value and the cognitive appraisal of stigma as a stressor.

  8. Dynamic changes in saliva after acute mental stress

    PubMed Central

    Naumova, Ella A.; Sandulescu, Tudor; Bochnig, Clemens; Khatib, Philipp Al; Lee, Wing-Kee; Zimmer, Stefan; Arnold, Wolfgang H.

    2014-01-01

    Stress-related variations of fluoride concentration in supernatant saliva and salivary sediment, salivary cortisol, total protein and pH after acute mental stress were assessed. The hypothesis was that stress reactions have no influence on these parameters. Thirty-four male students were distributed into two groups: first received the stress exposure followed by the same protocol two weeks later but without stress exposure, second underwent the protocol without stress exposure followed by the stress exposure two weeks later. The stressor was a public speech followed by tooth brushing. Saliva was collected before, immediately after stress induction and immediately, at 10, 30 and 120 min. after tooth brushing. Cortisol concentrations, total protein, intraoral pH, and fluoride content in saliva were measured. The data were analyzed statistically. Salivary sediment was ca 4.33% by weight of whole unstimulated saliva. Fluoride bioavailability was higher in salivary sediment than in supernatant saliva. The weight and fluoride concentration was not altered during 2 hours after stress exposure. After a public speech, the salivary cortisol concentration significantly increased after 20 minutes compared to the baseline. The salivary protein concentration and pH also increased. Public speaking influences protein concentration and salivary pH but does not alter the fluoride concentration of saliva. PMID:24811301

  9. Dynamic changes in saliva after acute mental stress.

    PubMed

    Naumova, Ella A; Sandulescu, Tudor; Bochnig, Clemens; Al Khatib, Philipp; Lee, Wing-Kee; Zimmer, Stefan; Arnold, Wolfgang H

    2014-05-08

    Stress-related variations of fluoride concentration in supernatant saliva and salivary sediment, salivary cortisol, total protein and pH after acute mental stress were assessed. The hypothesis was that stress reactions have no influence on these parameters. Thirty-four male students were distributed into two groups: first received the stress exposure followed by the same protocol two weeks later but without stress exposure, second underwent the protocol without stress exposure followed by the stress exposure two weeks later. The stressor was a public speech followed by tooth brushing. Saliva was collected before, immediately after stress induction and immediately, at 10, 30 and 120 min. after tooth brushing. Cortisol concentrations, total protein, intraoral pH, and fluoride content in saliva were measured. The data were analyzed statistically. Salivary sediment was ca 4.33% by weight of whole unstimulated saliva. Fluoride bioavailability was higher in salivary sediment than in supernatant saliva. The weight and fluoride concentration was not altered during 2 hours after stress exposure. After a public speech, the salivary cortisol concentration significantly increased after 20 minutes compared to the baseline. The salivary protein concentration and pH also increased. Public speaking influences protein concentration and salivary pH but does not alter the fluoride concentration of saliva.

  10. Stress, burnout, and job dissatisfaction in mental health workers.

    PubMed

    Rössler, Wulf

    2012-11-01

    As the industrial world has transformed toward a service economy, a particular interest has developed in mental health problems at the workplace. The risk for burnout is significantly increased in certain occupations, notably for health care workers. Beyond the effects of an extensive workload, many working hours, or long night shifts, the medical field has specific stressors. Physicians work in emotionally demanding environments with patients, families, or other medical staff. They must make quick decisions while faced with a quite frequent information overload. All of these stressors have to be weighed against a rapidly changing organizational context within medicine. Today, economics objectives have priority over medical values in health care. In principal, mental health workers should experience similar work stressors and the same contextual factors as health professionals from other medical disciplines. However, several studies have identified stressors that are unique to the psychiatric profession. These challenges range from the stigma of this profession, to particularly demanding relationships with patients and difficult interactions with other mental health professionals as part of multidisciplinary teams to personal threats from violent patients. Other sources of stress are a lack of positive feedback, low pay, and a poor work environment. Finally, patient suicide is a major stressor, upon which a majority of mental health workers report post-traumatic stress symptoms.

  11. Notch signaling in cerebrovascular diseases (Review)

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Zhiyou; Zhao, Bin; Deng, Yanqing; Shangguan, Shouqin; Zhou, Faming; Zhou, Wenqing; Li, Xiaoli; Li, Yanfeng; Chen, Guanghui

    2016-01-01

    The Notch signaling pathway is a crucial regulator of numerous fundamental cellular processes. Increasing evidence suggests that Notch signaling is involved in inflammation and oxidative stress, and thus in the progress of cerebrovascular diseases. In addition, Notch signaling in cerebrovascular diseases is associated with apoptosis, angiogenesis and the function of blood-brain barrier. Despite the contradictory results obtained to date as to whether Notch signaling is harmful or beneficial, the regulation of Notch signaling may provide a novel strategy for the treatment of cerebrovascular diseases. PMID:27574001

  12. Digital vasodilatation during mental stress in patients with Raynaud's disease.

    PubMed

    Halperin, J L; Cohen, R A; Coffman, J D

    1983-11-01

    Fingertip blood flow was measured by venous occlusion plethysmography before and during a stressful mental task consisting of rapid serial arithmetic calculations in a 25 degrees C room. Significant rises in heart rate and blood pressure indicated that stress was actually induced in all individuals. During mental stress in normal subjects, blood flow decreased (46.4 +/- 6.2 to 22.4 +/- 4.9 ml X min-1 per 100 ml tissue; P less than 0.01) and vascular resistance increased (2.1 +/- 0.4 to 7.6 +/- 2.2 units; P less than 0.01). Patients with Raynaud's disease unexpectedly increased blood flow (15.4 +/- 4.2 to 21.6 +/- 5.7; P = 0.05) and decreased vascular resistance (9.7 +/- 2.3 to 7.1 +/- 1.4; P = 0.05). Ten additional normal subjects were studied in a cool room (20 degrees C). Their digits remained vasoconstricted during stress, as blood flow (7.4 +/- 2.9 to 5.1 +/- 1.3) and vascular resistance (31.5 +/- 11.1 to 34.4 +/- 8.2) varied insignificantly (P greater than 0.10). The digital vasodilatation which occurs during mental stress in patients with Raynaud's disease was not altered by pretreatment with oral indomethacin, with intra-arterial propranolol or atropine, or by digital nerve block. These findings suggest the existence of an active digital vasodilatory mechanism in patients with Raynaud's disease.

  13. Neuromodulator and Emotion Biomarker for Stress Induced Mental Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Simeng; Wang, Wei; Huang, Jason H.

    2016-01-01

    Affective disorders are a leading cause of disabilities worldwide, and the etiology of these many affective disorders such as depression and posttraumatic stress disorder is due to hormone changes, which includes hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis in the peripheral nervous system and neuromodulators in the central nervous system. Consistent with pharmacological studies indicating that medical treatment acts by increasing the concentration of catecholamine, the locus coeruleus (LC)/norepinephrine (NE) system is regarded as a critical part of the central “stress circuitry,” whose major function is to induce “fight or flight” behavior and fear and anger emotion. Despite the intensive studies, there is still controversy about NE with fear and anger. For example, the rats with LC ablation were more reluctant to leave a familiar place and took longer to consume the food pellets in an unfamiliar place (neophobia, i.e., fear in response to novelty). The reason for this discrepancy might be that NE is not only for flight (fear), but also for fight (anger). Here, we try to review recent literatures about NE with stress induced emotions and their relations with mental disorders. We propose that stress induced NE release can induce both fear and anger. “Adrenaline rush or norepinephrine rush” and fear and anger emotion might act as biomarkers for mental disorders. PMID:27051536

  14. Adipose tissue and skeletal muscle blood flow during mental stress

    SciTech Connect

    Linde, B.; Hjemdahl, P.; Freyschuss, U.; Juhlin-Dannfelt, A.

    1989-01-01

    Mental stress (a modified Stroop color word conflict test (CWT)) increased adipose tissue blood flow (ATBF; 133Xe clearance) by 70% and reduced adipose tissue vascular resistance (ATR) by 25% in healthy male volunteers. The vasculatures of adipose tissue (abdomen as well as thigh), skeletal muscle of the calf (133Xe clearance), and the entire calf (venous occlusion plethysmography) responded similarly. Arterial epinephrine (Epi) and glycerol levels were approximately doubled by stress. Beta-Blockade by metoprolol (beta 1-selective) or propranolol (nonselective) attenuated CWT-induced tachycardia similarly. Metoprolol attenuated stress-induced vasodilation in the calf and tended to do so in adipose tissue. Propranolol abolished vasodilation in the calf and resulted in vasoconstriction during CWT in adipose tissue. Decreases in ATR, but not in skeletal muscle or calf vascular resistances, were correlated to increases in arterial plasma glycerol (r = -0.42, P less than 0.05), whereas decreases in skeletal muscle and calf vascular resistances, but not in ATR, were correlated to increases in arterial Epi levels (r = -0.69, P less than 0.01; and r = -0.43, P less than 0.05, respectively). The results suggest that mental stress increases nutritive blood flow in adipose tissue and skeletal muscle considerably, both through the elevation of perfusion pressure and via vasodilatation. Withdrawal of vasoconstrictor nerve activity, vascular beta 2-adrenoceptor stimulation by circulating Epi, and metabolic mechanisms (in adipose tissue) may contribute to the vasodilatation.

  15. Experimenter Effects on Cardiovascular Reactivity and Task Performance during Mental Stress Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siegwarth, Nicole; Larkin, Kevin T.; Kemmner, Christine

    2012-01-01

    Experimenter effects have long been hypothesized to influence participants' responses to mental stress testing. To explore the influence of experimenter warmth on responses to two mental stress tasks (mental arithmetic, mirror tracing), 32 young women participated in a single 45-min experimental session. Participants were randomized into warm…

  16. Effects of lifetime stress exposure on mental and physical health in young adulthood: How stress degrades and forgiveness protects health

    PubMed Central

    Toussaint, Loren; Shields, Grant S; Dorn, Gabriel; Slavich, George M

    2015-01-01

    To examine risk and resilience factors that affect health, lifetime stress exposure histories, dispositional forgiveness levels, and mental and physical health were assessed in 148 young adults. Greater lifetime stress severity and lower levels of forgiveness each uniquely predicted worse mental and physical health. Analyses also revealed a graded Stress × Forgiveness interaction effect, wherein associations between stress and mental health were weaker for persons exhibiting more forgiveness. These data are the first to elucidate the interactive effects of cumulative stress severity and forgiveness on health, and suggest that developing a more forgiving coping style may help minimize stress-related disorders. PMID:25139892

  17. Variations in mental performance under moderate cold stress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, V. M.; Panwar, M. R.

    1987-03-01

    Effects of moderate cold stress on reasoning ability, associative learning and critical flicker frequncy of Indian subjects were studied by exposing them to 25‡C,. 20‡C, 15‡C and 10‡C for three hours. A second set of experiments was also conducted to confirm the conclusions of the first by using the same temperatures and duration of exposure. However, not only the sample used in the second case was larger and different but also the mental functions tested were numerical ability, running memory and mental alertness. It has been concluded that there is a significant impairment of simple cognitive functions at 15‡C which is 10‡C lower than their most comfortable temperature of 25‡C.

  18. 38 CFR 4.129 - Mental disorders due to traumatic stress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Mental disorders due to traumatic stress. 4.129 Section 4.129 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS... traumatic stress. When a mental disorder that develops in service as a result of a highly stressful event...

  19. 38 CFR 4.129 - Mental disorders due to traumatic stress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Mental disorders due to traumatic stress. 4.129 Section 4.129 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS... traumatic stress. When a mental disorder that develops in service as a result of a highly stressful event...

  20. 38 CFR 4.129 - Mental disorders due to traumatic stress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Mental disorders due to traumatic stress. 4.129 Section 4.129 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS... traumatic stress. When a mental disorder that develops in service as a result of a highly stressful event...

  1. 38 CFR 4.129 - Mental disorders due to traumatic stress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Mental disorders due to traumatic stress. 4.129 Section 4.129 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS... traumatic stress. When a mental disorder that develops in service as a result of a highly stressful event...

  2. 38 CFR 4.129 - Mental disorders due to traumatic stress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Mental disorders due to traumatic stress. 4.129 Section 4.129 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS... traumatic stress. When a mental disorder that develops in service as a result of a highly stressful event...

  3. Effects of lifetime stress exposure on mental and physical health in young adulthood: How stress degrades and forgiveness protects health.

    PubMed

    Toussaint, Loren; Shields, Grant S; Dorn, Gabriel; Slavich, George M

    2016-06-01

    To examine risk and resilience factors that affect health, lifetime stress exposure histories, dispositional forgiveness levels, and mental and physical health were assessed in 148 young adults. Greater lifetime stress severity and lower levels of forgiveness each uniquely predicted worse mental and physical health. Analyses also revealed a graded Stress × Forgiveness interaction effect, wherein associations between stress and mental health were weaker for persons exhibiting more forgiveness. These data are the first to elucidate the interactive effects of cumulative stress severity and forgiveness on health, and suggest that developing a more forgiving coping style may help minimize stress-related disorders.

  4. Social constraints, genetic vulnerability, and mental health following collective stress.

    PubMed

    Holman, E Alison; Lucas-Thompson, Rachel G; Lu, Tammy

    2011-10-01

    A repeat-length polymorphism of the serotonin promoter gene (5-HTTLPR) has been associated with depression and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in trauma-exposed individuals reporting unsupportive social environments. We examine the contributions of the triallelic 5-HTTLPR genotype and social constraints to posttraumatic stress (PTS) symptoms in a national sample following the September 11, 2001 (9/11) terrorist attacks. Saliva was collected by mail from 711 respondents (European American subsample n = 463) of a large national probability sample of 2,729 adults. Respondents completed web-based assessments of pre-9/11 mental and physical health, acute stress 9 to 23 days post-9/11, PTS symptoms, and social constraints on disclosure regarding fears of future terrorist attacks 2-3 years post-9/11. Social constraints were positively associated with PTS symptoms 2-3 years post-9/11. The triallelic 5-HTTLPR genotype was not directly associated with PTS symptoms, but it interacted with social constraints to predict PTS symptoms 2-3 years post-9/11: Social constraints were more strongly associated with PTS symptoms for individuals with any s/lg allele than for homozygous la/la individuals. Constraints on disclosing fears about future terrorism moderate the 5-HTTLPR genotype-PTS symptom association even when indirectly exposed to collective stress.

  5. Proband Mental Health Difficulties and Parental Stress Predict Mental Health in Toddlers at High-Risk for Autism Spectrum Disorders.

    PubMed

    Crea, Katherine; Dissanayake, Cheryl; Hudry, Kristelle

    2016-10-01

    Family-related predictors of mental health problems were investigated among 30 toddlers at familial high-risk for autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and 28 controls followed from age 2- to 3-years. Parents completed the self-report Depression Anxiety Stress Scales and the parent-report Behavior Assessment System for Children. High-risk toddlers were assessed for ASD at 3-years. Parent stress and proband mental health difficulties predicted concurrent toddler mental health difficulties at 2-years, but only baseline proband internalising problems continued to predict toddler internalising problems at 3-years; high-risk status did not confer additional risk. Baseline toddler mental health difficulties robustly predicted later difficulties, while high-risk status and diagnostic outcome conferred no additional risk. A family systems perspective may be useful for understanding toddler mental health difficulties.

  6. Post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms may explain poor mental health in patients with fibromyalgia.

    PubMed

    Toussaint, Loren L; Whipple, Mary O; Vincent, Ann

    2015-10-20

    Symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder are common in fibromyalgia patients. This study compared post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms in fibromyalgia patients and healthy controls and determined whether patient-control differences in post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms mediated differences in mental health. In all, 30 patients and 30 healthy controls completed questionnaires assessing symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder and mental health. Fibromyalgia patients had greater symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder and mental health than controls. Patient-control differences in mental health symptoms were fully or partially mediated by differences in post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms. Healthcare providers should understand the role of trauma as management of trauma symptoms may be one strategy for improving mental health.

  7. Environmental stress, oxytocin receptor gene (OXTR) polymorphism, and mental health following collective stress.

    PubMed

    Lucas-Thompson, Rachel G; Holman, E Alison

    2013-04-01

    We examined whether the oxytocin receptor gene (OXTR) single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs53576 genotype buffers the combined impact of negative social environments (e.g., interpersonal conflict/constraint) and economic stress on post-traumatic stress (PTS) symptoms and impaired daily functioning following collective stress (September 11th terrorist attacks). Saliva was collected by mail and used to genotype 704 respondents. Participants completed Web-based assessments of pre-9/11 mental health, acute stress 9-23 days after 9/11, the quality of social environments 1 year post-9/11, economic stress 18 months post-9/11, and PTS symptoms and impaired functioning 2 and 3 years post-9/11. Interactions between negative social environments and economic stress were examined separately based on OXTR rs53576 genotype (GG vs. any A allele). For individuals with an A allele, a negative social environment significantly increased PTS symptoms without regard to the level of economic stress experienced. However, for respondents with a GG genotype, negative social environments predicted elevated PTS symptoms only for those also experiencing high economic stress. Gender moderated associations between negative social environments, economic stress, and impaired functioning. The functioning of females was most affected by negative social environments regardless of genotype and economic stress, whereas the functioning of males was differentially susceptible to economic stress depending on OXTR genotype and negative social environments. These findings suggest that it is important to consider the combined impact of gender and ongoing stress in different domains as moderators of genetic vulnerability following collective stress.

  8. Minority Stress and Mental Health among Dutch LGBs: Examination of Differences between Sex and Sexual Orientation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuyper, Lisette; Fokkema, Tineke

    2011-01-01

    Minority stress is often cited as an explanation for greater mental health problems among lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) individuals than heterosexual individuals. However, studies focusing on sex or sexual orientation differences in level of minority stress and its impact on mental health are scarce, even more so outside the United States.…

  9. Effects of Stress on Students' Physical and Mental Health and Academic Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shankar, Nilani L.; Park, Crystal L.

    2016-01-01

    Stress affects students in multiple ways. This article provides a conceptual overview of the direct (e.g., psychoneuroimmunological, endocrine) and indirect (health behavior) pathways through which stress affects physical health, the psychological effects of stress on mental health, and the cognitive effects of stress (e.g., attention,…

  10. Acculturation stress and mental health among the marriage migrant women in Busan, South Korea.

    PubMed

    Im, Hyuk; Lee, Ki Young; Lee, Hyo Young

    2014-05-01

    Our study investigated mental health and associated factors, especially acculturation stress and coping resources, among "marriage migrant" women. Cross-sectional data were collected for 501 marriage migrant women, about 10 % of those living in Busan, South Korea. Acculturation stress, coping resources, sociodemographic factors were examined using structured questionnaires, and the General Health Questionnaire-28 was administered as a measure of mental health. Many factors were related to mental health, especially marital satisfaction. Core cultural shock and self-rated economic status, interpersonal stress, and social support were also significantly related to mental health status. This study highlights the importance of marriage migrant women's mental health in South Korea. To improve their mental health, increased marital satisfaction, social support, resettlement funds, and/or educational programs that foster coping are needed. Additionally, we should encourage establishment of and participation in marriage migrant self-help groups, which can facilitate adaptation to marriage and to Korean culture.

  11. Are adolescents with high mental toughness levels more resilient against stress?

    PubMed

    Gerber, Markus; Kalak, Nadeem; Lemola, Sakari; Clough, Peter J; Perry, John L; Pühse, Uwe; Elliot, Catherine; Holsboer-Trachsler, Edith; Brand, Serge

    2013-04-01

    Mental toughness has been explored predominantly within sport contexts. Nevertheless, it is difficult to conceive mental toughness as only applicable to athletes. This study examines whether mentally tough participants exhibit resilience against stress. This is a cross-sectional study based on two different samples: Sample 1 consisted of 284 high school students (99 males, 185 females, M = 18.3 years). Sample 2 consisted of 140 first through fifth semester undergraduate students (53 males, 87 females, M = 20.0 years). Participants provided information about their level of perceived stress (10-item Perceived Stress Scale), mental toughness (48-item Mental Toughness Questionnaire) and depressive symptoms (Beck Depression Inventory). Consistent across the two samples, mental toughness mitigated the relationship between high stress and depressive symptoms. The interaction between stress and mental toughness explained 2% of variance in the adolescent sample and 10% of variance among young adults. The promotion of protective factors that foster resilient adaptation is a relevant issue. Mental toughness may appeal to individuals that are typically difficult to be reached with health interventions. Because mental toughness is part of young people's daily speech, it may serve as a less academic resource than other health psychology concepts.

  12. Relationships of mental health problems with stress among civil servants in Guangzhou, China.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Chunyan; Chen, Li; Ou, Liming; Geng, Qingshan; Jiang, Wei

    2014-11-01

    Psychosocial problems and stress-related diseases account for a high proportion of health problems. This study aimed to assess stress status and mental health, and their relationships with each other among civil servants in China. In a cross-sectional study of 600 randomly selected civil servants in 2007, we assessed mental health via the Symptom Checklist 90 (SCL-90), and stress status via a Self-Rated Stress Scale. Canonical correlation analysis was performed to assess the interrelationships among mental health symptoms and the various stressors. The participants scored higher in the total score and the seven domains of the SCL-90 (except for interpersonal sensitivity and hostility), compared with the norms documented in China. Canonical correlation analysis demonstrated positive and direct relationship in the first canonical function indicating that the nine mental health problems and various stressors were related (Canonical correlation = 0.715). Among the civil servants, mental health problems are highly associated with various stressors.

  13. Mental well-being mediates the relationship between perceived stress and perceived health.

    PubMed

    Teh, Hui Chian; Archer, Josephine A; Chang, Weining; Chen, S H Annabel

    2015-02-01

    The association between stress and health has been well researched in the past; however, comparatively few mediators have been tested to understand the underlying mechanism. With increasing awareness on mental well-being, this study evaluated the relationship between perceived stress and perceived health and examined mental well-being as a mediator. Two-hundred undergraduates aged 21 to 26 years completed the English Perceived Stress Scale, Health Status Questionnaire and Asian Mental Well-Being Scale that assess perceived stress, perceived health and mental well-being, respectively. Factor analysis and structural equation modelling on the Perceived Stress Scale replicated the reported two-factor structure after excluding an insignificant item. Linear multiple regression analyses indicated that perceived stress was negatively associated with perceived health. Results showed that mental well-being partially mediated the relationship between perceived stress and perceived health, although it is acknowledged that this association could be bidirectional. Findings from the present study suggest that future research could focus on reducing stress and improving mental well-being to alleviate the effect of stress on health.

  14. Effect of mental stress on dynamic electrophysiological properties of the endocardium and epicardium in humans

    PubMed Central

    Finlay, Malcolm C.; Lambiase, Pier D.; Ben-Simon, Ron; Taggart, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Background Striking temporal associations exist between ventricular arrhythmia and acute mental stress, for example, during natural disasters, or defibrillator shocks associated with stressful events. We hypothesized that electrophysiological changes in response to mental stress may be exaggerated at short coupling intervals and hence relevant to arrhythmia initiation. Objective The aim of this study was to determine the dynamic response in human electrophysiology during mental stress. Methods Patients with normal hearts and supraventricular tachycardia underwent electrophysiological studies avoiding sedation. Conditions of relaxation and stress were induced with standardized psychometric protocols (mental arithmetic and anger recall) during decremental S1S2 right ventricular (RV) pacing. Unipolar electrograms were acquired simultaneously from the RV endocardium, left ventricular (LV) endocardium (LV endo), and epicardium (LV epi), and activation-recovery intervals (ARIs) computed. Results Twelve patients ( 9 women; median age 34 years) were studied. During stress, effective refractory period (ERP) reduced from 228 ± 23 to 221 ± 21 ms (P < .001). ARIs reduced during mental stress (P < .001), with greater reductions in LV endocardium than in the epicardium or RV endocardium (LV endo −8 ms; LV epi −5 ms; RV endo −4 ms; P < .001). Mental stress depressed the entire electrical restitution curve, with minimal effect on slope. A substantial reduction in minimal ARIs on the restitution curve in LV endo occurred, commensurate with the reduction in ERP (LV endo ARI 195 ± 31 ms at rest to 182 ± 32 ms during mental stress; P < .001). Dispersion of repolarization increased sharply at coupling intervals approaching ERP during stress but not at rest. Conclusion Mental stress induces significant electrophysiological changes. The increase in dispersion of repolarization at short coupling intervals may be relevant to observed phenomena of arousal-associated arrhythmia

  15. Disaggregating the effects of acculturation and acculturative stress on the mental health of Asian Americans.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Wei-Chin; Ting, Julia Y

    2008-04-01

    This study examines the impact of level of acculturation and acculturative stress on the mental health of Asian American college students. Hierarchical regression analyses were used to clarify the relation between level of acculturation, acculturative stress, and mental health outcomes (psychological distress and clinical depression). Being less identified with mainstream United States culture was associated with higher psychological distress and clinical depression, but lost significance when acculturative stress was introduced into the model. Retention or relinquishing of identification with one's heritage culture was not associated with mental health outcomes. Although understanding level of acculturation can help us identify those at risk, findings suggest that acculturative stress is a more proximal risk factor and increases risk for mental health problems independently of global perceptions of stress.

  16. Job dissatisfaction as a contributor to stress-related mental health problems among Japanese civil servants.

    PubMed

    Tatsuse, Takashi; Sekine, Michikazu

    2013-01-01

    Although studies on the association of job dissatisfaction with mental health have been conducted in the past, few studies have dealt with the complicated links connecting job stress, job dissatisfaction, and stress-related illness. This study seeks to determine how job dissatisfaction is linked to common mental health issues. This study surveyed 3,172 civil servants (2,233 men and 939 women) in 1998, taking poor mental functioning, fatigue, and sleep disturbance as stress-related mental health problems. We examine how psychosocial risk factors at work and job dissatisfaction are associated independently with poor mental functioning, fatigue, and sleep disturbance after adjustment for other known risk factors, and how job dissatisfaction contributes to change in the degree of association between psychosocial risk factors at work and mental health problems. In general, psychosocial risk factors were independently associated with mental health problems. When adjusted for job dissatisfaction, not only was job satisfaction independently associated with mental health problems but it was also found that the association of psychosocial risk factors with mental health problems declined. Our results suggest that, although longitudinal research is necessary, attitudes toward satisfaction at work can potentially decrease the negative effects of psychosocial risk factors at work on mental health.

  17. Adjustment Disorders as a Stress-Related Disorder: A Longitudinal Study of the Associations among Stress, Resources, and Mental Health

    PubMed Central

    Kocalevent, Rüya-Daniela; Mierke, Annett; Danzer, Gerhard; Klapp, Burghard F.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Adjustment disorders are re-conceptualized in the DSM-5 as a stress-related disorder; however, besides the impact of an identifiable stressor, the specification of a stress concept, remains unclear. This study is the first to examine an existing stress-model from the general population, in patients diagnosed with adjustment disorders, using a longitudinal design. Methods The study sample consisted of 108 patients consecutively admitted for adjustment disorders. Associations of stress perception, emotional distress, resources, and mental health were measured at three time points: the outpatients’ presentation, admission for inpatient treatment, and discharge from the hospital. To evaluate a longitudinal stress model of ADs, we examined whether stress at admission predicted mental health at each of the three time points using multiple linear regressions and structural equation modeling. A series of repeated-measures one-way analyses of variance (rANOVAs) was performed to assess change over time. Results Significant within-participant changes from baseline were observed between hospital admission and discharge with regard to mental health, stress perception, and emotional distress (p<0.001). Stress perception explained nearly half of the total variance (44%) of mental health at baseline; the adjusted R2 increased (0.48), taking emotional distress (i.e., depressive symptoms) into account. The best predictor of mental health at discharge was the level of emotional distress (i.e., anxiety level) at baseline (β = −0.23, R2corr = 0.56, p<0.001). With a CFI of 0.86 and an NFI of 0.86, the fit indices did not allow for acceptance of the stress-model (Cmin/df = 15.26; RMSEA = 0.21). Conclusions Stress perception is an important predictor in adjustment disorders, and mental health-related treatment goals are dependent on and significantly impacted by stress perception and emotional distress. PMID:24825165

  18. Mental health nursing in Jordan: an investigation into experience, work stress and organizational support.

    PubMed

    Hamdan-Mansour, Ayman M; Al-Gamal, Ekhlas; Puskar, Kathryn; Yacoub, Mohammad; Marini, Anita

    2011-04-01

    Changes in mental health services have an impact on the role and practice of mental health nurses. The purpose of this study was to examine Jordanian mental health nurses' experiences of providing mental health care, their work-related stress, and organizational support received. A descriptive correlation design was used. Data were collected using self-report questionnaires from 92 mental health nurses in Jordan. The result of this study revealed that mental health nurses shared a high level of agreement on the importance of most nursing tasks. Mental health nurses reported a moderate level of stress, with a lack of resources and relationship and conflict with other professionals being the most frequent stressors. Nurses perceived a low level of support for their work from their supervisors. Work stress and conflict with other professionals had a significant, negative correlation with the perception the nurses had of their immediate supervisors (r = -0.29, P < 0.001; r = -0.31, P < 0.001). There was no significant correlation between work stress, organizational support, and the nurses' age, sex, or level of education. This study has clinical implications in terms of developing strategies for reducing stress and improving organizational support among mental health nurses, and it should help in future research.

  19. Impaired neuronal nitric oxide synthase-mediated vasodilator responses to mental stress in essential hypertension.

    PubMed

    Khan, Sitara G; Geer, Amber; Fok, Henry W; Shabeeh, Husain; Brett, Sally E; Shah, Ajay M; Chowienczyk, Philip J

    2015-04-01

    Neuronal NO synthase (nNOS) regulates blood flow in resistance vasculature at rest and during mental stress. To investigate whether nNOS signaling is dysfunctional in essential hypertension, forearm blood flow responses to mental stress were examined in 88 subjects: 48 with essential hypertension (42±14 years; blood pressure, 141±17/85±15 mm Hg; mean±SD) and 40 normotensive controls (38±14 years; 117±13/74±9 mm Hg). A subsample of 34 subjects (17 hypertensive) participated in a single blind 2-phase crossover study, in which placebo or sildenafil 50 mg PO was administered before an intrabrachial artery infusion of the selective nNOS inhibitor S-methyl-l-thiocitrulline (SMTC, 0.05, 0.1, and 0.2 μmol/min) at rest and during mental stress. In a further subsample (n=21) with an impaired blood flow response to mental stress, responses were measured in the presence and absence of the α-adrenergic antagonist phentolamine. The blood flow response to mental stress was impaired in hypertensive compared with normotensive subjects (37±7% versus 70±8% increase over baseline; P<0.001). SMTC blunted responses to mental stress in normotensive but not in hypertensive subjects (reduction of 40±11% versus 3.0±14%, respectively, P=0.01, between groups). Sildenafil reduced the blood flow response to stress in normotensive subjects from 89±14% to 43±14% (P<0.03) but had no significant effect in hypertensive subjects. Phentolamine augmented impaired blood flow responses to mental stress from 39±8% to 67±13% (P<0.02). Essential hypertension is associated with impaired mental stress-induced nNOS-mediated vasodilator responses; this may relate to increased sympathetic outflow in hypertension. nNOS dysfunction may impair vascular homeostasis in essential hypertension and contribute to stress-induced cardiovascular events.

  20. Proband Mental Health Difficulties and Parental Stress Predict Mental Health in Toddlers at High-Risk for Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crea, Katherine; Dissanayake, Cheryl; Hudry, Kristelle

    2016-01-01

    Family-related predictors of mental health problems were investigated among 30 toddlers at familial high-risk for autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and 28 controls followed from age 2- to 3-years. Parents completed the self-report Depression Anxiety Stress Scales and the parent-report Behavior Assessment System for Children. High-risk toddlers were…

  1. Cerebrovascular Injury in Blast Loading

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-01

    TITLE: Cerebrovascular injury in blast loading PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Kenneth L. Monson, PhD...SUBTITLE Cerebrovascular injury in blast loading 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-08-1-0295 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6...and pH control. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Blast brain injury; cerebrovascular injury and dysfunction; shock tube 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17

  2. The Puerto Rican Child in New York City: Stress and Mental Health. Monograph Number 4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canino, Ian A.; And Others

    The main objective of this study was to review the literature and synthesize data on the mental health of Puerto Rican children in the New York City area to show that they are at higher risk of developing mental health problems than other children. Chapter 1 of this monograph reviews the development of the concept of stress ard its linkage with…

  3. Relationships among Stress, Coping, and Mental Health in High-Achieving High School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suldo, Shannon M.; Shaunessy, Elizabeth; Hardesty, Robin

    2008-01-01

    This study investigates the relationships among stress, coping, and mental health in 139 students participating in an International Baccalaureate (IB) high school diploma program. Mental health was assessed using both positive indicators (life satisfaction, academic achievement, academic self-efficacy) and negative indicators (psychopathology) of…

  4. The Role of Religion and Stress in Sexual Identity and Mental Health Among LGB Youth

    PubMed Central

    Page, Matthew J. L.; Lindahl, Kristin M.; Malik, Neena M.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated religious stress, gay-related stress, sexual identity, and mental health outcomes in lesbian, gay and bisexual adolescents and emerging adults. The model examined negative LGB identity as a mediator of the relationships between a) religious stress and mental health, and b) gay-related stress and mental health. The data indicated that negative LGB identity fully accounted for both relationships. Findings suggest that a negative sense of sexual identity for LGB youth helps explain the links between religious and gay-related stressors and mental health. As LGB youth may have limited control over these stressors, the importance of helping LGB youth maintain a positive LGB identity, despite homonegative messages from others, is discussed. PMID:24244081

  5. Eccentric-exercise induced inflammation attenuates the vascular responses to mental stress.

    PubMed

    Paine, Nicola J; Ring, Christopher; Aldred, Sarah; Bosch, Jos A; Wadley, Alex J; Veldhuijzen van Zanten, Jet J C S

    2013-05-01

    Mental stress has been identified as a trigger of myocardial infarction (MI), with inflammation and vascular responses to mental stress independently implicated as contributing factors. This study examined whether inflammation moderates the vascular responses to mental stress. Eighteen healthy male participants completed a stress task under two counter balanced conditions. In the exercise condition, a morning bout of eccentric exercise (12×5 repetitions of unilateral eccentric knee extension at 120% intensity of concentric one repetition maximum) was used to increase levels of inflammatory-responsive cytokines during an afternoon stress session scheduled 6h later. In the control condition, participants sat and relaxed for 45min, 6h prior to the afternoon stress session. Forearm blood flow, calf blood flow (measured in the leg which completed the exercise task), blood pressure, heart rate and cardiac output were assessed at rest and in response to mental stress. As expected, interleukin-6 was higher (p=.02) 6h post exercise, i.e., at the start of the stress session, as compared to the no-exercise control condition. Mental stress increased forearm blood flow, calf blood flow, blood pressure, heart rate, and cardiac output in both conditions (p's<.001). Stress-induced calf blood flow was attenuated in the exercise condition compared to the control condition (p<.05) which was not the case for forearm blood flow. This study found that the inflammatory response to eccentric exercise attenuated the vascular responses to mental stress locally at the site of eccentric exercise-induced inflammation. The observed impairment in vascular responses to stress associated with increased levels of inflammation suggests a mechanism through which inflammation might increase the risk for MI.

  6. Cerebrovascular Complications of Diabetes: Alpha Glucosidase Inhibitor as Potential Therapy.

    PubMed

    Patel, S S

    2016-02-01

    Increased risk of cerebrovascular accident in diabetes cannot be fully explained by traditional risk factors. Epidemiological studies show that postprandial hyperglycemia is strongly associated with cerebrovascular events and cerebrovascular-associated mortality. Postprandial hyperglycemia contributes to vascular damage by several mechanisms such as endothelial dysfunction, arthrosclerosis, oxidative stress, inflammation, and hypercoagulability. Hyperglycemia has deleterious effects on the vascular endothelium and leads to the development of cerebrovascular disease. Thus, an important strategy to reduce cerebrovascular risk in patients with diabetes is to reduce postprandial hyperglycemia. Glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists, dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors, and α-glucosidase inhibitors predominantly reduce postprandial plasma glucose levels. Among all of these, α-glucosidase inhibitors reduces postprandial hyperglycemia by delaying carbohydrate absorption from the intestine and this mechanism provides glycemic control without exacerbating coexisting cerebrovascular risk factors. Good glycemic control is proven to reduce the risk of cardiovascular complications, but equivalent evidence for cerebrovascular risk reduction is lacking. This review examines the evidences that postprandial hyperglycemia plays a major role in vascular damage, along with the complex interplay between hyperglycemia and coexisting risk factors. Furthermore, the mechanism by which α-glucosidase inhibitors may prevent this vascular damage as well as risk of hypoglycemia with α-glucosidase inhibitors are examined. Thus, this review suggests that α-glucosidase inhibitors are useful in reducing the risk of cerebrovascular events in patients with diabetes.

  7. Platelet Aggregation and Mental Stress Induced Myocardial Ischemia: Results from the REMIT Study

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Wei; Boyle, Stephen H.; Ortel, Thomas L.; Samad, Zainab; Velazquez, Eric J.; Harrison, Robert W.; Wilson, Jennifer; Kuhn, Cynthia; Williams, Redford B.; O’Connor, Christopher M.; Becker, Richard C.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Mental stress-induced myocardial ischemia (MSIMI) is common in patients with ischemic heart disease (IHD) and associated with a poorer cardiovascular prognosis. Platelet hyperactivity is an important factor in acute coronary syndrome. This study examined associations between MSIMI and resting and mental stress-induced platelet activity. METHODS Eligible patients with clinically stable IHD underwent a battery of 3 mental stress tests during the recruitment phase of REMIT (Responses of Myocardial Ischemia to Escitalopram Treatment) study. MSIMI was assessed by echocardiography and electrocardiography. Ex vivo platelet aggregation in response to ADP, epinephrine, collagen, serotonin, and combinations of serotonin plus ADP, epinephrine, and collagen were evaluated as was platelet serotonin transporter expression. RESULTS Of the 270 participants who completed mental stress testing, and had both resting and post-stress platelet aggregation evaluation, 43.33% (N=117) met criteria for MSIMI and 18.15% (N=49) had normal left ventricular response to stress (NLVR). The MSIMI group, relative to the NLVR groups, demonstrated heightened mental stress-induced aggregation responses, as measured by area under the curve, to collagen 10 μM (6.95[5.54] vs. −14.23[8.75].; p=0.045), epinephrine 10 μM (12.84[4.84] vs. −6.40[7.61].; p=0.037) and to serotonin 10 μM plus ADP 1 μM (6.64[5.29] vs. −27.34[8.34]; p < .001). The resting platelet aggregation and serotonin transporter expression, however, were not different between the two groups. CONCLUSIONS These findings suggest that the dynamic change of platelet aggregation caused by mental stress may underlie MSIMI. While the importance of these findings requires additional investigation, they raise concern given the recognized relationship between mental stress-induced platelet hyperactivity and cardiovascular events in patients with IHD. PMID:25819856

  8. Chronic intermittent mental stress promotes atherosclerotic plaque vulnerability, myocardial infarction and sudden death in mice.

    PubMed

    Roth, Lynn; Rombouts, Miche; Schrijvers, Dorien M; Lemmens, Katrien; De Keulenaer, Gilles W; Martinet, Wim; De Meyer, Guido R Y

    2015-09-01

    Vulnerable atherosclerotic plaques are prone to plaque rupture leading to acute cardiovascular syndromes and death. Elucidating the risk of plaque rupture is important to define better therapeutic or preventive strategies. In the present study, we investigated the effect of chronic intermittent mental stress on atherosclerotic plaque stability and cardiovascular mortality in apolipoprotein E-deficient (ApoE(-/-)) mice with a heterozygous mutation in the fibrillin-1 gene (Fbn1(C1039G+/)(-)). This mouse model displays exacerbated atherosclerosis with spontaneous plaque ruptures, myocardial infarction and sudden death, when fed a Western-type diet (WD). Female ApoE(-/-)Fbn1(C1039G+/-) mice were fed a WD for up to 25 weeks. After 10 weeks WD, mice were divided in a control (n = 27) and mental stress (n = 29) group. The chronic intermittent mental stress protocol consisted of 3 triggers: water avoidance, damp bedding and restraint stress, in a randomly assigned order lasting 6 h every weekday for 15 weeks. Chronic intermittent mental stress resulted in a significant increase in the amount of macrophages in atherosclerotic plaques of the proximal ascending aorta, whereas type I collagen and fibrous cap thickness were decreased. The coronary arteries of mental stress-treated mice showed larger plaques, more stenosis, and an increased degree of perivascular fibrosis. Moreover, myocardial infarctions occurred more frequently in the mental stress group. As compared to the control group, the survival of stressed ApoE(-/-)Fbn1(C1039G+/-) mice decreased from 67% to 52% at 25 weeks WD, presumably due to myocardial infarctions. In conclusion, chronic intermittent mental stress promotes plaque instability, myocardial infarctions, and mortality of ApoE(-/-)Fbn1(C1039G+/-) mice.

  9. E-mental health preferences of Veterans with and without probable posttraumatic stress disorder.

    PubMed

    Whealin, Julia M; Seibert-Hatalsky, L Alana; Howell, Jennifer Willett; Tsai, Jack

    2015-01-01

    Mental health care practices supported by electronic communication, referred to as e-mental health, offer ways to increase access to mental health resources. In recent years, e-mental health interventions using clinical video teleconferencing, Internet-based interventions, social networking sites, and telephones have emerged as viable, cost-effective methods to augment traditional service delivery. Whereas some research evaluates attitudes about e-mental health, few studies have assessed interest in using these approaches in a contemporary sample of U.S. Veterans. This study sought to understand willingness to use e-mental health in a diverse group of Veterans residing in Hawaii. Mailed surveys were completed by 600 Operation Iraqi Freedom/Operation Enduring Freedom Veterans and National Guard members. Results suggest that overall willingness to use e-mental health ranged from 32.2% to 56.7% depending on modality type. Importantly, Veterans who screened positive for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) were significantly less likely to report willingness to use each e-mental health modality than their peers without PTSD, despite their greater desire for mental health services. These results suggest that despite solutions to logistical barriers afforded via e-mental health services, certain barriers to mental health care may persist, especially among Veterans who screen positive for PTSD.

  10. Detection of mental stress due to oral academic examination via ultra-short-term HRV analysis.

    PubMed

    Castaldo, R; Xu, W; Melillo, P; Pecchia, L; Santamaria, L; James, C

    2016-08-01

    Mental stress may cause cognitive dysfunctions, cardiovascular disorders and depression. Mental stress detection via short-term Heart Rate Variability (HRV) analysis has been widely explored in the last years, while ultra-short term (less than 5 minutes) HRV has been not. This study aims to detect mental stress using linear and non-linear HRV features extracted from 3 minutes ECG excerpts recorded from 42 university students, during oral examination (stress) and at rest after a vacation. HRV features were then extracted and analyzed according to the literature using validated software tools. Statistical and data mining analysis were then performed on the extracted HRV features. The best performing machine learning method was the C4.5 tree algorithm, which discriminated between stress and rest with sensitivity, specificity and accuracy rate of 78%, 80% and 79% respectively.

  11. Mental stress assessment using simultaneous measurement of EEG and fNIRS.

    PubMed

    Al-Shargie, Fares; Kiguchi, Masashi; Badruddin, Nasreen; Dass, Sarat C; Hani, Ahmad Fadzil Mohammad; Tang, Tong Boon

    2016-10-01

    Previous studies reported mental stress as one of the major contributing factors leading to various diseases such as heart attack, depression and stroke. An accurate stress assessment method may thus be of importance to clinical intervention and disease prevention. We propose a joint independent component analysis (jICA) based approach to fuse simultaneous measurement of electroencephalography (EEG) and functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) on the prefrontal cortex (PFC) as a means of stress assessment. For the purpose of this study, stress was induced by using an established mental arithmetic task under time pressure with negative feedback. The induction of mental stress was confirmed by salivary alpha amylase test. Experiment results showed that the proposed fusion of EEG and fNIRS measurements improves the classification accuracy of mental stress by +3.4% compared to EEG alone and +11% compared to fNIRS alone. Similar improvements were also observed in sensitivity and specificity of proposed approach over unimodal EEG/fNIRS. Our study suggests that combination of EEG (frontal alpha rhythm) and fNIRS (concentration change of oxygenated hemoglobin) could be a potential means to assess mental stress objectively.

  12. Mental stress assessment using simultaneous measurement of EEG and fNIRS

    PubMed Central

    Al-Shargie, Fares; Kiguchi, Masashi; Badruddin, Nasreen; Dass, Sarat C.; Hani, Ahmad Fadzil Mohammad; Tang, Tong Boon

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies reported mental stress as one of the major contributing factors leading to various diseases such as heart attack, depression and stroke. An accurate stress assessment method may thus be of importance to clinical intervention and disease prevention. We propose a joint independent component analysis (jICA) based approach to fuse simultaneous measurement of electroencephalography (EEG) and functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) on the prefrontal cortex (PFC) as a means of stress assessment. For the purpose of this study, stress was induced by using an established mental arithmetic task under time pressure with negative feedback. The induction of mental stress was confirmed by salivary alpha amylase test. Experiment results showed that the proposed fusion of EEG and fNIRS measurements improves the classification accuracy of mental stress by +3.4% compared to EEG alone and +11% compared to fNIRS alone. Similar improvements were also observed in sensitivity and specificity of proposed approach over unimodal EEG/fNIRS. Our study suggests that combination of EEG (frontal alpha rhythm) and fNIRS (concentration change of oxygenated hemoglobin) could be a potential means to assess mental stress objectively. PMID:27867700

  13. Mental Strain and Chronic Stress among University Students with Symptoms of Irritable Bowel Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Gulewitsch, Marco D.; Schwille-Kiuntke, Juliane; Schlarb, Angelika A.

    2013-01-01

    Aim. To investigate the degree of mental strain and chronic stress in a German community sample of students with IBS-like symptoms. Methods and Materials. Following an internet-based survey about stress, this study recruited 176 German university students (23.45 ± 2.48 years; 48.3% males) with IBS-like symptoms according to Rome III and 181 students without IBS (23.55 ± 2.82 years; 50.3% males) and compared them regarding current mental strain (SCL-90-R) and the extend of chronic stress. Beyond this, IBS subtypes, IBS severity, and health care utilization were assessed. Results. Students fulfilling IBS criteria showed significantly elevated values of mental strain and chronic stress. Nearly 40% of the IBS group (versus 20% of the controls) reached a clinically relevant value on the SCL-90-R global severity scale. IBS subtypes did not differ in terms of mental distress or chronic stress. Somatization, anxiety, and the chronic stressors “work overload,” “social tension,” and “dissatisfaction with job” were most closely connected to IBS symptom severity. Regarding health care utilization, our results show that consulting a physician frequently was not associated significantly with elevated mental strain or chronic stress but with IBS symptom severity. Conclusion. Our data contribute additional evidence to the distinct association between psychological stress and IBS in community samples. PMID:23843782

  14. Mental Strain and Chronic Stress among University Students with Symptoms of Irritable Bowel Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Gulewitsch, Marco D; Enck, Paul; Schwille-Kiuntke, Juliane; Weimer, Katja; Schlarb, Angelika A

    2013-01-01

    Aim. To investigate the degree of mental strain and chronic stress in a German community sample of students with IBS-like symptoms. Methods and Materials. Following an internet-based survey about stress, this study recruited 176 German university students (23.45 ± 2.48 years; 48.3% males) with IBS-like symptoms according to Rome III and 181 students without IBS (23.55 ± 2.82 years; 50.3% males) and compared them regarding current mental strain (SCL-90-R) and the extend of chronic stress. Beyond this, IBS subtypes, IBS severity, and health care utilization were assessed. Results. Students fulfilling IBS criteria showed significantly elevated values of mental strain and chronic stress. Nearly 40% of the IBS group (versus 20% of the controls) reached a clinically relevant value on the SCL-90-R global severity scale. IBS subtypes did not differ in terms of mental distress or chronic stress. Somatization, anxiety, and the chronic stressors "work overload," "social tension," and "dissatisfaction with job" were most closely connected to IBS symptom severity. Regarding health care utilization, our results show that consulting a physician frequently was not associated significantly with elevated mental strain or chronic stress but with IBS symptom severity. Conclusion. Our data contribute additional evidence to the distinct association between psychological stress and IBS in community samples.

  15. Stress trajectories, health behaviors, and the mental health of black and white young adults.

    PubMed

    Boardman, Jason D; Alexander, Kari B

    2011-05-01

    This paper uses data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health to examine the mental health of non-Hispanic black and white young adults in the US. We use latent growth curve modeling to characterize the typical stress trajectories experienced by black and white young adults spanning the bulk of their lives. We identify the following four stress trajectories: 1) relatively stress free; 2) stress peak at age 15 and a subsequent decline; 3) stress peak at age 17 and a subsequent decline; and 4) a moderately high chronic stress. Results indicate that black adolescents have significantly higher risk of being in all three of the stressful classes compared to white adolescents. Stress exposure is strongly associated with depression and the race differences in stress profiles account for a modest amount of the observed race differences in mental health. We do not observe any race differences in behavioral responses to stressors; black youth are no more likely than white youth to engage in poor health behaviors (e.g., smoking, drinking, or obesity) in response to stress. We provide tentative support for the notion that poor health behaviors partially reduce the association between stress and depression for blacks but not whites. These findings contribute to unresolved issues regarding mental and physical health disparities among blacks and whites.

  16. Stress and burnout among healthcare professionals working in a mental health setting in Singapore.

    PubMed

    Yang, Suyi; Meredith, Pamela; Khan, Asaduzzaman

    2015-06-01

    International literature suggests that the experience of high levels of stress by healthcare professionals has been associated with decreased work efficiency and high rates of staff turnover. The aims of this study are to identify the extent of stress and burnout experienced by healthcare professionals working in a mental health setting in Singapore and to identify demographic characteristics and work situations associated with this stress and burnout. A total of 220 Singaporean mental health professionals completed a cross-sectional survey, which included measures of stress, burnout (exhaustion and disengagement), participants' demographic details, and working situation. Independent t-tests and one-way ANOVAs were used to examine between-group differences in the dependent variables (stress and burnout). Analyses revealed that healthcare professionals below the age of 25, those with less than five years experience, and those with the lowest annual income, reported the highest levels of stress and burnout. No significant differences were found with other demographic or work situation variables. Findings suggest that healthcare professionals working in a mental health setting in Singapore are experiencing relatively high levels of stress and burnout. It is important that clinicians, administrators and policy makers take proactive steps to develop programs aimed at reducing stress and burnout for healthcare professionals. These programs are likely to also increase the well-being and resilience of healthcare professionals and improve the quality of mental health services in Singapore.

  17. The Relationship between Mental Health, Acculturative Stress, and Academic Performance in a Latino Middle School Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albeg, Loren J.; Castro-Olivo, Sara M.

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluated the relationship between acculturative stress, symptoms of internalizing mental health problems, and academic performance in a sample of 94 Latino middle school students. Students reported on symptoms indicative of depression and anxiety related problems and acculturative stress. Teachers reported on students' academic…

  18. Occupational Stress and the Mental and Physical Health of Factory Workers. Research Report Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    House, James S.

    A study assessed the relation of potentially stressful objective job characteristics and perceived psychosocial job stress and the relation of both of these to a variety of indicators of physical and mental health. The study also determined whether any of these relationships were conditioned by a variety of individual characteristics (age,…

  19. Race-Related Stress, Racial Identity Attitudes, and Mental Health among Black Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Hollie L.; Cross, William E., Jr.; DeFour, Darlene C.

    2007-01-01

    This study examined whether racial identity attitudes moderate the relationship between racist stress events, racist stress appraisal, and mental health. One hundred eighteen African American and 144 self-identified Caribbean women completed the Cross Racial Identity Scale, the Schedule of Racist Events, the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, and the…

  20. Validating the Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Symptom Scale with Persons Who Have Severe Mental Illnesses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Hare, Thomas; Shen, Ce; Sherrer, Margaret

    2007-01-01

    Objective: Interview data collected from 275 clients with severe mental illnesses are used to test the construct and criterion validity of the Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Symptom Scale (PSS). Method: First, exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses are used to test whether the scale reflects the posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptom…

  1. Is mindfulness associated with stress and burnout among mental health professionals in Singapore?

    PubMed

    Yang, Suyi; Meredith, Pamela; Khan, Asaduzzaman

    2016-08-19

    High levels of stress and burnout have been reported among mental health professionals worldwide, including Singapore, with concerning potential implications for the quality of patient care. Mindfulness has been associated with decreased stress and burnout; however, associations between mindfulness, stress, and burnout have not been examined in Singapore. The aim of this study was to investigate whether mindfulness is associated with stress and burnout among healthcare professionals working in a mental health setting in Singapore. A total of 224 Singaporean mental health professionals completed a cross-sectional survey which included measures of: mindfulness (observe, describe, act with awareness, non-judge, and non-react), stress, and burnout (exhaustion and disengagement). Using multiple regression, significant negative associations were found between each of the mindfulness facets and: stress, exhaustion, and disengagement, while controlling for years of experience. Of the five mindfulness facets, act with awareness demonstrated the strongest negative association with all three variables. This study showed that mental health professionals in Singapore who have higher levels of mindfulness also have lower levels stress and burnout (disengagement and exhaustion). Future longitudinal research is warranted to better understand the directionality of these associations, with implications for the development of interventions aimed to reduce stress and burnout within this population.

  2. The effect of obesity on inflammatory cytokine and leptin production following acute mental stress.

    PubMed

    Caslin, H L; Franco, R L; Crabb, E B; Huang, C J; Bowen, M K; Acevedo, E O

    2016-02-01

    Obesity may contribute to cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk by eliciting chronic systemic inflammation and impairing the immune response to additional stressors. There has been little assessment of the effect of obesity on psychological stress, an independent risk factor for CVD. Therefore, it was of interest to examine interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-1β (IL-1β), interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra), and leptin following an acute mental stress task in nonobese and obese males. Twenty college-aged males (21.3 ± 0.56 years) volunteered to participate in a 20-min Stroop color-word and mirror-tracing task. Subjects were recruited for obese (body mass index: BMI > 30) and nonobese (BMI < 25) groups, and blood samples were collected for enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay analysis. The acute mental stress task elicited an increase in heart rate, catecholamines, and IL-1β in all subjects. Additionally, acute mental stress increased cortisol concentrations in the nonobese group. There was a significant reduction in leptin in obese subjects 30 min posttask compared with a decrease in nonobese subjects 120 min posttask. Interestingly, the relationship between the percent change in leptin and IL-1Ra at 120 min posttask in response to an acute mental stress task was only observed in nonobese individuals. This is the first study to suggest that adiposity in males may impact leptin and inflammatory signaling mechanisms following acute mental stress.

  3. Mental stress in the workers exposed to humidity in a cheese processing factory.

    PubMed

    Shushtarian, Sm; Hajipour, Ah; Rastegari, Y

    2008-04-01

    Certain inevitable physical factors in working environment can damage the workers in related fields. Sea sickness and white finger due to ship movement and vibration respectively are two examples in this regard. Humidity in working area can also bring discomfort of the workers in humid area. Cheese processing factories are such places where there is high humidity in the working space.Mental stress is a psychological complication which can arise due to some physical factors in certain occupational activities, therefore an attempt was made to have a search on mental stress in the laborers working in a cheese factory in Orumieheh, a city in north of Iran, with a cold climate throughout the year.For the purpose of the present study, a cheese processing factory with 100 workers was selected. The workers were divided in to two groups. One group was exposed to high humidity and the other exposed to normal humidity level. A standard questionnaire was given to two groups to check the mental stress.The results obtained from both groups were compared.. The result showed severe mental stress in workers exposed to high humidity whereas moderate stress level in other workers.The conclusion of the present work is a proof of the adverse effect of humidity in working environments which reflect in mental stress in workers which will be discussed in detail in full paper.

  4. Body mass index and risk for mental stress induced ischemia in coronary artery disease.

    PubMed

    Soufer, Robert; Fernandez, Antonio B; Meadows, Judith; Collins, Dorothea; Burg, Matthew M

    2016-05-19

    Acute emotionally reactive mental stress (MS) can provoke prognostically relevant deficits in cardiac function and myocardial perfusion, and chronic inflammation increases risk for this ischemic phenomenon. We have described parasympathetic withdrawal and generation of inflammatory factors in MS. Adiposity is also associated with elevated markers of chronic inflammation. High body mass index (BMI) is frequently used as a surrogate for assessment of excess adiposity, and associated with traditional CAD risk factors, and CAD mortality. BMI is also associated with autonomic dysregulation, adipose tissue derived proinflammatory cytokines, which are also attendant to emotion provoked myocardial ischemia. Thus, we sought to determine if body mass index (BMI) contributes to risk of developing myocardial ischemia provoked by mental stress. We performed a prospective interventional study in a cohort of 161 patients with stable CAD. They completed an assessment of myocardial blood flow with single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) simultaneously during 2 conditions: laboratory mental stress and at rest. Multivariate logistic regression determined the independent contribution of BMI to the occurrence of mental-stress induced ischemia. Mean age was 65.6±9.0 years; 87.0% had a history of hypertension, and 28.6% had diabetes. Mean BMI was 30.4±4.7. Prevalence of mental stress ischemia was 39.8%. BMI was an independent predictor of mental stress ischemia, OR=1.10, 95% CI [1.01-1.18] for one-point increase in BMI and OR=1.53, 95% CI [1.06-2.21] for a 4.7 point increase in BMI (one standard deviation beyond the cohort BMI mean), p=0.025 for all. These data suggest that BMI may serve as an independent risk marker for mental stress ischemia. The factors attendant with greater BMI, which include autonomic dysregulation and inflammation, may represent pathways by which high BMI contribute to this risk and serve as a conceptual construct to replicate these findings in larger

  5. Mental health treatment after major surgery among Vietnam-era Veterans with posttraumatic stress disorder.

    PubMed

    Tsan, Jack Y; Stock, Eileen M; Greenawalt, David S; Zeber, John E; Copeland, Laurel A

    2016-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine mental health treatment use among Vietnam Veterans with posttraumatic stress disorder and determine whether undergoing major surgery interrupted mental health treatment or increased the risk of psychiatric hospitalization. Using retrospective data from Veterans Health Administration's electronic medical record system, a total of 3320 Vietnam-era surgery patients with preoperative posttraumatic stress disorder were identified and matched 1:4 with non-surgical patients with posttraumatic stress disorder. The receipt of surgery was associated with a decline in overall mental health treatment and posttraumatic stress disorder-specific treatment 1 month following surgery but not during any subsequent month thereafter. Additionally, surgery was not associated with psychiatric admission.

  6. Operational Stress and Correlates of Mental Health Among Joint Task Force Guantanamo Bay Military Personnel.

    PubMed

    Webb-Murphy, Jennifer A; De La Rosa, Gabriel M; Schmitz, Kimberly J; Vishnyak, Elizabeth J; Raducha, Stephanie C; Roesch, Scott C; Johnston, Scott L

    2015-12-01

    Military personnel deployed to Joint Task Force Guantanamo Bay (JTF-GTMO) faced numerous occupational stressors. As part of a program evaluation, personnel working at JTF-GTMO completed several validated self-report measures. Personnel were at the beginning, middle, or end of their deployment phase. This study presents data regarding symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder, alcohol abuse, depression, and resilience among 498 U.S. military personnel deployed to JTF-GTMO in 2009. We also investigated individual and organizational correlates of mental health among these personnel. Findings indicated that tenure at JTF-GTMO was positively related to adverse mental health outcomes. Regression models including these variables had R2 values ranging from .02 to .11. Occupation at JTF-GTMO also related to mental health such that guards reported poorer mental health than medical staff. Reluctance to seek out mental health care was also related to mental health outcomes. Those who reported being most reluctant to seek out care tended to report poorer mental health than those who were more willing to seek out care. Results suggested that the JTF-GTMO deployment was associated with significant psychological stress, and that both job-related and attitude-related variables were important to understanding mental health symptoms in this sample.

  7. Mental stress-induced left ventricular dysfunction and adverse outcome in ischemic heart disease patients.

    PubMed

    Sun, Julia L; Boyle, Stephen H; Samad, Zainab; Babyak, Michael A; Wilson, Jennifer L; Kuhn, Cynthia; Becker, Richard C; Ortel, Thomas L; Williams, Redford B; Rogers, Joseph G; O'Connor, Christopher M; Velazquez, Eric J; Jiang, Wei

    2017-04-01

    Aims Mental stress-induced myocardial ischemia (MSIMI) occurs in up to 70% of patients with clinically stable ischemic heart disease and is associated with increased risk of adverse prognosis. We aimed to examine the prognostic value of indices of MSIMI and exercise stress-induced myocardial ischemia (ESIMI) in a population of ischemic heart disease patients that was not confined by having a recent positive physical stress test. Methods and results The Responses of Mental Stress Induced Myocardial Ischemia to Escitalopram Treatment (REMIT) study enrolled 310 subjects who underwent mental and exercise stress testing and were followed annually for a median of four years. Study endpoints included time to first and total rate of major adverse cardiovascular events, defined as all-cause mortality and hospitalizations for cardiovascular causes. Cox and negative binomial regression adjusting for age, sex, resting left ventricular ejection fraction, and heart failure status were used to examine associations of indices of MSIMI and ESIMI with study endpoints. The continuous variable of mental stress-induced left ventricular ejection fraction change was significantly associated with both endpoints (all p values < 0.05). For every reduction of 5% in left ventricular ejection fraction induced by mental stress, patients had a 5% increase in the probability of a major adverse cardiovascular event at the median follow-up time and a 20% increase in the number of major adverse cardiovascular events endured over the follow-up period of six years. Indices of ESIMI did not predict endpoints ( ps > 0.05). Conclusion In patients with stable ischemic heart disease, mental, but not exercise, stress-induced left ventricular ejection fraction change significantly predicts risk of future adverse cardiovascular events.

  8. Fish consumption and cardiovascular response during mental stress

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Frequent fish consumption is related to a lower risk of coronary heart disease. However, the physiological mechanisms underlying this cardioprotective effect are as yet unknown. We therefore examined certain cardiovascular physiological variables of fish eaters during rest, whilst conducting mental arithmetic, and during recovery. Findings The participants were 12 fish eaters (eating baked fish more than 3–4 times/week) and 13 controls (eating fish less than 1–2 times/week). Analysis of the collected data revealed that heart rate, blood pressure, and pulse wave velocity were significantly lower and pre-ejection period and baroreflex sensitivity were significantly higher in the fish eaters than in the controls during both rest and mental arithmetic, and that systolic and mean blood pressure recovery from mental arithmetic were faster in the fish eaters than in the controls. Conclusions These findings suggest a possible physiological mechanism that may explain why frequent fish consumption reduces coronary heart disease risk. PMID:22695000

  9. Exogenous Carbohydrate Reduces Cortisol Response from Combined Mental and Physical Stress.

    PubMed

    McAllister, M J; Webb, H E; Tidwell, D K; Smith, J W; Fountain, B J; Schilling, M W; Williams, R D

    2016-12-01

    Combined mental and physical stress is associated with exacerbated cortisol production which may increase risk for the progression of cardiovascular disease in individuals working in high-stress occupations (e.g., firefighters, military personnel, etc.). Carbohydrate (CHO) ingestion prior to physical stress may attenuate cortisol concentrations. This project was the first to investigate the effect of CHO ingestion on cortisol response from combined mental and physical stress. 16 men 21-30 years old were randomly assigned a 6.6% CHO beverage or non-CHO control 15 min prior to performing a dual-concurrent-stress challenge. This consisted of physical stress (i.e., steady state exercise) combined with computerized mental challenges. Blood was sampled 70, 40, and 15 min before exercise, immediately at onset of exercise, 10, 20, 30, 35 min during exercise, and 15, 30, 45, and 60 min after exercise. There was a significant main effect for treatment regarding mean cortisol concentrations (F=5.30, P=0.0219). The total area under curve for cortisol was less when CHO was ingested (T7=4.07, P=0.0048). These findings suggest that CHO ingestion immediately prior to combined mental and physical stress may attenuate cortisol responses.

  10. Depressive Symptoms Are Associated with Mental Stress-Induced Myocardial Ischemia after Acute Myocardial Infarction

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Jingkai; Pimple, Pratik; Shah, Amit J.; Rooks, Cherie; Bremner, J. Douglas; Nye, Jonathon A.; Ibeanu, Ijeoma; Murrah, Nancy; Shallenberger, Lucy; Raggi, Paolo; Vaccarino, Viola

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Depression is an adverse prognostic factor after an acute myocardial infarction (MI), and an increased propensity toward emotionally-driven myocardial ischemia may play a role. We aimed to examine the association between depressive symptoms and mental stress-induced myocardial ischemia in young survivors of an MI. Methods We studied 98 patients (49 women and 49 men) age 38–60 years who were hospitalized for acute MI in the previous 6 months. Patients underwent myocardial perfusion imaging at rest, after mental stress (speech task), and after exercise or pharmacological stress. A summed difference score (SDS), obtained with observer-independent software, was used to quantify myocardial ischemia under both stress conditions. The Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II) was used to measure depressive symptoms, which were analyzed as overall score, and as separate somatic and cognitive depressive symptom scores. Results There was a significant positive association between depressive symptoms and SDS with mental stress, denoting more ischemia. After adjustment for demographic and lifestyle factors, disease severity and medications, each incremental depressive symptom was associated with 0.14 points higher SDS. When somatic and cognitive depressive symptoms were examined separately, both somatic [β = 0.17, 95% CI: (0.04, 0.30), p = 0.01] and cognitive symptoms [β = 0.31, 95% CI: (0.07, 0.56), p = 0.01] were significantly associated with mental stress-induced ischemia. Depressive symptoms were not associated with ischemia induced by exercise or pharmacological stress. Conclusion Among young post-MI patients, higher levels of both cognitive and somatic depressive symptoms are associated with a higher propensity to develop myocardial ischemia with mental stress, but not with physical (exercise or pharmacological) stress. PMID:25061993

  11. Cognitive trait anxiety, situational stress, and mental effort predict shifting efficiency: Implications for attentional control theory.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Elizabeth J; Edwards, Mark S; Lyvers, Michael

    2015-06-01

    Attentional control theory (ACT) predicts that trait anxiety and situational stress interact to impair performance on tasks that involve attentional shifting. The theory suggests that anxious individuals recruit additional effort to prevent shortfalls in performance effectiveness (accuracy), with deficits becoming evident in processing efficiency (the relationship between accuracy and time taken to perform the task). These assumptions, however, have not been systematically tested. The relationship between cognitive trait anxiety, situational stress, and mental effort in a shifting task (Wisconsin Card Sorting Task) was investigated in 90 participants. Cognitive trait anxiety was operationalized using questionnaire scores, situational stress was manipulated through ego threat instructions, and mental effort was measured using a visual analogue scale. Dependent variables were performance effectiveness (an inverse proportion of perseverative errors) and processing efficiency (an inverse proportion of perseverative errors divided by response time on perseverative error trials). The predictors were not associated with performance effectiveness; however, we observed a significant 3-way interaction on processing efficiency. At higher mental effort (+1 SD), higher cognitive trait anxiety was associated with poorer efficiency independently of situational stress, whereas at lower effort (-1 SD), this relationship was highly significant and most pronounced for those in the high-stress condition. These results are important because they provide the first systematic test of the relationship between trait anxiety, situational stress, and mental effort on shifting performance. The data are also consistent with the notion that effort moderates the relationship between anxiety and shifting efficiency, but not effectiveness.

  12. A prospective cohort study of perceived noise exposure at work and cerebrovascular diseases among male workers in Japan.

    PubMed

    Fujino, Yoshihisa; Iso, Hiroyasu; Tamakoshi, Akiko

    2007-09-01

    This study prospectively examined the association between perceived noise exposure at work and cerebrovascular diseases among Japanese male workers. A baseline survey was conducted between 1988 and 1990, which involved 110,792 inhabitants (age range: 40-79 yr) from 45 areas throughout Japan. Subsequent causes of death were identified from death certificates. The analysis was restricted to 14,568 men free of a cerebrovascular diseases (age range: 40-59 yr) who were in work at the time of the baseline survey. All subjects completed a self-administered questionnaire at the baseline. This included a question regarding perceived noise exposure at work. The Cox proportional-hazards model was used to estimate the risks of perceived noise exposure for death due to cerebrovascular diseases. The model included age, smoking, alcohol consumption, educational level, perceived mental stress, past medical history, body mass index, hours of walking, hours of exercise, shift work, and job type. During the 190,777 person-years of follow-up, a total of 1,064 deaths were recorded, 98 from cerebrovascular diseases, 27 deaths from subarachnoid haemorrhage, 35 deaths from intracerebral haemorrhage, and 25 deaths from cerebral infarction. Noise exposure did not increase the risk of cerebrovascular diseases, subarachnoid haemorrhage, or cerebral infarction. However, perceived noise exposure increased the risk of intracerebral haemorrhage diseases (hazard ratio (HR)=2.38, 95%CI: 1.20, 4.71, p=0.013). Furthermore, individuals with hypertension were highly susceptible to the effect of perceived noise exposure on the risk of intracerebral hemorrhage, but this association was not observed among the subjects without hypertension. Although the underlying mechanisms are not clear, hypertensive individuals with perceived noise exposure at work should be regarded as a high-risk group for intracerebral hemorrhage.

  13. Comparison of myocardial ischemia during intense mental stress using flight simulation in airline pilots with coronary artery disease to that produced with conventional mental and treadmill exercise stress testing.

    PubMed

    Doorey, Andrew; Denenberg, Barry; Sagar, Vidya; Hanna, Tracy; Newman, Jack; Stone, Peter H

    2011-09-01

    Mental stress increases cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Although laboratory mental stress often causes less myocardial ischemia than exercise stress (ES), it is unclear whether mental stress is intrinsically different or differences are due to less hemodynamic stress with mental stress. We sought to evaluate the hemodynamic and ischemic response to intense realistic mental stress created by modern flight simulators and compare this response to that of exercise treadmill testing and conventional laboratory mental stress (CMS) testing in pilots with coronary disease. Sixteen airline pilots with angiographically documented coronary disease and documented myocardial ischemia during ES were studied using maximal treadmill ES, CMS, and aviation mental stress (AMS) testing. AMS testing was done in a sophisticated simulator using multiple system failures as stressors. Treadmill ES testing resulted in the highest heart rate, but AMS caused a higher blood pressure response than CMS. Maximal rate-pressure product was not significantly different between ES and AMS (25,646 vs 23,347, p = 0.08), although these were higher than CMS (16,336, p <0.0001). Despite similar hemodynamic stress induced by ES and AMS, AMS resulted in significantly less ST-segment depression and nuclear ischemia than ES. Differences in induction of ischemia by mental stress compared to ES do not appear to be due to the creation of less hemodynamic stress. In conclusion, even with equivalent hemodynamic stress, intense realistic mental stress induced by flight simulators results in significantly less myocardial ischemia than ES as measured by ST-segment depression and nuclear ischemia.

  14. Intake of green tea inhibited increase of salivary chromogranin A after mental task stress loads

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Green tea has become renowned for its health benefits. In this study, we investigated the anti-stress effect of two kinds of green tea against a mental stress task load. Methods Warm water, ordinary green tea (Sagara), and shaded white tea, which contains more amino acid components than Sagara, were used as test samples in a randomized cross-over design study. Eighteen students (nine male and nine female) participated in three experimental trials on different days at intervals of seven days. Saliva was collected before beverage intake and after performing the mental stress load tasks. Concentration of chromogranin A (CgA) in the saliva was used as an index of autonomic nervous system activity. Results CgA level increased after the mental tasks, but intake of green tea inhibited this increase; the anti-stress effect was even greater after consumption of shaded white tea. Intake of shaded white tea also lowered Total Mood Disturbance (TMD) score on the Profile of Mood States (POMS); subjects in this condition tended to perform more calculations in the arithmetic task than those in the warm water treatment condition. Conclusions Salivary CgA concentration levels increased after mental stress load tasks, but ingestion of green tea inhibited this increase. This anti-stress effect was larger after the consumption of shaded white tea than after Sagara. Shaded white tea intake also lowered TMD score (POMS) and tended to improve performance on an arithmetic task compared to warm water, suggesting that shaded white tea might also improve mood during and after mental stress load. PMID:25034805

  15. Worker's Compensation: Will College and University Professors Be Compensated for Mental Injuries Caused by Work-Related Stress?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hasty, Keith N.

    1991-01-01

    The extent to which college faculty may recover compensation for debilitating mental illness resulting from stressful work-related activities is discussed. General requirements for worker's compensation claims, compensability of stress-related mental and physical illnesses, applicability of these standards to college faculty, and the current state…

  16. Changes in hemodynamic response to mental stress with heart rate feedback training.

    PubMed

    Goodie, J L; Larkin, K T

    2001-12-01

    This study was designed to examine underlying hemodynamic changes that accompany observed reductions in heart rate (HR) response to mental stress following HR feedback training. Twenty-five college males, assigned to either a HR feedback training group (FB+) or a control group (FB-), were presented with a videogame and mental arithmetic challenge, as HR, blood pressure, and impedance cardiography-derived measures of hemodynamic functioning were recorded. During training, the FB+ group received HR feedback and the FB- group was not provided with HR feedback while playing a videogame. At posttraining, results revealed that the FB+ group exhibited significantly lower HR, systolic blood pressure, stroke volume, and total peripheral resistance responses to the videogame compared to that at pretraining. There was no evidence that the acquired skills generalized to a mental arithmetic task. These results suggest that HR feedback training is an effective method for reducing cardiovascular and hemodynamic responses to a mental stressor; however, the generalizability of this effect remains questionable.

  17. Incorporating Children's Lives into a Life Course Perspective on Stress and Mental Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Avison, William R.

    2010-01-01

    Emerging themes in demography, developmental medicine, and psychiatry suggest that a comprehensive understanding of mental health across the life course requires that we incorporate the lives of children into our research. If we can learn more about the ways in which the stress process unfolds for children, we will gain important insights into the…

  18. Interventions for Secondary Traumatic Stress with Mental Health Workers: A Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bercier, Melissa L.; Maynard, Brandy R.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: A systematic review was conducted to examine effects of indicated interventions to reduce symptoms of secondary traumatic stress (STS) experienced by mental health workers. Method: Systematic review methods were employed to search, retrieve, select, and analyze studies that met study inclusion criteria. Results: Over 4,000 citations…

  19. Biosignal Analysis to Assess Mental Stress in Automatic Driving of Trucks: Palmar Perspiration and Masseter Electromyography

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Rencheng; Yamabe, Shigeyuki; Nakano, Kimihiko; Suda, Yoshihiro

    2015-01-01

    Nowadays insight into human-machine interaction is a critical topic with the large-scale development of intelligent vehicles. Biosignal analysis can provide a deeper understanding of driver behaviors that may indicate rationally practical use of the automatic technology. Therefore, this study concentrates on biosignal analysis to quantitatively evaluate mental stress of drivers during automatic driving of trucks, with vehicles set at a closed gap distance apart to reduce air resistance to save energy consumption. By application of two wearable sensor systems, a continuous measurement was realized for palmar perspiration and masseter electromyography, and a biosignal processing method was proposed to assess mental stress levels. In a driving simulator experiment, ten participants completed automatic driving with 4, 8, and 12 m gap distances from the preceding vehicle, and manual driving with about 25 m gap distance as a reference. It was found that mental stress significantly increased when the gap distances decreased, and an abrupt increase in mental stress of drivers was also observed accompanying a sudden change of the gap distance during automatic driving, which corresponded to significantly higher ride discomfort according to subjective reports. PMID:25738768

  20. Dynamic OCT of mentally stress-induced sweating in sweat glands of the human finger tip

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohmi, Masato; Ueda, Yoshihiro; Haruna, Masamitsu

    2007-02-01

    We demonstrate in-vivo imaging of sweat glands of human finger tip using the dynamic optical coherence tomography (OCT). Mentally-stress-induced sweating in sweat glands of human finger tip can be observed clearly in time-sequential OCT images. In the experiment, a sweat pore opened clearly on the skin surface according to a stimulus of sound.

  1. Biosignal analysis to assess mental stress in automatic driving of trucks: palmar perspiration and masseter electromyography.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Rencheng; Yamabe, Shigeyuki; Nakano, Kimihiko; Suda, Yoshihiro

    2015-03-02

    Nowadays insight into human-machine interaction is a critical topic with the large-scale development of intelligent vehicles. Biosignal analysis can provide a deeper understanding of driver behaviors that may indicate rationally practical use of the automatic technology. Therefore, this study concentrates on biosignal analysis to quantitatively evaluate mental stress of drivers during automatic driving of trucks, with vehicles set at a closed gap distance apart to reduce air resistance to save energy consumption. By application of two wearable sensor systems, a continuous measurement was realized for palmar perspiration and masseter electromyography, and a biosignal processing method was proposed to assess mental stress levels. In a driving simulator experiment, ten participants completed automatic driving with 4, 8, and 12 m gap distances from the preceding vehicle, and manual driving with about 25 m gap distance as a reference. It was found that mental stress significantly increased when the gap distances decreased, and an abrupt increase in mental stress of drivers was also observed accompanying a sudden change of the gap distance during automatic driving, which corresponded to significantly higher ride discomfort according to subjective reports.

  2. Academic Career Development Stress and Mental Health of Higher Secondary Students--An Indian Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ray, Anjali; Halder, Santoshi; Goswami, Nibedita

    2012-01-01

    The authors explored the mental health of students with their academic career-related stressors collecting data from 400 students of different schools of Eastern part of India by using; namely General Information Schedule (GIS), the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ), and the Academic Career Development Stress Scale. The data was subjected to t…

  3. The Impact of Minority Stress on Mental Health and Substance Use among Sexual Minority Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lehavot, Keren; Simoni, Jane M.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: We examined the direct and indirect impact of minority stress on mental health and substance use among sexual minority women. Method: A combination of snowball and targeted sampling strategies was used to recruit lesbian and bisexual women (N = 1,381) for a cross-sectional, online survey. Participants (M age = 33.54 years; 74% White)…

  4. Effects of Goal-Striving Stress on the Mental Health of Black Americans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sellers, Sherrill L.; Neighbors, Harold W.

    2008-01-01

    Although many scholars have theorized about how responding to the stress of blocked opportunities can affect the well-being of black Americans, few scholars have empirically examined the relationships between striving efforts, personal goals, and mental health among black Americans. This investigation examines the relationship between…

  5. Stress and Mental Health of Graduate Students and Non-Graduates by Age and Educational Levels.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Franklin R.; Heinen, James R. K.

    A 1959 survey of 11 research studies involving mental health of United States citizenry showed that 9% of practicing teachers were seriously maladjusted, 17% were unusually nervous, and 25% were unhappy, worried and dissatisfied. This study sought to update these findings by examining various stress factors and their relationship to the mental…

  6. Stress-induced perinatal and transgenerational epigenetic programming of brain development and mental health.

    PubMed

    Babenko, Olena; Kovalchuk, Igor; Metz, Gerlinde A S

    2015-01-01

    Research efforts during the past decades have provided intriguing evidence suggesting that stressful experiences during pregnancy exert long-term consequences on the future mental wellbeing of both the mother and her baby. Recent human epidemiological and animal studies indicate that stressful experiences in utero or during early life may increase the risk of neurological and psychiatric disorders, arguably via altered epigenetic regulation. Epigenetic mechanisms, such as miRNA expression, DNA methylation, and histone modifications are prone to changes in response to stressful experiences and hostile environmental factors. Altered epigenetic regulation may potentially influence fetal endocrine programming and brain development across several generations. Only recently, however, more attention has been paid to possible transgenerational effects of stress. In this review we discuss the evidence of transgenerational epigenetic inheritance of stress exposure in human studies and animal models. We highlight the complex interplay between prenatal stress exposure, associated changes in miRNA expression and DNA methylation in placenta and brain and possible links to greater risks of schizophrenia, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, autism, anxiety- or depression-related disorders later in life. Based on existing evidence, we propose that prenatal stress, through the generation of epigenetic alterations, becomes one of the most powerful influences on mental health in later life. The consideration of ancestral and prenatal stress effects on lifetime health trajectories is critical for improving strategies that support healthy development and successful aging.

  7. THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN MENTAL TOUGHNESS, STRESS, AND BURNOUT AMONG ADOLESCENTS: A LONGITUDINAL STUDY WITH SWISS VOCATIONAL STUDENTS (.).

    PubMed

    Gerber, Markus; Feldmeth, Anne Karina; Lang, Christin; Brand, Serge; Elliot, Catherine; Holsboer-Trachsler, Edith; Pühse, Uwe

    2015-12-01

    Past research has shown that higher stress is associated with increased burnout symptoms. The purpose of this study was to test whether mental toughness protects against symptoms of burnout and whether mental toughness moderates the relationship between perceived stress and burnout over time. Fifty-four vocational students (M age = 18.1 yr., SD = 1.2; 27 males, 27 females) completed self-report questionnaires twice, 10 mo. apart. Perceived stress, mental toughness, and burnout were measured using the Adolescent Stress Questionnaire (ASQ), the Mental Toughness Questionnaire (MTQ), and the Shirom-Melamed Burnout Measure (SMBM). Students who perceived higher stress and lower mental toughness scores reported higher burnout symptoms. Although no significant interaction effects were found between stress and mental toughness in the prediction of burnout, the graphical inspection of the interactions indicated that among students with high stress, those with high mental toughness remained below the cutoff for mild burnout, whereas an increase in burnout symptoms was observable among peers with low mental toughness.

  8. Adolescent same-sex attraction and mental health: the role of stress and support.

    PubMed

    Teasdale, Brent; Bradley-Engen, Mindy S

    2010-01-01

    This study draws on the social stress model from the sociology of mental health to examine the impact of same-sex attraction on depressed mood and suicidal tendencies. Specifically, we hypothesize that across multiple contexts, adolescents with same-sex attractions are likely to experience more social stress and less social support than heterosexual adolescents. In turn, these experiences increase the likelihood of negative mental health outcomes. Using data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (n = 11,911), we find that adolescents with same-sex attraction are more likely than their heterosexual counterparts to report depressed mood and suicidal tendencies. Moreover, stress and social support were found to mediate a substantial part of the relationship between same-sex attraction and depressed mood. In addition, stress and social support mediated about one third of the relationship between same-sex attraction and suicidal tendencies. These findings give strong support for the social stress model. We conclude with a discussion of the role that alienation plays in same-sex-attracted adolescent mental health.

  9. Culture, stress and recovery from schizophrenia: lessons from the field for global mental health.

    PubMed

    Myers, Neely Laurenzo

    2010-09-01

    This cultural case study investigates one U.S. psychosocial rehabilitation organization's (Horizons) attempt to implement the recovery philosophy of the U.S. Recovery Movement and offers lessons from this local attempt that may inform global mental health care reform. Horizons' "recovery-oriented" initiatives unwittingly mobilized stressful North American discourses of valued citizenship. At times, efforts to "empower" people diagnosed with schizophrenia to become esteemed self-made citizens generated more stressful sociocultural conditions for people whose daily lives were typically remarkably stressful. A recovery-oriented mental health system must account for people diagnosed with schizophrenia's sensitivity to stress and offer consumers contextually relevant coping mechanisms. Any attempt to export U.S. mental health care practices to the rest of the world must acknowledge that (1) sociocultural conditions affect schizophrenia outcomes; (2) schizophrenia outcomes are already better in the developing world than in the United States; and (3) much of what leads to "better" outcomes in the developing world may rely on the availability of locally relevant techniques to address stress.

  10. An education management information system with simultaneous monitoring of stress stimulators for students Mental Health management.

    PubMed

    Manimaran, S; Jayakumar, S; Lakshmi, K Bhagya

    2016-11-14

    Education Management Information System (EMIS) is a widely acceptable and developing technology within the Information Technology field. The advancement in technology in this century is being collaborated with scientific invention or explorer and information strengthening or development. This paper presents the results and experiences gained from applying students oriented EMIS for monitoring and managing mental health. The Mental Health of students depends on the acquiring adequate knowledge on basic concepts within a time period or academic schedule. It's obviously significance to evaluate and appraise the stress stimulators as a challenge or threat. The theoretical framework for the study was designed for analyzing the stress stimulators, academic performance and EMIS accessibility. The sample examined in this study was stratified random sample from 75 students specifically all engineering college in Dindigul District of Tamilnadu. The primary factor is the academic stress stimulators that form one module of EMIS for each of the key variable such as curriculum & instruction related stressors, placement related, teamwork related and assessment related. The Mental Health related stress stimulators namely curriculum & syllabus, placement related, assessment related and team work related have a significant influence on academic performance by students in various institution. The important factor leading to the EMIS application in monitoring stress stimulators is curriculum & syllabus related and assessment related.

  11. Culture, Stress and Recovery from Schizophrenia: Lessons from the Field for Global Mental Health

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    This cultural case study investigates one U.S. psychosocial rehabilitation organization’s (Horizons) attempt to implement the recovery philosophy of the U.S. Recovery Movement and offers lessons from this local attempt that may inform global mental health care reform. Horizons’ “recovery-oriented” initiatives unwittingly mobilized stressful North American discourses of valued citizenship. At times, efforts to “empower” people diagnosed with schizophrenia to become esteemed self-made citizens generated more stressful sociocultural conditions for people whose daily lives were typically remarkably stressful. A recovery-oriented mental health system must account for people diagnosed with schizophrenia’s sensitivity to stress and offer consumers contextually relevant coping mechanisms. Any attempt to export U.S. mental health care practices to the rest of the world must acknowledge that (1) sociocultural conditions affect schizophrenia outcomes; (2) schizophrenia outcomes are already better in the developing world than in the United States; and (3) much of what leads to “better” outcomes in the developing world may rely on the availability of locally relevant techniques to address stress. PMID:20571905

  12. Interaction of stressful life events and chronic strains on community mental health

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, G.W.; Jacobs, S.V.; Dooley, D.; Catalano, R.

    1987-02-01

    One of the possible adaptive costs of coping with stress is diminished capacity to respond to subsequent adaptive demands. This paper examined the complex interplay between major life events and one source of chronic strain. Residents of the greater Los Angeles metropolitan area exposed to higher levels of smog, who had also experienced a recent stressful life event, exhibited poorer mental health than those exposed to pollution who had not experienced a recent stressful life event. There were, however, no direct effects of smog levels on mental health. These patterns of results were replicated in both a cross-sectional and a longitudinal study. The interplay of psychosocial vulnerability and environmental conditions is discussed.

  13. Effects of a Stress-Management Program for Inpatients With Mental Disorders: A Feasibility Study.

    PubMed

    Klainin-Yobas, Piyanee; Ignacio, Jeanette; He, Hong-Gu; Lau, Ying; Ngooi, Bi Xia; Koh, Soo Quee David

    2016-03-01

    Stress-management interventions have been integrated into treatments for people with mental disorders. Nevertheless, most studies on these interventions have been conducted on patients with schizophrenia in Western countries, and limited studies have used objective measurements of stress. We developed a group-based, four-session stress-management (S-Manage) program for people with mental disorders, consisting of two major components: psychoeducation and relaxation practice. This single-group, pretest-posttest, quasi-experimental study was undertaken to test the initial effects and determine the effect sizes of the program. A convenience sample of 55 inpatients were recruited from a mental health ward at a tertiary hospital in Singapore. Self-report questionnaires and physiological measures of stress (skin temperature and salivary immunoglobulin A [SIgA]) were used for data collection. Data were analyzed by descriptive statistics and repeated-measures analysis of variance. Most participants were Singaporean, female, single, and employed. Diagnoses included schizophrenia, depression, bipolar disorder, anxiety disorder, and mixed diagnoses. All received standard care provided by the hospital. Participants had significant reductions in objective stress, measured by skin temperature (effect size = 0.54) and SIgA (effect size = 0.16), and subjective stress (effect size = 0.16) as well as improved psychological health (effect size = 0.40) in response to the intervention. This study provides preliminary evidence to support the positive effects of the S-Manage program on people with mental disorders. Future studies should further test the efficacy of the program using more rigorous methods such as randomized controlled trial and multicenter study.

  14. Safety Needs Mediate Stressful Events Induced Mental Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Simeng; Lei, Yu; Lu, Shanshan

    2016-01-01

    “Safety first,” we say these words almost every day, but we all take this for granted for what Maslow proposed in his famous theory of Hierarchy of Needs: safety needs come second to physiological needs. Here we propose that safety needs come before physiological needs. Safety needs are personal security, financial security, and health and well-being, which are more fundamental than physiological needs. Safety worrying is the major reason for mental disorders, such as anxiety, phobia, depression, and PTSD. The neural basis for safety is amygdala, LC/NE system, and corticotrophin-releasing hormone system, which can be regarded as a “safety circuitry,” whose major behavior function is “fight or flight” and “fear and anger” emotions. This is similar to the Appraisal theory for emotions: fear is due to the primary appraisal, which is related to safety of individual, while anger is due to secondary appraisal, which is related to coping with the unsafe situations. If coping is good, the individual will be happy; if coping failed, the individual will be sad or depressed. PMID:27738527

  15. International perspectives on psychosocial working conditions, mental health, and stress of dairy farm operators.

    PubMed

    Lunner Kolstrup, Christina; Kallioniemi, Marja; Lundqvist, Peter; Kymäläinen, Hanna-Riitta; Stallones, Lorann; Brumby, Susan

    2013-01-01

    Dairy farm operators-farmers, workers, and family members-are faced with many demands and stressors in their daily work and these appear to be shared across countries and cultures. Dairy operators experience high psychosocial demands with respect to a hard work and production ethos, economic influences, and social and environmental responsibility. Furthermore, both traditional and industrial farms are highly dependent on external conditions, such as weather, fluctuating markets, and regulations from government authorities. Possible external stressors include disease outbreaks, taxes related to dairy production, and recent negative societal attitudes to farming in general. Dairy farm operators may have very few or no opportunities to influence and control these external conditions, demands, and expectations. High work demands and expectations coupled with low control and lack of social support can lead to a poor psychosocial work environment, with increased stress levels, ill mental health, depression, and, in the worst cases, suicide. Internationally, farmers with ill mental health have different health service options depending on their location. Regardless of location, it is initially the responsibility of the individual farmer and farm family to handle mental health and stress, which can be of short- or long-term duration. This paper reviews the literature on the topics of psychosocial working conditions, mental health, stress, depression, and suicide among dairy farm operators, farm workers, and farm family members in an international perspective.

  16. Mental and Physical Workload, Salivary Stress Biomarkers and Taste Perception: Mars Desert Research Station Expedition

    PubMed Central

    Rai, Balwant; Kaur, Jasdeep

    2012-01-01

    Background: Very few studies have been conducted on the effects of simulation of Mars conditions on taste. Aims: This study was planned to find the effects of physical and mental workload on taste sensitivity and salivary stress biomarkers. Materials and Methods: Twelve crew members were selected. Taste reactions and intensity of the taste sensations to quinine sulfate, citric acid, and sucrose were tested before and after mental and physical tasks for one hour. Also, psychological mood states by profile of mood state, salivary, salivary alpha amylase and cortisol, and current stress test scores were measured before and after mental and physical tasks. Results: Average time intensity evaluation showed that after the mental and physical tasks, the perceived duration of bitter, sour, and sweet taste sensations was significantly shortened relative to control group. There were good correlations between average time intensity of sweetness, bitterness, sourness and cortisol levels. Conclusions: Taste alterations due to stress can have an effect on the health and confidence of astronauts in long- term space missions. Thus, this issue remains one of the important issues for future human explorations. PMID:23181230

  17. Parentification, Stress, and Problem Behavior of Adolescents who have a Parent with Mental Health Problems.

    PubMed

    Van Loon, Linda M A; Van de Ven, Monique O M; Van Doesum, Karin T M; Hosman, Clemens M H; Witteman, Cilia L M

    2017-03-01

    When adolescents live with a parent with mental illness, they often partly take over the parental role. Little is known about the consequences of this so-called parentification on the adolescents' internalizing and externalizing problems. This survey study examined this effect cross-sectionally and longitudinally in a sample of 118 adolescents living with a parent suffering from mental health problems. In addition, the study examined a possible indirect effect via perceived stress. Path analyses were used to examine the direct associations between parentification and problem behavior as well as the indirect relations via perceived stress. The results showed that parentification was associated with both internalizing and externalizing problems cross-sectionally, but it predicted only internalizing problems 1 year later. An indirect effect of parentification on adolescent internalizing and externalizing problems via perceived stress was found, albeit only cross-sectionally. These findings imply that parentification can be stressful for adolescents who live with a parent with mental health problems, and that a greater awareness of parentification is needed to prevent adolescents from developing internalizing problems.

  18. Adolescent Bicultural Stress and Its Impact on Mental Well-Being among Latinos, Asian Americans, and European Americans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Romero, Andrea J.; Carvajal, Scott C.; Valle, Fabian; Orduna, Michele

    2007-01-01

    The perception of bicultural stress, stress due to discrimination/prejudice, immigration, and acculturation, was investigated in relation to mental well-being in a sample of urban Latino (n = 304), European American (n = 215), and Asian American (n = 131) 8th grade students. Bicultural stress was reported by all ethnic groups and was significantly…

  19. Job Stress and Self-Efficacy among Psychiatric Nursing Working in Mental Health Hospitals at Cairo, Egypt

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zaki, Rania. A.

    2016-01-01

    Nursing stress is considered a problem that affects the practice worldwide. Job stress is a harmful response physically and emotionally when the nurses' skills, resources, and needs could not fulfill the requirement of the job. This study was aimed to assess job stress and self-efficacy among psychiatric nursing working in mental health hospitals…

  20. Study on mental stress using near-infrared spectroscopy, electroencephalography, and peripheral arterial tonometry.

    PubMed

    Ishii, Yoshikazu; Ogata, Hajime; Takano, Hidenori; Ohnishi, Hidenori; Mukai, Toshiharu; Yagi, Tohru

    2008-01-01

    In this research, we used near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) as an alternative technique for mental state analysis, and compared its performance with other conventional techniques such as electroencephalography (EEG) and peripheral arterial tonometry (PAT) during stress and healing tasks. We measured biological signals simultaneously in our experiments using these techniques for comparison. NIRS results showed that the level of total hemoglobin in the frontal cortex increased during a stress task and decreased during a healing task for all subjects whose blood volume change was properly recorded. EEG, however, showed inconsistent results due to task variation. Only PAT gave consistent results in many of the subjects. Taken together, the results suggest that NIRS might be suitable for mental state evaluation, with PAT as an alternative.

  1. Vascular responses in glabrous and nonglabrous skin during acute mental stress in physically trained humans.

    PubMed

    Yano, Hiroki; Sone, Ryoko; Yamazaki, Fumio

    2009-12-01

    Acute mental stress induces sympathetic activation and influences vasomotor control in various organs. In the present study, to better understand the effect of physical training on peripheral vasomotor control during acute mental stress, we compared the skin vascular responses to mental arithmetic (MA) in physically trained and untrained humans. Eight physically trained (T group) and eight untrained (UT group) healthy volunteers performed 2 min of MA aloud in the supine position under a thermoneutral condition (28 degrees C). Skin blood flow (laser-Doppler flowmetry) and local temperature were monitored at the glabrous (palm, sole) and nonglabrous (forearm, calf) sites. Cutaneous vascular conductance (CVC) was evaluated from the ratio of blood flow to mean arterial pressure (tonometry). Local sweating rate (SR) was measured in the sole and calf by the ventilated capsule method. In the T group, the CVC at glabrous sites consistently decreased (P < 0.05) during MA, while in the UT group, the stress-induced decreases in CVC were transient and gradually recovered during MA. The patterns of changes in CVC at the nonglabrous sites were substantially similar to those at the glabrous sites, but the decreases in CVC at the nonglabrous sites were smaller (P < 0.05) than those at the glabrous sites in both groups. Local temperature at the glabrous sites (especially in the sole) showed higher (P < 0.05) values in the T group compared with the UT group. The SR in the sole and calf were increased (P < 0.05) during MA but did not differ between the two groups. These findings suggest that physical training acts to heighten skin temperature at the glabrous sites but not at the nonglabrous sites. It is also suggested that the change of skin temperature by physical training modifies sympathetic vasomotor control in glabrous and nonglabrous skin during acute mental stress in the peripheral level.

  2. Hair cortisol, stress exposure, and mental health in humans: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Staufenbiel, Sabine M; Penninx, Brenda W J H; Spijker, Anne T; Elzinga, Bernet M; van Rossum, Elisabeth F C

    2013-08-01

    The deleterious effects of chronic stress on health and its contribution to the development of mental illness attract broad attention worldwide. An important development in the last few years has been the employment of hair cortisol analysis with its unique possibility to assess the long-term systematic levels of cortisol retrospectively. This review makes a first attempt to systematically synthesize the body of published research on hair cortisol, chronic stress, and mental health. The results of hair cortisol studies are contrasted and integrated with literature on acutely circulating cortisol as measured in bodily fluids, thereby combining cortisol baseline concentration and cortisol reactivity in an attempt to understand the cortisol dynamics in the development and/or maintenance of mental illnesses. The studies on hair cortisol and chronic stress show increased hair cortisol levels in a wide range of contexts/situations (e.g. endurance athletes, shift work, unemployment, chronic pain, stress in neonates, major life events). With respect to mental illnesses, the results differed between diagnoses. In major depression, the hair cortisol concentrations appear to be increased, whereas for bipolar disorder, cortisol concentrations were only increased in patients with a late age-of-onset. In patients with anxiety (generalized anxiety disorder, panic disorder), hair cortisol levels were reported to be decreased. The same holds true for patients with posttraumatic stress disorder, in whom - after an initial increase in cortisol release - the cortisol output decreases below baseline. The effect sizes are calculated when descriptive statistics are provided, to enable preliminary comparisons across the different laboratories. For exposure to chronic stressors, the effect sizes on hair cortisol levels were medium to large, whereas for psychopathology, the effect sizes were small to medium. This is a first implication that the dysregulation of the hypothalamic

  3. Modulation of jaw reflexes by remote noxious stimulation and mental state: possible association with psychological measurements of mental stress and occupation.

    PubMed

    Cadden, S W; Van Der Glas, H W; Van Der Bilt, A

    1999-12-01

    Combined electrophysiological and psychophysical experiments were performed on 15 human subjects to investigate the possible effects of perceived stress or mental occupation on jaw reflexes. Electromyographic recordings were made from the masseter and anterior temporalis muscles, of the series of excitatory and inhibitory reflexes evoked by tapping on an upper incisor tooth. The reflexes were modified by application of painful cold (3 degrees C) stimuli to the subject's hand (remote noxious stimulation) or by the subject undertaking mental exercises (the 17 times table). The resulting changes in the reflexes usually involved transient increases in EMG activity around the interfaces between successive inhibitory and excitatory responses. Both the remote noxious stimuli and the mental exercises usually produced increases in both stress and mental occupation as assessed using visual analogue scales. However, correlations between these psychological effects and the effects on the reflexes were generally weak or absent. We conclude that the modulation of jaw reflexes by remote noxious stimuli or mental activity is not likely to be dependent on an individual's conscious awareness of a change in mental state. On the other hand, data from a related study suggest that the effects on the reflex may be more closely related to the autonomic responses to stress.

  4. Personality types, lifestyle, and sensitivity to mental stress in association with NK activity.

    PubMed

    Imai, K; Nakachi, K

    2001-10-01

    We conducted a cross-sectional study among 302 healthy Japanese male workers to make a mechanistic approach to the association between personality types and cancer; two types of personality, the emotionally unstable-introvert and the emotionally stable-extravert, were compared with each other in lifestyle, mental stress status, and biological markers such as plasma levels of neurotransmitters and NK activity of peripheral lymphocytes. We first found that emotionally unstable-introverts have a more unhealthy lifestyle associated with low NK activity than among stable-extraverts, along with higher sensitivity to mental stress (also known to suppress NK activity) than stable-extraverts. Second, emotionally unstable-introverts were found to have in fact decreased NK activity along with higher plasma levels of noradrenaline, when compared with stable-extraverts. Our results thus demonstrate that emotionally unstable-introverts have a decreased capacity of immunological host defense against cancer, which is possibly due to two factors, unhealthy lifestyle and high sensitivity to mental stress.

  5. Attention-Affect Check List: A self-report measure of acute mental stress.

    PubMed

    Sawada, YUKIHIRO; Tanaka, GOHICHI

    2004-05-01

    Given a hint from Lang, Bradley, and Cutbert's (1997) defense cascade, two cognitive processes, instead of passive versus active behavioral coping, which seem to have differential effects on the provocation of vascular- versus cardiac-dominant reaction pattern during mental stress were advocated: attention (Attent) versus unpleasant affect (UnplAff). Based on this notion the Attention-Affect Check List (AACL) was developed as a self-report measure. In addition, items on uncontrollability (Uncontr) were prepared for the purpose of checking whether heightened Attent and UnplAff are accompanied by alterations in Uncontr. Two hundred and eighty-four students underwent two kinds of mental stress, which seemed to specifically heighten Attent and UnplAff. Four factors with four items each were extracted from the AACL item pool: concentrated and allocated Attent, UnplAff, and pleasant affect. Also, one factor with four items was extracted from the Uncontr item pool. For both the mental stresses, each scale, although very brief, had quite reasonable alpha reliability. Accountability of each scale for the total variance was reasonably high. Some problems are discussed in relation to the validity of AACL.

  6. A Randomized Controlled Trial of Cognitive-Behavioral Treatment for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in Severe Mental Illness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mueser, Kim T.; Rosenberg, Stanley D.; Xie, Haiyi; Jankowski, M. Kay; Bolton, Elisa E.; Lu, Weili; Hamblen, Jessica L.; Rosenberg, Harriet J.; McHugo, Gregory J.; Wolfe, Rosemarie

    2008-01-01

    A cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) program for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) was developed to address its high prevalence in persons with severe mental illness receiving treatment at community mental health centers. CBT was compared with treatment as usual (TAU) in a randomized controlled trial with 108 clients with PTSD and either major…

  7. Aquaporin-4 and Cerebrovascular Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Chu, Heling; Huang, Chuyi; Ding, Hongyan; Dong, Jing; Gao, Zidan; Yang, Xiaobo; Tang, Yuping; Dong, Qiang

    2016-01-01

    Cerebrovascular diseases are conditions caused by problems with brain vasculature, which have a high morbidity and mortality. Aquaporin-4 (AQP4) is the most abundant water channel in the brain and crucial for the formation and resolution of brain edema. Considering brain edema is an important pathophysiological change after stoke, AQP4 is destined to have close relation with cerebrovascular diseases. However, this relation is not limited to brain edema due to other biological effects elicited by AQP4. Till now, multiple studies have investigated roles of AQP4 in cerebrovascular diseases. This review focuses on expression of AQP4 and the effects of AQP4 on brain edema and neural cells injuries in cerebrovascular diseases including cerebral ischemia, intracerebral hemorrhage and subarachnoid hemorrhage. In the current review, we pay more attention to the studies of recent years directly from cerebrovascular diseases animal models or patients, especially those using AQP4 gene knockout mice. This review also elucidates the potential of AQP4as an excellent therapeutic target. PMID:27529222

  8. Impaired hemodynamic response to mental stress in subjects with prehypertension is improved after a single bout of maximal dynamic exercise

    PubMed Central

    Medeiros, Renata Frauches; Silva, Bruno Moreira; Neves, Fabricia Junqueira; Rocha, Natalia Galito; Sales, Allan Robson Kluser; Nobrega, Antonio Claudio

    2011-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: High blood pressure during mental stress in subjects with prehypertension is associated with blunted vasodilation in skeletal muscles, which might be improved by an acute bout of exercise. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the hemodynamic responses to mental stress before and after a bout of exercise in subjects with prehypertension. METHOD: Eighteen subjects with prehypertension and 16 with normotension underwent a mental stress test before and after a maximal cardiopulmonary exercise test on a treadmill. Blood pressure was measured by auscultation, and forearm blood flow was measured by venous occlusion plethysmography; from these measurements, the vascular conductance was calculated. RESULTS: Subjects with prehypertension had a higher mean blood pressure during mental stress (prehypertension 112±2 vs. normotension 101±3 mm Hg, p<0.05), and their vascular conductance did not increase (baseline 0.025±0.004 vs. mental stress 0.022±0.003 a.u., p>0.05). After the exercise bout, the mean blood pressure during mental stress was lower in subjects with prehypertension (before exercise 112±2 vs. after exercise 107±2 mm Hg, p<0.05), and vascular conductance increased (baseline 0.011±0.001 vs. mental stress 0.024±0.004 a.u., p<0.05). CONCLUSION: Subjects with prehypertension had elevated blood pressure and a blunted vasodilator response during mental stress, but their blood pressure was attenuated and their vasodilator response was normalized after a single bout of maximal dynamic exercise. PMID:22179153

  9. Electrocardiographic markers of ischemia during mental stress testing in postinfarction patients. Role of body surface mapping

    SciTech Connect

    Bosimini, E.; Galli, M.; Guagliumi, G.; Giubbini, R.; Tavazzi, L. )

    1991-04-01

    In patients with coronary artery disease, radionuclide investigations have documented a high incidence of mental stress-induced myocardial ischemia in the absence of significant electrocardiographic changes and/or angina. To investigate the causes of the low electrocardiographic sensitivity, we recorded body surface maps during mental arithmetic in 22 normal volunteers and 37 postinfarction patients with residual exercise ischemia. Myocardial perfusion was studied with thallium-201 or technetium-99 (SESTAMIBI) planar scans. In 14 patients, body surface maps were also recorded during atrial pacing at the heart rate values achieved during mental stress. While taking the body surface maps, the area from J point to 80 msec after this point (ST-80) was analyzed by integral maps, difference maps, and departure maps. The body surface mapping criteria for ischemia were a new negative area on the integral maps, a negative potential of more than 2 SD from mean normal values on the difference maps, and a negative departure index of more than 2. Scintigraphy showed asymptomatic myocardial hypoperfusion in 33 patients. Eight patients had significant ST segment depression. The ST-80 integral and difference maps identified 17 ischemic patients. Twenty-four patients presented abnormal departure maps. One patient presented ST depression and abnormal body surface maps without reversible tracer defect. In 14 of 14 patients, atrial pacing did not reproduce the body surface map abnormalities. The analyses of the other electrocardiographic variables showed that in patients with mental stress-induced perfusion defects, only changes of T apex-T offset (aT-eT) interval in Frank leads and changes of maximum negative potential value of aT-eT integral maps significantly differed from those of normal subjects.

  10. The Moderator Role of Perceived Emotional Intelligence in the Relationship between Sources of Stress and Mental Health in Teachers.

    PubMed

    Pulido-Martos, Manuel; Lopez-Zafra, Esther; Estévez-López, Fernando; Augusto-Landa, José María

    2016-03-03

    This study analyzes the role of Perceived Emotional Intelligence (PEI) on sources of job stress and mental health in 250 elementary school teachers from Jaén (Spain). The aim of the study was two-fold: (1) to analyze the associations between Perceived Emotional Intelligence (PEI), sources of occupational stress and mental health; and (2) to determine whether PEI moderates the relationship between sources of occupational stress and mental health. An initial sample of 250 teachers was assessed Three questionnaires, the Trait Meta-Mood Scale, the Sources of Stress Scale in Teachers and the Medical Outcomes Study 36-item Short Form Health Survey, were used to evaluate PEI, sources of occupational stress and mental health, respectively. Teachers with higher levels of emotional attention reported lower levels of mental health (r = -.30; p < .001), while teachers showing high emotional clarity reported better emotional role (r = .14; p < .05) and social functioning (r = .15; p < .05). Moreover, PEI components moderate the relationship between sources of occupational stress and emotional role. Specifically, each significant interaction (i.e., deficiencies x attention, adaptation x attention, and adaptation x clarity) made a small and unique contribution in the explanation of emotional role (all p < .05, all sr 2 ∼ .02). Finally, our results imply that PEI is an important moderator of teachers´ occupational stressors on mental health.

  11. A Review of Energy Drinks and Mental Health, with a Focus on Stress, Anxiety, and Depression

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Andrew P.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Concerns have been expressed regarding the potential for caffeinated energy drinks to negatively affect mental health, and particularly so in young consumers at whom they are often targeted. The products are frequently marketed with declarations of increasing mental and physical energy, providing a short-term boost to mood and performance. Although a certain amount of evidence has accumulated to substantiate some of these claims, the chronic effects of energy drinks on mental health also need to be addressed. Methods: To review the relevant literature, PubMed and PsycINFO were searched for all peer-reviewed articles published in English that addressed associations between energy drink use and mental health outcomes. Case reports were also considered, though empirical studies investigating acute mood effects were excluded as a review of such articles had recently been published. Fifty-six articles were retrieved: 20 of these (along with eight more identified through other means) were included in the current review, and, because the majority addressed aspects of stress, anxiety, and depression, particular focus was placed on these outcomes. Results: Though a number of null findings (and one negative relationship) were observed, the majority of studies examined reported positive associations between energy drink consumption and symptoms of mental health problems. Conclusions: Though the findings imply that energy drink use may increase the risk of undesirable mental health outcomes, the majority of research examined utilized cross-sectional designs. In most cases, it was therefore not possible to determine causation or direction of effect. For this reason, longitudinal and intervention studies are required to increase our understanding of the nature of the relationships observed. PMID:27274415

  12. A Review of Energy Drinks and Mental Health, with a Focus on Stress, Anxiety, and Depression.

    PubMed

    Richards, Gareth; Smith, Andrew P

    2016-06-01

    Background: Concerns have been expressed regarding the potential for caffeinated energy drinks to negatively affect mental health, and particularly so in young consumers at whom they are often targeted. The products are frequently marketed with declarations of increasing mental and physical energy, providing a short-term boost to mood and performance. Although a certain amount of evidence has accumulated to substantiate some of these claims, the chronic effects of energy drinks on mental health also need to be addressed. Methods: To review the relevant literature, PubMed and PsycINFO were searched for all peer-reviewed articles published in English that addressed associations between energy drink use and mental health outcomes. Case reports were also considered, though empirical studies investigating acute mood effects were excluded as a review of such articles had recently been published. Fifty-six articles were retrieved: 20 of these (along with eight more identified through other means) were included in the current review, and, because the majority addressed aspects of stress, anxiety, and depression, particular focus was placed on these outcomes. Results: Though a number of null findings (and one negative relationship) were observed, the majority of studies examined reported positive associations between energy drink consumption and symptoms of mental health problems. Conclusions: Though the findings imply that energy drink use may increase the risk of undesirable mental health outcomes, the majority of research examined utilized cross-sectional designs. In most cases, it was therefore not possible to determine causation or direction of effect. For this reason, longitudinal and intervention studies are required to increase our understanding of the nature of the relationships observed.

  13. Translational developmental studies of stress on brain and behavior: implications for adolescent mental health and illness?

    PubMed

    Malter Cohen, M; Tottenham, N; Casey, B J

    2013-09-26

    Adolescence is the transition from childhood to adulthood, with onset marked by puberty and the offset by relative independence from parents. Across species, it is a time of incredible change that carries increased risks and rewards. The ability of the individual to respond adequately to the mental, physical and emotional stresses of life during this time is a function of both their early environment and their present state. In this article, we focus on the effects that acute threat and chronic stress have on the brain and behavior in humans and rodents. First, we highlight developmental changes in frontolimbic function as healthy individuals transition into and out of adolescence. Second, we examine genetic factors that may enhance susceptibility to stress in one individual over another using translation from genetic mouse models to human neuroimaging. Third, we examine how the timing and nature of stress varies in its impact on brain and behavior. These findings are discussed in the context of implications for adolescent mental health and illness.

  14. Mental health of recently resettled refugees from the Middle East in Sweden: the impact of pre-resettlement trauma, resettlement stress and capacity to handle stress.

    PubMed

    Lindencrona, Fredrik; Ekblad, Solvig; Hauff, Edvard

    2008-02-01

    The pathways to symptoms of common mental disorder and post-traumatic stress symptoms among refugees during resettlement need to be better specified. We aim to identify models of these different mental health outcomes among refugees during resettlement, taking pre-migration, migration and post-migration stress conditions, a person's capacity to handle such stress and socio-demographic variables into consideration. A new questionnaire developed to better cover resettlement stress, as well as pre-resettlement trauma exposures and different measures of a person's capacity to handle stress, was administered to 124 Middle Eastern refugees that had been granted permanent residency in Sweden only a few months before responding. We found four dimensions of resettlement stress: social and economic strain, alienation, discrimination and status loss and violence and threats in Sweden, that account for 62% of the total variance in resettlement stress. Social and economic strain and alienation are important for explaining symptoms of common mental disorder. In the model of core post-traumatic stress symptoms, pre-resettlement trauma exposure seems to have the strongest impact. A person's capacity to handle stress plays significant, direct and mediating roles in both models. The impact of resettlement stressors in the context of the whole migration process for different mental health outcomes is discussed.

  15. Inflammatory and hemostatic responses to repeated mental stress: individual stability and habituation over time.

    PubMed

    Hamer, Mark; Gibson, E Leigh; Vuononvirta, Raisa; Williams, Emily; Steptoe, Andrew

    2006-09-01

    An important assumption underlying psychobiological studies relating stress reactivity with disease risk is that individuals are characterized by stable response profiles that can be reliably assessed using acute psychophysiological stress testing. Previous research has mainly focused on the stability of cardiovascular, neuroendocrine, and cellular immune responses to repeated stressors, and less attention has been given to inflammatory and platelet responses. We therefore examined both average stability and individual test-retest stability of cardiovascular, neuroendocrine, hemostatic, inflammatory, and subjective responses to mental stress over two repeated stress sessions, four weeks apart. Ninety-one healthy, non-smoking men (mean age 33.2 years) completed a 3-min speech task followed by a 5-min mirror tracing task on two separate occasions. Blood samples were taken at baseline and 10 min after the stress tasks while cardiovascular activity, saliva samples, and subjective ratings were measured repeatedly. There was significant cardiovascular and cortisol activation to the stressors and stress-induced increases in plasma C-reactive protein, von Willebrand factor antigen, and platelet activation indexed by leukocyte-platelet aggregates. The magnitude of stress responses did not differ between sessions in any variable. Significant test-retest correlations between sessions were observed for baseline and stress values of all variables (r=0.47-0.74, p<.001), but reactivity (change scores) for C-reactive protein, von Willebrand factor, cortisol, and platelet activation were not significantly correlated. Our results demonstrate that the stress-induced responses did not habituate between sessions, though the small magnitude of acute inflammatory, cortisol, and platelet responses limits the test-retest reliability of stress reactivity assessments.

  16. Emotional reactions to involuntary psychiatric hospitalization and stigma-related stress among people with mental illness.

    PubMed

    Rüsch, Nicolas; Müller, Mario; Lay, Barbara; Corrigan, Patrick W; Zahn, Roland; Schönenberger, Thekla; Bleiker, Marco; Lengler, Silke; Blank, Christina; Rössler, Wulf

    2014-02-01

    Compulsory admission to psychiatric inpatient treatment can be experienced as disempowering and stigmatizing by people with serious mental illness. However, quantitative studies of stigma-related emotional and cognitive reactions to involuntary hospitalization and their impact on people with mental illness are scarce. Among 186 individuals with serious mental illness and a history of recent involuntary hospitalization, shame and self-contempt as emotional reactions to involuntary hospitalization, the cognitive appraisal of stigma as a stressor, self-stigma, empowerment as well as quality of life and self-esteem were assessed by self-report. Psychiatric symptoms were rated by the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale. In multiple linear regressions, more self-stigma was predicted independently by higher levels of shame, self-contempt and stigma stress. A greater sense of empowerment was related to lower levels of stigma stress and self-contempt. These findings remained significant after controlling for psychiatric symptoms, diagnosis, age, gender and the number of lifetime involuntary hospitalizations. Increased self-stigma and reduced empowerment in turn predicted poorer quality of life and reduced self-esteem. The negative effect of emotional reactions and stigma stress on quality of life and self-esteem was largely mediated by increased self-stigma and reduced empowerment. Shame and self-contempt as reactions to involuntary hospitalization as well as stigma stress may lead to self-stigma, reduced empowerment and poor quality of life. Emotional and cognitive reactions to coercion may determine its impact more than the quantity of coercive experiences. Interventions to reduce the negative effects of compulsory admissions should address emotional reactions and stigma as a stressor.

  17. The impact of perceived stress, social support, and home-based physical activity on mental health among older adults.

    PubMed

    Kwag, Kyung Hwa; Martin, Peter; Russell, Daniel; Franke, Warren; Kohut, Marian

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated how perceived stress, social support, and home-based physical activity affected older adults' fatigue, loneliness, and depression. We also explored whether social support and physical activity mediated the relationships between stress and mental health problems. The data of 163 older participants were analyzed in this study. Structural equation modeling using LISREL 8.71 was performed to assess the effects of stress, support, and physical activity on mental health. The findings indicate that perceived stress predicted higher levels of depression, social support predicted lower levels of loneliness and fatigue, and physical activity predicted lower levels of fatigue among older adults. Social support and physical activity mediated the relationships between stress and mental health, except depression. In conclusion, the relative impacts of perceived stress, social support, and physical activity on types of mental health (e.g., fatigue, loneliness, and depression) were different. Furthermore, stress had direct and indirect effects on each construct of mental health (e.g., fatigue, loneliness, and depression).

  18. Exposure of mental health nurses to violence associated with job stress, life satisfaction, staff resilience, and post-traumatic growth.

    PubMed

    Itzhaki, Michal; Peles-Bortz, Anat; Kostistky, Hava; Barnoy, Dor; Filshtinsky, Vivian; Bluvstein, Irit

    2015-10-01

    Workplace violence towards health workers in hospitals and in mental health units in particular is increasing. The aim of the present study was to explore the effects of exposure to violence, job stress, staff resilience, and post-traumatic growth (PTG) on the life satisfaction of mental health nurses. A descriptive, cross-sectional design was used. The sample consisted of mental health nurses (n = 118) working in a large mental health centre in Israel. Verbal violence by patients was reported by 88.1% of the nurses, and 58.4% experienced physical violence in the past year. Physical and verbal violence towards nurses was correlated with job stress, and life satisfaction was correlated with PTG and staff resilience. Linear regression analyses indicated that life satisfaction was mainly affected by PTG, staff resilience, and job stress, and less by exposure to verbal and physical violence. The present study is the first to show that, although mental health nurses are frequently exposed to violence, their life satisfaction is affected more by staff resilience, PTG, and job stress than by workplace violence. Therefore, it is recommended that intervention programmes that contribute to PTG and staff resilience, as well as those that reduce job stress among mental health nurses, be explored and implemented.

  19. Are posttraumatic stress disorder mental health terms found in SNOMED-CT medical terminology.

    PubMed

    Trusko, Brett; Rosenbloom, S Trent; Montella, Diane; Jackson, James C; Fitzhenry, Fern; Brown, Steven H; Elkin, Peter L; Fielstein, Elliot; Kotter, Kristen; Tuttle, Mark; Iannelli, Richard J; Speroff, Theodore

    2010-12-01

    The authors sought to evaluate how well the Systematized Nomenclature of Medicine-Clinical Terms (SNOMED-CT) controlled vocabulary represents terms commonly used clinically when documenting posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). A list was constructed based on the PTSD criteria in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM-IV; American Psychiatric Association, 1994), symptom assessment instruments, and publications. Although two teams mapping the terms to SNOMED-CT differed in their approach, the consensus mapping accounted for 91% of the 153 PTSD terms. They found that the words used by clinicians in describing PTSD symptoms are represented in SNOMED-CT. These results can be used to codify mental health text reports for health information technology applications such as automated chart abstraction, algorithms for identifying documentation of symptoms representing PTSD in clinical notes, and clinical decision support.

  20. Modulation of prenatal stress via docosahexaenoic acid supplementation: implications for child mental health.

    PubMed

    Keenan, Kate; Hipwell, Alison E

    2015-03-01

    Pregnant women living in poverty experience chronic and acute stressors that may lead to alterations in circulating glucocorticoids. Experimental evidence from animal models and correlational studies in humans support the hypothesis that prenatal exposure to high levels of glucocorticoids can negatively affect the developing fetus and later emotional and behavioral regulation in the offspring. In this integrative review, recent findings from research in psychiatry, obstetrics, and animal and human experimental studies on the role of docosahexaenoic acid in modulation of the stress response and brain development are discussed. The potential for an emerging field of nutritionally based perinatal preventive interventions for improving offspring mental health is described. Prenatal nutritional interventions may prove to be effective approaches to reducing common childhood mental disorders.

  1. Modulation of prenatal stress via docosahexaenoic acid supplementation: implications for child mental health

    PubMed Central

    Hipwell, Alison E.

    2015-01-01

    Pregnant women living in poverty experience chronic and acute stressors that may lead to alterations in circulating glucocorticoids. Experimental evidence from animal models and correlational studies in humans support the hypothesis that prenatal exposure to high levels of glucocorticoids can negatively affect the developing fetus and later emotional and behavioral regulation in the offspring. In this integrative review, recent findings from research in psychiatry, obstetrics, and animal and human experimental studies on the role of docosahexaenoic acid in modulation of the stress response and brain development are discussed. The potential for an emerging field of nutritionally based perinatal preventive interventions for improving offspring mental health is described. Prenatal nutritional interventions may prove to be effective approaches to reducing common childhood mental disorders. PMID:26024539

  2. Iranian Children With ADHD and Mental Health of Their Mothers: The Role of Stress

    PubMed Central

    Babakhanian, Mohammadreza; Sayar, Soraya; Babakhanian, Masaudeh; Mohammadi, Gholamreza

    2016-01-01

    Background Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a psychiatric disorder that can result in stress for the mother, resulting in poor health. Objectives The current study, conducted in 2012, aims to assess stress among forty-six Iranian mothers of ADHD children (Group 1) who were admitted to a psychiatric center in Tehran with forty-six Iranian mothers of normal children (Group 2) in 2012. Materials and Methods The Child Symptom Inventory-4 (CSI-4), the child behavior checklist (CBCL) and the parental stress index-short form (PSI/SF) were completed. Data was analyzed using the Levene test and the independent t-test in SPSS Version 18. Results With the exception of mood, ADHD children had more problems in attention compared with normal children. As a result, mothers of ADHD children had more stress compared with the controls. Conclusions ADHD can impair a mother’s mental health by inducing stress. Specific diagnostic and treatment programs should be designed and tailored for the mothers of ADHD children in order to decrease stress. PMID:27284276

  3. The neuropathology and cerebrovascular mechanisms of dementia

    PubMed Central

    Knoefel, Janice; Bhaskar, Kiran

    2016-01-01

    The prevalence of dementia is increasing in our aging population at an alarming rate. Because of the heterogeneity of clinical presentation and complexity of disease neuropathology, dementia classifications remain controversial. Recently, the National Plan to address Alzheimer’s Disease prioritized Alzheimer’s disease-related dementias to include: Alzheimer’s disease, dementia with Lewy bodies, frontotemporal dementia, vascular dementia, and mixed dementias. While each of these dementing conditions has their unique pathologic signature, one common etiology shared among all these conditions is cerebrovascular dysfunction at some point during the disease process. The goal of this comprehensive review is to summarize the current findings in the field and address the important contributions of cerebrovascular, physiologic, and cellular alterations to cognitive impairment in these human dementias. Specifically, evidence will be presented in support of small-vessel disease as an underlying neuropathologic hallmark of various dementias, while controversial findings will also be highlighted. Finally, the molecular mechanisms shared among all dementia types including hypoxia, oxidative stress, mitochondrial bioenergetics, neuroinflammation, neurodegeneration, and blood–brain barrier permeability responsible for disease etiology and progression will be discussed. PMID:26174330

  4. The Impact of Perceived Stress, Social Support, and Home-Based Physical Activity on Mental Health among Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kwag, Kyung Hwa; Martin, Peter; Russell, Daniel; Franke, Warren; Kohut, Marian

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated how perceived stress, social support, and home-based physical activity affected older adults' fatigue, loneliness, and depression. We also explored whether social support and physical activity mediated the relationships between stress and mental health problems. The data of 163 older participants were analyzed in this…

  5. Occupational Stress Levels among Rural Teachers in the Areas of Mental Retardation, Learning Disabilities, and Emotional Conflict.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russell, Tommy; Wiley, Susan

    1993-01-01

    A survey of 154 rural special educators in the areas of mental retardation, learning disabilities, and emotional conflict found no significant differences in stress levels among groups, as measured by the Teacher Stress Inventory. An ad-hoc analysis found no significant differences among groups in supervisor support, room type, or job…

  6. Gender as a Moderator of the Relation between Race-Related Stress and Mental Health Symptoms for African Americans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greer, Tawanda M.; Laseter, Adrian; Asiamah, David

    2009-01-01

    The present study tested gender as a moderator of the relationship between race-related stress and mental health symptoms among African American adults. Because African American women are exposed to stressors associated with race and gender, we hypothesized that African American women would have higher levels of race-related stress and more severe…

  7. Heartbeat and Economic Decisions: Observing Mental Stress among Proposers and Responders in the Ultimatum Bargaining Game

    PubMed Central

    Dulleck, Uwe; Schaffner, Markus; Torgler, Benno

    2014-01-01

    The ultimatum bargaining game (UBG), a widely used method in experimental economics, clearly demonstrates that motives other than pure monetary reward play a role in human economic decision making. In this study, we explore the behaviour and physiological reactions of both responders and proposers in an ultimatum bargaining game using heart rate variability (HRV), a small and nonintrusive technology that allows observation of both sides of an interaction in a normal experimental economics laboratory environment. We find that low offers by a proposer cause signs of mental stress in both the proposer and the responder; that is, both exhibit high ratios of low to high frequency activity in the HRV spectrum. PMID:25247817

  8. Effects of Minority Stress, Group-Level Coping, and Social Support on Mental Health of German Gay Men

    PubMed Central

    Sattler, Frank A.; Wagner, Ulrich; Christiansen, Hanna

    2016-01-01

    Objective According to epidemiological studies, gay men are at a higher risk of mental disorders than heterosexual men. In the current study, the minority stress theory was investigated in German gay men: 1) it was hypothesized that minority stressors would positively predict mental health problems and that 2) group-level coping and social support variables would moderate these predictions negatively. Methods Data from 1,188 German self-identified gay men were collected online. The questionnaire included items about socio-demographics, minority stress (victimization, rejection sensitivity, and internalized homonegativity), group-level coping (disclosure of sexual orientation, homopositivity, gay affirmation, gay rights support, and gay rights activism), and social support (gay social support and non-gay social support). A moderated multiple regression was conducted. Results Minority stressors positively predicted mental health problems. Group-level coping did not interact with minority stressors, with the exception of disclosure and homopositivity interacting marginally with some minority stressors. Further, only two interactions were found for social support variables and minority stress, one of them marginal. Gay and non-gay social support inversely predicted mental health problems. In addition, disclosure and homopositivity marginally predicted mental health problems. Conclusions The findings imply that the minority stress theory should be modified. Disclosure does not have a relevant effect on mental health, while social support variables directly influence mental health of gay men. Group-level coping does not interact with minority stressors relevantly, and only one relevant interaction between social support and minority stress was found. Further longitudinal or experimental replication is needed before transferring the results to mental health interventions and prevention strategies for gay men. PMID:26943785

  9. Effect of meal content on heart rate variability and cardiovascular reactivity to mental stress

    PubMed Central

    Sauder, Katherine A.; Johnston, Elyse R.; Skulas-Ray, Ann C.; Campbell, Tavis S.; West, Sheila G.

    2012-01-01

    Little is known about transient effects of foods and nutrients on reactivity to mental stress. In a randomized crossover study of healthy adults (n = 20), we measured heart rate variability (respiratory sinus arrhythmia), blood pressure, and other hemodynamic variables after three test meals varying in type and amount of fat. Measurements were collected at rest and during speech and cold pressor tasks. There were significant post-meal changes in resting diastolic blood pressure (−4%), cardiac output (+18%), total peripheral resistance (−17%), and interleukin-6 (−27%). Heart rate variability and hemodynamic reactivity to stress was not affected by meal content. We recommend that future studies control for time since last meal and continue to examine effects of meal content on heart rate variability. PMID:22236402

  10. Evaluation of cognitive restructuring for post-traumatic stress disorder in people with severe mental illness

    PubMed Central

    Mueser, Kim T.; Gottlieb, Jennifer D.; Xie, Haiyi; Lu, Weili; Yanos, Philip T.; Rosenberg, Stanley D.; Silverstein, Steven M.; Duva, Stephanie Marcello; Minsky, Shula; Wolfe, Rosemarie S.; McHugo, Gregory J.

    2015-01-01

    Background A cognitive–behavioural therapy (CBT) programme designed for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in people with severe mental illness, including breathing retraining, education and cognitive restructuring, was shown to be more effective than usual services. Aims To evaluate the incremental benefit of adding cognitive restructuring to the breathing retraining and education components of the CBT programme (trial registration: clinicaltrials.gov identifier: NCT00494650). Method In all, 201 people with severe mental illness and PTSD were randomised to 12- to 16-session CBT or a 3-session brief treatment programme (breathing retraining and education). The primary outcome was PTSD symptom severity. Secondary outcomes were PTSD diagnosis, other symptoms, functioning and quality of life. Results There was greater improvement in PTSD symptoms and functioning in the CBT group than in the brief treatment group, with both groups improving on other outcomes and effects maintained 1-year post-treatment. Conclusions Cognitive restructuring has a significant impact beyond breathing retraining and education in the CBT programme, reducing PTSD symptoms and improving functioning in people with severe mental illness. PMID:25858178

  11. The role of acculturative stress on mental health symptoms for immigrant adolescents: a longitudinal investigation.

    PubMed

    Sirin, Selcuk R; Ryce, Patrice; Gupta, Taveeshi; Rogers-Sirin, Lauren

    2013-04-01

    Immigrant-origin adolescents represent the fastest growing segment of youth population in the United States, and in many urban schools they represent the majority of students. In this 3-wave longitudinal study, we explored trajectories of internalizing mental health symptoms (depression, anxiety, and somatic symptoms). The participants included 332 urban-residing first-and second-generation immigrant adolescents (44% male). Participants were recruited in 10th grade (Mage = 16.20 years, SD = 1.19), and 2 additional waves of data were gathered in 12-month intervals. Both generational and racial/ethnic background of the participants reflected the general demographics of urban centers in the United States. With individual growth curve modeling, the results show significant decline in internalizing mental health problems during the high school years. At the same time, greater exposure to acculturative stress predicted significantly more withdrawn, somatic, and anxious/depressed symptoms. Gender and generation status differences in internalizing mental health problems were also identified.

  12. Mental Health

    MedlinePlus

    Mental health includes our emotional, psychological, and social well-being. It affects how we think, feel and act as ... stress, relate to others, and make choices. Mental health is important at every stage of life, from ...

  13. Healing by Gentle Touch Ameliorates Stress and Other Symptoms in People Suffering with Mental Health Disorders or Psychological Stress

    PubMed Central

    Leathard, Helen L.; Grange, John; Tiplady, Peter; Stevens, Gretchen

    2007-01-01

    Previous studies on healing by gentle touch in clients with various illnesses indicated substantial improvements in psychological well-being, suggesting that this form of treatment might be helpful for people with impaired quality of mental health. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of healing by gentle touch in subjects with self-reported impairments in their psychological well-being or mental health. One hundred and forty-seven clients who identified themselves as having psychological problems received four treatment sessions. Pre- to post-treatment changes in psychological and physical functioning were assessed by self-completed questionnaires which included visual analogue scales (VAS) and the EuroQoL (EQ-5D). Participants recorded reductions in stress, anxiety and depression scores and increases in relaxation and ability to cope scores (all P < 0.0004). Improvements were greatest in those with the most severe symptoms initially. This open study provides strong circumstantial evidence that healing by gentle touch is safe and effective in improving psychological well-being in participants with self-reported psychological problems, and also that it safely complements standard medical treatment. Controlled trials are warranted. PMID:17342249

  14. Assessment of Mental, Emotional and Physical Stress through Analysis of Physiological Signals Using Smartphones.

    PubMed

    Mohino-Herranz, Inma; Gil-Pita, Roberto; Ferreira, Javier; Rosa-Zurera, Manuel; Seoane, Fernando

    2015-10-08

    Determining the stress level of a subject in real time could be of special interest in certain professional activities to allow the monitoring of soldiers, pilots, emergency personnel and other professionals responsible for human lives. Assessment of current mental fitness for executing a task at hand might avoid unnecessary risks. To obtain this knowledge, two physiological measurements were recorded in this work using customized non-invasive wearable instrumentation that measures electrocardiogram (ECG) and thoracic electrical bioimpedance (TEB) signals. The relevant information from each measurement is extracted via evaluation of a reduced set of selected features. These features are primarily obtained from filtered and processed versions of the raw time measurements with calculations of certain statistical and descriptive parameters. Selection of the reduced set of features was performed using genetic algorithms, thus constraining the computational cost of the real-time implementation. Different classification approaches have been studied, but neural networks were chosen for this investigation because they represent a good tradeoff between the intelligence of the solution and computational complexity. Three different application scenarios were considered. In the first scenario, the proposed system is capable of distinguishing among different types of activity with a 21.2% probability error, for activities coded as neutral, emotional, mental and physical. In the second scenario, the proposed solution distinguishes among the three different emotional states of neutral, sadness and disgust, with a probability error of 4.8%. In the third scenario, the system is able to distinguish between low mental load and mental overload with a probability error of 32.3%. The computational cost was calculated, and the solution was implemented in commercially available Android-based smartphones. The results indicate that execution of such a monitoring solution is negligible

  15. Hurricane Katrina-related maternal stress, maternal mental health, and early infant temperament.

    PubMed

    Tees, Michael T; Harville, Emily W; Xiong, Xu; Buekens, Pierre; Pridjian, Gabriella; Elkind-Hirsch, Karen

    2010-07-01

    To investigate temperament in infants whose mothers were exposed to Hurricane Katrina and its aftermath, and to determine if high hurricane exposure is associated with difficult infant temperament. A prospective cohort study of women giving birth in New Orleans and Baton Rouge, LA (n = 288) in 2006-2007 was conducted. Questionnaires and interviews assessed the mother's experiences during the hurricane, living conditions, and psychological symptoms, 2 months and 12 months postpartum. Infant temperament characteristics were reported by the mother using the activity, adaptability, approach, intensity, and mood scales of the Early Infant and Toddler Temperament Questionnaires, and "difficult temperament" was defined as scoring in the top quartile for three or more of the scales. Logistic regression was used to examine the association between hurricane experience, mental health, and infant temperament. Serious experiences of the hurricane did not strongly increase the risk of difficult infant temperament (association with three or more serious experiences of the hurricane: adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 1.50, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.63-3.58 at 2 months; 0.58, 0.15-2.28 at 12 months). Maternal mental health was associated with report of difficult infant temperament, with women more likely to report having a difficult infant temperament at 1 year if they had screened positive for PTSD (aOR 1.82, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.61-5.41), depression, (aOR 3.16, 95% CI 1.22-8.20) or hostility (aOR 2.17, 95% CI 0.81-5.82) at 2 months. Large associations between maternal stress due to a natural disaster and infant temperament were not seen, but maternal mental health was associated with reporting difficult temperament. Further research is needed to determine the effects of maternal exposure to disasters on child temperament, but in order to help babies born in the aftermath of disaster, the focus may need to be on the mother's mental health.

  16. Assessment of Mental, Emotional and Physical Stress through Analysis of Physiological Signals Using Smartphones

    PubMed Central

    Mohino-Herranz, Inma; Gil-Pita, Roberto; Ferreira, Javier; Rosa-Zurera, Manuel; Seoane, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    Determining the stress level of a subject in real time could be of special interest in certain professional activities to allow the monitoring of soldiers, pilots, emergency personnel and other professionals responsible for human lives. Assessment of current mental fitness for executing a task at hand might avoid unnecessary risks. To obtain this knowledge, two physiological measurements were recorded in this work using customized non-invasive wearable instrumentation that measures electrocardiogram (ECG) and thoracic electrical bioimpedance (TEB) signals. The relevant information from each measurement is extracted via evaluation of a reduced set of selected features. These features are primarily obtained from filtered and processed versions of the raw time measurements with calculations of certain statistical and descriptive parameters. Selection of the reduced set of features was performed using genetic algorithms, thus constraining the computational cost of the real-time implementation. Different classification approaches have been studied, but neural networks were chosen for this investigation because they represent a good tradeoff between the intelligence of the solution and computational complexity. Three different application scenarios were considered. In the first scenario, the proposed system is capable of distinguishing among different types of activity with a 21.2% probability error, for activities coded as neutral, emotional, mental and physical. In the second scenario, the proposed solution distinguishes among the three different emotional states of neutral, sadness and disgust, with a probability error of 4.8%. In the third scenario, the system is able to distinguish between low mental load and mental overload with a probability error of 32.3%. The computational cost was calculated, and the solution was implemented in commercially available Android-based smartphones. The results indicate that execution of such a monitoring solution is negligible

  17. Social stressors, mental health, and physiological stress in an urban elite of young Afghans in Kabul.

    PubMed

    Panter-Brick, Catherine; Eggerman, Mark; Mojadidi, Aman; McDade, Thomas W

    2008-01-01

    Afghanistan provides a unique setting in which to appraise psychosocial stress, given the context of persistent insecurity and widening economic inequality. In Kabul, people experience widespread frustrations, hinging on restricted opportunities for social advancement, education, and employment. We appraised social aspirations, every-day stressors, psychosocial distress, and mental health problems for a random sample of 161 male and female students at Kabul University. The survey featured both existing and newly-developed instruments (Self-Reported Questionnaire SRQ-20; Afghan Symptom Checklist; Afghan Daily Stressor Scale; and Social Aspirations and Frustrations), implementing both internationally-used and culturally-grounded measures of mental health assessment. We also included indicators of physical health (blood pressure, immune responses to Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), C-reactive protein, and body mass index), to map physiological function with reported psychosocial distress. This young, urban elite expressed major feelings of frustrations, related to physical, economic, social, and political stressors of day-to-day life in Kabul. There were striking gender differences for psychosocial and physiological markers of wellbeing; specifically, women showed poorer mental health (SRQ-20, P = 0.01) and elevated EBV antibody titers (P = 0.003). Both diastolic blood pressure (P = 0.018) and EBV (P = 0.038) were associated with a subscale of family stressors among women, but not among men, consistent with women's social vulnerabilities to stressful family dynamics. This is the first study to integrate approaches from anthropology, cross-cultural psychiatry, and human biology to document social stressors, psychosocial distress, and physiological wellbeing in the challenging setting of present-day Afghanistan.

  18. Myocardial Ischemia During Mental Stress: Role of Coronary Artery Disease Burden and Vasomotion

    PubMed Central

    Ramadan, Ronnie; Sheps, David; Esteves, Fabio; Maziar Zafari, A.; Douglas Bremner, J.; Vaccarino, Viola; Quyyumi, Arshed A.

    2013-01-01

    Background Mental stress–induced myocardial ischemia (MSIMI) is associated with adverse prognosis in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD), yet the mechanisms underlying this phenomenon remain unclear. We hypothesized that compared with exercise/pharmacological stress–induced myocardial ischemia (PSIMI) that is secondary to the atherosclerotic burden of CAD, MSIMI is primarily due to vasomotor changes. Methods and Results Patients with angiographically documented CAD underwent 99mTc‐sestamibi myocardial perfusion imaging at rest and following both mental and physical stress testing, performed on separate days. The severity and extent of CAD were quantified using the Gensini and Sullivan scores. Peripheral arterial tonometry (Itamar Inc) was used to assess the digital microvascular tone during mental stress as a ratio of pulse wave amplitude during speech compared with baseline. Measurements were made in a discovery sample (n=225) and verified in a replication sample (n=159). In the pooled (n=384) sample, CAD severity and extent scores were not significantly different between those with and without MSIMI, whereas they were greater in those with compared with those without PSIMI (P<0.04 for all). The peripheral arterial tonometry ratio was lower in those with compared with those without MSIMI (0.55±0.36 versus 0.76±0.52, P=0.009). In a multivariable analysis, the peripheral arterial tonometry ratio was the only independent predictor of MSIMI (P=0.009), whereas angiographic severity and extent of CAD independently predicted PSIMI. Conclusions The degree of digital microvascular constriction, and not the angiographic burden of CAD, is associated with MSIMI. Varying causes of MSIMI compared with PSIMI may require different therapeutic interventions that require further study. PMID:24145741

  19. Sex Differences in Platelet Reactivity and Cardiovascular and Psychological Response to Mental Stress in Patients With Stable Ischemic Heart Disease

    PubMed Central

    Samad, Zainab; Boyle, Stephen; Ersboll, Mads; Vora, Amit N.; Zhang, Ye; Becker, Richard C.; Williams, Redford; Kuhn, Cynthia; Ortel, Thomas L.; Rogers, Joseph G.; O’Connor, Christopher; Velazquez, Eric J.; Jiang, Wei

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Although emotional stress is associated with ischemic heart disease (IHD) and related clinical events, sex-specific differences in the psychobiological response to mental stress have not been clearly identified. OBJECTIVES We aimed to study the differential psychological and cardiovascular responses to mental stress between male and female patients with stable IHD. METHODS Patients with stable IHD enrolled in the REMIT (Responses of Mental Stress–Induced Myocardial Ischemia to Escitalopram) study underwent psychometric assessments, transthoracic echocardiography, and platelet aggregation studies at baseline and after 3 mental stress tasks. Mental stress–induced myocardial ischemia (MSIMI) was defined as the development or worsening of regional wall motion abnormality, reduction of left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) ≥8% by transthoracic echocardiography, and/or ischemic ST-segment change on electrocardiogram during 1 or more of the 3 mental stress tasks. RESULTS In the 310 participants with known IHD (18% women, 82% men), most baseline characteristics were similar between women and men (including heart rate, blood pressure, and LVEF), although women were more likely to be nonwhite, living alone (p < 0.001), and unmarried (p < 0.001); they also had higher baseline depression and anxiety (p < 0.05). At rest, women had heightened platelet aggregation responses to serotonin (p = 0.007) and epinephrine (p = 0.004) compared with men. Following mental stress, women had more MSIMI (57% vs. 41%, p < 0.04), expressed more negative (p = 0.02) and less positive emotion (p < 0.001), and demonstrated higher collagen-stimulated platelet aggregation responses (p = 0.04) than men. Men were more likely than women to show changes in traditional physiological measures, such as blood pressure (p < 0.05) and double product. CONCLUSIONS In this exploratory analysis, we identified clear, measurable, and differential responses to mental stress in women and men

  20. Movement disorders in cerebrovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Mehanna, Raja; Jankovic, Joseph

    2013-06-01

    Movement disorders can occur as primary (idiopathic) or genetic disease, as a manifestation of an underlying neurodegenerative disorder, or secondary to a wide range of neurological or systemic diseases. Cerebrovascular diseases represent up to 22% of secondary movement disorders, and involuntary movements develop after 1-4% of strokes. Post-stroke movement disorders can manifest in parkinsonism or a wide range of hyperkinetic movement disorders including chorea, ballism, athetosis, dystonia, tremor, myoclonus, stereotypies, and akathisia. Some of these disorders occur immediately after acute stroke, whereas others can develop later, and yet others represent delayed-onset progressive movement disorders. These movement disorders have been encountered in patients with ischaemic and haemorrhagic strokes, subarachnoid haemorrhage, cerebrovascular malformations, and dural arteriovenous fistula affecting the basal ganglia, their connections, or both.

  1. Zebrafish models of cerebrovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Walcott, Brian P; Peterson, Randall T

    2014-04-01

    Perturbations in cerebral blood flow and abnormalities in blood vessel structure are the hallmarks of cerebrovascular disease. While there are many genetic and environmental factors that affect these entities through a heterogeneous group of disease processes, the ultimate final pathologic insult in humans is defined as a stroke, or damage to brain parenchyma. In the case of ischemic stroke, blood fails to reach its target destination whereas in hemorrhagic stroke, extravasation of blood occurs outside of the blood vessel lumen, resulting in direct damage to brain parenchyma. As these acute events can be neurologically devastating, if not fatal, development of novel therapeutics are urgently needed. The zebrafish (Danio rerio) is an attractive model for the study of cerebrovascular disease because of its morphological and physiological similarity to human cerebral vasculature, its ability to be genetically manipulated, and its fecundity allowing for large-scale, phenotype-based screens.

  2. Nonevent Stress Contributes to Mental Health Disparities Based on Sexual Orientation: Evidence From a Personal Projects Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Frost, David M.; LeBlanc, Allen J.

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the role of nonevent stress—in the form of frustrated personal project pursuits in the arenas of relationships and work—as a contributing factor to mental health disparities between heterosexual and lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) populations. A purposive sample of 431 LGB (55%) and heterosexually identified (45%) individuals living in the United States and Canada completed the Personal Project Inventory by describing and rating core personal projects they were pursuing. The intensity of perceived barriers to the achievement of relationship- and work-related personal projects served as indicators nonevent stress. Hierarchical linear regression models tested the hypothesis that nonevent stress contributes to the association between sexual orientation and two indicators of mental health: depressive symptoms and psychological well-being. LGB individuals had significantly more depressive symptoms and lower levels of psychological well-being than heterosexuals. Indicators of nonevent stress were significantly associated with mental health outcomes and their inclusion in models attenuated sexual orientation differences in mental health. The critical indirect pathway leading from sexual minority status to mental health occurred via barriers to relationship projects from interpersonal sources. This research suggests that nonevent stress because of structural and interpersonal stigma may contribute to mental health disparities between LGB and heterosexual individuals. The findings have important implications for policy reform around same-sex relationship recognition and workplace discrimination. Future research and clinical work will benefit by expanding existing foci on stress to include nonevent stressors to better understand and address mental health problems, particularly in LGB populations. PMID:25265219

  3. Uncovering Clinical Principles and Techniques to Address Minority Stress, Mental Health, and Related Health Risks Among Gay and Bisexual Men

    PubMed Central

    Pachankis, John E.

    2014-01-01

    Gay and bisexual men disproportionately experience depression, anxiety, and related health risks at least partially because of their exposure to sexual minority stress. This paper describes the adaptation of an evidence-based intervention capable of targeting the psychosocial pathways through which minority stress operates. Interviews with key stakeholders, including gay and bisexual men with depression and anxiety and expert providers, suggested intervention principles and techniques for improving minority stress coping. These principles and techniques are consistent with general cognitive behavioral therapy approaches, the empirical tenets of minority stress theory, and professional guidelines for LGB-affirmative mental health practice. If found to be efficacious, the psychosocial intervention described here would be one of the first to improve the mental health of gay and bisexual men by targeting minority stress. PMID:25554721

  4. Prejudice, social stress, and mental health in lesbian, gay, and bisexual populations: conceptual issues and research evidence.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Ilan H

    2003-09-01

    In this article the author reviews research evidence on the prevalence of mental disorders in lesbians, gay men, and bisexuals (LGBs) and shows, using meta-analyses, that LGBs have a higher prevalence of mental disorders than heterosexuals. The author offers a conceptual framework for understanding this excess in prevalence of disorder in terms of minority stress--explaining that stigma, prejudice, and discrimination create a hostile and stressful social environment that causes mental health problems. The model describes stress processes, including the experience of prejudice events, expectations of rejection, hiding and concealing, internalized homophobia, and ameliorative coping processes. This conceptual framework is the basis for the review of research evidence, suggestions for future research directions, and exploration of public policy implications.

  5. Resilience, Stress, Stigma, and Barriers to Mental Healthcare in U.S. Air Force Nursing Personnel

    PubMed Central

    Hernandez, Stephen H. A.; Morgan, Brenda J.; Parshall, Mark B.

    2016-01-01

    Background Stigma may deter military service members from seeking mental health (MH) services. Previously, substantial proportions of U.S. Air Force (USAF) registered nurses and medical technicians reported concerns about stigma with accessing MH services; in particular, that unit members might lose confidence in them or perceive them as weak, unit leadership might treat them differently, or accessing care might affect career advancement. Objective This study assessed the extent to which stigma and barriers to accessing MH services as perceived by USAF nursing personnel are associated with resilience, stress, previous deployment, or demographic characteristics. Methods An anonymous, online survey was administered to active-duty USAF registered nurses and medical technicians at three locations (N = 250). The survey included demographic items, the Stigma and Barriers to Care scales, Conner–Davidson Resilience Scale, and Perceived Stress Questionnaire. Results Mean resilience was high, and perceived stress was moderate. About half of participants agreed that unit members might have less confidence in me (54%) or unit leadership might treat me differently (58%). Many also had concerns that it would harm my career (47%), I would be seen as weak (47%), or there would be difficulty getting time off work for treatment (45%). Stigma was positively correlated with perceived stress (r = .40, p < .01) and negatively correlated with resilience (r = −.24, p < .01). Officers had significantly higher stigma and resilience scores and lower stress scores compared with enlisted personnel, but those differences were small. Discussion This study validated previous findings that substantial percentages of USAF nursing personnel have concerns that accessing MH services may adversely affect their careers and how they are viewed by unit leaders and peers. In addition, higher levels of concern about stigma were associated with higher levels of stress and lower levels of resilience

  6. Work–family conflict as a mediator between occupational stress and psychological health among mental health nurses in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Sugawara, Norio; Danjo, Kazuma; Furukori, Hanako; Sato, Yasushi; Tomita, Tetsu; Fujii, Akira; Nakagami, Taku; Kitaoka, Kazuyo; Yasui-Furukori, Norio

    2017-01-01

    Background Occupational stress among mental health nurses may affect their psychological health, resulting in reduced performance. To provide high-quality, sustainable nursing care, it is necessary to identify and control the factors associated with psychological health among mental health nurses. The purpose of this study was to examine the role of work–family conflict (WFC) in the well-known relationship between occupational stress and psychological health among mental health nurses in Japan. Methods In this cross-sectional study, data were gathered from 180 mental health nurses who had a coresident child or were married. Data from the Work–Family Conflict Scale, the Generic Job Stress Questionnaire, the Maslach Burnout Inventory-General Survey, and the Center for Epidemiologic Studies for Depression Scale were obtained via self-report questionnaires. The effects of occupational stress and WFC on psychological health were explored by hierarchical linear regression analysis. Results The relationship between emotional exhaustion and occupational factors, including quantitative workload and the variance in workload, disappeared with the addition of WFC (each work interference with family [WIF] or family interference with work [FIW]). The relationship between emotional exhaustion and mental demands disappeared only with the addition of WIF. The relationship between depressive symptoms and variance in workload disappeared with the addition of WFC (each WIF or FIW). Conclusion Our findings may encourage hospital administrators to consider the risks of medical staff WFC. Furthermore, longitudinal investigations into the factors associated with WFC are required for administrative and psychological interventions. PMID:28331330

  7. Job satisfaction, mental health and job stress among general practitioners before and after the new contract--a comparative study.

    PubMed

    Rout, U; Rout, J K

    1994-09-01

    In order to compare measures of job satisfaction, mental health and job stress among general practitioners (GPs), the results of a 1993 survey were compared with that obtained in the previous study in 1987. Eight-hundred and fifty GPs were selected at random by seven Family Health Service Authorities in England, 380 of whom returned questionnaires suitable for statistical analysis. There were significant differences between the 1987 and 1993 surveys. GPs experienced less job satisfaction, poorer mental health and more stress in 1993 than in 1987. These changes may have occurred as a result of the introduction of the new contract.

  8. Cognitive appraisal vs. exposure-based stress measures: links to perceived mental and physical health in low-income black women.

    PubMed

    Hayman, Lenwood W; Lucas, Todd; Porcerelli, John H

    2014-11-01

    Although stress is linked to mental and physical health, self-reports of stress may be operationalized using measures that emphasize cognitive appraisals of stressors or that simply record stressor exposure. Theory and research suggest that appraisal-based measures may be superior in measuring self-reports of stress. However, use of exposure-based measures persists, especially in ethnic disparities research. This study examined the utility of appraisal-based versus exposure-based stress measures in linking stress to mental and physical health in low-income black women. Measures emphasizing cognitive appraisals were superior in predicting mental and physical health because global stress rating best predicted physical health whereas mental health was best predicted by perceived stress. A checklist of exposure to stressful events was not substantially predictive of either mental or physical health, suggesting that cognitive appraisals of stressors are important in linking stress to health perceptions in blacks. The results also suggest that stress impacts mental health first, which then, in turn, influences physical health. Overall, these results illuminate the importance of cognitive appraisals in linking stress to perceptions of mental and physical health in black women.

  9. Efficacy of psychoeducation and relaxation interventions on stress-related variables in people with mental disorders: a literature review.

    PubMed

    Shah, Lubna Bte Iskhandar; Klainin-Yobas, Piyanee; Torres, Samantha; Kannusamy, Premarani

    2014-04-01

    This paper aimed to critically review and summarize empirical evidence concerning the efficacy of psychoeducation or relaxation-based stress management interventions on stress-related variables in people with mental disorders. Electronic databases were used during the literature search. Thirteen articles that fulfilled the preset eligible criteria were included in the review. Findings indicated that psychoeducation and relaxation-based interventions mitigated stress and depression; and enhanced relaxation intensity and knowledge on stress management. However, mixed results were obtained on anxiety. In addition, interventions using virtual reality technology revealed positive effects on depression, relaxation intensity and anxiety. Limitations and recommendations for future research are discussed.

  10. Signal Quality Assessment Model for Wearable EEG Sensor on Prediction of Mental Stress.

    PubMed

    Hu, Bin; Peng, Hong; Zhao, Qinglin; Hu, Bo; Majoe, Dennis; Zheng, Fang; Moore, Philip

    2015-07-01

    Electroencephalogram (EEG) plays an important role in E-healthcare systems, especially in the mental healthcare area, where constant and unobtrusive monitoring is desirable. In the context of OPTIMI project, a novel, low cost, and light weight wearable EEG sensor has been designed and produced. In order to improve the performance and reliability of EEG sensors in real-life settings, we propose a method to evaluate the quality of EEG signals, based on which users can easily adjust the connection between electrodes and their skin. Our method helps to filter invalid EEG data from personal trials in both domestic and office settings. We then apply an algorithm based on Discrete Wavelet Transformation (DWT) and Adaptive Noise Cancellation (ANC) which has been designed to remove ocular artifacts (OA) from the EEG signal. DWT is applied to obtain a reconstructed OA signal as a reference while ANC, based on recursive least squares, is used to remove the OA from the original EEG data. The newly produced sensors were tested and deployed within the OPTIMI framework for chronic stress detection. EEG nonlinear dynamics features and frontal asymmetry of theta, alpha, and beta bands have been selected as biological indicators for chronic stress, showing relative greater right anterior EEG data activity in stressful individuals. Evaluation results demonstrate that our EEG sensor and data processing algorithms have successfully addressed the requirements and challenges of a portable system for patient monitoring, as envisioned by the EU OPTIMI project.

  11. Treatment of post-traumatic stress disorder in patients with severe mental illness: a review.

    PubMed

    Mabey, Linda; van Servellen, Gwen

    2014-02-01

    Although the prevalence of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is high among those with severe mental illness, little is known about the use of interventions to lessen the burden of PTSD in this population. Currently, there are limited data about safe and effective interventions to treat these individuals. This systematic published work review presents the scientific published work reporting studies of psychological treatment approaches for individuals with comorbid PTSD and severe mental illness. A secondary aim of this study was to identify the specific models implemented and tested, and their impact upon patient outcomes. A review of the published work from January 2001 through January 2012 of English-language publications retrieved from the Cumulative Index of Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), MEDLINE, and the American Psychological Association generated abstracts (PsycINFO) databases was conducted. Six studies met the inclusion criteria for the review. The treatment programs described were cognitive-behavioural therapy, psychoeducation, exposure-based cognitive-behavioural therapy, and eye movement desensitization and reprocessing. Evidence of the effectiveness of these programs is examined. Data to support the use of these interventions are limited, indicating the need for further research and efficacy trials. Future areas of research and implications for nursing are discussed.

  12. Magical flight and monstrous stress: technologies of absorption and mental wellness in Azeroth.

    PubMed

    Snodgrass, Jeffrey G; Lacy, Michael G; Francois Dengah, H J; Fagan, Jesse; Most, David E

    2011-03-01

    Videogame players commonly report reaching deeply "immersive" states of consciousness, in some cases growing to feel like they actually are their characters and really in the game, with such fantastic characters and places potentially only loosely connected to offline selves and realities. In the current investigation, we use interview and survey data to examine the effects of such "dissociative" experiences on players of the popular online videogame, World of Warcraft (WoW). Of particular interest are ways in which WoW players' emotional identification with in-game second selves can lead either to better mental well-being, through relaxation and satisfying positive stress, or, alternatively, to risky addiction-like experiences. Combining universalizing and context-dependent perspectives, we suggest that WoW and similar games can be thought of as new "technologies of absorption"--contemporary practices that can induce dissociative states in which players attribute dimensions of self and experience to in-game characters, with potential psychological benefit or harm. We present our research as an empirically grounded exploration of the mental health benefits and risks associated with dissociation in common everyday contexts. We believe that studies such as ours may enrich existing theories of the health dynamics of dissociation, relying, as they often do, on data drawn either from Western clinical contexts involving pathological disintegrated personality disorders or from non-Western ethnographic contexts involving spiritual trance.

  13. "More than skin deep": stress neurobiology and mental health consequences of racial discrimination.

    PubMed

    Berger, Maximus; Sarnyai, Zoltán

    2015-01-01

    Ethnic minority groups across the world face a complex set of adverse social and psychological challenges linked to their minority status, often involving racial discrimination. Racial discrimination is increasingly recognized as an important contributing factor to health disparities among non-dominant ethnic minorities. A growing body of literature has recognized these health disparities and has investigated the relationship between racial discrimination and poor health outcomes. Chronically elevated cortisol levels and a dysregulated hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis appear to mediate effects of racial discrimination on allostatic load and disease. Racial discrimination seems to converge on the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and may impair the function of the prefrontal cortex (PFC), hence showing substantial similarities to chronic social stress. This review provides a summary of recent literature on hormonal and neural effects of racial discrimination and a synthesis of potential neurobiological pathways by which discrimination affects mental health.

  14. Effects of elevation change on mental stress in high-voltage transmission tower construction workers.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Feng-Wen; Lin, Chiuhsiang Joe; Lee, Yung-Hui; Chen, Hung-Jen

    2016-09-01

    High-voltage transmission tower construction is a high-risk operation due to the construction site locations, extreme climatic factors, elevated working surfaces, and narrow working space. To comprehensively enhance our understanding of the psychophysiological phenomena of workers in extremely high tower constructions, we carried out a series of field experiments to test and compare three working surface heights in terms of frequency-domain heart rate variability (HRV) measurements. Twelve experienced male workers participated in this experiment. The dependent variables, namely, heart rate (HR), normalized low-frequency power (nLF), normalized high-frequency power (nHF), and LF-to-HF power ratio (LF/HF), were measured with the Polar RS800CX heart rate monitor. The experimental results indicated that the task workload was similar between working surface heights. Tower construction workers perceived an increased level of mental stress as working surface height increased.

  15. Stress

    MedlinePlus

    ... flu shot, are less effective for them. Some people cope with stress more effectively than others. It's important to know your limits when it comes to stress, so you can avoid more serious health effects. NIH: National Institute of Mental Health

  16. Sense of coherence (SOC) may reduce the effects of occupational stress on mental health status among Japanese factory workers.

    PubMed

    Urakawa, Kayoko; Yokoyama, Kazuhito

    2009-10-01

    To examine if sense of coherence (SOC) can reduce the adverse effects of job stress on mental health status, self-administered questionnaires were distributed among 740 workers in a manufacturing industry. The questionnaire contained SOC, Job Content Questionnaire (JCQ), and General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12). Complete answers were recovered from 466 workers (62.8%), consisting of 387 males and 79 females, with ages of 45.1 + or - 12.0 yr, and used for the analysis. The logistic regression analysis revealed the followings: Both for males and females, high GHQ was significantly associated with scores on SOC and JCQ job demand subscale, i.e. the mental health status was adversely related to job demand whereas it was positively associated with SOC. Similarly, the mental health status was affected adversely by managerial work in males, whereas was positively by co-workers support in females. Thus, high SOC enables workers to cope with their job demand, which is a potent job stressor, indicating that SOC is an important factor determining their coping ability to job stress for both genders. Male managerial employees may cope with their strong job stress because of high SOC, protecting their mental health status. Social support seems also significant for prevention of mental well-being of female workers from work-related stressors.

  17. Characterization of fragile X mental retardation protein recruitment and dynamics in Drosophila stress granules.

    PubMed

    Gareau, Cristina; Houssin, Elise; Martel, David; Coudert, Laetitia; Mellaoui, Samia; Huot, Marc-Etienne; Laprise, Patrick; Mazroui, Rachid

    2013-01-01

    The RNA-binding protein Fragile X Mental Retardation (FMRP) is an evolutionarily conserved protein that is particularly abundant in the brain due to its high expression in neurons. FMRP deficiency causes fragile X mental retardation syndrome. In neurons, FMRP controls the translation of target mRNAs in part by promoting dynamic transport in and out neuronal RNA granules. We and others have previously shown that upon stress, mammalian FMRP dissociates from translating polysomes to localize into neuronal-like granules termed stress granules (SG). This localization of FMRP in SG is conserved in Drosophila. Whether FMRP plays a key role in SG formation, how FMRP is recruited into SG, and whether its association with SG is dynamic are currently unknown. In contrast with mammalian FMRP, which has two paralog proteins, Drosophila FMR1 (dFMRP) is encoded by a single gene that has no paralog. Using this genetically simple model, we assessed the role of dFMRP in SG formation and defined the determinants required for its recruitment in SG as well as its dynamics in SG. We show that dFMRP is dispensable for SG formation in vitro and ex vivo. FRAP experiments showed that dFMRP shuttles in and out SG. The shuttling activity of dFMRP is mediated by a protein-protein interaction domain located at the N-terminus of the protein. This domain is, however, dispensable for the localization of dFMRP in SG. This localization of dFMRP in SG requires the KH and RGG motifs which are known to mediate RNA binding, as well as the C-terminal glutamine/asparagine rich domain. Our studies thus suggest that the mechanisms controlling the recruitment of FMRP into SG and those that promote its shuttling between granules and the cytosol are uncoupled. To our knowledge, this is the first demonstration of the regulated shuttling activity of a SG component between RNA granules and the cytosol.

  18. An Examination of the Impact of Racial and Ethnic Identity, Impostor Feelings, and Minority Status Stress on the Mental Health of Black College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McClain, Shannon; Beasley, Samuel T.; Jones, Bianca; Awosogba, Olufunke; Jackson, Stacey; Cokley, Kevin

    2016-01-01

    This study examined ethnic identity, racial centrality, minority status stress, and impostor feelings as predictors of mental health in a sample of 218 Black college students. Ethnic identity was found to be a significant positive predictor of mental health, whereas minority status stress and impostor feelings were significant negative predictors.…

  19. Prejudice, Social Stress, and Mental Health in Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual Populations: Conceptual Issues and Research Evidence

    PubMed Central

    Meyer, Ilan H.

    2007-01-01

    In this article the author reviews research evidence on the prevalence of mental disorders in lesbians, gay men, and bisexuals (LGBs) and shows, using meta-analyses, that LGBs have a higher prevalence of mental disorders than heterosexuals. The author offers a conceptual framework for understanding this excess in prevalence of disorder in terms of minority stress—explaining that stigma, prejudice, and discrimination create a hostile and stressful social environment that causes mental health problems. The model describes stress processes, including the experience of prejudice events, expectations of rejection, hiding and concealing, internalized homophobia, and ameliorative coping processes. This conceptual framework is the basis for the review of research evidence, suggestions for future research directions, and exploration of public policy implications. PMID:12956539

  20. The Affective Bases of Risk Perception: Negative Feelings and Stress Mediate the Relationship between Mental Imagery and Risk Perception.

    PubMed

    Sobkow, Agata; Traczyk, Jakub; Zaleskiewicz, Tomasz

    2016-01-01

    Recent research has documented that affect plays a crucial role in risk perception. When no information about numerical risk estimates is available (e.g., probability of loss or magnitude of consequences), people may rely on positive and negative affect toward perceived risk. However, determinants of affective reactions to risks are poorly understood. In a series of three experiments, we addressed the question of whether and to what degree mental imagery eliciting negative affect and stress influences risk perception. In each experiment, participants were instructed to visualize consequences of risk taking and to rate riskiness. In Experiment 1, participants who imagined negative risk consequences reported more negative affect and perceived risk as higher compared to the control condition. In Experiment 2, we found that this effect was driven by affect elicited by mental imagery rather than its vividness and intensity. In this study, imagining positive risk consequences led to lower perceived risk than visualizing negative risk consequences. Finally, we tested the hypothesis that negative affect related to higher perceived risk was caused by negative feelings of stress. In Experiment 3, we introduced risk-irrelevant stress to show that participants in the stress condition rated perceived risk as higher in comparison to the control condition. This experiment showed that higher ratings of perceived risk were influenced by psychological stress. Taken together, our results demonstrate that affect-laden mental imagery dramatically changes risk perception through negative affect (i.e., psychological stress).

  1. The Affective Bases of Risk Perception: Negative Feelings and Stress Mediate the Relationship between Mental Imagery and Risk Perception

    PubMed Central

    Sobkow, Agata; Traczyk, Jakub; Zaleskiewicz, Tomasz

    2016-01-01

    Recent research has documented that affect plays a crucial role in risk perception. When no information about numerical risk estimates is available (e.g., probability of loss or magnitude of consequences), people may rely on positive and negative affect toward perceived risk. However, determinants of affective reactions to risks are poorly understood. In a series of three experiments, we addressed the question of whether and to what degree mental imagery eliciting negative affect and stress influences risk perception. In each experiment, participants were instructed to visualize consequences of risk taking and to rate riskiness. In Experiment 1, participants who imagined negative risk consequences reported more negative affect and perceived risk as higher compared to the control condition. In Experiment 2, we found that this effect was driven by affect elicited by mental imagery rather than its vividness and intensity. In this study, imagining positive risk consequences led to lower perceived risk than visualizing negative risk consequences. Finally, we tested the hypothesis that negative affect related to higher perceived risk was caused by negative feelings of stress. In Experiment 3, we introduced risk-irrelevant stress to show that participants in the stress condition rated perceived risk as higher in comparison to the control condition. This experiment showed that higher ratings of perceived risk were influenced by psychological stress. Taken together, our results demonstrate that affect-laden mental imagery dramatically changes risk perception through negative affect (i.e., psychological stress). PMID:27445901

  2. Effect of Escitalopram on Mental Stress-Induced Myocardial Ischemia: The Results of the REMIT Trial

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Wei; Velazquez, Eric J.; Kuchibhatla, Maragatha; Samad, Zainab; Boyle, Stephen H.; Kuhn, Cynthia; Becker, Richard C.; Ortel, Thomas L.; Williams, Redford B.; Rogers, Joseph G.; O’Connor, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    Importance Mental-stress-induced myocardial ischemia (MSIMI) is an intermediate surrogate endpoint representing the pathophysiological link between psychosocial risk factors and adverse outcomes of coronary heart disease (CHD). However, pharmacological interventions aimed at reducing MSIMI have not been well studied. Objective To examine the effects of 6 weeks of escitalopram treatment vs. placebo on MSIMI and other psychological stress-related biophysiological and emotional parameters. Design, Setting, and Participants The REMIT study is a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of patients with clinically stable CHD and laboratory MSIMI. Enrollment occurred from 7/24/2007–8/24/2011 at a tertiary medical center. Interventions Eligible participants were randomized 1:1 to receive escitalopram (dose began at 5 mg with titration to 20 mg/day in 3 weeks) or placebo over 6 weeks. Main Outcome Measure Occurrence of MSIMI, defined as (1) development or worsening of regional wall motion abnormality; (2) left ventricular ejection fraction reduction ≥8%; and/or (3) horizontal or downsloping ST-segment depression ≥1mm in ≥2 leads lasting for ≥3 consecutive beats during ≥1 of 3 mental tasks. Results 127 participants were randomized to escitalopram (n=64) or placebo (n=63); 112 (96.1%) completed endpoint assessments (n=56 in each arm). At the end of 6 weeks, more patients taking escitalopram (34.2% [95% CI, 25.4 to 43.0]) had absence of MSIMI during the 3 mental stressors compared with patients taking placebo (17.5% [95% CI, 10.4 to 24.5]) based on unadjusted multiple imputation model for intention-to-treat analysis. A significant difference favoring escitalopram was observed (OR=2.62 [95% CI, 1.06 to 6.44]). Rates of exercise-induced ischemia were slightly lower at 6 weeks in the escitalopram group (45.8% [95% CI, 36.6 to 55.0]) than in patients receiving placebo (52.5% [95% CI, 43.3 to 61.7]), compared with baseline escitalopram (49.2% [95% CI, 39.9 to

  3. Stability of Posttraumatic Stress Reaction Factors and Their Relation to General Mental Health Problems in Children: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nygaard, Egil; Jensen, Tine K.; Dyb, Grete

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the structure of posttraumatic stress reaction factors and their relation to general mental health problems in Norwegian children exposed to the tsunami on December 26, 2004. A total of 133 children and adolescents (ages 6-17) were interviewed 10 months posttsunami using the UCLA PTSD Reaction Index, and 104…

  4. Interactive effects between isometric exercise and mental stress on the vascular responses in glabrous and nonglabrous skin.

    PubMed

    Yamazaki, Fumio; Kinoshita, Katsunori; Sone, Ryoko

    2009-03-01

    Cutaneous vascular responses to mental arithmetic (MA) and handgrip exercise (HG) were studied independently and combined at different local skin temperatures (T (loc)). MA and HG induced (P < 0.05) vasoconstrictor responses in glabrous and nonglabrous skin at a higher level of T (loc), resulting in a nonadditive effect of these two stresses.

  5. How Adult Children Influence Older Parents' Mental Health: Integrating Stress-Process and Life-Course Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milkie, Melissa A.; Bierman, Alex; Schieman, Scott

    2008-01-01

    In this study, we integrate insights from the life-course and stress-process perspectives to argue that adult children's negative treatment of parents, as well as negative events that children experience, detrimentally affect elderly parents' mental health over time. We argue that these strains may affect mothers more than fathers, and blacks more…

  6. Social stress, locality of social ties and mental well-being: the case of rural migrant adolescents in urban China.

    PubMed

    Cheung, Nicole W T

    2014-05-01

    By comparing rural migrant and urban native adolescents in Guangzhou, the largest city in south China, this study investigated the relationships between social stress, social ties that link migrants to their host cities (local ties) and to their rural home communities (trans-local ties), and the migrants׳ mental well-being. Non-migration social stress was more strongly related to poor psychological health than to weak self-efficacy in both migrant and urban native adolescents. This pattern also applied to the effect of migration-specific assimilation stress on psychological health and self-efficacy in migrants. Social ties directly enhanced these two well-being outcomes in both samples, with the effects of trans-local and local ties proving equally potent among migrants. Trans-local ties were somewhat more useful for migrants in moderating the effects of non-migration social stress and assimilation stress, whereas the stress moderation function of social ties was less pronounced in urban natives. These findings extend the migration, network and social stress literature by identifying how local and trans-local ties protect mental health and mitigate stress in migrants.

  7. Towards a model for understanding the development of post-traumatic stress and general distress in mental health nurses.

    PubMed

    Lee, Joyce; Daffern, Michael; Ogloff, James R P; Martin, Trish

    2015-02-01

    In their daily work, mental health nurses (MHN) are often exposed to stressful events, including patient-perpetrated aggression and violence. Personal safety and health concerns, as well as concern for the physical and psychological well-being of patients, dominate; these concerns have a profound impact on nurses. This cross-sectional study explored and compared the psychological well-being of 196 hospital-based MHN (97 forensic and 99 mainstream registered psychiatric nurses or psychiatric state enrolled nurses). The aim was to examine exposure to inpatient aggression and work stress, and identify factors contributing to the development of post-traumatic stress reactions and general distress. Multiple regression analyses indicated that working in a mainstream setting is associated with increased work stress; however, mainstream and forensic nurses experienced similar psychological well-being. As a group, 14-17% of mainstream and forensic nurses met the diagnostic criteria for post-traumatic stress disorder, and 36% scored above the threshold for psychiatric caseness. A tentative model of post-traumatic stress and general distress in nurses was developed, illustrating the impact of aggression and stress on well-being. The present study affirms that mental health nursing is a challenging and stressful occupation. Implications for organizations, managers, and individual nurses are discussed.

  8. Hostility and Anger In: Cardiovascular Reactivity and Recovery to Mental Arithmetic Stress

    PubMed Central

    Vella, Elizabeth J.; Friedman, Bruce H.

    2009-01-01

    Background Hostility and anger have been attributed as psychosocial risk factors for coronary heart disease. Heightened cardiovascular reactivity (CVR), and poor recovery, to provocative stressors is thought to hasten this risk. Purpose To examine the relationship between hostility and anger inhibition (AI), and the moderating situational influences of harassment and evaluation, in predicting CVR and recovery to mental arithmetic (MA) stress using a multiple regression approach. Methods 48 male undergraduate students engaged in the following 3 minute tasks during recording of the electrocardiogram, impedance cardiography, and blood pressure: baseline, MA, and evaluation. Hostility and AI were assessed with the Cook-Medley Hostility Scale and the Speilberger Anger In subscale, respectively. Results An interaction between hostility and AI showed high diastolic blood pressure reactivity to the MA task among hostile anger inhibitors. Harassment did not modify this effect. However, harasser evaluation predicted prolonged systolic blood pressure (SBP) responding among men scoring high in AI, and facilitated SBP recovery among those scoring low on AI. Conclusions The findings highlight the interactive influences of AI and hostility in predicting CVR to stress and underscore the importance of recovery assessments in understanding the potentially pathogenic associations of these constructs. PMID:19272311

  9. Eagle syndrome revisited: cerebrovascular complications.

    PubMed

    Todo, Tsuyoshi; Alexander, Michael; Stokol, Colin; Lyden, Patrick; Braunstein, Glenn; Gewertz, Bruce

    2012-07-01

    Cervical pain caused by the elongation of the styloid process (Eagle syndrome) is well known to otolaryngologists but is rarely considered by vascular surgeons. We report two patients with cerebrovascular symptoms of Eagle syndrome treated in our medical center in the past year. Case 1: an 80-year-old man with acromegaly presented with dizziness and syncope with neck rotation. The patient was noted to have bilateral elongated styloid processes impinging on the internal carotid arteries. After staged resections of the styloid processes through cervical approaches, the symptoms resolved completely. Case 2: a 57-year-old man presented with acute-onset left-sided neck pain radiating to his head immediately after a vigorous neck massage. Hospital course was complicated by a 15-minute transient ischemic attack resulting in aphasia. Angiography revealed bilateral dissections of his internal carotid arteries, with a dissecting aneurysm on the right. Both injuries were immediately adjacent to the bilateral elongated styloid processes. Despite immediate anticoagulation therapy, he experienced aphasia and right hemiparesis associated with an occlusion of his left carotid artery. He underwent emergent catheter thrombectomy and carotid stent placement, with near-complete resolution of his symptoms. Elongated styloid processes characteristic of Eagle syndrome can result in both temporary impingement and permanent injury to the extracranial carotid arteries. Although rare, Eagle syndrome should be considered in the differential diagnosis in patients with cerebrovascular symptoms, especially those induced by positional change.

  10. Sex Differences in Mental Stress-Induced Myocardial Ischemia in Young Survivors of an Acute Myocardial Infarction

    PubMed Central

    Vaccarino, Viola; Shah, Amit J.; Rooks, Cherie; Ibeanu, Ijeoma; Nye, Jonathon A.; Pimple, Pratik; Salerno, Amy; D'Marco, Luis; Karohl, Cristina; Bremner, J. Douglas; Raggi, Paolo

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Emotional stress may disproportionally affect young women with ischemic heart disease. We sought to examine whether mental stress-induced myocardial ischemia (MSIMI), but not exercise-induced ischemia, is more common in young women with previous myocardial infarction (MI) than men. Methods We studied 98 post-MI patients (49 women and 49 men) aged 38-60 years. Women and men were matched for age, MI type, and months since MI. Patients underwent [99mTc]sestamibi perfusion imaging at rest, after mental stress, and after exercise/pharmacological stress. Perfusion defect scores were obtained with observer-independent software. A summed difference score (SDS), the difference between stress and rest scores, was used to quantify ischemia under both stress conditions. Results Women aged 50 or younger, but not older women, showed a more adverse psychosocial profile than age-matched men, but did not differ for conventional risk factors and tended to have less angiographic coronary artery disease (CAD). Compared with age-matched men, women aged 50 or younger exhibited a higher SDS with mental stress (3.1 vs. 1.5, p=0.029) and had twice the rate of MSIMI (SDS ≥3), 52% vs. 25%, while ischemia with physical stress did not differ (36% vs 25%). In older patients there were no sex differences in MSIMI. The higher prevalence of MSIMI in young women persisted when adjusting for sociodemographic and lifestyle factors, CAD severity and depression. Conclusions MSIMI post-MI is more common in women aged 50 or younger compared to age-matched men. These sex differences are not observed in post-MI patients who are older than 50 years. PMID:24608039

  11. An integrative review of the mental health of partners of veterans with combat-related posttraumatic stress disorder.

    PubMed

    Yambo, Teresa; Johnson, Mary

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this article is to present an integrative review of the mental health of veteran partners living with veterans with combat-related posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Living with a veteran with PTSD affects the psychological well-being and health outcomes of a veteran partner. Fourteen research articles that focused on the mental health of military partners, which directly influence the psychological well-being of veteran partners, were reviewed. Findings indicate that a range of mental health concerns exist among veteran partners living with veterans with PTSD. The mental well-being of veteran partners is affected by the emotional strain of living and caring for veterans with PTSD. For years, the partner's presence has been overlooked in the PTSD treatment. However, to promote the comprehensive health of veterans with PTSD, it is paramount to understand the mental health state of veteran partners. Understanding the mental health state of veteran partners will provide a broader perspective to the plight of veteran partners.

  12. Pilot study of adrenal steroid hormones in hair as an indicator of chronic mental and physical stress

    PubMed Central

    Ullmann, E.; Barthel, A; Petrowski, K.; Stalder, T.; Kirschbaum, C.; Bornstein, S. R.

    2016-01-01

    Currently, the quantitative analysis of moderators affecting the function of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA)-axis in health and sickness is still unreliable. This is, in particular, due to physiological factors such as pulsatile ultradian and circadian glucocorticoid secretion as well as to methodological limitations of the current techniques for steroid hormone determination. Based on this background, the determination of long-term hair steroid concentrations is an important methodological improvement allowing for the quantitative analysis of chronic HPA axis-activation. In order to determine the relationship between chronic mental and physical stress and a chronic activation of the HPA axis, we performed a cross-sectional pilot-study with 40 healthy students and examined the relationships between physical activity, mental burden(s), subjective stress perceptions, depressiveness, anxiety, physical complaints, sense of coherence, resilience, and the long-term integrated steroid hormone levels in hair. The results showed that the concentrations of cortisol, cortisone, and dehydroepiandrosterone in hair were significantly correlated to mental (p = 0.034) and physical stress (p = 0.001) as well as to subjective stress perception (p = 0.006). We conclude that steroid concentrations in hair are decisive predictors for an increase in the long-term-HPA axis activity. Moreover, this biomarker is suitable for capturing the stresslevel after burdening events and physical activity. PMID:27174654

  13. Evidence that meal fat content does not impact hemodynamic reactivity to or recovery from repeated mental stress tasks.

    PubMed

    Poitras, Veronica J; Slattery, David J; Gurd, Brendon J; Pyke, Kyra E

    2014-11-01

    The magnitude (reactivity) and duration (recovery) of hemodynamic stress responses are predictive of cardiovascular risk, and fat intake has been shown to enhance hemodynamic reactivity to psychological stress tasks. The objective of this study was to determine the impact of a high-fat meal (HFM) on the magnitude and stability of hemodynamic stress reactivity and recovery. This was assessed by: (i) the peak changes from baseline to during stress for heart rate (HR); mean, systolic, and diastolic blood pressure; cardiac output; and total peripheral resistance; and (ii) the residual arousal in hemodynamic parameters at 2 points post-stress ("early" and "late" recovery). On different days, 10 healthy males (aged 23.2 ± 3.3 years) consumed either a HFM (54 g fat) or low-fat meal (LFM; 0 g fat) (∼1000 calories each), followed by 4 hourly 10-min stress tasks (mental arithmetic and speech tasks). Pre-stress (baseline) parameters did not differ between HFM and LFM conditions (all P > 0.05). Plasma triglycerides were greater following the HFM versus the LFM (P = 0.023). No reactivity or recovery parameters differed between meals (all P > 0.05). Stress reactivity and recovery parameters were stable over the 4 stress tasks (main effects of time, all P > 0.05), with the exception of HR (P < 0.05). Contrary to previous reports, meal fat content did not impact hemodynamic reactivity to laboratory stressors. These data also provide the first evidence that meal fat content does not impact hemodynamic recovery from repeated mental stress tasks.

  14. Investigating the role of acute mental stress on endothelial dysfunction: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Xue, Yi-Tao; Tan, Qi-Wen; Li, Ping; Mou, Shan-Fang; Liu, Shu-Juan; Bao, Yue; Jiao, Hua-Chen; Su, Wen-Ge

    2015-04-01

    Chronic stress is a known risk factor for both endothelial dysfunction and cardiovascular disease (CVD), but less is known of how acute mental stress affects the vasculature. In this systematic review and meta-analysis, we analyzed the impact of acute mental stress on flow-mediated dilation (FMD), an indicator of endothelial function. We searched the Medline, Cochrane, EMBASE, and ISI Web of Knowledge databases through May 2014, to identify publications in English-language journals. The primary outcome was the change in FMD from baseline to the time of measurement. We also assessed the risk of bias and the heterogeneity of included studies. Our search identified eight prospective studies, which displayed significant heterogeneity. Four studies measured FMD while the subject was performing the task; six measured FMD after the task had been completed. The total number of participants was 164. The pooled results indicate that FMD did not change significantly while the task was being performed (pooled difference in means: -0.853; 95 % confidence interval (CI), -3.926/2.220; P = 0.586); however, FMD measured after the task was completed was significantly less than baseline (pooled difference in means: -2.450; 95 %CI, -3.925/-0.975; P = 0.001). In conclusions, our findings provide evidence that an acute stressful experience has a delayed, negative impact on the function of the endothelium. Repeated exposure to short-term stress may lead to permanent injury of the vasculature. Therefore, assessment of patients' exposure to both repeated acute mental stress and chronic stress may be useful in determining their risk of developing CVD.

  15. The impact on work-related stress of mental health teams following team-based learning on clinical risk management.

    PubMed

    Sharkey, S B; Sharples, A

    2003-02-01

    Risk management is viewed as a systematic process based on multiprofessional and multi-agency decision-making. A learning pack was developed as part of a team-based learning project aiming to encourage and develop collaborative working practice. This brought different professionals and agencies working in mental health together to learn. There is little doubt that mental health practice is a source of stress for practitioners. Apart from the stress associated with managing 'risky' situations, risk management is also a relatively new concept. This can increase stress around ability to cope, both on an individual practitioner level and in teams. This article reports the impact that the learning pack had on team members' stress, specifically work-related stress. A range of scales were used to measure change in stress and results demonstrated reduced work-related pressure in a number of areas following the learning. The implications for team learning in relation to clinical risk management are discussed in light of the findings.

  16. Accelerated resolution therapy: an innovative mental health intervention to treat post-traumatic stress disorder.

    PubMed

    Finnegan, Alan; Kip, K; Hernandez, D; McGhee, S; Rosenzweig, L; Hynes, C; Thomas, M

    2016-04-01

    Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a disabling trauma and stress-related disorder that may occur after a person experiences a traumatic event, and evokes a combination of intrusion and avoidance symptoms, negative alterations in cognitions and mood, and alterations in arousal and reactivity. Accelerated resolution therapy (ART) is an emerging psychotherapy that provides fast and lasting resolution for mental health problems such as PTSD. ART has been shown to achieve a positive result in one to five sessions, typically over a 2-week period, and requires no homework, skills practice or repeated exposure to targeted events. Initial research, including one randomised control trial, has demonstrated that ART interventions can significantly reduce symptoms of psychological trauma in both civilians and US service members and veterans. These results suggest that ART be considered as either a primary treatment option or for refractory PTSD in those with a suboptimal response to endorsed first-line therapies. Conservative estimates indicate substantial potential cost savings in PTSD treatment. Despite the need for more definitive clinical trials, there is increasing interest in ART in the USA, including in the US Army. The growing positive empirical evidence is compelling, and there appears to be sufficient evidence to warrant UK researchers undertaking ART research. The armed forces offer the potential for comparative international trials. However, equally important are veterans, emergency services personnel and those subjected to violence. ART appears to also have application in other conditions, including depression, anxiety disorders, and alcohol or drug misuse. ART can potentially help personnel traumatised by the unique challenges of war and conflict zones by providing brief psychotherapy in a readily accessible and culturally competent manner. ART facilitates the provision of interventions and resolutions in theatre, thus enhancing forces' fighting capability.

  17. Neurohormonal and Inflammatory Hyper-Responsiveness to Acute Mental Stress in Depression

    PubMed Central

    Weinstein, Ali A.; Deuster, Patricia A.; Francis, Jennifer L.; Bonsall, Robert W.; Tracy, Russell P.; Kop, Willem J.

    2010-01-01

    Depression is associated with dysregulated hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis function, overactivity of the sympathoadrenal system, and increased levels of inflammation markers. It is not known whether these biological processes are disproportionately elevated in response to acute negative emotional arousal by mental stress (MS). The present study investigates responses of neurohormones and inflammatory markers to MS in 14 clinically depressed (age: 42±10 years; 50% female) and 14 non-depressed control participants (age: 39±6 years; 50% female). Heightened acute MS reactivity was documented in depressed participants (adrenocorticotropic hormone, ρ=0.001; Norepinephrine, ρ=0.042; Epinephrine, ρ=0.039), and a delayed increase in cortisol was observed (ρ=0.002). Inflammation markers increased more strongly in depressed vs. non-depressed participants (IL-6, ρ=0.027; tumor necrosis factor-alpha, ρ=0.050; and recovery C-reactive protein, ρ=0.003). It is concluded that depressed individuals display hyper-reactivity of neuroimmunological markers in response to acute negative emotions. This hyper-reactivity may serve a pathologic role in the elevated morbidity and mortality risk associated with depression. PMID:20117167

  18. Sexual abuse and posttraumatic stress disorder in adult women with severe mental illness: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Bonugli, Rebecca; H Brackley, Margaret; Williams, Gail B; Lesser, Janna

    2010-07-01

    Research indicates that women with serious mental illness (SMI) are vulnerable to sexual abuse, resulting in adverse health outcomes such as posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The purpose of this pilot study was to examine the prevalence of undiagnosed PTSD among a cohort of 20 women with SMI and reporting past sexual abuse. Furthermore, the researcher sought to identify specific symptom manifestations of PTSD among women with SMI and sexual abuse histories. Finally, the feasibility of using specific data collection tools was examined. Results indicated that PTSD was not previously diagnosed or recognized in the study sample, in spite of the presence of a sexual trauma history. The screening tools were effective in identifying depression, guilt, emotional withdrawal, blunted affect, decreased psychomotor activity, suicidal ideations, sexual dysfunction, and substance abuse. Additionally, the data collection tools provided a framework for discussing sensitive issues related to sexual abuse. Implications of this pilot study suggest the need to evaluate all women with SMI and history of sexual abuse for PTSD.

  19. Burnout in Veterans Health Administration mental health providers in posttraumatic stress clinics.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Hector A; McGeary, Cindy A; McGeary, Donald D; Finley, Erin P; Peterson, Alan L

    2014-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to conduct the first assessment of burnout among Veterans Health Administration (VHA) mental health clinicians providing evidence-based posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) care. This study consisted of 138 participants and the sample was mostly female (67%), Caucasian (non-Hispanic; 81%), and married (70%) with a mean age of 44.3 years (SD = 11.2). Recruitment was directed through VHA PTSD Clinical Teams (PCT) throughout the United States based on a nationwide mailing list of PCT Clinic Directors. Participants completed an electronic survey that assessed demographics, organizational work factors, absenteeism, and burnout (assessed through the Maslach Burnout Inventory-General Survey, MBI-GS). Twelve percent of the sample reported low Professional Efficacy, 50% reported high levels of Exhaustion, and 47% reported high levels of Cynicism as determined by the MBI-GS cut-off scores. Only workplace characteristics were significantly associated with provider scores on all 3 scales. Exhaustion and Cynicism were most impacted by perceptions of organizational politics/bureaucracy, increased clinical workload, and control over how work is done. Organizational factors were also significantly associated with provider absenteeism and intent to leave his or her job. Findings suggest that providers in VHA specialty PTSD-care settings may benefit from programs or supports aimed at preventing and/or ameliorating burnout.

  20. Racial differences in cardiovascular reactivity to mental stress in essential hypertension.

    PubMed

    Fredrikson, M

    1986-06-01

    Racial differences in cardiovascular and non-cardiovascular sympathetic nervous system (SNS) activity were studied at rest and during an aversive reaction-time task in established hypertensives, borderline hypertensives and normotensive controls. White and black subjects of each group were subjected to 16 signalled reaction time tasks where a 110 decibel (dB) white noise was delivered contingent upon poor performance. During 16 signalled foreperiods (35 s) the following measurements were taken: systolic and diastolic blood pressures, heart rate, respiration-rate and muscle and skin blood flow. Muscle and skin vascular resistances were calculated. Skin conductance activity was recorded as an index of non-cardiovascular SNS-activation. Resting cardiovascular activity was similar in black and white hypertensives and controls, whereas skin conductance activity was greater in white compared to black hypertensives and controls. During the reaction-time task both quantitative and qualitative differences between the races tended to emerge. Heart rate and systolic blood pressure increased less in black patients and controls than in whites. Muscle and skin vascular resistance increased in blacks but was unaffected by behavioural demands in whites. Skin conductance reactivity was attenuated in black patients and controls. Thus, blacks compared to whites show lesser cardiac sympathomimetic responses but enhanced vascular responses to mental stress.

  1. Burnout in Veterans Health Administration Mental Health Providers in Posttraumatic Stress Clinics

    PubMed Central

    Garcia, Hector A.; McGeary, Cindy A.; McGeary, Donald D.; Finley, Erin P.; Peterson, Alan L.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to conduct the first assessment of burnout among Veterans Health Administration (VHA) mental health clinicians providing evidence-based posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) care. This study consisted of 138 participants and the sample was mostly female (67%), Caucasian (non-Hispanic; 81%), and married (70%) with a mean age of 44.3 years (SD = 11.2). Recruitment was directed through VHA PTSD Clinical Teams (PCT) throughout the United States based on a nationwide mailing list of PCT Clinic Directors. Participants completed an electronic survey that assessed demographics, organizational work factors, absenteeism, and burnout (assessed through the Maslach Burnout Inventory-General Survey, MBI-GS). Twelve percent of the sample reported low Professional Efficacy, 50% reported high levels of Exhaustion, and 47% reported high levels of Cynicism as determined by the MBI-GS cut-off scores. Only workplace characteristics were significantly associated with provider scores on all 3 scales. Exhaustion and Cynicism were most impacted by perceptions of organizational politics/bureaucracy, increased clinical workload and control over how work is done. Organizational factors were also significantly associated with provider absenteeism and intent to leave his/her job. Findings suggest that providers in VHA specialty PTSD care settings may benefit from programs or supports aimed at preventing and/or ameliorating burnout. PMID:24564443

  2. Reflective thinking and mental imagery: a perspective on the development of posttraumatic stress disorder.

    PubMed

    Kosslyn, Stephen M

    2005-01-01

    Reflective thinking occurs when information stored in long-term memory (LTM) is not sufficient to allow one to respond "automatically" to an object or event. Instead, stored information must be entered into working memory and a novel response or solution produced. In this article I argue that mental imagery plays a central role in this process, and that over the course of normal cognitive development the process of reflective thinking "programs" LTM so that an increasingly large number of tasks can be performed without reflective thinking. Normal cognitive development thus results in a decreasing reliance on imagery. However, if highly emotional images are formed, additional retrieval cues can be entered into LTM, making such images more likely to occur in the future. Such images induce arousal, similar to that induced by the actual event. This line of thinking leads to a novel perspective on the neurocognitive deficits that underlie the development of posttraumatic stress disorder, and may also help to explain some symptoms seen in hyperactivity, impulsiveness, and difficulties in self-control.

  3. Mental Health in Offspring of Traumatized Refugees with and without Post-traumatic Stress Disorder.

    PubMed

    Muhtz, Christoph; Wittekind, Charlotte; Godemann, Kathrin; Von Alm, Christine; Jelinek, Lena; Yassouridis, Alexander; Kellner, Michael

    2016-10-01

    Intergenerational transmission of psychological trauma and the impact of parental post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) on offspring are controversially discussed. We studied 50 offspring (36 women and 14 men, mean age 42.1 years) of refugees who were severely traumatized as children at the end of World War II. From these, 25 of the refugees currently suffered from chronic PTSD, and 25 had no PTSD. Parental PTSD status did not significantly influence mental health [as per the Symptom Checklist (SCL)-90-R] or quality of life (assessed by the 36-item Short-form Health Survey) in their children. In the entire sample, frequency of talking with the mother about the flight correlated with phobic anxiety (r = 0.67, p = 0.03). Interestingly, the stated burden of having a parent with a history of flight significantly (p < 0.05) correlated with almost all subscales of the SCL-90-R. These results in a non-clinical sample do not support a specific role of parental PTSD in intergenerational trauma transmission. Our other remarkable, but preliminary, results need to be studied in larger samples using more subtle interaction or schema analyses. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. An Examination of the Impact of Minority Status Stress and Impostor Feelings on the Mental Health of Diverse Ethnic Minority College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cokley, Kevin; McClain, Shannon; Enciso, Alicia; Martinez, Mercedes

    2013-01-01

    This study examined differences in minority status stress, impostor feelings, and mental health in a sample of 240 ethnic minority college students. African Americans reported higher minority status stress than Asian Americans and Latino/a Americans, whereas Asian Americans reported higher impostor feelings. Minority status stress and impostor…

  5. Mental stress and trapezius muscle activation under psychomotor challenge: a focus on EMG gaps during computer work.

    PubMed

    Schleifer, Lawrence M; Spalding, Thomas W; Kerick, Scott E; Cram, Jeffrey R; Ley, Ronald; Hatfield, Bradley D

    2008-05-01

    Momentary reductions in the electrical activity of working muscles (EMG gaps) contribute to the explanation for the relationship between psychosocial stress and musculoskeletal problems in computer work. EMG activity and gaps in the left and right trapezii were monitored in 23 participants under low and high mental workload (LMW and HMW) demands during computer data entry. Increases in EMG activity and decreases in EMG-gap frequencies in both left and right trapezius muscles were greater during HMW than LMW. In addition, heart period and end-tidal CO2 were lower during HMW, whereas self-reported mood states were higher during HMW. The correspondence between lower end-tidal CO2 and lower EMG-gap frequencies suggests that hyperventilation (overbreathing) may mediate trapezius muscle activation. The reduction of EMG gaps suggests that the salutary benefits of momentary rest from musculoskeletal work are diminished during mental stress.

  6. Investigating the Relationships among Stressors, Stress Level, and Mental Symptoms for Infertile Patients: A Structural Equation Modeling Approach

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jong-Yi; Liang, Wen-Miin; Yang, Tung-Chuan; Lee, Young-Chang; Wang, Chia-Woei

    2015-01-01

    Objective Patients with infertility are a high risk group in depression and anxiety. However, an existing theoretically and empirically validated model of stressors, stress, and mental symptoms specific for infertile patients is still a void. This study aimed to determine the related factors and their relational structures that affect the level of depressive and anxiety symptoms among infertile patients. Methods A cross-sectional sample of 400 infertility outpatients seeking reproduction treatments in three teaching hospitals across Taiwan participated in the structured questionnaire survey in 2011. The hypothesized model comprising 10 latent variables was tested by Structural Equation Modeling using AMOS 17. Results Goodness-of-fit indexes, including χ2/DF = 1.871, PGFI = 0.746, PNFI = 0.764, and others, confirmed the modified model fit the data well. Marital stressor, importance of children, guilt-and-blame, and social stressor showed a direct effect on perceived stress. Instead of being a factor of stress, social support was directly and positively related to self-esteem. Perceived stress and self-esteem were the two major mediators for the relationships between stressors and mental symptoms. Increase in social support and self-esteem led to decrease in mental symptoms among the infertile patients. Conclusions The relational structures were identified and named as the Stressors Stress Symptoms Model, clinically applied to predict anxiety and depression from various stressors. Assessing sources and level of infertility-related stress and implementing culturally-sensitive counseling with an emphasis on positive personal value may assist in preventing the severity of depression and anxiety. PMID:26484531

  7. Exploring Discrimination and Mental Health Disparities Faced By Black Sexual Minority Women Using a Minority Stress Framework.

    PubMed

    Calabrese, Sarah K; Meyer, Ilan H; Overstreet, Nicole M; Haile, Rahwa; Hansen, Nathan B

    2015-09-01

    Black sexual minority women are triply marginalized due to their race, gender, and sexual orientation. We compared three dimensions of discrimination-frequency (regularity of occurrences), scope (number of types of discriminatory acts experienced), and number of bases (number of social statuses to which discrimination was attributed)-and self-reported mental health (depressive symptoms, psychological well-being, and social well-being) between 64 Black sexual minority women and each of two groups sharing two of three marginalized statuses: (a) 67 White sexual minority women and (b) 67 Black sexual minority men. Black sexual minority women reported greater discrimination frequency, scope, and number of bases and poorer psychological and social well-being than White sexual minority women and more discrimination bases, a higher level of depressive symptoms, and poorer social well-being than Black sexual minority men. We then tested and contrasted dimensions of discrimination as mediators between social status (race or gender) and mental health outcomes. Discrimination frequency and scope mediated the association between race and mental health, with a stronger effect via frequency among sexual minority women. Number of discrimination bases mediated the association between gender and mental health among Black sexual minorities. Future research and clinical practice would benefit from considering Black sexual minority women's mental health in a multidimensional minority stress context.

  8. Exploring Discrimination and Mental Health Disparities Faced By Black Sexual Minority Women Using a Minority Stress Framework

    PubMed Central

    Calabrese, Sarah K.; Meyer, Ilan H.; Overstreet, Nicole M.; Haile, Rahwa; Hansen, Nathan B.

    2015-01-01

    Black sexual minority women are triply marginalized due to their race, gender, and sexual orientation. We compared three dimensions of discrimination—frequency (regularity of occurrences), scope (number of types of discriminatory acts experienced), and number of bases (number of social statuses to which discrimination was attributed)—and self-reported mental health (depressive symptoms, psychological well-being, and social well-being) between 64 Black sexual minority women and each of two groups sharing two of three marginalized statuses: (a) 67 White sexual minority women and (b) 67 Black sexual minority men. Black sexual minority women reported greater discrimination frequency, scope, and number of bases and poorer psychological and social well-being than White sexual minority women and more discrimination bases, a higher level of depressive symptoms, and poorer social well-being than Black sexual minority men. We then tested and contrasted dimensions of discrimination as mediators between social status (race or gender) and mental health outcomes. Discrimination frequency and scope mediated the association between race and mental health, with a stronger effect via frequency among sexual minority women. Number of discrimination bases mediated the association between gender and mental health among Black sexual minorities. Future research and clinical practice would benefit from considering Black sexual minority women's mental health in a multidimensional minority stress context. PMID:26424904

  9. Different Neural Mechanisms Underlie Deficits in Mental Flexibility in Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder Compared to Mild Traumatic Brain Injury.

    PubMed

    Pang, Elizabeth W

    2015-01-01

    Mental flexibility is a core executive function that underlies the ability to adapt to changing situations and respond to new information. Individuals with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) complain of a number of executive function difficulties, one of which is mental inflexibility or an inability to switch between concepts. While the behavioral presentation of mental inflexibility is similar in those with PTSD or mTBI, we hypothesized that the differences in their etiology would manifest as differences in their underlying brain processing. The neural substrates of mental flexibility have been examined with a number of neuroimaging modalities. Functional magnetic resonance imaging has elucidated the brain regions involved, whereas electroencephalography has been applied to understand the timing of the brain activations. Magnetoencephalography, with its high temporal and spatial resolution, has more recently been used to delineate the spatiotemporal progression of brain processes involved in mental flexibility and has been applied to the study of clinical populations. In a number of separate studies, our group has compared the source localization and brain connectivity during a mental flexibility set-shifting task in a group of soldiers with PTSD and civilians with an acute mTBI. In this article, we review the results from these studies and integrate the data between groups to compare and contrast differences in behavioral, neural, and connectivity findings. We show that the different etiologies of PTSD and mTBI are expressed as distinct neural profiles for mental flexibility that differentiate the groups despite their similar clinical presentations.

  10. Different Neural Mechanisms Underlie Deficits in Mental Flexibility in Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder Compared to Mild Traumatic Brain Injury

    PubMed Central

    Pang, Elizabeth W.

    2015-01-01

    Mental flexibility is a core executive function that underlies the ability to adapt to changing situations and respond to new information. Individuals with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) complain of a number of executive function difficulties, one of which is mental inflexibility or an inability to switch between concepts. While the behavioral presentation of mental inflexibility is similar in those with PTSD or mTBI, we hypothesized that the differences in their etiology would manifest as differences in their underlying brain processing. The neural substrates of mental flexibility have been examined with a number of neuroimaging modalities. Functional magnetic resonance imaging has elucidated the brain regions involved, whereas electroencephalography has been applied to understand the timing of the brain activations. Magnetoencephalography, with its high temporal and spatial resolution, has more recently been used to delineate the spatiotemporal progression of brain processes involved in mental flexibility and has been applied to the study of clinical populations. In a number of separate studies, our group has compared the source localization and brain connectivity during a mental flexibility set-shifting task in a group of soldiers with PTSD and civilians with an acute mTBI. In this article, we review the results from these studies and integrate the data between groups to compare and contrast differences in behavioral, neural, and connectivity findings. We show that the different etiologies of PTSD and mTBI are expressed as distinct neural profiles for mental flexibility that differentiate the groups despite their similar clinical presentations. PMID:26696907

  11. Posttraumatic Stress Disorder as a Mediator Between Trauma Exposure and Comorbid Mental Health Conditions in North Korean Refugee Youth Resettled in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yeunhee J

    2016-02-01

    A structural equation model was used to investigate the relationship between trauma exposure and comorbid mental health problems and the mediation effect of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) between trauma and mental health variables. The research model is based on the stress-vulnerability conceptual framework in which PTSD as a comorbid disorder mediates the relationship between trauma exposure and mental health problems. A self-administered survey was administered to 144 North Korean refugee youth residing in South Korea. Trauma exposure, both interpersonal and noninterpersonal, had no direct relationship with comorbid mental health problems. However, interpersonal trauma contributed to comorbid mental health problems through PTSD, demonstrating the mediation effect of PTSD and supporting the stress-vulnerability hypothesis of the current research model. Clinical implications of the study and future direction for research are discussed.

  12. Stress and mental disorders in female military personnel: comparisons between the sexes in a male dominated profession.

    PubMed

    Mota, Natalie P; Medved, Maria; Wang, Jianli; Asmundson, Gordon J G; Whitney, Debbie; Sareen, Jitender

    2012-02-01

    The proportion of women in militaries is growing; however, many studies in the area of military mental health have been conducted with majority male samples. The present study examined sex differences in trauma exposure, work stress, and mental disorders in the Canadian Community Health Survey - Canadian Forces Supplement, a representative sample of 5155 regular force personnel and 3286 reservists ages 16-54. Past-year DSM-IV mental disorders (depression, generalized anxiety disorder, panic disorder, social phobia, PTSD, and alcohol dependence), lifetime exposure to 28 traumatic events, and work stress were assessed. Regular and reserve female personnel were less likely than males to experience deployment-related traumas, accidents, and several events involving violence (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] range 0.10-0.62). Women were more likely to endorse sexual trauma, partner abuse, and being stalked (AOR range 3.60-13.63). For work stress, regular force women reported higher levels of job demand and stress around social support than men, whereas regular and reserve force women reported less physical exertion. After adjusting for a range of covariates, regular female personnel were more likely than males to have PTSD (AOR 1.88, 99% CI 1.01-3.50), while reservist women were more likely than men to have depression, panic disorder, and any mood or anxiety disorder (AOR range 1.87-6.98). Both regular and reservist women had lower rates of alcohol dependence (AOR range 0.30-0.34). Clinicians working with female personnel should screen for trauma/stressors and mental disorders that are particularly common in this population.

  13. The cumulative effect of coffee and a mental stress task on heart rate, blood pressure, and mental alertness is similar in caffeine-naïve and caffeine-habituated females.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, Michael D; Galloway, Ashley V; Dickau, Leanne J; Hudson, Megan K

    2008-09-01

    Most North American workers drink coffee throughout their workday, although the cumulative effect of job stress and coffee is not well known. Research has shown that coffee affects the cardiovascular system and mental alertness primarily through the active ingredient caffeine; however, the dose of caffeine used in these studies is greater than a normal cup of coffee. In addition, these changes have been mostly determined in male caffeine-habituated consumers. Therefore, this study examined the effect of a normal cup of coffee on the cardiovascular and mental alertness response both before and after a mental stress task in 10 caffeine-naïve (23 +/- 5.0 years) and 10 caffeine-habituated (25 +/- 6 years) females. Blood pressure, heart rate, and mental alertness were taken at baseline (before coffee), 50 minutes after finishing coffee and immediately after a 9-minute mental stress task. The volume of coffee ingested for a 15-minute period was 350 mL (12 oz), which is equivalent to 140 mg of caffeine. The combined effect of coffee and mental stress significantly decreased diastolic blood pressure (Delta8 mm Hg) and increased heart rate (Delta6 beats per minute) and mental alertness (Delta67.3%) in caffeine-naïve and caffeine-habituated females, whereas systolic blood pressure (Delta10.3 mm Hg) only increased in the caffeine-naïve participants. Our results indicate that a normal cup of coffee can effect changes in blood pressure and mental alertness and that mental stress may alter the magnitude of change; however, the transient increase in systolic blood pressure after drinking coffee in caffeine-naïve participants requires further investigation.

  14. Prevalence of Perceived Stress and Mental Health Indicators Among Reserve-Component and Active-Duty Military Personnel

    PubMed Central

    Lane, Marian E.; Hourani, Laurel L.; Bray, Robert M.; Williams, Jason

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. We examined stress levels and other indicators of mental health in reservists and active-duty military personnel by deployment status. Methods. We used data from the Department of Defense Health-Related Behaviors surveys, which collect comprehensive, population-based data for reserve and active-duty forces. Data were collected from 18 342 reservists and 16 146 active-duty personnel. Results. Overall, with adjustment for sociodemographic and service differences, reservists reported similar or less work and family stress, depression, and anxiety symptoms than did active-duty personnel. However, reservists who had been deployed reported higher rates of suicidal ideation and attempts than did active-duty personnel who had been deployed and higher rates of post-traumatic stress disorder symptomatology than did any active-duty personnel and reservists who had not been deployed. The highest rates of suicidal ideation and attempts were among reservists who had served in theaters other than Iraq and Afghanistan. Conclusions. Our results suggest that deployment has a greater impact on reservists than on active-duty members, thus highlighting the urgent need for services addressing reservists’ unique postdeployment mental health issues. Also, deployment to any theater, not only Iraq or Afghanistan, represents unique threats to all service members’ mental well-being. PMID:22571709

  15. Effect of short-term weight loss on mental stress-induced cardiovascular and pro-inflammatory responses in women.

    PubMed

    Endrighi, Romano; Hamer, Mark; Hackett, Ruth A; Carvalho, Livia A; Jackson, Sarah E; Wardle, Jane; Steptoe, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Epidemiologic evidence links psychosocial stress with obesity but experimental studies examining the mechanisms that mediates the effect of stress on adiposity are scarce. The aim of this study was to investigate whether changes in adiposity following minimal weight loss affect heightened stress responses in women, and examine the role of the adipokine leptin in driving inflammatory responses. Twenty-three overweight or obese, but otherwise healthy, women (M age = 30.41 ± 8.0 years; BMI = 31.9 ± 4.1 kg/m(2)) completed standardized acute mental stress before and after a 9-week calorie restriction program designed to modify adiposity levels. Cardiovascular (blood pressure and heart rate) and inflammatory cytokines (leptin and interleukin-6; IL-6) responses to mental stress were assessed several times between baseline and a 45-min post-stress recovery period. There were modest changes in adiposity measures while the adipokine leptin was markedly reduced (-27%) after the intervention. Blood pressure reactivity was attenuated (-3.38 ± 1.39 mmHg) and heart rate recovery was improved (2.07 ± 0.96 Bpm) after weight loss. Blood pressure responses were inversely associated with changes in waist to hip ratio post intervention. Decreased levels of circulating leptin following weight loss were inversely associated with the IL-6 inflammatory response to stress (r = -0.47). We offered preliminary evidence suggesting that modest changes in adiposity following a brief caloric restriction program may yield beneficial effect on cardiovascular stress responses. In addition, reductions in basal leptin activity might be important in blunting pro-inflammatory responses. Large randomized trials of the effect of adiposity on autonomic responses are thus warranted.

  16. Women Veterans and Mental Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... Health > Women veterans and mental health Mental Health Women veterans and mental health Post-traumatic stress disorder ( ... hurt you. Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and women veterans PTSD can occur after you have been ...

  17. Recent progress in cerebrovascular gene therapy.

    PubMed

    Sato, Naoyuki; Shimamura, Munehisa; Morishita, Ryuichi

    2005-07-01

    Gene therapy provides a potential strategy for the treatment of cardiovascular disease such as peripheral arterial disease, myocardial infarction, restenosis after angioplasty, and vascular bypass graft occlusion. Currently, more than 20 clinical studies of gene therapy for cardiovascular disease are in progress. Although cerebrovascular gene therapy has not proceeded to clinical trials, in contrast to cardiovascular gene therapy, there have been several trials in experimental models. Three major potential targets for cerebrovascular gene therapy are vasospasm after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), ischemic cerebrovascular disease, and restenosis after angioplasty, for which current therapy is often inadequate. In experimental SAH models, strategies using genes encoding a vasodilating protein or decoy oligodeoxynucleotides have been reported to be effective against vasospasm after SAH. In experimental ischemic cerebrovascular disease, gene therapy using growth factors, such as Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), Fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2), or Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), has been reported to be effective for neuroprotection and angiogenesis. Nevertheless, cerebrovascular gene therapy for clinical human treatment still has some problems, such as transfection efficiency and the safety of vectors. Development of an effective and safe delivery system for a target gene will make human cerebrovascular gene therapy possible.

  18. Utility of the cumulative stress and mismatch hypotheses in understanding the neurobiological impacts of childhood abuse and recent stress in youth with emerging mental disorder.

    PubMed

    Paquola, Casey; Bennett, Maxwell R; Hatton, Sean N; Hermens, Daniel F; Lagopoulos, Jim

    2017-03-03

    Childhood abuse has an enduring impact on the brain's stress system. Whether the effects of childhood abuse and adulthood stress are additive (cumulative stress hypothesis) or interactive (mismatch hypothesis) is widely disputed, however. The primary aim of this study was to test the utility of the cumulative stress and mismatch hypotheses in understanding brain and behaviour. We recruited 64 individuals (aged 14-26) from a specialised clinic for assessment and early intervention of mental health problems in young people. A T1-weighted MRI, a resting state fMRI and clinical assessment were acquired from each participant. Grey matter estimates and resting state functional connectivity (rsFC) of the hippocampus, amygdala and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) were determined using segmentation and seed-to-voxel rsFC analyses. We explored the effects of childhood abuse and recent stress on the structure and function of the regions of interest within general linear models. Worse psychiatric symptoms were significantly related to higher levels of life time stress. Individuals with mismatched childhood and recent stress levels had reduced left hippocampal volume, reduced ACC-ventrolateral prefrontal cortex rsFC and greater ACC-hippocampus rsFC, compared to individuals with matched childhood and recent stress levels. These results show specific utility of the cumulative stress hypothesis in understanding psychiatric symptomatology and of the mismatch hypothesis in modelling hippocampal grey matter, prefrontal rsFC, and prefrontal-hippocampal rsFC. We provide novel evidence for the enduring impact of childhood abuse on stress reactivity in a clinical population, and demonstrate the distinct effects of stress in different systems. Hum Brain Mapp, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Plasma renin responses to mental stress and carotid intima-media thickness in black Africans: the SABPA study.

    PubMed

    Hamer, M; Malan, L; Schutte, A E; Huisman, H W; van Rooyen, J M; Schutte, R; Fourie, C M T; Malan, N T; Seedat, Y K

    2011-07-01

    The renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system can be activated by sympathetic nervous input and is thought to have an important role in the prevalence of hypertension and cardiovascular risk in black Africans. We examined (1) the association between plasma renin responses to mental stress and a marker of sub-clinical atherosclerosis; and (2) associations between resting renin and 24-h ambulatory blood pressure. Participants were 143 urbanized black African men and women (43.1 ± 7.7 years) drawn from a study of Sympathetic Activity and Ambulatory Blood Pressure in Africans (SABPA). After an overnight fast, participants completed the Stroop mental stress task. Blood samples were drawn during baseline and 10 min after the task to assess the concentration of active renin in plasma. Blood pressure assessments included continuous Finometer measures during the stress testing and 24-h ambulatory monitoring. Carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) was measured using high-resolution ultrasound. Approximately 50% of the sample responded to the task with an increase in renin concentration. Multiple linear regression analysis revealed an association between the renin stress response and CIMT (β = 0.024, 95% confidence interval, 0.004-0.043), after adjustment for conventional risk factors, blood pressure stress responses and basal levels of renin activity (R(2) for model = 0.37). In addition, resting renin was inversely associated with ambulatory blood pressure. In summary, heightened release of renin during a laboratory mental stressor was associated with a marker of sub-clinical atherosclerosis; thus, it may be a potential mechanism in explaining the increased burden of cardiovascular disease in urbanized black Africans.

  20. Mental Health Services in the Marine Corps: An Exploratory Study of Stigma and Potential Benefits of Destigmatization Training Within the Operational Stress Control and Readiness (OSCAR) Program

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-12-01

    are dealing with bipolar disorder , schizophrenia, eating disorders , substance abuse and other mental health problems. Mental illnesses can cause a...Stress Disorder (PTSD). Additionally, in World War II, psychiatrists moved away from stigmatizing combat psychiatric casualties as those with a...Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) on service members. One study by Koenen and Stellman (1998) assessed Vietnam Vets 35 years after combat against a

  1. Dissociation in Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: Evidence from the World Mental Health Surveys

    PubMed Central

    Stein, Dan J.; Koenen, Karestan C.; Friedman, Matthew J.; Hill, Eric; McLaughlin, Katie A.; Petukhova, Maria; Ruscio, Ayelet Meron; Shahly, Victoria; Spiegel, David; Borges, Guilherme; Bunting, Brendan; Caldas-de-Almeida, Jose Miguel; de Girolamo, Giovanni; Demyttenaere, Koen; Florescu, Silvia; Haro, Josep Maria; Karam, Elie G.; Kovess-Masfety, Viviane; Lee, Sing; Matschinger, Herbert; Mladenova, Maya; Posada-Villa, Jose; Tachimori, Hisateru; Viana, Maria Carmen; Kessler, Ronald C.

    2012-01-01

    Background Although the proposal for a dissociative subtype of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in DSM-5 is supported by considerable clinical and neurobiological evidence, this evidence comes mostly from referred samples in Western countries. Cross-national population epidemiologic surveys were analyzed to evaluate generalizability of the subtype in more diverse samples. Methods Interviews were administered to 25,018 respondents in 16 countries in the World Health Organization World Mental Health Surveys. The Composite International Diagnostic Interview was used to assess 12-month DSM-IV PTSD and other common DSM-IV disorders. Items from a checklist of past-month nonspecific psychological distress were used to assess dissociative symptoms of depersonalization and derealization. Differences between PTSD with and without these dissociative symptoms were examined across a variety of domains, including index trauma characteristics, prior trauma history, childhood adversity, sociodemographic characteristics, psychiatric comorbidity, functional impairment, and treatment seeking. Results Dissociative symptoms were present in 14.4% of respondents with 12-month DSM-IV/Composite International Diagnostic Interview PTSD and did not differ between high and low/middle income countries. Symptoms of dissociation in PTSD were associated with high counts of re-experiencing symptoms and net of these symptom counts with male sex, childhood onset of PTSD, high exposure to prior (to the onset of PTSD) traumatic events and childhood adversities, prior histories of separation anxiety disorder and specific phobia, severe role impairment, and suicidality. Conclusion These results provide community epidemiologic data documenting the value of the dissociative subtype in distinguishing a meaningful proportion of severe and impairing cases of PTSD that have distinct correlates across a diverse set of countries. PMID:23059051

  2. Acculturation-Related Stress and Mental Health Outcomes among Three Generations of Hispanic Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cervantes, Richard C.; Padilla, Amado M.; Napper, Lucy E.; Goldbach, Jeremy T.

    2013-01-01

    Stress associated with acculturation and minority status among Hispanic youth is understudied. Using survey data from the Hispanic Stress Inventory-Adolescent Version (HSI-A), we examined psychosocial stress across eight domains including family economic stress and acculturation-gap stress in a national sample of three generations (first, second,…

  3. Stress biomarkers as predictors of transition to psychosis in at-risk mental states: roles for cortisol, prolactin and albumin.

    PubMed

    Labad, Javier; Stojanovic-Pérez, Alexander; Montalvo, Itziar; Solé, Montse; Cabezas, Ángel; Ortega, Laura; Moreno, Irene; Vilella, Elisabet; Martorell, Lourdes; Reynolds, Rebecca M; Gutiérrez-Zotes, Alfonso

    2015-01-01

    Stress and inflammation are thought to play a role in the risk of developing a psychotic disorder. We aimed to identify stress-related biomarkers for psychosis transition in help-seeking individuals with an at-risk mental state (ARMS). We studied 39 ARMS subjects who were attending an Early Intervention Service. We included a control group of 44 healthy subjects (HS) matched by sex and age. Stressful life events and perceived stress were assessed. Stress-related biomarkers were determined in serum (cortisol, prolactin, C-reactive protein and albumin), plasma (fibrinogen) or saliva (morning cortisol, cortisol awakening response). All ARMS were followed-up at our Unit for at least one year. We divided the ARMS group into two subgroups based on the development of a psychotic disorder (ARMS-P, N = 10) or not (ARMS-NP, N = 29). ARMS-P reported more stressful life events and perceived stress than HS and ARMS-NP groups. In relation to baseline stress biomarkers, ARMS-P subjects had increased prolactin and lower albumin levels in serum, when compared to ARMS-NP and HS groups. These results did not change when repeated in a subsample of antipsychotic-naïve ARMS subjects. We also found significant differences between groups in the cortisol secretion after awakening. In a multinomial logistic regression adjusting for age, sex and life stress, prolactin was a predictor of psychosis transition whereas albumin levels had a protective effect. Our study underscores the role of stress and stress-related biomarkers (cortisol awakening response, prolactin and albumin) in the pathogenesis of psychosis.

  4. Reconsidering the role of social disadvantage in physical and mental health: stressful life events, health behaviors, race, and depression.

    PubMed

    Mezuk, Briana; Rafferty, Jane A; Kershaw, Kiarri N; Hudson, Darrell; Abdou, Cleopatra M; Lee, Hedwig; Eaton, William W; Jackson, James S

    2010-12-01

    Prevalence of depression is associated inversely with some indicators of socioeconomic position, and the stress of social disadvantage is hypothesized to mediate this relation. Relative to whites, blacks have a higher burden of most physical health conditions but, unexpectedly, a lower burden of depression. This study evaluated an etiologic model that integrates mental and physical health to account for this counterintuitive patterning. The Baltimore Epidemiologic Catchment Area Study (Maryland, 1993-2004) was used to evaluate the interaction between stress and poor health behaviors (smoking, alcohol use, poor diet, and obesity) and risk of depression 12 years later for 341 blacks and 601 whites. At baseline, blacks engaged in more poor health behaviors and had a lower prevalence of depression compared with whites (5.9% vs. 9.2%). The interaction between health behaviors and stress was nonsignificant for whites (odds ratio (OR = 1.04, 95% confidence interval: 0.98, 1.11); for blacks, the interaction term was significant and negative (β: -0.18, P < 0.014). For blacks, the association between median stress and depression was stronger for those who engaged in zero (OR = 1.34) relative to 1 (OR = 1.12) and ≥2 (OR = 0.94) poor health behaviors. Findings are consistent with the proposed model of mental and physical health disparities.

  5. Frequency of irritable bowel syndrome, entrance examination-related stress, mental health, and quality of life in high school students.

    PubMed

    Park, Hyojung; Lim, Sunyoung

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine entrance examination-related stress, mental health, and the quality of life of high school students with and without irritable bowel syndrome. We administered a descriptive survey by collecting data from 1,877 students from eight schools in Gyeonggi province, Korea. This study employed the Rome III criteria for the assessment of irritable bowel syndrome, an entrance examination stress scale for measuring entrance examination-related stress, the revised Symptom Checklist-90-Revised for measuring mental health, and the World Health Organization Quality of Life Scale Abbreviated Version for measuring the quality of life. The frequency of irritable bowel syndrome in students was 19.0%. A majority had a mixed constipation and diarrhea subtype of irritable bowel syndrome. Compared with the high school students without irritable bowel syndrome, those with irritable bowel syndrome reported a significantly higher score on the entrance examination stress scale, Symptom Checklist-90-Revised, and World Health Organization Quality of Life Scale Abbreviated Version. Results suggest support for creating a high school education program that provides knowledge and information about irritable bowel syndrome to students. Furthermore, it is important to explore suitable therapeutic approaches and nursing interventions for this population.

  6. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) Val66Met polymorphism interacts with gender to influence cortisol responses to mental stress.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Rong; Babyak, Michael A; Brummett, Beverly H; Siegler, Ilene C; Kuhn, Cynthia M; Williams, Redford B

    2017-02-13

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) Val66Met polymorphism has been associated with cortisol responses to stress with gender differences reported, although the findings are not entirely consistent. To evaluate the role of Val66Met genotype and gender on cortisol responses to stress, we conducted a 45-min mental stress protocol including four tasks and four rest periods. Blood cortisol was collected for assay immediately before and after each task and rest period. A significant two-way interaction of Val66Met genotype×gender (P=0.022) was observed on the total area under the curve (AUC), a total cortisol response over time, such that the Val/Val genotype was associated with a larger cortisol response to stress as compared to the Met group in women but not in men. Further contrast analyses between the Val/Val and Met group for each stress task showed a similar increased cortisol pattern among women Val/Val genotype but not among men. The present findings indicate the gender differences in the effect of Val66Met genotype on the cortisol responses to stress protocol, and extend the evidence for the importance of gender and the role of Val66Met in the modulation of stress reactivity and subsequent depression prevalence. Further studies and the underlying mechanism need to be investigated, which may provide an insight for prevention, intervention, and treatment strategies that target those at high risk.

  7. Mobile Mental Wellness Training for Stress Management: Feasibility and Design Implications Based on a One-Month Field Study

    PubMed Central

    Ahtinen, Aino; Välkkynen, Pasi; Kaipainen, Kirsikka; Vanhala, Toni; Ermes, Miikka; Sairanen, Essi; Myllymäki, Tero; Lappalainen, Raimo

    2013-01-01

    Background Prevention and management of work-related stress and related mental problems is a great challenge. Mobile applications are a promising way to integrate prevention strategies into the everyday lives of citizens. Objective The objectives of this study was to study the usage, acceptance, and usefulness of a mobile mental wellness training application among working-age individuals, and to derive preliminary design implications for mobile apps for stress management. Methods Oiva, a mobile app based on acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT), was designed to support active learning of skills related to mental wellness through brief ACT-based exercises in the daily life. A one-month field study with 15 working-age participants was organized to study the usage, acceptance, and usefulness of Oiva. The usage of Oiva was studied based on the usage log files of the application. Changes in wellness were measured by three validated questionnaires on stress, satisfaction with life (SWLS), and psychological flexibility (AAQ-II) at the beginning and at end of the study and by user experience questionnaires after one week’s and one month’s use. In-depth user experience interviews were conducted after one month’s use to study the acceptance and user experiences of Oiva. Results Oiva was used actively throughout the study. The average number of usage sessions was 16.8 (SD 2.4) and the total usage time per participant was 3 hours 12 minutes (SD 99 minutes). Significant pre-post improvements were obtained in stress ratings (mean 3.1 SD 0.2 vs mean 2.5 SD 0.1, P=.003) and satisfaction with life scores (mean 23.1 SD 1.3 vs mean 25.9 SD 0.8, P=.02), but not in psychological flexibility. Oiva was perceived easy to use, acceptable, and useful by the participants. A randomized controlled trial is ongoing to evaluate the effectiveness of Oiva on working-age individuals with stress problems. Conclusions A feasibility study of Oiva mobile mental wellness training app showed good

  8. Relation Between Prefrontal Cortex Activity and Respiratory Rate During Mental Stress Tasks: A Near-Infrared Spectroscopic Study.

    PubMed

    Murayama, Yuta; Hu, Lizhen; Sakatani, Kaoru

    2016-01-01

    In order to clarify the central mechanism controlling respiratory rate during mental stress, we examined the relation between prefrontal cortex (PFC) activity and respiratory rate during mental arithmetic (MA) tasks. Employing two-channel near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS), we measured hemoglobin (Hb) concentration changes in the bilateral PFC during MA tasks in normal adults. To evaluate asymmetry of the PFC activity, we calculated the laterality index (LI); (R-L)/(R + L) of oxy-Hb concentration changes (R = right, L = left); positive LI scores indicate right-dominant activity, while negative scores indicate left-dominant activity. For measurements of respiratory rate, we employed a Kinect motion sensor (Microsoft). The MA tasks increased both oxy-Hb in the bilateral PFC and respiratory rate (p < 0.001). In addition, there was a significant correlation between LI and respiratory rate (r = 0.582, p < 0.02). These results indicate that the MA-induced activity in the right PFC was greater than that in the left PFC in subjects with large increases of respiratory rate, suggesting that the right PFC has a greater role in cerebral regulation of respiratory rate during mental stress.

  9. The Role of Parenting Stress in Young Children’s Mental Health Functioning After Exposure to Family Violence

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, Yvonne Humenay; Campbell, Christina A.; Ferguson, Monette; Crusto, Cindy A.

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluates the associations of young children’s exposure to family violence events, parenting stress, and children’s mental health functioning. Caregivers provided data for 188 children ages 3 to 5 years attending Head Start programming. Caregivers reported 75% of children had experienced at least 1 type of trauma event, and 27% of children had experienced a family violence event. Child mental health functioning was significantly associated with family violence exposure after controlling for children’s age, gender, household income, and other trauma exposure (β = .14, p = .033). Stress in the parenting role partially mediated the relationship between family violence exposure and young children’s mental health functioning (β = .12, p = .015, 95% confidence interval [0.02, 0.21]). Interventions for young children exposed to family violence should address the needs of the child, as well as the caregiver while also building healthy parent–child relationships to facilitate positive outcomes in children faced with trauma. PMID:24038613

  10. The role of cognitive appraisal in adaptation to traumatic stress in adults with serious mental illness: a critical review.

    PubMed

    Sherrer, Margaret V

    2011-07-01

    A compelling body of literature suggests that negative appraisal may be associated with adverse reactions to traumatic stress. However, very few studies have examined how appraisal influences posttraumatic adaptation in people with serious mental illness (SMI) despite evidence of disproportionately high prevalence rates of trauma exposure and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) in this population. The purpose of this article is to provide a critical analysis of the theoretical and empirical literature on cognitive appraisal and psychological adaptation to traumatic stress with a specific focus on individuals diagnosed with SMI. It will be argued that appraisal is a key correlate that may partially account for higher rates of PTSD in people diagnosed with major mood and schizophrenia-spectrum disorders, meriting special consideration for future research.

  11. Utilization of Professional Mental Health Services Related to Population-Level Screening for Anxiety, Depression, and Post-traumatic Stress Disorder Among Public High School Students.

    PubMed

    Prochaska, John D; Le, Vi Donna; Baillargeon, Jacques; Temple, Jeff R

    2016-08-01

    This study examines results from three mental health screening measures in a cohort of adolescent public school students in seven public schools in Southeast Texas affiliated with the Dating it Safe study. We estimated the odds of receiving professional mental health treatment in the previous year given results from different mental health screening batteries: the CES-D 10 battery for depression screening, the Screen for Child Anxiety Related Disorders, and the Primary Care Posttraumatic Stress Disorder screen. Overall, students with higher scores on screening instruments for depression, posttraumatic stress disorder, and combinations of screening instruments were more likely to have sought past-year professional mental health treatment than non-symptomatic youth. However, the proportion of students screening positive and receiving professional treatment was low, ranging from 11 to 16 %. This study emphasizes the need for broader evaluation of population-based mental health screening among adolescents.

  12. Chronic Stress Induces a Hyporeactivity of the Autonomic Nervous System in Response to Acute Mental Stressor and Impairs Cognitive Performance in Business Executives

    PubMed Central

    Teixeira, Renata Roland; Díaz, Miguel Mauricio; Santos, Tatiane Vanessa da Silva; Bernardes, Jean Tofoles Martins; Peixoto, Leonardo Gomes; Bocanegra, Olga Lucia; Neto, Morun Bernardino; Espindola, Foued Salmen

    2015-01-01

    The present study examined the incidence of chronic stress in business executives (109 subjects: 75 male and 34 female) and its relationship with cortisol levels, cognitive performance, and autonomic nervous system (ANS) reactivity after an acute mental stressor. Blood samples were collected from the subjects to measure cortisol concentration. After the sample collection, the subjects completed the Lipp Inventory of Stress Symptoms for Adults and the Stroop Color-Word Test to evaluate stress and cognitive performance levels, respectively. Saliva samples were collected prior to, immediately after, and five minutes after the test. The results revealed that 90.1% of the stressed subjects experienced stress phases that are considered chronic stress. At rest, the subjects with chronic stress showed higher cortisol levels, and no gender differences were observed. No differences were found between the stressed and non-stressed subjects regarding salivary amylase activity prior to test. Chronic stress also impaired performance on the Stroop test, which revealed higher rates of error and longer reaction times in the incongruent stimulus task independently of gender. For the congruent stimulus task of the Stroop test, the stressed males presented a higher rate of errors than the non-stressed males and a longer reaction time than the stressed females. After the acute mental stressor, the non-stressed male group showed an increase in salivary alpha-amylase activity, which returned to the initial values five minutes after the test; this ANS reactivity was not observed in the chronically stressed male subjects. The ANS responses of the non-stressed vs stressed female groups were not different prior to or after the Stroop test. This study is the first to demonstrate a blunted reactivity of the ANS when male subjects with chronic psychological stress were subjected to an acute mental stressor, and this change could contribute to impairments in cognitive performance. PMID:25807003

  13. Chronic stress induces a hyporeactivity of the autonomic nervous system in response to acute mental stressor and impairs cognitive performance in business executives.

    PubMed

    Teixeira, Renata Roland; Díaz, Miguel Mauricio; Santos, Tatiane Vanessa da Silva; Bernardes, Jean Tofoles Martins; Peixoto, Leonardo Gomes; Bocanegra, Olga Lucia; Neto, Morun Bernardino; Espindola, Foued Salmen

    2015-01-01

    The present study examined the incidence of chronic stress in business executives (109 subjects: 75 male and 34 female) and its relationship with cortisol levels, cognitive performance, and autonomic nervous system (ANS) reactivity after an acute mental stressor. Blood samples were collected from the subjects to measure cortisol concentration. After the sample collection, the subjects completed the Lipp Inventory of Stress Symptoms for Adults and the Stroop Color-Word Test to evaluate stress and cognitive performance levels, respectively. Saliva samples were collected prior to, immediately after, and five minutes after the test. The results revealed that 90.1% of the stressed subjects experienced stress phases that are considered chronic stress. At rest, the subjects with chronic stress showed higher cortisol levels, and no gender differences were observed. No differences were found between the stressed and non-stressed subjects regarding salivary amylase activity prior to test. Chronic stress also impaired performance on the Stroop test, which revealed higher rates of error and longer reaction times in the incongruent stimulus task independently of gender. For the congruent stimulus task of the Stroop test, the stressed males presented a higher rate of errors than the non-stressed males and a longer reaction time than the stressed females. After the acute mental stressor, the non-stressed male group showed an increase in salivary alpha-amylase activity, which returned to the initial values five minutes after the test; this ANS reactivity was not observed in the chronically stressed male subjects. The ANS responses of the non-stressed vs stressed female groups were not different prior to or after the Stroop test. This study is the first to demonstrate a blunted reactivity of the ANS when male subjects with chronic psychological stress were subjected to an acute mental stressor, and this change could contribute to impairments in cognitive performance.

  14. The effects of "psychological inoculation" versus ventilation on the mental resilience of Israeli citizens under continuous war stress.

    PubMed

    Farchi, Moshe; Gidron, Yori

    2010-05-01

    Anxiety and hopelessness are common reactions of citizens exposed to continuous war threats. Common interventions focus on support, calming, and emotional ventilation, with few attempts to reduce people's cognitive barriers concerning active coping, which could increase their resilience. This study tested the effects of psychological inoculation (PI), which specifically aims to challenge such barriers, on the mental resilience of Israeli citizens living in Sderot. Participants were randomly assigned to either 2 PI sessions or 2 ventilation sessions, provided over the phone. Anxiety, helplessness, pessimism, and functioning were briefly assessed at baseline and 1 week after interventions. No time, group, or group x time interactions were observed. However, a time x group x sex interaction emerged for helplessness: Men benefited from the PI whereas women benefited from ventilation, in reducing helplessness. Under chronic war stress, it seems difficult to improve people's resilience, although PI may be partly beneficial for men. Further research is needed to test the effects of PI on mental resilience.

  15. Chronic Stress and Adolescents' Mental Health: Modifying Effects of Basal Cortisol and Parental Psychiatric History. The TRAILS Study.

    PubMed

    Zandstra, Anna Roos E; Hartman, Catharina A; Nederhof, Esther; van den Heuvel, Edwin R; Dietrich, Andrea; Hoekstra, Pieter J; Ormel, Johan

    2015-08-01

    Large individual differences in adolescent mental health following chronic psychosocial stress suggest moderating factors. We examined two established moderators, basal cortisol and parental psychiatric history, simultaneously. We hypothesized that individuals with high basal cortisol, assumed to indicate high context sensitivity, would show relatively high problem levels following chronic stress, especially in the presence of parental psychiatric history. With Linear Mixed Models, we investigated the hypotheses in 1917 Dutch adolescents (53.2% boys), assessed at ages 11, 13.5, and 16. Low basal cortisol combined with the absence of a parental psychiatric history increased the risk of externalizing but not internalizing problems following chronic stress. Conversely, low basal cortisol combined with a substantial parental psychiatric history increased the risk of internalizing but not externalizing problems following chronic stress. Thus, parental psychiatric history moderated stress- cortisol interactions in predicting psychopathology, but in a different direction than hypothesized. We conclude that the premise that basal cortisol indicates context sensitivity may be too crude. Context sensitivity may not be a general trait but may depend on the nature of the context (e.g., type or duration of stress exposure) and on the outcome of interest (e.g., internalizing vs. externalizing problems). Although consistent across informants, our findings need replication.

  16. Job stress, mental health, and accidents among offshore workers in the oil and gas extraction industries.

    PubMed

    Cooper, C L; Sutherland, V J

    1987-02-01

    Psychosocial and occupational stressors among 194 male employees on drilling rig and production platform installations in the United Kingdom and Dutch sectors of the North Sea were studied. Mental well-being and job satisfaction were also assessed, with attention to the incidence of accidents offshore. This occupational group were found to be much less satisfied with their jobs than their onshore counterparts. Although overall mental well-being compared favorably with that of the general population, levels of anxiety were significantly higher. Multivariate analysis showed "relationships at work and at home" to be a strong predictor of both job dissatisfaction and mental ill-health. Type A coronary-prone behavior was also found to be a significant predictor of reduced mental well-being and increased accident rates offshore.

  17. Pre-Deployment Stress, Mental Health, and Help-Seeking Behaviors Among Marines

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-01-01

    Researchers working to understand the relation- ship between pre-deployment characteristics of service members and post-deployment mental health problems...deployment. This report also contributes to an understanding of the magni- tude of mental health problems and associated vulnerabilities that are...reported having experienced a sexual assault, and 19.2 percent of marines reported having experienced combat. The total number of potentially traumatic

  18. Stress, mental health, and job performance among active duty military personnel: findings from the 2002 Department of Defense Health-Related Behaviors Survey.

    PubMed

    Hourani, Laurel L; Williams, Thomas V; Kress, Amii M

    2006-09-01

    This study examined the extent to which high levels of occupational and family stress were associated with mental health problems and productivity loss among active duty military personnel. We analyzed data from the 2002 Department of Defense Survey of Health-Related Behaviors among Military Personnel, which provided extensive population-based information on 12,756 active duty personnel in all branches of the military worldwide. Military personnel reported higher levels of stress at work than in their family life. The personnel reporting the highest levels of occupational stress were those 25 or younger, those who were married with spouses not present, and women. Personnel with high levels of stress had significantly higher rates of mental health problems and productivity loss than those with less stress. We recommend that prevention and intervention efforts geared toward personnel reporting the highest levels of stress be given priority for resources in this population.

  19. Cortisol Responses to Mental Stress and the Progression of Coronary Artery Calcification in Healthy Men and Women

    PubMed Central

    Hamer, Mark; Endrighi, Romano; Venuraju, Shreenidhi M.; Lahiri, Avijit; Steptoe, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    Background Psychosocial stress is a risk factor for coronary heart disease (CHD). The mechanisms are incompletely understood, although dysfunction of the hypothalamic pituitary adrenal (HPA) axis might be involved. We examined the association between cortisol responses to laboratory-induced mental stress and the progression of coronary artery calcification (CAC). Methods and Results Participants were 466 healthy men and women (mean age = 62.7±5.6 yrs), without history or objective signs of CHD, drawn from the Whitehall II epidemiological cohort. At the baseline assessment salivary cortisol was measured in response to mental stressors, consisting of a 5-min Stroop task and a 5-min mirror tracing task. CAC was measured at baseline and at 3 years follow up using electron beam computed tomography. CAC progression was defined as an increase >10 Agatston units between baseline and follow up. 38.2% of the sample demonstrated CAC progression over the 3 years follow up. There was considerable variation in the cortisol stress response, with approximately 40% of the sample responding to the stress tasks with an increase in cortisol of at least 1 mmol/l. There was an association between cortisol stress reactivity (per SD) and CAC progression (odds ratio = 1.27, 95% CI, 1.02–1.60) after adjustments for age, sex, pre-stress cortisol, employment grade, smoking, resting systolic BP, fibrinogen, body mass index, and use of statins. There was no association between systolic blood pressure reactivity and CAC progression (odds ratio per SD increase = 1.03, 95% CI, 0.85–1.24). Other independent predictors of CAC progression included age, male sex, smoking, resting systolic blood pressure, and fibrinogen. Conclusion Results demonstrate an association between heightened cortisol reactivity to stress and CAC progression. These data support the notion that cortisol reactivity, an index of HPA function, is one of the possible mechanisms through which psychosocial stress may

  20. An introduction to sequential electric acupuncture (SEA) in the treatment of stress related physical and mental disorders.

    PubMed

    Chen, A

    1992-01-01

    A method of sequential electrical stimulation to certain acupuncture loci was found to be effective in the treatment of stress related physical and mental disorders. Recent research found that cerebral serotonin has anti-depressant and analgesic effects. It was reported that cerebral serotonin can be released by the stimulation of certain acupuncture loci. Omura reported that the stimulation of ST36 and GB20 increased intracephalic blood flow. Increasing intracephalic blood flow may indirectly increase the quantity of serotonin released. The release of serotonin can be enhanced further by sequential stimulation of these acupuncture loci. A marked degree of mental relaxation by SEA was shown in this study of 85 clinical cases of chronic physical disorders, e.g. intractable pain, headache, with most disorders complicated by reactive depression. Some of the cases were psycho-somatic disorders. The percentage of improvement from slight to remarkable between mental disorders (78.8%) and physical disorders (77.1%) is about equal. The method of treatment and schematic of the SEA device are discussed and shown.

  1. A randomized controlled trial of cognitive-behavioral treatment for posttraumatic stress disorder in severe mental illness.

    PubMed

    Mueser, Kim T; Rosenberg, Stanley D; Xie, Haiyi; Jankowski, M Kay; Bolton, Elisa E; Lu, Weili; Hamblen, Jessica L; Rosenberg, Harriet J; McHugo, Gregory J; Wolfe, Rosemarie

    2008-04-01

    A cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) program for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) was developed to address its high prevalence in persons with severe mental illness receiving treatment at community mental health centers. CBT was compared with treatment as usual (TAU) in a randomized controlled trial with 108 clients with PTSD and either major mood disorder (85%) or schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder (15%), of whom 25% also had borderline personality disorder. Eighty-one percent of clients assigned to CBT participated in the program. Intent-to-treat analyses showed that CBT clients improved significantly more than did clients in TAU at blinded posttreatment and 3- and 6-month follow-up assessments in PTSD symptoms, other symptoms, perceived health, negative trauma-related beliefs, knowledge about PTSD, and case manager working alliance. The effects of CBT on PTSD were strongest in clients with severe PTSD. Homework completion in CBT predicted greater reductions in symptoms. Changes in trauma-related beliefs in CBT mediated improvements in PTSD. The findings suggest that clients with severe mental illness and PTSD can benefit from CBT, despite severe symptoms, suicidal thinking, psychosis, and vulnerability to hospitalizations.

  2. Increased objectively assessed vigorous-intensity exercise is associated with reduced stress, increased mental health and good objective and subjective sleep in young adults.

    PubMed

    Gerber, Markus; Brand, Serge; Herrmann, Christian; Colledge, Flora; Holsboer-Trachsler, Edith; Pühse, Uwe

    2014-08-01

    The role of physical activity as a factor that protects against stress-related mental disorders is well documented. Nevertheless, there is still a dearth of research using objective measures of physical activity. The present study examines whether objectively assessed vigorous physical activity (VPA) is associated with mental health benefits beyond moderate physical activity (MPA). Particularly, this study examines whether young adults who accomplish the American College of Sports Medicine's (ACSM) vigorous-intensity exercise recommendations differ from peers below these standards with regard to their level of perceived stress, depressive symptoms, perceived pain, and subjective and objective sleep. A total of 42 undergraduate students (22 women, 20 men; M=21.24years, SD=2.20) volunteered to take part in the study. Stress, pain, depressive symptoms, and subjective sleep were assessed via questionnaire, objective sleep via sleep-EEG assessment, and VPA via actigraphy. Meeting VPA recommendations had mental health benefits beyond MPA. VPA was associated with less stress, pain, subjective sleep complaints and depressive symptoms. Moreover, vigorous exercisers had more favorable objective sleep pattern. Especially, they had increased total sleep time, more stage 4 and REM sleep, more slow wave sleep and a lower percentage of light sleep. Vigorous exercisers also reported fewer mental health problems if exposed to high stress. This study provides evidence that meeting the VPA standards of the ACSM is associated with improved mental health and more successful coping among young people, even compared to those who are meeting or exceeding the requirements for MPA.

  3. The DSM5/RDoC debate on the future of mental health research: implication for studies on human stress and presentation of the signature bank.

    PubMed

    Lupien, S J; Sasseville, M; François, N; Giguère, C E; Boissonneault, J; Plusquellec, P; Godbout, R; Xiong, L; Potvin, S; Kouassi, E; Lesage, A

    2017-01-01

    In 2008, the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) announced that in the next few decades, it will be essential to study the various biological, psychological and social "signatures" of mental disorders. Along with this new "signature" approach to mental health disorders, modifications of DSM were introduced. One major modification consisted of incorporating a dimensional approach to mental disorders, which involved analyzing, using a transnosological approach, various factors that are commonly observed across different types of mental disorders. Although this new methodology led to interesting discussions of the DSM5 working groups, it has not been incorporated in the last version of the DSM5. Consequently, the NIMH launched the "Research Domain Criteria" (RDoC) framework in order to provide new ways of classifying mental illnesses based on dimensions of observable behavioral and neurobiological measures. The NIMH emphasizes that it is important to consider the benefits of dimensional measures from the perspective of psychopathology and environmental influences, and it is also important to build these dimensions on neurobiological data. The goal of this paper is to present the perspectives of DSM5 and RDoC to the science of mental health disorders and the impact of this debate on the future of human stress research. The second goal is to present the "Signature Bank" developed by the Institut Universitaire en Santé Mentale de Montréal (IUSMM) that has been developed in line with a dimensional and transnosological approach to mental illness.

  4. The Roles of Financial Threat, Social Support, Work Stress, and Mental Distress in Dairy Farmers’ Expectations of Injury

    PubMed Central

    Furey, Emilia M.; O’Hora, Denis; McNamara, John; Kinsella, Stephen; Noone, Chris

    2016-01-01

    Farming is dangerous, with fatalities among the highest in any occupation. Farmers often work alone, for long hours, with unreliable equipment and in difficult weather conditions with hazardous chemicals and livestock. In addition, farmers make large financial commitments exposing them to high levels of financial risk. Exposure to such financial risk can give rise to subjective experiences of financial threat (FT) that are psychologically challenging. The current study attempted to characterize the role that FT plays in farm injuries. One hundred and twenty one dairy farmers completed a battery of questionnaires assessing FT, social support (SS), depression, anxiety, farm job stress, and health and safety beliefs. Mental distress directly predicted farmers’ expectations of injury and a direct effect of non-financial farm stress (FS) approached significance. Mental distress mediated these relationships as evidenced by significant indirect effects of FS and FT, and SS served to reduce distress. These findings support calls for interventions designed to reduce FS and FT and increase SS for farmers. PMID:27446893

  5. The Roles of Financial Threat, Social Support, Work Stress, and Mental Distress in Dairy Farmers' Expectations of Injury.

    PubMed

    Furey, Emilia M; O'Hora, Denis; McNamara, John; Kinsella, Stephen; Noone, Chris

    2016-01-01

    Farming is dangerous, with fatalities among the highest in any occupation. Farmers often work alone, for long hours, with unreliable equipment and in difficult weather conditions with hazardous chemicals and livestock. In addition, farmers make large financial commitments exposing them to high levels of financial risk. Exposure to such financial risk can give rise to subjective experiences of financial threat (FT) that are psychologically challenging. The current study attempted to characterize the role that FT plays in farm injuries. One hundred and twenty one dairy farmers completed a battery of questionnaires assessing FT, social support (SS), depression, anxiety, farm job stress, and health and safety beliefs. Mental distress directly predicted farmers' expectations of injury and a direct effect of non-financial farm stress (FS) approached significance. Mental distress mediated these relationships as evidenced by significant indirect effects of FS and FT, and SS served to reduce distress. These findings support calls for interventions designed to reduce FS and FT and increase SS for farmers.

  6. Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in Rural Primary Care: Improving Care for Mental Health Following Bioterrorism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsao, Jennie C. I.; Dobalian, Aram; Wiens, Brenda A.; Gylys, Julius A.; Evans, Garret D.

    2006-01-01

    Context: Recent bioterrorist attacks have highlighted the critical need for health care organizations to prepare for future threats. Yet, relatively little attention has been paid to the mental health needs of rural communities in the wake of such events. A critical aspect of bioterrorism is emphasis on generating fear and uncertainty, thereby…

  7. Mental Health of Somali Adolescent Refugees: The Role of Trauma, Stress, and Perceived Discrimination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, B. Heidi; MacDonald, Helen Z.; Lincoln, Alisa K.; Cabral, Howard J.

    2008-01-01

    The primary purpose of this study was to examine relations between trauma exposure, post-resettlement stressors, perceived discrimination, and mental health symptoms in Somali adolescent refugees resettled in the U.S. Participants were English-speaking Somali adolescent refugees between the ages of 11 and 20 (N = 135) who had resettled in the U.S.…

  8. The Role of Acculturative Stress on Mental Health Symptoms for Immigrant Adolescents: A Longitudinal Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sirin, Selcuk R.; Ryce, Patrice; Gupta, Taveeshi; Rogers-Sirin, Lauren

    2013-01-01

    Immigrant-origin adolescents represent the fastest growing segment of youth population in the United States, and in many urban schools they represent the majority of students. In this 3-wave longitudinal study, we explored trajectories of internalizing mental health symptoms (depression, anxiety, and somatic symptoms). The participants included…

  9. FastStats: Cerebrovascular Disease or Stroke

    MedlinePlus

    ... 4 MB] More data Death rates for cerebrovascular diseases by sex, race, Hispanic origin, and age Health, United States, 2015, table 23 [ ... causes of death, by sex, race, and Hispanic origin Health, United States, 2015, table 18 [PDF - 9.8 ... Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion National Heart, Lung, and ...

  10. Perceived stress and coping strategies among Jordanian nursing students during clinical practice in psychiatric/mental health courses.

    PubMed

    Al-Zayyat, Abdulkarim Subhi; Al-Gamal, Ekhlas

    2014-08-01

    Clinical practice in the psychiatric/mental health nursing (PMHN) field is considered a highly-stressful experience for nursing students. The purpose of the present study was to identify the degrees of stress, the types of stressors, and coping strategies perceived by undergraduate nursing students during their clinical practice in PMHN courses. A descriptive, longitudinal design was used. Sixty-five students registered in PMHN clinical courses were recruited from five Jordanian universities using a systematic random-sampling method. Data collection was conducted in the second semester of the 2012-2013 academic year at two points of time: pre-PMHN clinical training and post-PMHN training. The Basic Information Questionnaire, Perceived Stress Scale, and Coping Behavior Inventory were administered. Students' ages ranged from 20 to 25 years. The findings illustrate that the highest reported types of stressors at both data-collection times were taking care of patients, stress related to teachers and nursing staff, and from assignments and workloads. The most utilized coping strategy at both data-collection times was problem solving. The findings of the present study are useful for clinical educators in identifying nursing students' stressors, easing their learning in the clinical setting, and establishing an efficient PMHN course programme.

  11. Superoxide-dependent cerebrovascular effects of homocysteine.

    PubMed

    Zhang, F; Slungaard, A; Vercellotti, G M; Iadecola, C

    1998-06-01

    Recent evidence indicates that elevated plasma levels of homocysteine are a risk factor for ischemic cerebrovascular diseases. However, little is known about cerebrovascular effects of homocysteine. Homocysteine could impair cerebrovascular function by metal-catalyzed production of activated oxygen species. We studied whether homocysteine, in the presence of Cu2+, alters reactivity of cerebral circulation and, if so, whether this effect depends on O-2 generation. In halothane-anesthetized rats the parietal cortex was exposed and superfused with Ringer solution. Cerebrocortical blood flow (CBF) was monitored by a laser-Doppler probe. With Ringer solution superfusion, CBF increased with hypercapnia (+134 +/- 7%; PCO2 = 50-60 mmHg) and topical application of 10 microM ACh (+35 +/- 3%), the NO donor S-nitroso-N-acetylpenicillamine (SNAP, 500 microM; +66 +/- 6%), or 1 mM papaverine (+100 +/- 6%; n = 5). Superfusion with 40 microM Cu2+ alone did not perturb resting CBF or responses to hypercapnia, ACh, SNAP, or papaverine (P > 0.05, n = 5). However, superfusion of homocysteine-Cu2+ reduced resting CBF (-28 +/- 4%) and attenuated (P < 0.05) responses to hypercapnia (-31 +/- 9%), ACh (-73 +/- 6%), or SNAP (-48 +/- 4%), but not papaverine. The effect was observed only at 1 mM homocysteine. Cerebrovascular effects of homocysteine-Cu2+ were prevented by coadministration of superoxide dismutase (SOD; 1,000 U/ml; n = 5). SOD alone did not affect resting CBF or CBF reactivity (n = 5). The observation that homocysteine-Cu2+ attenuates the response to hypercapnia, ACh, and SNAP, but not the NO-independent vasodilator papaverine, suggests that homocysteine-Cu2+ selectively impairs NO-related cerebrovascular responses. The fact that SOD prevents such impairment indicates that the effect of homocysteine is O-2 dependent. The data support the conclusion that O-2, generated by the reaction of homocysteine with Cu2+, inhibits NO-related cerebrovascular responses by scavenging NO

  12. Attempting to successfully straddle the cultural divide: Hopelessness model of bicultural stress, mental health, and caregiver connection for Mexican descent adolescents.

    PubMed

    Piña-Watson, Brandy; Llamas, Jasmín D; Stevens, Angela K

    2015-10-01

    The present study extends the Hopelessness Model of Depression through: (a) investigating the applicability of bicultural stress as precipitant in this model, (b) expanding mental health outcomes in addition to depression (i.e., life satisfaction), and (c) examining the protective role that male and female caregiver connection may play in disrupting this model for Mexican descent adolescents. With a sample of 524 Mexican descent adolescents (46.9% male; 53.1% female; age range: 14-20; M = 16.23 years; SD = 1.10 years), 2 structural equation models were tested, The first model (Theoretical Model) sought to determine the relationship between bicultural stress, life satisfaction, and depressive symptoms with hopelessness as a mediator. The second model (Protective Factor Model) investigated both male and female caregiver connectedness as potential protective factors in the bicultural stress-mental health relationships. Both models were supported. In the Theoretical Model, hopelessness mediated the relationship between bicultural stress and the mental health variables (i.e., depression and life satisfaction). Additionally, in the Protective Factor Model, female caregiver connection moderated the relationships between bicultural stress and life satisfaction, highlighting that female caregiver connection is a protective factor in the bicultural stress-life satisfaction relationship. Findings will be discussed from a resilience perspective with recommendations of how practitioners can use these findings for mental health prevention and intervention purposes.

  13. Effects of Chronic Mental Stress and atherogenic diet on the immune inflammatory environment in mouse aorta

    PubMed Central

    Marcondes, Maria Cecilia Garibaldi; Zhukov, Viktor; Bradlow, Henry; Sanchez-Alavez, Manuel; Gonzalez, Alejandro Sanchez; Curtiss, Linda K.; Conti, Bruno

    2011-01-01

    Inflammation and stress are regarded as two important atherogenic factors. Because stress can affect leukocyte distribution, we hypothesized that stress-mediated leukocyte extravasation can modify the inflammatory environment of the arterial wall possibly contributing to atherogenesis. To test this hypothesis we evaluated the inflammatory environment of the aorta in C57Bl/6 mice subjected to 3 and to 12 months of chronic stress and compared it to age matched non-stressed animals. Experiments were carried out in mice fed regular chow or atherogenic diets. Both treatments increased the expression of vascular and leukocyte adhesion molecules and leukocyte accumulation. At 3 months, stress but not an atherogenic diet elevated the number of CD4 cells, CD8 cells, macrophages, dendritic cells and neutrophils. These changes were associated with elevation of transcripts for ICAM-1 and VCAM-1, E-Selectin and Neuropeptide Y. At 12 months, stress or high cholesterol acted similarly to elevate the number of CD8 and macrophages, and synergistically on the number of all cell types investigated. At this time-point, strong synergism was also observed on the level of E-selectin and NPY in the aorta, but not in the circulation. Despite these effects, histological and morphological alterations of the arterial wall were severe in the atherogenic diet, but not in the stress groups. Thus, although stress and an atherogenic diet may both affect leukocyte accumulation in the aorta, they may contribute differently to atherogenesis. PMID:21722726

  14. Associations of hair cortisol concentration with self-reported measures of stress and mental health-related factors in a pooled database of diverse community samples.

    PubMed

    Wells, Samantha; Tremblay, Paul F; Flynn, Andrea; Russell, Evan; Kennedy, James; Rehm, Jürgen; Van Uum, Stan; Koren, Gideon; Graham, Kathryn

    2014-07-01

    A pooled database from diverse community samples was used to examine the associations of hair cortisol concentration (HCC) with self-reported stress and stress-linked mental health measures, including depression, anxiety, alcohol and drug use, disability and experiences with aggression. As part of innovative research using a mobile laboratory to study community mental health, data were pooled from five sub-studies: a random sample of the general population (n = 70), people who had received treatment for a mental health and/or substance use problem (n = 78), family members of people treated for mental health and/or substance use problems (n = 49), community volunteers who sometimes felt sad or blue or thought they drank too much (n = 83) and young adults in intimate partner relationships (n = 44). All participants completed a computerized questionnaire including standard measures of perceived stress, chronic stress, depression, anxiety, hazardous drinking, tobacco use, prescription drug use, illicit drug use, disability and intimate partner aggression. HCC was significantly associated with use of antidepressants, hazardous drinking, smoking and disability after adjusting for sub-study and potential confounders (sex, body-mass index, use of glucocorticoids and hair dyed). In addition, preliminary analyses suggest a significant curvilinear relationship between HCC and perceived stress; specifically, HCC increased with higher perceived stress but decreased at the highest level of stress. Overall, HCC was associated with mental health-related variables mainly reflecting substance use or experiencing a disability. The relationship between HCC and self-reported stress is unclear and needs further research.

  15. The Effect of Stress Management Program Using Cognitive Behavior Approach on Mental Health of the Mothers of the Children With Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Sharif, Farkhondeh; Zarei, Shekufe; Alavi Shooshtari, Ali; Vossoughi, Mehrdad

    2015-01-01

    Background: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder is one of the most common psychiatric disorders in children. Objectives: The study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of stress management program using cognitive behavior approach on mental health of the mothers of the children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Patients and Methods: In this interventional study, 90 mothers of the children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder were randomly allocated into three intervention, placebo, and control groups. The general health questionnaire was used to measure mental health. Besides, stress was assessed through the depression-anxiety-stress scale. The two instruments were completed at baseline, immediately after, and one month after the intervention by the mothers. Afterwards, within group comparisons were made using one-sample repeated measurement ANOVA. One-way ANOVA was used for inter group comparisons. Mothers in the placebo group only participated in meetings to talk and express feelings without receiving any interventions. Results: At the baseline, no significant difference was found among the three groups regarding the means of stress, anxiety, depression, and mental health. However, a significant difference was observed in the mean score of stress immediately after the intervention (P = 0.033). The results also showed a significant difference among the three groups regarding the mean score of mental health (P < 0.001). One month after the intervention, the mean difference of mental health score remained significant only in the intervention group (P < 0.001). Conclusions: The study findings confirmed the effectiveness of stress management program utilizing cognitive behavior approach in mental health of the mothers of the children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. PMID:26199709

  16. Perceived Discrimination, Perceived Stress, and Mental and Physical Health among Mexican-Origin Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flores, Elena; Tschann, Jeanne M.; Dimas, Juanita M.; Bachen, Elizabeth A.; Pasch, Lauri A.; de Groat, Cynthia L.

    2008-01-01

    This study provided a test of the minority status stress model by examining whether perceived discrimination would directly affect health outcomes even when perceived stress was taken into account among 215 Mexican-origin adults. Perceived discrimination predicted depression and poorer general health, and marginally predicted health symptoms, when…

  17. Do time-invariant confounders explain away the association between job stress and workers' mental health? Evidence from Japanese occupational panel data.

    PubMed

    Oshio, Takashi; Tsutsumi, Akizumi; Inoue, Akiomi

    2015-02-01

    It is well known that job stress is negatively related to workers' mental health, but most recent studies have not controlled for unobserved time-invariant confounders. In the current study, we attempted to validate previous observations on the association between job stress and workers' mental health, by removing the effects of unobserved time-invariant confounders. We used data from three to four waves of an occupational Japanese cohort survey, focusing on 31,382 observations of 9741 individuals who participated in at least two consecutive waves. We estimated mean-centered fixed effects models to explain psychological distress in terms of the Kessler 6 (K6) scores (range: 0-24) by eight job stress indicators related to the job demands-control, effort-reward imbalance, and organizational injustice models. Mean-centered fixed effects models reduced the magnitude of the association between jobs stress and K6 scores to 44.8-54.2% of those observed from pooled ordinary least squares. However, the association remained highly significant even after controlling for unobserved time-invariant confounders for all job stress indicators. In addition, alternatively specified models showed the robustness of the results. In all, we concluded that the validity of major job stress models, which link job stress and workers' mental health, was robust, although unobserved time-invariant confounders led to an overestimation of the association.

  18. Mental health of scientific researchers. I. Characteristics of job stress among scientific researchers working at a research park in Japan.

    PubMed

    Kageyama, T; Matsuzaki, I; Morita, N; Sasahara, S; Satoh, S; Nakamura, H

    2001-04-01

    In order to clarify the characteristics of job stress in scientific researchers, a self-administered questionnaire survey for 16,330 workers was carried out at Tsukuba Research Park City, Japan. The data of 7,063 (43%) workers aged 20-59 years old were analyzed, and the characteristics of job stress in 3,290 scientific researchers were compared with those of 1,799 technicians and 1,849 clerks. The researchers perceived higher quantitative and qualitative workload, greater job control (job decision latitude), and greater reward from work, than did the other two job groups. In addition, young male researchers received a large amount of support from their coworkers, while middle-aged male researchers perceived difficulty in personal relationships with their coworkers. From the viewpoints of the demand-control-support model and the effort-reward imbalance model, the researchers, particularly men, were typically occupied in active jobs, and the large amount of effort required for their work seemed to be balanced by greater reward from work. Compared with male researchers, however, female researchers perceived lesser job demand, lesser job control, and lesser reward from work. The working environment of female researchers may be related to the so-called career stress of working women. The mental health status of these scientific researchers should be examined directly in a future study.

  19. How women perceive abortion care: A study focusing on healthy women and those with mental and posttraumatic stress.

    PubMed

    Wallin Lundell, Inger; Öhman, Susanne Georgsson; Sundström Poromaa, Inger; Högberg, Ulf; Sydsjö, Gunilla; Skoog Svanberg, Agneta

    2015-06-01

    Objectives To identify perceived deficiencies in the quality of abortion care among healthy women and those with mental stress. Methods This multi-centre cohort study included six obstetrics and gynaecology departments in Sweden. Posttraumatic stress (PTSD/PTSS) was assessed using the Screen Questionnaire-Posttraumatic Stress Disorder; anxiety and depressive symptoms, using the Hospital Anxiety Depression Scale; and abortion quality perceptions, using a modified version of the Quality from the Patient's Perspective questionnaire. Pain during medical abortion was assessed in a subsample using a visual analogue scale. Results Overall, 16% of the participants assessed the abortion care as being deficient, and 22% experienced intense pain during medical abortion. Women with PTSD/PTSS more often perceived the abortion care as deficient overall and differed from healthy women in reports of deficiencies in support, respectful treatment, opportunities for privacy and rest, and availability of support from a significant person during the procedure. There was a marginally significant difference between PTSD/PTSS and the comparison group for insufficient pain alleviation. Conclusions Women with PTSD/PTSS perceived abortion care to be deficient more often than did healthy women. These women do require extra support, relatively simple efforts to provide adequate pain alleviation, support and privacy during abortion may improve abortion care.

  20. Spectral Detection of Acute Mental Stress with VIS-SWIR Hyperspectral Imagery

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-03-01

    skin under stress should hold a unique spectral distribution as blood volume and oxygen levels change with stress. This study will be performed indoors...reflectance measurements [36]. In a similar study performed using PPG imaging, specific cardiac and respiratory bands across the spectrum were identified in...HSI [3, 4]. Yuen et al. [4] found that the facial region shows a distinctive increase 27 in HOL that can be detected through HSI. One study that

  1. Mental Imagery and Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder: A Neuroimaging and Experimental Psychopathology Approach to Intrusive Memories of Trauma

    PubMed Central

    Clark, Ian A.; Mackay, Clare E.

    2015-01-01

    This hypothesis and theory paper presents a pragmatic framework to help bridge the clinical presentation and neuroscience of intrusive memories following psychological trauma. Intrusive memories are a hallmark symptom of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). However, key questions, including those involving etiology, remain. In particular, we know little about the brain mechanisms involved in why only some moments of the trauma return as intrusive memories while others do not. We first present an overview of the patient experience of intrusive memories and the neuroimaging studies that have investigated intrusive memories in PTSD patients. Next, one mechanism of how to model intrusive memories in the laboratory, the trauma film paradigm, is examined. In particular, we focus on studies combining the trauma film paradigm with neuroimaging. Stemming from the clinical presentation and our current understanding of the processes involved in intrusive memories, we propose a framework in which an intrusive memory comprises five component parts; autobiographical (trauma) memory, involuntary recall, negative emotions, attention hijacking, and mental imagery. Each component part is considered in turn, both behaviorally and from a brain imaging perspective. A mapping of these five components onto our understanding of the brain is described. Unanswered questions that exist in our understanding of intrusive memories are considered using the proposed framework. Overall, we suggest that mental imagery is key to bridging the experience, memory, and intrusive recollection of the traumatic event. Further, we suggest that by considering the brain mechanisms involved in the component parts of an intrusive memory, in particular mental imagery, we may be able to aid the development of a firmer bridge between patients’ experiences of intrusive memories and the clinical neuroscience behind them. PMID:26257660

  2. Secondary traumatic stress among mental health providers working with the military: prevalence and its work- and exposure-related correlates.

    PubMed

    Cieslak, Roman; Anderson, Valerie; Bock, Judith; Moore, Bret A; Peterson, Alan L; Benight, Charles C

    2013-11-01

    Our research assessed the prevalence of secondary traumatic stress (STS) among mental health providers working with military patients. We also investigated personal, work-related, and exposure-related correlates of STS. Finally, using meta-analysis, the mean level of STS symptoms in this population was compared with the mean level of these symptoms in other groups. Participants (N = 224) completed measures of indirect exposure to trauma (i.e., diversity, volume, frequency, ratio), appraisal of secondary exposure impact, direct exposure to trauma, STS, and work characteristics. The prevalence of STS was 19.2%. Personal history of trauma, complaints about having too many patients, and more negative appraisals of the impact caused by an indirect exposure to trauma were associated with higher frequency of STS symptoms. A meta-analysis showed that the severity of intrusion, avoidance, and arousal symptoms of STS was similar across various groups of professionals indirectly exposed to trauma (e.g., mental health providers, rescue workers, social workers).

  3. Using Nature-Based Rehabilitation to Restart a Stalled Process of Rehabilitation in Individuals with Stress-Related Mental Illness

    PubMed Central

    Sahlin, Eva; Ahlborg, Gunnar; Tenenbaum, Artur; Grahn, Patrik

    2015-01-01

    After a period of decrease, sick leave in Sweden due to psychiatric diagnoses is on the increase. The lack of established rehabilitation programmes for patients with stress-related mental disorders (SRMD) has opened up for the use of garden/nature in a multimodal rehabilitation context (Nature-Based Rehabilitation, NBR). Region Västra Götaland (VGR) started an NBR to offer additional rehabilitation for its employees on long-term sick leave due to SRMD, where initial care had not been sufficient. The aim was to explore whether the mental health and well-being of NBR participants had improved at the end of the NBR and at three follow-ups, and to explore the development of sick leave and health care utilization according to the NBR model (n = 57) and an occupational health service (OHS) model (n = 45). Self-assessment instruments for measuring burnout, depression, anxiety and wellbeing, and data from regional and national registers were used. Results showed decreased scores on burnout, depression and anxiety, and increased well-being scores and significantly reduced health care utilization in the NBR group. A large movement from ordinary sickness benefit to rehabilitation benefit was observed, which was not observed in the OHS group. The two groups were in different rehabilitation phases, which limited comparisons. The results point to beneficial effects of using NBR for this patient group and for enhancing a stalled rehabilitation process. PMID:25671775

  4. Children's Exposure to Community and War Violence and Mental Health in Four African Countries: A Stress Process Model

    PubMed Central

    Foster, Holly; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne

    2015-01-01

    In this article we review the mental health consequences of children's exposure to community and war violence (ETV) in four African countries: South Africa, Sierra Leone, Gambia and Rwanda. A focus on Africa is particularly pressing because of children's high levels of community and war ETV in countries therein. Regions of Africa present important macro-contexts for understanding children's various types of violence exposure amidst war and economic disadvantage. Findings of the review across 20 quantitative studies from 2004-2015 indicate consistent associations between exposure to war and community violence and children's symptoms of Post-traumatic Stress disorder (PTSD), depression, and aggression. School climate and family support mitigate these ETV influences upon children: however, more research is needed on the buffering effects of such resources. The effects of war violence are mediated by perceived discrimination in communities post-conflict. We integrate findings across studies to synthesize knowledge on children's ETV in Africa around a model of its correlates, mediators, and moderators in relation to mental health.. Emerging research points to avenues for prevention and future inquiry. PMID:26497096

  5. Mental health problems and post-migration stress among multi-traumatized refugees attending outpatient clinics upon resettlement to Norway.

    PubMed

    Teodorescu, Dinu-Stefan; Heir, Trond; Hauff, Edvard; Wentzel-Larsen, Tore; Lien, Lars

    2012-08-01

    Refugees have often been exposed to multiple traumas making them prone to mental health problems later. The aim of this study is to describe the prevalence and symptom load of psychiatric disorders in refugees admitted to psychiatric outpatient clinics and to investigate the relationship between multiple exposure to traumatic events, the severity of traumatic symptoms and post-migration stressors. A clinical sample of 61 refugee outpatients from psychiatric clinics in Southern Norway was cross-sectionally examined using three structured clinical interviews (SCID-PTSD, SIDES and MINI) and self-report psychometric instruments (HSCL-25, IES-R). Post-traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) was diagnosed in 82% of the patients, while Disorders of Extreme Stress Not Otherwise Specified (DESNOS) was present in 16% of them. Comorbidity was considerable; 64% of the patients had both PTSD and major depression disorder (MDD) and 80% of those who had PTSD had three or more additional diagnoses. Multi-traumatized refugees in outpatient clinics have high prevalence of PTSD, DESNOS, comorbid depression and anxiety disorders. A more severe symptomatology was found in patients diagnosed with both PTSD and DESNOS, than in those diagnosed with only PTSD. Higher rates of unemployment, weak social network and weak social integration were also prevalent in these outpatients, and related to increased psychiatric comorbidity and severity of symptoms. Further research may clarify the existence of a cumulative relationship between pre-resettlement traumas and post-resettlement stressors in the mental health of refugees, which in turn may help to improve therapeutic interventions.

  6. Trauma Exposure and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in Adults with Severe Mental Illness: A Critical Review

    PubMed Central

    Grubaugh, Anouk L.; Zinzow, Heidi M.; Paul, Lisa; Egede, Leonard E.; Frueh, B. Christopher

    2011-01-01

    There is a great deal of research on the prevalence, correlates, and treatment of PTSD in the general population. However, we know very little about the manifestation and consequences of PTSD in more complicated patient populations. The purpose of the current paper is to provide a comprehensive review of PTSD within the context of severe mental illness (SMI; i.e., schizophrenia spectrum disorders, mood disorders). Extant data suggest that trauma and PTSD are highly prevalent among individuals with SMI relative to the general population, and both are associated with adverse clinical functioning and increased healthcare burden. However, trauma and PTSD remain overlooked in this population, with low recognition rates in public-sector settings. Additionally, there are few data on the clinical course and treatment of PTSD among individuals with SMI. Particularly lacking are longitudinal studies, randomized controlled treatment trials, and studies using ethno-racially diverse samples. Furthermore, there is a need to better understand the interplay between trauma, PTSD, and severe forms of mental illness and to further develop and disseminate evidence-based PTSD treatments in this population. The current state of the literature and future directions for practice are discussed. PMID:21596012

  7. Aortic Stiffness, Cerebrovascular Dysfunction, and Memory

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, Leroy L.; Mitchell, Gary F.

    2016-01-01

    Background Aortic stiffness is associated with cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events and cognitive decline. This mini-review focuses on relations of aortic stiffness with microvascular dysfunction and discusses the contribution of abnormal pulsatile hemodynamics to cerebrovascular damage and cognitive decline. We also provide a rationale for considering aortic stiffness as a putative and important contributor to memory impairment in older individuals. Summary Aging is associated with stiffening of the aorta but not the muscular arteries, which reduces wave reflection and increases the transmission of pulsatility into the periphery. Aortic stiffening thereby impairs a protective mechanism that shields the peripheral microcirculation from excessive pulsatility within downstream target organs. Beyond midlife, aortic stiffness increases rapidly and exposes the cerebral microcirculation to abnormal pulsatile mechanical forces that are associated with microvascular damage and remodeling in the brain. Aortic stiffening and high-flow pulsatility are associated with alterations in the microvasculature of the brain; however, a mechanistic link between aortic stiffness and memory has not been established. We showed that in a community-based sample of older individuals, cerebrovascular resistance and white matter hyperintensities - markers of cerebrovascular remodeling and damage - mediated the relation between higher aortic stiffness and lower performance on memory function tests. These data suggest that microvascular and white matter damage associated with excessive aortic stiffness contribute to impaired memory function with advancing age. Key Messages Increasing evidence suggests that vascular etiologies - including aortic stiffness and microvascular damage - contribute to memory impairment and the pathogenesis of dementia, including Alzheimer's disease. Interventions that reduce aortic stiffness may delay memory decline among older individuals. PMID:27752478

  8. Livedo reticularis and cerebro-vascular disease

    PubMed Central

    Stephens, W. P.; Ferguson, I. T.

    1982-01-01

    Three cases are described in which extensive livedo reticularis was associated with premature cerebrovascular disease. The patients presented with transient cerebral ischaemic attacks and gradually developed permanent neurological damage with intellectual impairment. The value of detailed neuropsychological testing to identify bilateral cortical abnormalities is demonstrated. CAT scanning may reveal multifocal cerebral infarction. The nature of this condition is not understood. ImagesFig. 1 PMID:7100027

  9. Perceived Demands of Schooling, Stress and Mental Health: Changes from Grade 6 to Grade 9 as a Function of Gender and Cognitive Ability.

    PubMed

    Giota, Joanna; Gustafsson, Jan-Eric

    2016-08-17

    The link between perceived demands of school, stress and mental health in relation to gender is complex. The study examined, with two waves of longitudinal data at age 13 and age 16, how changes in perceived academic demands relate to changes in perceived stress, taking into account gender and cognitive ability, and to investigate how these factors affect the level of psychosomatic and depressive symptoms at the age of 16. A nationally representative sample including about 9000 individuals from the Swedish longitudinal Evaluation Through Follow up database born in 1998 was included. A growth modelling approach was applied to examine relations over time. The results show girls to have a considerably higher self-reported level of mental health problems at the end of compulsory school than boys. This gender difference is entirely accounted for by perceived school demands and stress in grades 6 and 9. Students who were stronger in inductive than vocabulary ability reported lower levels of perceived academic demands and less stress in grade 6. There is a need to develop interventions for minimizing the consequences of stress among adolescents and modify those particular aspects of academic demands which cause stress and poor mental health, especially among girls. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Auditory Dysfunction in Patients with Cerebrovascular Disease

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Auditory dysfunction is a common clinical symptom that can induce profound effects on the quality of life of those affected. Cerebrovascular disease (CVD) is the most prevalent neurological disorder today, but it has generally been considered a rare cause of auditory dysfunction. However, a substantial proportion of patients with stroke might have auditory dysfunction that has been underestimated due to difficulties with evaluation. The present study reviews relationships between auditory dysfunction and types of CVD including cerebral infarction, intracerebral hemorrhage, subarachnoid hemorrhage, cerebrovascular malformation, moyamoya disease, and superficial siderosis. Recent advances in the etiology, anatomy, and strategies to diagnose and treat these conditions are described. The numbers of patients with CVD accompanied by auditory dysfunction will increase as the population ages. Cerebrovascular diseases often include the auditory system, resulting in various types of auditory dysfunctions, such as unilateral or bilateral deafness, cortical deafness, pure word deafness, auditory agnosia, and auditory hallucinations, some of which are subtle and can only be detected by precise psychoacoustic and electrophysiological testing. The contribution of CVD to auditory dysfunction needs to be understood because CVD can be fatal if overlooked. PMID:25401133

  11. Coping Strategies as Moderators of the Relation between Individual Race-Related Stress and Mental Health Symptoms for African American Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greer, Tawanda M.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to examine coping strategies as moderators of the relationship between individual race-related stress and mental health symptoms among a sample of 128 African American women. Coping strategies refer to efforts used to resolve problems and those used to manage, endure, or alleviate distress. Culture-specific…

  12. Hardiness and Social Support as Predictors of Stress in Mothers of Typical Children, Children with Autism, and Children with Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiss, Mary Jane

    2002-01-01

    One hundred twenty mothers of children with autism, with mental retardation, or typically developing were assessed for effects of social support and hardiness on level of stress. Results indicated significant group differences in ratings of depression, anxiety, somatic complaints and burnout. Both hardiness and social support were predictive of…

  13. The 894G>T endothelial nitric oxide synthase genetic polymorphism affects hemodynamic responses to mental stress performed before and after exercise.

    PubMed

    Rocha, Natália Galito; Neves, Fabricia Junqueira; Silva, Bruno Moreira; Sales, Allan Robson Kluser; Nóbrega, Antonio Claudio

    2012-03-01

    Nitric oxide is the primary mediator of vasodilation during mental stress. Since genetic polymorphisms in the nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) gene seem to impair the production of NO, this study aimed to evaluate the effect of an exercise bout on hemodynamic responses to mental stress in subjects with the 894G>T polymorphism of eNOS. Subjects without (wild-type group; n = 16) or with (polymorphic-type group; n = 19) the 894G>T polymorphism underwent a mental stress challenge before and after a maximal cardiopulmonary exercise test. Blood pressure was measured by auscultation and forearm blood flow by venous occlusion plethysmography. The groups were similar regarding anthropometric, metabolic, resting blood pressure and exercise variables. Before exercise, systolic blood pressure response during mental stress was higher in the polymorphic-type group (∆wild-type: 8.0 ± 2.0% vs. ∆polymorphic-type: 12.5 ± 1.8%, P = 0.01), while the increase in forearm vascular conductance was similar between the groups (∆wild-type 90.8 ± 26.4% vs. ∆polymorphic-type: 86.3 ± 24.1%, P = 0.44). After exercise, the systolic blood pressure at baseline and during mental stress was lower than before exercise in the whole group (P < 0.05), but the pressure response during mental stress was still higher in the polymorphic-type group (∆wild-type: 5.8 ± 1.5% vs. ∆polymorphic-type: 10.2 ± 1.4%, P = 0.01). The increase in forearm vascular conductance was inhibited only in the polymorphic-type group (∆before exercise 86.3 ± 24.1% vs. ∆after exercise: 41.5 ± 12.6%, P = 0.04). In conclusion, these results suggest the 894G>T eNOS polymorphism is associated with altered hemodynamic responses to mental stress both before and after a single bout of dynamic exercise with potential clinical implications.

  14. The Role of Experiential Avoidance in Teacher Stress and Mental Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hinds, Erika D.

    2013-01-01

    Job dissatisfaction in American public school teachers is at its lowest in 20 years. Workplace stress is a primary factor associated with job dissatisfaction, and teachers are exposed to a range of potential stressors including student problem behavior, difficult interpersonal interactions, and job insecurity. Research has shown significant and…

  15. Posttraumatic Stress Disorder, Traumatic Brain Injury, and Suicide Attempt History among Veterans Receiving Mental Health Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brenner, Lisa A.; Betthauser, Lisa M.; Homaifar, Beeta Y.; Villarreal, Edgar; Harwood, Jeri E. F.; Staves, Pamela J.; Huggins, Joseph A.

    2011-01-01

    History of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) or traumatic brain injury (TBI) has been found to increase risk of suicidal behavior. The association between suicide attempt history among veterans with PTSD and/or TBI was explored. Cases (N = 81) and 2:1 matched controls (N = 160) were randomly selected from a Veterans Affairs Medical Center…

  16. The effect of experimentally induced sedentariness on mood and psychobiological responses to mental stress

    PubMed Central

    Endrighi, Romano; Steptoe, Andrew; Hamer, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Background Evidence suggests a link between sedentary behaviours and depressive symptoms. Mechanisms underlying this relationship are not understood, but inflammatory processes may be involved. Autonomic and inflammatory responses to stress may be heightened in sedentary individuals contributing to risk, but no study has experimentally investigated this. Aims To examine the effect of sedentary time on mood and stress responses using an experimental design. Method Forty-three individuals were assigned to a free-living sedentary condition and to a control condition (usual activity) in a cross-over, randomised fashion and were tested in a psychophysiology laboratory after spending 2 weeks in each condition. Participants completed mood questionnaires (General Health Questionnaire and Profile of Mood States) and wore a motion sensor for 4 weeks. Results Sedentary time increased by an average of 32 min/day (P = 0.01) during the experimental condition compared with control. Being sedentary resulted in increases in negative mood independent of changes in moderate to vigorous physical activity (ΔGHQ = 6.23, ΔPOMS = 2.80). Mood disturbances were associated with greater stress-induced inflammatory interleukin-6 (IL-6) responses (β = 0.37). Conclusions Two weeks of exposure to greater free-living sedentary time resulted in mood disturbances independent of reduction in physical activity. Stress-induced IL-6 responses were associated with changes in mood. PMID:26294364

  17. Parenthood, Stress, and Mental Health in Late Midlife and Early Old Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pudrovska, Tetyana

    2009-01-01

    Using 2 waves of the Wisconsin Longitudinal Study, I examine psychological consequences of potentially stressful, non-normative, or "off-time" aspects of the parental role in late midlife and early old age, including coresidence with adult children, stepparenthood, and parental bereavement. Additionally, I analyze gender differences in…

  18. [Hemodynamic adaptations in proximal cerebrovascular occlusion].

    PubMed

    De Ley, G

    1990-01-01

    In order to gain more insight into the pathophysiology of extracerebral cerebrovascular occlusion, the cerebral hemodynamic behaviour after uni- or bilateral carotid occlusion was investigated. In Wistar rats, acute occlusion of one common carotid artery leads to a moderate bilateral lowering of the resting hemispheric brain blood flow; no interhemispheric perfusion asymmetry is observed. During hypercapnia, however, a manyfold increase of the hemispheric blood flow is seen at the intact side, whereas blood flow increase at the side of the occlusion is suppressed indicating that the cerebrovascular reserve at the side of the occlusion is largely used to preserve resting hemispheric perfusion. During the days (1, 5, 15 and 30) following the occlusion, resting hemispheric blood flow is progressively restored rather rapidly (bilateral normalization on the fifth day) whereas restoration of the cerebrovascular reserve (hemispheric blood flow increase in hypercapnia) proceeds more slowly and a nearly normal hypercapnic response is reached on day thirty. Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats (SHR) show structural abnormalities of their blood vessels during the development of hypertension, leading to impaired adaptation possibilities of the cerebral vasculature after unilateral common carotid occlusion. This is indicated by the striking comparability of the compensation of hemispheric cerebral blood flow (in normo- and hypercapnia) of SH rats five days after unilateral carotid occlusion with the cerebral hemodynamic status of normotensive animals already seen 24 hours after the same occlusion. Consecutive bilateral common carotid occlusion shows that survival rate increases by increasing the interval between both occlusions. This survival relation is much more unfavorable in SH rats. The parallelism between the restoration of the measured CO2-reactivity of the blood flow in the involved hemisphere after unilateral carotid occlusion and the evolution of survival rate after

  19. Alzheimer disease and cerebrovascular pathology: an update.

    PubMed

    Jellinger, K A

    2002-05-01

    Recent epidemiological and clinico-pathologic data suggest overlaps between Alzheimer disease (AD) and cerebrovascular lesions that may magnify the effect of mild AD pathology and promote progression of cognitive decline or even may precede neuronal damage and dementia. Vascular pathology in the aging brain and in AD includes: 1. cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA) with an incidence of 82-98% often associated with ApoE epsilon 2 and causing a) cerebral mass hemorrhages (around 70%, mainly in the frontal and parietal lobes), b) multiple or recurrent microhemorrhages (15%), and c) ischemic (micro-)infarcts or lacunes (around 20%). The frequency of these lesions increases with the severity of CAA and shows no correlation with that of senile amyloid plaques. CAA, significantly more frequent in patients with cerebral hemorrhages or infarcts than in aged controls, is an important risk factor for cerebrovascular lesions in AD. 2. Microvascular changes with decreased density and structural abnormalities causing regional metabolic and blood-brain barrier dysfunctions with ensuing neuronal damage. In large autopsy series of demented aged subjects, around 80% show Alzheimer type pathology, 20-40% with additional, often minor vascular lesions, 7-10% "pure" vascular dementia, and 3-5% "mixed" dementia (combination of AD and vascular encephalopathy). AD cases with additional minor cerebrovascular lesions have significantly more frequent histories of hypertension or infarcts than "pure" AD patients. Vascular lesions in AD include cortical microinfarcts, subcortical lacunes, white matter lesions / leukoencephalopathy, small hemorrhages and corticosubcortical infarcts, while in mixed type dementia multiple larger or hemispheral infarcts are more frequent. Small infarcts in AD patients have no essential impact on global cognitive decline which mainly depends on the severity of Alzheimer pathology, but in early stage of AD they may influence and promote the development of dementia

  20. Complexity and time asymmetry of heart rate variability are altered in acute mental stress.

    PubMed

    Visnovcova, Z; Mestanik, M; Javorka, M; Mokra, D; Gala, M; Jurko, A; Calkovska, A; Tonhajzerova, I

    2014-07-01

    We aimed to study the complexity and time asymmetry of short-term heart rate variability (HRV) as an index of complex neurocardiac control in response to stress using symbolic dynamics and time irreversibility methods. ECG was recorded at rest and during and after two stressors (Stroop, arithmetic test) in 70 healthy students. Symbolic dynamics parameters (NUPI, NCI, 0V%, 1V%, 2LV%, 2UV%), and time irreversibility indices (P%, G%, E) were evaluated. Additionally, HRV magnitude was quantified by linear parameters: spectral powers in low (LF) and high frequency (HF) bands. Our results showed a reduction of HRV complexity in stress (lower NUPI with both stressors, lower NCI with Stroop). Pattern classification analysis revealed significantly higher 0V% and lower 2LV% with both stressors, indicating a shift in sympathovagal balance, and significantly higher 1V% and lower 2UV% with Stroop. An unexpected result was found in time irreversibility: significantly lower G% and E with both stressors, P% index significantly declined only with arithmetic test. Linear HRV analysis confirmed vagal withdrawal (lower HF) with both stressors; LF significantly increased with Stroop and decreased with arithmetic test. Correlation analysis revealed no significant associations between symbolic dynamics and time irreversibility. Concluding, symbolic dynamics and time irreversibility could provide independent information related to alterations of neurocardiac control integrity in stress-related disease.

  1. Environmental heat stress enhances mental fatigue during sustained attention task performing: evidence from an ASL perfusion study.

    PubMed

    Qian, Shaowen; Li, Min; Li, Guoying; Liu, Kai; Li, Bo; Jiang, Qingjun; Li, Li; Yang, Zhen; Sun, Gang

    2015-03-01

    This study was to investigate the potential enhancing effect of heat stress on mental fatigue progression during sustained attention task using arterial spin labeling (ASL) imaging. Twenty participants underwent two thermal exposures in an environmental chamber: normothermic (NT) condition (25°C, 1h) and hyperthermic (HT) condition (50°C, 1h). After thermal exposure, they performed a twenty-minute psychomotor vigilance test (PVT) in the scanner. Behavioral analysis revealed progressively increasing subjective fatigue ratings and reaction time as PVT progressed. Moreover, heat stress caused worse performance. Perfusion imaging analyses showed significant resting-state cerebral blood flow (CBF) alterations after heat exposure. Specifically, increased CBF mainly gathered in thalamic-brainstem area while decreased CBF predominantly located in fronto-parietal areas, anterior cingulate cortex, posterior cingulate cortex, and medial frontal cortex. More importantly, diverse CBF distributions and trend of changes between both conditions were observed as the fatigue level progressed during subsequent PVT task. Specifically, higher CBF and enhanced rising trend were presented in superior parietal lobe, precuneus, posterior cingulate cortex and anterior cingulate cortex, while lower CBF or inhibited rising trend was found in dorsolateral frontal cortex, medial frontal cortex, inferior parietal lobe and thalamic-brainstem areas. Furthermore, the decrease of post-heat resting-state CBF in fronto-parietal cortex was correlated with subsequent slower reaction time, suggesting prior disturbed resting-state CBF might be indicator of performance potential and fatigue level in following task. These findings may provide proof for such a view: heat stress has a potential fatigue-enhancing effect when individual is performing highly cognition-demanding attention task.

  2. Cerebrovascular endothelial dysfunction induced by mercury exposure at low concentrations.

    PubMed

    Wiggers, Giulia Alessandra; Furieri, Lorena Barros; Briones, Ana María; Avendaño, María Soledad; Peçanha, Franck Maciel; Vassallo, Dalton Valentim; Salaices, Mercedes; Alonso, María Jesús

    2016-03-01

    Mercury (Hg) has many harmful vascular effects by increasing oxidative stress, inflammation and vascular/endothelial dysfunction, all of which may contribute to cerebrovascular diseases development. We aimed to explore the effects of chronic low-mercury concentration on vascular function in cerebral arteries and the mechanisms involved. Basilar arteries from control (vehicle-saline solution, im) and mercury chloride (HgCl2)-treated rats for 30 days (first dose 4.6μg/kg, subsequent dose 0.07μg/kg/day, im, to cover daily loss) were used. Vascular reactivity, protein expression, nitric oxide (NO) levels and superoxide anion (O2(-)) production were analyzed. HgCl2 exposure increased serotonin contraction and reduced the endothelium-dependent vasodilatation to bradykinin. After NO synthase inhibition, serotonin responses were enhanced more in control than in mercury-treated rats while bradykinin-induced relaxation was abolished. NO levels were greater in control than Hg-treated rats. Tiron and indomethacin reduced vasoconstriction and increased the bradykinin-induced relaxation only in HgCl2-treated rats. Vascular O2(-) production was greater in mercury-treated when compared to control rats. Protein expressions of endothelial NO synthase, copper/zinc (Cu/Zn), Manganese (Mn) and extracellular-superoxide dismutases were similar in cerebral arteries from both groups. Results suggest that Hg treatment increases cerebrovascular reactivity by reducing endothelial negative modulation and NO bioavailability; this effect seems to be dependent on increased reactive oxygen species and prostanoids generation. These findings show, for the first time, that brain vasculature are also affected by chronic mercury exposure and offer further evidence that even at small concentration, HgCl2 is hazardous and might be an environmental risk factor accounting for cerebral vasospasm development.

  3. Magnetic resonance imaging findings in patients with delusional disorder due to diffuse cerebrovascular disease: a report of seven cases.

    PubMed

    Su, K P; Hsu, C Y; Hsieh, S C; Shen, W W

    2001-04-01

    Delusions associated with cerebrovascular diseases have been sporadically reported. Although both psychiatrists and neurologists attempted to link delusions with anatomical locations of the brain lesion, comorbid psychiatric and neurological disorders make the interpretation of delusions difficult. The purpose of the present paper is to report the clinical features and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) characteristics in patients with delusional disorder due to diffuse cerebrovascular diseases, and to redefine the concept of 'vascular delusion'. The clinical features and MRI findings were reviewed retrospectively in a series of seven patients with 'delusional disorder due to cerebrovascular disease' as defined in Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSMIV). The average age of onset is 64. No patient had a prior personal or family history of major psychiatric illness. The illness is presented as acute, subacute or stepwise course. Hypertension was present in all patients. Two had diabetes mellitus, and one had atrial fibrillation. Three had clinical evidence of previous cerebrovascular attacks, only one showed minor neurological deficits. Three had diffuse cortical slow wave in electroencephalogram. No patient had significant cognitive impairment but had multiple cortical and subcortical cerebrovascular lesions in MRI, with white-matter lesions (WML) in bilateral frontal areas. Delusional disorder due to diffuse cerebrovascular change is characterized by late-onset, stepwise course, and comorbid medical and neurological diseases. The results of vascular changes in the present study did not establish a cause-effect relationship and should be considered as multifactorial in pathogenesis. The findings suggested the hypothesis of neural circuit theory. Further studies in larger numbers of patients and newer neuroimaging techniques are needed to expand the knowledge learned from these findings.

  4. Experiencing Lifetime Domestic Violence: Associations with Mental Health and Stress among Pregnant Women in Rural Bangladesh: The MINIMat Randomized Trial

    PubMed Central

    Frith, Amy Lynn; Ekström, Eva-Charlotte; Naved, Ruchira Tabassum

    2016-01-01

    Background Experience of domestic violence has negative mental health consequences for women. The association of cumulative and specific forms of domestic violence, particularly emotional violence and controlling behavior, with common mental disorders and stress has rarely been studied in pregnant women. The aim of this study is to evaluate associations of specific and multiple forms of lifetime domestic violence and controlling behavior with distress and cortisol level during pregnancy in rural Bangladeshi women. Methods and findings In this observational sub-study of larger MINIMat trial, 3504 pregnant women were interviewed using a shortened Conflict Tactic Scale about their lifetime experience of domestic violence including physical, sexual, emotional domestic violence and controlling behavior. Women’s levels of emotional distress were assessed using the self-reported questionnaire (SRQ-20) developed by WHO, and levels of morning salivary cortisol were measured in a subsample (n = 1300) of women during week 28–32 of pregnancy. Regression analyses were used to estimate the associations of lifetime physical, sexual, emotional domestic violence and controlling behavior with levels of distress and cortisol during pregnancy. The prevalence of lifetime domestic violence was 57% and emotional distress was 35% in these pregnant women. All forms of domestic violence were associated with higher levels of emotional distress. Women who experienced either emotional violence or controlling behavior had the highest levels of emotional distress. There was a dose-response relationship between cumulative number of the different forms of domestic violence and women’s levels of emotional distress. There was no association between women’s experience of domestic violence and level of morning salivary cortisol. Conclusion Including emotional violence and controlling behavior as major types of violence in future research and health interventions is warranted. Furthermore, the

  5. Posttraumatic stress disorder, traumatic brain injury, and suicide attempt history among veterans receiving mental health services.

    PubMed

    Brenner, Lisa A; Betthauser, Lisa M; Homaifar, Beeta Y; Villarreal, Edgar; Harwood, Jeri E F; Staves, Pamela J; Huggins, Joseph A

    2011-08-01

    History of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) or traumatic brain injury (TBI) has been found to increase risk of suicidal behavior. The association between suicide attempt history among veterans with PTSD and/or TBI was explored. Cases (N = 81) and 2:1 matched controls (N = 160) were randomly selected from a Veterans Affairs Medical Center clinical database. PTSD history was associated with an increased risk for a suicide attempt (OR = 2.8; 95% CI: 1.5, 5.1). This increased risk was present for those with and without a history of TBI. Results support incorporating PTSD history when assessing suicide risk among veterans with and without TBI.

  6. Simultaneous cerebrovascular and cardiovascular responses during presyncope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bondar, R. L.; Kassam, M. S.; Stein, F.; Dunphy, P. T.; Fortney, S.; Riedesel, M. L.

    1995-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Presyncope, characterized by symptoms and signs indicative of imminent syncope, can be aborted in many situations before loss of consciousness occurs. The plasticity of cerebral autoregulation in healthy humans and its behavior during this syncopal prodrome are unclear, although systemic hemodynamic instability has been suggested as a key factor in the precipitation of syncope. Using lower body negative pressure (LBNP) to simulate central hypovolemia, we previously observed falling mean flow velocities (MFVs) with maintained mean arterial blood pressure (MABP). These findings, and recent reports suggesting increased vascular tone within the cerebral vasculature at presyncope, cannot be explained by the classic static cerebral autoregulation curve; neither can they be totally explained by a recent suggestion of a rightward shift in this curve. METHODS: Four male and five female healthy volunteers were exposed to presyncopal LBNP to evaluate their cerebrovascular and cardiovascular responses by use of continuous acquisition of MFV from the right middle cerebral artery with transcranial Doppler sonography, MABP (Finapres), and heart rate (ECG). RESULTS: At presyncope, MFV dropped on average by 27.3 +/- 14% of its baseline value (P < .05), while MABP remained at 2.0 +/- 27% above its baseline level. Estimated cerebrovascular resistance increased during LBNP. The percentage change from baseline to presyncope in MFV and MABP revealed consistent decreases in MFV before MABP. CONCLUSIONS: Increased estimated cerebrovascular resistance, falling MFV, and constant MABP are evidence of an increase in cerebral vascular tone with falling flow, suggesting a downward shift in the cerebral autoregulation curve. Cerebral vessels may have a differential sensitivity to sympathetic drive or more than one type of sympathetic innervation. Future work to induce dynamic changes in MABP during LBNP may help in assessing the plasticity of the cerebral autoregulation

  7. Wearable Biomedical Measurement Systems for Assessment of Mental Stress of Combatants in Real Time

    PubMed Central

    Seoane, Fernando; Mohino-Herranz, Inmaculada; Ferreira, Javier; Alvarez, Lorena; Buendia, Ruben; Ayllón, David; Llerena, Cosme; Gil-Pita, Roberto

    2014-01-01

    The Spanish Ministry of Defense, through its Future Combatant program, has sought to develop technology aids with the aim of extending combatants' operational capabilities. Within this framework the ATREC project funded by the “Coincidente” program aims at analyzing diverse biometrics to assess by real time monitoring the stress levels of combatants. This project combines multidisciplinary disciplines and fields, including wearable instrumentation, textile technology, signal processing, pattern recognition and psychological analysis of the obtained information. In this work the ATREC project is described, including the different execution phases, the wearable biomedical measurement systems, the experimental setup, the biomedical signal analysis and speech processing performed. The preliminary results obtained from the data analysis collected during the first phase of the project are presented, indicating the good classification performance exhibited when using features obtained from electrocardiographic recordings and electrical bioimpedance measurements from the thorax. These results suggest that cardiac and respiration activity offer better biomarkers for assessment of stress than speech, galvanic skin response or skin temperature when recorded with wearable biomedical measurement systems. PMID:24759113

  8. Wearable biomedical measurement systems for assessment of mental stress of combatants in real time.

    PubMed

    Seoane, Fernando; Mohino-Herranz, Inmaculada; Ferreira, Javier; Alvarez, Lorena; Buendia, Ruben; Ayllón, David; Llerena, Cosme; Gil-Pita, Roberto

    2014-04-22

    The Spanish Ministry of Defense, through its Future Combatant program, has sought to develop technology aids with the aim of extending combatants' operational capabilities. Within this framework the ATREC project funded by the "Coincidente" program aims at analyzing diverse biometrics to assess by real time monitoring the stress levels of combatants. This project combines multidisciplinary disciplines and fields, including wearable instrumentation, textile technology, signal processing, pattern recognition and psychological analysis of the obtained information. In this work the ATREC project is described, including the different execution phases, the wearable biomedical measurement systems, the experimental setup, the biomedical signal analysis and speech processing performed. The preliminary results obtained from the data analysis collected during the first phase of the project are presented, indicating the good classification performance exhibited when using features obtained from electrocardiographic recordings and electrical bioimpedance measurements from the thorax. These results suggest that cardiac and respiration activity offer better biomarkers for assessment of stress than speech, galvanic skin response or skin temperature when recorded with wearable biomedical measurement systems.

  9. Sub-threshold Post Traumatic Stress Disorder in the WHO World Mental Health Surveys

    PubMed Central

    McLaughlin, Katie A.; Koenen, Karestan C.; Friedman, Matthew J.; Ruscio, Ayelet Meron; Karam, Elie G.; Shahly, Victoria; Stein, Dan J.; Hill, Eric D.; Petukhova, Maria; Alonso, Jordi; Andrade, Laura Helena; Angermeyer, Matthias C.; Borges, Guilherme; de Girolamo, Giovanni; de Graaf, Ron; Demyttenaere, Koen; Florescu, Silvia E.; Mladenova, Maya; Posada-Villa, Jose; Scott, Kate M.; Takeshima, Tadashi; Kessler, Ronald C.

    2014-01-01

    Background Although only a minority of people exposed to a traumatic event (TE) develops PTSD, symptoms not meeting full PTSD criteria are common and often clinically significant. Individuals with these symptoms have sometimes been characterized as having sub-threshold PTSD, but no consensus exists on the optimal definition of this term. Data from a large cross-national epidemiological survey are used to provide a principled basis for such a definition. Methods The WHO World Mental Health (WMH) Surveys administered fully-structured psychiatric diagnostic interviews to community samples in 13 countries containing assessments of PTSD associated with randomly selected TEs. Focusing on the 23,936 respondents reporting lifetime TE exposure, associations of approximated DSM-5 PTSD symptom profiles with six outcomes (distress-impairment, suicidality, comorbid fear-distress disorders, PTSD symptom duration) were examined to investigate implications of different sub-threshold definitions. Results Although consistently highest distress-impairment, suicidality, comorbidity, and symptom duration were observed among the 3.0% of respondents with DSM-5 PTSD than other symptom profiles, the additional 3.6% of respondents meeting two or three of DSM-5 Criteria BE also had significantly elevated scores for most outcomes. The proportion of cases with threshold versus sub-threshold PTSD varied depending on TE type, with threshold PTSD more common following interpersonal violence and sub-threshold PTSD more common following events happening to loved ones. Conclusions Sub-threshold DSM-5 PTSD is most usefully defined as meeting two or three of the DSM-5 Criteria B-E. Use of a consistent definition is critical to advance understanding of the prevalence, predictors, and clinical significance of sub-threshold PTSD. PMID:24842116

  10. [Evaluation of mental stress tests among medical students based on salivary sample collected just before the national license examination].

    PubMed

    Ushiki, Kazumi; Sato, Yuka; Arai, Katsuya; Ide, Norihumi; Matsui, Naoki; Handa, Hiroshi; Murakami, Hirokazu; Ogawara, Hatsue

    2011-02-01

    We investigated salivary amylase (sAMY) and chromogranin A (sCgA) in students before the national license examination in order to investigate the relationship between stress biomarkers and the Profile of Mood States (POMS) psychological test. Fifty-one medical students that provided informed consent were tested for sAMY activity and sCgA concentration by means of the amylase monitor method (NIPRO) and an ELISA kit (Yanaihara), respectively. The POMS psychology test (shortened form) was purchased from Chiba Test Center, and all students fully answered the lifestyle questionnaires. Based on answers to the questionnaires, students were divided by mental burden into three groups: I all"; II "large"; and III "very large". Scores for "T-A", "D" and "A-H" on the POMS test were significantly higher in groups II and III when compared with group I. Mean TMD scores calculated from the 6 items on the POMS test increased significantly with mental burden. The mean levels and 95% confidence interval (CI) of sAMY activity in the 3 groups were as follows: I, 27.7 (95% CI: 13.7-41.7) KIU/L; II, 29.1(95% CI: 22.4-35.7) KIU/L; and III, 26.9 (95% CI: 15.2-38.6) KIU/L. Mean sCgA concentrations were: I, 4.4(95% CI: 0-9.4) pmol/mg; II, 4.3(95% CI: 2.0-6.7) pmol/mg; and III, 10.9 (95% CI: 6.8-15.0) pmol/mg. There were no significant differences between these mean levels. However, Spearman's rank-correlation coefficient analysis for "T-A", sAMY and sCgA showed a stronger correlation between "T-A" and sCgA than between "T-A" and sAMY (p < 0.05). In conclusion, sCgA was more useful biomarker to evaluate the psychological stress before the national license examination than sAMY.

  11. Aerobic exercise acutely prevents the endothelial dysfunction induced by mental stress among subjects with metabolic syndrome: the role of shear rate.

    PubMed

    Sales, Allan R K; Fernandes, Igor A; Rocha, Natália G; Costa, Lucas S; Rocha, Helena N M; Mattos, João D M; Vianna, Lauro C; Silva, Bruno M; Nóbrega, Antonio C L

    2014-04-01

    Mental stress induces transient endothelial dysfunction, which is an important finding for subjects at cardiometabolic risk. Thus, we tested whether aerobic exercise prevents this dysfunction among subjects with metabolic syndrome (MetS) and whether an increase in shear rate during exercise plays a role in this phenomenon. Subjects with MetS participated in two protocols. In protocol 1 (n = 16), endothelial function was assessed using brachial artery flow-mediated dilation (FMD). Subjects then underwent a mental stress test followed by either 40 min of leg cycling or rest across two randomized sessions. FMD was assessed again at 30 and 60 min after exercise or rest, with a second mental stress test in between. Mental stress reduced FMD at 30 and 60 min after the rest session (baseline: 7.7 ± 0.4%, 30 min: 5.4 ± 0.5%, and 60 min: 3.9 ± 0.5%, P < 0.05 vs. baseline), whereas exercise prevented this reduction (baseline: 7.5 ± 0.4%, 30 min: 7.2 ± 0.7%, and 60 min: 8.7 ± 0.8%, P > 0.05 vs. baseline). Protocol 2 (n = 5) was similar to protocol 1 except that the first period of mental stress was followed by either exercise in which the brachial artery shear rate was attenuated via forearm cuff inflation or exercise without a cuff. Noncuffed exercise prevented the reduction in FMD (baseline: 7.5 ± 0.7%, 30 min: 7.0 ± 0.7%, and 60 min: 8.7 ± 0.8%, P > 0.05 vs. baseline), whereas cuffed exercise failed to prevent this reduction (baseline: 7.5 ± 0.6%, 30 min: 5.4 ± 0.8%, and 60 min: 4.1 ± 0.9%, P < 0.05 vs. baseline). In conclusion, exercise prevented mental stress-induced endothelial dysfunction among subjects with MetS, and an increase in shear rate during exercise mediated this effect.

  12. Physical and mental health outcomes of prenatal maternal stress in human and animal studies: a review of recent evidence.

    PubMed

    Beydoun, Hind; Saftlas, Audrey F

    2008-09-01

    Prenatal maternal stress (PNMS) has been linked with adverse health outcomes in the offspring through experimental studies using animal models and epidemiological studies of human populations. The purpose of this review article is to establish a parallel between animal and human studies, while focusing on methodological issues and gaps in knowledge. The review examines the quality of recent evidence for prevailing PNMS theoretical models, namely the biopsychosocial model for adverse pregnancy outcomes and the fetal programming model for chronic diseases. The investigators used PubMed (2000-06) to identify recently published original articles in the English language literature. A total of 103 (60 human and 43 animal) studies were examined. Most human studies originated from developed countries, thus limiting generalisability to developing nations. Most animal studies were conducted on non-primates, rendering extrapolation of findings to pregnant women less straightforward. PNMS definition and measurement were heterogeneous across studies examining similar research questions, thus precluding the conduct of meta-analyses. In human studies, physical health outcomes were often restricted to birth complications while mental health outcomes included postnatal developmental disorders and psychiatric conditions in children, adolescents and adults. Diverse health outcomes were considered in animal studies, some being useful models for depression, schizophrenia or attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in human populations. The overall evidence is consistent with independent effects of PNMS on perinatal and postnatal outcomes. Intervention studies and large population-based cohort studies combining repeated multi-dimensional and standardised PNMS measurements with biomarkers of stress are needed to further understand PNMS aetiology and pathophysiology in human populations.

  13. Cardiovascular and Cerebrovascular Control on Return from ISS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hughson, Richard Lee; Shoemaker, Joel Kevin; Blaber, Andrew Philip; Arbeille, Philippe; Greaves, Danielle Kathleen

    2008-01-01

    Cardiovascular and Cerebrovascular Control on Return from ISS (CCISS) will study the effects of long-duration spaceflight on crew members' heart functions and their blood vessels that supply the brain. Learning more about the cardiovascular and cerebrovascular systems could lead to specific countermeasures that might better protect future space travelers. This experiment is collaborative with the Canadian Space Agency.

  14. Cerebrovascular disease in Utah, 1968--1971.

    PubMed

    Lyon, J L; Bishop, C T; Nielsen, N S

    1981-01-01

    Utah mortality rates for cerebrovascular disease (ICD numbers 430--438) are 13% below U.S. rates. About 70% of Utahns are members of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, commonly called Mormons of LDS, which proscribes use of tobacco and alcohol. Other studies on this group have found significantly lower occurrence of many cancers and ischemic heart disease. We tested the hypothesis that Utah's lower cerebrovascular disease (CBVD) mortality was contributed by the LDS population. We classified by religion all CBVD deaths (2,521) (except subarachnoid hemorrhage and cerebral embolism) occurring in the state in 1968--1971. No significant difference was found between LDS and non-LDS, but both groups had mortality rates below U.S. expectation. Although recent studies have reported smoking to be a risk factor for CBVD, we found no consistent difference between the LDS and non-LDS, even in the younger age groups. The results do not support the hypothesis that tobacco is an important etiologic agent in CBVD mortality.

  15. Factors affecting the determination of cerebrovascular reactivity

    PubMed Central

    Regan, Rosemary E; Fisher, Joseph A; Duffin, James

    2014-01-01

    Background and Purpose Cerebrovascular reactivity (CVR), measures the ability of the cerebrovasculature to respond to vasoactive stimuli such as CO2. CVR is often expressed as the ratio of cerebral blood flow change to CO2 change. We examine several factors affecting this measurement: blood pressure, stimulus pattern, response analysis and subject position. Methods Step and ramp increases in CO2 were implemented in nine subjects, seated and supine. Middle cerebral artery blood flow velocity (MCAv), and mean arterial pressure (MAP) were determined breath-by-breath. Cerebrovascular conductance (MCAc) was estimated as MCAv/MAP. CVR was calculated from both the relative and absolute measures of MCAc and MCAv responses. Results MAP increased with CO2 in some subjects so that relative CVR calculated from conductance responses were less than those calculated from CVR calculated from velocity responses. CVR measured from step responses were affected by the response dynamics, and were less than those calculated from CVR measured from ramp responses. Subject position did not affect CVR. Conclusions (1) MAP increases with CO2 and acts as a confounding factor for CVR measurement; (2) CVR depends on the stimulus pattern used; (3) CVR did not differ from the sitting versus supine in these experiments; (4) CVR calculated from absolute changes of MCAv was less than that calculated from relative changes. PMID:25328852

  16. Differential Gene Expression in Human Cerebrovascular Malformations

    PubMed Central

    Shenkar, Robert; Elliott, J. Paul; Diener, Katrina; Gault, Judith; Hu, Ling-Jia; Cohrs, Randall J.; Phang, Tzulip; Hunter, Lawrence; Breeze, Robert E.; Awad, Issam A.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE We sought to identify genes with differential expression in cerebral cavernous malformations (CCMs), arteriovenous malformations (AVMs), and control superficial temporal arteries (STAs) and to confirm differential expression of genes previously implicated in the pathobiology of these lesions. METHODS Total ribonucleic acid was isolated from four CCM, four AVM, and three STA surgical specimens and used to quantify lesion-specific messenger ribonucleic acid expression levels on human gene arrays. Data were analyzed with the use of two separate methodologies: gene discovery and confirmation analysis. RESULTS The gene discovery method identified 42 genes that were significantly up-regulated and 36 genes that were significantly down-regulated in CCMs as compared with AVMs and STAs (P = 0.006). Similarly, 48 genes were significantly up-regulated and 59 genes were significantly down-regulated in AVMs as compared with CCMs and STAs (P = 0.006). The confirmation analysis showed significant differential expression (P < 0.05) in 11 of 15 genes (angiogenesis factors, receptors, and structural proteins) that previously had been reported to be expressed differentially in CCMs and AVMs in immunohistochemical analysis. CONCLUSION We identify numerous genes that are differentially expressed in CCMs and AVMs and correlate expression with the immunohistochemistry of genes implicated in cerebrovascular malformations. In future efforts, we will aim to confirm candidate genes specifically related to the pathobiology of cerebrovascular malformations and determine their biological systems and mechanistic relevance. PMID:12535382

  17. Viewing nature scenes positively affects recovery of autonomic function following acute-mental stress.

    PubMed

    Brown, Daniel K; Barton, Jo L; Gladwell, Valerie F

    2013-06-04

    A randomized crossover study explored whether viewing different scenes prior to a stressor altered autonomic function during the recovery from the stressor. The two scenes were (a) nature (composed of trees, grass, fields) or (b) built (composed of man-made, urban scenes lacking natural characteristics) environments. Autonomic function was assessed using noninvasive techniques of heart rate variability; in particular, time domain analyses evaluated parasympathetic activity, using root-mean-square of successive differences (RMSSD). During stress, secondary cardiovascular markers (heart rate, systolic and diastolic blood pressure) showed significant increases from baseline which did not differ between the two viewing conditions. Parasympathetic activity, however, was significantly higher in recovery following the stressor in the viewing scenes of nature condition compared to viewing scenes depicting built environments (RMSSD; 50.0 ± 31.3 vs 34.8 ± 14.8 ms). Thus, viewing nature scenes prior to a stressor alters autonomic activity in the recovery period. The secondary aim was to examine autonomic function during viewing of the two scenes. Standard deviation of R-R intervals (SDRR), as change from baseline, during the first 5 min of viewing nature scenes was greater than during built scenes. Overall, this suggests that nature can elicit improvements in the recovery process following a stressor.

  18. Post-traumatic Stress and Trauma-Related Subjective Distress: Comparisons Among Hispanics, African-Americans, and Whites with Severe Mental Illness.

    PubMed

    O'Hare, Thomas; Shen, Ce; Sherrer, Margaret V

    2017-02-06

    We tested the hypothesis with a sample of community mental health clients (N = 132) that Hispanic clients would report significantly greater post-traumatic stress symptoms than African-American or white clients when controlling for gender, psychiatric symptoms of SMI, and subjective distress from six of the most commonly reported trauma in the SMI literature. Results supported our main hypothesis: being self-identified as Hispanic was significantly associated with greater post-traumatic stress symptoms. Subjective distress from having been sexually abused along with being "Hispanic" were the only two significant variables left in the equation. Limitations of this study include its modest sample size.

  19. Meaning, Resilience, and Traumatic Stress After the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill: A Study of Mississippi Coastal Residents Seeking Mental Health Services.

    PubMed

    Aiena, Bethany J; Buchanan, Erin M; Smith, C Veronica; Schulenberg, Stefan E

    2016-12-01

    The present study examines the relationship between resilience, perceived meaning in life, and traumatic stress symptoms among coastal residents of Mississippi directly affected by the Deepwater Horizon oil spill (also known as the Gulf oil spill). The study was conducted as part of a larger project that assessed the spill's effect on the mental health of individuals seeking therapeutic services. Multiple regression analyses were conducted to determine if resilience and perceived meaning are significant predictors of scores from a measure of posttraumatic stress. Descriptive data, reliability coefficients, and correlations were also calculated. Higher levels of resilience and meaning together were predictive of fewer posttraumatic stress symptoms after controlling for the effect of the spill. Resilience and meaning appeared to be similar predictors of lower posttraumatic stress scores, and meaning appears to be an important facet of what makes a person resilient.

  20. Cardiovascular Reactivity in Patients With Major Depressive Disorder With High- or Low-Level Depressive Symptoms: A Cross-Sectional Comparison of Cardiovascular Reactivity to Laboratory-Induced Mental Stress.

    PubMed

    Wang, Mei-Yeh; Chiu, Chen-Huan; Lee, Hsin-Chien; Su, Chien-Tien; Tsai, Pei-Shan

    2016-03-01

    Depression increases the risk of adverse cardiac events. Cardiovascular reactivity is defined as the pattern of cardiovascular responses to mental stress. An altered pattern of cardiovascular reactivity is an indicator of subsequent cardiovascular disease. Because depression and adverse cardiac events may have a dose-dependent association, this study examined the differences in cardiovascular reactivity to mental stress between patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) with high depression levels and those with low depression levels. Moreover, autonomic nervous system regulation is a highly plausible biological mechanism for the pattern of cardiovascular reactivity to mental stress. The association between cardiovascular reactivity and parameters of heart rate variability (HRV), an index for quantifying autonomic nervous system activity modulation, was thus examined. This study included 88 patients with MDD. HRV was measured before stress induction. The Stroop Color and Word Test and mirror star-tracing task were used to induce mental stress. We observed no significant association between depressive symptom level and any of the cardiovascular reactivity parameters. Cardiovascular reactivity to mental stress was comparable between patients with MDD with high-level depressive symptoms and those with low-level depressive symptoms. After adjusting for confounding variables, the high-frequency domain of HRV was found to be an independent predictor of the magnitude of heart rate reactivity (β = -.33, p = .002). In conclusion, the magnitude of cardiovascular reactivity may be independent of depression severity in patients with MDD. The autonomic regulation of cardiovascular responses to mental stress primarily influences heart rate reactivity in patients with MDD.

  1. Patent foramen ovale and cerebrovascular diseases.

    PubMed

    Desai, Amish J; Fuller, Cindy J; Jesurum, Jill T; Reisman, Mark

    2006-08-01

    Patent foramen ovale (PFO) has been linked to ischemic strokes of undetermined cause (cryptogenic strokes). PFO-a remnant of fetal circulation when the foramen ovale does not seal after birth-can permit microemboli to escape the pulmonary filter into the intracranial circulation, causing stroke. Coexistent atrial septal aneurysm, pelvic deep vein thrombosis and inherited clotting factor deficiencies could potentiate stroke risk in patients with PFO. Transcatheter PFO closure, a minimally invasive procedure, is one technique used to prevent recurrent cerebrovascular events. A connection between PFO and migraine headache has been conceptualized from retrospective evidence of reduced migraine frequency and severity after PFO closure; however, prospective randomized trials are needed to verify the efficacy of PFO closure on migraine prevention. In this review we discuss embryologic origins, diagnostic techniques and treatment options for prevention of paradoxical embolism thought to be related to PFO, and the relation of PFO to cryptogenic stroke and migraine.

  2. Cysticercosis and cerebrovascular disease: a review.

    PubMed Central

    Del Brutto, O H

    1992-01-01

    Ischaemic cerebrovascular disease is a relatively common but under-recognised complication of neurocysticercosis. It is usually caused by inflammatory occlusion of the arteries at the base of the brain secondary to cysticercotic arachnoiditis. In most cases, the involved vessels are of small diameter and the neurological picture is limited to a lacunar syndrome secondary to a small cerebral infarct. However, large infarcts related to the occlusion of the middle cerebral artery or even the internal carotid artery have also been reported in this setting. CT and CSF examination usually support the cause-and-effect relationship between neurocysticercosis and the cerebral infarct by showing abnormalities compatible with cysticercotic arachnoiditis. An accurate diagnosis of this condition is important since early treatment with steroids is advised to ameliorate the subarachnoid inflammatory reaction which may cause recurrent cerebral infarcts. PMID:1583508

  3. Role of Nrf2 and protective effects of Metformin against tobacco smoke-induced cerebrovascular toxicity.

    PubMed

    Prasad, Shikha; Sajja, Ravi K; Kaisar, Mohammad Abul; Park, Jee Hyun; Villalba, Heidi; Liles, Taylor; Abbruscato, Thomas; Cucullo, Luca

    2017-02-12

    Cigarette smoking (CS) is associated with vascular endothelial dysfunction in a causative way primarily related to the TS content of reactive oxygen species (ROS), nicotine, and inflammation. TS promotes glucose intolerance and increases the risk of developing type-2 diabetes mellitus (2DM) with which it shares other pathogenic traits including the high risk of cerebrovascular and neurological disorders like stroke via ROS generation, inflammation, and blood-brain barrier (BBB) impairment. Herein we provide evidence of the role played by nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor (Nrf2) in CS-induced cerebrobvascular/BBB impairments and how these cerebrovascular harmful effects can be circumvented by the use of metformin (MF; a widely prescribed, firstline anti-diabetic drug) treatment. Our data in fact revealed that MF activates counteractive mechanisms primarily associated with the Nrf2 pathway which drastically reduce CS toxicity at the cerebrovascular level. These include the suppression of tight junction (TJ) protein downregulation and loss of BBB integrity induced by CS, reduction of inflammation and oxidative stress, renormalization of the expression levels of the major BBB glucose transporter Glut-1 and that of the anticoagulant factor thrombomodulin. Further, we provide additional insights on the controversial interplay between Nrf2 and AMPK.

  4. Experience of emotional stress and resilience in street-involved youth: the need for early mental health intervention.

    PubMed

    McCay, Elizabeth

    2011-01-01

    Mental illness left untreated in adolescence and young adulthood can readily become a chronic illness in adulthood, seriously hampering the capacity of individuals to become healthy contributing members of society. Mental health challenges are of paramount importance to the health and well-being of Canadian adolescents and young adults, with 18% of Canadian youth, ages 15-24, reporting a mental illness (Leitch 2007). However, it is unlikely that this statistic accounts for those invisible youth (Rachlis et al. 2009) who are disconnected from families and caregivers, bereft of stable housing and familial support - in other words, youth who are street-involved. Mental health risk is amplified in street-involved youth and, as such, must be recognized as a priority for policy development that commits to accessible mental health programming, in order to realize the potential of these vulnerable youth.

  5. Dietary Supplementation with a Superoxide Dismutase-Melon Concentrate Reduces Stress, Physical and Mental Fatigue in Healthy People: A Randomised, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Carillon, Julie; Notin, Claire; Schmitt, Karine; Simoneau, Guy; Lacan, Dominique

    2014-01-01

    Background: We aimed to investigate effects of superoxide dismutase (SOD)-melon concentrate supplementation on psychological stress, physical and mental fatigue in healthy people. Methods: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial was performed on 61 people divided in two groups: active supplement (n = 32) and placebo (n = 29) for 12 weeks. Volunteers were given one small hard capsule per day. One capsule contained 10 mg of SOD-melon concentrate (140 U of SOD) and starch for the active supplement and starch only for the placebo. Stress and fatigue were evaluated using four psychometric scales: PSS-14; SF-36; Stroop tests and Prevost scale. Results: The supplementation with SOD-melon concentrate significantly decreased perceived stress, compared to placebo. Moreover, quality of life was improved and physical and mental fatigue were reduced with SOD-melon concentrate supplementation. Conclusion: SOD-melon concentrate supplementation appears to be an effective and natural way to reduce stress and fatigue. Trial registration: trial approved by the ethical committee of Poitiers (France), and the ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier is NCT01767922. PMID:24949549

  6. A feed-forward mechanism involving Drosophila fragile X mental retardation protein triggers a replication stress-induced DNA damage response.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wenxin; Cheng, Ying; Li, Yujing; Chen, Zhenping; Jin, Peng; Chen, Dahua

    2014-10-01

    Fragile X syndrome, a common form of inherited mental retardation, is caused by loss of the fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP). As a selective RNA-binding protein, FMRP is localized predominately in cytoplasm, where it regulates translational control. However, there is a small portion of FMRP present in the nucleus, and its function there has been elusive. Here, we show that Drosophila dFMR1 in nucleus is required for replication stress-induced H2Av phosphorylation in the DNA damage response (DDR). Replication stress could induce the expression of dFmr1 and promote the nuclear accumulation of dFMR1. We show that, upon the stimulation of replication stress, dFMR1 is associated with chromatin in a domain-specific manner, which is essential for its ability to induce the phosphorylation of H2Av. These results together reveal an unexpected nuclear role of FMRP in DDR and uncover a feed-forward mechanism by which dFmr1 and early DDR induced by replication stress reciprocally regulate each other, thereby synergistically triggering activity of the DDR signaling cascade.

  7. Qualified and Unqualified (N-R C) mental health nursing staff - minor differences in sources of stress and burnout. A European multi-centre study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Unqualified/non-registered caregivers (N-R Cs) will continue to play important roles in the mental health services. This study compares levels of burnout and sources of stress among qualified and N-R Cs working in acute mental health care. Methods A total of 196 nursing staff - 124 qualified staff (mainly nurses) and 72 N-R Cs with a variety of different educational backgrounds - working in acute wards or community mental teams from 5 European countries filled out the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI), the Mental Health Professional Scale (MHPSS) and the Psychosocial Work Environment and Stress Questionnaire (PWSQ). Results (a) The univariate differences were generally small and restricted to a few variables. Only Social relations (N-R Cs being less satisfied) at Work demands (nurses reporting higher demands) were different at the .05 level. (b) The absolute scores both groups was highest on variables that measured feelings of not being able to influence a work situation characterised by great demands and insufficient resources. Routines and educational programs for dealing with stress should be available on a routine basis. (c) Multivariate analyses identified three extreme groups: (i) a small group dominated by unqualified staff with high depersonalization, (ii) a large group that was low on depersonalisation and high on work demands with a majority of qualified staff, and (iii) a small N-R C-dominated group (low depersonalization, low work demands) with high scores on professional self-doubt. In contrast to (ii) the small and N-R C-dominated groups in (i) and (iii) reflected mainly centre-dependent problems. Conclusion The differences in burnout and sources of stress between the two groups were generally small. With the exception of high work demands the main differences between the two groups appeared to be centre-dependent. High work demands characterized primarily qualified staff. The main implication of the study is that no special measures

  8. Prevalence of, risk factors for, and consequences of posttraumatic stress disorder and other mental health problems in military populations deployed to Iraq and Afghanistan.

    PubMed

    Ramchand, Rajeev; Rudavsky, Rena; Grant, Sean; Tanielian, Terri; Jaycox, Lisa

    2015-05-01

    This review summarizes the epidemiology of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and related mental health problems among persons who served in the armed forces during the Iraq and Afghanistan conflicts, as reflected in the literature published between 2009 and 2014. One-hundred and sixteen research studies are reviewed, most of which are among non-treatment-seeking US service members or treatment-seeking US veterans. Evidence is provided for demographic, military, and deployment-related risk factors for PTSD, though most derive from cross-sectional studies and few control for combat exposure, which is a primary risk factor for mental health problems in this cohort. Evidence is also provided linking PTSD with outcomes in the following domains: physical health, suicide, housing and homelessness, employment and economic well-being, social well-being, and aggression, violence, and criminality. Also included is evidence about the prevalence of mental health service use in this cohort. In many instances, the current suite of studies replicates findings observed in civilian samples, but new findings emerge of relevance to both military and civilian populations, such as the link between PTSD and suicide. Future research should make effort to control for combat exposure and use longitudinal study designs; promising areas for investigation are in non-treatment-seeking samples of US veterans and the role of social support in preventing or mitigating mental health problems in this group.

  9. Effects of Minority Stress Processes on the Mental Health of Latino Men Who Have Sex with Men and Women: A Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Holloway, Ian W.; Padilla, Mark B.; Willner, Lauren; Guilamo-Ramos, Vincent

    2014-01-01

    Emerging literature on minority stress among sexual minority populations has described the negative consequences that multiple minority statuses may exert on mental health and well-being. This literature has tended to focus on individuals whose self-identifications reflect sexual minority sexual categories, such as gay or bisexual, and has explored the intersection of these definitions with ethnic, racial, and class statuses. Few such studies have explored mental health among men who actively deny a sexual minority sexual identity label while engaging in same-sex sexual behaviors. The present study used ethnographic interview data from 20 non-gay-identified bisexually behaving Dominican and Puerto Rican men in New York City. Participants described discovery of same sex sexual behavior as a threat to their intimate relationships, community affiliation, and counter to expectations of Latino masculinity. Recounting a wide range of information management strategies used to avoid open disclosure about their sexual lives, participants experienced the potential consequences of disclosure as extreme and even life threatening. Men anticipated social isolation, depression, self-injury, and suicidality as possible outcomes from disclosing sexual behavior with other men to their female romantic partners. This analysis provides direction for future research on minority stress processes and mental health service delivery among Latino men who have sex with men and women. PMID:25367595

  10. Effects of chronic academic stress on mental state and expression of glucocorticoid receptor α and β isoforms in healthy Japanese medical students.

    PubMed

    Kurokawa, Ken; Tanahashi, Toshihito; Murata, Akiho; Akaike, Yoko; Katsuura, Sakurako; Nishida, Kensei; Masuda, Kiyoshi; Kuwano, Yuki; Kawai, Tomoko; Rokutan, Kazuhito

    2011-07-01

    Chronic academic stress responses were assessed by measuring mental state, salivary cortisol levels, and the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) gene expression in healthy Japanese medical students challenging the national medical license examination. Mental states of 17 male and 9 female medical undergraduates, aged 25.0 ± 1.2 years (mean ± SD), were assessed by the State and Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) and the Self-Rating Depression Scale (SDS) 2 months before, 2 days before, and 1 month after the examination. At the same time points, saliva and blood were collected. STAI-state scores peaked 2 days before the examination. Scores on STAI-trait and SDS, and salivary cortisol levels were consistently higher during the pre-examination period. One month after the examination, all these measures had significantly decreased to baseline levels. Real-time reverse transcription PCR showed that this chronic anxious state did not change the expression of the functional GRα mRNA isoform in peripheral leukocytes, while it resulted in reduced expression of the GRβ isoform 2 days before the examination. Our results replicate and extend a significant impact of chronic academic stressors on the mental state of healthy Japanese medical students and suggest a possible association of GRβ gene in response to psychological stress.

  11. Quality of Life, Stress, and Mental Health in Parents of Children with Parentally Diagnosed Food Allergy Compared to Medically Diagnosed and Healthy Controls

    PubMed Central

    Cooke, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Background. Food allergy is related to poorer quality of life (QoL) and mental health of caregivers. Many parents diagnose food allergy in their child without seeking medical care and there is limited research on this group. This study investigated parental QoL and mental health in parents of children with parent-diagnosed food allergy (PA), medically diagnosed food allergy (MA), and a control group with no allergy (NA). Methods. One hundred and fifty parents from a general population completed validated measures of QoL, anxiety, depression, and stress. Results. Parents of children with food allergy (PA or MA) reported higher stress, anxiety, and depression than the control group (all p < 0.05). Parents of children with MA reported poorer food allergy related QoL compared to parents of children with PA (p < 0.05); parents of children with PA reported poorer general QoL compared to parents of children with MA (p < 0.05). Conclusion. Parents of children with food allergy have significantly poorer mental health compared to healthy controls, irrespective of whether food allergy is medically diagnosed or not. It is important to encourage parents to have their child medically tested for food allergy and to recognise and refer for psychological support where needed. PMID:27429624

  12. Topology and hemodynamics of the cortical cerebrovascular system

    PubMed Central

    Hirsch, Sven; Reichold, Johannes; Schneider, Matthias; Székely, Gábor; Weber, Bruno

    2012-01-01

    The cerebrovascular system continuously delivers oxygen and energy substrates to the brain, which is one of the organs with the highest basal energy requirement in mammals. Discontinuities in the delivery lead to fatal consequences for the brain tissue. A detailed understanding of the structure of the cerebrovascular system is important for a multitude of (patho-)physiological cerebral processes and many noninvasive functional imaging methods rely on a signal that originates from the vasculature. Furthermore, neurodegenerative diseases often involve the cerebrovascular system and could contribute to neuronal loss. In this review, we focus on the cortical vascular system. In the first part, we present the current knowledge of the vascular anatomy. This is followed by a theory of topology and its application to vascular biology. We then discuss possible interactions between cerebral blood flow and vascular topology, before summarizing the existing body of the literature on quantitative cerebrovascular topology. PMID:22472613

  13. Elderly woman with cerebrovascular accident and refractory arrhythmias.

    PubMed

    Sethi, S K; Sarm, P S A

    2009-11-01

    Fatal bilateral cerebro-vascular accident with variable atrio-ventricular blocks, atrial fibrillation and refractory tachy-arrhythmias in a previously healthy 75-years-old hypertensive female is presented.

  14. Cerebrovascular reactivity mapping without gas challenges.

    PubMed

    Liu, Peiying; Li, Yang; Pinho, Marco; Park, Denise C; Welch, Babu G; Lu, Hanzhang

    2017-02-01

    Cerebrovascular reactivity (CVR), the ability of cerebral vessels to dilate or constrict, has been shown to provide valuable information in the diagnosis and treatment evaluation of patients with various cerebrovascular conditions. CVR mapping is typically performed using hypercapnic gas inhalation as a vasoactive challenge while collecting BOLD images, but the inherent need of gas inhalation and the associated apparatus setup present a practical obstacle in applying it in routine clinical use. Therefore, we aimed to develop a new method to map CVR using resting-state BOLD data without the need of gas inhalation. This approach exploits the natural variation in respiration and measures its influence on BOLD MRI signal. In this work, we first identified a surrogate of the arterial CO2 fluctuation during spontaneous breathing from the global BOLD signal. Second, we tested the feasibility and reproducibility of the proposed approach to use the above-mentioned surrogate as a regressor to estimate voxel-wise CVR. Third, we validated the "resting-state CVR map" with a conventional CVR map obtained with hypercapnic gas inhalation in healthy volunteers. Finally, we tested the utility of this new approach in detecting abnormal CVR in a group of patients with Moyamoya disease, and again validated the results using the conventional gas inhalation method. Our results showed that global BOLD signal fluctuation in the frequency range of 0.02-0.04Hz contains the most prominent contribution from natural variation in arterial CO2. The CVR map calculated using this signal as a regressor is reproducible across runs (ICC=0.91±0.06), and manifests a strong spatial correlation with results measured with a conventional hypercapnia-based method in healthy subjects (r=0.88, p<0.001). We also found that resting-state CVR was able to identify vasodilatory deficit in patients with steno-occlusive disease, the spatial pattern of which matches that obtained using the conventional gas method (r

  15. Heart Rate Variability, Flow, Mood and Mental Stress During Yoga Practices in Yoga Practitioners, Non-yoga Practitioners and People with Metabolic Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Tyagi, Anupama; Cohen, Marc; Reece, John; Telles, Shirely; Jones, Linda

    2016-12-01

    Heart Rate Variability (HRV) and respiratory sinus arrhythmia are directly associated with autonomic flexibility, self-regulation and well-being, and inversely associated with physiological stress, psychological stress and pathology. Yoga enhances autonomic activity, mitigates stress and benefits stress-related clinical conditions, yet the relationship between autonomic activity and psychophysiological responses during yoga practices and stressful stimuli has not been widely explored. This experimental study explored the relationship between HRV, mood states and flow experiences in regular yoga practitioners (YP), non-yoga practitioners (NY) and people with metabolic syndrome (MetS), during Mental Arithmetic Stress Test (MAST) and various yoga practices. The study found that the MAST placed a cardio-autonomic burden in all participants with the YP group showing the greatest reactivity and the most rapid recovery, while the MetS group had significantly blunted recovery. The YP group also reported a heightened experience of flow and positive mood states compared to NY and MetS groups as well as having a higher vagal tone during all resting conditions. These results suggest yoga practitioners have a greater homeostatic capacity and autonomic, metabolic and physiological resilience. Further studies are now needed to determine if regular yoga practice may improve autonomic flexibility in non-yoga practitioners and metabolic syndrome patients. Clinical Trial No 'ACTRN 2614001075673'.

  16. Shame amplifies the association between stressful life events and paranoia amongst young adults using mental health services: Implications for understanding risk and psychological resilience.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Judith; Jones, Christopher; Lin, Ashleigh; Wood, Stephen; Heinze, Kareen; Jackson, Christopher

    2014-12-15

    Shame is associated with a range of psychological disorders, and is a trans-diagnostic moderator of the association between stressors and symptoms of disorder. However, research has yet to investigate shame in relation to specific psychotic symptoms in clinical groups. In order to address this, the present study investigated shame in young adults with mental health problems, to test whether shame was i) directly associated with paranoia, a prevalent psychotic symptom, and ii) a moderator of the association between stress and paranoia. Sixty participants completed measures of stressful events, paranoia, shame, depression and anxiety. Results from a cross-sectional regression analysis suggested that shame was associated with paranoia after the stressful life event measure was entered into the model, and shame moderated the association between stress and paranoia. For individuals scoring high on shame, shame amplified the association between stress and paranoia, but for low-shame individuals, the association between stress and paranoia was non-significant. These findings suggest that high levels of shame could confer vulnerability for paranoia amongst clinical groups, and that resistance to experiencing shame could be a marker of resilience.

  17. Posttraumatic stress as a mediator of the relationship between trauma and mental health problems among juvenile delinquents.

    PubMed

    Kerig, Patricia K; Ward, Rose Marie; Vanderzee, Karin L; Arnzen Moeddel, Melissa

    2009-10-01

    This study investigated the interrelationships among trauma exposure, PTSD, and mental health problems in a sample of 289 adolescents (199 male, 90 female) detained in a juvenile correctional facility. Mean differences were found in that females scored higher than males on measures of interpersonal trauma exposure and symptoms of both simple and complex PTSD. Females also endorsed more mental health problems in the areas of depression/anxiety, somatic complaints, and suicidal ideation. For all youth, trauma exposure, PTSD, and mental health problems were correlated. Results of structural equation modeling were consistent with the hypothesis that PTSD mediates the relationship between interpersonal trauma and mental health problems for all youth, although the results were stronger for females.

  18. Development of a workplace intervention for sick-listed employees with stress-related mental disorders: Intervention Mapping as a useful tool

    PubMed Central

    van Oostrom, Sandra H; Anema, Johannes R; Terluin, Berend; Venema, Anita; de Vet, Henrica CW; van Mechelen, Willem

    2007-01-01

    Background To date, mental health problems and mental workload have been increasingly related to long-term sick leave and disability. However, there is, as yet, no structured protocol available for the identification and application of an intervention for stress-related mental health problems at the workplace. This paper describes the structured development, implementation and planning for the evaluation of a return-to-work intervention for sick-listed employees with stress-related mental disorders (SMDs). The intervention is based on an existing successful return-to-work intervention for sick-listed employees with low back pain. Methods The principles of Intervention Mapping were applied to combine theory and evidence in the development, implementation and planning for the evaluation of a participatory workplace intervention, aimed at an early return-to-work for sick-listed employees with SMDs. All stakeholders were involved in focus group interviews: i.e. employees recently sick-listed with SMDs, supervisors and occupational health professionals. Results The development of the participatory workplace intervention according to the Intervention Mapping principles resulted in a structured return-to-work intervention, specifically tailored to the needs of sick-listed employees with SMDs. Return-to-work was proposed as a behavioural change, and the Attitude – Social influence – self-Efficacy model was identified as a theoretical framework. Stakeholder involvement in focus group interviews served to enhance the implementation. The cost-effectiveness of the intervention will be evaluated in a randomised controlled trial. Conclusion Intervention Mapping was found to be a promising method to develop interventions tailored to a specific target group in the field of occupational health. Trial registration ISRCTN92307123 PMID:17697364

  19. [Cerebro-vascular accident during pregnancy (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Fujita, K; Yamasaki, S; Tamaki, N; Fujita, S; Shirakata, S; Matsumoto, S

    1978-10-01

    Cerebro-vascular accident is an uncommon but formidable complication of pregnancy. Faced with these cases, the neurosurgeon and obstetrician might differ in the planning of the treatment, when the interests of mother and child appear to conflict between them. From our clinical data of 5 cases and review of the literatures, the following points should be considered for the management of a cerebro-vascular accident during pregnancy. (1) The possibility of cerebro-vascular accident should be considered in any pregnant patients with neurological symptoms, and full investigation should be done if clini-indicated. (2) Aneurysm and angioma are most often encountered in pregnant patients with a cerebro-vascular accident. (3) Unless labour begins during investigation, a cerebral lesion should be treated before delivery, irrespective of the stage of pregnancy and the method of treatment should be decided primarily on neurosurgical grounds. (4) The time of onset of cerebro-vascular accident may be related to the hemodynamic and hormonal change. It occurs more frequently after the second trimester, when the blood volume and cardiac output reach their peak. (5) Pregnancy per se does not influence the mortality from a cerebro-vascular accident in pregnant patients.

  20. Neuroimaging of Cerebrovascular Disease in the Aging Brain

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Ajay; Nair, Sreejit; Schweitzer, Andrew D.; Kishore, Sirish; Johnson, Carl E.; Comunale, Joseph P.; Tsiouris, Apostolos J.; Sanelli, Pina C.

    2012-01-01

    Cerebrovascular disease remains a significant public health burden with its greatest impact on the elderly population. Advances in neuroimaging techniques allow detailed and sophisticated evaluation of many manifestations of cerebrovascular disease in the brain parenchyma as well as in the intracranial and extracranial vasculature. These tools continue to contribute to our understanding of the multifactorial processes that occur in the age-dependent development of cerebrovascular disease. Structural abnormalities related to vascular disease in the brain and vessels have been well characterized with CT and MRI based techniques. We review some of the pathophysiologic mechanisms in the aging brain and cerebral vasculature and the related structural abnormalities detectable on neuroimaging, including evaluation of age-related white matter changes, atherosclerosis of the cerebral vasculature, and cerebral infarction. In addition, newer neuroimaging techniques, such as diffusion tensor imaging, perfusion techniques, and assessment of cerebrovascular reserve, are also reviewed, as these techniques can detect physiologic alterations which complement the morphologic changes that cause cerebrovascular disease in the aging brain.Further investigation of these advanced imaging techniques has potential application to the understanding and diagnosis of cerebrovascular disease in the elderly. PMID:23185721

  1. Mental health nurses' and allied health professionals' perceptions of the role of the Occupational Health Service in the management of work-related stress: how do they self-care?

    PubMed

    Gibb, J; Cameron, I M; Hamilton, R; Murphy, E; Naji, S

    2010-11-01

    Higher rates of stress-related sickness are found in health care professionals when compared with other sectors. The annual direct cost of absence to the National Health Service is £1.7 billion. Increased clinical demand, long hours, low staffing and a lack of support from colleagues and management are contributing to absenteeism, somatic complaints and mental health problems. Mental health work is inherently stressful and levels of work stress experienced by mental health nurses are especially high. The study investigated mental health nurses' and allied health professionals' (AHPs) awareness and knowledge of the service provided by the Occupational Health Service (OHS) and identified work-related stress and self-care strategies within these two groups. Nurses and AHP staff employed in mental health services in a Scottish healthboard area were invited to complete an anonymous questionnaire. Results demonstrated that staff found their contact with the OHS to be a positive experience. They considered direct patient care to be less stressful than the organizational constraints they work under, and they reported a lack of support from both their peer groups and management. There should be recognition of the increased stress that hospital-based nurses and AHPs experience. These areas should be scrutinized and reviewed further to support staff within these environments in accordance with organizational objectives.

  2. Cerebrovascular complications in pediatric intensive care unit

    PubMed Central

    Sachdev, Anil; Sharma, Rachna; Gupta, Dhiren

    2010-01-01

    Cerebrovascular complications are being frequently recognized in the pediatric intensive care unit in the recent few years. The epidemiology and risk factors for pediatric stroke are different from that of the adults. The incidence of ischemic stroke is almost slightly more than that of hemorrhagic stroke. The list of diagnostic causes is increasing with the availability of newer imaging modalities and laboratory tests. The diagnostic work up depends on the age of the child and the rapidity of presentation. Magnetic resonance imaging, computerized tomography and arteriography and venography are the mainstay of diagnosis and to differentiate between ischemic and hemorrhagic events. Very sophisticated molecular diagnostic tests are required in a very few patients. There are very few pediatric studies on the management of stroke. General supportive management is as important as the specific treatment. Most of the treatment guidelines and suggestions are extrapolated from the adult studies. Few guidelines are available for the use of anticoagulants and thrombolytic agents in pediatric patients. So, our objective was to review the available literature on the childhood stroke and to provide an insight into the subject for the pediatricians and critical care providers. PMID:21253346

  3. Parkinson disease and comorbid cerebrovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Nanhoe-Mahabier, Wandana; de Laat, Karlijn F; Visser, Jasper E; Zijlmans, Jan; de Leeuw, Frank-Erik; Bloem, Bastiaan R

    2009-10-01

    Optimal management of chronic diseases not only requires tackling of the primary disease processes, but also necessitates timely recognition and treatment of comorbid conditions. In this article, we illustrate this two-pronged approach for two common age-related disorders: Parkinson disease (PD) and cerebrovascular disease (CVD). We first discuss the pathophysiological mechanisms that could provide a link between PD and CVD. Patients with PD have a series of risk factors that could promote development of CVD, but also have several protective factors. We then review the available clinical, radiological and neuropathological evidence to support an association between these two conditions. We conclude by discussing the potential implications for clinical practice, highlighting how comorbid CVD could alter the clinical presentation of PD and reviewing the possibilities for prevention and secondary prophylaxis. Additional research will be needed to fully evaluate the prevalence and clinical relevance of comorbid CVD in PD. Pending further evidence, we recommend that cerebral neuroimaging should be considered if patients with initially uncomplicated PD develop-either acutely or chronically-prominent and/or treatment-resistant gait impairment, postural instability, depression, cognitive decline, or urinary incontinence. Finding comorbid CVD in such patients could have prognostic implications, and could necessitate treatment to arrest further progression of CVD.

  4. Sucrose preload reduces snacking after mild mental stress in healthy participants as a function of 5-hydroxytryptamine transporter gene promoter polymorphism.

    PubMed

    Markus, C Rob; Jonkman, Lisa M; Capello, Aimee; Leinders, Sacha; Hüsch, Fabian

    2015-01-01

    Brain serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) dysfunction is considered to promote food intake and eating-related disturbances, especially under stress or negative mood. Vulnerability for 5-HT disturbances is considered to be genetically determined, including a short (S) allele polymorphism in the serotonin transporter gene (5-HTTLPR) that is associated with lower serotonin function. Since 5-HT function may be slightly increased by carbohydrate consumption, S-allele 5-HTTLPR carriers in particular may benefit from a sugar-preload due to their enhanced 5-HT vulnerability. The aim of the current study was to investigate whether a sugar-containing preload may reduce appetite and energy intake after exposure to stress to induce negative mood, depending on genetic 5-HT vulnerability. From a population of 771 healthy young male and female genotyped college students 31 S/S carriers (8 males, 23 females) and 26 long allele (L/L) carriers (9 males, 17 females) (mean ± S.D. 22 ± 1.6 years; body mass index, BMI, 18-33 kg/m(2)) were monitored for changes in appetite and snacking behavior after stress exposure. Results revealed an increased energy intake after mild mental stress (negative mood) mainly for high-fat sweet foods, which was significantly greater in S/S carriers, and only in these genotypes this intake was significantly reduced by a sucrose-containing preload. Although alternative explanations are possible, it is suggested that S/S participants may have enhanced brain (hypothalamic) 5-HT responsiveness to food that makes them more susceptible to the beneficial satiation effects of a sucrose-preload as well as to the negative effects of mild mental stress on weight gain.

  5. Cerebrovascular function and cognition in childhood: a systematic review of transcranial doppler studies

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The contribution of cerebrovascular function to cognitive performance is gaining increased attention. Transcranial doppler (TCD) is portable, reliable, inexpensive and extremely well tolerated by young and clinical samples. It enables measurement of blood flow velocity in major cerebral arteries at rest and during cognitive tasks. Methods We systematically reviewed evidence for associations between cognitive performance and cerebrovascular function in children (0-18 years), as measured using TCD. A total of 2778 articles were retrieved from PsychInfo, Pubmed, and EMBASE searches and 25 relevant articles were identified. Results Most studies investigated clinical groups, where decreased blood flow velocities in infants were associated with poor neurological functioning, and increased blood flow velocities in children with Sickle cell disease were typically associated with cognitive impairment and lower intelligence. Studies were also identified assessing autistic behaviour, mental retardation and sleep disordered breathing. In healthy children, the majority of studies reported cognitive processing produced lateralised changes in blood flow velocities however these physiological responses did not appear to correlate with behavioural cognitive performance. Conclusion Poor cognitive performance appears to be associated with decreased blood flow velocities in premature infants, and increased velocities in Sickle cell disease children using TCD methods. However knowledge in healthy samples is relatively limited. The technique is well tolerated by children, is portable and inexpensive. It therefore stands to make a valuable contribution to knowledge regarding the underlying functional biology of cognitive performance in childhood. PMID:24602446

  6. The Association between Mental Health, Stress, and Coping Supports in Mothers of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zablotsky, Benjamin; Bradshaw, Catherine P.; Stuart, Elizabeth A.

    2013-01-01

    Raising a child with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) can be a stressful experience for parents. When left unmanaged, high stress levels can lead to the development of depressive symptomatology, highlighting the importance of coping supports. The current paper examined the stress level and psychological wellbeing of mothers with a child with ASD…

  7. The physical and mental health of Australian Vietnam veterans 3 decades after the war and its relation to military service, combat, and post-traumatic stress disorder.

    PubMed

    O'Toole, Brian I; Catts, Stanley V; Outram, Sue; Pierse, Katherine R; Cockburn, Jill

    2009-08-01

    The long-term health consequences of war service remain unclear, despite burgeoning scientific interest. A longitudinal cohort study of a random sample of Australian Vietnam veterans was designed to assess veterans' postwar physical and mental health 36 years after the war (2005-2006) and to examine its relation to Army service, combat, and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) assessed 14 years previously (1990-1993). Prevalences in veterans (n = 450) were compared with those in the Australian general population. Veterans' Army service and data from the first assessments were evaluated using multivariate logistic regression prediction modeling. Veterans' general health and some health risk factors were poorer and medical consultation rates were higher than Australian population expectations. Of 67 long-term conditions, the prevalences of 47 were higher and the prevalences of 4 were lower when compared with population expectations. Half of all veterans took some form of medication for mental well-being. The prevalence of psychiatric diagnoses exceeded Australian population expectations. Military and war service characteristics and age were the most frequent predictors of physical health endpoints, while PTSD was most strongly associated with psychiatric diagnoses. Draftees had better physical health than regular enlistees but no better mental health. Army service and war-related PTSD are associated with risk of illness in later life among Australian Vietnam veterans.

  8. Cerebrovascular disease in ageing and Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Love, Seth; Miners, J Scott

    2016-05-01

    Cerebrovascular disease (CVD) and Alzheimer's disease (AD) have more in common than their association with ageing. They share risk factors and overlap neuropathologically. Most patients with AD have Aβ amyloid angiopathy and degenerative changes affecting capillaries, and many have ischaemic parenchymal abnormalities. Structural vascular disease contributes to the ischaemic abnormalities in some patients with AD. However, the stereotyped progression of hypoperfusion in this disease, affecting first the precuneus and cingulate gyrus, then the frontal and temporal cortex and lastly the occipital cortex, suggests that other factors are more important, particularly in early disease. Whilst demand for oxygen and glucose falls in late disease, functional MRI, near infrared spectroscopy to measure the saturation of haemoglobin by oxygen, and biochemical analysis of myelin proteins with differential susceptibility to reduced oxygenation have all shown that the reduction in blood flow in AD is primarily a problem of inadequate blood supply, not reduced metabolic demand. Increasing evidence points to non-structural vascular dysfunction rather than structural abnormalities of vessel walls as the main cause of cerebral hypoperfusion in AD. Several mediators are probably responsible. One that is emerging as a major contributor is the vasoconstrictor endothelin-1 (EDN1). Whilst there is clearly an additive component to the clinical and pathological effects of hypoperfusion and AD, experimental and clinical observations suggest that the disease processes also interact mechanistically at a cellular level in a manner that exacerbates both. The elucidation of some of the mechanisms responsible for hypoperfusion in AD and for the interactions between CVD and AD has led to the identification of several novel therapeutic approaches that have the potential to ameliorate ischaemic damage and slow the progression of neurodegenerative disease.

  9. NIRS-based noninvasive cerebrovascular regulation assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, S.; Richmond, I.; Borgos, J.; Mitra, K.

    2016-03-01

    Alterations to cerebral blood flow (CBF) have been implicated in diverse neurological conditions, including mild traumatic brain injury, microgravity induced intracranial pressure (ICP) increases, mild cognitive impairment, and Alzheimer's disease. Near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS)-measured regional cerebral tissue oxygen saturation (rSO2) provides an estimate of oxygenation of the interrogated cerebral volume that is useful in identifying trends and changes in oxygen supply to cerebral tissue and has been used to monitor cerebrovascular function during surgery and ventilation. In this study, CO2-inhalation-based hypercapnic breathing challenges were used as a tool to simulate CBF dysregulation, and NIRS was used to monitor the CBF autoregulatory response. A breathing circuit for the selective administration of CO2-compressed air mixtures was designed and used to assess CBF regulatory responses to hypercapnia in 26 healthy young adults using non-invasive methods and real-time sensors. After a 5 or 10 minute baseline period, 1 to 3 hypercapnic challenges of 5 or 10 minutes duration were delivered to each subject while rSO2, partial pressure of end tidal CO2 (PETCO2), and vital signs were continuously monitored. Change in rSO2 measurements from pre- to intrachallenge (ΔrSO2) detected periods of hypercapnic challenges. Subjects were grouped into three exercise factor levels (hr/wk), 1: 0, 2:>0 and <10, and 3:>10. Exercise factor level 3 subjects showed significantly greater ΔrSO2 responses to CO2 challenges than level 2 and 1 subjects. No significant difference in ΔPETCO2 existed between these factor levels. Establishing baseline values of rSO2 in clinical practice may be useful in early detection of CBF changes.

  10. [Epidemiology of cerebrovascular disease in Spain].

    PubMed

    Brea, Angel; Laclaustra, Martín; Martorell, Esperanza; Pedragosa, Angels

    2013-01-01

    In Spain, cerebrovascular disease (CVD) is a very common cause of morbidity and hospitalization. They are the second leading cause of mortality in the general population, and the first in women. They also constitute a very high social spending, which is estimated to increase in coming years, due to the aging of our population. Data from the Hospital Morbidity Survey of the National Statistics Institute recorded, in 2011, 116,017 strokes and 14,933 transient ischemic attacks, corresponding, respectively, to an incidence of 252 and 32 events per 100,000 people. In 2002, the cost of hospitalization for each stroke was estimated at €3,047. The amount of total cost health care throughout the life of a stroke patient is calculated at €43,129. Internationally, the direct costs of stroke constitute 3% of national health spending, this being similar amount in different countries around us. Hypertension was the cardiovascular risk factor (CVRF) more prevalent in both ischemic and hemorrhagic strokes, followed by dyslipidemia and diabetes mellitus. Peripheral arterial disease and hypertension were more frequently associated with atherothrombotic events, atrial fibrillation with cardioembolic strokes, and obesity and high blood pressure to lacunar infarcts. In Spain, as showing several studies, we are far from optimal control of CVRF, especially in secondary prevention of stroke. According to the ICTUSCARE study, achieving recommended values was 17.6% in the case of hypertension, 29.8% in LDL-cholesterol, 74.9% of smoking, and 50.2% in diabetes mellitus. In this review, we analyze in detail the epidemiology, prevention and costs originated by CVD.

  11. Mostly Heterosexual and Lesbian/Gay Young Adults: Differences in Mental Health and Substance Use and the Role of Minority Stress.

    PubMed

    Kuyper, Lisette; Bos, Henny

    2016-09-01

    Individuals mostly attracted to other-sex but also to same-sex partners are a distinct and common sexual orientation group with possibly increased levels of health problems. The current study examined whether mostly heterosexual individuals differed in mental health and substance use from lesbian/gay individuals and whether sexual minority risk and protective factors offer an explanation in a sample of 528 Dutch young adults (16 to 25 years old, M = 21.2 years). Mostly heterosexual participants reported higher levels of psychological distress, suicidality, drug use, and smoking than lesbian/gay participants and equal levels of binge drinking. They also reported higher levels of internalized negativity to same-sex attractions, less openness to family members and others, less community involvement, and lower numbers of lesbian/gay/bisexual friends. However, bootstrapped mediation analysis showed that the differences in minority stress risk and protective factors did not mediate most of the differences in mental health and substance use with one exception: higher levels of psychological distress were mediated by the higher levels of internalized negativity to same-sex attractions. The limited explanatory power of the minority stress factors combined with the elevated level of problems of mostly heterosexual individuals call for future studies examining other risk and protective factors.

  12. E-therapies in England for stress, anxiety or depression: what is being used in the NHS? A survey of mental health services

    PubMed Central

    Hardy, G; Moore, R K

    2017-01-01

    Objective To document the range of web and smartphone apps used and recommended for stress, anxiety or depression by the National Health Service (NHS) in England. Design The study was conducted using Freedom of Information (FOI) requests and systematic website searches. Data sources Data were collected via FOI requests to NHS services between 13 February 2015 and 31 March 2015, and searches conducted on NHS apps library websites between 26 March 2015 and 2 November 2015. Data collection/extraction methods Data were compiled from responses to: (1) FOI requests sent to all Improving Access to Psychological Therapies (IAPT) services and NHS Mental Health Trusts in England and (2) NHS apps library search results. Results A total of 61 (54.95%) out of the then 111 IAPT service providers responded, accounting for 191 IAPT services, and all 51 of the then NHS Mental Health Trusts responded. The results were that 13 different web apps and 35 different smartphone apps for depression, anxiety or stress were available through either referral services or the online NHS Apps Libraries. The apps used and recommended vary by area and by point of access (online library/IAPT/trust). Conclusions Future research is required to establish the evidence base for the apps that are being used in the NHS in England. There is a need for service provision to be based on evidence and established guidelines. PMID:28115336

  13. Primarily chronic and cerebrovascular course of Lyme neuroborreliosis: case reports and literature review

    PubMed Central

    Wilke, M.; Eiffert, H.; Christen, H.; Hanefeld, F.

    2000-01-01

    As part of an ongoing study aiming to define the clinical spectrum of neuroborreliosis in childhood, we have identified four patients with unusual clinical manifestations. Two patients suffered from a primarily chronic form of neuroborreliosis and displayed only non-specific symptoms. An 11 year old boy presented with long standing symptoms of severe weight loss and chronic headache, while the other patient had pre-existing mental and motor retardation and developed seizures and failure to thrive. Two further children who presented with acute hemiparesis as a result of cerebral ischaemic infarction had a cerebrovascular course of neuroborreliosis. One was a 15 year old girl; the other, a 5 year old boy, is to our knowledge the youngest patient described with this course of illness. Following adequate antibiotic treatment, all patients showed substantial improvement of their respective symptoms. Laboratory and magnetic resonance imaging findings as well as clinical course are discussed and the relevant literature is reviewed.

 PMID:10869004

  14. Posttraumatic Stress as a Mediator of the Relationship between Trauma and Mental Health Problems among Juvenile Delinquents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerig, Patricia K.; Ward, Rose Marie; Vanderzee, Karin L.; Moeddel, Melissa Arnzen

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated the interrelationships among trauma exposure, PTSD, and mental health problems in a sample of 289 adolescents (199 male, 90 female) detained in a juvenile correctional facility. Mean differences were found in that females scored higher than males on measures of interpersonal trauma exposure and symptoms of both simple and…

  15. Stress, Mental Health, and Substance Abuse Problems in a Sample of Diversion Program Youths: An Exploratory Latent Class Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dembo, Richard; Briones, Rhissa; Gulledge, Laura; Karas, Lora; Winters, Ken C.; Belenko, Steven; Greenbaum, Paul E.

    2012-01-01

    Reflective of interest in mental health and substance abuse issues among youths involved with the justice system, we performed a latent class analysis on baseline information collected on 100 youths involved in two diversion programs. Results identified two groups of youths: Group 1: a majority of the youths, who had high levels of delinquency,…

  16. Enalapril Alone or Co-Administered with Losartan Rescues Cerebrovascular Dysfunction, but not Mnemonic Deficits or Amyloidosis in a Mouse Model of Alzheimer's Disease.

    PubMed

    Ongali, Brice; Nicolakakis, Nektaria; Tong, Xing-Kang; Aboulkassim, Tahar; Imboden, Hans; Hamel, Edith

    2016-01-01

    The co-administration of angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEi) and angiotensin II (AngII) receptor blockers (ARB) that bind angiotensin type 1 receptors (AT1R) may protect from Alzheimer's disease (AD) better than each treatment taken alone. We tested the curative potential of the non brain-penetrant ACEi enalapril (3 mg/kg/day) administered for 3 months either alone or in combination with the brain penetrant ARB losartan (10 mg/kg/day) in aged (∼15 months) transgenic mice overexpressing a mutated form of the human amyloid-β protein precursor (AβPP, thereafter APP mice). We studied cerebrovascular function, protein levels of oxidative stress markers (superoxide dismutases SOD1, SOD2 and the NADPH oxidase subunit p67phox), amyloid-β (Aβ) pathology, astrogliosis, cholinergic innervation, AT1R and angiotensin IV receptor (AT4R) levels, together with cognitive performance. Both treatments normalized cerebrovascular reactivity and p67phox protein levels, but they did not reduce the cerebrovascular levels of SOD1. Combined treatment normalized cerebrovascular SOD2 levels, significantly attenuated astrogliosis, but did not reduce the increased levels of cerebrovascular AT1R. Yet, combined therapy enhanced thioflavin-S labeled Aβ plaque burden, a tendency not significant when Aβ1 - 42 plaque load was considered. None of the treatments rescued cognitive deficits, cortical AT4R or cholinergic innervation. We conclude that both treatments normalized cerebrovascular function by inhibiting the AngII-induced oxidative stress cascade, and that the positive effects of the combined therapy on astrogliosis were likely due to the ability of losartan to enter brain parenchyma. However, enalapril did not potentiate, and may even dampen, the reported cognitive benefits of losartan, raising caution when selecting the most appropriate antihypertensive therapy in AD patients.

  17. Educable Mentally Retarded, Level I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suo, Minnie Alice; Willemin, Helen

    Intended for teachers of special classes of educable mentally retarded children aged 6 to 8 (mental age = 3.5 to 4.9), the guide stresses skills necessary to the development of physical, personal and social, and vocational competency. An introduction defines philosophy and goals, outlines the educable mentally retarded program and the readiness…

  18. Mechanisms of Lethal Cerebrovascular Accidents in Turner Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Byard, Roger W

    2016-05-01

    A case of intracerebral hemorrhage in Turner syndrome is reported with an analysis of possible causes of cerebrovascular accidents in this condition. A 42-year-old woman with known Turner syndrome died soon after hospital admission having been found unconscious at her home address. At autopsy, she showed typical features of Turner syndrome with short stature, webbing of the neck, underdeveloped breasts, and an increased carrying angle of the arm. Death was due to a large left-sided intracerebral hemorrhage extending from the left basal ganglia into the white matter of the frontal lobe and lateral ventricle. Cases of unexpected death in Turner syndrome may arise from occult cerebrovascular accidents which may be hemorrhagic or nonhemorrhagic. Associated features include hypertension, vascular malformations, accelerated atherogenesis, cystic medial necrosis, and moyamoya syndrome. The possibility of Turner syndrome should be considered in cases where there has been a lethal cerebrovascular event in a younger woman.

  19. Definition and therapy of chronic cerebro-vascular diseases.

    PubMed

    Agnoli, A; Denaro, A; Ruggieri, S

    1982-05-01

    Chronic cerebro-vascular disorders could be considered in a broad sense as a large body of knowledge in which three main categories of clinical disturbances have to be be considered: 1) Pathological aging that manifest itself with light short term memory impairment associated with a mild parkinsonian symptomatology or pseudobulbar signs. 2) Senile dementia Alzheimer type and multi infarct dementia. 3) Chronic cerebro-vascular disorders as defined by the Ad Hoc Committee (Paris, 1980). At present the therapy of chronic cerebro-vascular disorders is based on two main groups of drugs and can be divided into: 1) A treatment of prevention or secondary prevention which tends to correct or modify the different risk factors. 2) A treatment that seeks to control and modify the neurological and neuropsychological after effects and the disorders of the higher nervous activities which result from the lesion.

  20. Engineering theranostic nanovehicles capable of targeting cerebrovascular amyloid deposits.

    PubMed

    Agyare, Edward K; Jaruszewski, Kristen M; Curran, Geoffry L; Rosenberg, Jens T; Grant, Samuel C; Lowe, Val J; Ramakrishnan, Subramanian; Paravastu, Anant K; Poduslo, Joseph F; Kandimalla, Karunya K

    2014-07-10

    Cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA) is characterized by the deposition of amyloid beta (Aβ) proteins within the walls of the cerebral vasculature with subsequent aggressive vascular inflammation leading to recurrent hemorrhagic strokes. The objective of the study was to develop theranostic nanovehicles (TNVs) capable of a) targeting cerebrovascular amyloid; b) providing magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast for the early detection of CAA; and c) treating cerebrovascular inflammation resulting from CAA. The TNVs comprised of a polymeric nanocore made from Magnevist (MRI contrast agent) conjugated chitosan. The nanocore was also loaded with cyclophosphamide (CYC), an immunosuppressant shown to reduce the cerebrovascular inflammation in CAA. Putrescine modified F(ab')2 fragment of anti-amyloid antibody, IgG4.1 (pF(ab')24.1) was conjugated to the surface of the nanocore to target cerebrovascular amyloid. The average size of the control chitosan nanoparticles (conjugated with albumin and are devoid of Magnevist, CYC, and pF(ab')24.1) was 164±1.2 nm and that of the TNVs was 239±4.1 nm. The zeta potential values of the CCNs and TNVs were 21.6±1.7 mV and 11.9±0.5 mV, respectively. The leakage of Magnevist from the TNVs was a modest 0.2% over 4 days, and the CYC release from the TNVs followed Higuchi's model that describes sustained drug release from polymeric matrices. The studies conducted in polarized human microvascular endothelial cell monolayers (hCMEC/D3) in vitro as well as in mice in vivo have demonstrated the ability of TNVs to target cerebrovascular amyloid. In addition, the TNVs provided contrast for imaging cerebrovascular amyloid using MRI and single photon emission computed tomography. Moreover, the TNVs were shown to reduce pro-inflammatory cytokine production by the Aβ challenged blood brain barrier (BBB) endothelium more effectively than the cyclophosphamide alone.

  1. Neuropilin-1 modulates vascular endothelial growth factor-induced poly(ADP-ribose)-polymerase leading to reduced cerebrovascular apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Mey, Lilli; Hörmann, Mareike; Schleicher, Nadine; Reuter, Peter; Dönges, Simone; Kinscherf, Ralf; Gassmann, Max; Gerriets, Tibo; Al-Fakhri, Nadia

    2013-11-01

    Cerebral ischemia is encompassed by cerebrovascular apoptosis, yet the mechanisms behind apoptosis regulation are not fully understood. We previously demonstrated inhibition of endothelial apoptosis by vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) through upregulation of poly(ADP-ribose)-polymerase (PARP) expression. However, PARP overactivation through oxidative stress can lead to necrosis. This study tested the hypothesis that neuropilin-1 (NP-1), an alternative VEGF receptor, regulates the response to cerebral ischemia by modulating PARP expression and, in turn, apoptosis inhibition by VEGF. In endothelial cell culture, NP-1 colocalized with VEGF receptor-2 (VEGFR-2) and acted as its coreceptor. This significantly enhanced VEGF-induced PARP mRNA and protein expression demonstrated by receptor-specific inhibitors and VEGF-A isoforms. NP-1 augmented the inhibitory effect of VEGF/VEGFR-2 interaction on apoptosis induced by adhesion inhibition through the αV-integrin inhibitor cRGDfV. NP-1/VEGFR-2 signal transduction involved JNK and Akt. In rat models of permanent and temporary middle cerebral artery occlusion, the ischemic cerebral hemispheres displayed endothelial and neuronal apoptosis next to increased endothelial NP-1 and VEGFR-2 expression compared to non-ischemic cerebral hemispheres, sham-operated or untreated controls. Increased vascular superoxide dismutase-1 and catalase expression as well as decreased glycogen reserves indicated oxidative stress in the ischemic brain. Of note, protein levels of intact PARP remained stable despite pro-apoptotic conditions through increased PARP mRNA production during cerebral ischemia. In conclusion, NP-1 is upregulated in conditions of imminent cerebrovascular apoptosis to reinforce apoptosis inhibition and modulate VEGF-dependent PARP expression and activation. We propose that NP-1 is a key modulator of VEGF maintaining cerebrovascular integrity during ischemia. Modulating the function of NP-1 to target PARP could help to

  2. Does 'mental kinesiophobia' exist?

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Anton J M

    2003-10-01

    In this study the relevance of the concept of mental kinesiophobia (respectively cogniphobia or fear of mental exertion) for clients with chronic stress problems was explored. It was hypothesized that cognitive, chronic stress complaints, such as concentration problems or decreased problem solving abilities, could be catastrophized as signs of heightened personal vulnerability, with a chance of becoming permanent. As a consequence, mental exertion is avoided. This line of reasoning comes from the existing concept of kinesiophobia. This concept describes the avoidance behavior in chronic benign pain patients and refers to their fear of inflicting irreversible bodily damage due to physical exertion.An illustrative case of cogniphobia is presented. In an explorative pilot-study it was demonstrated that chronically stressed clients scored significantly higher on an experimental questionnaire measuring avoidance tendencies for mental exertion, compared with actively working employees. Consequences for treatment and suggestions for further study are discussed.

  3. Correlates of Stress and Coping among Jordanian Nursing Students during Clinical Practice in Psychiatric/Mental Health Course.

    PubMed

    Alzayyat, Abdulkarim; Al-Gamal, Ekhlas

    2016-10-01

    Training in psychiatric settings is stressful for nursing students. The purpose of this study was to examine the correlations between the students' characteristics, their stress degrees, stressors and types of coping strategies they experience during training in psychiatric course. A descriptive, correlational, longitudinal design was used. Sixty-five undergraduate nursing students were recruited randomly from five Jordanian universities. Self-report questionnaires were administered at the second semester of the 2012-2013 academic year. The findings showed that students who utilized avoidance or transference strategies reported high stress degrees. Moreover, the results showed that those students who were in the fourth year, with a low family income, who avoid extracurricular activities, with a low academic grade or who registered in other clinical course(s) reported high stress degrees. These findings present a worthy data for the clinical instructors that facilitate students training in psychiatric settings and promote their psychosocial well-being. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Posttraumatic stress disorder from Vietnam to today: the evolution of understanding during Eugene Brody's tenure at the journal of nervous and mental disease.

    PubMed

    Benedek, David M

    2011-08-01

    The psychological and behavioral consequences of exposure to traumatic events have been described throughout our history. However, the term posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) was not formally introduced into the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Third Edition, until after Dr Eugene Brody--whose broad interests included refugee populations and victims of trauma--had already served as editor-in-chief of the Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease (JNMD) for 15 years. Advances in molecular biology, genetics, and imaging that occurred during Brody's tenure at the JNMD contributed significantly to our current understanding of the human fear response and the neurobiology of PTSD. Comprehensive treatment guidelines summarizing evidence-based treatment were published during his tenure, and the most recent American Psychiatric Association update to practice standards was published in the year before his passing. Thus, this review of the history and present state of the science of PTSD summarizes the lessons learned while Dr Brody dedicated his life to teaching us.

  5. Cerebrovascular reactivity alterations in asymptomatic high school football players.

    PubMed

    Svaldi, Diana O; Joshi, Chetas; Robinson, Meghan E; Shenk, Trey E; Abbas, Kausar; Nauman, Eric A; Leverenz, Larry J; Talavage, Thomas M

    2015-01-01

    Cerebrovascular reactivity (CVR) is impaired following brain injury, increasing susceptibility to subsequent injury. CVR was tracked in football and non-collision athletes throughout one season. CVR transiently decreased in football athletes during the first half of the season. Results indicate the brain adapts slowly to increases in loading, increasing risk for injury.

  6. Reliability of Doppler sonography in extracranial cerebro-vascular stenosis.

    PubMed

    Colon, E J; de Weerd, J P; Notermans, S L; Vingerhoets, H M

    1979-01-01

    Of our patients who underwent quantitative Doppler sonography (Haemato-Tacho-Graphy), 382 underwent carotid angiography and 61 vertebral artery angiography. The reliability of the method proved to be between 90 and 95 percent for carotid as well as for vertebral arteries. The HTG proved to be a useful addition to angiography in patients with extracranial cerebro-vascular stenosis.

  7. Cerebrovascular effects of apolipoprotein E: implications for Alzheimer disease.

    PubMed

    Zlokovic, Berislav V

    2013-04-01

    Human apolipoprotein E (apoE) has 3 isoforms: apoE2, apoE3, and apoE4. APOE4 is a major genetic risk factor for Alzheimer disease and is associated with dementia in Down syndrome and poor neurological outcome after traumatic brain injury, cerebral hemorrhage, and other neuropathological disorders. While apoE4 can induce neuropathology by participating in various cellular and molecular pathways, herein I review data supporting the hypothesis that apoE4 has direct toxic effects on the cerebrovascular system that in turn can lead to secondary neuronal dysfunction and degeneration as well as accumulation of neurotoxins in brain such as β-amyloid (Aβ) in Alzheimer disease. I review Aβ-independent cerebrovascular effects of apoE, particularly activation of a proinflammatory cyclophilin A-mediated pathway in brain vascular pericytes by apoE4 that has recently been shown to lead to a loss of cerebrovascular integrity and blood-brain barrier breakdown causing neuronal injury. I also review Aβ-dependent cerebrovascular effects of apoE such as faulty Aβ clearance from brain to circulation by apoE4. Finally, I discuss isoform-specific interactions of apoE with low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 1 on brain vascular cells (ie, endothelial cells, pericytes), which play an important role in Aβ-independent and Aβ-dependent effects of apoE on cerebral vasculature.

  8. The Depression Anxiety Stress Scales (DASS): detecting anxiety disorder and depression in employees absent from work because of mental health problems

    PubMed Central

    Nieuwenhuijsen, K; de Boer, A G E M; Verbeek, J; Blonk, R; van Dijk, F J H

    2003-01-01

    Aims: To (1) evaluate the psychometric properties and (2) examine the ability to detect cases with anxiety disorder and depression in a population of employees absent from work because of mental health problems. Methods: Internal consistency, construct validity, and criterion validity of the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales (DASS) were assessed. Furthermore, the ability to identify anxiety disorders or depression was evaluated by calculating posterior probabilities of these disorders following positive and negative test results for different cut off scores of the DASS-Depression and DASS-Anxiety subscales. Results: Internal consistency of the DASS subscales was high, with Cronbach's alphas of 0.94, 0.88, and 0.93 for depression, anxiety, and stress respectively. Factor analysis revealed a three factor solution, which corresponded well with the three subscales of the DASS. Construct validity was further supported by moderately high correlations of the DASS with indices of convergent validity (0.65 and 0.75), and lower correlations of the DASS with indices of divergent validity (range -0.22 to 0.07). Support for criterion validity was provided by a statistically significant difference in DASS scores between two diagnostic groups. A cut off score of 5 for anxiety and 12 for depression is recommended. The DASS showed probabilities of anxiety and depression after a negative test result of 0.05 and 0.06 respectively. Probabilities of 0.29 for anxiety disorder and 0.33 for depression after a positive test result reflect relatively low specificity of the DASS. Conclusion: The psychometric properties of the DASS are suitable for use in an occupational health care setting. The DASS can be helpful in ruling out anxiety disorder and depression in employees with mental health problems. PMID:12782751

  9. Early life stress as a risk factor for mental health: Role of neurotrophins from rodents to non-human primates

    PubMed Central

    Cirulli, Francesca; Francia, Nadia; Berry, Alessandra; Aloe, Luigi; Alleva, Enrico; Suomi, Stephen J.

    2009-01-01

    Early adverse events can enhance stress responsiveness and lead to greater susceptibility for psychopathology at adulthood. The epigenetic factors involved in transducing specific features of the rearing environment into stable changes in brain and behavioral plasticity have only begun to be elucidated. Neurotrophic factors, such as Nerve Growth Factor (NGF) and Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), are affected by stress and play a major role in brain development and in the trophism of specific neuronal networks involved in cognitive function and in mood disorders. In addition to the central nervous system, these effectors are produced by peripheral tissues, thus being in a position to integrate the response to external challenges. In this paper we will review data, obtained from animal models, indicating that early maternal deprivation stress can affect neurotrophin levels, suggesting that they might be involved in the mechanisms underlying the mother-infant relationship. Maladaptive or repeated activation of NGF and BDNF, early during postnatal life, may influence stress sensitivity at adulthood and increase vulnerability for stress-related psychopathology. PMID:18817811

  10. [Mental Health and Prevention of Suicide in Japanese Workplaces Based on a Pilot Study of Job Stress and Suicide Ideation].

    PubMed

    Sakagami, Yu

    2016-01-01

    The Japanese suicide rate is still high compared with other countries. Worker suicide especially leads to marked social and economic losses and severely affects the bereaved. There is an urgent need to devise a system to prevent suicide at a very early stage. Generally, it is considered very difficult to intervene and prevent suicide in cases in which individuals kill themselves suddenly. However, according to some studies on suicide attempts, even those who killed themselves suddenly had experienced some kind of conflict or a desire to die for a long period. Therefore, it is essential to analyze the risk factors at an early stage when individuals have vague thoughts of suicide. This will help reduce the risk of suicide in such cases. In this article, I first survey the data related to workers' mental health in Japan. Second, I introduce the results of our pilot study in which we investigated mental health issues related to suicide among workers who have taken leave from work for more than two months. In this study, workers who do not exhibit help-seeking behavior are suggested to be a high-risk group for suicide. It is speculated that this behavior is related to several factors such as the sex, age, social status, education, personal stigma, and perceived stigma. Therefore, we must focus on both clinical and social solutions for the prevention of suicide. I believe that psychiatrists will come to play a more important role as liaisons between workplaces and social resources for the prevention of suicide.

  11. DYNAMIC CEREBROVASCULAR AND INTRACRANIAL PRESSURE REACTIVITY ASSESMENT OF IMPAIRED CEREBROVASCULAR AUTOREGULATION IN INTRACRANIAL HYPERTENSION

    PubMed Central

    Bragin, Denis E.; Statom, Gloria; Nemoto, Edwin M.

    2016-01-01

    SUMMARY We previously suggested that the discrepancy between the critical cerebral perfusion pressures (CPP) of 30 mmHg, obtained by increasing intracranial pressure (ICP), and 60 mmHg, obtained by decreasing arterial pressure, was due to pathological microvascular shunting at high ICP [1] and that the determination of the critical CPP by the static cerebral blood flow (CBF) autoregulation curve is not valid with intracranial hypertension. Here we demonstrated that critical CPP, measured by induced dynamic ICP reactivity (iPRx) and cerebrovascular reactivity (CVRx), accurately identifies the critical CPP in the hypertensive rat brain which differs from that obtained by the static autoregulation curve. Step changes in CPP from 70 to 50 and 30 mmHg were made by increasing ICP using an artificial cerebrospinal fluid reservoir connected to the cisterna magna. At each CPP, a transient 10-mmHg rise in arterial pressure was induced by bolus i.v. dopamine. iPRx and iCVRx were calculated as ΔICP/ΔMAP and as ΔCBF/ΔMAP, respectively. The critical CPP at high ICP, obtained by iPRx and iCVRx, is 50 mmHg, where compromised capillary flow, transition of blood flow to non-nutritive microvascular shunts, tissue hypoxia and BBB leakage begin to occur, which is higher than the 30 mmHg determined by static autoregulation. PMID:27165917

  12. Operational Stress Control and Readiness (OSCAR): The United States Marine Corps Initiative to Deliver Mental Health Services to Operating Forces

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-04-01

    casualties. The first was theoretical, the other two were pragmatic. From a theoretical standpoint, the growing popularity of the psychology of Sigmund ... Freud convinced increasing numbers of military leaders and medical personnel that warriors with disabling stress symptoms were not really wounded by

  13. Reduced mental capacity and behavior of a rider of a bicycle simulator under alcohol stress or under dual task load

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Soede, M.

    1977-01-01

    Experiments were carried out on a bicycle simulator with alcohol administration and a binary choice task in separate sessions, intending to reduce the subject's mental capacity. Before and after such sessions a visual evoked response measurement was done. The subject's performance was analyzed with describing function techniques. The results indicate that the alcohol affects the course-following task as well as the balancing task. The binary choice task is more specifically influencing the course-following task. The dual task shows a more pronounced effect on the recovery of the evoked response. The alcohol is delaying the recovery curve of the evoked response. A tentative explanation can be given which agrees with the performance data.

  14. Cerebrovascular risk factors and clinical classification of strokes.

    PubMed

    Pinto, Antonio; Tuttolomondo, Antonino; Di Raimondo, Domenico; Fernandez, Paola; Licata, Giuseppe

    2004-08-01

    Cerebrovascular risk represents a progressive and evolving concept owing to the particular distribution of risk factors in patients with ischemic stroke and in light of the newest stroke subtype classifications that account for pathophysiological, instrumental, and clinical criteria. Age represents the strongest nonmodifiable risk factor associated with ischemic stroke, while hypertension constitutes the most important modifiable cerebrovascular risk factor, confirmed by a host of epidemiological data and by more recent intervention trials of primary (HOT, Syst-Eur, LIFE) and secondary (PROGRESS) prevention of stroke in hypertensive patients. To be sure, a curious relationship exists between stroke and diabetes. Although the Framingham Study, The Honolulu Heart Program, and a series of Finnish studies reported a linear relationship between improved glucose metabolism and cerebral ischemia, the clinical and prognostic profile of diabetic patients with ischemic stroke remains to be fully understood. Our group, on the basis of TOAST classification--a diagnostic classification of ischemic stroke developed in 1993 that distinguishes five different clinical subtypes of ischemic stroke: large-artery atherosclerosis (LAAS), cardioembolic infarct (CEI), lacunar infarct (LAC), stroke of other determined origin (ODE), and stroke of undetermined origin (UDE), and now extensively used in clinical and scientific context--analysed the prevalence of cerebrovascular risk factors and the distribution of TOAST subtypes in more 300 patients with acute ischemic stroke in two consecutives studies that reported the significant association between diabetes and the lacunar subtype and a better clinical outcome for diabetic patients, most likely related to the higher prevalence of the lacunar subtype. Well-confirmed are the roles of cigarette smoking, atrial fibrillation, and asymptomatic carotid stenosis as cerebrovascular risk factors. Particularly interesting seems to be the function of

  15. Drosophila Torsin Protein Regulates Motor Control and Stress Sensitivity and Forms a Complex with Fragile-X Mental Retardation Protein

    PubMed Central

    Ahn, Hyo-Min; Koh, Young Ho

    2016-01-01

    We investigated unknown in vivo functions of Torsin by using Drosophila as a model. Downregulation of Drosophila Torsin (DTor) by DTor-specific inhibitory double-stranded RNA (RNAi) induced abnormal locomotor behavior and increased susceptibility to H2O2. In addition, altered expression of DTor significantly increased the numbers of synaptic boutons. One important biochemical consequence of DTor-RNAi expression in fly brains was upregulation of alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH). Altered expression of ADH has also been reported in Drosophila Fragile-X mental retardation protein (DFMRP) mutant flies. Interestingly, expression of DFMRP was altered in DTor mutant flies, and DTor and DFMRP were present in the same protein complexes. In addition, DTor and DFMRP immunoreactivities were partially colocalized in several cellular organelles in larval muscles. Furthermore, there were no significant differences between synaptic morphologies of dfmrp null mutants and dfmrp mutants expressing DTor-RNAi. Taken together, our evidences suggested that DTor and DFMRP might be present in the same signaling pathway regulating synaptic plasticity. In addition, we also found that human Torsin1A and human FMRP were present in the same protein complexes, suggesting that this phenomenon is evolutionarily conserved. PMID:27313903

  16. Chronic mild cerebrovascular dysfunction as a cause for Alzheimer's disease?

    PubMed Central

    Humpel, Christian

    2011-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive chronic disorder and is characterized by β-amyloid plaques and angiopathy, tau pathology, neuronal cell death, and inflammatory responses. The reasons for this disease are not known. This review proposes the hypothesis that a chronic mild longlasting cerebrovascular dysfunction could initiate a cascade of events leading to AD. It is suggested that (vascular) risk factors (e.g. hypercholesterolemia, type 2 diabetes, hyperhomocysteinemia) causes either damage of the cerebrovascular system including silent strokes or causes dysregulation of beta-amyloid clearance at the blood-brain barrier resulting in increased brain beta-amyloid. A cascade of subsequent downstream events may lead to disturbed metabolic changes, and neuroinflammation and tau pathology. The role of NGF on the cell death of cholinergic neurons is discussed. Additional risk factors (e.g. acidosis, metals) contribute to plaque development. PMID:21112383

  17. Glioma coexisting with angiographically occult cerebrovascular malformation: A case report

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Junhui; Chen, Lei; Zhang, Chunlei; He, Jianqing; Li, Peipei; Zhou, Jingxu; Zhu, Jun; Wang, Yuhai

    2016-01-01

    Angiographically occult cerebrovascular malformation (AOVM) is a type of complex cerebrovascular malformation that is not visible on digital subtraction angiography (DSA). Vascular malformation coexisting with glioma is clinically rare, and glioma coexisting with AOVM is even more rare. To the best of our knowledge, the present study is the first to report glioma coexisting with AOVM in the literature. The present study reports a rare case of glioma coexisting with AOVM in a 30-year-old male patient. Computed tomography (CT) scan revealed calcification, hemorrhage and edema in the right frontal lobe. CT angiography revealed a vascular malformation in the right frontal lobe, which was not observed on DSA. Finally, glioma coexisting with AOVM was confirmed by 2.0T magnetic resonance imaging and postoperative pathological examination. The present patient had a positive outcome and no neurological dysfunctions during the 6-month follow-up subsequent to surgery. PMID:27698825

  18. Narrative exposure therapy for posttraumatic stress disorder associated with repeated interpersonal trauma in patients with severe mental illness: a mixed methods design

    PubMed Central

    Mauritz, Maria W.; Van Gaal, Betsie G. I.; Jongedijk, Ruud A.; Schoonhoven, Lisette; Nijhuis-van der Sanden, Maria W. G.; Goossens, Peter J. J.

    2016-01-01

    Background In the Netherlands, most patients with severe mental illness (SMI) receive flexible assertive community treatment (FACT) provided by multidisciplinary community mental health teams. SMI patients with comorbid posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are sometimes offered evidence-based trauma-focused treatment like eye movement desensitization reprocessing or prolonged exposure. There is a large amount of evidence for the effectiveness of narrative exposure therapy (NET) within various vulnerable patient groups with repeated interpersonal trauma. Some FACT-teams provide NET for patients with comorbid PTSD, which is promising, but has not been specifically studied in SMI patients. Objectives The primary aim is to evaluate NET in SMI patients with comorbid PTSD associated with repeated interpersonal trauma to get insight into whether (1) PTSD and dissociative symptoms changes and (2) changes occur in the present SMI symptoms, care needs, quality of life, global functioning, and care consumption. The second aim is to gain insight into patients’ experiences with NET and to identify influencing factors on treatment results. Methods This study will have a mixed methods convergent design consisting of quantitative repeated measures and qualitative semi-structured in-depth interviews based on Grounded Theory. The study population will include adult SMI outpatients (n=25) with comorbid PTSD and receiving NET. The quantitative study parameters will be existence and severity of PTSD, dissociative, and SMI symptoms; care needs; quality of life; global functioning; and care consumption. In a longitudinal analysis, outcomes will be analyzed using mixed models to estimate the difference in means between baseline and repeated measurements. The qualitative study parameters will be experiences with NET and perceived factors for success or failure. Integration of quantitative and qualitative results will be focused on interpreting how qualitative results enhance the

  19. Cerebrovascular Involvement in Liposome - Induced Cardiopulmonary Distress in Pigs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-01-01

    expressed as mean ± SD. There was no statistical treament for data on the 24 pigs (Table 1); only percentage values were calculated. All applied...new, promising field for use of liposomes as a vehicle is in the treatment of cerebrovascular disease through gene therapy (Saito et al., 2004; Shi...brain by means of liposomes. Tohoku J. Exp. Med. 136:219-229. Toyoda, K., Chu, Y., Heistad, D. D. (2003). Gene therapy for cerebral vascular disease

  20. Microbubbles as drug delivery systems in cerebrovascular diseases.

    PubMed

    Spinelli, Mariacarmela; Demitri, Christian; Sannino, Alessandro; Peruzzotti-Jametti, Luca; Bacigaluppi, Marco; Comi, Giancarlo; Corea, Francesco

    2009-11-01

    The field of neurovascular ultrasound is growing rapidly with new applications. While ultrasound contrast agents were initially used to overcome poor transcranial bone windows for identification of cerebral arteries, newgeneration microbubbles in combination with innovative contrast-specific ultrasound techniques now enable potential therapeutic procedures. This article will provide a review of recent and emerging developments along with patents in ultrasound technology and contrast-specific therapeutic techniques for cerebrovascular patients.

  1. Digital subtraction angiography in pediatric cerebrovascular occlusive disease

    SciTech Connect

    Faerber, E.N.; Griska, L.A.B.; Swartz, J.D.; Capitanio, M.A.; Popky, G.L.

    1984-08-01

    While conventional angiography has been used to demonstrate cerebrovascular occlusive disease in the past, digital subtraction angiography (DSA) is capable of showing progressive vascular involvement with ease, simplicity, and extremely low morbidity, making it particularly well suited for children and outpatients either alone or coordinated with computed tomography. The authors discuss the usefulness and advantages of DSA as demonstrated in 7 infants and children with hemiplegia, 4 of whom had sickle-cell disease.

  2. Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

    MedlinePlus

    ... About Serious Stress Anxiety Disorders Death and Grief Stress & Coping Center Finding Low-Cost Mental Health Care Coping With Stressful Situations Date Rape Suicide Rape Contact Us Print Resources Send to a ...

  3. Antioxidants and Dementia Risk: Consideration through a Cerebrovascular Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Lam, Virginie; Hackett, Mark; Takechi, Ryusuke

    2016-01-01

    A number of natural and chemical compounds that exert anti-oxidative properties are demonstrated to be beneficial for brain and cognitive function, and some are reported to reduce the risk of dementia. However, the detailed mechanisms by which those anti-oxidative compounds show positive effects on cognition and dementia are still unclear. An emerging body of evidence suggests that the integrity of the cerebrovascular blood-brain barrier (BBB) is centrally involved in the onset and progression of cognitive impairment and dementia. While recent studies revealed that some anti-oxidative agents appear to be protective against the disruption of BBB integrity and structure, few studies considered the neuroprotective effects of antioxidants in the context of cerebrovascular integrity. Therefore, in this review, we examine the mechanistic insights of antioxidants as a pleiotropic agent for cognitive impairment and dementia through a cerebrovascular axis by primarily focusing on the current available data from physiological studies. Conclusively, there is a compelling body of evidence that suggest antioxidants may prevent cognitive decline and dementia by protecting the integrity and function of BBB and, indeed, further studies are needed to directly examine these effects in addition to underlying molecular mechanisms. PMID:27999412

  4. Oropharynx in patients with cerebrovascular disease: evaluation with videofluoroscopy.

    PubMed

    Chen, M Y; Ott, D J; Peele, V N; Gelfand, D W

    1990-09-01

    Forty-six patients with cerebrovascular disease underwent videofluoroscopic examination of the oropharynx to assess location and severity of swallowing dysfunction with use of boluses of various consistencies. Low- and high-viscosity barium suspensions, a barium paste, and a paste-coated cookie were used; not all patients were given all materials. Thirty-nine patients had abnormalities of both oral and pharyngeal function. Two patients had oral dysfunction only, and five had pharyngeal abnormalities only. Mild swallowing difficulties occurred in 18 patients (39%), moderate dysfunction in 23 (50%), and severe dysfunction in five (11%). Thirty-one patients had pharyngeal stasis, which was symmetric in 25 patients (81%), right-sided in three, and left-sided in three. Asymmetric stasis did not correlate to the site of cerebrovascular disease. Twenty-four episodes of aspiration occurred, half of them with the low-viscosity barium suspension. Thus, video-fluoroscopy can be used to define the location and severity of oropharyngeal abnormalities, which is critical for feeding recommendations. The abnormalities present, however, were not useful in predicting the type of cerebrovascular disease.

  5. Cerebrovascular regulation in the postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome (POTS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Low, P. A.; Novak, V.; Spies, J. M.; Novak, P.; Petty, G. W.

    1999-01-01

    Patients with the postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome (POTS) have symptoms of orthostatic intolerance despite having a normal orthostatic blood pressure (BP), which suggests some impairment of cerebrovascular regulation. Cerebrovascular autoregulation refers to the maintenance of normal cerebral blood flow in spite of changing BP. Mechanisms of autoregulation include myogenic, metabolic and neurogenic vasoregulation. Beat-to-beat recording of blood-flow velocity (BFV) is possible using transcranial Doppler imaging. It is possible to evaluate autoregulation by regressing deltaBFV to deltaBP during head-up tilt. A number of dynamic methods, relating deltaBFV to deltaBP during sudden induced changes in BP by occluding then releasing peripheral arterial flow or by the Valsalva maneuver. The deltaBFV to deltaBP provides an index of autoregulation. In orthostatic hypotension, the autoregulated range is typically expanded. In contrast, paradoxical vasoconstriction occurs in POTS because of an increased depth of respiration, resulting in hypocapnic cerebrovascular constriction, and impaired autoregulation.

  6. Correlation of cerebrovascular disorder and anxiety: The Kecskemet study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sipos, Kornel; Bodo, Michael; Szalay, Piroska; Szucs, Attila

    2010-04-01

    In order to test the hypothesis that anxiety is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease, specifically stroke, we simultaneously measured anxiety and cerebral vascular alternation, using a computer-based system, "Cerberus." Sixty nine psychiatric patients (including an alcoholic subgroup) were selected as subjects for measurements conducted in Kecskemet, Hungary. The five-item short form of anxiety test (STAI) was administered twice during the same session. Between each test, brain pulse waves were recorded by rheoencephalogram (REG). A REG peak time above 180 milliseconds was considered a cerebrovascular alteration (modified after Jenkner). Data were sorted into two groups: low anxiety (N=10) and high anxiety (N=10). Significant differences were found between cardiovascular risk factors (p< 0.001), REG peak time (p<0.043), and heart rate (p< 0.045). Six subjects showed cerebrovascular alteration in the high anxiety group, and two in the low anxiety group. For the two anxiety groups, there were no significant differences in body mass index, cardiovascular sympathetic-parasympathetic balance, age and symptoms of transient ischemic attack. The correlation of REG and age was significantly different only for the alcoholic subgroup (Szalay et al, 2007). These data support the hypothesis that a correlation exists between cerebrovascular disorder and anxiety in the studied population.

  7. Cerebrovascular Responses During Lower Body Negative Pressure-Induced Presyncope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuriyama, Kana; Watenpaugh, D. E.; Hargens, Alan R.; Ueno, T.; Ballard, R. E.; Fortney, S. M.

    1996-01-01

    Reduced orthostatic tolerance is commonly observed after space flight, occasionally causing presyncopal conditions. Although the cerebrovascular system may play an important role in presyncope, there have been few reports concerning cerebral hemodynamics during presyncope. The purpose of this study was to investigate cerebrovascular responses during presyncope induced by lower body negative pressure (LBNP). Seven healthy male volunteers were exposed to LBNP in steps of -10 mmHg every 3 min until presyncopal symptoms were detected. Blood pressure (BP) and heart rate (HR) were measured with a finger cuff. Cerebral tissue oxy- and deoxy- hemoglobin (Hb) concentrations were estimated using near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS). Cerebral blood flow (CBF) velocity at the middle cerebral artery was measured with Transcranial Doppler Sonography (TCD). We focused on the data during the 2 min before endpoint. BP marked a gradual decrease (91 to 86 mmHg from 2 min to 30 sec before endpoint), which was accelerated along with HR decrease during the final 30 sec (86 to 71 mmHg). Cerebral oxy-Hb concentration decreases as presyncope is approached while total-Hb concentration remains fairly constant. TCD reveals a decrease in the CBF velocity. The TCD and NIRS results suggest that CBF decreases along with the BP decrease. Cerebrovascular responses during presyncope are closely related to cardiovascular responses.

  8. CEREBROVASCULAR DAMAGE MEDIATES RELATIONS BETWEEN AORTIC STIFFNESS AND MEMORY

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, Leroy L.; Woodard, Todd; Sigurdsson, Sigurdur; van Buchem, Mark A.; Torjesen, Alyssa A.; Inker, Lesley A.; Aspelund, Thor; Eiriksdottir, Gudny; Harris, Tamara B.; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Launer, Lenore J.; Mitchell, Gary F.

    2015-01-01

    Aortic stiffness is associated with cognitive decline. Here, we examined the association between carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity and cognitive function and investigated whether cerebrovascular remodeling and parenchymal small vessel disease damage mediate the relation. Analyses were based on 1820 (60% women) participants in the Age, Gene/Environment Susceptibility – Reykjavik Study. Multivariable linear regression models adjusted for vascular and demographic confounders showed that higher carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity was related to lower memory score (standardized β: −0.071±0.023; P=0.002). Cerebrovascular resistance and white matter hyperintensities were each associated with carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity and memory (P<0.05). Together, cerebrovascular resistance and white matter hyperintensities (total indirect effect: −0.029; 95% CI: −0.043, −0.017) attenuated the direct relation between carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity and memory (direct effect: −0.042; 95% CI: −0.087, 0.003; P=0.07) and explained approximately 41% of the observed effect. Our results suggest that in older adults, associations between aortic stiffness and memory are mediated by pathways that include cerebral microvascular remodeling and microvascular parenchymal damage. PMID:26573713

  9. Cerebral blood flow in sickle cell cerebrovascular disease

    SciTech Connect

    Huttenlocher, P.R.; Moohr, J.W.; Johns, L.; Brown, F.D.

    1984-05-01

    Cerebral blood flow (CBF) has been studied by the xenon-133 (/sup 133/Xe) inhalation method in 16 children with suspected sickle cell cerebrovascular disease. Abnormalities consisting of decreases in total, hemispheral, or regional CBF were found in 17 of 26 studies. Eleven studies performed immediately after stroke, transient ischemic attack, or depression of state of alertness showed abnormalities. In addition to confirming regional cerebrovascular insufficiency in children with stroke due to major cerebral artery occlusion, the method detected diffuse decrease in CBF in children with stupor, coma, and seizures who had normal angiographic findings. In contrast, six of seven studies obtained after exchange transfusion or during maintenance on hypertransfusion therapy showed normal findings. The difference between results in patients with acute neurologic disturbances and those receiving transfusion therapy was statistically significant (P less than .005). The data indicate that the /sup 133/Xe method reliably demonstrates cerebrovascular impairment in sickle cell disease. They also suggest that CBF changes in patients with sickle cell disease can be reversed by exchange transfusion and by hypertransfusion therapy. The /sup 133/Xe CBF method may be useful for following up children with sickle cell disease who are at high risk for recurrent stroke.

  10. Mental Retardation Is Dead: Long Live Mental Retardation!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goode, David

    2002-01-01

    This commentary discusses whether the American Association on Mental Retardation should change its name. The history of the term "mental retardation" is reviewed and it is argued that any new term will take on similar risks. The need to involve self-advocates in any terminology change is stressed. (Contains 5 references.) (CR)

  11. Cerebrovascular and ventilatory responses to acute isocapnic hypoxia in healthy aging and lung disease: effect of vitamin C.

    PubMed

    Hartmann, Sara E; Waltz, Xavier; Kissel, Christine K; Szabo, Lian; Walker, Brandie L; Leigh, Richard; Anderson, Todd J; Poulin, Marc J

    2015-08-15

    Acute hypoxia increases cerebral blood flow (CBF) and ventilation (V̇e). It is unknown if these responses are impacted with normal aging, or in patients with enhanced oxidative stress, such as (COPD). The purpose of the study was to 1) investigate the effects of aging and COPD on the cerebrovascular and ventilatory responses to acute hypoxia, and 2) to assess the effect of vitamin C on these responses during hypoxia. In 12 Younger, 14 Older, and 12 COPD, we measured peak cerebral blood flow velocity (V̄p; index of CBF), and V̇e during two 5-min periods of acute isocapnic hypoxia, under conditions of 1) saline-sham; and 2) intravenous vitamin C. Antioxidants [vitamin C, superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase, and catalase], oxidative stress [malondialdehyde (MDA) and advanced protein oxidation product], and nitric oxide metabolism end products (NOx) were measured in plasma. Following the administration of vitamin C, vitamin C, SOD, catalase, and MDA increased, while NOx decreased. V̄p and V̇e sensitivity to hypoxia was reduced in Older by ∼60% (P < 0.02). COPD patients exhibited similar V̄p and V̇e responses to Older (P > 0.05). Vitamin C did not have an effect on the hypoxic V̇e response but selectively decreased the V̄p sensitivity in Younger only. These findings suggest a reduced integrative reflex (i.e., cerebrovascular and ventilatory) during acute hypoxemia in healthy older adults. Vitamin C does not appear to have a large influence on the cerebrovascular or ventilatory responses during acute hypoxia.

  12. Study on the cerebrovascular reserve capacity by MR perfusion weighted imaging in SHR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Quan; Dong, Yang; Chen, WenLi; Lin, Xueying; Xing, Da; Huang, Li

    2007-05-01

    Cerebrovascular disease is one of the leading causes of death, and approximately 50% of survivors have a residual neurologic deficit and greater than 25% require chronic care. Cerebrovascular reserve capacity (CVRC) describes how far cerebral perfusion can increase from a baseline value after stimulation. High blood pressure is the most important independent risk factor for stroke and other vascular diseases. The incidence of stroke in the hypertensive is six times higher than in the patient with normal blood pressure. CVRC in the hypertensive was even lower than in control patients. MR perfusion weighted imaging (MR PWI) with the well-established acetazolamide (ACZ) stimulation test has been used for assessing brain function. The aim of this work is to assess the cerebrovascular reserve capacity by MR PWI with "ACZ" tolerance test in spontaneous hypertensive rat (SHR) and to identify its value in evaluating the CVRC. Experimental animal including 3 groups: Wistar-Kyoto rats (WKY) (12-week-old) as control group, SHR (12-week-old and 20-week-old) as experimental group. MR PWI was performed respectively before and after acetazolamide administrated orally in 3 groups on a clinical 1.5 Tesla GE Signa MR fx/i whole-body MR system. The ROI was chosen in the bilateral frontal lobe to measure the value of rCBV, rCBF and MTT. The results showed that before ACZ-test, there was statistic differences between the WKY and SHR(12-week-old), and between SHR(12-week-old) and SHR(20-week-old) in the values of rCBV and rCBF (P>0.05), and after ACZ-test, there were statistic differences between WKY and SHR (20-week-old), and between SHR(12-week-old) and SHR(20-week-old) in the rCBV value (P<0.05). It is concluded that the method of MRI PWI combined with the "ACZ stress test" can provide more qualitative and half-quantitative information on the cerebral perfusion to evaluate the CVRC in SHR.

  13. The Potential to Promote Resilience: Piloting a Minority Stress-Informed, GSA-Based, Mental Health Promotion Program for LGBTQ Youth

    PubMed Central

    Heck, Nicholas C.

    2015-01-01

    This article describes the results of a pilot study to determine the feasibility and acceptability of a mental health promotion program that was developed to address minority stressors and promote coping skills among lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer (LGBTQ) youth. It was hypothesized that the program would be feasible to implement within the context of a gay-straight alliance (GSA) and that GSA members would find the program acceptable (e.g., educational, enjoyable, helpful, and relevant). Participants included ten members of a high school GSA in the northeastern United States. The program sessions were delivered during GSA meetings. The first session emphasized the identification of minority and general stressors, which was followed by a discussion of coping strategies. The remaining sessions emphasized the development of cognitive coping, affect regulation, and problem-solving skills. After each session, participants completed a 13-item feedback form. Ten items assessed acceptability and three open-ended items allowed participants to provide constructive feedback. Although the program was feasible to implement within the GSA setting, attendance at the sessions was variable. Those who attended the sessions reported them to be enjoyable, informative, relevant to their lives, and potentially helpful for other LGBTQ students. After revising the program, future research is needed to investigate its dissemination potential and determine whether the program can disrupt the minority stress-psychiatric distress relationship. PMID:26366425

  14. How do mindfulness-based cognitive therapy and mindfulness-based stress reduction improve mental health and wellbeing? A systematic review and meta-analysis of mediation studies.

    PubMed

    Gu, Jenny; Strauss, Clara; Bond, Rod; Cavanagh, Kate

    2015-04-01

    Given the extensive evidence base for the efficacy of mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) and mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT), researchers have started to explore the mechanisms underlying their therapeutic effects on psychological outcomes, using methods of mediation analysis. No known studies have systematically reviewed and statistically integrated mediation studies in this field. The present study aimed to systematically review mediation studies in the literature on mindfulness-based interventions (MBIs), to identify potential psychological mechanisms underlying MBCT and MBSR's effects on psychological functioning and wellbeing, and evaluate the strength and consistency of evidence for each mechanism. For the identified mechanisms with sufficient evidence, quantitative synthesis using two-stage meta-analytic structural equation modelling (TSSEM) was used to examine whether these mechanisms mediate the impact of MBIs on clinical outcomes. This review identified strong, consistent evidence for cognitive and emotional reactivity, moderate and consistent evidence for mindfulness, rumination, and worry, and preliminary but insufficient evidence for self-compassion and psychological flexibility as mechanisms underlying MBIs. TSSEM demonstrated evidence for mindfulness, rumination and worry as significant mediators of the effects of MBIs on mental health outcomes. Most reviewed mediation studies have several key methodological shortcomings which preclude robust conclusions regarding mediation. However, they provide important groundwork on which future studies could build.

  15. The Potential to Promote Resilience: Piloting a Minority Stress-Informed, GSA-Based, Mental Health Promotion Program for LGBTQ Youth.

    PubMed

    Heck, Nicholas C

    2015-09-01

    This article describes the results of a pilot study to determine the feasibility and acceptability of a mental health promotion program that was developed to address minority stressors and promote coping skills among lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer (LGBTQ) youth. It was hypothesized that the program would be feasible to implement within the context of a gay-straight alliance (GSA) and that GSA members would find the program acceptable (e.g., educational, enjoyable, helpful, and relevant). Participants included ten members of a high school GSA in the northeastern United States. The program sessions were delivered during GSA meetings. The first session emphasized the identification of minority and general stressors, which was followed by a discussion of coping strategies. The remaining sessions emphasized the development of cognitive coping, affect regulation, and problem-solving skills. After each session, participants completed a 13-item feedback form. Ten items assessed acceptability and three open-ended items allowed participants to provide constructive feedback. Although the program was feasible to implement within the GSA setting, attendance at the sessions was variable. Those who attended the sessions reported them to be enjoyable, informative, relevant to their lives, and potentially helpful for other LGBTQ students. After revising the program, future research is needed to investigate its dissemination potential and determine whether the program can disrupt the minority stress-psychiatric distress relationship.

  16. Epigenomic profiling of men exposed to early-life stress reveals DNA methylation differences in association with current mental state.

    PubMed

    Khulan, B; Manning, J R; Dunbar, D R; Seckl, J R; Raikkonen, K; Eriksson, J G; Drake, A J

    2014-09-23

    Early-life stress (ELS) is known to be associated with an increased risk of neuropsychiatric and cardiometabolic disease in later life. One of the potential mechanisms underpinning this is through effects on the epigenome, particularly changes in DNA methylation. Using a well-phenotyped cohort of 83 men from the Helsinki Birth Cohort Study, who experienced ELS in the form of separation from their parents during childhood, and a group of 83 matched controls, we performed a genome-wide analysis of DNA methylation in peripheral blood. We found no differences in DNA methylation between men who were separated from their families and non-separated men; however, we did identify differences in DNA methylation in association with the development of at least mild depressive symptoms over the subsequent 5-10 years. Notably, hypomethylation was identified at a number of genes with roles in brain development and/or function in association with depressive symptoms. Pathway analysis revealed an enrichment of DNA methylation changes in pathways associated with development and morphogenesis, DNA and transcription factor binding and programmed cell death. Our results support the concept that DNA methylation differences may be important in the pathogenesis of psychiatric disease.

  17. Posttraumatic stress mediates the relationship between childhood victimization and current mental health burden in newly incarcerated adults.

    PubMed

    Greene, Carolyn A; Ford, Julian D; Wakefield, Dorothy B; Barry, Lisa C

    2014-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the interrelationship among childhood abuse and traumatic loss, posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS), and Axis I psychiatric disorders other than PTSD among newly incarcerated adults, and to test a proposed model in which the severity of PTSS mediates the relationship between childhood abuse/loss and adult psychiatric disorders. Four hundred sixty-five male and female inmates participated in a structured clinical research interview. Four types of interpersonal potentially traumatic experiences (physical abuse, sexual abuse, emotional abuse, and traumatic loss) were assessed for occurrence prior to the age of 18 years old. Current psychiatric disorders and PTSS were also assessed by structured interview. Negative binomial regression was used to evaluate the association between the cumulative number of types of childhood abuse/loss experienced and number of current Axis I disorders, and to test the mediation model. Approximately half of the sample (51%) experienced 1 or more types of childhood abuse/loss, and 30% of the sample had at least one psychiatric disorder other than PTSD. For both men and women, childhood physical abuse and childhood sexual abuse were independently associated with psychiatric morbidity, and an increasing number of types of childhood trauma experienced was associated with an increase in the number of current Axis I diagnoses. However, these associations were no longer statistically significant when severity of PTSS was added to the model, providing support for the proposed mediation model. Implications for secondary prevention services for at-risk inmates are discussed.

  18. Epigenomic profiling of men exposed to early-life stress reveals DNA methylation differences in association with current mental state

    PubMed Central

    Khulan, B; Manning, J R; Dunbar, D R; Seckl, J R; Raikkonen, K; Eriksson, J G; Drake, A J

    2014-01-01

    Early-life stress (ELS) is known to be associated with an increased risk of neuropsychiatric and cardiometabolic disease in later life. One of the potential mechanisms underpinning this is through effects on the epigenome, particularly changes in DNA methylation. Using a well-phenotyped cohort of 83 men from the Helsinki Birth Cohort Study, who experienced ELS in the form of separation from their parents during childhood, and a group of 83 matched controls, we performed a genome-wide analysis of DNA methylation in peripheral blood. We found no differences in DNA methylation between men who were separated from their families and non-separated men; however, we did identify differences in DNA methylation in association with the development of at least mild depressive symptoms over the subsequent 5–10 years. Notably, hypomethylation was identified at a number of genes with roles in brain development and/or function in association with depressive symptoms. Pathway analysis revealed an enrichment of DNA methylation changes in pathways associated with development and morphogenesis, DNA and transcription factor binding and programmed cell death. Our results support the concept that DNA methylation differences may be important in the pathogenesis of psychiatric disease. PMID:25247593

  19. Mental Health, United States, 2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manderscheid, Ronald W., Ed.; Henderson, Marilyn J., Ed.

    In recent years, the mental health community has made great strides in understanding more about the delivery of mental health services, improving efficiency and quality in services, and also about how to build strengths and resilience in the face of lifes stresses. This volume adds to the knowledge base so that the important task of system change…

  20. Mental health care in post-genocide Rwanda: evaluation of a program specializing in posttraumatic stress disorder and substance abuse

    PubMed Central

    Ng, L. C.; Harerimana, B.

    2016-01-01

    Background Following the genocide, millions of Rwandans are likely living with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Le Centre Psychothérapeutique Icyizere provides the only specialized treatment for PTSD in the Rwandan healthcare system. Methods Demographics, diagnosis, treatment, outcomes, and scores on assessments of functioning and PTSD were recorded from clinical charts of all patients receiving care between October 2013 and 2014. Descriptive statistics and within-group t tests comparing functional impairment and PTSD symptoms at intake to discharge and follow-up were calculated. Results A total of 719 patients (55.08% male) received care. Patients were more educated, more likely to live in the capital, and less likely to be married than the general population. Patients reported high desire for, and strong satisfaction with, care. Most patients (55.60%) were still in care by the end of the program evaluation. Functioning improved from intake to discharge (p < 0.001), and improvements were sustained at follow-up (p < 0.001). Most adults were diagnosed with psychotic disorders, substance use disorders, or depression. Only 20 patients were diagnosed with PTSD, and symptoms were improved at discharge (p = 0.003). Conclusions This program evaluation demonstrated the utility of a low-resource information management system to provide clarity about the patient population and outcomes. Results suggest that services are effective and sustainable, although people with PTSD were not the primary recipients of care. Disparities in care by diagnosis, education, marital status, and geography are discussed. Results have contributed to changes in service delivery and care and efforts to increase access to care. PMID:27610238

  1. Genetic mapping of habitual substance use, obesity-related traits, responses to mental and physical stress, and heart rate and blood pressure measurements reveals shared genes that are overrepresented in the neural synapse.

    PubMed

    Nikpay, Majid; Šeda, Ondrej; Tremblay, Johanne; Petrovich, Milan; Gaudet, Daniel; Kotchen, Theodore A; Cowley, Allen W; Hamet, Pavel

    2012-06-01

    Links between substance use habits, obesity, stress and the related cardiovascular outcomes can be, in part, because of loci with pleiotropic effects. To investigate this hypothesis, we performed genome-wide mapping in 119 multigenerational families from a population in the Saguenay-Lac-St-Jean region with a known founder effect using 58,000 single-nucleotide polymorphisms and 437 microsatellite markers to identify genetic components of the following factors: habitual alcohol, tobacco and coffee use; response to mental and physical stress; obesity-related traits; and heart rate (HR) and blood pressure (BP) measures. Habitual alcohol and/or tobacco users had attenuated HR responses to mental stress compared with non-users, whereas hypertensive individuals had stronger HR and systolic BP responses to mental stress and a higher obesity index than normotensives. Genetic mappings uncovered numerous shared genes among substance use, stress response, obesity and hemodynamic traits, including CAMK4, CNTN4, DLG2, FHIT, GRID2, ITPR2, NOVA1 and PRKCE, forming network of interacting proteins, sharing synaptic function and display higher and patterned expression profiles in brain-related tissues; moreover, pathway analysis of shared genes pointed to long-term potentiation. Subgroup genetic mappings uncovered additional shared synaptic genes, including CAMK4, CNTN5 and DNM3 (hypertension-specific); CNTN4, DNM3, FHIT and ITPR1 (sex-specific), having protein interactions with genes driven from general analysis. In summary, consistent with the observed phenotypic correlations, we found substantial overlap among genomic determinants of these traits in synapse, which supports the notion that the neural synapse may be a shared interface behind substance use, stress, obesity, HR, BP as well as the observed sex- and hypertension-specific genetic differences.

  2. Mental Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    Mental disorders include a wide range of problems, including Anxiety disorders, including panic disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, post- ... disorders, including schizophrenia There are many causes of mental disorders. Your genes and family history may play a ...

  3. How well can post-traumatic stress disorder be predicted from pre-trauma risk factors? An exploratory study in the WHO World Mental Health Surveys

    PubMed Central

    Kessler, Ronald C; Rose, Sherri; Koenen, Karestan C; Karam, Elie G; Stang, Paul E; Stein, Dan J; Heeringa, Steven G; Hill, Eric D; Liberzon, Israel; McLaughlin, Katie A; McLean, Samuel A; Pennell, Beth E; Petukhova, Maria; Rosellini, Anthony J; Ruscio, Ayelet M; Shahly, Victoria; Shalev, Arieh Y; Silove, Derrick; Zaslavsky, Alan M; Angermeyer, Matthias C; Bromet, Evelyn J; de Almeida, José Miguel Caldas; de Girolamo, Giovanni; de Jonge, Peter; Demyttenaere, Koen; Florescu, Silvia E; Gureje, Oye; Haro, Josep Maria; Hinkov, Hristo; Kawakami, Norito; Kovess-Masfety, Viviane; Lee, Sing; Medina-Mora, Maria Elena; Murphy, Samuel D; Navarro-Mateu, Fernando; Piazza, Marina; Posada-Villa, Jose; Scott, Kate; Torres, Yolanda; Carmen Viana, Maria

    2014-01-01

    Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) should be one of the most preventable mental disorders, since many people exposed to traumatic experiences (TEs) could be targeted in first response settings in the immediate aftermath of exposure for preventive intervention. However, these interventions are costly and the proportion of TE-exposed people who develop PTSD is small. To be cost-effective, risk prediction rules are needed to target high-risk people in the immediate aftermath of a TE. Although a number of studies have been carried out to examine prospective predictors of PTSD among people recently exposed to TEs, most were either small or focused on a narrow sample, making it unclear how well PTSD can be predicted in the total population of people exposed to TEs. The current report investigates this issue in a large sample based on the World Health Organization (WHO)'s World Mental Health Surveys. Retrospective reports were obtained on the predictors of PTSD associated with 47,466 TE exposures in representative community surveys carried out in 24 countries. Machine learning methods (random forests, penalized regression, super learner) were used to develop a model predicting PTSD from information about TE type, socio-demographics, and prior histories of cumulative TE exposure and DSM-IV disorders. DSM-IV PTSD prevalence was 4.0% across the 47,466 TE exposures. 95.6% of these PTSD cases were associated with the 10.0% of exposures (i.e., 4,747) classified by machine learning algorithm as having highest predicted PTSD risk. The 47,466 exposures were divided into 20 ventiles (20 groups of equal size) ranked by predicted PTSD risk. PTSD occurred after 56.3% of the TEs in the highest-risk ventile, 20.0% of the TEs in the second highest ventile, and 0.0-1.3% of the TEs in the 18 remaining ventiles. These patterns of differential risk were quite stable across demographic-geographic sub-samples. These results demonstrate that a sensitive risk algorithm can be created using

  4. Radial access for cerebrovascular procedures: Case report and technical note

    PubMed Central

    Vance, Ansar Z; Sivapatham, Thinesh

    2015-01-01

    Background Advantages of radial access over brachial/axillary or femoral access have been well described for several decades and include decreased cost, patient preference, and decreased major access site complications. Despite these advantages, radial access is rarely employed or even considered for neurointerventional procedures. This attitude should be reconsidered given several recent large, randomized, controlled trials from the cardiovascular literature proving that radial access is associated with statistically lower costs, decreased incidence of myocardial infarctions, strokes, and even decreased mortality. Radial access is now considered the standard of care for percutaneous coronary interventions in most US centers. Although radial access has been described for neurovascular procedures in the past, overall experience is limited. The two major challenges are the unique anatomy required to access the cerebral vasculature given very acute angles between the arm and craniocervical vessels and limitations in available technology. Methods We present a simplified approach to radial access for cerebrovascular procedures and provide a concise step-by-step approach for patient selection, ultrasound-guided single-wall access, recommended catheters/wires, and review of patent hemostasis. Additionally, we present a complex cerebrovascular intervention in which standard femoral access was unsuccessful, while radial access was quickly achieved to highlight the importance of familiarity with the radial approach for all neurointerventionalists. Results We have found that the learning curve is not too steep and that the radial access approach can be adopted smoothly for a large percentage of diagnostic and interventional neuroradiologic procedures. Conclusions Radial access should be considered in all patients undergoing a cerebrovascular procedure. PMID:26659807

  5. Antidepressants Alter Cerebrovascular Permeability and Metabolic Rate in Primates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Preskorn, Sheldon H.; Raichle, Marcus E.; Hartman, Boyd K.

    1982-07-01

    External detection of the annihilation radiation produced by water labeled with oxygen-15 was used to measure cerebrovascular permeability and cerebral blood flow in six rhesus monkeys. Use of oxygen-15 also permitted assessment of cerebral metabolic rate in two of the monkeys. Amitriptyline produced a dose-dependent, reversible increase in permeability at plasma drug concentrations which are therapeutic for depressed patients. At the same concentrations the drug also produced a 20 to 30 percent reduction in cerebral metabolic rate. At higher doses normal autoregulation of cerebral blood flow was suspended, but responsivity to arterial carbon dioxide was normal.

  6. Medicare Expenditure Correlates of Atrophy and Cerebrovascular Disease in Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Last, Briana S; García Rubio, Maria-José; Zhu, Carolyn W; Cosentino, Stephanie; Manly, Jennifer J; DeCarli, Charles; Stern, Yaakov; Brickman, Adam M

    2017-01-01

    Background/Study Context: Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) markers of cerebrovascular disease and atrophy are common in older adults and are associated with cognitive and medical burden. However, the extent to which they are related to health care expenditures has not been examined. We studied whether increased Medicare expenditures were associated with brain markers of atrophy and cerebrovascular disease in older adults.

  7. Effects of Dehydration on Cerebrovascular Control During Standing After Heavy Resistance Exercise

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-03-29

    flow; weight training ; cerebrovascular control PRESERVATION OF CEREBRAL PERFUSION is essential for maintaining consciousness. Heavy resistance exercise...cardiovascular and cerebrovascular regulatory mechanisms. Subjects also received famil- iarization training with the experimental protocol and procedures...increases in the power of MCAv LF oscillations was induced by breathing through an inspiratory threshold device and was associated with an improvement in

  8. Fetal cerebrovascular circulation: a review of prenatal ultrasound assessment.

    PubMed

    Degani, S

    2008-01-01

    Antenatal intrauterine cerebrovascular events were found to play an important role in the pathogenesis of perinatal brain damage. Changes in placental vascular resistance, cardiac contractibility, vessel compliance, and blood viscosity alter the normal dynamics of fetal cerebral circulation. The circulatory mechanisms described in animal fetuses also operate in the human fetus. The isthmus of the aorta represents a watershed area reflecting the redistribution of blood during increased peripheral resistance and hypoxia. The fetal cerebrovascular system acts locally within the skull and interacts with the other components of fetal circulation to compensate by redistribution of blood in case of shortage in resources. The introduction of various sonographic techniques and the collection of data from the arterial and venous cerebral circulation have improved our understanding of the regulatory mechanisms involved in fetal cerebral hemodynamic events. Anatomical and physiological considerations of cerebral vasculature in health and disease are relevant in the research of variations in fetal brain blood perfusion. Changes in flow characteristics in fetal cerebral vasculature can be used for clinical decisions. However, caution is advised before applying research data into practice. The clinical utility is well established in situations of fetal compromise such as growth restriction and anemia.

  9. Single photon emission computed tomography in cerebrovascular disease

    SciTech Connect

    Brass, L.M.; Rattner, Z.

    1991-12-31

    Every year, nearly half a million people in the United States have a stroke. Cerebrovascular disease is the third leading cause of death in the country, and it costs the economy approximately $25 billion annually. SPECT perfusion imaging is a sensitive indicator of stroke. Abnormal patterns of blood flow are recognized either as areas of hypoactivity (focal or diffused) or hyperactivity (hyperemia or luxury perfusion). Lesions are demonstrated earlier by SPECT than by CT or MRI, and the physiologic information from flow imaging is not available from such anatomic studies. Given the significance of stroke and the early sensitivity of SPECT, why do most neurologists not include SPECT in the evaluation of their patients? The authors feel that the answer is that most neurologists do not view SPECT flow imaging as providing additional information beyond the standard clinical and radiologic work-up. This article therefore concentrates on ways in which SPECT imaging can be useful in stroke, identifying the major concerns of clinicians, and demonstrating how some of these concerns can be addressed by SPECT. The goal is to expand the perspective of the nuclear-medicine physician and encourage investigations on urgent clinical problems in the diagnosis and management of patients with cerebrovascular diseases. Additional information may be obtained from several excellent reviews of SPECT imaging in stroke. 73 refs.

  10. Wavelet assessment of cerebrospinal compensatory reserve and cerebrovascular pressure reactivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Latka, M.; Turalska, M.; Kolodziej, W.; Latka, D.; West, B.

    2006-03-01

    We employ complex continuous wavelet transforms to develop a consistent mathematical framework capable of quantifying both cerebrospinal compensatory reserve and cerebrovascular pressure--reactivity. The wavelet gain, defined as the frequency dependent ratio of time averaged wavelet coefficients of intracranial (ICP) and arterial blood pressure (ABP) fluctuations, characterizes the dampening of spontaneous arterial blood oscillations. This gain is introduced as a novel measure of cerebrospinal compensatory reserve. For a group of 10 patients who died as a result of head trauma (Glasgow Outcome Scale GOS =1) the average gain is 0.45 calculated at 0.05 Hz significantly exceeds that of 16 patients with favorable outcome (GOS=2): with gain of 0.24 with p=4x10-5. We also study the dynamics of instantaneous phase difference between the fluctuations of the ABP and ICP time series. The time-averaged synchronization index, which depends upon frequency, yields the information about the stability of the phase difference and is used as a cerebrovascular pressure--reactivity index. The average phase difference for GOS=1 is close to zero in sharp contrast to the mean value of 30^o for patients with GOS=2. We hypothesize that in patients who died the impairment of cerebral autoregulation is followed by the break down of residual pressure reactivity.

  11. Knee Joint Dysfunctions That Influence Gait in Cerebrovascular Injury

    PubMed Central

    Lucareli, Paulo Roberto Garcia; Greve, Julia Maria D’Andrea

    2008-01-01

    INTRODUCTION There is still no consensus among different specialists on the subject of kinematic variation during the hemiparetic gait, including the main changes that take place during the gait cycle and whether the gait velocity changes the patterns of joint mobility. One of the most frequently discussed joints is the knee. OBJECTIVES This study aims to evaluate the variables found in the angular kinematics of knee joint, and to describe the alterations found in the hemiparetic gait resulting from cerebrovascular injury. METHODS This study included 66 adult patients of both genders with a diagnosis of either right or left hemiparesis resulting from ischemic cerebrovascular injury. All the participants underwent three-dimensional gait evaluation, an the angular kinematics of the joint knee were selected for analysis. RESULTS The results were distributed into four groups formed based on the median of the gait speed and the side of hemiparesis. CONCLUSIONS The relevant clinical characteristics included the important mechanisms of loading response in the stance, knee hyperextension in single stance, and reduction of the peak flexion and movement amplitude of the knee in the swing phase. These mechanisms should be taken into account when choosing the best treatment. We believe that the findings presented here may aid in preventing the occurrence of the problems found, and also in identifying the origin of these problems. PMID:18719753

  12. Pathobiology of human cerebrovascular malformations: basic mechanisms and clinical relevance.

    PubMed

    Gault, Judith; Sarin, Hemant; Awadallah, Nabil A; Shenkar, Robert; Awad, Issam A

    2004-07-01

    Cerebrovascular malformations affect more than 3% of the population, exposing them to a lifetime risk of hemorrhagic stroke, seizures, and focal neurological deficits. Cerebral cavernous malformations (CCMs) exhibit an immature vessel wall, a brittle hemorrhagic tendency, and epileptogenesis, whereas arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) lack capillary beds and manifest apoplectic bleeding under high-flow conditions. There are also more benign venous anomalies, capillary malformations, and lesions with mixed and transitional features. Advances have been made toward understanding the natural history, radiological and pathological correlates, and clinical management. Yet, mechanisms of lesion genesis and clinical manifestations remain largely unknown, and the clinical behavior in individual patients is highly unpredictable. Lesion pathogenesis likely involves abnormal assembly or maintenance of blood vessels, resulting in dysmorphic vessel phenotypes. Familial CCM disease is in part caused by mutations in a cytoskeletal-related protein that is likely integral to interendothelial cell connectivity and maturation of the vascular wall. Rare familial forms of AVM disease have been correlated with two different transforming growth factor-beta receptor components, possibly causing disturbance in signaling during vascular assembly. Relevance of these mechanisms to the more common and otherwise identical sporadic CCM and AVM lesions is being explored. In this report, basic mechanisms of vasculogenesis and angiogenesis and how they possibly relate to the common cerebrovascular malformation lesions are reviewed. Novel concepts are discussed related to the cellular, molecular, and genetic substrates in CCM and AVM as well as to how this knowledge can be applied to predict, explain, and possibly modify clinical disease manifestations.

  13. Cerebrovascular Disease in Children: Recent Advances in Diagnosis and Management

    PubMed Central

    Bowers, Karen J.; deVeber, Gabrielle A.; Ferriero, Donna M.; Roach, E. Steve; Vexler, Zinaida S.; Maria, Bernard L.

    2017-01-01

    Cerebrovascular disease in children manifests in many forms, all of which have devastating and long-lasting effects. Recent advances in diagnostic imaging have revealed that this condition is much more common in the pediatric population than previously believed, affecting as many as 1 in 1500 neonates and 1 in 3000 children. The underlying mechanisms that cause stroke—ischemic stroke, sinovenous thrombosis, and hemorrhagic stroke—are only beginning to be understood; however, progress has been made toward better understanding the mechanisms of disease, particularly in the fields of genetics, inflammation, and thrombus formation. Furthermore, new imaging techniques, and better understanding of how to use imaging in managing stroke, have enabled practitioners to more quickly and accurately identify cerebrovascular disease type in children, which is key to mitigation of negative outcomes. The 2010 Neurobiology of Disease in Children symposium, held in conjunction with the 39th annual meeting of the Child Neurology Society, aimed to (1) describe clinical issues surrounding childhood stroke, including diagnosis and acute care; (2) discuss recent advances in the understanding of the pathogenesis of childhood stroke; (3) review current management of and therapies for childhood stroke, including controversial therapies; and (4) establish research directions for investigators. This article summarizes the speakers’ presentations and includes an edited transcript of question-and-answer sessions. PMID:21778188

  14. Dementia with cerebrovascular disease: the benefits of early treatment.

    PubMed

    Schindler, R J

    2005-10-01

    Patients with vascular dementia (VaD) and Alzheimer's disease with cerebrovascular disease (AD + CVD) have dementia associated with underlying CVD. Although diagnosis of VaD is challenging, VaD is typically characterized by a stepwise progression of dementia that is closely associated with stroke and focal neurological findings, and a symptom profile that often includes executive dysfunction leading to decreased ability to perform instrumental activities of daily living (IADL). In contrast, AD + CVD patients typically present with progressive deterioration of cognition/memory that may also be influenced by concurrent cerebrovascular events. Early diagnosis and intervention are desirable to prevent further decline due to subsequent vascular events. Management of CVD can limit deterioration of cognitive symptoms in VaD patients, and treatment benefits with cholinesterase inhibitors may be realized as improvement above baseline levels in dementia symptoms. Results from a combined analysis of two 24-week, placebo-controlled clinical trials show that donepezil-treated VaD patients improve in cognition, global function, and performance of IADL. In contrast, AD + CVD patients may continue to decline despite management of CVD, and treatment benefits should be recognized as initial improvements followed by stabilization or slowed decline of dementia symptoms over time. In post-marketing studies, donepezil-treated AD and AD + CVD patients show similar benefits in cognition, global function, and quality of life. The results of these studies support the use of donepezil in treatment of patients with VaD or AD + CVD.

  15. HIV and Elevated Mental Health Problems: Diagnostic, Treatment, and Risk Patterns for Symptoms of Depression, Anxiety, and Stress in a National Community-Based Cohort of Gay Men Living with HIV.

    PubMed

    Heywood, Wendy; Lyons, Anthony

    2016-08-01

    People living with HIV (PLHIV) have almost double the risk of depression than the rest of the population, and depression and anxiety among PLHIV have been linked with greater disease progression and other physical health problems. Studies to date, however, have focused almost exclusively on depression or general mental health. Much less research has investigated predictors of anxiety and generalized stress among HIV-positive gay men. This paper reports findings from a national community-based sample of 357 HIV-positive Australians gay men aged 18 years and older. Participants reported elevated rates of depression, anxiety, and generalized stress symptoms. A significant proportion of men with elevated depression and anxiety symptoms were not receiving treatment or had not been diagnosed. Risk factors for elevated mental health concerns included experiences of internalized stigma and discrimination. Anxiety was also associated with lower T-cell CD4 counts. A key protective factor was access to social support. The type of support, in particular emotional support, was found to be more important than the source of support. Our findings suggest that greater emphasis is needed on mental health screening and the provision of emotional support for PLHIV.

  16. Disparities in Mental Health Quality of Life Between Hispanic and Non-Hispanic White LGB Midlife and Older Adults and the Influence of Lifetime Discrimination, Social Connectedness, Socioeconomic Status, and Perceived Stress.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyun-Jun; Fredriksen-Goldsen, Karen I

    2016-05-16

    We assessed factors contributing to ethnic and racial disparities in mental health quality of life (MHQOL) among lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) midlife and older adults. We utilized cross-sectional survey data from a sample of non-Hispanic White and Hispanic LGB adults aged 50 and older. Structural equation modeling was used to test the indirect effect of ethnicity/race on MHQOL via explanatory factors including social connectedness, lifetime discrimination, socioeconomic status (SES), and perceived stress. Hispanics reported significantly lower levels of MHQOL, compared to non-Hispanic Whites. In the final model, the association between ethnicity/race and MHQOL was explained by higher levels of perceived stress related to lower SES, higher frequency of lifetime discrimination, and lack of social connectedness among Hispanic LGB adults. This study suggests that perceived stress related to social disadvantage and marginalization plays an important role in MHQOL disparities among Hispanic LGB midlife and older adults.

  17. Sexual orientation and differences in mental health, stress, and academic performance in a national sample of U.S. college students.

    PubMed

    Oswalt, Sara B; Wyatt, Tammy J

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the relationships of mental health issues and sexual orientation in a national sample of college students. Using the Fall 2009 American College Health Association-National College Health Assessment, responses from heterosexual, gay, lesbian, bisexual, and unsure students (N = 27,454) relating to mental health issues and impact of these issues on academics were examined. The findings indicate that gay, lesbian, bisexual, and unsure students consistently reported higher levels of mental health issues and a more frequent impact on academics because of these issues than heterosexual students. Bisexuals frequently reported higher levels than students identifying as gay, lesbian, and unsure.

  18. Elderly Mental Health: Needs*

    PubMed Central

    Parkar, Shubhangi R.

    2015-01-01

    This paper highlights the mental health needs of the elderly. It tackles the issues of their institutionalisation and community care. Rapid urbanisation in Indian society throws up special problems in elderly care. There is great evidence of a raise in morbidity, mortality, hospitalisation and loss of functional status related to common mental disorders in the elderly patients. Overlap of depression and anxiety is very common with up to almost half of the elderly patients reporting significant depressive and anxiety symptoms. Also, depression is the most common psychiatric disorder in late life. Growth in the elderly population means a direct increase in age related diseases such as dementia and poor mental health outcomes such as depression, anxiety, suicide and serious constraints on the quality of life among elderly individuals. The need to identify new and unmet problem areas and develop efficient therapeutic outcomes for this special population is stressed. PMID:25838727

  19. Cerebrovascular injury as a risk factor for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Turner, Martin R; Goldacre, Raph; Talbot, Kevin; Goldacre, Michael J

    2016-01-01

    Objective To use an unbiased method to test a previously reported association between cerebral arteriovenous malformation (AVM) embolisation and the subsequent development of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Methods A hospital record linkage database was used to create cohorts of individuals coded as having cerebral and peripheral vessel AVMs, stroke (separately for haemorrhagic and ischaemic), transient ischaemic attack (TIA) and subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH). The rate ratio for subsequent ALS was compared to a reference cohort. Results An increased rate ratio for ALS was found in relation to prior AVM (2.69; p=0.005), all strokes (1.38; p<0.001), and TIA (1.47; p<0.001). Conclusions Cerebrovascular injury from a variety of causes, rather than the presence of AVM or the associated embolisation procedure per se, may be a risk factor for ALS within the context of a more complex multiple-hit model of pathogenesis. PMID:26260352

  20. [PECULIARITIES OF THE CEREBROVASCULAR EFFECTS OF GLUTAMIC ACID].

    PubMed

    Gan'shina, T S; Kurza, E V; Kurdyumov, I N; Maslennikov, D V; Mirzoyan, R S

    2016-01-01

    Experiments on nonlinear rats subjected to global transient cerebral ischemia revealed the ability of glutamic acid to improve cerebral circulation. Consequently, the excitatory amino acid can produce adverse (neurotoxic) and positive (anti-ischemic) effects in cerebral ischemia. The cerebrovascular effect of glutamic acid in cerebral ischemia is attenuated on the background action of the MNDA receptor blocker MK-801 (0.5 mg/kg intravenously) and eliminated by bicuculline. When glutamic acid is combined with the non-competitive MNDA receptor antagonist MK-801, neither one nor another drug shows its vasodilator effect. The results are indicative of the interaction between excitatory and inhibitory systems on the level of cerebral vessels and once again confirm our previous conclusion about the decisive role of GABA(A) receptors in brain vessels in the implementation of anti-ischemic activity of endogenous compounds (melatonin) and well-known pharmacological substances (mexidol, afobazole), and new chemical compounds based on GABA-containing lipid derivatives.

  1. [Cerebro-vascular emergencies: cerebral and meningeal hemorrhage].

    PubMed

    Philippon, Jacques

    2002-01-01

    Intracerebral haemorrhage is the most dramatic, even if not the most frequent among cerebrovascular emergencies. However the improved treatment of arterial hypertension has decreased its frequency. Modern neuroradiological methods have led to an easier diagnosis, but the best choice for treatment (medical or surgical) is still debated. Decision must be based upon different factors, the most important of which are clinical condition volume, and location of haemorrhage. If the general prognosis has been improved by the transfer to specialized Units, wherein such are available, the benefit of surgery, while indispensable in some cases, has yet to be demonstrated by prospective studies. The problem is far different in subarachnoïd haemorrhage due to rupture of a vascular malformation: the necessity of a rapid treatment by surgery or embolization is largely admitted except for those patients in a bad clinical conditions.

  2. Reconstructing cerebrovascular networks under local physiological constraints by integer programming.

    PubMed

    Rempfler, Markus; Schneider, Matthias; Ielacqua, Giovanna D; Xiao, Xianghui; Stock, Stuart R; Klohs, Jan; Székely, Gábor; Andres, Bjoern; Menze, Bjoern H

    2015-10-01

    We introduce a probabilistic approach to vessel network extraction that enforces physiological constraints on the vessel structure. The method accounts for both image evidence and geometric relationships between vessels by solving an integer program, which is shown to yield the maximum a posteriori (MAP) estimate to a probabilistic model. Starting from an overconnected network, it is pruning vessel stumps and spurious connections by evaluating the local geometry and the global connectivity of the graph. We utilize a high-resolution micro computed tomography (μCT) dataset of a cerebrovascular corrosion cast to obtain a reference network and learn the prior distributions of our probabilistic model and we perform experiments on in-vivo magnetic resonance microangiography (μMRA) images of mouse brains. We finally discuss properties of the networks obtained under different tracking and pruning approaches.

  3. Cerebrovascular Accident Incidence in the NASA Astronaut Population

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    LaPelusa, Michael B.; Charvat, Jacqueline M.; Lee, Lesley R.; Wear, Mary L.; Van Baalen, Mary

    2016-01-01

    The development of atherosclerosis is strongly associated with an increased risk for cerebrovascular accidents (CVA), including stroke and transient ischemic attacks (TIA). Certain unique occupational exposures that individuals in the NASA astronaut corps face, specifically high-performance aircraft training, SCUBA training, and spaceflight, are hypothesized to cause changes to the cardiovascular system. These changes, which include (but are not limited to) oxidative damage as a result of radiation exposure and circadian rhythm disturbance, increased arterial stiffness, and increased carotid-intima-media thickness (CIMT), may contribute to the development of atherosclerosis and subsequent CVA. The purpose of this study was to review cases of CVA in the NASA astronaut corps and describe the comorbidities and occupational exposures associated with CVA.

  4. Clinical and angiographic comparison of asymptomatic occlusive cerebrovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Gorelick, P B; Caplan, L R; Langenberg, P; Hier, D B; Pessin, M; Patel, D; Taber, J

    1988-06-01

    We compared clinical and arteriographic features in 106 patients with symptomatic unilateral carotid territory occlusive disease to determine the frequency and distribution of occlusive arterial lesions in asymptomatic vessels. Among black patients who were predominantly from Chicago, young, and female, there were fewer transient ischemic attacks and myocardial infarcts, less claudication, and more asymptomatic lesions of the supraclinoid internal carotid artery, anterior cerebral artery stem, and the middle cerebral artery stem. Among white patients predominantly from New England, elderly, and male, there was more frequent and severe occlusive asymptomatic disease at extracranial carotid and vertebral artery sites. Knowledge of the distribution of asymptomatic lesions will help guide evaluation and treatment strategies for patients with occlusive cerebrovascular disease.

  5. Inhaled nitric oxide induces cerebrovascular effects in anesthetized pigs.

    PubMed

    Kuebler, W M; Kisch-Wedel, H; Kemming, G I; Meisner, F; Bruhn, S; Koehler, C; Flondor, M; Messmer, K; Zwissler, B

    2003-09-11

    Although inhaled nitric oxide (NO(i)) is considered to act selectively on pulmonary vessels, EEG abnormalities and even occasional neurotoxic effects of NO(i) have been proposed. Here, we investigated cerebrovascular effects of increasing concentrations of 5, 10 and 50 ppm NO(i) in seven anesthetized pigs. Cerebral hemodynamics were assessed non-invasively by use of near-infared spectroscopy and indicator dilution techniques. NO(i) increased cerebral blood volume significantly and reversibly. This effect was not attributable to changes of macrohemodynamic parameters or arterial blood gases. Simultaneously, cerebral transit time increased while cerebral blood flow remained unchanged. These data demonstrate a vasodilatory action of NO(i) in the cerebral vasculature, which may occur preferentially in the venous compartment.

  6. Reconstructing cerebrovascular networks under local physiological constraints by integer programming

    DOE PAGES

    Rempfler, Markus; Schneider, Matthias; Ielacqua, Giovanna D.; ...

    2015-04-23

    We introduce a probabilistic approach to vessel network extraction that enforces physiological constraints on the vessel structure. The method accounts for both image evidence and geometric relationships between vessels by solving an integer program, which is shown to yield the maximum a posteriori (MAP) estimate to the probabilistic model. Starting from an over-connected network, it is pruning vessel stumps and spurious connections by evaluating the local geometry and the global connectivity of the graph. We utilize a high-resolution micro computed tomography (µCT) dataset of a cerebrovascular corrosion cast to obtain a reference network and learn the prior distributions of ourmore » probabilistic model. As a result, we perform experiments on micro magnetic resonance angiography (µMRA) images of mouse brains and discuss properties of the networks obtained under different tracking and pruning approaches.« less

  7. Reconstructing cerebrovascular networks under local physiological constraints by integer programming

    SciTech Connect

    Rempfler, Markus; Schneider, Matthias; Ielacqua, Giovanna D.; Xiao, Xianghui; Stock, Stuart R.; Klohs, Jan; Szekely, Gabor; Andres, Bjoern; Menze, Bjoern H.

    2015-04-23

    We introduce a probabilistic approach to vessel network extraction that enforces physiological constraints on the vessel structure. The method accounts for both image evidence and geometric relationships between vessels by solving an integer program, which is shown to yield the maximum a posteriori (MAP) estimate to the probabilistic model. Starting from an over-connected network, it is pruning vessel stumps and spurious connections by evaluating the local geometry and the global connectivity of the graph. We utilize a high-resolution micro computed tomography (µCT) dataset of a cerebrovascular corrosion cast to obtain a reference network and learn the prior distributions of our probabilistic model. As a result, we perform experiments on micro magnetic resonance angiography (µMRA) images of mouse brains and discuss properties of the networks obtained under different tracking and pruning approaches.

  8. The acute (cerebro)vascular effects of statins.

    PubMed

    Prinz, Vincent; Endres, Matthias

    2009-08-01

    The introduction of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase inhibitors, i.e., statins, constitutes a milestone in the prevention of cardio- and cerebrovascular disease. The effects of statins extend far beyond their effects on cholesterol levels: pleiotropic effects include vasoprotective mechanisms, comprising improved endothelial function, increased bioavailability of nitric oxide, immunomodulatory and antiinflammatory properties, stabilization of atherosclerotic plaques, as well as antioxidant and stem cell-regulating capacities. Large clinical trials have clearly demonstrated that statins reduce the risk of myocardial infarction and stroke. Recent experimental and clinical data have demonstrated that in addition to risk reduction, statins may also improve outcome after stroke and myocardial infarction, even when statins were administered after the event. Moreover, abrupt discontinuation of statin therapy after acute cardio- or cerebrovascular events may impair vascular function and increase morbidity and mortality. Beyond stroke, statin treatment also has been shown to provide protective effects in critically ill patients, e.g., after major surgery, sepsis, or in patients at high-vascular risk. However, although large randomized controlled trials are missing, ongoing trials will clarify the impact of acute statin treatment in these conditions. Although evidence is presently limited, acute statin therapy is emerging as a new therapeutic avenue for the treatment of the critically ill. Until now, statins were only available as oral drugs. An IV formulation may be warranted for acute treatment of severely ill patients, for example, those who are unable to swallow or scheduled for surgery. Hydrophilic statins would be suitable for an IV formulation and have been safely tested in healthy volunteers.

  9. Paediatric cerebrovascular CT angiography—towards better image quality

    PubMed Central

    Thust, Stefanie C.; Chong, Wui Khean Kling; Gunny, Roxana; Mazumder, Asif; Poitelea, Marius; Welsh, Anna; Ederies, Ash

    2014-01-01

    Background Paediatric cerebrovascular CT angiography (CTA) can be challenging to perform due to variable cardiovascular physiology between different age groups and the risk of movement artefact. This analysis aimed to determine what proportion of CTA at our institution was of diagnostic quality and identify technical factors which could be improved. Materials and methods a retrospective analysis of 20 cases was performed at a national paediatric neurovascular centre assessing image quality with a subjective scoring system and Hounsfield Unit (HU) measurements. Demographic data, contrast dose, flow rate and triggering times were recorded for each patient. Results Using a qualitative scoring system, 75% of studies were found to be of diagnostic quality (n=9 ‘good’, n=6 ‘satisfactory’) and 25% (n=5) were ‘poor’. Those judged subjectively to be poor had arterial contrast density measured at less than 250 HU. Increased arterial opacification was achieved for cases performed with an increased flow rate (2.5-4 mL/s) and higher intravenous contrast dose (2 mL/kg). Triggering was found to be well timed in nine cases, early in four cases and late in seven cases. Of the scans triggered early, 75% were poor. Of the scans triggered late, less (29%) were poor. Conclusions High flow rates (>2.5 mL/s) were a key factor for achieving high quality paediatric cerebrovascular CTA imaging. However, appropriate triggering by starting the scan immediately on contrast opacification of the monitoring vessel plays an important role and could maintain image quality when flow rates were lower. Early triggering appeared more detrimental than late. PMID:25525579

  10. Effects of acute hypoxia on cerebrovascular responses to carbon dioxide.

    PubMed

    Ogoh, Shigehiko; Nakahara, Hidehiro; Ueda, Shinya; Okazaki, Kazunobu; Shibasaki, Manabu; Subudhi, Andrew W; Miyamoto, Tadayoshi

    2014-06-01

    In normoxic conditions, a reduction in arterial carbon dioxide tension causes cerebral vasoconstriction, thereby reducing cerebral blood flow and modifying dynamic cerebral autoregulation (dCA). It is unclear to what extent these effects are altered by acute hypoxia and the associated hypoxic ventilatory response (respiratory chemoreflex). This study tested the hypothesis that acute hypoxia attenuates arterial CO2 tension-mediated regulation of cerebral blood flow to help maintain cerebral O2 homeostasis. Eight subjects performed three randomly assigned respiratory interventions following a resting baseline period, as follows: (1) normoxia (21% O2); (2) hypoxia (12% O2); and (3) hypoxia with wilful restraint of the respiratory chemoreflex. During each intervention, 0, 2.0, 3.5 or 5.0% CO2 was sequentially added (8 min stages) to inspired gas mixtures to assess changes in steady-state cerebrovascular CO2 reactivity and dCA. During normoxia, the addition of CO2 increased internal carotid artery blood flow and middle cerebral artery mean blood velocity (MCA Vmean), while reducing dCA (change in phase = -0.73 ± 0.22 rad, P = 0.005). During acute hypoxia, internal carotid artery blood flow and MCA Vmean remained unchanged, but cerebrovascular CO2 reactivity (internal carotid artery, P = 0.003; MCA Vmean, P = 0.031) and CO2-mediated effects on dCA (P = 0.008) were attenuated. The effects of hypoxia were not further altered when the respiratory chemoreflex was restrained. These findings support the hypothesis that arterial CO2 tension-mediated effects on the cerebral vasculature are reduced during acute hypoxia. These effects could limit the degree of hypocapnic vasoconstriction and may help to regulate cerebral blood flow and cerebral O2 homeostasis during acute periods of hypoxia.

  11. The Architecture of an Automatic eHealth Platform With Mobile Client for Cerebrovascular Disease Detection

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xingce; Bie, Rongfang; Wu, Zhongke; Zhou, Mingquan; Cao, Rongfei; Xie, Lizhi; Zhang, Dong

    2013-01-01

    Background In recent years, cerebrovascular disease has been the leading cause of death and adult disability in the world. This study describes an efficient approach to detect cerebrovascular disease. Objective In order to improve cerebrovascular treatment, prevention, and care, an automatic cerebrovascular disease detection eHealth platform is designed and studied. Methods We designed an automatic eHealth platform for cerebrovascular disease detection with a four-level architecture: object control layer, data transmission layer, service supporting layer, and application service layer. The platform has eight main functions: cerebrovascular database management, preprocessing of cerebral image data, image viewing and adjustment model, image cropping compression and measurement, cerebrovascular segmentation, 3-dimensional cerebrovascular reconstruction, cerebrovascular rendering, cerebrovascular virtual endoscope, and automatic detection. Several key technologies were employed for the implementation of the platform. The anisotropic diffusion model was used to reduce the noise. Statistics segmentation with Gaussian-Markov random field model (G-MRF) and Stochastic Estimation Maximization (SEM) parameter estimation method were used to realize the cerebrovascular segmentation. Ball B-Spline curve was proposed to model the cerebral blood vessels. Compute unified device architecture (CUDA) based on ray-casting volume rendering presented by curvature enhancement and boundary enhancement were used to realize the volume rendering model. We implemented the platform with a network client and mobile phone client to fit different users. Results The implemented platform is running on a common personal computer. Experiments on 32 patients’ brain computed tomography data or brain magnetic resonance imaging data stored in the system verified the feasibility and validity of each model we proposed. The platform is partly used in the cranial nerve surgery of the First Hospital

  12. A Randomized Control Trial of a Community Mental Health Intervention for Military Personnel

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-10-01

    reporting period. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Mental health literacy , Mental Health First Aid (MHFA), curriculum adaptation 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF...Stress First Aid and suicide prevention gatekeeper training by providing a mental health literacy component that is currently not addressed

  13. Mental Health Difficulties and Help-Seeking Beliefs within a Sample of Female Partners of UK Veterans Diagnosed with Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, Dominic; Palmer, Emily; Busuttil, Walter

    2016-01-01

    In the UK there is a paucity of research about the needs of partners who are supporting ex-service personnel with mental health difficulties. In this study, we surveyed the mental health needs and barriers to help-seeking within a sample of partners of UK veterans who had been diagnosed with PTSD. Our sample included 100 participants. Forty-five percent met criteria for alcohol problems, 39% for depression, 37% for generalised anxiety disorder and 17% for symptoms of probable PTSD. Participants who met case criteria for depression, anxiety and problems with alcohol were more likely to report a greater number of help-seeking barriers. Participants who were experiencing mental health difficulties were more likely to endorse barriers connected to stigmatising beliefs than those associated with practical issues around accessing mental health services. The evidence presented suggests there may be a considerable burden of mental illness within this population. It would seem prudent to conduct further work to understand how best to address this clinical need. PMID:27490576

  14. What Is Mental Health?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Myths and Facts Recovery is Possible What Is Mental Health? Mental health includes our emotional, psychological, and social ... mental health problems and where to find help . Mental Health and Wellness Positive mental health allows people to: ...

  15. Smartphone Applications for Mental Health.

    PubMed

    Radovic, Ana; Vona, Pamela L; Santostefano, Antonella M; Ciaravino, Samantha; Miller, Elizabeth; Stein, Bradley D

    2016-07-01

    Many adolescents and adults do not seek treatment for mental health symptoms. Smartphone applications (apps) may assist individuals with mental health concerns in alleviating symptoms or increasing understanding. This study seeks to characterize apps readily available to smartphone users seeking mental health information and/or support. Ten key terms were searched in the Apple iTunes and Google Play stores: mental health, depression, anxiety, schizophrenia, bipolar, trauma, trauma in schools, post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), child trauma, and bullying. A content analysis of the first 20 application descriptions retrieved per category was conducted. Out of 300 nonduplicate applications, 208 (70%) were relevant to search topic, mental health or stress. The most common purported purpose for the apps was symptom relief (41%; n = 85) and general mental health education (18%; n = 37). The most frequently mentioned approaches to improving mental health were those that may benefit only milder symptoms such as relaxation (21%; n = 43). Most app descriptions did not include information to substantiate stated effectiveness of the application (59%; n = 123) and had no mention of privacy or security (89%; n = 185). Due to uncertainty of the helpfulness of readily available mental health applications, clinicians working with mental health patients should inquire about and provide guidance on application use, and patients should have access to ways to assess the potential utility of these applications. Strategic policy and research developments are likely needed to equip patients with applications for mental health, which are patient centered and evidence based.

  16. [EDAS (encephalo-duro-arterio-synangiosis) for occlusive/stenotic cerebrovascular disease].

    PubMed

    Maekawa, M; Awaya, S; Fukuda, S; Teramoto, A

    2001-02-01

    The efficacy of encephalo-duro-arterio-synangiosis (EDAS) using superficial temporal artery was evaluated for the treatment of the occlusive/stenotic cerebrovascular disease. Nine patients with the occlusive/stenotic cerebrovascular disease underwent EDAS in our hospital. The mean follow-up period was 6.6 months. Postoperative angiography showed no collateral formation via EDAS in any of the nine patients. We analyzed the following points: 1) operative procedure, 2) follow up period after surgery, 3) preoperative cerebral blood flow, and 4) age of the patients. Results showed that EDAS as a treatment of occlusive/stenotic cerebrovascular disease was not effective. This study failed to reinforce the suggestion that indirect extracranial/intracranial bypass surgery is effective as the treatment of occlusive/stenotic cerebrovascular disease.

  17. 25-Hydroxyvitamin D, dementia, and cerebrovascular pathology in elders receiving home services

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vitamin D deficiency has potential adverse effects on neurocognitive health and subcortical function. However, no studies have examined the association between vitamin D status, dementia, and cranial magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) indicators of cerebrovascular disease (CVD). Cross-sectional inves...

  18. Mental Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... Video Games Video Sharing Sites Webcasts/ Webinars Widgets Wikis Follow Us on New Media Virtual Office Hours ... mental health should be part of your complete medical evaluation before starting antiretroviral medications. And you should ...

  19. Mental Illness

    MedlinePlus

    ... you think you may hurt yourself or attempt suicide, get help right away: Call 911 or your ... immediately. Call your mental health specialist. Call a suicide hotline number — in the U.S., call the National ...

  20. Risk of Cerebrovascular Diseases After Uvulopalatopharyngoplasty in Patients With Obstructive Sleep Apnea

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Shin-Yan; Cherng, Yih-Giun; Lee, Fei-Peng; Yeh, Chun-Chieh; Huang, Shih-Yu; Hu, Chaur-Jong; Liao, Chien-Chang; Chen, Ta-Liang

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Little was known about the beneficial effects of uvulopalatopharyngoplasty (UPPP) on the outcomes after obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of UPPP on reducing risk of cerebrovascular diseases in patients with OSA. Using Taiwan's National Health Insurance Research Database, we conducted a retrospective cohort study of 10,339 patients with new OSA between January 1, 2004, and December 31, 2009. The incident cerebrovascular disease was identified during the 1-year follow-up period in patients with and without receiving UPPP. The rate ratios (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of cerebrovascular disease associated with receiving UPPP in patients with OSA were calculated in multivariate Poisson regression. The 1-year incidences of cerebrovascular disease for OSA patients with and without UPPP were 1.06% and 5.14%, respectively. Patients with OSA receiving UPPP had lower risk of cerebrovascular disease compared with those without UPPP (RR, 0.45; 95% CI, 0.33–0.61). The decreased risk of cerebrovascular disease following UPPP was observed in both sexes and all age groups. In the stratified analysis of medical conditions, the RR of cerebrovascular disease associated with UPPP for patients with 0, 1, ≥ 2 medical conditions were 0.28 (95% CI 0.12–0.68), 0.39 (95% CI 0.21–0.73), and 0.63 (95% CI 0.43–0.93), respectively. Patients with OSA who received UPPP had lower risk of cerebrovascular disease within 1 year after surgery compared with patients not receiving UPPP. Clinical physicians could have more evidence to persuade patients to receive surgical intervention, especially those who have severe OSA symptoms or do not acquire adequate symptom relief under conservative treatments. PMID:26469923

  1. Impaired peri-nidal cerebrovascular reserve in seizure patients with brain arteriovenous malformations.

    PubMed

    Fierstra, Jorn; Conklin, John; Krings, Timo; Slessarev, Marat; Han, Jay S; Fisher, Joseph A; Terbrugge, Karel; Wallace, M Christopher; Tymianski, Michael; Mikulis, David J

    2011-01-01

    Epileptic seizures are a common presentation in patients with newly diagnosed brain arteriovenous malformations, but the pathophysiological mechanisms causing the seizures remain poorly understood. We used magnetic resonance imaging-based quantitative cerebrovascular reactivity mapping and conventional angiography to determine whether seizure-prone patients with brain arteriovenous malformations exhibit impaired cerebrovascular reserve or morphological angiographic features predictive of seizures. Twenty consecutive patients with untreated brain arteriovenous malformations were recruited (10 with and 10 without epileptic seizures) along with 12 age-matched healthy controls. Blood oxygen level-dependent MRI was performed while applying iso-oxic step changes in end-tidal partial pressure of CO(2) to obtain quantitative cerebrovascular reactivity measurements. The brain arteriovenous malformation morphology was evaluated by angiography, to determine to what extent limitations of arterial blood supply or the presence of restricted venous outflow and tissue congestion correlated with seizure susceptibility. Only patients with seizures exhibited impaired peri-nidal cerebrovascular reactivity by magnetic resonance imaging (0.11 ± 0.10 versus 0.25 ± 0.07, respectively; P < 0.001) and venous drainage patterns suggestive of tissue congestion on angiography. However, cerebrovascular reactivity changes were not of a magnitude suggestive of arterial steal, and were probably compatible with venous congestion in aetiology. Our findings demonstrate a strong association between impaired peri-nidal cerebrovascular reserve and epileptic seizure presentation in patients with brain arteriovenous malformation. The impaired cerebrovascular reserve may be associated with venous congestion. Quantitative measurements of cerebrovascular reactivity using blood oxygen level-dependent MRI appear to correlate with seizure susceptibility in patients with brain arteriovenous malformation.

  2. Utility of transcranial Doppler ultrasound for the integrative assessment of cerebrovascular function.

    PubMed

    Willie, C K; Colino, F L; Bailey, D M; Tzeng, Y C; Binsted, G; Jones, L W; Haykowsky, M J; Bellapart, J; Ogoh, S; Smith, K J; Smirl, J D; Day, T A; Lucas, S J; Eller, L K; Ainslie, P N

    2011-03-30

    There is considerable utility in the use of transcranial Doppler ultrasound (TCD) to assess cerebrovascular function. The brain is unique in its high energy and oxygen demand but limited capacity for energy storage that necessitates an effective means of regional blood delivery. The relative low cost, ease-of-use, non-invasiveness, and excellent temporal resolution of TCD make it an ideal tool for the examination of cerebrovascular function in both research and clinical settings. TCD is an efficient tool to access blood velocities within the cerebral vessels, cerebral autoregulation, cerebrovascular reactivity to CO(2), and neurovascular coupling, in both physiological states and in pathological conditions such as stroke and head trauma. In this review, we provide: (1) an overview of TCD methodology with respect to other techniques; (2) a methodological synopsis of the cerebrovascular exam using TCD; (3) an overview of the physiological mechanisms involved in regulation of the cerebral blood flow; (4) the utility of TCD for assessment of cerebrovascular pathology; and (5) recommendations for the assessment of four critical and complimentary aspects of cerebrovascular function: intra-cranial blood flow velocity, cerebral autoregulation, cerebral reactivity, and neurovascular coupling. The integration of these regulatory mechanisms from an integrated systems perspective is discussed, and future research directions are explored.

  3. [Treatment and rehabilitation of dysphagia following cerebrovascular disease].

    PubMed

    López-Liria, Remedios; Fernández-Alonso, Melodie; Vega-Ramírez, Francisco A; Salido-Campos, M Ángeles; Padilla-Góngora, David

    2014-03-16

    INTRODUCTION. Bronchopneumonia is a frequent complication in the first days after a cerebrovascular disease and is linked with a higher rate of mortality. It occurs in patients with an altered level of consciousness or tussigenic reflex, and could be prevented with an early dysphagia rehabilitation programme. AIMS. To review the scientific literature on the treatment and rehabilitation of patients with dysphagia after suffering a stroke, published between 2002 and 2012. DEVELOPMENT. A search conducted in the PubMed, Cochrane, PEDro, CINAHL and ENFISPO databases yielded 15 papers that fulfilled eligibility criteria and the initial aims of the study, providing information about 3,212 patients. The different protocols and techniques for re-education in dysphagia are described and include compensatory strategies, orofacial regulation therapy, music therapy, sensory stimulation, lip muscle, tongue, pharynx, larynx and respiratory tract training, Mendelsohn manoeuvre, neuromuscular electrical stimulation, repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation and acupuncture. CONCLUSIONS. The studies examined in this research claim that the treatment of dysphagia following a stroke can improve the function of deglutition (coordination, speed, volume), quality of life and people's social relationships. Further work needs to be carried out to establish or define what kind of therapies, techniques, exercises or manoeuvres are the most effective in dysphagia. Generally agreed treatment or rehabilitation protocols also need to be drawn up within units that address stroke in an integrated manner.

  4. Cerebrovascular diseases and depression: epidemiology, mechanisms and treatment.

    PubMed

    Göthe, F; Enache, D; Wahlund, L O; Winblad, B; Crisby, M; Lökk, J; Aarsland, D

    2012-09-01

    Both cerebrovascular disease (CVD) and depression are common conditions in the elderly, and there is emerging evidence of a bi-directional relationship: 1) depression can cause CVD and stroke, transient ischemic attack; and 2) subcortical CVD are associated with increased risk for depression. The frequency of poststroke depression is highest during the first month after the stroke, but remains high even after several years. Depression is associated with poorer functional prognosis and higher mortality after stroke. There is good evidence that severity of functional impairment, high neuroticism, low social support as well as genetic factors are associated with an increased risk for post-stroke depression. Deep white matter lesions are the most consistent imaging correlate of depression. Potential mechanisms mediating the association between depression and CVD are neuroinflammation and HPA-axis activation, fronto-subcortical circuit lesions, and serotonergic dysfunction. Antidepressants have demonstrated effect on poststroke depression in meta-analyses, and such drugs as well as vitamin B can reduce the incidence of depression in stroke survivors. In addition, serotonergic drugs may strengthen poststroke motor and cognitive recovery, potentially through restorative mechanisms. Psychotherapeutic strategies such as problem-solving therapy seem to be effective. There is emerging evidence that treatment of cardiovascular disease and risk-factors can reduce the risk for late-life depression, but more studies are needed to test this hypothesis.

  5. Initial and serial evoked potentials in cerebrovascular critical care patients.

    PubMed

    Haupt, Walter F; Pawlik, Gunter; Thiel, Alexander

    2006-10-01

    Results of somatosensory evoked potential (SEP) and brainstem auditory evoked potential (BAEP) examinations performed early in the clinical course of patients with acute cerebrovascular disease correlate statistically significantly with outcome regardless of type and localization of the primary lesion. The prognostic value of serial examinations of SEP and BAEP has not been studied yet. The authors examined a group of 215 patients suffering from acute stroke requiring neurocritical care composed of 75 supratentorial and 36 infratentorial ischemic strokes, 58 supratentorial and 18 infratentorial hemorrhages, and 28 aneurysmatic subarachnoid hemorrhages prospectively using spinal and cortical SEP and BAEP according to routine procedures on admission as well as after 1 and 2 weeks. The findings were correlated to outcome at 4 weeks. Statistical assessment was performed using standard methods of contingency analysis. In all groups, SEP findings were significantly correlated with outcome at initial and all subsequent examinations, similar correlations were also found for BAEP. However, after partialling out the prognostic information gained from the initial examination of SEP and BAEP, the follow-up examinations rendered only a marginal increase in prognostic information. Therefore, the initial examination of evoked potentials supplies valuable prognostic information, however, serial examinations of evoked potentials during the first weeks of disease improve the prognostic information only marginally.

  6. [Nuts, cardio and cerebrovascular risks. A Spanish perspective].

    PubMed

    Nus, Meritxell; Ruperto, Mar; Sánchez-Muniz, Francisco J

    2004-06-01

    Nuts have been included in human diets for ages. They are very appreciated and used as a central component of sweets and desserts. However, during the last decades, scientific interest in those foods has increased enormously as many epidemiologic studies show protective effects of nut consumption on coronary heart disease in different population groups. To date, many clinical trials have analyzed the positive effects of nuts consumption (almond, walnut, pistachio, Macadamia nut, and pecan) on the lipid profile, decreasing total and low density lipoproteins (LDL) cholesterol. However, whether these effects are only due to their fatty acid composition or to any other bioactive compounds, such as tocopherols, phytosterols and phytoestrogens, it is still unknown. This paper, aims to review comparative composition aspects of nuts, such as the positive effects on body weight, lipoprotein metabolism, and protection against cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases. The inclusion of 25 g/day of nuts, mainly raw, into a prudent diet seems to be recommended. Further investigations, as actual information is still scarce, in order to dilucidate the relationship between nuts consumption and vascular diseases are proposed.

  7. Cerebrovascular disease, beta-amyloid and cognition in aging

    PubMed Central

    Marchant, Natalie L.; Reed, Bruce R.; DeCarli, Charles S.; Madison, Cindee M.; Weiner, Michael W.; Chui, Helena C.; Jagust, William J.

    2011-01-01

    The present study evaluated cerebrovascular disease (CVD), β-amyloid (Aβ), and cognition in clinically normal elderly adults. Fifty-four participants underwent MRI, PIB-PET imaging, and neuropsychological evaluation. High white matter hyperintensity burden and/or presence of infarct defined CVD status (CVD−: N = 27; CVD+: N = 27). PIB-PET ratios of Aβ deposition were extracted using Logan plotting (cerebellar reference). Presence of high levels of Aβ in prespecified regions determined PIB status (PIB−: N = 33; PIB+: N = 21). Executive functioning and episodic memory were measured using composite scales. CVD and Aβ, defined as dichotomous or continuous variables, were unrelated to one another. CVD+ participants showed lower executive functioning (P = 0.001) when compared to CVD− individuals. Neither PIB status nor amount of Aβ affected cognition (Ps ≥ .45), and there was no statistical interaction between CVD and PIB on either cognitive measure. Within this spectrum of normal aging CVD and Aβ aggregation appear to be independent processes with CVD primarily affecting cognition. PMID:22048124

  8. Teen Mothers' Mental Health.

    PubMed

    SmithBattle, Lee; Freed, Patricia

    2016-01-01

    Psychological distress is common in teen mothers. High rates of distress are attributed to teen mothers' childhood adversities and the challenges of parenting in the context of chronic stress, cumulative disadvantage, and limited social support. We describe the prevalence of psychological distress in teen mothers; what is known about its origins and impact on mothers and children; factors that promote teen mothers' mental health and resilience; and the many barriers that make it difficult to obtain traditional mental healthcare. We also briefly review the few studies that test interventions to improve teen mothers' mental health. Because barriers to traditional mental health treatment are ubiquitous and difficult to remedy, the second article in this two-part series calls for nurses in healthcare settings, schools, and home visiting programs to screen pregnant and parenting teens for adverse childhood experiences and psychological distress, and to integrate strength-based and trauma-based principles into their practice. Creating a supportive setting where past traumas and psychological distress are addressed with skill and sensitivity builds upon teen mothers' strengths and their aspirations to be the best parents they can be. These approaches facilitate the long-term health and development of mother and child.

  9. [Mental health care for immigrants in Germany].

    PubMed

    Schouler-Ocak, M

    2015-11-01

    Immigrants represent a very heterogeneous population, with various stress factors for mental disorders. These individuals are confronted with numerous access barriers within the health care system, which are reflected in limited utilization of the mental health system and psychotherapy services. A particularly large gap in health service provision exists among refugees and asylum-seekers. There is an urgent need for action in terms of opening up of the mental health system, improving and simplifying routes of access, and facilitating treatment options.

  10. Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction for Parents of Young Children with Developmental Delays: Implications for Parental Mental Health and Child Behavior Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neece, Cameron L.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Parents of children with developmental delays (DD) typically report elevated levels of parental stress compared with parents of typically developing children. Children with DD are also at high risk for exhibiting significant behaviour problems. Parental stress has been shown to impact the development of these behaviour problems;…

  11. Operation Enduring Freedom (OEF) and Operation Iraqi Freedom (OIF) military mental health issues. Information on the wars' signature wounds: posttraumatic stress disorder and traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Wieland, Diane; Hursey, Melodee; Delgado, Deborah

    2010-09-01

    This topic can be related to the nursing profession and the need to be better educated on military mental health. Since mood disorder, suicide, alcohol abuse, PTSD and TBI are evident in actively serving and returning service members, it is imperative to educate nurses and healthcare providers about these conditions, the available evidence-based treatments and referrals to programs for these signature OEF/OIF wounds. The authors encourage nurse educators to consider ways to include military mental health and other service-related health issues into nursing curricula and to use Veterans Administration and veterans-related healthcare facilities for clinical courses. As the wars in Afghanistan and Iraq continue into the foreseeable future, many veterans will be seen not only in VA facilities, but they will self-refer to academic and community hospitals, and psychiatric and rehabilitation centers. It is important for all nurses to be aware of the effects of PTSD, depression, suicide, substance abuse and TBI on our patients and to be effective advocates for quality care of veterans in all settings. Nurses need to advocate for screening and provision of mental health services in primary care settings. When such services are offered in primary care settings, it normalizes the care and the service member will more likely allow themselves to receive the care (Jones, 2004). All nurses must understand the price of war experienced by U.S. service members and their families, and in particular, the invisible wounds of war.

  12. On the assessment of cerebrovascular reactivity using hypercapnia BOLD MRI

    PubMed Central

    Yezhuvath, Uma S.; Lewis-Amezcua, Kelly; Varghese, Rani; Xiao, Guanghua; Lu, Hanzhang

    2009-01-01

    Cerebrovascular reactivity (CVR) reflects the capacity of blood vessels to dilate and is an important marker for brain vascular reserve. It may provide a useful addition to the traditional baseline blood flow measurement when assessing vascular factors in brain disorders. Blood-oxygenation-level-dependent MRI under CO2 inhalation offers a non-invasive and quantitative means to estimate CVR in humans. In this study, we investigated several important methodological aspects of this technique with the goal of optimizing the experimental and data processing strategies for clinical use. Comparing 4 min of 5% CO2 inhalation (less comfortable) to a 1 min inhalation (more comfortable) duration, it was found that the CVR values were 0.31 ±0.05%/mmHg (N = 11) and 0.31 ±0.08%/mmHg (N = 9), respectively, showing no significant differences between the two breathing paradigms. Therefore, the 1 min paradigm is recommended for future application studies for patient comfort and tolerability. Furthermore, we have found that end-tidal CO2 recording was useful for accurate quantification of CVR because it provided both timing and amplitude information regarding the input function to the brain vascular system, which can be subject-dependent. Finally, we show that inter-subject variations in CVR are of physiologic origin and affect the whole brain in a similar fashion. Based on this, it is proposed that relative CVR (normalized against the CVR of the whole brain or a reference tissue) may be a more sensitive biomarker than absolute CVR in clinical applications as it minimizes inter-subject variations. With these technological optimizations, CVR mapping may become a useful method for studies of neurological and psychiatric diseases. PMID:19388006

  13. Imaging of cerebrovascular pathology in animal models of Alzheimer's disease

    PubMed Central

    Klohs, Jan; Rudin, Markus; Shimshek, Derya R.; Beckmann, Nicolau

    2014-01-01

    In Alzheimer's disease (AD), vascular pathology may interact with neurodegeneration and thus aggravate cognitive decline. As the relationship between these two processes is poorly understood, research has been increasingly focused on understanding the link between cerebrovascular alterations and AD. This has at last been spurred by the engineering of transgenic animals, which display pathological features of AD and develop cerebral amyloid angiopathy to various degrees. Transgenic models are versatile for investigating the role of amyloid deposition and vascular dysfunction, and for evaluating novel therapeutic concepts. In addition, research has benefited from the development of novel imaging techniques, which are capable of characterizing vascular pathology in vivo. They provide vascular structural read-outs and have the ability to assess the functional consequences of vascular dysfunction as well as to visualize and monitor the molecular processes underlying these pathological alterations. This article focusses on recent in vivo small animal imaging studies addressing vascular aspects related to AD. With the technical advances of imaging modalities such as magnetic resonance, nuclear and microscopic imaging, molecular, functional and structural information related to vascular pathology can now be visualized in vivo in small rodents. Imaging vascular and parenchymal amyloid-β (Aβ) deposition as well as Aβ transport pathways have been shown to be useful to characterize their dynamics and to elucidate their role in the development of cerebral amyloid angiopathy and AD. Structural and functional imaging read-outs have been employed to describe the deleterious affects of Aβ on vessel morphology, hemodynamics and vascular integrity. More recent imaging studies have also addressed how inflammatory processes partake in the pathogenesis of the disease. Moreover, imaging can be pivotal in the search for novel therapies targeting the vasculature. PMID:24659966

  14. Haemodynamic and cerebrovascular responses to glycerol infusion in dogs.

    PubMed

    Chen, J L; Wang, Y C; Wang, J Y

    1989-11-01

    1. The response of cerebral blood vessels to hyperosmolar agents in vivo remains controversial, and little is known about the effect of glycerol on cerebral vessels. In this study we investigated the cerebrovascular response to intravenous administration of glycerol (1 g/kg, infused over 25 min) in dogs under pentobarbital anaesthesia. 2. intracranial pressure, systemic arterial pressure, mean arterial blood pressure, serum osmolarity and packed cell volume were continuously monitored, and blood gases were checked frequently. Through a parietal cranial window, pial vessel diameter was measured by means of a surgical microscope and a video image-analyser. 3. Pial vessel diameter increased gradually with a maximum at 30 min after the beginning of glycerol infusion. The maximum increase in diameter in small (less than or equal to 100 microns) vessels was 14.3%, whereas that in large (greater than 100 microns) vessels was 10.3%. There was only a slight increase (less than 4%) in pial vessel diameter in vehicle-infused animals. The intracranial pressure decreased drastically after glycerol infusion, whereas the mean arterial blood pressure remained constant. There were correlations between the rise in serum osmolarity, fall in packed cell volume and vasodilatation, indicating that glycerol caused vasodilatation accompanied by plasma volume expansion. 4. Our data suggest that glycerol produces cerebral vasodilatation, which might be beneficial in cerebral ischaemia and vasospasm, in addition to its intracranial pressure-reducing effect on normal or oedematous brain. The degree of vasodilatation was not sufficient to affect the predominant intracranial pressure drop resulting from cerebral dehydration.

  15. Protocol for intraoperative assessment of the human cerebrovascular glycocalyx

    PubMed Central

    Haeren, R H L; Vink, H; Staals, J; van Zandvoort, M A M J; Dings, J; van Overbeeke, J J; Hoogland, G; Rijkers, K; Schijns, O E M G

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Adequate functioning of the blood–brain barrier (BBB) is important for brain homoeostasis and normal neuronal function. Disruption of the BBB has been described in several neurological diseases. Recent reports suggest that an increased permeability of the BBB also contributes to increased seizure susceptibility in patients with epilepsy. The endothelial glycocalyx is coating the luminal side of the endothelium and can be considered as the first barrier of the BBB. We hypothesise that an altered glycocalyx thickness plays a role in the aetiology of temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE), the most common type of epilepsy. Here, we propose a protocol that allows intraoperative assessment of the cerebrovascular glycocalyx thickness in patients with TLE and assess whether its thickness is decreased in patients with TLE when compared with controls. Methods and analysis This protocol is designed as a prospective observational case–control study in patients who undergo resective brain surgery as treatment for TLE. Control subjects are patients without a history of epileptic seizures, who undergo a craniotomy or burr hole surgery for other indications. Intraoperative glycocalyx thickness measurements of sublingual, cortical and hippocampal microcirculation are performed by video microscopy using sidestream dark-field imaging. Demographic details, seizure characteristics, epilepsy risk factors, intraoperative haemodynamic parameters and histopathological evaluation are additionally recorded. Ethics and dissemination This protocol has been ethically approved by the local medical ethical committee (ID: NL51594.068.14) and complies with the Declaration of Helsinki and principles of Good Clinical Practice. Informed consent is obtained before study enrolment and only coded data will be stored in a secured database, enabling an audit trail. Results will be submitted to international peer-reviewed journals and presented at international conferences. Trial registration number

  16. Hemodynamic variability and cerebrovascular control after transient cerebral ischemia

    PubMed Central

    Allan, Philip D; Faulkner, James; O’Donnell, Terrence; Lanford, Jeremy; Wong, Lai-kin; Saleem, Saqib; Woolley, Brandon; Lambrick, Danielle; Stoner, Lee; Tzeng, Yu-Chieh

    2015-01-01

    We investigated if hemodynamic variability, cerebral blood flow (CBF) regulation, and their interrelationships differ between patients with transient ischemic attack (TIA) and controls. We recorded blood pressure (BP) and bilateral middle cerebral artery flow velocity (MCAv) in a cohort of TIA patients (n = 17), and age-matched controls (n = 15). Spontaneous fluctuations in BP and MCAv were characterized by spectral power analysis, and CBF regulation was assessed by wavelet phase synchronization analysis in the very low- (0.02–0.07 Hz), low- (0.07–0.20 Hz), and high-frequency (0.20–0.40 Hz) ranges. Furthermore, cerebrovascular CO2 reactivity was assessed as a second metric of CBF regulation by inducing hypercapnia with 8% CO2 inhalation followed by hyperventilation driven hypocapnia. We found that TIA was associated with higher BP power (group effect, P < 0.05), but not MCAv power (P = 0.11). CBF regulation (assessed by wavelet phase synchronization and CO2 reactivity) was intact in patients (all P ≥ 0.075) across both hemispheres (all P ≥ 0.51). Pooled data (controls and affected hemisphere of patients) showed that BP and MCAv power were positively correlated at all frequency ranges (R2 = 0.20–0.80, all P < 0.01). Furthermore, LF phase synchronization index was a significant determinant of MCAv power (P < 0.05), while VLF and HF phase synchronization index, and TIA were not (all P ≥ 0.50). These results indicate that CBF stability and control is maintained in TIA patients, but BPV is markedly elevated. BPV attenuation may be an important therapeutic strategy for enhancing secondary stroke prevention in patients who suffer a TIA. PMID:26537345

  17. Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baumeister, Alfred A., Ed.

    Thirteen papers by different authors consider the application of research findings and theoretical formulations to the practical appraisal and treatment of mental retardation. All suggest methods for shaping appropriate and adaptive behaviors in retarded individuals. The papers include "Definition, Diagnosis, and Classification" by D.W. Brison,…

  18. Children's Mental Health. Beginnings Workshop.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plattner, Ilse Elisabeth; Haugen, Kirsten; Cohen, Alan; Levin, Diane E.

    2003-01-01

    Presents four articles discussing mental health issues that pertain to early childhood education: "Granting Children Their Emotions" (Ilse Elisabeth Plattner); "Double Vision: Parent and Professional Perspectives on Our Family's Year in Crisis" (Kirsten Haugen); "Coping with Stress and Surviving Challenging Times" (Alan Cohen); and "When the World…

  19. Nonlinear effects of respiration on the crosstalk between cardiovascular and cerebrovascular control systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bari, Vlasta; Marchi, Andrea; De Maria, Beatrice; Rossato, Gianluca; Nollo, Giandomenico; Faes, Luca; Porta, Alberto

    2016-05-01

    Cardiovascular and cerebrovascular regulatory systems are vital control mechanisms responsible for guaranteeing homeostasis and are affected by respiration. This work proposes the investigation of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular control systems and the nonlinear influences of respiration on both regulations through joint symbolic analysis (JSA), conditioned or unconditioned on respiration. Interactions between cardiovascular and cerebrovascular regulatory systems were evaluated as well by performing correlation analysis between JSA indexes describing the two control systems. Heart period, systolic and mean arterial pressure, mean cerebral blood flow velocity and respiration were acquired on a beat-to-beat basis in 13 subjects experiencing recurrent syncope episodes (SYNC) and 13 healthy individuals (non-SYNC) in supine resting condition and during head-up tilt test at 60° (TILT). Results showed that JSA distinguished conditions and groups, whereas time domain parameters detected only the effect of TILT. Respiration affected cardiovascular and cerebrovascular regulatory systems in a nonlinear way and was able to modulate the interactions between the two control systems with different outcome in non-SYNC and SYNC groups, thus suggesting that the analysis of the impact of respiration on cardiovascular and cerebrovascular regulatory systems might improve our understanding of the mechanisms underpinning the development of postural-related syncope.

  20. Issues in consumer mental health information.

    PubMed

    Angier, J J

    1984-07-01

    Consumer health information as applied to mental health includes areas such as the diagnosis, management, and treatment of mental illness, as well as self-help, emotional wellness, and the relationship between life events, stress, and disease. This paper presents issues specific to the provision of mental health information to the layperson, e.g., confidentiality, literacy, competence, the social stigma of mental illness, the state of the art in psychiatry, popular psychology, and treatment fads. The development of a community education pamphlet illustrates how one organization addressed these issues.

  1. Transcatheter aortic valve implantation and cerebrovascular events: the current state of the art.

    PubMed

    Hynes, Brian G; Rodés-Cabau, Josep

    2012-04-01

    Transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) has revolutionized the care of high-risk patients with severe calcific aortic stenosis. Those considered at high or prohibitive risk of major adverse outcomes with open surgical aortic valve replacement may now be offered an alternative less-invasive therapy. Despite the rapid evolution and clinical application of this new technology, recent studies have raised concerns about adverse cerebrovascular event rates in patients undergoing TAVI. In this review, we explore the current data both in relation to procedure-related silent cerebrovascular ischemic events, as well as clinically apparent stroke. The timing of neurological events and their prognostic implications are also examined. Finally, potential mechanisms of TAVI-related cerebrovascular injury are described, in addition to efforts to minimize their occurrence.

  2. Correlation of Barometer Pressure and Incidence of Cerebrovascular Insult

    PubMed Central

    Slatina, Enes; Music, Miralem; Babic, nermina; Pleho –Kapic, Amna; Dervisevic, Senad; Salibasic, Mirhan; Mujaric, ekrema

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: The intention of this work is to research whether the link between the barometer pressure and the cerebrovascular insult (CVI) exists. The stroke is the first cause of non-traumatic disability and third illness by mortality in the majority of available relevant literature. Goals: Goal of the sudy was to research all the cases of the patients who suffered from the acute stroke in the Canton of Sarajevo and those who were treated in the pre-hospital phase by Emergency Medical Institute staff and their working diagnosis was established as CVI ac. Material and methods: The criteria in the research were established for inclusion and exclusion of cases. The days with and without CVI cases were compared with the meteorological data obtained from the Hydro-meteorological Institute of Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina . Since the approval was requested and obtained from the Hydro-meteorological Institute, all the meteorological data could be compared. The meteorological data comprise the barometer pressure measuring every day at 7 h, 14 h and 21 h. Results and discussion: In the retrospective study, there will be followed, during three years (2004, 2005 and 2006), the cases of the patients who suffered from the stroke, and, the emergency medical care was offered to them by the side of the Emergency Medical Institute of Canton of Sarajevo staff. All the cases in the Canton of Sarajevo were followed regardless of the place of incidence: whether the help was offered in Institute’s outpatient departments, patient’s flat or at public place. Due to the extensiveness of data (in the analysis comprising three years, there was the total of 1930 cases), the test of normal distribution was used. Since it was about the pre-hospital research, the acute stroke was looked at generally without division by types. The certain diagnostics by types can only be established in the hospital. Conclusion: The results in the research indicate that the extreme values of barometer

  3. LAMBL’S EXCRESCENCES: ASSOCIATION WITH CEREBROVASCULAR DISEASE AND PATHOGENESIS

    PubMed Central

    Roldan, Carlos A.; Schevchuck, Oleksandr; Tolstrup, Kirsten; Roldan, Paola C.; Macias, Leonardo; Qualls, Clifford R.; Greene, Ernest R.; Hayek, Reyaad; Charlton, Gerald; Sibbitt, Wilmer L.

    2015-01-01

    Background Lambl’s excrescences (LEx) are detected by transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) and are characterized as thin, elongated, and hypermobile structures located at the leaflets’ coaptation point of the heart valves. The association of LEx with cerebrovascular disease (CVD) is still undefined and yet patients with LEx and suspected CVD receive unproven effective antiplatelet or anticoagulant therapy or even undergo valve surgery. Also, the association of LEx with aging and atherogenic, inflammatory, or thrombogenic parameters has not been reported. Methods 77 patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) (71 women, age 37±12 years) and 26 age-and-sex matched healthy controls (22 women, age 34±11 years) prospectively underwent routine history and physical exam, transcranial Doppler, brain MRI, transesophageal echocardiography (TEE), carotid duplex, and clinical and laboratory evaluations of atherogenesis, inflammation, platelet activity, coagulation, and fibrinolysis. Subjects without stroke/TIA on enrollment (with and without LEx) had a median follow-up of 57 months. Results On enrollment, 33 (43%) of 77 patients had CVD manifested as acute stroke/TIA (23 patients), cerebromicroembolism by transcranial Doppler (17 patients), or cerebral infarcts by MRI (14 patients). Mitral or aortic valve LEx were equally frequent in healthy controls (46%) as in patients with and without any CVD (39% and 43%), stroke/TIA (35% and 43%), cerebromicroembolism (41% and 42%), or cerebral infarcts (36% and 43%) (all p≥0.72). Also, other mechanisms for CVD other than LEx such as Libman-Sacks vegetations, patent foramen ovale or interatrial septal aneurysm, aortic or carotid atherosclerosis, or thrombogenesis were found in ≥94% of patients with CVD. In addition, 36 subjects with and 44 without LEx had similar low incidence of stroke/TIA [1(1.3%) and 2(2.5%), respectively, p=1.0] during follow-up. Finally, LEx were not associated with aging, atherogenic risk factors

  4. Libman-Sacks Endocarditis and Embolic Cerebrovascular Disease

    PubMed Central

    Roldan, Carlos A.; Sibbitt, Wilmer L.; Qualls, Clifford R.; Jung, Rex E.; Greene, Ernest R.; Gasparovic, Charles M.; Hayek, Reyaad; Charlton, Gerald A.; Crookston, Kendall

    2013-01-01

    Objective To determine whether Libman-Sacks endocarditis is a pathogenic factor for cerebrovascular disease (CVD) in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Background A cardioembolic pathogenesis of SLE CVD manifested as 1) neuropsychiatric SLE (NPSLE) including stroke and transient ischemic attacks (TIA), 2) neurocognitive dysfunction, and 3) MRI focal brain lesions has not been established. Methods A 6-year study of 30 patients with acute NPSLE (27 women, age 38±12 years), 46 age-and-sex matched SLE controls without NPSLE (42 women, age 36±12 years), and 26 age-and-sex matched healthy controls (22 women, age 34±11 years) who underwent clinical and laboratory evaluations, TEE, carotid duplex, transcranial Doppler, neurocognitive testing, and brain MRI/MRA. NPSLE patients were re-evaluated after 4.5 months of therapy. All patients were followed clinically for a median of 52 months. Results Libman-Sacks vegetations (87%), cerebromicroembolism (27% with 2.5 times more events per hour), neurocognitive dysfunction (60%), and cerebral infarcts (47%) were more common in NPSLE than in SLE (28%, 20%, 33%, and 0%) and healthy controls (8%, 0%, 4%, and 0%, respectively) (all p≤0.009). Patients with vegetations had 3 times more cerebromicroemboli per hour, lower cerebral blood flow, more stroke/TIA and overall NPSLE events, neurocognitive dysfunction, cerebral infarcts, and brain lesion load than those without (all p≤0.01). Libman-Sacks vegetations were independent risk factors of NPSLE (OR=13.4, p<0.001), neurocognitive dysfunction (OR=8.0, p=0.01), brain lesions (OR=5.6, p=0.004), and all 3 outcomes combined (OR=7.5, p<0.001). Follow-up re-evaluations in 18 (78%) of 23 surviving NPSLE patients demonstrated improvement of vegetations, microembolism, brain perfusion, neurocognitive dysfunction, and lesion load (all p≤0.04). Finally, patients with vegetations had reduced event free survival time to stroke/TIA, cognitive disability, or death (p=0.007). Conclusion The

  5. Mental Retirement*

    PubMed Central

    Rohwedder, Susann; Willis, Robert J.

    2010-01-01

    Some studies suggest that people can maintain their cognitive abilities through “mental exercise.” This has not been unequivocally proven. Retirement is associated with a large change in a person’s daily routine and environment. In this paper, we propose two mechanisms how retirement may lead to cognitive decline. For many people retirement leads to a less stimulating daily environment. In addition, the prospect of retirement reduces the incentive to engage in mentally stimulating activities on the job. We investigate the effect of retirement on cognition empirically using cross-nationally comparable surveys of older persons in the United States, England, and 11 European countries in 2004. We find that early retirement has a significant negative impact on the cognitive ability of people in their early 60s that is both quantitatively important and causal. Identification is achieved using national pension policies as instruments for endogenous retirement. PMID:20975927

  6. Exercise Prevents Mental Illness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Purnomo, K. I.; Doewes, M.; Giri, M. K. W.; Setiawan, K. H.; Wibowo, I. P. A.

    2017-03-01

    Multiple current studies show that neuroinflammation may contribute to mental illness such as depression, anxiety, and mood disorder. Chronic inflammation in peripheral tissues is indicated by the increase of inflammatory marker like cytokine IL-6, TNF-α, and IL-1β. Pro-inflammatory cytokine in peripheral tissues can reach brain tissues and activate microglia and it causes neuroinflammation. Psychological stress may led peripheral and central inflammation. Activated microglia will produce pro-inflammatory cytokine, ROS, RNS, and tryptophan catabolizes. This neuroinflammation can promote metabolism changes of any neurotransmitter, such as serotonin, dopamine, and glutamate that will influence neurocircuit in the brain including basal ganglia and anterior cingulated cortex. It leads to mental illness. Exercise give contribution to reduce tissue inflammation. When muscle is contracting in an exercise, muscle will produce the secretion of cytokine like IL-6, IL-1ra, and IL-10. It will react as anti-inflammation and influence macrophage, T cell, monosit, protein Toll-Like Receptor (TLR), and then reduce neuroinflammation, characterised by the decrease of pro-inflammatory cytokine and prevent the activation of microglia in the brain. The objective of the present study is to review scientific articles in the literature related to the contribution of exercise to prevent and ease mental illness.

  7. [Association between periodontal disease and cerebrovascular disease. A review of the literature].

    PubMed

    Leira, Yago; Blanco, Miguel; Blanco, Juan; Castillo, José

    2015-07-01

    Periodontal disease and cerebrovascular disease are two of the most prevalent processes in elderly people. Various studies have shown an association between them, although some methodological differences exist and this difficult the data interpretation. The aim of this paper is to conduct a critical review of the studies published about this association. Eleven prospective studies and 11 retrospective studies are included in this review. We analyse the different methodological outcomes (study population, periodontal diagnosis, cerebrovascular disease definition, adjusted outcomes and odds ratio/relative risk). Furthermore, we review several pathogenic mechanisms implicated in the progression and the relationship between both processes.

  8. Neuritic Plaques and Cerebrovascular Amyloid in Alzheimer Disease are Antigenically Related

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, Caine W.; Quaranta, Vito; Glenner, George G.

    1985-12-01

    A synthetic peptide (Asp-Ala-Glu-Phe-Arg-His-Asp-Ser-Gly-Tyr), homologous to the amino terminus of a protein purified from cerebrovascular amyloid (β protein), induced antibodies in BALB/c mice that were used immunohistochemically to stain not only amyloid-laden cerebral vessels but neuritic plaques as well. These findings suggest that the amyloid in neuritic plaques shares antigenic determinants with β protein of cerebral vessels. Since the amino acid compositions of plaque amyloid and cerebrovascular amyloid are similar, it is likely that plaque amyloid also consists of β protein. This possibility suggests a model for the pathogenesis of Alzheimer disease involving β protein.

  9. An Integrated Web-Based Mental Health Intervention of Assessment-Referral-Care to Reduce Stress, Anxiety, and Depression in Hospitalized Pregnant Women With Medically High-Risk Pregnancies: A Feasibility Study Protocol of Hospital-Based Implementation

    PubMed Central

    Janes-Kelley, Selikke; Tyrrell, Janie; Clark, Lorna; Hamza, Deena; Holmes, Penny; Parkes, Cheryl; Moyo, Nomagugu; McDonald, Sheila; Austin, Marie-Paule

    2015-01-01

    Background At prevalence rates of up to 40%, rates of depression and anxiety among women with medically complex pregnancies are 3 times greater than those in community-based samples of pregnant women. However, mental health care is not a component of routine hospital-based antenatal care for medically high-risk pregnant women. Objective The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness and feasibility of the hospital-based implementation of a Web-based integrated mental health intervention comprising psychosocial assessment, referral, and cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) for antenatal inpatients. Methods This study is a quasi-experimental design. Pregnant women are eligible to participate if they are (1) <37 weeks gestation, (2) admitted to the antenatal inpatient unit for >72 hours, (3) able to speak and read English or be willing to use a translation service to assist with completion of the questionnaires and intervention, (4) able to complete follow-up email questionnaires, (5) >16 years of age, and (6) not actively suicidal. Women admitted to the unit for induction (eg, <72-hour length of stay) are excluded. A minimum sample of 54 women will be recruited from the antenatal high-risk unit of a large, urban tertiary care hospital. All women will complete a Web-based psychosocial assessment and 6 Web-based CBT modules. Results of the psychosocial assessment will be used by a Web-based clinical decision support system to generate a clinical risk score and clinician prompts to provide recommendations for the best treatment and referral options. The primary outcome is self-reported prenatal depression, anxiety, and stress symptoms at 6-8 weeks postrecruitment. Secondary outcomes are postpartum depression, anxiety, and stress symptoms; self-efficacy; mastery; self-esteem; sleep; relationship quality; coping; resilience; Apgar score; gestational age; birth weight; maternal-infant attachment; infant behavior and development; parenting stress/competence at 3

  10. Comparing Mental Health Issues among Undergraduate and Graduate Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wyatt, Tammy; Oswalt, Sara B.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Stress and other mental health issues can negatively impact the health and academic performance of college students. Purpose: Examine relationships among stress, mental health, and academic classification in a national sample of college students. Methods: Analyses utilized secondary data from 27 387 college students responding to the…

  11. Sleep and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Z) Hepatitis HIV Mental Health Mental Health Home Suicide Prevention Substance Abuse Military Sexual Trauma PTSD Research ( ... PTSD Coach Online Tools to help you manage stress. Search Pilots Search PILOTS *, the largest citation database ...

  12. Mental capacity.

    PubMed

    Williams, Ruth

    2010-02-03

    Three short videos exploring some of the different principles in the Mental Capacity Act 2009 are available on Social Care TV, an online channel intended mainly for the social care sector, although the films are relevant to any professionals whose work is affected by the act. The dramas, which are set in a residential home, a person's own home and a residential school for young people with learning difficulties, concern thedecision-making process and can be viewed at www.scie.org.uk/socialcaretv/topic.asp?guid=377dbe1b-de0c-4d66-bb87-22a243542db2.

  13. Cerebrovascular disease in HIV-infected individuals in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy.

    PubMed

    Cruse, Belinda; Cysique, Lucette A; Markus, Romesh; Brew, Bruce J

    2012-08-01

    The widespread use of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) in HIV-infected individuals mostly in developed countries has dramatically improved their prognosis. In such advantaged regions of the world, therefore, many patients are now transitioning from middle into older age, with altered patterns of disease. While previously a rare complication of HIV infection, cerebrovascular disease (particularly that associated with atherosclerosis) is becoming relatively more important in this treated group of individuals. This review summarises the evidence regarding the shifting epidemiology of cerebrovascular diseases affecting HIV-infected individuals. While outlining the association between HIV infection and AIDS and cerebrovascular disease, as well as opportunistic diseases and HIV-associated vasculopathies, the current evidence supporting an increase in atherosclerotic disease in treated HIV-infected individuals is emphasised and a management approach to ischaemic stroke in HIV-infected individuals is presented. Evidence supporting the important role of HAART and HIV infection itself in the pathogenesis of atherosclerotic disease is discussed, together with preventative approaches to this increasingly important disease process as the population ages. Finally, a discussion regarding the significant association between cerebrovascular disease and HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder is presented, together with possible mechanisms behind this relationship.

  14. Central respiratory chemosensitivity and cerebrovascular CO2 reactivity: a rebreathing demonstration illustrating integrative human physiology.

    PubMed

    MacKay, Christina M; Skow, Rachel J; Tymko, Michael M; Boulet, Lindsey M; Davenport, Margie H; Steinback, Craig D; Ainslie, Philip N; Lemieux, Chantelle C M; Day, Trevor A

    2016-03-01

    One of the most effective ways of engaging students of physiology and medicine is through laboratory demonstrations and case studies that combine 1) the use of equipment, 2) problem solving, 3) visual representations, and 4) manipulation and interpretation of data. Depending on the measurements made and the type of test, laboratory demonstrations have the added benefit of being able to show multiple organ system integration. Many research techniques can also serve as effective demonstrations of integrative human physiology. The "Duffin" hyperoxic rebreathing test is often used in research settings as a test of central respiratory chemosensitivity and cerebrovascular reactivity to CO2. We aimed to demonstrate the utility of the hyperoxic rebreathing test for both respiratory and cerebrovascular responses to increases in CO2 and illustrate the integration of the respiratory and cerebrovascular systems. In the present article, methods such as spirometry, respiratory gas analysis, and transcranial Doppler ultrasound are described, and raw data traces can be adopted for discussion in a tutorial setting. If educators have these instruments available, instructions on how to carry out the test are provided so students can collect their own data. In either case, data analysis and quantification are discussed, including principles of linear regression, calculation of slope, the coefficient of determination (R(2)), and differences between plotting absolute versus normalized data. Using the hyperoxic rebreathing test as a demonstration of the complex interaction and integration between the respiratory and cerebrovascular systems provides senior undergraduate, graduate, and medical students with an advanced understanding of the integrative nature of human physiology.

  15. Prevalence and Incidence of Myocardial Infarction and Cerebrovascular Accident in Ageing Persons with Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jansen, J.; Rozeboom, W.; Penning, C.; Evenhuis, H. M.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Epidemiological information on age-related cardiovascular disease in people with intellectual disability (ID) is scarce and inconclusive. We compared prevalence and incidence of cerebrovascular accident and myocardial infarction over age 50 in a residential population with ID to that in a general practice population. Method: Lifetime…

  16. Cardiomyopathy and Cerebrovascular Accident Associated with Anabolic-Androgenic Steroid Use.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mochizuki, Ronald M.; Richter, Kenneth J.

    1988-01-01

    A case report is presented of a 32 year-old male bodybuilder who sustained an ischemic cerebrovascular accident and showed signs of cardiomyopathy. Although no cause was found, the man had been taking steroids for 16 years. Harmful effects of steroid use are discussed. (IAH)

  17. Deconstructing Racial Differences: The Effects of Quality of Education and Cerebrovascular Risk Factors

    PubMed Central

    Carvalho, Janessa O.; Tommet, Doug; Crane, Paul K.; Thomas, Michael L.; Claxton, Amy; Habeck, Christian; Manly, Jennifer J.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. To evaluate the effects of vascular conditions and education quality on cognition over time in White and African American (AA) older adults. Method. We investigated cross-sectional and longitudinal racial differences in executive functioning (EF) and memory composites among Whites (n = 461) and AAs (n = 118) enrolled in a cohort study. We examined whether cerebrovascular risk factors and Shipley Vocabulary scores (a proxy for education quality) accounted for racial differences. Results. On average, AAs had lower quality of education and more cerebrovascular risk factors including hypertension, diabetes, and obesity. AAs had lower mean EF and memory at baseline, but there were no group differences in rates of decline. Cross-sectional racial differences in EF and memory persisted after controlling for vascular disease, but disappeared when controlling for Shipley Vocabulary. Discussion. Quality of education appears to be more important than cerebrovascular risk factors in explaining cross-sectional differences in memory and EF performance between White and AA older adults. Further investigation is needed regarding the relative contribution of education quality and cerebrovascular risk factors to cognitive decline among ethnically/racially diverse older adults. PMID:25098527

  18. The F-box family genes as key elements in response to salt, heavy mental, and drought stresses in Medicago truncatula.

    PubMed

    Song, Jian Bo; Wang, Yan Xiang; Li, Hai Bo; Li, Bo Wen; Zhou, Zhao Sheng; Gao, Shuai; Yang, Zhi Min

    2015-07-01

    F-box protein is a subunit of Skp1-Rbx1-Cul1-F-box protein (SCF) complex with typically conserved F-box motifs of approximately 40 amino acids and is one of the largest protein families in eukaryotes. F-box proteins play critical roles in selective and specific protein degradation through the 26S proteasome. In this study, we bioinformatically identified 972 putative F-box proteins from Medicago truncatula genome. Our analysis showed that in addition to the conserved motif, the F-box proteins have several other functional domains in their C-terminal regions (e.g., LRRs, Kelch, FBA, and PP2), some of which were found to be M. truncatula species-specific. By phylogenetic analysis of the F-box motifs, these proteins can be classified into three major families, and each family can be further grouped into more subgroups. Analysis of the genomic distribution of F-box genes on M. truncatula chromosomes revealed that the evolutional expansion of F-box genes in M. truncatula was probably due to localized gene duplications. To investigate the possible response of the F-box genes to abiotic stresses, both publicly available and customer-prepared microarrays were analyzed. Most of the F-box protein genes can be responding to salt and heavy metal stresses. Real-time PCR analysis confirmed that some of the F-box protein genes containing heat, drought, salicylic acid, and abscisic acid responsive cis-elements were able to respond to the abiotic stresses.

  19. Schizotypy and mental time travel.

    PubMed

    Winfield, Hannah; Kamboj, Sunjeev K

    2010-03-01

    Mental time travel is the capacity to imagine the autobiographical past and future. Schizotypy is a dimensional measure of psychosis-like traits found to be associated with creativity and imagination. Here, we examine the phenomenological qualities of mental time travel in highly schizotypal individuals. After recollecting past episodes (autobiographical memory) and imagining future events (episodic future thinking), those scoring highly on positive schizotypy reported a greater sense of 'autonoetic awareness,' defined as a greater feeling of mental time travel and re-living/'pre-living' imagined events. Furthermore, in contrast to other sensory domains, imagery of the past and future episodes contained more olfactory detail in these high scorers. The results are discussed in relation to previous reports of anomalous olfactory experiences in schizotypy and heightened vividness of olfactory imagery in post-traumatic stress disorder, for which schizotypy is a risk factor.

  20. Common Mental Health Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stock, Susan R.; Levine, Heidi

    2016-01-01

    This chapter provides an overview of common student mental health issues and approaches for student affairs practitioners who are working with students with mental illness, and ways to support the overall mental health of students on campus.

  1. Mental Labels and Tattoos

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hyatt, I. Ralph

    1977-01-01

    Discusses the ease with which mental labels become imprinted in our system, six basic axioms for maintaining negative mental tattoos, and psychological processes for eliminating mental tattoos and labels. (RK)

  2. Protective effect of treatment with black cumin oil on spatial cognitive functions of rats that suffered global cerebrovascular hypoperfusion.

    PubMed

    Azzubaidi, Marwan Saad; Saxena, Anil Kumar; Talib, Norlelawati Abi; Ahmed, Qamar Uddin; Dogarai, Bashar Bello

    2012-01-01

    The fixed oil of black cumin seeds, Nigella sativa L. (NSO), has shown considerable antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. Chronic cerebral hypoperfusion has been linked to neurodegenerative disorders including Alzheimer's disease (AD) and its subsequent cognitive impairment in which oxidative stress and neuroinflammation are the principal culprits. Cerebrovascular hypoperfusion was experimentally achieved by bilateral common carotid arteries occlusion (2VO) in rats. Morris water maze (MWM) test was employed to assess the effects of NSO on spatial cognitive function before and after 2VO intervention. Rats were divided into long-term memory (LTM) and short-term memory (STM) groups, each was further subdivided into 3 subgroups: sham control, untreated 2VO and NSO treated 2VO group. All subgroups were tested with MWM at the tenth postoperative week. Working memory test results for both sham control and NSO treated groups showed significantly lower escape latency time and total distance travelled than untreated 2VO group. Similarly, LTM and STM MWM tests for sham control and NSO treated groups revealed significantly better maze test performance as compared to untreated 2VO group. Sham control and NSO treated 2VO groups demonstrated superior probe memory test performance as compared to untreated 2VO group. The fixed oil of Nigella sativa seeds has demonstrated noticeable spatial cognitive preservation in rats challenged with chronic cerebral hypoperfusion which indicates a promising prospective neuroprotective effect.

  3. Dyslipoproteinemia in patients with ischemic cerebro-vascular disease: a study of stroke before the age of 55.

    PubMed

    Rössner, S; Kjellin, K G; Mettinger, K L; Sidén, A; Söderström, C E

    1978-07-01

    Serum lipoproteins were determined 8-12 weeks after the onset of ischemic cerebro-vascular disease (ICD) in 61 patients, 38 males and 23 females, before the age of 55. The results were compared with those of a matched control material. The diagnosis was based on clinical findings, CSF spectrophotometry, computer tomography, and angiography. Hyperlipoproteinemia was no common finding in these young and middle-aged patients with ICD. The normal mean total serum cholesterol concentration was the result of a slight increase in VLDL cholesterol and a concomitant HDL cholesterol reduction. In men, the HDL cholesterol concentration was lower than expected for any VLDL-TG concentration. The mean value of the HDL cholesterol concentration in the patients was 18% lower than in the control group. On agarose electrophoresis the lipoprotein variants "late prebeta", "sinking prebeta" and "rapid beta" lipoproteins could be demonstrated in the same frequency as in controls. There was no significant correlation between the degree of atherosclerosis, estimated by angiography, and any serum lipoprotein fraction. Several recent studies have stressed the importance of a low HDL concentration as an independent risk factor for atherosclerosis. The decreased HDL cholesterol levels found in the present material require further attention to the possible beneficial role of HDL in ICD.

  4. Differential expression of lipid peroxidation and total antioxidant status in Indian patients with cardiovascular and cerebrovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Bhargava, Seema; Ali, Arif; Kankra, Mamta; Das, Sabari; Manocha, Anjali; Gupta, Flora; Srivastava, Lalit Mohan

    2014-07-01

    Data from studies examining lipid peroxidation as a mechanism involved with hyperhomocysteinemia (HHcy)-induced vascular remodeling in patients with occlusive vascular disease have been contradictory. It has not yet been studied in Indians within the context of atherogenesis. Therefore, we measured the levels of homocysteine (Hcy), malondialdehyde (MDA) as a measure of lipid peroxides (LPOs), and total antioxidant status (TAS) in the serum of 167 patients with occlusive vascular disease [coronary artery disease (CAD) = 43; cerebrovascular disease (CVD) = 82; peripheral vascular disease (PVD) = 42]. Each of these groups was further divided into groups of individuals with or without HHcy. In the case of CAD and CVD, patients with HHcy had significantly higher LPOs than those without HHcy (p = 0.009, 0.001, respectively). TAS was significantly lower in CVD patients with HHcy than in those without (p = 0.014). In patients with CAD or CVD, Hcy directly correlated with LPOs (p = 0.002, 0.001, respectively). Lipid peroxidation is a significant mechanism in HHcy-induced vascular remodeling in CAD and CVD, but not in PVD, probably because it is not relevant in thrombosis (38 of 42 patients of PVD had deep-vein thrombosis). To explain the significantly lower TAS in CVD, we hypothesized that CVD patients present very early with grave symptoms, whereas CAD and PVD occur over a longer period of time. Therefore, when CVD presents, TAS is still overwhelmed by HHcy-induced oxidative stress. Hence, adjuvant therapy with antioxidants would benefit patients with CVD.

  5. Refugee children: mental health and effective interventions.

    PubMed

    Pacione, Laura; Measham, Toby; Rousseau, Cécile

    2013-02-01

    The mental health consequences of war and other forms of organized violence for children represent a serious global public health issue. Much of the research on the mental health of war-affected civilians has focused on refugees who have sought asylum in high-income countries and face the dual stress of a traumatic past and resettlement. This review will focus on the mental health of refugee children who have fled war as well as interventions to both prevent and treat adverse mental health outcomes. While war can have devastating mental health consequences, children raised in the midst of armed conflict also display resilience. Effective interventions for refugee children will be discussed both in terms of prevention and treatment of psychopathology, with a focus on recent developments in the field.

  6. Dynamic analysis of mental sweating by optical coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohmi, Masato; Tanigawa, Motomu; Saigusa, Hiroyuki; Yamada, Akihiro; Ueda, Yoshihiro; Haruna, Masamitsu

    2010-02-01

    In the dynamic OCT of mental sweating, we have found internal mental sweating without ejection of excess sweat from the spiral lumen to the skin surface. Internal sweating occurs more often in the case where mental stress is applied to a volunteer, and it is more useful for evaluation of activity of the sympathetic nerve. Furthermore, the MIP imaging has been proposed for quick 3-D imaging of the spiral lumen of sweat glands. Using time-sequential MIP images with the frame spacing as short as 1.4 sec, several sweat glands can be tracked simultaneously to quantify sweating stimulated by a mental stress.

  7. Effects of age and sex on cerebrovascular function in the rat middle cerebral artery

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Although the mechanisms underlying the beneficial effects of estrogen on cerebrovascular function are well known, the age-dependent deleterious effects of estrogen are largely unstudied. It was hypothesized that age and sex interact in modulating cerebrovascular reactivity to vasopressin (VP) by altering the role of prostanoids in vascular function. Methods Female (F) Sprague–Dawley rats approximating key stages of “hormonal aging” in humans were studied: premenopausal (mature multigravid, MA, cyclic, 5–6 months) and postmenopausal (reproductively senescent, RS, acyclic, 10–12 months). Age-matched male (M) rats were also studied. Reactivity to VP (10−12–10−7 M) was measured in pressurized middle cerebral artery segments in the absence or presence of selective inhibitors of COX-1 (SC560, SC, 1 μM) or COX-2 (NS398, NS, 10 μM). VP-stimulated release of PGI2 and TXA2 were measured using radioimmunoassay of 6-keto-PGF1α and TXB2 (stable metabolites, pg/mg dry wt/45 min). Results In M, there were no changes in VP-induced vasoconstriction with age. Further, there were no significant differences in basal or in low- or high-VP-stimulated PGI2 or TXA2 production in younger or older M. In contrast, there were marked differences in cerebrovascular reactivity and prostanoid release with advancing age in F. Older RS F exhibited reduced maximal constrictor responses to VP, which can be attributed to enhanced COX-1 derived dilator prostanoids. VP-induced vasoconstriction in younger MA F utilized both COX-1 and COX-2 derived constrictor prostanoids. Further, VP-stimulated PGI2 and TXA2 production was enhanced by endogenous estrogen and decreased with advancing age in F, but not in M rats. Conclusions This is the first study to examine the effects of age and sex on the mechanisms underlying cerebrovascular reactivity to VP. Interestingly, VP-mediated constriction was reduced by age in F, but was unchanged in M rats. Additionally, it was observed

  8. Post-traumatic Stress Disorder Symptoms and Mental Health over Time among Low-Income Women at Increased Risk of HIV in the U.S

    PubMed Central

    Golin, Carol E.; Haley, Danielle F.; Wang, Jing; Hughes, James P.; Kuo, Irene; Justman, Jessica; Adimora, Adaora A.; Soto-Torres, Lydia; O’Leary, Ann; Hodder, Sally

    2016-01-01

    Women living in poverty suffer more post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms than do members of the general population; however we know little about factors associated with changes in their PTSD symptoms over time. Using data from HPTN 064, a cohort of women from low-income, high-HIV-prevalence communities across six eastern states (n=1,860), we assessed the prevalence of and changes in PTSD symptoms over 12 months and the effect of potential predictors on symptom acquisition and remission (via the Primary Care-PTSD symptoms scale). Forty-three percent screened positive for PTSD symptoms. Those reporting food insecurity, ongoing abuse, depressive symptoms, or binge drinking were more likely to acquire PTSD symptoms. Those with ongoing abuse or depressive symptoms were less likely to experience PTSD symptom remission. Findings suggest a need to integrate programs to reduce abuse, depression, and economic hardship with those that address sexual health risks among women living in low-income, high-HIV-prevalence neighborhoods. PMID:27180715

  9. Concurrence of High Fat Diet and APOE Gene Induces Allele Specific Metabolic and Mental Stress Changes in a Mouse Model of Alzheimer’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Segev, Yifat; Livne, Adva; Mints, Meshi; Rosenblum, Kobi

    2016-01-01

    Aging is the main risk factor for neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer’s disease (AD). However, evidence indicates that the pathological process begins long before actual cognitive or pathological symptoms are apparent. The long asymptomatic phase and complex integration between genetic, environmental and metabolic factors make it one of the most challenging diseases to understand and cure. In the present study, we asked whether an environmental factor such as high-fat (HF) diet would synergize with a genetic factor to affect the metabolic and cognitive state in the Apolipoprotein E (ApoE4) mouse model of AD. Our data suggest that a HF diet induces diabetes mellitus (DM)-like metabolism in ApoE4 mice, as well as changes in β-site amyloid precursor protein-cleaving enzyme 1 (BACE1) protein levels between the two ApoE strains. Furthermore, HF diet induces anxiety in this AD mouse model. Our results suggest that young ApoE4 carriers are prone to psychological stress and metabolic abnormalities related to AD, which can easily be triggered via HF nutrition. PMID:27656136

  10. Stress Management for Sport.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zaichkowsky, Leonard D., Ed.; Sime, Wesley E., Ed.

    Included in this volume are papers on stress management in athletics; eight of the ten papers are followed with a "Coach's Reaction": (1) "Competitive Athletic Stress Factors in Athletes and Coaches" (Walter Kroll); (2) "Mental Preparation for Peak Performance in Swimmers" (Eugene F. Gauron)--Coach's Reaction by Suzi…

  11. Correlates of Mental Health among Latino Farmworkers in North Carolina

    PubMed Central

    Crain, Rebecca; Grzywacz, Joseph G.; Schwantes, Melody; Isom, Scott; Quandt, Sara A.; Arcury, Thomas A.

    2013-01-01

    Latino farmworkers are a vulnerable population who confront multiple threats to their mental health. Informed by the stress-process model of psychiatric disorder, the goal of this paper is to determine personal and situational correlates of poor mental health among Latino farmworkers. Structured interview data were obtained from farmworkers (N=69) in six counties in eastern and western North Carolina. Results indicated that a substantial number of farmworkers have poor mental health, as indicated by elevated depressive symptoms (52.2%) and anxiety (16.4%). Results also indicated that each mental health outcome had different predictors. Addressing the mental health issues of farmworkers requires a comprehensive, multifaceted approach. PMID:22757952

  12. Mental health nurses' contributions to community mental health care: An Australian study.

    PubMed

    Heslop, Brett; Wynaden, Dianne; Tohotoa, Jenny; Heslop, Karen

    2016-10-01

    Australian mental health policy is focused on providing mental health care in the community setting and community mental health teams provide services to clients in a shared model with primary care. The historical literature reports that community mental health nurses' experience high levels of stress and are often allocated the most complex and challenging clients managed by the team. Yet information on their specific roles remains limited. This paper reports on research conducted at one Australian public mental health service to identify the components of the community mental health nursing role and to quantify the time nurses spent in each component during the study period. Six focus groups were conducted with community mental health nurses to identify their perceived role within the team. Data analysis identified 18 components of which 10 were related to direct clinical contact with clients and eight covered administrative and care coordination activities. A data collection tool based on the findings of the focus groups was designed and nurses recorded workload data on the tool in 15-min intervals over a 4-week period. Seventeen nurses collected 1528 hours of data. Internal coordination of care was identified as the top workload item followed by clinical documentation and national data collection responsibilities supporting the complexity of the community mental health nursing role. The high rating attached to the internal coordination of care role demonstrates an important contribution that community mental health nurses make to the functioning of the team and the delivery of quality mental health care.

  13. Mental health: everyone's business.

    PubMed

    Dragon, Natalie

    2010-06-01

    Mental health is everyone's business the Australian College of Mental Health Nurses and the Wesley Mission affirmed last month. In the midst of a burgeoning demand for mental health services, the lack of funds allocated to mental health as part of a $7.3 billion health package in the federal budget does not add up.

  14. Mental health and functional impairment outcomes following a 6-week intensive treatment programme for UK military veterans with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD): a naturalistic study to explore dropout and health outcomes at follow-up

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, Dominic; Hodgman, Georgina; Carson, Carron; Spencer-Harper, Lucy; Hinton, Mark; Wessely, Simon; Busuttil, Walter

    2015-01-01

    Objective Combat Stress, a UK national charity for veterans with mental health problems, has been funded by the National Health Service (NHS) to provide a national specialist service to deliver treatment for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). This paper reports the efficacy of a PTSD treatment programme for UK veterans at 6 months follow-up. Design A within subject design. Setting UK veterans with a diagnosis of PTSD who accessed Combat Stress. Participants 246 veterans who received treatment between late 2012 and early 2014. Intervention An intensive 6-week residential treatment programme, consisting of a mixture of individual and group sessions. Participants were offered a minimum of 15 individual trauma-focused cognitive behavioural therapy sessions. In addition, participants were offered 55 group sessions focusing on psychoeducational material and emotional regulation. Main outcome measures Clinicians completed measures of PTSD and functional impairment and participants completed measures of PTSD, depression, anger and functional impairment. Results We observed significant reductions in PTSD scores following treatment on both clinician completed measures (PSS-I: −13.0, 95% CI −14.5 to −11.5) and self-reported measures (Revised Impact of Events Scale (IES-R): −16.5, 95% CI −19.0 to −14.0). Significant improvements in functional impairment were also observed (eg, Health of the Nation Outcome Scales (HONOS): −6.85, 95% CI −7.98 to −5.72). There were no differences in baseline outcomes between those who completed and those who did not complete the programme, or post-treatment outcomes between those we were able to follow-up at 6 months and those lost to follow-up. Conclusions In a naturalistic study we observed a significant reduction in PTSD scores and functional impairment following treatment. These improvements were maintained at 6 month follow-up. Our findings suggest it may be helpful to take a closer look at combining individual

  15. Long-term effects of pioglitazone on first attack of ischemic cerebrovascular disease in older people with type 2 diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Lai, Shih-Wei; Lin, Hsien-Feng; Lin, Cheng-Li; Liao, Kuan-Fu

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Long-term studies demonstrating the effect of pioglitazone use on primary prevention of ischemic cerebrovascular disease in older people with type 2 diabetes mellitus are lacking. This study investigated the relationship between pioglitazone use and first attack of ischemic cerebrovascular disease in Taiwan. We conducted a case-control study using the database of the Taiwan National Health Insurance Program. There were 2359 type 2 diabetic subjects aged ≥65 years with newly diagnosed ischemic cerebrovascular disease from 2005 to 2011 as the case group and 4592 sex- and age-matched, randomly selected type 2 diabetic subjects aged ≥65 years without ischemic cerebrovascular disease as the control group. The odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence interval (CI) of ischemic cerebrovascular disease associated with pioglitazone use was measured by the multivariable unconditional logistic regression model. After adjustment for confounding factors, the multivariable logistic regression analysis disclosed that the adjusted ORs of first attack of ischemic cerebrovascular disease associated with cumulative duration of using pioglitazone were 3.34 for <1 year (95% CI 2.59–4.31), 2.53 for 1 to 2 years (95% CI 1.56–4.10), 2.20 for 2 to 3 years (95% CI 1.05–4.64), and 1.09 for ≥3 years (95% CI 0.55–2.15), respectively. Our findings suggest that pioglitazone use does not have a protective effect on primary prevention for ischemic cerebrovascular disease among older people with type 2 diabetes mellitus during the first 3 years of use. Whether using pioglitazone for >3 years would have primary prevention for ischemic cerebrovascular disease needs a long-term research to prove. PMID:27495077

  16. Aging and cerebrovascular dysfunction: contribution of hypertension, cerebral amyloid angiopathy, and immunotherapy.

    PubMed

    Vasilevko, Vitaly; Passos, Giselle F; Quiring, Daniel; Head, Elizabeth; Kim, Richard C; Fisher, Mark; Cribbs, David H

    2010-10-01

    Age-related cerebrovascular dysfunction contributes to ischemic stroke, intracerebral hemorrhages (ICHs), microbleeds, cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA), and cognitive decline. Importantly, there is increasing recognition that this dysfunction plays a critical secondary role in many neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer's disease (AD). Atherosclerosis, hypertension, and CAA are the most common causes of blood-brain barrier (BBB) lesions. The accumulation of amyloid beta (Aβ) in the cerebrovascular system is a significant risk factor for ICH and has been linked to endothelial transport failure and blockage of perivascular drainage. Moreover, recent anti-Aβ immunotherapy clinical trials demonstrated efficient clearance of parenchymal amyloid deposits but have been plagued by CAA-associated adverse events. Although management of hypertension and atherosclerosis can reduce the incidence of ICH, there are currently no approved therapies for attenuating CAA. Thus, there is a critical need for new strategies that improve BBB function and limit the development of β-amyloidosis in the cerebral vasculature.

  17. [Diagnosis and differential diagnosis of cerebro-vascular malformations by CT (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Schumacher, M; Stoeter, P; Voigt, K

    1980-03-01

    In 38 patients, the diagnosis of a cerebrovascular malformation (17 arteriovenous agniomas including one low-flow- and two venous angiomas; 10 aneurysms; 4 arteriovenous fistulae of the cavernous sinus, the tentorium and one of the Great Vein of Galen; 6 megadolical basilar arteries) was initially made by computertomographic (CT) examination, including contrast enhancement. The characteristic and pathognomonic CT findings are described and compared with those of cerebral angiography also done in these cases. The problems of differential diagnosis and the reasons for a false CT diagnosis in 5 other patients with a cerebro-vascular malformation are investigated; and the diagnostic value of cerebral angiography and CT is discussed and their complementary functions are being pointed out.

  18. Imaging and 3D reconstruction of cerebrovascular structures in embryonic zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Ethell, Douglas W; Cameron, D Joshua

    2014-04-22

    Zebrafish are a powerful tool to study developmental biology and pathology in vivo. The small size and relative transparency of zebrafish embryos make them particularly useful for the visual examination of processes such as heart and vascular development. In several recent studies transgenic zebrafish that express EGFP in vascular endothelial cells were used to image and analyze complex vascular networks in the brain and retina, using confocal microscopy. Descriptions are provided to prepare, treat and image zebrafish embryos that express enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP), and then generate comprehensive 3D renderings of the cerebrovascular system. Protocols include the treatment of embryos, confocal imaging, and fixation protocols that preserve EGFP fluorescence. Further, useful tips on obtaining high-quality images of cerebrovascular structures, such as removal the eye without damaging nearby neural tissue are provided. Potential pitfalls with confocal imaging are discussed, along with the steps necessary to generate 3D reconstructions from confocal image stacks using freely available open source software.

  19. Cerebral blood flow and cerebrovascular reserve capacity: estimation by dynamic magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Schreiber, W G; Gückel, F; Stritzke, P; Schmiedek, P; Schwartz, A; Brix, G

    1998-10-01

    We have developed a new method for estimation of regional CBF (rCBF) and cerebrovascular reserve capacity on a pixel-by-pixel basis by means of dynamic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Thirteen healthy volunteers, 8 patients with occlusion and/or high grade stenosis of the internal carotid artery (ICA), and 2 patients with acute stroke underwent dynamic susceptibility-weighted contrast enhanced MRI. Using principles of indicator dilution theory and deconvolution analysis, maps of rCBF, regional cerebral blood volume, and of the mean transit time (MTT) were calculated. In patients with ICA occlusion/stenosis, cerebrovascular reserve capacity was assessed by the rCBF increase after acetazolamide stimulation. Mean gray and white matter rCBF values in normals were 67.1 and 23.7 mL x 100 g(-1) x min(-1), respectively. Before acetazolamide stimulation, six of eight patients with ICA occlusions showed decreased rCBF values; and in seven patients increased MTT values were observed in tissue ipsilateral to the occlusion. After acetazolamide stimulation, decreased cerebrovascular reserve capacity was observed in five of eight patients with ICA occlusion. In acute stroke, rCBF in the central core of ischemia was less than 8 mL x 100 g(-1) x min(-1). In peri-infarct tissue, rCBF and MTT were higher than in unaffected tissue but rCBF was normal. Dynamic MRI provides important clinical information on the hemodynamic state of brain tissue in patients with occlusive cerebrovascular disease or acute stroke.

  20. Acetylsalicylic acid provides cerebrovascular protection from oxidant damage in salt-loaded stroke-prone rats.

    PubMed

    Ishizuka, Toshiaki; Niwa, Atsuko; Tabuchi, Masaki; Ooshima, Kana; Higashino, Hideaki

    2008-03-26

    Inflammatory processes may play a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of cerebrovascular injury in salt-loaded stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRSP). Recent reports revealed that acetylsalicylic acid (aspirin) has anti-oxidative properties and elicits nitric oxide release by a direct activation of the endothelial NO synthase. The present study was designed to determine whether low-dose aspirin might prevent cerebrovascular injury in salt-loaded SHRSP by protecting oxidative damage. Nine-week-old SHRSP were fed a 0.4% NaCl or a 4% NaCl diet with or without treatment by naproxen (20 mg/kg/day), salicylic acid (5 mg/kg/day), or aspirin (5 mg/kg/day) for 5 weeks. Blood pressure, blood brain barrier impairment, mortality, and the parameters of cerebrovascular inflammation and damage were compared among them. High salt intake in SHRSP significantly increased blood brain barrier impairment and early mortality, which were suppressed by treatment with aspirin independent of changes in blood pressure. Salt loading significantly increased superoxide production in basilar arteries of SHRSP, which were significantly suppressed by treatment with aspirin. Salt loading also significantly decreased NOS activity in the basilar arteries of SHRSP, which were significantly improved by treatment with aspirin. At 5 weeks after salt loading, macrophage accumulation and matrix metalloproteinase-9 activity at the stroke-negative area in cerebral cortex of SHRSP were significantly reduced by treatment with aspirin. These results suggest that low-dose aspirin may exert protective effects against cerebrovascular inflammation and damage by salt loading through down-regulation of superoxide production and induction of nitric oxide synthesis.

  1. The cerebrovascular effects of adrenaline, noradrenaline and dopamine infusions under propofol and isoflurane anaesthesia in sheep.

    PubMed

    Myburgh, J A; Upton, R N; Grant, C; Martinez, A

    2002-12-01

    Infusions of catecholamines are frequently administered to patients receiving propofol or isoflurane anaesthesia. Interactions between these drugs may affect regional circulations, such as the brain. The aim of this animal (sheep) study was to determine the effects of ramped infusions of adrenaline, noradrenaline (10, 20, 40 micrograms/min) and dopamine (10, 20, 40 micrograms/kg/min) on cerebral blood flow (CBF), intracranial pressure (ICP), cerebrovascular resistance (CVR) and cerebral metabolic rate for oxygen (CMRO2). These measurements were made under awake physiological conditions, and during continuous propofol (15 mg/min) or 2% isoflurane anaesthesia. All three catecholamines significantly and equivalently increased mean arterial pressure from baseline in a dose-dependent manner in the three cohorts (P < 0.001). In the awake cohort (n = 8), dopamine (P < 0.01) significantly increased CBF from baseline whilst adrenaline and noradrenaline did not (P > 0.05). Under propofol (n = 6) and isoflurane (n = 6), all three catecholamines significantly increased CBF (P < 0.001). Dopamine caused the greatest increase in CBF, and was associated with significant increases in ICP (awake: P < 0.001; propofol P < 0.05; isoflurane P < 0.001) and CVR (isoflurane P < 0.05). No significant changes in CMRO2 were demonstrated. Under propofol and isoflurane anaesthesia, the cerebrovascular effects of catecholamines were significantly different from the awake, physiological state, with dopamine demonstrating the most pronounced effects, particularly under propofol. Dopamine-induced hyperaemia was associated with other cerebrovascular changes. In the presence of an equivalent effect on mean arterial pressure, the exaggerated cerebrovascular effects under anaesthesia appear to be centrally mediated, possibly induced by propofol- or isoflurane-dependent changes in blood-brain barrier permeability, thereby causing a direct influence on the cerebral vasculature.

  2. An ontological modeling approach to cerebrovascular disease studies: the NEUROWEB case.

    PubMed

    Colombo, Gianluca; Merico, Daniele; Boncoraglio, Giorgio; De Paoli, Flavio; Ellul, John; Frisoni, Giuseppe; Nagy, Zoltan; van der Lugt, Aad; Vassányi, István; Antoniotti, Marco

    2010-08-01

    The NEUROWEB project supports cerebrovascular researchers' association studies, intended as the search for statistical correlations between a feature (e.g., a genotype) and a phenotype. In this project the phenotype refers to the patients' pathological state, and thus it is formulated on the basis of the clinical data collected during the diagnostic activity. In order to enhance the statistical robustness of the association inquiries, the project involves four European Union clinical institutions. Each institution provides its proprietary repository, storing patients' data. Although all sites comply with common diagnostic guidelines, they also adopt specific protocols, resulting in partially discrepant repository contents. Therefore, in order to effectively exploit NEUROWEB data for association studies, it is necessary to provide a framework for the phenotype formulation, grounded on the clinical repository content which explicitly addresses the inherent integration problem. To that end, we developed an ontological model for cerebrovascular phenotypes, the NEUROWEB Reference Ontology, composed of three layers. The top-layer (Top Phenotypes) is an expert-based cerebrovascular disease taxonomy. The middle-layer deconstructs the Top Phenotypes into more elementary phenotypes (Low Phenotypes) and general-use medical concepts such as anatomical parts and topological concepts. The bottom-layer (Core Data Set, or CDS) comprises the clinical indicators required for cerebrovascular disorder diagnosis. Low Phenotypes are connected to the bottom-layer (CDS) by specifying what combination of CDS values is required for their existence. Finally, CDS elements are mapped to the local repositories of clinical data. The NEUROWEB system exploits the Reference Ontology to query the different repositories and to retrieve patients characterized by a common phenotype.

  3. [Cerebrovascular mortality in Portugal: are we overemphasizing hypertension and neglecting atrial fibrillation?].

    PubMed

    Providência, Rui; Gonçalves, Lino; Ferreira, Maria João

    2013-11-01

    Cerebrovascular disease has long been the leading cause of death in Portugal. Despite improvements in the treatment of hypertension and the resulting decrease in associated mortality, the progressive aging of the population and increased prevalence of atrial fibrillation have prevented the incidence of stroke from falling as much as desired. The authors review the evidence on the situation in Portugal and propose an intervention plan.

  4. [Solcoseryl--new preparation for the pathogenetic treatment of patients with paroxysmal forms of cerebrovascular pathology].

    PubMed

    Rudenko, A Iu; Bashkirova, L M

    2003-01-01

    The central goal of the investigation was to study Solcoseryl (SolcoSwitzerland) therapeutic efficacy for patients suffering from early or chronic