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Sample records for cerevisiae pkc1 mutation

  1. Saccharomyces Cerevisiae Hoc1, a Suppressor of Pkc1, Encodes a Putative Glycosyltransferase

    PubMed Central

    Neiman, A. M.; Mhaiskar, V.; Manus, V.; Galibert, F.; Dean, N.

    1997-01-01

    The Saccharomyces cerevisiae gene PKC1 encodes a protein kinase C isozyme that regulates cell wall synthesis. Here we describe the characterization of HOC1, a gene identified by its ability to suppress the cell lysis phenotype of pkc1-371 cells. The HOC1 gene (Homologous to OCH1) is predicted to encode a type II integral membrane protein that strongly resembles Och1p, an α-1,6-mannosyltransferase. Immunofluorescence studies localized Hoc1p to the Golgi apparatus. While overexpression of HOC1 rescued the pkc1-371 temperature-sensitive cell lysis phenotype, disruption of HOC1 lowered the restrictive temperature of the pkc1-371 allele. Disruption of HOC1 also resulted in hypersensitivity to Calcofluor White and hygromycin B, phenotypes characteristic of defects in cell wall integrity and protein glycosylation, respectively. The function of HOC1 appears to be distinct from that of OCH1. Taken together, these results suggest that HOC1 encodes a Golgi-localized putative mannosyltransferase required for the proper construction of the cell wall. PMID:9055074

  2. Saccharomyces cerevisiae Mid2p Is a Potential Cell Wall Stress Sensor and Upstream Activator of the PKC1-MPK1 Cell Integrity Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Ketela, Troy; Green, Robin; Bussey, Howard

    1999-01-01

    The MID2 gene of Saccharomyces cerevisiae encodes a protein with structural features indicative of a plasma membrane-associated cell wall sensor. MID2 was isolated as a multicopy activator of the Skn7p transcription factor. Deletion of MID2 causes resistance to calcofluor white, diminished production of stress-induced cell wall chitin under a variety of conditions, and changes in growth rate and viability in a number of different cell wall biosynthesis mutants. Overexpression of MID2 causes hyperaccumulation of chitin and increased sensitivity to calcofluor white. α-Factor hypersensitivity of mid2Δ mutants can be suppressed by overexpression of upstream elements of the cell integrity pathway, including PKC1, RHO1, WSC1, and WSC2. Mid2p and Wsc1p appear to have overlapping roles in maintaining cell integrity since mid2Δ wsc1Δ mutants are inviable on medium that does not contain osmotic support. A role for MID2 in the cell integrity pathway is further supported by the finding that MID2 is required for induction of Mpk1p tyrosine phosphorylation during exposure to α-factor, calcofluor white, or high temperature. Our data are consistent with a role for Mid2p in sensing cell wall stress and in activation of a response that includes both increased chitin synthesis and the Mpk1p mitogen-activated protein kinase cell integrity pathway. In addition, we have identified an open reading frame, MTL1, which encodes a protein with both structural and functional similarity to Mid2p. PMID:10348843

  3. Genome destabilizing mutator alleles drive specific mutational trajectories in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Stirling, Peter C; Shen, Yaoqing; Corbett, Richard; Jones, Steven J M; Hieter, Philip

    2014-02-01

    In addition to environmental factors and intrinsic variations in base substitution rates, specific genome-destabilizing mutations can shape the mutational trajectory of genomes. How specific alleles influence the nature and position of accumulated mutations in a genomic context is largely unknown. Understanding the impact of genome-destabilizing alleles is particularly relevant to cancer genomes where biased mutational signatures are identifiable. We first created a more complete picture of cellular pathways that impact mutation rate using a primary screen to identify essential Saccharomyces cerevisiae gene mutations that cause mutator phenotypes. Drawing primarily on new alleles identified in this resource, we measure the impact of diverse mutator alleles on mutation patterns directly by whole-genome sequencing of 68 mutation-accumulation strains derived from wild-type and 11 parental mutator genotypes. The accumulated mutations differ across mutator strains, displaying base-substitution biases, allele-specific mutation hotspots, and break-associated mutation clustering. For example, in mutants of POLα and the Cdc13-Stn1-Ten1 complex, we find a distinct subtelomeric bias for mutations that we show is independent of the target sequence. Together our data suggest that specific genome-instability mutations are sufficient to drive discrete mutational signatures, some of which share properties with mutation patterns seen in tumors. Thus, in a population of cells, genome-instability mutations could influence clonal evolution by establishing discrete mutational trajectories for genomes.

  4. Genome Destabilizing Mutator Alleles Drive Specific Mutational Trajectories in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Stirling, Peter C.; Shen, Yaoqing; Corbett, Richard; Jones, Steven J. M.; Hieter, Philip

    2014-01-01

    In addition to environmental factors and intrinsic variations in base substitution rates, specific genome-destabilizing mutations can shape the mutational trajectory of genomes. How specific alleles influence the nature and position of accumulated mutations in a genomic context is largely unknown. Understanding the impact of genome-destabilizing alleles is particularly relevant to cancer genomes where biased mutational signatures are identifiable. We first created a more complete picture of cellular pathways that impact mutation rate using a primary screen to identify essential Saccharomyces cerevisiae gene mutations that cause mutator phenotypes. Drawing primarily on new alleles identified in this resource, we measure the impact of diverse mutator alleles on mutation patterns directly by whole-genome sequencing of 68 mutation-accumulation strains derived from wild-type and 11 parental mutator genotypes. The accumulated mutations differ across mutator strains, displaying base-substitution biases, allele-specific mutation hotspots, and break-associated mutation clustering. For example, in mutants of POLα and the Cdc13–Stn1–Ten1 complex, we find a distinct subtelomeric bias for mutations that we show is independent of the target sequence. Together our data suggest that specific genome-instability mutations are sufficient to drive discrete mutational signatures, some of which share properties with mutation patterns seen in tumors. Thus, in a population of cells, genome-instability mutations could influence clonal evolution by establishing discrete mutational trajectories for genomes. PMID:24336748

  5. Mutations in Ran system affected telomere silencing in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    SciTech Connect

    Hayashi, Naoyuki Kobayashi, Masahiko; Shimizu, Hiroko; Yamamoto, Ken-ichi; Murakami, Seishi; Nishimoto, Takeharu

    2007-11-23

    The Ran GTPase system regulates the direction and timing of several cellular events, such as nuclear-cytosolic transport, centrosome formation, and nuclear envelope assembly in telophase. To gain insight into the Ran system's involvement in chromatin formation, we investigated gene silencing at the telomere in several mutants of the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, which had defects in genes involved in the Ran system. A mutation of the RanGAP gene, rna1-1, caused reduced silencing at the telomere, and partial disruption of the nuclear Ran binding factor, yrb2-{delta}2, increased this silencing. The reduced telomere silencing in rna1-1 cells was suppressed by a high dosage of the SIR3 gene or the SIT4 gene. Furthermore, hyperphosphorylated Sir3 protein accumulated in the rna1-1 mutant. These results suggest that RanGAP is required for the heterochromatin structure at the telomere in budding yeast.

  6. Signaling through Lrg1, Rho1 and Pkc1 Governs Candida albicans Morphogenesis in Response to Diverse Cues

    PubMed Central

    Leach, Michelle D.; Hogan, Deborah A.; Robbins, Nicole; Cowen, Leah E.

    2016-01-01

    The capacity to transition between distinct morphological forms is a key virulence trait for diverse fungal pathogens. A poignant example of a leading opportunistic fungal pathogen of humans for which an environmentally responsive developmental program underpins virulence is Candida albicans. C. albicans mutants that are defective in the transition between yeast and filamentous forms typically have reduced virulence. Although many positive regulators of C. albicans filamentation have been defined, there are fewer negative regulators that have been implicated in repression of filamentation in the absence of inducing cues. To discover novel negative regulators of filamentation, we screened a collection of 1,248 C. albicans homozygous transposon insertion mutants to identify those that were filamentous in the absence of inducing cues. We identified the Rho1 GAP Lrg1, which represses filamentous growth by stimulating Rho1 GTPase activity and converting Rho1 to its inactive, GDP-bound form. Deletion of LRG1 or introduction of a RHO1 mutation that locks Rho1 in constitutively active, GTP-bound state, leads to filamentation in the absence of inducing cues. Deletion of the Rho1 downstream effector PKC1 results in defective filamentation in response to diverse host-relevant inducing cues, including serum. We further established that Pkc1 is not required to sense filament-inducing cues, but its kinase activity is critical for the initiation of filamentous growth. Our genetic analyses revealed that Pkc1 regulates filamentation independent of the canonical MAP kinase cascade. Further, although Ras1 activation is not impaired in a pkc1Δ/pkc1Δ mutant, adenylyl cyclase activity is reduced, consistent with a model in which Pkc1 functions in parallel with Ras1 in regulating Cyr1 activation. Thus, our findings delineate a signaling pathway comprised of Lrg1, Rho1 and Pkc1 with a core role in C. albicans morphogenesis, and illuminate functional relationships that govern activation

  7. Topological and mutational analysis of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Fks1.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Michael E; Edlind, Thomas D

    2012-07-01

    Fks1, with orthologs in nearly all fungi as well as plants and many protists, plays a central role in fungal cell wall formation as the putative catalytic component of β-1,3-glucan synthase. It is also the target for an important new antifungal group, the echinocandins, as evidenced by the localization of resistance-conferring mutations to Fks1 hot spots 1, 2, and 3 (residues 635 to 649, 1354 to 1361, and 690 to 700, respectively). Since Fks1 is an integral membrane protein and echinocandins are cyclic peptides with lipid tails, Fks1 topology is key to understanding its function and interaction with echinocandins. We used hemagglutinin (HA)-Suc2-His4C fusions to C-terminally truncated Saccharomyces cerevisiae Fks1 to experimentally define its topology and site-directed mutagenesis to test function of selected residues. Of the 15 to 18 transmembrane helices predicted in silico for Fks1 from evolutionarily diverse fungi, 13 were experimentally confirmed. The N terminus (residues 1 to 445) is cytosolic and the C terminus (residues 1823 to 1876) external; both are essential to Fks1 function. The cytosolic central domain (residues 715 to 1294) includes newly recognized homology to glycosyltransferases, and residues potentially involved in substrate UDP-glucose binding and catalysis are essential. All three hot spots are external, with hot spot 1 adjacent to and hot spot 3 largely embedded within the outer leaflet of the membrane. This topology suggests a model in which echinocandins interact through their lipid tails with hot spot 3 and through their cyclic peptides with hot spots 1 and 2.

  8. Topological and Mutational Analysis of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Fks1

    PubMed Central

    Edlind, Thomas D.

    2012-01-01

    Fks1, with orthologs in nearly all fungi as well as plants and many protists, plays a central role in fungal cell wall formation as the putative catalytic component of β-1,3-glucan synthase. It is also the target for an important new antifungal group, the echinocandins, as evidenced by the localization of resistance-conferring mutations to Fks1 hot spots 1, 2, and 3 (residues 635 to 649, 1354 to 1361, and 690 to 700, respectively). Since Fks1 is an integral membrane protein and echinocandins are cyclic peptides with lipid tails, Fks1 topology is key to understanding its function and interaction with echinocandins. We used hemagglutinin (HA)-Suc2-His4C fusions to C-terminally truncated Saccharomyces cerevisiae Fks1 to experimentally define its topology and site-directed mutagenesis to test function of selected residues. Of the 15 to 18 transmembrane helices predicted in silico for Fks1 from evolutionarily diverse fungi, 13 were experimentally confirmed. The N terminus (residues 1 to 445) is cytosolic and the C terminus (residues 1823 to 1876) external; both are essential to Fks1 function. The cytosolic central domain (residues 715 to 1294) includes newly recognized homology to glycosyltransferases, and residues potentially involved in substrate UDP-glucose binding and catalysis are essential. All three hot spots are external, with hot spot 1 adjacent to and hot spot 3 largely embedded within the outer leaflet of the membrane. This topology suggests a model in which echinocandins interact through their lipid tails with hot spot 3 and through their cyclic peptides with hot spots 1 and 2. PMID:22581527

  9. The Origin of Spontaneous Mutation in SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE

    PubMed Central

    Quah, Siew-Keen; von Borstel, R. C.; Hastings, P. J.

    1980-01-01

    Characterization of two antimutator loci in yeast shows that both are members of the same mutagenic repair system known to be responsible for almost all induced mutation (Lawrence and Christensen 1976, 1979a,b; Prakash 1976). One of the these newly isolated antimutator mutations is an allele of rev3 (Lemontt 1971b). Two other alleles of rev3 were tested and were also found to be antimutators. Double mutants carrying rev3 and mutator mutations of rad3, rad51 or rad18 are like rev3 single mutants with respect to spontaneous mutation rate, supporting the hypothesis (Hastings, Quah and von Borstel 1976) that many mutators in yeast act by channelling spontaneous lesions from accurate to mutagenic repair. However, the enhanced mutation rate seen in a radiation-resistant mutator mutant mut1 is not dependent on REV3, but is dependent on another gene designated ANT1. An additive effect on the reduction in spontaneous mutation, seen in the ant1 rev3 double-mutant strain, leads to the conclusion that at least 90% of spontaneous mutations seen in the wild type are caused by mutagenic repair of spontaneous lesions. PMID:7021317

  10. Mutations in SPT16/CDC68 suppress cis- and trans-acting mutations that affect promoter function in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed Central

    Malone, E A; Clark, C D; Chiang, A; Winston, F

    1991-01-01

    SPT16 was previously identified as a high-copy-number suppressor of delta insertion mutations in the 5' regions of the HIS4 and LYS2 genes of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We have constructed null mutations in the SPT16 gene and have demonstrated that it is essential for growth. Temperature-sensitive-lethality spt16 alleles have been isolated and shown to be pleiotropic; at a temperature permissive for growth, spt16 mutations suppress delta insertion mutations, a deletion of the SUC2 upstream activating sequence, and mutations in trans-acting genes required for both SUC2 and Ty expression. In addition, SPT16 is identical to CDC68, a gene previously shown to be required for passage through the cell cycle control point START. However, at least some transcriptional effects caused by spt16 mutations are independent of arrest at START. These results and those in the accompanying paper (A. Rowley, R. A. Singer, and G. C. Johnston, Mol. Cell. Biol. 11:5718-5726, 1991) indicate that SPT16/CDC68 is required for normal transcription of many loci in S. cerevisiae. Images PMID:1922073

  11. Chromosomal Assignment of Mutations by Specific Chromosome Loss in the Yeast Saccharomyces Cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Wakem, L. P.; Sherman, F.

    1990-01-01

    Yeast 2-μm plasmids were integrated near the centromere of a different chromosome in each of 16 cir(0) mapping strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The specific chromosomes containing the integrated 2-μm plasmid DNA were lost at a high frequency after crossing the cir(0) strains to cir(+) strains. A recessive mutation in a cir(+) strain can then be easily assigned to its chromosome using this set of mapping strains, since the phenotype of the recessive mutation will be manifested only in diploids having the integrated 2-μm plasmid and the unmapped mutation on homologous chromosomes. PMID:2199315

  12. Elevated Mutation Rate during Meiosis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Rattray, Alison; Santoyo, Gustavo; Shafer, Brenda; Strathern, Jeffrey N.

    2015-01-01

    Mutations accumulate during all stages of growth, but only germ line mutations contribute to evolution. While meiosis contributes to evolution by reassortment of parental alleles, we show here that the process itself is inherently mutagenic. We have previously shown that the DNA synthesis associated with repair of a double-strand break is about 1000-fold less accurate than S-phase synthesis. Since the process of meiosis involves many programmed DSBs, we reasoned that this repair might also be mutagenic. Indeed, in the early 1960′s Magni and Von Borstel observed elevated reversion of recessive alleles during meiosis, and found that the revertants were more likely to be associated with a crossover than non-revertants, a process that they called “the meiotic effect.” Here we use a forward mutation reporter (CAN1 HIS3) placed at either a meiotic recombination coldspot or hotspot near the MAT locus on Chromosome III. We find that the increased mutation rate at CAN1 (6 to 21 –fold) correlates with the underlying recombination rate at the locus. Importantly, we show that the elevated mutation rate is fully dependent upon Spo11, the protein that introduces the meiosis specific DSBs. To examine associated recombination we selected for random spores with or without a mutation in CAN1. We find that the mutations isolated this way show an increased association with recombination (crossovers, loss of crossover interference and/or increased gene conversion tracts). Polζ appears to contribute about half of the mutations induced during meiosis, but is not the only source of mutations for the meiotic effect. We see no difference in either the spectrum or distribution of mutations between mitosis and meiosis. The correlation of hotspots with elevated mutagenesis provides a mechanism for organisms to control evolution rates in a gene specific manner. PMID:25569256

  13. Elevated mutation rate during meiosis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Rattray, Alison; Santoyo, Gustavo; Shafer, Brenda; Strathern, Jeffrey N

    2015-01-01

    Mutations accumulate during all stages of growth, but only germ line mutations contribute to evolution. While meiosis contributes to evolution by reassortment of parental alleles, we show here that the process itself is inherently mutagenic. We have previously shown that the DNA synthesis associated with repair of a double-strand break is about 1000-fold less accurate than S-phase synthesis. Since the process of meiosis involves many programmed DSBs, we reasoned that this repair might also be mutagenic. Indeed, in the early 1960's Magni and Von Borstel observed elevated reversion of recessive alleles during meiosis, and found that the revertants were more likely to be associated with a crossover than non-revertants, a process that they called "the meiotic effect." Here we use a forward mutation reporter (CAN1 HIS3) placed at either a meiotic recombination coldspot or hotspot near the MAT locus on Chromosome III. We find that the increased mutation rate at CAN1 (6 to 21 -fold) correlates with the underlying recombination rate at the locus. Importantly, we show that the elevated mutation rate is fully dependent upon Spo11, the protein that introduces the meiosis specific DSBs. To examine associated recombination we selected for random spores with or without a mutation in CAN1. We find that the mutations isolated this way show an increased association with recombination (crossovers, loss of crossover interference and/or increased gene conversion tracts). Polζ appears to contribute about half of the mutations induced during meiosis, but is not the only source of mutations for the meiotic effect. We see no difference in either the spectrum or distribution of mutations between mitosis and meiosis. The correlation of hotspots with elevated mutagenesis provides a mechanism for organisms to control evolution rates in a gene specific manner.

  14. Dynamic, Rho1p-dependent localization of Pkc1p to sites of polarized growth.

    PubMed

    Andrews, P D; Stark, M J

    2000-08-01

    In eukaryotes, the Rho GTPases and their effectors are key regulators of the actin cytoskeleton, membrane trafficking and secretion, cell growth, cell cycle progression and cytokinesis. Budding yeast Pkc1p, a protein kinase C-like enzyme involved in cell wall biosynthesis and cytoskeletal polarity, is structurally and functionally related to the Rho-associated kinases (PRK/ROCK) of mammalian cells. In this study, localization of Pkc1p was monitored in live cells using a GFP fusion (Pkc1p-GFP). Pkc1p-GFP showed dynamic spatial and temporal localization at sites of polarized growth. Early in the cell cycle, Pkc1p-GFP was found at the pre-bud site and bud tips, becoming delocalized as the cell progressed further and finally relocalizing around the mother-daughter bud neck in an incomplete ring, which persisted until cell separation. Bud localization was actin-dependent but stability of Pkc1p-GFP at the neck was actin-independent, although localization at both sites required functional Rho1p. In addition, Pkc1p-GFP showed rapid relocalization after cell wall damage. These results suggest that the roles of Pkc1p in both polarized growth and the response to cell wall stress are mediated by dynamic changes in its localization, and suggest an additional potential role in cytokinesis.

  15. Thiol peroxidase deficiency leads to increased mutational load and decreased fitness in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Kaya, Alaattin; Lobanov, Alexei V; Gerashchenko, Maxim V; Koren, Amnon; Fomenko, Dmitri E; Koc, Ahmet; Gladyshev, Vadim N

    2014-11-01

    Thiol peroxidases are critical enzymes in the redox control of cellular processes that function by reducing low levels of hydroperoxides and regulating redox signaling. These proteins were also shown to regulate genome stability, but how their dysfunction affects the actual mutations in the genome is not known. Saccharomyces cerevisiae has eight thiol peroxidases of glutathione peroxidase and peroxiredoxin families, and the mutant lacking all these genes (∆8) is viable. In this study, we employed two independent ∆8 isolates to analyze the genome-wide mutation spectrum that results from deficiency in these enzymes. Deletion of these genes was accompanied by a dramatic increase in point mutations, many of which clustered in close proximity and scattered throughout the genome, suggesting strong mutational bias. We further subjected multiple lines of wild-type and ∆8 cells to long-term mutation accumulation, followed by genome sequencing and phenotypic characterization. ∆8 lines showed a significant increase in nonrecurrent point mutations and indels. The original ∆8 cells exhibited reduced growth rate and decreased life span, which were further reduced in all ∆8 mutation accumulation lines. Although the mutation spectrum of the two independent isolates was different, similar patterns of gene expression were observed, suggesting the direct contribution of thiol peroxidases to the observed phenotypes. Expression of a single thiol peroxidase could partially restore the growth phenotype of ∆8 cells. This study shows how deficiency in nonessential, yet critical and conserved oxidoreductase function, leads to increased mutational load and decreased fitness.

  16. Thiol Peroxidase Deficiency Leads to Increased Mutational Load and Decreased Fitness in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Kaya, Alaattin; Lobanov, Alexei V.; Gerashchenko, Maxim V.; Koren, Amnon; Fomenko, Dmitri E.; Koc, Ahmet; Gladyshev, Vadim N.

    2014-01-01

    Thiol peroxidases are critical enzymes in the redox control of cellular processes that function by reducing low levels of hydroperoxides and regulating redox signaling. These proteins were also shown to regulate genome stability, but how their dysfunction affects the actual mutations in the genome is not known. Saccharomyces cerevisiae has eight thiol peroxidases of glutathione peroxidase and peroxiredoxin families, and the mutant lacking all these genes (∆8) is viable. In this study, we employed two independent ∆8 isolates to analyze the genome-wide mutation spectrum that results from deficiency in these enzymes. Deletion of these genes was accompanied by a dramatic increase in point mutations, many of which clustered in close proximity and scattered throughout the genome, suggesting strong mutational bias. We further subjected multiple lines of wild-type and ∆8 cells to long-term mutation accumulation, followed by genome sequencing and phenotypic characterization. ∆8 lines showed a significant increase in nonrecurrent point mutations and indels. The original ∆8 cells exhibited reduced growth rate and decreased life span, which were further reduced in all ∆8 mutation accumulation lines. Although the mutation spectrum of the two independent isolates was different, similar patterns of gene expression were observed, suggesting the direct contribution of thiol peroxidases to the observed phenotypes. Expression of a single thiol peroxidase could partially restore the growth phenotype of ∆8 cells. This study shows how deficiency in nonessential, yet critical and conserved oxidoreductase function, leads to increased mutational load and decreased fitness. PMID:25173844

  17. Identification of pathways controlling DNA damage induced mutation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Lis, Ewa T; O'Neill, Bryan M; Gil-Lamaignere, Cristina; Chin, Jodie K; Romesberg, Floyd E

    2008-05-01

    Mutation in response to most types of DNA damage is thought to be mediated by the error-prone sub-branch of post-replication repair and the associated translesion synthesis polymerases. To further understand the mutagenic response to DNA damage, we screened a collection of 4848 haploid gene deletion strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae for decreased damage-induced mutation of the CAN1 gene. Through extensive quantitative validation of the strains identified by the screen, we identified ten genes, which included error-prone post-replication repair genes known to be involved in induced mutation, as well as two additional genes, FYV6 and RNR4. We demonstrate that FYV6 and RNR4 are epistatic with respect to induced mutation, and that they function, at least partially, independently of post-replication repair. This pathway of induced mutation appears to be mediated by an increase in dNTP levels that facilitates lesion bypass by the replicative polymerase Pol delta, and it is as important as error-prone post-replication repair in the case of UV- and MMS-induced mutation, but solely responsible for EMS-induced mutation. We show that Rnr4/Pol delta-induced mutation is efficiently inhibited by hydroxyurea, a small molecule inhibitor of ribonucleotide reductase, suggesting that if similar pathways exist in human cells, intervention in some forms of mutation may be possible.

  18. Genetic analysis of transcription-associated mutation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed Central

    Morey, N J; Greene, C N; Jinks-Robertson, S

    2000-01-01

    High levels of transcription are associated with elevated mutation rates in yeast, a phenomenon referred to as transcription-associated mutation (TAM). The transcription-associated increase in mutation rates was previously shown to be partially dependent on the Rev3p translesion bypass pathway, thus implicating DNA damage in TAM. In this study, we use reversion of a pGAL-driven lys2DeltaBgl allele to further examine the genetic requirements of TAM. We find that TAM is increased by disruption of the nucleotide excision repair or recombination pathways. In contrast, elimination of base excision repair components has only modest effects on TAM. In addition to the genetic studies, the lys2DeltaBgl reversion spectra of repair-proficient low and high transcription strains were obtained. In the low transcription spectrum, most of the frameshift events correspond to deletions of AT base pairs whereas in the high transcription strain, deletions of GC base pairs predominate. These results are discussed in terms of transcription and its role in DNA damage and repair. PMID:10628973

  19. Mutations Affecting Ty-Mediated Expression of the HIS4 Gene of SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE

    PubMed Central

    Winston, Fred; Chaleff, Deborah T.; Valent, Barbara; Fink, Gerald R.

    1984-01-01

    We have identified mutations in seven unlinked genes (SPT genes) that affect the phenotypes of Ty and δ insertion mutations in the 5' noncoding region of the HIS4 gene of S. cerevisiae. Spt mutants were selected for suppression of his4-912δ, a solo δ derivative of Ty912. Other Ty and δ insertions at HIS4 are suppressed by mutations in some but not all of the SPT genes. Only spt4 suppresses a non-Ty insertion at HIS4. In addition to their effects on Ty and δ insertions, mutations in several SPT genes show defects in general cellular functions—mating. DNA repair and growth. PMID:6329902

  20. Genetic and Molecular Characterization of Suppressors of Sir4 Mutations in Saccharomyces Cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Schnell, R.; D'Ari, L.; Foss, M.; Goodman, D.; Rine, J.

    1989-01-01

    In order to learn more about other proteins that may be involved in repression of HML and HMR in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, extragenic suppressor mutations were identified that could restore repression in cells defective in SIR4, a gene required for function of the silencer elements flanking HML and HMR. These suppressor mutations, which define at least three new genes, SAN1, SAN2 and SAN3, arose at the frequency expected for loss-of-function mutations following mutagenesis. All san mutations were recessive. Suppression by san1 was allele-nonspecific, since san1 could suppress two very different alleles of SIR4, and was locus-specific since san1 was unable to suppress a SIR3 mutation or a variety of mutations conferring auxotrophies. The SAN1 gene was cloned, sequenced, and used to construct a null allele. The null allele had the same phenotype as the EMS-induced mutations and exhibited no pleiotropies of its own. Thus, the SAN1 gene was not essential. SAN1-mediated suppression was neither due to compensatory mutations in interacting proteins, nor to translational missense suppression. SAN1 may act posttranslationally to control the stability or activity of the SIR4 protein. PMID:2471670

  1. The evolution of low mutation rates in experimental mutator populations of Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    McDonald, Michael J; Hsieh, Yu-Ying; Yu, Yen-Hsin; Chang, Shang-Lin; Leu, Jun-Yi

    2012-07-10

    Mutation is the source of both beneficial adaptive variation and deleterious genetic load, fueling the opposing selective forces than shape mutation rate evolution. This dichotomy is well illustrated by the evolution of the mutator phenotype, a genome-wide 10- to 100-fold increase in mutation rate. This phenotype has often been observed in clonally expanding populations exposed to novel or frequently changing conditions. Although studies of both experimental and natural populations have shed light on the evolutionary forces that lead to the spread of the mutator allele through a population, significant gaps in our understanding of mutator evolution remain. Here we use an experimental evolution approach to investigate the conditions required for the evolution of a reduction in mutation rate and the mechanisms by which populations tolerate the accumulation of deleterious mutations. We find that after ∼6,700 generations, four out of eight experimental mutator lines had evolved a decreased mutation rate. We provide evidence that the accumulation of deleterious mutations leads to selection for reduced mutation rate clones in populations of mutators. Finally, we test the long-term consequences of the mutator phenotype, finding that mutator lines follow different evolutionary trajectories, some of which lead to drug resistance.

  2. Differential roles of PDK1- and PDK2-phosphorylation sites in the yeast AGC kinases Ypk1, Pkc1 and Sch9.

    PubMed

    Roelants, Françoise M; Torrance, Pamela D; Thorner, Jeremy

    2004-10-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae Pkh1 and Pkh2 (orthologues of mammalian protein kinase, PDK1) are functionally redundant. These kinases activate three AGC family kinases involved in the maintenance of cell wall integrity: Ypk1 and Ypk2, two closely related, functionally redundant enzymes (orthologues of mammalian protein kinase SGK), and Pkc1 (orthologue of mammalian protein kinase PRK2). Pkh1 and Pkh2 activate Ypk1, Ypk2 and Pkc1 by phosphorylating a Thr in a conserved sequence motif (PDK1 site) within the activation loop of these proteins. A fourth protein kinase involved in growth control and stress response, Sch9 (orthologue of mammalian protein kinase c-Akt/PKB), also carries the conserved activation loop motif. Like other AGC family kinases, Ypk1, Ypk2, Pkc1 and Sch9 also carry a second conserved sequence motif situated in a region C-terminal to the catalytic domain, called the hydrophobic motif (PDK2 site). Currently, there is still controversy surrounding the identity of the enzyme responsible for phosphorylating this second site and the necessity for phosphorylation at this site for in vivo function. Here, genetic and biochemical methods have been used to investigate the physiological consequences of phosphorylation at the PDK1 and PDK2 sites of Ypk1, Pkc1 and Sch9. It was found that phosphorylation at the PDK1 site in the activation loop is indispensable for the essential functions of all three kinases in vivo, whereas phosphorylation at the PDK2 motif plays a non-essential and much more subtle role in modulating the ability of these kinases to regulate the downstream processes in which they participate. PMID:15470109

  3. Isolation and Characterization of Mutations in the β-Tubulin Gene of SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, James H.; Neff, Norma F.; Botstein, David

    1985-01-01

    Of 173 mutants of Saccharomyces cerevisiae resistant to the antimitotic drug benomyl (BenR), six also conferred cold-sensitivity for growth and three others conferred temperature-sensitivity for growth in the absence of benomyl. All of the benR mutations tested, including the nine conditional-lethal mutations, were shown to be in the same gene. This gene, TUB2, has previously been molecularly cloned and identified as the yeast structural gene encoding β-tubulin. Four of the conditional-lethal alleles of TUB2 were mapped to particular restriction fragments within the gene. One of these mutations was cloned and sequenced, revealing a single amino acid change, from arginine to histidine at amino acid position 241, which is responsible for both the BenR and the cold-sensitive lethal phenotypes. The terminal arrest morphology of conditional-lethal alleles of TUB2 at their restrictive temperature showed a characteristic cell-division-cycle defect, suggesting a requirement for tubulin function primarily in mitosis during the vegetative growth cycle. The TUB2 gene was genetically mapped to the distal left arm of chromosome VI, very near the actin gene, ACT1; no CDC (cell-division-cycle) loci have been mapped previously to this location. TUB2 is thus the first cell-division-cycle gene known to encode a cytoskeletal protein that has been identified in S. cerevisiae. PMID:2998923

  4. Mutation of the mitochondrial large ribosomal RNA can provide pentamidine resistance to Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Örs, Ş Tomris; Akdoğan, Emel; Dunn, Cory D

    2014-09-01

    Pentamidine is used to treat several trypanosomal diseases, as well as opportunistic infection by pathogenic fungi. However, the relevant targets of this drug are unknown. We isolated dominant mutations providing pentamidine resistance to Saccharomyces cerevisiae, one of which was localized to mitochondrial DNA. Next-generation sequencing revealed alteration of a widely conserved base at the peptidyl transferase center of the mitochondrial 21S ribosomal RNA. Our results provide a potential rationale for the toxicity of this drug to patients, and we discuss whether blockade of mitochondrial translation is the mechanism by which pathogenic fungi or protists are killed by pentamidine.

  5. Mutational analysis of centromere DNA from chromosome VI of Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed Central

    Hegemann, J H; Shero, J H; Cottarel, G; Philippsen, P; Hieter, P

    1988-01-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae centromeres have a characteristic 120-base-pair region consisting of three distinct centromere DNA sequence elements (CDEI, CDEII, and CDEIII). We have generated a series of 26 CEN mutations in vitro (including 22 point mutations, 3 insertions, and 1 deletion) and tested their effects on mitotic chromosome segregation by using a new vector system. The yeast transformation vector pYCF5 was constructed to introduce wild-type and mutant CEN DNAs onto large, linear chromosome fragments which are mitotically stable and nonessential. Six point mutations in CDEI show increased rates of chromosome loss events per cell division of 2- to 10-fold. Twenty mutations in CDEIII exhibit chromosome loss rates that vary from wild type (10(-4)) to nonfunctional (greater than 10(-1)). These results directly identify nucleotides within CDEI and CDEIII that are required for the specification of a functional centromere and show that the degree of conservation of an individual base does not necessarily reflect its importance in mitotic CEN function. Images PMID:3043181

  6. a/alpha-specific effect on the mms3 mutation on ultraviolet mutagenesis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Martin, P; Prakash, L; Prakash, S

    1981-05-01

    A new gene involved in error-prone repair of ultraviolet (UV) damage has been identified in Saccharomyces cerevisiae by the mms3-1 mutation. UV-induced reversion is reduced in diploids that are homozygous for mms3-1, only if they are also heterozygous (MATa/MAT alpha) at the mating type locus. The mms3-1 mutation has no effect on UV-induced reversion either in haploids or MATa/MATa or MAT alpha/MAT alpha diploids. The mutation confers sensitivity to UV and methyl methane sulfonate in both haploids and diploids. Even though mutation induction by UV is restored to wild-type levels in MATa/MATa mms3-1/mms3-1 or MAT alpha/MAT alpha mms3-1/mms3-1 diploids, such strains still retain sensitivity to the lethal effects of UV. Survival after UV irradiation in mms3-1 rad double mutant combinations indicates that mms3-1 is epistatic to rad6-1 whereas non-epistatic interactions are observed with rad3 and rad52 mutants. When present in the homozygous state in MATa/MAT alpha his1-1/his1-315 heteroallelic diploids, mms3-1 was found to lower UV-induced mitotic recombination.

  7. A Mutation Allowing Expression of Normally Silent a Mating-Type Information in SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE

    PubMed Central

    Gruenspan, Harry; Eaton, Norman R.

    1983-01-01

    Mating type in haploid cells of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is determined by a pair of alleles MATa and MATα . Under various conditions haploid mating types can be interconverted. It has been proposed that transpositions of silent cassettes of mating-type information from HML or HMR to MAT are the source of mating type conversions. A mutation described in this work, designated AON1, has the following properties. (1) MATα cells carring AON1 are defective in mating. (2) AON1 allows MATα/MATα but not MATa/MATa diploids to sporulate; thus, AON1 mimics the MATa requirement for sporulation. (3) mata-1 cells that carry AON1 are MATa phenocopies, i.e., MATα/mata- 1 AON1 diploids behave as standard MATα/MATa cells; therefore, AON1 suppresses the defect of mata- 1. (4) AON1 maps at or near HMRa. (5) Same-site revertants from AON1 lose the ability to convert mating type to MATa, indicating that reversion is associated with the loss of a functional HMRa locus. In addition, AON1 is a dominant mutation. We conclude that AON1 is a regulatory mutation, probably cis-acting, that leads to the constitutive expression of silent a mating-type information located at HMRa. PMID:6345265

  8. Nucleosome alterations caused by mutations at modifiable histone residues in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hongde; Wang, Pingyan; Liu, Lingjie; Min, Zhu; Luo, Kun; Wan, Yakun

    2015-10-26

    Nucleosome organization exhibits dynamic properties depending on the cell state and environment. Histone proteins, fundamental components of nucleosomes, are subject to chemical modifications on particular residues. We examined the effect of substituting modifiable residues of four core histones with the non-modifiable residue alanine on nucleosome dynamics. We mapped the genome-wide nucleosomes in 22 histone mutants of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and compared the nucleosome alterations relative to the wild-type strain. Our results indicated that different types of histone mutation resulted in different phenotypes and a distinct reorganization of nucleosomes. Nucleosome occupancy was altered at telomeres, but not at centromeres. The first nucleosomes upstream (-1) and downstream (+1) of the transcription start site (TSS) were more dynamic than other nucleosomes. Mutations in histones affected the nucleosome array downstream of the TSS. Highly expressed genes, such as ribosome genes and genes involved in glycolysis, showed increased nucleosome occupancy in many types of histone mutant. In particular, the H3K56A mutant exhibited a high percentage of dynamic genomic regions, decreased nucleosome occupancy at telomeres, increased occupancy at the +1 and -1 nucleosomes, and a slow growth phenotype under stress conditions. Our findings provide insight into the influence of histone mutations on nucleosome dynamics.

  9. Nucleosome alterations caused by mutations at modifiable histone residues in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Hongde; Wang, Pingyan; Liu, Lingjie; Min, Zhu; Luo, Kun; Wan, Yakun

    2015-01-01

    Nucleosome organization exhibits dynamic properties depending on the cell state and environment. Histone proteins, fundamental components of nucleosomes, are subject to chemical modifications on particular residues. We examined the effect of substituting modifiable residues of four core histones with the non-modifiable residue alanine on nucleosome dynamics. We mapped the genome-wide nucleosomes in 22 histone mutants of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and compared the nucleosome alterations relative to the wild-type strain. Our results indicated that different types of histone mutation resulted in different phenotypes and a distinct reorganization of nucleosomes. Nucleosome occupancy was altered at telomeres, but not at centromeres. The first nucleosomes upstream (−1) and downstream (+1) of the transcription start site (TSS) were more dynamic than other nucleosomes. Mutations in histones affected the nucleosome array downstream of the TSS. Highly expressed genes, such as ribosome genes and genes involved in glycolysis, showed increased nucleosome occupancy in many types of histone mutant. In particular, the H3K56A mutant exhibited a high percentage of dynamic genomic regions, decreased nucleosome occupancy at telomeres, increased occupancy at the +1 and −1 nucleosomes, and a slow growth phenotype under stress conditions. Our findings provide insight into the influence of histone mutations on nucleosome dynamics. PMID:26498326

  10. The fidelity of transcription: RPB1 (RPO21) mutations that increase transcriptional slippage in S. cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Strathern, Jeffrey; Malagon, Francisco; Irvin, Jordan; Gotte, Deanna; Shafer, Brenda; Kireeva, Maria; Lubkowska, Lucyna; Jin, Ding Jun; Kashlev, Mikhail

    2013-01-25

    The fidelity of RNA synthesis depends on both accurate template-mediated nucleotide selection and proper maintenance of register between template and RNA. Loss of register, or transcriptional slippage, is particularly likely on homopolymeric runs in the template. Transcriptional slippage can alter the coding capacity of mRNAs and is used as a regulatory mechanism. Here we describe mutations in the largest subunit of Saccharomyces cerevisiae RNA polymerase II that substantially increase the level of transcriptional slippage. Alleles of RPB1 (RPO21) with elevated slippage rates were identified among 6-azauracil-sensitive mutants and were also isolated using a slippage-dependent reporter gene. Biochemical characterization of polymerase II isolated from these mutants confirms elevated levels of transcriptional slippage. PMID:23223234

  11. A constitutive thiamine metabolism mutation, thi80, causing reduced thiamine pyrophosphokinase activity in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed Central

    Nishimura, H; Kawasaki, Y; Nosaka, K; Kaneko, Y; Iwashima, A

    1991-01-01

    We identified a strain carrying a recessive constitutive mutation (thi80-1) with an altered thiamine transport system, thiamine-repressible acid phosphatase, and several enzymes of thiamine synthesis from 2-methyl-4-amino-5-hydroxymethylpyrimidine and 4-methyl-5-beta-hydroxyethylthiazole. The mutant shows markedly reduced activity of thiamine pyrophosphokinase (EC 2.7.6.2) and high resistance to oxythiamine, a thiamine antagonist whose potency depends on thiamine pyrophosphokinase activity. The intracellular thiamine pyrophosphate content of the mutant cells grown with exogenous thiamine (2 x 10(-7) M) was found to be about half that of the wild-type strain under the same conditions. These results suggest that the utilization and synthesis of thiamine in Saccharomyces cerevisiae is controlled negatively by the intracellular thiamine pyrophosphate level. PMID:1849514

  12. Extragenic Suppressors of Mar2(sir3) Mutations in Saccharomyces Cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Lin, CIP.; Livi, G. P.; Ivy, J. M.; Klar, AJS.

    1990-01-01

    The silent mating-type genes (HML and HMR) of Saccharomyces cerevisiae are kept under negative transcriptional control by four trans-acting MAR (or SIR) loci. We have isolated extragenic suppressors of the mar2-1 mutation which, based on genetic complementation tests, define two additional loci involved in regulating the expression of HML and HMR. A strain with the genotype HMLa MATα HMRa mar2-1 is sterile due to the simultaneous expression of a and α information. Two mutants exhibiting an α phenotype (which may result from the restoration of MAR/SIR repression) were isolated and genetically characterized. The mutations in these strains: (1) are recessive, (2) are capable of suppressing a mar2-deletion mutation, (3) are unlinked to MAT, (4) complement one another as well as the previously identified sum1-1 mutation, and (5) are not new alleles of the known MAR/SIR loci. We designate these new regulatory loci SUM2 and SUM3 (supressor of mar). Unlike the sum1-1 mutation, suppression by sum2-1 and sum3-1 is mar2-locus specific. Both sum2-1 and sum3-1 affect the expression of a information at the HM loci. Transcript analysis shows a significant reduction in HMLa and HMRa gene transcription in mar2-1 sum2-1 and mar2-1 sum3-1 cells. Furthermore, we have found genetic evidence to suggest that mar2-1 sum2-1 cells exhibit only partial expression of silent α information. We conclude that the SUM2 and SUM3 gene products are required for expression of the HM loci and act downstream of the MAR2 (SIR3) gene function. Possible mechanisms for the action of the SUM gene products are discussed. PMID:2199314

  13. Mutational and functional analysis of dominant SPT2 (SIN1) suppressor alleles in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed Central

    Lefebvre, L; Smith, M

    1993-01-01

    The Saccharomyces cerevisiae SPT2 gene was identified by genetic screens for mutations which are suppressors of Ty and delta insertional mutations at the HIS4 locus. The ability of spt2 mutations to suppress the transcriptional interference caused by the delta promoter insertion his-4-912 delta correlates with an increase in wild-type HIS4 mRNA levels. The SPT2 gene is identical to SIN1, which codes for a factor genetically defined as a negative regulator of HO transcription. Mutations in SPT2/SIN1 suppress the effects of trans-acting mutations in SWI genes and of partial deletions in the C-terminal domain of the largest subunit of RNA polymerase II. Nuclear localization and protein sequence similarities suggested that the SPT2/SIN1 protein may be related to the nonhistone chromosomal protein HMG1. To assess the significance of this structural similarity and identify domains of SPT2 functionally important in the regulation of his4-912 delta, we have studied recessive and dominant spt2 mutations created by in vitro mutagenesis. We show here that several alleles carrying C-terminal deletions as well as point mutations in the C-terminal domain of the SPT2 protein exhibit a dominant suppressor phenotype. C-terminal basic residues necessary for wild-type SPT2 protein function which are absent from HMG1 have been identified. The competence of these mutant SPT2 proteins to interfere with the maintenance of the His- (Spt+) phenotype of a his4-912 delta SPT2+ strain is lost by deletion of internal HMG1-like sequences and is sensitive to the wild-type SPT2+ gene dosage. Using cross-reacting antipeptide polyclonal antibodies, we demonstrate that the intracellular level of the wild-type SPT2 protein is not affected in presence of dominant mutations and furthermore that the reversion of the dominance by internal deletion of HMG1-like sequences is not mediated by altered production or stability of the mutant polypeptides. Our results suggest that the products of dominant alleles

  14. Synthetic lethal interaction between the pel1 and op1 mutations in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Dzugasová, V; Subík, J

    2005-01-01

    The Saccharomyces cerevisiae mutant strain containing the op1 mutation affecting the function of a mitochondrial ATP/ADP translocator has been crossed to the pel1 and crd1 mutants deficient in the biosynthesis of mitochondrial phosphatidylglycerol (PG) and cardiolipin (CL). Using tetrad analysis of diploids issued from corresponding crosses a synthetic lethal interaction has been observed between the op1 and pel1 mutations resulting in the lack of growth of a corresponding double mutant on minimal medium containing glucose. The op1 pel1 double mutant also displayed a decreased susceptibility to fluconazole and a compromised growth even in complex medium containing glucose. The viability of mutant cells was strongly reduced, corresponding to <30 % and 10 % of colony-forming units observed after growth in complex and minimal medium, respectively. A lower viability of the double mutant in minimal medium was accompanied by an increased formation of mitochondrial petite mutants (as determined by mtDNA rescue into diploid cells). The results indicate that in the simultaneous absence of mitochondrial anionic phospholipids (PG plus CL) and ATP/ADP exchange across the inner mitochondrial membrane the yeast mitochondrial functions are severely limited, leading to a strongly compromised cell multiplication. Since under similar conditions the op1 crd1 double mutant was able to grow on minimal medium this deleterious effect of anionic phospholipid deficiency could be at least partially substituted by PG accumulated in the cardiolipin deficient delta crd1 mutant cells.

  15. Saccharomyces Cerevisiae S288c Has a Mutation in Flo8, a Gene Required for Filamentous Growth

    PubMed Central

    Liu, H.; Styles, C. A.; Fink, G. R.

    1996-01-01

    Diploid strains of baker's yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae can grow in a cellular yeast form or in filaments called pseudohyphae. This dimorphic transition from yeast to pseudohyphae is induced by starvation for nitrogen. Not all laboratory strains are capable of this dimorphic switch; many grow only in the yeast form and fail to form pseudohyphae when starved for nitrogen. Analysis of the standard laboratory strain S288C shows that this defect in dimorphism results from a nonsense mutation in the FLO8 gene. This defect in FLO8 blocks pseudohyphal growth in diploids, haploid invasive growth, and flocculation. Since feral strains of S. cerevisiae are dimorphic and have a functional FLO8 gene, we suggest that the flo8 mutation was selected during laboratory cultivation. PMID:8913742

  16. Auxotrophic Mutations Reduce Tolerance of Saccharomyces cerevisiae to Very High Levels of Ethanol Stress

    PubMed Central

    Swinnen, Steve; Goovaerts, Annelies; Schaerlaekens, Kristien; Dumortier, Françoise; Verdyck, Pieter; Souvereyns, Kris; Van Zeebroeck, Griet; Foulquié-Moreno, María R.

    2015-01-01

    Very high ethanol tolerance is a distinctive trait of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae with notable ecological and industrial importance. Although many genes have been shown to be required for moderate ethanol tolerance (i.e., 6 to 12%) in laboratory strains, little is known of the much higher ethanol tolerance (i.e., 16 to 20%) in natural and industrial strains. We have analyzed the genetic basis of very high ethanol tolerance in a Brazilian bioethanol production strain by genetic mapping with laboratory strains containing artificially inserted oligonucleotide markers. The first locus contained the ura3Δ0 mutation of the laboratory strain as the causative mutation. Analysis of other auxotrophies also revealed significant linkage for LYS2, LEU2, HIS3, and MET15. Tolerance to only very high ethanol concentrations was reduced by auxotrophies, while the effect was reversed at lower concentrations. Evaluation of other stress conditions showed that the link with auxotrophy is dependent on the type of stress and the type of auxotrophy. When the concentration of the auxotrophic nutrient is close to that limiting growth, more stress factors can inhibit growth of an auxotrophic strain. We show that very high ethanol concentrations inhibit the uptake of leucine more than that of uracil, but the 500-fold-lower uracil uptake activity may explain the strong linkage between uracil auxotrophy and ethanol sensitivity compared to leucine auxotrophy. Since very high concentrations of ethanol inhibit the uptake of auxotrophic nutrients, the active uptake of scarce nutrients may be a major limiting factor for growth under conditions of ethanol stress. PMID:26116212

  17. Transposition of a rice Mutator-like element in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Dongyan; Ferguson, Ann; Jiang, Ning

    2015-01-01

    Mutator-like transposable elements (MULEs) are widespread in plants and are well known for their high transposition activity as well as their ability to duplicate and amplify host gene fragments. Despite their abundance and importance, few active MULEs have been identified. In this study, we demonstrated that a rice (Oryza sativa) MULE, Os3378, is capable of excising and reinserting in yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae), suggesting that yeast harbors all the host factors for the transposition of MULEs. The transposition activity induced by the wild-type transposase is low but can be altered by modification of the transposase sequence, including deletion, fusion, and substitution. Particularly, fusion of a fluorescent protein to the transposase enhanced the transposition activity, representing another approach to manipulate transposases. Moreover, we identified a critical region in the transposase where the net charge of the amino acids seems to be important for activity. Finally, transposition efficiency is also influenced by the element and its flanking sequences (i.e., small elements are more competent than their large counterparts). Perfect target site duplication is favorable, but not required, for precise excision. In addition to the potential application in functional genomics, this study provides the foundation for further studies of the transposition mechanism of MULEs.

  18. Synergistic release from glucose repression by mig1 and ssn mutations in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Vallier, L G; Carlson, M

    1994-05-01

    In the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, glucose repression of SUC2 transcription requires the SSN6-TUP1 repressor complex. It has been proposed that the DNA-binding protein MIG1 secures SSN6-TUP1 to the SUC2 promoter. Here we show that a mig1 deletion does not cause nearly as dramatic a loss of repression as ssn6: glucose-grown mig1 mutants display 20-fold lower SUC2 expression than ssn6 mutants. Thus, repression by SSN6-TUP1 is not mediated solely by MIG1, but also involves MIG1-independent mechanisms. We report that mig1 partially restores SUC2 expression in mutants lacking the SNF1 protein kinase and show that mig1 is allelic to ssn1, a mutation selected as a suppressor of snf1. Other SSN genes identified in this selection were therefore candidates for a role in repression of SUC2. We show that mig1 acts synergistically with ssn2 through ssn5, ssn7, and ssn8 to relieve glucose repression of SUC2 and to suppress the requirement for SNF1. These findings indicate that the SSN proteins contribute to repression of SUC2, and the pleiotropic phenotypes of the ssn mutants suggest global roles in repression. Finally, the regulated SUC2 expression observed in snf1 mig1 mutants indicates that signals regarding glucose availability can be transmitted independently of the SNF1 protein kinase.

  19. The tRNA-Tyr gene family of Saccharomyces cerevisiae: agents of phenotypic variation and position effects on mutation frequency.

    PubMed Central

    Ito-Harashima, Sayoko; Hartzog, Phillip E; Sinha, Himanshu; McCusker, John H

    2002-01-01

    Extensive phenotypic diversity or variation exists in clonal populations of microorganisms and is thought to play a role in adaptation to novel environments. This phenotypic variation or instability, which occurs by multiple mechanisms, may be a form of cellular differentiation and a stochastic means for modulating gene expression. This work dissects a case of phenotypic variation in a clinically derived Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain involving a cox15 ochre mutation, which acts as a reporter. The ochre mutation reverts to sense at a low frequency while tRNA-Tyr ochre suppressors (SUP-o) arise at a very high frequency to produce this phenotypic variation. The SUP-o mutations are highly pleiotropic. In addition, although all SUP-o mutations within the eight-member tRNA-Tyr gene family suppress the ochre mutation reporter, there are considerable phenotypic differences among the different SUP-o mutants. Finally, and of particular interest, there is a strong position effect on mutation frequency within the eight-member tRNA-Tyr gene family, with one locus, SUP6, mutating at a much higher than average frequency and two other loci, SUP2 and SUP8, mutating at much lower than average frequencies. Mechanisms for the position effect on mutation frequency are evaluated. PMID:12196388

  20. Mutations in elongation factor EF-1 alpha affect the frequency of frameshifting and amino acid misincorporation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Sandbaken, M G; Culbertson, M R

    1988-12-01

    A mutational analysis of the eukaryotic elongation factor EF-1 alpha indicates that this protein functions to limit the frequency of errors during genetic code translation. We found that both amino acid misincorporation and reading frame errors are controlled by EF-1 alpha. In order to examine the function of this protein, the TEF2 gene, which encodes EF-1 alpha in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, was mutagenized in vitro with hydroxylamine. Sixteen independent TEF2 alleles were isolated by their ability to suppress frameshift mutations. DNA sequence analysis identified eight different sites in the EF-1 alpha protein that elevate the frequency of mistranslation when mutated. These sites are located in two different regions of the protein. Amino acid substitutions located in or near the GTP-binding and hydrolysis domain of the protein cause suppression of frameshift and nonsense mutations. These mutations may effect mistranslation by altering the binding or hydrolysis of GTP. Amino acid substitutions located adjacent to a putative aminoacyl-tRNA binding region also suppress frameshift and nonsense mutations. These mutations may alter the binding of aminoacyl-tRNA by EF-1 alpha. The identification of frameshift and nonsense suppressor mutations in EF-1 alpha indicates a role for this protein in limiting amino acid misincorporation and reading frame errors. We suggest that these types of errors are controlled by a common mechanism or closely related mechanisms. PMID:3066688

  1. Mutations in two Ku homologs define a DNA end-joining repair pathway in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed Central

    Milne, G T; Jin, S; Shannon, K B; Weaver, D T

    1996-01-01

    DNA double-strand break (DSB) repair in mammalian cells is dependent on the Ku DNA binding protein complex. However, the mechanism of Ku-mediated repair is not understood. We discovered a Saccharomyces cerevisiae gene (KU80) that is structurally similar to the 80-kDa mammalian Ku subunit. Ku8O associates with the product of the HDF1 gene, forming the major DNA end-binding complex of yeast cells. DNA end binding was absent in ku80delta, hdf1delta, or ku80delta hdf1delta strains. Antisera specific for epitope tags on Ku80 and Hdf1 were used in supershift and immunodepletion experiments to show that both proteins are directly involved in DNA end binding. In vivo, the efficiency of two DNA end-joining processes were reduced >10-fold in ku8Odelta, hdfldelta, or ku80delta hdf1delta strains: repair of linear plasmid DNA and repair of an HO endonuclease-induced chromosomal DSB. These DNA-joining defects correlated with DNA damage sensitivity, because ku80delta and hdf1delta strains were also sensitive to methylmethane sulfonate (MMS). Ku-dependent repair is distinct from homologous recombination, because deletion of KU80 and HDF1 increased the MMS sensitivity of rad52delta. Interestingly, rad5Odelta, also shown here to be defective in end joining, was epistatic with Ku mutations for MMS repair and end joining. Therefore, Ku and Rad50 participate in an end-joining pathway that is distinct from homologous recombinational repair. Yeast DNA end joining is functionally analogous to DSB repair and V(D)J recombination in mammalian cells. PMID:8754818

  2. Osmolarity hypersensitivity of hog1 deleted mutants is suppressed by mutation in KSS1 in budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Lee, Soo-Jung; Park, Shi-Young; Na, Jong-Gil; Kim, Yung-Jin

    2002-03-19

    An osmosensing mechanism of Saccharomyces cerevisiae involves a mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascade (HOG pathway). This study aimed to investigate the response of the yeast to osmotic stress. A mutant strain, in which the HOG1 gene was disrupted by TRP1, was constructed. A spontaneous mutant, named YJY45, which suppresses the osmosensitive growth phenotype of the hog1 deletion mutant, was selected and showed a secondary phenotype of temperature sensitivity on YPD containing 0.5 M NaCl at 37 degrees C. Our data indicate that the spontaneous mutation in YJY45 mutant was mapped in KSS1, which is one of the MAPK family. The mutation in KSS1 suppresses the osmolarity-hypersensitive phenotype of the hog1 deletion mutation and restores GPD1 induction. PMID:12007647

  3. Mechanistic study on the nuclear modifier gene MSS1 mutation suppressing neomycin sensitivity of the mitochondrial 15S rRNA C1477G mutation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Qiyin; Wang, Wei; He, Xiangyu; Zhu, Xiaoyu; Shen, Yaoyao; Yu, Zhe; Wang, Xuexiang; Qi, Xuchen; Zhang, Xuan; Fan, Mingjie; Dai, Yu; Yang, Shuxu; Yan, Qingfeng

    2014-01-01

    The phenotypic manifestation of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) mutations can be modulated by nuclear genes and environmental factors. However, neither the interaction among these factors nor their underlying mechanisms are well understood. The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae mtDNA 15S rRNA C1477G mutation (PR) corresponds to the human 12S rRNA A1555G mutation. Here we report that a nuclear modifier gene mss1 mutation suppresses the neomycin-sensitivity phenotype of a yeast C1477G mutant in fermentable YPD medium. Functional assays show that the mitochondrial function of the yeast C1477G mutant was impaired severely in YPD medium with neomycin. Moreover, the mss1 mutation led to a significant increase in the steady-state level of HAP5 (heme activated protein), which greatly up-regulated the expression of glycolytic transcription factors RAP1, GCR1, and GCR2 and thus stimulated glycolysis. Furthermore, the high expression of the key glycolytic enzyme genes HXK2, PFK1 and PYK1 indicated that enhanced glycolysis not only compensated for the ATP reduction from oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) in mitochondria, but also ensured the growth of the mss1(PR) mutant in YPD medium with neomycin. This study advances our understanding of the phenotypic manifestation of mtDNA mutations.

  4. Mechanistic Study on the Nuclear Modifier Gene MSS1 Mutation Suppressing Neomycin Sensitivity of the Mitochondrial 15S rRNA C1477G Mutation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Qiyin; Wang, Wei; He, Xiangyu; Zhu, Xiaoyu; Shen, Yaoyao; Yu, Zhe; Wang, Xuexiang; Qi, Xuchen; Zhang, Xuan; Fan, Mingjie; Dai, Yu; Yang, Shuxu; Yan, Qingfeng

    2014-01-01

    The phenotypic manifestation of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) mutations can be modulated by nuclear genes and environmental factors. However, neither the interaction among these factors nor their underlying mechanisms are well understood. The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae mtDNA 15S rRNA C1477G mutation (PR) corresponds to the human 12S rRNA A1555G mutation. Here we report that a nuclear modifier gene mss1 mutation suppresses the neomycin-sensitivity phenotype of a yeast C1477G mutant in fermentable YPD medium. Functional assays show that the mitochondrial function of the yeast C1477G mutant was impaired severely in YPD medium with neomycin. Moreover, the mss1 mutation led to a significant increase in the steady-state level of HAP5 (heme activated protein), which greatly up-regulated the expression of glycolytic transcription factors RAP1, GCR1, and GCR2 and thus stimulated glycolysis. Furthermore, the high expression of the key glycolytic enzyme genes HXK2, PFK1 and PYK1 indicated that enhanced glycolysis not only compensated for the ATP reduction from oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) in mitochondria, but also ensured the growth of the mss1(PR) mutant in YPD medium with neomycin. This study advances our understanding of the phenotypic manifestation of mtDNA mutations. PMID:24595024

  5. Isolation and characterization of temperature-sensitive mutations in the RAS2 and CYR1 genes of Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    SciTech Connect

    Mitsuzawa, Hiroshi; Uno, Isao; Ishikawa, Tatsuo ); Oshima, Takehiro )

    1989-12-01

    The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae contains two ras homologues, RAS1 and RAS2, whose products have been shown to modulate the activity of adenylate cyclase encoded by the CYR1 gene. To isolate temperature-sensitive mutations in the RAS2 gene, the authors constructed a plasmid carrying a RAS2 gene whose expression is under the control of the galactose-inducible GAL1 promoter. A ras1 strain transformed with this plasmid was subjected to ethyl methanesfulfonate mutagenesis and nystatin enrichment. Screening of approximately 13,000 mutagenized colonies for galactose-dependent growth at a high temperature (37{degree}) yielded six temperature-sensitive ras2(ras2{sup ts}) mutations and one temperature-sensitive cry1 (cyr1{sup ts}) mutation than can be suppressed by overexpression or increased dosage of RAS2. Some ras2{sup ts} mutations were shown to be suppressed by an extra copy of CYR1. Therefore increased dosage of either RAS2 or CYR1 can suppress the temperature sensitivity caused by a mutation in the other.

  6. Suppressors of the Ndc10-2 Mutation: A Role for the Ubiquitin System in Saccharomyces Cerevisiae Kinetochore Function

    PubMed Central

    Kopski, K. M.; Huffaker, T. C.

    1997-01-01

    We have isolated a new conditional-lethal mutation, ndc10-2, in the NDC10/CBF2/CTF14 gene that encodes the 110-kD subunit of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae CBF3 kinetochore complex. At the restrictive temperature of 37°, ndc10-2 cells are able to assemble anaphase spindles, but fail to segregate their DNA, consistent with a defect in kinetochore function. To identify other factors that play a role in kinetochore assembly or function, we isolated both dosage and second site suppressors of the ndc10-2 mutation. These screens identified UBC6 as a dosage suppressor, and mutations in UBC6 and UBC7 as second-site suppressors of ndc10-2 heat sensitivity. Both UBC6 and UBC7 encode ubiquitin-conjugating enzymes that function in ubiquitin-mediated protein degradation. Furthermore, overexpression of a mutant ubiquitin suppresses the ndc10-2 mutation. These results implicate the ubiquitin system in the regulation of ndc10-2 function and suggest a role for the ubiquitin system in kinetochore function. PMID:9335582

  7. Identification and characterization of a mutation affecting the division arrest signaling of the pheromone response pathway in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    SciTech Connect

    Fujimura, Hiroaki Hoechst Japan Ltd., Kawagoe )

    1990-02-01

    Mating pheromones, a- and {alpha}-factors, arrest the division of cells of opposite mating types, {alpha} and a cells, respectively. The author has isolated a sterile mutant of Saccharomyces cerevisiae using EMS that is defective in division arrest in response to {alpha}-factor but not defective in morphological changes and agglutinin induction. The mutation was designated dac2 for division arrest control by mating pheromones. The dac2 mutation was closely linked to gal1 and was different from the previously identified cell type nonspecific sterile mutations (ste4, ste5, ste7, ste11, ste12, ste18, and dac1). Although dac2 cells had no phenotype in the absence of pheromones, they showed morphological alterations and divided continuously in the presence of pheromones. As a result, dac2 cells had a mating defect. The dac2 mutation could suppress the lethality caused by the disruption of the GPA1 gene. These results suggest that the DAC2 product may control the signal for G-protein-mediated cell-cycle arrest and indicate that the synchronization of haploid yeast cell cycles by mating pheromones is essential for cell fusion during conjugation.

  8. Quantification of mutation-derived bias for alternate mating functionalities of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae Ste2p pheromone receptor.

    PubMed

    Choudhary, Pooja; Loewen, Michele C

    2016-01-01

    Although well documented for mammalian G-protein-coupled receptors, alternate functionalities and associated alternate signalling remain to be unequivocally established for the Saccharomyces cerevisiae pheromone Ste2p receptor. Here, evidence supporting alternate functionalities for Ste2p is re-evaluated, extended and quantified. In particular, strong mating and constitutive signalling mutations, focusing on residues S254, P258 and S259 in TM6 of Ste2p, are stacked and investigated in terms of their effects on classical G-protein-mediated signal transduction associated with cell cycle arrest, and alternatively, their impact on downstream mating projection and zygote formation events. In relative dose response experiments, accounting for systemic and observational bias, mutational-derived functional differences were observed, validating the S254L-derived bias for downstream mating responses and highlighting complex relationships between TM6-mutation derived constitutive signalling and ligand-induced functionalities. Mechanistically, localization studies suggest that alterations to receptor trafficking may contribute to mutational bias, in addition to expected receptor conformational stabilization effects. Overall, these results extend previous observations and quantify the contributions of Ste2p variants to mediating cell cycle arrest versus downstream mating functionalities.

  9. Isolation and Analysis of a Novel Class of Suppressor of Ty Insertion Mutations in Saccharomyces Cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Fassler, J. S.; Winston, F.

    1988-01-01

    Using a new scheme for the isolation of suppressor of Ty insertion mutations (spt mutations) in yeast, we have identified six new SPT genes. Mutations in two of these genes, SPT13 and SPT14, exhibit a novel suppression pattern: suppression of complete Ty insertion mutations, but not of solo δ insertion mutations. Transcriptional analysis shows that spt13- and spt14-mediated suppression of Ty insertion mutations is the result of an elevation in the levels of adjacent gene transcription. In spite of the failure of these mutations to suppress solo δ insertion mutations, they do cause changes in transcription of at least one solo δ insertion mutation. In addition, spt13 and spt14 mutations are epistatic to mutations in certain other SPT genes that do suppress solo δ insertion mutations. These results suggest that the SPT13 and SPT14 gene products may act via sequences in both the δ and ε regions of Ty elements. Finally, mutations in SPT13 cause sporulation and mating defects and SPT14 is essential for growth, suggesting that these two genes have important roles in general cellular functions. PMID:2834263

  10. rDNA Copy Number Variants Are Frequent Passenger Mutations in Saccharomyces cerevisiae Deletion Collections and de Novo Transformants

    PubMed Central

    Kwan, Elizabeth X.; Wang, Xiaobin S.; Amemiya, Haley M.; Brewer, Bonita J.; Raghuraman, M. K.

    2016-01-01

    The Saccharomyces cerevisiae ribosomal DNA (rDNA) locus is known to exhibit greater instability relative to the rest of the genome. However, wild-type cells preferentially maintain a stable number of rDNA copies, suggesting underlying genetic control of the size of this locus. We performed a screen of a subset of the Yeast Knock-Out (YKO) single gene deletion collection to identify genetic regulators of this locus and to determine if rDNA copy number correlates with yeast replicative lifespan. While we found no correlation between replicative lifespan and rDNA size, we identified 64 candidate strains with significant rDNA copy number differences. However, in the process of validating candidate rDNA variants, we observed that independent isolates of our de novo gene deletion strains had unsolicited but significant changes in rDNA copy number. Moreover, we were not able to recapitulate rDNA phenotypes from the YKO yeast deletion collection. Instead, we found that the standard lithium acetate transformation protocol is a significant source of rDNA copy number variation, with lithium acetate exposure being the treatment causing variable rDNA copy number events after transformation. As the effects of variable rDNA copy number are being increasingly reported, our finding that rDNA is affected by lithium acetate exposure suggested that rDNA copy number variants may be influential passenger mutations in standard strain construction in S. cerevisiae. PMID:27449518

  11. Rho1- and Pkc1-dependent phosphorylation of the F-BAR protein Syp1 contributes to septin ring assembly

    PubMed Central

    Merlini, Laura; Bolognesi, Alessio; Juanes, Maria Angeles; Vandermoere, Franck; Courtellemont, Thibault; Pascolutti, Roberta; Séveno, Martial; Barral, Yves; Piatti, Simonetta

    2015-01-01

    In many cell types, septins assemble into filaments and rings at the neck of cellular appendages and/or at the cleavage furrow to help compartmentalize the plasma membrane and support cytokinesis. How septin ring assembly is coordinated with membrane remodeling and controlled by mechanical stress at these sites is unclear. Through a genetic screen, we uncovered an unanticipated link between the conserved Rho1 GTPase and its effector protein kinase C (Pkc1) with septin ring stability in yeast. Both Rho1 and Pkc1 stabilize the septin ring, at least partly through phosphorylation of the membrane-associated F-BAR protein Syp1, which colocalizes asymmetrically with the septin ring at the bud neck. Syp1 is displaced from the bud neck upon Pkc1-dependent phosphorylation at two serines, thereby affecting the rigidity of the new-forming septin ring. We propose that Rho1 and Pkc1 coordinate septin ring assembly with membrane and cell wall remodeling partly by controlling Syp1 residence at the bud neck. PMID:26179915

  12. Estimates of the rate and distribution of fitness effects of spontaneous mutation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed Central

    Zeyl, C; DeVisser, J A

    2001-01-01

    The per-genome, per-generation rate of spontaneous mutation affecting fitness (U) and the mean fitness cost per mutation (s) are important parameters in evolutionary genetics, but have been estimated for few species. We estimated U and sh (the heterozygous effect of mutations) for two diploid yeast strains differing only in the DNA mismatch-repair deficiency used to elevate the mutation rate in one (mutator) strain. Mutations were allowed to accumulate in 50 replicate lines of each strain, during 36 transfers of randomly chosen single colonies (approximately 600 generations). Among wild-type lines, fitnesses were bimodal, with one mode showing no change in mean fitness. The other mode showed a mean 29.6% fitness decline and the petite phenotype, usually caused by partial deletion of the mitochondrial genome. Excluding petites, maximum-likelihood estimates adjusted for the effect of selection were U = 9.5 x 10(-5) and sh = 0.217 for the wild type. Among the mutator lines, the best fit was obtained with 0.005 < or = U < or = 0.94 and 0.049 > or = sh > or = 0.0003. Like other recently tested model organisms, wild-type yeast have low mutation rates, with high mean fitness costs per mutation. Inactivation of mismatch repair increases the frequency of slightly deleterious mutations by approximately two orders of magnitude. PMID:11139491

  13. The mutation DGT1-1 decreases glucose transport and alleviates carbon catabolite repression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Gamo, F J; Lafuente, M J; Gancedo, C

    1994-12-01

    Glucose in ethanol-glycerol mixtures inhibits growth of Saccharomyces cerevisiae mutants lacking phosphoglycerate mutase. A suppressor mutation that relieved glucose inhibition was isolated. This mutation, DGT1-1 (decreasing glucose transport), was dominant and produced pleiotropic effects even in an otherwise wild-type background. Growth of the DGT1-1 mutant in glucose was dependent on respiration, and no ethanol was detected in the medium within 7 h of glucose addition. When grown on glucose, the mutant had a reduced glucose uptake and both the low- and high-affinity transport systems were affected. In galactose-grown cells, only the high-affinity glucose transport system was detected. This system had similar kinetic characteristics in the wild type and in the mutant. Catabolite repression of several enzymes was absent in the mutant during growth in glucose but not during growth in galactose. In contrast with the wild type, the mutant grown in glucose had high transcription of the glucose transporter gene SNF3 and no transcription of HXT1 and HXT3. Expression of multicopy plasmids carrying the HXT1, HXT2, or HXT3 gene allowed partial recovery of both fermentative capacity and catabolite repression in the mutant. The results suggest that DGT1 codes for a regulator of the expression of glucose transport genes. They also suggest that glucose flux might determine the levels of molecules implicated as signals in catbolite repression.

  14. Mutation at a distance caused by homopolymeric guanine repeats in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    McDonald, Michael J; Yu, Yen-Hsin; Guo, Jheng-Fen; Chong, Shin Yen; Kao, Cheng-Fu; Leu, Jun-Yi

    2016-05-01

    Mutation provides the raw material from which natural selection shapes adaptations. The rate at which new mutations arise is therefore a key factor that determines the tempo and mode of evolution. However, an accurate assessment of the mutation rate of a given organism is difficult because mutation rate varies on a fine scale within a genome. A central challenge of evolutionary genetics is to determine the underlying causes of this variation. In earlier work, we had shown that repeat sequences not only are prone to a high rate of expansion and contraction but also can cause an increase in mutation rate (on the order of kilobases) of the sequence surrounding the repeat. We perform experiments that show that simple guanine repeats 13 bp (base pairs) in length or longer (G 13+ ) increase the substitution rate 4- to 18-fold in the downstream DNA sequence, and this correlates with DNA replication timing (R = 0.89). We show that G 13+ mutagenicity results from the interplay of both error-prone translesion synthesis and homologous recombination repair pathways. The mutagenic repeats that we study have the potential to be exploited for the artificial elevation of mutation rate in systems biology and synthetic biology applications.

  15. Mutation at a distance caused by homopolymeric guanine repeats in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    McDonald, Michael J; Yu, Yen-Hsin; Guo, Jheng-Fen; Chong, Shin Yen; Kao, Cheng-Fu; Leu, Jun-Yi

    2016-05-01

    Mutation provides the raw material from which natural selection shapes adaptations. The rate at which new mutations arise is therefore a key factor that determines the tempo and mode of evolution. However, an accurate assessment of the mutation rate of a given organism is difficult because mutation rate varies on a fine scale within a genome. A central challenge of evolutionary genetics is to determine the underlying causes of this variation. In earlier work, we had shown that repeat sequences not only are prone to a high rate of expansion and contraction but also can cause an increase in mutation rate (on the order of kilobases) of the sequence surrounding the repeat. We perform experiments that show that simple guanine repeats 13 bp (base pairs) in length or longer (G 13+ ) increase the substitution rate 4- to 18-fold in the downstream DNA sequence, and this correlates with DNA replication timing (R = 0.89). We show that G 13+ mutagenicity results from the interplay of both error-prone translesion synthesis and homologous recombination repair pathways. The mutagenic repeats that we study have the potential to be exploited for the artificial elevation of mutation rate in systems biology and synthetic biology applications. PMID:27386516

  16. Mutation at a distance caused by homopolymeric guanine repeats in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    McDonald, Michael J.; Yu, Yen-Hsin; Guo, Jheng-Fen; Chong, Shin Yen; Kao, Cheng-Fu; Leu, Jun-Yi

    2016-01-01

    Mutation provides the raw material from which natural selection shapes adaptations. The rate at which new mutations arise is therefore a key factor that determines the tempo and mode of evolution. However, an accurate assessment of the mutation rate of a given organism is difficult because mutation rate varies on a fine scale within a genome. A central challenge of evolutionary genetics is to determine the underlying causes of this variation. In earlier work, we had shown that repeat sequences not only are prone to a high rate of expansion and contraction but also can cause an increase in mutation rate (on the order of kilobases) of the sequence surrounding the repeat. We perform experiments that show that simple guanine repeats 13 bp (base pairs) in length or longer (G13+) increase the substitution rate 4- to 18-fold in the downstream DNA sequence, and this correlates with DNA replication timing (R = 0.89). We show that G13+ mutagenicity results from the interplay of both error-prone translesion synthesis and homologous recombination repair pathways. The mutagenic repeats that we study have the potential to be exploited for the artificial elevation of mutation rate in systems biology and synthetic biology applications. PMID:27386516

  17. Determining the effects of inositol supplementation and the opi1 mutation on ethanol tolerance of Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Krause, Erin L.; Villa-García, Manuel J.; Henry, Susan A.

    2009-01-01

    The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is an important microorganism for the ethanol fuel industry. As with many microorganisms, the production and accumulation of certain metabolites, such as ethanol, can have a detrimental effect on cell growth and productivity. Yeast cells containing a higher concentration of phosphatidylinositol (PI) in the cellular membrane, due to inositol supplementation in the growth media, have been shown to tolerate and produce higher concentrations of ethanol. The specific goal of our research was to assess the effects of inositol supplementation in the growth media as well as to compare the ethanol tolerance of the wild-type S. cerevisiae to a mutant, the opi1 strain (opi=overproduction of inositol). The OPI1 gene product is a negative regulatory factor that controls the transcription of the INO1 structural gene, which encodes the enzyme catalyzing the limiting step in the biosynthesis of inositol, that is, the conversion of glucose-6-phosphate to inositol-3-phosphate. Upon the deletion of the OPI1 gene, the cell will constitutively produce inositol, regardless of the extracellular inositol concentration. Inositol supplementation in cultures of wild-type cells increased ethanol tolerance in terms of cell viability. Cells grown in −I media had a 20% higher specific death rate than cells grown in +I media when exposed to 15% ethanol. The opi1 strain, with the ability to constitutively produce inositol regardless of media composition, showed less inhibition of cell growth in the presence of ethanol than did the wild-type strain, particularly in inositol-free media. We conclude that the introduction of an opi1 mutation in yeast results in an inherent increase in PI levels and constitutive biosynthesis of inositol that, in turn, will reduce the cost of supplementing inositol into the media to achieve a higher ethanol tolerance. PMID:19812714

  18. Heteroduplex formation and mismatch repair of the "stuck" mutation during mating-type switching in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed Central

    Ray, B L; White, C I; Haber, J E

    1991-01-01

    We sequenced two alleles of the MATa locus of Saccharomyces cerevisiae that reduce homothallic switching and confer viability to HO rad52 strains. Both the MATa-stk (J. E. Haber, W. T. Savage, S. M. Raposa, B. Weiffenbach, and L. B. Rowe, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 77:2824-2828, 1980) and MATa-survivor (R. E. Malone and D. Hyman, Curr. Genet. 7:439-447, 1983) alleles result from a T----A base change at position Z11 of the MAT locus. These strains also contain identical base substitutions at HMRa, so that the mutation is reintroduced when MAT alpha switches to MATa. Mating-type switching in a MATa-stk strain relative to a MATa Z11T strain is reduced at least 50-fold but can be increased by expression of HO from a galactose-inducible promoter. We confirmed by Southern analysis that the Z11A mutation reduced the efficiency of double-strand break formation compared with the Z11T variant; the reduction was more severe in MAT alpha than in MATa. In MAT alpha, the Z11A mutation also creates a mat alpha 1 (sterile) mutation that distinguishes switches of MATa-stk to either MAT alpha or mat alpha 1-stk. Pedigree analysis of cells induced to switch in G1 showed that MATa-stk switched frequently (23% of the time) to produce one mat alpha 1-stk and one MAT alpha progeny. This postswitching segregation suggests that Z11 was often present in heteroduplex DNA that was not mismatch repaired. When mismatch repair was prevented by deletion of the PMS1 gene, there was an increase in the proportion of mat alpha 1-stk/MAT alpha sectors (59%) and in pairs of switched cells that both retained the stk mutation (27%). We conclude that at least one strand of DNA only 4 bp from the HO cut site is not degraded in most of the gene conversion events that accompany MAT switching. Images PMID:1922052

  19. A mutation affecting carbon catabolite repression suppresses growth defects in pyruvate carboxylase mutants from Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Blázquez, M A; Gamo, F J; Gancedo, C

    1995-12-18

    Yeasts with disruptions in the genes PYC1 and PYC2 encoding the isoenzymes of pyruvate carboxylase cannot grow in a glucose-ammonium medium (Stucka et al. (1991) Mol. Gen. Genet. 229, 307-315). We have isolated a dominant mutation, BPC1-1, that allows growth in this medium of yeasts with interrupted PYC1 and PYC2 genes. The BPC1-1 mutation abolishes catabolite repression of a series of genes and allows expression of the enzymes of the glyoxylate cycle during growth in glucose. A functional glyoxylate cycle is necessary for suppression as a disruption of gene ICL1 encoding isocitrate lyase abolished the phenotypic effect of BPC1-1 on growth in glucose-ammonium. Concurrent expression from constitutive promoters of genes ICL1 and MLS1 (encoding malate synthase) also suppressed the growth phenotype of pyc1 pyc2 mutants. The mutation BPC1-1 is either allelic or closely linked to the mutation DGT1-1.

  20. RAD6/sup +/ gene of Saccharomyces cerevisiae codes for two mutationally separable deoxyribonucleic acid repair functions

    SciTech Connect

    Tuite, M.F.; Cox, B.S.

    1981-02-01

    The response of two mutant alleles of the RAD6/sup +/ gene of Saccharomyces cerevisiae to the ochre translational suppressor SUQ5 was determined. Both the ultraviolet sensitivity phenotype and the deficiency in ultraviolet-induced mutagenesis phenotype of the rad6-1 allelle were suppressed in a (psi/sup +/) background. For the rad6-3 allelle, only the ultraviolet-sensitivity phenotype was suppressible in a (psi/sup +/) background. An SUQ5 rad6-3 (psi/sup +/) strain that was examined showed the normal rad6-3 deficiency in ultraviolet-induced mutagenesis. The authors propose that the RAD6/sup +/ gene is divided into two cistrons, RAD6A and RAD6B. RAD6A codes for an activity responsible for the error-prone repair of ultraviolet-induced lesions in deoxyribonucleic acid but is not involved in a cell's resistance to the lethal effects of ultraviolet light. RAD6B codes for an activity essential for error-free repair of potentially lethal mutagenic damage.

  1. Constitutive activation of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae transcriptional regulator Ste12p by mutations at the amino-terminus.

    PubMed

    Crosby, J A; Konopka, J B; Fields, S

    2000-11-01

    The transcriptional activator Ste12p is required for the expression of genes induced by mating pheromone in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We identified mutations in the amino-terminal DNA-binding domain of Ste12p that lead to constitutively high-level transcription of pheromone-induced genes. The behaviour of these mutant proteins is consistent with an enhanced DNA-binding ability. Cells carrying these hyperactive proteins retain their sensitivity to pheromone treatment, and their phenotype is largely dependent on the presence of at least one of the MAP kinases (Fus3p or Kss1p) and the scaffold protein Ste5p. Deletion of either FUS3 or KSS1 leads to a marked increase in Ste12p activity, consistent with a negative regulatory role for Fus3p, similar to that described for Kss1p. The properties of the constitutive mutants support the idea that the pheromone response pathway plays a role in basal as well as pheromone-induced transcription. PMID:11054817

  2. Potential RNA Binding Proteins in Saccharomyces Cerevisiae Identified as Suppressors of Temperature-Sensitive Mutations in Npl3

    PubMed Central

    Henry, M.; Borland, C. Z.; Bossie, M.; Silver, P. A.

    1996-01-01

    The NPL3 gene of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae encodes a protein with similarity to heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoproteins (hnRNPs). Npl3p has been implicated in many nuclear-related events including RNA export, protein import, and rRNA processing. Several temperature-sensitive alleles of NPL3 have been isolated. We now report the sequence of these alleles. For one allele, npl3-1, four complementation groups of suppressors have been isolated. The cognate genes for the two recessive mutants were cloned. One of these is the previously known RNA15, which, like NPL3, also encodes a protein with similarity to the vertebrate hnRNP A/B protein family. The other suppressor corresponds to a newly defined gene we term HRP1, which also encodes a protein with similarity to the hnRNP A/B proteins of vertebrates. Mutations in HRP1 suppress all npl3 temperature-sensitive alleles but do not bypass an npl3 null allele. We show that HRP1 is essential for cell growth and that the corresponding protein is located in the nucleus. The discovery of two hnRNP homologues that can partially suppress the function of Np13p, also an RNA binding protein, will be discussed in terms of the possible roles for Npl3p in RNA metabolism. PMID:8770588

  3. Mutations in the RNA Polymerase II Transcription Machinery Suppress the Hyperrecombination Mutant Hpr1Δ of Saccharomyces Cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Fan, H. Y.; Cheng, K. K.; Klein, H. L.

    1996-01-01

    The soh1, soh2 and soh4 mutants were isolated as suppressors of the temperature-dependent growth of the hyperrecombination mutant hpr1 of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Cloning and sequence analysis of these suppressor genes has unexpectedly shown them to code for components of the RNA polymerase II transcription complex. SOH2 is identical to RPB2, which encodes the second largest subunit of RNA polymerase II, and SOH4 is the same as SUA7, encoding the yeast transcription initiation factor TFIIB. SOH1 encodes a novel 14-kD protein with limited sequence similarity to RNA polymerases. Interestingly, SOH1 not only interacts with factors involved in DNA repair, but transcription as well. Thus, the Soh1 protein may serve to couple these two processes. The Soh1 protein interacts with a DNA repair protein, Rad5p, in a two-hybrid system assay. Soh1p may functionally interact with components of the RNA polymerase II complex as suggested from the synthetic lethality observed in soh1 rpb1Δ104, soh1 soh2-1 (rpb2), and soh1 soh4 (sua7) double mutants. Because mutations in SOH1, RPB2 and SUA7 suppress the hyperrecombination phenotype of hpr1 mutants, this suggests a link between recombination in direct repeats and transcription. PMID:8849885

  4. New mutations of Saccharomyces cerevisiae that partially relieve both glucose and galactose repression activate the protein kinase Snf1.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, Cristina; Sanz, Pascual; Gancedo, Carlos

    2003-03-01

    We isolated from Saccharomyces cerevisiae two mutants, esc1-1 and ESC3-1, in which genes FBP1, ICL1 or GDH2 were partially derepressed during growth in glucose or galactose. The isolation was done starting with a triple mutant pyc1 pyc2 mth1 unable to grow in glucose-ammonium medium and selecting for mutants able to grow in the non-permissive medium. HXT1 and HXT2 which encode glucose transporters were expressed at high glucose concentrations in both esc1-1 and ESC3-1 mutants, while derepression of invertase at low glucose concentrations was impaired. REG1, cloned as a suppressor of ESC3-1, was not allelic to ESC3-1. Two-hybrid analysis showed an increased interaction of the protein kinase Snf1 with Snf4 in the ESC3-1 mutant; this was not due to mutations in SNF1 or SNF4. ESC3-1 did not bypass the requirement of Snf1 for derepression. We hypothesize that ESC3-1 either facilitates activation of Snf1 or interferes with its glucose-dependent inactivation.

  5. Advanced method for high-throughput expression of mutated eukaryotic membrane proteins in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    SciTech Connect

    Ito, Keisuke; Sugawara, Taishi; Shiroishi, Mitsunori; Tokuda, Natsuko; Kurokawa, Azusa; Misaka, Takumi; Makyio, Hisayoshi; Yurugi-Kobayashi, Takami; Shimamura, Tatsuro; Nomura, Norimichi; Murata, Takeshi; Abe, Keiko; Iwata, So

    2008-07-11

    Crystallization of eukaryotic membrane proteins is a challenging, iterative process. The protein of interest is often modified in an attempt to improve crystallization and diffraction results. To accelerate this process, we took advantage of a GFP-fusion yeast expression system that uses PCR to direct homologous recombination and gene cloning. We explored the possibility of employing more than one PCR fragment to introduce various mutations in a single step, and found that when up to five PCR fragments were co-transformed into yeast, the recombination frequency was maintained as the number of fragments was increased. All transformants expressed the model membrane protein, while the resulting plasmid from each clone contained the designed mutations only. Thus, we have demonstrated a technique allowing the expression of mutant membrane proteins within 5 days, combining a GFP-fusion expression system and yeast homologous recombination.

  6. Genome-scale genetic screen of lead ion-sensitive gene deletion mutations in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Du, J; Cao, C; Jiang, L

    2015-06-01

    Pb (lead) is one of the most widespread and toxic heavy metal contaminants and imposes potential harm to human health. Pb ions cause cellular damage and induce loss of cell viability. However, mechanisms regulating Pb toxicity remain poorly understood. Through a genome-scale screen, we have identified 30 yeast single-gene deletion mutants that are sensitive to lead ions. These genes are involved in the metabolism, transcription, protein synthesis, cell cycle and DNA processing, protein folding, modification, destination, as well as cellular transport process. Comparative analyses to cadmium-sensitive mutations identified from previous studies indicate that overlapping genes of lead- and cadmium-sensitive mutations are involved in both the metabolism and the cellular transport process. Furthermore, eleven lead-sensitive mutants show elevated levels of lead contents in response to lead stress. Our findings provide a basis to understand molecular mechanisms underlying the detoxification of lead ions by yeast cells.

  7. Mutations in GAL2 or GAL4 alleviate catabolite repression produced by galactose in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez; Flores

    2000-06-01

    Galactose does not allow growth of pyruvate carboxylase mutants in media with ammonium as a nitrogen source, and inhibits growth of strains defective in phosphoglyceromutase in ethanol-glycerol mixtures. Starting with pyc1, pyc2, and gpm1 strains, we isolated mutants that eliminated those galactose effects. The mutations were recessive and were named dgr1-1 and dgr2-1. Strains bearing those mutations in an otherwise wild-type background grew slower than the wild type in rich galactose media, and their growth was dependent on respiration. Galactose repression of several enzymes was relieved in the mutants. Biochemical and genetic evidence showed that dgr1-1 was allelic with GAL2 and dgr2-1 with GAL4. The results indicate that the rate of galactose consumption is critical to cause catabolite repression.

  8. Point mutation of H3/H4 histones affects acetic acid tolerance in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiangyong; Zhang, Xiaohua; Zhang, Zhaojie

    2014-10-10

    The molecular mechanism of acetic acid tolerance in yeast remains unclear despite of its importance for efficient cellulosic ethanol production. In this study, we examined the effects of histone H3/H4 point mutations on yeast acetic acid tolerance by comprehensively screening a histone H3/H4 mutant library. A total of 24 histone H3/H4 mutants (six acetic acid resistant and 18 sensitive) were identified. Compared to the wild-type strain, the histone acetic acid-resistant mutants exhibited improved ethanol fermentation performance under acetic acid stress. Genome-wide transcriptome analysis revealed that changes in the gene expression in the acetic acid-resistant mutants H3 K37A and H4 K16Q were mainly related to energy production, antioxidative stress. Our results provide novel insights into yeast acetic acid tolerance on the basis of histone, and suggest a novel approach to improve ethanol production by altering the histone H3/H4 sequences.

  9. Pleiotropic Mutations at the TUP1 Locus That Affect the Expression of Mating-Type-Dependent Functions in SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE.

    PubMed

    Lemontt, J F; Fugit, D R; Mackay, V L

    1980-04-01

    The umr7-1 mutation, previously identified in a set of mutants that had been selected for defective UV-induced mutagenesis at CAN1, affects other cellular functions, including many of those regulated by the mating-type locus (MAT) in heterothallic Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The recessive umr7-1 allele, mapping approximately 20 cM distal to thr4 on chromosome III, causes clumpy growth in both a and alpha cells and has no apparent effect on a mating functions. However, alpha umr7 meiotic segregants fail to express several alpha-specific functions (e.g., high-frequency conjugation with a strains, secretion of the hormone alpha-factor and response to the hormone a-factor). In addition, alpha umr7 cells exhibit some a-specific characteristics, such as the barrier phenotype (Bar(+)) that prevents diffusion of alpha-factor and an increased mating frequency with alpha strains. The most striking property of alpha umr7 strains is their altered morphology, in which mitotic cells develop an asymmetric pear shape, like that of normal a cells induced to form "shmoos" by interaction with alpha-factor. Some a/alpha-specific diploid functions are also affected by umr7; instead of polar budding patterns, a/alpha umr7/umr7 diploids have medial budding like a/a, alpha/alpha and haploid strains. Moreover, a/alpha umr7/umr7 diploids have lost the ability to sporulate and are Bar(+) like a or a/a strains. Revertant studies indicate that umr7-1 is a single point mutation. The umr7 mutant fails to complement mutants of both tup1 (selected for deoxythymidine monophosphate utilization) and cyc9 (selected for high iso-2-cytochrome c levels), and all three isolates have similar genetic and phenotypic properties. It is suggested that the product of this gene plays some common central role in the complex regulation of the expression of both MAT-dependent and MAT-independent functions.

  10. A suppressor of an RNA polymerase II mutation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae encodes a subunit common to RNA polymerases I, II, and III.

    PubMed Central

    Archambault, J; Schappert, K T; Friesen, J D

    1990-01-01

    RNA polymerase II (RNAPII) is a complex multisubunit enzyme responsible for the synthesis of pre-mRNA in eucaryotes. The enzyme is made of two large subunits associated with at least eight smaller polypeptides, some of which are common to all three RNA polymerase species. We have initiated a genetic analysis of RNAPII by introducing mutations in RPO21, the gene encoding the largest subunit of RNAPII in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We have used a yeast genomic library to isolate plasmids that can suppress a temperature-sensitive mutation in RPO21 (rpo21-4), with the goal of identifying gene products that interact with the largest subunit of RNAPII. We found that increased expression of wild-type RPO26, a single-copy, essential gene encoding a 155-amino-acid subunit common to RNAPI, RNAPII, and RNAPIII, suppressed the rpo21-4 temperature-sensitive mutation. Mutations were constructed in vitro that resulted in single amino acid changes in the carboxy-terminal portion of the RPO26 gene product. One temperature-sensitive mutation, as well as some mutations that did not by themselves generate a phenotype, were lethal in combination with rpo21-4. These results support the idea that the RPO26 and RPO21 gene products interact. Images PMID:2247052

  11. Pathogenic potential of SLC25A15 mutations assessed by transport assays and complementation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae ORT1 null mutant.

    PubMed

    Marobbio, Carlo M T; Punzi, Giuseppe; Pierri, Ciro L; Palmieri, Luigi; Calvello, Rosa; Panaro, Maria A; Palmieri, Ferdinando

    2015-05-01

    HHH syndrome is an autosomal recessive urea cycle disorder caused by alterations in the SLC25A15 gene encoding the mitochondrial ornithine carrier 1, which catalyzes the transport of cytosolic ornithine into the mitochondria in exchange for intramitochondrial citrulline. In this study the functional effects of several SLC25A15 missense mutations p.G27R, p.M37R, p.N74A, p.F188L, p.F188Y, p.S200K, p.R275Q and p.R275K have been tested by transport assays in reconstituted liposomes and complementation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae ORT1 null mutant in arginine-less synthetic complete medium. The HHH syndrome-causing mutations p.G27R, p.M37R, p.F188L and p.R275Q had impaired transport and did not complement ORT1∆ cells (except p.M37R slightly after 5 days in solid medium). The experimentally produced mutations p.N74A, p.S200K and p.R275K exhibited normal or considerable transport activity and complemented ORT1∆ cells after 3 days (p.N74A, p.S200K) or 5 days (p.R275K) incubation. Furthermore, the experimentally produced p.F188Y mutation displayed a substantial transport activity but did not complement the ORT1∆ cells in both liquid and solid media. In view of the disagreement in the results obtained between the two methods, it is recommended that the method of complementing the S. cerevisiae ORT1 knockout strain is used complimentary with the measurement of the catalytic activity, in order to distinguish HHH syndrome-causing mutations from isomorphisms. PMID:25818551

  12. Mutations in a gene encoding the. cap alpha. subunit of a Saccharomyces cerevisiae G protein indicate a role in mating pheromone signaling

    SciTech Connect

    Jahng, K.Y.; Ferguson, J.; Reed, S.I.

    1988-06-01

    Mutations which allowed conjugation by Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells lacking a mating pheromone receptor gene were selected. One of the genes defined by such mutations was isolated from a yeast genomic library by complementation of a temperature-sensitive mutation and is identically to the gene GPA1 (also known as SCG1), recently shown to be highly homologous to gene encoding the ..cap alpha.. subunits of mammalian G proteins. Physiological analysis of temperature-sensitive gpal mutations suggests that the encoded G protein is involved in signaling in response to mating pheromones. Mutational disruption of G-protein activity causes cell-cycle arrest in G/sub 1/, deposition of mating-specific cell surface aggultinins, and induction of pheromone-specific mRNa, all of which are responses to pheromone in wild-type cells. In addition, mutants can conjugate without the benefit of mating pheromone or pheromone receptor. A model is presented where the activated G protein has a negative impact on a constitutive signal which normally keeps the pheromone response repressed.

  13. Cumulative Mutations Affecting Sterol Biosynthesis in the Yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae Result in Synthetic Lethality That Is Suppressed by Alterations in Sphingolipid Profiles

    PubMed Central

    Valachovic, Martin; Bareither, Bart M.; Bhuiyan, M. Shah Alam; Eckstein, James; Barbuch, Robert; Balderes, Dina; Wilcox, Lisa; Sturley, Stephen L.; Dickson, Robert C.; Bard, Martin

    2006-01-01

    UPC2 and ECM22 belong to a Zn(2)–Cys(6) family of fungal transcription factors and have been implicated in the regulation of sterol synthesis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Candida albicans. Previous reports suggest that double deletion of these genes in S. cerevisiae is lethal depending on the genetic background of the strain. In this investigation we demonstrate that lethality of upc2Δ ecm22Δ in the S288c genetic background is attributable to a mutation in the HAP1 transcription factor. In addition we demonstrate that strains containing upc2Δ ecm22Δ are also inviable when carrying deletions of ERG6 and ERG28 but not when carrying deletions of ERG3, ERG4, or ERG5. It has previously been demonstrated that UPC2 and ECM22 regulate S. cerevisiae ERG2 and ERG3 and that the erg2Δ upc2Δ ecm22Δ triple mutant is also synthetically lethal. We used transposon mutagenesis to isolate viable suppressors of hap1Δ, erg2Δ, erg6Δ, and erg28Δ in the upc2Δ ecm22Δ genetic background. Mutations in two genes (YND1 and GDA1) encoding apyrases were found to suppress the synthetic lethality of three of these triple mutants but not erg2Δ upc2Δ ecm22Δ. We show that deletion of YND1, like deletion of GDA1, alters the sphingolipid profiles, suggesting that changes in sphingolipids compensate for lethality produced by changes in sterol composition and abundance. PMID:16702413

  14. Detection of modifications in the glucose metabolism induced by genetic mutations in Saccharomyces cerevisiae by 13C- and H-NMR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Herve, M; Buffin-Meyer, B; Bouet, F; Son, T D

    2000-06-01

    NMR spectroscopy may offer a suitable technique to characterize the glucose metabolism in response to genetic mutations in cells. The effects of various genetic modifications in Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast were investigated using 13C- and 1H-NMR spectroscopy associated with biochemical techniques. Cells were incubated with [1-13C]glucose in order to study glucose consumption and the formation of various end-products (ethanol, trehalose, glycerol, glutamate and amino acids) as a function of time. Two types of genetic modifications were studied in S. cerevisiae. A genetic modification deleted the N-terminal part of the TFC7 protein which is the smallest subunit (tau55) of the TFIIIC transcription factor. One secondary effect of this mutation was a large deletion of mitochondrial DNA giving the rho-phenotype. The other genetic modification corresponded to the disruption of the HUF gene; the mutated cells were rho+ like the reference strain. Both mutations increase the glycolysis rate and glycerol synthesis and decrease trehalose production. The most modified cells, which contain both TFC7 deletion and HUF gene disruption, utilize glucose in the most extreme manner as in these cells the largest production of the two glycolytic products (ethanol and glycerol) and the smallest trehalose formation occur. The HUF gene disruption serves as a positive modulator of glycolysis and respiration. However, the TFC7 deletion, associated with the phenotype rho-, induces the most damage in the cellular function, dramatically altering the behaviour of the Krebs cycle. The cycle becomes blocked at the level of 2-oxoglutarate, detected by a characteristic pattern of the 13C-NMR glutamate spectra. These NMR spectra corroborate the phenotypic data, the rho-phenotype corresponding to deletions of mitochondria DNA which block all mitochondria protein synthesis and render the cells unable to derive energy from respiration. Moreover, as a consequence of the Krebs cycle blocking, alanine

  15. Boost in bioethanol production using recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae with mutated strictly NADPH-dependent xylose reductase and NADP(+)-dependent xylitol dehydrogenase.

    PubMed

    Khattab, Sadat Mohammad Rezq; Saimura, Masayuki; Kodaki, Tsutomu

    2013-06-10

    The xylose-fermenting recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae and its improvement have been studied extensively. The redox balance between xylose reductase (XR) and xylitol dehydrogenase (XDH) is thought to be an important factor in effective xylose fermentation. Using protein engineering, we previously successfully reduced xylitol accumulation and improved ethanol production by reversing the dependency of XDH from NAD(+) to NADP(+). We also constructed a set of novel strictly NADPH-dependent XR from Pichia stipitis by site-directed mutagenesis. In the present study, we constructed a set of recombinant S. cerevisiae carrying a novel set of mutated strictly NADPH-dependent XR and NADP(+)-dependent XDH genes with overexpression of endogenous xylulokinase (XK) to study the effects of complete NADPH/NADP(+) recycling on ethanol fermentation and xylitol accumulation. All mutated strains demonstrated reduced xylitol accumulation, ranging 34.4-54.7% compared with the control strain. Moreover, compared with the control strain, the two strains showed 20% and 10% improvement in ethanol production.

  16. Nuclear modifier MTO2 modulates the aminoglycoside-sensitivity of mitochondrial 15S rRNA C1477G mutation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    He, Xiangyu; Zhu, Xiaoyu; Wang, Xuexiang; Wang, Wei; Dai, Yu; Yan, Qingfeng

    2013-01-01

    The phenotypic manifestations of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) mutations are modulated by mitochondrial DNA haplotypes, nuclear modifier genes and environmental factors. The yeast mitochondrial 15S rRNA C1477G (P(R) or P(R) 454) mutation corresponds to the human 12S rRNA C1494T and A1555G mutations, which are well known as primary factors for aminoglycoside-induced nonsyndromic deafness. Here we report that the deletion of the nuclear modifier gene MTO2 suppressed the aminoglycoside-sensitivity of mitochondrial 15S rRNA C1477G mutation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. First, the strain with a single mtDNA C1477G mutation exhibited hypersensitivity to neomycin. Functional assays indicated that the steady-state transcription level of mitochondrial DNA, the mitochondrial respiratory rate, and the membrane potential decreased significantly after neomycin treatment. The impaired mitochondria could not produce sufficient energy to maintain cell viability. Second, when the mto2 null and the mitochondrial C1477G mutations co-existed (mto2(P(R))), the oxygen consumption rate in the double mutant decreased markedly compared to that of the control strains (MTO2(P(S)), mto2(P(S)) and MTO2(P(R))). The expression levels of the key glycolytic genes HXK2, PFK1 and PYK1 in the mto2(P(R)) strain were stimulated by neomycin and up-regulated by 89%, 112% and 55%, respectively. The enhanced glycolysis compensated for the respiratory energy deficits, and could be inhibited by the glycolytic enzyme inhibitor. Our findings in yeast will provide a new insight into the pathogenesis of human deafness.

  17. Expression of PEP carboxylase from Escherichia coli complements the phenotypic effects of pyruvate carboxylase mutations in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Flores, C L; Gancedo, C

    1997-08-01

    We investigated the effects of the expression of the Escherichia coli ppc gene encoding PEP carboxylase in Saccharomyces cerevisiae mutants devoid of pyruvate carboxylase. Functional expression of the ppc gene restored the ability of the yeast mutants to grow in glucose-ammonium medium. Growth yield in this medium was the same in the transformed yeast than in the wild type although the growth rate of the transformed yeast was slower. Growth in pyruvate was slowed down in the transformed strain, likely due to a futile cycle produced by the simultaneous action of PEP carboxykinase and PEP carboxylase.

  18. Intragenic and Extragenic Suppressors of Mutations in the Heptapeptide Repeat Domain of Saccharomyces Cerevisiae RNA Polymerase II

    PubMed Central

    Nonet, M. L.; Young, R. A.

    1989-01-01

    The largest subunit of RNA polymerase II contains a repeated heptapeptide sequence at its carboxy terminus. Yeast mutants with certain partial deletions of the carboxy-terminal repeat (CTR) domain are temperature-sensitive, cold-sensitive and are inositol auxotrophs. Intragenic and extragenic suppressors of the cold-sensitive phenotype of CTR domain deletion mutants were isolated and studied to investigate the function of this domain. Two types of intragenic suppressing mutations suppress the temperature-sensitivity, cold-sensitivity and inositol auxotrophy of CTR domain deletion mutants. Most intragenic mutations enlarge the repeat domain by duplicating various portions of the repeat coding sequence. Other intragenic suppressing mutations are point mutations in a conserved segment of the large subunit. An extragenic suppressing mutation (SRB2-1) was isolated that strongly suppresses the conditional and auxotrophic phenotypes of CTR domain mutations. The SRB2 gene was isolated and mapped, and an SRB2 partial deletion mutation (srb2Δ10) was constructed. The srb2Δ10 mutants are temperature-sensitive, cold-sensitive and are inositol auxotrophs. These phenotypes are characteristic of mutations in genes encoding components of the transcription apparatus. We propose that the SRB2 gene encodes a factor that is involved in RNA synthesis and may interact with the CTR domain of the large subunit of RNA polymerase II. PMID:2693207

  19. ASC1/RAS2 suppresses the growth defect on glycerol caused by the atp1-2 mutation in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Mabuchi, T; Ichimura, Y; Takeda, M; Douglas, M G

    2000-04-01

    To better define the regulatory role of the F(1)-ATPase alpha-subunit in the catalytic cycle of the ATP synthase complex, we isolated suppressors of mutations occurring in ATP1, the gene for the alpha-subunit in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. First, two atp1 mutations (atp1-1 and atp1-2) were characterized that prevent the growth of yeast on non-fermentable carbon sources. Both mutants contained full-length F(1)alpha-subunit proteins in mitochondria, but in lower amounts than that in the parental strain. Both mutants exhibited barely measurable F(1)-ATPase activity. The primary mutations in atp1-1 and atp1-2 were identified as Thr(383) --> Ile and Gly(291) --> Asp, respectively. From recent structural data, position 383 lies within the catalytic site. Position 291 is located near the region affecting subunit-subunit interaction with the F(1)beta-subunit. An unlinked suppressor gene, ASC1 (alpha-subunit complementing) of the atp1-2 mutation (Gly(291) --> Asp) restored the growth defect phenotype on glycerol, but did not suppress either atp1-1 or the deletion mutant Deltaatp1. Sequence analysis revealed that ASC1 was allelic with RAS2, a G-protein growth regulator. The introduction of ASC1/RAS2 into the atp1-2 mutant increased the F(1)-ATPase enzyme activity in this mutant when the transformant was grown on glycerol. The possible mechanisms of ASC1/RAS2 suppression of atp1-2 are discussed; we suggest that RAS2 is part of the regulatory circuit involved in the control of F(1)-ATPase subunit levels in mitochondria.

  20. Mode of action of the qcr9 and cat3 mutations in restoring the ability of Saccharomyces cerevisiae tps1 mutants to grow on glucose.

    PubMed

    Blázquez, M A; Gancedo, C

    1995-12-20

    Mutations in the TPS1 gene, which encodes trehalose-6-P synthase, cause a glucose-negative phenotype in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Antimycin A or disruption of the QCR9 gene, which encodes one subunit of the cytochrome bc1 complex, restore the ability to grow in glucose-containing media. Under these conditions the cell excreted a large amount of glycerol, corresponding to about 20% of the glucose taken up. Suppression appears to be achieved by diversion of accumulated glycolytic intermediates to the production of glycerol, thereby providing NAD+ and phosphate for the glyceraldehyde-3-P dehydrogenase reaction. Analysis of the mutation sci1-1, which also suppresses the glucose-negative phenotype of tps1 mutants, showed that glucose transport was decreased in sci1-1 mutants. The gene SCI1 was cloned and its nucleotide sequence revealed it to be identical to CAT3/SNF4. The suppression mediated by sci1-1 is attributable to a decrease in glycolytic flux.

  1. The Saccharomyces cerevisiae mevalonate diphosphate decarboxylase is essential for viability, and a single Leu-to-Pro mutation in a conserved sequence leads to thermosensitivity.

    PubMed Central

    Bergès, T; Guyonnet, D; Karst, F

    1997-01-01

    The mevalonate diphosphate decarboxylase is an enzyme which converts mevalonate diphosphate to isopentenyl diphosphate, the building block of isoprenoids. We used the Saccharomyces cerevisiae temperature-sensitive mutant defective for mevalonate diphosphate decarboxylase previously described (C. Chambon, V. Ladeveve, M. Servouse, L. Blanchard, C. Javelot, B. Vladescu, and F. Karst, Lipids 26:633-636, 1991) to characterize the mutated allele. We showed that a single change in a conserved amino acid accounts for the temperature-sensitive phenotype of the mutant. Complementation experiments were done both in the erg19-mutated background and in a strain in which the ERG19 gene, which was shown to be an essential gene for yeast, was disrupted. Epitope tagging of the wild-type mevalonate diphosphate decarboxylase allowed us to isolate the enzyme in an active form by a versatile one-step immunoprecipitation procedure. Furthermore, during the course of this study, we observed that a high level of expression of the wild-type ERG19 gene led to a lower sterol steady-state accumulation compared to that of a wild-type strain, suggesting that this enzyme may be a key enzyme in mevalonate pathway regulation. PMID:9244250

  2. Phosphoproteomic analysis of protein kinase C signaling in Saccharomyces cerevisiae reveals Slt2 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)-dependent phosphorylation of eisosome core components.

    PubMed

    Mascaraque, Victoria; Hernáez, María Luisa; Jiménez-Sánchez, María; Hansen, Rasmus; Gil, Concha; Martín, Humberto; Cid, Víctor J; Molina, María

    2013-03-01

    The cell wall integrity (CWI) pathway of the model organism Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been thoroughly studied as a paradigm of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway. It consists of a classic MAPK module comprising the Bck1 MAPK kinase kinase, two redundant MAPK kinases (Mkk1 and Mkk2), and the Slt2 MAPK. This module is activated under a variety of stimuli related to cell wall homeostasis by Pkc1, the only member of the protein kinase C family in budding yeast. Quantitative phosphoproteomics based on stable isotope labeling of amino acids in cell culture is a powerful tool for globally studying protein phosphorylation. Here we report an analysis of the yeast phosphoproteome upon overexpression of a PKC1 hyperactive allele that specifically activates CWI MAPK signaling in the absence of external stimuli. We found 82 phosphopeptides originating from 43 proteins that showed enhanced phosphorylation in these conditions. The MAPK S/T-P target motif was significantly overrepresented in these phosphopeptides. Hyperphosphorylated proteins provide putative novel targets of the Pkc1-cell wall integrity pathway involved in diverse functions such as the control of gene expression, protein synthesis, cytoskeleton maintenance, DNA repair, and metabolism. Remarkably, five components of the plasma-membrane-associated protein complex known as eisosomes were found among the up-regulated proteins. We show here that Pkc1-induced phosphorylation of the eisosome core components Pil1 and Lsp1 was not exerted directly by Pkc1, but involved signaling through the Slt2 MAPK module.

  3. Defining the pathogenesis of the human Atp12p W94R mutation using a Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast model.

    PubMed

    Meulemans, Ann; Seneca, Sara; Pribyl, Thomas; Smet, Joel; Alderweirldt, Valerie; Waeytens, Anouk; Lissens, Willy; Van Coster, Rudy; De Meirleir, Linda; di Rago, Jean-Paul; Gatti, Domenico L; Ackerman, Sharon H

    2010-02-01

    Studies in yeast have shown that a deficiency in Atp12p prevents assembly of the extrinsic domain (F(1)) of complex V and renders cells unable to make ATP through oxidative phosphorylation. De Meirleir et al. (De Meirleir, L., Seneca, S., Lissens, W., De Clercq, I., Eyskens, F., Gerlo, E., Smet, J., and Van Coster, R. (2004) J. Med. Genet. 41, 120-124) have reported that a homozygous missense mutation in the gene for human Atp12p (HuAtp12p), which replaces Trp-94 with Arg, was linked to the death of a 14-month-old patient. We have investigated the impact of the pathogenic W94R mutation on Atp12p structure/function. Plasmid-borne wild type human Atp12p rescues the respiratory defect of a yeast ATP12 deletion mutant (Deltaatp12). The W94R mutation alters the protein at the most highly conserved position in the Pfam sequence and renders HuAtp12p insoluble in the background of Deltaatp12. In contrast, the yeast protein harboring the corresponding mutation, ScAtp12p(W103R), is soluble in the background of Deltaatp12 but not in the background of Deltaatp12Deltafmc1, a strain that also lacks Fmc1p. Fmc1p is a yeast mitochondrial protein not found in higher eukaryotes. Tryptophan 94 (human) or 103 (yeast) is located in a positively charged region of Atp12p, and hence its mutation to arginine does not alter significantly the electrostatic properties of the protein. Instead, we provide evidence that the primary effect of the substitution is on the dynamic properties of Atp12p.

  4. The effects of sex and mutation rate on adaptation in test tubes and to mouse hosts by Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Grimberg, Brian; Zeyl, Clifford

    2005-02-01

    Some hypotheses for the evolution of sex focus on adaptation to changing or heterogeneous environments, but these hypotheses have rarely been tested. We tested for advantages of sex and of increased mutation rates in yeast strains in two contrasting environments: a standard and relatively homogeneous laboratory environment of minimal medium in test tubes, and the variable environment of a mouse brain experienced by pathogenic strains. Evolving populations were founded as equal mixtures of sexual and obligately asexual genotypes. In the sexuals, cycles of sporulation, meiosis, and mating were induced approximately every 50 mitotic generations, with the asexuals undergoing sporulation but not ploidy cycles or recombination. In both environments, replicate negative control populations established with the same pair of strains were propagated with neither mating nor meiosis. In test tubes with no sex induced, sexuals were fixed in all five replicates within 250 mitotic generations, whereas in mice with no sex induced, asexuals were fixed in all four replicates by 170 generations. Inducing sex altered these outcomes in opposite directions in test tubes and mice, decreasing the fixation frequencies of sexuals in test tubes but increasing them in mice. These contrasts with asexual controls suggest an advantage for sex in mice but not in test tubes, although there was no difference between test tubes and mice in the numbers of populations fixed-for sexuals. In analogous experiments testing for an advantage of increased mutation rates, wild-type genotypes became fixed at the expense of mutators in every replicate of both test tube and mouse populations, indicating a disadvantage for mutators in both environments. Increased rates of point mutation do not appear to accelerate adaptation.

  5. Enhanced thermotolerance and ethanol tolerance in Saccharomyces cerevisiae mutated by high-energy pulse electron beam and protoplast fusion.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Min; Xiao, Yu; Zhu, Rongrong; Zhang, Qin; Wang, Shi-Long

    2012-11-01

    To increase thermotolerance and ethanol tolerance in Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain YZ1, the strategies of high-energy pulse electron beam (HEPE) and three rounds of protoplast fusion were explored. The YF31 strain had the characteristics of resistant to high-temperature, high-ethanol tolerance, rapid growth and high yield. The YF31 could grow on plate cultures up to 47 °C, containing 237.5 g L(-1) of ethanol. In particular, the mutant strain YF31 generated 94.2 ± 4.8 g L(-1) ethanol from 200 g glucose L(-1) at 42 °C, which was 2.48 times the production of the wild strain YZ1. Results demonstrated that the variant phenotypes from the strains screening by HEPE irradiation could be used as parent stock for yeast regeneration and the protoplast fusion technology is sufficiently powerful in combining suitable characteristics in a single strain for ethanol fermentation.

  6. A mutation in the ATP2 gene abrogates the age asymmetry between mother and daughter cells of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed Central

    Lai, Chi-Yung; Jaruga, Ewa; Borghouts, Corina; Jazwinski, S Michal

    2002-01-01

    The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae reproduces by asymmetric cell division, or budding. In each cell division, the daughter cell is usually smaller and younger than the mother cell, as defined by the number of divisions it can potentially complete before it dies. Although individual yeast cells have a limited life span, this age asymmetry between mother and daughter ensures that the yeast strain remains immortal. To understand the mechanisms underlying age asymmetry, we have isolated temperature-sensitive mutants that have limited growth capacity. One of these clonal-senescence mutants was in ATP2, the gene encoding the beta-subunit of mitochondrial F(1), F(0)-ATPase. A point mutation in this gene caused a valine-to-isoleucine substitution at the ninetieth amino acid of the mature polypeptide. This mutation did not affect the growth rate on a nonfermentable carbon source. Life-span determinations following temperature shift-down showed that the clonal-senescence phenotype results from a loss of age asymmetry at 36 degrees, such that daughters are born old. It was characterized by a loss of mitochondrial membrane potential followed by the lack of proper segregation of active mitochondria to daughter cells. This was associated with a change in mitochondrial morphology and distribution in the mother cell and ultimately resulted in the generation of cells totally lacking mitochondria. The results indicate that segregation of active mitochondria to daughter cells is important for maintenance of age asymmetry and raise the possibility that mitochondrial dysfunction may be a normal cause of aging. The finding that dysfunctional mitochondria accumulated in yeasts as they aged and the propensity for old mother cells to produce daughters depleted of active mitochondria lend support to this notion. We propose, more generally, that age asymmetry depends on partition of active and undamaged cellular components to the progeny and that this "filter" breaks down with age. PMID

  7. The GEF1 gene of Saccharomyces cerevisiae encodes an integral membrane protein; mutations in which have effects on respiration and iron-limited growth.

    PubMed

    Greene, J R; Brown, N H; DiDomenico, B J; Kaplan, J; Eide, D J

    1993-12-01

    We have isolated a new class of respiration-defective, i.e petite, mutants of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Mutations in the GEF1 gene cause cells to grow slowly on rich media containing carbon sources utilized by respiration. This phenotype is suppressed by adding high concentrations of iron to the growth medium. Gef1- mutants also fail to grow on a fermentable carbon source, glucose, when iron is reduced to low concentrations in the medium, suggesting that the GEF1 gene is required for efficient metabolism of iron during growth on fermentable as well as respired carbon sources. However, activity of the iron uptake system appears to be unaffected in gef1- mutants. Fe(II) transporter activity and regulation is normal in gef1- mutants. Fe(III) reductase induction during iron-limited growth is disrupted, but this appears to be a secondary effect of growth rate alterations. The wild-type GEF1 gene was cloned and sequenced; it encodes a protein of 779 amino acids, 13 possible transmembrane domains, and significant similarity to chloride channel proteins from fish and mammals, suggesting that GEF1 encodes an integral membrane protein. A gef1- deletion mutation generated in vitro and introduced into wild-type haploid strains by gene transplacement was not lethal. Oxygen consumption by intact gef1- cells and by mitochondrial fractions isolated from gef1- mutants was reduced 25-50% relative to wild type, indicating that mitochondrial function is defective in these mutants. We suggest that GEF1 encodes a transport protein that is involved in intracellular iron metabolism.

  8. SPO14 separation-of-function mutations define unique roles for phospholipase D in secretion and cellular differentiation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed Central

    Rudge, S A; Pettitt, T R; Zhou, C; Wakelam, M J; Engebrecht, J A

    2001-01-01

    In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, phospholipase D (PLD), encoded by the SPO14 gene, catalyzes the hydrolysis of phosphatidylcholine, producing choline and phosphatidic acid. SPO14 is essential for cellular differentiation during meiosis and is required for Golgi function when the normal secretory apparatus is perturbed (Sec14-independent secretion). We isolated specific alleles of SPO14 that support Sec14-independent secretion but not sporulation. Identification of these separation-of-function alleles indicates that the role of PLD in these two physiological processes is distinct. Analyses of the mutants reveal that the corresponding proteins are stable, phosphorylated, catalytically active in vitro, and can localize properly within the cell during meiosis. Surprisingly, the separation-of-function mutations map to the conserved catalytic region of the PLD protein. Choline and phosphatidic acid molecular species profiles during Sec14-independent secretion and meiosis reveal that while strains harboring one of these alleles, spo14S-11, hydrolyze phosphatidylcholine in Sec14-independent secretion, they fail to do so during sporulation or normal vegetative growth. These results demonstrate that Spo14 PLD catalytic activity and cellular function can be differentially regulated at the level of phosphatidylcholine hydrolysis. PMID:11514437

  9. On the formation of rho- petites in yeast. II. Effects of mutation tsm-8 on mitochondrial functions and rho-factor stability in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Bechmann, H; Krüger, M; Böker, E; Bandlow, W; Schweyen, R J; Kaudewitz, F

    1977-09-21

    1. In non-fermentable substrates growth of mutant tsm-8 cells of Saccharomyces cerevisiae is restricted to about one generation after shift from 23 to 35 degrees C. Non-permissive conditions (35 degrees C, glycerol) cause a gradual decrease in respiration to about 20% of the activity at permissive temperature 23 degrees C). 2. Anaerobically grown and glucose-repressed mutant cells exhibit a decreased adaptation rate of mitochondrial functions to aerobic growth and non-fermentative growth, even at 23 degrees C, as revealed by determination of respiratory rates and mitochondrial protein synthesis. 3. At 35 degrees C, rho+ cells of mutant tsm-8 are converted to p- cells within 6-8 generations of growth, in all fermentable substrates tested. Drugs or antibiotics as nalidixic acid, acriflavin, chloramphenicol and erythromycin, bongkrecic acid, antimycin and FCCP, as well as anaerobiosis, have little or no influence on this kinetics. A heat shock does not yield rho- petites to a significant extent. 4. Reversion of tsm-8 cells to wild type function, which occurs spontaneously with a frequency of 10(-8), is found to be due to a mitochondrial mutational event.

  10. Mutations in the Saccharomyces Cerevisiae Type 2a Protein Phosphatase Catalytic Subunit Reveal Roles in Cell Wall Integrity, Actin Cytoskeleton Organization and Mitosis

    PubMed Central

    Evans, DRH.; Stark, MJR.

    1997-01-01

    Temperature-sensitive mutations were generated in the Saccharomyces cerevisiae PPH22 gene that, together with its homologue PPH21, encode the catalytic subunit of type 2A protein phosphatase (PP2A). At the restrictive temperature (37°), cells dependent solely on pph22(ts) alleles for PP2A function displayed a rapid arrest of proliferation. Ts(-) pph22 mutant cells underwent lysis at 37°, showing an accompanying viability loss that was suppressed by inclusion of 1 M sorbitol in the growth medium. Ts(-) pph22 mutant cells also displayed defects in bud morphogenesis and polarization of the cortical actin cytoskeleton at 37°. PP2A is therefore required for maintenance of cell integrity and polarized growth. On transfer from 24° to 37°, Ts(-) pph22 mutant cells accumulated a 2N DNA content indicating a cell cycle block before completion of mitosis. However, during prolonged incubation at 37°, many Ts(-) pph22 mutant cells progressed through an aberrant nuclear division and accumulated multiple nuclei. Ts(-) pph22 mutant cells also accumulated aberrant microtubule structures at 37°, while under semi-permissive conditions they were sensitive to the microtubule-destabilizing agent benomyl, suggesting that PP2A is required for normal microtubule function. Remarkably, the multiple defects of Ts(-) pph22 mutant cells were suppressed by a viable allele (SSD1-v1) of the polymorphic SSD1 gene. PMID:9071579

  11. Mutational Analysis Defines a C-Terminal Tail Domain of Rap1 Essential for Telomeric Silencing in Saccharomyces Cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Liu, C.; Mao, X.; Lustig, A. J.

    1994-01-01

    Alleles specifically defective in telomeric silencing were generated by in vitro mutagenesis of the yeast RAP1 gene. The most severe phenotypes occur with three mutations in the C-terminal 28 amino acids. Two of the alleles are nonsense mutations resulting in truncated repressor/activator protein 1 (RAP1) species lacking the C-terminal 25-28 amino acids; the third allele is a missense mutation within this region. These alleles define a novel 28-amino acid region, termed the C-terminal tail domain, that is essential for telomeric and HML silencing. Using site-directed mutagenesis, an 8-amino acid region (amino acids 818-825) that is essential for telomeric silencing has been localized within this domain. Further characterization of these alleles has indicated that the C-terminal tail domain also plays a role in telomere size control. The function of the C-terminal tail in telomere maintenance is not mediated through the RAP1 interacting factor RIF1: rap1 alleles defective in both the C-terminal tail and RIF1 interaction domains have additive effects on telomere length. Overproduction of SIR3, a dose-dependent enhancer of telomeric silencing, suppresses the telomeric silencing, but not length, phenotypes of a subset of C-terminal tail alleles. In contrast, an allele that truncates the terminal 28 amino acids of RAP1 is refractory to SIR3 overproduction. These results indicate that the C-terminal tail domain is required for SIR3-dependent enhancement of telomeric silencing. These data also suggest a distinct set of C-terminal requirements for telomere size control and telomeric silencing. PMID:7896088

  12. Suppressors of ssy1 and ptr3 null mutations define novel amino acid sensor-independent genes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed Central

    Forsberg, H; Hammar, M; Andréasson, C; Molinér, A; Ljungdahl, P O

    2001-01-01

    Ssy1p and Ptr3p are components of the yeast plasma membrane SPS amino acid sensor. In response to extracellular amino acids this sensor initiates metabolic signals that ultimately regulate the functional expression of several amino acid-metabolizing enzymes and amino acid permeases (AAPs). As a result of diminished leucine uptake capabilities, ssy1Delta leu2 and ptr3Delta leu2 mutant strains are unable to grow on synthetic complete medium (SC). Genes affecting the functional expression of AAPs were identified by selecting spontaneous suppressing mutations in amino acid sensor-independent (ASI) genes that restore growth on SC. The suppressors define 11 recessive (asi) complementation groups and 5 dominant (ASI) linkage groups. Strains with mutations in genes assigned to these 16 groups fall into two phenotypic classes. Mutations in the class I genes (ASI1, ASI2, ASI3, TUP1, SSN6, ASI13) derepress the transcription of AAP genes. ASI1, ASI2, and ASI3 encode novel membrane proteins, and Asi1p and Asi3p are homologous proteins that have conserved ubiquitin ligase-like RING domains at their extreme C termini. Several of the class II genes (DOA4, UBA1, BRO1, BUL1, RSP5, VPS20, VPS36) encode proteins implicated in controlling aspects of post-Golgi endosomal-vacuolar protein sorting. The results from genetic and phenotypic analysis indicate that SPS sensor-initiated signals function positively to facilitate amino acid uptake and that two independent ubiquitin-mediated processes negatively modulate amino acid uptake. PMID:11454748

  13. Characterization of Insertion Mutations in the Saccharomyces Cerevisiae Msh1 and Msh2 Genes: Evidence for Separate Mitochondrial and Nuclear Functions

    PubMed Central

    Reenan, RAG.; Kolodner, R. D.

    1992-01-01

    The MSH1 and MSH2 genes of Saccharomyces cerevisiae are predicted to encode proteins that are homologous to the Escherichia coli MutS and Streptococcus pneumoniae HexA proteins and their homologs. Disruption of the MSH1 gene caused a petite phenotype which was established rapidly. A functional MSH1 gene present on a single-copy centromere plasmid was incapable of rescuing the established msh1 petite phenotype. Analysis of msh1 strains demonstrated that mutagenesis and large-scale rearrangement of mitochondrial DNA had occurred. 4',6-Diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) staining of msh1 yeast revealed an aberrant distribution of mtDNA. Haploid msh2 mutants displayed an increase of 85-fold in the rate of spontaneous mutation to canavanine resistance. Sporulation of homozygous msh2/msh2 diploids gave rise to a high level of lethality which was compounded during increased vegetative growth prior to sporulation. msh2 mutations also affected gene conversion of two HIS4 alleles. The his4x mutation, lying near the 5' end of the gene, was converted with equal frequency in both wild-type and msh2 strains. However, many of the events in the msh2 background were post-meiotic segregation (PMS) events (46.4%) while none (<0.25%) of the aberrant segregations in wild type were PMS events. The his4b allele, lying 1.6 kb downstream of his4x, was converted at a 10-fold higher frequency in the msh2 background than in the corresponding wild-type strain. Like the his4x allele, his4b showed a high level of PMS (30%) in the msh2 background compared to the corresponding wild-type strain where no (<0.26%) PMS events were observed. These results indicate that MSH1 plays a role in repair or stability of mtDNA and MSH2 plays a role in repair of 4-bp insertion/deletion mispairs in the nucleus. PMID:1334021

  14. cps1+, a Schizosaccharomyces pombe gene homolog of Saccharomyces cerevisiae FKS genes whose mutation confers hypersensitivity to cyclosporin A and papulacandin B.

    PubMed Central

    Ishiguro, J; Saitou, A; Durán, A; Ribas, J C

    1997-01-01

    The Schizosaccharomyces pombe cps1-12 (for chlorpropham supersensitive) mutant strain was originally isolated as hypersensitive to the spindle poison isopropyl N-3-chlorophenyl carbamate (chlorpropham) (J. Ishiguro and Y. Uhara, Jpn. J. Genet. 67:97-109, 1992). We have found that the cps1-12 mutation also confers (i) hypersensitivity to the immunosuppressant cyclosporin A (CsA), (ii) hypersensitivity to the drug papulacandin B, which specifically inhibits 1,3-beta-D-glucan synthesis both in vivo and in vitro, and (iii) thermosensitive growth at 37 degrees C. Under any of these restrictive treatments, cells swell up and finally lyse. With an osmotic stabilizer, cells do not lyse, but at 37 degrees C they become multiseptated and multibranched. The cps1-12 mutant, grown at a restrictive temperature, showed an increase in sensitivity to lysis by enzymatic cell wall degradation, in in vitro 1,3-beta-D-glucan synthase activity (173% in the absence of GTP in the reaction), and in cell wall biosynthesis (130% of the wild-type amount). Addition of Ca2+ suppresses hypersensitivity to papulacandin B and septation and branching phenotypes. All of these data suggest a relationship between the cps1+ gene and cell wall synthesis. A DNA fragment containing the cps1+ gene was cloned, and sequence analysis indicated that it encodes a predicted membrane protein of 1,729 amino acids with 15 to 16 transmembrane domains. S. pombe cps1p has overall 55% sequence identity with Fks1p or Fks2p, proposed to be catalytic or associated subunits of Saccharomyces cerevisiae 1,3-beta-D-glucan synthase. Thus, the cps1+ product might be a catalytic or an associated copurifying subunit of the fission yeast 1,3-beta-D-glucan synthase that plays an essential role in cell wall synthesis. PMID:9401022

  15. Suppressor analysis of temperature-sensitive mutations of the largest subunit of RNA polymerase I in Saccharomyces cerevisiae: a suppressor gene encodes the second-largest subunit of RNA polymerase I.

    PubMed Central

    Yano, R; Nomura, M

    1991-01-01

    The SRP3-1 mutation is an allele-specific suppressor of temperature-sensitive mutations in the largest subunit (A190) of RNA polymerase I from Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Two mutations known to be suppressed by SRP3-1 are in the putative zinc-binding domain of A190. We have cloned the SRP3 gene by using its suppressor activity and determined its complete nucleotide sequence. We conclude from the following evidence that the SRP3 gene encodes the second-largest subunit (A135) of RNA polymerase I. First, the deduced amino acid sequence of the gene product contains several regions with high homology to the corresponding regions of the second-largest subunits of RNA polymerases of various origins, including those of RNA polymerase II and III from S. cerevisiae. Second, the deduced amino acid sequence contains known amino acid sequences of two tryptic peptides from the A135 subunit of RNA polymerase I purified from S. cerevisiae. Finally, a strain was constructed in which transcription of the SRP3 gene was controlled by the inducible GAL7 promoter. When this strain, which can grow on galactose but not on glucose, was shifted from galactose medium to glucose medium, a large decrease in the cellular concentration of A135 was observed by Western blot analysis. We have also identified the specific amino acid alteration responsible for suppression by SRP3-1 and found that it is located within the putative zinc-binding domain conserved among the second-largest subunits of eucaryotic RNA polymerases. From these results, it is suggested that this putative zinc-binding domain is in physical proximity to and interacts with the putative zinc-binding domain of the A190 subunit. Images PMID:1990281

  16. A loss-of-function mutation in the PAS kinase Rim15p is related to defective quiescence entry and high fermentation rates of Saccharomyces cerevisiae sake yeast strains.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Daisuke; Araki, Yuya; Zhou, Yan; Maeya, Naoki; Akao, Takeshi; Shimoi, Hitoshi

    2012-06-01

    Sake yeast cells have defective entry into the quiescent state, allowing them to sustain high fermentation rates. To reveal the underlying mechanism, we investigated the PAS kinase Rim15p, which orchestrates initiation of the quiescence program in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We found that Rim15p is truncated at the carboxyl terminus in modern sake yeast strains as a result of a frameshift mutation. Introduction of this mutation or deletion of the full-length RIM15 gene in a laboratory strain led to a defective stress response, decreased synthesis of the storage carbohydrates trehalose and glycogen, and impaired G(1) arrest, which together closely resemble the characteristic phenotypes of sake yeast. Notably, expression of a functional RIM15 gene in a modern sake strain suppressed all of these phenotypes, demonstrating that dysfunction of Rim15p prevents sake yeast cells from entering quiescence. Moreover, loss of Rim15p or its downstream targets Igo1p and Igo2p remarkably improved the fermentation rate in a laboratory strain. This finding verified that Rim15p-mediated entry into quiescence plays pivotal roles in the inhibition of ethanol fermentation. Taken together, our results suggest that the loss-of-function mutation in the RIM15 gene may be the key genetic determinant of the increased ethanol production rates in modern sake yeast strains.

  17. The sua8 suppressors of Saccharomyces cerevisiae encode replacements of conserved residues within the largest subunit of RNA polymerase II and affect transcription start site selection similarly to sua7 (TFIIB) mutations.

    PubMed Central

    Berroteran, R W; Ware, D E; Hampsey, M

    1994-01-01

    Mutations in the Saccharomyces cerevisiae sua8 gene were found to be suppressors of an aberrant ATG translation initiation codon in the leader region of the cyc1 gene. Analysis of cyc1 transcripts from sua8 mutants revealed that suppression is a consequence of diminished transcription initiation at the normal start sites in favor of initiation at downstream sites, including a site between the aberrant and normal ATG start codons. This effect is not cyc1 gene specific since initiation at other genes, including ADH1, CYC7, and HIS4, was similarly affected, although initiation at HIS3 and SPT15 was unaffected. The SUA8 gene was cloned and partially sequenced, revealing identity to RPB1, which encodes the largest subunit of RNA polymerase II. The sua8 suppressors are the result of single amino acid replacements of highly conserved residues. Three replacements were found either within or immediately preceding homology block D, and a fourth was found adjacent to homology block H, indicating that these regions play a role in defining start sites in vivo. Nearly identical effects on start site selection were observed for sua7 suppressors, which encode altered forms of TFIIB. Synthetic lethality was associated with double sua7 sua8 suppressor mutations, and recessive sua7 mutants failed to fully complement recessive sua8 mutants in heterozygous diploids (nonallelic noncomplementation). These data indicate that the largest subunit of RNA polymerase II and TFIIB are important determinants of transcription start site selection in S. cerevisiae and suggest that this function might be conferred by interaction between these two proteins. Images PMID:8264591

  18. Screens for Extragenic Mutations That Fail to Complement Act1 Alleles Identify Genes That Are Important for Actin Function in Saccharomyces Cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Welch, M. D.; Vinh, DBN.; Okamura, H. H.; Drubin, D. G.

    1993-01-01

    Null mutations in SAC6 and ABP1, genes that encode actin-binding proteins, failed to complement the temperature-sensitive phenotype caused by a mutation in the ACT1 gene. To identify novel genes whose protein products interact with actin, mutations that fail to complement act1-1 or act1-4, two temperature-sensitive alleles of ACT1, were isolated. A total of 14 extragenic noncomplementing mutations and 12 new alleles of ACT1 were identified in two independent screens. The 14 extragenic noncomplementing mutations represent alleles of at least four different genes, ANC1, ANC2, ANC3 and ANC4 (Actin NonComplementing). Mutations in the ANC1 gene were shown to cause osmosensitivity and defects in actin organization; phenotypes that are similar to those caused by act1 mutations. We conclude that the ANC1 gene product plays an important role in actin cytoskeletal function. The 12 new alleles of ACT1 will be useful for further elucidation of the functions of actin in yeast. PMID:8243992

  19. [The influence of mutations at ATG triplets of the open reading frame SUP35 on viability of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae].

    PubMed

    Riabinkova, N A; Borkhsenius, A S; Inge-Vechtomov, S G

    2009-02-01

    The open reading frame SUP35 encoding the translation termination eRF3 factor vital to life contains three ATG codons (ATG1, ATG124, and ATG254). Previously, other authors detected two SUP35 transcripts: a major one that corresponds to the full-length open reading frame and a minor transcript that corresponds to the 3' terminal site of SUP35 starting at the third ATG codon (ATG254). In this work, mutations at triplets ATG1, ATG124, and ATG254 were obtained as well as double mutations, which combine the point mutation in one of three ATG triplets and a deletion at the site for binding with the transcription factor Abf1 within the SUP35 (sup35-deltaAbf1) promoter. The influence of these mutations on the yeast viability was analyzed. Mutations at triplets ATG124 and ATG254 did not affect yeast viability in their own right or in the background of deletion sup35-deltaAbf1. Mutation sup35-AGG1 (ATG1-->AGG) causes the lethal effect in cells grown on media containing glucose as the sole source of carbon. The replacement of glucose by galactose, or histidine starvation, partially restore the viability of sup35-AGG1 mutants, but not that of double mutants sup35-deltaAbf1,AGG1. The restoration of sup35-AGG1 mutant viability under these conditions can be explained by either the appearance (or enhancement) of the production of short peptides synthesized on the mRNA triplets SUP35 AUG124 and AUG254, or by the enhanced production of the full-length SUP35 transcript coupled with translation initiation from the noncanonical AGG1 codon. These data confirm that the expression of gene SUP35 at the transcription and(or) translation level is regulated by environmental conditions.

  20. Higher-Order Septin Assembly Is Driven by GTP-Promoted Conformational Changes: Evidence From Unbiased Mutational Analysis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Weems, Andrew D.; Johnson, Courtney R.; Argueso, Juan Lucas; McMurray, Michael A.

    2014-01-01

    Septin proteins bind GTP and heterooligomerize into filaments with conserved functions across a wide range of eukaryotes. Most septins hydrolyze GTP, altering the oligomerization interfaces; yet mutations designed to abolish nucleotide binding or hydrolysis by yeast septins perturb function only at high temperatures. Here, we apply an unbiased mutational approach to this problem. Mutations causing defects at high temperature mapped exclusively to the oligomerization interface encompassing the GTP-binding pocket, or to the pocket itself. Strikingly, cold-sensitive defects arise when certain of these same mutations are coexpressed with a wild-type allele, suggestive of a novel mode of dominance involving incompatibility between mutant and wild-type molecules at the septin–septin interfaces that mediate filament polymerization. A different cold-sensitive mutant harbors a substitution in an unstudied but highly conserved region of the septin Cdc12. A homologous domain in the small GTPase Ran allosterically regulates GTP-binding domain conformations, pointing to a possible new functional domain in some septins. Finally, we identify a mutation in septin Cdc3 that restores the high-temperature assembly competence of a mutant allele of septin Cdc10, likely by adopting a conformation more compatible with nucleotide-free Cdc10. Taken together, our findings demonstrate that GTP binding and hydrolysis promote, but are not required for, one-time events—presumably oligomerization-associated conformational changes—during assembly of the building blocks of septin filaments. Restrictive temperatures impose conformational constraints on mutant septin proteins, preventing new assembly and in certain cases destabilizing existing assemblies. These insights from yeast relate directly to disease-causing mutations in human septins. PMID:24398420

  1. Mutational Analysis of Ste5 in the Yeast Saccharomyces Cerevisiae: Application of a Differential Interaction Trap Assay for Examining Protein-Protein Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Inouye, C.; Dhillon, N.; Durfee, T.; Zambryski, P. C.; Thorner, J.

    1997-01-01

    Ste5 is essential for the yeast mating pheromone response pathway and is thought to function as a scaffold that organizes the components of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascade. A new method was developed to isolate missense mutations in Ste5 that differentially affect the ability of Ste5 to interact with either of two MAPK cascade constituents, the MEKK (Ste11) and the MEK (Ste7). Mutations that affect association with Ste7 or with Ste11 delineate discrete regions of Ste5 that are critical for each interaction. Co-immunoprecipitation analysis, examining the binding in vitro of Ste5 to Ste11, Ste7, Ste4 (G protein β subunit), and Fus3 (MAPK), confirmed that each mutation specifically affects the interaction of Ste5 with only one protein. When expressed in a ste5Δ cell, mutant Ste5 proteins that are defective in their ability to interact with either Ste11 or Ste7 result in a markedly reduced mating proficiency. One mutation that clearly weakened (but did not eliminate) interaction of Ste5 with Ste7 permitted mating at wild-type efficiency, indicating that an efficacious signal is generated even when Ste5 associates with only a small fraction of (or only transiently with) Ste7. Ste5 mutants defective in association with Ste11 or Ste7 showed strong interallelic complementation when co-expressed, suggesting that the functional form of Ste5 in vivo is an oligomer. PMID:9335587

  2. At-GDI1 from Arabidopsis thaliana encodes a rab-specific GDP dissociation inhibitor that complements the sec19 mutation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Zárský, V; Cvrcková, F; Bischoff, F; Palme, K

    1997-02-24

    Rab GTPases play a central role in the control of vesicular membrane traffic. These proteins cycle between cytosolic and membrane-bound compartments in a guanine nucleotide-dependent manner, a process that is regulated by several accessory proteins. Of particular interest are the Rab guanosine nucleotide diphosphate dissociation inhibitor proteins (Rab-GDI) which bind to prenylated Rab GTPases, slow the rate of GDP dissociation and escort GDP bound Rab proteins to their target membranes and retrieve them after completion of their catalytic cycle. We have cloned from Arabidopsis thaliana a cDNA coding for the Rab guanosine diphosphate dissociation inhibitor (AtGDI1) by functional complementation of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae sec19-1 mutant. The Arabidopsis cDNA potentially encodes a 49850 Da protein which is homologous to yeast GDI (49%) and to other members of the Rab-GDI family (49-63%). Northern blot analysis indicates that the mRNA is expressed in all tissues examined. The existence of a plant homologue of the Rab-GDI family indicates that the basic vesicle traffic control machinery may be highly conserved in plants as it is in yeast and mammals.

  3. Functional domains of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae Mlh1p and Pms1p DNA mismatch repair proteins and their relevance to human hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer-associated mutations.

    PubMed Central

    Pang, Q; Prolla, T A; Liskay, R M

    1997-01-01

    The MutL protein is an essential component of the Escherichia coli methyl-directed mismatch repair system but has no known enzymatic function. In the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the MutL equivalent, an Mlh1p and Pms1p heterodimer, interacts with Msh2p bound to mismatch-containing DNA. Little is known of the functional domains of Mlh1p and Pms1p. In this report, we define the Mlh1p and Pms1p domains required for Mlh1p-Pms1p interaction. The Mlh1p-interactive domain of Pms1p is comprised of 260 amino acids near the carboxyl terminus while the Pms1p-interactive domain of Mlh1p resides in the final 212 residues. The two domains are sufficient for Mlh1p-Pms1p interaction, as determined by the two-hybrid assay and by in vitro protein affinity chromatography. Deletions within the domains completely eliminated Mlh1p-Pms1p interaction. Using site-directed mutagenesis, we altered a number of highly conserved residues in the Mlh1p and Pms1p proteins, including some alterations that mimic germline mutations observed for human hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer. Alterations either in the consensus MutL box located in the amino-terminal portion of each protein or in the carboxyl-terminal homology motif of Mlh1p eliminated DNA mismatch repair function but had no effect on Mlh1p-Pms1p interaction. In addition, certain MLH1 and PMS1 mutant alleles caused a dominant negative mutator effect when overexpressed. We discuss the implications of these findings for the structural organization of the Mlh1p and Pms1p proteins and the importance of Mlh1p-Pms1p interaction. PMID:9234704

  4. Mutations in the Atp1p and Atp3p subunits of yeast ATP synthase differentially affect respiration and fermentation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Francis, Brian R; White, Karen H; Thorsness, Peter E

    2007-04-01

    ATP1-111, a suppressor of the slow-growth phenotype of yme1Delta lacking mitochondrial DNA is due to the substitution of phenylalanine for valine at position 111 of the alpha-subunit of mitochondrial ATP synthase (Atp1p in yeast). The suppressing activity of ATP1-111 requires intact beta (Atp2p) and gamma (Atp3p) subunits of mitochondrial ATP synthase, but not the stator stalk subunits b (Atp4p) and OSCP (Atp5p). ATP1-111 and other similarly suppressing mutations in ATP1 and ATP3 increase the growth rate of wild-type strains lacking mitochondrial DNA. These suppressing mutations decrease the growth rate of yeast containing an intact mitochondrial chromosome on media requiring oxidative phosphorylation, but not when grown on fermentable media. Measurement of chronological aging of yeast in culture reveals that ATP1 and ATP3 suppressor alleles in strains that contain mitochondrial DNA are longer lived than the isogenic wild-type strain. In contrast, the chronological life span of yeast cells lacking mitochondrial DNA and containing these mutations is shorter than that of the isogenic wild-type strain. Spore viability of strains bearing ATP1-111 is reduced compared to wild type, although ATP1-111 enhances the survival of spores that lacked mitochondrial DNA.

  5. Double mutation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae for enhanced β-d-fructofuranosidase fructohydrolase productivity and application of growth kinetics for parametric significance analysis

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Sikander; Aslam, Aafia; Hayyat, Muhammad Umar

    2016-01-01

    The kinetics of an extracellular β-d-fructofuranosidase fructohydrolase production by Saccharomyces cerevisiae in a chemically defined medium, i.e., sucrose peptone agar yeast extract at pH 6, was investigated. The wild-type was treated with a chemical mutagen, methyl methane sulfonate. Among the six mutants isolated, methyl methane sulfonate-V was found to be a better enzyme producing strain (52 ± 2.4a U/mL). The maximum production (74 ± 3.1a U/mL) was accomplished after at 48 h (68 ± 2.7a mg/mL protein). The mutants were stabilized at low levels of 5-fluoro-cytocine and the viable ones were further processed for optimization of cultural conditions and nutritional requirements. The sucrose concentration, incubation period and pH were optimized to be 30 g/L, 28 °C, and 6.5, respectively. The methyl methane sulfonate-V exhibited an improvement of over 10 folds in enzyme production when 5 g/L ammonium sulfate was used as a nitrogen source. Thin layer chromatography and high-performance liquid chromatography analysis illustrated the optimal enzyme activity supported by the higher rate of hydrolysis of sucrose into monosaccharides, particularly α-d-glucose and β-d-fructose. The values for Qp (2 ± 0.12c U/mL/h) and Yp/s (4 ± 1.24b U/g) of the mutant were considerably increased in comparison with other yeast strains (both isolates and viable mutants). The mutant could be exploited for enzyme production over a wider temperature range (26–34 °C), with significantly high enzyme activity (LSD 0.048, HS) at the optimal temperature. PMID:26887236

  6. Double mutation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae for enhanced β-d-fructofuranosidase fructohydrolase productivity and application of growth kinetics for parametric significance analysis.

    PubMed

    Ali, Sikander; Aslam, Aafia; Hayyat, Muhammad Umar

    2016-01-01

    The kinetics of an extracellular β-d-fructofuranosidase fructohydrolase production by Saccharomyces cerevisiae in a chemically defined medium, i.e., sucrose peptone agar yeast extract at pH 6, was investigated. The wild-type was treated with a chemical mutagen, methyl methane sulfonate. Among the six mutants isolated, methyl methane sulfonate-V was found to be a better enzyme producing strain (52±2.4(a)U/mL). The maximum production (74±3.1(a)U/mL) was accomplished after at 48h (68±2.7(a)mg/mL protein). The mutants were stabilized at low levels of 5-fluoro-cytocine and the viable ones were further processed for optimization of cultural conditions and nutritional requirements. The sucrose concentration, incubation period and pH were optimized to be 30g/L, 28°C, and 6.5, respectively. The methyl methane sulfonate-V exhibited an improvement of over 10 folds in enzyme production when 5g/L ammonium sulfate was used as a nitrogen source. Thin layer chromatography and high-performance liquid chromatography analysis illustrated the optimal enzyme activity supported by the higher rate of hydrolysis of sucrose into monosaccharides, particularly α-d-glucose and β-d-fructose. The values for Qp (2±0.12(c)U/mL/h) and Yp/s (4±1.24(b)U/g) of the mutant were considerably increased in comparison with other yeast strains (both isolates and viable mutants). The mutant could be exploited for enzyme production over a wider temperature range (26-34°C), with significantly high enzyme activity (LSD 0.048, HS) at the optimal temperature.

  7. Mutations in Mtr4 Structural Domains Reveal Their Important Role in Regulating tRNAiMet Turnover in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Mtr4p Enzymatic Activities In Vitro.

    PubMed

    Li, Yan; Burclaff, Joseph; Anderson, James T

    2016-01-01

    RNA processing and turnover play important roles in the maturation, metabolism and quality control of a large variety of RNAs thereby contributing to gene expression and cellular health. The TRAMP complex, composed of Air2p, Trf4p and Mtr4p, stimulates nuclear exosome-dependent RNA processing and degradation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The Mtr4 protein structure is composed of a helicase core and a novel so-called arch domain, which protrudes from the core. The helicase core contains highly conserved helicase domains RecA-1 and 2, and two structural domains of unclear functions, winged helix domain (WH) and ratchet domain. How the structural domains (arch, WH and ratchet domain) coordinate with the helicase domains and what roles they are playing in regulating Mtr4p helicase activity are unknown. We created a library of Mtr4p structural domain mutants for the first time and screened for those defective in the turnover of TRAMP and exosome substrate, hypomodified tRNAiMet. We found these domains regulate Mtr4p enzymatic activities differently through characterizing the arch domain mutants K700N and P731S, WH mutant K904N, and ratchet domain mutant R1030G. Arch domain mutants greatly reduced Mtr4p RNA binding, which surprisingly did not lead to significant defects on either in vivo tRNAiMet turnover, or in vitro unwinding activities. WH mutant K904N and Ratchet domain mutant R1030G showed decreased tRNAiMet turnover in vivo, as well as reduced RNA binding, ATPase and unwinding activities of Mtr4p in vitro. Particularly, K904 was found to be very important for steady protein levels in vivo. Overall, we conclude that arch domain plays a role in RNA binding but is largely dispensable for Mtr4p enzymatic activities, however the structural domains in the helicase core significantly contribute to Mtr4p ATPase and unwinding activities.

  8. Double mutation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae for enhanced β-d-fructofuranosidase fructohydrolase productivity and application of growth kinetics for parametric significance analysis.

    PubMed

    Ali, Sikander; Aslam, Aafia; Hayyat, Muhammad Umar

    2016-01-01

    The kinetics of an extracellular β-d-fructofuranosidase fructohydrolase production by Saccharomyces cerevisiae in a chemically defined medium, i.e., sucrose peptone agar yeast extract at pH 6, was investigated. The wild-type was treated with a chemical mutagen, methyl methane sulfonate. Among the six mutants isolated, methyl methane sulfonate-V was found to be a better enzyme producing strain (52±2.4(a)U/mL). The maximum production (74±3.1(a)U/mL) was accomplished after at 48h (68±2.7(a)mg/mL protein). The mutants were stabilized at low levels of 5-fluoro-cytocine and the viable ones were further processed for optimization of cultural conditions and nutritional requirements. The sucrose concentration, incubation period and pH were optimized to be 30g/L, 28°C, and 6.5, respectively. The methyl methane sulfonate-V exhibited an improvement of over 10 folds in enzyme production when 5g/L ammonium sulfate was used as a nitrogen source. Thin layer chromatography and high-performance liquid chromatography analysis illustrated the optimal enzyme activity supported by the higher rate of hydrolysis of sucrose into monosaccharides, particularly α-d-glucose and β-d-fructose. The values for Qp (2±0.12(c)U/mL/h) and Yp/s (4±1.24(b)U/g) of the mutant were considerably increased in comparison with other yeast strains (both isolates and viable mutants). The mutant could be exploited for enzyme production over a wider temperature range (26-34°C), with significantly high enzyme activity (LSD 0.048, HS) at the optimal temperature. PMID:26887236

  9. Consequences of Growth Media, Gene Copy Number, and Regulatory Mutations on the Expression of the Prb1 Gene of Saccharomyces Cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Moehle, C. M.; Jones, E. W.

    1990-01-01

    Glucose represses PRB1 expression at the level of transcription. However, release from glucose repression initially does not result in accumulation of protease B (PrB) activity despite transcriptional derepression. PrB activity accumulates only upon a second transcriptional derepression as the cells approach stationary phase. Increasing the PRB1 gene dosage on 2μ-based plasmids does not overcome glucose repression. Glucose-mediated repression of PRB1 is not subject to the same genetic controls as SUC2. Mutation of the HXK2 gene, which confers glucose-insensitive expression of secreted invertase, had no effect on PRB1 expression at the level of PrB activity. Strains bearing a mutation in any of the SNF1-SNF6 genes cannot derepress secreted invertase synthesis, but did derepress PrB synthesis when grown in the absence of glucose. Mutation of the SNF2 or SNF5 gene led to accumulation of PrB activity to levels ten times that of wild type. Polymorphism for a suppressor gene was observed: in snf5-bearing strains, one allele of this suppressor gene resulted in elevated levels of PrB and the other allele resulted in wild-type levels of PrB; neither allele suppressed the Suc(-) phenotype of the snf5 mutant. Re-examination of published data on SUC2 expression in snf2 and snf5 mutants and examination of PRB1 expression in these mutants paradoxically suggest that the SNF2 and SNF5 gene products might act as negative regulators of gene expression. PMID:2407604

  10. Cloning of a human gene involved in cytochrome oxidase assembly by functional complementation of an oxa1- mutation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed Central

    Bonnefoy, N; Kermorgant, M; Groudinsky, O; Minet, M; Slonimski, P P; Dujardin, G

    1994-01-01

    The yeast nuclear gene OXA1 is essential for cytochrome oxidase assembly, so that a null mutation in the OXA1 gene leads to complete respiratory deficiency. We have cloned by genetic selection a human OXA1 (OXA1Hs) cDNA that complements the respiratory defect of yeast oxa1 mutants. The deduced sequence of the human protein shares 33% identity with the yeast OXA1 protein. The OXA1Hs cDNA corresponds to a single and relatively highly expressed gene. Oxygen consumption measurements and cytochrome absorption spectra show that replacement of the yeast protein with the human homolog leads to the correct assembly of cytochrome oxidase, suggesting that the proteins play essentially the same role in both organisms. Images PMID:7991568

  11. Important role for phylogenetically invariant PP2Acalpha active site and C-terminal residues revealed by mutational analysis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed Central

    Evans, D R; Hemmings, B A

    2000-01-01

    PP2A is a central regulator of eukaryotic signal transduction. The human catalytic subunit PP2Acalpha functionally replaces the endogenous yeast enzyme, Pph22p, indicating a conservation of function in vivo. Therefore, yeast cells were employed to explore the role of invariant PP2Ac residues. The PP2Acalpha Y127N substitution abolished essential PP2Ac function in vivo and impaired catalysis severely in vitro, consistent with the prediction from structural studies that Tyr-127 mediates substrate binding and its side chain interacts with the key active site residues His-118 and Asp-88. The V159E substitution similarly impaired PP2Acalpha catalysis profoundly and may cause global disruption of the active site. Two conditional mutations in the yeast Pph22p protein, F232S and P240H, were found to cause temperature-sensitive impairment of PP2Ac catalytic function in vitro. Thus, the mitotic and cell lysis defects conferred by these mutations result from a loss of PP2Ac enzyme activity. Substitution of the PP2Acalpha C-terminal Tyr-307 residue by phenylalanine impaired protein function, whereas the Y307D and T304D substitutions abolished essential function in vivo. Nevertheless, Y307D did not reduce PP2Acalpha catalytic activity significantly in vitro, consistent with an important role for the C terminus in mediating essential protein-protein interactions. Our results identify key residues important for PP2Ac function and characterize new reagents for the study of PP2A in vivo. PMID:10978272

  12. Effects of pentamidine isethionate on Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Ludewig, G; Williams, J M; Li, Y; Staben, C

    1994-05-01

    We used Saccharomyces cerevisiae as a model system in which to examine the mechanism of action of the anti-Pneumocystis drug pentamidine. Pentamidine at low concentrations inhibited S. cerevisiae growth on nonfermentable carbon sources (50% inhibitory concentration [IC50] of 1.25 micrograms/ml in glycerol). Pentamidine inhibited growth on fermentable energy sources only at much higher concentrations (IC50 of 250 micrograms/ml in glucose). Inhibition at low pentamidine concentrations in glycerol was due to cytostatic activity rather than cytotoxic or mutagenic activity. Pentamidine also rapidly inhibited respiration by intact yeast cells, although inhibitory concentrations were much higher than those inhibitory to growth (IC50 of 100 micrograms/ml for respiration). Pentamidine also induced petite mutations, although only at concentrations much higher than those required for growth inhibition. These results suggest that a function essential for respiratory growth is inhibited by pentamidine and that pentamidine affects mitochondrial processes. We propose the hypothesis that the primary cellular target of pentamidine in S. cerevisiae is the mitochondrion.

  13. 21 CFR 866.5785 - Anti-Saccharomyces cerevisiae (S. cerevisiae) antibody (ASCA) test systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Anti-Saccharomyces cerevisiae (S. cerevisiae... Immunological Test Systems § 866.5785 Anti-Saccharomyces cerevisiae (S. cerevisiae) antibody (ASCA) test systems. (a) Identification. The Anti-Saccharomyces cerevisiae (S. cerevisiae) antibody (ASCA) test system...

  14. 21 CFR 866.5785 - Anti-Saccharomyces cerevisiae (S. cerevisiae) antibody (ASCA) test systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Anti-Saccharomyces cerevisiae (S. cerevisiae... Immunological Test Systems § 866.5785 Anti-Saccharomyces cerevisiae (S. cerevisiae) antibody (ASCA) test systems. (a) Identification. The Anti-Saccharomyces cerevisiae (S. cerevisiae) antibody (ASCA) test system...

  15. 21 CFR 866.5785 - Anti-Saccharomyces cerevisiae (S. cerevisiae) antibody (ASCA) test systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Anti-Saccharomyces cerevisiae (S. cerevisiae... Immunological Test Systems § 866.5785 Anti-Saccharomyces cerevisiae (S. cerevisiae) antibody (ASCA) test systems. (a) Identification. The Anti-Saccharomyces cerevisiae (S. cerevisiae) antibody (ASCA) test system...

  16. 21 CFR 866.5785 - Anti-Saccharomyces cerevisiae (S. cerevisiae) antibody (ASCA) test systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Anti-Saccharomyces cerevisiae (S. cerevisiae... Immunological Test Systems § 866.5785 Anti-Saccharomyces cerevisiae (S. cerevisiae) antibody (ASCA) test systems. (a) Identification. The Anti-Saccharomyces cerevisiae (S. cerevisiae) antibody (ASCA) test system...

  17. 21 CFR 866.5785 - Anti-Saccharomyces cerevisiae (S. cerevisiae) antibody (ASCA) test systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Anti-Saccharomyces cerevisiae (S. cerevisiae... Immunological Test Systems § 866.5785 Anti-Saccharomyces cerevisiae (S. cerevisiae) antibody (ASCA) test systems. (a) Identification. The Anti-Saccharomyces cerevisiae (S. cerevisiae) antibody (ASCA) test system...

  18. Mutational landscape of yeast mutator strains.

    PubMed

    Serero, Alexandre; Jubin, Claire; Loeillet, Sophie; Legoix-Né, Patricia; Nicolas, Alain G

    2014-02-01

    The acquisition of mutations is relevant to every aspect of genetics, including cancer and evolution of species on Darwinian selection. Genome variations arise from rare stochastic imperfections of cellular metabolism and deficiencies in maintenance genes. Here, we established the genome-wide spectrum of mutations that accumulate in a WT and in nine Saccharomyces cerevisiae mutator strains deficient for distinct genome maintenance processes: pol32Δ and rad27Δ (replication), msh2Δ (mismatch repair), tsa1Δ (oxidative stress), mre11Δ (recombination), mec1Δ tel1Δ (DNA damage/S-phase checkpoints), pif1Δ (maintenance of mitochondrial genome and telomere length), cac1Δ cac3Δ (nucleosome deposition), and clb5Δ (cell cycle progression). This study reveals the diversity, complexity, and ultimate unique nature of each mutational spectrum, composed of punctual mutations, chromosomal structural variations, and/or aneuploidies. The mutations produced in clb5Δ/CCNB1, mec1Δ/ATR, tel1Δ/ATM, and rad27Δ/FEN1 strains extensively reshape the genome, following a trajectory dependent on previous events. It comprises the transmission of unstable genomes that lead to colony mosaicisms. This comprehensive analytical approach of mutator defects provides a model to understand how genome variations might accumulate during clonal evolution of somatic cell populations, including tumor cells.

  19. Single point mutations in various domains of a plant plasma membrane H(+)-ATPase expressed in Saccharomyces cerevisiae increase H(+)-pumping and permit yeast growth at low pH.

    PubMed Central

    Morsomme, P; de Kerchove d'Exaerde, A; De Meester, S; Thinès, D; Goffeau, A; Boutry, M

    1996-01-01

    In plants, the proton pump-ATPase (H(+)-ATPase) of the plasma membrane is encoded by a multigene family. The PMA2 (plasma membrane H(+)-ATPase) isoform from Nicotiana plumbaginifolia was previously shown to be capable of functionally replacing the yeast H(+)-ATPase, provided that the external pH was kept above pH 5.5. In this study, we used a positive selection to isolate 19 single point mutations of PMA2 which permit the growth of yeast cells at pH 4.0. Thirteen mutations were restricted to the C-terminus region, but another six mutations were found in four other regions of the enzyme. Kinetic studies determined on nine mutated PMA2 compared with the wild-type PMA2 revealed an activated enzyme characterized by an alkaline shift of the optimum pH and a slightly higher specific ATPase activity. However, the most striking difference was a 2- to 3-fold increase of H(+)-pumping in both reconstituted vesicles and intact cells. These results indicate that point mutations in various domains of the plant H(+)-ATPase improve the coupling between H(+)-pumping and ATP hydrolysis, resulting in better growth at low pH. Moreover, the yeast cells expressing the mutated PMA2 showed a marked reduction in the frequency of internal membrane proliferation seen with the strain expressing the wild-type PMA2, indicating a relationship between H(+)-ATPase activity and perturbations of the secretory pathway. Images PMID:8896445

  20. Genetic Interactions between a Pep7 Mutation and the Pep12 and Vps45 Genes: Evidence for a Novel Snare Component in Transport between the Saccharomyces Cerevisiae Golgi Complex and Endosome

    PubMed Central

    Webb, G. C.; Hoedt, M.; Poole, L. J.; Jones, E. W.

    1997-01-01

    The PEP7 gene from Saccharomyces cerevisiae encodes a 59-kD hydrophilic polypeptide that is required for transport of soluble vacuolar hydrolase precursors from the TGN to the endosome. This study presents the results of a high-copy suppression analysis of pep7-20 mutant phenotypes. This analysis demonstrated that both VPS45 and PEP12 are allele-specific high-copy suppressors of pep7-20 mutant phenotypes. Overexpression of VPS45 was able to completely suppress the Zn(2+) sensitivity and partially suppress the carboxypeptidase Y deficiency. Overexpression of PEP12 was able to do the same, but to a lesser extent. Vps45p and Pep12p are Sec1p and syntaxin (t-SNARE) homologues, respectively, and are also thought to function in transport between the TGN and endosome. Two additional vacuole pathway SNARE complex homologues, Vps33p (Sec1p) and Pth1p (syntaxin), when overexpressed, were unable to suppress pep7-20 or any other pep7 allele, further supporting the specificity of the interactions of pep7-20 with PEP12 and VPS45. Because several other vesicle docking/fusion reactions take place in the cell without discernible participation of Pep7p homologues, we suggest that Pep7p is a step-specific regulator of docking and/or fusion of TGN-derived transport vesicles onto the endosome. PMID:9335586

  1. Allosteric regulation of carbamoylphosphate synthetase-aspartate transcarbamylase multifunctional protein of Saccharomyces cerevisiae: selection, mapping and identification of missense mutations define three regions involved in feedback inhibition by UTP.

    PubMed

    Jaquet, L; Serre, V; Lollier, M; Penverne, B; Hervé, G; Souciet, J L; Potier, S

    1995-05-01

    The positive screening procedure previously described was used in order to select, clone and characterize mutants defective in negative feedback control by UTP of the yeast carbamoylphosphate synthetase-aspartate transcarbamylase protein (CPSase-ATCase). The selection procedure was improved by adding a general mapping method for dominant mutations in order to avoid sequencing the whole URA2 allele (7 kb). All 16 mutants obtained carry missense mutations leading to single amino acid replacements: five of them are located in the CPSase domain while the other 11 are in the ATCase domain. In these 16 mutants, ATCase is no longer inhibited by UTP although CPSase retains full sensitivity to the effector, suggesting that the regulation of the two activities involve distinct mechanisms. Amino acid replacements in the ATCase domain were located on a three-dimensional model structure of the yeast ATCase domain. They are clustered in two regions of this domain which must be directly involved in the feedback process. PMID:7752230

  2. Mapping of the Proteinase B Structural Gene PRB1, in SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE and Identification of Nonsense Alleles within the Locus

    PubMed Central

    Zubenko, George S.; Mitchell, Aaron P.; Jones, Elizabeth W.

    1980-01-01

    We report the mapping of the structural gene for proteinase B, PRB1. It is located 1.1 cM proximal to CAN1 on the left arm of chromosome V of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We have identified 34 amber and 12 ochre mutations among the 126 prb1 mutations in our collection. PMID:7009321

  3. Tailoring the metabolism against mutations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gulbahce, Natali; Motter, Adilson E.; Almaas, Eivind; Barabasi, Albert Laszlo

    2008-03-01

    In the post-genomic era, organisms can be modelled at the whole-cell level in silico via steady state methods to describe their metabolic capabilities. We use two such methods, Flux Balance Analysis and Minimization of Metabolic Adjustment to explore the behavior of cells (of E. coli and S. cerevisiae) after severe mutations. We propose experimentally feasible ways of modifying the underlying biochemical reaction network of a mutant cell such that cell functionality, in particular growth rate, is significantly improved.

  4. ROG1 encodes a monoacylglycerol lipase in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Vishnu Varthini, Lakshmanaperumal; Selvaraju, Kandasamy; Srinivasan, Malathi; Nachiappan, Vasanthi

    2015-01-01

    Lipid metabolism is extensively studied in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Here, we report that revertant of glycogen synthase kinase mutation-1 (Rog1p) possesses monoacylglycerol (MAG) lipase activity in S. cerevisiae. The lipase activity of Rog1p was confirmed in two ways: through analysis of a strain with a double deletion of ROG1 and monoglyceride lipase YJU3 (yju3Δrog1Δ) and by site-directed mutagenesis of the ROG1 lipase motif (GXSXG). Rog1p is localized in both the cytosol and the nucleus. Overexpression of ROG1 in a ROG1-deficient strain resulted in an accumulation of reactive oxygen species. These results suggest that Rog1p is a MAG lipase that regulates lipid homeostasis.

  5. Analysis of Meiotic Recombination Pathways in the Yeast Saccharomyces Cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Mao-Draayer, Y.; Galbraith, A. M.; Pittman, D. L.; Cool, M.; Malone, R. E.

    1996-01-01

    In the yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, several genes appear to act early in meiotic recombination. HOP1 and RED1 have been classified as such early genes. The data in this paper demonstrate that neither a red1 nor a hop1 mutation can rescue the inviable spores produced by a rad52 spo13 strain; this phenotype helps to distinguish these two genes from other early meiotic recombination genes such as SPO11, REC104, or MEI4. In contrast, either a red1 or a hop1 mutation can rescue a rad50S spo13 strain; this phenotype is similar to that conferred by mutations in the other early recombination genes (e.g., REC104). These two different results can be explained because the data presented here indicate that a rad50S mutation does not diminish meiotic intrachromosomal recombination, similar to the mutant phenotypes conferred by red1 or hop1. Of course, RED1 and HOP1 do act in the normal meiotic interchromosomal recombination pathway; they reduce interchromosomal recombination to ~10% of normal levels. We demonstrate that a mutation in a gene (REC104) required for initiation of exchange is completely epistatic to a mutation in RED1. Finally, mutations in either HOP1 or RED1 reduce the number of double-strand breaks observed at the HIS2 meiotic recombination hotspot. PMID:8878674

  6. Accelerating Mutational Load Is Not Due to Synergistic Epistasis or Mutator Alleles in Mutation Accumulation Lines of Yeast.

    PubMed

    Jasmin, Jean-Nicolas; Lenormand, Thomas

    2016-02-01

    Much of our knowledge about the fitness effects of new mutations has been gained from mutation accumulation (MA) experiments. Yet the fitness effect of single mutations is rarely measured in MA experiments. This raises several issues, notably for inferring epistasis for fitness. The acceleration of fitness decline in MA lines has been taken as evidence for synergistic epistasis, but establishing the role of epistasis requires measuring the fitness of genotypes carrying known numbers of mutations. Otherwise, accelerating fitness loss could be explained by increased genetic mutation rates. Here we segregated mutations accumulated over 4800 generations in haploid and diploid MA lines of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We found no correspondence between an accelerated fitness decline and synergistic epistasis among deleterious mutations in haploid lines. Pairs of mutations showed no overall epistasis. Furthermore, several lines of evidence indicate that genetic mutation rates did not increase in the MA lines. Crucially, segregant fitness analyses revealed that MA accelerated in both haploid and diploid lines, even though the fitness of diploid lines was nearly constant during the MA experiment. This suggests that the accelerated fitness decline in haploids was caused by cryptic environmental factors that increased mutation rates in all lines during the last third of the lines' transfers. In addition, we provide new estimates of deleterious mutation rates, including lethal mutations, and highlight that nearly all the mutational load we observed was due to one or two mutations having a large effect on fitness.

  7. Stationary phase in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed Central

    Werner-Washburne, M; Braun, E; Johnston, G C; Singer, R A

    1993-01-01

    Growth and proliferation of microorganisms such as the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae are controlled in part by the availability of nutrients. When proliferating yeast cells exhaust available nutrients, they enter a stationary phase characterized by cell cycle arrest and specific physiological, biochemical, and morphological changes. These changes include thickening of the cell wall, accumulation of reserve carbohydrates, and acquisition of thermotolerance. Recent characterization of mutant cells that are conditionally defective only for the resumption of proliferation from stationary phase provides evidence that stationary phase is a unique developmental state. Strains with mutations affecting entry into and survival during stationary phase have also been isolated, and the mutations have been shown to affect at least seven different cellular processes: (i) signal transduction, (ii) protein synthesis, (iii) protein N-terminal acetylation, (iv) protein turnover, (v) protein secretion, (vi) membrane biosynthesis, and (vii) cell polarity. The exact nature of the relationship between these processes and survival during stationary phase remains to be elucidated. We propose that cell cycle arrest coordinated with the ability to remain viable in the absence of additional nutrients provides a good operational definition of starvation-induced stationary phase. PMID:8393130

  8. Metabolic Engineering of Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Ostergaard, Simon; Olsson, Lisbeth; Nielsen, Jens

    2000-01-01

    Comprehensive knowledge regarding Saccharomyces cerevisiae has accumulated over time, and today S. cerevisiae serves as a widley used biotechnological production organism as well as a eukaryotic model system. The high transformation efficiency, in addition to the availability of the complete yeast genome sequence, has facilitated genetic manipulation of this microorganism, and new approaches are constantly being taken to metabolicially engineer this organism in order to suit specific needs. In this paper, strategies and concepts for metabolic engineering are discussed and several examples based upon selected studies involving S. cerevisiae are reviewed. The many different studies of metabolic engineering using this organism illustrate all the categories of this multidisciplinary field: extension of substrate range, improvements of producitivity and yield, elimination of byproduct formation, improvement of process performance, improvements of cellular properties, and extension of product range including heterologous protein production. PMID:10704473

  9. Enhancing beta-carotene production in Saccharomyces cerevisiae by metabolic engineering.

    PubMed

    Li, Qian; Sun, Zhiqiang; Li, Jing; Zhang, Yansheng

    2013-08-01

    Beta-carotene is known to exhibit a number of pharmacological and nutraceutical benefits to human health. Metabolic engineering of beta-carotene biosynthesis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been attracting the interest of many researchers. A previous work has shown that S. cerevisiae successfully integrated with phytoene synthase (crtYB) and phytoene desaturase (crtI) from Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous could produce beta-carotene. In the present study, we achieved around 200% improvement in beta-carotene production in S. cerevisiae through specific site optimization of crtI and crtYB, in which five codons of crtI and eight codons of crtYB were rationally mutated. Furthermore, the effects of the truncated HMG-CoA reductase (tHMG1) from S. cerevisiae and HMG-CoA reductase (mva) from Staphylococcus aureus on the production of beta-carotene in S. cerevisiae were also evaluated. Our results indicated that mva from a prokaryotic organism might be more effective than tHMG1 for beta-carotene production in S. cerevisiae. PMID:23718229

  10. Mutants of Saccharomyces cerevisiae with defective vacuolar function

    SciTech Connect

    Kitamoto, K.; Yoshizawa, K.; Ohsumi, Y.; Anraku, Y.

    1988-06-01

    Mutants of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae that have a small vacuolar lysine pool were isolated and characterized. Mutant KL97 (lys1 slp1-1) and strain KL197-1A (slp1-1), a prototrophic derivative of KL97, did not grow well in synthetic medium supplemented with 10 mM lysine. Genetic studies indicated that the slp1-1mutation (for small lysine pool) is recessive and is due to a single chromosomal mutation. Mutant KL97 shows the following pleiotropic defects in vacuolar functions. (i) It has small vacuolar pools for lysine, arginine, and histidine. (ii) Its growth is sensitive to lysine, histidine, Ca/sup 2 +/, heavy metal ions, and antibiotics. (iii) It has many small vesicles but no large central vacuole. (iv) It has a normal amount of the vacuolar membrane marker ..cap alpha..-mannosidase but shows reduced activities of the vacuole sap markers proteinase A, proteinase B, and carboxypeptidase Y.

  11. Saccharomyces cerevisiae MPT5 and SSD1 function in parallel pathways to promote cell wall integrity.

    PubMed Central

    Kaeberlein, Matt; Guarente, Leonard

    2002-01-01

    Yeast MPT5 (UTH4) is a limiting component for longevity. We show here that MPT5 also functions to promote cell wall integrity. Loss of Mpt5p results in phenotypes associated with a weakened cell wall, including sorbitol-remedial temperature sensitivity and sensitivities to calcofluor white and sodium dodecyl sulfate. Additionally, we find that mutation of MPT5, in the absence of SSD1-V, is lethal in combination with loss of either Ccr4p or Swi4p. These synthetic lethal interactions are suppressed by the SSD1-V allele. Furthermore, we have provided evidence that the short life span caused by loss of Mpt5p is due to a weakened cell wall. This cell wall defect may be the result of abnormal chitin biosynthesis or accumulation. These analyses have defined three genetic pathways that function in parallel to promote cell integrity: an Mpt5p-containing pathway, an Ssd1p-containing pathway, and a Pkc1p-dependent pathway. This work also provides evidence that post-transcriptional regulation is likely to be important both for maintaining cell integrity and for promoting longevity. PMID:11805047

  12. PET genes of Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed Central

    Tzagoloff, A; Dieckmann, C L

    1990-01-01

    We describe a collection of nuclear respiratory-defective mutants (pet mutants) of Saccharomyces cerevisiae consisting of 215 complementation groups. This set of mutants probably represents a substantial fraction of the total genetic information of the nucleus required for the maintenance of functional mitochondria in S. cerevisiae. The biochemical lesions of mutants in approximately 50 complementation groups have been related to single enzymes or biosynthetic pathways, and the corresponding wild-type genes have been cloned and their structures have been determined. The genes defined by an additional 20 complementation groups were identified by allelism tests with mutants characterized in other laboratories. Mutants representative of the remaining complementation groups have been assigned to one of the following five phenotypic classes: (i) deficiency in cytochrome oxidase, (ii) deficiency in coenzyme QH2-cytochrome c reductase, (iii) deficiency in mitochondrial ATPase, (iv) absence of mitochondrial protein synthesis, and (v) normal composition of respiratory-chain complexes and of oligomycin-sensitive ATPase. In addition to the genes identified through biochemical and genetic analyses of the pet mutants, we have cataloged PET genes not matched to complementation groups in the mutant collection and other genes whose products function in the mitochondria but are not necessary for respiration. Together, this information provides an up-to-date list of the known genes coding for mitochondrial constituents and for proteins whose expression is vital for the respiratory competence of S. cerevisiae. PMID:2215420

  13. Rim15p-mediated regulation of sucrose utilization during molasses fermentation using Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain PE-2.

    PubMed

    Inai, Tomomi; Watanabe, Daisuke; Zhou, Yan; Fukada, Rie; Akao, Takeshi; Shima, Jun; Takagi, Hiroshi; Shimoi, Hitoshi

    2013-11-01

    Inherited loss-of-function mutations in the Rim15p-mediated stress-response pathway contribute to the high fermentation rate of sake yeast strains. In the present study, we found that disruption of the RIM15 gene in ethanol-producing Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain PE-2 accelerated molasses fermentation through enhanced sucrose utilization following glucose starvation.

  14. Fatal Saccharomyces Cerevisiae Aortic Graft Infection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyer, Michael (Technical Monitor); Smith, Davey; Metzgar, David; Wills, Christopher; Fierer, Joshua

    2002-01-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a yeast commonly used in baking and a frequent colonizer of human mucosal surfaces. It is considered relatively nonpathogenic in immunocompetent adults. We present a case of S. cerevisiae fungemia and aortic graft infection in an immunocompetent adult. This is the first reported case of S. cerevisiue fungemia where the identity of the pathogen was confirmed by rRNA sequencing.

  15. Saccharomyces cerevisiae osteomyelitis in an immunocompetent baker.

    PubMed

    Seng, Piseth; Cerlier, Alexandre; Cassagne, Carole; Coulange, Mathieu; Legré, Regis; Stein, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Invasive infection caused by Saccharomyces cerevisiae is rare. We report the first case of osteomyelitis caused by S. cerevisiae (baker's yeast) in a post-traumatic patient. The clinical outcome was favorable after surgical debridement, prolonged antifungal treatment and hyperbaric oxygen therapy. PMID:27347482

  16. Mutagenic Inverted Repeats Assisted Genome Engineering (MIRAGE) in Saccharomyces cerevisiae: deletion of gal7.

    PubMed

    Nair, Nikhil U; Zhao, Huimin

    2012-01-01

    MIRAGE is a unique in vivo genome editing technique that exploits the inherent instability of inverted repeats (palindromes) in the Saccharomyces cerevisiae chromosome. As a technique able to quickly create deletions as well as precise point mutations, it is valuable in applications that require creation of designer strains of this yeast. In particular, it has various potential applications in metabolic engineering, systems biology, synthetic biology, and molecular genetics. PMID:22144353

  17. Do mutator mutations fuel tumorigenesis?

    PubMed

    Fox, Edward J; Prindle, Marc J; Loeb, Lawrence A

    2013-12-01

    The mutator phenotype hypothesis proposes that the mutation rate of normal cells is insufficient to account for the large number of mutations found in human cancers. Consequently, human tumors exhibit an elevated mutation rate that increases the likelihood of a tumor acquiring advantageous mutations. The hypothesis predicts that tumors are composed of cells harboring hundreds of thousands of mutations, as opposed to a small number of specific driver mutations, and that malignant cells within a tumor therefore constitute a highly heterogeneous population. As a result, drugs targeting specific mutated driver genes or even pathways of mutated driver genes will have only limited anticancer potential. In addition, because the tumor is composed of such a diverse cell population, tumor cells harboring drug-resistant mutations will exist prior to the administration of any chemotherapeutic agent. We present recent evidence in support of the mutator phenotype hypothesis, major arguments against this concept, and discuss the clinical consequences of tumor evolution fueled by an elevated mutation rate. We also consider the therapeutic possibility of altering the rate of mutation accumulation. Most significantly, we contend that there is a need to fundamentally reconsider current approaches to personalized cancer therapy. We propose that targeting cellular pathways that alter the rate of mutation accumulation in tumors will ultimately prove more effective than attempting to identify and target mutant driver genes or driver pathways.

  18. Cadmium biosorption by Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    SciTech Connect

    Volesky, B.; May, H.; Holan, Z.R. )

    1993-04-01

    Cadmium uptake by nonliving and resting cells of Saccharomyces cerevisiae obtained from aerobic or anaerobic cultures from pure cadmium-bearing solutions was examined. The highest cadmium uptake exceeding 70 mg Cd/g was observed with aerobic baker's yeast biomass from the exponential growth phase. Nearly linear sorption isotherms featured by higher sorbing resting cells together with metal deposits localized exclusively in vacuoles indicate the possibility of a different metal-sequestering mechanism when compared to dry nonliving yeasts which did not usually accumulate more than 20 mg Cd/g. The uptake of cadmium was relatively fast, 75% of the sorption completed in less than 5 min.

  19. Preservation of genetic and regulatory robustness in ancient gene duplicates of Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Keane, Orla M.; Toft, Christina; Carretero-Paulet, Lorenzo; Jones, Gary W.

    2014-01-01

    Biological systems remain robust against certain genetic and environmental challenges. Robustness allows the exploration of ecological adaptations. It is unclear what factors contribute to increasing robustness. Gene duplication has been considered to increase genetic robustness through functional redundancy, accelerating the evolution of novel functions. However, recent findings have questioned the link between duplication and robustness. In particular, it remains elusive whether ancient duplicates still bear potential for innovation through preserved redundancy and robustness. Here we have investigated this question by evolving the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae for 2200 generations under conditions allowing the accumulation of deleterious mutations, and we put mechanisms of mutational robustness to a test. S. cerevisiae declined in fitness along the evolution experiment, but this decline decelerated in later passages, suggesting functional compensation of mutated genes. We resequenced 28 genomes from experimentally evolved S. cerevisiae lines and found more mutations in duplicates—mainly small-scale duplicates—than in singletons. Genetically interacting duplicates evolved similarly and fixed more amino acid–replacing mutations than expected. Regulatory robustness of the duplicates was supported by a larger enrichment for mutations at the promoters of duplicates than at those of singletons. Analyses of yeast gene expression conditions showed a larger variation in the duplicates’ expression than that of singletons under a range of stress conditions, sparking the idea that regulatory robustness allowed a wider range of phenotypic responses to environmental stresses, hence faster adaptations. Our data support the persistence of genetic and regulatory robustness in ancient duplicates and its role in adaptations to stresses. PMID:25149527

  20. Mitotic and Meiotic Gene Conversion of Ty Elements and Other Insertions in Saccharomyces Cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Vincent, A.; Petes, T. D.

    1989-01-01

    We examined meiotic and mitotic gene conversion events involved in deletion of Ty elements and other insertions from the genome of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We found that Ty elements and one other insertion were deleted by mitotic gene conversion less frequently than point mutations at the same loci. One non-Ty insertion similar in size to Ty, however, did not show this bias. Mitotic conversion events deleting insertions were more frequently associated with crossing over than those deleting point mutations. In meiosis, conversion events duplicating the element were more common than those that deleted the element for one of the loci (HIS4) examined. PMID:2547693

  1. High frequency of microsatellites in S. cerevisiae meiotic recombination hotspots

    PubMed Central

    Bagshaw, Andrew TM; Pitt, Joel PW; Gemmell, Neil J

    2008-01-01

    Background Microsatellites are highly abundant in eukaryotic genomes but their function and evolution are not yet well understood. Their elevated mutation rate makes them ideal markers of genetic difference, but high levels of unexplained heterogeneity in mutation rates among microsatellites at different genomic locations need to be elucidated in order to improve the power and accuracy of the many types of study that use them as genetic markers. Recombination could contribute to this heterogeneity, since while replication errors are thought to be the predominant mechanism for microsatellite mutation, meiotic recombination is involved in some mutation events. There is also evidence suggesting that microsatellites could function as recombination signals. The yeast S. cerevisiae is a useful model organism with which to further explore the link between microsatellites and recombination, since it is very amenable to genetic study, and meiotic recombination hotspots have been mapped throughout its entire genome. Results We examined in detail the relationship between microsatellites and hotspots of meiotic double-strand breaks, the precursors of meiotic recombination, throughout the S. cerevisiae genome. We included all tandem repeats with motif length (repeat period) between one and six base pairs. Long, short and two-copy arrays were considered separately. We found that long, mono-, di- and trinucleotide microsatellites are around twice as frequent in hot than non-hot intergenic regions. The associations are weak or absent for repeats with less than six copies, and also for microsatellites with 4–6 base pair motifs, but high-copy arrays with motif length greater than three are relatively very rare throughout the genome. We present evidence that the association between high-copy, short-motif microsatellites and recombination hotspots is not driven by effects on microsatellite distribution of other factors previously linked to both recombination and microsatellites

  2. Metabolism of sulfur amino acids in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, D; Surdin-Kerjan, Y

    1997-01-01

    Sulfur amino acid biosynthesis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae involves a large number of enzymes required for the de novo biosynthesis of methionine and cysteine and the recycling of organic sulfur metabolites. This review summarizes the details of these processes and analyzes the molecular data which have been acquired in this metabolic area. Sulfur biochemistry appears not to be unique through terrestrial life, and S. cerevisiae is one of the species of sulfate-assimilatory organisms possessing a larger set of enzymes for sulfur metabolism. The review also deals with several enzyme deficiencies that lead to a nutritional requirement for organic sulfur, although they do not correspond to defects within the biosynthetic pathway. In S. cerevisiae, the sulfur amino acid biosynthetic pathway is tightly controlled: in response to an increase in the amount of intracellular S-adenosylmethionine (AdoMet), transcription of the coregulated genes is turned off. The second part of the review is devoted to the molecular mechanisms underlying this regulation. The coordinated response to AdoMet requires two cis-acting promoter elements. One centers on the sequence TCACGTG, which also constitutes a component of all S. cerevisiae centromeres. Situated upstream of the sulfur genes, this element is the binding site of a transcription activation complex consisting of a basic helix-loop-helix factor, Cbf1p, and two basic leucine zipper factors, Met4p and Met28p. Molecular studies have unraveled the specific functions for each subunit of the Cbf1p-Met4p-Met28p complex as well as the modalities of its assembly on the DNA. The Cbf1p-Met4p-Met28p complex contains only one transcription activation module, the Met4p subunit. Detailed mutational analysis of Met4p has elucidated its functional organization. In addition to its activation and bZIP domains, Met4p contains two regulatory domains, called the inhibitory region and the auxiliary domain. When the level of intracellular AdoMet increases

  3. Genomic structural variation contributes to phenotypic change of industrial bioethanol yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ke; Zhang, Li-Jie; Fang, Ya-Hong; Jin, Xin-Na; Qi, Lei; Wu, Xue-Chang; Zheng, Dao-Qiong

    2016-03-01

    Genomic structural variation (GSV) is a ubiquitous phenomenon observed in the genomes of Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains with different genetic backgrounds; however, the physiological and phenotypic effects of GSV are not well understood. Here, we first revealed the genetic characteristics of a widely used industrial S. cerevisiae strain, ZTW1, by whole genome sequencing. ZTW1 was identified as an aneuploidy strain and a large-scale GSV was observed in the ZTW1 genome compared with the genome of a diploid strain YJS329. These GSV events led to copy number variations (CNVs) in many chromosomal segments as well as one whole chromosome in the ZTW1 genome. Changes in the DNA dosage of certain functional genes directly affected their expression levels and the resultant ZTW1 phenotypes. Moreover, CNVs of large chromosomal regions triggered an aneuploidy stress in ZTW1. This stress decreased the proliferation ability and tolerance of ZTW1 to various stresses, while aneuploidy response stress may also provide some benefits to the fermentation performance of the yeast, including increased fermentation rates and decreased byproduct generation. This work reveals genomic characters of the bioethanol S. cerevisiae strain ZTW1 and suggests that GSV is an important kind of mutation that changes the traits of industrial S. cerevisiae strains.

  4. Production of pyruvate from mannitol by mannitol-assimilating pyruvate decarboxylase-negative Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Shiori; Tanaka, Hideki; Hirayama, Makoto; Murata, Kousaku; Kawai, Shigeyuki

    2015-01-01

    Mannitol is contained in brown macroalgae up to 33% (w/w, dry weight), and thus is a promising carbon source for white biotechnology. However, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, a key cell factory, is generally regarded to be unable to assimilate mannitol for growth. We have recently succeeded in producing S. cerevisiae that can assimilate mannitol through spontaneous mutations of Tup1-Cyc8, each of which constitutes a general corepressor complex. In this study, we demonstrate production of pyruvate from mannitol using this mannitol-assimilating S. cerevisiae through deletions of all 3 pyruvate decarboxylase genes. The resultant mannitol-assimilating pyruvate decarboxylase-negative strain produced 0.86 g/L pyruvate without use of acetate after cultivation for 4 days, with an overall yield of 0.77 g of pyruvate per g of mannitol (the theoretical yield was 79%). Although acetate was not needed for growth of this strain in mannitol-containing medium, addition of acetate had a significant beneficial effect on production of pyruvate. This is the first report of production of a valuable compound (other than ethanol) from mannitol using S. cerevisiae, and is an initial platform from which the productivity of pyruvate from mannitol can be improved. PMID:26588105

  5. Production of pyruvate from mannitol by mannitol-assimilating pyruvate decarboxylase-negative Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Shiori; Tanaka, Hideki; Hirayama, Makoto; Murata, Kousaku; Kawai, Shigeyuki

    2015-01-01

    Mannitol is contained in brown macroalgae up to 33% (w/w, dry weight), and thus is a promising carbon source for white biotechnology. However, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, a key cell factory, is generally regarded to be unable to assimilate mannitol for growth. We have recently succeeded in producing S. cerevisiae that can assimilate mannitol through spontaneous mutations of Tup1-Cyc8, each of which constitutes a general corepressor complex. In this study, we demonstrate production of pyruvate from mannitol using this mannitol-assimilating S. cerevisiae through deletions of all 3 pyruvate decarboxylase genes. The resultant mannitol-assimilating pyruvate decarboxylase-negative strain produced 0.86 g/L pyruvate without use of acetate after cultivation for 4 days, with an overall yield of 0.77 g of pyruvate per g of mannitol (the theoretical yield was 79%). Although acetate was not needed for growth of this strain in mannitol-containing medium, addition of acetate had a significant beneficial effect on production of pyruvate. This is the first report of production of a valuable compound (other than ethanol) from mannitol using S. cerevisiae, and is an initial platform from which the productivity of pyruvate from mannitol can be improved.

  6. Glucose repression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Kayikci, Ömur; Nielsen, Jens

    2015-09-01

    Glucose is the primary source of energy for the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Although yeast cells can utilize a wide range of carbon sources, presence of glucose suppresses molecular activities involved in the use of alternate carbon sources as well as it represses respiration and gluconeogenesis. This dominant effect of glucose on yeast carbon metabolism is coordinated by several signaling and metabolic interactions that mainly regulate transcriptional activity but are also effective at post-transcriptional and post-translational levels. This review describes effects of glucose repression on yeast carbon metabolism with a focus on roles of the Snf3/Rgt2 glucose-sensing pathway and Snf1 signal transduction in establishment and relief of glucose repression.

  7. Chronological aging in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Longo, Valter D; Fabrizio, Paola

    2012-01-01

    The two paradigms to study aging in Saccharomyces cerevisiae are the chronological life span (CLS) and the replicative life span (RLS). The chronological life span is a measure of the mean and maximum survival time of non-dividing yeast populations while the replicative life span is based on the mean and maximum number of daughter cells generated by an individual mother cell before cell division stops irreversibly. Here we review the principal discoveries associated with yeast chronological aging and how they are contributing to the understanding of the aging process and of the molecular mechanisms that may lead to healthy aging in mammals. We will focus on the mechanisms of life span regulation by the Tor/Sch9 and the Ras/adenylate Ras/adenylate cyclase/PKA pathways with particular emphasis on those implicating age-dependent oxidative oxidative stress stress and DNA damage/repair.

  8. Glucose repression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Kayikci, Ömur; Nielsen, Jens

    2015-01-01

    Glucose is the primary source of energy for the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Although yeast cells can utilize a wide range of carbon sources, presence of glucose suppresses molecular activities involved in the use of alternate carbon sources as well as it represses respiration and gluconeogenesis. This dominant effect of glucose on yeast carbon metabolism is coordinated by several signaling and metabolic interactions that mainly regulate transcriptional activity but are also effective at post-transcriptional and post-translational levels. This review describes effects of glucose repression on yeast carbon metabolism with a focus on roles of the Snf3/Rgt2 glucose-sensing pathway and Snf1 signal transduction in establishment and relief of glucose repression. PMID:26205245

  9. A conserved sequence in histone H2A which is a ubiquitination site in higher eucaryotes is not required for growth in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed Central

    Swerdlow, P S; Schuster, T; Finley, D

    1990-01-01

    Histones H2A and H2B are modified by ubiquitination of specific lysine residues in higher and lower eucaryotes. To identify functions of ubiquitinated histone H2A, we studied an organism in which genetic analysis of histones is feasible, the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Surprisingly, immunoblotting experiments using both anti-ubiquitin and anti-H2A antibodies gave no evidence that S. cerevisiae contains ubiquitinated histone H2A. The immunoblot detected a variety of other ubiquitinated species. A sequence of five residues in S. cerevisiae histone H2A that is identical to the site of H2A ubiquitination in higher eucaryotes was mutated to substitute arginines for lysines. Any ubiquitination at this site would be prevented by these mutations. Yeast organisms carrying this mutation were indistinguishable from the wild type under a variety of conditions. Thus, despite the existence in S. cerevisiae of several gene products, such as RAD6 and CDC34, which are capable of ubiquitinating histone H2A in vitro, ubiquitinated histone H2A is either scarce in or absent from S. cerevisiae. Furthermore, the histone H2A sequence which serves as a ubiquitination site in higher eucaryotes is not essential for yeast growth, sporulation, or resistance to either heat stress or UV radiation. Images PMID:2201907

  10. Combining magnetic sorting of mother cells and fluctuation tests to analyze genome instability during mitotic cell aging in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Patterson, Melissa N; Maxwell, Patrick H

    2014-01-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been an excellent model system for examining mechanisms and consequences of genome instability. Information gained from this yeast model is relevant to many organisms, including humans, since DNA repair and DNA damage response factors are well conserved across diverse species. However, S. cerevisiae has not yet been used to fully address whether the rate of accumulating mutations changes with increasing replicative (mitotic) age due to technical constraints. For instance, measurements of yeast replicative lifespan through micromanipulation involve very small populations of cells, which prohibit detection of rare mutations. Genetic methods to enrich for mother cells in populations by inducing death of daughter cells have been developed, but population sizes are still limited by the frequency with which random mutations that compromise the selection systems occur. The current protocol takes advantage of magnetic sorting of surface-labeled yeast mother cells to obtain large enough populations of aging mother cells to quantify rare mutations through phenotypic selections. Mutation rates, measured through fluctuation tests, and mutation frequencies are first established for young cells and used to predict the frequency of mutations in mother cells of various replicative ages. Mutation frequencies are then determined for sorted mother cells, and the age of the mother cells is determined using flow cytometry by staining with a fluorescent reagent that detects bud scars formed on their cell surfaces during cell division. Comparison of predicted mutation frequencies based on the number of cell divisions to the frequencies experimentally observed for mother cells of a given replicative age can then identify whether there are age-related changes in the rate of accumulating mutations. Variations of this basic protocol provide the means to investigate the influence of alterations in specific gene functions or specific environmental conditions on

  11. Combining Magnetic Sorting of Mother Cells and Fluctuation Tests to Analyze Genome Instability During Mitotic Cell Aging in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Patterson, Melissa N.; Maxwell, Patrick H.

    2014-01-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been an excellent model system for examining mechanisms and consequences of genome instability. Information gained from this yeast model is relevant to many organisms, including humans, since DNA repair and DNA damage response factors are well conserved across diverse species. However, S. cerevisiae has not yet been used to fully address whether the rate of accumulating mutations changes with increasing replicative (mitotic) age due to technical constraints. For instance, measurements of yeast replicative lifespan through micromanipulation involve very small populations of cells, which prohibit detection of rare mutations. Genetic methods to enrich for mother cells in populations by inducing death of daughter cells have been developed, but population sizes are still limited by the frequency with which random mutations that compromise the selection systems occur. The current protocol takes advantage of magnetic sorting of surface-labeled yeast mother cells to obtain large enough populations of aging mother cells to quantify rare mutations through phenotypic selections. Mutation rates, measured through fluctuation tests, and mutation frequencies are first established for young cells and used to predict the frequency of mutations in mother cells of various replicative ages. Mutation frequencies are then determined for sorted mother cells, and the age of the mother cells is determined using flow cytometry by staining with a fluorescent reagent that detects bud scars formed on their cell surfaces during cell division. Comparison of predicted mutation frequencies based on the number of cell divisions to the frequencies experimentally observed for mother cells of a given replicative age can then identify whether there are age-related changes in the rate of accumulating mutations. Variations of this basic protocol provide the means to investigate the influence of alterations in specific gene functions or specific environmental conditions on

  12. Chromosome VIII disomy influences the nonsense suppression efficiency and transition metal tolerance of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Zadorsky, S P; Sopova, Y V; Andreichuk, D Y; Startsev, V A; Medvedeva, V P; Inge-Vechtomov, S G

    2015-06-01

    The SUP35 gene of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae encodes the translation termination factor eRF3. Mutations in this gene lead to the suppression of nonsense mutations and a number of other pleiotropic phenotypes, one of which is impaired chromosome segregation during cell division. Similar effects result from replacing the S. cerevisiae SUP35 gene with its orthologues. A number of genetic and epigenetic changes that occur in the sup35 background result in partial compensation for this suppressor effect. In this study we showed that in S. cerevisiae strains in which the SUP35 orthologue from the yeast Pichia methanolica replaces the S. cerevisiae SUP35 gene, chromosome VIII disomy results in decreased efficiency of nonsense suppression. This antisuppressor effect is not associated with decreased stop codon read-through. We identified SBP1, a gene that localizes to chromosome VIII, as a dosage-dependent antisuppressor that strongly contributes to the overall antisuppressor effect of chromosome VIII disomy. Disomy of chromosome VIII also leads to a change in the yeast strains' tolerance of a number of transition metal salts.

  13. New mutations affecting induced mutagenesis in yeast.

    PubMed

    Lawrence, C W; Krauss, B R; Christensen, R B

    1985-01-01

    Previously isolated mutations in baker's yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, that impair induced mutagenesis were all identified with the aid of tests that either exclusively or predominantly detect base-pair substitutions. To avoid this bias, we have screened 11 366 potentially mutant clones for UV-induced reversion of the frameshift allele, his4-38, and have identified 10 mutants that give much reduced yields of revertants. Complementation and recombination tests show that 6 of these carry mutations at the previously known REV1, REV1 and REV3 loci, while the remaining 4 define 3 new genes, REV4 (2 mutations), REV5 and REV6. The rev4 mutations are readily suppressed in many genetic backgrounds and, like the rev5 mutation, impart only a limited deficiency for induced mutagenesis: it is likely, therefore that the REV4+ and REV5+ gene functions are only remotely concerned with this process. The rev6 mutants have a more general deficiency, however, as well as marked sensitivity to UV and an increased spontaneous mutation rate, properties that suggest the REV6 gene is directly involved in mutation induction. The REV5 gene is located about 1 cM proximal to CYC1 on chromosome X.

  14. Gene Duplication in SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE

    PubMed Central

    Hansche, P. E.; Beres, V.; Lange, P.

    1978-01-01

    Five indepdendent duplications of the acid-phosphatase (aphtase) structural gene (acp1) were recovered from chemostat populations of S. cerevisiae that were subject to selection for in vivo hyper-aphtase activity. Two of the duplications arose spontaneously. Three of them were induced by UV. All five of the duplication events involved the transpositioning of the aphtase structural gene, acp1, and all known genes distal to acp1 on the right arm of chromosome II, to the terminus of an arm of other unknown chromosomes. One of the five duplicated regions of the right arm of chromosome II was found to be transmitted mitotically and meiotically with very high fidelity. The other four duplicated regions of the right arm of chromosome II were found to be unstable, being lost at a rate of about 2% per mitosis. However, selection for increased fidelity of mitotic transmission was effective in one of these strains. No tandem duplications of the aphtase structural gene were found. PMID:348562

  15. A genetic network that suppresses genome rearrangements in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and contains defects in cancers

    PubMed Central

    Putnam, Christopher D.; Srivatsan, Anjana; Nene, Rahul V.; Martinez, Sandra L.; Clotfelter, Sarah P.; Bell, Sara N.; Somach, Steven B.; E.S. de Souza, Jorge; Fonseca, André F.; de Souza, Sandro J.; Kolodner, Richard D.

    2016-01-01

    Gross chromosomal rearrangements (GCRs) play an important role in human diseases, including cancer. The identity of all Genome Instability Suppressing (GIS) genes is not currently known. Here multiple Saccharomyces cerevisiae GCR assays and query mutations were crossed into arrays of mutants to identify progeny with increased GCR rates. One hundred eighty two GIS genes were identified that suppressed GCR formation. Another 438 cooperatively acting GIS genes were identified that were not GIS genes, but suppressed the increased genome instability caused by individual query mutations. Analysis of TCGA data using the human genes predicted to act in GIS pathways revealed that a minimum of 93% of ovarian and 66% of colorectal cancer cases had defects affecting one or more predicted GIS gene. These defects included loss-of-function mutations, copy-number changes associated with reduced expression, and silencing. In contrast, acute myeloid leukaemia cases did not appear to have defects affecting the predicted GIS genes. PMID:27071721

  16. A genetic network that suppresses genome rearrangements in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and contains defects in cancers.

    PubMed

    Putnam, Christopher D; Srivatsan, Anjana; Nene, Rahul V; Martinez, Sandra L; Clotfelter, Sarah P; Bell, Sara N; Somach, Steven B; de Souza, Jorge E S; Fonseca, André F; de Souza, Sandro J; Kolodner, Richard D

    2016-01-01

    Gross chromosomal rearrangements (GCRs) play an important role in human diseases, including cancer. The identity of all Genome Instability Suppressing (GIS) genes is not currently known. Here multiple Saccharomyces cerevisiae GCR assays and query mutations were crossed into arrays of mutants to identify progeny with increased GCR rates. One hundred eighty two GIS genes were identified that suppressed GCR formation. Another 438 cooperatively acting GIS genes were identified that were not GIS genes, but suppressed the increased genome instability caused by individual query mutations. Analysis of TCGA data using the human genes predicted to act in GIS pathways revealed that a minimum of 93% of ovarian and 66% of colorectal cancer cases had defects affecting one or more predicted GIS gene. These defects included loss-of-function mutations, copy-number changes associated with reduced expression, and silencing. In contrast, acute myeloid leukaemia cases did not appear to have defects affecting the predicted GIS genes. PMID:27071721

  17. Analysis of S. cerevisiae RNA Polymerase I Transcription In Vitro.

    PubMed

    Pilsl, Michael; Merkl, Philipp E; Milkereit, Philipp; Griesenbeck, Joachim; Tschochner, Herbert

    2016-01-01

    RNA polymerase I (Pol I) activity is crucial to provide cells with sufficient amounts of ribosomal RNA (rRNA). Synthesis of rRNA takes place in the nucleolus, is tightly regulated and is coordinated with synthesis and assembly of ribosomal proteins, finally resulting in the formation of mature ribosomes. Many studies on Pol I mechanisms and regulation in the model organism S. cerevisiae were performed using either complex in vitro systems reconstituted from more or less purified fractions or genetic analyses. While providing many valuable insights these strategies did not always discriminate between direct and indirect effects in transcription initiation and termination, when mutated forms of Pol I subunits or transcription factors were investigated. Therefore, a well-defined minimal system was developed which allows to reconstitute highly efficient promoter-dependent Pol I initiation and termination of transcription. Transcription can be initiated at a minimal promoter only in the presence of recombinant core factor and extensively purified initiation competent Pol I. Addition of recombinant termination factors triggers transcriptional pausing and release of the ternary transcription complex. This minimal system represents a valuable tool to investigate the direct impact of (lethal) mutations in components of the initiation and termination complexes on the mechanism and regulation of rRNA synthesis. PMID:27576713

  18. Phosphatidylcholine Supply to Peroxisomes of the Yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Ramprecht, Claudia; Zellnig, Günther; Leitner, Erich; Hermetter, Albin; Daum, Günther

    2015-01-01

    In the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, phosphatidylcholine (PC), the major phospholipid (PL) of all organelle membranes, is synthesized via two different pathways. Methylation of phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) catalyzed by the methyl transferases Cho2p/Pem1p and Opi3p/Pem2p as well as incorporation of choline through the CDP (cytidine diphosphate)-choline branch of the Kennedy pathway lead to PC formation. To determine the contribution of these two pathways to the supply of PC to peroxisomes (PX), yeast mutants bearing defects in the two pathways were cultivated under peroxisome inducing conditions, i.e. in the presence of oleic acid, and subjected to biochemical and cell biological analyses. Phenotype studies revealed compromised growth of both the cho20Δopi3Δ (mutations in the methylation pathway) and the cki1Δdpl1Δeki1Δ (mutations in the CDP-choline pathway) mutant when grown on oleic acid. Analysis of peroxisomes from the two mutant strains showed that both pathways produce PC for the supply to peroxisomes, although the CDP-choline pathway seemed to contribute with higher efficiency than the methylation pathway. Changes in the peroxisomal lipid pattern of mutants caused by defects in the PC biosynthetic pathways resulted in changes of membrane properties as shown by anisotropy measurements with fluorescent probes. In summary, our data define the origin of peroxisomal PC and demonstrate the importance of PC for peroxisome membrane formation and integrity. PMID:26241051

  19. Phosphatidylcholine Supply to Peroxisomes of the Yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Flis, Vid V; Fankl, Ariane; Ramprecht, Claudia; Zellnig, Günther; Leitner, Erich; Hermetter, Albin; Daum, Günther

    2015-01-01

    In the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, phosphatidylcholine (PC), the major phospholipid (PL) of all organelle membranes, is synthesized via two different pathways. Methylation of phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) catalyzed by the methyl transferases Cho2p/Pem1p and Opi3p/Pem2p as well as incorporation of choline through the CDP (cytidine diphosphate)-choline branch of the Kennedy pathway lead to PC formation. To determine the contribution of these two pathways to the supply of PC to peroxisomes (PX), yeast mutants bearing defects in the two pathways were cultivated under peroxisome inducing conditions, i.e. in the presence of oleic acid, and subjected to biochemical and cell biological analyses. Phenotype studies revealed compromised growth of both the cho20Δopi3Δ (mutations in the methylation pathway) and the cki1Δdpl1Δeki1Δ (mutations in the CDP-choline pathway) mutant when grown on oleic acid. Analysis of peroxisomes from the two mutant strains showed that both pathways produce PC for the supply to peroxisomes, although the CDP-choline pathway seemed to contribute with higher efficiency than the methylation pathway. Changes in the peroxisomal lipid pattern of mutants caused by defects in the PC biosynthetic pathways resulted in changes of membrane properties as shown by anisotropy measurements with fluorescent probes. In summary, our data define the origin of peroxisomal PC and demonstrate the importance of PC for peroxisome membrane formation and integrity.

  20. Transfer RNA pseudouridine synthases in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Samuelsson, T; Olsson, M

    1990-05-25

    A transfer RNA lacking modified nucleosides was produced by transcription in vitro of a cloned gene that encodes a Saccharomyces cerevisiae glycine tRNA. At least three different uridines (in nucleotide positions 13, 32, and 55) of this transcript tRNA are modified to pseudouridine by an extract of S. cerevisiae. Variants of the RNA substrate were also constructed that each had only one of these sites, thus allowing specific monitoring of pseudouridylation at different nucleotide positions. Using such RNAs to assay pseudouridine synthesis, enzymes producing this nucleoside were purified from an extract of S. cerevisiae. The activities corresponding to positions 13, 32, and 55 in the tRNA substrate could all be separated chromatographically, indicating that there is a separate enzyme for each of these sites. The enzyme specific for position 55 (denoted pseudouridine synthase 55) was purified approximately 4000-fold using a combination of DEAE-Sepharose, heparin-Sepharose, and hydroxylapatite.

  1. The frequency and accuracy of replication past a thymine-thymine cyclobutane dimer are very different in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Gibbs, P E; Kilbey, B J; Banerjee, S K; Lawrence, C W

    1993-05-01

    We have compared the mutagenic properties of a T-T cyclobutane dimer in baker's yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, with those in Escherichia coli by transforming each of these species with the same single-stranded shuttle vector carrying either the cis-syn or the trans-syn isomer of this UV photoproduct at a unique site. The mutagenic properties investigated were the frequency of replicational bypass of the photoproduct, the error rate of bypass, and the mutation spectrum. In SOS-induced E. coli, the cis-syn dimer was bypassed in approximately 16% of the vector molecules, and 7.6% of the bypass products had targeted mutations. In S. cerevisiae, however, bypass occurred in about 80% of these molecules, and the bypass was at least 19-fold more accurate (approximately 0.4% targeted mutations). Each of these yeast mutations was a single unique event, and none were like those in E. coli, suggesting that in fact the difference in error rate is much greater. Bypass of the trans-syn dimer occurred in about 17% of the vector molecules in both species, but with this isomer the error rate was higher in S. cerevisiae (21 to 36% targeted mutations) than in E. coli (13%). However, the spectra of mutations induced by the latter photoproduct were virtually identical in the two organisms. We conclude that bypass and error frequencies are determined both by the structure of the photoproduct-containing template and by the particular replication proteins concerned but that the types of mutations induced depend predominantly on the structure of the template. Unlike E. coli, bypass in S. cerevisiae did not require UV-induced functions.

  2. Mobilomics in Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Mobile Genetic Elements (MGEs) are selfish DNA integrated in the genomes. Their detection is mainly based on consensus–like searches by scanning the investigated genome against the sequence of an already identified MGE. Mobilomics aims at discovering all the MGEs in a genome and understanding their dynamic behavior: The data for this kind of investigation can be provided by comparative genomics of closely related organisms. The amount of data thus involved requires a strong computational effort, which should be alleviated. Results Our approach proposes to exploit the high similarity among homologous chromosomes of different strains of the same species, following a progressive comparative genomics philosophy. We introduce a software tool based on our new fast algorithm, called regender, which is able to identify the conserved regions between chromosomes. Our case study is represented by a unique recently available dataset of 39 different strains of S.cerevisiae, which regender is able to compare in few minutes. By exploring the non–conserved regions, where MGEs are mainly retrotransposons called Tys, and marking the candidate Tys based on their length, we are able to locate a priori and automatically all the already known Tys and map all the putative Tys in all the strains. The remaining putative mobile elements (PMEs) emerging from this intra–specific comparison are sharp markers of inter–specific evolution: indeed, many events of non–conservation among different yeast strains correspond to PMEs. A clustering based on the presence/absence of the candidate Tys in the strains suggests an evolutionary interconnection that is very similar to classic phylogenetic trees based on SNPs analysis, even though it is computed without using phylogenetic information. Conclusions The case study indicates that the proposed methodology brings two major advantages: (a) it does not require any template sequence for the wanted MGEs and (b) it can be applied to

  3. Deletion of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae ARO8 gene, encoding an aromatic amino acid transaminase, enhances phenylethanol production from glucose.

    PubMed

    Romagnoli, Gabriele; Knijnenburg, Theo A; Liti, Gianni; Louis, Edward J; Pronk, Jack T; Daran, Jean-Marc

    2015-01-01

    Phenylethanol has a characteristic rose-like aroma that makes it a popular ingredient in foods, beverages and cosmetics. Microbial production of phenylethanol currently relies on whole-cell bioconversion of phenylalanine with yeasts that harbour an Ehrlich pathway for phenylalanine catabolism. Complete biosynthesis of phenylethanol from a cheap carbon source, such as glucose, provides an economically attractive alternative for phenylalanine bioconversion. In this study, synthetic genetic array (SGA) screening was applied to identify genes involved in regulation of phenylethanol synthesis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The screen focused on transcriptional regulation of ARO10, which encodes the major decarboxylase involved in conversion of phenylpyruvate to phenylethanol. A deletion in ARO8, which encodes an aromatic amino acid transaminase, was found to underlie the transcriptional upregulation of ARO10 during growth, with ammonium sulphate as the sole nitrogen source. Physiological characterization revealed that the aro8Δ mutation led to substantial changes in the absolute and relative intracellular concentrations of amino acids. Moreover, deletion of ARO8 led to de novo production of phenylethanol during growth on a glucose synthetic medium with ammonium as the sole nitrogen source. The aro8Δ mutation also stimulated phenylethanol production when combined with other, previously documented, mutations that deregulate aromatic amino acid biosynthesis in S. cerevisiae. The resulting engineered S. cerevisiae strain produced >3 mm phenylethanol from glucose during growth on a simple synthetic medium. The strong impact of a transaminase deletion on intracellular amino acid concentrations opens new possibilities for yeast-based production of amino acid-derived products.

  4. Biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles using Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Korbekandi, Hassan; Mohseni, Soudabeh; Mardani Jouneghani, Rasoul; Pourhossein, Meraj; Iravani, Siavash

    2016-01-01

    The objectives of this study were the biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles (NPs) by biotransformations using Saccharomyces cerevisiae and analysis of the sizes and shapes of the NPs produced. Dried and freshly cultured S. cerevisiae were used as the biocatalyst. Dried yeast synthesized few NPs, but freshly cultured yeast produced a large amount of them. Silver NPs were spherical, 2-20 nm in diameter, and the NPs with the size of 5.4 nm were the most frequent ones. NPs were seen inside the cells, within the cell membrane, attached to the cell membrane during the exocytosis, and outside of the cells.

  5. Rationally designed, heterologous S. cerevisiae transcripts expose novel expression determinants

    PubMed Central

    Ben-Yehezkel, Tuval; Atar, Shimshi; Zur, Hadas; Diament, Alon; Goz, Eli; Marx, Tzipy; Cohen, Rafael; Dana, Alexandra; Feldman, Anna; Shapiro, Ehud; Tuller, Tamir

    2015-01-01

    Deducing generic causal relations between RNA transcript features and protein expression profiles from endogenous gene expression data remains a major unsolved problem in biology. The analysis of gene expression from heterologous genes contributes significantly to solving this problem, but has been heavily biased toward the study of the effect of 5′ transcript regions and to prokaryotes. Here, we employ a synthetic biology driven approach that systematically differentiates the effect of different regions of the transcript on gene expression up to 240 nucleotides into the ORF. This enabled us to discover new causal effects between features in previously unexplored regions of transcripts, and gene expression in natural regimes. We rationally designed, constructed, and analyzed 383 gene variants of the viral HRSVgp04 gene ORF, with multiple synonymous mutations at key positions along the transcript in the eukaryote S. cerevisiae. Our results show that a few silent mutations at the 5′UTR can have a dramatic effect of up to 15 fold change on protein levels, and that even synonymous mutations in positions more than 120 nucleotides downstream from the ORF 5′end can modulate protein levels up to 160%–300%. We demonstrate that the correlation between protein levels and folding energy increases with the significance of the level of selection of the latter in endogenous genes, reinforcing the notion that selection for folding strength in different parts of the ORF is related to translation regulation. Our measured protein abundance correlates notably(correlation up to r = 0.62 (p=0.0013)) with mean relative codon decoding times, based on ribosomal densities (Ribo-Seq) in endogenous genes, supporting the conjecture that translation elongation and adaptation to the tRNA pool can modify protein levels in a causal/direct manner. This report provides an improved understanding of transcript evolution, design principles of gene expression regulation, and suggests simple

  6. Diploid yeast cells yield homozygous spontaneous mutations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Esposito, M. S.; Bruschi, C. V.; Brushi, C. V. (Principal Investigator)

    1993-01-01

    A leucine-requiring hybrid of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, homoallelic at the LEU1 locus (leu1-12/leu1-12) and heterozygous for three chromosome-VII genetic markers distal to the LEU1 locus, was employed to inquire: (1) whether spontaneous gene mutation and mitotic segregation of heterozygous markers occur in positive nonrandom association and (2) whether homozygous LEU1/LEU1 mutant diploids are generated. The results demonstrate that gene mutation of leu1-12 to LEU1 and mitotic segregation of heterozygous chromosome-VII markers occur in strong positive nonrandom association, suggesting that the stimulatory DNA lesion is both mutagenic and recombinogenic. In addition, genetic analysis of diploid Leu+ revertants revealed that approximately 3% of mutations of leu1-12 to LEU1 result in LEU1/LEU1 homozygotes. Red-white sectored Leu+ colonies exhibit genotypes that implicate post-replicational chromatid breakage and exchange near the site of leu1-12 reversion, chromosome loss, and subsequent restitution of diploidy, in the sequence of events leading to mutational homozygosis. By analogy, diploid cell populations can yield variants homozygous for novel recessive gene mutations at biologically significant rates. Mutational homozygosis may be relevant to both carcinogenesis and the evolution of asexual diploid organisms.

  7. Comparing regions of the Epstein-Barr virus ZEBRA protein which function as transcriptional activating sequences in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and in B cells.

    PubMed Central

    Miller, G; Himmelfarb, H; Heston, L; Countryman, J; Gradoville, L; Baumann, R; Chi, T; Carey, M

    1993-01-01

    The ZEBRA protein activates expression of Epstein-Barr virus early-lytic-cycle genes in human B lymphocytes. Here it is shown that ZEBRA also behaves as a sequence-specific transcriptional activator in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Deletional mutagenesis defined three regions of ZEBRA that participate in activation in S. cerevisiae. These regions are designated YI (amino acids [aa] 1 to 25), YII (aa 51 to 102), and YIII (aa 228 to 245). Two of the three regions of the native ZEBRA protein act together to mediate activation when assayed on ZEBRA binding sites. However, when fused to the DNA binding domain of GAL4 and assayed on GAL4 binding sites, regions YII and YIII were each sufficient to confer activation in S. cerevisiae. Regions of ZEBRA which affected activation in S. cerevisiae were also required in human B lymphocytes. The amino-terminal region of ZEBRA (aa 1 to 98) was required for activation both in S. cerevisiae and in human B cells; deletion of the carboxy-terminal 18 aa also significantly reduced activation in both cell types. Thus, the behavior of ZEBRA in human B cells and S. cerevisiae suggests that the protein contains universal activation motifs that interact with conserved components of the transcription machinery. However, certain deletion mutants of ZEBRA containing mutations in the N-terminal region exhibited discordant behaviors in S. cerevisiae and in B cells. For example, deletion of ZEBRA aa 26 to 51 impaired activation to a great extent in B cells but had little or no effect in S. cerevisiae. The discordant mutants may reflect interactions with a variable domain of a conserved component or unique interactions with specialized components of the basal transcription apparatus in different cells. PMID:8230468

  8. The Saccharomyces Cerevisiae Spt7 Gene Encodes a Very Acidic Protein Important for Transcription in Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Gansheroff, L. J.; Dollard, C.; Tan, P.; Winston, F.

    1995-01-01

    Mutations in the SPT7 gene of Saccharomyces cerevisiae originally were identified as suppressors of Ty and {delta small} insertion mutations in the 5' regions of the HIS4 and LYS2 genes. Other genes that have been identified in mutant hunts of this type have been shown to play a role in transcription. In this work we show that SPT7 is also important for proper transcription in vivo. We have cloned and sequenced the SPT7 gene and have shown that it encodes a large, acidic protein that is localized to the nucleus. The SPT7 protein contains a bromodomain sequence; a deletion that removes the bromodomain from the SPT7 protein causes no detectable mutant phenotype. Strains that contain an spt7 null mutation are viable but grow very slowly and have transcriptional defects at many loci including insertion mutations, Ty elements, the INO1 gene and the MFA1 gene. These transcriptional defects and other mutant phenotypes are similar to those caused by certain mutations in SPT15, which encodes the TATA binding protein (TBP). The similarity of the phenotypes of spt7 and spt15 mutants, including effects of spt7 mutations on the transcription start site of certain genes, suggests that SPT7 plays an important role in transcription initiation in vivo. PMID:7713415

  9. Relation between cell death progression, reactive oxygen species production and mitochondrial membrane potential in fermenting Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells under heat-shock conditions.

    PubMed

    Pyatrikas, Darya V; Fedoseeva, Irina V; Varakina, Nina N; Rusaleva, Tatyana M; Stepanov, Alexei V; Fedyaeva, Anna V; Borovskii, Gennadii B; Rikhvanov, Eugene G

    2015-06-01

    Moderate heat shock increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) production that led to cell death in glucose-grown Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells. Conditions that disturb mitochondrial functions such as treatment by uncouplers and petite mutation were shown to inhibit ROS production and protects cell from thermal death. Hence, mitochondria are responsible for ROS production and play an active role in cell death. An increase in ROS production was accompanied by hyperpolarization of inner mitochondrial membrane. All agents suppressing hyperpolarization also suppressed heat-induced ROS production. It was supposed that generation of ROS under moderate heat shock in glucose-grown S. cerevisiae cells is driven by the mitochondrial membrane potential.

  10. Engineer Sccharomyces cerevisiae for consolidated bioprocessing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The current commercial biofuel production is based on a two-stage process of enzymatic treatment to degrade starch to fermentable sugar, followed by yeast fermentation of the sugar to ethanol. An attractive alternative would be to engineer Saccharomyces cerevisiae for cell-based saccharification an...

  11. Tangential Ultrafiltration of Aqueous "Saccharomyces Cerevisiae" Suspensions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silva, Carlos M.; Neves, Patricia S.; Da Silva, Francisco A.; Xavier, Ana M. R. B.; Eusebio, M. F. J.

    2008-01-01

    Experimental work on ultrafiltration is presented to illustrate the practical and theoretical principles of this separation technique. The laboratory exercise comprises experiments with pure water and with aqueous "Saccharomyces cerevisiae" (from commercial Baker's yeast) suspensions. With this work students detect the characteristic phenomena…

  12. Improved xylose and arabinose utilization by an industrial recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain using evolutionary engineering

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Cost-effective fermentation of lignocellulosic hydrolysate to ethanol by Saccharomyces cerevisiae requires efficient mixed sugar utilization. Notably, the rate and yield of xylose and arabinose co-fermentation to ethanol must be enhanced. Results Evolutionary engineering was used to improve the simultaneous conversion of xylose and arabinose to ethanol in a recombinant industrial Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain carrying the heterologous genes for xylose and arabinose utilization pathways integrated in the genome. The evolved strain TMB3130 displayed an increased consumption rate of xylose and arabinose under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. Improved anaerobic ethanol production was achieved at the expense of xylitol and glycerol but arabinose was almost stoichiometrically converted to arabitol. Further characterization of the strain indicated that the selection pressure during prolonged continuous culture in xylose and arabinose medium resulted in the improved transport of xylose and arabinose as well as increased levels of the enzymes from the introduced fungal xylose pathway. No mutation was found in any of the genes from the pentose converting pathways. Conclusion To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report that characterizes the molecular mechanisms for improved mixed-pentose utilization obtained by evolutionary engineering of a recombinant S. cerevisiae strain. Increased transport of pentoses and increased activities of xylose converting enzymes contributed to the improved phenotype. PMID:20550651

  13. A role for Saccharomyces cerevisiae Tpa1 protein in direct alkylation repair.

    PubMed

    Shivange, Gururaj; Kodipelli, Naveena; Monisha, Mohan; Anindya, Roy

    2014-12-26

    Alkylating agents induce cytotoxic DNA base adducts. In this work, we provide evidence to suggest, for the first time, that Saccharomyces cerevisiae Tpa1 protein is involved in DNA alkylation repair. Little is known about Tpa1 as a repair protein beyond the initial observation from a high-throughput analysis indicating that deletion of TPA1 causes methyl methane sulfonate sensitivity in S. cerevisiae. Using purified Tpa1, we demonstrate that Tpa1 repairs both single- and double-stranded methylated DNA. Tpa1 is a member of the Fe(II) and 2-oxoglutarate-dependent dioxygenase family, and we show that mutation of the amino acid residues involved in cofactor binding abolishes the Tpa1 DNA repair activity. Deletion of TPA1 along with the base excision repair pathway DNA glycosylase MAG1 renders the tpa1Δmag1Δ double mutant highly susceptible to methylation-induced toxicity. We further demonstrate that the trans-lesion synthesis DNA polymerase Polζ (REV3) plays a key role in tolerating DNA methyl-base lesions and that tpa1Δmag1revΔ3 triple mutant is extremely susceptible to methylation-induced toxicity. Our results indicate a synergism between the base excision repair pathway and direct alkylation repair by Tpa1 in S. cerevisiae. We conclude that Tpa1 is a hitherto unidentified DNA repair protein in yeast and that it plays a crucial role in reverting alkylated DNA base lesions and cytotoxicity.

  14. CTP synthetase and its role in phospholipid synthesis in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Yu-Fang; Carman, George M.

    2008-01-01

    CTP synthetase is a cytosolic-associated glutamine amidotransferase enzyme that catalyzes the ATP-dependent transfer of the amide nitrogen from glutamine to the C-4 position of UTP to form CTP. In the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the reaction product CTP is an essential precursor of all membrane phospholipids that are synthesized via the Kennedy (CDP-choline and CDP-ethanolamine branches) and CDP-diacylglycerol pathways. The URA7 and URA8 genes encode CTP synthetase in S. cerevisiae, and the URA7 gene is responsible for the majority of CTP synthesized in vivo. The CTP synthetase enzymes are allosterically regulated by CTP product inhibition. Mutations that alleviate this regulation result in an elevated cellular level of CTP and an increase in phospholipid synthesis via the Kennedy pathway. The URA7-encoded enzyme is phosphorylated by protein kinases A and C, and these phosphorylations stimulate CTP synthetase activity and increase cellular CTP levels and the utilization of the Kennedy pathway. The CTPS1 and CTPS2 genes that encode human CTP synthetase enzymes are functionally expressed in S. cerevisiae, and rescue the lethal phenotype of the ura7Δ ura8Δ double mutant that lacks CTP synthetase activity. The expression in yeast has revealed that the human CTPS1-encoded enzyme is also phosphorylated and regulated by protein kinases A and C. PMID:18439916

  15. Rapid and efficient galactose fermentation by engineered Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Quarterman, Josh; Skerker, Jeffrey M; Feng, Xueyang; Liu, Ian Y; Zhao, Huimin; Arkin, Adam P; Jin, Yong-Su

    2016-07-10

    In the important industrial yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, galactose metabolism requires energy production by respiration; therefore, this yeast cannot metabolize galactose under strict anaerobic conditions. While the respiratory dependence of galactose metabolism provides benefits in terms of cell growth and population stability, it is not advantageous for producing fuels and chemicals since a substantial fraction of consumed galactose is converted to carbon dioxide. In order to force S. cerevisiae to use galactose without respiration, a subunit (COX9) of a respiratory enzyme was deleted, but the resulting deletion mutant (Δcox9) was impaired in terms of galactose assimilation. Interestingly, after serial sub-cultures on galactose, the mutant evolved rapidly and was able to use galactose via fermentation only. The evolved strain (JQ-G1) produced ethanol from galactose with a 94% increase in yield and 6.9-fold improvement in specific productivity as compared to the wild-type strain. (13)C-metabolic flux analysis demonstrated a three-fold reduction in carbon flux through the TCA cycle of the evolved mutant with redirection of flux toward the fermentation pathway. Genome sequencing of the JQ-G1 strain revealed a loss of function mutation in a master negative regulator of the Leloir pathway (Gal80p). The mutation (Glu348*) in Gal80p was found to act synergistically with deletion of COX9 for efficient galactose fermentation, and thus the double deletion mutant Δcox9Δgal80 produced ethanol 2.4 times faster and with 35% higher yield than a single knockout mutant with deletion of GAL80 alone. When we introduced a functional COX9 cassette back into the JQ-G1 strain, the JQ-G1-COX9 strain showed a 33% reduction in specific galactose uptake rate and a 49% reduction in specific ethanol production rate as compared to JQ-G1. The wild-type strain was also subjected to serial sub-cultures on galactose but we failed to isolate a mutant capable of utilizing galactose without

  16. Conditional mutations occur predominantly in highly conserved residues of RNA polymerase II subunits.

    PubMed Central

    Scafe, C; Martin, C; Nonet, M; Podos, S; Okamura, S; Young, R A

    1990-01-01

    Conditional mutations in the Saccharomyces cerevisiae RNA polymerase II large subunit, RPB1, were obtained by introducing a mutagenized RPB1 plasmid into yeast cells, selecting for loss of the wild-type RPB1 gene, and screening the cells for heat or cold sensitivity. Sequence analysis of 10 conditional RPB1 mutations and 10 conditional RPB2 mutations revealed that the amino acid residues altered by these distinct mutations are nearly always invariant among eucaryotic RPB1 and RPB2 homologs. These results suggest that RNA polymerase mutants might be obtained in other eucaryotic organisms by alteration of these invariant residues. Images PMID:2406567

  17. Contrasting dynamics of a mutator allele in asexual populations of differing size.

    PubMed

    Raynes, Yevgeniy; Gazzara, Matthew R; Sniegowski, Paul D

    2012-07-01

    Mutators have been shown to hitchhike in asexual populations when the anticipated beneficial mutation supply rate of the mutator subpopulation, NU(b) (for subpopulation of size N and beneficial mutation rate U(b)) exceeds that of the wild-type subpopulation. Here, we examine the effect of total population size on mutator dynamics in asexual experimental populations of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Although mutators quickly hitchhike to fixation in smaller populations, mutator fixation requires more and more time as population size increases; this observed delay in mutator hitchhiking is consistent with the expected effect of clonal interference. Interestingly, despite their higher beneficial mutation supply rate, mutators are supplanted by the wild type in very large populations. We postulate that this striking reversal in mutator dynamics is caused by an interaction between clonal interference, the fitness cost of the mutator allele, and infrequent large-effect beneficial mutations in our experimental populations. Our work thus identifies a potential set of circumstances under which mutator hitchhiking can be inhibited in natural asexual populations, despite recent theoretical predictions that such populations should have a net tendency to evolve ever-higher genomic mutation rates.

  18. Mutation rates, spectra, and genome-wide distribution of spontaneous mutations in mismatch repair deficient yeast.

    PubMed

    Lang, Gregory I; Parsons, Lance; Gammie, Alison E

    2013-09-01

    DNA mismatch repair is a highly conserved DNA repair pathway. In humans, germline mutations in hMSH2 or hMLH1, key components of mismatch repair, have been associated with Lynch syndrome, a leading cause of inherited cancer mortality. Current estimates of the mutation rate and the mutational spectra in mismatch repair defective cells are primarily limited to a small number of individual reporter loci. Here we use the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae to generate a genome-wide view of the rates, spectra, and distribution of mutation in the absence of mismatch repair. We performed mutation accumulation assays and next generation sequencing on 19 strains, including 16 msh2 missense variants implicated in Lynch cancer syndrome. The mutation rate for DNA mismatch repair null strains was approximately 1 mutation per genome per generation, 225-fold greater than the wild-type rate. The mutations were distributed randomly throughout the genome, independent of replication timing. The mutation spectra included insertions/deletions at homopolymeric runs (87.7%) and at larger microsatellites (5.9%), as well as transitions (4.5%) and transversions (1.9%). Additionally, repeat regions with proximal repeats are more likely to be mutated. A bias toward deletions at homopolymers and insertions at (AT)n microsatellites suggests a different mechanism for mismatch generation at these sites. Interestingly, 5% of the single base pair substitutions might represent double-slippage events that occurred at the junction of immediately adjacent repeats, resulting in a shift in the repeat boundary. These data suggest a closer scrutiny of tumor suppressors with homopolymeric runs with proximal repeats as the potential drivers of oncogenesis in mismatch repair defective cells. PMID:23821616

  19. High-Throughput Identification of Adaptive Mutations in Experimentally Evolved Yeast Populations

    PubMed Central

    Payen, Celia; Ong, Giang T.; Pogachar, Jamie L.; Zhao, Wei

    2016-01-01

    High-throughput sequencing has enabled genetic screens that can rapidly identify mutations that occur during experimental evolution. The presence of a mutation in an evolved lineage does not, however, constitute proof that the mutation is adaptive, given the well-known and widespread phenomenon of genetic hitchhiking, in which a non-adaptive or even detrimental mutation can co-occur in a genome with a beneficial mutation and the combined genotype is carried to high frequency by selection. We approximated the spectrum of possible beneficial mutations in Saccharomyces cerevisiae using sets of single-gene deletions and amplifications of almost all the genes in the S. cerevisiae genome. We determined the fitness effects of each mutation in three different nutrient-limited conditions using pooled competitions followed by barcode sequencing. Although most of the mutations were neutral or deleterious, ~500 of them increased fitness. We then compared those results to the mutations that actually occurred during experimental evolution in the same three nutrient-limited conditions. On average, ~35% of the mutations that occurred during experimental evolution were predicted by the systematic screen to be beneficial. We found that the distribution of fitness effects depended on the selective conditions. In the phosphate-limited and glucose-limited conditions, a large number of beneficial mutations of nearly equivalent, small effects drove the fitness increases. In the sulfate-limited condition, one type of mutation, the amplification of the high-affinity sulfate transporter, dominated. In the absence of that mutation, evolution in the sulfate-limited condition involved mutations in other genes that were not observed previously—but were predicted by the systematic screen. Thus, gross functional screens have the potential to predict and identify adaptive mutations that occur during experimental evolution. PMID:27727276

  20. Genetic effects of fresh cigarette smoke in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Gairola, C

    1982-09-01

    Ability of fresh cigarette smoke from University of Kentucky reference cigarette 2R1 to induce gene conversion, reverse mutation and mitotic crossing-over in strain D7 of Saccharomyces cerevisiae was examined. A closed cell suspension-recycle system using 2 peristaltic pumps interconnected to a single-port reverse-phase smoking machine was developed to provide complete exposure of cells to smoke within 0.2--10 sec of its generation. The exposed cells showed a dose-dependent increase in the frequency of all the 3 genetic endpoints examined. Cell age was an important factor with younger cells being more sensitive than older. Filtration studies showed that the gas phase possessed as much as 25% of the total whole-smoke activity. Activated charcoal reduced the activity of smoke in direct proportion to its amount in the filter. Acetate filter did not appreciably alter the activity. A comparison of whole smoke from various cigarettes showed that: (1) the nicotine content of a cigarette does not affect the genetic activity of smoke; (2) burley and flue-cured tobaccos have differential activity in gene conversion and reverse mutation systems; and (3) the genetic effects of whole smoke are not peculiar to tobacco pyrolysis because similar effects are produced by smokes from lettuce and other non-tobacco cigarettes. It is concluded that the yeast D7 system can be used effectively for the quantitative evaluation of genetic effects of smoke from different cigarettes, and both whole cigarette smoke and its gas phase possess mutagenic as well as recombinogenic activity that can be modified by the use of filters. PMID:6755230

  1. Changes in regulation of ribosomal protein synthesis during vegetative growth and sporulation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed Central

    Pearson, N J; Haber, J E

    1980-01-01

    When diploid Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells logarithmically growing in acetate medium were placed in sporulation medium, the relative rates of synthesis of 40 or more individual ribosomal proteins (r-proteins) were coordinately depressed to approximately 20% of those of growing cells. These new depressed rates remained constant for at least 10 h into sporulation. If yeast nitrogen base was added 4 yh after the beginning of sporulation to shift the cells back to vegetative growth, the original relative rates of r-protein synthesis were rapidly reestablished. this upshift in the rates occurred even in diploids homozygous for the regulatory mutation rna2 at the restrictive temperature for this mutation (34 degrees C). However, once these mutant cells began to bud and grow at 34 degrees C, the phenotype of rna2 was expressed and the syntheses of r-proteins were again coordinately depressed. At least one protein whose rate of synthesis was not depressed by rna2 in vegetative cells did have a decreased rate of synthesis during sporulation. Another r-protein whose synthesis was depressed by rna2 maintained a high rate of synthesis at the beginning of sporulation. These data suggest that the mechanism responsible for coordinate control of r-protein synthesis during sporulation does not require the gene product of RNA2 and thus defines a separate mechanism by which r-proteins are coordinately controlled in S. cerevisiae. Images PMID:6997272

  2. A Cadmium-transporting P1B-type ATPase in Yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae*

    PubMed Central

    Adle, David J.; Sinani, Devis; Kim, Heejeong; Lee, Jaekwon

    2014-01-01

    Detoxification and homeostatic acquisition of metal ions are vital for all living organisms. We have identified PCA1 in yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae as an overexpression suppressor of copper toxicity. PCA1 possesses signatures of a P1B-type heavy metal-transporting ATPase that is widely distributed from bacteria to humans. Copper resistance conferred by PCA1 is not dependent on catalytic activity, but it appears that a cysteine-rich region located in the N terminus sequesters copper. Unexpectedly, when compared with two independent natural isolates and an industrial S. cerevisiae strain, the PCA1 allele of the common laboratory strains we have examined possesses a missense mutation in a predicted ATP-binding residue conserved in P1B-type ATPases. Consistent with a previous report that identifies an equivalent mutation in a copper-transporting P1B-type ATPase of a Wilson disease patient, the PCA1 allele found in laboratory yeast strains is nonfunctional. Overexpression or deletion of the functional allele in yeast demonstrates that PCA1 is a cadmium efflux pump. Cadmium as well as copper and silver, but not other metals examined, dramatically increase PCA1 protein expression through post-transcriptional regulation and promote subcellular localization to the plasma membrane. Our study has revealed a novel metal detoxification mechanism in yeast mediated by a P1B-type ATPase that is unique in structure, substrate specificity, and mode of regulation. PMID:17107946

  3. Redundant Regulation of Cdk1 Tyrosine Dephosphorylation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, Erin K; Dysart, Michael; Lianga, Noel; Williams, Elizabeth C; Pilon, Sophie; Doré, Carole; Deneault, Jean-Sebastien; Rudner, Adam D

    2016-03-01

    Cdk1 activity drives both mitotic entry and the metaphase-to-anaphase transition in all eukaryotes. The kinase Wee1 and the phosphatase Cdc25 regulate the mitotic activity of Cdk1 by the reversible phosphorylation of a conserved tyrosine residue. Mutation of cdc25 in Schizosaccharomyces pombe blocks Cdk1 dephosphorylation and causes cell cycle arrest. In contrast, deletion of MIH1, the cdc25 homolog in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, is viable. Although Cdk1-Y19 phosphorylation is elevated during mitosis in mih1∆ cells, Cdk1 is dephosphorylated as cells progress into G1, suggesting that additional phosphatases regulate Cdk1 dephosphorylation. Here we show that the phosphatase Ptp1 also regulates Cdk1 dephosphorylation in vivo and can directly dephosphorylate Cdk1 in vitro. Using a novel in vivo phosphatase assay, we also show that PP2A bound to Rts1, the budding yeast B56-regulatory subunit, regulates dephosphorylation of Cdk1 independently of a function regulating Swe1, Mih1, or Ptp1, suggesting that PP2A(Rts1) either directly dephosphorylates Cdk1-Y19 or regulates an unidentified phosphatase. PMID:26715668

  4. In vivo Reconstitution of Algal Triacylglycerol Production in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Hung, Chun-Hsien; Kanehara, Kazue; Nakamura, Yuki

    2016-01-01

    The current fascination with algal biofuel production stems from a high lipid biosynthetic capacity and little conflict with land plant cultivation. However, the mechanisms which enable algae to accumulate massive oil remain elusive. An enzyme for triacylglycerol (TAG) biosynthesis in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, CrDGTT2, can produce a large amount of TAG when expressed in yeast or higher plants, suggesting a unique ability of CrDGTT2 to enhance oil production in a heterologous system. Here, we performed metabolic engineering in Saccharomyces cerevisiae by taking advantage of CrDGTT2. We suppressed membrane phospholipid biosynthesis at the log phase by mutating OPI3, enhanced TAG biosynthetic pathway at the stationary phase by overexpressing PAH1 and CrDGTT2, and suppressed TAG hydrolysis on growth resumption from the stationary phase by knocking out DGK1. The resulting engineered yeast cells accumulated about 70-fold of TAG compared with wild type cells. Moreover, TAG production was sustainable. Our results demonstrated the enhanced and sustainable TAG production in the yeast synthetic platform. PMID:26913021

  5. Redundant Regulation of Cdk1 Tyrosine Dephosphorylation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, Erin K; Dysart, Michael; Lianga, Noel; Williams, Elizabeth C; Pilon, Sophie; Doré, Carole; Deneault, Jean-Sebastien; Rudner, Adam D

    2016-03-01

    Cdk1 activity drives both mitotic entry and the metaphase-to-anaphase transition in all eukaryotes. The kinase Wee1 and the phosphatase Cdc25 regulate the mitotic activity of Cdk1 by the reversible phosphorylation of a conserved tyrosine residue. Mutation of cdc25 in Schizosaccharomyces pombe blocks Cdk1 dephosphorylation and causes cell cycle arrest. In contrast, deletion of MIH1, the cdc25 homolog in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, is viable. Although Cdk1-Y19 phosphorylation is elevated during mitosis in mih1∆ cells, Cdk1 is dephosphorylated as cells progress into G1, suggesting that additional phosphatases regulate Cdk1 dephosphorylation. Here we show that the phosphatase Ptp1 also regulates Cdk1 dephosphorylation in vivo and can directly dephosphorylate Cdk1 in vitro. Using a novel in vivo phosphatase assay, we also show that PP2A bound to Rts1, the budding yeast B56-regulatory subunit, regulates dephosphorylation of Cdk1 independently of a function regulating Swe1, Mih1, or Ptp1, suggesting that PP2A(Rts1) either directly dephosphorylates Cdk1-Y19 or regulates an unidentified phosphatase.

  6. [Control levels of Sin3 histone deacetylase for spontaneous and UV-induced mutagenesis in yeasts Saccharomyces cerevisiae].

    PubMed

    Lebovka, I Iu; Kozhina, T N; Fedorova, I V; Peshekhonov, V T; Evstiukhina, T A; Chernenkov, A Iu; Korolev, V G

    2014-01-01

    SIN3 gene product operates as a repressor for a huge amount of genes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Sin3 protein with a mass of about 175 kDa is a member of the RPD3 protein complex with an assessed mass of greater than 2 million Da. It was previously shownthat RPD3 gene mutations influence recombination and repair processes in S. cerevisiae yeasts. We studied the impacts of the sin3 mutation on UV-light sensitivity and UV-induced mutagenesis in budding yeast cells. The deletion ofthe SIN3 gene causes weak UV-sensitivity of mutant budding cells as compared to the wild-type strain. These results show that the sin3 mutation decreases both spontaneous and UV-induced levels of levels. This fact is hypothetically related to themalfunction of ribonucleotide reductase activity regulation, which leads to a decrease in the dNTP pool and the inaccurate error-prone damage bypass postreplication repair pathway, which in turn provokes a reduction in the incidence of mutations.

  7. The hexose transporter family of Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Kruckeberg, A L

    1996-11-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae accomplishes high rates of hexose transport. The kinetics of hexose transport are complex. The capacity and kinetic complexity of hexose transport in yeast are reflected in the large number of sugar transporter genes in the genome. Twenty hexose transporter genes exist in S. cerevisiae. Some of these have been found by genetic means; many have been discovered by the comprehensive sequencing of the yeast genome. This review codifies the nomenclature of the hexose transporter genes and describes the sequence homology and structural similarity of the proteins they encode. Information about the expression and function of the transporters is presented. Access to the sequences of the genes and proteins at three sequence databases is provided via the World Wide Web.

  8. Genome-Wide Estimates of Mutation Rates and Spectrum in Schizosaccharomyces pombe Indicate CpG Sites are Highly Mutagenic Despite the Absence of DNA Methylation.

    PubMed

    Behringer, Megan G; Hall, David W

    2015-11-12

    We accumulated mutations for 1952 generations in 79 initially identical, haploid lines of the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe, and then performed whole-genome sequencing to determine the mutation rates and spectrum. We captured 696 spontaneous mutations across the 79 mutation accumulation (MA) lines. We compared the mutation spectrum and rate to a recently published equivalent experiment on the same species, and to another model ascomycetous yeast, the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. While the two species are approximately 600 million years diverged from each other, they share similar life histories, genome size and genomic G/C content. We found that Sc. pombe and S. cerevisiae have similar mutation rates, but Sc. pombe exhibits a stronger insertion bias. Intriguingly, we observed an increased mutation rate at cytosine nucleotides, specifically CpG nucleotides, which is also seen in S. cerevisiae. However, the absence of methylation in Sc. pombe and the pattern of mutation at these sites, primarily C → A as opposed to C → T, strongly suggest that the increased mutation rate is not caused by deamination of methylated cytosines. This result implies that the high mutability of CpG dinucleotides in other species may be caused in part by a methylation-independent mechanism. Many of our findings mirror those seen in the recent study, despite the use of different passaging conditions, indicating that MA is a reliable method for estimating mutation rates and spectra.

  9. Genome-Wide Estimates of Mutation Rates and Spectrum in Schizosaccharomyces pombe Indicate CpG Sites are Highly Mutagenic Despite the Absence of DNA Methylation

    PubMed Central

    Behringer, Megan G.; Hall, David W.

    2015-01-01

    We accumulated mutations for 1952 generations in 79 initially identical, haploid lines of the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe, and then performed whole-genome sequencing to determine the mutation rates and spectrum. We captured 696 spontaneous mutations across the 79 mutation accumulation (MA) lines. We compared the mutation spectrum and rate to a recently published equivalent experiment on the same species, and to another model ascomycetous yeast, the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. While the two species are approximately 600 million years diverged from each other, they share similar life histories, genome size and genomic G/C content. We found that Sc. pombe and S. cerevisiae have similar mutation rates, but Sc. pombe exhibits a stronger insertion bias. Intriguingly, we observed an increased mutation rate at cytosine nucleotides, specifically CpG nucleotides, which is also seen in S. cerevisiae. However, the absence of methylation in Sc. pombe and the pattern of mutation at these sites, primarily C → A as opposed to C → T, strongly suggest that the increased mutation rate is not caused by deamination of methylated cytosines. This result implies that the high mutability of CpG dinucleotides in other species may be caused in part by a methylation-independent mechanism. Many of our findings mirror those seen in the recent study, despite the use of different passaging conditions, indicating that MA is a reliable method for estimating mutation rates and spectra. PMID:26564949

  10. Saccharomyces cerevisiae metabolism in ecological context

    PubMed Central

    Jouhten, Paula; Ponomarova, Olga; Gonzalez, Ramon; Patil, Kiran R.

    2016-01-01

    The architecture and regulation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae metabolic network are among the best studied owing to its widespread use in both basic research and industry. Yet, several recent studies have revealed notable limitations in explaining genotype–metabolic phenotype relations in this yeast, especially when concerning multiple genetic/environmental perturbations. Apparently unexpected genotype–phenotype relations may originate in the evolutionarily shaped cellular operating principles being hidden in common laboratory conditions. Predecessors of laboratory S. cerevisiae strains, the wild and the domesticated yeasts, have been evolutionarily shaped by highly variable environments, very distinct from laboratory conditions, and most interestingly by social life within microbial communities. Here we present a brief review of the genotypic and phenotypic peculiarities of S. cerevisiae in the context of its social lifestyle beyond laboratory environments. Accounting for this ecological context and the origin of the laboratory strains in experimental design and data analysis would be essential in improving the understanding of genotype–environment–phenotype relationships. PMID:27634775

  11. Synthesis of Morphinan Alkaloids in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Fossati, Elena; Narcross, Lauren; Ekins, Andrew; Falgueyret, Jean-Pierre; Martin, Vincent J. J.

    2015-01-01

    Morphinan alkaloids are the most powerful narcotic analgesics currently used to treat moderate to severe and chronic pain. The feasibility of morphinan synthesis in recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae starting from the precursor (R,S)-norlaudanosoline was investigated. Chiral analysis of the reticuline produced by the expression of opium poppy methyltransferases showed strict enantioselectivity for (S)-reticuline starting from (R,S)-norlaudanosoline. In addition, the P. somniferum enzymes salutaridine synthase (PsSAS), salutaridine reductase (PsSAR) and salutaridinol acetyltransferase (PsSAT) were functionally co-expressed in S. cerevisiae and optimization of the pH conditions allowed for productive spontaneous rearrangement of salutaridinol-7-O-acetate and synthesis of thebaine from (R)-reticuline. Finally, we reconstituted a 7-gene pathway for the production of codeine and morphine from (R)-reticuline. Yeast cell feeding assays using (R)-reticuline, salutaridine or codeine as substrates showed that all enzymes were functionally co-expressed in yeast and that activity of salutaridine reductase and codeine-O-demethylase likely limit flux to morphine synthesis. The results of this study describe a significant advance for the synthesis of morphinans in S. cerevisiae and pave the way for their complete synthesis in recombinant microbes. PMID:25905794

  12. Progress in Metabolic Engineering of Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Nevoigt, Elke

    2008-01-01

    Summary: The traditional use of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae in alcoholic fermentation has, over time, resulted in substantial accumulated knowledge concerning genetics, physiology, and biochemistry as well as genetic engineering and fermentation technologies. S. cerevisiae has become a platform organism for developing metabolic engineering strategies, methods, and tools. The current review discusses the relevance of several engineering strategies, such as rational and inverse metabolic engineering, evolutionary engineering, and global transcription machinery engineering, in yeast strain improvement. It also summarizes existing tools for fine-tuning and regulating enzyme activities and thus metabolic pathways. Recent examples of yeast metabolic engineering for food, beverage, and industrial biotechnology (bioethanol and bulk and fine chemicals) follow. S. cerevisiae currently enjoys increasing popularity as a production organism in industrial (“white”) biotechnology due to its inherent tolerance of low pH values and high ethanol and inhibitor concentrations and its ability to grow anaerobically. Attention is paid to utilizing lignocellulosic biomass as a potential substrate. PMID:18772282

  13. Synthesis of Morphinan Alkaloids in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Fossati, Elena; Narcross, Lauren; Ekins, Andrew; Falgueyret, Jean-Pierre; Martin, Vincent J J

    2015-01-01

    Morphinan alkaloids are the most powerful narcotic analgesics currently used to treat moderate to severe and chronic pain. The feasibility of morphinan synthesis in recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae starting from the precursor (R,S)-norlaudanosoline was investigated. Chiral analysis of the reticuline produced by the expression of opium poppy methyltransferases showed strict enantioselectivity for (S)-reticuline starting from (R,S)-norlaudanosoline. In addition, the P. somniferum enzymes salutaridine synthase (PsSAS), salutaridine reductase (PsSAR) and salutaridinol acetyltransferase (PsSAT) were functionally co-expressed in S. cerevisiae and optimization of the pH conditions allowed for productive spontaneous rearrangement of salutaridinol-7-O-acetate and synthesis of thebaine from (R)-reticuline. Finally, we reconstituted a 7-gene pathway for the production of codeine and morphine from (R)-reticuline. Yeast cell feeding assays using (R)-reticuline, salutaridine or codeine as substrates showed that all enzymes were functionally co-expressed in yeast and that activity of salutaridine reductase and codeine-O-demethylase likely limit flux to morphine synthesis. The results of this study describe a significant advance for the synthesis of morphinans in S. cerevisiae and pave the way for their complete synthesis in recombinant microbes. PMID:25905794

  14. Engineering and Two-Stage Evolution of a Lignocellulosic Hydrolysate-Tolerant Saccharomyces cerevisiae Strain for Anaerobic Fermentation of Xylose from AFEX Pretreated Corn Stover

    PubMed Central

    Parreiras, Lucas S.; Breuer, Rebecca J.; Avanasi Narasimhan, Ragothaman; Higbee, Alan J.; La Reau, Alex; Tremaine, Mary; Qin, Li; Willis, Laura B.; Bice, Benjamin D.; Bonfert, Brandi L.; Pinhancos, Rebeca C.; Balloon, Allison J.; Uppugundla, Nirmal; Liu, Tongjun; Li, Chenlin; Tanjore, Deepti; Ong, Irene M.; Li, Haibo; Pohlmann, Edward L.; Serate, Jose; Withers, Sydnor T.; Simmons, Blake A.; Hodge, David B.; Westphall, Michael S.; Coon, Joshua J.; Dale, Bruce E.; Balan, Venkatesh; Keating, David H.; Zhang, Yaoping; Landick, Robert; Gasch, Audrey P.; Sato, Trey K.

    2014-01-01

    The inability of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae to ferment xylose effectively under anaerobic conditions is a major barrier to economical production of lignocellulosic biofuels. Although genetic approaches have enabled engineering of S. cerevisiae to convert xylose efficiently into ethanol in defined lab medium, few strains are able to ferment xylose from lignocellulosic hydrolysates in the absence of oxygen. This limited xylose conversion is believed to result from small molecules generated during biomass pretreatment and hydrolysis, which induce cellular stress and impair metabolism. Here, we describe the development of a xylose-fermenting S. cerevisiae strain with tolerance to a range of pretreated and hydrolyzed lignocellulose, including Ammonia Fiber Expansion (AFEX)-pretreated corn stover hydrolysate (ACSH). We genetically engineered a hydrolysate-resistant yeast strain with bacterial xylose isomerase and then applied two separate stages of aerobic and anaerobic directed evolution. The emergent S. cerevisiae strain rapidly converted xylose from lab medium and ACSH to ethanol under strict anaerobic conditions. Metabolomic, genetic and biochemical analyses suggested that a missense mutation in GRE3, which was acquired during the anaerobic evolution, contributed toward improved xylose conversion by reducing intracellular production of xylitol, an inhibitor of xylose isomerase. These results validate our combinatorial approach, which utilized phenotypic strain selection, rational engineering and directed evolution for the generation of a robust S. cerevisiae strain with the ability to ferment xylose anaerobically from ACSH. PMID:25222864

  15. High vanillin tolerance of an evolved Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain owing to its enhanced vanillin reduction and antioxidative capacity.

    PubMed

    Shen, Yu; Li, Hongxing; Wang, Xinning; Zhang, Xiaoran; Hou, Jin; Wang, Linfeng; Gao, Nan; Bao, Xiaoming

    2014-11-01

    The phenolic compounds present in hydrolysates pose significant challenges for the sustainable lignocellulosic materials refining industry. Three Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains with high tolerance to lignocellulose hydrolysate were obtained through ethyl methanesulfonate mutation and adaptive evolution. Among them, strain EMV-8 exhibits specific tolerance to vanillin, a phenolic compound common in lignocellulose hydrolysate. The EMV-8 maintains a specific growth rate of 0.104 h(-1) in 2 g L(-1) vanillin, whereas the reference strain cannot grow. Physiological studies revealed that the vanillin reduction rate of EMV-8 is 1.92-fold higher than its parent strain, and the Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity of EMV-8 is 15 % higher than its parent strain. Transcriptional analysis results confirmed an up-regulated oxidoreductase activity and antioxidant activity in this strain. Our results suggest that enhancing the antioxidant capacity and oxidoreductase activity could be a strategy to engineer S. cerevisiae for improved vanillin tolerance.

  16. SKN1, a novel plant defensin-sensitivity gene in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, is implicated in sphingolipid biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Thevissen, Karin; Idkowiak-Baldys, Jola; Im, Yang-Ju; Takemoto, Jon; François, Isabelle E J A; Ferket, Kathelijne K A; Aerts, An M; Meert, Els M K; Winderickx, Joris; Roosen, Johnny; Cammue, Bruno P A

    2005-03-28

    The antifungal plant defensin DmAMP1 interacts with the fungal sphingolipid mannosyl diinositolphosphoryl ceramide (M(IP)(2)C) and induces fungal growth inhibition. We have identified SKN1, besides the M(IP)(2)C-biosynthesis gene IPT1, as a novel DmAMP1-sensitivity gene in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. SKN1 was previously shown to be a KRE6 homologue, which is involved in beta-1,6-glucan biosynthesis. We demonstrate that a Deltaskn1 mutant lacks M(IP)(2)C. Interestingly, overexpression of either IPT1 or SKN1 complemented the skn1 mutation, conferred sensitivity to DmAMP1, and resulted in M(IP)(2)C levels comparable to the wild type. These results show that SKN1, together with IPT1, is involved in sphingolipid biosynthesis in S. cerevisiae. PMID:15792805

  17. The Spontaneous Mutation Rate in the Fission Yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe.

    PubMed

    Farlow, Ashley; Long, Hongan; Arnoux, Stéphanie; Sung, Way; Doak, Thomas G; Nordborg, Magnus; Lynch, Michael

    2015-10-01

    The rate at which new mutations arise in the genome is a key factor in the evolution and adaptation of species. Here we describe the rate and spectrum of spontaneous mutations for the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe, a key model organism with many similarities to higher eukaryotes. We undertook an ∼1700-generation mutation accumulation (MA) experiment with a haploid S. pombe, generating 422 single-base substitutions and 119 insertion-deletion mutations (indels) across the 96 replicates. This equates to a base-substitution mutation rate of 2.00 × 10(-10) mutations per site per generation, similar to that reported for the distantly related budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. However, these two yeast species differ dramatically in their spectrum of base substitutions, the types of indels (S. pombe is more prone to insertions), and the pattern of selection required to counteract a strong AT-biased mutation rate. Overall, our results indicate that GC-biased gene conversion does not play a major role in shaping the nucleotide composition of the S. pombe genome and suggest that the mechanisms of DNA maintenance may have diverged significantly between fission and budding yeasts. Unexpectedly, CpG sites appear to be excessively liable to mutation in both species despite the likely absence of DNA methylation.

  18. The Spontaneous Mutation Rate in the Fission Yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe

    PubMed Central

    Farlow, Ashley; Long, Hongan; Arnoux, Stéphanie; Sung, Way; Doak, Thomas G.; Nordborg, Magnus; Lynch, Michael

    2015-01-01

    The rate at which new mutations arise in the genome is a key factor in the evolution and adaptation of species. Here we describe the rate and spectrum of spontaneous mutations for the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe, a key model organism with many similarities to higher eukaryotes. We undertook an ∼1700-generation mutation accumulation (MA) experiment with a haploid S. pombe, generating 422 single-base substitutions and 119 insertion-deletion mutations (indels) across the 96 replicates. This equates to a base-substitution mutation rate of 2.00 × 10−10 mutations per site per generation, similar to that reported for the distantly related budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. However, these two yeast species differ dramatically in their spectrum of base substitutions, the types of indels (S. pombe is more prone to insertions), and the pattern of selection required to counteract a strong AT-biased mutation rate. Overall, our results indicate that GC-biased gene conversion does not play a major role in shaping the nucleotide composition of the S. pombe genome and suggest that the mechanisms of DNA maintenance may have diverged significantly between fission and budding yeasts. Unexpectedly, CpG sites appear to be excessively liable to mutation in both species despite the likely absence of DNA methylation. PMID:26265703

  19. Sum1-1: A Suppressor of Silencing Defects in Saccharomyces Cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Laurenson, P.; Rine, J.

    1991-01-01

    The repression of transcription of the silent mating-type locus HMRa in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae requires the four SIR proteins, histone H4 and a flanking site designated HMR-E. The SUM1-1 mutation alleviated the need for many of these components in transcriptional repression. In the absence of each of the SIR proteins, SUM1-1 restored repression in MATα strains; thus, SUM1-1 appeared to bypass the need for the SIR genes in repression of HMRa. Repression was not specific to the genes normally present at HMR, since the TRP1 gene placed at HMR was repressed by SUM1-1 in a sir3 strain. Therefore, like the mechanism of silencing normally used at HMR, silencing by SUM1-1 was gene-nonspecific. SUM1-1 suppressed point mutations in histone H4, but failed to suppress strongly a deletion mutation in histone H4. Similarly, SUM1-1 suppressed mutations in the three known elements of HMR-E, but was unable to suppress a deletion of HMR-E. These epistasis analyses implied that the functions required for repression at HMR can be ordered, with the SIR genes and silencer elements acting upstream of SUM1-1. SUM1-1 itself may function at the level of chromatin in the assembly of inactive DNA at the silent mating-type loci. PMID:1752414

  20. Isolation and characterization of temperature-sensitive RNA polymerase II mutants of Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed Central

    Himmelfarb, H J; Simpson, E M; Friesen, J D

    1987-01-01

    Three independent, recessive, temperature-sensitive (Ts-) conditional lethal mutations in the largest subunit of Saccharomyces cerevisiae RNA polymerase II (RNAP II) have been isolated after replacement of a portion of the wild-type gene (RPO21) by a mutagenized fragment of the cloned gene. Measurements of cell growth, viability, and total RNA and protein synthesis showed that rpo21-1, rpo21-2, and rpo21-3 mutations caused a slow shutoff of RNAP II activity in cells shifted to the nonpermissive temperature (39 degrees C). Each mutant displayed a distinct phenotype, and one of the mutant enzymes (rpo21-1) was completely deficient in RNAP II activity in vitro. RNAP I and RNAP III in vitro activities were not affected. These results were consistent with the notion that the genetic lesions affect RNAP II assembly or holoenzyme stability. DNA sequencing revealed that in each case the mutations involved nonconservative amino acid substitutions, resulting in charge changes. The lesions harbored by all three rpo21 Ts- alleles lie in DNA sequence domains that are highly conserved among genes that encode the largest subunits of RNAP from a variety of eucaryotes; one mutation lies in a possible Zn2+ binding domain. PMID:3299061

  1. Essential Functional Interactions of Saga, a Saccharomyces Cerevisiae Complex of Spt, Ada, and Gcn5 Proteins, with the Snf/Swi and Srb/Mediator Complexes

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, S. M.; Winston, F.

    1997-01-01

    The Saccharomyces cerevisiae transcription factor Spt20/Ada5 was originally identified by mutations that suppress Ty insertion alleles and by mutations that suppress the toxicity caused by Gal4-VP16 overexpression. Here we present evidence for physical associations between Spt20/Ada5 and three other Spt proteins, suggesting that they exist in a complex. A related study demonstrates that this complex also contains the histone acetyltransferase, Gcn5, and Ada2. This complex has been named SAGA (Spt/Ada/Gcn5 acetyltransferase). To identify functions that genetically interact with SAGA, we have screened for mutations that cause lethality in an spt20Δ/ada5Δ mutant. Our screen identified mutations in SNF2, SIN4, and GAL11. These mutations affect two known transcription complexes: Snf/Swi, which functions in nucleosome remodeling, and Srb/mediator, which is required for regulated transcription by RNA polymerase II. Systematic analysis has demonstrated that spt20Δ/ada5Δand spt7Δ mutations cause lethality with every snf/swi and srb/mediator mutation tested. Furthermore, a gcn5Δ mutation causes severe sickness with snf/swi mutations, but not with srb/mediator mutations. These findings suggest that SAGA has multiple activities and plays critical roles in transcription by RNA polymerase II. PMID:9335585

  2. Development of a Comprehensive Genotype-to-Fitness Map of Adaptation-Driving Mutations in Yeast.

    PubMed

    Venkataram, Sandeep; Dunn, Barbara; Li, Yuping; Agarwala, Atish; Chang, Jessica; Ebel, Emily R; Geiler-Samerotte, Kerry; Hérissant, Lucas; Blundell, Jamie R; Levy, Sasha F; Fisher, Daniel S; Sherlock, Gavin; Petrov, Dmitri A

    2016-09-01

    Adaptive evolution plays a large role in generating the phenotypic diversity observed in nature, yet current methods are impractical for characterizing the molecular basis and fitness effects of large numbers of individual adaptive mutations. Here, we used a DNA barcoding approach to generate the genotype-to-fitness map for adaptation-driving mutations from a Saccharomyces cerevisiae population experimentally evolved by serial transfer under limiting glucose. We isolated and measured the fitness of thousands of independent adaptive clones and sequenced the genomes of hundreds of clones. We found only two major classes of adaptive mutations: self-diploidization and mutations in the nutrient-responsive Ras/PKA and TOR/Sch9 pathways. Our large sample size and precision of measurement allowed us to determine that there are significant differences in fitness between mutations in different genes, between different paralogs, and even between different classes of mutations within the same gene. PMID:27594428

  3. [Tolerance of Saccharomyces cerevisiae to monoterpenes--a review].

    PubMed

    Liu, Jidong; Zhou, Jingwen; Chen, Jian

    2013-06-01

    Tolerance of Saccharomyces cerevisiae to monoterpenes is important in both metabolic engineering of the yeast to produce these chemicals de novo and efficient use of biomass containing these chemicals. Understanding the mechanisms in the tolerance of S. cerevisiae to monoterpenes could facilitate the construction of yeast strains with enhanced monoterpenes resistance, and therefore improve related bioprocesses. Monoterpenes could disturb the redox balance in S. cerevisiae, therefore increase the accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and result in cell death. S. cerevisiae has to systematically improve its antioxidative ability to deal with the ROS induced damage. The current review summarized the recent developments in demonstration of the tolerance of S. cerevisiae to different typical monoterpenes mainly from the aspect of the antioxidative mechanisms. Based on the analysis of the previous works, further attempts to demonstrate the mechanisms were proposed. PMID:24028054

  4. Assessing chronological aging in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Hu, Jia; Wei, Min; Mirisola, Mario G; Longo, Valter D

    2013-01-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae is one of the most studied model organisms for the identification of genes and mechanisms that affect aging. The chronological lifespan (CLS) assay, which monitors the survival of a non-dividing population, is one of the two methods to study aging in yeast. To eliminate potential artifacts and identify genes and signaling pathways that may also affect aging in higher eukaryotes, it is important to determine CLS by multiple methods. Here, we describe these methods as well as the assays to study macromolecular damage during aging in yeast, with a focus on genomic instability.

  5. Components of microtubular structures in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed Central

    Pillus, L; Solomon, F

    1986-01-01

    Most studies of cytoskeletal organelles have concentrated on molecular analyses of abundant and biochemically accessible structures. In many of the classical cases, however, the nature of the system chosen has precluded a concurrent genetic analysis. The mitotic spindle of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is one example of an organelle that can be studied by both classical and molecular genetics. We show here that this microtubule structure also can be examined biochemically. The spindle can be isolated by selective extractions of yeast cells by using adaptations of methods successfully applied to animal cells. In this way, microtubule-associated proteins of the yeast spindle are identified. Images PMID:3517870

  6. Directed Evolution Reveals Unexpected Epistatic Interactions That Alter Metabolic Regulation and Enable Anaerobic Xylose Use by Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Tremaine, Mary; Hebert, Alexander S.; Myers, Kevin S.; Sardi, Maria; Dickinson, Quinn; Reed, Jennifer L.; Zhang, Yaoping; Coon, Joshua J.; Hittinger, Chris Todd; Gasch, Audrey P.; Landick, Robert

    2016-01-01

    The inability of native Saccharomyces cerevisiae to convert xylose from plant biomass into biofuels remains a major challenge for the production of renewable bioenergy. Despite extensive knowledge of the regulatory networks controlling carbon metabolism in yeast, little is known about how to reprogram S. cerevisiae to ferment xylose at rates comparable to glucose. Here we combined genome sequencing, proteomic profiling, and metabolomic analyses to identify and characterize the responsible mutations in a series of evolved strains capable of metabolizing xylose aerobically or anaerobically. We report that rapid xylose conversion by engineered and evolved S. cerevisiae strains depends upon epistatic interactions among genes encoding a xylose reductase (GRE3), a component of MAP Kinase (MAPK) signaling (HOG1), a regulator of Protein Kinase A (PKA) signaling (IRA2), and a scaffolding protein for mitochondrial iron-sulfur (Fe-S) cluster biogenesis (ISU1). Interestingly, the mutation in IRA2 only impacted anaerobic xylose consumption and required the loss of ISU1 function, indicating a previously unknown connection between PKA signaling, Fe-S cluster biogenesis, and anaerobiosis. Proteomic and metabolomic comparisons revealed that the xylose-metabolizing mutant strains exhibit altered metabolic pathways relative to the parental strain when grown in xylose. Further analyses revealed that interacting mutations in HOG1 and ISU1 unexpectedly elevated mitochondrial respiratory proteins and enabled rapid aerobic respiration of xylose and other non-fermentable carbon substrates. Our findings suggest a surprising connection between Fe-S cluster biogenesis and signaling that facilitates aerobic respiration and anaerobic fermentation of xylose, underscoring how much remains unknown about the eukaryotic signaling systems that regulate carbon metabolism. PMID:27741250

  7. Primary sequence and biological functions of a Saccharomyces cerevisiae O6-methylguanine/O4-methylthymine DNA repair methyltransferase gene.

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, W; Derfler, B; Chen, J; Samson, L

    1991-01-01

    We previously identified and characterized biochemically an O6-methylguanine (O6MeG) DNA repair methyltransferase (MTase) in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae and showed that it recognizes both O6MeG and O4-methylthymine (O4MeT) in vitro. Here we characterize the cloned S. cerevisiae O6MeG DNA MTase gene (MGT1) and determine its in vivo role in protecting yeast from DNA alkylation damage. We isolated a yeast DNA fragment that suppressed alkylation-induced killing and mutation in Escherichia coli ada ogt MTase deficient mutants and produced in these cells a protein similar to the yeast MTase. The cloned yeast fragment was mapped to chromosome IV and DNA sequencing identified an open reading frame, designated MGT1, which encodes a 188 amino acid protein with a molecular weight of 21,500 daltons. An 88 amino acid stretch of the MGT1 protein displays remarkable homology with four bacterial MTases and the human DNA MTase. S.cerevisiae mutants bearing an insertion in the MGT1 gene lacked DNA MTase activity and were very sensitive to alkylation induced killing and mutation. MGT1 transcript levels are not increased in response to DNA alkylation damage, nor is the MGT1 MTase involved in the regulation of the yeast 3-methyladenine DNA glycosylase gene (MAG). Expression of the MGT1 gene in E.coli prevented the induction by alkylating agents of both G:C to A:T and A:T to G:C transition mutations indicating that this eukaryotic MTase repairs both O6MeG and O4MeT in vivo. Images PMID:2065659

  8. Multiple GCD genes required for repression of GCN4, a transcriptional activator of amino acid biosynthetic genes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Harashima, S; Hinnebusch, A G

    1986-11-01

    GCN4 encodes a positive regulator of multiple unlinked genes encoding amino acid biosynthetic enzymes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Expression of GCN4 is coupled to amino acid availability by a control mechanism involving GCD1 as a negative effector and GCN1, GCN2, and GCN3 as positive effectors of GCN4 expression. We used reversion of a gcn2 gcn3 double mutation to isolate new alleles of GCD1 and mutations in four additional GCD genes which we designate GCD10, GCD11, GCD12, and GCD13. All of the mutations lead to constitutive derepression of HIS4 transcription in the absence of the GCN2+ and GCN3+ alleles. By contrast, the gcd mutations require the wild-type GCN4 allele for their derepressing effect, suggesting that each acts by influencing the level of GCN4 activity in the cell. Consistent with this interpretation, mutations in each GCD gene lead to constitutive derepression of a GCN4::lacZ gene fusion. Thus, at least five gene products are required to maintain the normal repressed level of GCN4 expression in nonstarvation conditions. Interestingly, the gcd mutations are pleiotropic and also affect growth rate in nonstarvation conditions. In addition, certain alleles lead to a loss of M double-stranded RNA required for the killer phenotype. This pleiotropy suggests that the GCD gene products contribute to an essential cellular function, in addition to, or in conjunction with, their role in GCN4 regulation.

  9. A study of eukaryotic response mechanisms to atmospheric pressure cold plasma by using Saccharomyces cerevisiae single gene mutants

    SciTech Connect

    Feng Hongqing; Wang Ruixue; Sun Peng; Wu Haiyan; Liu Qi; Li Fangting; Fang Jing; Zhang Jue; Zhu Weidong

    2010-09-27

    The mechanisms of eukaryotic cell response to cold plasma are studied. A series of single gene mutants of eukaryotic model organism Saccharomyces cerevisiae are used to compare their sensitivity to plasma treatment with the wild type. We examined 12 mutants in the oxidative stress pathway and the cell cycle pathway, in which 8 are found to be hypersensitive to plasma processing. The mutated genes' roles in the two pathways are analyzed to understand the biological response mechanisms of plasma treatment. The results demonstrate that genes from both pathways are needed for the eukaryotic cells to survive the complex plasma treatment.

  10. Cytocidal amino acid starvation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Candida albicans acetolactate synthase (ilv2{Delta}) mutants is influenced by the carbon source and rapamycin.

    PubMed

    Kingsbury, Joanne M; McCusker, John H

    2010-03-01

    The isoleucine and valine biosynthetic enzyme acetolactate synthase (Ilv2p) is an attractive antifungal drug target, since the isoleucine and valine biosynthetic pathway is not present in mammals, Saccharomyces cerevisiae ilv2Delta mutants do not survive in vivo, Cryptococcus neoformans ilv2 mutants are avirulent, and both S. cerevisiae and Cr. neoformans ilv2 mutants die upon isoleucine and valine starvation. To further explore the potential of Ilv2p as an antifungal drug target, we disrupted Candida albicans ILV2, and demonstrated that Ca. albicans ilv2Delta mutants were significantly attenuated in virulence, and were also profoundly starvation-cidal, with a greater than 100-fold reduction in viability after only 4 h of isoleucine and valine starvation. As fungicidal starvation would be advantageous for drug design, we explored the basis of the starvation-cidal phenotype in both S. cerevisiae and Ca. albicans ilv2Delta mutants. Since the mutation of ILV1, required for the first step of isoleucine biosynthesis, did not suppress the ilv2Delta starvation-cidal defects in either species, the cidal phenotype was not due to alpha-ketobutyrate accumulation. We found that starvation for isoleucine alone was more deleterious in Ca. albicans than in S. cerevisiae, and starvation for valine was more deleterious than for isoleucine in both species. Interestingly, while the target of rapamycin (TOR) pathway inhibitor rapamycin further reduced S. cerevisiae ilv2Delta starvation viability, it increased Ca. albicans ilv1Delta and ilv2Delta viability. Furthermore, the recovery from starvation was dependent on the carbon source present during recovery for S. cerevisiae ilv2Delta mutants, reminiscent of isoleucine and valine starvation inducing a viable but non-culturable-like state in this species, while Ca. albicans ilv1Delta and ilv2 Delta viability was influenced by the carbon source present during starvation, supporting a role for glucose wasting in the Ca. albicans cidal

  11. Filamentation of Metabolic Enzymes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Shen, Qing-Ji; Kassim, Hakimi; Huang, Yong; Li, Hui; Zhang, Jing; Li, Guang; Wang, Peng-Ye; Yan, Jun; Ye, Fangfu; Liu, Ji-Long

    2016-06-20

    Compartmentation via filamentation has recently emerged as a novel mechanism for metabolic regulation. In order to identify filament-forming metabolic enzymes systematically, we performed a genome-wide screening of all strains available from an open reading frame-GFP collection in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We discovered nine novel filament-forming proteins and also confirmed those identified previously. From the 4159 strains, we found 23 proteins, mostly metabolic enzymes, which are capable of forming filaments in vivo. In silico protein-protein interaction analysis suggests that these filament-forming proteins can be clustered into several groups, including translational initiation machinery and glucose and nitrogen metabolic pathways. Using glutamine-utilising enzymes as examples, we found that the culture conditions affect the occurrence and length of the metabolic filaments. Furthermore, we found that two CTP synthases (Ura7p and Ura8p) and two asparagine synthetases (Asn1p and Asn2p) form filaments both in the cytoplasm and in the nucleus. Live imaging analyses suggest that metabolic filaments undergo sub-diffusion. Taken together, our genome-wide screening identifies additional filament-forming proteins in S. cerevisiae and suggests that filamentation of metabolic enzymes is more general than currently appreciated. PMID:27312010

  12. [Mitochondria inheritance in yeast saccharomyces cerevisiae].

    PubMed

    Fizikova, A Iu

    2011-01-01

    The review is devoted to the main mechanisms of mitochondria inheritance in yeast Saccharonmyces cerevisiae. The genetic mechanisms of functionally active mitochondria inheritance in eukaryotic cells is one of the most relevant in modem researches. A great number of genetic diseases are associated with mitochondria dysfunction. Plasticity of eukaryotic cell metabolism according to the environmental changes is ensured by adequate mitochondria functioning by means of ATP synthesis coordination, reactive oxygen species accumulation, apoptosis regulation and is an important factor of cell adaptation to stress. Mitochondria participation in important for cell vitality processes masters the presence of accurate mechanisms of mitochondria functions regulation according to environment fluctuations. The mechanisms of mitochondria division and distribution are highly conserved. Baker yeast S. cerevisiae is an ideal model object for mitochondria researches due to energetic metabolism lability, ability to switch over respiration to fermentation, and petite-positive phenotype. Correction of metabolism according to the environmental changes is necessary for cell vitality. The influence of respiratory, carbon, amino acid and phosphate metabolism on mitochondria functions was shown. As far as the mechanisms that stabilize functions of mitochondria and mtDNA are highly conserve, we can project yeast regularities on higher eukaryotes systems. This makes it possible to approximate understanding the etiology and pathogenesis of a great number of human diseases.

  13. Filamentation of Metabolic Enzymes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Shen, Qing-Ji; Kassim, Hakimi; Huang, Yong; Li, Hui; Zhang, Jing; Li, Guang; Wang, Peng-Ye; Yan, Jun; Ye, Fangfu; Liu, Ji-Long

    2016-06-20

    Compartmentation via filamentation has recently emerged as a novel mechanism for metabolic regulation. In order to identify filament-forming metabolic enzymes systematically, we performed a genome-wide screening of all strains available from an open reading frame-GFP collection in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We discovered nine novel filament-forming proteins and also confirmed those identified previously. From the 4159 strains, we found 23 proteins, mostly metabolic enzymes, which are capable of forming filaments in vivo. In silico protein-protein interaction analysis suggests that these filament-forming proteins can be clustered into several groups, including translational initiation machinery and glucose and nitrogen metabolic pathways. Using glutamine-utilising enzymes as examples, we found that the culture conditions affect the occurrence and length of the metabolic filaments. Furthermore, we found that two CTP synthases (Ura7p and Ura8p) and two asparagine synthetases (Asn1p and Asn2p) form filaments both in the cytoplasm and in the nucleus. Live imaging analyses suggest that metabolic filaments undergo sub-diffusion. Taken together, our genome-wide screening identifies additional filament-forming proteins in S. cerevisiae and suggests that filamentation of metabolic enzymes is more general than currently appreciated.

  14. Killer systems of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    SciTech Connect

    Nesterova, G.F.

    1989-01-01

    The killer systems of Saccharomyces cerevisiae are an unusual class of cytoplasmic symbionts of primitive eukaryotes. The genetic material of these symbionts is double-stranded RNA. They are characterized by the linearity of the genome, its fragmentation into a major and a minor fraction, which replicate separately, and their ability to control the synthesis of secretory mycocin proteins possessing a toxic action on closely related strains. The secretion of mycocins at the same time ensures acquiring of resistance to them. Strains containing killer symbionts are toxigenic and resistant to the action of their own toxin, but strains that are free of killer double-stranded RNAs are sensitive to the action of mycocins. The killer systems of S. cerevisiae have retained features relating them to viruses and are apparently the result of evolution of infectious viruses. The occurrences of such systems among monocellular eukaryotic organisms is an example of complication of the genome by means of its assembly from virus-like components. We discuss the unusual features of replication and the expression of killer systems and their utilization in the construction of vector molecules.

  15. Genetic Analysis of Desiccation Tolerance in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Calahan, Dean; Dunham, Maitreya; DeSevo, Chris; Koshland, Douglas E.

    2011-01-01

    Desiccation tolerance, the ability to survive nearly total dehydration, is a rare strategy for survival and reproduction observed in all taxa. However, the mechanism and regulation of this phenomenon are poorly understood. Correlations between desiccation tolerance and potential effectors have been reported in many species, but their physiological significance has not been established in vivo. Although the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae exhibits extreme desiccation tolerance, its usefulness has been hampered by an inability to reduce tolerance more than a few fold by physiological or genetic perturbations. Here we report that fewer than one in a million yeast cells from low-density logarithmic cultures survive desiccation, while 20–40% of cells from saturated cultures survive. Using this greatly expanded metric, we show that mutants defective in trehalose biosynthesis, hydrophilins, responses to hyperosmolarity, and hypersalinity, reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenging and DNA damage repair nevertheless retain wild-type levels of desiccation tolerance, suggesting that this trait involves a unique constellation of stress factors. A genome-wide screen for mutants that render stationary cells as sensitive as log phase cells identifies only mutations that block respiration. Respiration as a prerequisite for acquiring desiccation tolerance is corroborated by respiration inhibition and by growth on nonfermentable carbon sources. Suppressors bypassing the respiration requirement for desiccation tolerance reveal at least two pathways, one of which, involving the Mediator transcription complex, is associated with the shift from fermentative to respiratory metabolism. Further study of these regulators and their targets should provide important clues to the sensors and effectors of desiccation tolerance. PMID:21840858

  16. Manganese toxicity and Saccharomyces cerevisiae Mam3p, a member of the ACDP (ancient conserved domain protein) family.

    PubMed

    Yang, Mei; Jensen, Laran T; Gardner, Allison J; Culotta, Valeria C

    2005-03-15

    Manganese is an essential, but potentially toxic, trace metal in biological systems. Overexposure to manganese is known to cause neurological deficits in humans, but the pathways that lead to manganese toxicity are largely unknown. We have employed the bakers' yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae as a model system to identify genes that contribute to manganese-related damage. In a genetic screen for yeast manganese-resistance mutants, we identified S. cerevisiae MAM3 as a gene which, when deleted, would increase cellular tolerance to toxic levels of manganese and also increased the cell's resistance towards cobalt and zinc. By sequence analysis, Mam3p shares strong similarity with the mammalian ACDP (ancient conserved domain protein) family of polypeptides. Mutations in human ACDP1 have been associated with urofacial (Ochoa) syndrome. However, the functions of eukaryotic ACDPs remain unknown. We show here that S. cerevisiae MAM3 encodes an integral membrane protein of the yeast vacuole whose expression levels directly correlate with the degree of manganese toxicity. Surprisingly, Mam3p contributes to manganese toxicity without any obvious changes in vacuolar accumulation of metals. Furthermore, through genetic epistasis studies, we demonstrate that MAM3 operates independently of the well-established manganese-trafficking pathways in yeast, involving the manganese transporters Pmr1p, Smf2p and Pho84p. This is the first report of a eukaryotic ACDP family protein involved in metal homoeostasis. PMID:15498024

  17. Network Hubs Buffer Environmental Variation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Levy, Sasha F; Siegal, Mark L

    2008-01-01

    Regulatory and developmental systems produce phenotypes that are robust to environmental and genetic variation. A gene product that normally contributes to this robustness is termed a phenotypic capacitor. When a phenotypic capacitor fails, for example when challenged by a harsh environment or mutation, the system becomes less robust and thus produces greater phenotypic variation. A functional phenotypic capacitor provides a mechanism by which hidden polymorphism can accumulate, whereas its failure provides a mechanism by which evolutionary change might be promoted. The primary example to date of a phenotypic capacitor is Hsp90, a molecular chaperone that targets a large set of signal transduction proteins. In both Drosophila and Arabidopsis, compromised Hsp90 function results in pleiotropic phenotypic effects dependent on the underlying genotype. For some traits, Hsp90 also appears to buffer stochastic variation, yet the relationship between environmental and genetic buffering remains an important unresolved question. We previously used simulations of knockout mutations in transcriptional networks to predict that many gene products would act as phenotypic capacitors. To test this prediction, we use high-throughput morphological phenotyping of individual yeast cells from single-gene deletion strains to identify gene products that buffer environmental variation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We find more than 300 gene products that, when absent, increase morphological variation. Overrepresented among these capacitors are gene products that control chromosome organization and DNA integrity, RNA elongation, protein modification, cell cycle, and response to stimuli such as stress. Capacitors have a high number of synthetic-lethal interactions but knockouts of these genes do not tend to cause severe decreases in growth rate. Each capacitor can be classified based on whether or not it is encoded by a gene with a paralog in the genome. Capacitors with a duplicate are highly

  18. Spatial reorganization of Saccharomyces cerevisiae enolase to alter carbon metabolism under hypoxia.

    PubMed

    Miura, Natsuko; Shinohara, Masahiro; Tatsukami, Yohei; Sato, Yasuhiko; Morisaka, Hironobu; Kuroda, Kouichi; Ueda, Mitsuyoshi

    2013-08-01

    Hypoxia has critical effects on the physiology of organisms. In the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, glycolytic enzymes, including enolase (Eno2p), formed cellular foci under hypoxia. Here, we investigated the regulation and biological functions of these foci. Focus formation by Eno2p was inhibited temperature independently by the addition of cycloheximide or rapamycin or by the single substitution of alanine for the Val22 residue. Using mitochondrial inhibitors and an antioxidant, mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) production was shown to participate in focus formation. Focus formation was also inhibited temperature dependently by an SNF1 knockout mutation. Interestingly, the foci were observed in the cell even after reoxygenation. The metabolic turnover analysis revealed that [U-(13)C]glucose conversion to pyruvate and oxaloacetate was accelerated in focus-forming cells. These results suggest that under hypoxia, S. cerevisiae cells sense mitochondrial ROS and, by the involvement of SNF1/AMPK, spatially reorganize metabolic enzymes in the cytosol via de novo protein synthesis, which subsequently increases carbon metabolism. The mechanism may be important for yeast cells under hypoxia, to quickly provide both energy and substrates for the biosynthesis of lipids and proteins independently of the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle and also to fit changing environments.

  19. Regulation of cation transport in Saccharomyces cerevisiae by the salt tolerance gene HAL3.

    PubMed Central

    Ferrando, A; Kron, S J; Rios, G; Fink, G R; Serrano, R

    1995-01-01

    Dynamic regulation of ion transport is essential for homeostasis as cells confront changes in their environment. The gene HAL3 encodes a novel component of this regulatory circuit in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Overexpression of HAL3 improves growth of wild-type cells exposed to toxic concentrations of sodium and lithium and suppresses the salt sensitivity conferred by mutation of the calcium-dependent protein phosphatase calcineurin. Null mutants of HAL3 display salt sensitivity. The sequence of HAL3 gives little clue to its function. However, alterations in intracellular cation concentrations associated with changes in HAL3 expression suggest that HAL3 activity may directly increase cytoplasmic K+ and decrease Na+ and Li+. Cation efflux in S. cerevisiae is mediated by the P-type ATPase encoded by the ENA1/PMR24 gene, a putative plasma membrane Na+ pump whose expression is salt induced. Acting in concert with calcineurin, HAL3 is necessary for full activation of ENA1 expression. This functional complementarity is also reflected in the participation of both proteins in recovery from alpha-factor-induced growth arrest. Recently, HAL3 was isolated as a gene (named SIS2) which when overexpressed partially relieves loss of transcription of G1 cyclins in mutants lacking the protein phosphatase Sit4p. Therefore, HAL3 influences cell cycle control and ion homeostasis, acting in parallel to the protein phosphatases Sit4p and calcineurin. PMID:7565698

  20. Functional Centromeres Determine the Activation Time of Pericentric Origins of DNA Replication in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Pohl, Thomas J.; Brewer, Bonita J.; Raghuraman, M. K.

    2012-01-01

    The centromeric regions of all Saccharomyces cerevisiae chromosomes are found in early replicating domains, a property conserved among centromeres in fungi and some higher eukaryotes. Surprisingly, little is known about the biological significance or the mechanism of early centromere replication; however, the extensive conservation suggests that it is important for chromosome maintenance. Do centromeres ensure their early replication by promoting early activation of nearby origins, or have they migrated over evolutionary time to reside in early replicating regions? In Candida albicans, a neocentromere contains an early firing origin, supporting the first hypothesis but not addressing whether the new origin is intrinsically early firing or whether the centromere influences replication time. Because the activation time of individual origins is not an intrinsic property of S. cerevisiae origins, but is influenced by surrounding sequences, we sought to test the hypothesis that centromeres influence replication time by moving a centromere to a late replication domain. We used a modified Meselson-Stahl density transfer assay to measure the kinetics of replication for regions of chromosome XIV in which either the functional centromere or a point-mutated version had been moved near origins that reside in a late replication region. We show that a functional centromere acts in cis over a distance as great as 19 kb to advance the initiation time of origins. Our results constitute a direct link between establishment of the kinetochore and the replication initiation machinery, and suggest that the proposed higher-order structure of the pericentric chromatin influences replication initiation. PMID:22589733

  1. Functional centromeres determine the activation time of pericentric origins of DNA replication in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Pohl, Thomas J; Brewer, Bonita J; Raghuraman, M K

    2012-01-01

    The centromeric regions of all Saccharomyces cerevisiae chromosomes are found in early replicating domains, a property conserved among centromeres in fungi and some higher eukaryotes. Surprisingly, little is known about the biological significance or the mechanism of early centromere replication; however, the extensive conservation suggests that it is important for chromosome maintenance. Do centromeres ensure their early replication by promoting early activation of nearby origins, or have they migrated over evolutionary time to reside in early replicating regions? In Candida albicans, a neocentromere contains an early firing origin, supporting the first hypothesis but not addressing whether the new origin is intrinsically early firing or whether the centromere influences replication time. Because the activation time of individual origins is not an intrinsic property of S. cerevisiae origins, but is influenced by surrounding sequences, we sought to test the hypothesis that centromeres influence replication time by moving a centromere to a late replication domain. We used a modified Meselson-Stahl density transfer assay to measure the kinetics of replication for regions of chromosome XIV in which either the functional centromere or a point-mutated version had been moved near origins that reside in a late replication region. We show that a functional centromere acts in cis over a distance as great as 19 kb to advance the initiation time of origins. Our results constitute a direct link between establishment of the kinetochore and the replication initiation machinery, and suggest that the proposed higher-order structure of the pericentric chromatin influences replication initiation.

  2. Structure of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae Cet1-Ceg1 mRNA Capping Apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Gu, Meigang; Rajashankar, Kanagalaghatta R.; Lima, Christopher D.

    2010-05-04

    The 5{prime} guanine-N7 cap is the first cotranscriptional modification of messenger RNA. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the first two steps in capping are catalyzed by the RNA triphosphatase Cet1 and RNA guanylyltransferase Ceg1, which form a complex that is directly recruited to phosphorylated RNA polymerase II (RNAP IIo), primarily via contacts between RNAP IIo and Ceg1. A 3.0 {angstrom} crystal structure of Cet1-Ceg1 revealed a 176 kDa heterotetrameric complex composed of one Cet1 homodimer that associates with two Ceg1 molecules via interactions between the Ceg1 oligonucleotide binding domain and an extended Cet1 WAQKW amino acid motif. The WAQKW motif is followed by a flexible linker that would allow Ceg1 to achieve conformational changes required for capping while maintaining interactions with both Cet1 and RNAP IIo. The impact of mutations as assessed through genetic analysis in S. cerevisiae is consonant with contacts observed in the Cet1-Ceg1 structure.

  3. Improvement of oxidative stress tolerance in Saccharomyces cerevisiae through global transcription machinery engineering.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Hongwei; Li, Jingyuan; Han, Beizhong; Li, Xuan; Chen, Jingyu

    2014-05-01

    Excessive oxidative stress poses significant damage to yeast cells during fermentation process, and finally affects fermentation efficiency and the quality of products. In this paper, global transcription machinery engineering was employed to elicit Saccharomyces cerevisiae phenotypes of higher tolerance against oxidative stress caused by H2O2. Two strains from two plasmid-based mutagenesis libraries (Spt15 and Taf25), which exhibited significant increases in oxidative stress tolerance, were successfully isolated. At moderate H2O2 shock (≤3.5 mM), a positive correlation was found between the outperformance in cell growth of the oxidation-tolerate strains and H2O2 concentration. Several mutations were observed in the native transcription factors, which resulted in a different transcriptional profile compared with the control. Catalase and superoxide dismutase activities of the two mutants increased under H2O2 stress conditions. Fermentation experiments revealed that the mutant strain taf25-3 has a shorter lag phase compared to the control one, indicating that taf25-3 had improved adaptation ability to H2O2-induced oxidative stress and higher fermentation efficiency. Our study demonstrated that several amino acid substitutions in general transcription factors (Spt15 and Taf25) could modify the cellular oxidation defense systems and improve the anti-oxidation ability of S. cerevisiae. It could make the industrial ethanol fermentation more efficient and cost-effective by using the strain of higher stress tolerance. PMID:24633583

  4. The Exocyst is a multiprotein complex required for exocytosis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed Central

    TerBush, D R; Maurice, T; Roth, D; Novick, P

    1996-01-01

    In the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the products of at least 15 genes are involved specifically in vesicular transport from the Golgi apparatus to the plasma membrane. Previously, we have shown that three of these genes, SEC6, SEC8 and SEC15, encode components of a multisubunit complex which localizes to the tip of the bud, the predominant site of exocytosis in S. cerevisiae. Mutations in three more of these genes, SEC3, SEC5 and SEC10, were found to disrupt the subunit integrity of the Sec6-Sec8-Sec15 complex, indicating that these genes may encode some of the remaining components of this complex. To examine this possibility, we cloned and sequenced the SEC5 and SEC10 genes, disrupted them, and either epitope tagged them (Sec5p) or prepared polyclonal antisera (Sec10p) to them for co-immunoprecipitation studies. Concurrently, we biochemically purified the remaining unidentified polypeptides of the Sec6-Sec8-Sec15 complex for peptide microsequencing. The genes encoding these components were identified by comparison of predicted amino acid sequences with those obtained from peptide microsequencing of the purified complex components. In addition to Sec6p, Sec8p and Sec15p, the complex contains the proteins encoded by SEC3, SEC5, SEC10 and a novel gene, EXO70. Since these seven proteins function together in a complex required for exocytosis, and not other intracellular trafficking steps, we have named it the Exocyst. Images PMID:8978675

  5. In vitro screening of probiotic properties of Saccharomyces cerevisiae var. boulardii and food-borne Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains.

    PubMed

    van der Aa Kühle, Alis; Skovgaard, Kerstin; Jespersen, Lene

    2005-05-01

    The probiotic potential of 18 Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains used for production of foods or beverages or isolated from such, and eight strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae var. boulardii, was investigated. All strains included were able to withstand pH 2.5 and 0.3% Oxgall. Adhesion to the nontumorigenic porcine jejunal epithelial cell line (IPEC-J2) was investigated by incorporation of 3H-methionine into the yeast cells and use of liquid scintillation counting. Only few of the food-borne S. cerevisiae strains exhibited noteworthy adhesiveness with the strongest levels of adhesion (13.6-16.8%) recorded for two isolates from blue veined cheeses. Merely 25% of the S. cerevisiae var. boulardii strains displayed good adhesive properties (16.2-28.0%). The expression of the proinflammatory cytokine IL-1alpha decreased strikingly in IPEC-J2 cells exposed to a Shiga-like toxin 2e producing Escherichia coli strain when the cells were pre- and coincubated with S. cerevisiae var. boulardii even though this yeast strain was low adhesive (5.4%), suggesting that adhesion is not a mandatory prerequisite for such a probiotic effect. A strain of S. cerevisiae isolated from West African sorghum beer exerted similar effects hence indicating that food-borne strains of S. cerevisiae may possess probiotic properties in spite of low adhesiveness. PMID:15878404

  6. GSF2 deletion increases lactic acid production by alleviating glucose repression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Baek, Seung-Ho; Kwon, Eunice Y.; Kim, Seon-Young; Hahn, Ji-Sook

    2016-01-01

    Improving lactic acid (LA) tolerance is important for cost-effective microbial production of LA under acidic fermentation conditions. Previously, we generated LA-tolerant D-LA-producing S. cerevisiae strain JHY5310 by laboratory adaptive evolution of JHY5210. In this study, we performed whole genome sequencing of JHY5310, identifying four loss-of-function mutations in GSF2, SYN8, STM1, and SIF2 genes, which are responsible for the LA tolerance of JHY5310. Among the mutations, a nonsense mutation in GSF2 was identified as the major contributor to the improved LA tolerance and LA production in JHY5310. Deletion of GSF2 in the parental strain JHY5210 significantly improved glucose uptake and D-LA production levels, while derepressing glucose-repressed genes including genes involved in the respiratory pathway. Therefore, more efficient generation of ATP and NAD+ via respiration might rescue the growth defects of the LA-producing strain, where ATP depletion through extensive export of lactate and proton is one of major reasons for the impaired growth. Accordingly, alleviation of glucose repression by deleting MIG1 or HXK2 in JHY5210 also improved D-LA production. GSF2 deletion could be applied to various bioprocesses where increasing biomass yield or respiratory flux is desirable. PMID:27708428

  7. Defects in Base Excision Repair Sensitize Cells to Manganese in S. cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Stephenson, Adrienne P.; Mazu, Tryphon K.; Miles, Jana S.; Freeman, Miles D.; Reams, R. Renee; Flores-Rozas, Hernan

    2013-01-01

    Manganese (Mn) is essential for normal physiologic functioning; therefore, deficiencies and excess intake of manganese can result in disease. In humans, prolonged exposure to manganese causes neurotoxicity characterized by Parkinson-like symptoms. Mn2+ has been shown to mediate DNA damage possibly through the generation of reactive oxygen species. In a recent publication, we showed that Mn induced oxidative DNA damage and caused lesions in thymines. This study further investigates the mechanisms by which cells process Mn2+-mediated DNA damage using the yeast S. cerevisiae. The strains most sensitive to Mn2+ were those defective in base excision repair, glutathione synthesis, and superoxide dismutase mutants. Mn2+ caused a dose-dependent increase in the accumulation of mutations using the CAN1 and lys2-10A mutator assays. The spectrum of CAN1 mutants indicates that exposure to Mn results in accumulation of base substitutions and frameshift mutations. The sensitivity of cells to Mn2+ as well as its mutagenic effect was reduced by N-acetylcysteine, glutathione, and Mg2+. These data suggest that Mn2+ causes oxidative DNA damage that requires base excision repair for processing and that Mn interferes with polymerase fidelity. The status of base excision repair may provide a biomarker for the sensitivity of individuals to manganese. PMID:24282812

  8. Enhancement of cloned gene product synthesis via autoselection in recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    SciTech Connect

    Napp, S.J.; Da Silva, N.A. )

    1993-04-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae autoselection strains with mutations in the ura3, fur1, and urid-k genes have been obtained through a sequential isolation procedure. The effects of medium enrichment on growth and cloned gene product synthesis were examined in batch culture for two autoselection strains. The plasmid gene product [beta]-galactosidase was under the control of the yeast GAL1 promoter, and two methods of induction were employed; one strain was induced via temperature shift while the other was induced by galactose addition. Three nutrient media were investigated: a lean selective medium (SD), a richer semidefined medium (SDC), and a rich complex medium (YPD). Plasmid instability and mutation reversion were not problems for the autoselection strains, even in uracil-containing medium. Short-term plasmid stabilities were approximately 90% in all three media tested. During continuous culture of the autoselection temperature-sensitive strain, long-term plasmid stability was excellent and [beta]-galactosidase expression remained high after more than 25 residence times under inducing conditions. In contrast, both [beta]-galactosidase specific activity and plasmid stability decreased linearly with time for an analogous nonautoselection strain. The introduced fur1 and urid-k mutations were very stable; after more than 50 generation of growth in complex medium, stability values of 99-100% were measured.

  9. cis-acting components in the replication origin from ribosomal DNA of Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed Central

    Miller, C A; Kowalski, D

    1993-01-01

    The ribosomal DNA (rDNA) repeats of Saccharomyces cerevisiae contain an autonomously replicating sequence (ARS) that colocalizes with a chromosomal origin of replication. We show that a minimal sequence necessary for full ARS function corresponds to a 107-bp rDNA fragment which contains three 10-of-11-bp matches to the ARS consensus sequence. Point mutations in only one of the 10-of-11-bp matches, GTTTAT GTTTT, inactivate the rDNA ARS, indicating that this consensus sequence is essential. A perfect match to a revised ARS consensus is present but not essential. Sequences up to 9 bp 5' from the essential consensus are dispensable. A broad DNA region directly 3' to the essential consensus is required and is easily unwound as indicated by: (i) hypersensitivity to nicking of an approximately 100-bp region by mung bean nuclease in a negatively supercoiled plasmid and (ii) helical instability determined by thermodynamic analysis of the nucleotide sequence. A correlation between DNA helical instability and replication efficiency of wild-type and mutated ribosomal ARS derivatives suggests that a broad region 3' to the essential ARS consensus functions as a DNA unwinding element. Certain point mutations that do not stabilize the DNA helix in the 3' region but reduce ARS efficiency reveal an element distinct from, but overlapping, the DNA unwinding element. The nucleotide sequence of the functionally important constituents in the ARS appears to be conserved among the rDNA repeats in the chromosome. Images PMID:8355687

  10. Roles of Catalase and Trehalose in the Protection from Hydrogen Peroxide Toxicity in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Nishimoto, Takuto; Watanabe, Takeru; Furuta, Masakazu; Kataoka, Michihiko; Kishida, Masao

    2016-01-01

    The roles of catalase and trehalose in Saccharomyces cerevisiae subject to hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) treatment were examined by measuring the catalase activity and intracellular trehalose levels in mutants lacking catalase or trehalose synthetase. Intracellular trehalose was elevated but the survival rate after H2O2 treatment remained low in mutants with deletion of the Catalase T gene. On the other hand, deletion of the trehalose synthetase gene increased the catalase activity in mutated yeast to levels higher than those in the wild-type strain, and these mutants exhibited some degree of tolerance to H2O2 treatment. These results suggest that Catalase T is critical in the yeast response to oxidative damage caused by H2O2 treatment, but trehalose also plays a role in protection against H2O2 treatment. PMID:27667523

  11. Accelerated alcoholic fermentation caused by defective gene expression related to glucose derepression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Daisuke; Hashimoto, Naoya; Mizuno, Megumi; Zhou, Yan; Akao, Takeshi; Shimoi, Hitoshi

    2013-01-01

    Sake yeast strains maintain high fermentation rates, even after the stationary growth phase begins. To determine the molecular mechanisms underlying this advantageous brewing property, we compared the gene expression profiles of sake and laboratory yeast strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae during the stationary growth phase. DNA microarray analysis revealed that the sake yeast strain examined had defects in expression of the genes related to glucose derepression mediated by transcription factors Adr1p and Cat8p. Furthermore, deletion of the ADR1 and CAT8 genes slightly but statistically significantly improved the fermentation rate of a laboratory yeast strain. We also identified two loss-of-function mutations in the ADR1 gene of existing sake yeast strains. Taken together, these results indicate that the gene expression program associated with glucose derepression for yeast acts as an impediment to effective alcoholic fermentation under glucose-rich fermentative conditions.

  12. Involvement of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae hydrolase Ldh1p in lipid homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Debelyy, Mykhaylo O; Thoms, Sven; Connerth, Melanie; Daum, Günther; Erdmann, Ralf

    2011-06-01

    Here, we report the functional characterization of the newly identified lipid droplet hydrolase Ldh1p. Recombinant Ldh1p exhibits esterase and triacylglycerol lipase activities. Mutation of the serine in the hydrolase/lipase motif GXSXG completely abolished esterase activity. Ldh1p is required for the maintenance of a steady-state level of the nonpolar and polar lipids of lipid droplets. A characteristic feature of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae Δldh1 strain is the appearance of giant lipid droplets and an excessive accumulation of nonpolar lipids and phospholipids upon growth on medium containing oleic acid as a sole carbon source. Ldh1p is thought to play a role in maintaining the lipid homeostasis in yeast by regulating both phospholipid and nonpolar lipid levels. PMID:21478434

  13. A DNA Sequence Element That Advances Replication Origin Activation Time in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Pohl, Thomas J.; Kolor, Katherine; Fangman, Walton L.; Brewer, Bonita J.; Raghuraman, M. K.

    2013-01-01

    Eukaryotic origins of DNA replication undergo activation at various times in S-phase, allowing the genome to be duplicated in a temporally staggered fashion. In the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the activation times of individual origins are not intrinsic to those origins but are instead governed by surrounding sequences. Currently, there are two examples of DNA sequences that are known to advance origin activation time, centromeres and forkhead transcription factor binding sites. By combining deletion and linker scanning mutational analysis with two-dimensional gel electrophoresis to measure fork direction in the context of a two-origin plasmid, we have identified and characterized a 19- to 23-bp and a larger 584-bp DNA sequence that are capable of advancing origin activation time. PMID:24022751

  14. Study on DNA Damage Induced by Neon Beam Irradiation in Saccharomyces Cerevisiae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Dong; Li, Wenjian; Wu, Xin; Wang, Jufang; Ma, Shuang; Liu, Qingfang; He, Jinyu; Jing, Xigang; Ding, Nan; Dai, Zhongying; Zhou, Jianping

    2010-12-01

    Yeast strain Saccharomyces cerevisiae was irradiated with different doses of 85 MeV/u 20Ne10+ to investigate DNA damage induced by heavy ion beam in eukaryotic microorganism. The survival rate, DNA double strand breaks (DSBs) and DNA polymorphic were tested after irradiation. The results showed that there were substantial differences in DNA between the control and irradiated samples. At the dose of 40 Gy, the yeast cell survival rate approached 50%, DNA double-strand breaks were barely detectable, and significant DNA polymorphism was observed. The alcohol dehydrogenase II gene was amplified and sequenced. It was observed that base changes in the mutant were mainly transversions of T→G and T→C. It can be concluded that heavy ion beam irradiation can lead to change in single gene and may be an effective way to induce mutation.

  15. Characterization of Avt1p as a vacuolar proton/amino acid antiporter in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Tone, Junichi; Yoshimura, Ayumi; Manabe, Kunio; Murao, Nami; Sekito, Takayuki; Kawano-Kawada, Miyuki; Kakinuma, Yoshimi

    2015-01-01

    Several genes for vacuolar amino acid transport were reported in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, but have not well been investigated. We characterized AVT1, a member of the AVT vacuolar transporter family, which is reported to be involved in lifespan of yeast. ATP-dependent uptake of isoleucine and histidine by the vacuolar vesicles of an AVT exporter mutant was lost by introducing avt1∆ mutation. Uptake activity was inhibited by the V-ATPase inhibitor: concanamycin A and a protonophore. Isoleucine uptake was inhibited by various neutral amino acids and histidine, but not by γ-aminobutyric acid, glutamate, and aspartate. V-ATPase-dependent acidification of the vesicles was declined by the addition of isoleucine or histidine, depending upon Avt1p. Taken together with the data of the amino acid contents of vacuolar fractions in cells, the results suggested that Avt1p is a proton/amino acid antiporter important for vacuolar compartmentalization of various amino acids.

  16. Interplay between the cis-prenyltransferases and polyprenol reductase in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Szkopinska, Anna; Swiezewska, Ewa; Rytka, Joanna

    2006-01-01

    Dolichol formation is examined in three Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains with mutations in the ERG20 gene encoding farnesyl diphosphate synthase (mevalonic acid pathway) and/or the ERG9 gene encoding squalene synthase (sterol synthesis pathway) differing in the amount and chain length of the polyisoprenoids synthesized. Our results suggest that the activities of two yeast cis-prenyltransferases Rer2p and Srt1p and polyprenol reductase are not co-regulated and that reductase may be the rate-limiting enzyme in dolichol synthesis if the amount of polyisoprenoids synthesized exceeds a certain level. We demonstrate that reductase preferentially acts on typical polyprenols with 13-18 isoprene residues but can reduce much longer polyprenols with even 32 isoprene residues.

  17. Activation of cycasin to a mutagen for Saccharomyces cerevisiae by rat intestinal flora.

    PubMed Central

    Mayer, V W; Goin, C J

    1983-01-01

    Genetic test systems involving microorganisms and liver enzyme preparations may be insufficient to detect compounds that require breakdown by enzymes provided by the microbial flora of the intestinal tract. A method is described for providing such activation and for simultaneously testing the potential genetic activity of breakdown products in an indicator organism. Parabiotic chambers containing Saccharomyces cerevisiae genetic test organisms in one chamber were separated by a membrane filter from rat cecal organisms and test chemical contained in the other chamber. The genetic activities of cycasin breakdown products for mutation, gene conversion, and mitotic crossing-over in samples incubated aerobically are reported. Samples containing cycasin alone had a small but clearly increased frequency of genetic damage. Samples containing rat cecal organisms without cycasin showed no increase in genetic activity. Anaerobic incubation resulted in no increase in genetic activity in any of the samples. PMID:6338830

  18. Regulation of allantoate transport in wild-type and mutant strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed Central

    Chisholm, V T; Lea, H Z; Rai, R; Cooper, T G

    1987-01-01

    Accumulation of intracellular allantoin and allantoate is mediated by two distinct active transport systems in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Allantoin transport (DAL4 gene) is inducible, while allantoate uptake is constitutive (it occurs at full levels in the absence of any allantoate-related compounds from the culture medium). Both systems appear to be sensitive to nitrogen catabolite repression, feedback inhibition, and trans-inhibition. Mutants (dal5) that lack allantoate transport have been isolated. These strains also exhibit a 60% loss of allantoin transport capability. Conversely, dal4 mutants previously described are unable to transport allantoin and exhibit a 50% loss of allantoate transport. We interpret the pleiotropic behavior of the dal4 and dal5 mutations as deriving from a functional interaction between elements of the two transport systems. PMID:3549700

  19. Nikkomycin Z supersensitivity of an echinocandin-resistant mutant of Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed Central

    el-Sherbeini, M; Clemas, J A

    1995-01-01

    Echinocandins and nikkomycins are antibiotics that inhibit the synthesis of the essential cell wall polysaccharide polymers 1,3-beta-glucan and chitin, respectively. Some 40 echinocandin-resistant Saccharomyces cerevisiae mutants were isolated and assigned to five complementation groups. Four complementation groups contained mutants with 38 recessive mutations. The fifth complementation group comprised mutants with one dominant mutation, etg1-3 (strain MS10), and one semidominant mutation, etg1-4 (strain MS14). MS10 and MS14 are resistant to the semisynthetic pneumocandin B, L-733,560, and to aculeacin A but not to papulacandin. In addition, microsomal membranes of both mutant strains contain 1,3-beta-glucan synthase activity that is resistant to L-733,560 but not to papulacandin. Furthermore, MS14 is also supersensitive to nikkomycin Z. The echinocandin resistance and the nikkomycin Z supersensitivity of MS14 cosegregated in genetic crosses. The wild-type gene (designated ETG1 [C. Douglas, J. A. Marrinan, and M. B. Kurtz, J. Bacteriol. 176:5686-5696, 1994, and C. Douglas, F. Foor, J. A. Marrinan, N. Morin, J. B. Nielsen, A. Dahl, P. Mazur, W. Baginsky, W. Li, M. El-Sherbeini, J. A. Clemas, S. Mandala, B. R. Frommer, and M. B. Kurtz, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, in press]) was isolated from a genomic library in the plasmid YCp50 by functional complementation of the nikkomycin Z supersensitivity phenotype. The cloned DNA also partially complements the echinocandin resistance phenotype, indicating that the two phenotypes are due to single mutations. The existence of a single mutation, in MS14, simultaneously affecting sensitivity to a glucan synthase inhibitor and a chitin synthase inhibitor implies a possible interaction between the two polymers at the cell surface. PMID:7695307

  20. Cloning of the RNA8 gene of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, detection of the RNA8 protein, and demonstration that it is essential for nuclear pre-mRNA splicing.

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, S P; Lossky, M; Beggs, J D

    1988-01-01

    Strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae that bear the temperature-sensitive mutation rna8-1 are defective in nuclear pre-mRNA splicing at the restrictive temperature (36 degrees C), suggesting that the RNA8 gene encodes a component of the splicing machinery. The RNA8 gene was cloned by complementation of the temperature-sensitive growth defect of an rna8-1 mutant strain. Integrative transformation and gene disruption experiments confirmed the identity of the cloned DNA and demonstrated that the RNA8 gene encodes an essential function. The RNA8 gene was shown to be represented once per S. cerevisiae haploid genome and to encode a low-abundance transcript of approximately 7.4 kilobases. By using antisera raised against beta-galactosidase-RNA8 fusion proteins, the RNA8 gene product was identified in S. cerevisiae cell extracts as a low-abundance protein of approximately 260 kilodaltons. Immunodepletion of the RNA8 protein specifically abolished the activity of S. cerevisiae in vitro splicing extracts, confirming that RNA8 plays an essential role in splicing. Images PMID:2835658

  1. Inactivation of NMD increases viability of sup45 nonsense mutants in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Chabelskaya, Svetlana; Gryzina, Valentina; Moskalenko, Svetlana; Le Goff, Catherine; Zhouravleva, Galina

    2007-01-01

    Background The nonsense-mediated mRNA decay (NMD) pathway promotes the rapid degradation of mRNAs containing premature termination codons (PTCs). In yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the activity of the NMD pathway depends on the recognition of the PTC by the translational machinery. Translation termination factors eRF1 (Sup45) and eRF3 (Sup35) participate not only in the last step of protein synthesis but also in mRNA degradation and translation initiation via interaction with such proteins as Pab1, Upf1, Upf2 and Upf3. Results In this work we have used previously isolated sup45 mutants of S. cerevisiae to characterize degradation of aberrant mRNA in conditions when translation termination is impaired. We have sequenced his7-1, lys9-A21 and trp1-289 alleles which are frequently used for analysis of nonsense suppression. We have established that sup45 nonsense and missense mutations lead to accumulation of his7-1 mRNA and CYH2 pre-mRNA. Remarkably, deletion of the UPF1 gene suppresses some sup45 phenotypes. In particular, sup45-n upf1Δ double mutants were less temperature sensitive, and more resistant to paromomycin than sup45 single mutants. In addition, deletion of either UPF2 or UPF3 restored viability of sup45-n double mutants. Conclusion This is the first demonstration that sup45 mutations do not only change translation fidelity but also acts by causing a change in mRNA stability. PMID:17705828

  2. Roles for sphingolipids in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Dickson, Robert C

    2010-01-01

    Studies using Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the common baker's or brewer's yeast, have progressed over the past twenty years from knowing which sphingolipids are present in cells and a basic outline of how they are made to a complete or nearly complete directory of the genes that catalyze their anabolism and catabolism. In addition, cellular processes that depend upon sphingolipids have been identified including protein trafficking/exocytosis, endocytosis and actin cytoskeleton dynamics, membrane microdomains, calcium signaling, regulation of transcription and translation, cell cycle control, stress resistance, nutrient uptake and aging. These will be summarized here along with new data not previously reviewed. Advances in our knowledge of sphingolipids and their roles in yeast are impressive but molecular mechanisms remain elusive and are a primary challenge for further progress in understanding the specific functions of sphingolipids. PMID:20919657

  3. Transcriptional Regulatory Networks in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Tong Ihn; Rinaldi, Nicola J.; Robert, François; Odom, Duncan T.; Bar-Joseph, Ziv; Gerber, Georg K.; Hannett, Nancy M.; Harbison, Christopher T.; Thompson, Craig M.; Simon, Itamar; Zeitlinger, Julia; Jennings, Ezra G.; Murray, Heather L.; Gordon, D. Benjamin; Ren, Bing; Wyrick, John J.; Tagne, Jean-Bosco; Volkert, Thomas L.; Fraenkel, Ernest; Gifford, David K.; Young, Richard A.

    2002-10-01

    We have determined how most of the transcriptional regulators encoded in the eukaryote Saccharomyces cerevisiae associate with genes across the genome in living cells. Just as maps of metabolic networks describe the potential pathways that may be used by a cell to accomplish metabolic processes, this network of regulator-gene interactions describes potential pathways yeast cells can use to regulate global gene expression programs. We use this information to identify network motifs, the simplest units of network architecture, and demonstrate that an automated process can use motifs to assemble a transcriptional regulatory network structure. Our results reveal that eukaryotic cellular functions are highly connected through networks of transcriptional regulators that regulate other transcriptional regulators.

  4. Synchronization of the Budding Yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Foltman, Magdalena; Molist, Iago; Sanchez-Diaz, Alberto

    2016-01-01

    A number of model organisms have provided the basis for our understanding of the eukaryotic cell cycle. These model organisms are generally much easier to manipulate than mammalian cells and as such provide amenable tools for extensive genetic and biochemical analysis. One of the most common model organisms used to study the cell cycle is the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. This model provides the ability to synchronise cells efficiently at different stages of the cell cycle, which in turn opens up the possibility for extensive and detailed study of mechanisms regulating the eukaryotic cell cycle. Here, we describe methods in which budding yeast cells are arrested at a particular phase of the cell cycle and then released from the block, permitting the study of molecular mechanisms that drive the progression through the cell cycle.

  5. A global topology map of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae membrane proteome.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyun; Melén, Karin; Osterberg, Marie; von Heijne, Gunnar

    2006-07-25

    The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is, arguably, the best understood eukaryotic model organism, yet comparatively little is known about its membrane proteome. Here, we report the cloning and expression of 617 S. cerevisiae membrane proteins as fusions to a C-terminal topology reporter and present experimentally constrained topology models for 546 proteins. By homology, the experimental topology information can be extended to approximately 15,000 membrane proteins from 38 fully sequenced eukaryotic genomes.

  6. Recovery of Saccharomyces cerevisiae from ethanol - induced growth inhibition

    SciTech Connect

    Walker-Caprioglio, H.M.; Rodriguez, R.J.; Parks, L.W.

    1985-09-01

    Ethanol caused altered mobility of the lipophilic probe 1,6-diphenyl-1,3,5-hexatriene in plasma membrane preparations of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Because lipids had been shown to protect yeast cells against ethanol toxicity, sterols, fatty acids, proteins, and combinations of these were tested; however, protection from growth inhibition was not seen. Ethanol-induced, prolonged lag periods and diminished growth rates in S. cerevisiae were reduced by an autoconditioning of the medium by the inoculum.

  7. Multiplicity of the Amino Acid Permeases in Saccharomyces cerevisiae IV. Evidence for a General Amino Acid Permease

    PubMed Central

    Grenson, M.; Hou, C.; Crabeel, M.

    1970-01-01

    Kinetic and genetic evidences are presented to show that, in addition to specific amino acid permeases, Saccharomyces cerevisiae has a general amino acid permease which catalyzes the transport of basic and neutral amino acids, but most probably not that of proline. The general amino acid permease appears to be constitutive, and its activity is inhibited when ammonium ions are added to the culture medium. A mutant which has lost the general amino acid permease activity was isolated. Its mutation, named gap (general amino acid permease), is not allelic to the aap (amino acid permease) mutation of Surdin et al., which has a quite different phenotype and cannot be considered as having selectively lost the general amino acid permease activity. PMID:5474888

  8. The Prevention of Repeat-Associated Deletions in Saccharomyces Cerevisiae by Mismatch Repair Depends on Size and Origin of Deletions

    PubMed Central

    Tran, H. T.; Gordenin, D. A.; Resnick, M. A.

    1996-01-01

    We have investigated the effects of mismatch repair on 1- to 61-bp deletions in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The deletions are likely to involve unpaired loop intermediates resulting from DNA polymerase slippage. The mutator effects of mutations in the DNA polymerase δ (POL3) gene and the recombinational repair RAD52 gene were studied in combination with mismatch repair defects. The pol3-t mutation increased up to 1000-fold the rate of extended (7-61 bp) but not of 1-bp deletions. In a rad52 null mutant only the 1-bp deletions were increased (12-fold). The mismatch repair mutations pms1, msh2 and msh3 did not affect 31- and 61-bp deletions in the pol3-t but increased the rates of 7- and 1-bp deletions. We propose that loops less than or equal to seven bases generated during replication are subject to mismatch repair by the PMS1, MSH2, MSH3 system and that it cannot act on loops >=31 bases. In contrast to the pol3-t, the enhancement of 1-bp deletions in a rad52 mutant is not altered by a pms1 mutation. Thus, mismatch repair appears to be specific to errors of DNA synthesis generated during semiconservative replication. PMID:8844147

  9. Analysis of Polygenic Mutants Suggests a Role for Mediator in Regulating Transcriptional Activation Distance in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Reavey, Caitlin T.; Hickman, Mark J.; Dobi, Krista C.; Botstein, David; Winston, Fred

    2015-01-01

    Studies of natural populations of many organisms have shown that traits are often complex, caused by contributions of mutations in multiple genes. In contrast, genetic studies in the laboratory primarily focus on studying the phenotypes caused by mutations in a single gene. However, the single mutation approach may be limited with respect to the breadth and degree of new phenotypes that can be found. We have taken the approach of isolating complex, or polygenic mutants in the lab to study the regulation of transcriptional activation distance in yeast. While most aspects of eukaryotic transcription are conserved from yeast to human, transcriptional activation distance is not. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the upstream activating sequence (UAS) is generally found within 450 base pairs of the transcription start site (TSS) and when the UAS is moved too far away, activation no longer occurs. In contrast, metazoan enhancers can activate from as far as several hundred kilobases from the TSS. Previously, we identified single mutations that allow transcription activation to occur at a greater-than-normal distance from the GAL1 UAS. As the single mutant phenotypes were weak, we have now isolated polygenic mutants that possess strong long-distance phenotypes. By identification of the causative mutations we have accounted for most of the heritability of the phenotype in each strain and have provided evidence that the Mediator coactivator complex plays both positive and negative roles in the regulation of transcription activation distance. PMID:26281848

  10. Analysis of Polygenic Mutants Suggests a Role for Mediator in Regulating Transcriptional Activation Distance in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Reavey, Caitlin T; Hickman, Mark J; Dobi, Krista C; Botstein, David; Winston, Fred

    2015-10-01

    Studies of natural populations of many organisms have shown that traits are often complex, caused by contributions of mutations in multiple genes. In contrast, genetic studies in the laboratory primarily focus on studying the phenotypes caused by mutations in a single gene. However, the single mutation approach may be limited with respect to the breadth and degree of new phenotypes that can be found. We have taken the approach of isolating complex, or polygenic mutants in the lab to study the regulation of transcriptional activation distance in yeast. While most aspects of eukaryotic transcription are conserved from yeast to human, transcriptional activation distance is not. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the upstream activating sequence (UAS) is generally found within 450 base pairs of the transcription start site (TSS) and when the UAS is moved too far away, activation no longer occurs. In contrast, metazoan enhancers can activate from as far as several hundred kilobases from the TSS. Previously, we identified single mutations that allow transcription activation to occur at a greater-than-normal distance from the GAL1 UAS. As the single mutant phenotypes were weak, we have now isolated polygenic mutants that possess strong long-distance phenotypes. By identification of the causative mutations we have accounted for most of the heritability of the phenotype in each strain and have provided evidence that the Mediator coactivator complex plays both positive and negative roles in the regulation of transcription activation distance.

  11. The Saccharomyces Cerevisiae Spt8 Gene Encodes a Very Acidic Protein That Is Functionally Related to Spt3 and Tata-Binding Protein

    PubMed Central

    Eisenmann, D. M.; Chapon, C.; Roberts, S. M.; Dollard, C.; Winston, F.

    1994-01-01

    Mutations in the Saccharomyces cerevisiae SPT8 gene were previously isolated as suppressors of retrotransposon insertion mutations in the 5' regions of the HIS4 and LYS2 genes. Mutations in SPT8 confer phenotypes similar to those caused by particular mutations in SPT15, which encodes the TATA-binding protein (TBP). These phenotypes are also similar to those caused by mutations in the SPT3 gene, which encodes a protein that directly interacts with TBP. We have now cloned and sequenced the SPT8 gene and have shown that it encodes a predicted protein of 602 amino acids with an extremely acidic amino terminus. In addition, the predicted SPT8 amino acid sequence contains one copy of a sequence motif found in multiple copies in a number of other eukaryotic proteins, including the β subunit of heterotrimeric G proteins. To investigate further the relationship between SPT8, SPT3 and TBP, we have analyzed the effect of an spt8 null mutation in combination with different spt3 and spt15 mutations. This genetic analysis has shown that an spt8 deletion mutation is suppressed by particular spt3 alleles. Taken together with previous results, these data suggest that the SPT8 protein is required, directly or indirectly, for TBP function at particular promoters and that the role of SPT8 may be to promote a functional interaction between SPT3 and TBP. PMID:8088510

  12. Identification of auxotrophic mutants of the yeast Kluyveromyces marxianus by non-homologous end joining-mediated integrative transformation with genes from Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Yarimizu, Tohru; Nonklang, Sanom; Nakamura, Junpei; Tokuda, Shuya; Nakagawa, Takaaki; Lorreungsil, Sasithorn; Sutthikhumpha, Surasit; Pukahuta, Charida; Kitagawa, Takao; Nakamura, Mikiko; Cha-Aim, Kamonchai; Limtong, Savitree; Hoshida, Hisashi; Akada, Rinji

    2013-12-01

    The isolation and application of auxotrophic mutants for gene manipulations, such as genetic transformation, mating selection and tetrad analysis, form the basis of yeast genetics. For the development of these genetic methods in the thermotolerant fermentative yeast Kluyveromyces marxianus, we isolated a series of auxotrophic mutants with defects in amino acid or nucleic acid metabolism. To identify the mutated genes, linear DNA fragments of nutrient biosynthetic pathway genes were amplified from Saccharomyces cerevisiae chromosomal DNA and used to directly transform the K. marxianus auxotrophic mutants by random integration into chromosomes through non-homologous end joining (NHEJ). The appearance of transformant colonies indicated that the specific S. cerevisiae gene complemented the K. marxianus mutant. Using this interspecific complementation approach with linear PCR-amplified DNA, we identified auxotrophic mutations of ADE2, ADE5,7, ADE6, HIS2, HIS3, HIS4, HIS5, HIS6, HIS7, LYS1, LYS2, LYS4, LYS9, LEU1, LEU2, MET2, MET6, MET17, TRP3, TRP4 and TRP5 without the labour-intensive requirement of plasmid construction. Mating, sporulation and tetrad analysis techniques for K. marxianus were also established. With the identified auxotrophic mutant strains and S. cerevisiae genes as selective markers, NHEJ-mediated integrative transformation with PCR-amplified DNA is an attractive system for facilitating genetic analyses in the yeast K. marxianus.

  13. Evolutionary engineering of a glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase-negative, acetate-reducing Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain enables anaerobic growth at high glucose concentrations

    PubMed Central

    Guadalupe-Medina, Víctor; Metz, Benjamin; Oud, Bart; van Der Graaf, Charlotte M; Mans, Robert; Pronk, Jack T; van Maris, Antonius J A

    2014-01-01

    Glycerol production by Saccharomyces cerevisiae, which is required for redox-cofactor balancing in anaerobic cultures, causes yield reduction in industrial bioethanol production. Recently, glycerol formation in anaerobic S. cerevisiae cultures was eliminated by expressing Escherichia coli (acetylating) acetaldehyde dehydrogenase (encoded by mhpF) and simultaneously deleting the GPD1 and GPD2 genes encoding glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, thus coupling NADH reoxidation to reduction of acetate to ethanol. Gpd– strains are, however, sensitive to high sugar concentrations, which complicates industrial implementation of this metabolic engineering concept. In this study, laboratory evolution was used to improve osmotolerance of a Gpd– mhpF-expressing S. cerevisiae strain. Serial batch cultivation at increasing osmotic pressure enabled isolation of an evolved strain that grew anaerobically at 1 M glucose, at a specific growth rate of 0.12 h−1. The evolved strain produced glycerol at low concentrations (0.64 ± 0.33 g l−1). However, these glycerol concentrations were below 10% of those observed with a Gpd+ reference strain. Consequently, the ethanol yield on sugar increased from 79% of the theoretical maximum in the reference strain to 92% for the evolved strains. Genetic analysis indicated that osmotolerance under aerobic conditions required a single dominant chromosomal mutation, and one further mutation in the plasmid-borne mhpF gene for anaerobic growth. PMID:24004455

  14. Ethanol formation in adh0 mutants reveals the existence of a novel acetaldehyde-reducing activity in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed Central

    Drewke, C; Thielen, J; Ciriacy, M

    1990-01-01

    A strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been constructed which is deficient in the four alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) isozymes known at present. This strain (adh0), being irreversibly mutated in the genes ADH1, ADH3, and ADH4 and carrying a point mutation in the gene ADH2 coding for the glucose-repressible isozyme ADHII, still produces up to one third of the theoretical maximum yield of ethanol in a homofermentative conversion of glucose to ethanol. Analysis of the glucose metabolism of adh0 cells shows that the lack of all known ADH isozymes results in the formation of glycerol as a major fermentation product, accompanied by a significant production of acetaldehyde and acetate. Treatment of glucose-growing adh0 cells with the respiratory-chain inhibitor antimycin A leads to an immediate cessation of ethanol production, demonstrating that ethanol production in adh0 cells is dependent on mitochondrial electron transport. Reduction of acetaldehyde to ethanol in isolated mitochondria could also be demonstrated. This reduction is apparently linked to the oxidation of acetaldehyde to acetate. Preliminary data suggest that this novel type of ethanol formation in S. cerevisiae is associated with the inner mitochondrial membrane. Images PMID:2193925

  15. RagA is a functional homologue of S. cerevisiae Gtr1p involved in the Ran/Gsp1-GTPase pathway.

    PubMed

    Hirose, E; Nakashima, N; Sekiguchi, T; Nishimoto, T

    1998-01-01

    Human RagA and RagB is reported to be 52% identical to a putative GTPase of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Gtr1p. According to the reported nucleotide sequence, we amplified human RagA and RagBs cDNAs from the human B cell cDNA library with PCR. Both cDNAs rescued a cold sensitivity of S. cerevisiae, gtr1-11. Furthermore, we introduced into the cloned human RagA cDNA, the mutation 'T21L' corresponding to the gtr1-11 mutation which has been reported to suppress not only all of rcc1-, temperature-sensitive mutants of Ran/Gsp1p GTPase GDP/GTP-exchanging factor, but also rna1-1, a temperature-sensitive mutant of Ran/Gsp1p GTPase-activating protein. The resulting RagAgtr1-11 cDNA partially, but significantly, suppressed both rcc1- and rna1-1 mutations. These results indicated that RagA and RagBs are functional homologues of S. cervisiae Gtr1p. Interestingly, while wild-type human RagA and RagBs were localized within the cytoplasm, similar to S. cerevisiae Gtr1p, the mutated human RagAgtr1-11 corresponding to a dominant negative form of RagA was distributed in discrete speckles in the nucleus, being localized side by side with SC-35, a non-snRNP of the splicing complex. In contrast, a dominant positive form of RagA, Q66L was localized in the cytoplasm. Thus, RagA was suggested to shuttle between the cytoplasm and the nucleus, depending on the bound nucleotide state. PMID:9394008

  16. Force Sensitivity in Saccharomyces cerevisiae Flocculins.

    PubMed

    Chan, Cho X J; El-Kirat-Chatel, Sofiane; Joseph, Ivor G; Jackson, Desmond N; Ramsook, Caleen B; Dufrêne, Yves F; Lipke, Peter N

    2016-01-01

    Many fungal adhesins have short, β-aggregation-prone sequences that play important functional roles, and in the Candida albicans adhesin Als5p, these sequences cluster the adhesins after exposure to shear force. Here, we report that Saccharomyces cerevisiae flocculins Flo11p and Flo1p have similar β-aggregation-prone sequences and are similarly stimulated by shear force, despite being nonhomologous. Shear from vortex mixing induced the formation of small flocs in cells expressing either adhesin. After the addition of Ca(2+), yeast cells from vortex-sheared populations showed greatly enhanced flocculation and displayed more pronounced thioflavin-bright surface nanodomains. At high concentrations, amyloidophilic dyes inhibited Flo1p- and Flo11p-mediated agar invasion and the shear-induced increase in flocculation. Consistent with these results, atomic force microscopy of Flo11p showed successive force-distance peaks characteristic of sequentially unfolding tandem repeat domains, like Flo1p and Als5p. Flo11p-expressing cells bound together through homophilic interactions with adhesion forces of up to 700 pN and rupture lengths of up to 600 nm. These results are consistent with the potentiation of yeast flocculation by shear-induced formation of high-avidity domains of clustered adhesins at the cell surface, similar to the activation of Candida albicans adhesin Als5p. Thus, yeast adhesins from three independent gene families use similar force-dependent interactions to drive cell adhesion. IMPORTANCE The Saccharomyces cerevisiae flocculins mediate the formation of cellular aggregates and biofilm-like mats, useful in clearing yeast from fermentations. An important property of fungal adhesion proteins, including flocculins, is the ability to form catch bonds, i.e., bonds that strengthen under tension. This strengthening is based, at least in part, on increased avidity of binding due to clustering of adhesins in cell surface nanodomains. This clustering depends on

  17. Force Sensitivity in Saccharomyces cerevisiae Flocculins

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Cho X. J.; El-Kirat-Chatel, Sofiane; Joseph, Ivor G.; Jackson, Desmond N.; Ramsook, Caleen B.; Dufrêne, Yves F.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Many fungal adhesins have short, β-aggregation-prone sequences that play important functional roles, and in the Candida albicans adhesin Als5p, these sequences cluster the adhesins after exposure to shear force. Here, we report that Saccharomyces cerevisiae flocculins Flo11p and Flo1p have similar β-aggregation-prone sequences and are similarly stimulated by shear force, despite being nonhomologous. Shear from vortex mixing induced the formation of small flocs in cells expressing either adhesin. After the addition of Ca2+, yeast cells from vortex-sheared populations showed greatly enhanced flocculation and displayed more pronounced thioflavin-bright surface nanodomains. At high concentrations, amyloidophilic dyes inhibited Flo1p- and Flo11p-mediated agar invasion and the shear-induced increase in flocculation. Consistent with these results, atomic force microscopy of Flo11p showed successive force-distance peaks characteristic of sequentially unfolding tandem repeat domains, like Flo1p and Als5p. Flo11p-expressing cells bound together through homophilic interactions with adhesion forces of up to 700 pN and rupture lengths of up to 600 nm. These results are consistent with the potentiation of yeast flocculation by shear-induced formation of high-avidity domains of clustered adhesins at the cell surface, similar to the activation of Candida albicans adhesin Als5p. Thus, yeast adhesins from three independent gene families use similar force-dependent interactions to drive cell adhesion. IMPORTANCE The Saccharomyces cerevisiae flocculins mediate the formation of cellular aggregates and biofilm-like mats, useful in clearing yeast from fermentations. An important property of fungal adhesion proteins, including flocculins, is the ability to form catch bonds, i.e., bonds that strengthen under tension. This strengthening is based, at least in part, on increased avidity of binding due to clustering of adhesins in cell surface nanodomains. This clustering depends

  18. Effects of a mitochondrial mutator mutation in yeast POS5 NADH kinase on mitochondrial nucleotides.

    PubMed

    Wheeler, Linda J; Mathews, Christopher K

    2012-09-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae contains three NADH/NAD(+) kinases, one of which is localized in mitochondria and phosphorylates NADH in preference to NAD(+). Strand et al. reported that a yeast mutation in POS5, which encodes the mitochondrial NADH kinase, is a mutator, specific for mitochondrial genes (Strand, M. K., Stuart, G. R., Longley, M. J., Graziewicz, M. A., Dominick, O. C., and Copeland, W. C. (2003) Eukaryot. Cell 2, 809-820). Because of the involvement of NADPH in deoxyribonucleotide biosynthesis, we asked whether mitochondria in a pos5 deletion mutant contain abnormal deoxyribonucleoside triphosphate (dNTP) pools. We found the pools of the four dNTPs to be more than doubled in mutant mitochondrial extracts relative to wild-type mitochondrial extracts. This might partly explain the mitochondrial mutator phenotype. However, the loss of antioxidant protection is also likely to be significant. To this end, we measured pyridine nucleotide pools in mutant and wild-type mitochondrial extracts and found NADPH levels to be diminished by ∼4-fold in Δpos5 mitochondrial extracts, with NADP(+) diminished to a lesser degree. Our data suggest that both dNTP abnormalities and lack of antioxidant protection contribute to elevated mitochondrial gene mutagenesis in cells lacking the mitochondrial NADH kinase. The data also confirm previous reports of the specific function of Pos5p in mitochondrial NADP(+) and NADPH biosynthesis.

  19. Functional profiling of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae genome.

    PubMed

    Giaever, Guri; Chu, Angela M; Ni, Li; Connelly, Carla; Riles, Linda; Véronneau, Steeve; Dow, Sally; Lucau-Danila, Ankuta; Anderson, Keith; André, Bruno; Arkin, Adam P; Astromoff, Anna; El-Bakkoury, Mohamed; Bangham, Rhonda; Benito, Rocio; Brachat, Sophie; Campanaro, Stefano; Curtiss, Matt; Davis, Karen; Deutschbauer, Adam; Entian, Karl-Dieter; Flaherty, Patrick; Foury, Francoise; Garfinkel, David J; Gerstein, Mark; Gotte, Deanna; Güldener, Ulrich; Hegemann, Johannes H; Hempel, Svenja; Herman, Zelek; Jaramillo, Daniel F; Kelly, Diane E; Kelly, Steven L; Kötter, Peter; LaBonte, Darlene; Lamb, David C; Lan, Ning; Liang, Hong; Liao, Hong; Liu, Lucy; Luo, Chuanyun; Lussier, Marc; Mao, Rong; Menard, Patrice; Ooi, Siew Loon; Revuelta, Jose L; Roberts, Christopher J; Rose, Matthias; Ross-Macdonald, Petra; Scherens, Bart; Schimmack, Greg; Shafer, Brenda; Shoemaker, Daniel D; Sookhai-Mahadeo, Sharon; Storms, Reginald K; Strathern, Jeffrey N; Valle, Giorgio; Voet, Marleen; Volckaert, Guido; Wang, Ching-yun; Ward, Teresa R; Wilhelmy, Julie; Winzeler, Elizabeth A; Yang, Yonghong; Yen, Grace; Youngman, Elaine; Yu, Kexin; Bussey, Howard; Boeke, Jef D; Snyder, Michael; Philippsen, Peter; Davis, Ronald W; Johnston, Mark

    2002-07-25

    Determining the effect of gene deletion is a fundamental approach to understanding gene function. Conventional genetic screens exhibit biases, and genes contributing to a phenotype are often missed. We systematically constructed a nearly complete collection of gene-deletion mutants (96% of annotated open reading frames, or ORFs) of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. DNA sequences dubbed 'molecular bar codes' uniquely identify each strain, enabling their growth to be analysed in parallel and the fitness contribution of each gene to be quantitatively assessed by hybridization to high-density oligonucleotide arrays. We show that previously known and new genes are necessary for optimal growth under six well-studied conditions: high salt, sorbitol, galactose, pH 8, minimal medium and nystatin treatment. Less than 7% of genes that exhibit a significant increase in messenger RNA expression are also required for optimal growth in four of the tested conditions. Our results validate the yeast gene-deletion collection as a valuable resource for functional genomics.

  20. Sugar and Glycerol Transport in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Bisson, Linda F; Fan, Qingwen; Walker, Gordon A

    2016-01-01

    In Saccharomyces cerevisiae the process of transport of sugar substrates into the cell comprises a complex network of transporters and interacting regulatory mechanisms. Members of the large family of hexose (HXT) transporters display uptake efficiencies consistent with their environmental expression and play physiological roles in addition to feeding the glycolytic pathway. Multiple glucose-inducing and glucose-independent mechanisms serve to regulate expression of the sugar transporters in yeast assuring that expression levels and transporter activity are coordinated with cellular metabolism and energy needs. The expression of sugar transport activity is modulated by other nutritional and environmental factors that may override glucose-generated signals. Transporter expression and activity is regulated transcriptionally, post-transcriptionally and post-translationally. Recent studies have expanded upon this suite of regulatory mechanisms to include transcriptional expression fine tuning mediated by antisense RNA and prion-based regulation of transcription. Much remains to be learned about cell biology from the continued analysis of this dynamic process of substrate acquisition. PMID:26721273

  1. Sugar and Glycerol Transport in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Bisson, Linda F; Fan, Qingwen; Walker, Gordon A

    2016-01-01

    In Saccharomyces cerevisiae the process of transport of sugar substrates into the cell comprises a complex network of transporters and interacting regulatory mechanisms. Members of the large family of hexose (HXT) transporters display uptake efficiencies consistent with their environmental expression and play physiological roles in addition to feeding the glycolytic pathway. Multiple glucose-inducing and glucose-independent mechanisms serve to regulate expression of the sugar transporters in yeast assuring that expression levels and transporter activity are coordinated with cellular metabolism and energy needs. The expression of sugar transport activity is modulated by other nutritional and environmental factors that may override glucose-generated signals. Transporter expression and activity is regulated transcriptionally, post-transcriptionally and post-translationally. Recent studies have expanded upon this suite of regulatory mechanisms to include transcriptional expression fine tuning mediated by antisense RNA and prion-based regulation of transcription. Much remains to be learned about cell biology from the continued analysis of this dynamic process of substrate acquisition.

  2. Saccharomyces cerevisiae structural cell wall mannoprotein.

    PubMed

    Frevert, J; Ballou, C E

    1985-01-29

    A novel mannoprotein fraction with an average molecular weight of 180 000 has been isolated from Saccharomyces cerevisiae mnn9 mutant cell wall that was solubilized by beta-glucanase digestion. The same material could be extracted from purified wall fragments with 1% sodium dodecyl sulfate. The protein component, 12% by weight, is rich in proline, whereas the carbohydrate, mainly mannose, is about evenly distributed between asparagine and hydroxyamino acids. Endoglucosaminidase H digestion of the isolated mannoprotein reduced its average molecular weight to 150 000, but the mannoprotein, while still embedded in the cell wall, was inaccessible to the enzyme. Biosynthesis and translocation of the mannoprotein were investigated by following incorporation of [3H]proline into this fraction. In the presence of tunicamycin, both mnn9 and wild-type X2180 cells made a mannoprotein fraction with an average molecular weight of 140 000, whereas in the absence of the glycosylation inhibitor, the mnn9 mutant made material with a molecular weight of 180 000 and the mannoprotein made by wild-type cells was too large to penetrate the polyacrylamide gel. Although the cell wall mannoprotein was resistant to heat and proteolytic enzymes, attempts to isolate the carbohydrate-free component failed to yield any characteristic peptide material. PMID:3888262

  3. Copper transport in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    SciTech Connect

    Martinez, L.D.; Connelly, J.L.

    1987-05-01

    Biochemical processes involved in the movement of copper (Cu) into and out of the yeast Saccharomyces Cerevisiae have been investigated. Overall uptake of Cu was measured by disappearance of Cu from the reaction mixture by atomic absorption sensitive to 10/sup -10/M. The process of Cu influx is composed of a prerequisite binding and subsequent transport. The binding is non-energetic but is competitively inhibited by zinc(Zn). Transport is energetic as shown by an increased influx in the presence of added glucose. This process is prevented by 2,4-dinitrophenol(DNP). Cu influx is accompanied by an exchange for potassium(K) in a ratio of K:Cu=2:1. The process of Cu efflux involves a second type of binding site, probably of low affinity but large capacity. The presence of glucose causes the binding of extracellular Cu to these sites in a non-energy-dependent mechanism which prevents Cu efflux. Zn does not compete. DNP has no effect. The K:Cu ratio of 4:1 observed in the absence of glucose suggests a lowered net Cu uptake as a result of concomitant efflux activity. Finally, in the absence but not the presence of glucose, the pH of the extracellular solution increases. These observations are consistent with the idea that (a) yeast membrane has two Cu-binding sites, one of which participates in influx and one in efflux; (b) Cu exchanges with K during influx and with protons during efflux.

  4. Mutation accumulation and fitness in mutator subpopulations of Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Maharjan, Ram P; Liu, Bin; Li, Yang; Reeves, Peter R; Wang, Lei; Ferenci, Thomas

    2013-02-23

    Bacterial populations in clinical and laboratory settings contain a significant proportion of mutants with elevated mutation rates (mutators). Mutators have a particular advantage when multiple beneficial mutations are needed for fitness, as in antibiotic resistance. Nevertheless, high mutation rates potentially lead to increasing numbers of deleterious mutations and subsequently to the decreased fitness of mutators. To test how fitness changed with mutation accumulation, genome sequencing and fitness assays of nine Escherichia coli mutY mutators were undertaken in an evolving chemostat population at three time points. Unexpectedly, the fitness in members of the mutator subpopulation became constant despite a growing number of mutations over time. To test if the accumulated mutations affected fitness, we replaced each of the known beneficial mutations with wild-type alleles in a mutator isolate. We found that the other 25 accumulated mutations were not deleterious. Our results suggest that isolates with deleterious mutations are eliminated by competition in a continuous culture, leaving mutators with mostly neutral mutations. Interestingly, the mutator-non-mutator balance in the population reversed after the fitness plateau of mutators was reached, suggesting that the mutator-non-mutator ratio in populations has more to do with competition between members of the population than the accumulation of deleterious mutations.

  5. The Evolutionary Potential of Phenotypic Mutations

    PubMed Central

    Yanagida, Hayato; Gispan, Ariel; Kadouri, Noam; Rozen, Shelly; Sharon, Michal; Barkai, Naama; Tawfik, Dan S.

    2015-01-01

    Errors in protein synthesis, so-called phenotypic mutations, are orders-of-magnitude more frequent than genetic mutations. Here, we provide direct evidence that alternative protein forms and phenotypic variability derived from translational errors paved the path to genetic, evolutionary adaptations via gene duplication. We explored the evolutionary origins of Saccharomyces cerevisiae IDP3 - an NADP-dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase mediating fatty acids ß-oxidation in the peroxisome. Following the yeast whole genome duplication, IDP3 diverged from a cytosolic ancestral gene by acquisition of a C-terminal peroxisomal targeting signal. We discovered that the pre-duplicated cytosolic IDPs are partially localized to the peroxisome owing to +1 translational frameshifts that bypass the stop codon and unveil cryptic peroxisomal targeting signals within the 3’-UTR. Exploring putative cryptic signals in all 3’-UTRs of yeast genomes, we found that other enzymes related to NADPH production such as pyruvate carboxylase 1 (PYC1) might be prone to peroxisomal localization via cryptic signals. Using laboratory evolution we found that these translational frameshifts are rapidly imprinted via genetic single base deletions occurring within the very same gene location. Further, as exemplified here, the sequences that promote translational frameshifts are also more prone to genetic deletions. Thus, genotypes conferring higher phenotypic variability not only meet immediate challenges by unveiling cryptic 3’-UTR sequences, but also boost the potential for future genetic adaptations. PMID:26244544

  6. The Evolutionary Potential of Phenotypic Mutations.

    PubMed

    Yanagida, Hayato; Gispan, Ariel; Kadouri, Noam; Rozen, Shelly; Sharon, Michal; Barkai, Naama; Tawfik, Dan S

    2015-08-01

    Errors in protein synthesis, so-called phenotypic mutations, are orders-of-magnitude more frequent than genetic mutations. Here, we provide direct evidence that alternative protein forms and phenotypic variability derived from translational errors paved the path to genetic, evolutionary adaptations via gene duplication. We explored the evolutionary origins of Saccharomyces cerevisiae IDP3 - an NADP-dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase mediating fatty acids ß-oxidation in the peroxisome. Following the yeast whole genome duplication, IDP3 diverged from a cytosolic ancestral gene by acquisition of a C-terminal peroxisomal targeting signal. We discovered that the pre-duplicated cytosolic IDPs are partially localized to the peroxisome owing to +1 translational frameshifts that bypass the stop codon and unveil cryptic peroxisomal targeting signals within the 3'-UTR. Exploring putative cryptic signals in all 3'-UTRs of yeast genomes, we found that other enzymes related to NADPH production such as pyruvate carboxylase 1 (PYC1) might be prone to peroxisomal localization via cryptic signals. Using laboratory evolution we found that these translational frameshifts are rapidly imprinted via genetic single base deletions occurring within the very same gene location. Further, as exemplified here, the sequences that promote translational frameshifts are also more prone to genetic deletions. Thus, genotypes conferring higher phenotypic variability not only meet immediate challenges by unveiling cryptic 3'-UTR sequences, but also boost the potential for future genetic adaptations.

  7. Evolutionary engineering of Saccharomyces cerevisiae for efficient aerobic xylose consumption.

    PubMed

    Scalcinati, Gionata; Otero, José Manuel; Van Vleet, Jennifer R H; Jeffries, Thomas W; Olsson, Lisbeth; Nielsen, Jens

    2012-08-01

    Industrial biotechnology aims to develop robust microbial cell factories, such as Saccharomyces cerevisiae, to produce an array of added value chemicals presently dominated by petrochemical processes. Xylose is the second most abundant monosaccharide after glucose and the most prevalent pentose sugar found in lignocelluloses. Significant research efforts have focused on the metabolic engineering of S. cerevisiae for fast and efficient xylose utilization. This study aims to metabolically engineer S. cerevisiae, such that it can consume xylose as the exclusive substrate while maximizing carbon flux to biomass production. Such a platform may then be enhanced with complementary metabolic engineering strategies that couple biomass production with high value-added chemical. Saccharomyces cerevisiae, expressing xylose reductase, xylitol dehydrogenase and xylulose kinase, from the native xylose-metabolizing yeast Pichia stipitis, was constructed, followed by a directed evolution strategy to improve xylose utilization rates. The resulting S. cerevisiae strain was capable of rapid growth and fast xylose consumption producing only biomass and negligible amount of byproducts. Transcriptional profiling of this strain was employed to further elucidate the observed physiology confirms a strongly up-regulated glyoxylate pathway enabling respiratory metabolism. The resulting strain is a desirable platform for the industrial production of biomass-related products using xylose as a sole carbon source. PMID:22487265

  8. Ultrastructural changes of Saccharomyces cerevisiae in response to ethanol stress.

    PubMed

    Ma, Manli; Han, Pei; Zhang, Ruimin; Li, Hao

    2013-09-01

    In the fermentative process using Saccharomyces cerevisiae to produce bioethanol, the performance of cells is often compromised by the accumulation of ethanol. However, the mechanism of how S. cerevisiae responds against ethanol stress remains elusive. In the current study, S. cerevisiae cells were cultured in YPD (yeast extract - peptone - dextrose) medium containing various concentrations of ethanol (0%, 2.5%, 5%, 7.5%, 10%, and 15% (v/v)). Compared with the control group without ethanol, the mean cell volume of S. cerevisiae decreased significantly in the presence of 7.5% and 10% ethanol after incubation for 16 h (P < 0.05), and in the presence of 15% ethanol at all 3 sampling time points (1, 8, and 16 h) (P < 0.05). The exposure of S. cerevisiae cells to ethanol also led to an increase in malonyldialdehyde content (P < 0.05) and a decrease in sulfhydryl group content (P < 0.05). Moreover, the observations through transmission electron microscopy enabled us to relate ultrastructural changes elicited by ethanol with the cellular stress physiology. Under ethanol stress, the integrity of the cell membrane was compromised. The swelling or distortion of mitochondria together with the occurrence of a single and large vacuole was correlated with the addition of ethanol. These results suggested that the cell membrane is one of the targets of ethanol, and the degeneration of mitochondria promoted the accumulation of intracellular reactive oxygen species.

  9. Biosynthesis of glyoxylate from glycine in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Villas-Bôas, Silas Granato; Kesson, Mats; Nielsen, Jens

    2005-05-01

    Glyoxylate biosynthesis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae is traditionally mainly ascribed to the reaction catalyzed by isocitrate lyase (Icl), which converts isocitrate to glyoxylate and succinate. However, Icl is generally reported to be repressed by glucose and yet glyoxylate is detected at high levels in S. cerevisiae extracts during cultivation on glucose. In bacteria there is an alternative pathway for glyoxylate biosynthesis that involves a direct oxidation of glycine. Therefore, we investigated the glycine metabolism in S. cerevisiae coupling metabolomics data and (13)C-isotope-labeling analysis of two reference strains and a mutant with a deletion in a gene encoding an alanine:glyoxylate aminotransferase. The strains were cultivated on minimal medium containing glucose or galactose, and (13)C-glycine as sole nitrogen source. Glyoxylate presented (13)C-labeling in all cultivation conditions. Furthermore, glyoxylate seemed to be converted to 2-oxovalerate, an unusual metabolite in S. cerevisiae. 2-Oxovalerate can possibly be converted to 2-oxoisovalerate, a key precursor in the biosynthesis of branched-chain amino acids. Hence, we propose a new pathway for glycine catabolism and glyoxylate biosynthesis in S. cerevisiae that seems not to be repressed by glucose and is active under both aerobic and anaerobic conditions. This work demonstrates the great potential of coupling metabolomics data and isotope-labeling analysis for pathway reconstructions.

  10. The Role of Sas2, an Acetyltransferase Homologue of Saccharomyces Cerevisiae, in Silencing and Orc Function

    PubMed Central

    Ehrenhofer-Murray, A. E.; Rivier, D. H.; Rine, J.

    1997-01-01

    Silencing at the cryptic mating-type loci HML and HMR of Saccharomyces cerevisiae requires regulatory sites called silencers. Mutations in the Rap1 and Abf1 binding sites of the HMR-E silencer (HMRa-e**) cause the silencer to be nonfunctional, and hence, cause derepression of HMR. Here, we have isolated and characterized mutations in SAS2 as second-site suppressors of the silencing defect of HMRa-e**. Silencing conferred by the removal of SAS2 (sas2Δ) depended upon the integrity of the ARS consensus sequence of the HMR-E silencer, thus arguing for an involvement of the origin recognition complex (ORC). Restoration of silencing by sas2Δ required ORC2 and ORC5, but not SIR1 or RAP1. Furthermore, sas2Δ suppressed the temperature sensitivity, but not the silencing defect of orc2-1 and orc5-1. Moreover, sas2Δ had opposing effects on silencing of HML and HMR. The putative Sas2 protein bears similarities to known protein acetyltransferases. Several models for the role of Sas2 in silencing are discussed. PMID:9093847

  11. Thermosensitivity of a barosensitive Saccharomyces cerevisiae mutant obtained by UV mutagenesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shigematsu, Toru; Nomura, Kazuki; Nasuhara, Yusuke; Ikarashi, Kenta; Nagai, Gen; Hirayama, Masao; Hayashi, Mayumi; Ueno, Shigeaki; Fujii, Tomoyuki

    2010-12-01

    Using UV mutagenesis, a high pressure (HP)-sensitive (barosensitive) mutant of Saccharomyces cerevisiae was obtained. The mutant strain a924E1 showed a significant loss of viability at HP levels of 175 to 250 MPa at 20 °C compared with the parent strain. This strain also showed a significant loss of viability following heat treatment at 50-58 °C at 0.1 MPa. These results showed that the mutation caused a significant thermosensitivity as well as barosensitivity. The activation volume and activation energy values for the inactivation of strain a924E1 were equivalent to those of the parent strain. This suggested that the mechanism for the HP and thermal inactivation reaction of strain a924E1 was basically the same as that of the parent strain. Strain a924E1 showed no deficiency in growth and fermentation ability as well as auxotrophic property. Although the identification of the genetic sites of mutation introduced is underway, these phenotypes are favorable for the application of HP treatment and heat-assisted HP treatment on fermentation control.

  12. Metabolic suppressors of trimethoprim and ultraviolet light sensitivities of Saccharomyces cerevisiae rad6 mutants.

    PubMed Central

    Lawrence, C W; Christensen, R B

    1979-01-01

    Dominant mutations at two newly identified loci, designated SRS1 and SRS2, that metabolically suppress the trimethoprim sensitivity of rad6 and rad18 strains, have been isolated from trimethoprim-resistant mutants arising spontaneously in rad6-1 rad18-2 strains of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The SRS2 mutations also efficiently suppress the ultraviolet light sensitivity of the parent strains. They do not, however, suppress their sensitivity to ionizing radiation or their deficiency with respect to induced mutagenesis and sporulation. Such observations support the hypothesis that RAD6-dependent activities can be separated into two functionally distinct groups: a group of error-free repair activities that are responsible for a large amount of the radiation resistance of wild-type strains and also for their resistance to trimethoprim, and a group of error-prone activities that are responsible for induced mutagenesis and are also important in sporulation, but which account at best for only a very small amount of wild-type recovery. PMID:383698

  13. Efficient Tor Signaling Requires a Functional Class C Vps Protein Complex in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Zurita-Martinez, Sara A.; Puria, Rekha; Pan, Xuewen; Boeke, Jef D.; Cardenas, Maria E.

    2007-01-01

    The Tor kinases regulate responses to nutrients and control cell growth. Unlike most organisms that only contain one Tor protein, Saccharomyces cerevisiae expresses two, Tor1 and Tor2, which are thought to share all of the rapamycin-sensitive functions attributable to Tor signaling. Here we conducted a genetic screen that defined the global TOR1 synthetic fitness or lethal interaction gene network. This screen identified mutations in distinctive functional categories that impaired vacuolar function, including components of the EGO/Gse and PAS complexes that reduce fitness. In addition, tor1 is lethal in combination with mutations in class C Vps complex components. We find that Tor1 does not regulate the known function of the class C Vps complex in protein sorting. Instead class C vps mutants fail to recover from rapamycin-induced growth arrest or to survive nitrogen starvation and have low levels of amino acids. Remarkably, addition of glutamate or glutamine restores viability to a tor1 pep3 mutant strain. We conclude that Tor1 is more effective than Tor2 at providing rapamycin-sensitive Tor signaling under conditions of amino acid limitation, and that an intact class C Vps complex is required to mediate intracellular amino acid homeostasis for efficient Tor signaling. PMID:17565946

  14. RSC Chromatin-Remodeling Complex Is Important for Mitochondrial Function in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Imamura, Yuko; Yu, Feifei; Nakamura, Misaki; Chihara, Yuhki; Okane, Kyo; Sato, Masahiro; Kanai, Muneyoshi; Hamada, Ryoko; Ueno, Masaru; Yukawa, Masashi; Tsuchiya, Eiko

    2015-01-01

    RSC (Remodel the Structure of Chromatin) is an ATP-dependent chromatin remodeling complex essential for the growth of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. RSC exists as two distinct isoforms that share core subunits including the ATPase subunit Nps1/Sth1 but contain either Rsc1or Rsc2. Using the synthetic genetic array (SGA) of the non-essential null mutation method, we screened for mutations exhibiting synthetic growth defects in combination with the temperature-sensitive mutant, nps1-105, and found connections between mitochondrial function and RSC. rsc mutants, including rsc1Δ, rsc2Δ, and nps1-13, another temperature-sensitive nps1 mutant, exhibited defective respiratory growth; in addition, rsc2Δ and nps1-13 contained aggregated mitochondria. The rsc2Δ phenotypes were relieved by RSC1 overexpression, indicating that the isoforms play a redundant role in respiratory growth. Genome-wide expression analysis in nps1-13 under respiratory conditions suggested that RSC regulates the transcription of some target genes of the HAP complex, a transcriptional activator of respiratory gene expression. Nps1 physically interacted with Hap4, the transcriptional activator moiety of the HAP complex, and overexpression of HAP4 alleviated respiratory defects in nps1-13, suggesting that RSC plays pivotal roles in mitochondrial gene expression and shares a set of target genes with the HAP complex.

  15. RSC Chromatin-Remodeling Complex Is Important for Mitochondrial Function in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Imamura, Yuko; Yu, Feifei; Nakamura, Misaki; Chihara, Yuhki; Okane, Kyo; Sato, Masahiro; Kanai, Muneyoshi; Hamada, Ryoko; Ueno, Masaru; Yukawa, Masashi; Tsuchiya, Eiko

    2015-01-01

    RSC (Remodel the Structure of Chromatin) is an ATP-dependent chromatin remodeling complex essential for the growth of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. RSC exists as two distinct isoforms that share core subunits including the ATPase subunit Nps1/Sth1 but contain either Rsc1or Rsc2. Using the synthetic genetic array (SGA) of the non-essential null mutation method, we screened for mutations exhibiting synthetic growth defects in combination with the temperature-sensitive mutant, nps1-105, and found connections between mitochondrial function and RSC. rsc mutants, including rsc1Δ, rsc2Δ, and nps1-13, another temperature-sensitive nps1 mutant, exhibited defective respiratory growth; in addition, rsc2Δ and nps1-13 contained aggregated mitochondria. The rsc2Δ phenotypes were relieved by RSC1 overexpression, indicating that the isoforms play a redundant role in respiratory growth. Genome-wide expression analysis in nps1-13 under respiratory conditions suggested that RSC regulates the transcription of some target genes of the HAP complex, a transcriptional activator of respiratory gene expression. Nps1 physically interacted with Hap4, the transcriptional activator moiety of the HAP complex, and overexpression of HAP4 alleviated respiratory defects in nps1-13, suggesting that RSC plays pivotal roles in mitochondrial gene expression and shares a set of target genes with the HAP complex. PMID:26086550

  16. Involvement of Sac1 phosphoinositide phosphatase in the metabolism of phosphatidylserine in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Tani, Motohiro; Kuge, Osamu

    2014-04-01

    Sac1 is a phosphoinositide phosphatase that preferentially dephosphorylates phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate. Mutation of SAC1 causes not only the accumulation of phosphoinositides but also reduction of the phosphatidylserine (PS) level in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In this study, we characterized the mechanism underlying the PS reduction in SAC1-deleted cells. Incorporation of (32) P into PS was significantly delayed in sac1∆ cells. Such a delay was also observed in SAC1- and PS decarboxylase gene-deleted cells, suggesting that the reduction in the PS level is caused by a reduction in the rate of biosynthesis of PS. A reduction in the PS level was also observed with repression of STT4 encoding phosphatidylinositol 4-kinase or deletion of VPS34 encoding phophatidylinositol 3-kinase. However, the combination of mutations of SAC1 and STT4 or VPS34 did not restore the reduced PS level, suggesting that both the synthesis and degradation of phosphoinositides are important for maintenance of the PS level. Finally, we observed an abnormal PS distribution in sac1∆ cells when a specific probe for PS was expressed. Collectively, these results suggested that Sac1 is involved in the maintenance of a normal rate of biosynthesis and distribution of PS.

  17. The origin recognition complex links replication, sister chromatid cohesion and transcriptional silencing in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed Central

    Suter, Bernhard; Tong, Amy; Chang, Michael; Yu, Lisa; Brown, Grant W; Boone, Charles; Rine, Jasper

    2004-01-01

    Mutations in genes encoding the origin recognition complex (ORC) of Saccharomyces cerevisiae affect initiation of DNA replication and transcriptional repression at the silent mating-type loci. To explore the function of ORC in more detail, a screen for genetic interactions was undertaken using large-scale synthetic lethal analysis. Combination of orc2-1 and orc5-1 alleles with the complete set of haploid deletion mutants revealed synthetic lethal/sick phenotypes with genes involved in DNA replication, chromatin structure, checkpoints, DNA repair and recombination, and other genes that were unexpected on the basis of previous studies of ORC. Many of these genetic interactions are shared with other genes that are involved in initiation of DNA replication. Strong synthetic interactions were demonstrated with null mutations in genes that contribute to sister chromatid cohesion. A genetic interaction between orc5-1 and the cohesin mutant scc1-73 suggested that ORC function contributes to sister chromatid cohesion. Thus, comprehensive screening for genetic interactions with a replication gene revealed a connection between initiation of DNA replication and sister chromatid cohesion. Further experiments linked sister chromatid cohesion genes to silencing at mating-type loci and telomeres. PMID:15238513

  18. [The absence of cyclin-dependent protein kinase Pho85 affects stability of mitochondrial DNA in yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae].

    PubMed

    Fizikova, A Iu; Padkina, M V; Sambuk, E V

    2009-06-01

    The cyclin-dependent protein kinase Pho85 is involved in the regulation of phosphate metabolism in yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Mutations in the PH085 gene lead to constitutive synthesis of Pho5 acidic phosphatase, a delay in cell growth on media containing nonfermentable carbon sources, and other pleiotropic effects. In this work, it was shown that the accumulation of respiratory incompetent cells occurs with high frequency in strains carrying pho85 mutations as early as during the first cell divisions, and the number of these cells at the early logarithmic growth phase of the culture promptly reaches virtually 100%. Cytological analysis revealed a high accumulation rate of [rho(0)] cells the background of gene pho85 that may be related to disturbances in the distribution of mitochondrial nucleoids rather than to changes in morphology of mitochondria and a delay in their transport into the bud. Genetic analysis revealed that the appearing secondary mutations pho4, pho81, pho84, and pho87 stabilize nucleoids and hamper the loss of mitochondrial DNA caused by pho85. These results provide evidence for the influence of intracellular phosphate concentration on the inheritance of mitochondrial nucleoids, but it is fully probable that the occurrence of mutation pho4 in the background of gene pho85 may change the expression level of other genes required for the stabilization of mitochondrial functions.

  19. UV Signature Mutations

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Sequencing complete tumor genomes and exomes has sparked the cancer field's interest in mutation signatures for identifying the tumor's carcinogen. This review and meta-analysis discusses signatures and their proper use. We first distinguish between a mutagen's canonical mutations – deviations from a random distribution of base changes to create a pattern typical of that mutagen – and the subset of signature mutations, which are unique to that mutagen and permit inference backward from mutations to mutagen. To verify UV signature mutations, we assembled literature datasets on cells exposed to UVC, UVB, UVA, or solar simulator light (SSL) and tested canonical UV mutation features as criteria for clustering datasets. A confirmed UV signature was: ≥60% of mutations are C→T at a dipyrimidine site, with ≥5% CC→TT. Other canonical features such as a bias for mutations on the non-transcribed strand or at the 3' pyrimidine had limited application. The most robust classifier combined these features with criteria for the rarity of non-UV canonical mutations. In addition, several signatures proposed for specific UV wavelengths were limited to specific genes or species; non-signature mutations induced by UV may cause melanoma BRAF mutations; and the mutagen for sunlight-related skin neoplasms may vary between continents. PMID:25354245

  20. Discovery of drug-resistant and drug-sensitizing mutations in the oncogenic PI3K isoform p110α

    PubMed Central

    Zunder, Eli R.; Knight, Zachary A.; Houseman, Benjamin T.; Apsel, Beth; Shokat, Kevan M.

    2009-01-01

    Summary p110α (PIK3CA) is the most frequently mutated kinase in human cancer, and numerous drugs targeting this kinase are currently in pre-clinical development or early stage clinical trials. Clinical resistance to protein kinase inhibitors frequently results from point mutations that block drug binding; similar mutations in p110α are likely, but currently none have been reported. Using a S. cerevisiae screen against a structurally diverse panel of PI3K inhibitors, we have identified a potential hotspot for resistance mutations (I800), a drug-sensitizing mutation (L814C), and a surprising lack of resistance mutations at the “gatekeeper” residue. Our analysis further reveals that clinical resistance to these drugs may be attenuated by using multi-targeted inhibitors that simultaneously inhibit additional PI3K pathway members. Significance Point mutations that block drug binding are likely to be a major mechanism of clinical resistance to PI3K-targeted cancer therapy. Here we report resistance mutations in the oncogenic PI3K isoform p110α, as well as a drug-sensitizing mutation that will be useful for chemical genetic studies. This study anticipates p110α mutations that are likely to emerge against PI3K-targeted drugs, and identifies inhibitor classes that can overcome these resistance mutations. Our experiments in mammalian cells show that multi-targeted inhibitors with additional PI3K pathway targets are less susceptible to drug resistance than selective PI3K inhibitors. The screening protocol described here is applicable to several other drug targets that inhibit S. cerevisiae growth in addition to p110α. PMID:18691552

  1. The rad16 gene of Schizosaccharomyces pombe: a homolog of the RAD1 gene of Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed Central

    Carr, A M; Schmidt, H; Kirchhoff, S; Muriel, W J; Sheldrick, K S; Griffiths, D J; Basmacioglu, C N; Subramani, S; Clegg, M; Nasim, A

    1994-01-01

    The rad10, rad16, rad20, and swi9 mutants of the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe, isolated by their radiation sensitivity or abnormal mating-type switching, have been shown previously to be allelic. We have cloned DNA correcting the UV sensitivity or mating-type switching phenotype of these mutants and shown that the correcting DNA is encompassed in a single open reading frame. The gene, which we will refer to as rad16, is approximately 3 kb in length, contains seven introns, and encodes a protein of 892 amino acids. It is not essential for viability of S. pombe. The predicted protein is the homolog of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae RAD1 protein, which is involved in an early step in excision-repair of UV damage from DNA. The approximately 30% sequence identity between the predicted proteins from the two yeasts is distributed throughout the protein. Two-hybrid experiments indicate a strong protein-protein interaction between the products of the rad16 and swi10 genes of S. pombe, which mirrors that reported for RAD1 and RAD10 in S. cerevisiae. We have identified the mutations in the four alleles of rad16. They mapped to the N-terminal (rad10), central (rad20), and C-terminal (rad16 and swi9) regions. The rad10 and rad20 mutations are in the splice donor sequences of introns 2 and 4, respectively. The plasmid correcting the UV sensitivity of the rad20 mutation was missing the sequence corresponding to the 335 N-terminal amino acids of the predicted protein. Neither smaller nor larger truncations were, however, able to correct its UV sensitivity. Images PMID:8114734

  2. Cadmium-induced oxidative stress in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Muthukumar, Kannan; Nachiappan, Vasanthi

    2010-12-01

    The present study was undertaken to determine the effect of cadmium (Cd) on the antioxidant status of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. S. cerevisiae serves as a good eukaryotic model system for the study of the molecular mechanisms of oxidative stress. We investigated the adaptative response of S. cerevisiae exposed to Cd. Yeast cells could tolerate up to 100 microM Cd and an inhibition in the growth and viability was observed. Exposure of yeast cells to Cd showed an increase in malondialdehyde and glutathione. The activities of catalase, superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase were also high in Cd-exposed cells. The incorporation of Cd led to significant increase in iron, zinc and inversely the calcium, copper levels were reduced. The results suggest that antioxidants were increased and are involved in the protection against macromolecular damage during oxidative stress; presumably, these enzymes are essential for counteracting the pro-oxidant effects of Cd. PMID:21355423

  3. Phosphate transport and sensing in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed Central

    Wykoff, D D; O'Shea, E K

    2001-01-01

    Cellular metabolism depends on the appropriate concentration of intracellular inorganic phosphate; however, little is known about how phosphate concentrations are sensed. The similarity of Pho84p, a high-affinity phosphate transporter in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, to the glucose sensors Snf3p and Rgt2p has led to the hypothesis that Pho84p is an inorganic phosphate sensor. Furthermore, pho84Delta strains have defects in phosphate signaling; they constitutively express PHO5, a phosphate starvation-inducible gene. We began these studies to determine the role of phosphate transporters in signaling phosphate starvation. Previous experiments demonstrated a defect in phosphate uptake in phosphate-starved pho84Delta cells; however, the pho84Delta strain expresses PHO5 constitutively when grown in phosphate-replete media. We determined that pho84Delta cells have a significant defect in phosphate uptake even when grown in high phosphate media. Overexpression of unrelated phosphate transporters or a glycerophosphoinositol transporter in the pho84Delta strain suppresses the PHO5 constitutive phenotype. These data suggest that PHO84 is not required for sensing phosphate. We further characterized putative phosphate transporters, identifying two new phosphate transporters, PHO90 and PHO91. A synthetic lethal phenotype was observed when five phosphate transporters were inactivated, and the contribution of each transporter to uptake in high phosphate conditions was determined. Finally, a PHO84-dependent compensation response was identified; the abundance of Pho84p at the plasma membrane increases in cells that are defective in other phosphate transporters. PMID:11779791

  4. Regulation of Cation Balance in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Cyert, Martha S.; Philpott, Caroline C.

    2013-01-01

    All living organisms require nutrient minerals for growth and have developed mechanisms to acquire, utilize, and store nutrient minerals effectively. In the aqueous cellular environment, these elements exist as charged ions that, together with protons and hydroxide ions, facilitate biochemical reactions and establish the electrochemical gradients across membranes that drive cellular processes such as transport and ATP synthesis. Metal ions serve as essential enzyme cofactors and perform both structural and signaling roles within cells. However, because these ions can also be toxic, cells have developed sophisticated homeostatic mechanisms to regulate their levels and avoid toxicity. Studies in Saccharomyces cerevisiae have characterized many of the gene products and processes responsible for acquiring, utilizing, storing, and regulating levels of these ions. Findings in this model organism have often allowed the corresponding machinery in humans to be identified and have provided insights into diseases that result from defects in ion homeostasis. This review summarizes our current understanding of how cation balance is achieved and modulated in baker’s yeast. Control of intracellular pH is discussed, as well as uptake, storage, and efflux mechanisms for the alkali metal cations, Na+ and K+, the divalent cations, Ca2+ and Mg2+, and the trace metal ions, Fe2+, Zn2+, Cu2+, and Mn2+. Signal transduction pathways that are regulated by pH and Ca2+ are reviewed, as well as the mechanisms that allow cells to maintain appropriate intracellular cation concentrations when challenged by extreme conditions, i.e., either limited availability or toxic levels in the environment. PMID:23463800

  5. Directed evolution of xylose isomerase for improved xylose catabolism and fermentation in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sun-Mi; Jellison, Taylor; Alper, Hal S

    2012-08-01

    The heterologous expression of a highly functional xylose isomerase pathway in Saccharomyces cerevisiae would have significant advantages for ethanol yield, since the pathway bypasses cofactor requirements found in the traditionally used oxidoreductase pathways. However, nearly all reported xylose isomerase-based pathways in S. cerevisiae suffer from poor ethanol productivity, low xylose consumption rates, and poor cell growth compared with an oxidoreductase pathway and, additionally, often require adaptive strain evolution. Here, we report on the directed evolution of the Piromyces sp. xylose isomerase (encoded by xylA) for use in yeast. After three rounds of mutagenesis and growth-based screening, we isolated a variant containing six mutations (E15D, E114G, E129D, T142S, A177T, and V433I) that exhibited a 77% increase in enzymatic activity. When expressed in a minimally engineered yeast host containing a gre3 knockout and tal1 and XKS1 overexpression, the strain expressing this mutant enzyme improved its aerobic growth rate by 61-fold and both ethanol production and xylose consumption rates by nearly 8-fold. Moreover, the mutant enzyme enabled ethanol production by these yeasts under oxygen-limited fermentation conditions, unlike the wild-type enzyme. Under microaerobic conditions, the ethanol production rates of the strain expressing the mutant xylose isomerase were considerably higher than previously reported values for yeast harboring a xylose isomerase pathway and were also comparable to those of the strains harboring an oxidoreductase pathway. Consequently, this study shows the potential to evolve a xylose isomerase pathway for more efficient xylose utilization.

  6. Genetic and biochemical characterization of a phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed Central

    Flick, J S; Thorner, J

    1993-01-01

    Hydrolysis of phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2) by phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C (PI-PLC) generates two second messengers, inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate and 1,2-diacylglycerol. The polymerase chain reaction was used to isolate a Saccharomyces cerevisiae gene (PLC1) that encodes a protein of 869 amino acids (designated Plc1p) that bears greatest resemblance to the delta isoforms of mammalian PI-PLC in terms of overall sequence similarity and domain arrangement. Plc1p contains the conserved X and Y domains found in all higher eukaryotic PI-PLCs (51 and 29% identity, respectively, to the corresponding domains of rat delta 1 PI-PLC) and also contains a presumptive Ca(2+)-binding site (an E-F hand motif). Plc1p, modified by in-frame insertion of a His6 tract and a c-myc epitope near its amino terminus, was overexpressed from the GAL1 promoter, partially purified by nickel chelate affinity chromatography, and shown to be an active PLC enzyme in vitro with properties similar to those of its mammalian counterparts. Plc1p activity was strictly Ca2+ dependent: at a high Ca2+ concentration (0.1 mM), the enzyme hydrolyzed PIP2 at a faster rate than phosphatidylinositol, and at a low Ca2+ concentration (0.5 microM), it hydrolyzed PIP2 exclusively. Cells carrying either of two different deletion-insertion mutations (plc1 delta 1::HIS3 and plc1 delta 2::LEU2) were viable but displayed several distinctive phenotypes, including temperature-sensitive growth (inviable above 35 degrees C), osmotic sensitivity, and defects in the utilization of galactose, raffinose, and glycerol at permissive temperatures (23 to 30 degrees C). The findings reported here suggest that hydrolysis of PIP2 in S. cerevisiae is required for a number of nutritional and stress-related responses. Images PMID:8395015

  7. Effect of l-Proline on Sake Brewing and Ethanol Stress in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Takagi, Hiroshi; Takaoka, Miki; Kawaguchi, Akari; Kubo, Yoshito

    2005-01-01

    During the fermentation of sake, cells of Saccharomyces cerevisiae are exposed to high concentrations of ethanol, thereby damaging the cell membrane and functional proteins. l-Proline protects yeast cells from damage caused by freezing or oxidative stress. In this study, we evaluated the role of intracellular l-proline in cells of S. cerevisiae grown under ethanol stress. An l-proline-accumulating laboratory strain carries a mutant allele of PRO1, pro1D154N, which encodes the Asp154Asn mutant γ-glutamyl kinase. This mutation increases the activity of γ-glutamyl kinase and γ-glutamyl phosphate reductase, which catalyze the first two steps of l-proline synthesis and which together may form a complex in vivo. When cultured in liquid medium in the presence of 9% and 18% ethanol under static conditions, the cell viability of the l-proline-accumulating laboratory strain is greater than the cell viability of the parent strain. This result suggests that intracellular accumulation of l-proline may confer tolerance to ethanol stress. We constructed a novel sake yeast strain by disrupting the PUT1 gene, which is required for l-proline utilization, and replacing the wild-type PRO1 allele with the pro1D154N allele. The resultant strain accumulated l-proline and was more tolerant to ethanol stress than was the control strain. We used the strain that could accumulate l-proline to brew sake containing five times more l-proline than what is found in sake brewed with the control strain, without affecting the fermentation profiles. PMID:16332860

  8. The eukaryote chaperonin CCT is a cold shock protein in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Somer, Lilach; Shmulman, Oshrit; Dror, Tali; Hashmueli, Sharon; Kashi, Yechezkel

    2002-01-01

    The eukaryotic Hsp60 cytoplasmic chaperonin CCT (chaperonin containing the T-complex polypeptide–1) is essential for growth in budding yeast, and mutations in individual CCT subunits have been shown to affect assembly of tubulin and actin. The present research focused mainly on the expression of the CCT subunits, CCTα and CCTβ, in yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae). Previous studies showed that, unlike most other chaperones, CCT in yeast does not undergo induction following heat shock. In this study, messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) and protein levels of CCT subunits following exposure to low temperatures, were examined. The Northern blot analysis indicated a 3- to 4-fold increase in mRNA levels of CCTα and CCTβ genes after cold shock at 4°C. Interestingly, Western blot analysis showed that cold shock induces an increase in the CCTα protein, which is expressed at 10°C, but not at 4°C. Transfer of 4°C cold-shocked cells to 10°C induced a 5-fold increase in the CCTα protein level. By means of fluorescent immunostaining and confocal microscopy, we found CCTα to be localized in the cortex and the cell cytoplasm of S. cerevisiae. Localization of CCTα was not affected at low temperatures. Co-localization of CCT and filaments of actin and tubulin was not observed by microscopy. The induction pattern of the CCTα protein suggests that expression of the chaperonin may be primarily important during the recovery from low temperatures and the transition to growth at higher temperatures, as found for other Hsps during the recovery phase from heat shock. PMID:11892987

  9. Mutagenesis protocols in Saccharomyces cerevisiae by in vivo overlap extension.

    PubMed

    Alcalde, Miguel

    2010-01-01

    A high recombination frequency and its ease of manipulation has made Saccharomyces cerevisiae a unique model eukaryotic organism to study homologous recombination. Indeed, the well-developed recombination machinery in S. cerevisiae facilitates the construction of mutant libraries for directed evolution experiments. In this context, in vivo overlap extension (IVOE) is a particularly attractive protocol that takes advantage of the eukaryotic apparatus to carry out combinatorial saturation mutagenesis, site-directed recombination or site-directed mutagenesis, avoiding ligation steps and additional PCR reactions that are common to standard in vitro protocols. PMID:20676972

  10. Immunoelectron Microscopy of Cryofixed Freeze-Substituted Yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Fišerová, Jindřiška; Richardson, Christine; Goldberg, Martin W

    2016-01-01

    Immunolabeling electron microscopy is a challenging technique with demands for perfect ultrastructural and antigen preservation. High-pressure freezing offers an excellent way to fix cellular structure. However, its use for immunolabeling has remained limited because of the low frequency of labeling due to loss of protein antigenicity or accessibility. Here we present a protocol for immunogold labeling of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae that gives specific and multiple labeling while keeping the finest structural details. We use the protocol to reveal the organization of individual nuclear pore complex proteins and the position of transport factors in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae in relation to actual transport events. PMID:27515085

  11. Requirement for three novel protein complexes in the absence of the Sgs1 DNA helicase in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed Central

    Mullen, J R; Kaliraman, V; Ibrahim, S S; Brill, S J

    2001-01-01

    The Saccharomyces cerevisiae Sgs1 protein is a member of the RecQ family of DNA helicases and is required for genome stability, but not cell viability. To identify proteins that function in the absence of Sgs1, a synthetic-lethal screen was performed. We obtained mutations in six complementation groups that we refer to as SLX genes. Most of the SLX genes encode uncharacterized open reading frames that are conserved in other species. None of these genes is required for viability and all SLX null mutations are synthetically lethal with mutations in TOP3, encoding the SGS1-interacting DNA topoisomerase. Analysis of the null mutants identified a pair of genes in each of three phenotypic classes. Mutations in MMS4 (SLX2) and SLX3 generate identical phenotypes, including weak UV and strong MMS hypersensitivity, complete loss of sporulation, and synthetic growth defects with mutations in TOP1. Mms4 and Slx3 proteins coimmunoprecipitate from cell extracts, suggesting that they function in a complex. Mutations in SLX5 and SLX8 generate hydroxyurea sensitivity, reduced sporulation efficiency, and a slow-growth phenotype characterized by heterogeneous colony morphology. The Slx5 and Slx8 proteins contain RING finger domains and coimmunoprecipitate from cell extracts. The SLX1 and SLX4 genes are required for viability in the presence of an sgs1 temperature-sensitive allele at the restrictive temperature and Slx1 and Slx4 proteins are similarly associated in cell extracts. We propose that the MMS4/SLX3, SLX5/8, and SLX1/4 gene pairs encode heterodimeric complexes and speculate that these complexes are required to resolve recombination intermediates that arise in response to DNA damage, during meiosis, and in the absence of SGS1/TOP3. PMID:11139495

  12. Genetics of x-ray induced double strand break repair in saccharomyces cerevisiae

    SciTech Connect

    Budd, M.E.

    1982-07-01

    The possible fates of x-ray-induced double-strand breaks in Saccharomyces cerevisiae were examined. One possible pathway which breaks can follow, the repair pathway, was studied by assaying strains with mutations in the RAD51, RAD54, and RAD57 loci for double-strand break repair. In order of increasing radiation sensitivity one finds: rad57-1(23/sup 0/)> rad51-1(30/sup 0/)> rad54-3(36/sup 0/). At 36/sup 0/, rad54-3 cells cannot repair double-strand breaks, while 23/sup 0/, they can. Strains with the rad57-1 mutation can rejoin broken chromosomes at both temperatures. However, the low survival at 36/sup 0/ shows that the assay is not distinguishing large DNA fragments which allow cell survival from those which cause cell death. A rad51-1 strain could also rejoin broken chromosomes, and was thus capable of incomplete repair. The data can be explained with the hypothesis that rad54-3 cells are blocked in an early step of repair, while rad51-1 and rad57-1 strains are blocked in a later step of repair. The fate of double-strand breaks when they are left unrepaired was investigated with the rad54-3 mutation. If breaks are prevented from entering the RAD54 repair pathway they become uncommitted lesions. These lesions are repaired slower than the original breaks. One possible fate for an uncommitted lesion is conversion into a fixed lesion, which is likely to be an unrepairable or misrepaired double-strand break. The presence of protein synthesis after irradiation increases the probability that a break will enter the repair pathway. Evidence shows that increased probability of repair results from enhanced synthesis of repair proteins shortly after radiation. (ERB)

  13. Saccharomyces cerevisiae Genetics Predicts Candidate Therapeutic Genetic Interactions at the Mammalian Replication Fork

    PubMed Central

    van Pel, Derek M.; Stirling, Peter C.; Minaker, Sean W.; Sipahimalani, Payal; Hieter, Philip

    2013-01-01

    The concept of synthetic lethality has gained popularity as a rational guide for predicting chemotherapeutic targets based on negative genetic interactions between tumor-specific somatic mutations and a second-site target gene. One hallmark of most cancers that can be exploited by chemotherapies is chromosome instability (CIN). Because chromosome replication, maintenance, and segregation represent conserved and cell-essential processes, they can be modeled effectively in simpler eukaryotes such as Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Here we analyze and extend genetic networks of CIN cancer gene orthologs in yeast, focusing on essential genes. This identifies hub genes and processes that are candidate targets for synthetic lethal killing of cancer cells with defined somatic mutations. One hub process in these networks is DNA replication. A nonessential, fork-associated scaffold, CTF4, is among the most highly connected genes. As Ctf4 lacks enzymatic activity, potentially limiting its development as a therapeutic target, we exploited its function as a physical interaction hub to rationally predict synthetic lethal interactions between essential Ctf4-binding proteins and CIN cancer gene orthologs. We then validated a subset of predicted genetic interactions in a human colorectal cancer cell line, showing that siRNA-mediated knockdown of MRE11A sensitizes cells to depletion of various replication fork-associated proteins. Overall, this work describes methods to identify, predict, and validate in cancer cells candidate therapeutic targets for tumors with known somatic mutations in CIN genes using data from yeast. We affirm not only replication stress but also the targeting of DNA replication fork proteins themselves as potential targets for anticancer therapeutic development. PMID:23390603

  14. MHP1, an essential gene in Saccharomyces cerevisiae required for microtubule function

    PubMed Central

    1996-01-01

    The gene for a microtubule-associated protein (MAP), termed MHP1 (MAP- Homologous Protein 1), was isolated from Saccharomyces cerevisiae by expression cloning using antibodies specific for the Drosophila 205K MAP. MHP1 encodes an essential protein of 1,398 amino acids that contains near its COOH-terminal end a sequence homologous to the microtubule-binding domain of MAP2, MAP4, and tau. While total disruptions are lethal, NH2-terminal deletion mutations of MHP1 are viable, and the expression of the COOH-terminal two-thirds of the protein is sufficient for vegetative growth. Nonviable deletion- disruption mutations of MHP1 can be partially complemented by the expression of the Drosophila 205K MAP. Mhp1p binds to microtubules in vitro, and it is the COOH-terminal region containing the tau-homologous motif that mediates microtubule binding. Antibodies directed against a COOH-terminal peptide of Mhp1p decorate cytoplasmic microtubules and mitotic spindles as revealed by immunofluorescence microscopy. The overexpression of an NH2-terminal deletion mutation of MHP1 results in an accumulation of large-budded cells with short spindles and disturbed nuclear migration. In asynchronously growing cells that overexpress MHP1 from a multicopy plasmid, the length and number of cytoplasmic microtubules is increased and the proportion of mitotic cells is decreased, while haploid cells in which the expression of MHP1 has been silenced exhibit few microtubules. These results suggest that MHP1 is essential for the formation and/or stabilization of microtubules. PMID:8947554

  15. Induction of pseudohyphal growth by overexpression of PHD1, a Saccharomyces cerevisiae gene related to transcriptional regulators of fungal development.

    PubMed Central

    Gimeno, C J; Fink, G R

    1994-01-01

    When starved for nitrogen, MATa/MAT alpha cells of the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae undergo a dimorphic transition to pseudohyphal growth. A visual genetic screen, called PHD (pseudohyphal determinant), for S. cerevisiae pseudohyphal growth mutants was developed. The PHD screen was used to identify seven S. cerevisiae genes that when overexpressed in MATa/MAT alpha cells growing on nitrogen starvation medium cause precocious and unusually vigorous pseudohyphal growth. PHD1, a gene whose overexpression induced invasive pseudohyphal growth on a nutritionally rich medium, was characterized. PHD1 maps to chromosome XI and is predicted to encode a 366-amino-acid protein. PHD1 has a SWI4- and MBP1-like DNA binding motif that is 73% identical over 100 amino acids to a region of Aspergillus nidulans StuA. StuA regulates two pseudohyphal growth-like cell divisions during conidiophore morphogenesis. Epitope-tagged PHD1 was localized to the nucleus by indirect immunofluorescence. These facts suggest that PHD1 may function as a transcriptional regulatory protein. Overexpression of PHD1 in wild-type haploid strains does not induce pseudohyphal growth. Interestingly, PHD1 overexpression enhances pseudohyphal growth in a haploid strain that has the diploid polar budding pattern because of a mutation in the BUD4 gene. In addition, wild-type diploid strains lacking PHD1 undergo pseudohyphal growth when starved for nitrogen. The possible functions of PHD1 in pseudohyphal growth and the uses of the PHD screen to identify morphogenetic regulatory genes from heterologous organisms are discussed. Images PMID:8114741

  16. Differential repair of UV damage in rad mutants of Saccharomyces cerevisiae: a possible function of G2 arrest upon UV irradiation.

    PubMed

    Terleth, C; Schenk, P; Poot, R; Brouwer, J; van de Putte, P

    1990-09-01

    After UV irradiation, the transcriptionally active MAT alpha locus in Saccharomyces cerevisiae is preferentially repaired compared with the inactive HML alpha locus. The effect of rad mutations from three different epistasis groups on differential repair was investigated. Three mutants, rad9, rad16, and rad24, were impaired in the removal of UV dimers from the inactive HML alpha locus, whereas they had generally normal repair of the active MAT alpha locus. Since RAD9 is necessary for G2 arrest after UV irradiation, we propose that the G2 stage plays a role in making the dimers accessible for repair, at least in the repressed HML alpha locus.

  17. Synthesis of ribosomes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed Central

    Warner, J R

    1989-01-01

    The assembly of a eucaryotic ribosome requires the synthesis of four ribosomal ribonucleic acid (RNA) molecules and more than 75 ribosomal proteins. It utilizes all three RNA polymerases; it requires the cooperation of the nucleus and the cytoplasm, the processing of RNA, and the specific interaction of RNA and protein molecules. It is carried out efficiently and is exquisitely sensitive to the needs of the cell. Our current understanding of this process in the genetically tractable yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is reviewed. The ribosomal RNA genes are arranged in a tandem array of 100 to 200 copies. This tandem array has led to unique ways of carrying out a number of functions. Replication is asymmetric and does not initiate from every autonomously replicating sequence. Recombination is suppressed. Transcription of the major ribosomal RNA appears to involve coupling between adjacent transcription units, which are separated by the 5S RNA transcription unit. Genes for many ribosomal proteins have been cloned and sequenced. Few are linked; most are duplicated; most have an intron. There is extensive homology between yeast ribosomal proteins and those of other species. Most, but not all, of the ribosomal protein genes have one or two sites that are essential for their transcription and that bind a common transcription factor. This factor binds also to many other places in the genome, including the telomeres. There is coordinated transcription of the ribosomal protein genes under a variety of conditions. However, the cell seems to possess no mechanism for regulating the transcription of individual ribosomal protein genes in response either to a deficiency or an excess of a particular ribosomal protein. A deficiency causes slow growth. Any excess ribosomal protein is degraded very rapidly, with a half-life of 1 to 5 min. Unlike most types of cells, yeast cells appear not to regulate the translation of ribosomal proteins. However, in the case of ribosomal protein L32

  18. Morphogenesis beyond Cytokinetic Arrest in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Jiménez, Javier; Cid, Víctor J.; Cenamor, Rosa; Yuste, María; Molero, Gloria; Nombela, César; Sánchez, Miguel

    1998-01-01

    The budding yeast lyt1 mutation causes cell lysis. We report here that lyt1 is an allele of cdc15, a gene which encodes a protein kinase that functions late in the cell cycle. Neither cdc15-1 nor cdc15-lyt1 strains are able to septate at 37°C, even though they may manage to rebud. Cells lyse after a shmoo-like projection appears at the distal pole of the daughter cell. Actin polarizes towards the distal pole but the septins remain at the mother–daughter neck. This morphogenetic response reflects entry into a new round of the cell cycle: the preference for polarization from the distal pole was lost in bud1 cdc15 double mutants; double cdc15-lyt1 cdc28-4 mutants, defective for START, did not develop apical projections and apical polarization was accompanied by DNA replication. The same phenomena were caused by mutations in the genes CDC14, DBF2, and TEM1, which are functionally related to CDC15. Apical polarization was delayed in cdc15 mutants as compared with budding in control cells and this delay was abolished in a septin mutant. Our results suggest that the delayed M/G1 transition in cdc15 mutants is due to a septin-dependent checkpoint that couples initiation of the cell cycle to the completion of cytokinesis. PMID:9852155

  19. Strain engineering of Saccharomyces cerevisiae for enhanced xylose metabolism.

    PubMed

    Kim, Soo Rin; Park, Yong-Cheol; Jin, Yong-Su; Seo, Jin-Ho

    2013-11-01

    Efficient and rapid fermentation of all sugars present in cellulosic hydrolysates is essential for economic conversion of renewable biomass into fuels and chemicals. Xylose is one of the most abundant sugars in cellulosic biomass but it cannot be utilized by wild type Saccharomyces cerevisiae, which has been used for industrial ethanol production. Therefore, numerous technologies for strain development have been employed to engineer S. cerevisiae capable of fermenting xylose rapidly and efficiently. These include i) optimization of xylose-assimilating pathways, ii) perturbation of gene targets for reconfiguring yeast metabolism, and iii) simultaneous co-fermentation of xylose and cellobiose. In addition, the genetic and physiological background of host strains is an important determinant to construct efficient and rapid xylose-fermenting S. cerevisiae. Vibrant and persistent researches in this field for the last two decades not only led to the development of engineered S. cerevisiae strains ready for industrial fermentation of cellulosic hydrolysates, but also deepened our understanding of operational principles underlying yeast metabolism. PMID:23524005

  20. Analysis of the RNA Content of the Yeast "Saccharomyces Cerevisiae"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deutch, Charles E.; Marshall, Pamela A.

    2008-01-01

    In this article, the authors describe an interconnected set of relatively simple laboratory experiments in which students determine the RNA content of yeast cells and use agarose gel electrophoresis to separate and analyze the major species of cellular RNA. This set of experiments focuses on RNAs from the yeast "Saccharomyces cerevisiae", a…

  1. Molecular mechanisms of ethanol tolerance in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a superb ethanol producer, yet sensitive to ethanol at higher concentrations especially under high gravity or very high gravity fermentation conditions. Although significant efforts have been made to study ethanol-stress response in past decades, molecular mecha...

  2. Recycling carbon dioxide during xylose fermentation by engineered Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In this study, we introduced the ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (RuBisCO) and phosphoribulokinase (PRK) into an engineered S. cerevisiae (SR8) harboring the XR/XDH pathway and up-regulated PPP 10, to enable CO2 recycling through a synthetic rPPP during xylose fermentation (Fig. 1). ...

  3. The nucleotide sequence of Saccharomyces cerevisiae chromosome XII.

    PubMed

    Johnston, M; Hillier, L; Riles, L; Albermann, K; André, B; Ansorge, W; Benes, V; Brückner, M; Delius, H; Dubois, E; Düsterhöft, A; Entian, K D; Floeth, M; Goffeau, A; Hebling, U; Heumann, K; Heuss-Neitzel, D; Hilbert, H; Hilger, F; Kleine, K; Kötter, P; Louis, E J; Messenguy, F; Mewes, H W; Hoheisel, J D

    1997-05-29

    The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is the pre-eminent organism for the study of basic functions of eukaryotic cells. All of the genes of this simple eukaryotic cell have recently been revealed by an international collaborative effort to determine the complete DNA sequence of its nuclear genome. Here we describe some of the features of chromosome XII.

  4. No current evidence for widespread dosage compensation in S. cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Torres, Eduardo M; Springer, Michael; Amon, Angelika

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies of laboratory strains of budding yeast had shown that when gene copy number is altered experimentally, RNA levels generally scale accordingly. This is true when the copy number of individual genes or entire chromosomes is altered. In a recent study, Hose et al. (2015) reported that this tight correlation between gene copy number and RNA levels is not observed in recently isolated wild Saccharomyces cerevisiae variants. To understand the origins of this proposed difference in gene expression regulation between natural variants and laboratory strains of S. cerevisiae, we evaluated the karyotype and gene expression studies performed by Hose et al. on wild S. cerevisiae strains. In contrast to the results of Hose et al., our reexamination of their data revealed a tight correlation between gene copy number and gene expression. We conclude that widespread dosage compensation occurs neither in laboratory strains nor in natural variants of S. cerevisiae. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.10996.001 PMID:26949255

  5. Sucrose and Saccharomyces cerevisiae: a relationship most sweet.

    PubMed

    Marques, Wesley Leoricy; Raghavendran, Vijayendran; Stambuk, Boris Ugarte; Gombert, Andreas Karoly

    2016-02-01

    Sucrose is an abundant, readily available and inexpensive substrate for industrial biotechnology processes and its use is demonstrated with much success in the production of fuel ethanol in Brazil. Saccharomyces cerevisiae, which naturally evolved to efficiently consume sugars such as sucrose, is one of the most important cell factories due to its robustness, stress tolerance, genetic accessibility, simple nutrient requirements and long history as an industrial workhorse. This minireview is focused on sucrose metabolism in S. cerevisiae, a rather unexplored subject in the scientific literature. An analysis of sucrose availability in nature and yeast sugar metabolism was performed, in order to understand the molecular background that makes S. cerevisiae consume this sugar efficiently. A historical overview on the use of sucrose and S. cerevisiae by humans is also presented considering sugarcane and sugarbeet as the main sources of this carbohydrate. Physiological aspects of sucrose consumption are compared with those concerning other economically relevant sugars. Also, metabolic engineering efforts to alter sucrose catabolism are presented in a chronological manner. In spite of its extensive use in yeast-based industries, a lot of basic and applied research on sucrose metabolism is imperative, mainly in fields such as genetics, physiology and metabolic engineering.

  6. 2μ plasmid in Saccharomyces species and in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Strope, Pooja K; Kozmin, Stanislav G; Skelly, Daniel A; Magwene, Paul M; Dietrich, Fred S; McCusker, John H

    2015-12-01

    We determined that extrachromosomal 2μ plasmid was present in 67 of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae 100-genome strains; in addition to variation in the size and copy number of 2μ, we identified three distinct classes of 2μ. We identified 2μ presence/absence and class associations with populations, clinical origin and nuclear genotypes. We also screened genome sequences of S. paradoxus, S. kudriavzevii, S. uvarum, S. eubayanus, S. mikatae, S. arboricolus and S. bayanus strains for both integrated and extrachromosomal 2μ. Similar to S. cerevisiae, we found no integrated 2μ sequences in any S. paradoxus strains. However, we identified part of 2μ integrated into the genomes of some S. uvarum, S. kudriavzevii, S. mikatae and S. bayanus strains, which were distinct from each other and from all extrachromosomal 2μ. We identified extrachromosomal 2μ in one S. paradoxus, one S. eubayanus, two S. bayanus and 13 S. uvarum strains. The extrachromosomal 2μ in S. paradoxus, S. eubayanus and S. cerevisiae were distinct from each other. In contrast, the extrachromosomal 2μ in S. bayanus and S. uvarum strains were identical with each other and with one of the three classes of S. cerevisiae 2μ, consistent with interspecific transfer.

  7. Comparative proteomic analysis of Saccharomyces cerevisiae under different nitrogen sources.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Shaohui; Zhao, Xinrui; Zou, Huijun; Fu, Jianwei; Du, Guocheng; Zhou, Jingwen; Chen, Jian

    2014-04-14

    In cultures containing multiple sources of nitrogen, Saccharomyces cerevisiae exhibits a sequential use of nitrogen sources through a mechanism known as nitrogen catabolite repression (NCR). To identify proteins differentially expressed due to NCR, proteomic analysis of S. cerevisiae S288C under different nitrogen source conditions was performed using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE), revealing 169 candidate protein spots. Among these 169 protein spots, 121 were identified by matrix assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight/time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/TOF). The identified proteins were closely associated with four main biological processes through Gene Ontology (GO) categorical analysis. The identification of the potential proteins and cellular processes related to NCR offer a global overview of changes elicited by different nitrogen sources, providing clues into how yeast adapt to different nutritional conditions. Moreover, by comparing our proteomic data with corresponding mRNA data, proteins regulated at the transcriptional and post-transcriptional level could be distinguished. Biological significance In S. cerevisiae, different nitrogen sources provide different growth characteristics and generate different metabolites. The nitrogen catabolite repression (NCR) process plays an important role for S. cerevisiae in the ordinal utilization of different nitrogen sources. NCR process can result in significant shift of global metabolic networks. Previous works on NCR primarily focused on transcriptomic level. The results obtained in this study provided a global atlas of the proteome changes triggered by different nitrogen sources and would facilitate the understanding of mechanisms for how yeast could adapt to different nutritional conditions.

  8. Human acylphosphatase cannot replace phosphoglycerate kinase in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Van Hoek, P; Modesti, A; Ramponi, G; Kötter, P; van Dijken, J P; Pron, J T

    2001-10-01

    Human acylphosphatase (h-AP, EC 3.6.1.7) has been reported to catalyse the hydrolysis of the 1-phosphate group of 1,3-diphosphoglycerate. In vivo operation of this reaction in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae would bypass phosphoglycerate kinase and thus reduce the ATP yield from glycolysis. To investigate whether h-AP can indeed replace the S. cerevisiae phosphoglycerate kinase, a multi-copy plasmid carrying the h-AP gene under control of the yeast TDH3 promoter was introduced into a pgk1 delta mutant of S. cerevisiae. A strain carrying the expression vector without the h-AP cassette was used as a reference. For both strains, steady-state carbon- and energy-limited chemostat cultures were obtained at a dilution rate of 0.10 h(-1) on a medium containing a mixture of glucose and ethanol (15% and 85% on a carbon basis, respectively). Although the h-AP strain exhibited a high acylphosphatase activity in cell extracts, switching to glucose as sole carbon and energy source resulted in a complete arrest of glucose consumption and growth. The lack of a functional glycolytic pathway was further evident from the absence of ethanol formation in the presence of excess glucose in the culture. As h-AP cannot replace yeast phosphoglycerate kinase in vivo, the enzyme is not a useful tool to modify the ATP yield of glycolysis in S. cerevisiae.

  9. Improving biomass sugar utilization by engineered Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The efficient utilization of all available sugars in lignocellulosic biomass, which is more abundant than available commodity crops and starch, represents one of the most difficult technological challenges for the production of bioethanol. The well-studied yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae has played a...

  10. Reactive oxygen species production induced by ethanol in Saccharomyces cerevisiae increases because of a dysfunctional mitochondrial iron-sulfur cluster assembly system.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Gallardo, Rocio V; Briones, Luis S; Díaz-Pérez, Alma L; Gutiérrez, Sergio; Rodríguez-Zavala, José S; Campos-García, Jesús

    2013-12-01

    Ethanol accumulation during fermentation contributes to the toxic effects in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, impairing its viability and fermentative capabilities. The iron-sulfur (Fe-S) cluster biogenesis is encoded by the ISC genes. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation is associated with iron release from Fe-S-containing enzymes. We evaluated ethanol toxicity, ROS generation, antioxidant response and mitochondrial integrity in S. cerevisiae ISC mutants. These mutants showed an impaired tolerance to ethanol. ROS generation increased substantially when ethanol accumulated at toxic concentrations under the fermentation process. At the cellular and mitochondrial levels, ROS were increased in yeast treated with ethanol and increased to a higher level in the ssq1∆, isa1∆, iba57∆ and grx5∆ mutants - hydrogen peroxide and superoxide were the main molecules detected. Additionally, ethanol treatment decreased GSH/GSSG ratio and increased catalase activity in the ISC mutants. Examination of cytochrome c integrity indicated that mitochondrial apoptosis was triggered following ethanol treatment. The findings indicate that the mechanism of ethanol toxicity occurs via ROS generation dependent on ISC assembly system functionality. In addition, mutations in the ISC genes in S. cerevisiae contribute to the increase in ROS concentration at the mitochondrial and cellular level, leading to depletion of the antioxidant responses and finally to mitochondrial apoptosis. PMID:24028658

  11. Gestational mutations in radiation carcinogenesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meza, R.; Luebeck, G.; Moolgavkar, S.

    Mutations in critical genes during gestation could increase substantially the risk of cancer. We examine the consequences of such mutations using the Luebeck-Moolgavkar model for colorectal cancer and the Lea-Coulson modification of the Luria-Delbruck model for the accumulation of mutations during gestation. When gestational mutation rates are high, such mutations make a significant contribution to cancer risk even for adult tumors. Furthermore, gestational mutations ocurring at distinct times during emryonic developmemt lead to substantially different numbers of mutated cells at birth, with early mutations leading to a large number (jackpots) of mutated cells at birth and mutation occurring late leading to only a few mutated cells. Thus gestational mutations could confer considerable heterogeneity of the risk of cancer. If the fetus is exposed to an environmental mutagen, such as ionizing radiation, the gestational mutation rate would be expected to increase. We examine the consequences of such exposures during gestation on the subsequent development of cancer.

  12. Cloning and characterization of heterologous transporters in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and identification of important amino acids for xylose utilization.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chengqiang; Bao, Xiaoming; Li, Yanwei; Jiao, Chunlei; Hou, Jin; Zhang, Qingzhu; Zhang, Weixin; Liu, Weifeng; Shen, Yu

    2015-07-01

    Efficient and specific transporters may enhance pentose uptake and metabolism by Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Eight heterologous sugar transporters were characterized in S. cerevisiae. The transporter Mgt05196p from Meyerozyma guilliermondii showed the highest xylose transport activity among them. Several key amino acid residues of Mgt05196p were suggested by structural and sequence analysis and characterized by site-directed mutagenesis. A conserved aromatic residue-rich motif (YFFYY, position 332-336) in the seventh trans-membrane span plays an important role in D-xylose transport activity. The phenyl ring of the residue at position 336 may take the function to prevent D-xylose from escaping during uptake. F432A and N360S mutations enhanced the D-xylose transport activities of Mgt05196p. Furthermore, mutant N360F specifically transported D-xylose without any glucose-inhibition, high lighting its potential application in constructing glucose-xylose co-fermentation strains for biomass refining. PMID:25944766

  13. CRISPR/Cas9: a molecular Swiss army knife for simultaneous introduction of multiple genetic modifications in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Mans, Robert; van Rossum, Harmen M; Wijsman, Melanie; Backx, Antoon; Kuijpers, Niels G A; van den Broek, Marcel; Daran-Lapujade, Pascale; Pronk, Jack T; van Maris, Antonius J A; Daran, Jean-Marc G

    2015-03-01

    A variety of techniques for strain engineering in Saccharomyces cerevisiae have recently been developed. However, especially when multiple genetic manipulations are required, strain construction is still a time-consuming process. This study describes new CRISPR/Cas9-based approaches for easy, fast strain construction in yeast and explores their potential for simultaneous introduction of multiple genetic modifications. An open-source tool (http://yeastriction.tnw.tudelft.nl) is presented for identification of suitable Cas9 target sites in S. cerevisiae strains. A transformation strategy, using in vivo assembly of a guideRNA plasmid and subsequent genetic modification, was successfully implemented with high accuracies. An alternative strategy, using in vitro assembled plasmids containing two gRNAs, was used to simultaneously introduce up to six genetic modifications in a single transformation step with high efficiencies. Where previous studies mainly focused on the use of CRISPR/Cas9 for gene inactivation, we demonstrate the versatility of CRISPR/Cas9-based engineering of yeast by achieving simultaneous integration of a multigene construct combined with gene deletion and the simultaneous introduction of two single-nucleotide mutations at different loci. Sets of standardized plasmids, as well as the web-based Yeastriction target-sequence identifier and primer-design tool, are made available to the yeast research community to facilitate fast, standardized and efficient application of the CRISPR/Cas9 system.

  14. CRISPR/Cas9: a molecular Swiss army knife for simultaneous introduction of multiple genetic modifications in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Mans, Robert; van Rossum, Harmen M.; Wijsman, Melanie; Backx, Antoon; Kuijpers, Niels G.A.; van den Broek, Marcel; Daran-Lapujade, Pascale; Pronk, Jack T.; van Maris, Antonius J.A.; Daran, Jean-Marc G.

    2015-01-01

    A variety of techniques for strain engineering in Saccharomyces cerevisiae have recently been developed. However, especially when multiple genetic manipulations are required, strain construction is still a time-consuming process. This study describes new CRISPR/Cas9-based approaches for easy, fast strain construction in yeast and explores their potential for simultaneous introduction of multiple genetic modifications. An open-source tool (http://yeastriction.tnw.tudelft.nl) is presented for identification of suitable Cas9 target sites in S. cerevisiae strains. A transformation strategy, using in vivo assembly of a guideRNA plasmid and subsequent genetic modification, was successfully implemented with high accuracies. An alternative strategy, using in vitro assembled plasmids containing two gRNAs, was used to simultaneously introduce up to six genetic modifications in a single transformation step with high efficiencies. Where previous studies mainly focused on the use of CRISPR/Cas9 for gene inactivation, we demonstrate the versatility of CRISPR/Cas9-based engineering of yeast by achieving simultaneous integration of a multigene construct combined with gene deletion and the simultaneous introduction of two single-nucleotide mutations at different loci. Sets of standardized plasmids, as well as the web-based Yeastriction target-sequence identifier and primer-design tool, are made available to the yeast research community to facilitate fast, standardized and efficient application of the CRISPR/Cas9 system. PMID:25743786

  15. Towards diacetyl-less brewers' yeast. Influence of ilv2 and ilv5 mutations.

    PubMed

    Gjermansen, C; Nilsson-Tillgren, T; Petersen, J G; Kielland-Brandt, M C; Sigsgaard, P; Holmberg, S

    1988-01-01

    During alcoholic fermentations, the off-flavour compound diacetyl is formed non-enzymatically from acetolactate leaking out from the cells. Acetolactate is an intermediate in the biosynthesis of valine. In beer fermentation, the amount of diacetyl is reduced to acceptable levels during maturation. A reduction of the time needed for maturation may be achieved by the use of a brewing yeast that produces less diacetyl. Saccharomyces cerevisiae laboratory strains with an inactive ilv2 gene can not form acetolactate, while ilv5 strains, blocked in the subsequent step, leak acetolactate in high amounts. Induction of recessive mutations in production strains of Saccharomyces carlsbergensis has not yet been achieved, as the yeast is polyploid and possibly a hybrid between S. cerevisiae and another Saccharomyces species. Thus, all chromosomes investigated so far are present in at least two genetically different versions. Genetic and molecular analysis has shown that the brewing yeast is structurally heterozygous for ILV2 and ILV5. Genetic modification of brewers' yeast to reduce diacetyl formation is being carried out by mutation of ILV2. Deletion mutations in both ILV2 alleles have been constructed in vitro to be used for gene replacement in the brewing strain. In addition, partial inactivation of the ILV2 function is carried out by selecting spontaneous dominant mutations resistant to the herbicide sulfometuron methyl. Among these mutants some produce only half the amount of diacetyl compared to the parental strain. An alternative way to reduce diacetyl production might be to increase the activity of the ILV5 gene product. Model experiments in S. cerevisiae show that the presence of the ILV5 gene on a 2-micron based multi-copy vector can reduce the diacetyl production by half.

  16. Mutation rates as adaptations.

    PubMed

    Maley, C

    1997-06-01

    In order to better understand life, it is helpful to look beyond the envelop of life as we know it. A simple model of coevolution was implemented with the addition of a gene for the mutation rate of the individual. This allowed the mutation rate itself to evolve in a lineage. The model shows that when the individuals interact in a sort of zero-sum game, the lineages maintain relatively high mutation rates. However, when individuals engage in interactions that have greater consequences for one individual in the interaction than the other, lineages tend to evolve relatively low mutation rates. This model suggests that one possible cause for differential mutation rates across genes may be the coevolutionary pressure of the various forms of interactions with other genes. PMID:9219670

  17. Mutation and premating isolation.

    PubMed

    Woodruff, R C; Thompson, J N

    2002-11-01

    While premating isolation might be traceable to different genetic mechanisms in different species, evidence supports the idea that as few as one or two genes may often be sufficient to initiate isolation. Thus, new mutation can theoretically play a key role in the process. But it has long been thought that a new isolation mutation would fail, because there would be no other individuals for the isolation-mutation-carrier to mate with. We now realize that premeiotic mutations are very common and will yield a cluster of progeny carrying the same new mutant allele. In this paper, we discuss the evidence for genetically simple premating isolation barriers and the role that clusters of an isolation mutation may play in initiating allopatric, and even sympatric, species divisions.

  18. Multiplex detection of mutations.

    PubMed

    Perlin, David S; Balashov, Sergey; Park, Steven

    2008-01-01

    Rapid and reliable detection of mutations at the genetic level is an integral part of modern molecular diagnostics. These mutations can range from dominant single nucleotide polymorphisms within specific loci to codominant heterozygotic insertions and they present considerable challenges to investigators in developing rapid nucleic acid-based amplification assays that can distinguish wild-type from mutant alleles. The recent improvements of real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using self-reporting fluorescence probes have given researchers a powerful tool in developing assays for mutation detection that can be multiplexed for high-throughput screening of multiple mutations and cost effectiveness. Here we describe an application of a multiplexed real-time PCR assay using Molecular Beacon probes for the detection of mutations in codon 54 of the CYP51A gene in Aspergillus fumigatus conferring triazole resistance.

  19. Mutation and premating isolation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodruff, R. C.; Thompson, J. N. Jr

    2002-01-01

    While premating isolation might be traceable to different genetic mechanisms in different species, evidence supports the idea that as few as one or two genes may often be sufficient to initiate isolation. Thus, new mutation can theoretically play a key role in the process. But it has long been thought that a new isolation mutation would fail, because there would be no other individuals for the isolation-mutation-carrier to mate with. We now realize that premeiotic mutations are very common and will yield a cluster of progeny carrying the same new mutant allele. In this paper, we discuss the evidence for genetically simple premating isolation barriers and the role that clusters of an isolation mutation may play in initiating allopatric, and even sympatric, species divisions.

  20. The Saccharomyces cerevisiae RNase mitochondrial RNA processing is critical for cell cycle progression at the end of mitosis.

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Ti; Aulds, Jason; Gill, Tina; Cerio, Michael; Schmitt, Mark E

    2002-01-01

    We have identified a cell cycle delay in Saccharomyces cerevisiae RNase MRP mutants. Mutants delay with large budded cells, dumbbell-shaped nuclei, and extended spindles characteristic of "exit from mitosis" mutants. In accord with this, a RNase MRP mutation can be suppressed by overexpressing the polo-like kinase CDC5 or by deleting the B-type cyclin CLB1, without restoring the MRP-dependent rRNA-processing step. In addition, we identified a series of genetic interactions between RNase MRP mutations and mutations in CDC5, CDC14, CDC15, CLB2, and CLB5. As in most "exit from mitosis" mutants, levels of the Clb2 cyclin were increased. The buildup of Clb2 protein is not the result of a defect in the release of the Cdc14 phosphatase from the nucleolus, but rather the result of an increase in CLB2 mRNA levels. These results indicate a clear role of RNase MRP in cell cycle progression at the end of mitosis. Conservation of this function in humans may explain many of the pleiotropic phenotypes of cartilage hair hypoplasia. PMID:12136008

  1. Aneuploidy shortens replicative lifespan in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Sunshine, Anna B; Ong, Giang T; Nickerson, Daniel P; Carr, Daniel; Murakami, Christopher J; Wasko, Brian M; Shemorry, Anna; Merz, Alexey J; Kaeberlein, Matt; Dunham, Maitreya J

    2016-04-01

    Aneuploidy and aging are correlated; however, a causal link between these two phenomena has remained elusive. Here, we show that yeast disomic for a single native yeast chromosome generally have a decreased replicative lifespan. In addition, the extent of this lifespan deficit correlates with the size of the extra chromosome. We identified a mutation in BUL1 that rescues both the lifespan deficit and a protein trafficking defect in yeast disomic for chromosome 5. Bul1 is an E4 ubiquitin ligase adaptor involved in a protein quality control pathway that targets membrane proteins for endocytosis and destruction in the lysosomal vacuole, thereby maintaining protein homeostasis. Concurrent suppression of the aging and trafficking phenotypes suggests that disrupted membrane protein homeostasis in aneuploid yeast may contribute to their accelerated aging. The data reported here demonstrate that aneuploidy can impair protein homeostasis, shorten lifespan, and may contribute to age-associated phenotypes.

  2. Sex enhances adaptation by unlinking beneficial from detrimental mutations in experimental yeast populations

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The maintenance of sexuality is a classic problem in evolutionary biology because it is a less efficient mode of reproduction compared with asexuality; however, many organisms are sexual. Theoretical work suggests sex facilitates natural selection, and experimental data support this. However, there are fewer experimental studies that have attempted to determine the mechanisms underlying the advantage of sex. Two main classes of hypotheses have been proposed to explain its advantage: detrimental mutation clearance and beneficial mutation accumulation. Here we attempt to experimentally differentiate between these two classes by evolving Saccharomyces cerevisiae populations that differ only in their ability to undergo sex, and also manipulate mutation rate. We cannot manipulate the types of mutation that occur, but instead propagate populations in both stressful and permissive environments and assume that the extent of detrimental mutation clearance and beneficial mutation incorporation differs between them. Results After 300 mitotic generations interspersed with 11 rounds of sex we found there was no change or difference in fitness between sexuals and asexuals propagated in the permissive environment, regardless of mutation rate. Sex conferred a greater extent of adaptation in the stressful environment, and wild-type and elevated mutation rate sexual populations adapted equivalently. However, the asexual populations with an elevated mutation rate appeared more retarded in their extent of adaptation compared to asexual wild-type populations. Conclusions Sex provided no advantage in the permissive environment where beneficial mutations were rare. We could not evaluate if sex functioned to clear detrimental mutations more effectively or not here as no additional fitness load was observed in the mutator populations. However, in the stressful environment, where detrimental mutations were likely of more consequence, and where beneficial mutations were apparent

  3. Protein overexport in a Saccharomyces cerevisiae mutant is not due to facilitated release of cell-surface proteins.

    PubMed

    Alexieva, K I; Venkov, P V

    2000-01-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain MW11 is a temperature-sensitive mutant which exports twenty times more proteins at 37 degrees C than parental or wild-type strains do. To understand the mechanism underlying the protein overexport in the mutant the possibility of an altered cell-wall structure leading to facilitated release of cell-surface proteins was studied. Data on calcofluor white and zymolyase sensitivities, resistance to killer 1 toxin and determination of exported acid phosphatase and invertase did not provide evidence for alterations in the cell-wall structure that could explain the protein overexport phenotype. The results were obtained in experiments when transcription of mutated gene was discontinued which permits the full expression of the protein overexport phenotype.

  4. The SIR1 gene of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and its role as an extragenic suppressor of several mating-defective mutants.

    PubMed Central

    Stone, E M; Swanson, M J; Romeo, A M; Hicks, J B; Sternglanz, R

    1991-01-01

    The SIR1 gene product of Saccharomyces cerevisiae is one of several proteins involved in repressing transcription of the silent mating-type genes. Strains with mutations in the genes coding for these proteins are defective in mating due to derepression of the silent loci. We have found that overexpression of the SIR1 gene suppresses the mating defects of several of these mutants, including nat1 and ard1 mutants (the products of these two genes are responsible for N-terminal acetylation of a subset of yeast proteins), certain sir3 mutants, and a histone H4 mutant. The SIR1 gene has been sequenced and found to contain an open reading frame coding for a 678-amino-acid protein. Images PMID:2005909

  5. Regulation of maltose utilization in Saccharomyces cerevisiae by genes of the RAS/protein kinase A pathway.

    PubMed

    Wanke, V; Vavassori, M; Thevelein, J M; Tortora, P; Vanoni, M

    1997-02-01

    In Saccharomyces cerevisiae maltose utilization requires a functional MAL locus, each composed of three genes: MALR (gene 3) encoding a regulatory protein, MALT (gene 1) encoding maltose permease and MALS (gene 2) encoding maltase. We show that constitutive activation of the RAS/protein kinase A pathway severely reduces growth of MAL1 strains on maltose. This may be a consequence of reduction in MALT mRNA, reduced Vmax and increased catabolite inactivation of the MALT-encoded maltose transporter in the MAL1 strain. Mutations in the GGS1/TPS1 gene, which restricts glucose influx and possibly affects signalling, relieve carbon catabolite repression on both maltase and maltose permease and reduce maltose permease inactivation.

  6. Acetic acid inhibits nutrient uptake in Saccharomyces cerevisiae: auxotrophy confounds the use of yeast deletion libraries for strain improvement.

    PubMed

    Ding, Jun; Bierma, Jan; Smith, Mark R; Poliner, Eric; Wolfe, Carole; Hadduck, Alex N; Zara, Severino; Jirikovic, Mallori; van Zee, Kari; Penner, Michael H; Patton-Vogt, Jana; Bakalinsky, Alan T

    2013-08-01

    Acetic acid inhibition of yeast fermentation has a negative impact in several industrial processes. As an initial step in the construction of a Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain with increased tolerance for acetic acid, mutations conferring resistance were identified by screening a library of deletion mutants in a multiply auxotrophic genetic background. Of the 23 identified mutations, 11 were then introduced into a prototrophic laboratory strain for further evaluation. Because none of the 11 mutations was found to increase resistance in the prototrophic strain, potential interference by the auxotrophic mutations themselves was investigated. Mutants carrying single auxotrophic mutations were constructed and found to be more sensitive to growth inhibition by acetic acid than an otherwise isogenic prototrophic strain. At a concentration of 80 mM acetic acid at pH 4.8, the initial uptake of uracil, leucine, lysine, histidine, tryptophan, phosphate, and glucose was lower in the prototrophic strain than in a non-acetic acid-treated control. These findings are consistent with two mechanisms by which nutrient uptake may be inhibited. Intracellular adenosine triphosphate (ATP) levels were severely decreased upon acetic acid treatment, which likely slowed ATP-dependent proton symport, the major form of transport in yeast for nutrients other than glucose. In addition, the expression of genes encoding some nutrient transporters was repressed by acetic acid, including HXT1 and HXT3 that encode glucose transporters that operate by facilitated diffusion. These results illustrate how commonly used genetic markers in yeast deletion libraries complicate the effort to isolate strains with increased acetic acid resistance.

  7. Loss of Anticodon Wobble Uridine Modifications Affects tRNALys Function and Protein Levels in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Klassen, Roland; Grunewald, Pia; Thüring, Kathrin L.; Eichler, Christian; Helm, Mark; Schaffrath, Raffael

    2015-01-01

    In eukaryotes, wobble uridines in the anticodons of tRNALysUUU, tRNAGluUUC and tRNAGlnUUG are modified to 5-methoxy-carbonyl-methyl-2-thio-uridine (mcm5s2U). While mutations in subunits of the Elongator complex (Elp1-Elp6), which disable mcm5 side chain formation, or removal of components of the thiolation pathway (Ncs2/Ncs6, Urm1, Uba4) are individually tolerated, the combination of both modification defects has been reported to have lethal effects on Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Contrary to such absolute requirement of mcm5s2U for viability, we demonstrate here that in the S. cerevisiae S288C-derived background, both pathways can be simultaneously inactivated, resulting in combined loss of tRNA anticodon modifications (mcm5U and s2U) without a lethal effect. However, an elp3 disruption strain displays synthetic sick interaction and synergistic temperature sensitivity when combined with either uba4 or urm1 mutations, suggesting major translational defects in the absence of mcm5s2U modifications. Consistent with this notion, we find cellular protein levels drastically decreased in an elp3uba4 double mutant and show that this effect as well as growth phenotypes can be partially rescued by excess of tRNALysUUU. These results may indicate a global translational or protein homeostasis defect in cells simultaneously lacking mcm5 and s2 wobble uridine modification that could account for growth impairment and mainly originates from tRNALysUUU hypomodification and malfunction. PMID:25747122

  8. Isolation of the Candida albicans homologs of Saccharomyces cerevisiae KRE6 and SKN1: expression and physiological function.

    PubMed Central

    Mio, T; Yamada-Okabe, T; Yabe, T; Nakajima, T; Arisawa, M; Yamada-Okabe, H

    1997-01-01

    Cell wall beta-glucan in a pathogenic fungus, Candida albicans, is highly branched with beta-1,3 and beta-1,6 linkages. We have isolated the C. albicans cDNAs for KRE6 and SKN1, the genes required for beta-1,6-glucan synthesis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The results of Northern blot analysis revealed that C. albicans KRE6 was expressed at a higher level than SKN1 in the yeast phase, while SKN1 expression was strongly induced upon induction of hyphal formation. In addition, the C. albicans KRE6 and SKN1 mRNAs but not the actin mRNA were shortened during the yeast-hypha transition. Unlike S. cerevisiae, more than 50% of cell wall glucan was beta-1,6 linked in C. albicans. Neither beta-1,3-glucan nor beta-1,6-glucan was affected by the homozygous C. albicans skn1 delta null mutation. Although we never succeeded in generating the homozygous C. albicans kre6 delta null mutant, the hemizygous kre6 delta mutation decreased the KRE6 mRNA level by about 60% and also caused a more than 80% reduction of beta-1,6-glucan without affecting beta-1,3-glucan. The physiological function of KRE6 was further examined by studying gene regulation in C. albicans. When KRE6 transcription was suppressed by using the HEX1 promoter, C. albicans cells exhibited the partial defect in cell separation and increased susceptibility to Calcofluor White. These results demonstrate that KRE6 plays important roles in beta-1,6-glucan synthesis and budding in C. albicans. PMID:9079924

  9. Clustering of mutations in methylmalonyl CoA mutase associated with mut- methylmalonic acidemia.

    PubMed Central

    Crane, A. M.; Ledley, F. D.

    1994-01-01

    Mutations have been described in human methylmalonyl CoA mutase (MCM) that exhibit partial defects in enzyme activity, including cobalamin-dependent (i.e., mut-) or interallelic complementation. This work describes mutations in cells from four patients, three of whom exhibit a cobalamin-dependent phenotype and all four of whom exhibit interallelic complementation. Four novel mutations (R694W, G648D, G630E, and G626C) are identified that cluster near the carboxyl terminus of the protein, a region close to another mut- mutation (G717V). Each of these mutations was shown to express a phenotype congruent with that of the parental cell line, after transfection into mut0 fibroblasts, and each exhibits interallelic complementation in cotransfection assays with clones bearing a R93H mutation. The activity of mutant enzymes expressed in Saccharomyces cerevisiae parallels the residual activity of the parental cell lines and exhibits novel sensitivities to pH and salt. The clustering of these mutations identifies a region of MCM that most likely represents the cobalamin-binding domain. The location of this domain, as well as the pattern of sequence preservation between the homologous human and Probiono-bacterium shermanii enzymes, suggests a mechanism for interallelic complementation in which the cobalamin-binding defect is complemented in trans from the heterologous subunits of the dimer. Images Figure 6 PMID:7912889

  10. A mutation in mouse rad51 results in an early embryonic lethal that is suppressed by a mutation in p53.

    PubMed Central

    Lim, D S; Hasty, P

    1996-01-01

    RecA in Escherichia coli and its homolog, ScRad51 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, are known to be essential for recombinational repair. The homolog of RecA and ScRad51 in mice, MmRad51, was mutated to determine its function. Mutant embryos arrested early during development. A decrease in cell proliferation, followed by programmed cell death and chromosome loss, was observed. Radiation sensitivity was demonstrated in trophectoderm-derived cells. Interestingly, embryonic development progressed further in a p53 null background; however, fibroblasts derived from double-mutant embryos failed to proliferate in tissue culture. PMID:8943369

  11. Transcriptional profiling of Saccharomyces cerevisiae exposed to propolis

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Propolis is a natural product of plant resins collected by honeybees (Apis mellifera) from various plant sources. Our previous studies indicated that propolis sensitivity is dependent on the mitochondrial function and that vacuolar acidification and autophagy are important for yeast cell death caused by propolis. Here, we extended our understanding of propolis-mediated cell death in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae by applying systems biology tools to analyze the transcriptional profiling of cells exposed to propolis. Methods We have used transcriptional profiling of S. cerevisiae exposed to propolis. We validated our findings by using real-time PCR of selected genes. Systems biology tools (physical protein-protein interaction [PPPI] network) were applied to analyse the propolis-induced transcriptional bevavior, aiming to identify which pathways are modulated by propolis in S. cerevisiae and potentially influencing cell death. Results We were able to observe 1,339 genes modulated in at least one time point when compared to the reference time (propolis untreated samples) (t-test, p-value 0.01). Enrichment analysis performed by Gene Ontology (GO) Term finder tool showed enrichment for several biological categories among the genes up-regulated in the microarray hybridization such as transport and transmembrane transport and response to stress. Real-time RT-PCR analysis of selected genes showed by our microarray hybridization approach was capable of providing information about S. cerevisiae gene expression modulation with a considerably high level of confidence. Finally, a physical protein-protein (PPPI) network design and global topological analysis stressed the importance of these pathways in response of S. cerevisiae to propolis and were correlated with the transcriptional data obtained thorough the microarray analysis. Conclusions In summary, our data indicate that propolis is largely affecting several pathways in the eukaryotic cell. However, the most

  12. A codon change in beta-tubulin which drastically affects microtubule structure in Drosophila melanogaster fails to produce a significant phenotype in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Praitis, V; Katz, W S; Solomon, F

    1991-09-01

    The relative uniformity of microtubule ultrastructure in almost all eukaryotic cells is thought to be a consequence of the conserved elements of tubulin sequence. In support of this idea, a mutation in a beta-tubulin gene of Drosophila melanogaster, occurring at a highly conserved position, produces U-shaped microtubules, suggesting a defect in either nucleation or packing during assembly (M. T. Fuller, J. H. Caulton, J. A. Hutchens, T. C. Kaufman, and E. C. Raff, J. Cell Biol. 104:385-394, 1987, and J. E. Rudolph, M. Kimble, H. D. Hoyle, M. A. Subler, and E. C. Raff, Mol. Cell. Biol. 7:2231-2242, 1987). Surprisingly, we find that introducing the same mutation into the sole beta-tubulin gene of Saccharomyces cerevisiae has virtually no consequences for microtubule structure or function in that organism. PMID:1908555

  13. ``alternative Self-Diploidization'' or ``asd'' Homothallism in Saccharomyces Cerevisiae: Isolation of a Mutant, Nuclear-Cytoplasmic Interaction and Endomitotic Diploidization

    PubMed Central

    Ono, B. I.; Ishino-Arao, Y.; Takasugi, K.; Taniguchi, M.; Fukuda, M.; Fukui, M.; Miyakawa, I.; Sando, N.

    1990-01-01

    A mutant of Saccharomyces cerevisiae representing a novel life cycle, named ``alternative self-diploidization'' or ``ASD'' homothallism, was obtained fortuitously. In this life cycle, MATα (or MATa) haplophase and MATα/MATα (or MATa/MATa) diplophase alternate. Germinated cells are haploid and mating. They soon become nonmating and sporogenous as they vegetatively grow. They sooner or later diploidize presumably via endomitosis. The diploid cells haploidize via normal meiosis. A single recessive nuclear mutation, named asd1-1, is responsible for ``ASD'' homothallism. In the ρ(0) cytoplasm, asd1-1 cells mate even if at a low efficiency and fail to diploidize. Since pet mutations do not have such effects, we conclude that a certain mitochondrial function other than respiration is required for manifestation of ``ASD'' homothallism. That is, ``ASD'' homothallism is the result of some sort of nuclear-cytoplasmic interaction. PMID:2204579

  14. Carboxypeptidase S- and carboxypeptidase Y-deficient mutants of Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Wolf, D H; Ehmann, C

    1981-08-01

    A new carboxypeptidase (carboxypeptidase S) was found in a Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain lacking carboxypeptidase Y (D. H. Wolf and U. Weiser, Eur. J. Biochem. 73:553-556, 1977). Mutants devoid of carboxypeptidase S activity were isolated from a mutant strain that was also deficient in carboxypeptidase Y. Four mutants were analyzed in detail and fell into one complementation group. The defect segregated 2:2 in meiotic tetrads. Gene dosage experiments indicated that the mutation might reside in the structural gene of carboxypeptidase S. The absence of both enzymes, carboxypeptidases Y and S, did not affect mitotic growth. Ascopore formation was only slightly affected by the absence of both carboxypeptidases. Protein degradation under conditions of nutrient deprivation and under sporulation conditions showed no obvious alteration in the absence of carboxypeptidases Y and S. When a proteinase B mutation, which led to the absence of proteinase B activity and resulted in the partial reduction of sporulation, was introduced into a mutant lacking both carboxypeptidases, the ability of diploid cells to sporulate was nearly completely lost. Mutants lacking both carboxypeptidases were unable to grow on the dipeptide benzyloxycarbonylglycyl-l-leucine as a sole nitrogen source, which indicates an additional function for carboxypeptidases Y and S in supplying nutrients from exogenous peptides. Catabolite inactivation of fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase, cytoplasmic malate dehydrogenase, and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase and inactivation of nicotin-amide adenine dinucleotide phosphate-dependent, glutamate dehydrogenase, events which have been proposed to involve proteolysis in vivo, were not dependent on the presence of carboxypeptidase Y and S. In a mutant lacking both carboxypeptidases, four new proteolytic enzymes with carboxypeptidase activity were detected. PMID:7021530

  15. Construction of mutant alleles in Saccharomyces cerevisiae without cloning: overview and the delitto perfetto method.

    PubMed

    Moqtaderi, Zarmik; Geisberg, Joseph V

    2013-01-01

    Traditionally, methods for introducing specific new mutations at target loci in the yeast genome have involved the preparation of disruption or gene-replacement cassettes via multiple cloning steps. Sequences used for targeting these cassettes or integrating vectors are typically several hundred base pairs long. A variety of newer methods rely on the design of custom PCR oligonucleotides containing shorter sequence tails (∼50 nt) for targeting the locus of interest. These techniques obviate the need for cloning steps and allow construction of mutagenesis cassettes by PCR amplification. Such cassettes may be used for gene deletion, epitope tagging, or site-specific mutagenesis. The strategies differ in several ways, most notably with respect to whether they allow reuse of the selection marker and whether extra sequences are left behind near the target locus. This unit presents a summary of methods for targeted mutagenesis of Saccharomyces cerevisiae loci without cloning, including PCR-based allele replacement, delitto perfetto, and MIRAGE. Next, a protocol is provided for the delitto perfetto PCR- and oligonucleotide-based mutagenesis method, which offers particular advantages for generating several different mutant alleles of the same gene. PMID:24510296

  16. The Saccharomyces cerevisiae ACR3 gene encodes a putative membrane protein involved in arsenite transport.

    PubMed

    Wysocki, R; Bobrowicz, P; Ułaszewski, S

    1997-11-28

    The cluster of three genes, ACR1, ACR2, and ACR3, previously was shown to confer arsenical resistance in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The overexpression of ACR3 induced high level arsenite resistance. The presence of ACR3 together with ACR2 on a multicopy plasmid was conducive to increased arsenate resistance. The function of ACR3 gene has now been investigated. Amino acid sequence analysis of Acr3p showed that this hypothetical protein has hydrophobic character with 10 putative transmembrane spans and is probably located in yeast plasma membrane. We constructed the acr3 null mutation. The resulting disruptants were 5-fold more sensitive to arsenate and arsenite than wild-type cells. The acr3 disruptants showed wild-type sensitivity to antimony, tellurite, cadmium, and phenylarsine oxide. The mechanism of arsenical resistance was assayed by transport experiments using radioactive arsenite. We did not observe any significant differences in the accumulation of 76AsO33- in wild-type cells, acr1 and acr3 disruptants. However, the high dosage of ACR3 gene resulted in loss of arsenite uptake. These results suggest that arsenite resistance in yeast is mediated by an arsenite transporter (Acr3p).

  17. The three zinc-containing alcohol dehydrogenases from baker's yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Leskovac, Vladimir; Trivić, Svetlana; Pericin, Draginja

    2002-12-01

    This review is a summary of our current knowledge of the structure, function and mechanism of action of the three zinc-containing alcohol dehydrogenases, YADH-1, YADH-2 and YADH-3, in baker's yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The opening section deals with the substrate specificity of the enzymes, covering the steady-state kinetic data for its most known substrates. In the following sections, the kinetic mechanism for this enzyme is reported, along with the values of all rate constants in the mechanism. The complete primary structures of the three isoenzymes of YADH are given, and the model of the 3D structure of the active site is presented. All known artificial mutations in the primary structure of the YADH are covered in full and described in detail. Further, the chemical mechanism of action for YADH is presented along with the complement of steady-state and ligand-binding data supporting this mechanism. Finally, the bio-organic chemistry of the hydride-transfer reactions catalyzed by the enzyme is covered: this chemistry explains the narrow substrate specificity and the enantioselectivity of the yeast enzyme.

  18. Replication protein A is required for meiotic recombination in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed Central

    Soustelle, Christine; Vedel, Michèle; Kolodner, Richard; Nicolas, Alain

    2002-01-01

    In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, meiotic recombination is initiated by transient DNA double-stranded breaks (DSBs). These DSBs undergo a 5' --> 3' resection to produce 3' single-stranded DNA ends that serve to channel DSBs into the RAD52 recombinational repair pathway. In vitro studies strongly suggest that several proteins of this pathway--Rad51, Rad52, Rad54, Rad55, Rad57, and replication protein A (RPA)--play a role in the strand exchange reaction. Here, we report a study of the meiotic phenotypes conferred by two missense mutations affecting the largest subunit of RPA, which are localized in the protein interaction domain (rfa1-t11) and in the DNA-binding domain (rfa1-t48). We find that both mutant diploids exhibit reduced sporulation efficiency, very poor spore viability, and a 10- to 100-fold decrease in meiotic recombination. Physical analyses indicate that both mutants form normal levels of meiosis-specific DSBs and that the broken ends are processed into 3'-OH single-stranded tails, indicating that the RPA complex present in these rfa1 mutants is functional in the initial steps of meiotic recombination. However, the 5' ends of the broken fragments undergo extensive resection, similar to what is observed in rad51, rad52, rad55, and rad57 mutants, indicating that these RPA mutants are defective in the repair of the Spo11-dependent DSBs that initiate homologous recombination during meiosis. PMID:12072452

  19. Generating Symmetry in the Asymmetric ATP-binding Cassette (ABC) Transporter Pdr5 from Saccharomyces cerevisiae*

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Rakeshkumar P.; Kueppers, Petra; Hanekop, Nils; Schmitt, Lutz

    2014-01-01

    Pdr5 is a plasma membrane-bound ABC transporter from Saccharomyces cerevisiae and is involved in the phenomenon of resistance against xenobiotics, which are clinically relevant in bacteria, fungi, and humans. Many fungal ABC transporters such as Pdr5 display an inherent asymmetry in their nucleotide-binding sites (NBS) unlike most of their human counterparts. This degeneracy of the NBSs is very intriguing and needs explanation in terms of structural and functional relevance. In this study, we mutated nonconsensus amino acid residues in the NBSs to its consensus counterpart and studied its effect on the function of the protein and effect on yeast cells. The completely “regenerated” Pdr5 protein was severely impaired in its function of ATP hydrolysis and of rhodamine 6G transport. Moreover, we observe alternative compensatory mechanisms to counteract drug toxicity in some of the mutants. In essence, we describe here the first attempts to restore complete symmetry in an asymmetric ABC transporter and to study its effects, which might be relevant to the entire class of asymmetric ABC transporters. PMID:24733388

  20. Optimized fermentation of grape juice by laboratory strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Harsch, Michael J; Lee, Soon A; Goddard, Matthew R; Gardner, Richard C

    2010-02-01

    Laboratory strains of yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) based on S288C ferment grape juice relatively poorly. We show that slow fermentation appears to be inherent to this strain, because the original S288C isolate shows fermentation similar to current laboratory isolates. We demonstrate further that some auxotrophic mutations in the laboratory strain show reduced rates of fermentation in grape juice, with lysine auxotrophs particularly impaired compared with isogenic Lys(+) strains. Supplementing lysine at a 10-fold higher concentration than recommended allowed yeast cultures to reach higher final cell densities and restored the fermentation rate of auxotrophic strains to those of the corresponding wild-type strains. However, even with the additional supplementation, the fermentation rates of S288C strains were still slower than those of a commercial wine yeast strain. Conditions were developed that enable auxotrophic laboratory strains derived from S288C to ferment grape juice to completion with high efficiency on a laboratory scale. Fermentation in media based on grape juice will allow the suite of molecular genetic tools developed for these laboratory strains to be used in investigations of complex ferment characteristics and products.

  1. Nuclease activity of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Dna2 inhibits its potent DNA helicase activity

    PubMed Central

    Levikova, Maryna; Klaue, Daniel; Seidel, Ralf; Cejka, Petr

    2013-01-01

    Dna2 is a nuclease-helicase involved in several key pathways of eukaryotic DNA metabolism. The potent nuclease activity of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Dna2 was reported to be required for all its in vivo functions tested to date. In contrast, its helicase activity was shown to be weak, and its inactivation affected only a subset of Dna2 functions. We describe here a complex interplay of the two enzymatic activities. We show that the nuclease of Dna2 inhibits its helicase by cleaving 5′ flaps that are required by the helicase domain for loading onto its substrate. Mutational inactivation of Dna2 nuclease unleashes unexpectedly vigorous DNA unwinding activity, comparable with that of the most potent eukaryotic helicases. Thus, the ssDNA-specific nuclease activity of Dna2 limits and controls the enzyme's capacity to unwind dsDNA. We postulate that regulation of this interplay could modulate the biochemical properties of Dna2 and thus license it to carry out its distinct cellular functions. PMID:23671118

  2. Roles of septins in prospore membrane morphogenesis and spore wall assembly in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Heasley, Lydia R; McMurray, Michael A

    2016-02-01

    The highly conserved family of septin proteins has important functions in cytokinesis in mitotically proliferating cells. A different form of cytokinesis occurs during gametogenesis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, in which four haploid meiotic products become encased by prospore membrane (PSMs) and specialized, stress-resistant spore walls. Septins are known to localize in a series of structures near the growing PSM, but previous studies noted only mild sporulation defects upon septin mutation. We report that directed PSM extension fails in many septin-mutant cells, and, for those that do succeed, walls are abnormal, leading to increased susceptibility to heating, freezing, and digestion by the Drosophila gut. Septin mutants mislocalize the leading-edge protein (LEP) complex required for normal PSM and wall biogenesis, and ectopic expression of the LEP protein Ssp1 perturbs mitotic septin localization and function, suggesting a functional interaction. Strikingly, extra copies of septin CDC10 rescue sporulation and LEP localization in cells lacking Sma1, a phospholipase D-associated protein dispensable for initiation of PSM assembly and PSM curvature but required for PSM extension. These findings point to key septin functions in directing efficient membrane and cell wall synthesis during budding yeast gametogenesis. PMID:26680739

  3. RAD26, the functional S. cerevisiae homolog of the Cockayne syndrome B gene ERCC6.

    PubMed Central

    van Gool, A J; Verhage, R; Swagemakers, S M; van de Putte, P; Brouwer, J; Troelstra, C; Bootsma, D; Hoeijmakers, J H

    1994-01-01

    Transcription-coupled repair (TCR) is a universal sub-pathway of the nucleotide excision repair (NER) system that is limited to the transcribed strand of active structural genes. It accomplishes the preferential elimination of transcription-blocking DNA lesions and permits rapid resumption of the vital process of transcription. A defect in TCR is responsible for the rare hereditary disorder Cockayne syndrome (CS). Recently we found that mutations in the ERCC6 repair gene, encoding a putative helicase, underly the repair defect of CS complementation group B. Here we report the cloning and characterization of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae homolog of CSB/ERCC6, which we designate RAD26. A rad26 disruption mutant appears viable and grows normally, indicating that the gene does not have an essential function. In analogy with CS, preferential repair of UV-induced cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers in the transcribed strand of the active RBP2 gene is severely impaired. Surprisingly, in contrast to the human CS mutant, yeast RAD26 disruption does not induce any UV-, cisPt- or X-ray sensitivity, explaining why it was not isolated as a mutant before. Recovery of growth after UV exposure was somewhat delayed in rad26. These findings suggest that TCR in lower eukaryotes is not very important for cell survival and that the global genome repair pathway of NER is the major determinant of cellular resistance to genotoxicity. Images PMID:7957102

  4. RRM3 regulates epigenetic conversions in Saccharomyces cerevisiae in conjunction with Chromatin Assembly Factor I.

    PubMed

    Wyse, Brandon; Oshidari, Roxanne; Rowlands, Hollie; Abbasi, Sanna; Yankulov, Krassimir

    2016-07-01

    Chromatin structures are transmitted to daughter cells through a complex system of nucleosome disassembly and re-assembly at the advancing replication forks. However, the role of replication pausing in the transmission and perturbation of chromatin structures has not been addressed. RRM3 encodes a DNA helicase, which facilitates replication at sites covered with non-histone protein complexes (tRNA genes, active gene promoters, telomeres) in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In this report we show that the deletion of RRM3 reduces the frequency of epigenetic conversions in the subtelomeric regions of the chromosomes. This phenotype is strongly dependent on 2 histone chaperones, CAF-I and ASF1, which are involved in the reassembly of nucleosomes behind replication forks, but not on the histone chaperone HIR1. We also show that the deletion of RRM3 increases the spontaneous mutation rates in conjunction with CAF-I and ASF1, but not HIR1. Finally, we demonstrate that Rrm3p and CAF-I compete for the binding to the DNA replication clamp PCNA (Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen). We propose that the stalling of DNA replication predisposes to epigenetic conversions and that RRM3 and CAF-I play key roles in this process. PMID:27645054

  5. DNA polymerases delta and epsilon are required for chromosomal replication in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed Central

    Budd, M E; Campbell, J L

    1993-01-01

    Three DNA polymerases, alpha, delta, and epsilon are required for viability in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We have investigated whether DNA polymerases epsilon and delta are required for DNA replication. Two temperature-sensitive mutations in the POL2 gene, encoding DNA polymerase epsilon, have been identified by using the plasmid shuffle technique. Alkaline sucrose gradient analysis of DNA synthesis products in the mutant strains shows that no chromosomal-size DNA is formed after shift of an asynchronous culture to the nonpermissive temperature. The only DNA synthesis observed is a reduced quantity of short DNA fragments. The DNA profiles of replication intermediates from these mutants are similar to those observed with DNA synthesized in mutants deficient in DNA polymerase alpha under the same conditions. The finding that DNA replication stops upon shift to the nonpermissive temperature in both DNA polymerase alpha- and DNA polymerase epsilon- deficient strains shows that both DNA polymerases are involved in elongation. By contrast, previous studies on pol3 mutants, deficient in DNA polymerase delta, suggested that there was considerable residual DNA synthesis at the nonpermissive temperature. We have reinvestigated the nature of DNA synthesis in pol3 mutants. We find that pol3 strains are defective in the synthesis of chromosomal-size DNA at the restrictive temperature after release from a hydroxyurea block. These results demonstrate that yeast DNA polymerase delta is also required at the replication fork. PMID:8417347

  6. The Saccharomyces cerevisiae BAR1 gene encodes an exported protein with homology to pepsin.

    PubMed Central

    MacKay, V L; Welch, S K; Insley, M Y; Manney, T R; Holly, J; Saari, G C; Parker, M L

    1988-01-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae a cells secrete an extracellular protein, called "barrier" activity, that acts as an antagonist of alpha factor, the peptide mating pheromone produced by mating-type alpha cells. We report here the DNA sequence of BAR1, the structural gene for barrier activity. The deduced primary translation product of 587 amino acids has a putative signal peptide, nine potential asparagine-linked glycosylation sites, and marked sequence similarity of the first two-thirds of the protein with pepsin-like proteases. Barrier activity was abolished by in vitro mutation of an aspartic acid predicted from this sequence homology to be in the active site. Therefore, barrier protein is probably a protease that cleaves alpha factor. The sequence similarity suggests that the first two-thirds of the barrier protein is organized into two distinct structural domains like those of the pepsin-like proteases. However, the BAR1 gene product has a third carboxyl-terminal domain of unknown function; deletion of at least 166 of the 191 amino acids of this region has no significant effect on barrier activity. Images PMID:3124102

  7. Autophagy is required for G₁/G₀ quiescence in response to nitrogen starvation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    An, Zhenyi; Tassa, Amina; Thomas, Collin; Zhong, Rui; Xiao, Guanghua; Fotedar, Rati; Tu, Benjamin P; Klionsky, Daniel J; Levine, Beth

    2014-10-01

    In response to starvation, cells undergo increased levels of autophagy and cell cycle arrest but the role of autophagy in starvation-induced cell cycle arrest is not fully understood. Here we show that autophagy genes regulate cell cycle arrest in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae during nitrogen starvation. While exponentially growing wild-type yeasts preferentially arrest in G₁/G₀ in response to starvation, yeasts carrying null mutations in autophagy genes show a significantly higher percentage of cells in G₂/M. In these autophagy-deficient yeast strains, starvation elicits physiological properties associated with quiescence, such as Snf1 activation, glycogen and trehalose accumulation as well as heat-shock resistance. However, while nutrient-starved wild-type yeasts finish the G₂/M transition and arrest in G₁/G 0₀ autophagy-deficient yeasts arrest in telophase. Our results suggest that autophagy is crucial for mitotic exit during starvation and appropriate entry into a G₁/G₀ quiescent state.

  8. Molecular cloning, characterization, and overexpression of ERG7, the Saccharomyces cerevisiae gene encoding lanosterol synthase.

    PubMed Central

    Corey, E J; Matsuda, S P; Bartel, B

    1994-01-01

    We report the cloning, characterization, and overexpression of Saccharomyces cerevisiae ERG7, which encodes lanosterol synthase [(S)-2,3-epoxysqualene mutase (cyclizing, lanosterol forming), EC 5.4.99.7], the enzyme responsible for the complex cyclization/rearrangement step in sterol biosynthesis. Oligonucleotide primers were designed corresponding to protein sequences conserved between Candida albicans ERG7 and the related Arabidopsis thaliana cycloartenol synthase [(S)-2,3-epoxysqualene mutase (cyclizing, cycloartenol forming), EC 5.4.99.8]. A PCR product was amplified from yeast genomic DNA using these primers and was used to probe yeast libraries by hybridization. Partial-length clones homologous to the two known epoxysqualene mutases were isolated, but a full-length sequence was found neither in cDNA nor genomic libraries, whether in phage or plasmids. Two overlapping clones were assembled to make a functional reconstruction of the gene, which contains a 2196-bp open reading frame capable of encoding an 83-kDa protein. The reconstruction complemented the erg7 mutation when driven from either its native promoter or the strong ADH1 promoter. Images PMID:8134375

  9. Alternative reactions at the interface of glycolysis and citric acid cycle in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    van Rossum, Harmen M; Kozak, Barbara U; Niemeijer, Matthijs S; Duine, Hendrik J; Luttik, Marijke A H; Boer, Viktor M; Kötter, Peter; Daran, Jean-Marc G; van Maris, Antonius J A; Pronk, Jack T

    2016-05-01

    Pyruvate and acetyl-coenzyme A, located at the interface between glycolysis and TCA cycle, are important intermediates in yeast metabolism and key precursors for industrially relevant products. Rational engineering of their supply requires knowledge of compensatory reactions that replace predominant pathways when these are inactivated. This study investigates effects of individual and combined mutations that inactivate the mitochondrial pyruvate-dehydrogenase (PDH) complex, extramitochondrial citrate synthase (Cit2) and mitochondrial CoA-transferase (Ach1) in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Additionally, strains with a constitutively expressed carnitine shuttle were constructed and analyzed. A predominant role of the PDH complex in linking glycolysis and TCA cycle in glucose-grown batch cultures could be functionally replaced by the combined activity of the cytosolic PDH bypass and Cit2. Strongly impaired growth and a high incidence of respiratory deficiency in pda1Δ ach1Δ strains showed that synthesis of intramitochondrial acetyl-CoA as a metabolic precursor requires activity of either the PDH complex or Ach1. Constitutive overexpression of AGP2, HNM1, YAT2, YAT1, CRC1 and CAT2 enabled the carnitine shuttle to efficiently link glycolysis and TCA cycle in l-carnitine-supplemented, glucose-grown batch cultures. Strains in which all known reactions at the glycolysis-TCA cycle interface were inactivated still grew slowly on glucose, indicating additional flexibility at this key metabolic junction.

  10. RAD26, the functional S. cerevisiae homolog of the Cockayne syndrome B gene ERCC6.

    PubMed

    van Gool, A J; Verhage, R; Swagemakers, S M; van de Putte, P; Brouwer, J; Troelstra, C; Bootsma, D; Hoeijmakers, J H

    1994-11-15

    Transcription-coupled repair (TCR) is a universal sub-pathway of the nucleotide excision repair (NER) system that is limited to the transcribed strand of active structural genes. It accomplishes the preferential elimination of transcription-blocking DNA lesions and permits rapid resumption of the vital process of transcription. A defect in TCR is responsible for the rare hereditary disorder Cockayne syndrome (CS). Recently we found that mutations in the ERCC6 repair gene, encoding a putative helicase, underly the repair defect of CS complementation group B. Here we report the cloning and characterization of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae homolog of CSB/ERCC6, which we designate RAD26. A rad26 disruption mutant appears viable and grows normally, indicating that the gene does not have an essential function. In analogy with CS, preferential repair of UV-induced cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers in the transcribed strand of the active RBP2 gene is severely impaired. Surprisingly, in contrast to the human CS mutant, yeast RAD26 disruption does not induce any UV-, cisPt- or X-ray sensitivity, explaining why it was not isolated as a mutant before. Recovery of growth after UV exposure was somewhat delayed in rad26. These findings suggest that TCR in lower eukaryotes is not very important for cell survival and that the global genome repair pathway of NER is the major determinant of cellular resistance to genotoxicity. PMID:7957102

  11. Non-repair pathways for minimizing protein isoaspartyl damage in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Patananan, Alexander N; Capri, Joseph; Whitelegge, Julian P; Clarke, Steven G

    2014-06-13

    The spontaneous degradation of asparaginyl and aspartyl residues to isoaspartyl residues is a common type of protein damage in aging organisms. Although the protein-l-isoaspartyl (d-aspartyl) O-methyltransferase (EC 2.1.1.77) can initiate the repair of l-isoaspartyl residues to l-aspartyl residues in most organisms, no gene homolog or enzymatic activity is present in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Therefore, we used biochemical approaches to elucidate how proteins containing isoaspartyl residues are metabolized in this organism. Surprisingly, the level of isoaspartyl residues in yeast proteins (50-300 pmol of isoaspartyl residues/mg of protein extract) is comparable with organisms with protein-l-isoaspartyl (d-aspartyl) O-methyltransferase, suggesting a novel regulatory pathway. Interfering with common protein quality control mechanisms by mutating and inhibiting the proteasomal and autophagic pathways in vivo did not increase isoaspartyl residue levels compared with wild type or uninhibited cells. However, the inhibition of metalloproteases in in vitro aging experiments by EDTA resulted in an ∼3-fold increase in the level of isoaspartyl-containing peptides. Characterization by mass spectrometry of these peptides identified several proteins involved in metabolism as targets of isoaspartyl damage. Further analysis of these peptides revealed that many have an N-terminal isoaspartyl site and originate from proteins with short half-lives. These results suggest that one or more metalloproteases participate in limiting isoaspartyl formation by robust proteolysis.

  12. Squalene epoxidase as a target for manipulation of squalene levels in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Garaiová, Martina; Zambojová, Veronika; Simová, Zuzana; Griač, Peter; Hapala, Ivan

    2014-03-01

    Squalene is a valuable natural substance with several biotechnological applications. In the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, it is produced in the isoprenoid pathway as the first precursor dedicated to ergosterol biosynthesis. The aim of this study was to explore the potential of squalene epoxidase encoded by the ERG1 gene as the target for manipulating squalene levels in yeast. Highest squalene levels (over 1000 μg squalene per 10(9)  cells) were induced by specific point mutations in ERG1 gene that reduced activity of squalene epoxidase and caused hypersensitivity to terbinafine. This accumulation of squalene in erg1 mutants did not significantly disturb their growth. Treatment with squalene epoxidase inhibitor terbinafine revealed a limit in squalene accumulation at 700 μg squalene per 10(9)  cells which was associated with pronounced growth defects. Inhibition of squalene epoxidase activity by anaerobiosis or heme deficiency resulted in relatively low squalene levels. These levels were significantly increased by ergosterol depletion in anaerobic cells which indicated feedback inhibition of squalene production by ergosterol. Accumulation of squalene in erg1 mutants and terbinafine-treated cells were associated with increased cellular content and aggregation of lipid droplets. Our results prove that targeted genetic manipulation of the ERG1 gene is a promising tool for increasing squalene production in yeast.

  13. Change in activity of serine palmitoyltransferase affects sensitivity to syringomycin E in yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Toume, Moeko; Tani, Motohiro

    2014-09-01

    Syringomycin E is a cyclic lipodepsipeptide produced by strains of the plant bacterium Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae. Genetic studies involving the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae have revealed that complex sphingolipids play important roles in the action of syringomycin E. Here, we found a novel mutation that confers resistance to syringomycin E on yeast; that is, a deletion mutant of ORM1 and ORM2, which encode negative regulators of serine palmitoyltransferase catalyzing the initial step of sphingolipid biosynthesis, exhibited resistance to syringomycin E. On the contrary, overexpression of Orm2 resulted in high sensitivity to the toxin. Moreover, overexpression of Lcb1 and Lcb2, catalytic subunits of serine palmitoyltransferase, causes resistance to the toxin, whereas partial repression of expression of Lcb1 had the opposite effect. Partial reduction of complex sphingolipids by repression of expression of Aur1, an inositol phosphorylceramide synthase, also resulted in high sensitivity to the toxin. These results suggested that an increase in sphingolipid biosynthesis caused by a change in the activity of serine palmitoyltransferase causes resistance to syringomycin E.

  14. Alternative reactions at the interface of glycolysis and citric acid cycle in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    van Rossum, Harmen M; Kozak, Barbara U; Niemeijer, Matthijs S; Duine, Hendrik J; Luttik, Marijke A H; Boer, Viktor M; Kötter, Peter; Daran, Jean-Marc G; van Maris, Antonius J A; Pronk, Jack T

    2016-05-01

    Pyruvate and acetyl-coenzyme A, located at the interface between glycolysis and TCA cycle, are important intermediates in yeast metabolism and key precursors for industrially relevant products. Rational engineering of their supply requires knowledge of compensatory reactions that replace predominant pathways when these are inactivated. This study investigates effects of individual and combined mutations that inactivate the mitochondrial pyruvate-dehydrogenase (PDH) complex, extramitochondrial citrate synthase (Cit2) and mitochondrial CoA-transferase (Ach1) in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Additionally, strains with a constitutively expressed carnitine shuttle were constructed and analyzed. A predominant role of the PDH complex in linking glycolysis and TCA cycle in glucose-grown batch cultures could be functionally replaced by the combined activity of the cytosolic PDH bypass and Cit2. Strongly impaired growth and a high incidence of respiratory deficiency in pda1Δ ach1Δ strains showed that synthesis of intramitochondrial acetyl-CoA as a metabolic precursor requires activity of either the PDH complex or Ach1. Constitutive overexpression of AGP2, HNM1, YAT2, YAT1, CRC1 and CAT2 enabled the carnitine shuttle to efficiently link glycolysis and TCA cycle in l-carnitine-supplemented, glucose-grown batch cultures. Strains in which all known reactions at the glycolysis-TCA cycle interface were inactivated still grew slowly on glucose, indicating additional flexibility at this key metabolic junction. PMID:26895788

  15. Exonuclease I of Saccharomyces cerevisiae functions in mitotic recombination in vivo and in vitro.

    PubMed Central

    Fiorentini, P; Huang, K N; Tishkoff, D X; Kolodner, R D; Symington, L S

    1997-01-01

    We previously described a 5'-3' exonuclease required for recombination in vitro between linear DNA molecules with overlapping homologous ends. This exonuclease, referred to as exonuclease I (Exo I), has been purified more than 300-fold from vegetatively grown cells and copurifies with a 42-kDa polypeptide. The activity is nonprocessive and acts preferentially on double-stranded DNA. The biochemical properties are quite similar to those of Schizosaccharomyces pombe Exo I. Extracts prepared from cells containing a mutation of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae EXO1 gene, a homolog of S. pombe exo1, had decreased in vitro recombination activity and when fractionated were found to lack the peak of activity corresponding to the 5'-3' exonuclease. The role of EXO1 on recombination in vivo was determined by measuring the rate of recombination in an exo1 strain containing a direct duplication of mutant ade2 genes and was reduced sixfold. These results indicate that EXO1 is required for recombination in vivo and in vitro in addition to its previously identified role in mismatch repair. PMID:9111347

  16. Gcn4 Is Required for the Response to Peroxide Stress in the Yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Mascarenhas, Claire; Edwards-Ingram, Laura C.; Zeef, Leo; Shenton, Daniel; Ashe, Mark P.

    2008-01-01

    An oxidative stress occurs when reactive oxygen species overwhelm the cellular antioxidant defenses. We have examined the regulation of protein synthesis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae in response to oxidative stress induced by exposure to hydroperoxides (hydrogen peroxide, and cumene hydroperoxide), a thiol oxidant (diamide), and a heavy metal (cadmium). Examination of translational activity indicates that these oxidants inhibit translation at the initiation and postinitiation phases. Inhibition of translation initiation in response to hydroperoxides is entirely dependent on phosphorylation of the α subunit of eukaryotic initiation factor (eIF)2 by the Gcn2 kinase. Activation of Gcn2 is mediated by uncharged tRNA because mutation of its HisRS domain abolishes regulation in response to hydroperoxides. Furthermore, Gcn4 is translationally up-regulated in response to H2O2, and it is required for hydroperoxide resistance. We used transcriptional profiling to identify a wide range of genes that mediate this response as part of the Gcn4-dependent H2O2-regulon. In contrast to hydroperoxides, regulation of translation initiation in response to cadmium and diamide depends on both Gcn2 and the eIF4E binding protein Eap1. Thus, the response to oxidative stress is mediated by oxidant-specific regulation of translation initiation, and we suggest that this is an important mechanism underlying the ability of cells to adapt to different oxidants. PMID:18417611

  17. Ssh4, Rcr2 and Rcr1 affect plasma membrane transporter activity in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Kota, Jhansi; Melin-Larsson, Monika; Ljungdahl, Per O; Forsberg, Hanna

    2007-04-01

    Nutrient uptake in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a highly regulated process. Cells adjust levels of nutrient transporters within the plasma membrane at multiple stages of the secretory and endosomal pathways. In the absence of the ER-membrane-localized chaperone Shr3, amino acid permeases (AAP) inefficiently fold and are largely retained in the ER. Consequently, shr3 null mutants exhibit greatly reduced rates of amino acid uptake due to lower levels of AAPs in their plasma membranes. To further our understanding of mechanisms affecting AAP localization, we identified SSH4 and RCR2 as high-copy suppressors of shr3 null mutations. The overexpression of SSH4, RCR2, or the RCR2 homolog RCR1 increases steady-state AAP levels, whereas the genetic inactivation of these genes reduces steady-state AAP levels. Additionally, the overexpression of any of these suppressor genes exerts a positive effect on phosphate and uracil uptake systems. Ssh4 and Rcr2 primarily localize to structures associated with the vacuole; however, Rcr2 also localizes to endosome-like vesicles. Our findings are consistent with a model in which Ssh4, Rcr2, and presumably Rcr1, function within the endosome-vacuole trafficking pathway, where they affect events that determine whether plasma membrane proteins are degraded or routed to the plasma membrane.

  18. Analysis of chloroquine resistance transporter (CRT) isoforms and orthologues in S. cerevisiae yeast.

    PubMed

    Baro, Nicholas K; Pooput, Chaya; Roepe, Paul D

    2011-08-01

    Previous work from our laboratory optimized MeOH-inducible expression of the P. falciparum malarial parasite transporter PfCRT in P. pastoris yeast. These strains are useful for many experiments but do not allow for inducible protein expression under ambient growth conditions. We have therefore optimized galactose-inducible expression of PfCRT in S. cerevisiae yeast. We find that expression of PfCRT confers CQ hypersensitivity to growing yeast and that this is due to plasma membrane localization of the transporter. We use quantitative analyses of growth rates to compare hypersensitivity for yeast expressing various PfCRT isoforms. We also report successful high level inducible expression of the P. vivax orthologue, PvCRT, and compare CQ hypersensitivity for PvCRT vs PfCRT expressing yeast. We test the hypothesis that hypersensitivity is due to increased transport of CQ into yeast expressing the transporters via direct (3)H-CQ transport experiments and analyze the effect that membrane potential has on transport. The data suggest important new tools for rapid functional screening of PfCRT and PvCRT isoforms and provide further evidence for a model wherein membrane potential promotes charged CQ transport by PfCRT. Data also support our previous conclusion that wild type PfCRT is capable of CQ transport and provide a basis for understanding the lack of correspondence between PvCRT mutations and resistance to CQ in the important malarial parasite P. vivax.

  19. Effect of N-acetyl-l-cysteine on Saccharomyces cerevisiae irradiated with gamma-rays.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jin Kyu; Park, Jiyoung; Ryu, Tae Ho; Nili, Mohammad

    2013-07-01

    Ionizing radiation (IR) induces DNA strand breaks (DSBs), base damage, inhibition of protein activity, apoptosis by reactive oxygen species (ROS). Detoxification or removal of generated ROS can reduce oxidative damage. Antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and catalase are immediately triggered for ROS scavenging. N-acetyl-l-cysteine (NAC) having a thiol, a precursor for reduced glutathione (GSH), is known as one of the antioxidants. In this study, the effect of NAC as an antioxidant and a radioprotector was investigated on survival rate, transcriptional level of antioxidant enzymes gene, and protein level including SOD activity and intracellular GSH in yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae W303-1A strain mutated YBP1 gene irradiated with gamma-rays. NAC did not protect the gamma-ray-induced cell death. The gene expression of antioxidant enzymes including SOD1, SOD2, GPX1, and GPX2 was induced by gamma-rays. In contrast, the pretreatment of NAC reduced the expression of these genes. NAC reduced SOD activity and intracellular GSH level in yeast. These data suggest that NAC is able to reduce radiation-induced ROS levels in vivo but does not protect yeast cells against radiation-induced death.

  20. Antioxidant, antimutagenic, and anticarcinogenic effects of Papaver rhoeas L. extract on Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Todorova, Teodora; Pesheva, Margarita; Gregan, Fridrich; Chankova, Stephka

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this work was to analyze the antioxidant and antimutagenic/anticarcinogenic capacity of Papaver rhoeas L. water extract against standard mutagen/carcinogen methyl methanesulfonate (MMS) and radiomimetic zeocin (Zeo) on a test system Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The following assays were used: 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity, quantitative determination of superoxide anion (antireactive oxygen species [antiROS test]), DNA topology assay, D7ts1 test--for antimutagenic--and Ty1 transposition test--for anticarcinogenic effects. Strong pro-oxidative capacity of Zeo was shown to correlate with its well-expressed mutagenic and carcinogenic properties. The mutagenic and carcinogenic effects of MMS were also confirmed. Our data concerning the antioxidant activity of P. rhoeas L. extract revealed that concentration corresponding to IC(50) in the DPPH assay possessed the highest antioxidant activity in the antiROS biological assay. It was also observed that a concentration with 50% scavenging activity expressed the most pronounced antimutagenic properties decreasing Zeo-induced gene conversion twofold, reverse mutation fivefold, and total aberrations fourfold. The same concentration possessed well-expressed anticarcinogenic properties measured as reduction of MMS-induced Ty1 transposition rate fivefold and fourfold when Zeo was used as an inductor. Based on the well-expressed antioxidant, antimutagenic, and anticarcinogenic properties obtained in this work, the P. rhoeas L. extract could be recommended for further investigations and possible use as a food additive.

  1. Nonrecombinant Meiosis I Nondisjunction in Saccharomyces Cerevisiae Induced by Trna Ochre Suppressors

    PubMed Central

    Louis, E. J.; Haber, J. E.

    1989-01-01

    The presence of the tRNA ochre suppressors SUP11 and SUP5 is found to induce meiosis I nondisjunction in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The induction increases with increasing dosage of the suppressor and decreases in the presence of an antisuppressor. The effect is independent of the chromosomal location of SUP11. Each of five different chromosomes monitored exhibited nondisjunction at frequencies of 0.1%-1.1% of random spores, which is a 16-160-fold increase over wild-type levels. Increased nondisjunction is reflected by a marked increase in tetrads with two and zero viable spores. In the case of chromosome III, for which a 50-cM map interval was monitored, the resulting disomes are all in the parental nonrecombinant configuration. Recombination along chromosome III appears normal both in meioses that have no nondisjunction and in meioses for which there was nondisjunction of another chromosome. We propose that a proportion of one or more proteins involved in chromosome pairing, recombination or segregation are aberrant due to translational read-through of the normal ochre stop codon. Hygromycin B, an antibiotic that can suppress nonsense mutations via translational read-through, also induces nonrecombinant meiosis I nondisjunction. Increases in mistranslation, therefore, increase the production of aneuploids during meiosis. There was no observable effect of SUP11 on mitotic chromosome nondisjunction; however some disomes caused SUP11 ade2-ochre strains to appear white or red, instead of pink. PMID:2680759

  2. Mechanistic Details of Glutathione Biosynthesis Revealed by Crystal Structures of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Glutamate Cysteine Ligase

    SciTech Connect

    Biterova, Ekaterina I.; Barycki, Joseph J.

    2009-12-01

    Glutathione is a thiol-disulfide exchange peptide critical for buffering oxidative or chemical stress, and an essential cofactor in several biosynthesis and detoxification pathways. The rate-limiting step in its de novo biosynthesis is catalyzed by glutamate cysteine ligase, a broadly expressed enzyme for which limited structural information is available in higher eukaryotic species. Structural data are critical to the understanding of clinical glutathione deficiency, as well as rational design of enzyme modulators that could impact human disease progression. Here, we have determined the structures of Saccharomyces cerevisiae glutamate cysteine ligase (ScGCL) in the presence of glutamate and MgCl{sub 2} (2.1 {angstrom}; R = 18.2%, R{sub free} = 21.9%), and in complex with glutamate, MgCl{sub 2}, and ADP (2.7 {angstrom}; R = 19.0%, R{sub free} = 24.2%). Inspection of these structures reveals an unusual binding pocket for the {alpha}-carboxylate of the glutamate substrate and an ATP-independent Mg{sup 2+} coordination site, clarifying the Mg{sup 2+} dependence of the enzymatic reaction. The ScGCL structures were further used to generate a credible homology model of the catalytic subunit of human glutamate cysteine ligase (hGCLC). Examination of the hGCLC model suggests that post-translational modifications of cysteine residues may be involved in the regulation of enzymatic activity, and elucidates the molecular basis of glutathione deficiency associated with patient hGCLC mutations.

  3. Safety evaluation of a proprietary food-grade, dried fermentate preparation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Schauss, Alexander G; Glavits, R; Endres, John; Jensen, Gitte S; Clewell, Amy

    2012-01-01

    A safety evaluation was performed for EpiCor, a product produced by a proprietary fermentation process using Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Studies included the following assays: bacterial reverse mutation, mouse lymphoma cell mutagenicity, mitogenicity assay in human peripheral lymphocytes, and a cytochrome P450 ([CYP] CYP1A2 and CYP3A4) induction assessment as well as 14-day acute, 90-day subchronic, and 1-year chronic oral toxicity studies in rats. No evidence of genotoxicity or mitogenicity was seen in any of the in vitro or in vivo studies. The CYP assessment showed no interactions or inductions. No toxic clinical symptoms or histopathological lesions were observed in the acute, subchronic, or chronic oral toxicity studies in the rat. Results of the studies performed indicate that EpiCor does not possess genotoxic activity and has a low order of toxicity that is well tolerated when administered orally. The no observable adverse effect level (NOAEL) was 1500 mg/kg body weight (bw)/d for the 90-day study and 800 mg/kg bw/d for the 1 year study, for the highest doses tested.

  4. Identification of a new ribose methylation in the 18S rRNA of S. cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jun; Sharma, Sunny; Kötter, Peter; Entian, Karl-Dieter

    2015-02-27

    Methylation of ribose sugars at the 2'-OH group is one of the major chemical modifications in rRNA, and is catalyzed by snoRNA directed C/D box snoRNPs. Previous biochemical and computational analyses of the C/D box snoRNAs have identified and mapped a large number of 2'-OH ribose methylations in rRNAs. In the present study, we systematically analyzed ribose methylations of 18S rRNA in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, using mung bean nuclease protection assay and RP-HPLC. Unexpectedly, we identified a hitherto unknown ribose methylation at position G562 in the helix 18 of 5' central domain of yeast 18S rRNA. Furthermore, we identified snR40 as being responsible to guide snoRNP complex to catalyze G562 ribose methylation, which makes it only second snoRNA known so far to target three ribose methylation sites: Gm562, Gm1271 in 18S rRNA, and Um898 in 25S rRNA. Our sequence and mutational analysis of snR40 revealed that snR40 uses the same D' box and methylation guide sequence for both Gm562 and Gm1271 methylation. With the identification of Gm562 and its corresponding snoRNA, complete set of ribose methylations of 18S rRNA and their corresponding snoRNAs have finally been established opening great prospects to understand the physiological function of these modifications.

  5. The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae DNA polymerase IV: possible involvement in double strand break DNA repair.

    PubMed

    Leem, S H; Ropp, P A; Sugino, A

    1994-08-11

    We identified and purified a new DNA polymerase (DNA polymerase IV), which is similar to mammalian DNA polymerase beta, from Saccharomyces cerevisiae and suggested that it is encoded by YCR14C (POLX) on chromosome III. Here, we provided a direct evidence that the purified DNA polymerase IV is indeed encoded by POLX. Strains harboring a pol4 deletion mutation exhibit neither mitotic growth defect nor a meiosis defect, suggesting that DNA polymerase IV participates in nonessential functions in DNA metabolism. The deletion strains did not exhibit UV-sensitivity. However, they did show weak sensitivity to MMS-treatment and exhibited a hyper-recombination phenotype when intragenic recombination was measured during meiosis. Furthermore, MAT alpha pol4 delta segregants had a higher frequency of illegitimate mating with a MAT alpha tester strain than that of wild-type cells. These results suggest that DNA polymerase IV participates in a double-strand break repair pathway. A 3.2kb of the POL4 transcript was weakly expressed in mitotically growing cells. During meiosis, a 2.2 kb POL4 transcript was greatly induced, while the 3.2 kb transcript stayed at constant levels. This induction was delayed in a swi4 delta strain during meiosis, while no effect was observed in a swi6 delta strain.

  6. Roles of septins in prospore membrane morphogenesis and spore wall assembly in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Heasley, Lydia R.; McMurray, Michael A.

    2016-01-01

    The highly conserved family of septin proteins has important functions in cytokinesis in mitotically proliferating cells. A different form of cytokinesis occurs during gametogenesis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, in which four haploid meiotic products become encased by prospore membrane (PSMs) and specialized, stress-resistant spore walls. Septins are known to localize in a series of structures near the growing PSM, but previous studies noted only mild sporulation defects upon septin mutation. We report that directed PSM extension fails in many septin-mutant cells, and, for those that do succeed, walls are abnormal, leading to increased susceptibility to heating, freezing, and digestion by the Drosophila gut. Septin mutants mislocalize the leading-edge protein (LEP) complex required for normal PSM and wall biogenesis, and ectopic expression of the LEP protein Ssp1 perturbs mitotic septin localization and function, suggesting a functional interaction. Strikingly, extra copies of septin CDC10 rescue sporulation and LEP localization in cells lacking Sma1, a phospholipase D–associated protein dispensable for initiation of PSM assembly and PSM curvature but required for PSM extension. These findings point to key septin functions in directing efficient membrane and cell wall synthesis during budding yeast gametogenesis. PMID:26680739

  7. The SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling complex influences transcription by RNA polymerase I in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yinfeng; Anderson, Susan J; French, Sarah L; Sikes, Martha L; Viktorovskaya, Olga V; Huband, Jacalyn; Holcomb, Katherine; Hartman, John L; Beyer, Ann L; Schneider, David A

    2013-01-01

    SWI/SNF is a chromatin remodeling complex that affects transcription initiation and elongation by RNA polymerase II. Here we report that SWI/SNF also plays a role in transcription by RNA polymerase I (Pol I) in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Deletion of the genes encoding the Snf6p or Snf5p subunits of SWI/SNF was lethal in combination with mutations that impair Pol I transcription initiation and elongation. SWI/SNF physically associated with ribosomal DNA (rDNA) within the coding region, with an apparent peak near the 5' end of the gene. In snf6Δ cells there was a ∼2.5-fold reduction in rRNA synthesis rate compared to WT, but there was no change in average polymerase occupancy per gene, the number of rDNA gene repeats, or the percentage of transcriptionally active rDNA genes. However, both ChIP and EM analyses showed a small but reproducible increase in Pol I density in a region near the 5' end of the gene. Based on these data, we conclude that SWI/SNF plays a positive role in Pol I transcription, potentially by modifying chromatin structure in the rDNA repeats. Our findings demonstrate that SWI/SNF influences the most robust transcription machinery in proliferating cells.

  8. RAD6 gene of Saccharomyces cerevisiae encodes a protein containing a tract of 13 consecutive aspartates

    SciTech Connect

    Reynolds, P.; Weber, S.; Prakash, L.

    1985-01-01

    The RAD6 gene of Saccharomyces cerevisiae is required for postreplication repair of UV-damaged DNA, for induced mutagenesis, and for sporulation. The authors have mapped the transcripts and determined the nucleotide sequence of the cloned RAD6 gene. The RAD6 gene encodes two transcripts of 0.98 and 0.86 kilobases which differ only in their 3' termini. The transcribed region contains an open reading frame of 516 nucleotides. The rad6-1 and rad6-3 mutant alleles, which the authors have cloned and sequenced, introduce amber and ochre nonsense mutations, respectively into the open reading frame, proving that it encodes the RAD6 protein. The RAD6 protein predicted by the nucleotide sequence is 172 amino acids long, has a molecular weight of 19,704, and contains 23.3% acidic and 11.6% basic residues. Its most striking feature is the highly acidic carboxyl terminus: 20 of the 23 terminal amino acids are acidic, including 13 consecutive aspartates. RAD6 protein thus resembles high mobility group proteins HMG-1 and HMG-2, which each contain a carboxyl-proximal tract of acidic amino acids. 48 references, 6 figures.

  9. Effect of N-acetyl-l-cysteine on Saccharomyces cerevisiae irradiated with gamma-rays.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jin Kyu; Park, Jiyoung; Ryu, Tae Ho; Nili, Mohammad

    2013-07-01

    Ionizing radiation (IR) induces DNA strand breaks (DSBs), base damage, inhibition of protein activity, apoptosis by reactive oxygen species (ROS). Detoxification or removal of generated ROS can reduce oxidative damage. Antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and catalase are immediately triggered for ROS scavenging. N-acetyl-l-cysteine (NAC) having a thiol, a precursor for reduced glutathione (GSH), is known as one of the antioxidants. In this study, the effect of NAC as an antioxidant and a radioprotector was investigated on survival rate, transcriptional level of antioxidant enzymes gene, and protein level including SOD activity and intracellular GSH in yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae W303-1A strain mutated YBP1 gene irradiated with gamma-rays. NAC did not protect the gamma-ray-induced cell death. The gene expression of antioxidant enzymes including SOD1, SOD2, GPX1, and GPX2 was induced by gamma-rays. In contrast, the pretreatment of NAC reduced the expression of these genes. NAC reduced SOD activity and intracellular GSH level in yeast. These data suggest that NAC is able to reduce radiation-induced ROS levels in vivo but does not protect yeast cells against radiation-induced death. PMID:23623538

  10. Rad51 Inhibits Translocation Formation by Non-Conservative Homologous Recombination in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Manthey, Glenn M.; Bailis, Adam M.

    2010-01-01

    Chromosomal translocations are a primary biological response to ionizing radiation (IR) exposure, and are likely to result from the inappropriate repair of the DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) that are created. An abundance of repetitive sequences in eukaryotic genomes provides ample opportunity for such breaks to be repaired by homologous recombination (HR) between non-allelic repeats. Interestingly, in the budding yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae the central strand exchange protein, Rad51 that is required for DSB repair by gene conversion between unlinked repeats that conserves genomic structure also suppresses translocation formation by several HR mechanisms. In particular, Rad51 suppresses translocation formation by single-strand annealing (SSA), perhaps the most efficient mechanism for translocation formation by HR in both yeast and mammalian cells. Further, the enhanced translocation formation that emerges in the absence of Rad51 displays a distinct pattern of genetic control, suggesting that this occurs by a separate mechanism. Since hypomorphic mutations in RAD51 in mammalian cells also reduce DSB repair by conservative gene conversion and stimulate non-conservative repair by SSA, this mechanism may also operate in humans and, perhaps contribute to the genome instability that propels the development of cancer. PMID:20686691

  11. Mutations in man

    SciTech Connect

    Obe, G.

    1984-01-01

    This book contains 13 selections that cover some of the following topics: DNA repair, gene or point mutations, aspects of nondisjunction, origin and significance of chromosomal alterations, structure and organization of the human genome, and mutagenic activity of cigarette smoke.

  12. The reference genome sequence of Saccharomyces cerevisiae: then and now.

    PubMed

    Engel, Stacia R; Dietrich, Fred S; Fisk, Dianna G; Binkley, Gail; Balakrishnan, Rama; Costanzo, Maria C; Dwight, Selina S; Hitz, Benjamin C; Karra, Kalpana; Nash, Robert S; Weng, Shuai; Wong, Edith D; Lloyd, Paul; Skrzypek, Marek S; Miyasato, Stuart R; Simison, Matt; Cherry, J Michael

    2014-03-01

    The genome of the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae was the first completely sequenced from a eukaryote. It was released in 1996 as the work of a worldwide effort of hundreds of researchers. In the time since, the yeast genome has been intensively studied by geneticists, molecular biologists, and computational scientists all over the world. Maintenance and annotation of the genome sequence have long been provided by the Saccharomyces Genome Database, one of the original model organism databases. To deepen our understanding of the eukaryotic genome, the S. cerevisiae strain S288C reference genome sequence was updated recently in its first major update since 1996. The new version, called "S288C 2010," was determined from a single yeast colony using modern sequencing technologies and serves as the anchor for further innovations in yeast genomic science. PMID:24374639

  13. Glucose- and nitrogen sensing and regulatory mechanisms in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Rødkaer, Steven V; Faergeman, Nils J

    2014-08-01

    Pro- and eukaryotic cells are constantly challenged by varying concentrations of nutrients in their environment. Perceiving and adapting to such changes are therefore crucial for cellular viability. Thus, numerous specialized cellular receptors continuously sense and react to the availability of nutrients such as glucose and nitrogen. When stimulated, these receptors initiate various cellular signaling pathways, which in concert constitute a complex regulatory network. To ensure a highly specific response, these pathways and networks cross-communicate with each other and are regulated at several steps and by numerous different regulators. As numerous of these regulating proteins, biochemical mechanisms, and cellular pathways are evolutionary conserved, complex biochemical information relevant to humans can be obtained by studying simple organisms. Thus, the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been recognized as a powerful model system to study fundamental biochemical processes. In the present review, we highlight central signaling pathways and molecular circuits conferring nitrogen- and glucose sensing in S. cerevisiae.

  14. Membrane Protein Production in the Yeast, S. cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Cartwright, Stephanie P; Mikaliunaite, Lina; Bill, Roslyn M

    2016-01-01

    The first crystal structures of recombinant mammalian membrane proteins were solved in 2005 using protein that had been produced in yeast cells. One of these, the rabbit Ca(2+)-ATPase SERCA1a, was synthesized in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. All host systems have their specific advantages and disadvantages, but yeast has remained a consistently popular choice in the eukaryotic membrane protein field because it is quick, easy and cheap to culture, whilst being able to post-translationally process eukaryotic membrane proteins. Very recent structures of recombinant membrane proteins produced in S. cerevisiae include those of the Arabidopsis thaliana NRT1.1 nitrate transporter and the fungal plant pathogen lipid scramblase, TMEM16. This chapter provides an overview of the methodological approaches underpinning these successes. PMID:27485327

  15. Energy-dependent effects of resveratrol in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Madrigal-Perez, Luis Alberto; Canizal-Garcia, Melina; González-Hernández, Juan Carlos; Reynoso-Camacho, Rosalia; Nava, Gerardo M; Ramos-Gomez, Minerva

    2016-06-01

    The metabolic effects induced by resveratrol have been associated mainly with the consumption of high-calorie diets; however, its effects with standard or low-calorie diets remain unclear. To better understand the interactions between resveratrol and cellular energy levels, we used Saccharomyces cerevisiae as a model. Herein it is shown that resveratrol: (a) decreased cell viability in an energy-dependent manner; (b) lessening of cell viability occurred specifically when cells were under cellular respiration; and (c) inhibition of oxygen consumption in state 4 occurred at low and standard energy levels, whereas at high energy levels oxygen consumption was promoted. These findings indicate that the effects of resveratrol are dependent on the cellular energy status and linked to metabolic respiration. Importantly, our study also revealed that S. cerevisiae is a suitable and useful model to elucidate the molecular targets of resveratrol under different nutritional statuses. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Isolation of an osmotolerant ale strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Pironcheva, G

    1998-01-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae (ale strain) grown in batch culture to stationary phase was tested for its tolerance to heat (50 degrees C for 5 min), hydrogen peroxide (0.3 M) and salt (growth in 1.5 M sodium chloride/YPD medium). Yeast cells which have been exposed previously to heat shock are more tolerant to hydrogen peroxide and high salt concentrations (1.5 M NaCl) than the controls. Their fermentative activity as judged by glucose consumption and their viability, as judged by cell number and density have higher levels when compared with cells not previously exposed to heat shock. Experimental conditions facilitated the isolation of S. cerevisiae ale strain, which was tolerant to heat, and other agents such as hydrogen peroxide and sodium chloride.

  17. Using weighted features to predict recombination hotspots in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Liu, Guoqing; Xing, Yongqiang; Cai, Lu

    2015-10-01

    Characterization and accurate prediction of recombination hotspots and coldspots have crucial implications for the mechanism of recombination. Several models have predicted recombination hot/cold spots successfully, but there is still much room for improvement. We present a novel classifier in which k-mer frequency, physical and thermodynamic properties of DNA sequences are incorporated in the form of weighted features. Applying the classifier to recombination hot/cold ORFs in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, we achieved an accuracy of 90%, which is ~5% higher than existing methods, such as iRSpot-PseDNC, IDQD and Random Forest. The model also predicted non-ORF recombination hot/cold spots sequences in S. cerevisiae with high accuracy. A broad applicability of the model in the field of classification is expected.

  18. Interorganelle signaling is a determinant of longevity in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed Central

    Kirchman, P A; Kim, S; Lai, C Y; Jazwinski, S M

    1999-01-01

    Replicative capacity, which is the number of times an individual cell divides, is the measure of longevity in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In this study, a process that involves signaling from the mitochondrion to the nucleus, called retrograde regulation, is shown to determine yeast longevity, and its induction resulted in postponed senescence. Activation of retrograde regulation, by genetic and environmental means, correlated with increased replicative capacity in four different S. cerevisiae strains. Deletion of a gene required for the retrograde response, RTG2, eliminated the increased replicative capacity. RAS2, a gene previously shown to influence longevity in yeast, interacts with retrograde regulation in setting yeast longevity. The molecular mechanism of aging elucidated here parallels the results of genetic studies of aging in nematodes and fruit flies, as well as the caloric restriction paradigm in mammals, and it underscores the importance of metabolic regulation in aging, suggesting a general applicability. PMID:10224252

  19. Advanced biofuel production by the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Buijs, Nicolaas A; Siewers, Verena; Nielsen, Jens

    2013-06-01

    Replacement of conventional transportation fuels with biofuels will require production of compounds that can cover the complete fuel spectrum, ranging from gasoline to kerosene. Advanced biofuels are expected to play an important role in replacing fossil fuels because they have improved properties compared with ethanol and some of these may have the energy density required for use in heavy duty vehicles, ships, and aviation. Moreover, advanced biofuels can be used as drop-in fuels in existing internal combustion engines. The yeast cell factory Saccharomyces cerevisiae can be turned into a producer of higher alcohols (1-butanol and isobutanol), sesquiterpenes (farnesene and bisabolene), and fatty acid ethyl esters (biodiesel), and here we discusses progress in metabolic engineering of S. cerevisiae for production of these advanced biofuels. PMID:23628723

  20. Purification of fluorescently labeled Saccharomyces cerevisiae Spindle Pole Bodies

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Trisha N.

    2016-01-01

    Centrosomes are components of the mitotic spindle responsible for organizing microtubules and establishing a bipolar spindle for accurate chromosome segregation. In budding yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the centrosome is called the spindle pole body, a highly organized tri-laminar structure embedded in the nuclear envelope. Here we describe a detailed protocol for the purification of fluorescently labeled spindle pole bodes from S. cerevisiae. Spindle pole bodies are purified from yeast using a TAP-tag purification followed by velocity sedimentation. This highly reproducible TAP-tag purification method improves upon previous techniques and expands the scope of in vitro characterization of yeast spindle pole bodies. The genetic flexibility of this technique allows for the study of spindle pole body mutants as well as the study of spindle pole bodies during different stages of the cell cycle. The ease and reproducibility of the technique makes it possible to study spindle pole bodies using a variety of biochemical, biophysical, and microscopic techniques. PMID:27193850

  1. Saccharomyces cerevisiae: a sexy yeast with a prion problem.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Amy C; Wickner, Reed B

    2013-01-01

    Yeast prions are infectious proteins that spread exclusively by mating. The frequency of prions in the wild therefore largely reflects the rate of spread by mating counterbalanced by prion growth slowing effects in the host. We recently showed that the frequency of outcross mating is about 1% of mitotic doublings with 23-46% of total matings being outcrosses. These findings imply that even the mildest forms of the [PSI+], [URE3] and [PIN+] prions impart > 1% growth/survival detriment on their hosts. Our estimate of outcrossing suggests that Saccharomyces cerevisiae is far more sexual than previously thought and would therefore be more responsive to the adaptive effects of natural selection compared with a strictly asexual yeast. Further, given its large effective population size, a growth/survival detriment of > 1% for yeast prions should strongly select against prion-infected strains in wild populations of Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

  2. Saccharomyces cerevisiae: a sexy yeast with a prion problem.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Amy C; Wickner, Reed B

    2013-01-01

    Yeast prions are infectious proteins that spread exclusively by mating. The frequency of prions in the wild therefore largely reflects the rate of spread by mating counterbalanced by prion growth slowing effects in the host. We recently showed that the frequency of outcross mating is about 1% of mitotic doublings with 23-46% of total matings being outcrosses. These findings imply that even the mildest forms of the [PSI+], [URE3] and [PIN+] prions impart > 1% growth/survival detriment on their hosts. Our estimate of outcrossing suggests that Saccharomyces cerevisiae is far more sexual than previously thought and would therefore be more responsive to the adaptive effects of natural selection compared with a strictly asexual yeast. Further, given its large effective population size, a growth/survival detriment of > 1% for yeast prions should strongly select against prion-infected strains in wild populations of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. PMID:23764836

  3. Direct evidence for a xylose metabolic pathway in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    SciTech Connect

    Batt, C.A.; Carvallo, S.; Easson, D.D.; Akedo, M.; Sinskey, A.J.

    1986-04-01

    Xylose transport, xylose reductase, and xylitol dehydrogenase activities are demonstrated in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The enzymes in the xylose catabolic pathway necessary for the conversion of xylose xylulose are present, although S. cerevisiae cannot grow on xylose as a sole carbon source. Xylose transport is less efficient than glucose transport, and its rate is dependent upon aeration. Xylose reductase appears to be a xylose inducible enzyme and xylitol dehydrogenase activity is constitutive, although both are repressed by glucose. Both xylose reductase and xylitol dehydrogenase activities are five- to tenfold lower in S. cerevisie as compared to Candida utilis. In vivo conversion of /sup 14/C-xylose in S. cerevisiage is demonstrated and xylitol is detected, although no significant levels of any other /sup 14/C-labeled metabolites (e.g., ethanol) are observed. 22 references.

  4. Characterization of oligosaccharides from an antigenic mannan of Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Young, M; Davies, M J; Bailey, D; Gradwell, M J; Smestad-Paulsen, B; Wold, J K; Barnes, R M; Hounsell, E F

    1998-08-01

    Mannans of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae have been implicated as containing the allergens to which bakers and brewers are sensitive and also the antigen recognized by patients with Crohn's disease. A fraction of S. cerevisiae mannan, Sc500, having high affinity for antibodies in Crohn's patients has been characterized by NMR spectroscopy followed by fragmentation using alkaline elimination, partial acid hydrolysis and acetolysis. The released oligosaccharides were separated by gel filtration on a Biogel P4 column and analyzed by fluorescence labeling, HPLC and methylation analysis. The relationship between structure and antigen activity was measured by competitive ELISA. The antigenic activity of the original high molecular weight mannan could be ascribed to terminal Manalpha1-->3Manalpha1-->2 sequences which are rarely found in human glycoproteins but were over-represented in Sc500 compared to other yeast mannans.

  5. Saccharomyces cerevisiae engineered to produce D-xylonate.

    PubMed

    Toivari, Mervi H; Ruohonen, Laura; Richard, Peter; Penttilä, Merja; Wiebe, Marilyn G

    2010-10-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae was engineered to produce D-xylonate by introducing the Trichoderma reesei xyd1 gene, encoding a D-xylose dehydrogenase. D-xylonate was not toxic to S. cerevisiae, and the cells were able to export D-xylonate produced in the cytoplasm to the supernatant. Up to 3.8 g of D-xylonate per litre, at rates of 25-36 mg of D-xylonate per litre per hour, was produced. Up to 4.8 g of xylitol per litre was also produced. The yield of D-xylonate from D-xylose was approximately 0.4 g of D-xylonate per gramme of D-xylose consumed. Deletion of the aldose reductase encoding gene GRE3 in S. cerevisiae strains expressing xyd1 reduced xylitol production by 67%, increasing the yield of D-xylonate from D-xylose. However, D-xylose uptake was reduced compared to strains containing GRE3, and the total amount of D-xylonate produced was reduced. To determine whether the co-factor NADP+ was limiting for D-xylonate production the Escherichia coli transhydrogenase encoded by udhA, the Bacillus subtilis glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase encoded by gapB or the S. cerevisiae glutamate dehydrogenase encoded by GDH2 was co-expressed with xyd1 in the parent and GRE3 deficient strains. Although each of these enzymes enhanced NADPH consumption on D-glucose, they did not enhance D-xylonate production, suggesting that NADP+ was not the main limitation in the current D-xylonate producing strains.

  6. Comparing Mutational Variabilities

    PubMed Central

    Houle, D.; Morikawa, B.; Lynch, M.

    1996-01-01

    We have reviewed the available data on V(M), the amount of genetic variation in phenotypic traits produced each generation by mutation. We use these data to make several qualitative tests of the mutation-selection balance hypothesis for the maintenance of genetic variance (MSB). To compare V(M) values, we use three dimensionless quantities: mutational heritability, V(M)/V(E); the mutational coefficient of variation, CV(M); and the ratio of the standing genetic variance to V(M), V(G)/V(M). Since genetic coefficients of variation for life history traits are larger than those for morphological traits, we predict that under MSB, life history traits should also have larger CV(M). This is confirmed; life history traits have a median CV(M) value more than six times higher than that for morphological traits. V(G)/V(M) approximates the persistence time of mutations under MSB in an infinite population. In order for MSB to hold, V(G)/V(M) must be small, substantially less than 1000, and life history traits should have smaller values than morphological traits. V(G)/V(M) averages about 50 generations for life history traits and 100 generations for morphological traits. These observations are all consistent with the predictions of a mutation-selection balance model. PMID:8807316

  7. Schizosaccharomyces pombe encodes a mutated AP endonuclease 1.

    PubMed

    Laerdahl, Jon K; Korvald, Hanne; Nilsen, Line; Dahl-Michelsen, Kristin; Rognes, Torbjørn; Bjørås, Magnar; Alseth, Ingrun

    2011-03-01

    Mutagenic and cytotoxic apurinic/apyrimidinic (AP) sites are among the most frequent lesions in DNA. Repair of AP sites is initiated by AP endonucleases and most organisms possess two or more of these enzymes. Saccharomyces cerevisiae has AP endonuclease 1 (Apn1) as the major enzymatic activity with AP endonuclease 2 (Apn2) being an important backup. Schizosaccharomyces pombe also encodes two potential AP endonucleases, and Apn2 has been found to be the main repair activity, while Apn1 has no, or only a limited role in AP site repair. Here we have identified a new 5' exon (exon 1) in the apn1 gene and show that the inactivity of S. pombe Apn1 is due to a nonsense mutation in the fifth codon of this new exon. Reversion of this mutation restored the AP endonuclease activity of S. pombe Apn1. Interestingly, the apn1 nonsense mutation was only found in laboratory strains derived from L972 h(-) and not in unrelated isolates of S. pombe. Since all S. pombe laboratory strains originate from L972 h(-), it appears that all experiments involving S. pombe have been conducted in an apn1(-) mutant strain with a corresponding DNA repair deficiency. These observations have implications both for future research in S. pombe and for the interpretation of previously conducted epistatis analysis.

  8. Yeast mutator phenotype enforced by Arabidopsis PMS1 expression.

    PubMed

    Galles, Celina; Spampinato, Claudia P

    2013-03-01

    The DNA mismatch repair (MMR) system is a major DNA repair pathway whose function is critical for the correction of DNA biosynthetic errors. MMR is initiated by the binding of MutS proteins to mismatches and unpaired nucleotides followed by the recruitment of MutL proteins. The major MutL activity in eukaryotes is performed by MutLα, the heterocomplex of MLH1-PMS1 in yeast and plants and MLH1-PMS2 in humans. We here report the effect the expression of Arabidopsis PMS1 protein exerts on Saccharomyces cerevisiae genomic stability. A strain carrying specific microsatellite instability reporter systems was chosen for the study. The plant protein failed to complement the hypermutator phenotype of a pms1 deficient strain but increased approximately 14-fold and 2,000-fold the mutation rates of his7-2 and lys2::InsE-A 14 loci of MMR proficient strains when compared to wild-type strains, respectively. Overexpressing AtMLH1 in the AtPMS1-overproducing strain generated an increase in mutation rate comparable to that of AtPMS1 expression alone. Deletion of the C-terminal residues implicated in protein-protein interaction and including the putative endonuclease sequence of AtPMS1 completely eliminated the mutator phenotype. Taken together, these results indicate that the plant proteins affect yeast genomic stability, very possibly altering protein-protein interactions that are necessary to complete repair.

  9. Overproduction of fatty acids in engineered Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaowei; Guo, Daoyi; Cheng, Yongbo; Zhu, Fayin; Deng, Zixin; Liu, Tiangang

    2014-09-01

    The long hydrocarbon fatty acyl chain is energy rich, making it an ideal precursor for liquid transportation fuels and high-value oleo chemicals. As Saccharomyces cerevisiae has many advantages for industrial production compared to Escherichia coli. Here, we attempted to engineer Saccharomyces cerevisiae for overproduction of fatty acids. First, disruption of the beta-oxidation pathway, elimination of the acyl-CoA synthetases, overexpression of different thioesterases and acetyl-CoA carboxylase ACC1, and engineering the supply of precursor acetyl-CoA. The engineered strain XL122 produced more than 120 mg/L of fatty acids. In parallel, we inactivated ADH1, the dominant gene for ethanol production, to redirect the metabolic flux to fatty acids synthesis. The engineered strain DG005 produced about 140 mg/L fatty acids. Additionally, Acetyl-CoA carboxylase was identified as a critical bottleneck of fatty acids synthesis in S. cerevisiae with a cell-free system. However, overexpression of ACC1 has little effect on fatty acids biosynthesis. As it has been reported that phosphorylation of ACC1 may influent its activity, so phosphorylation sites of ACC1 were further identified. Although the regulatory mechanisms remain unclear, our results provide rationale for future studies to target this critical step. All these efforts, particularly the discovery of the limiting step are critical for developing a "cell factory" for the overproduction of fatty acids by using type I fatty acids synthase in yeast or other fungi. PMID:24752690

  10. Can Yeast (S. cerevisiae) Metabolic Volatiles Provide Polymorphic Signaling?

    PubMed Central

    Arguello, J. Roman; Sellanes, Carolina; Lou, Yann Ru; Raguso, Robert A.

    2013-01-01

    Chemical signaling between organisms is a ubiquitous and evolutionarily dynamic process that helps to ensure mate recognition, location of nutrients, avoidance of toxins, and social cooperation. Evolutionary changes in chemical communication systems progress through natural variation within the organism generating the signal as well as the responding individuals. A promising yet poorly understood system with which to probe the importance of this variation exists between D. melanogaster and S. cerevisiae. D. melanogaster relies on yeast for nutrients, while also serving as a vector for yeast cell dispersal. Both are outstanding genetic and genomic models, with Drosophila also serving as a preeminent model for sensory neurobiology. To help develop these two genetic models as an ecological model, we have tested if - and to what extent - S. cerevisiae is capable of producing polymorphic signaling through variation in metabolic volatiles. We have carried out a chemical phenotyping experiment for 14 diverse accessions within a common garden random block design. Leveraging genomic sequences for 11 of the accessions, we ensured a genetically broad sample and tested for phylogenetic signal arising from phenotypic dataset. Our results demonstrate that significant quantitative differences for volatile blends do exist among S. cerevisiae accessions. Of particular ecological relevance, the compounds driving the blend differences (acetoin, 2-phenyl ethanol and 3-methyl-1-butanol) are known ligands for D. melanogasters chemosensory receptors, and are related to sensory behaviors. Though unable to correlate the genetic and volatile measurements, our data point clear ways forward for behavioral assays aimed at understanding the implications of this variation. PMID:23990899

  11. Properties of yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae plasma membrane dicarboxylate transporter.

    PubMed

    Aliverdieva, D A; Mamaev, D V; Bondarenko, D I; Sholtz, K F

    2006-10-01

    Transport of succinate into Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells was determined using the endogenous coupled mitochondrial succinate oxidase system. The dependence of succinate oxidation rate on the substrate concentration was a curve with saturation. At neutral pH the K(m) value of the mitochondrial "succinate oxidase" was fivefold less than that of the cellular "succinate oxidase". O-Palmitoyl-L-malate, not penetrating across the plasma membrane, completely inhibited cell respiration in the presence of succinate but not glucose or pyruvate. The linear inhibition in Dixon plots indicates that the rate of succinate oxidation is limited by its transport across the plasmalemma. O-Palmitoyl-L-malate and L-malate were competitive inhibitors (the K(i) values were 6.6 +/- 1.3 microM and 17.5 +/- 1.1 mM, respectively). The rate of succinate transport was also competitively inhibited by the malonate derivative 2-undecyl malonate (K(i) = 7.8 +/- 1.2 microM) but not phosphate. Succinate transport across the plasma membrane of S. cerevisiae is not coupled with proton transport, but sodium ions are necessary. The plasma membrane of S. cerevisiae is established to have a carrier catalyzing the transport of dicarboxylates (succinate and possibly L-malate and malonate).

  12. The postmitotic Saccharomyces cerevisiae after spaceflight showed higher viability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yi, Zong-Chun; Li, Xiao-Fei; Wang, Yan; Wang, Jie; Sun, Yan; Zhuang, Feng-Yuan

    2011-06-01

    The budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been proposed as an ideal model organism for clarifying the biological effects caused by spaceflight conditions. The postmitotic S. cerevisiae cells onboard Practice eight recoverable satellite were subjected to spaceflight for 15 days. After recovery, the viability, the glycogen content, the activities of carbohydrate metabolism enzymes, the DNA content and the lipid peroxidation level in yeast cells were analyzed. The viability of the postmitotic yeast cells after spaceflight showed a three-fold increase as compared with that of the ground control cells. Compared to the ground control cells, the lipid peroxidation level in the spaceflight yeast cells markedly decreased. The spaceflight yeast cells also showed an increase in G2/M cell population and a decrease in Sub-G1 cell population. The glycogen content and the activities of hexokinase and succinate dehydrogenase significantly decreased in the yeast cells after spaceflight. In contrast, the activity of malate dehydrogenase showed an obvious increase after spaceflight. These results suggested that microgravity or spaceflight could promote the survival of postmitotic S. cerevisiae cells through regulating carbohydrate metabolism, ROS level and cell cycle progression.

  13. PGM2 overexpression improves anaerobic galactose fermentation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background In Saccharomyces cerevisiae galactose is initially metabolized through the Leloir pathway after which glucose 6-phosphate enters glycolysis. Galactose is controlled both by glucose repression and by galactose induction. The gene PGM2 encodes the last enzyme of the Leloir pathway, phosphoglucomutase 2 (Pgm2p), which catalyses the reversible conversion of glucose 1-phosphate to glucose 6-phosphate. Overexpression of PGM2 has previously been shown to enhance aerobic growth of S. cerevisiae in galactose medium. Results In the present study we show that overexpression of PGM2 under control of the HXT7'promoter from an integrative plasmid increased the PGM activity 5 to 6 times, which significantly reduced the lag phase of glucose-pregrown cells in an anaerobic galactose culture. PGM2 overexpression also increased the anaerobic specific growth rate whereas ethanol production was less influenced. When PGM2 was overexpressed from a multicopy plasmid instead, the PGM activity increased almost 32 times. However, this increase of PGM activity did not further improve aerobic galactose fermentation as compared to the strain carrying PGM2 on the integrative plasmid. Conclusion PGM2 overexpression in S. cerevisiae from an integrative plasmid is sufficient to reduce the lag phase and to enhance the growth rate in anaerobic galactose fermentation, which results in an overall decrease in fermentation duration. This observation is of particular importance for the future development of stable industrial strains with enhanced PGM activity. PMID:20507616

  14. Increasing NADH oxidation reduces overflow metabolism in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Vemuri, G N; Eiteman, M A; McEwen, J E; Olsson, L; Nielsen, J

    2007-02-13

    Respiratory metabolism plays an important role in energy production in the form of ATP in all aerobically growing cells. However, a limitation in respiratory capacity results in overflow metabolism, leading to the formation of byproducts, a phenomenon known as "overflow metabolism" or "the Crabtree effect." The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae has served as an important model organism for studying the Crabtree effect. When subjected to increasing glycolytic fluxes under aerobic conditions, there is a threshold value of the glucose uptake rate at which the metabolism shifts from purely respiratory to mixed respiratory and fermentative. It is well known that glucose repression of respiratory pathways occurs at high glycolytic fluxes, resulting in a decrease in respiratory capacity. Despite many years of detailed studies on this subject, it is not known whether the onset of the Crabtree effect is due to limited respiratory capacity or is caused by glucose-mediated repression of respiration. When respiration in S. cerevisiae was increased by introducing a heterologous alternative oxidase, we observed reduced aerobic ethanol formation. In contrast, increasing nonrespiratory NADH oxidation by overexpression of a water-forming NADH oxidase reduced aerobic glycerol formation. The metabolic response to elevated alternative oxidase occurred predominantly in the mitochondria, whereas NADH oxidase affected genes that catalyze cytosolic reactions. Moreover, NADH oxidase restored the deficiency of cytosolic NADH dehydrogenases in S. cerevisiae. These results indicate that NADH oxidase localizes in the cytosol, whereas alternative oxidase is directed to the mitochondria.

  15. Membrane trafficking in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae model.

    PubMed

    Feyder, Serge; De Craene, Johan-Owen; Bär, Séverine; Bertazzi, Dimitri L; Friant, Sylvie

    2015-01-09

    The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is one of the best characterized eukaryotic models. The secretory pathway was the first trafficking pathway clearly understood mainly thanks to the work done in the laboratory of Randy Schekman in the 1980s. They have isolated yeast sec mutants unable to secrete an extracellular enzyme and these SEC genes were identified as encoding key effectors of the secretory machinery. For this work, the 2013 Nobel Prize in Physiology and Medicine has been awarded to Randy Schekman; the prize is shared with James Rothman and Thomas Südhof. Here, we present the different trafficking pathways of yeast S. cerevisiae. At the Golgi apparatus newly synthesized proteins are sorted between those transported to the plasma membrane (PM), or the external medium, via the exocytosis or secretory pathway (SEC), and those targeted to the vacuole either through endosomes (vacuolar protein sorting or VPS pathway) or directly (alkaline phosphatase or ALP pathway). Plasma membrane proteins can be internalized by endocytosis (END) and transported to endosomes where they are sorted between those targeted for vacuolar degradation and those redirected to the Golgi (recycling or RCY pathway). Studies in yeast S. cerevisiae allowed the identification of most of the known effectors, protein complexes, and trafficking pathways in eukaryotic cells, and most of them are conserved among eukaryotes.

  16. Copper oxide nanoparticles inhibit the metabolic activity of Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Mashock, Michael J; Kappell, Anthony D; Hallaj, Nadia; Hristova, Krassimira R

    2016-01-01

    Copper oxide nanoparticles (CuO NPs) are used increasingly in industrial applications and consumer products and thus may pose risk to human and environmental health. The interaction of CuO NPs with complex media and the impact on cell metabolism when exposed to sublethal concentrations are largely unknown. In the present study, the short-term effects of 2 different sized manufactured CuO NPs on metabolic activity of Saccharomyces cerevisiae were studied. The role of released Cu(2+) during dissolution of NPs in the growth media and the CuO nanostructure were considered. Characterization showed that the 28 nm and 64 nm CuO NPs used in the present study have different primary diameter, similar hydrodynamic diameter, and significantly different concentrations of dissolved Cu(2+) ions in the growth media released from the same initial NP mass. Exposures to CuO NPs or the released Cu(2+) fraction, at doses that do not have impact on cell viability, showed significant inhibition on S. cerevisiae cellular metabolic activity. A greater CuO NP effect on the metabolic activity of S. cerevisiae growth under respiring conditions was observed. Under the tested conditions the observed metabolic inhibition from the NPs was not explained fully by the released Cu ions from the dissolving NPs.

  17. Biogeographical characterization of Saccharomyces cerevisiae wine yeast by molecular methods

    PubMed Central

    Tofalo, Rosanna; Perpetuini, Giorgia; Schirone, Maria; Fasoli, Giuseppe; Aguzzi, Irene; Corsetti, Aldo; Suzzi, Giovanna

    2013-01-01

    Biogeography is the descriptive and explanatory study of spatial patterns and processes involved in the distribution of biodiversity. Without biogeography, it would be difficult to study the diversity of microorganisms because there would be no way to visualize patterns in variation. Saccharomyces cerevisiae, “the wine yeast,” is the most important species involved in alcoholic fermentation, and in vineyard ecosystems, it follows the principle of “everything is everywhere.” Agricultural practices such as farming (organic versus conventional) and floor management systems have selected different populations within this species that are phylogenetically distinct. In fact, recent ecological and geographic studies highlighted that unique strains are associated with particular grape varieties in specific geographical locations. These studies also highlighted that significant diversity and regional character, or ‘terroir,’ have been introduced into the winemaking process via this association. This diversity of wild strains preserves typicity, the high quality, and the unique flavor of wines. Recently, different molecular methods were developed to study population dynamics of S. cerevisiae strains in both vineyards and wineries. In this review, we will provide an update on the current molecular methods used to reveal the geographical distribution of S. cerevisiae wine yeast. PMID:23805132

  18. Ciclohexadespipeptide beauvericin degradation by different strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Meca, G; Zhou, T; Li, X Z; Ritieni, A; Mañes, J

    2013-09-01

    The interaction between the mycotoxin beauvericin (BEA) and 9 yeast strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae named LO9, YE-2, YE5, YE-6, YE-4, A34, A17, A42 and A08 was studied. The biological degradations were carried out under aerobic conditions in the liquid medium of Potato Dextrose Broth (PDB) at 25°C for 48 h and in a food/feed system composed of corn flour at 37°C for 3 days, respectively. BEA present in fermented medium and corn flour was determined using liquid chromatography coupled to the mass spectrometry detector in tandem (LC-MS/MS) and the BEA degradation products produced during the fermentations were determined using the technique of the liquid chromatography coupled to a linear ion trap (LIT). Results showed that the S. cerevisiae strains reduced meanly the concentration of the BEA present in PDB by 86.2% and in a food system by 71.1%. All the S. cerevisiae strains used in this study showed a significant BEA reduction during the fermentation process employed.

  19. [Production of β-carotene by metabolically engineered Saccharomyces cerevisiae].

    PubMed

    Wang, Beibei; Shi, Mingyu; Wang, Dong; Xu, Jiaoyang; Liu, Yi; Yang, Hongjiang; Dai, Zhubo; Zhang, Xueli

    2014-08-01

    β-carotene has a wide range of application in food, pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries. For microbial production of β-carotene in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the supply of geranylgeranyl diphosphate (GGPP) was firstly increased in S. cerevisiae BY4742 to obtain strain BY4742-T2 through over-expressing truncated 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase (tHMGR), which is the major rate-limiting enzyme in the mevalonate (MVA) pathway, and GGPP synthase (GGPS), which is a key enzyme in the diterpenoid synthetic pathway. The β-carotene synthetic genes of Pantoea agglomerans and Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous were further integrated into strain BY4742-T2 for comparing β-carotene production. Over-expression of tHMGR and GGPS genes led to 26.0-fold increase of β-carotene production. In addition, genes from X. dendrorhous was more efficient than those from P. agglomerans for β-carotene production in S. cerevisiae. Strain BW02 was obtained which produced 1.56 mg/g (dry cell weight) β-carotene, which could be used further for constructing cell factories for β-carotene production. PMID:25507473

  20. [Production of β-carotene by metabolically engineered Saccharomyces cerevisiae].

    PubMed

    Wang, Beibei; Shi, Mingyu; Wang, Dong; Xu, Jiaoyang; Liu, Yi; Yang, Hongjiang; Dai, Zhubo; Zhang, Xueli

    2014-08-01

    β-carotene has a wide range of application in food, pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries. For microbial production of β-carotene in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the supply of geranylgeranyl diphosphate (GGPP) was firstly increased in S. cerevisiae BY4742 to obtain strain BY4742-T2 through over-expressing truncated 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase (tHMGR), which is the major rate-limiting enzyme in the mevalonate (MVA) pathway, and GGPP synthase (GGPS), which is a key enzyme in the diterpenoid synthetic pathway. The β-carotene synthetic genes of Pantoea agglomerans and Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous were further integrated into strain BY4742-T2 for comparing β-carotene production. Over-expression of tHMGR and GGPS genes led to 26.0-fold increase of β-carotene production. In addition, genes from X. dendrorhous was more efficient than those from P. agglomerans for β-carotene production in S. cerevisiae. Strain BW02 was obtained which produced 1.56 mg/g (dry cell weight) β-carotene, which could be used further for constructing cell factories for β-carotene production. PMID:25423750

  1. Functional Diversity of Haloacid Dehalogenase Superfamily Phosphatases from Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Kuznetsova, Ekaterina; Nocek, Boguslaw; Brown, Greg; Makarova, Kira S.; Flick, Robert; Wolf, Yuri I.; Khusnutdinova, Anna; Evdokimova, Elena; Jin, Ke; Tan, Kemin; Hanson, Andrew D.; Hasnain, Ghulam; Zallot, Rémi; de Crécy-Lagard, Valérie; Babu, Mohan; Savchenko, Alexei; Joachimiak, Andrzej; Edwards, Aled M.; Koonin, Eugene V.; Yakunin, Alexander F.

    2015-01-01

    The haloacid dehalogenase (HAD)-like enzymes comprise a large superfamily of phosphohydrolases present in all organisms. The Saccharomyces cerevisiae genome encodes at least 19 soluble HADs, including 10 uncharacterized proteins. Here, we biochemically characterized 13 yeast phosphatases from the HAD superfamily, which includes both specific and promiscuous enzymes active against various phosphorylated metabolites and peptides with several HADs implicated in detoxification of phosphorylated compounds and pseudouridine. The crystal structures of four yeast HADs provided insight into their active sites, whereas the structure of the YKR070W dimer in complex with substrate revealed a composite substrate-binding site. Although the S. cerevisiae and Escherichia coli HADs share low sequence similarities, the comparison of their substrate profiles revealed seven phosphatases with common preferred substrates. The cluster of secondary substrates supporting significant activity of both S. cerevisiae and E. coli HADs includes 28 common metabolites that appear to represent the pool of potential activities for the evolution of novel HAD phosphatases. Evolution of novel substrate specificities of HAD phosphatases shows no strict correlation with sequence divergence. Thus, evolution of the HAD superfamily combines the conservation of the overall substrate pool and the substrate profiles of some enzymes with remarkable biochemical and structural flexibility of other superfamily members. PMID:26071590

  2. Role of social wasps in Saccharomyces cerevisiae ecology and evolution.

    PubMed

    Stefanini, Irene; Dapporto, Leonardo; Legras, Jean-Luc; Calabretta, Antonio; Di Paola, Monica; De Filippo, Carlotta; Viola, Roberto; Capretti, Paolo; Polsinelli, Mario; Turillazzi, Stefano; Cavalieri, Duccio

    2012-08-14

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae is one of the most important model organisms and has been a valuable asset to human civilization. However, despite its extensive use in the last 9,000 y, the existence of a seasonal cycle outside human-made environments has not yet been described. We demonstrate the role of social wasps as vector and natural reservoir of S. cerevisiae during all seasons. We provide experimental evidence that queens of social wasps overwintering as adults (Vespa crabro and Polistes spp.) can harbor yeast cells from autumn to spring and transmit them to their progeny. This result is mirrored by field surveys of the genetic variability of natural strains of yeast. Microsatellites and sequences of a selected set of loci able to recapitulate the yeast strain's evolutionary history were used to compare 17 environmental wasp isolates with a collection of strains from grapes from the same region and more than 230 strains representing worldwide yeast variation. The wasp isolates fall into subclusters representing the overall ecological and industrial yeast diversity of their geographic origin. Our findings indicate that wasps are a key environmental niche for the evolution of natural S. cerevisiae populations, the dispersion of yeast cells in the environment, and the maintenance of their diversity. The close relatedness of several wasp isolates with grape and wine isolates reflects the crucial role of human activities on yeast population structure, through clonal expansion and selection of specific strains during the biotransformation of fermented foods, followed by dispersal mediated by insects and other animals.

  3. Ferric iron reduction and iron assimilation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Anderson, G J; Lesuisse, E; Dancis, A; Roman, D G; Labbe, P; Klausner, R D

    We have used the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae as a model organism to study the role of ferric iron reduction in eucaryotic iron uptake. S. cerevisiae is able to utilize ferric chelates as an iron source by reducing the ferric iron to the ferrous form, which is subsequently internalized by the cells. A gene (FRE1) was identified which encodes a protein required for both ferric iron reduction and efficient ferric iron assimilation, thus linking these two activities. The predicted FRE1 protein appears to be a membrane protein and shows homology to the beta-subunit of the human respiratory burst oxidase. These data suggest that FRE1 is a structural component of the ferric reductase. Subcellular fractionation studies showed that the ferric reductase activity of isolated plasma membranes did not reflect the activity of the intact cells, implying that cellular integrity was necessary for function of the major S. cerevisiae ferric reductase. An NADPH-dependent plasma membrane ferric reductase was partially purified from plasma membranes. Preliminary evidence suggests that the cell surface ferric reductase may, in addition to mediating cellular iron uptake, help modulate the intracellular redox potential of the yeast cell.

  4. Cell density-dependent linoleic acid toxicity to Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Túlio César; de Moraes, Lídia Maria Pepe; Campos, Elida Geralda

    2011-08-01

    Since the discovery of the apoptotic pathway in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, several compounds have been shown to cause apoptosis in this organism. While the toxicity of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) peroxides towards S. cerevisiae has been known for a long time, studies on the effect of nonoxidized PUFA are scarce. The present study deals specifically with linoleic acid (LA) in its nonoxidized form and investigates its toxicity to yeast. Saccharomyces cerevisiae is unable to synthesize PUFA, but can take up and incorporate them into its membranes. Reports from the literature indicate that LA is not toxic to yeast cells. However, we demonstrated that yeast cell growth decreased in cultures treated with 0.1 mM LA for 4 h, and 3-(4,5 dimethyl-2-thiazolyl)-2,5-diphenyl-2H-tetrazolium bromide reduction (a measure of respiratory activity) decreased by 47%. This toxicity was dependent on the number of cells used in the experiment. We show apoptosis induction by LA concomitant with increases in malondialdehyde, glutathione content, activities of catalase and cytochrome c peroxidase, and decreases in two metabolic enzyme activities. While the main purpose of this study was to show that LA causes cell death in yeast, our results indicate some of the molecular mechanisms of the cell toxicity of PUFA. PMID:21457450

  5. Combinatorial metabolic engineering of Saccharomyces cerevisiae for terminal alkene production.

    PubMed

    Chen, Binbin; Lee, Dong-Yup; Chang, Matthew Wook

    2015-09-01

    Biological production of terminal alkenes has garnered a significant interest due to their industrial applications such as lubricants, detergents and fuels. Here, we engineered the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae to produce terminal alkenes via a one-step fatty acid decarboxylation pathway and improved the alkene production using combinatorial engineering strategies. In brief, we first characterized eight fatty acid decarboxylases to enable and enhance alkene production. We then increased the production titer 7-fold by improving the availability of the precursor fatty acids. We additionally increased the titer about 5-fold through genetic cofactor engineering and gene expression tuning in rich medium. Lastly, we further improved the titer 1.8-fold to 3.7 mg/L by optimizing the culturing conditions in bioreactors. This study represents the first report of terminal alkene biosynthesis in S. cerevisiae, and the abovementioned combinatorial engineering approaches collectively increased the titer 67.4-fold. We envision that these approaches could provide insights into devising engineering strategies to improve the production of fatty acid-derived biochemicals in S. cerevisiae.

  6. Synthetic Cytotoxicity: Digenic Interactions with TEL1/ATM Mutations Reveal Sensitivity to Low Doses of Camptothecin

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xuesong; O’Neil, Nigel J.; Moshgabadi, Noushin; Hieter, Philip

    2014-01-01

    Many tumors contain mutations that confer defects in the DNA-damage response and genome stability. DNA-damaging agents are powerful therapeutic tools that can differentially kill cells with an impaired DNA-damage response. The response to DNA damage is complex and composed of a network of coordinated pathways, often with a degree of redundancy. Tumor-specific somatic mutations in DNA-damage response genes could be exploited by inhibiting the function of a second gene product to increase the sensitivity of tumor cells to a sublethal concentration of a DNA-damaging therapeutic agent, resulting in a class of conditional synthetic lethality we call synthetic cytotoxicity. We used the Saccharomyces cerevisiae nonessential gene-deletion collection to screen for synthetic cytotoxic interactions with camptothecin, a topoisomerase I inhibitor, and a null mutation in TEL1, the S. cerevisiae ortholog of the mammalian tumor-suppressor gene, ATM. We found and validated 14 synthetic cytotoxic interactions that define at least five epistasis groups. One class of synthetic cytotoxic interaction was due to telomere defects. We also found that at least one synthetic cytotoxic interaction was conserved in Caenorhabditis elegans. We have demonstrated that synthetic cytotoxicity could be a useful strategy for expanding the sensitivity of certain tumors to DNA-damaging therapeutics. PMID:24653001

  7. Switching the mode of sucrose utilization by Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Badotti, Fernanda; Dário, Marcelo G; Alves, Sergio L; Cordioli, Maria Luiza A; Miletti, Luiz C; de Araujo, Pedro S; Stambuk, Boris U

    2008-01-01

    Background Overflow metabolism is an undesirable characteristic of aerobic cultures of Saccharomyces cerevisiae during biomass-directed processes. It results from elevated sugar consumption rates that cause a high substrate conversion to ethanol and other bi-products, severely affecting cell physiology, bioprocess performance, and biomass yields. Fed-batch culture, where sucrose consumption rates are controlled by the external addition of sugar aiming at its low concentrations in the fermentor, is the classical bioprocessing alternative to prevent sugar fermentation by yeasts. However, fed-batch fermentations present drawbacks that could be overcome by simpler batch cultures at relatively high (e.g. 20 g/L) initial sugar concentrations. In this study, a S. cerevisiae strain lacking invertase activity was engineered to transport sucrose into the cells through a low-affinity and low-capacity sucrose-H+ symport activity, and the growth kinetics and biomass yields on sucrose analyzed using simple batch cultures. Results We have deleted from the genome of a S. cerevisiae strain lacking invertase the high-affinity sucrose-H+ symporter encoded by the AGT1 gene. This strain could still grow efficiently on sucrose due to a low-affinity and low-capacity sucrose-H+ symport activity mediated by the MALx1 maltose permeases, and its further intracellular hydrolysis by cytoplasmic maltases. Although sucrose consumption by this engineered yeast strain was slower than with the parental yeast strain, the cells grew efficiently on sucrose due to an increased respiration of the carbon source. Consequently, this engineered yeast strain produced less ethanol and 1.5 to 2 times more biomass when cultivated in simple batch mode using 20 g/L sucrose as the carbon source. Conclusion Higher cell densities during batch cultures on 20 g/L sucrose were achieved by using a S. cerevisiae strain engineered in the sucrose uptake system. Such result was accomplished by effectively reducing sucrose

  8. Evidence for physical and functional interactions among two Saccharomyces cerevisiae SH3 domain proteins, an adenylyl cyclase-associated protein and the actin cytoskeleton.

    PubMed Central

    Lila, T; Drubin, D G

    1997-01-01

    In a variety of organisms, a number of proteins associated with the cortical actin cytoskeleton contain SH3 domains, suggesting that these domains may provide the physical basis for functional interactions among structural and regulatory proteins in the actin cytoskeleton. We present evidence that SH3 domains mediate at least two independent functions of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae actin-binding protein Abp1p in vivo. Abp1p contains a single SH3 domain that has recently been shown to bind in vitro to the adenylyl cyclase-associated protein Srv2p. Immunofluorescence analysis of Srv2p subcellular localization in strains carrying mutations in either ABP1 or SRV2 reveals that the Abp1p SH3 domain mediates the normal association of Srv2p with the cortical actin cytoskeleton. We also show that a site in Abp1p itself is specifically bound by the SH3 domain of the actin-associated protein Rvs167p. Genetic analysis provides evidence that Abp1p and Rvs167p have functions that are closely interrelated. Abp1 null mutations, like rvs167 mutations, result in defects in sporulation and reduced viability under certain suboptimal growth conditions. In addition, mutations in ABP1 and RVS167 yield similar profiles of genetic "synthetic lethal" interactions when combined with mutations in genes encoding other cytoskeletal components. Mutations which specifically disrupt the SH3 domain-mediated interaction between Abp1p and Srv2p, however, show none of the shared phenotypes of abp1 and rvs167 mutations. We conclude that the Abp1p SH3 domain mediates the association of Srv2p with the cortical actin cytoskeleton, and that Abp1p performs a distinct function that is likely to involve binding by the Rvs167p SH3 domain. Overall, work presented here illustrates how SH3 domains can integrate the activities of multiple actin cytoskeleton proteins in response to varying environmental conditions. Images PMID:9190214

  9. [Saccharomyces cerevisiae fungemia in an elderly patient following probiotic treatment].

    PubMed

    Eren, Zehra; Gurol, Yeşim; Sonmezoglu, Meral; Eren, Hatice Seyma; Celik, Gülden; Kantarci, Gülçin

    2014-04-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae, known as baker's yeast, is also used as a probiotic agent to treat gastroenteritis by modulating the endogenous flora and immune system. However, since there have been increasing reports of fungemia due to S.cerevisiae and its subspecies S.boulardii, it is recommended that probiotics should be cautiously used in immunosuppressed patients, people with underlying diseases and low-birth weight babies. To emphasize this phenomenon, in this report, a case of S.cerevisiae fungemia developed in a patient given probiotic treatment for antibiotic-associated diarrhea, was presented. An 88-year-old female patient was admitted to our hospital with left hip pain, hypotension, and confusion. Her medical history included hypertension, chronic renal failure, left knee replacement surgery, and recurrent urinary tract infections due to neurogenic bladder. She was transferred to the intensive care unit with the diagnosis of urosepsis. After obtaining blood and urine samples for culture, empirical meropenem (2 x 500 mg) and linezolid (1 x 600 mg) treatment were administered. A central venous catheter (CVC) was inserted and after one day of inotropic support, her hemodynamic parameters were stabilized. The urine culture obtained on admission yielded extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae and Escherichia coli. Urine culture was repeated after three days and no bacteria were isolated. On the 4th day of admission she developed diarrhea. Toxin A/B tests for Clostridium difficile were negative. To relieve diarrhea, S.boulardii (Reflor 250 mg capsules, Sanofi Aventis, Turkey) was administered twice a day, without opening capsules. Two days later, her C-reactive protein (CRP) level increased from 23.2 mg/L to 100 mg/L without fever. Her blood culture taken from the CVC yielded S.cerevisiae. Linezolid and meropenem therapies were stopped on the 13th and 14th days, respectively, while prophylactic fluconazole therapy was replaced with

  10. [Saccharomyces cerevisiae fungemia in an elderly patient following probiotic treatment].

    PubMed

    Eren, Zehra; Gurol, Yeşim; Sonmezoglu, Meral; Eren, Hatice Seyma; Celik, Gülden; Kantarci, Gülçin

    2014-04-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae, known as baker's yeast, is also used as a probiotic agent to treat gastroenteritis by modulating the endogenous flora and immune system. However, since there have been increasing reports of fungemia due to S.cerevisiae and its subspecies S.boulardii, it is recommended that probiotics should be cautiously used in immunosuppressed patients, people with underlying diseases and low-birth weight babies. To emphasize this phenomenon, in this report, a case of S.cerevisiae fungemia developed in a patient given probiotic treatment for antibiotic-associated diarrhea, was presented. An 88-year-old female patient was admitted to our hospital with left hip pain, hypotension, and confusion. Her medical history included hypertension, chronic renal failure, left knee replacement surgery, and recurrent urinary tract infections due to neurogenic bladder. She was transferred to the intensive care unit with the diagnosis of urosepsis. After obtaining blood and urine samples for culture, empirical meropenem (2 x 500 mg) and linezolid (1 x 600 mg) treatment were administered. A central venous catheter (CVC) was inserted and after one day of inotropic support, her hemodynamic parameters were stabilized. The urine culture obtained on admission yielded extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae and Escherichia coli. Urine culture was repeated after three days and no bacteria were isolated. On the 4th day of admission she developed diarrhea. Toxin A/B tests for Clostridium difficile were negative. To relieve diarrhea, S.boulardii (Reflor 250 mg capsules, Sanofi Aventis, Turkey) was administered twice a day, without opening capsules. Two days later, her C-reactive protein (CRP) level increased from 23.2 mg/L to 100 mg/L without fever. Her blood culture taken from the CVC yielded S.cerevisiae. Linezolid and meropenem therapies were stopped on the 13th and 14th days, respectively, while prophylactic fluconazole therapy was replaced with

  11. A mutation of the yeast gene encoding PCNA destabilizes both microsatellite and minisatellite DNA sequences.

    PubMed Central

    Kokoska, R J; Stefanovic, L; Buermeyer, A B; Liskay, R M; Petes, T D

    1999-01-01

    The POL30 gene of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae encodes the proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), a protein required for processive DNA synthesis by DNA polymerase delta and epsilon. We examined the effects of the pol30-52 mutation on the stability of microsatellite (1- to 8-bp repeat units) and minisatellite (20-bp repeat units) DNA sequences. It had previously been shown that this mutation destabilizes dinucleotide repeats 150-fold and that this effect is primarily due to defects in DNA mismatch repair. From our analysis of the effects of pol30-52 on classes of repetitive DNA with longer repeat unit lengths, we conclude that this mutation may also elevate the rate of DNA polymerase slippage. The effect of pol30-52 on tracts of repetitive DNA with large repeat unit lengths was similar, but not identical, to that observed previously for pol3-t, a temperature-sensitive mutation affecting DNA polymerase delta. Strains with both pol30-52 and pol3-t mutations grew extremely slowly and had minisatellite mutation rates considerably greater than those observed in either single mutant strain. PMID:9927447

  12. The role of recombination and RAD52 in mutation of chromosomal DNA transformed into yeast.

    PubMed Central

    Larionov, V; Graves, J; Kouprina, N; Resnick, M A

    1994-01-01

    While transformation is a prominent tool for genetic analysis and genome manipulation in many organisms, transforming DNA has often been found to be unstable relative to established molecules. We determined the potential for transformation-associated mutations in a 360 kb yeast chromosome III composed primarily of unique DNA. Wild-type and rad52 Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains were transformed with either a homologous chromosome III or a diverged chromosome III from S. carlsbergensis. The host strain chromosome III had a conditional centromere allowing it to be lost on galactose medium so that recessive mutations in the transformed chromosome could be identified. Following transformation of a RAD+ strain with the homologous chromosome, there were frequent changes in the incoming chromosome, including large deletions and mutations that do not lead to detectable changes in chromosome size. Based on results with the diverged chromosome, interchromosomal recombinational interactions were the source of many of the changes. Even though rad52 exhibits elevated mitotic mutation rates, the percentage of transformed diverged chromosomes incapable of substituting for the resident chromosome was not increased in rad52 compared to the wild-type strain, indicating that the mutator phenotype does not extend to transforming chromosomal DNA. Based on these results and our previous observation that the incidence of large mutations is reduced during the cloning of mammalian DNA into a rad52 as compared to a RAD+ strain, a rad52 host is well-suited for cloning DNA segments in which gene function must be maintained. Images PMID:7937151

  13. Mutational spectrum drives the rise of mutator bacteria.

    PubMed

    Couce, Alejandro; Guelfo, Javier R; Blázquez, Jesús

    2013-01-01

    Understanding how mutator strains emerge in bacterial populations is relevant both to evolutionary theory and to reduce the threat they pose in clinical settings. The rise of mutator alleles is understood as a result of their hitchhiking with linked beneficial mutations, although the factors that govern this process remain unclear. A prominent but underappreciated fact is that each mutator allele increases only a specific spectrum of mutational changes. This spectrum has been speculated to alter the distribution of fitness effects of beneficial mutations, potentially affecting hitchhiking. To study this possibility, we analyzed the fitness distribution of beneficial mutations generated from different mutator and wild-type Escherichia coli strains. Using antibiotic resistance as a model system, we show that mutational spectra can alter these distributions substantially, ultimately determining the competitive ability of each strain across environments. Computer simulation showed that the effect of mutational spectrum on hitchhiking dynamics follows a non-linear function, implying that even slight spectrum-dependent fitness differences are sufficient to alter mutator success frequency by several orders of magnitude. These results indicate an unanticipated central role for the mutational spectrum in the evolution of bacterial mutation rates. At a practical level, this study indicates that knowledge of the molecular details of resistance determinants is crucial for minimizing mutator evolution during antibiotic therapy.

  14. A coniferyl aldehyde dehydrogenase gene from Pseudomonas sp. strain HR199 enhances the conversion of coniferyl aldehyde by Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Adeboye, Peter Temitope; Olsson, Lisbeth; Bettiga, Maurizio

    2016-07-01

    The conversion of coniferyl aldehyde to cinnamic acids by Saccharomyces cerevisiae under aerobic growth conditions was previously observed. Bacteria such as Pseudomonas have been shown to harbor specialized enzymes for converting coniferyl aldehyde but no comparable enzymes have been identified in S. cerevisiae. CALDH from Pseudomonas was expressed in S. cerevisiae. An acetaldehyde dehydrogenase (Ald5) was also hypothesized to be actively involved in the conversion of coniferyl aldehyde under aerobic growth conditions in S. cerevisiae. In a second S. cerevisiae strain, the acetaldehyde dehydrogenase (ALD5) was deleted. A prototrophic control strain was also engineered. The engineered S. cerevisiae strains were cultivated in the presence of 1.1mM coniferyl aldehyde under aerobic condition in bioreactors. The results confirmed that expression of CALDH increased endogenous conversion of coniferyl aldehyde in S. cerevisiae and ALD5 is actively involved with the conversion of coniferyl aldehyde in S. cerevisiae. PMID:27070284

  15. Mutations in the yeast LCB1 and LCB2 genes, including those corresponding to the hereditary sensory neuropathy type I mutations, dominantly inactivate serine palmitoyltransferase.

    PubMed

    Gable, Ken; Han, Gongshe; Monaghan, Erin; Bacikova, Dagmar; Natarajan, Mukil; Williams, Robert; Dunn, Teresa M

    2002-03-22

    It was recently demonstrated that mutations in the human SPTLC1 gene, encoding the Lcb1p subunit of serine palmitoyltransferase (SPT), cause hereditary sensory neuropathy type I . As a member of the subfamily of pyridoxal 5'-phosphate enzymes known as the alpha-oxoamine synthases, serine palmitoyltransferase catalyzes the committed step of sphingolipid synthesis. The residues that are mutated to cause hereditary sensory neuropathy type I reside in a highly conserved region of Lcb1p that is predicted to be a catalytic domain of Lcb1p on the basis of alignments with other members of the alpha-oxoamine synthase family. We found that the corresponding mutations in the LCB1 gene of Saccharomyces cerevisiae reduce serine palmitoyltransferase activity. These mutations are dominant and decrease serine palmitoyltransferase activity by 50% when the wild-type and mutant LCB1 alleles are coexpressed. We also show that serine palmitoyltransferase is an Lcb1p small middle dotLcb2p heterodimer and that the mutated Lcb1p proteins retain their ability to interact with Lcb2p. Modeling studies suggest that serine palmitoyltransferase is likely to have a single active site that lies at the Lcb1p small middle dotLcb2p interface and that the mutations in Lcb1p reside near the lysine in Lcb2p that is expected to form the Schiff's base with the pyridoxal 5'-phosphate cofactor. Furthermore, mutations in this lysine and in a histidine residue that is also predicted to be important for pyridoxal 5'-phosphate binding to Lcb2p also dominantly inactivate SPT similar to the hereditary sensory neuropathy type 1-like mutations in Lcb1p. PMID:11781309

  16. A mutation-promotive role of nucleotide excision repair in cell cycle-arrested cell populations following UV irradiation.

    PubMed

    Heidenreich, Erich; Eisler, Herfried; Lengheimer, Theresia; Dorninger, Petra; Steinboeck, Ferdinand

    2010-01-01

    Growing attention is paid to the concept that mutations arising in stationary, non-proliferating cell populations considerably contribute to evolution, aging, and pathogenesis. If such mutations are beneficial to the affected cell, in the sense of allowing a restart of proliferation, they are called adaptive mutations. In order to identify cellular processes responsible for adaptive mutagenesis in eukaryotes, we study frameshift mutations occurring during auxotrophy-caused cell cycle arrest in the model organism Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Previous work has shown that an exposure of cells to UV irradiation during prolonged cell cycle arrest resulted in an increased incidence of mutations. In the present work, we determined the influence of defects in the nucleotide excision repair (NER) pathway on the incidence of UV-induced adaptive mutations in stationary cells. The mutation frequency was decreased in Rad16-deficient cells and further decreased in Rad16/Rad26 double-deficient cells. A knockout of the RAD14 gene, the ortholog of the human XPA gene, even resulted in a nearly complete abolishment of UV-induced mutagenesis in cell cycle-arrested cells. Thus, the NER pathway, responsible for a normally accurate repair of UV-induced DNA damage, paradoxically is required for the generation and/or fixation of UV-induced frameshift mutations specifically in non-replicating cells.

  17. Mutations in a conserved region of RNA polymerase II influence the accuracy of mRNA start site selection.

    PubMed Central

    Hekmatpanah, D S; Young, R A

    1991-01-01

    A sensitive phenotypic assay has been used to identify mutations affecting transcription initiation in the genes encoding the two large subunits of Saccharomyces cerevisiae RNA polymerase II (RPB1 and RPB2). The rpb1 and rpb2 mutations alter the ratio of transcripts initiated at two adjacent start sites of a delta-insertion promoter. Of a large number of rpb1 and rpb2 mutations screened, only a few affect transcription initiation patterns at delta-insertion promoters, and these mutations are in close proximity to each other within both RPB1 and RPB2. The two rpb1 mutations alter amino acid residues within homology block G, a region conserved in the large subunits of all RNA polymerases. The three strong rpb2 mutations alter adjacent amino acids. At a wild-type promoter, the rpb1 mutations affect the accuracy of mRNA start site selection by producing a small but detectable increase in the 5'-end heterogeneity of transcripts. These RNA polymerase II mutations implicate specific portions of the enzyme in aspects of transcription initiation. Images PMID:1922077

  18. Mutations in Lettuce Improvement

    PubMed Central

    Mou, Beiquan

    2011-01-01

    Lettuce is a major vegetable in western countries. Mutations generated genetic variations and played an important role in the domestication of the crop. Many traits derived from natural and induced mutations, such as dwarfing, early flowering, male sterility, and chlorophyll deficiency, are useful in physiological and genetic studies. Mutants were also used to develop new lettuce products including miniature and herbicide-tolerant cultivars. Mutant analysis was critical in lettuce genomic studies including identification and cloning of disease-resistance genes. Mutagenesis combined with genomic technology may provide powerful tools for the discovery of novel gene alleles. In addition to radiation and chemical mutagens, unconventional approaches such as tissue or protoplast culture, transposable elements, and space flights have been utilized to generate mutants in lettuce. Since mutation breeding is considered nontransgenic, it is more acceptable to consumers and will be explored more in the future for lettuce improvement. PMID:22287955

  19. Cloning of mDEAH9, a putative RNA helicase and mammalian homologue of Saccharomyces cerevisiae splicing factor Prp43.

    PubMed

    Gee, S; Krauss, S W; Miller, E; Aoyagi, K; Arenas, J; Conboy, J G

    1997-10-28

    Yeast splicing factor Prp43, a DEAH box protein of the putative RNA helicase/RNA-dependent NTPase family, is a splicing factor that functions late in the pre-mRNA splicing pathway to facilitate spliceosome disassembly. In this paper we report cDNA cloning and characterization of mDEAH9, an apparent mammalian homologue of Prp43. Amino acid sequence comparison revealed that the two proteins are approximately 65% identical over a 500-aa region spanning the central helicase domain and the C-terminal region. Expression of mDEAH9 in S. cerevisiae bearing a temperature-sensitive mutation in prp43 was sufficient to restore growth at the nonpermissive temperature. This functional complementation was specific, as mouse mDEAH9 failed to complement mutations in related splicing factor genes prp16 or prp22. Finally, double label immunofluorescence experiments performed with mammalian cells revealed colocalization of mDEAH9 and splicing factor SC35 in punctate nuclear speckles. Thus, the hypothesis that mDEAH9 represents the mammalian homologue of yeast Prp43 is supported by its high sequence homology, functional complementation, and colocalization with a known splicing factor in the nucleus. Our results provide additional support for the hypothesis that the spliceosomal machinery that mediates regulated, dynamic changes in conformation of pre-mRNA and snRNP RNAs has been highly conserved through evolution.

  20. An Rme1-Independent Pathway for Sporulation Control in Saccharomyces Cerevisiae Acts through Ime1 Transcript Accumulation

    PubMed Central

    Kao, G.; Shah, J. C.; Clancy, M. J.

    1990-01-01

    The RES1-1 mutation was isolated on the basis of its ability to allow MATa/MATα diploid Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells to express a late sporulation-regulated gene, SPR3, in the presence of excess copies of RME1. RME1 is a repressor of meiosis that is normally expressed in cells that lack the a1/α2 repressor encoded by MAT. The RES1-1 mutation also supports sporulation in mat-insufficient diploids. This phenotype does not result from a failure to express RME1 and is not due to activation of the silent copies of mating type information. RES1-1 activates sporulation by allowing IME1 accumulation in all cell types, irrespective of the presence of the MAT products. IME1 is still responsive to RME1 in RES1-1 cells, since double mutants (rme1 RES1-1) that are deficient at MAT can sporulate better than either single mutant. RES1-1 is not an allele of IME1. PMID:2076816

  1. Replacement of the initial steps of ethanol metabolism in Saccharomyces cerevisiae by ATP-independent acetylating acetaldehyde dehydrogenase.

    PubMed

    Kozak, Barbara U; van Rossum, Harmen M; Niemeijer, Matthijs S; van Dijk, Marlous; Benjamin, Kirsten; Wu, Liang; Daran, Jean-Marc G; Pronk, Jack T; van Maris, Antonius J A

    2016-03-01

    In Saccharomyces cerevisiae ethanol dissimilation is initiated by its oxidation and activation to cytosolic acetyl-CoA. The associated consumption of ATP strongly limits yields of biomass and acetyl-CoA-derived products. Here, we explore the implementation of an ATP-independent pathway for acetyl-CoA synthesis from ethanol that, in theory, enables biomass yield on ethanol that is up to 40% higher. To this end, all native yeast acetaldehyde dehydrogenases (ALDs) were replaced by heterologous acetylating acetaldehyde dehydrogenase (A-ALD). Engineered Ald(-) strains expressing different A-ALDs did not immediately grow on ethanol, but serial transfer in ethanol-grown batch cultures yielded growth rates of up to 70% of the wild-type value. Mutations in ACS1 were identified in all independently evolved strains and deletion of ACS1 enabled slow growth of non-evolved Ald(-) A-ALD strains on ethanol. Acquired mutations in A-ALD genes improved affinity-Vmax/Km for acetaldehyde. One of five evolved strains showed a significant 5% increase of its biomass yield in ethanol-limited chemostat cultures. Increased production of acetaldehyde and other by-products was identified as possible cause for lower than theoretically predicted biomass yields. This study proves that the native yeast pathway for conversion of ethanol to acetyl-CoA can be replaced by an engineered pathway with the potential to improve biomass and product yields.

  2. [Dot1 and Set2 Histone Methylases Control the Spontaneous and UV-Induced Mutagenesis Levels in the Saccharomyces cerevisiae Yeasts].

    PubMed

    Kozhina, T N; Evstiukhina, T A; Peshekhonov, V T; Chernenkov, A Yu; Korolev, V G

    2016-03-01

    In the Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeasts, the DOT1 gene product provides methylation of lysine 79 (K79) of hi- stone H3 and the SET2 gene product provides the methylation of lysine 36 (K36) of the same histone. We determined that the dot1 and set2 mutants suppress the UV-induced mutagenesis to an equally high degree. The dot1 mutation demonstrated statistically higher sensitivity to the low doses of MMC than the wild type strain. The analysis of the interaction between the dot1 and rad52 mutations revealed a considerable level of spontaneous cell death in the double dot1 rad52 mutant. We observed strong suppression of the gamma-in- duced mutagenesis in the set2 mutant. We determined that the dot1 and set2 mutations decrease the sponta- neous mutagenesis rate in both single and d ouble mutants. The epistatic interaction between the dot1 and set2 mutations and almost similar sensitivity of the corresponding mutants to the different types of DNA damage allow one to conclude that both genes are involved in the control of the same DNA repair pathways, the ho- mologous-recombination-based and the postreplicative DNA repair.

  3. Interactions between Torulaspora delbrueckii and Saccharomyces cerevisiae in wine fermentation: influence of inoculation and nitrogen content.

    PubMed

    Taillandier, Patricia; Lai, Quoc Phong; Julien-Ortiz, Anne; Brandam, Cédric

    2014-07-01

    Alcoholic fermentation by an oenological strain of Torulaspora delbrueckii in association with an oenological strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae was studied in mixed and sequential cultures. Experiments were performed in a synthetic grape must medium in a membrane bioreactor, a special tool designed to study indirect interactions between microorganisms. Results showed that the S. cerevisiae strain had a negative impact on the T. delbrueckii strain, leading to a viability decrease as soon as S. cerevisiae was inoculated. Even for high inoculation of T. delbrueckii (more than 20× S. cerevisiae) in mixed cultures, T. delbrueckii growth was inhibited. Substrate competition and cell-to-cell contact mechanism could be eliminated as explanations of the observed interaction, which was probably an inhibition by a metabolite produced by S. cerevisiae. S. cerevisiae should be inoculated 48 h after T. delbrueckii in order to ensure the growth of T. delbrueckii and consequently a decrease of volatile acidity and a higher isoamyl acetate production. In this case, in a medium with a high concentration of assimilable nitrogen (324 mg L(-1)), S. cerevisiae growth was not affected by T. delbrueckii. But in a sequential fermentation in a medium containing 176 mg L(-1) initial assimilable nitrogen, S. cerevisiae was not able to develop because of nitrogen exhaustion by T. delbrueckii growth during the first 48 h, leading to sluggish fermentation. PMID:24500666

  4. ISOLATION OF A CYTOCHROME P-450 STRUCTURAL GENE FROM SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE

    EPA Science Inventory

    We have transformed a Saccharomyces cerevisiae host with an S. cerevisiae genomic library contained in the shuttle vector YEp24 and screened the resultant transformants for resistance to ketoconazole (Kc), an inhibitor of the cytochrome P-450 (P-450) enzyme lanosterol 14-demethyl...

  5. Creation of a synthetic xylose-inducible promoter for Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae is currently used to produce ethanol from glucose, but it cannot utilize five-carbon sugars contained in the hemicellulose component of biomass feedstocks. S. cerevisiae strains engineered for xylose fermentation have been made using constitutive promoters to express the req...

  6. Draft Genome Sequence of the Beer Spoilage Bacterium Megasphaera cerevisiae Strain PAT 1T

    PubMed Central

    Kutumbaka, Kirthi K.; Pasmowitz, Joshua; Mategko, James; Reyes, Dindo; Friedrich, Alex; Han, Sukkyun; Martens-Habbena, Willm; Neal-McKinney, Jason; Janagama, Harish K.; Nadala, Cesar

    2015-01-01

    The genus Megasphaera harbors important spoilage organisms that cause beer spoilage by producing off flavors, undesirable aroma, and turbidity. Megasphaera cerevisiae is mainly found in nonpasteurized low-alcohol beer. In this study, we report the draft genome of the type strain of the genus, M. cerevisiae strain PAT 1T. PMID:26358606

  7. Draft Genome Sequence of the Beer Spoilage Bacterium Megasphaera cerevisiae Strain PAT 1T.

    PubMed

    Kutumbaka, Kirthi K; Pasmowitz, Joshua; Mategko, James; Reyes, Dindo; Friedrich, Alex; Han, Sukkyun; Martens-Habbena, Willm; Neal-McKinney, Jason; Janagama, Harish K; Nadala, Cesar; Samadpour, Mansour

    2015-01-01

    The genus Megasphaera harbors important spoilage organisms that cause beer spoilage by producing off flavors, undesirable aroma, and turbidity. Megasphaera cerevisiae is mainly found in nonpasteurized low-alcohol beer. In this study, we report the draft genome of the type strain of the genus, M. cerevisiae strain PAT 1(T). PMID:26358606

  8. [Invertase Overproduction May Provide for Inulin Fermentation by Selection Strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae].

    PubMed

    Naumov, G I; Naumova, E S

    2015-01-01

    In some recent publications, the ability of selection strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae to ferment inulin was attributed to inulinase activity. The review summarizes the literature data indicating that overproduction of invertase, an enzyme common to S. cerevisiae, may be responsible for this phenomenon. PMID:26263621

  9. Growth and fermentation characteristics of Saccharomyces cerevisiae NK28 isolated from kiwi fruit.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jong-Sub; Park, Eun-Hee; Kim, Jung-Wan; Yeo, Soo-Hwan; Kim, Myoung-Dong

    2013-09-28

    The influences of glucose concentration, initial medium acidity (pH), and temperature on the growth and ethanol production of Saccharomyces cerevisiae NK28, which was isolated from kiwi fruit, were examined in shake flask cultures. The optimal glucose concentration, initial medium pH, and temperature for ethanol production were 200 g/l, pH 6.0, and 35oC, respectively. Under this growth condition, S. cerevisiae NK28 produced 98.9 ± 5.67 g/l ethanol in 24 h with a volumetric ethanol production rate of 4.12 ± 0.24 g/l·h. S. cerevisiae NK28 was more tolerant to heat and ethanol than laboratory strain S. cerevisiae BY4742, and its tolerance to ethanol and fermentation inhibitors was comparable to that of an ethanologen, S. cerevisiae D5A.

  10. Construction of Killer Industrial Yeast Saccharomyces Cerevisiae Hau-1 and its Fermentation Performance

    PubMed Central

    Bajaj, Bijender K.; Sharma, S.

    2010-01-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae HAU-1, a time tested industrial yeast possesses most of the desirable fermentation characteristics like fast growth and fermentation rate, osmotolerance, high ethanol tolerance, ability to ferment molasses, and to ferment at elevated temperatures etc. However, this yeast was found to be sensitive against the killer strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In the present study, killer trait was introduced into Saccharomyces cerevisiae HAU-1 by protoplast fusion with Saccharomyces cerevisiae MTCC 475, a killer strain. The resultant fusants were characterized for desirable fermentation characteristics. All the technologically important characteristics of distillery yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae HAU-1 were retained in the fusants, and in addition the killer trait was also introduced into them. Further, the killer activity was found to be stably maintained during hostile conditions of ethanol fermentations in dextrose or molasses, and even during biomass recycling. PMID:24031519

  11. Role of social wasps in Saccharomyces cerevisiae ecology and evolution

    PubMed Central

    Stefanini, Irene; Dapporto, Leonardo; Legras, Jean-Luc; Calabretta, Antonio; Di Paola, Monica; De Filippo, Carlotta; Viola, Roberto; Capretti, Paolo; Polsinelli, Mario; Turillazzi, Stefano; Cavalieri, Duccio

    2012-01-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae is one of the most important model organisms and has been a valuable asset to human civilization. However, despite its extensive use in the last 9,000 y, the existence of a seasonal cycle outside human-made environments has not yet been described. We demonstrate the role of social wasps as vector and natural reservoir of S. cerevisiae during all seasons. We provide experimental evidence that queens of social wasps overwintering as adults (Vespa crabro and Polistes spp.) can harbor yeast cells from autumn to spring and transmit them to their progeny. This result is mirrored by field surveys of the genetic variability of natural strains of yeast. Microsatellites and sequences of a selected set of loci able to recapitulate the yeast strain’s evolutionary history were used to compare 17 environmental wasp isolates with a collection of strains from grapes from the same region and more than 230 strains representing worldwide yeast variation. The wasp isolates fall into subclusters representing the overall ecological and industrial yeast diversity of their geographic origin. Our findings indicate that wasps are a key environmental niche for the evolution of natural S. cerevisiae populations, the dispersion of yeast cells in the environment, and the maintenance of their diversity. The close relatedness of several wasp isolates with grape and wine isolates reflects the crucial role of human activities on yeast population structure, through clonal expansion and selection of specific strains during the biotransformation of fermented foods, followed by dispersal mediated by insects and other animals. PMID:22847440

  12. An improved method of xylose utilization by recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Ma, Tien-Yang; Lin, Ting-Hsiang; Hsu, Teng-Chieh; Huang, Chiung-Fang; Guo, Gia-Luen; Hwang, Wen-Song

    2012-10-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a method to optimize expression levels of xylose-metabolizing enzymes to improve xylose utilization capacity of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. A xylose-utilizing recombinant S. cerevisiae strain YY2KL, able to express nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate, reduced (NADPH)-dependent xylose reductase (XR), nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD(+))-dependent xylitol dehydrogenase (XDH), and xylulokinase (XK), showed a low ethanol yield and sugar consumption rate. To optimize xylose utilization by YY2KL, a recombinant expression plasmid containing the XR gene was transformed and integrated into the aur1 site of YY2KL. Two recombinant expression plasmids containing an nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADP(+))-dependent XDH mutant and XK genes were dually transformed and integrated into the 5S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) sites of YY2KL. This procedure allowed systematic construction of an S. cerevisiae library with different ratios of genes for xylose-metabolizing enzymes, and well-grown colonies with different xylose fermentation capacities could be further selected in yeast protein extract (YPX) medium (1 % yeast extract, 2 % peptone, and 2 % xylose). We successfully isolated a recombinant strain with a superior xylose fermentation capacity and designated it as strain YY5A. The xylose consumption rate for strain YY5A was estimated to be 2.32 g/gDCW/h (g xylose/g dry cell weight/h), which was 2.34 times higher than that for the parent strain YY2KL (0.99 g/gDCW/h). The ethanol yield was also enhanced 1.83 times by this novel method. Optimal ratio and expression levels of xylose-metabolizing enzymes are important for efficient conversion of xylose to ethanol. This study provides a novel method that allows rapid and effective selection of ratio-optimized xylose-utilizing yeast strains. This method may be applicable to other multienzyme systems in yeast.

  13. Exploring the Saccharomyces cerevisiae Volatile Metabolome: Indigenous versus Commercial Strains

    PubMed Central

    Alves, Zélia; Melo, André; Figueiredo, Ana Raquel; Coimbra, Manuel A.; Gomes, Ana C.; Rocha, Sílvia M.

    2015-01-01

    Winemaking is a highly industrialized process and a number of commercial Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains are used around the world, neglecting the diversity of native yeast strains that are responsible for the production of wines peculiar flavours. The aim of this study was to in-depth establish the S. cerevisiae volatile metabolome and to assess inter-strains variability. To fulfill this objective, two indigenous strains (BT2652 and BT2453 isolated from spontaneous fermentation of grapes collected in Bairrada Appellation, Portugal) and two commercial strains (CSc1 and CSc2) S. cerevisiae were analysed using a methodology based on advanced multidimensional gas chromatography (HS-SPME/GC×GC-ToFMS) tandem with multivariate analysis. A total of 257 volatile metabolites were identified, distributed over the chemical families of acetals, acids, alcohols, aldehydes, ketones, terpenic compounds, esters, ethers, furan-type compounds, hydrocarbons, pyrans, pyrazines and S-compounds. Some of these families are related with metabolic pathways of amino acid, carbohydrate and fatty acid metabolism as well as mono and sesquiterpenic biosynthesis. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) was used with a dataset comprising all variables (257 volatile components), and a distinction was observed between commercial and indigenous strains, which suggests inter-strains variability. In a second step, a subset containing esters and terpenic compounds (C10 and C15), metabolites of particular relevance to wine aroma, was also analysed using PCA. The terpenic and ester profiles express the strains variability and their potential contribution to the wine aromas, specially the BT2453, which produced the higher terpenic content. This research contributes to understand the metabolic diversity of indigenous wine microflora versus commercial strains and achieved knowledge that may be further exploited to produce wines with peculiar aroma properties. PMID:26600152

  14. Heterologous expression of cellulase genes in natural Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains.

    PubMed

    Davison, Steffi A; den Haan, Riaan; van Zyl, Willem Heber

    2016-09-01

    Enzyme cost is a major impediment to second-generation (2G) cellulosic ethanol production. One strategy to reduce enzyme cost is to engineer enzyme production capacity in a fermentative microorganism to enable consolidated bio-processing (CBP). Ideally, a strain with a high secretory phenotype, high fermentative capacity as well as an innate robustness to bioethanol-specific stressors, including tolerance to products formed during pre-treatment and fermentation of lignocellulosic substrates should be used. Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a robust fermentative yeast but has limitations as a potential CBP host, such as low heterologous protein secretion titers. In this study, we evaluated natural S. cerevisiae isolate strains for superior secretion activity and other industrially relevant characteristics needed during the process of lignocellulosic ethanol production. Individual cellulases namely Saccharomycopsis fibuligera Cel3A (β-glucosidase), Talaromyces emersonii Cel7A (cellobiohydrolase), and Trichoderma reesei Cel5A (endoglucanase) were utilized as reporter proteins. Natural strain YI13 was identified to have a high secretory phenotype, demonstrating a 3.7- and 3.5-fold higher Cel7A and Cel5A activity, respectively, compared to the reference strain S288c. YI13 also demonstrated other industrially relevant characteristics such as growth vigor, high ethanol titer, multi-tolerance to high temperatures (37 and 40 °C), ethanol (10 % w/v), and towards various concentrations of a cocktail of inhibitory compounds commonly found in lignocellulose hydrolysates. This study accentuates the value of natural S. cerevisiae isolate strains to serve as potential robust and highly productive chassis organisms for CBP strain development. PMID:27470141

  15. The conserved carboxy-terminal domain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae TFIID is sufficient to support normal cell growth.

    PubMed Central

    Poon, D; Schroeder, S; Wang, C K; Yamamoto, T; Horikoshi, M; Roeder, R G; Weil, P A

    1991-01-01

    We have examined the structure-function relationships of TFIID through in vivo complementation tests. A yeast strain was constructed which lacked the chromosomal copy of SPT15, the gene encoding TFIID, and was therefore dependent on a functional plasmid-borne wild-type copy of this gene for viability. By using the plasmid shuffle technique, the plasmid-borne wild-type TFIID gene was replaced with a family of plasmids containing a series of systematically mutated TFIID genes. These various forms of TFIID were expressed from three different promoter contexts of different strengths, and the ability of each mutant form of TFIID to complement our chromosomal TFIID null allele was assessed. We found that the first 61 amino acid residues of TFIID are totally dispensable for vegetative cell growth, since yeast strains containing this deleted form of TFIID grow at wild-type rates. Amino-terminally deleted TFIID was further shown to be able to function normally in vivo by virtue of its ability both to promote accurate transcription initiation from a large number of different genes and to interact efficiently with the Gal4 protein to activate transcription of GAL1 with essentially wild-type kinetics. Any deletion removing sequences from within the conserved carboxy-terminal region of S. cerevisiae TFIID was lethal. Further, the exact sequence of the conserved carboxy-terminal portion of the molecule is critical for function, since of several heterologous TFIID homologs tested, only the highly related Schizosaccharomyces pombe gene could complement our S. cerevisiae TFIID null mutant. Taken together, these data indicate that all important functional domains of TFIID appear to lie in its carboxy-terminal 179 amino acid residues. The significance of these findings regarding TFIID function are discussed. Images PMID:1922021

  16. Transcription of the phosphoglycerate kinase gene of Saccharomyces cerevisiae increases when fermentative cultures are stressed by heat-shock.

    PubMed

    Piper, P W; Curran, B; Davies, M W; Lockheart, A; Reid, G

    1986-12-15

    The single gene for phosphoglycerate kinase (PGK) in the haploid genome of Saccharomyces cerevisiae is expressed to a very high level in cultures fermenting glucose. Despite this it responds to heat-shock. When S. cerevisiae growing exponentially on glucose media was shifted from 25 degrees C to 38 degrees C transient increases of 6-7-fold in cellular PGK mRNA were observed. This elevation in PGK mRNA still occurred in the presence of the protein-synthesis inhibitor cycloheximide, but was not observed in cells bearing the rna1.1 mutation. From the kinetics of continuous labelling of PGK mRNA, relative to the labelling of other RNAs in the same cultures whose levels do not alter with heat-shock, it was shown that the elevation in PGK mRNA in response to temperature upshift reflects primarily an increased synthesis of this mRNA and not an alteration of its half-life. PGK mRNA synthesis is therefore one target of a response mechanism to thermal stress. Synthesis of PGK enzyme in glucose-grown cultures is efficient after mild (25 degrees C to 38 degrees C) or severe (25 degrees C to 42 degrees C) heat-shocks. Following the severe shock, the synthesis of most proteins is abruptly terminated, but synthesis of PGK and a few other glycolytic enzymes continues at levels comparable to the levels of synthesis of most of those proteins dramatically induced by heat (heat-shock proteins). Cells that overproduce PGK due to the presence of multiple copies of the PGK gene on a high-copy-number plasmid continue their overproduction of this enzyme during severe thermal stress. Therefore PGK mRNA is both elevated in level in response to heat-shock and translated efficiently at supra-optimal temperatures.

  17. The role of Saccharomyces cerevisiae type 2A phosphatase in the actin cytoskeleton and in entry into mitosis.

    PubMed Central

    Lin, F C; Arndt, K T

    1995-01-01

    We have prepared a temperature-sensitive Saccharomyces cerevisiae type 2A phosphatase (PP2A) mutant, pph21-102. At the restrictive temperature, the pph21-102 cells arrested predominantly with small or aberrant buds, and their actin cytoskeleton and chitin deposition were abnormal. The involvement of PP2A in bud growth may be due to the role of PP2A in actin distribution during the cell cycle. Moreover, after a shift to the non-permissive temperature, the pph21-102 cells were blocked in G2 and had low activity of Clb2-Cdc28 kinase. Expression of Clb2 from the S.cerevisiae ADH promoter in pph21-102 cells was able to partially bypass the G2 arrest in the first cell cycle, but was not able to stimulate passage through a second mitosis. These cells had higher total amounts of Clb2-Cdc28 kinase activity, but the Clb2-normalized specific activity was lower in the pph21-102 cells compared with wild-type cells. Unlike wild-type strains, a PP2A-deficient strain was sensitive to the loss of MIH1, which is a homolog of the Schizosaccharomyces pombe mitotic inducer cdc25+. Furthermore, the cdc28F19 mutation cured the synthetic defects of a PP2A-deficient strain containing a deletion of MIH1. These results suggest that PP2A is required during G2 for the activation of Clb-Cdc28 kinase complexes for progression into mitosis. Images PMID:7796803

  18. The EH-domain-containing protein Pan1 is required for normal organization of the actin cytoskeleton in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed Central

    Tang, H Y; Cai, M

    1996-01-01

    Normal cell growth and division in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae involve dramatic and frequent changes in the organization of the actin cytoskeleton. Previous studies have suggested that the reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton in accordance with cell cycle progression is controlled, directly or indirectly, by the cyclin-dependent kinase Cdc28. Here we report that by isolating rapid-death mutants in the background of the Start-deficient cdc28-4 mutation, the essential yeast gene PAN1, previously thought to encode the yeast poly(A) nuclease, is identified as a new factor required for normal organization of the actin cytoskeleton. We show that at restrictive temperature, the pan1 mutant exhibited abnormal bud growth, failed to maintain a proper distribution of the actin cytoskeleton, was unable to reorganize actin the cytoskeleton during cell cycle, and was defective in cytokinesis. The mutant also displayed a random pattern of budding even at permissive temperature. Ectopic expression of PAN1 by the GAL promoter caused abnormal distribution of the actin cytoskeleton when a single-copy vector was used. Immunofluorescence staining revealed that the Pan1 protein colocalized with the cortical actin patches, suggesting that it may be a filamentous actin-binding protein. The Pan1 protein contains an EF-hand calcium-binding domain, a putative Src homology 3 (SH3)-binding domain, a region similar to the actin cytoskeleton assembly control protein Sla1, and two repeats of a newly identified protein motif known as the EH domain. These findings suggest that Pan1, recently recognized as not responsible for the poly(A) nuclease activity (A. B. Sachs and J. A. Deardorff, erratum, Cell 83:1059, 1995; R. Boeck, S. Tarun, Jr., M. Rieger, J. A. Deardorff, S. Muller-Auer, and A. B. Sachs, J. Biol. Chem. 271:432-438, 1996), plays an important role in the organization of the actin cytoskeleton in S. cerevisiae. PMID:8756649

  19. Integration of DNA fragments by illegitimate recombination in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed Central

    Schiestl, R H; Petes, T D

    1991-01-01

    DNA fragments (generated by BamHI treatment) with no homology to the yeast genome were transformed into Saccharomyces cerevisiae. When the fragments were transformed in the presence of the BamHI enzyme, they integrated into genomic BamHI sites. When the fragments were transformed in the absence of the enzyme, they integrated into genomic G-A-T-C sites. Since the G-A-T-C sequence is present at the ends of BamHI fragments, this results indicates that four base pairs of homology are sufficient for some types of mitotic recombination. Images PMID:1881899

  20. Differential repair of UV damage in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Terleth, C; van Sluis, C A; van de Putte, P

    1989-06-26

    Preferential repair of UV-induced damage is a phenomenon by which mammalian cells might enhance their survival. This paper presents the first evidence that preferential repair occurs in the lower eukaryote Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Moreover an unique approach is reported to compare identical sequences present on the same chromosome and only differing in expression. We determined the removal of pyrimidine dimers from two identical alpha-mating type loci and we were able to show that the active MAT alpha locus is repaired preferentially to the inactive HML alpha locus. In a sir-3 mutant, in which both loci are active this preference is not observed.

  1. RNAi-Assisted Genome Evolution (RAGE) in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Si, Tong; Zhao, Huimin

    2016-01-01

    RNA interference (RNAi)-assisted genome evolution (RAGE) applies directed evolution principles to engineer Saccharomyces cerevisiae genomes. Here, we use acetic acid tolerance as a target trait to describe the key steps of RAGE. Briefly, iterative cycles of RNAi screening are performed to accumulate multiplex knockdown modifications, enabling directed evolution of the yeast genome and continuous improvement of a target phenotype. Detailed protocols are provided on the reconstitution of RNAi machinery, creation of genome-wide RNAi libraries, identification and integration of beneficial knockdown cassettes, and repeated RAGE cycles. PMID:27581294

  2. Mating-type gene switching in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Haber, J E

    1998-01-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae can change its mating type as often as every generation by a highly choreographed, site-specific recombination event that replaces one MAT allele with different DNA sequences encoding the opposite allele. The study of this process has yielded important insights into the control of cell lineage, the silencing of gene expression, and the formation of heterochromatin, as well as the molecular events of double-strand break-induced recombination. In addition, MAT switching provides a remarkable example of a small locus control region--the Recombination Enhancer--that controls recombination along an entire chromosome arm.

  3. Defining redox centers in human electron transfer flavoprotein: ubiquinone oxidoreductase (ETF:QO) by expression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    SciTech Connect

    Frerman, F.E.; Beard, S.; Goodman, S.I.

    1994-09-01

    Mutations in ETF or ETC:QO cause glutaric acidemia type II (GA2). ETF:QO is an iron-sulfur flavoprotein in the inner mitochondrial membrane which transfers electrons from ETF in the mitochondrial matrix to ubiquinone (Q). The human ETF:QO gene is on chromosome 4q32{r_arrow}qter, and encodes a 617 amino acid precursor which is processed to the 64 kDa mature form in the mitochondrion. One ETF:QO mutation in GA2 is a G{r_arrow}T transversion in a donor splice site, deleting the 222 bp upstream exon from the transcript. The deleted 74 amino acids are near the carboxyl terminus just beyond a predicted membrane helix, and include C561, one of four cysteine residues predicted to ligate the 4Fe4S cluster. The mutant protein is not stable in patient fibroblasts. We have expressed cDNAs encoding wild type (wt) ETF:QO, ETF:QO with the 74 amino acid deletion, and ETFF:QO with only a C561A mutation, in S cerevisiae. In all instances, precursor and mature ETF:QOs were stably inserted into the mitochondrial membrane. ETF:QO (C561A) is extracted from the membrane under the same conditions as wt ETF:QO, but ETF:QO with the deletion is much more difficult to extract. Wt ETF:QO accepts electrons from ETF and reduces Q but, while both mutant proteins accept electrons from ETF, neither of them reduces Q. This work demonstrates that C561 in human ETF:QO is essential for Q reduction (probably because it ligands the 4Fe4S cluster), that mutant proteins that are unstable in man may be stable in other systems, that cleavage of signal peptide from precursor proteins can occur within the inner mitochondrial membrane, and the general usefulness of expressing human mitochondrial proteins in yeast.

  4. Nuclear localization domains of GATA activator Gln3 are required for transcription of target genes through dephosphorylation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Numamoto, Minori; Tagami, Shota; Ueda, Yusuke; Imabeppu, Yusuke; Sasano, Yu; Sugiyama, Minetaka; Maekawa, Hiromi; Harashima, Satoshi

    2015-08-01

    The GATA transcription activator Gln3 in the budding yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) activates transcription of nitrogen catabolite repression (NCR)-sensitive genes. In cells grown in the presence of preferred nitrogen sources, Gln3 is phosphorylated in a TOR-dependent manner and localizes in the cytoplasm. In cells grown in non-preferred nitrogen medium or treated with rapamycin, Gln3 is dephosphorylated and is transported from the cytoplasm to the nucleus, thereby activating the transcription of NCR-sensitive genes. Caffeine treatment also induces dephosphorylation of Gln3 and its translocation to the nucleus and transcription of NCR-sensitive genes. However, the details of the mechanism by which phosphorylation controls Gln3 localization and transcriptional activity are unknown. Here, we focused on two regions of Gln3 with nuclear localization signal properties (NLS-K, and NLS-C) and one with nuclear export signal (NES). We constructed various mutants for our analyses: gln3 containing point mutations in all potential phosphoacceptor sites (Thr-339, Ser-344, Ser-347, Ser-355, Ser-391) in the NLS and NES regions to produce non-phosphorylatable (alanine) or mimic-phosphorylatable (aspartic acid) residues; and deletion mutants. We found that phosphorylation of Gln3 was impaired in all of these mutations and that the aspartic acid substitution mutants showed drastic reduction of Gln3-mediated transcriptional activity despite the fact that the mutations had no effect on nuclear localization of Gln3. Our observations suggest that these regions are required for transcription of target genes presumably through dephosphorylation.

  5. Physiological characterization of Saccharomyces cerevisiae mutants supersensitive to G1 arrest by a factor and. cap alpha. factor pheromones

    SciTech Connect

    Chan, R.K.; Otte, C.A.

    1982-01-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae MATa cells carrying mutations in either sst1 or sst2 are supersensitive to the G1 arrest induced by ..cap alpha.. factor pheromone. When sst1 mutants were mixed with normal SST/sup +/ cells, the entire population recovered together from ..cap alpha.. factor arrest, suggesting that SST/sup +/ cells helped sst1 mutants to recover. Complementation tests and linkage analysis showed that sst1 and bar1, a mutation which eliminates the ability of MATa cells to act as a ''barrier'' to the diffusion of ..cap alpha.. factor, were lesions in the same genes. These findings suggest that sst1 mutants are defective in recovery from ..cap alpha.. factor arrest because they are unable to degrade the pheromone. In contrast, recovery of sst2 mutants was not potentiated by the presence of SST/sup +/ cells in mixing experiments. When either normal MATa cells or mutant cells carrying defects in sst1 or sst2 were exposed to ..cap alpha.. factor for 1 h and then washed free of the pheromone, the sst2 cells subsequently remained arrested in the absence of ..cap alpha.. factor for a much longer time than SST/sup +/ or sst1 cells. These observations suggest that the defect in sst2 mutants is intrinsic to the cell and is involved in the mechanism of ..cap alpha.. factor action at some step after the initial interaction of the pheromone with the cell. The presence of an sst2 mutation appears to cause a growth debility, since repeated serial subculture of haploid sst2-1 strains led to the accumulation of faster-growing revertants that were pheromone resistant and were mating defective (''sterile'').

  6. Evolution of a G protein-coupled receptor response by mutations in regulatory network interactions.

    PubMed

    Di Roberto, Raphaël B; Chang, Belinda; Trusina, Ala; Peisajovich, Sergio G

    2016-08-04

    All cellular functions depend on the concerted action of multiple proteins organized in complex networks. To understand how selection acts on protein networks, we used the yeast mating receptor Ste2, a pheromone-activated G protein-coupled receptor, as a model system. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Ste2 is a hub in a network of interactions controlling both signal transduction and signal suppression. Through laboratory evolution, we obtained 21 mutant receptors sensitive to the pheromone of a related yeast species and investigated the molecular mechanisms behind this newfound sensitivity. While some mutants show enhanced binding affinity to the foreign pheromone, others only display weakened interactions with the network's negative regulators. Importantly, the latter changes have a limited impact on overall pathway regulation, despite their considerable effect on sensitivity. Our results demonstrate that a new receptor-ligand pair can evolve through network-altering mutations independently of receptor-ligand binding, and suggest a potential role for such mutations in disease.

  7. Efficient Nuclear Transport of Structurally Disturbed Cargo: Mutations in a Cargo Protein Switch Its Cognate Karyopherin

    PubMed Central

    Chaves, Susana R.; Rosenblum, Jonathan S.

    2011-01-01

    The Karyopherin (Kap) family of nuclear transport receptors enables trafficking of proteins to and from the nucleus in a precise, regulated manner. Individual members function in overlapping pathways, while simultaneously being very specific for their main cargoes. The details of this apparent contradiction and rules governing pathway preference remain to be further elucidated. S. cerevisiae Lhp1 is an abundant protein that functions as an RNA chaperone in a variety of biologically important processes. It localizes almost exclusively to the nucleus and is imported by Kap108. We show that mutation of 3 of the 275 residues in Lhp1 alters its import pathway to a Kap121-dependent process. This mutant does not retain wild-type function and is bound by several chaperones. We propose that Kap121 also acts as a chaperone, one that can act as a genetic buffer by transporting mutated proteins to the nucleus. PMID:21347375

  8. Saccharomyces cerevisiae Sen1 Helicase Domain Exhibits 5'- to 3'-Helicase Activity with a Preference for Translocation on DNA Rather than RNA.

    PubMed

    Martin-Tumasz, Stephen; Brow, David A

    2015-09-18

    In the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the essential nuclear helicase Sen1 is required for efficient termination of transcription of short noncoding RNA genes by RNA polymerase II. However, the mechanism by which Sen1 promotes transcription termination is not known. Prior biochemical studies on the Sen1 homolog from Schizosaccharomyces pombe showed that it can bind and unwind both DNA and RNA, but the S. pombe protein is not essential and has not been demonstrated to function in transcription. Furthermore, Sen1 from either yeast has not previously been expressed as a recombinant protein, due to its large molecular mass (252 kDa in S. cerevisiae). Here, we report the purification and characterization of the 89-kDa S. cerevisiae Sen1 helicase domain (Sen1-HD) produced in Escherichia coli. Sen1-HD binds single-stranded RNA and DNA with similar affinity in the absence of ATP, but it binds RNA more stably than DNA in the presence of ATP, apparently due to a slower translocation rate on RNA. Translocation occurs in the 5' to 3' direction, as for the S. pombe protein. When purified from E. coli at a moderate salt concentration, Sen1-HD was associated with short RNAs that are enriched for the trinucleotide repeat (CAN)4. We propose that Sen1 binds to RNAs and prevents their stable pairing with DNA, consistent with in vivo studies by others showing increased R-loop (RNA/DNA hybrid) formation when Sen1 activity is impaired by mutations. Our results are consistent with a model in which Sen1 promotes transcription termination by resolving R-loops.

  9. Cloning of the Candida albicans homolog of Saccharomyces cerevisiae GSC1/FKS1 and its involvement in beta-1,3-glucan synthesis.

    PubMed Central

    Mio, T; Adachi-Shimizu, M; Tachibana, Y; Tabuchi, H; Inoue, S B; Yabe, T; Yamada-Okabe, T; Arisawa, M; Watanabe, T; Yamada-Okabe, H

    1997-01-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae GSC1 (also called FKS1) and GSC2 (also called FKS2) have been identified as the genes for putative catalytic subunits of beta-1,3-glucan synthase. We have cloned three Candida albicans genes, GSC1, GSL1, and GSL2, that have significant sequence homologies with S. cerevisiae GSC1/FKS1, GSC2/FKS2, and the recently identified FKSA of Aspergillus nidulans at both nucleotide and amino acid levels. Like S. cerevisiae Gsc/Fks proteins, none of the predicted products of C. albicans GSC1, GSL1, or GSL2 displayed obvious signal sequences at their N-terminal ends, but each product possessed 10 to 16 potential transmembrane helices with a relatively long cytoplasmic domain in the middle of the protein. Northern blotting demonstrated that C. albicans GSC1 and GSL1 but not GSL2 mRNAs were expressed in the growing yeast-phase cells. Three copies of GSC1 were found in the diploid genome of C. albicans CAI4. Although we could not establish the null mutation of C. albicans GSC1, disruption of two of the three GSC1 alleles decreased both GSC1 mRNA and cell wall beta-glucan levels by about 50%. The purified C. albicans beta-1,3-glucan synthase was a 210-kDa protein as judged by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, and all sequences determined with peptides obtained by lysyl endopeptidase digestion of the 210-kDa protein were found in the deduced amino acid sequence of C. albicans Gsc1p. Furthermore, the monoclonal antibody raised against the purified beta-1,3-glucan synthase specifically reacted with the 210-kDa protein and could immunoprecipitate beta-1,3-glucan synthase activity. These results demonstrate that C. albicans GSC1 is the gene for a subunit of beta-1,3-glucan synthase. PMID:9209021

  10. HKR1 encodes a cell surface protein that regulates both cell wall beta-glucan synthesis and budding pattern in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed Central

    Yabe, T; Yamada-Okabe, T; Kasahara, S; Furuichi, Y; Nakajima, T; Ichishima, E; Arisawa, M; Yamada-Okabe, H

    1996-01-01

    We previously isolated the Saccharomyces cerevisiae HKR1 gene that confers on S. cerevisiae cells resistance to HM-1 killer toxin secreted by Hansenula mrakii (S. Kasahara, H. Yamada, T. Mio, Y. Shiratori, C. Miyamoto, T. Yabe, T. Nakajima, E. Ichishima, and Y. Furuichi, J. Bacteriol. 176:1488-1499, 1994). HKR1 encodes a type 1 membrane protein that contains a calcium-binding consensus sequence (EF hand motif) in the cytoplasmic domain. Although the null mutation of HKR1 is lethal, disruption of the 3' part of the coding region, which would result in deletion of the cytoplasmic domain of Hkr1p, did not affect the viability of yeast cells. This partial disruption of HKR1 significantly reduced beta-1,3-glucan synthase activity and the amount of beta-1,3-glucan in the cell wall and altered the axial budding pattern of haploid cells. Neither chitin synthase activity nor chitin content was significantly affected in the cells harboring the partially disrupted HKR1 allele. Immunofluorescence microscopy with an antibody raised against Hkr1p expressed in Escherichia coli revealed that Hkr1p was predominantly localized on the cell surface. The cell surface localization of Hkr1p required the N-terminal signal sequence because the C-terminal half of Hkr1p was detected uniformly in the cells. These results demonstrate that HKR1 encodes a cell surface protein that regulates both cell wall beta-glucan synthesis and budding pattern and suggest that bud site assembly is somehow related to beta-glucan synthesis in S. cerevisiae. PMID:8550469

  11. Biodiversity of Saccharomyces cerevisiae populations in Malbec vineyards from the "Zona Alta del Río Mendoza" region in Argentina.

    PubMed

    Mercado, Laura; Sturm, María Elena; Rojo, María Cecilia; Ciklic, Iván; Martínez, Claudio; Combina, Mariana

    2011-12-15

    The "Zona Alta del Río Mendoza" (ZARM) is the major Malbec grape viticulture region of Argentina. The aim of the present study was to explore Saccharomyces cerevisiae biodiversity in ZARM vineyards. Interdelta PCR and RFLP mtDNA molecular markers were applied to differentiate S. cerevisiae strains. The presence of commercial strains on ZARM vineyards was also assessed. Our results reveal a highly diverse, but genetically closely related, S. cerevisiae population (containing more than 190 molecular patterns among 590 S. cerevisiae isolates). According to the S. cerevisiae strain diversity found in vineyards, they were classified as vineyards with high and low polymorphic S. cerevisiae populations. Six vineyards showed a high polymorphic population, with more than 20 different S. cerevisiae molecular patterns. S. cerevisiae populations in these vineyards were diverse and irregularly distributed, with different strains in each vineyard site. Low polymorphic S. cerevisiae population vineyards displayed very low yeast diversity, with only 9 to 10 different S. cerevisiae strains and presence of two commercial strains widely distributed. Population diversity estimators were calculated to determine the population structure of S. cerevisiae in the ZARM vineyards. The obtained values support the hypothesis that the eight sampled subpopulations come indeed from a larger population.

  12. Genomic evolution of Saccharomyces cerevisiae under Chinese rice wine fermentation.

    PubMed

    Li, Yudong; Zhang, Weiping; Zheng, Daoqiong; Zhou, Zhan; Yu, Wenwen; Zhang, Lei; Feng, Lifang; Liang, Xinle; Guan, Wenjun; Zhou, Jingwen; Chen, Jian; Lin, Zhenguo

    2014-09-10

    Rice wine fermentation represents a unique environment for the evolution of the budding yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae. To understand how the selection pressure shaped the yeast genome and gene regulation, we determined the genome sequence and transcriptome of a S. cerevisiae strain YHJ7 isolated from Chinese rice wine (Huangjiu), a popular traditional alcoholic beverage in China. By comparing the genome of YHJ7 to the lab strain S288c, a Japanese sake strain K7, and a Chinese industrial bioethanol strain YJSH1, we identified many genomic sequence and structural variations in YHJ7, which are mainly located in subtelomeric regions, suggesting that these regions play an important role in genomic evolution between strains. In addition, our comparative transcriptome analysis between YHJ7 and S288c revealed a set of differentially expressed genes, including those involved in glucose transport (e.g., HXT2, HXT7) and oxidoredutase activity (e.g., AAD10, ADH7). Interestingly, many of these genomic and transcriptional variations are directly or indirectly associated with the adaptation of YHJ7 strain to its specific niches. Our molecular evolution analysis suggested that Japanese sake strains (K7/UC5) were derived from Chinese rice wine strains (YHJ7) at least approximately 2,300 years ago, providing the first molecular evidence elucidating the origin of Japanese sake strains. Our results depict interesting insights regarding the evolution of yeast during rice wine fermentation, and provided a valuable resource for genetic engineering to improve industrial wine-making strains.

  13. Purification and Characterization of Put1p from Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Wanduragala, Srimevan; Sanyal, Nikhilesh; Liang, Xinwen; Becker, Donald F.

    2010-01-01

    In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the PUT1 and PUT2 genes are required for the conversion of proline to glutamate. The PUT1 gene encodes Put1p, a proline dehydrogenase (PRODH)1 enzyme localized in the mitochondrion. Put1p was expressed and purified from Escherichia coli and shown to have a UV-visible absorption spectrum that is typical of a bound flavin cofactor. A Km value of 36 mM proline and a kcat = 27 s−1 were determined for Put1p using an artificial electron acceptor. Put1p also exhibited high activity using ubiquinone-1 (CoQ1) as an electron acceptor with a kcat = 9.6 s−1 and a Km of 33 µM for CoQ1. In addition, knockout strains of the electron transfer flavoprotein (ETF) homolog in S. cerevisiae were able to grow on proline as the sole nitrogen source demonstrating that ETF is not required for proline utilization in yeast. PMID:20450881

  14. Lactose fermentation by engineered Saccharomyces cerevisiae capable of fermenting cellobiose.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jing-Jing; Zhang, Guo-Chang; Oh, Eun Joong; Pathanibul, Panchalee; Turner, Timothy L; Jin, Yong-Su

    2016-09-20

    Lactose is an inevitable byproduct of the dairy industry. In addition to cheese manufacturing, the growing Greek yogurt industry generates excess acid whey, which contains lactose. Therefore, rapid and efficient conversion of lactose to fuels and chemicals would be useful for recycling the otherwise harmful acid whey. Saccharomyces cerevisiae, a popular metabolic engineering host, cannot natively utilize lactose. However, we discovered that an engineered S. cerevisiae strain (EJ2) capable of fermenting cellobiose can also ferment lactose. This finding suggests that a cellobiose transporter (CDT-1) can transport lactose and a β-glucosidase (GH1-1) can hydrolyze lactose by acting as a β-galactosidase. While the lactose fermentation by the EJ2 strain was much slower than the cellobiose fermentation, a faster lactose-fermenting strain (EJ2e8) was obtained through serial subcultures on lactose. The EJ2e8 strain fermented lactose with a consumption rate of 2.16g/Lh. The improved lactose fermentation by the EJ2e8 strain was due to the increased copy number of cdt-1 and gh1-1 genes. Looking ahead, the EJ2e8 strain could be exploited for the production of other non-ethanol fuels and chemicals from lactose through further metabolic engineering. PMID:27457698

  15. Anaerobic glycerol production by Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains under hyperosmotic stress.

    PubMed

    Modig, Tobias; Granath, Katarina; Adler, Lennart; Lidén, Gunnar

    2007-05-01

    Glycerol formation is vital for reoxidation of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (reduced form; NADH) under anaerobic conditions and for the hyperosmotic stress response in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. However, relatively few studies have been made on hyperosmotic stress under anaerobic conditions. To study the combined effect of salt stress and anaerobic conditions, industrial and laboratory strains of S. cerevisiae were grown anaerobically on glucose in batch-cultures containing 40 g/l NaCl. The time needed for complete glucose conversion increased considerably, and the specific growth rates decreased by 80-90% when the cells were subjected to the hyperosmotic conditions. This was accompanied by an increased yield of glycerol and other by-products and reduced biomass yield in all strains. The slowest fermenting strain doubled its glycerol yield (from 0.072 to 0.148 g/g glucose) and a nearly fivefold increase in acetate formation was seen. In more tolerant strains, a lower increase was seen in the glycerol and in the acetate, succinate and pyruvate yields. Additionally, the NADH-producing pathway from acetaldehyde to acetate was analysed by overexpressing the stress-induced gene ALD3. However, this had no or very marginal effect on the acetate and glycerol yields. In the control experiments, the production of NADH from known sources well matched the glycerol formation. This was not the case for the salt stress experiments in which the production of NADH from known sources was insufficient to explain the formed glycerol.

  16. Proteomic analysis of Saccharomyces cerevisiae under high gravity fermentation conditions.

    PubMed

    Pham, Trong Khoa; Chong, Poh Kuan; Gan, Chee Sian; Wright, Phillip C

    2006-12-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae KAY446 was utilized for ethanol production, with glucose concentrations ranging from 120 g/L (normal) to 300 g/L (high). Although grown in a high glucose environment, S. cerevisiae still retained the ability to produce ethanol with a high degree of glucose utilization. iTRAQ-mediated shotgun proteomics was applied to identify relative expression change of proteins under the different glucose conditions. A total of 413 proteins were identified from three replicate, independent LC-MS/MS runs. Unsurprisingly, many proteins in the glycolysis/gluconeogenesis pathway showed significant changes in expression level. Twenty five proteins involved in amino acid metabolism decreased their expression, while the expressions of 12 heat-shock related proteins were also identified. Under high glucose conditions, ethanol was produced as a major product. However, the assimilation of glucose as well as a number of byproducts was also enhanced. Therefore, to optimize the ethanol production under very high gravity conditions, a number of pathways will need to be deactivated, while still maintaining the correct cellular redox or osmotic state. Proteomics is demonstrated here as a tool to aid in this forward metabolic engineering.

  17. Quantifying separation and similarity in a Saccharomyces cerevisiae metapopulation

    PubMed Central

    Knight, Sarah; Goddard, Matthew R

    2015-01-01

    Eukaryotic microbes are key ecosystem drivers; however, we have little theory and few data elucidating the processes influencing their observed population patterns. Here we provide an in-depth quantitative analysis of population separation and similarity in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae with the aim of providing a more detailed account of the population processes occurring in microbes. Over 10 000 individual isolates were collected from native plants, vineyards and spontaneous ferments of fruit from six major regions spanning 1000 km across New Zealand. From these, hundreds of S. cerevisiae genotypes were obtained, and using a suite of analytical methods we provide comprehensive quantitative estimates for both population structure and rates of gene flow or migration. No genetic differentiation was detected within geographic regions, even between populations inhabiting native forests and vineyards. We do, however, reveal a picture of national population structure at scales above ∼100 km with distinctive populations in the more remote Nelson and Central Otago regions primarily contributing to this. In addition, differential degrees of connectivity between regional populations are observed and correlate with the movement of fruit by the New Zealand wine industry. This suggests some anthropogenic influence on these observed population patterns. PMID:25062126

  18. Long-chain alkane production by the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Buijs, Nicolaas A; Zhou, Yongjin J; Siewers, Verena; Nielsen, Jens

    2015-06-01

    In the past decade industrial-scale production of renewable transportation biofuels has been developed as an alternative to fossil fuels, with ethanol as the most prominent biofuel and yeast as the production organism of choice. However, ethanol is a less efficient substitute fuel for heavy-duty and maritime transportation as well as aviation due to its low energy density. Therefore, new types of biofuels, such as alkanes, are being developed that can be used as drop-in fuels and can substitute gasoline, diesel, and kerosene. Here, we describe for the first time the heterologous biosynthesis of long-chain alkanes by the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We show that elimination of the hexadecenal dehydrogenase Hfd1 and expression of a redox system are essential for alkane biosynthesis in yeast. Deletion of HFD1 together with expression of an alkane biosynthesis pathway resulted in the production of the alkanes tridecane, pentadecane, and heptadecane. Our study provides a proof of principle for producing long-chain alkanes in the industrial workhorse S. cerevisiae, which was so far limited to bacteria. We anticipate that these findings will be a key factor for further yeast engineering to enable industrial production of alkane based drop-in biofuels, which can allow the biofuel industry to diversify beyond bioethanol.

  19. Long-chain alkane production by the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Buijs, Nicolaas A; Zhou, Yongjin J; Siewers, Verena; Nielsen, Jens

    2015-06-01

    In the past decade industrial-scale production of renewable transportation biofuels has been developed as an alternative to fossil fuels, with ethanol as the most prominent biofuel and yeast as the production organism of choice. However, ethanol is a less efficient substitute fuel for heavy-duty and maritime transportation as well as aviation due to its low energy density. Therefore, new types of biofuels, such as alkanes, are being developed that can be used as drop-in fuels and can substitute gasoline, diesel, and kerosene. Here, we describe for the first time the heterologous biosynthesis of long-chain alkanes by the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We show that elimination of the hexadecenal dehydrogenase Hfd1 and expression of a redox system are essential for alkane biosynthesis in yeast. Deletion of HFD1 together with expression of an alkane biosynthesis pathway resulted in the production of the alkanes tridecane, pentadecane, and heptadecane. Our study provides a proof of principle for producing long-chain alkanes in the industrial workhorse S. cerevisiae, which was so far limited to bacteria. We anticipate that these findings will be a key factor for further yeast engineering to enable industrial production of alkane based drop-in biofuels, which can allow the biofuel industry to diversify beyond bioethanol. PMID:25545362

  20. Metabolomic approach for improving ethanol stress tolerance in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Ohta, Erika; Nakayama, Yasumune; Mukai, Yukio; Bamba, Takeshi; Fukusaki, Eiichiro

    2016-04-01

    The budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is widely used for brewing and ethanol production. The ethanol sensitivity of yeast cells is still a serious problem during ethanol fermentation, and a variety of genetic approaches (e.g., random mutant screening under selective pressure of ethanol) have been developed to improve ethanol tolerance. In this study, we developed a strategy for improving ethanol tolerance of yeast cells based on metabolomics as a high-resolution quantitative phenotypic analysis. We performed gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis to identify and quantify 36 compounds on 14 mutant strains including knockout strains for transcription factor and metabolic enzyme genes. A strong relation between metabolome of these mutants and their ethanol tolerance was observed. Data mining of the metabolomic analysis showed that several compounds (such as trehalose, valine, inositol and proline) contributed highly to ethanol tolerance. Our approach successfully detected well-known ethanol stress related metabolites such as trehalose and proline thus, to further prove our strategy, we focused on valine and inositol as the most promising target metabolites in our study. Our results show that simultaneous deletion of LEU4 and LEU9 (leading to accumulation of valine) or INM1 and INM2 (leading to reduction of inositol) significantly enhanced ethanol tolerance. This study shows the potential of the metabolomic approach to identify target genes for strain improvement of S. cerevisiae with higher ethanol tolerance.

  1. Structure of the Glycosyltransferase Ktr4p from Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Possner, Dominik D. D.; Claesson, Magnus; Guy, Jodie E.

    2015-01-01

    In the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, members of the Kre2/Mnt1 protein family have been shown to be α-1,2-mannosyltransferases or α-1,2-mannosylphosphate transferases, utilising an Mn2+-coordinated GDP-mannose as the sugar donor and a variety of mannose derivatives as acceptors. Enzymes in this family are localised to the Golgi apparatus, and have been shown to be involved in both N- and O-linked glycosylation of newly-synthesised proteins, including cell wall glycoproteins. Our knowledge of the nine proteins in this family is however very incomplete at present. Only one family member, Kre2p/Mnt1p, has been studied by structural methods, and three (Ktr4p, Ktr5p, Ktr7p) are completely uncharacterised and remain classified only as putative glycosyltransferases. Here we use in vitro enzyme activity assays to provide experimental confirmation of the predicted glycosyltransferase activity of Ktr4p. Using GDP-mannose as the donor, we observe activity towards the acceptor methyl-α-mannoside, but little or no activity towards mannose or α-1,2-mannobiose. We also present the structure of the lumenal catalytic domain of S. cerevisiae Ktr4p, determined by X-ray crystallography to a resolution of 2.2 Å, and the complex of the enzyme with GDP to 1.9 Å resolution. PMID:26296208

  2. Data on dynamic study of cytoophidia in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Li, Hui; Huang, Yong; Wang, Peng-Ye; Ye, Fangfu; Liu, Ji-Long

    2016-09-01

    The data in this paper are related to the research article entitled "Filamentation of metabolic enzymes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae" Q.J. Shen et al. (2016) [1]. Cytoophidia are filamentous structures discovered in fruit flies (doi:10.1016/S1673-8527(09)60046-1) J.L. Liu (2010) [2], bacteria (doi:10.1038/ncb2087) M. Ingerson-Mahar et al. (2010) [3], yeast (doi:10.1083/jcb.201003001; doi:10.1242/bio.20149613) C. Noree et al. (2010) and J. Zhang, L. Hulme, J.L. Liu (2014) [4], [5] and human cells (doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0029690; doi:10.1016/j.jgg.2011.08.004) K. Chen et al. (2011) and W.C. Carcamo et al. (2011) ( [6], [7]. However, there is little research on the motility of the cytoophidia. Here we selected cytoophidia formed by 6 filament-forming proteins in the budding yeast S. cerevisiae, and performed living-cell imaging of cells expressing the proteins fused with GFP. The dynamic features of the six types of cytoophidia were analyzed. In the data, both raw movies and analysed results of the dynamics of cytoophidia are presented. PMID:27274529

  3. CRISPR-Cas9 Genome Engineering in Saccharomyces cerevisiae Cells.

    PubMed

    Ryan, Owen W; Poddar, Snigdha; Cate, Jamie H D

    2016-06-01

    This protocol describes a method for CRISPR-Cas9-mediated genome editing that results in scarless and marker-free integrations of DNA into Saccharomyces cerevisiae genomes. DNA integration results from cotransforming (1) a single plasmid (pCAS) that coexpresses the Cas9 endonuclease and a uniquely engineered single guide RNA (sgRNA) expression cassette and (2) a linear DNA molecule that is used to repair the chromosomal DNA damage by homology-directed repair. For target specificity, the pCAS plasmid requires only a single cloning modification: replacing the 20-bp guide RNA sequence within the sgRNA cassette. This CRISPR-Cas9 protocol includes methods for (1) cloning the unique target sequence into pCAS, (2) assembly of the double-stranded DNA repair oligonucleotides, and (3) cotransformation of pCAS and linear repair DNA into yeast cells. The protocol is technically facile and requires no special equipment. It can be used in any S. cerevisiae strain, including industrial polyploid isolates. Therefore, this CRISPR-Cas9-based DNA integration protocol is achievable by virtually any yeast genetics and molecular biology laboratory.

  4. Mead production: selection and characterization assays of Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Ana Paula; Dias, Teresa; Andrade, João; Ramalhosa, Elsa; Estevinho, Letícia M

    2009-08-01

    Mead is a traditional drink, which results from the alcoholic fermentation of diluted honey carried out by yeasts. However, when it is produced in a homemade way, mead producers find several problems, namely, the lack of uniformity in the final product, delayed and arrested fermentations, and the production of "off-flavours" by the yeasts. These problems are usually associated with the inability of yeast strains to respond and adapt to unfavourable and stressful growth conditions. The main objectives of this work were to evaluate the capacity of Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains, isolated from honey of the Trás-os-Montes (Northeast Portugal), to produce mead. Five strains from honey, as well as one laboratory strain and one commercial wine strain, were evaluated in terms of their fermentation performance under ethanol, sulphur dioxide and osmotic stress. All the strains showed similar behaviour in these conditions. Two yeasts strains isolated from honey and the commercial wine strain were further tested for mead production, using two different honey (a dark and a light honey), enriched with two supplements (one commercial and one developed by the research team), as fermentation media. The results obtained in this work show that S. cerevisiae strains isolated from honey, are appropriate for mead production. However it is of extreme importance to take into account the characteristics of the honey, and supplements used in the fermentation medium formulation, in order to achieve the best results in mead production.

  5. Computational models reveal genotype-phenotype associations in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Franco-Duarte, Ricardo; Mendes, Inês; Umek, Lan; Drumonde-Neves, João; Zupan, Blaz; Schuller, Dorit

    2014-07-01

    Genome sequencing is essential to understand individual variation and to study the mechanisms that explain relations between genotype and phenotype. The accumulated knowledge from large-scale genome sequencing projects of Saccharomyces cerevisiae isolates is being used to study the mechanisms that explain such relations. Our objective was to undertake genetic characterization of 172 S. cerevisiae strains from different geographical origins and technological groups, using 11 polymorphic microsatellites, and computationally relate these data with the results of 30 phenotypic tests. Genetic characterization revealed 280 alleles, with the microsatellite ScAAT1 contributing most to intrastrain variability, together with alleles 20, 9 and 16 from the microsatellites ScAAT4, ScAAT5 and ScAAT6. These microsatellite allelic profiles are characteristic for both the phenotype and origin of yeast strains. We confirm the strength of these associations by construction and cross-validation of computational models that can predict the technological application and origin of a strain from the microsatellite allelic profile. Associations between microsatellites and specific phenotypes were scored using information gain ratios, and significant findings were confirmed by permutation tests and estimation of false discovery rates. The phenotypes associated with higher number of alleles were the capacity to resist to sulphur dioxide (tested by the capacity to grow in the presence of potassium bisulphite) and the presence of galactosidase activity. Our study demonstrates the utility of computational modelling to estimate a strain technological group and phenotype from microsatellite allelic combinations as tools for preliminary yeast strain selection.

  6. Genome-Wide Screen for Inner Nuclear Membrane Protein Targeting in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Murthi, Athulaprabha; Hopper, Anita K.

    2005-01-01

    Appropriate nuclear membrane structure is important for all eukaryotic organisms as evidenced by the numerous human diseases and alterations in gene expression caused by inappropriate targeting of proteins to the inner nuclear membrane (INM). We report here the first genome-wide screen to identify proteins functioning in INM targeting. We transformed to near completion the 4850 members of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae deletion collection of unessential genes in the 96-well format with a plasmid encoding a reporter protein, Trm1-II-GFP, which normally resides at the INM. We found that deletion of genes encoding subunits of the N-terminal acetyltransferase, NatC, cause mislocation of Trm1-II-GFP from the INM to the nucleoplasm. Mass spectroscopic analysis indicates that Trm1-II-GFP is N-acetylated. N-terminal mutations of Trm1-II-GFP predicted to ablate N-acetylation cause nucleoplasmic location, whereas a variant with an N-terminal alteration predicted to allow N-acetylation by NatC is located at the INM, providing genetic support that Trm1p-II N-acetylation is necessary for its subnuclear INM location. However, because N-acetylation appears not to be sufficient for INM targeting, it may provide a necessary role for INM targeting by affecting Trm1-II-GFP structure and exposure of cis-acting INM targeting motifs. We also discovered that YIL090W/Ice2p, an integral membrane protein located in the endoplasmic reticulum, is necessary for efficient targeting of Trm1-II-GFP to the INM. YIL090W/Ice2p may serve as a tether for INM proteins or as a regulator of INM tethers. Our methodology can be extrapolated to obtain genome-wide perspectives of mechanisms necessary to achieve appropriate subcellular and/or suborganellar location for any resident protein. PMID:15911569

  7. The Saccharomyces cerevisiae PUT3 activator protein associates with proline-specific upstream activation sequences.

    PubMed Central

    Siddiqui, A H; Brandriss, M C

    1989-01-01

    The PUT1 and PUT2 genes encoding the enzymes of the proline utilization pathway of Saccharomyces cerevisiae are induced by proline and activated by the product of the PUT3 gene. Two upstream activation sequences (UASs) in the PUT1 promoter were identified by homology to the PUT2 UAS. Deletion analysis of the two PUT1 UASs showed that they were functionally independent and additive in producing maximal levels of gene expression. The consensus PUT UAS is a 21-base-pair partially palindromic sequence required in vivo for induction of both genes. The results of a gel mobility shift assay demonstrated that the proline-specific UAS is the binding site of a protein factor. In vitro complex formation was observed in crude extracts of yeast strains carrying either a single genomic copy of the PUT3 gene or the cloned PUT3 gene on a 2 microns plasmid, and the binding was dosage dependent. DNA-binding activity was not observed in extracts of strains carrying either a put3 mutation that caused a noninducible (Put-) phenotype or a deletion of the gene. Wild-type levels of complex formation were observed in an extract of a strain carrying an allele of PUT3 that resulted in a constitutive (Put+) phenotype. Extracts from a strain carrying a PUT3-lacZ gene fusion formed two complexes of slower mobility than the wild-type complex. We conclude that the PUT3 product is either a DNA-binding protein or part of a DNA-binding complex that recognizes the UASs of both PUT1 and PUT2. Binding was observed in extracts of a strain grown in the presence or absence of proline, demonstrating the constitutive nature of the DNA-protein interaction. Images PMID:2689862

  8. The minimal transactivation region of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Gln3p is localized to 13 amino acids.

    PubMed Central

    Svetlov, V; Cooper, T G

    1997-01-01

    Regulated nitrogen catabolic gene transcription in Saccharomyces cerevisiae is mediated by four positive (Gln3p and Gat1p/Nil1p) and negative (Dal80p/Uga43p and Deh1p/Nil2p/GZF3p) regulators which function in opposition to one another. All four proteins contain GATA-type zinc finger domains, and three of them (Gln3p, Dal80p, and Deh1p) have been shown to bind to GATA sequences situated upstream of genes whose expression is sensitive to nitrogen catabolite repression (NCR). The positive regulators, Gln3p and Gat1p, are able to support transcriptional activation when tethered by LexAp to the promoter of a reporter gene whose upstream activation sequences have been replaced with one or more lexA operator sites. Existing data suggest that these four proteins regulate transcription by competing with one another for binding to the GATA sequences which mediate NCR-sensitive gene expression. We show that the minimal Gln3p domain mediating transcriptional activation consists of 13 amino acids with a predicted propensity to form an alpha-helix. Genetic analysis of this region (Gln3p residues 126 to 138, QQNGEIAQLWDFN) demonstrated that alanine may be substituted for the aromatic and acidic amino acids without destroying transcriptional activation potential. Similar substitution of alanine for the two hydrophobic amino acids, isoleucine and leucine, however, destroys activation, as does introduction of basic amino acids in place of the acidic residues or introduction of proline into the center of the sequence. A point mutation in the Gln3p activation region destroys its in vivo ability to support NCR-sensitive DAL5 expression. We find no convincing evidence that NCR regulates Gln3p function by modulating the functioning of its activation region. PMID:9401021

  9. Functional Implications and Ubiquitin-Dependent Degradation of the Peptide Transporter Ptr2 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Kawai, Ken; Moriya, Atsuto; Uemura, Satoshi

    2014-01-01

    The peptide transporter Ptr2 plays a central role in di- or tripeptide import in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Although PTR2 transcription has been extensively analyzed in terms of upregulation by the Ubr1-Cup9 circuit, the structural and functional information for this transporter is limited. Here we identified 14 amino acid residues required for peptide import through Ptr2 based on the crystallographic information of Streptococcus thermophilus peptide transporter PepTst and based on the conservation of primary sequences among the proton-dependent oligopeptide transporters (POTs). Expression of Ptr2 carrying one of the 14 mutations of which the corresponding residues of PepTst are involved in peptide recognition, salt bridge interaction, or peptide translocation failed to enable ptr2Δtrp1 cell growth in alanyl-tryptophan (Ala-Trp) medium. We observed that Ptr2 underwent rapid degradation after cycloheximide treatment (half-life, approximately 1 h), and this degradation depended on Rsp5 ubiquitin ligase. The ubiquitination of Ptr2 most likely occurs at the N-terminal lysines 16, 27, and 34. Simultaneous substitution of arginine for the three lysines fully prevented Ptr2 degradation. Ptr2 mutants of the presumed peptide-binding site (E92Q, R93K, K205R, W362L, and E480D) exhibited severe defects in peptide import and were subjected to Rsp5-dependent degradation when cells were moved to Ala-Trp medium, whereas, similar to what occurs in the wild-type Ptr2, mutant proteins of the intracellular gate were upregulated. These results suggest that Ptr2 undergoes quality control and the defects in peptide binding and the concomitant conformational change render Ptr2 subject to efficient ubiquitination and subsequent degradation. PMID:25172766

  10. Identification of a new ribose methylation in the 18S rRNA of S. cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Jun; Sharma, Sunny; Kötter, Peter; Entian, Karl-Dieter

    2015-01-01

    Methylation of ribose sugars at the 2′-OH group is one of the major chemical modifications in rRNA, and is catalyzed by snoRNA directed C/D box snoRNPs. Previous biochemical and computational analyses of the C/D box snoRNAs have identified and mapped a large number of 2′-OH ribose methylations in rRNAs. In the present study, we systematically analyzed ribose methylations of 18S rRNA in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, using mung bean nuclease protection assay and RP-HPLC. Unexpectedly, we identified a hitherto unknown ribose methylation at position G562 in the helix 18 of 5′ central domain of yeast 18S rRNA. Furthermore, we identified snR40 as being responsible to guide snoRNP complex to catalyze G562 ribose methylation, which makes it only second snoRNA known so far to target three ribose methylation sites: Gm562, Gm1271 in 18S rRNA, and Um898 in 25S rRNA. Our sequence and mutational analysis of snR40 revealed that snR40 uses the same D′ box and methylation guide sequence for both Gm562 and Gm1271 methylation. With the identification of Gm562 and its corresponding snoRNA, complete set of ribose methylations of 18S rRNA and their corresponding snoRNAs have finally been established opening great prospects to understand the physiological function of these modifications. PMID:25653162

  11. Adjustment of Trehalose Metabolism in Wine Saccharomyces cerevisiae Strains To Modify Ethanol Yields

    PubMed Central

    Rossouw, D.; Heyns, E. H.; Setati, M. E.; Bosch, S.

    2013-01-01

    The ability of Saccharomyces cerevisiae to efficiently produce high levels of ethanol through glycolysis has been the focus of much scientific and industrial activity. Despite the accumulated knowledge regarding glycolysis, the modification of flux through this pathway to modify ethanol yields has proved difficult. Here, we report on the systematic screening of 66 strains with deletion mutations of genes encoding enzymes involved in central carbohydrate metabolism for altered ethanol yields. Five of these strains showing the most prominent changes in carbon flux were selected for further investigation. The genes were representative of trehalose biosynthesis (TPS1, encoding trehalose-6-phosphate synthase), central glycolysis (TDH3, encoding glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase), the oxidative pentose phosphate pathway (ZWF1, encoding glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase), and the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle (ACO1 and ACO2, encoding aconitase isoforms 1 and 2). Two strains exhibited lower ethanol yields than the wild type (tps1Δ and tdh3Δ), while the remaining three showed higher ethanol yields. To validate these findings in an industrial yeast strain, the TPS1 gene was selected as a good candidate for genetic modification to alter flux to ethanol during alcoholic fermentation in wine. Using low-strength promoters active at different stages of fermentation, the expression of the TPS1 gene was slightly upregulated, resulting in a decrease in ethanol production and an increase in trehalose biosynthesis during fermentation. Thus, the mutant screening approach was successful in terms of identifying target genes for genetic modification in commercial yeast strains with the aim of producing lower-ethanol wines. PMID:23793638

  12. Multiple Roles of the Cox20 Chaperone in Assembly of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Cytochrome c Oxidase

    PubMed Central

    Elliott, Leah E.; Saracco, Scott A.; Fox, Thomas D.

    2012-01-01

    The Cox2 subunit of Saccharomyces cerevisiae cytochrome c oxidase is synthesized in the mitochondrial matrix as a precursor whose leader peptide is rapidly processed by the inner membrane protease following translocation to the intermembrane space. Processing is chaperoned by Cox20, an integral inner membrane protein whose hydrophilic domains are located in the intermembrane space, and Cox20 remains associated with mature, unassembled Cox2. The Cox2 C-tail domain is exported post-translationally by the highly conserved translocase Cox18 and associated proteins. We have found that Cox20 is required for efficient export of the Cox2 C-tail. Furthermore, Cox20 interacts by co-immune precipitation with Cox18, and this interaction requires the presence of Cox2. We therefore propose that Cox20 binding to Cox2 on the trans side of the inner membrane accelerates dissociation of newly exported Cox2 from the Cox18 translocase, promoting efficient cycling of the translocase. The requirement for Cox20 in cytochrome c oxidase assembly and respiratory growth is partially bypassed by yme1, mgr1 or mgr3 mutations, each of which reduce i-AAA protease activity in the intermembrane space. Thus, Cox20 also appears to stabilize unassembled Cox2 against degradation by the i-AAA protease. Pre-Cox2 leader peptide processing by Imp1 occurs in the absence of Cox20 and i-AAA protease activity, but is greatly reduced in efficiency. Under these conditions some mature Cox2 is assembled into cytochrome c oxidase allowing weak respiratory growth. Thus, the Cox20 chaperone has important roles in leader peptide processing, C-tail export, and stabilization of Cox2. PMID:22095077

  13. Affinity Purification and Characterization of a G-Protein Coupled Receptor, Saccharomyces cerevisiae Ste2p

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Byung-Kwon; Jung, Kyung-Sik; Son, Cagdas D; Kim, Heejung; Verberkmoes, Nathan C; Arshava, Boris; Naider, Fred; Becker, Jeffrey Marvin

    2007-01-01

    We present a rare example of a biologically active G protein coupled receptor (GPCR) whose purity and identity were verified by mass spectrometry after being purified to near homogeneity from its native system. An overexpression vector was constructed to encode the Saccharomyces cerevisiae GPCR -factor receptor (Ste2p, the STE2 gene product) containing a 9-amino acid sequence of rhodopsin that served as an epitope/affinity tag. In the construct, two glycosylation sites and two cysteine residues were removed to aid future structural and functional studies. The receptor was expressed in yeast cells and was detected as a single band in a western blot indicating the absence of glycosylation. Tests of the epitope-tagged, mutated receptor showed it maintained its full biological activity. For extraction of Ste2p, yeast membranes were solubilized with 0.5 % n-dodecyl maltoside (DM). Approximately 120 g of purified -factor receptor was obtained per liter of culture by single-step affinity chromatography using a monoclonal antibody to the rhodopsin epitope. The binding affinity (Kd) of the purified -factor receptor in DM micelles was 28 nM as compared to Kd = 12.7 nM for Ste2p in cell membranes, and approximately 40 % of the purified receptor was correctly folded as judged by ligand saturation binding. About 50 % of the receptor sequence was retrieved from MALDITOF and nanospray mass spectrometry after CNBr digestion of the purified receptor. The methods described will enable structural studies of the -factor receptor and may provide an efficient technique to purify other GPCRs that have been functionally expressed in yeast.

  14. Inhibiting K63 Polyubiquitination Abolishes No-Go Type Stalled Translation Surveillance in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Saito, Kazuki; Horikawa, Wataru; Ito, Koichi

    2015-01-01

    Incidental ribosome stalling during translation elongation is an aberrant phenomenon during protein synthesis and is subjected to quality control by surveillance systems, in which mRNA and a nascent protein are rapidly degraded. Their detailed molecular mechanisms as well as responsible factors for these processes are beginning to be understood. However, the initial processes for detecting stalled translation that result in degradation remain to be determined. Among the factors identified to date, two E3 ubiquitin ligases have been reported to function in distinct manners. Because ubiquitination is one of the most versatile of cellular signals, these distinct functions of E3 ligases suggested diverse ubiquitination pathways during surveillance for stalled translation. In this study, we report experimental evidences for a unique role of non-proteasomal K63 polyubiquitination during quality control for stalled translation. Inhibiting K63 polyubiquitination by expressing a K63R ubiquitin mutation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells markedly abolished the quality control responses for stalled translation. More detailed analyses indicated that the effects of K63R mutants were independent of the proteasome and that K63 polyubiquitination is dependent on Hel2, one of the E3 ligases. Moreover, a K63R ubiquitin mutant barely inhibited the quality control pathway for nonstop translation, indicating distinct mechanisms for these highly related quality control pathways. Our results suggest that non-proteasomal K63 polyubiquitination is included in the initial surveillance process of stalled translation and presumably triggers protein degradation steps upon translational stall. These findings provide crucial information regarding the detailed molecular mechanisms for the initial steps involved in quality control systems and their classification. PMID:25909477

  15. The function of chitin synthases 2 and 3 in the Saccharomyces cerevisiae cell cycle

    PubMed Central

    1991-01-01

    The morphology of three Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains, all lacking chitin synthase 1 (Chs1) and two of them deficient in either Chs3 (calR1 mutation) or Chs2 was observed by light and electron microscopy. Cells deficient in Chs2 showed clumpy growth and aberrant shape and size. Their septa were very thick; the primary septum was absent. Staining with WGA-gold complexes revealed a diffuse distribution of chitin in the septum, whereas chitin was normally located at the neck between mother cell and bud and in the wall of mother cells. Strains deficient in Chs3 exhibited minor abnormalities in budding pattern and shape. Their septa were thin and trilaminar. Staining for chitin revealed a thin line of the polysaccharide along the primary septum; no chitin was present elsewhere in the wall. Therefore, Chs2 is specific for primary septum formation, whereas Chs3 is responsible for chitin in the ring at bud emergence and in the cell wall. Chs3 is also required for chitin synthesized in the presence of alpha-pheromone or deposited in the cell wall of cdc mutants at nonpermissive temperature, and for chitosan in spore walls. Genetic evidence indicated that a mutant lacking all three chitin synthases was inviable; this was confirmed by constructing a triple mutant rescued by a plasmid carrying a CHS2 gene under control of a GAL1 promoter. Transfer of the mutant from galactose to glucose resulted in cell division arrest followed by cell death. We conclude that some chitin synthesis is essential for viability of yeast cells. PMID:2050738

  16. Actin and myosin function in directed vacuole movement during cell division in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    1996-01-01

    During cell division, cytoplasmic organelles are not synthesized de novo, rather they are replicated and partitioned between daughter cells. Partitioning of the vacuole in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is coordinated with the cell cycle and involves a dramatic translocation of a portion of the parental organelle from the mother cell into the bud. While the molecular mechanisms that mediate this event are unknown, the vacuole's rapid and directed movements suggest cytoskeleton involvement. To identify cytoskeletal components that function in this process, vacuole inheritance was examined in a collection of actin mutants. Six strains were identified as being defective in vacuole inheritance. Tetrad analysis verified that the defect cosegregates with the mutant actin gene. One strain with a deletion in a myosin-binding region was analyzed further. The vacuole inheritance defect in this strain appears to result from the loss of a specific actin function; the actin cytoskeleton is intact and protein targeting to the vacuole is normal. Consistent with these findings, a mutation in the actin-binding domain of Myo2p, a class V unconventional myosin, abolishes vacuole inheritance. This suggests that Myo2p serves as a molecular motor for vacuole transport along actin filaments. The location of actin and Myo2p relative to the vacuole membrane is consistent with this model. Additional studies suggest that the actin filaments used for vacuole transport are dynamic, and that profilin plays a critical role in regulating their assembly. These results present the first demonstration that specific cytoskeletal proteins function in vacuole inheritance. PMID:8978821

  17. Insights into the Biosynthesis of 12-Membered Resorcylic Acid Lactones from Heterologous Production in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The phytotoxic fungal polyketides lasiodiplodin and resorcylide inhibit human blood coagulation factor XIIIa, mineralocorticoid receptors, and prostaglandin biosynthesis. These secondary metabolites belong to the 12-membered resorcylic acid lactone (RAL12) subclass of the benzenediol lactone (BDL) family. Identification of genomic loci for the biosynthesis of lasiodiplodin from Lasiodiplodia theobromae and resorcylide from Acremonium zeae revealed collaborating iterative polyketide synthase (iPKS) pairs whose efficient heterologous expression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae provided a convenient access to the RAL12 scaffolds desmethyl-lasiodiplodin and trans-resorcylide, respectively. Lasiodiplodin production was reconstituted in the heterologous host by co-expressing an O-methyltransferase also encoded in the lasiodiplodin cluster, while a glutathione-S-transferase was found not to be necessary for heterologous production. Clarification of the biogenesis of known resorcylide congeners in the heterologous host helped to disentangle the roles that biosynthetic irregularities and chemical interconversions play in generating chemical diversity. Observation of 14-membered RAL homologues during in vivo heterologous biosynthesis of RAL12 metabolites revealed “stuttering” by fungal iPKSs. The close global and domain-level sequence similarities of the orthologous BDL synthases across different structural subclasses implicate repeated horizontal gene transfers and/or cluster losses in different fungal lineages. The absence of straightforward correlations between enzyme sequences and product structural features (the size of the macrocycle, the conformation of the exocyclic methyl group, or the extent of reduction by the hrPKS) suggest that BDL structural variety is the result of a select few mutations in key active site cavity positions. PMID:24597618

  18. Insights into the biosynthesis of 12-membered resorcylic acid lactones from heterologous production in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yuquan; Zhou, Tong; Espinosa-Artiles, Patricia; Tang, Ying; Zhan, Jixun; Molnár, István

    2014-05-16

    The phytotoxic fungal polyketides lasiodiplodin and resorcylide inhibit human blood coagulation factor XIIIa, mineralocorticoid receptors, and prostaglandin biosynthesis. These secondary metabolites belong to the 12-membered resorcylic acid lactone (RAL12) subclass of the benzenediol lactone (BDL) family. Identification of genomic loci for the biosynthesis of lasiodiplodin from Lasiodiplodia theobromae and resorcylide from Acremonium zeae revealed collaborating iterative polyketide synthase (iPKS) pairs whose efficient heterologous expression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae provided a convenient access to the RAL12 scaffolds desmethyl-lasiodiplodin and trans-resorcylide, respectively. Lasiodiplodin production was reconstituted in the heterologous host by co-expressing an O-methyltransferase also encoded in the lasiodiplodin cluster, while a glutathione-S-transferase was found not to be necessary for heterologous production. Clarification of the biogenesis of known resorcylide congeners in the heterologous host helped to disentangle the roles that biosynthetic irregularities and chemical interconversions play in generating chemical diversity. Observation of 14-membered RAL homologues during in vivo heterologous biosynthesis of RAL12 metabolites revealed "stuttering" by fungal iPKSs. The close global and domain-level sequence similarities of the orthologous BDL synthases across different structural subclasses implicate repeated horizontal gene transfers and/or cluster losses in different fungal lineages. The absence of straightforward correlations between enzyme sequences and product structural features (the size of the macrocycle, the conformation of the exocyclic methyl group, or the extent of reduction by the hrPKS) suggest that BDL structural variety is the result of a select few mutations in key active site cavity positions. PMID:24597618

  19. Fumaric Acid Production in Saccharomyces cerevisiae by In Silico Aided Metabolic Engineering

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Guoqiang; Zou, Wei; Chen, Xiulai; Xu, Nan; Liu, Liming; Chen, Jian

    2012-01-01

    Fumaric acid (FA) is a promising biomass-derived building-block chemical. Bio-based FA production from renewable feedstock is a promising and sustainable alternative to petroleum-based chemical synthesis. Here we report on FA production by direct fermentation using metabolically engineered Saccharomyces cerevisiae with the aid of in silico analysis of a genome-scale metabolic model. First, FUM1 was selected as the target gene on the basis of extensive literature mining. Flux balance analysis (FBA) revealed that FUM1 deletion can lead to FA production and slightly lower growth of S. cerevisiae. The engineered S. cerevisiae strain obtained by deleting FUM1 can produce FA up to a concentration of 610±31 mg L–1 without any apparent change in growth in fed-batch culture. FT-IR and 1H and 13C NMR spectra confirmed that FA was synthesized by the engineered S. cerevisiae strain. FBA identified pyruvate carboxylase as one of the factors limiting higher FA production. When the RoPYC gene was introduced, S. cerevisiae produced 1134±48 mg L–1 FA. Furthermore, the final engineered S. cerevisiae strain was able to produce 1675±52 mg L–1 FA in batch culture when the SFC1 gene encoding a succinate–fumarate transporter was introduced. These results demonstrate that the model shows great predictive capability for metabolic engineering. Moreover, FA production in S. cerevisiae can be efficiently developed with the aid of in silico metabolic engineering. PMID:23300594

  20. Sex and deleterious mutations.

    PubMed

    Gordo, Isabel; Campos, Paulo R A

    2008-05-01

    The evolutionary advantage of sexual reproduction has been considered as one of the most pressing questions in evolutionary biology. While a pluralistic view of the evolution of sex and recombination has been suggested by some, here we take a simpler view and try to quantify the conditions under which sex can evolve given a set of minimal assumptions. Since real populations are finite and also subject to recurrent deleterious mutations, this minimal model should apply generally to all populations. We show that the maximum advantage of recombination occurs for an intermediate value of the deleterious effect of mutations. Furthermore we show that the conditions under which the biggest advantage of sex is achieved are those that produce the fastest fitness decline in the corresponding asexual population and are therefore the conditions for which Muller's ratchet has the strongest effect. We also show that the selective advantage of a modifier of the recombination rate depends on its strength. The quantification of the range of selective effects that favors recombination then leads us to suggest that, if in stressful environments the effect of deleterious mutations is enhanced, a connection between sex and stress could be expected, as it is found in several species.

  1. Mutator and MULE Transposons.

    PubMed

    Lisch, Damon

    2015-04-01

    The Mutator system of transposable elements (TEs) is a highly mutagenic family of transposons in maize. Because they transpose at high rates and target genic regions, these transposons can rapidly generate large numbers of new mutants, which has made the Mutator system a favored tool for both forward and reverse mutagenesis in maize. Low copy number versions of this system have also proved to be excellent models for understanding the regulation and behavior of Class II transposons in plants. Notably, the availability of a naturally occurring locus that can heritably silence autonomous Mutator elements has provided insights into the means by which otherwise active transposons are recognized and silenced. This chapter will provide a review of the biology, regulation, evolution and uses of this remarkable transposon system, with an emphasis on recent developments in our understanding of the ways in which this TE system is recognized and epigenetically silenced as well as recent evidence that Mu-like elements (MULEs) have had a significant impact on the evolution of plant genomes.

  2. OXPHOS mutations and neurodegeneration

    PubMed Central

    Koopman, Werner J H; Distelmaier, Felix; Smeitink, Jan AM; Willems, Peter HGM

    2013-01-01

    Mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) sustains organelle function and plays a central role in cellular energy metabolism. The OXPHOS system consists of 5 multisubunit complexes (CI–CV) that are built up of 92 different structural proteins encoded by the nuclear (nDNA) and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA). Biogenesis of a functional OXPHOS system further requires the assistance of nDNA-encoded OXPHOS assembly factors, of which 35 are currently identified. In humans, mutations in both structural and assembly genes and in genes involved in mtDNA maintenance, replication, transcription, and translation induce ‘primary' OXPHOS disorders that are associated with neurodegenerative diseases including Leigh syndrome (LS), which is probably the most classical OXPHOS disease during early childhood. Here, we present the current insights regarding function, biogenesis, regulation, and supramolecular architecture of the OXPHOS system, as well as its genetic origin. Next, we provide an inventory of OXPHOS structural and assembly genes which, when mutated, induce human neurodegenerative disorders. Finally, we discuss the consequences of mutations in OXPHOS structural and assembly genes at the single cell level and how this information has advanced our understanding of the role of OXPHOS dysfunction in neurodegeneration. PMID:23149385

  3. Inactivation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae suspended in orange juice using high-intensity pulsed electric fields.

    PubMed

    Elez-Martínez, Pedro; Escolà-Hernández, Joan; Soliva-Fortuny, Robert C; Martín-Belloso, Olga

    2004-11-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae is often associated with the spoilage of fruit juices. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of high-intensity pulsed electric field (HIPEF) treatment on the survival of S. cerevisiae suspended in orange juice. Commercial heat-sterilized orange juice was inoculated with S. cerevisiae (CECT 1319) (10(8) CFU/ml) and then treated by HIPEFs. The effects of HIPEF parameters (electric field strength, treatment time, pulse polarity, frequency, and pulse width) were evaluated and compared to those of heat pasteurization (90 degrees C/min). In all of the HIPEF experiments, the temperature was kept below 39 degrees C. S. cerevisiae cell damage induced by HIPEF treatment was observed by electron microscopy. HIPEF treatment was effective for the inactivation of S. cerevisiae in orange juice at pasteurization levels. A maximum inactivation of a 5.1-log (CFU per milliliter) reduction was achieved after exposure of S. cerevisiae to HIPEFs for 1,000 micros (4-micros pulse width) at 35 kV/cm and 200 Hz in bipolar mode. Inactivation increased as both the field strength and treatment time increased. For the same electric field strength and treatment time, inactivation decreased when the frequency and pulse width were increased. Electric pulses applied in the bipolar mode were more effective than those in the monopolar mode for destroying S. cerevisiae. HIPEF processing inactivated S. cerevisiae in orange juice, and the extent of inactivation was similar to that obtained during thermal pasteurization. HIPEF treatments caused membrane damage and had a profound effect on the intracellular organization of S. cerevisiae.

  4. Molecular and genetic analysis of the gene encoding the Saccharomyces cerevisiae strand exchange protein Sep1.

    PubMed

    Tishkoff, D X; Johnson, A W; Kolodner, R D

    1991-05-01

    Vegetatively grown Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells contain an activity that promotes a number of homologous pairing reactions. A major portion of this activity is due to strand exchange protein 1 (Sep1), which was originally purified as a 132,000-Mr species (R. Kolodner, D. H. Evans, and P. T. Morrison, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 84:5560-5564, 1987). The gene encoding Sep1 was cloned, and analysis of the cloned gene revealed a 4,587-bp open reading frame capable of encoding a 175,000-Mr protein. The protein encoded by this open reading frame was overproduced and purified and had a relative molecular weight of approximately 160,000. The 160,000-Mr protein was at least as active in promoting homologous pairing as the original 132,000-Mr species, which has been shown to be a fragment of the intact 160,000-Mr Sep1 protein. The SEP1 gene mapped to chromosome VII within 20 kbp of RAD54. Three Tn10LUK insertion mutations in the SEP1 gene were characterized. sep1 mutants grew more slowly than wild-type cells, showed a two- to fivefold decrease in the rate of spontaneous mitotic recombination between his4 heteroalleles, and were delayed in their ability to return to growth after UV or gamma irradiation. Sporulation of sep1/sep1 diploids was defective, as indicated by both a 10- to 40-fold reduction in spore formation and reduced spore viability of approximately 50%. The majority of sep1/sep1 diploid cells arrested in meiosis after commitment to recombination but prior to the meiosis I cell division. Return-to-growth experiments showed that sep1/sep1 his4X/his4B diploids exhibited a five- to sixfold greater meiotic induction of His+ recombinants than did isogenic SEP1/SEP1 strains. sep1/sep1 mutants also showed an increased frequency of exchange between HIS4, LEU2, and MAT and a lack of positive interference between these markers compared with wild-type controls. The interaction between sep1, rad50, and spo13 mutations suggested that SEP1 acts in meiosis in a pathway that is

  5. The Schizosaccharomyces pombe rhp3+ gene required for DNA repair and cell viability is functionally interchangeable with the RAD3 gene of Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed Central

    Reynolds, P R; Biggar, S; Prakash, L; Prakash, S

    1992-01-01

    The RAD3 gene of Saccharomyces cerevisiae is required for excision repair and is essential for cell viability. RAD3 encoded protein possesses a single stranded DNA-dependent ATPase and DNA and DNA.RNA helicase activities. Mutational studies have indicated a requirement for the RAD3 helicase activities in excision repair. To examine the extent of conservation of structure and function of RAD3 during eukaryotic evolution, we have cloned the RAD3 homolog, rhp3+, from the distantly related yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe. RAD3 and rhp3+ encoded proteins are highly similar, sharing 67% identical amino acids. We show that like RAD3, rhp3+ is indispensable for excision repair and cell viability, and our studies indicate a requirement of the putative rhp3+ DNA helicase activity in DNA repair. We find that the RAD3 and rhp3+ genes can functionally substitute for one another. The level of complementation provided by the rhp3+ gene in S.cerevisiae rad3 mutants or by the RAD3 gene in S.pombe rhp3 mutants is remarkable in that both the excision repair and viability defects in both yeasts are restored to wild type levels. These observations suggest a parallel evolutionary conservation of other protein components with which RAD3 interacts in mediating its DNA repair and viability functions. Images PMID:1534406

  6. Evolutionary conservation of excision repair in Schizosaccharomyces pombe: evidence for a family of sequences related to the Saccharomyces cerevisiae RAD2 gene.

    PubMed Central

    Carr, A M; Sheldrick, K S; Murray, J M; al-Harithy, R; Watts, F Z; Lehmann, A R

    1993-01-01

    Cells mutated at the rad13 locus in the fission yeast, Schizosaccharomyces pombe are deficient in excision-repair of UV damage. We have cloned the S.pombe rad13 gene by its ability to complement the UV sensitivity of a rad13 mutant. The gene is not essential for cell proliferation. Sequence analysis of the cloned gene revealed an open reading-frame of 1113 amino acids with structural homology to the RAD2 gene of the distantly related Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The sequence similarity is confined to three domains, two close to the N-terminus of the encoded protein, the third being close to the C-terminus. The central region of about 500 amino acids shows little similarity between the two organisms. The first and third domains are also found in a related yet distinct pair of homologous S.pombe/S.cerevisiae DNA repair genes (rad2/YKL510), which have only a very short region between these two conserved domains. Using the polymerase chain reaction with degenerate primers, we have isolated fragments from a gene homologous to rad13/RAD2 from Aspergillus nidulans. These findings define new functional domains involved in excision-repair, as well as identifying a conserved family of genes related to RAD2. Images PMID:8464724

  7. The C-terminal domain of the largest subunit of RNA polymerase II of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Drosophila melanogaster, and mammals: A conserved structure with an essential function

    SciTech Connect

    Allison, L.A.; Wong, J.K.C.; Fitzpatrick, V.D.; Moyle, M.; Ingles, C.J.

    1988-01-01

    Using DNA encoding the largest subunit of Drosophila melanogaster RNA polymerase II, the authors isolated the homologous hamster RPO21 gene. Nucleotide sequencing of both the hamster and D. melanogaster RPO21 DNAs confirmed that the RPO21 polypeptides of these two species, like the Saccharomyces cerevisiae RPO21 polypeptide, contain both an N-terminal region homologous to the Escherichia coli RNA polymerase subunit ..beta..' and a unique polymerase II-specific C-terminal domain. This C-terminal domain, encoded by separate exons in the D. melanogaster and hamster genes, consists of a tandemly repeated heptapeptide sequence. By constructing a series of deletions in DNA encoding the 26 heptapeptide repeats normally present in the S. cerevisiae RPO21 polypeptide, the authors have established that a minimum of between 9 and 11 repeats is necessary for RPO21 function in yeast cells. Replacement of the yeast RPO21 heptapeptide repeats by the longer hamster repetitive domain resulted in viable yeast cells with no detectable mutant phenotype, while a similar replacement of the yeast repeats by the more divergent D. melanogaster repeats was a recessive lethal mutation. The authors suggest that this novel repetitive domain is essential for proper initiation of transcription by RNA polymerase II and that it may mediate the functions of TATA boxes, upstream activating sequences, and enhancers.

  8. Coupling Unbiased Mutagenesis to High-throughput DNA Sequencing Uncovers Functional Domains in the Ndc80 Kinetochore Protein of Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Tien, Jerry F.; Fong, Kimberly K.; Umbreit, Neil T.; Payen, Celia; Zelter, Alex; Asbury, Charles L.; Dunham, Maitreya J.; Davis, Trisha N.

    2013-01-01

    During mitosis, kinetochores physically link chromosomes to the dynamic ends of spindle microtubules. This linkage depends on the Ndc80 complex, a conserved and essential microtubule-binding component of the kinetochore. As a member of the complex, the Ndc80 protein forms microtubule attachments through a calponin homology domain. Ndc80 is also required for recruiting other components to the kinetochore and responding to mitotic regulatory signals. While the calponin homology domain has been the focus of biochemical and structural characterization, the function of the remainder of Ndc80 is poorly understood. Here, we utilized a new approach that couples high-throughput sequencing to a saturating linker-scanning mutagenesis screen in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We identified domains in previously uncharacterized regions of Ndc80 that are essential for its function in vivo. We show that a helical hairpin adjacent to the calponin homology domain influences microtubule binding by the complex. Furthermore, a mutation in this hairpin abolishes the ability of the Dam1 complex to strengthen microtubule attachments made by the Ndc80 complex. Finally, we defined a C-terminal segment of Ndc80 required for tetramerization of the Ndc80 complex in vivo. This unbiased mutagenesis approach can be generally applied to genes in S. cerevisiae to identify functional properties and domains. PMID:23833183

  9. Differential Flo8p-dependent regulation of FLO1 and FLO11 for cell-cell and cell-substrate adherence of S. cerevisiae S288c.

    PubMed

    Fichtner, Lars; Schulze, Florian; Braus, Gerhard H

    2007-12-01

    Cell-cell and cell-surface adherence represents initial steps in forming multicellular aggregates or in establishing cell-surface interactions. The commonly used Saccharomyces cerevisiae laboratory strain S288c carries a flo8 mutation, and is only able to express the flocculin-encoding genes FLO1 and FLO11, when FLO8 is restored. We show here that the two flocculin genes exhibit differences in regulation to execute distinct functions under various environmental conditions. In contrast to the laboratory strain Sigma1278b, haploids of the S288c genetic background require FLO1 for cell-cell and cell-substrate adhesion, whereas FLO11 is required for pseudohyphae formation of diploids. In contrast to FLO11, FLO1 repression requires the Sin4p mediator tail component, but is independent of the repressor Sfl1p. FLO1 regulation also differs from FLO11, because it requires neither the KSS1 MAP kinase cascade nor the pathways which lead to the transcription factors Gcn4p or Msn1p. The protein kinase A pathway and the transcription factors Flo8p and Mss11p are the major regulators for FLO1 expression. Therefore, S. cerevisiae is prepared to simultaneously express two genes of its otherwise silenced FLO reservoir resulting in an appropriate cellular surface for different environments. PMID:18001350

  10. The Dysferlin Domain-Only Protein, Spo73, Is Required for Prospore Membrane Extension in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Okumura, Yuuya; Nakamura, Tsuyoshi S; Tanaka, Takayuki; Inoue, Ichiro; Suda, Yasuyuki; Takahashi, Tetsuo; Nakanishi, Hideki; Nakamura, Shugo; Gao, Xiao-Dong; Tachikawa, Hiroyuki

    2016-01-01

    Sporulation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a developmental process in which an ascus containing four haploid spores forms from a diploid cell. During this process, newly formed membrane structures called prospore membranes extend along the nuclear envelope and engulf and package daughter nuclei along with cytosol and organelles to form precursors of spores. Proteins involved in prospore membrane extension, Vps13 and Spo71, have recently been reported; however, the overall mechanism of membrane extension remains unclear. Here, we identified Spo73 as an additional factor involved in prospore membrane extension. Analysis of a spo73∆ mutant revealed that it shows defects similar to those of a spo71∆ mutant during prospore membrane formation. Spo73 localizes to the prospore membrane, and this localization is independent of Spo71 and Vps13. In contrast, a Spo73 protein carrying mutations in a surface basic patch mislocalizes to the cytoplasm and overexpression of Spo71 can partially rescue localization to the prospore membrane. Similar to spo71∆ mutants, spo73∆ mutants display genetic interactions with the mutations in the SMA2 and SPO1 genes involved in prospore membrane bending. Further, our bioinformatic analysis revealed that Spo73 is a dysferlin domain-only protein. Thus, these results suggest that a dysferlin domain-only protein, Spo73, functions with a dual pleckstrin homology domain protein, Spo71, in prospore membrane extension. Analysis of Spo73 will provide insights into the conserved function of dysferlin domains, which is related to dysferlinopathy. IMPORTANCE Prospore membrane formation consists of de novo double-membrane formation, which occurs during the developmental process of sporulation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Membranes are formed into their proper size and shape, and thus, prospore membrane formation has been studied as a general model of membrane formation. We identified SPO73, previously shown to be required for spore wall formation

  11. The Dysferlin Domain-Only Protein, Spo73, Is Required for Prospore Membrane Extension in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Okumura, Yuuya; Nakamura, Tsuyoshi S; Tanaka, Takayuki; Inoue, Ichiro; Suda, Yasuyuki; Takahashi, Tetsuo; Nakanishi, Hideki; Nakamura, Shugo; Gao, Xiao-Dong; Tachikawa, Hiroyuki

    2016-01-01

    Sporulation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a developmental process in which an ascus containing four haploid spores forms from a diploid cell. During this process, newly formed membrane structures called prospore membranes extend along the nuclear envelope and engulf and package daughter nuclei along with cytosol and organelles to form precursors of spores. Proteins involved in prospore membrane extension, Vps13 and Spo71, have recently been reported; however, the overall mechanism of membrane extension remains unclear. Here, we identified Spo73 as an additional factor involved in prospore membrane extension. Analysis of a spo73∆ mutant revealed that it shows defects similar to those of a spo71∆ mutant during prospore membrane formation. Spo73 localizes to the prospore membrane, and this localization is independent of Spo71 and Vps13. In contrast, a Spo73 protein carrying mutations in a surface basic patch mislocalizes to the cytoplasm and overexpression of Spo71 can partially rescue localization to the prospore membrane. Similar to spo71∆ mutants, spo73∆ mutants display genetic interactions with the mutations in the SMA2 and SPO1 genes involved in prospore membrane bending. Further, our bioinformatic analysis revealed that Spo73 is a dysferlin domain-only protein. Thus, th