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Sample records for cerium nitrates

  1. Application of cerium nitrate-silver sulphadiazine allows for postponement of excision and grafting.

    PubMed

    Vehmeyer-Heeman, M; Tondu, T; Van den Kerckhove, E; Boeckx, W

    2006-02-01

    Early excision and grafting cannot always be performed due to patient's medical status, and the lack of adequate donor sites. The use of cerium nitrate-silver sulphadiazine cream, which causes the formation of a leather-like eschar with excellent resistance to infection, is an alternative method. In order to postpone operations by using cerium nitrate-silver sulphadiazine, we compared the differences in contamination of the grafted areas between early and delayed excision. Eighteen patients underwent excision and grafting within 5 days post burn and nineteen patients were surgically treated after 5 days. Twelve months later the grafted areas were evaluated. Contamination of the grafted area occurred in 17 patients. No differences in contamination occurred between the early and delayed excision group, 8 versus 9. Also no differences in type of organism cultured and follow-up results were found between the early and delayed excision group. Cerium nitrate-silver sulphadiazine allows surgical treatment to be delayed without an increase of contamination of the grafted area and does not adversely affect the long-term outcome.

  2. Falsely raised whole blood chloride caused by systemic absorption of cerium nitrate cream for burns.

    PubMed

    Ha, Leah Y; Woollard, Gerald A; Chiu, Weldon W

    2015-03-01

    Whole blood, serum or plasma chloride is almost exclusively measured by potentiometry with an ion-selective chloride electrode which utilizes membrane selectivity to chloride ions. Other anions such as bromide, iodide and thiosulphate can interfere but usually are not present in high enough concentration to cause significant cross reactivity. A patient from our burns unit had serial chloride measurements on a Radiometer ABL800 blood gas analyser. The results were higher in contrast to plasma measurements on the Abbott Architect Ci8200, which were within reference intervals and in line with the patient's pathophysiological status. This indicated a likely interference with the blood gas analyser chloride estimation. The chloride results on the ABL800 for 3rd, 4th and 5th day after the burn accident were 170, 137 and 119 mmol/L. Corresponding plasma chloride results on the Ci8200 were all around 105 mmol/L. Nitrate was found to be markedly elevated in these samples, and the results were 6.7, 4.9 and 1.1 mmol/L, respectively (reference limit < 0.08 mmol/L). To further demonstrate nitrate was the causative agent, pooled plasma spiked with 7 mmol/L of sodium nitrate caused a rise in the ABL800 chloride from 105 to 202 mmol/L. Later we confirmed that the patient was topically medicated with cerium nitrate cream (Flammacerium®, Sinclair IS Pharma, UK) for his burns. In summary, the results clearly indicated nitrate was the interferent with the ABL800 chloride estimation and the source was the topical burns cerium nitrate cream. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  3. Survival in major burn injuries treated by one bathing in cerium nitrate.

    PubMed

    Scheidegger, D; Sparkes, B G; Lüscher, N; Schoenenberger, G A; Allgöwer, M

    1992-08-01

    Sixty-four patients aged 16-74 years with total body surface area burns (TBSA) ranging from 30 to 90 per cent, were given one bathing in 0.04 M cerium nitrate within 4 h of admission to hospital. Of 21 patients aged 16-30 years, one died (aged 28 with 90 per cent TBSA), and of those aged 31-74 years, two died, one (aged 50 years with 55 per cent TBSA) had multiple internal injuries, the other (aged 51 years with 55 per cent TBSA) had a pulmonary embolism at day 19. Two risk scores, developed from data on 11,200 burn patients treated by standard methods (Roi et al. 1983), were applied to the analysis of risk for 59 patients for whom both total burn surface (TB) and full thickness (FT) areas had been recorded. About 20 patients bore risk of 0.8 or greater on the FT scale and 1.0 on the TB scale, yet instead of 80 per cent deaths among these, only two died. No FT assessment had been made on the multiple injury death whose TB risk score was 0.66. Such survival results in high-risk patients should encourage the use of cerium nitrate for treating serious burn injury.

  4. Oxidative modification of native protein residues using cerium(IV) ammonium nitrate.

    PubMed

    Seim, Kristen L; Obermeyer, Allie C; Francis, Matthew B

    2011-10-26

    A new protein modification strategy has been developed that is based on an oxidative coupling reaction that targets electron-rich amino acids. This strategy relies on cerium(IV) ammonium nitrate (CAN) as an oxidation reagent and results in the coupling of tyrosine and tryptophan residues to phenylene diamine and anisidine derivatives. The methodology was first identified and characterized on peptides and small molecules, and was subsequently adapted for protein modification by determining appropriate buffer conditions. Using the optimized procedure, native and introduced solvent-accessible residues on proteins were selectively modified with polyethylene glycol (PEG) and small peptides. This unprecedented bioconjugation strategy targets these under-utilized amino acids with excellent chemoselectivity and affords good-to-high yields using low concentrations of the oxidant and coupling partners, short reaction times, and mild conditions.

  5. Trapped in the coordination sphere: Nitrate ion transfer driven by the cerium(III/IV) redox couple

    SciTech Connect

    Ellis, Ross J.; Bera, Mrinal K.; Reinhart, Benjamin; Antonio, Mark R.

    2016-11-07

    Redox-driven ion transfer between phases underpins many biological and technological processes, including industrial separation of ions. Here we investigate the electrochemical transfer of nitrate anions between oil and water phases, driven by the reduction and oxidation of cerium coordination complexes in oil phases. We find that the coordination environment around the cerium cation has a pronounced impact on the overall redox potential, particularly with regard to the number of coordinated nitrate anions. Our results suggest a new fundamental mechanism for tuning ion transfer between phases; by 'trapping' the migrating ion inside the coordination sphere of a redox-active complex. Here, this presents a new route for controlling anion transfer in electrochemically-driven separation applications.

  6. Ceria nanoparticles vis-à-vis cerium nitrate as corrosion inhibitors for silica-alumina hybrid sol-gel coating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    R. V., Lakshmi; S. T., Aruna; Sampath, S.

    2017-01-01

    The present work provides a comparative study on the corrosion protection efficiency of defect free sol-gel hybrid coating containing ceria nanoparticles and cerium nitrate ions as corrosion inhibitors. Less explored organically modified alumina-silica hybrid sol-gel coatings are synthesized from 3-glycidoxypropyltrimethoxysilane and aluminium-tri-sec-butoxide. The microemulsion derived nanoparticles and the hybrid coatings are characterized and compared with coatings containing cerium nitrate. Corrosion inhibiting capability is assessed using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. Scanning Kelvin probe measurements are also conducted on the coatings for identifying the apparent corrosion prone regions. Detailed X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis is carried out to comprehend the bonding and corrosion protection rendered by the hybrid coatings.

  7. Trapped in the coordination sphere: Nitrate ion transfer driven by the cerium(III/IV) redox couple

    DOE PAGES

    Ellis, Ross J.; Bera, Mrinal K.; Reinhart, Benjamin; ...

    2016-11-07

    Redox-driven ion transfer between phases underpins many biological and technological processes, including industrial separation of ions. Here we investigate the electrochemical transfer of nitrate anions between oil and water phases, driven by the reduction and oxidation of cerium coordination complexes in oil phases. We find that the coordination environment around the cerium cation has a pronounced impact on the overall redox potential, particularly with regard to the number of coordinated nitrate anions. Our results suggest a new fundamental mechanism for tuning ion transfer between phases; by 'trapping' the migrating ion inside the coordination sphere of a redox-active complex. Here, thismore » presents a new route for controlling anion transfer in electrochemically-driven separation applications.« less

  8. Ceria nanoparticles vis-à-vis cerium nitrate as corrosion inhibitors for silica-alumina hybrid sol-gel coating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lakshmi, R. V.; Aruna, S. T.; Sampath, S.

    2017-01-01

    The present work provides a comparative study on the corrosion protection efficiency of defect free sol-gel hybrid coating containing ceria nanoparticles and cerium nitrate ions as corrosion inhibitors. Less explored organically modified alumina-silica hybrid sol-gel coatings are synthesized from 3-glycidoxypropyltrimethoxysilane and aluminium-tri-sec-butoxide. The microemulsion derived nanoparticles and the hybrid coatings are characterized and compared with coatings containing cerium nitrate. Corrosion inhibiting capability is assessed using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. Scanning Kelvin probe measurements are also conducted on the coatings for identifying the apparent corrosion prone regions. Detailed X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis is carried out to comprehend the bonding and corrosion protection rendered by the hybrid coatings.

  9. Crystallization kinetics of cerium oxide nanoparticles formed by spontaneous, room-temperature hydrolysis of cerium(iv) ammonium nitrate in light and heavy water.

    PubMed

    Pettinger, Natasha W; Williams, Robert E A; Chen, Jinquan; Kohler, Bern

    2017-02-01

    A stable sol of cerium oxide nanoparticles forms spontaneously when cerium(iv) ammonium nitrate (CAN) is dissolved in room-temperature water at mM concentrations. Electron microscopy experiments reveal the formation of highly crystalline cerium oxide particles several nm in diameter and suggest that they are formed from amorphous particles that are similar in size. Under the low pH conditions of the experiments, the nanoparticles form a stable dispersion and show no evidence of aggregation, even many months after synthesis. The absence of particles large enough to scatter light significantly makes it possible to observe the crystallization kinetics through dramatic changes in the UV-visible absorption spectra that occur during solution aging. Measurements show that the cerium oxide nanocrystals are formed roughly an order of magnitude more slowly in D2O than in H2O solution. This large solvent kinetic isotope effect (kH/kD ∼ 10), which is reported here for the first time for the crystallization of a solid metal oxide phase, indicates a rate-determining proton transfer reaction, which is assigned to the conversion of hydroxy to oxo bridges. In D2O solution, the absorption per mole of cerium ions increases by over 400% at 290 nm as the weakly absorbing precursor phase is transformed into nanocrystalline cerium oxide. An isosbestic point is detected at 368 nm, and the absorption spectra can be modeled throughout aging by the sum of spectra of just two interconverting species. Preliminary ultrafast transient absorption experiments confirm that the optical properties of the amorphous precursors differ greatly from those of the final, nanocrystalline phase. Crystallization of CeO2 from CAN in water has much in common with the crystallization of iron oxides from iron(iii) salts, including the importance of non-classical nucleation and growth pathways. It is an outstanding system for studying the poorly understood events that cause molecularly solvated ions to self

  10. Topical application of cerium nitrate prevents burn edema after burn plasma transfer.

    PubMed

    Kremer, Thomas; Hernekamp, F; Riedel, K; Peter, Ch; Gebhardt, M M; Germann, G; Heitmann, Ch; Walther, Andreas

    2009-12-01

    Thermal injuries of more than 20% body surface area (BSA) result in systemic capillary leakage with subsequent edema. This can similarly be induced by burn plasma transfer (BPT) from burned individuals to healthy rats. We evaluated if cerium nitrate (CN) bathing can prevent edema after BPT. Therefore, donor rats (DR) underwent thermal injury (100 degrees C water, 30%BSA, 12 s) for positive controls and were additionally bathed in CN (0.05M, at 10 and 120 min) for study groups. For negative controls DR underwent shamburn (37 degrees C water, 30%BSA, 12 s). DR-plasma (harvested 4 h post trauma) was transferred to healthy individuals. Intravital microscopy was performed in mesenteric venules (0/60/120 min). Edema was assessed by FITC-albumin extravasation. Additionally, leukocyte sticking (cells/mm(2)) and micro hemodynamic parameters were assessed. Significant systemic capillary leakage was observed after BPT at 120 min. Edema formation was significantly lower in negative controls. Topical CN application after 10 and 120 min reduced FITC-efflux to baseline levels. Adherent leukocytes increased slightly in all groups. Leukocyte-sticking tended to be reduced after CN bathing. In conclusion, BPT induces burn edema in healthy individuals. CN bathing after 10 and 120 min reduces mediator levels in burned individuals. Therefore, BPT after CN application does not induce burn shock anymore. Burn edema is partially independent from leukocyte activation because CN significantly influences macromolecular leakage whereas leukocyte activation is not significantly altered.

  11. Cerium nitrate treatment prevents progressive tissue necrosis in the zone of stasis following burn.

    PubMed

    Eski, Muhitdin; Ozer, Firat; Firat, Cemal; Alhan, Doğan; Arslan, Nuri; Senturk, Tolga; Işik, Selcuk

    2012-03-01

    Cerium nitrate (CN) was used as a topical antiseptic agent for the treatment of burn wounds and found to reduce the number of anticipated death in burn. This decreased burn related mortality cannot be explained by the control of wound infection alone. In the studies performed to elucidate the unexplained effects of CN treatment, it was shown that CN treatment reduced the alarm cytokine levels, decreased leukocyte activation, reduced macromolecular leakage and finally burn edema formation. We hypothesized that CN treatment prevents the conversion of the zone of stasis to progressive tissue necrosis by decreasing leukocyte activation and reducing macromolecular leakage and burn edema. This was investigated on a well-described burn comb model in the rats. Fifty-four rats were randomly divided into control and CN treatment groups. Each rat in CN treatment group received 0.04 M CN bathing 30 min after burn whereas rats in control group received 0.09% saline bathing. Viability of zone of stasis is assessed with (99 m)Tc-sestamibi scintigraphy. Nine rats in each group were scintigraphically evaluated at the 3rd and 7th day after burn and remaining 9 rats had macroscopic and histological examination at the 21st day after burn to confirm the scintigraphic results. In CN treatment groups, the scintigraphic uptake ratios were higher both at post burn day 3rd and 7th when compared to that of control groups. This was statistically significant (p≤0.05). In the CN treatment group, the results of the average percentage of the re-epithelialization in the zone of stasis were higher than that of control groups. The difference between the groups was also statistically significant (p≤0.05). These results were accepted that CN treatment prevents progressive tissue necrosis in the zone of stasis. This study further elucidates the unexplained effects of CN treatment on burn. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  12. Synergism between cerium nitrate and sodium dodecylbenzenesulfonate on corrosion of AA5052 aluminium alloy in 3 wt.% NaCl solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jie; Wang, Dapeng; Gao, Lixin; Zhang, Daquan

    2016-12-01

    The synergistic inhibition effect of rare earth cerium nitrate and sodium dodecylbenzenesulfonate (DBS) on corrosion of AA5052 aluminium alloy in 3 wt.% NaCl solution was investigated by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), potentiodynamic polarization curve, scanning electron microscope (SEM) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). The results show that the single cerium nitrate or DBS has a limited inhibition effect against corrosion of AA5052 alloy. The combination cerium ions with DBS produced strong synergistic effect on corrosion inhibition for AA5052 alloy and rendered a negaitve shift of the corrosion potential. The formation of the complex of Al(DBS)3 and Ce(DBS)3 stabilized the passive film of Al2O3 and CeO2, retarding both the cathodic and anodic processes of AA5052 alloy corrosion reaction significantly.

  13. Extraction of cerium-group lanthanide (III) nitrates from concentrated aqueous salt solutions by tributyl phosphate

    SciTech Connect

    Pyartman, A.K.; Kopyrin, A.A.; Puzikov, E.A.

    1995-01-01

    The extraction equilibrium for a hypothetical standard, designated as 1 M aqueous solution of Ln(III) nitrate and the state of the pure components in organic phase with a mole fraction of 1 have been determined assuming formation of tri- and tetrasolvates of the metal(III) nitrates in organic phase. The excessive thermodynamic functions of mixing tri-n-butyl phosphate with solutions of Ln(III) nitrate trisolvates are presented.

  14. Incidence of methemoglobinemia in patients receiving cerium nitrate and silver sulfadiazine for the treatment of burn wounds: a burn center's experience.

    PubMed

    Kath, Melissa A; Shupp, Jeffrey W; Matt, Sarah E; Shaw, Jesse D; Johnson, Laura S; Pavlovich, Anna R; Brant, Jennifer D; Mete, Mihriye; Jeng, James C; Jordan, Marion H

    2011-01-01

    In 1976, the combination of cerium nitrate and silver sulfadiazine was introduced as a topical therapy for burn wounds. Experience with a locally prepared combination agent has shown physical change of the eschar and delayed subeschar bacterial colonization. A potential systemic complication of this treatment is the development of methemoglobinemia (Met-Hba) due to the oxidizing nature of Ce(NO(3))(3). Met-Hba has a spectrum of clinical consequences, ranging from headache and cyanosis to cardiac ischemia, hypotension, and even death. Given the frequent use of this combination agent at our burn center, a retrospective review was conducted to evaluate the incidence of Met-Hba. A query of pharmacy records revealed 170 patients from January 2005 to October 2009 that had received this treatment. Eighteen patients (∼10%) developed Met-Hba as noted on arterial blood gas (methemoglobin>3%) and only three patients (∼2%) had methemoglobin levels >10%. In the majority of cases, there were no clinical symptoms of Met-Hba. Most patients' relative hypoxia resolved with cessation of treatment; however, five patients required treatment with methylene blue. The presence of Met-Hba associated with this topical therapy can be diagnosed early by vigilant monitoring, thereby reducing morbidity and mortality. In our experience, cerium combined with silver sulfadiazine is a valuable and safe treatment for deep partial and full-thickness burn wounds.

  15. Cerium(IV) ammonium nitrate is an excellent, general catalyst for the Friedländer and Friedländer-Borsche quinoline syntheses: very efficient access to the antitumor alkaloid luotonin A.

    PubMed

    Sridharan, Vellaisamy; Ribelles, Pascual; Ramos, Ma Teresa; Menéndez, J Carlos

    2009-08-07

    The use of cerium(IV) ammonium nitrate as a catalyst of the Friedländer reaction allows the synthesis of polysubstituted quinoline derivatives in excellent yields, avoiding the traditional harshly basic or acidic conditions. Unlike most other previously known reagents, CAN allows double condensations and is also an excellent catalyst for the Borsche variation of the Friedländer reaction, which has been applied to the very efficient synthesis of the antitumor alkaloid luotonin A.

  16. Cerium Oxide and Cerium Compounds

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    EPA / 635 / R - 08 / 002F www.epa.gov / iris TOXICOLOGICAL REVIEW OF Cerium Oxide and Cerium Compounds ( CAS No . 1306 - 38 - 3 ) In Support of Summary Information on the Integrated Risk Information System ( IRIS ) September 2009 U.S . Environmental Protection Agency Washington , DC ii DISCLAIMER Th

  17. Nitrate

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Nitrate ; CASRN 14797 - 55 - 8 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Effects

  18. IRIS Toxicological Review of Cerium Oxide and Cerium ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA conducted a peer review of the scientific basis supporting the human health hazard and dose-response assessment of cerium oxide and cerium compounds that will appear on the Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS) database. The draft Toxicological Review of cerium oxide and cerium compounds provides scientific support and rationale for the hazard and dose-response assessment pertaining to chronic exposure to cerium oxide and cerium compounds.

  19. IRIS Toxicological Review of Cerium Oxide and Cerium ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    On September 29, 2009, the IRIS Summary and Toxicological Review of Cerium Oxide and Cerium Compounds was finalized and loaded onto the IRIS database. The Toxicological Review of Cerium Oxide and Cerium Compounds was reviewed internally by EPA, by other federal agencies and White House Offices, by expert external peer reviewers, and by the public. In the new IRIS process, introduced by the EPA Administrator, all written comments on IRIS assessments submitted by other federal agencies and White House Offices will be made publicly available. Accordingly, interagency comments and the interagency draft of the Cerium Oxide and Cerium Compounds IRIS assessment are posted on this site. The draft Toxicological Review of Cerium Oxide and Cerium Compounds provides scientific support and rationale for the hazard identification and dose-response assessment pertaining to chronic exposure to cerium oxide and cerium compounds.

  20. PLUTONIUM-CERIUM ALLOY

    DOEpatents

    Coffinberry, A.S.

    1959-01-01

    An alloy is presented for use as a reactor fuel. The binary alloy consists essentially of from about 5 to 90 atomic per cent cerium and the balance being plutonium. A complete phase diagram for the cerium--plutonium system is given.

  1. Reaction chemistry of cerium

    SciTech Connect

    1997-01-01

    It is truly ironic that a synthetic organic chemist likely has far greater knowledge of the reaction chemistry of cerium(IV) than an inorganic colleague. Cerium(IV) reagents have long since been employed as oxidants in effecting a wide variety of organic transformations. Conversely, prior to the late 1980s, the number of well characterized cerium(IV) complexes did not extend past a handful of known species. Though in many other areas, interest in the molecular chemistry of the 4f-elements has undergone an explosive growth over the last twenty years, the chemistry of cerium(IV) has for the most part been overlooked. This report describes reactions of cerium complexes and structure.

  2. Cerium oxalate precipitation

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, T.P.

    1987-02-01

    Cerium, a nonradioactive, common stand-in for plutonium in development work, has been used to simulate several plutonium precipitation processes at the Savannah River Laboratory. There are similarities between the plutonium trifluoride and the cerium oxalate precipitations in particle size and extent of plating, but not particle morphology. The equilibrium solubility, precipitation kinetics, particle size, extent of plating, and dissolution characteristics of cerium oxalate have been investigated. Interpretations of particle size and plating based on precipitation kinetics (i.e., nucleation and crystal growth) are presented. 16 refs., 7 figs., 6 tabs.

  3. Thermoelectric properties of cerium monopnictides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Danielson, L. R.; Alexander, M. N.; Wood, C.; Lockwood, R. A.; Vandersande, J. W.

    1987-01-01

    Several cerium pnictides have been synthesized from the pure elements and hot pressed into test samples. Measurements of Seebeck coefficients and electrical resistivities were performed on these samples from room temperature to 1000 C. Cerium arsenide and cerium antimonide are n-type; cerium nitride changes from p-type to n-type conduction at 800 C. The materials are semimetals with resistivities below 1 mohm/cm. Cerium arsenide is the most favorable of the pnictides studied for high-temperature thermoelectric energy conversion, with an average power factor of 15 microW/cm K sq from 500 to 1000 C.

  4. Thermoelectric properties of cerium monopnictides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Danielson, L. R.; Alexander, M. N.; Wood, C.; Lockwood, R. A.; Vandersande, J. W.

    1987-01-01

    Several cerium pnictides have been synthesized from the pure elements and hot pressed into test samples. Measurements of Seebeck coefficients and electrical resistivities were performed on these samples from room temperature to 1000 C. Cerium arsenide and cerium antimonide are n-type; cerium nitride changes from p-type to n-type conduction at 800 C. The materials are semimetals with resistivities below 1 mohm/cm. Cerium arsenide is the most favorable of the pnictides studied for high-temperature thermoelectric energy conversion, with an average power factor of 15 microW/cm K sq from 500 to 1000 C.

  5. Two-phase titration of cerium(III) by permanganate

    SciTech Connect

    Lazarev, A.I.; Lazareva, V.I.; Gerko, V.V.

    1987-02-01

    This paper presents a method for the two-phase titrimetric determination of cerium(III) with permanganate which does not require an expenditure of sugar and preliminary removal of chlorides and nitrates. The interaction of cerium(III) with permanganate at room temperature was studied as a function of the pH, the concentration of pyrophosphate, tetraphenylphosphonium (TPP), permanganate, and extraneous compounds, the rate of titration, and the time of stay of the solution in air before titration. The investigations were conducted according to the following methodology: water, solution of cerium(III) pyrophosphate, and TPP were introduced into an Erlenmeyer flask with a side branch near the bottom for clearer observation of the color of the chloroform phase. The authors established the given pH value, poured the water into a volume of 50 ml, and added chloroform. The result was titrated with permanganate solutions of various concentrations until a violet color appeared in the chloroform phase.

  6. Effects of manganese deficiency and added cerium on nitrogen metabolism of maize.

    PubMed

    Gong, Xiaolan; Qu, Chunxiang; Liu, Chao; Hong, Mengmeng; Wang, Ling; Hong, Fashui

    2011-12-01

    Manganese is one of the essential microelements for plant growth, and cerium is a beneficial element for plant growth. However, whether manganese deficiency affects nitrogen metabolism of plants and cerium improves the nitrogen metabolism of plants by exposure to manganese-deficient media are still unclear. The main aim of the study was to determine the effects of manganese deficiency in nitrogen metabolism and the roles of cerium in the improvement of manganese-deficient effects in maize seedlings. Maize seedlings were cultivated in manganese present Meider's nutrient solution. They were subjected to manganese deficiency and to cerium chloride administered in the manganese-present and manganese-deficient media. Maize seedlings grown in the various media were measured for key enzyme activities involved in nitrogen metabolism, such as nitrate reductase, glutamate dehydrogenase, glutamine synthetase, and glutamic-oxaloace transaminase. We found that manganese deficiency restricted uptake and transport of NO(3)(-), inhibited activities of nitrogen-metabolism-related enzymes, such as nitrate reductase, glutamine synthetase, and glutamic-oxaloace transaminase, thus decreasing the synthesis of chlorophyll and soluble protein, and inhibited the growth of maize seedlings. Manganese deficiency promoted the activity of glutamate dehydrogenase and reduced the toxicity of excess ammonia to the plant, while added cerium relieved the damage to nitrogen metabolism caused by manganese deficiency in maize seedlings. However, cerium addition exerted positively to relieve the damage of nitrogen metabolism process in maize seedlings caused by exposure to manganese-deficient media.

  7. Degradation of nitrobenzene using titania photocatalyst co-doped with nitrogen and cerium under visible light illumination.

    PubMed

    Shen, Xiang-Zhong; Liu, Zhi-Cheng; Xie, Shan-Mei; Guo, Jun

    2009-03-15

    A type of nitrogen and cerium co-doped titania photocatalyst, which could degrade nitrobenzene under visible light irradiation, was prepared by the sol-gel route. Titanium isopropoxide, ammonium nitrate, and cerium nitrate were used as the sources of titanium, nitrogen, and cerium, respectively. X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), UV-vis diffusive reflectance spectroscopy (DRS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and N(2) adsorption-desorption isotherm were employed to characterize the as-prepared photocatalyst. The degradation of nitrobenzene under visible light illumination was taken as probe reaction to evaluate the photoactivity of the co-doped photocatalyst. The commercial TiO(2) photocatalyst (Degussa P25), which was thought as a high active photocatalyst, was chosen as standard photocatalyst to contrast the photoactivity of the nitrogen and cerium co-doped titania photocatalyst. The results showed that the photocatalytic performance of the nitrogen and cerium co-doped titania was related with the calcination temperature and the component. The nitrogen atoms were incorporated into the crystal of titania and could narrow the band gap energy. The doping cerium atoms existed in the forms of Ce(2)O(3) and dispersed on the surface of TiO(2). The improvement of the photocatalytic activity was ascribed to the synergistic effects of the nitrogen and cerium co-doping.

  8. Synthesis and catalytic properties of microemulsion-derived cerium oxide nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Kockrick, Emanuel; Schrage, Christian; Grigas, Anett; Geiger, Dorin; Kaskel, Stefan

    2008-07-15

    The synthesis of cerium dioxide nanoparticles using an inverse microemulsion technique and precipitation method was investigated. Cerium hydroxide nanoparticles were synthesized by adding diluted ammonia to n-heptane-surfactant-cerium nitrate system. The micelle and particle size in the range of 5-12 nm were controlled by varying the molar water to surfactant ratio and analyzed by dynamic light scattering (DLS), small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). Cerium hydroxide nanoparticles were isolated and subsequently treated at 100-600 deg. C to obtain nanoscale ceria. Crystallite sizes of cerium dioxide in the range of 6-16 nm were estimated by Scherrer analysis by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and HRTEM. The catalytic activity of particles annealed at 400 and 600 deg. C in soot combustion reactions was characterized by temperature-programmed oxidation (TPO) indicating a size-dependant activity. Crystallite sizes and catalytic stability of elevated ceria systems were tested in second combustion cycles. - Graphical abstract: The synthesis of cerium dioxide nanoparticles using an inverse microemulsion technique and precipitation method was investigated using small angle X-ray scattering, dynamic light scattering and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. Catalytic activity of ceria nanoparticles was tested in soot combustion reaction indicating size-dependent reactivity.

  9. Preparation of cerium halide solvate complexes

    DOEpatents

    Vasudevan, Kalyan V; Smith, Nickolaus A; Gordon, John C; McKigney, Edward A; Muenchaussen, Ross E

    2013-08-06

    Crystals of a solvated cerium(III) halide solvate complex resulted from a process of forming a paste of a cerium(III) halide in an ionic liquid, adding a solvent to the paste, removing any undissolved solid, and then cooling the liquid phase. Diffusing a solvent vapor into the liquid phase also resulted in crystals of a solvated cerium(III) halide complex.

  10. PLUTONIUM-CERIUM-COBALT AND PLUTONIUM-CERIUM-NICKEL ALLOYS

    DOEpatents

    Coffinberry, A.S.

    1959-08-25

    >New plutonium-base teroary alloys useful as liquid reactor fuels are described. The alloys consist of 10 to 20 atomic percent cobalt with the remainder plutonium and cerium in any desired proportion, with the plutonium not in excess of 88 atomic percent; or, of from 10 to 25 atomic percent nickel (or mixture of nickel and cobalt) with the remainder plutonium and cerium in any desired proportion, with the plutonium not in excess of 86 atomic percent. The stated advantages of these alloys over unalloyed plutonium for reactor fuel use are a lower melting point and a wide range of permissible plutonium dilution.

  11. Experimental determination of water activity for binary aqueous cerium(III) ionic solutions: application to an assessment of the predictive capability of the binding mean spherical approximation model.

    PubMed

    Ruas, Alexandre; Simonin, Jean-Pierre; Turq, Pierre; Moisy, Philippe

    2005-12-08

    This work is aimed at a description of the thermodynamic properties of actinide salt solutions at high concentration. The predictive capability of the binding mean spherical approximation (BIMSA) theory to describe the thermodynamic properties of electrolytes is assessed in the case of aqueous solutions of lanthanide(III) nitrate and chloride salts. Osmotic coefficients of cerium(III) nitrate and chloride were calculated from other lanthanide(III) salts properties. In parallel, concentrated binary solutions of cerium nitrate were prepared in order to measure experimentally its water activity and density as a function of concentration, at 25 degrees C. Water activities of several binary solutions of cerium chloride were also measured to check existing data on this salt. Then, the properties of cerium chloride and cerium nitrate solutions were compared within the BIMSA model. Osmotic coefficient values for promethium nitrate and promethium chloride given by this theory are proposed. Finally, water activity measurements were made to examine the fact that the ternary system Ce(NO3)3/HNO3/H2O and the quaternary system Ce(NO3)3/HNO3/N2H5NO3/H2O may be regarded as "simple solutions" (in the sense of Zdanovskii and Mikulin).

  12. Green synthesized cerium oxide nanoparticle: A prospective drug against oxidative harm.

    PubMed

    Dutta, Debanjan; Mukherjee, Riya; Patra, Mousumi; Banik, Milon; Dasgupta, Rakhi; Mukherjee, Manabendra; Basu, Tarakdas

    2016-11-01

    Cerium oxide nanoparticle (CeONP) of size 2-3nm was synthesized by a new, simple and green method at ambient temperature, using cerium nitrate as prime precursor and Aloe vera leaf extract as stabilizing agent. Of the two oxidation states (+3) and (+4) of cerium, it was dominantly present in (+3) state in CeONP and cyclic conversion of Ce(III)O→Ce(IV)O→Ce(III)O by reaction with H2O2 implied uninterrupted antioxidant property of CeONP. Moreover, the higher oxygen defect in the crystal lattice produced particles with higher antioxidant activity. CeONP was found to neutralize the deleterious effects of H2O2 viz., cell death, generation of intracellular reactive oxygen species and loss of connectivity in mouse neural cells. Therefore, CeONP might have potential use in future as an anti-oxidant drug.

  13. Cerium valence in cerium-exchanged Preyssler`s heteropolyanion through x-ray absorption near-edge structure

    SciTech Connect

    Antonio, M.R.; Soderholm, L.

    1994-12-21

    The sodium ion in the heteropolytungstate known as the Preyssler anion, [NaP{sub 5}W{sub 30}O{sub 110}]{sup 14{minus}}, was exchanged with cerium from aqueous solutions of ammonium ceric nitrate, [NH{sub 4}]{sub 2}Ce{sup IV}(NO{sub 3}){sub 6}, as described by Creaser et al. The valence of cerium in this heteropolyanion was determined through Ce L-edge XANES, X-ray absorption near-edge structure. The XANES results demonstrate that cerium is trivalent in the Ce-exchanged Preyssler heteropolyanion in the solid state and in aqueous solution (1 M H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}) at rest potential and after constant-potential, bulk electrolysis at-0.55 V vs SCE. The encapsulated sodium ion of the Preyssler anion was shown to be directly exchangeable with Ce{sup III} by prolonged (48 h), high temperature (165 {degrees}C) aqueous treatments with either Ce(NO{sub 3}){sub 3}{lg_bullet}6H{sub 2}O or CeCl{sub 3}{lg_bullet}7H{sub 2}O in Teflon-lined pressure vessels.

  14. Fungus mediated synthesis of biomedically important cerium oxide nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Khan, Shadab Ali; Ahmad, Absar

    2013-10-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • First time biological synthesis of cerium oxide oxide nanoparticles using fungus Humicola sp. • Complete characterization of cerium oxide nanoparticles. • Biosynthesis of naturally protein capped, luminescent and water dispersible CeO{sub 2} nanoparticles. • Biosynthesized CeO{sub 2} nanoparticles can be used for many biomedical applications. - Abstract: Nanomaterials can be synthesized by chemical, physical and the more recently discovered biological routes. The biological routes are advantageous over the chemical and physical ones as unlike these, the biological synthesis protocols occur at ambient conditions, are cheap, non-toxic and eco-friendly. Although purely biological and bioinspired methods for the synthesis of nanomaterials are environmentally benign and energy conserving processes, their true potential has not been explored yet and attempts are being made to extend the formation of technologically important nanoparticles using microorganisms like fungi. Though there have been reports on the biosynthesis of oxide nanoparticles by our group in the past, no attempts have been made to employ fungi for the synthesis of nanoparticles of rare earth metals or lanthanides. Here we report for the first time, the bio-inspired synthesis of biomedically important cerium oxide (CeO{sub 2}) nanoparticles using the thermophilic fungus Humicola sp. The fungus Humicola sp. when exposed to aqueous solutions of oxide precursor cerium (III) nitrate hexahydrate (CeN{sub 3}O{sub 9}·6H{sub 2}O) results in the extracellular formation of CeO{sub 2} nanoparticles containing Ce (III) and Ce (IV) mixed oxidation states, confirmed by X-ray Photoemission Spectroscopy (XPS). The formed nanoparticles are naturally capped by proteins secreted by the fungus and thus do not agglomerate, are highly stable, water dispersible and are highly fluorescent as well. The biosynthesized nanoparticles were characterized by UV–vis spectroscopy

  15. PLUTONIUM-CERIUM-COPPER ALLOYS

    DOEpatents

    Coffinberry, A.S.

    1959-05-12

    A low melting point plutonium alloy useful as fuel is a homogeneous liquid metal fueled nuclear reactor is described. Vessels of tungsten or tantalum are useful to contain the alloy which consists essentially of from 10 to 30 atomic per cent copper and the balance plutonium and cerium. with the plutontum not in excess of 50 atomic per cent.

  16. Synthesis and catalytic properties of microemulsion-derived cerium oxide nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kockrick, Emanuel; Schrage, Christian; Grigas, Anett; Geiger, Dorin; Kaskel, Stefan

    2008-07-01

    The synthesis of cerium dioxide nanoparticles using an inverse microemulsion technique and precipitation method was investigated. Cerium hydroxide nanoparticles were synthesized by adding diluted ammonia to n-heptane-surfactant-cerium nitrate system. The micelle and particle size in the range of 5-12 nm were controlled by varying the molar water to surfactant ratio and analyzed by dynamic light scattering (DLS), small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). Cerium hydroxide nanoparticles were isolated and subsequently treated at 100-600 °C to obtain nanoscale ceria. Crystallite sizes of cerium dioxide in the range of 6-16 nm were estimated by Scherrer analysis by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and HRTEM. The catalytic activity of particles annealed at 400 and 600 °C in soot combustion reactions was characterized by temperature-programmed oxidation (TPO) indicating a size-dependant activity. Crystallite sizes and catalytic stability of elevated ceria systems were tested in second combustion cycles.

  17. Cerium relieves the inhibition of nitrogen metabolism of spinach caused by magnesium deficiency.

    PubMed

    Yin, Sitao; Ze, Yuguan; Liu, Chao; Li, Na; Zhou, Min; Duan, Yanmei; Hong, Fashui

    2009-12-01

    Magnesium is one of the essential elements for plant growth and cerium is a beneficial element for plant growth. However, the effects of the fact that cerium improves the nitrogen metabolism of plants under magnesium deficiency is poorly understood. The main aim of the study was to determine the role of cerium in the amelioration of magnesium-deficiency effects in spinach plants. Spinach plants were cultivated in Hoagland's solution. They were subjected to magnesium deficiency and to cerium chloride administered in the magnesium-present media and magnesium-deficient media. Spinach plants grown in the magnesium-present media and magnesium-deficient media were measured for key enzyme activities involved in nitrogen metabolism such as nitrate reductase, nitrite reductase, glutamate dehydrogenase, glutamate synthase, urease, glutamic–pyruvic transaminase, and glutamic–oxaloace protease transaminase. As the nitrogen metabolism in spinach was significantly inhibited by magnesium deficiency, it caused a significant reduction of spinach plant weight, leaf turning chlorosis. However, cerium treatment grown in magnesium-deficiency media significantly promoted the activities of the key enzymes as well as the contents of the free amino acids, chlorophyll, soluble protein, and spinach growth. It implied that Ce3+ could partly substitute for magnesium to facilitate the transformation from inorganic nitrogen to organic nitrogen, leading to the improvement of spinach growth, although the metabolism needs to be investigated further.

  18. Influences of calcium deficiency and cerium on growth of spinach plants.

    PubMed

    Chao, Liu; Bofu, Pan; Weiqian, Cao; Yun, Lu; Hao, Huang; Liang, Chen; Xiaoqing, Liu; Xiao, Wu; Fashui, Hong

    2008-03-01

    The main aim of the study was to determine the role of cerium in the amelioration of calcium-deficiency effects in spinach plants. Spinach plants were cultivated in Hoagland's solution. They were subjected to calcium-deficiency and to cerium chloride administered in the calcium-present Hoagland's media and calcium-deficient Hoagland's media. Within 3 weeks, young leaves developed distinct calcium-deficient symptoms, and plant growth significantly inhibited to calcium deprivation as would be expected; cerium-treated groups grown in the same conditions did not develop calcium-deficient symptoms; fresh weight, dry weight and chlorophyll content of spinach plants were increased by 35.9, 45 and 64.05% compared to those of plants cultivated in calcium-deficient media. In addition, calcium deprivation in spinach plants caused the reduction of photosynthetic rate, oxygen evolution rate and ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase activity. The reduction of activities of nitrate reductase, glutamate dehydrogenase, glutamate synthase and glutamic-pyruvic transaminase was observed under calcium-deficient media. However, cerium treatment under calcium-deficient media could significantly improve photosynthesis and nitrogen metabolism of spinach plants. This is viewed as evidence that cerium added to calcium-deficient media in the spinach plants could substitute for calcium and improve spinach growth.

  19. IRIS Toxicological Review of Cerium Oxide and Cerium Compounds (External Review Draft)

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA conducted a peer review of the scientific basis supporting the human health hazard and dose-response assessment of cerium oxide and cerium compounds that will appear on the Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS) database.

  20. IRIS Toxicological Review of Cerium Oxide and Cerium Compounds (External Review Draft)

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA conducted a peer review of the scientific basis supporting the human health hazard and dose-response assessment of cerium oxide and cerium compounds that will appear on the Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS) database.

  1. Nanoparticle cerium oxide and mixed cerium oxides for improved fuel cell lifetime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stewart, Stephen Michael

    While there is a rich body of literature concerning of properties of bulk cerium oxide and cerium cations in solution, the discussion has been inappropriately applied to nanoscale cerium oxide resulting in many unexpected or unexplained results. In particular, there is very limited understanding about the properties of cerium oxide and its potential use as a radical scavenger, and how the catalytic properties of cerium oxide change as the particle size approaches the nanoscale. For example, the involvement of Ce+4 and Ce+3 cations in reactions such as hydrogen peroxide decomposition have been investigated for both cerium cations and bulk cerium oxide. However, while both are assumed to decompose hydrogen peroxide through the same mechanism, whereby Ce+4 is involved in peroxide decomposition while Ce +3 is involved in radical scavenging, there has been very little done to address how the selectivity and activity of these reactions are affected by changing the majority cation population, as cerium cations in solution are predominantly in the +3 oxidation state while cerium cations are predominantly in the +4 oxidation state in cerium oxide. This matter is further complicated in cerium oxide nanoparticles where the surface concentration of Ce +3 cations is increased due to particle curvature effects. Due to the potential of controlling the surface cerium oxidation state using particle size and using this control to change the catalytic properties, this project investigated the effect of particle size and composition and the activity and selectivity of cerium oxide nanoparticles, and has served to expand the understanding of the properties of pure and mixed nanoparticle cerium oxide. This work explains the metric developed for measuring the catalytic properties of pure and mixed cerium oxide nanoparticles, which is also good at predicting the immediate and long-term behavior of nanoparticles in hydrogen fuel cells. This work also directly demonstrates praseodymium

  2. Photoionization of the cerium isonuclear sequence and cerium endohedral fullerene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Habibi, Mustapha

    This dissertation presents an experimental photoionization study of the cerium isonuclear sequence ions in the energy range of the 4d inner-shell giant resonance. In addition, single and double photoionization and photofragmentation cross sections of the cerium endohedral ion Ce C+82 were also measured and studied in the 4d excitation-ionization energy range of cerium. Relative and absolute cross-section measurements were performed at undulator beamline 10.0.1 of the Advanced Light Source (ALS) for nine parent cerium ions: Ce+ - Ce9+. Double-to-single ionization cross-section ratios were measured for photoionization of the endohedral Ce C+82 and empty fullerene C C+82 molecular ions. The merged ion and photon beams technique was used to conduct the experiments. Multiconfiguration Hartree-Fock calculations were performed as an aid to interpret the experimental data. Four Rydberg series for 4d → nf (n ≥ 4) and 4d → np (n ≥ 6) autoionizing excitations were assigned using the quantum defect theory for the Ce3+ photoionization cross section. The experimental data show the collapse of the nf wavefunctions (n ≥ 4) with increasing ionization stage as outer-shell electrons are stripped from the parent ion. The nf orbital collapse occurs partially for Ce2+ and Ce3+ ion and completely for Ce4+, where these wavefunctions penetrate the core region of the ion. A strong contribution to the total oscillator strength was observed in the double and triple photoionization channels for low charge states (Ce +, Ce2+, and Ce3+), whereas most of the 4d excitations of the higher charge states decay by ejection of one electron.

  3. Nitrate reduction

    DOEpatents

    Dziewinski, Jacek J.; Marczak, Stanislaw

    2000-01-01

    Nitrates are reduced to nitrogen gas by contacting the nitrates with a metal to reduce the nitrates to nitrites which are then contacted with an amide to produce nitrogen and carbon dioxide or acid anions which can be released to the atmosphere. Minor amounts of metal catalysts can be useful in the reduction of the nitrates to nitrites. Metal salts which are formed can be treated electrochemically to recover the metals.

  4. Nitrate and periplasmic nitrate reductases

    PubMed Central

    Sparacino-Watkins, Courtney; Stolz, John F.; Basu, Partha

    2014-01-01

    The nitrate anion is a simple, abundant and relatively stable species, yet plays a significant role in global cycling of nitrogen, global climate change, and human health. Although it has been known for quite some time that nitrate is an important species environmentally, recent studies have identified potential medical applications. In this respect the nitrate anion remains an enigmatic species that promises to offer exciting science in years to come. Many bacteria readily reduce nitrate to nitrite via nitrate reductases. Classified into three distinct types – periplasmic nitrate reductase (Nap), respiratory nitrate reductase (Nar) and assimilatory nitrate reductase (Nas), they are defined by their cellular location, operon organization and active site structure. Of these, Nap proteins are the focus of this review. Despite similarities in the catalytic and spectroscopic properties Nap from different Proteobacteria are phylogenetically distinct. This review has two major sections: in the first section, nitrate in the nitrogen cycle and human health, taxonomy of nitrate reductases, assimilatory and dissimilatory nitrate reduction, cellular locations of nitrate reductases, structural and redox chemistry are discussed. The second section focuses on the features of periplasmic nitrate reductase where the catalytic subunit of the Nap and its kinetic properties, auxiliary Nap proteins, operon structure and phylogenetic relationships are discussed. PMID:24141308

  5. Grain Growth in Cerium Metal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooley, Jason; Katz, Martha; Mielke, Charles; Montalvo, Joel

    We report on grain growth in forged and rolled cerium plate for temperatures from 350 to 700 degrees C and times from 30 to 120 minutes. The cerium was made by arc-melting into a 25 mm deep by 80 mm diameter copper mold. The resulting disk was forged at room temperature to a 25% reduction of thickness four times with a 350 degree C strain relief heat treatment for 60 minutes between forging steps. The resulting 8 mm thick plate was clock rolled at room temperature to a 25% reduction of thickness three times with a 350 C strain relief heat treatment between steps resulting in a plate approximately 3 mm thick. 5 x 10 mm coupons were cut from the plate for the grain growth study.

  6. Cerium oxide for sunscreen cosmetics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yabe, Shinryo; Sato, Tsugio

    2003-02-01

    Ultrafine particles of Mn+ -doped ceria ( Mn+ =Mg 2+, Ca 2+, Sr 2+, Ba 2+, Y 3+, La 3+, Nd 3+, Sm 3+, Eu 3+, Tb 3+) for UV filter were prepared via soft solution chemical routes at 40°C. X-ray diffraction revealed that the prepared doped particles had the cubic fluorite structures although peak positions changed depending on the kind and amount of doped metal ion. Doping with 20 mol% Ca 2+ and 20 mol% Zn 2+ resulted in extremely decreasing the particle size (2-4 nm) and the catalytic activity of ceria for oxidation of castor oil. Ca 2+-doped cerium dioxide showed excellent UV absorbing effect and transparency in the visible ray region compared with undoped cerium dioxide.

  7. ADSORPTION OF CERIUM VALUES FROM AQUEOUS SOLUTIONS

    DOEpatents

    Roberts, F.P.

    1963-08-13

    Cerium can be removed from aqueous nitric acid (2 to 13 M) solutions by passing the latter over a PbO/sub 2/-containing anion exchange resin. The cerium is taken up by the resin, while any lanthanides, yttrium, and strontium present remain in the solution. (AEC)

  8. Nitrate tolerance.

    PubMed

    Parker, J O

    1987-11-16

    The organic nitrates are the most widely used agents in the management of patients with angina pectoris. When initially administered by the oral route, the nitrates produce profound changes in systemic hemodynamics and significant and prolonged improvement in exercise duration. It has been shown that during short periods of regular oral nitrate administration, the hemodynamic, antiischemic and antianginal effects of the nitrates are greatly reduced. Thus, when initially administered, oral isosorbide dinitrate prolongs exercise duration for a period of several hours, but during sustained 4-times-daily therapy, exercise tolerance is improved for only 2 hours after administration. Studies with transdermal preparations of isosorbide dinitrate and nitroglycerin also show improvement during short-term administration for up to 8 hours, but after several days of once-daily therapy, the effects of these agents are similar to placebo. It is apparent that nitrate tolerance is a clinically relevant problem. Although tolerance develops rapidly during nitrate therapy, it is reversed promptly during nitrate-free periods. Oral nitrates maintain their antianginal effects when given 2 or 3 times daily with provision of a nitrate-free period. Studies are currently underway to investigate the effects of intermittent administration schedules with transdermal nitrate preparations.

  9. Formulation and method for preparing gels comprising hydrous cerium oxide

    SciTech Connect

    Collins, Jack L; Chi, Anthony

    2013-05-07

    Formulations useful for preparing hydrous cerium oxide gels contain a metal salt including cerium, an organic base, and a complexing agent. Methods for preparing gels containing hydrous cerium oxide include heating a formulation to a temperature sufficient to induce gel formation, where the formulation contains a metal salt including cerium, an organic base, and a complexing agent.

  10. Determination of Ideal Broth Formulations Needed to Prepare Hydrous Cerium Oxide Microspheres via the Internal Gelation Process

    SciTech Connect

    Collins, Jack Lee; Chi, Anthony

    2009-02-01

    A simple test tube methodology was used to determine optimum process parameters for preparing hydrous cerium oxide microspheres via the internal gelation process.1 Broth formulations of cerium ammonium nitrate [(NH4)2Ce(NO3)6], hexamethylenetetramine, and urea were found that can be used to prepare hydrous cerium oxide gel spheres in the temperature range of 60 to 90 C. A few gel-forming runs were made in which microspheres were prepared with some of these formulations to be able to equate the test-tube gelation times to actual gelation times. These preparations confirmed that the test-tube methodology is reliable for determining the ideal broth formulations.

  11. Electrooxidation of nitrite on a silica-cerium mixed oxide carbon paste electrode.

    PubMed

    Silveira, Gustavo; de Morais, Andréia; Villis, Paulo César Mendes; Maroneze, Camila Marchetti; Gushikem, Yoshitaka; Lucho, Alzira Maria Serpa; Pissetti, Fábio Luiz

    2012-03-01

    A silica-cerium mixed oxide (SiCe) was prepared by the sol-gel process, using tetraethylorthosilicate and cerium nitrate as precursors and obtained as an amorphous solid possessing a specific surface area of 459 m(2) g(-1). Infrared spectroscopy of the SiCe material showed the formation of the Si-O-Ce linkage in the mixed oxide. Scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive spectroscopy indicated that the cerium oxide particles were homogenously dispersed on the matrix surface. X-ray diffraction and (29)Si solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance implied non-crystalline silica matrices with chemical environments that are typical for silica-based mixed oxides. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy showed that Ce was present in approximately equal amounts of both the 3+ and 4+ oxidation states. Cyclic voltammetry data of electrode prepared from the silica-cerium mixed oxide showed a peak for oxidation of Ce(3+)/Ce(4+) at 0.76 V and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy equivalent circuit indicated a porous structure with low charge transfer resistance. In the presence of nitrite, the SiCe electrode shows an anodic oxidation peak at 0.76 V with a linear response as the concentration of the analyte increases from 3×10(-5) at 3.9×10(-3) mol L(-1).

  12. Influences of the main anodic electroplating parameters on cerium oxide films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Yang; Yang, Yumeng; Du, Xiaoqing; Chen, Yu; Zhang, Zhao; Zhang, Jianqing

    2014-06-01

    Cerium oxide thin films were fabricated onto 316 L stainless steel via a potentiostatically anodic electrodeposition approach in the solutions containing cerium(III) nitrate (0.05 M), ammonia acetate (0.1 M) and ethanol (10% V/V). The electrochemical behaviors and deposition parameters (applied potential, bath temperature, dissolving O2 and bath pH) have been investigated. Results show that, the electrochemical oxidation of Ce3+ goes through one electrochemical step, which is under charge transfer control. The optimum applied potential for film deposition is 0.8 V. Bath temperature plays a significant effect on the deposition rate, composition (different colors of the film) and surface morphology of the deposits. Due to the hydrolysis of Ce3+, cerous hydroxide is facility to form when the bath temperature is higher than 60 °C. The electroplating bath pH is another key role for the anodic deposition of cerium oxide thin films, and the best bath pH is around 6.20. N2 or O2 purged into the bath will result in film porosities and O2 favors cerium oxide particles and film generation.

  13. Lung retention of cerium in humans.

    PubMed Central

    Pairon, J C; Roos, F; Iwatsubo, Y; Janson, X; Billon-Galland, M A; Bignon, J; Brochard, P

    1994-01-01

    A retrospective study was conducted to evaluate lung retention of particles containing cerium in subjects with and without previous occupational exposure to mineral dusts. Analytical transmission electron microscopy was performed on 459 samples of bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid and 75 samples of lung tissue. Study of the distribution of mineralogical species in human samples showed that particles containing cerium were encountered in less than 10% of subjects. The proportion of subjects with particles containing cerium in their biological samples was not different between controls and subjects with previous occupational exposure to fibrous or nonfibrous mineral dusts. This was considered as the background level of lung retention of cerium in the general population. By contrast, determination of the absolute concentration of particles containing cerium in BAL fluid and lung tissue samples showed that 1.2% (from BAL fluid) and 1.5% (from lung tissue) of subjects with previous exposure to mineral particles had high lung retention of particles containing cerium. This study is believed to be the first one in which lung retention of cerium was estimated in the general population. PMID:8130849

  14. Virus Removal by Biogenic Cerium

    SciTech Connect

    De Gusseme, B.; Du Laing, G; Hennebel, T; Renard, P; Chidambaram, D; Fitts, J; Bruneel, E; Van Driessche, I; Verbeken, K; et. al.

    2010-01-01

    The rare earth element cerium has been known to exert antifungal and antibacterial properties in the oxidation states +III and +IV. This study reports on an innovative strategy for virus removal in drinking water by the combination of Ce(III) on a bacterial carrier matrix. The biogenic cerium (bio-Ce) was produced by addition of aqueous Ce(III) to actively growing cultures of either freshwater manganese-oxidizing bacteria (MOB) Leptothrix discophora or Pseudomonas putida MnB29. X-ray absorption spectroscopy results indicated that Ce remained in its trivalent state on the bacterial surface. The spectra were consistent with Ce(III) ions associated with the phosphoryl groups of the bacterial cell wall. In disinfection assays using a bacteriophage as model, it was demonstrated that bio-Ce exhibited antiviral properties. A 4.4 log decrease of the phage was observed after 2 h of contact with 50 mg L{sup -1} bio-Ce. Given the fact that virus removal with 50 mg L{sup -1} Ce(III) as CeNO{sub 3} was lower, the presence of the bacterial carrier matrix in bio-Ce significantly enhanced virus removal.

  15. Optical properties of cerium doped oxyfluoroborate glass.

    PubMed

    Bahadur, A; Dwivedi, Y; Rai, S B

    2013-06-01

    Cerium doped oxyfluoroborate glasses have been prepared and its spectroscopic properties have been discussed. It is found that the absorption edge shifts towards the lower energy side for the higher concentration of cerium dopant. Optical band gap for these glasses have been calculated and it is found that the number of non-bridging oxygen increases with cerium content. The emission spectra of these glasses have been recorded using UV laser radiations (266 and 355 nm) and it is observed that these glasses show bright blue emission. On the basis of excitation and emission spectra we have reported the existence of at least two different emission centers of Ce(3+)ions.

  16. From cerium oxycarbonate to nanostructured ceria: Relations between synthesis, thermal process and morphologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bakiz, Bahcine; Guinneton, Frédéric; Dallas, Jean-Pierre; Villain, Sylvie; Gavarri, Jean-Raymond

    2008-06-01

    Nanostructured cerium dioxide rods and powders were synthesized via two sol-gel routes, respectively at 200 °C, and in room conditions without any thermal treatment. The initial solution involved nitrates, urea and polyvinyl-pyrrolidine in aqueous medium. In a first step, we synthesized cerium oxycarbonate by heating the solution at 80 °C: crystalline grains of (Ce 3+) 2O(CO 3) 2, H 2O phase were obtained in the form of elongated crystalline spindles (5-10 μm long). Thermal decomposition of these spindle-like crystals gave rise to smaller elongated rods of nanostructured ceria. A second sol-gel route allowed obtaining nanosized ceria, after NH 4OH addition and without any heating process. X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analyses allowed characterizing the oxycarbonate polycrystalline samples and the two types of nanocrystalline ceria phases.

  17. Pharmacological potential of cerium oxidenanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Celardo, Ivana; Pedersen, Jens Z.; Traversa, Enrico; Ghibelli, Lina

    2011-04-01

    Nanotechnology promises a revolution in pharmacology to improve or create ex novo therapies. Cerium oxidenanoparticles (nanoceria), well-known as catalysts, possess an astonishing pharmacological potential due to their antioxidant properties, deriving from a fraction of Ce3+ ions present in CeO2. These defects, compensated by oxygen vacancies, are enriched at the surface and therefore in nanosized particles. Reactions involving redox cycles between the Ce3+ and Ce4+oxidation states allow nanoceria to react catalytically with superoxide and hydrogen peroxide, mimicking the behavior of two key antioxidant enzymes, superoxide dismutase and catalase, potentially abating all noxious intracellularreactive oxygen species (ROS) via a self-regenerating mechanism. Hence nanoceria, apparently well tolerated by the organism, might fight chronic inflammation and the pathologies associated with oxidative stress, which include cancer and neurodegeneration. Here we review the biological effects of nanoceria as they emerge from in vitro and in vivo studies, considering biocompatibility and the peculiar antioxidant mechanisms.

  18. Regulation of a cerium(IV)-driven O₂ evolution reaction using composites of liposome and lipophilic ruthenium complexes.

    PubMed

    Koshiyama, Tomomi; Kanda, Nao; Iwata, Koki; Honjo, Masayuki; Asada, Sana; Hatae, Tatsuru; Tsuji, Yasuhiro; Yoshida, Masaki; Okamura, Masaya; Kuga, Reiko; Masaoka, Shigeyuki; Ohba, Masaaki

    2015-09-14

    A composite containing a liposome and a lipophilic ruthenium complex was synthesized to regulate an O2 evolution reaction using cerium(IV) ammonium nitrate as an oxidizing reagent. We found that the surrounding environment of the reaction centre is an important factor for controlling the O2 evolution catalytic reaction. We successfully regulated the reaction activity using the linker length of the lipophilic ligand and using the head groups of the phospholipid component.

  19. The formation of light emitting cerium silicates in cerium-doped silicon oxides

    SciTech Connect

    Li Jing; Zalloum, Othman; Roschuk, Tyler; Heng Chenglin; Wojcik, Jacek; Mascher, Peter

    2009-01-05

    Cerium-doped silicon oxides with cerium concentrations of up to 0.9 at. % were deposited by electron cyclotron resonance plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition. Bright cerium related photoluminescence, easily seen even under room lighting conditions, was observed from the films and found to be sensitive to film composition and annealing temperature. The film containing 0.9 at. % Ce subjected to anneal in N{sub 2} at 1200 deg. C for 3 h showed the most intense cerium-related emission, easily visible under bright room lighting conditions. This is attributed to the formation of cerium silicate [Ce{sub 2}Si{sub 2}O{sub 7} or Ce{sub 4.667} (SiO{sub 4}){sub 3}O], the presence of which was confirmed by high resolution transmission electron microscopy.

  20. Cerium anomaly at microscale in fossils.

    PubMed

    Gueriau, Pierre; Mocuta, Cristian; Bertrand, Loïc

    2015-09-01

    Patterns in rare earth element (REE) concentrations are essential instruments to assess geochemical processes in Earth and environmental sciences. Excursions in the "cerium anomaly" are widely used to inform on past redox conditions in sediments. This proxy resources to the specificity of cerium to adopt both the +III and +IV oxidation states, while most rare earths are purely trivalent and share very similar reactivity and transport properties. In practical terms, the level of cerium anomaly is established through elemental point quantification and profiling. All these models rely on a supposed homogeneity of the cerium oxidation state within the samples. However, this has never been demonstrated, whereas the cerium concentration can significantly vary within a sample, as shown for fossils, which would vastly complicate interpretation of REE patterns. Here, we report direct micrometric mapping of Ce speciation through synchrotron X-ray absorption spectroscopy and production of local rare earth patterns in paleontological fossil tissues through X-ray fluorescence mapping. The sensitivity of the approach is demonstrated on well-preserved fishes and crustaceans from the Late Cretaceous (ca. 95 million years (Myr) old). The presence of Ce under the +IV form within the fossil tissues is attributed to slightly oxidative local conditions of burial and agrees well with the limited negative cerium anomaly observed in REE patterns. The [Ce(IV)]/[Ce(tot)] ratio appears remarkably stable at the microscale within each fossil and is similar between fossils from the locality. Speciation maps were obtained from an original combination of synchrotron microbeam X-ray fluorescence, absorption spectroscopy, and diffraction, together with light and electron microscopy. This work also highlights the need for more systematic studies of cerium geochemistry at the microscale in paleontological contexts, in particular across fossil histologies.

  1. Kinetics of thermal synthesis of cerium sulfides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gibbard, Kevin B.; Allahar, Kerry N.; Kolman, David; Butt, Darryl P.

    2008-09-01

    One of the most promising applications for cerium sulfide is as a refractory for molten metal processing, particularly for reactive actinides. Separate processes were used to synthesize cerium monosulfide, cerium sesquisulfide (Ce 2S 3) and cerium hydride (CeH 2). High purity Ce 2S 3 was produced by reacting ceria (CeO 2) and hydrogen sulfide (H 2S) in an induction furnace using a carbon catalyst at temperatures above 2000 °C. CeH 2 was synthesized from cerium metal and hydrogen gas at 100 °C. Ce 2S 3 and CeH 2 were subsequently reacted together in an induction furnace at temperatures above 1700 °C to produce CeS. X-ray diffraction was used to analyze synthesized samples and the kinetics of the CeS synthesis reaction was modeled using a diffusion-limited reaction model. The activation energy for the process was estimated to be 190 kJ/mol.

  2. α-Radioactivity of cerium-142

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Senftle, F.E.; Stern, T.W.; Alekna, V.P.

    1959-01-01

    JOHNSON AND NIER1 have measured the atomic masses of some of the rare-earth isotopes and have shown that the mass difference cerium-142—(barium-138 + helium-4) is equivalent to 1.68 ± 0.10 MeV. Similar results for the naturally occurring samarium and neodymium isotopes show that the α-active isotope of each element is the one having the largest possible decay energy. Rasmussen and others2 suggest that the two or three neutrons just beyond the closed shell of 82 neutrons have decreased binding energies and hence the α-energy has a maximum about 84 neutrons. Johnson and Nier suggest that the α-decay of cerium-142 may take place with enough energy to be experimentally observable. Porschen and Riezler3 examined a sample of un-enriched cerium ammonium citrate using nuclear track plates sensitive to α-particles. No α-activity was observed after a 30-day exposure of 1.2 mgm. of the cerium salt. In 1957 Riezler and Kauw4 reported an alpha activity for an enriched sample of cerium-142. From their results they calculated a half-life of 5.1 × 1015 years with an uncertainty factor of 2.

  3. Cerium oxide nanoparticles accelerate the decay of peroxynitrite (ONOO(-)).

    PubMed

    Dowding, Janet M; Seal, Sudipta; Self, William T

    2013-08-01

    Cerium oxide nanoparticles (CeO2 NPs) have been shown to possess a substantial oxygen storage capacity via the interchangeable surface reduction and oxidation of cerium atoms, cycling between the Ce(4+) and Ce(3+) redox states. It has been well established in many studies that depending on their reactivity and surface chemistry, CeO2 NPs can effectively convert both reactive oxygen species (superoxide, O2 (•-), and hydrogen peroxide) into more inert species and scavenge reactive nitrogen species (RNS)(nitric oxide, •NO), both in vitro and in vivo. Since much of damage attributed to •NO and O2 (•-) is actually the result of oxidation or nitration by peroxynitrite or its breakdown products and due to the multiple species that these nanoparticles target in vivo, it was logical to test their interaction with the highly reactive molecule peroxynitrite (ONOO(-)). Here, we report that CeO2 NPs significantly accelerated the decay of ONOO(-) by three independent methods. Additionally, our data suggest the ability of CeO2 NPs to interact with ONOO(-) is independent of the Ce(3+)/Ce(4+) ratio on the surface of the CeO2 NPs. The accelerated decay was not observed when reactions were carried out in an inert gas (argon), suggesting strongly that the decay of peroxynitrite is being accelerated due to a reaction of CeNPs with the carbonate radical anion. These results suggest that one of the protective effects of CeO2 NPs during RNS is likely due to reduction in peroxynitrite or its reactive breakdown products.

  4. A Comparison of Bulk Precipitated Cerium Oxide Powders and Cerium Conversion Coatings and the Influence of Hydrogen Peroxide on Their Formation (Preprint)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-03-01

    AFRL-ML-WP-TP-2006-422 A COMPARISON OF BULK PRECIPITATED CERIUM OXIDE POWDERS AND CERIUM CONVERSION COATINGS AND THE INFLUENCE OF HYDROGEN...TITLE AND SUBTITLE A COMPARISON OF BULK PRECIPITATED CERIUM OXIDE POWDERS AND CERIUM CONVERSION COATINGS AND THE INFLUENCE OF HYDROGEN PEROXIDE ON...ABSTRACT To better understand the role of hydrogen peroxide in the formation of cerium conversion coatings and precipitates , hydrated cerium oxide

  5. Nanocrystalline cerium oxide materials for solid fuel cell systems

    DOEpatents

    Brinkman, Kyle S

    2015-05-05

    Disclosed are solid fuel cells, including solid oxide fuel cells and PEM fuel cells that include nanocrystalline cerium oxide materials as a component of the fuel cells. A solid oxide fuel cell can include nanocrystalline cerium oxide as a cathode component and microcrystalline cerium oxide as an electrolyte component, which can prevent mechanical failure and interdiffusion common in other fuel cells. A solid oxide fuel cell can also include nanocrystalline cerium oxide in the anode. A PEM fuel cell can include cerium oxide as a catalyst support in the cathode and optionally also in the anode.

  6. Insensitive Ammonium Nitrate.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    is reduced by replacing the ammonium nitrate with a solid solution of potassium nitrate in form III ammonium nitrate wherein the potassium nitrate...constitutes from more than zero to less than 50 weight percent of the solid solution . (Author)

  7. Cerium migration during PEM fuel cell accelerated stress testing

    DOE PAGES

    Baker, Andrew M.; Mukundan, Rangachary; Borup, Rodney L.; ...

    2016-01-01

    Cerium is a radical scavenger which improves polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cell durability. During operation, however, cerium rapidly migrates in the PEM and into the catalyst layers (CLs). In this work, membrane electrode assemblies (MEAs) were subjected to accelerated stress tests (ASTs) under different humidity conditions. Cerium migration was characterized in the MEAs after ASTs using X-ray fluorescence. During fully humidified operation, water flux from cell inlet to outlet generated in-plane cerium gradients. Conversely, cerium profiles were flat during low humidity operation, where in-plane water flux was negligible, however, migration from the PEM into the CLs was enhanced. Humiditymore » cycling resulted in both in-plane cerium gradients due to water flux during the hydration component of the cycle, and significant migration into the CLs. Fluoride and cerium emissions into effluent cell waters were measured during ASTs and correlated, which signifies that ionomer degradation products serve as possible counter-ions for cerium emissions. Fluoride emission rates were also correlated to final PEM cerium contents, which indicates that PEM degradation and cerium migration are coupled. Lastly, it is proposed that cerium migrates from the PEM due to humidification conditions and degradation, and is subsequently stabilized in the CLs by carbon catalyst supports.« less

  8. Cerium migration during PEM fuel cell accelerated stress testing

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, Andrew M.; Mukundan, Rangachary; Borup, Rodney L.; Spernjak, Dusan; Judge, Elizabeth J.; Advani, Suresh G.; Prasad, Ajay K.

    2016-01-01

    Cerium is a radical scavenger which improves polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cell durability. During operation, however, cerium rapidly migrates in the PEM and into the catalyst layers (CLs). In this work, membrane electrode assemblies (MEAs) were subjected to accelerated stress tests (ASTs) under different humidity conditions. Cerium migration was characterized in the MEAs after ASTs using X-ray fluorescence. During fully humidified operation, water flux from cell inlet to outlet generated in-plane cerium gradients. Conversely, cerium profiles were flat during low humidity operation, where in-plane water flux was negligible, however, migration from the PEM into the CLs was enhanced. Humidity cycling resulted in both in-plane cerium gradients due to water flux during the hydration component of the cycle, and significant migration into the CLs. Fluoride and cerium emissions into effluent cell waters were measured during ASTs and correlated, which signifies that ionomer degradation products serve as possible counter-ions for cerium emissions. Fluoride emission rates were also correlated to final PEM cerium contents, which indicates that PEM degradation and cerium migration are coupled. Lastly, it is proposed that cerium migrates from the PEM due to humidification conditions and degradation, and is subsequently stabilized in the CLs by carbon catalyst supports.

  9. Divalent fluoride doped cerium fluoride scintillator

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, David F.; Sparrow, Robert W.

    1991-01-01

    The use of divalent fluoride dopants in scintillator materials comprising cerium fluoride is disclosed. The preferred divalent fluoride dopants are calcium fluoride, strontium fluoride, and barium fluoride. The preferred amount of divalent fluoride dopant is less than about two percent by weight of the total scintillator. Cerium fluoride scintillator crystals grown with the addition of a divalent fluoride have exhibited better transmissions and higher light outputs than crystals grown without the addition of such dopants. These scintillators are useful in radiation detection and monitoring applications, and are particularly well suited for high-rate applications such as positron emission tomography (PET).

  10. Molecular and electronic structures of cerium and cerium suboxide clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kafader, Jared O.; Topolski, Josey E.; Jarrold, Caroline Chick

    2016-10-01

    The anion photoelectron (PE) spectra of Ce2Oy- (y = 1, 2), Ce3Oy- (y = 0-4), Ce4Oy- (y = 0-2), and Ce5Oy- (y = 1, 2) are reported and analyzed with supporting results from density functional theory calculations. The PE spectra all exhibit an intense electronic transition to the neutral ground state, all falling in the range of 0.7 to 1.1 eV electron binding energy, with polarization dependence consistent with detachment from diffuse Ce 6s-based molecular orbitals. There is no monotonic increase in electron affinity with increasing oxidation. A qualitative picture of how electronic structure evolves with an oxidation state emerges from comparison between the spectra and the computational results. The electronic structure of the smallest metallic cluster observed in this study, Ce3, is similar to the bulk structure in terms of atomic orbital occupancy (4f 5d2 6s). Initial cerium cluster oxidation involves largely ionic bond formation via Ce 5d and O 2p orbital overlap (i.e., larger O 2p contribution), with Ce—O—Ce bridge bonding favored over Ce=O terminal bond formation. With subsequent oxidation, the Ce 5d-based molecular orbitals are depleted of electrons, with the highest occupied orbitals described as diffuse Ce 6s based molecular orbitals. In the y ≤ (x + 1) range of oxidation states, each Ce center has a singly occupied non-bonding 4f orbital. The PE spectrum of Ce3O4- is unique in that it exhibits a single nearly vertical transition. The highly symmetric structure predicted computationally is the same structure determined from Ce3O4+ IR predissociation spectra [A. M. Burow et al., Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 13, 19393 (2011)], indicating that this structure is stable in -1, 0, and +1 charge states. Spectra of clusters with x ≥ 3 exhibit considerable continuum signal above the ground state transition; the intensity of the continuum signal decreases with increasing oxidation. This feature is likely the result of numerous quasi-bound anion states or two

  11. Blue light emission from trivalent cerium doped in sol-gel silica glass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tokumitsu, Seika; Murakami, Yukon; Oda, Hisaya; Kawabe, Yutaka

    2017-02-01

    Rare earths in glass matrices are promising for active optical devices as amplifiers and lasers. Emission originating from d-f transitions in sol-gel glass has not been studied very often, while those based on f-f transitions were widely utilized. However, d-f emission in rare earths is very important because of their strong oscillator strength and broad emission widths suitable for the application to scintillators and solid-state lasers. Co-doping of aluminum in sol-gel synthesis was known to be effective for the emission enhancement of trivalent terbium and europium. Recently, we applied aluminum co-doping to cerium and europium systems in sol-gel glass to succeed in the observation of strong blue light emission originating from d-f transitions. Glass samples were prepared with conventional sol-gel process where tetramethylorthosilicate was hydrolyzed in the mixture of water, ethanol and dimethylformamide with nitric acid catalyst. After adding cerium nitrate and aluminum nitrate, the solution experienced drying followed by calcination at 1,050°C under air environment. When molar ratio of cerium to silicon was adjusted at 0.1% and Al concentration was varied in 0.1 2.0%, transparent glass products showed bright and broad blue photoluminescence under UV illumination. The fluorescence lifetimes were found to be about 50 90 ns, indicating that the emission was due to d-f transitions. Considering the simplicity of the process, blue phosphors based on sol-gel glass will be very promising for future applications.

  12. Preparation of Sm doped cerium dioxide film by anodization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    LIU, Xiaozhen; Yang, Junhua; Liu, Xiaozhou; Xia, Letian; Chen, Jie; Zhu, Ying

    2017-04-01

    The Sm doped cerium dioxide films were prepared with cerium foils as raw materials by anodization in Sm(NO3)3-Na2C2O4-NH3·H2O-H2O-(CH2OH)2 electrolyte. The anodic Sm doped cerium oxide film was heat treated at 550°C. The Sm doped cerium dioxide films were characterized with X-ray diffraction (XRD), energy-dispersive analyses of X-ray (EDAX), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) techniques and scanning electron microcopy (SEM), respectively. The anodic Sm doped cerium oxide film is semi crystalline film. The heat treated anodic Sm doped cerium oxide film at 550°C has a structure of cubic fluorite. The doping of Sm is replacement doping or caulking doping. The Sm doped cerium dioxide film is porous film. The water, ethylene glycol and CO2 are adsorbed in the anodic Sm doped cerium oxide film. The adsorbing water, ethylene glycol and CO2 in the anodic Sm doped cerium oxide film are removed at 550°C. The Sm doped cerium dioxide film has strong absorption in the range of 1200 ~ 4000cm-1.

  13. Catalytic wet oxidation of 2,4-dichlorophenol solutions: activity of the manganese-cerium composite catalyst and biodegradability of the effluent stream.

    PubMed

    Lee, Bing-Nan; Lou, Jie-Chung; Yen, Po-Chung

    2002-01-01

    Aqueous solutions containing 100 to 1000 mg/L of 2,4-dichlorophenol (2,4-DCP) were oxidized in an upflowing fixed-bed reactor in this study of manganese-cerium composite catalysts, which were prepared by the coprecipitation of both manganese nitrate and ceric nitrate at various molar concentrations. Results showed that 2,4-DCP conversion by wet oxidation in the presence of the manganese-cerium composite catalysts was a function of the molar ratio of the manganese-cerium catalyst. The kinetic behavior of 2,4-DCP oxidation with catalysis could be explained by using a zero-order rate expression. Total organic carbon (TOC) removal by wet oxidation in the absence of any catalyst was nil, while approximately 68% TOC reduction was achieved during wet oxidation over a manganese-cerium (7:3 mol/mol) catalyst at 160 degrees C and an oxygen partial pressure of 1.0 MPa. Moreover, the 5-day biochemical oxygen demand/chemical oxygen demand ratios of all the effluent streams were determined to be greater than 0.45 as the wet catalytic processes were carried out at a liquid hourly space velocity less than 24 h (-1), indicating that they could be made more amenable to further biological treatment.

  14. Uptake and accumulation of bulk and nanosized cerium oxide particles and ionic cerium by radish (Raphanus sativus L.).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Weilan; Ebbs, Stephen D; Musante, Craig; White, Jason C; Gao, Cunmei; Ma, Xingmao

    2015-01-21

    The potential toxicity and accumulation of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) in agricultural crops has become an area of great concern and intense investigation. Interestingly, although below-ground vegetables are most likely to accumulate the highest concentrations of ENMs, little work has been done investigating the potential uptake and accumulation of ENMs for this plant group. The overall objective of this study was to evaluate how different forms of cerium (bulk cerium oxide, cerium oxide nanoparticles, and the cerium ion) affected the growth of radish (Raphanus sativus L.) and accumulation of cerium in radish tissues. Ionic cerium (Ce(3+)) had a negative effect on radish growth at 10 mg CeCl3/L, whereas bulk cerium oxide (CeO2) enhanced plant biomass at the same concentration. Treatment with 10 mg/L cerium oxide nanoparticles (CeO2 NPs) had no significant effect on radish growth. Exposure to all forms of cerium resulted in the accumulation of this element in radish tissues, including the edible storage root. However, the accumulation patterns and their effect on plant growth and physiological processes varied with the characteristics of cerium. This study provides a critical frame of reference on the effects of CeO2 NPs versus their bulk and ionic counterparts on radish growth.

  15. Effect of Cerium Doped on the Poly(3-(Trimethoxysilyl)propyl methacrylate) Characteristic as Corrosion Protection Material of Carbon Steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rochmah, D. N.; Syakir, N.; Susilawati, T.; Suryaningsih, S.; Fitrilawati

    2017-05-01

    The hybrid polymer precursor was synthesized from monomer of 3-(trimethoxysilyl) propyl methacrylate (TMSPMA) using sol-gel method and doped with inhibitor of Cerium Nitrate Hexahydrate with a concentration of 0.2%. The synthesized material was coated on a carbon steel surface by solution casting technique and followed by a photopolymerisation process. Corrosion tests were performed by using Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) in 3.5% NaCl at the critical temperature of 75°C. Result of EIS data and their fitting analysis using an equivalent circuit model shows that a coating of poly(TMSPMA)-Cerium on the surface of carbon steel form a layer of protection and caused increasing of impedance value significantly. The impedance is higher compared to the carbon steel that coated with poly(TMSPMA) only.

  16. Study of cerium phase transitions in shock wave experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhernokletov, M. V.; Kovalev, A. E.; Komissarov, V. V.; Novikov, M. G.; Zocher, M. A.; Cherne, F. J.

    2011-02-01

    Cerium has a complex phase diagram that is explained by the presence of structural phase transitions. Experiments to measure the sound velocities in cerium by two methods were carried out to determine the onset of cerium melting on the Hugoniot. In the pressure range 4-37 GPa, the sound velocity in cerium samples was measured by the counter release method using manganin-based piezoresistive gauges. In the pressure range 35-140 GPa, the sound velocity in cerium was measured by the overtaking release method using carbogal and tetrachloromethane indicator liquids. The samples were loaded with plane shock wave generators using powerful explosive charges. The onset of cerium melting on the Hugoniot at a pressure of about 13 GPa has been ascertained from the measured elastic longitudinal and bulk sound velocities.

  17. Study of cerium phase transitions in shock wave experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Zhernokletov, M. V. Kovalev, A. E.; Komissarov, V. V.; Novikov, M. G.; Zocher, M. A. Cherne, F. J.

    2011-02-15

    Cerium has a complex phase diagram that is explained by the presence of structural phase transitions. Experiments to measure the sound velocities in cerium by two methods were carried out to determine the onset of cerium melting on the Hugoniot. In the pressure range 4-37 GPa, the sound velocity in cerium samples was measured by the counter release method using manganin-based piezoresistive gauges. In the pressure range 35-140 GPa, the sound velocity in cerium was measured by the overtaking release method using carbogal and tetrachloromethane indicator liquids. The samples were loaded with plane shock wave generators using powerful explosive charges. The onset of cerium melting on the Hugoniot at a pressure of about 13 GPa has been ascertained from the measured elastic longitudinal and bulk sound velocities.

  18. Rare-earth oxide nanostructures: rules of rare-earth nitrate thermolysis in octadecylamine.

    PubMed

    Wang, Dingsheng; Wang, Zhongying; Zhao, Peng; Zheng, Wen; Peng, Qing; Liu, Liqin; Chen, Xueyuan; Li, Yadong

    2010-04-01

    The decomposed regularity of rare-earth nitrates in octadecylamine (ODA) is discussed. The experimental results show that these nitrates can be divided into four types. For rare-earth nitrates with larger RE(3+) ions (RE=rare earth, La, Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd), the decomposed products exhibited platelike nanostructures. For those with smaller RE(3+) ions (RE=Y, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb), the decomposed products exhibited beltlike nanostructures. For terbium nitrate with a middle RE(3+) ion, the decomposed product exhibited a rodlike nanostructure. The corresponding rare-earth oxides, with the same morphologies as their precursors, could be obtained when these decomposed products were calcined. For cerium nitrate, which showed the greatest differences, flowerlike cerium oxide could be obtained directly from decomposition of the nitrate without further calcination. This regularity is explained on the basis of the lanthanide contraction. Owing to their differences in electron configuration, ionic radius, and crystal structure, such a nitrate family therefore shows different thermolysis properties. In addition, the potential application of these as-obtained rare-earth oxides as catalysts and luminescent materials was investigated. The advantages of this method for rare-earth oxides includes simplicity, high yield, low cost, and ease of scale-up, which are of great importance for their industrial applications.

  19. Photoemission study of cerium silicate model systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skála, Tomáš; Matolín, Vladimír

    2013-01-01

    Interaction of silicon with cerium oxide was studied by photoelectron spectroscopy using two model systems CeOx/Si(1 1 1) and Si/CeO2(1 1 1)/Cu(1 1 1) which can be used for fundamental studies in the field of microelectronics and heterogeneous catalysis. The interaction was found to be strong and lead to a formation of cerium silicate films of the proposed stoichiometry Ce4.67Si3O13. Their maximum thickness was limited by diffusion of silicon. Beside silicate other compounds were growing on the surface - SiO2, Si2O, Si, and CeO2. The assignment of the formed species is based on the interpretation of photoemission spectra involving the measurements of various reference O/Si and Sisbnd O/Cu systems.

  20. Gamma-alpha Isostructural Transition in Cerium

    SciTech Connect

    Lanata, Nicola; Yao, Yong-Xin; Wang, Cai-Zhuang; Ho, Kai-Ming; Schmalian, Jorg; Haule, Kristjan; Kotliar, Gabriel

    2013-11-05

    We present zero-temperature first-principles calculations of elemental cerium and we compute its pressure-volume phase diagram within a theoretical framework able to describe simultaneously both the α and the γ phases. A surprising result revealed by our study is the presence of a clear signature of the transition at zero temperature and that this signature can be observed if and only if the spin-orbit coupling is taken into account. Our calculations indicate that the transition line in the pressure-temperature phase diagram of this material has a low-T critical point at negative pressures, placed very close to zero temperature. This suggests that cerium is very close to being “quantum critical,” in agreement with recent experiments.

  1. Trinitratobis{N'-[1-(2-pyridyl)ethylidene]isonicotinohydrazide}cerium(III): a three-dimensional cerium-organic supramolecular structure.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ying Ying; Liu, Shi Xiong

    2009-07-01

    The Ce(III) ion in the title complex, [Ce(NO(3))(3)(C(13)H(12)N(4)O)(2)], is 12-coordinated by six chelating nitrate O atoms and six donors (2 O and 4 N atoms) of two N'-[1-(2-pyridyl)ethylidene]isonicotinohydrazide ligands, exhibiting a bicapped pentagonal-antiprism-type coordination geometry. The title complex possesses C(2) point symmetry and is located on a twofold crystallographic axis. Each molecule is linked with four surrounding molecules by four N-H...N hydrogen bonds, resulting in an extended two-dimensional layer parallel to the ab plane, while pi-pi interactions between pyridine rings from neighboring complex molecules connect the two-dimensional layers into a three-dimensional cerium-organic supramolecular structure.

  2. Phonons of the anomalous element cerium

    PubMed Central

    Krisch, Michael; Farber, D. L.; Xu, R.; Antonangeli, Daniele; Aracne, C. M.; Beraud, Alexandre; Chiang, Tai-Chang; Zarestky, J.; Kim, Duck Young; Isaev, Eyvaz I.; Ahuja, Rajeev; Johansson, Börje

    2011-01-01

    Many physical and chemical properties of the light rare-earths and actinides are governed by the active role of f electrons, and despite intensive efforts the details of the mechanisms of phase stability and transformation are not fully understood. A prominent example which has attracted a lot of interest, both experimentally and theoretically over the years is the isostructural γ - α transition in cerium. We have determined by inelastic X-ray scattering, the complete phonon dispersion scheme of elemental cerium across the γ → α transition, and compared it with theoretical results using ab initio lattice dynamics. Several phonon branches show strong changes in the dispersion shape, indicating large modifications in the interactions between phonons and conduction electrons. This is reflected as well by the lattice Grüneisen parameters, particularly around the X point. We derive a vibrational entropy change , illustrating the importance of the lattice contribution to the transition. Additionally, we compare first principles calculations with the experiments to shed light on the mechanism underlying the isostructural volume collapse in cerium under pressure. PMID:21597000

  3. Atomic Transition Probabilities for Neutral Cerium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawler, J. E.; den Hartog, E. A.; Wood, M. P.; Nitz, D. E.; Chisholm, J.; Sobeck, J.

    2009-10-01

    The spectra of neutral cerium (Ce I) and singly ionized cerium (Ce II) are more complex than spectra of other rare earth species. The resulting high density of lines in the visible makes Ce ideal for use in metal halide (MH) High Intensity Discharge (HID) lamps. Inclusion of cerium-iodide in a lamp dose can improve both the Color Rendering Index and luminous efficacy of a MH-HID lamp. Basic spectroscopic data including absolute atomic transition probabilities for Ce I and Ce II are needed for diagnosing and modeling these MH-HID lamps. Recent work on Ce II [1] is now being augmented with similar work on Ce I. Radiative lifetimes from laser induced fluorescence measurements [2] on neutral Ce are being combined with emission branching fractions from spectra recorded using a Fourier transform spectrometer. A total of 14 high resolution spectra are being analyzed to determine branching fractions for 2000 to 3000 lines from 153 upper levels in neutral Ce. Representative data samples and progress to date will be presented. [4pt] [1] J. E. Lawler, C. Sneden, J. J. Cowan, I. I. Ivans, and E. A. Den Hartog, Astrophys. J. Suppl. Ser. 182, 51-79 (2009). [0pt] [2] E. A. Den Hartog, K. P. Buettner, and J. E. Lawler, J. Phys. B: Atomic, Molecular & Optical Physics 42, 085006 (7pp) (2009).

  4. RECOVERY OF Pu FROM CERIUM TRIFLUORIDE BY FLUORINATION

    DOEpatents

    Brown, H.S.; Bohlmann, E.G.

    1959-02-10

    An improved process is prcsented for selectively recovering plutonium from a solution containing fission products comprising precipitating cerium trifluoride in the solution for effccting carrier precipitation of plutonium. The resulting carrier precipitate is dried and subjected to fluorination at about 600 C. The plutonium forms a volatile fiuoridc and is so separated from the nonvolatile cerium fluoride.

  5. Study of the cerium(IV)-picrate system in acetonitrile.

    PubMed

    Kratochvil, B; Tipler, M; McKay, B

    1966-07-01

    A potentiometric and spectrophotometric study has been made of the reaction between hexanitratocerate and picrate in dry acetonitrile. Several cerium(IV)-picrate complexes are formed; the formation constant for the first is estimated to be 4 from spectrophotometric measurements. The catalytic effect of picrate on hydroquinone oxidation by nitratocerate is postulated to be due to more rapid electron transfer by cerium picrate complexes.

  6. 40 CFR 721.8657 - Cerium, hydroxy oleate propionate complexes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Cerium, hydroxy oleate propionate... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.8657 Cerium, hydroxy oleate propionate complexes. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as...

  7. 40 CFR 721.8657 - Cerium, hydroxy oleate propionate complexes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Cerium, hydroxy oleate propionate... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.8657 Cerium, hydroxy oleate propionate complexes. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as...

  8. 40 CFR 721.8657 - Cerium, hydroxy oleate propionate complexes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Cerium, hydroxy oleate propionate... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.8657 Cerium, hydroxy oleate propionate complexes. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as...

  9. 40 CFR 721.8657 - Cerium, hydroxy oleate propionate complexes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Cerium, hydroxy oleate propionate... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.8657 Cerium, hydroxy oleate propionate complexes. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as...

  10. Local Structure of Cerium in Aluminophosphate and Silicophosphate Glasses

    SciTech Connect

    J Rygel; Y Chen; C Pantano; T Shibata; J Du; L Kokou; R Woodman; J Belcher

    2011-12-31

    The local structure of cerium in two systematic compositional series of glasses, nominally CeP{sub 3}O{sub 9}-AlP{sub 3}O{sub 9} and CeP{sub 3}O{sub 9}-SiP{sub 2}O{sub 7}, was interrogated using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) spectroscopy. XPS revealed that, for glasses melted in air, {>=}95% of cerium ions are Ce{sup 3+}. This was independently confirmed using X-ray absorption near edge spectroscopy (XANES). Ce K-edge extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) has been used to determine the local structure of Ce{sup 3+}. Near the metaphosphate composition, cerium was found to have an average cerium coordination number of {approx}7.0 and an average cerium-oxygen bond length of 2.41 {angstrom}. The average cerium coordination number and average cerium-oxygen bond distance were found to increase with decreasing cerium concentration in both compositional series. Rare-earth clustering is suggested based on numerical calculations for glasses containing {>=}14 and {>=}15 mol% Ce{sub 2}O{sub 3} for the aluminophosphate and silicophosphate series, respectively.

  11. Local Structure of Cerium in Aluminophosphate and Silicophosphate Glasses

    SciTech Connect

    Rygel, Jennifer L.; Chen, Yongsheng; Pantano, Carlo G.; Shibata, Tomohiro; Du, Jincheng; Kokou, Leopold; Woodman, Robert; Belcher, James

    2011-09-20

    The local structure of cerium in two systematic compositional series of glasses, nominally CeP{sub 3}O{sub 9}-AlP{sub 3}O{sub 9} and CeP{sub 3}O{sub 9}-SiP{sub 2}O{sub 7}, was interrogated using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) spectroscopy. XPS revealed that, for glasses melted in air, {>=}95% of cerium ions are Ce{sup 3+}. This was independently confirmed using X-ray absorption near edge spectroscopy (XANES). Ce K-edge extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) has been used to determine the local structure of Ce{sup 3+}. Near the metaphosphate composition, cerium was found to have an average cerium coordination number of {approx}7.0 and an average cerium-oxygen bond length of 2.41 {angstrom}. The average cerium coordination number and average cerium-oxygen bond distance were found to increase with decreasing cerium concentration in both compositional series. Rare-earth clustering is suggested based on numerical calculations for glasses containing {>=}14 and {>=}15 mol% Ce{sub 2}O{sub 3} for the aluminophosphate and silicophosphate series, respectively.

  12. Cerium migration during PEM fuel cell assembly and operation

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, Andrew M.; Torraco, Dennis; Judge, Elizabeth J.; Spernjak, Dusan; Mukundan, Rangachary; Borup, Rod L.; Advani, Suresh G.; Prasad, Ajay K.

    2015-09-14

    Cerium migration between PEM fuel cell components is influenced by potential-driven mobility, ionic diffusion, and gradients in water content. These factors were investigated in ex situ experiments and in operating fuel cells. Potential-induced migration was measured ex situ in hydrated window cells. Cerium-containing MEAs were also fabricated and tested under ASTs. MEA disassembly and subsequent XRF analysis were used to observe rapid cerium migration during cell assembly and operation. During MEA hot pressing, humidification, and low RH operation at OCV, ionic diffusion causes uniform migration from the membrane into the catalyst layers. During high RH operation at OCV, in-plane cerium gradients arise due to variations in water content. These gradients may diminish the scavenging efficacy of cerium by reducing its proximity to generated radicals.

  13. Use of boiled hexamethylenetetramine and urea to increase the porosity of cerium dioxide microspheres formed in the internal gelation process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hunt, R. D.; Collins, J. L.; Cowell, B. S.

    2017-08-01

    Cerium dioxide (CeO2) is a commonly used simulant for plutonium dioxide and for plutonium (Pu) in uranium (U) and Pu oxide [(U, Pu)O2] mixtures used in nuclear fuel development. This effort developed CeO2 microspheres with a various porosities and diameters. The internal gelation technique has only been used to produce CeO2 microspheres with limited initial porosity. Previous studies have shown that the crystallite size and porosity of mixed U and thorium oxide microspheres and the (U, Pu)O2 microspheres from the internal gelation process increased when an equal molar solution of hexamethylenetetramine (HMTA) and urea is gently boiled for 1 h prior to its use in the gelation process. In this study with cerium, the combination of ammonium cerium nitrate and 1-h boiled HMTA-urea failed to produce a stable feed broth. However, when the 1-h heated HMTA-urea was combined with unheated HMTA-urea in 1-3 vol ratio or the boiling time of the HMTA-urea was reduced to 15-20 min, a stable solution of HMTA, urea, and Ce was formed at 273 K. This new Ce solution produced very porous CeO2 microspheres, which are suitable simulants for uranium microspheres.

  14. Production of cerium-apatite in sound and carious dental enamel under in vitro conditions.

    PubMed

    Kiss, J; Bánóczy, J; Fehérváry, E; Gintner, Z; Albrecht, M

    1990-01-01

    Incipient dental caries--according to up-to-date concepts in dental research--means a demineralization without cavity formation. At this stage the carious process is reversible, and remineralization can be achieved in the presence of locally applied fluorides. In chrystalchemical experiments, however, by treating natural apatites with lanthanides, [Ce, La, Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu, Tb ... Y, Sc] a more resistant complex could be developed. In this study extracted human molar teeth were kept for 60 days in Cerium (III)-nitrate solution, in order to investigate the incorporation of Ce3+ into human sound and carious enamel by light-microscopic-, and electron microprobe methods. Ce3+ was incorporated in sound enamel as well as into the incipient carious lesion, showing the histological characteristics of a remineralizing lesion. The mean values of the microprobe analysis data showed an increase in Ce3+ changing place with the Ca2+ the developing cerium-apatite being more hard and resistant from a mineralophysical point of view.

  15. Ultrathin, epitaxial cerium dioxide on silicon

    SciTech Connect

    Flege, Jan Ingo Kaemena, Björn; Höcker, Jan; Schmidt, Thomas; Falta, Jens; Bertram, Florian; Wollschläger, Joachim

    2014-03-31

    It is shown that ultrathin, highly ordered, continuous films of cerium dioxide may be prepared on silicon following substrate prepassivation using an atomic layer of chlorine. The as-deposited, few-nanometer-thin Ce{sub 2}O{sub 3} film may very effectively be converted at room temperature to almost fully oxidized CeO{sub 2} by simple exposure to air, as demonstrated by hard X-ray photoemission spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction. This post-oxidation process essentially results in a negligible loss in film crystallinity and interface abruptness.

  16. Cerium and yttrium oxide nanoparticles are neuroprotective.

    PubMed

    Schubert, David; Dargusch, Richard; Raitano, Joan; Chan, Siu-Wai

    2006-03-31

    The responses of cells exposed to nanoparticles have been studied with regard to toxicity, but very little attention has been paid to the possibility that some types of particles can protect cells from various forms of lethal stress. It is shown here that nanoparticles composed of cerium oxide or yttrium oxide protect nerve cells from oxidative stress and that the neuroprotection is independent of particle size. The ceria and yttria nanoparticles act as direct antioxidants to limit the amount of reactive oxygen species required to kill the cells. It follows that this group of nanoparticles could be used to modulate oxidative stress in biological systems.

  17. Effects of structure of nitrator on nitration reaction

    SciTech Connect

    Shiying, Yin; Benli, Yin

    1995-12-01

    It is well-known that nitration of dinitrotoluene (DNT) proceeds quite slowly. Unsatisfactory structure of nitrator could cause an incomplete nitration in the nitrator, and nitration continues in the separator. This, in turn, increases the temperature difference between nitrator and separator. It was found that the nitration degree of DNT in nitrator could be estimated by this temperature difference. We investigated the relationship between the nitrator`s structure and the above temperature difference, and based on the research results obtained we could make nitration complete in nitrator, improve the quality of trinitrotoluene (TNT), lower the consumption of raw materials, especially sulfuric acid, and increase the safety of production.

  18. Sorptive separation of yttrium and cerium on a weakly basic anionite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheremisina, O. V.; Ponomareva, M. A.; Chirkst, D. E.; Lobacheva, O. L.; Shul'gin, I. A.

    2015-01-01

    The sorption of complex yttrium ions with Trilon B onto the weakly basic anionite D-403 in nitrate form from an acidic medium at pH 3 with constant ionic strength (NaNO3, 1 mol/kg) is investigated. A thermodynamic evaluation of the sorption isotherm of anionic yttrium complexes is performed using a method based on the linearization of the equation of the law of active mass, modified for ionic exchange reactions. The ionic exchange constant, the Gibbs free energy of ionic exchange, the capacity of the anionite, and the sorption limit of ethylenediaminetetraacetatoyttrate ions (EDTA yttrate ions) are calculated. Using a frontal version of ion exchange chromatography, cerium and yttrium are separated on D-403 anionite with a fraction of pure yttrium at the column outlet of no less than 30%.

  19. Selective cytotoxicity effect of cerium oxide nanoparticles under UV irradiation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Li; Jiang, Hui; Selke, Matthias; Wang, Xuemei

    2014-02-01

    During photodynamic therapy (PDT) of cancers, there are numerous side effects, accompanied by damage to normal cells/tissues caused by the abnormal elevation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). In this paper, we aim to provide an effective method to reduce the relevant side effects of PDT by using cerium oxide nanoparticles. The well-dispersed poly(vinyl pyrrolidone) stabilized cerium oxide nanoparticles were successfully synthesized by using a one-pot method at 60 degrees C in slightly alkaline environment. The morphological and structural characterizations clearly illustrate the excellent lattice structures of cerium oxide, nanoparticles. The MTT assay indicates that these cerium oxide nanoparticles show no intrinsic cytotoxicity even at a concentration up to 300 micro g/mL. More importantly, the results demonstrate that these nanoparticles can selectively protect human normal cells but not the cancer cells from ROS damage after exposure to UV-radiation, suggesting their potential applications for PDT treatment. The rationale behind the selective protection effect can be attributed to the hindrance of the Ce (III)/Ce (IV) redox reaction cycle on the surface of cerium oxide nanoparticles due to the abnormal intracellular pH in cancer cells. Furthermore, these cerium oxide nanoparticles can be used as effective drug carriers for enhancing drug delivery efficiency to target cancer cells like hepatoma HepG2 cells. This raises the possibility of applying cerium oxide nanoparticles for multifunctional therapeutic applications, i.e., combination of efficient PDT and chemotherapy.

  20. Alkali metal nitrate purification

    DOEpatents

    Fiorucci, Louis C.; Morgan, Michael J.

    1986-02-04

    A process is disclosed for removing contaminants from impure alkali metal nitrates containing them. The process comprises heating the impure alkali metal nitrates in solution form or molten form at a temperature and for a time sufficient to effect precipitation of solid impurities and separating the solid impurities from the resulting purified alkali metal nitrates. The resulting purified alkali metal nitrates in solution form may be heated to evaporate water therefrom to produce purified molten alkali metal nitrates suitable for use as a heat transfer medium. If desired, the purified molten form may be granulated and cooled to form discrete solid particles of purified alkali metal nitrates.

  1. Kinetics of phosphodiester cleavage by differently generated cerium(IV) hydroxo species in neutral solutions.

    PubMed

    Maldonado, Ana L; Yatsimirsky, Anatoly K

    2005-08-07

    Neutral aqueous solutions of cerium ammonium nitrate obtained by dilution of their acetonitrile stock solution with imidazole buffer show high catalytic activity in the hydrolysis of bis(p-nitrophenyl) phosphate (BNPP) and better reproducibility than other similar systems, but suffer from low stability. The kinetics of catalytic hydrolysis is second-order in Ce(IV), independent of pH in the range 5-8 and tentatively involves the Ce2(OH)7+ species as the active form. Attempts to stabilize the active species by different types of added ligands failed, but the use of Ce(IV) complexes pre-synthesized in an organic solvent with potentially stabilizing ligands as precursors of active hydroxo species appeared to be more successful. Three new Ce(IV) complexes, [Ce(Phen)2O(NO3)2], [Ce(tris)O(NO3)(OH)] and [Ce(BTP)2(NO3)4].2H2O (BTP = bis-tris propane, 1,3-bis[tris(hydroxymethyl)methylamino]propane), were prepared by reacting cerium ammonium nitrate with the respective ligands in acetonitrile and were characterized by analytical and spectroscopic techniques. Aqueous solutions of these complexes undergo rapid hydrolysis producing nearly neutral polynuclear Ce(IV) oxo/hydroxo species with high catalytic activity in BNPP hydrolysis. Potentiometric titrations of the solutions obtained from the complex with BTP revealed the formation of Ce4(OH)15+ species at pH > 7, which are protonated affording Ce4(OH)14(2+) and then Ce4(OH)13(3+) on a decrease in pH from 7 to 5. The catalytic activity increases strongly on going to species with a higher positive charge. The reaction mechanism involves first- and second-order in catalyst paths as well as intermediate complex formation with the substrate for higher charged species.

  2. Study on cerium-doped nano-TiO2 coatings for corrosion protection of 316 L stainless steel.

    PubMed

    Li, Suning; Wang, Qian; Chen, Tao; Zhou, Zhihua; Wang, Ying; Fu, Jiajun

    2012-04-19

    Many methods have been reported on improving the photogenerated cathodic protection of nano-TiO2 coatings for metals. In this work, nano-TiO2 coatings doped with cerium nitrate have been developed by sol-gel method for corrosion protection of 316 L stainless steel. Surface morphology, structure, and properties of the prepared coatings were investigated by X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. The corrosion protection performance of the prepared coatings was evaluated in 3 wt% NaCl solution by using electrochemical techniques in the presence and absence of simulated sunlight illumination. The results indicated that the 1.2% Ce-TiO2 coating with three layers exhibited an excellent photogenerated cathodic protection under illumination attributed to the higher separation efficiency of electron-hole pairs and higher photoelectric conversion efficiency. The results also showed that after doping with an appropriate concentration of cerium nitrate, the anti-corrosion performance of the TiO2 coating was improved even without irradiation due to the self-healing property of cerium ions.

  3. Photodissociation of Cerium Oxide Nanocluster Cations.

    PubMed

    Akin, S T; Ard, S G; Dye, B E; Schaefer, H F; Duncan, M A

    2016-04-21

    Cerium oxide cluster cations, CexOy(+), are produced via laser vaporization in a pulsed nozzle source and detected with time-of-flight mass spectrometry. The mass spectrum displays a strongly preferred oxide stoichiometry for each cluster with a specific number of metal atoms x, with x ≤ y. Specifically, the most prominent clusters correspond to the formula CeO(CeO2)n(+). The cluster cations are mass selected and photodissociated with a Nd:YAG laser at either 532 or 355 nm. The prominent clusters dissociate to produce smaller species also having a similar CeO(CeO2)n(+) formula, always with apparent leaving groups of (CeO2). The production of CeO(CeO2)n(+) from the dissociation of many cluster sizes establishes the relative stability of these clusters. Furthermore, the consistent loss of neutral CeO2 shows that the smallest neutral clusters adopt the same oxidation state (IV) as the most common form of bulk cerium oxide. Clusters with higher oxygen content than the CeO(CeO2)n(+) masses are present with much lower abundance. These species dissociate by the loss of O2, leaving surviving clusters with the CeO(CeO2)n(+) formula. Density functional theory calculations on these clusters suggest structures composed of stable CeO(CeO2)n(+) cores with excess oxygen bound to the surface as a superoxide unit (O2(-)).

  4. The surface chemistry of cerium oxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mullins, David R.

    2015-03-01

    This review covers the structure of, and chemical reactions on, well-defined cerium oxide surfaces. Ceria, or mixed oxides containing ceria, are critical components in automotive three-way catalysts due to their well-known oxygen storage capacity. Ceria is also emerging as an important material in a number of other catalytic processes, particularly those involving organic oxygenates and the water-gas shift reaction. Ceria's acid-base properties, and thus its catalytic behavior, are closely related to its surface structure where different oxygen anion and cerium cation environments are present on the low-index structural faces. The actual structure of these various faces has been the focus of a number of theoretical and experimental investigations. Ceria is also easily reducible from CeO2 to CeO2-X. The presence of oxygen vacancies on the surface often dramatically alters the adsorption and subsequent reactions of various adsorbates, either on a clean surface or on metal particles supported on the surface. Most surface science studies have been conducted on the surfaces of thin-films rather than on the surfaces of bulk single crystal oxides. The growth, characterization and properties of these thin-films are also examined.

  5. The surface chemistry of cerium oxide

    SciTech Connect

    Mullins, David R.

    2015-01-29

    Our review covers the structure of, and chemical reactions on, well-defined cerium oxide surfaces. Ceria, or mixed oxides containing ceria, are critical components in automotive three-way catalysts due to their well-known oxygen storage capacity. Ceria is also emerging as an important material in a number of other catalytic processes, particularly those involving organic oxygenates and the water–gas shift reaction. Ceria's acid–base properties, and thus its catalytic behavior, are closely related to its surface structure where different oxygen anion and cerium cation environments are present on the low-index structural faces. The actual structure of these various faces has been the focus of a number of theoretical and experimental investigations. Ceria is also easily reducible from CeO2 to CeO2-X. The presence of oxygen vacancies on the surface often dramatically alters the adsorption and subsequent reactions of various adsorbates, either on a clean surface or on metal particles supported on the surface. We conducted surface science studies on the surfaces of thin-films rather than on the surfaces of bulk single crystal oxides. The growth, characterization and properties of these thin-films are also examined.

  6. Atomic Transition Probabilities for Neutral Cerium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chisholm, John; Nitz, D.; Sobeck, J.; Den Hartog, E. A.; Wood, M. P.; Lawler, J. E.

    2010-01-01

    Among the rare earth species, the spectra of neutral cerium (Ce I) and singly ionized cerium (Ce II) are some of the most complex. Like other rare earth species, Ce has many lines in the visible which are suitable for elemental abundance studies. Recent work on Ce II transition probabilities [1] is now being augmented with similar work on Ce I for future studies using such lines from astrophysical sources. Radiative lifetimes from laser induced fluorescence measurements [2] on neutral Ce are being combined with emission branching fractions from spectra recorded using a Fourier transform spectrometer. A total of 14 high resolution spectra are being analyzed to determine branching fractions for 2500 to 3000 lines from 153 upper levels in neutral Ce. Representative data samples and progress to date will be presented. This work was supported by the National Science Foundation's REU program and the Department of Defense's ASSURE program through NSF Award AST-0453442 and NSF Grant CTS0613277. [1] J. E. Lawler, C. Sneden, J. J. Cowan, I. I. Ivans, and E. A. Den Hartog, Astrophys. J. Suppl. Ser. 182, 51-79 (2009). [2] E. A. Den Hartog, K. P. Buettner, and J. E. Lawler, J. Phys. B: Atomic, Molecular & Optical Physics 42, 085006 (7pp) (2009).

  7. Microstructure of surface cerium hydride growth sites

    SciTech Connect

    Brierley, Martin; Knowles, John; Montgomery, Neil; Preuss, Michael

    2014-05-15

    Samples of cerium were exposed to hydrogen under controlled conditions causing cerium hydride sites to nucleate and grow on the surface. The hydriding rate was measured in situ, and the hydrides were characterised using secondary ion mass spectrometry, scanning electron microscopy, and optical microscopy. The results show that the hydriding rate proceeded more quickly than earlier studies. Characterisation confirmed that the hydrogen is confined to the sites. The morphology of the hydrides was confirmed to be oblate, and stressed material was observed surrounding the hydride, in a number of cases lathlike features were observed surrounding the hydride sites laterally with cracking in the surface oxide above them. It is proposed that during growth the increased lattice parameter of the CeH{sub 2} induces a lateral compressive stress around the hydride, which relieves by the ca. 16% volume collapse of the γ-Ce to α-Ce pressure induced phase transition. Cracking of the surface oxide above the laths reduces the diffusion barrier to hydrogen reaching the metal/oxide interface surrounding the hydride site and contributes to the anisotropic growth of the hydrides.

  8. The surface chemistry of cerium oxide

    DOE PAGES

    Mullins, David R.

    2015-01-29

    Our review covers the structure of, and chemical reactions on, well-defined cerium oxide surfaces. Ceria, or mixed oxides containing ceria, are critical components in automotive three-way catalysts due to their well-known oxygen storage capacity. Ceria is also emerging as an important material in a number of other catalytic processes, particularly those involving organic oxygenates and the water–gas shift reaction. Ceria's acid–base properties, and thus its catalytic behavior, are closely related to its surface structure where different oxygen anion and cerium cation environments are present on the low-index structural faces. The actual structure of these various faces has been the focusmore » of a number of theoretical and experimental investigations. Ceria is also easily reducible from CeO2 to CeO2-X. The presence of oxygen vacancies on the surface often dramatically alters the adsorption and subsequent reactions of various adsorbates, either on a clean surface or on metal particles supported on the surface. We conducted surface science studies on the surfaces of thin-films rather than on the surfaces of bulk single crystal oxides. The growth, characterization and properties of these thin-films are also examined.« less

  9. Electrorefining of cerium: Part 2, Cerium as a surrogate for plutonium electrorefining studies

    SciTech Connect

    Raraz, A.G.; Mishra, B.; Olson, D.L.; Moore, J.J.

    1992-01-01

    The plutonium metal produced by the Direct Oxide Reduction Process is associated with other metallic impurities that have to be removed. The purification of plutonium is achieved using electrorefining process through a molten salt medium. The optimization of process parameters involved in electrorefining is required to make the process effective, in terms of the metal purity, cell efficiency and overall process reliability. Since the study of strategic and radioactive metals requires the use of a surrogate, it is important to choose surrogates that simulate the process as closely as possible. Cerium has been chosen to study the electrorefining behavior of plutonium. The differences that exist in the physico-chemical properties between the two metals have been critically examined and appropriate models have been developed to study the behavior. Cerium is a justified choice for the investigation.

  10. 21 CFR 181.33 - Sodium nitrate and potassium nitrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium nitrate and potassium nitrate. 181.33... nitrate and potassium nitrate. Sodium nitrate and potassium nitrate are subject to prior sanctions issued... potassium nitrite, in the production of cured red meat products and cured poultry products. ...

  11. Diffuse vacuum arc with cerium oxide hot cathode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amirov, R. Kh; Vorona, N. A.; Gavrikov, A. V.; Liziakin, G. D.; Polistchook, V. P.; Samoylov, I. S.; Smirnov, V. P.; Usmanov, R. A.; Yartsev, I. M.; Ivanov, A. S.

    2016-11-01

    Diffuse vacuum arc with hot cathode is one of the perspective plasma sources for the development of spent nuclear fuel plasma reprocessing technology. Experimental data is known for such type of discharges on metal cathodes. In this work discharge with cerium dioxide hot cathode was studied. Cerium dioxide properties are similar to uranium dioxide. Its feature as dielectric is that it becomes conductive in oxygen-free atmosphere. Vacuum arc was studied at following parameters: cathode temperatures were between 2.0 and 2.2 kK, discharge currents was between 30 and 65 A and voltages was in range from 15 to 25 V. Power flows from plasma to cathode were estimated in achieved regimes. Analysis of generated plasma component composition was made by radiation spectrum diagnostics. These results were compared with calculations of equilibrium gaseous phase above solid sample of cerium dioxide in close to experimental conditions. Cerium dioxide vacuum evaporation rate and evaporation rate in arc were measured.

  12. Cerium migration during PEM fuel cell assembly and operation

    DOE PAGES

    Baker, Andrew M.; Torraco, Dennis; Judge, Elizabeth J.; ...

    2015-09-14

    Cerium migration between PEM fuel cell components is influenced by potential-driven mobility, ionic diffusion, and gradients in water content. These factors were investigated in ex situ experiments and in operating fuel cells. Potential-induced migration was measured ex situ in hydrated window cells. Cerium-containing MEAs were also fabricated and tested under ASTs. MEA disassembly and subsequent XRF analysis were used to observe rapid cerium migration during cell assembly and operation. During MEA hot pressing, humidification, and low RH operation at OCV, ionic diffusion causes uniform migration from the membrane into the catalyst layers. During high RH operation at OCV, in-plane ceriummore » gradients arise due to variations in water content. These gradients may diminish the scavenging efficacy of cerium by reducing its proximity to generated radicals.« less

  13. Heteroaggregation of cerium oxide nanoparticles and nanoparticles of pyrolyzed biomass

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Heteroaggregation with indigenous particles is an important process controlling the mobility of engineered nanomaterials in the environment. We studied heteroaggregation of cerium oxide nanoparticles (n-CeO2), which are widely used commercially, with nanoparticles of pyrogenic carbonaceous material ...

  14. An efficient method for dephosphorylation of phosphopeptides by cerium oxide.

    PubMed

    Tan, Feng; Zhang, Yangjun; Wang, Jinglan; Wei, Junying; Cai, Yun; Qian, Xiaohong

    2008-05-01

    In this article, an effective method for dephosphorylation of phosphopeptides by cerium oxide is described. The dephosphorylation activity of cerium oxide was evaluated by two standard phosphopeptides and the phosphopeptides in digests of phosphoprotein alpha-casein and beta-casein. Results showed that the dephosphorylation of all the phosphopeptides was completed in 10 min, and temperature had little effect on the dephosphorylation, the dephosphorylation could be carried out at 0 degrees C, room temperature and 37 degrees C. The dephosphorylation mediated by cerium oxide can be attributed to Lewis acid and nucleophile activations. Advantages of using cerium oxide as catalyst for the dephosphorylation include: safe, simple, high catalytic activity, and no precise control of the treatment temperature. The method is valid for the phosphorylation of Ser, Thr and Tyr, and can be used for phosphoprotein analysis.

  15. Method of applying a cerium diffusion coating to a metallic alloy

    DOEpatents

    Jablonski, Paul D [Salem, OR; Alman, David E [Benton, OR

    2009-06-30

    A method of applying a cerium diffusion coating to a preferred nickel base alloy substrate has been discovered. A cerium oxide paste containing a halide activator is applied to the polished substrate and then dried. The workpiece is heated in a non-oxidizing atmosphere to diffuse cerium into the substrate. After cooling, any remaining cerium oxide is removed. The resulting cerium diffusion coating on the nickel base substrate demonstrates improved resistance to oxidation. Cerium coated alloys are particularly useful as components in a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC).

  16. Control of cerium oxidation state through metal complex secondary structures

    SciTech Connect

    Levin, Jessica R.; Dorfner, Walter L.; Carroll, Patrick J.; Schelter, Eric J.

    2015-08-11

    A series of alkali metal cerium diphenylhydrazido complexes, Mx(py)y[Ce(PhNNPh)4], M = Li, Na, and K, x = 4 (Li and Na) or 5 (K), and y = 4 (Li), 8 (Na), or 7 (K), were synthesized to probe how a secondary coordination sphere would modulate electronic structures at a cerium cation. The resulting electronic structures of the heterobimetallic cerium diphenylhydrazido complexes were found to be strongly dependent on the identity of the alkali metal cations. When M = Li+ or Na+, the cerium(III) starting material was oxidized with concomitant reduction of 1,2-diphenylhydrazine to aniline. Reduction of 1,2-diphenylhydrazine was not observed when M = K+, and the complex remained in the cerium(III) oxidation state. Oxidation of the cerium(III) diphenylhydrazido complex to the Ce(IV) diphenylhydrazido one was achieved through a simple cation exchange reaction of the alkali metals. As a result, UV-Vis spectroscopy, FTIR spectroscopy, electrochemistry, magnetic susceptibility, and DFT studies were used to probe the oxidation state and the electronic changes that occurred at the metal centre.

  17. Control of cerium oxidation state through metal complex secondary structures

    DOE PAGES

    Levin, Jessica R.; Dorfner, Walter L.; Carroll, Patrick J.; ...

    2015-08-11

    A series of alkali metal cerium diphenylhydrazido complexes, Mx(py)y[Ce(PhNNPh)4], M = Li, Na, and K, x = 4 (Li and Na) or 5 (K), and y = 4 (Li), 8 (Na), or 7 (K), were synthesized to probe how a secondary coordination sphere would modulate electronic structures at a cerium cation. The resulting electronic structures of the heterobimetallic cerium diphenylhydrazido complexes were found to be strongly dependent on the identity of the alkali metal cations. When M = Li+ or Na+, the cerium(III) starting material was oxidized with concomitant reduction of 1,2-diphenylhydrazine to aniline. Reduction of 1,2-diphenylhydrazine was not observedmore » when M = K+, and the complex remained in the cerium(III) oxidation state. Oxidation of the cerium(III) diphenylhydrazido complex to the Ce(IV) diphenylhydrazido one was achieved through a simple cation exchange reaction of the alkali metals. As a result, UV-Vis spectroscopy, FTIR spectroscopy, electrochemistry, magnetic susceptibility, and DFT studies were used to probe the oxidation state and the electronic changes that occurred at the metal centre.« less

  18. Determination of chemical speciations of cerium in nuclear waste glasses

    SciTech Connect

    Gong, Meiling; Li, Hong

    1996-12-31

    Cerium oxides have been widely used as a surrogate for plutonium in the investigation of the melt and durability behavior of simulated nuclear waste glasses. It is well known that there is a cerous-ceric equilibrium in silicate glasses under normal melting conditions. The position of this equilibrium depends on glass composition, melting temperature, furnace atmosphere, and possibly the total amounts of cerium in glass. The oxidation state of cerium affects total solubility of cerium in glass, solubilities of other components in glass, viscosities and liquidus temperatures of the melts, and the chemical durability of the glasses. A procedure was developed for the determination of the ceric and cerous distribution. The glass was ground to small particles of less than 300 meshes and was dissolved in mixture of HF and H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}. The ceric oxide was graduately reduced to cerous species in the presence of HF acid during the dissolution. To compensate the change of the equilibrium during the dissolution, a calibration curve is made with a mixture of standard solution of ceric sulphate and one gram of glass of the same composition containing no cerium. Boric acid was added to complex the fluoride ions, and the resultant solution was titrated potentiometrically with 0.01 N ferrous ammonium sulphate solution. The corrected ceric concentration was obtained on the calibration curve. The total cerium content in the above solution was analyzed using ICP-AES and the cerous content was the difference between the total Ce and Ce(+4).

  19. Characterization of cerium oxide nanoparticles-part 2: nonsize measurements.

    PubMed

    Baalousha, Mohammed; Ju-Nam, Yon; Cole, Paula A; Hriljac, Joseph A; Jones, Ian P; Tyler, Charles R; Stone, Vicki; Fernandes, Teresa F; Jepson, Mark A; Lead, Jamie R

    2012-05-01

    Part 1 (see companion paper) of the present study discussed the application of a multimethod approach in characterizing the size of cerium oxide nanoparticles (NPs). However, other properties less routinely investigated, such as shape and morphology, structure, chemical composition, and surface properties, are likely to play an important role in determining the behavior, reactivity, and potential toxicity of these NPs. The present study describes the measurement of the aforementioned physicochemical properties of NPs (applied also to nanomaterials [NMs]) compared with micrometer particles (MPs). The authors use a wide range of techniques, including high resolution-transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, X-ray diffraction, X-ray energy dispersive spectroscopy, electron energy loss spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and electrophoresis, and compare these techniques, their advantages, and their limitations, along with recommendations about how best to approach NM characterization, using an application to commercial cerium oxide NPs and MPs. Results show that both cerium oxide NPs and MPs are formed of single polyhedron or truncated polyhedron crystals. Cerium oxide NPs contain a mixture of Ce(3+) and Ce(4+) cations, whereas the MPs contain mainly Ce(4+) , which is potentially important in understanding the toxicity of cerium oxide NPs. The isoelectric point of cerium oxide NPs was approximately pH 8, which explains their propensity to aggregate in aqueous media (see companion paper).

  20. The potential toxic effects of cerium on organism: cerium prolonged the developmental time and induced the expression of Hsp70 and apoptosis in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Wu, Bin; Zhang, Di; Wang, Dan; Qi, Chunyan; Li, Zongyun

    2012-10-01

    Due to the widespread application of cerium, a rare earth element, the risk of exposure to cerium has increased. Therefore, understanding the physiological effects of cerium is of great importance. Our previous work showed that cerium caused significant lifespan shortening accompanied by oxidative damage in Drosophila melanogaster, however, little is known about the detailed mechanism of cerium-induced cytotoxicity. Thus, we examined the developmental time during metamorphosis, and assessed the toxic effects of cerium by evaluating heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70), DNA damage markers and apoptosis in D. melanogaster. We found that cerium extended the developmental time of D. melanogaster and up-regulated the expression of Hsp70 when the concentration of cerium was increased (especially concentrations over 26.3 μg/g). Up-regulation of the cell cycle checkpoint p53 and cell signaling protein p38 were also observed when the concentration of cerium was over 104 μg/g. In addition, the activities of caspase-3 and caspase-9, markers of apoptosis, were significantly higher when the larvae were exposed to ceric sulfate. These results suggest that high concentrations of cerium may result in DNA damage and ultimately apoptosis in D. melanogaster, and strongly indicate that cerium should be applied with caution and the potential toxic effects in humans should also be taken into consideration.

  1. 33 CFR 126.28 - Ammonium nitrate, ammonium nitrate fertilizers, fertilizer mixtures, or nitro carbo nitrate...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... nitrate fertilizers, fertilizer mixtures, or nitro carbo nitrate; general provisions. 126.28 Section 126..., ammonium nitrate fertilizers, fertilizer mixtures, or nitro carbo nitrate; general provisions. (a) When any item of ammonium nitrate, ammonium nitrate fertilizers, fertilizer mixtures, or nitro carbo...

  2. 33 CFR 126.28 - Ammonium nitrate, ammonium nitrate fertilizers, fertilizer mixtures, or nitro carbo nitrate...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... nitrate fertilizers, fertilizer mixtures, or nitro carbo nitrate; general provisions. 126.28 Section 126..., ammonium nitrate fertilizers, fertilizer mixtures, or nitro carbo nitrate; general provisions. (a) When any item of ammonium nitrate, ammonium nitrate fertilizers, fertilizer mixtures, or nitro carbo...

  3. 33 CFR 126.28 - Ammonium nitrate, ammonium nitrate fertilizers, fertilizer mixtures, or nitro carbo nitrate...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... nitrate fertilizers, fertilizer mixtures, or nitro carbo nitrate; general provisions. 126.28 Section 126..., ammonium nitrate fertilizers, fertilizer mixtures, or nitro carbo nitrate; general provisions. (a) When any item of ammonium nitrate, ammonium nitrate fertilizers, fertilizer mixtures, or nitro carbo...

  4. 33 CFR 126.28 - Ammonium nitrate, ammonium nitrate fertilizers, fertilizer mixtures, or nitro carbo nitrate...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... nitrate fertilizers, fertilizer mixtures, or nitro carbo nitrate; general provisions. 126.28 Section 126..., ammonium nitrate fertilizers, fertilizer mixtures, or nitro carbo nitrate; general provisions. (a) When any item of ammonium nitrate, ammonium nitrate fertilizers, fertilizer mixtures, or nitro carbo...

  5. Molecular and physiological responses to titanium dioxide and cerium oxide nanoparticles in arabidopsis

    EPA Science Inventory

    - Changes in tissue transcriptomes and productivity of Arabidopsis thaliana were investigated during exposure of plants to two widely-used engineered metal oxide nanoparticles, titanium dioxide (nano-titanium) and cerium dioxide (nano-cerium). Microarray analyses confirmed that e...

  6. Molecular and physiological responses to titanium dioxide and cerium oxide nanoparticles in arabidopsis

    EPA Science Inventory

    - Changes in tissue transcriptomes and productivity of Arabidopsis thaliana were investigated during exposure of plants to two widely-used engineered metal oxide nanoparticles, titanium dioxide (nano-titanium) and cerium dioxide (nano-cerium). Microarray analyses confirmed that e...

  7. Cerium oxide nanoparticles are more toxic than equimolar bulk cerium oxide in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    Arnold, M C; Badireddy, A R; Wiesner, M R; Di Giulio, R T; Meyer, J N

    2013-08-01

    Engineered cerium oxide nanoparticles (CeO2 NPs) are widely used in biomedical and engineering manufacturing industries. Previous research has shown the ability of CeO2 NPs to act as a redox catalyst, suggesting potential to both induce and alleviate oxidative stress in organisms. In this study, Caenorhabditis elegans and zebrafish (Danio rerio) were dosed with commercially available CeO2 NPs. Non-nano cerium oxide powder (CeO2) was used as a positive control for cerium toxicity. CeO2 NPs suspended in standard United States Environmental Protection Agency reconstituted moderately hard water, used to culture the C. elegans, quickly formed large polydisperse aggregates. Dosing solutions were renewed daily for 3 days. Exposure of wild-type nematodes resulted in dose-dependent growth inhibition detected for all 3 days (p < 0.0001). Non-nano CeO2 also caused significant growth inhibition (p < 0.0001), but the scale of inhibition was less at equivalent mass exposures compared with CeO2 NP exposure. Some metal and oxidative stress-sensitive mutant nematode strains showed mildly altered growth relative to the wild-type when dosed with 5 mg/L CeO2 NPs on days 2 and 3, thus providing weak evidence for a role for oxidative stress or metal sensitivity in CeO2 NP toxicity. Zebrafish microinjected with CeO2 NPs or CeO2 did not exhibit increased gross developmental defects compared with controls. Hyperspectral imaging showed that CeO2 NPs were ingested but not detectable inside the cells of C. elegans. Growth inhibition observed in C. elegans may be explained at least in part by a non-specific inhibition of feeding caused by CeO2 NPs aggregating around bacterial food and/or inside the gut tract.

  8. 21 CFR 181.33 - Sodium nitrate and potassium nitrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium nitrate and potassium nitrate. 181.33...-Sanctioned Food Ingredients § 181.33 Sodium nitrate and potassium nitrate. Sodium nitrate and potassium... nitrite, with or without sodium or potassium nitrite, in the production of cured red meat products and...

  9. 21 CFR 181.33 - Sodium nitrate and potassium nitrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sodium nitrate and potassium nitrate. 181.33...-Sanctioned Food Ingredients § 181.33 Sodium nitrate and potassium nitrate. Sodium nitrate and potassium... nitrite, with or without sodium or potassium nitrite, in the production of cured red meat products and...

  10. 21 CFR 181.33 - Sodium nitrate and potassium nitrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium nitrate and potassium nitrate. 181.33...-Sanctioned Food Ingredients § 181.33 Sodium nitrate and potassium nitrate. Sodium nitrate and potassium... nitrite, with or without sodium or potassium nitrite, in the production of cured red meat products and...

  11. 21 CFR 181.33 - Sodium nitrate and potassium nitrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium nitrate and potassium nitrate. 181.33...-Sanctioned Food Ingredients § 181.33 Sodium nitrate and potassium nitrate. Sodium nitrate and potassium... nitrite, with or without sodium or potassium nitrite, in the production of cured red meat products and...

  12. Cylodextrin Polymer Nitrate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kosowski, Bernard; Ruebner, Anja; Statton, Gary; Robitelle, Danielle; Meyers, Curtis

    2000-01-01

    The development of the use of cyclodextrin nitrates as possible components of insensitive, high-energy energetics is outlined over a time period of 12 years. Four different types of cyclodextrin polymers were synthesized, nitrated, and evaluated regarding their potential use for the military and aerospace community. The synthesis of these novel cyclodextrin polymers and different nitration techniques are shown and the potential of these new materials is discussed.

  13. On the system cerium-platinum-silicon

    SciTech Connect

    Gribanov, Alexander Grytsiv, Andriy; Royanian, Esmaeil; Rogl, Peter; Bauer, Ernst; Giester, Gerald; Seropegin, Yurii

    2008-11-15

    Phase relations in the ternary system Ce-Pt-Si have been established for the isothermal section at 800 deg. C based on X-ray powder diffraction, metallography, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and electron probe microanalysis (EPMA) techniques on about 120 alloys, which were prepared by various methods employing arc-melting under argon or powder reaction sintering. Nineteen ternary compounds were observed. Atom order in the crystal structures of {tau}{sub 18}-Ce{sub 5}(Pt,Si){sub 4} (Pnma; a=0.77223(3) nm, b=1.53279(8) nm c=0.80054(5) nm), {tau}{sub 3}-Ce{sub 2}Pt{sub 7}Si{sub 4} (Pnma; a=1.96335(8) nm, b=0.40361(4) nm, c=1.12240(6) nm) and {tau}{sub 10}-CePtSi{sub 2} (Cmcm; a=0.42943(2) nm, b=1.67357(5) nm, c=0.42372(2) nm) was determined by direct methods from X-ray single-crystal CCD data and found to be isotypic with the Sm{sub 5}Ge{sub 4}-type, the Ce{sub 2}Pt{sub 7}Ge{sub 4}-type and the CeNiSi{sub 2}-type, respectively. Rietveld refinements established the atom arrangement in the structures of Pt{sub 3}Si (Pt{sub 3}Ge-type, C2/m, a=0.7724(2) nm, b=0.7767(2) nm, c=0.5390(2) nm, {beta}=133.86(2){sup o}), {tau}{sub 16}-Ce{sub 3}Pt{sub 5}Si (Ce{sub 3}Pd{sub 5}Si-type, Imma, a=0.74025(8) nm, b=1.2951(2) nm, c=0.7508(1) nm) and {tau}{sub 17}-Ce{sub 3}PtSi{sub 3} (Ba{sub 3}Al{sub 2}Ge{sub 2}-type, Immm, a=0.41065(5) nm, b=0.43221(5) nm, c=1.8375(3) nm). Phase equilibria in Ce-Pt-Si are characterised by the absence of cerium solubility in platinum silicides. Cerium silicides and cerium platinides, however, dissolve significant amounts of the third component, whereby random substitution of the almost equally sized atom species platinum and silicon is reflected in extended homogeneous regions at constant Ce content such as for {tau}{sub 13}-Ce(Pt{sub x}Si{sub 1-x}){sub 2}, {tau}{sub 6}-Ce{sub 2}Pt{sub 3+x}Si{sub 5-x} or {tau}{sub 7}-CePt{sub 2-x}Si{sub 2+x}. - Graphical abstract: Phase relations in the ternary system Ce-Pt-Si have been established for the isothermal

  14. IRIS TOXICOLOGICAL REVIEW AND SUMMARY DOCUMENTS FOR CERIUM OXIDE (STABLE) AND COMPOUNDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Cerium is a member of the lanthanoid series of rare earth metals. It is also the most abundant and most reactive of the rare earth metals. Cerium oxidizes at room temperature and forms a variety of salt compounds including oxides, hydroxides, sulfates and chlorides. Cerium is ...

  15. IRIS TOXICOLOGICAL REVIEW AND SUMMARY DOCUMENTS FOR CERIUM OXIDE (STABLE) AND COMPOUNDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Cerium is a member of the lanthanoid series of rare earth metals. It is also the most abundant and most reactive of the rare earth metals. Cerium oxidizes at room temperature and forms a variety of salt compounds including oxides, hydroxides, sulfates and chlorides. Cerium is ...

  16. Thermochemical nitrate destruction

    DOEpatents

    Cox, John L.; Hallen, Richard T.; Lilga, Michael A.

    1992-01-01

    A method is disclosed for denitrification of nitrates and nitrates present in aqueous waste streams. The method comprises the steps of (1) identifying the concentration nitrates and nitrites present in a waste stream, (2) causing formate to be present in the waste stream, (3) heating the mixture to a predetermined reaction temperature from about 200.degree. C. to about 600.degree. C., and (4) holding the mixture and accumulating products at heated and pressurized conditions for a residence time, thereby resulting in nitrogen and carbon dioxide gas, and hydroxides, and reducing the level of nitrates and nitrites to below drinking water standards.

  17. Potential for recovery of cerium contained in automotive catalytic converters

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bleiwas, Donald I.

    2013-01-01

    Catalytic converters (CATCONs) are required by Federal law to be installed in nearly all gasoline- and diesel-fueled onroad vehicles used in the United States. About 85 percent of the light-duty vehicles and trucks manufactured worldwide are equipped with CATCONs. Portions of the CATCONs (called monoliths) are recycled for their platinum-group metal (PGM) content and for the value of the stainless steel they contain. The cerium contained in the monoliths, however, is disposed of along with the slag produced from the recycling process. Although there is some smelter capacity in the United States to treat the monoliths in order to recover the PGMs, a great percentage of monoliths is exported to Europe and South Africa for recycling, and a lesser amount is exported to Japan. There is presently no commercial-scale capacity in place domestically to recover cerium from the monoliths. Recycling of cerium or cerium compounds from the monoliths could help ensure against possible global supply shortages by increasing the amount that is available in the supply chain as well as the number and geographic distribution of the suppliers. It could also reduce the amount of material that goes into landfills. Also, the additional supply could lower the price of the commodity. This report analyzes how much cerium oxide is contained in CATCONs and how much could be recovered from used CATCONs.

  18. Effect of polyvinylpyrrolidone on cerium oxide nanoparticle characteristics prepared by a facile heat treatment technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baqer, Anwar Ali; Matori, Khamirul Amin; Al-Hada, Naif Mohammed; Shaari, Abdul Halim; Saion, Elias; Chyi, Josephine Liew Ying

    An aqueous medium composed of polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) and cerium nitrates at calcination temperature was utilised in the production of cerium oxide (CeO2) semiconductor nanoparticles. A variety of analytical approaches was utilized to examine the structural, morphological and optical characteristics of the resulting nanoparticles. Differential thermal (DTA) and thermogravimetric (TGA) analyses, indicated that the best calcination temperatures for achieving CeO2 nanoparticle production were more than 485 °C. The results from Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) verified the formation of a crystalline structure after calcination procedures were performed to remove residual organic compounds. Additionally, results from X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis confirmed the cubic fluorite structure of the CeO2 produced. Samples were also analysed by energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDXA) which indicated the existence of O and Ce in the samples. Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) was used in the characterisation of nanoparticle morphological features. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was employed to estimate typical nanoparticle and distribution within sample. This analysis indicated that mean particle sizes were inversely correlated with PVP concentration, with nanoparticle sizes ranging between 12 ± 7 nm at 0.03 g/mL PVP and 6 ± 2 nm at 0.05 g/mL PVP. These results corroborated those obtained by XRD analysis. A UV-vis spectrophotometer was utilised in the demonstration of optical properties and to examine the band gap energy of samples. The potential UV-shielding properties of the nanoparticles were demonstrated by the observed blue shift of the estimated optical energy band, i.e. from 3.35 to 3.43 eV, whilst PL spectra results indicated that decreasing particle size was associated with diminishing photoluminescence intensity.

  19. Environmental Geochemistry of Cerium: Applications and Toxicology of Cerium Oxide Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Dahle, Jessica T.; Arai, Yuji

    2015-01-01

    Cerium is the most abundant of rare-earth metals found in the Earth’s crust. Several Ce-carbonate, -phosphate, -silicate, and -(hydr)oxide minerals have been historically mined and processed for pharmaceutical uses and industrial applications. Of all Ce minerals, cerium dioxide has received much attention in the global nanotechnology market due to their useful applications for catalysts, fuel cells, and fuel additives. A recent mass flow modeling study predicted that a major source of CeO2 nanoparticles from industrial processing plants (e.g., electronics and optics manufactures) is likely to reach the terrestrial environment such as landfills and soils. The environmental fate of CeO2 nanoparticles is highly dependent on its physcochemical properties in low temperature geochemical environment. Though there are needs in improving the analytical method in detecting/quantifying CeO2 nanoparticles in different environmental media, it is clear that aquatic and terrestrial organisms have been exposed to CeO2 NPs, potentially yielding in negative impact on human and ecosystem health. Interestingly, there has been contradicting reports about the toxicological effects of CeO2 nanoparticles, acting as either an antioxidant or reactive oxygen species production-inducing agent). This poses a challenge in future regulations for the CeO2 nanoparticle application and the risk assessment in the environment. PMID:25625406

  20. Environmental geochemistry of cerium: applications and toxicology of cerium oxide nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Dahle, Jessica T; Arai, Yuji

    2015-01-23

    Cerium is the most abundant of rare-earth metals found in the Earth's crust. Several Ce-carbonate, -phosphate, -silicate, and -(hydr)oxide minerals have been historically mined and processed for pharmaceutical uses and industrial applications. Of all Ce minerals, cerium dioxide has received much attention in the global nanotechnology market due to their useful applications for catalysts, fuel cells, and fuel additives. A recent mass flow modeling study predicted that a major source of CeO2 nanoparticles from industrial processing plants (e.g., electronics and optics manufactures) is likely to reach the terrestrial environment such as landfills and soils. The environmental fate of CeO2 nanoparticles is highly dependent on its physcochemical properties in low temperature geochemical environment. Though there are needs in improving the analytical method in detecting/quantifying CeO2 nanoparticles in different environmental media, it is clear that aquatic and terrestrial organisms have been exposed to CeO2 NPs, potentially yielding in negative impact on human and ecosystem health. Interestingly, there has been contradicting reports about the toxicological effects of CeO2 nanoparticles, acting as either an antioxidant or reactive oxygen species production-inducing agent). This poses a challenge in future regulations for the CeO2 nanoparticle application and the risk assessment in the environment.

  1. Cerium fluoride, a new fast, heavy scintillator

    SciTech Connect

    Moses, W.W.; Derenzo, S.E.

    1988-11-01

    We describe the scintillation properties of Cerium Fluoride (CeF/sub 3/), a newly discovered, heavy (6.16 g/cm/sup 3/), inorganic scintillator. Its fluorescence decay lifetime, measured with the delayed coincidence method, is described by a single exponential with a 27 /+-/ ns time constant. The emission spectrum peaks at a wavelength of 340 nm, and drops to less than 10% of its peak value at 315 nm and 460 nm. When a 1 cm optical quality cube of CeF/sub 3/ is excited with 511 keV photons, a photopeak with a 20% full width at half maximum is observed at approximately half the light output of a Bismuth Germanate (BGO) crystal with similar geometry. We also present measurements of the decay time and light output of CeF/sub 3/ doped with three rare-earth elements (Dy, Er, and Pr). The short fluorescence lifetime, high density, and reasonable light output of this new scintillator suggest that it would be useful for applications where high counting rates, good stopping power, and nanosecond timing are important, such as medical imaging and nuclear science. 5 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  2. Cerium-iron-based magnetic compounds

    DOEpatents

    Zhou, Chen; Pinkerton, Frederick E.; Herbst, Jan F.

    2017-01-17

    New magnetic materials containing cerium, iron, and small additions of a third element are disclosed. These materials comprise compounds Ce(Fe.sub.12-xM.sub.x) where x=1-4, having the ThMn.sub.12 tetragonal crystal structure (space group I4/mmm, #139). Compounds with M=B, Al, Si, P, S, Sc, Co, Ni, Zn, Ga, Ge, Zr, Nb, Hf, Ta, and W are identified theoretically, and one class of compounds based on M=Si has been synthesized. The Si cognates are characterized by large magnetic moments (4.pi.M.sub.s greater than 1.27 Tesla) and high Curie temperatures (264.ltoreq.T.sub.c.ltoreq.305.degree. C.). The Ce(Fe.sub.12-xM.sub.x) compound may contain one or more of Ti, V, Cr, and Mo in combination with an M element. Further enhancement in T.sub.c is obtained by nitriding the Ce compounds through heat treatment in N.sub.2 gas while retaining the ThMn.sub.12 tetragonal crystal structure; for example CeFe.sub.10Si.sub.2N.sub.1.29 has T.sub.c=426.degree. C.

  3. Characterization of cerium fluoride nanocomposite scintillators

    SciTech Connect

    Stange, Sy; Esch, Ernst I; Brown, Leif O; Couture, Aaron J; Mckigney, Edward A; Muenchausen, Ross E; Del Sesto, Rico E; Gilbertson, Robert D; Mccleskey, T Mark; Reifarth, Rene

    2009-01-01

    Measurement of the neutron capture cross-sections of a number of short-lived isotopes would advance both pure and applied scientific research. These cross-sections are needed for calculation of criticality and waste production estimates for the Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative, for analysis of data from nuclear weapons tests, and to improve understanding of nucleosynthesis. However, measurement of these cross-sections would require a detector with a faster signal decay time than those used in existing neutron capture experiments. Crystals of faster detector materials are not available in sufficient sizes and quantities to supply these large-scale experiments. Instead, we propose to use nanocomposite detectors, consisting of nanoscale particles of a scintillating material dispersed in a matrix material. We have successfully fabricated cerium fluoride (CeF{sub 3}) nanoparticles and dispersed them in a liquid matrix. We have characterized this scintillator and have measured its response to neutron capture. Results of the optical, structural, and radiation characterization will be presented.

  4. Nitrate leaching index

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The Nitrate Leaching Index is a rapid assessment tool that evaluates nitrate (NO3) leaching potential based on basic soil and climate information. It is the basis for many nutrient management planning efforts, but it has considerable limitations because of : 1) an oversimplification of the processes...

  5. Thermodynamic Calculation among Cerium, Oxygen, and Sulfur in Liquid Iron

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Fei; Zhang, Jian; Chen, Hao-Long; Su, Yen-Hsun; Su, Yen-Hao; Hwang, Weng-Sing

    2016-01-01

    Thermodynamic calculation has been applied to predict the inclusion formation in molten SS400 steel. When the Cerium addition in liquid iron is 70 ppm and the initial Oxygen and Sulphur are both 110 ppm, the formation of oxides containing Cerium would experience the transformation from Ce2O3 to CeO2 and also the formation of sulfides containing Cerium would experience the transformation from CeS to Ce2S3 and then to Ce3S4. Below 2000 K the most thermodynamic stable matter is CeO2 and the less thermodynamic stable inclusion is CeS. Only when the amount of [O] is extremely low and the amount of [S] and [Ce] is relatively high, Ce2S3 has the possibility to form. PMID:27767092

  6. Thermodynamic Calculation among Cerium, Oxygen, and Sulfur in Liquid Iron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Fei; Zhang, Jian; Chen, Hao-Long; Su, Yen-Hsun; Su, Yen-Hao; Hwang, Weng-Sing

    2016-10-01

    Thermodynamic calculation has been applied to predict the inclusion formation in molten SS400 steel. When the Cerium addition in liquid iron is 70 ppm and the initial Oxygen and Sulphur are both 110 ppm, the formation of oxides containing Cerium would experience the transformation from Ce2O3 to CeO2 and also the formation of sulfides containing Cerium would experience the transformation from CeS to Ce2S3 and then to Ce3S4. Below 2000 K the most thermodynamic stable matter is CeO2 and the less thermodynamic stable inclusion is CeS. Only when the amount of [O] is extremely low and the amount of [S] and [Ce] is relatively high, Ce2S3 has the possibility to form.

  7. Synthesis and characterization of magnesium doped cerium oxide for the fuel cell application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Amit; Kumari, Monika; Kumar, Mintu; Kumar, Sacheen; Kumar, Dinesh

    2016-05-01

    Cerium oxide has attained much attentions in global nanotechnology market due to valuable application for catalytic, fuel additive, and widely as electrolyte in solid oxide fuel cell. Doped cerium oxide has large oxygen vacancies that allow for greater reactivity and faster ion transport. These properties make cerium oxide suitable material for SOFCs application. Cerium oxide electrolyte requires lower operation temperature which shows improvement in processing and the fabrication technique. In our work, we synthesized magnesium doped cerium oxide by the co-precipitation method. With the magnesium doping catalytic reactivity of CeO2 was increased. Synthesized nanoparticle were characterized by the XRD and UV absorption techniques.

  8. Synthesis and characterization of magnesium doped cerium oxide for the fuel cell application

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, Amit; Kumari, Monika; Kumar, Mintu; Kumar, Sacheen Kumar, Dinesh

    2016-05-06

    Cerium oxide has attained much attentions in global nanotechnology market due to valuable application for catalytic, fuel additive, and widely as electrolyte in solid oxide fuel cell. Doped cerium oxide has large oxygen vacancies that allow for greater reactivity and faster ion transport. These properties make cerium oxide suitable material for SOFCs application. Cerium oxide electrolyte requires lower operation temperature which shows improvement in processing and the fabrication technique. In our work, we synthesized magnesium doped cerium oxide by the co-precipitation method. With the magnesium doping catalytic reactivity of CeO{sub 2} was increased. Synthesized nanoparticle were characterized by the XRD and UV absorption techniques.

  9. Lanthanum Cerium Manganese Hexaaluminate Combustion Catalysts for Compact Steam Reformers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-12-07

    monoxide, and ethylene as partial oxidation products. Of the metals tested, iron is best, followed by cobalt and cerium. Our results concur with Wang et...that of Groppi et al., which marginally outperformed LaMnAl11O19 [15]. Our bimetallic manganese- cobalt catalyst was similarly lacking and did not...LaCo0.5Mn0.5Al11O19 are nearly identical and that in the absence of manganese, cobalt - and cerium-substituted hexaaluminates are equivalent catalysts. It

  10. Optical and electrical studies of cerium mixed oxides

    SciTech Connect

    Sherly, T. R.; Raveendran, R.

    2014-10-15

    The fast development in nanotechnology makes enthusiastic interest in developing nanomaterials having tailor made properties. Cerium mixed oxide materials have received great attention due to their UV absorption property, high reactivity, stability at high temperature, good electrical property etc and these materials find wide applications in solid oxide fuel cells, solar control films, cosmetics, display units, gas sensors etc. In this study cerium mixed oxide compounds were prepared by co-precipitation method. All the samples were doped with Zn (II) and Fe (II). Preliminary characterizations such as XRD, SEM / EDS, TEM were done. UV - Vis, Diffuse reflectance, PL, FT-IR, Raman and ac conductivity studies of the samples were performed.

  11. Optical and electrical studies of cerium mixed oxides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sherly, T. R.; Raveendran, R.

    2014-10-01

    The fast development in nanotechnology makes enthusiastic interest in developing nanomaterials having tailor made properties. Cerium mixed oxide materials have received great attention due to their UV absorption property, high reactivity, stability at high temperature, good electrical property etc and these materials find wide applications in solid oxide fuel cells, solar control films, cosmetics, display units, gas sensors etc. In this study cerium mixed oxide compounds were prepared by co-precipitation method. All the samples were doped with Zn (II) and Fe (II). Preliminary characterizations such as XRD, SEM / EDS, TEM were done. UV - Vis, Diffuse reflectance, PL, FT-IR, Raman and ac conductivity studies of the samples were performed.

  12. The effective thermal conductivity of an adsorbent - Praseodymium cerium oxide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Secary, J. J.; Tong, T. W.

    1992-01-01

    The results of an experimental study to determine the effective thermal conductivity of praseodymium cerium oxide are reported. Praseodymium cerium oxide is an adsorbent used in the development of adsorption compressors for spaceborne refrigeration systems. A guarded-hot-plate apparatus was built for this study. Measurements were carried out for mean temperatures ranging from 300 to 600 C under a vacuum of 10 exp -5 torr. For the temperature range studied, the effective thermal conductivity increased from 0.14 to 0.76 W/m per C with increasing temperature, while displaying a cubic temperature dependency.

  13. Cerium fluoride nanoparticles protect cells against oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Shcherbakov, Alexander B; Zholobak, Nadezhda M; Baranchikov, Alexander E; Ryabova, Anastasia V; Ivanov, Vladimir K

    2015-05-01

    A novel facile method of non-doped and fluorescent terbium-doped cerium fluoride stable aqueous sols synthesis is proposed. Intense green luminescence of CeF3:Tb nanoparticles can be used to visualize these nanoparticles' accumulation in cells using confocal laser scanning microscopy. Cerium fluoride nanoparticles are shown for the first time to protect both organic molecules and living cells from the oxidative action of hydrogen peroxide. Both non-doped and terbium-doped CeF3 nanoparticles are shown to provide noteworthy protection to cells against the vesicular stomatitis virus. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Effect of ultrasound treatment on the morpho-structural and luminescent characteristics of cerium doped yttrium silicate phosphors

    SciTech Connect

    Muresan, L.E.; Cadis, A.I.; Perhaita, I.; Silipas, D.T.; Tudoran, L. Barbu

    2015-08-15

    Highlights: • Y{sub 2}SiO{sub 5}:Ce is prepared by gel combustion in ultrasound conditions (US). • Morpho-structural characteristics are revealed based on FTIR, SEM, XRD, BET. • Incorporation of Ce{sup 3+} in X1/X2 type centers depends on preparative conditions. • US treatment increases the luminescent performances up to 151%. - Abstract: Cerium activated yttrium silicate (Y{sub 2}SiO{sub 5}:Ce) phosphors were prepared by gel-combustion, using yttrium–cerium nitrate as oxidizer, aspartic acid as fuel and TEOS as source of silicon. Two modalities for samples preparation were approached namely: the classical gel-combustion and sonication gel-combustion. The ultrasound treatment during the gelling stage has a positive effect on the structural and luminescent characteristics of the final product. Therefore, a well crystallized single X2–Y{sub 2}SiO{sub 5} phase phosphor was obtained at 1200 °C. Based on FT-IR and XRD investigations, conversion of X1 to X2–Y{sub 2}SiO{sub 5} phases is observed as the firing temperature is varied (1100 °C, 1200 °C, 1300 °C 1400 °C). The ultrasound treatment leads to smaller particle size and enhances the luminescent performances up to 151% in comparison with samples prepared by classical way.

  15. The effect of lanthanum(III) and cerium(III) ions between layers of manganese oxide on water oxidation.

    PubMed

    Najafpour, Mohammad Mahdi; Isaloo, Mohsen Abbasi; Hołyńska, Małgorzata; Shen, Jian-Ren; Allakhverdiev, Suleyman I; Allakhverdiev, Suleyman

    2015-12-01

    Manganese oxide structure with lanthanum(III) or cerium(III) ions between the layers was synthesized by a simple method. The ratio of Mn to Ce or La in samples was 0.00, 0.04, 0.08, 0.16, 0.32, 0.5, 0.82, or 1.62. The compounds were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction studies, and atomic absorption spectroscopy. The compounds show efficient catalytic activity of water oxidation in the presence of cerium(IV) ammonium nitrate with a turnover frequency of 1.6 mmol O2/mol Mn.s. In contrast to the water-oxidizing complex in Photosystem II, calcium(II) has no specific role to enhance the water-oxidizing activity of the layered manganese oxides and other cations can be replaced without any significant decrease in water-oxidizing activities of these layered Mn oxides. Based on this and previously reported results from oxygen evolution in the presence of H 2 (18) O, we discuss the mechanism and the important factors influencing the water-oxidizing activities of the manganese oxides.

  16. A new oxidimetric reagent: potassium dichromate in a strong phosphoric acid medium--VII. Photometric titration of vanadium(IV) and of cerium(III) alone and in mixtures with iroN(II).

    PubMed

    Rao, G G; Rao, P K

    1967-01-01

    Vanadium(IV) can be accurately titrated with potassium dichromate in media containing phosphoric acid of 3-12M concentration: the change in absorption of vanadium(IV) is followed in the region 660 mmicro using a red filter. It is more convenient to carry out the titration in 3M phosphoric acid because at higher concentrations chloride, nitrate, cerium(III) and manganese(II) may interfere. Photoelcetric titration is more convenient than potentiometric because the former can be made in a 3M phosphoric acid medium, whereas the latter is possible only in 12M phosphoric acid. The simultaneous differential photometric titration of iron(II) and vanadium(IV) is also possible. Conditions have been found for the photometric titration of cerium(III) and of cerium(III) plus iron(II). The titration is carried out (at 450 mmicro or with a blue filter) in about 10.5M phosphoric acid. Application of the method to a cerium mineral is considered.

  17. The ternary system cerium-palladium-silicon

    SciTech Connect

    Lipatov, Alexey; Gribanov, Alexander; Grytsiv, Andriy; Rogl, Peter; Murashova, Elena; Seropegin, Yurii; Giester, Gerald; Kalmykov, Konstantin

    2009-09-15

    Phase relations in the ternary system Ce-Pd-Si have been established for the isothermal section at 800 deg. C based on X-ray powder diffraction and EMPA techniques on about 130 alloys, which were prepared by arc-melting under argon or powder reaction sintering. Eighteen ternary compounds have been observed to participate in the phase equilibria at 800 deg. C. Atom order was determined by direct methods from X-ray single-crystal counter data for the crystal structures of tau{sub 8}-Ce{sub 3}Pd{sub 4}Si{sub 4} (U{sub 3}Ni{sub 4}Si{sub 4}-type, Immm; a=0.41618(1), b=0.42640(1), c=2.45744(7) nm), tau{sub 16}-Ce{sub 2}Pd{sub 14}Si (own structure type, P4/nmm; a=0.88832(2), c=0.69600(2) nm) and also for tau{sub 18}-CePd{sub 1-x}Si{sub x} (x=0.07; FeB-type, Pnma; a=0.74422(5), b=0.45548(3), c=0.58569(4) nm). Rietveld refinements established the atom arrangement in the structures of tau{sub 5}-Ce{sub 3}PdSi{sub 3} (Ba{sub 3}Al{sub 2}Ge{sub 2}-type, Immm; a=0.41207(1), b=0.43026(1), c=1.84069(4) nm) and tau{sub 13}-Ce{sub 3-x}Pd{sub 20+x}Si{sub 6} (0<=x<=1, Co{sub 20}Al{sub 3}B{sub 6}-type, Fm3-barm; a=1.21527(2) nm). The ternary compound Ce{sub 2}Pd{sub 3}Si{sub 3} (structure-type Ce{sub 2}Rh{sub 1.35}Ge{sub 4.65}, Pmmn; a=0.42040(1), b=0.42247(1), c=1.72444(3) nm) was detected as a high-temperature compound, however, does not participate in the equilibria at 800 deg. C. Phase equilibria in Ce-Pd-Si are characterized by the absence of cerium solubility in palladium silicides. Mutual solubility among cerium silicides and cerium-palladium compounds are significant whereby random substitution of the almost equally sized atom species palladium and silicon is reflected in extended homogeneous regions at constant Ce-content such as for tau{sub 2}-Ce(Pd{sub x}Si{sub 1-x}){sub 2} (AlB{sub 2}-derivative type), tau{sub 6}-Ce(Pd{sub x}Si{sub 1-x}){sub 2} (ThSi{sub 2}-type) and tau{sub 7}-CePd{sub 2-x}Si{sub 2+x}. The crystal structures of compounds tau{sub 4}-Ce{sub a}pprox{sub 8}Pd

  18. Thermochemical nitrate destruction

    DOEpatents

    Cox, J.L.; Hallen, R.T.; Lilga, M.A.

    1992-06-02

    A method is disclosed for denitrification of nitrates and nitrites present in aqueous waste streams. The method comprises the steps of (1) identifying the concentration nitrates and nitrites present in a waste stream, (2) causing formate to be present in the waste stream, (3) heating the mixture to a predetermined reaction temperature from about 200 C to about 600 C, and (4) holding the mixture and accumulating products at heated and pressurized conditions for a residence time, thereby resulting in nitrogen and carbon dioxide gas, and hydroxides, and reducing the level of nitrates and nitrites to below drinking water standards.

  19. The Chilean nitrate deposits.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ericksen, G.E.

    1983-01-01

    The nitrate deposits in the arid Atacama desert of northern Chile consist of saline-cemented surficial material, apparently formed in and near a playa lake that formerly covered the area. Many features of their distribution and chemical composition are unique. The author believes the principal sources of the saline constituents were the volcanic rocks of late Tertiary and Quaternary age in the Andes and that the nitrate is of organic origin. Possible sources of the nitrate, iodate, perchlorate and chromate are discussed. -J.J.Robertson

  20. Bioactivation of organic nitrates and the mechanism of nitrate tolerance.

    PubMed

    Klemenska, Emila; Beresewicz, Andrzej

    2009-01-01

    Organic nitrates, such as nitroglycerin, are commonly used in the therapy of cardiovascular disease. Long-term therapy with these drugs, however, results in the rapid development of nitrate tolerance, limiting their hemodynamic and anti-ischemic efficacy. In addition, nitrate tolerance is associated with the expression of potentially deleterious modifications such as increased oxidative stress, endothelial dysfunction, and sympathetic activation. In this review we discuss current concepts regarding the mechanisms of organic nitrate bioactivation, nitrate tolerance, and nitrate-mediated oxidative stress and endothelial dysfunction. We also examine how hydralazine may prevent nitrate tolerance and related endothelial dysfunction.

  1. Electrode electrolyte interlayers containing cerium oxide for electrochemical fuel cells

    DOEpatents

    Borglum, Brian P.; Bessette, Norman F.

    2000-01-01

    An electrochemical cell is made having a porous fuel electrode (16) and a porous air electrode (13), with solid oxide electrolyte (15) therebetween, where the air electrode surface opposing the electrolyte has a separate, attached, dense, continuous layer (14) of a material containing cerium oxide, and where electrolyte (16) contacts the continuous oxide layer (14), without contacting the air electrode (13).

  2. Progress on Radiative Transition Probabilities in Neutral Cerium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Curry, J. J.

    2009-10-01

    Cerium is a rare-earth atom that is currently used in energy-efficient metal-halide lamps because of its rich visible emission spectrum. More than 20,000 lines have been observed and classified for neutral cerium in the wavelength range of 340 nm to 1 μm (Bill Martin, unpublished). We recently derived more than 500 absolute transition probabilities from existing experimental data (J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 2009). Lawler and Den Hartog at the University of Wisconsin have made measurements that are expected to produce a few thousand transition probabilities. These advances, however, leave the data situation far short of what is needed to simulate an accurate global emission spectrum in numerical models of metal-halide lamps containing cerium. One possibility for closing this gap is through atomic structure calculations. Although it may be difficult for calculations to match the accuracy of measurements for any given transition, the global spectral distribution produced with calculated transition probabilities may still be satisfactory. For such a large number of lines, calculations may be the only realistic way to produce a reasonably complete set of data. We will discuss our recent atomic structure calculations of neutral cerium with the Cowan code based on a parametric fit of calculated energy level values to experimental values.

  3. Structural, optical and photocatalytic activity of cerium doped zinc aluminate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sumathi, Shanmugam; Kavipriya, A.

    2017-03-01

    Zinc aluminate and cerium-doped zinc aluminate nanoparticles are synthesised by co-precipitation method. Ammonium hydroxide is used as a precipitating agent. The synthesised compounds are characterised by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform Infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), Ultraviolet diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (UV-DRS), Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Surface area measurements. The photocatalytic activity of zinc aluminate and cerium doped zinc aluminate nanoparticles are studied under the UV light and visible light taking methylene blue as a model pollutant. The amount of catalyst, concentration of dye solution and time are optimised under UV-light. Degradation of methylene blue under the UV-light is found to be 99% in 20 min with 10 mg of cerium doped catalyst. Compared to visible light degradation, the degradation of dye under UV-light is higher. Cerium doping in zinc aluminate (ZnAl2O4:Ce3+) increased the photocatalytic activity of zinc aluminate.

  4. Cerium; crystal structure and position in the periodic table.

    PubMed

    Johansson, Börje; Luo, Wei; Li, Sa; Ahuja, Rajeev

    2014-09-17

    The properties of the cerium metal have intrigued physicists and chemists for many decades. In particular a lot of attention has been directed towards its high pressure behavior, where an isostructural volume collapse (γ phase → α phase) has been observed. Two main models of the electronic aspect of this transformation have been proposed; one where the 4f electron undergoes a change from being localized into an itinerant metallic state, and one where the focus is on the interaction between the 4f electron and the conduction electrons, often referred to as the Kondo volume collapse model. However, over the years it has been repeatedly questioned whether the cerium collapse really is isostructural. Most recently, detailed experiments have been able to remove this worrisome uncertainty. Therefore the isostructural aspect of the α-γ transition has now to be seriously addressed in the theoretical modeling, something which has been very much neglected. A study of this fundamental characteristic of the cerium volume collapse is made in present paper and we show that the localized [rlhar2 ] delocalized 4f electron picture provides an adequate description of this unique behavior. This agreement makes it possible to suggest that an appropriate crossroad position for cerium in The Periodic Table.

  5. 40 CFR 721.8657 - Cerium, hydroxy oleate propionate complexes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... complexes. 721.8657 Section 721.8657 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.8657 Cerium, hydroxy oleate propionate complexes. (a) Chemical substance..., hydroxy oleate propionate complexes (PMN P-99-0026) is subject to reporting under this section for the...

  6. Purification of cerium, neodymium and gadolinium for low background experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boiko, R. S.; Barabash, A. S.; Belli, P.; Bernabei, R.; Cappella, F.; Cerulli, R.; Danevich, F. A.; Incicchitti, A.; Laubenstein, M.; Mokina, V. M.; Nisi, S.; Poda, D. V.; Polischuk, O. G.; Tretyak, V. I.

    2014-01-01

    Cerium, neodymium and gadolinium contain double beta active isotopes. The most interesting are 150Nd and 160Gd (promising for 0ν2β search), 136Ce (2β+ candidate with one of the highest Q2β). The main problem of compounds containing lanthanide elements is their high radioactive contamination by uranium, radium, actinium and thorium. The new generation 2β experiments require development of methods for a deep purification of lanthanides from the radioactive elements. A combination of physical and chemical methods was applied to purify cerium, neodymium and gadolinium. Liquid-liquid extraction technique was used to remove traces of Th and U from neodymium, gadolinium and for purification of cerium from Th, U, Ra and K. Co-precipitation and recrystallization methods were utilized for further reduction of the impurities. The radioactive contamination of the samples before and after the purification was tested by using ultra-low-background HPGe gamma spectrometry. As a result of the purification procedure the radioactive contamination of gadolinium oxide (a similar purification efficiency was reached also with cerium and neodymium oxides) was decreased from 0.12 Bq/kg to 0.007 Bq/kg in 228Th, from 0.04 Bq/kg to <0.006 Bq/kg in 226Ra, and from 0.9 Bq/kg to 0.04 Bq/kg in 40K. The purification methods are much less efficient for chemically very similar radioactive elements like actinium, lanthanum and lutetium.

  7. Cerium; Crystal Structure and Position in The Periodic Table

    PubMed Central

    Johansson, Börje; Luo, Wei; Li, Sa; Ahuja, Rajeev

    2014-01-01

    The properties of the cerium metal have intrigued physicists and chemists for many decades. In particular a lot of attention has been directed towards its high pressure behavior, where an isostructural volume collapse (γ phase → α phase) has been observed. Two main models of the electronic aspect of this transformation have been proposed; one where the 4f electron undergoes a change from being localized into an itinerant metallic state, and one where the focus is on the interaction between the 4f electron and the conduction electrons, often referred to as the Kondo volume collapse model. However, over the years it has been repeatedly questioned whether the cerium collapse really is isostructural. Most recently, detailed experiments have been able to remove this worrisome uncertainty. Therefore the isostructural aspect of the α-γ transition has now to be seriously addressed in the theoretical modeling, something which has been very much neglected. A study of this fundamental characteristic of the cerium volume collapse is made in present paper and we show that the localized ⇌ delocalized 4f electron picture provides an adequate description of this unique behavior. This agreement makes it possible to suggest that an appropriate crossroad position for cerium in The Periodic Table. PMID:25227991

  8. Processing and Characterization of Sol-Gel Cerium Oxide Microspheres

    SciTech Connect

    McClure, Zachary D.; Padilla Cintron, Cristina

    2016-09-27

    Of interest to space exploration and power generation, Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators (RTGs) can provide long-term power to remote electronic systems without the need for refueling or replacement. Plutonium-238 (Pu-238) remains one of the more promising materials for thermoelectric power generation due to its high power density, long half-life, and low gamma emissions. Traditional methods for processing Pu-238 include ball milling irregular precipitated powders before pressing and sintering into a dense pellet. The resulting submicron particulates of Pu-238 quickly accumulate and contaminate glove boxes. An alternative and dust-free method for Pu-238 processing is internal gelation via sol-gel techniques. Sol-gel methodology creates monodisperse and uniform microspheres that can be packed and pressed into a pellet. For this study cerium oxide microspheres were produced as a surrogate to Pu-238. The similar electronic orbitals between cerium and plutonium make cerium an ideal choice for non-radioactive work. Before the microspheres can be sintered and pressed they must be washed to remove the processing oil and any unreacted substituents. An investigation was performed on the washing step to find an appropriate wash solution that reduced waste and flammable risk. Cerium oxide microspheres were processed, washed, and characterized to determine the effectiveness of the new wash solution.

  9. Determination of intracellular nitrate.

    PubMed Central

    Romero, J M; Lara, C; Guerrero, M G

    1989-01-01

    A sensitive procedure has been developed for the determination of intracellular nitrate. The method includes: (i) preparation of cell lysates in 2 M-H3PO4 after separation of cells from the outer medium by rapid centrifugation through a layer of silicone oil, and (ii) subsequent nitrate analysis by ion-exchange h.p.l.c. with, as mobile phase, a solution containing 50 mM-H3PO4 and 2% (v/v) tetrahydrofuran, adjusted to pH 1.9 with NaOH. The determination of nitrate is subjected to interference by chloride and sulphate when present in the samples at high concentrations. Nitrite also interferes, but it is easily eliminated by treatment of the samples with sulphamic acid. The method has been successfully applied to the study of nitrate transport in the unicellular cyanobacterium Anacystis nidulans. PMID:2497740

  10. Reactivity of Metal Nitrates.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-07-20

    amines, where nitration would not be a competing process. Acetanilide . Despite the complexity encountered with aniline, the corresponding amide... acetanilide , though having an N-hydrogen atom, was nitrated without tar formation, although this was not accomplished efficiently. After reaction for 24 h... acetanilide , in the absence of a N-hydrogen atom. However, the reverse proved to be the case, for after one day at room temperature nearly 60% of starting

  11. Protein tyrosine nitration

    PubMed Central

    Chaki, Mounira; Leterrier, Marina; Barroso, Juan B

    2009-01-01

    Nitric oxide metabolism in plant cells has a relative short history. Nitration is a chemical process which consists of introducing a nitro group (-NO2) into a chemical compound. in biological systems, this process has been found in different molecules such as proteins, lipids and nucleic acids that can affect its function. This mini-review offers an overview of this process with special emphasis on protein tyrosine nitration in plants and its involvement in the process of nitrosative stress. PMID:19826215

  12. Thermochemical nitrate reduction

    SciTech Connect

    Cox, J.L.; Lilga, M.A.; Hallen, R.T.

    1992-09-01

    A series of preliminary experiments was conducted directed at thermochemically converting nitrate to nitrogen and water. Nitrates are a major constituent of the waste stored in the underground tanks on the Hanford Site, and the characteristics and effects of nitrate compounds on stabilization techniques must be considered before permanent disposal operations begin. For the thermochemical reduction experiments, six reducing agents (ammonia, formate, urea, glucose, methane, and hydrogen) were mixed separately with {approximately}3 wt% NO{sub 3}{sup {minus}} solutions in a buffered aqueous solution at high pH (13); ammonia and formate were also mixed at low pH (4). Reactions were conducted in an aqueous solution in a batch reactor at temperatures of 200{degrees}C to 350{degrees}C and pressures of 600 to 2800 psig. Both gas and liquid samples were analyzed. The specific components analyzed were nitrate, nitrite, nitrous oxide, nitrogen, and ammonia. Results of experimental runs showed the following order of nitrate reduction of the six reducing agents in basic solution: formate > glucose > urea > hydrogen > ammonia {approx} methane. Airnmonia was more effective under acidic conditions than basic conditions. Formate was also effective under acidic conditions. A more thorough, fundamental study appears warranted to provide additional data on the mechanism of nitrate reduction. Furthermore, an expanded data base and engineering feasibility study could be used to evaluate conversion conditions for promising reducing agents in more detail and identify new reducing agents with improved performance characteristics.

  13. Fundamental aspects of regenerative cerium oxide nanoparticles and their applications in nanobiotechnology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patil, Swanand D.

    Cerium oxide has been used extensively for various applications over the past two decades. The use of cerium oxide nanoparticles is beneficial in present applications and can open avenues for future applications. The present study utilizes the microemulsion technique to synthesize uniformly distributed cerium oxide nanoparticles. The same technique was also used to synthesize cerium oxide nanoparticles doped with trivalent elements (La and Nd). The fundamental study of cerium oxide nanoparticles identified variations in properties as a function of particle size and also due to doping with trivalent elements (La and Nd). It was found that the lattice parameter of cerium oxide nanoparticles increases with decrease in particle size. Also Raman allowed mode shift to lower energies and the peak at 464 cm-1 becomes broader and asymmetric. The size dependent changes in cerium oxide were correlated to increase in oxygen vacancy concentration in the cerium oxide lattice. The doping of cerium oxide nanoparticles with trivalent elements introduces more oxygen vacancies and expands the cerium oxide lattice further (in addition to the lattice expansion due to the size effect). The lattice expansion is greater for La-doped cerium oxide nanoparticles compared to Nd-doping due to the larger ionic radius of La compared to Nd, the lattice expansion is directly proportional to the dopant concentration. The synthesized cerium oxide nanoparticles were used to develop an electrochemical biosensor of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). The sensor was useful to detect H2O2 concentrations as low as 1muM in water. Also the preliminary testing of the sensor on tomato stem and leaf extracts indicated that the sensor can be used in practical applications such as plant physiological studies etc. The nanomolar concentrations of cerium oxide nanoparticles were also found to be useful in decreasing ROS (reactive oxygen species) mediated cellular damages in various in vitro cell cultures. Cerium oxide

  14. Bioremediation of nitrated organics

    SciTech Connect

    Stafford, D.A.; Lappin-Scott, H.; Jass, J.

    1994-12-31

    In the manufacture of nitrated aromatic and heterocyclic compounds intermediates are produced as well as the final products, e.g. TNT (trinitrotoluene), and RDX (cyclotri-methylene trinitramine). The red water produced is a dilute effluent containing TNT and other nitrated intermediates. Many of the intermediates are also to be found in contaminated land areas as well as the primary manufacturing products as contaminants in ground adjacent to production and storage areas. Two intermediates included as by-products are p-nitrophenol and resorcinol; both are hydroxylated aromatics and one (the former) is also nitrated. If these rings can be hydroxylated and oxidized by pure or mixed microbial cultures then the notion of using microbes for the detoxification of a wide range of nitrated aromatics and heterocyclics is possible. It is proposed in the study to accelerate this degradative process in the first instance for p-nitrophenol and resorcinol, and secondly for TNT and RDX. The use of microbes to degrade nitroaromatic compounds such as nitrobenzenes, and mono-nitro phenols, have been described. In order to determine how aromatic degrading bacteria can also degrade substituted and nitrated aromatics several pure and mixed cultures have been utilized to demonstrate enzyme adaptation.

  15. Effectiveness of ethylene glycol bis (2-aminoethyl ether) tetraacetic acid (EGTA) against cerium toxicity.

    PubMed

    Shrivastava, Sadhana; Mathur, R

    2004-09-01

    Therapeutic efficacy of EGTA (ethylene glycol bis (2-aminoethyl ether) tetraacetic acid) against cerium intoxicated mice was studied. Administration of cerium showed significant decrease in haemoglobin percentage, RBC counts and blood glucose level with an increase in the activity of serum transaminases and WBC counts. Decrease in the activity of alkaline phosphatase and glycogen content was noted in liver and kidney after cerium exposure. Light and electron microscopical investigations showed that these changes were recouped considerably with the administration of EGTA suggesting its therapeutic efficacy against cerium toxicity.

  16. Ab initio electronic and lattice dynamical properties of cerium dihydride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gurel, Tanju; Eryigit, Resul

    2007-03-01

    The rare-earth metal hydrides are interesting systems because of the dramatic structural and electronic changes due to the hydrogen absorption and desorption. Among them, cerium dihydride (CeH2) is one of the less studied rare-earth metal-hydride. To have a better understanding, we have performed an ab initio study of electronic and lattice dynamical properties of CeH2 by using pseudopotential density functional theory within local density approximation (LDA) and a plane-wave basis. Electronic band structure of CeH2 have been obtained within LDA and as well as GW approximation. Lattice dynamical properties are calculated using density functional perturbation theory. The phonon spectrum is found to contain a set of high-frequency (˜ 850-1000 cm-1) optical bands, mostly hydrogen related, and low frequency cerium related acoustic modes climbing to 160 cm^ -1 at the zone boundary.

  17. Liquid-phase oxidation of cyclohexanone over cerium oxide catalyst

    SciTech Connect

    Shen, H.C. ); Weng, H.S. )

    1990-05-01

    Catalytic oxidation of cyclohexanone in the liquid phase with glacial acetic acid as the solvent over cerium oxide was studied between 5 and 15 atm and 98 and 118 {degrees} C in a batch reactor. The products were adipic acid, glutaric acid, succinic acid, caprolactone, carbon oxides, etc. The reaction undergoes a short induction period prior to a rapid reaction regime. In both regimes, the reaction is independent of oxygen pressure when the system pressure is above 10 atm. The induction period is inversely proportional to both of the catalyst weight and cyclohexanone concentration.During the rapid reaction regime, the reaction rate was found to be proportional to the 0.5 power of the catalyst weight and to the 1.5 power of the cyclohexanone concentration. Reaction mechanisms and rate expressions are proposed. The carbon oxides produced in this study were much lower than those previously reported. The cerium oxide catalyst is stable during the reaction.

  18. Isomorphic phase transformation in shocked cerium using molecular dynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Dupont, Virginie; Germann, Timothy C; Chen, Shao - Ping

    2010-08-12

    Cerium (Ce) undergoes a significant ({approx}16%) volume collapse associated with an isomorphic fcc-fcc phase transformation when subject to compressive loading. We present here a new Embedded Atom Method (EAM) potential for Cerium that models two minima for the two fcc phases. We show results from its use in Molecular Dynamics (MD) simulations of Ce samples subjected to shocks with pressures ranging from 0.5 to 25 GPa. A split wave structure is observed, with an elastic precursor followed by a plastic wave. The plastic wave causes the expected fcc-fcc phase transformation. Comparisons to experiments and MD simulations on Cesium (Cs) indicate that three waves could be observed. The construction of the EAM potential may be the source of the difference.

  19. Shock wave experiments to examine the multiphase properties of cerium

    SciTech Connect

    Jensen, Brian James

    2009-01-01

    There is a scientific need to obtain new data to constrain and refine next generation multi-phase equation-of-state (EOS) for metals. Experiments are needed to locate phase boundaries, determine transition kinetic times, and to obtain EOS and Hugoniot data for relevant phases. The objectives of the current work was to examine the multiphase properties for cerium including the dynamic melt boundary and the low-pressure solid-solid phase transition through the critical point. These objectives were addressed by performing plate impact experiment that used multiple experimental configuration including front-surface impact experiments to directly measure transition kinetics, multislug experiments that used the overtake method to measure sound speeds at pressure, and preheat experiments to map out phase boundaries. Preliminary data and analysis obtained for cerium will be presented.

  20. Toxicity study of cerium oxide nanoparticles in human neuroblastoma cells.

    PubMed

    Kumari, Monika; Singh, Shailendra Pratap; Chinde, Srinivas; Rahman, Mohammed Fazlur; Mahboob, Mohammed; Grover, Paramjit

    2014-01-01

    The present study consisted of cytotoxic, genotoxic, and oxidative stress responses of human neuroblastoma cell line (IMR32) following exposure to different doses of cerium oxide nanoparticles (CeO2 NPs; nanoceria) and its microparticles (MPs) for 24 hours. Cytotoxicity was evaluated by 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide and lactate dehydrogenase assays whereas genotoxicity was assessed using the cytokinesis-block micronucleus and comet assays. A battery of assays including lipid peroxidation, reactive oxygen species (ROS), hydrogen peroxide, reduced glutathione, nitric oxide, glutathione reductase, glutathione peroxidase, superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione S-transferase were performed to test the hypothesis that ROS was responsible for the toxicity of nanoceria. The results showed that nanosized CeO2 was more toxic than cerium oxide MPs. Hence, further study on safety evaluation of CeO2 NPs on other models is recommended.

  1. Dissociation of cerium(III) and neodymium(III) phthalocyanines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lomova, T. N.

    2015-07-01

    The kinetics of dissociation of phthalocyanine complexes with cerium(III) and neodymium(III) (X)LnPc (X = Cl-, Br-, AcO-) under the action of acetic acid in ethanol with isolation of the macrocyclic ligand depending on the temperature was studied. The kinetic equations with the numerical values of rate constants, activation parameters, and the stoichiometric mechanisms with the limiting simple reaction between the nonionized AcOH molecule and (phthalocyaninato)lanthanide(III) in the axially coordinated ((X)LnPc, cerium complexes) or axially ionized ([(AcOH)LnPc]+X-, neodymium complexes) state were derived by solving the direct and inverse problems. As shown by a comparative analysis of quantitative kinetic data, the state is determined by the electronic structure of the metal cation and the mutual effect of the axial and equatorial ligands in the first coordination sphere.

  2. Crystal structures of the alpha''-cerium phases.

    PubMed

    Zachariasen, W H

    1978-03-01

    Endo et al. [Endo, S., Sasaki, H. & Mitsui, T. (1972) J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 42, 882-885] have reported x-ray diffraction data for an unidentified phase of cerium metal observed in the 50- to 100-kbar range. It is shown that the unknown phase is a variant of the metastable monoclinic phase, alpha''-Ce, previously observed. The complete structure of the new form of alpha''-Ce is deduced.

  3. Crystal structures of the α″-cerium phases

    PubMed Central

    Zachariasen, W. H.

    1978-01-01

    Endo et al. [Endo, S., Sasaki, H. & Mitsui, T. (1972) J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 42, 882-885] have reported x-ray diffraction data for an unidentified phase of cerium metal observed in the 50- to 100-kbar range. It is shown that the unknown phase is a variant of the metastable monoclinic phase, α″-Ce, previously observed. The complete structure of the new form of α″-Ce is deduced. PMID:16592508

  4. Engineered cerium oxide nanoparticles: Effects on bacterial growth and viability

    SciTech Connect

    Pelletier, Dale A; Suresh, Anil K; Holton, Gregory A; McKeown, Catherine K; Wang, Wei; Gu, Baohua; Mortensen, Ninell P; Allison, David P; Joy, David Charles; Allison, Martin R; Brown, Steven D; Phelps, Tommy Joe; Doktycz, Mitchel John

    2010-01-01

    Interest in engineered nanostructures has risen in recent years due to their use in energy conservation strategies and biomedicine. To ensure prudent development and use of nanomaterials, the fate and effects of such engineered structures on the environment should be understood. Interactions of nanomaterials with environmental microorganisms are inevitable, but the general consequences of such interactions remain unclear. Further, standardized methods for assessing such interactions are lacking. Therefore, we have initiated a multianalytical approach to understand the interactions of synthesized nanoparticles with bacterial systems. These efforts are focused initially on cerium oxide nanoparticles and model bacteria in order to evaluate characterization procedures and the possible fate of such materials in the environment. In this study the effects of cerium oxide nanoparticles on the growth and viability of Gram-negative Escherichia coli and Shewanella oneidensis, a metal-reducing bacteria, and Gram-positive Bacillus subtilis were examined relative to particle size, growth media, pH, and dosage. A hydrothermal based synthesis procedure was used to prepare cerium oxide nanoparticles of defined sizes in order to eliminate complications originating from the use of organic solvents and surfactants. Bactericidal effects were determined by minimum inhibitory concentration, colony forming units, disc diffusion tests and Live/Dead assays. In growth inhibition experiments involving E. coli and B. subtilis, a clear strain and size-dependent inhibition was observed. S. oneidensis appeared to be unaffected by the cerium oxide nanoparticles. Transmission electron microscopy along with microarray-based transcriptional profiling have been used to understand the response mechanism of the bacteria. The use of multiple analytical approaches adds confidence to toxicity assessments while the use of different bacterial systems highlights the potential wide-ranging effects of

  5. Optical Response of Shocked Cerium-Doped Lutetium Oxyorthosilicate

    SciTech Connect

    G. D. Stevens

    2003-03-01

    Shock experiments were performed in order to characterize the triboluminescent signature of cerium-doped lutetium oxyorthosilicate (LSO:Ce). This material shows prompt, nano-second timescale light emission when driven by explosive detonation. When properly applied to a surface, it may be used as a shock arrival sensor, and also for imaging the propagation of a shock front. Triboluminescent rise times, spectral content, and spatial resolution measurements are presented.

  6. Cerium chloride reduces enamel lesion initiation and progression in vitro.

    PubMed

    Wegehaupt, F J; Buchalla, W; Sener, B; Attin, T; Schmidlin, P R

    2014-01-01

    Determination of the potential of cerium chloride to reduce artificial carious mineral loss and lesion depth progression. A total of 160 enamel samples were prepared from 40 bovine lower central incisors. Crowns were sectioned into four pieces, embedded in acrylic resin, ground flat and allocated to eight groups (S1-S4 and D1-D4; n = 20). Specimens of groups D1-D4 were stored (for 7 days) in a demineralizing buffer solution to induce caries-like lesions. Afterwards, samples were treated for 30 s with one of the following solutions: placebo (S1 and D1), amine fluoride (S2 and D2), cerium chloride (S3 and D3) and a combination of fluoride and cerium chloride (S4 and D4). After another 7 (D1-D4) or 14 (S1-S4) days in demineralizing buffer solution, integrated mineral loss and lesion depth were determined by transversal microradiography and compared by Scheffé's post hoc tests. In groups S1-S4, the highest values for integrated mineral loss and lesion depth were observed for group S1 (placebo), the lowest values for group S4. The results in groups S2-S4 were not significantly different. In groups D1-D4, the highest values for integrated mineral loss and lesion depth were observed for group D1 (placebo), the lowest values in groups D3 and D4. In group D2, integrated mineral loss and lesion depth were significantly lower as compared to D1, but significantly higher compared to groups D3 and D4. Cerium chloride and its combination with fluoride are able to significantly reduce carious mineral loss and the progression of lesion depth.

  7. Cerium Substitution in Yttrium Iron Garnet: Valence State, Structure, and Energetics

    SciTech Connect

    Guo, Xiaofeng; Tavakoli, Amir H.; Sutton, Steve; Kukkadapu, Ravi K.; Qi, Liang; Lanzirotti, Anthony; Newville, Mathew; Asta, Mark D.; Navrotsky, Alexandra

    2014-01-28

    The garnet structure is a promising nuclear waste form because it can accommodate various actinide elements. Y3Fe5O12 (YIG) is a model composition for such substitutions. Since cerium (Ce) can be considered an analogue of actinide elements such as thorium (Th), plutonium (Pu), and uranium (U), studying the local structure and thermodynamic stability of Ce-substituted YIG (Ce:YIG) can provide insights into the structural and energetic aspects of large ion substitution in garnets. Single phases of yttrium iron garnet with Ce substitution up to 20 mol % (Y3-xCexFe5O12 with 0 ≤ x ≤ 0.2) were synthesized through a citrate-nitrate combustion method. The oxidation state of cerium was examined by X-ray absorption near edge structure spectroscopy (XANES); the oxidation state and site occupancy of Fe as a function of Ce loading also was monitored by 57Fe-Mössbauer spectroscopy. These measurements establish that Ce is predominantly in the trivalent state at low substitution levels, while a mixture of trivalent and tetravalent states are observed at higher concentrations. Fe was predominately trivalent and exists in multiple environments. High temperature oxide melt solution calorimetry was used to determine the enthalpy of formation of these Ce-substituted YIG garnets. The thermodynamic analysis demonstrated that, although there is an entropic driving force for the substitution of Ce for Y, the substitution reaction is enthalpically unfavorable. The experimental results are complemented by electronic structure calculations performed within the framework of density functional theory (DFT) with Hubbard-U corrections, which reproduce the observed increase in the tendency for tetravalent Ce to be present with higher loading of Ce. The DFT+U results suggest that the energetics underlying the formation of tetravalent Ce involves a competition between an unfavorable energy to oxidize Ce and reduce Fe, and a favorable contribution due to strain-energy reduction. The structural

  8. Effect of nano-sized cerium-zirconium oxide solid solution on far-infrared emission properties of tourmaline powders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Bin; Yang, Liqing; Hu, Weijie; Li, Wenlong; Wang, Haojing

    2015-10-01

    Far-infrared functional nanocomposites were prepared by the co-precipitation method using natural tourmaline (XY3Z6Si6O18(BO3)3V3W, where X is Na+, Ca2+, K+, or vacancy; Y is Mg2+, Fe2+, Mn2+, Al3+, Fe3+, Mn3+, Cr3+, Li+, or Ti4+; Z is Al3+, Mg2+, Cr3+, or V3+; V is O2-, OH-; and W is O2-, OH-, or F-) powders, ammonium cerium(IV) nitrate and zirconium(IV) nitrate pentahydrate as raw materials. The reference sample, tourmaline modified with ammonium cerium(IV) nitrate alone was also prepared by a similar precipitation route. The results of Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy show that tourmaline modified with Ce and Zr has a better far-infrared emission property than tourmaline modified with Ce alone. Through characterization by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), the mechanism for oxygen evolution during the heat process in the two composite materials was systematically studied. The XPS spectra show that Fe3+ ratio inside tourmaline modified with Ce alone can be raised by doping Zr. Moreover, it is showed that there is a higher Ce3+ ratio inside the tourmaline modified with Ce and Zr than tourmaline modified with Ce alone. In addition, XRD results indicate the formation of CeO2 and Ce1-xZrxO2 crystallites during the heat treatment and further TEM observations show they exist as nanoparticles on the surface of tourmaline powders. Based on these results, we attribute the improved far-infrared emission properties of Ce-Zr doped tourmaline to the enhanced unit cell shrinkage of the tourmaline arisen from much more oxidation of Fe2+ to Fe3+ inside the tourmaline caused by the change in the catalyst redox properties of CeO2 brought about by doping with Zr4+. In all samples, tourmaline modified with 7.14 wt.% Ce and 1.86 wt.% Zr calcined at 800∘C for 5 h has the best far-infrared emission property with the maximum emissivity value of 98%.

  9. Jet formation in cerium metal to examine material strength

    SciTech Connect

    Jensen, B. J. Cherne, F. J.; Prime, M. B.; Yeager, J. D.; Ramos, K. J.; Hooks, D. E.; Cooley, J. C.; Dimonte, G.; Fezzaa, K.; Iverson, A. J.; Carlson, C. A.

    2015-11-21

    Examining the evolution of material properties at extreme conditions advances our understanding of numerous high-pressure phenomena from natural events like meteorite impacts to general solid mechanics and fluid flow behavior. Recent advances in synchrotron diagnostics coupled with dynamic compression platforms have introduced new possibilities for examining in-situ, spatially resolved material response with nanosecond time resolution. In this work, we examined jet formation from a Richtmyer-Meshkov instability in cerium initially shocked into a transient, high-pressure phase, and then released to a low-pressure, higher-temperature state. Cerium's rich phase diagram allows us to study the yield stress following a shock induced solid-solid phase transition. X-ray imaging was used to obtain images of jet formation and evolution with 2–3 μm spatial resolution. From these images, an analytic method was used to estimate the post-shock yield stress, and these results were compared to continuum calculations that incorporated an experimentally validated equation-of-state (EOS) for cerium coupled with a deviatoric strength model. Reasonable agreement was observed between the calculations and the data illustrating the sensitivity of jet formation on the yield stress values. The data and analysis shown here provide insight into material strength during dynamic loading which is expected to aid in the development of strength aware multi-phase EOS required to predict the response of matter at extreme conditions.

  10. Antibacterial Activity of Polymer Coated Cerium Oxide Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Vishal; Shah, Shreya; Shah, Hirsh; Rispoli, Fred J.; McDonnell, Kevin T.; Workeneh, Selam; Karakoti, Ajay; Kumar, Amit; Seal, Sudipta

    2012-01-01

    Cerium oxide nanoparticles have found numerous applications in the biomedical industry due to their strong antioxidant properties. In the current study, we report the influence of nine different physical and chemical parameters: pH, aeration and, concentrations of MgSO4, CaCl2, KCl, natural organic matter, fructose, nanoparticles and Escherichia coli, on the antibacterial activity of dextran coated cerium oxide nanoparticles. A least-squares quadratic regression model was developed to understand the collective influence of the tested parameters on the anti-bacterial activity and subsequently a computer-based, interactive visualization tool was developed. The visualization allows us to elucidate the effect of each of the parameters in combination with other parameters, on the antibacterial activity of nanoparticles. The results indicate that the toxicity of CeO2 NPs depend on the physical and chemical environment; and in a majority of the possible combinations of the nine parameters, non-lethal to the bacteria. In fact, the cerium oxide nanoparticles can decrease the anti-bacterial activity exerted by magnesium and potassium salts. PMID:23110109

  11. Nitrates and Nitrites TNC Presentation

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Nitrates and Nitrites Presentation gives an overview of nitrates and nitrites in drinking water, why it is important to monitor them and what to do in cases where the results exceed the maximum contaminant level (MCL).

  12. Nitrate Leaching Management

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Nitrate (NO3) leaching is a significant nitrogen (N) loss process for agriculture that must be managed to minimize NO3 enrichment of groundwater and surface waters. Managing NO3 leaching should involve the application of basic principles of understanding the site’s hydrologic cycle, avoiding excess ...

  13. XANES (X-ray Absorption Near Edge Structure) investigation of cerium as an inhibitor for Al alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Davenport, A.J.; Isaacs, H.S. ); Kendig, M.W. . Science Center)

    1991-01-01

    Cerium ions are under investigation as possible replacements for toxic chromates. The use of cerium ions as corrosion inhibitors for aluminum alloys is investigated using XANES (x-ray absorption near edge structure). On immersion in a dilute solution of cerium ions, cerium is incorporated into the oxide films on aluminum alloys in either the 3- or 4-valent state depending upon the alloy and on the surface preparation. 7 refs., 2 figs.

  14. Induction of pulmonary fibrosis by cerium oxide nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Ma, Jane Y.; Mercer, Robert R.; Barger, Mark; Schwegler-Berry, Diane; Scabilloni, James; Ma, Joseph K.; Castranova, Vincent

    2012-08-01

    Cerium compounds have been used as a diesel engine catalyst to lower the mass of diesel exhaust particles, but are emitted as cerium oxide (CeO{sub 2}) nanoparticles in the diesel exhaust. In a previous study, we have demonstrated a wide range of CeO{sub 2}-induced lung responses including sustained pulmonary inflammation and cellular signaling that could lead to pulmonary fibrosis. In this study, we investigated the fibrogenic responses induced by CeO{sub 2} in a rat model at various time points up to 84 days post-exposure. Male Sprague Dawley rats were exposed to CeO{sub 2} by a single intratracheal instillation. Alveolar macrophages (AM) were isolated by bronchial alveolar lavage (BAL). AM-mediated cellular responses, osteopontin (OPN) and transform growth factor (TGF)-β1 in the fibrotic process were investigated. The results showed that CeO{sub 2} exposure significantly increased fibrotic cytokine TGF-β1 and OPN production by AM above controls. The collagen degradation enzymes, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 and -9 and the tissue inhibitor of MMP were markedly increased in the BAL fluid at 1 day- and subsequently declined at 28 days after exposure, but remained much higher than the controls. CeO{sub 2} induced elevated phospholipids in BAL fluid and increased hydroxyproline content in lung tissue in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Immunohistochemical analysis showed MMP-2, MMP-9 and MMP-10 expressions in fibrotic regions. Morphological analysis noted increased collagen fibers in the lungs exposed to a single dose of 3.5 mg/kg CeO{sub 2} and euthanized at 28 days post-exposure. Collectively, our studies show that CeO{sub 2} induced fibrotic lung injury in rats, suggesting it may cause potential health effects. -- Highlights: ► Cerium oxide exposure significantly affected the following parameters in the lung. ► Induced fibrotic cytokine OPN and TGF-β1 production and phospholipidosis. ► Caused imbalance of the MMP-9/ TIMP-1 ratio that favors fibrosis

  15. Investigation of cerium and yttrium ions effects on microbial nitrogen fixation and determination of inhibition.

    PubMed

    Bahadur, K; Tripathi, P

    1978-01-01

    Critical investigation of the effect of yttrium and cerium ions in culture media for nitrogen-fixing bacteria showed strong inhibition. There was a decrease in the amount of nitrogen fixed; simultaneously, in the samples containing cerium ions, carbon consumption values increased as the molarity of metal ion was enhanced. Inhibition rate was invariably maximum at the highest concentration of metal ions.

  16. Cerium doped red mud catalytic ozonation for bezafibrate degradation in wastewater: Efficiency, intermediates, and toxicity.

    PubMed

    Xu, Bingbing; Qi, Fei; Sun, Dezhi; Chen, Zhonglin; Robert, Didier

    2016-03-01

    In this study, the performance of bezafibrate (BZF) degradation and detoxification in the aqueous phase using cerium-modified red mud (RM) catalysts prepared using different cerium sources and synthesis methods were evaluated. Experimental results showed that the surface cerium modification was responsible for the development of the catalytic activity of RM and this was influenced by the cerium source and the synthesis method. Catalyst prepared from cerium (IV) by precipitation was found to show the best catalytic activity in BZF degradation and detoxification. Reactive oxygen species including peroxides, hydroxyl radicals, and super oxide ions were identified in all reactions and we proposed the corresponding catalytic reaction mechanism for each catalyst that prepared from different cerium source and method. This was supported by the intermediates profiles that were generated upon BZF degradation. The surface and the structural properties of cerium-modified RM were characterized in detail by several analytical methods. Two interesting findings were made: (1) the surface texture (specific surface area and mesoporous volume) influenced the catalytic reaction pathway; and (2) Ce(III) species and oxygen vacancies were generated on the surface of the catalyst after cerium modification. This plays an important role in the development of the catalytic activity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Fenton-Like Reaction Catalyzed by the Rare Earth Inner Transition Metal Cerium

    PubMed Central

    HECKERT, ERIC G.; SEAL, SUDIPTA; SELF, WILLIAM T.

    2011-01-01

    Cerium (Ce) is a rare earth metal that is not known to have any biological role. Cerium oxide materials of several sizes and shapes have been developed in recent years as a scaffold for catalysts. Indeed even cerium oxide nanoparticles themselves have displayed catalytic activities and antioxidant properties in tissue culture and animal models. Because of ceria's ability to cycle between the +3 and +4 states at oxygen vacancy sites, we investigated whether cerium metal would catalyze a Fenton-like reaction with hydrogen peroxide. Indeed, cerium chloride did exhibit radical production in the presence of hydrogen peroxide, as assessed by relaxation of supercoiled plasmid DNA. Radical production in this reaction was also followed by production of radical cation of 2,2′-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS). Radical scavengers and spin traps were capable of competing with ABTS for radicals produced in this cerium dependent Fenton-like reaction. Electron paramagnetic resonance experiments reveal both hydroxyl radical and superoxide anion in a reaction containing cerium and hydrogen peroxide. Based on these results we propose that cerium is capable of redox-cycling with peroxide to generate damaging oxygen radicals. PMID:18678042

  18. Fenton-like reaction catalyzed by the rare earth inner transition metal cerium.

    PubMed

    Heckert, Eric G; Seal, Sudipta; Self, William T

    2008-07-01

    Cerium (Ce) is a rare earth metal that is not known to have any biological role. Cerium oxide materials of several sizes and shapes have been developed in recent years as a scaffold for catalysts. Indeed even cerium oxide nanoparticles themselves have displayed catalytic activities and antioxidant properties in tissue culture and animal models. Because of ceria's ability to cycle between the +3 and +4 states at oxygen vacancy sites, we investigated whether cerium metal would catalyze a Fenton-like reaction with hydrogen peroxide. Indeed, cerium chloride did exhibit radical production in the presence of hydrogen peroxide, as assessed by relaxation of supercoiled plasmid DNA. Radical production in this reaction was also followed by production of radical cation of 2,2'-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS). Radical scavengers and spin traps were capable of competing with ABTS for radicals produced in this cerium dependent Fenton-like reaction. Electron paramagnetic resonance experiments reveal both hydroxyl radical and superoxide anion in a reaction containing cerium and hydrogen peroxide. Based on these results we propose that cerium is capable of redox-cycling with peroxide to generate damaging oxygen radicals.

  19. Purification of alkali metal nitrates

    DOEpatents

    Fiorucci, Louis C.; Gregory, Kevin M.

    1985-05-14

    A process is disclosed for removing heavy metal contaminants from impure alkali metal nitrates containing them. The process comprises mixing the impure nitrates with sufficient water to form a concentrated aqueous solution of the impure nitrates, adjusting the pH of the resulting solution to within the range of between about 2 and about 7, adding sufficient reducing agent to react with heavy metal contaminants within said solution, adjusting the pH of the solution containing reducing agent to effect precipitation of heavy metal impurities and separating the solid impurities from the resulting purified aqueous solution of alkali metal nitrates. The resulting purified solution of alkali metal nitrates may be heated to evaporate water therefrom to produce purified molten alkali metal nitrate suitable for use as a heat transfer medium. If desired, the purified molten form may be granulated and cooled to form discrete solid particles of alkali metal nitrates.

  20. Tuning reactivity and electronic properties through ligand reorganization within a cerium heterobimetallic framework.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Jerome R; Gordon, Zachary; Booth, Corwin H; Carroll, Patrick J; Walsh, Patrick J; Schelter, Eric J

    2013-12-18

    Cerium compounds have played vital roles in organic, inorganic, and materials chemistry due to their reversible redox chemistry between trivalent and tetravalent oxidation states. However, attempts to rationally access molecular cerium complexes in both oxidation states have been frustrated by unpredictable reactivity in cerium(III) oxidation chemistry. Such oxidation reactions are limited by steric saturation at the metal ion, which can result in high energy activation barriers for electron transfer. An alternative approach has been realized using a rare earth/alkali metal/1,1'-BINOLate (REMB) heterobimetallic framework, which uses redox-inactive metals within the secondary coordination sphere to control ligand reorganization. The rational syntheses of functionalized cerium(IV) products and a mechanistic examination of the role of ligand reorganization in cerium(III) oxidation are presented.

  1. Hydrocarbon-based polymer electrolyte cerium composite membranes for improved proton exchange membrane fuel cell durability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Hyejin; Han, Myungseong; Choi, Young-Woo; Bae, Byungchan

    2015-11-01

    Hydrocarbon-based cerium composite membranes were prepared for proton exchange membrane fuel cell applications to increase oxidative stability. Different amounts of cerium ions were impregnated in sulfonated poly(arylene ether sulfone) (SPES) membranes and their physicochemical properties were investigated according to the cerium content. Field-emission scanning electron microscopy and inductively coupled plasma analyses confirmed the presence of cerium ions in the composite membranes and 1H NMR indicated the successful coordination of sulfonic acid groups with the metal ions. Increasing amounts of cerium ions resulted in decreases in the proton conductivity and water uptake, but enhanced oxidative stability. The oxidative stability of the composite membranes was proven via a hydrogen peroxide exposure experiment which mimicked fuel cell operating conditions. In addition, more than 2200 h was achieved with the composite membrane under in situ accelerated open circuit voltage (OCV) durability testing (DOE protocol), whereas the corresponding pristine SPES membrane attained only 670 h.

  2. Spectrofluorometric trace determination of cerium(III) in sodium hexametaphosphate solutions.

    PubMed

    Akseli, A; Rakicioğlu, Y

    1996-02-01

    The use of sodium hexametaphosphate in the spectrofluorometric determination of trace amounts of cerium(III) ions is described. Sodium hexametaphosphate acts as a specific reagent for enhancing the fluorescence intensity of cerium(III) in aqueous solutions. The apparent excitation and fluorescence wavelength used are 304 and 344 nm, respectively. Maximum fluorescence intensity is obtained by irradiating Ce(III) dissolved in 5.346 g/l sodium hexametaphosphate solution at room temperature. The fluorescence varies linearly with the concentration of cerium(III) in the range of 0.001-60 microg/ml. The coefficient of variation for 45 microg/ml Ce(III) in 5.346 g/l sodium hexametaphosphate solution is 1. The quenching effects of other lanthanides and some inorganic anions are given. This technique permits a direct and rapid determination of cerium(III) in rare earth mixtures and cerium concentrates.

  3. Tuning Reactivity and Electronic Properties through Ligand Reorganization within a Cerium Heterobimetallic Framework

    SciTech Connect

    Robinson, Jerome R.; Gordon, Zachary; Booth, Corwin H.; Carroll, Patrick J.; Walsh, Patrick J.; Schelter, Eric J.

    2014-06-24

    Cerium compounds have played vital roles in organic, inorganic, and materials chemistry due to their reversible redox chemistry between trivalent and tetravalent oxidation states. However, attempts to rationally access molecular cerium complexes in both oxidation states have been frustrated by unpredictable reactivity in cerium(III) oxidation chemistry. Such oxidation reactions are limited by steric saturation at the metal ion, which can result in high energy activation barriers for electron transfer. An alternative approach has been realized using a rare earth/alkali metal/1,1'-BINOLate (REMB) heterobimetallic framework, which uses redox-inactive metals within the secondary coordination sphere to control ligand reorganization. The rational syntheses of functionalized cerium(IV) products and a mechanistic examination of the role of ligand reorganization in cerium(III) oxidation are presented.

  4. Photocatalysis of S-metolachlor in aqueous suspension of magnetic cerium-doped mTiO2 core-shell under simulated solar light.

    PubMed

    Mermana, J; Sutthivaiyakit, P; Blaise, C; Gagné, F; Charnsethikul, S; Kidkhunthod, P; Sutthivaiyakit, S

    2017-02-01

    Magnetic cerium-doped mesoporous titanium dioxide was synthesized by combining sol-gel method and calcination using tetrabutanate and ammonium cerium nitrate as precursors and Pluronic P123 as a template coating on iron oxide covered with carbon in ethanol. The magnetic Ce-doped catalyst showed only anatase structure with a slight increase in lattice parameters compared to the undoped catalyst. The Ce LIII-edge X-ray absorption near-edge spectroscopy (XANES) spectra showed Ce(3+), and the cerium substitution doping into titanium dioxide was proposed. Degradation of S-metolachlor in aqueous magnetic photocatalyst suspension followed (pseudo) first-order kinetics in the presence of 0.5 g L(-1) of γ-Fe2O3@C@0.16 mol% Ce-mTiO2 with a half-life of 55.18 ± 1.63 min. Fifteen degradation products were identified, and their transformation routes of the photocatalytic degradation were then proposed. Complementary toxicity assessment of the treated S-metolachlor solution was undertaken with Environment Canada's algal microplate assay measuring growth inhibition (72-h IC50) in the freshwater chlorophyte Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata. This test method revealed a significant decrease in toxicity (1.7-fold reduction after 180 min of irradiation treatment), thereby confirming that the by-products formed following photocatalysis would be less harmful from an environmental point of view. Photocatalytic degradation of S-metolachlor thus appears to hold promise as a cost-effective treatment technology to diminish the presence of this herbicide in aquatic systems.

  5. Manganese-cerium oxide catalysts prepared by non-thermal plasma for NO oxidation: Effect of O2 in discharge atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Lu; Zheng, Chenghang; Wu, Shenghao; Gao, Xiang; Ni, Mingjiang; Cen, Kefa

    2017-09-01

    Non-thermal plasma with different O2 concentration in discharge atmosphere was applied to synthesize manganese and cerium mixed-oxides catalysts, which were compared in NO oxidation activity. Discharge atmosphere displayed a crucial influence on the performance of the catalysts prepared by plasma. Relatively low O2 concentration in discharge atmosphere allows synthesizing manganese-cerium oxides catalysts in a moderate environment and therefore is favorable for better physicochemical properties which lead to superior catalytic behavior. The best catalyst was obtained by treatment with 10% O2/N2 plasma and presented over 80% NO conversion in the temperature range of 275-325 °C, whereas catalyst prepared in pure O2 discharge atmosphere had the same activity with a catalyst prepared by calcinations. A correlation between the surface properties of the plasma prepared catalysts and its catalytic activity in NO oxidation is proposed. The amount of the surface adsorbed oxygen has an obvious linear correlation with the amount of Ce3+, the H2 consumption at low temperatures and the catalytic performance. The superior catalytic performance is mainly attributed to the stronger interaction between manganese oxides and ceria, and the formation of poorly crystallized Mn-O-Ce phase in the catalyst which resulted from the slow decomposition of nitrates and organics during plasma treatment. Catalysts prepared in relatively low O2 concentration have large specific surface area and is abundant in Ce3+ species and active oxygen species. The study suggests that plasma treatment with proper discharge gas components is a promising method to prepare effective manganese- cerium oxides catalyst for NO oxidation.

  6. Ammonium nitrate explosive systems

    DOEpatents

    Stinecipher, Mary M.; Coburn, Michael D.

    1981-01-01

    Novel explosives which comprise mixtures of ammonium nitrate and an ammonium salt of a nitroazole in desired ratios are disclosed. A preferred nitroazole is 3,5-dinitro-1,2,4-triazole. The explosive and physical properties of these explosives may readily be varied by the addition of other explosives and oxidizers. Certain of these mixtures have been found to act as ideal explosives.

  7. Nitrate Storage and Dissimilatory Nitrate Reduction by Eukaryotic Microbes

    PubMed Central

    Kamp, Anja; Høgslund, Signe; Risgaard-Petersen, Nils; Stief, Peter

    2015-01-01

    The microbial nitrogen cycle is one of the most complex and environmentally important element cycles on Earth and has long been thought to be mediated exclusively by prokaryotic microbes. Rather recently, it was discovered that certain eukaryotic microbes are able to store nitrate intracellularly and use it for dissimilatory nitrate reduction in the absence of oxygen. The paradigm shift that this entailed is ecologically significant because the eukaryotes in question comprise global players like diatoms, foraminifers, and fungi. This review article provides an unprecedented overview of nitrate storage and dissimilatory nitrate reduction by diverse marine eukaryotes placed into an eco-physiological context. The advantage of intracellular nitrate storage for anaerobic energy conservation in oxygen-depleted habitats is explained and the life style enabled by this metabolic trait is described. A first compilation of intracellular nitrate inventories in various marine sediments is presented, indicating that intracellular nitrate pools vastly exceed porewater nitrate pools. The relative contribution by foraminifers to total sedimentary denitrification is estimated for different marine settings, suggesting that eukaryotes may rival prokaryotes in terms of dissimilatory nitrate reduction. Finally, this review article sketches some evolutionary perspectives of eukaryotic nitrate metabolism and identifies open questions that need to be addressed in future investigations. PMID:26734001

  8. An investigation of the use of cerium and polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxanes for the protection of polymeric epoxy compounds in the low Earth orbit environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piness, Jessica Miriam

    with the epoxy-amine matrix. A sedimented layer of the most incompatible POSS moiety was observed at the bottom of bars at the highest loading level of 5 wt% POSS. It was concluded that POSS could form a sedimented layer in this epoxy during cure. Epoxy amine materials containing POSS derivatives were tested by exposure to atomic oxygen at NASA Glenn Research Center with each POSS derivative present in separate samples at 2.5 wt% loading levels. Mass loss did not decrease against an unfilled control and glassification was not observed, leading to the conclusion that POSS could not be effectively concentrated at a surface to reduce degradation given the methods used. Taking this into account, the study transitioned into seeking ways to integrate highly UV absorbent cerium compounds with POSS. This part of the study is reported in Chapter IV. It was anticipated that POSS with a polar pendant group would interact through intermolecular forces with cerium (IV) oxide and produce a suspension that could be cured at the surface of polymers. However, in every experiment, the cerium (IV) oxide was not dispersed. However, a homogeneous dispersion of a cerium-containing compound was achieved by combining trisilanol phenyl POSS with cerium (III) nitrate hexahydrate. NMR and mass spectrometry showed that the mixture of Cerium nitrate and trisilanol phenyl POSS did not result in the formation of a chemical compound but FTIR studies indicated the presence of hydrogen bonding between the POSS silanols and cerium-associated water. The resulting material was termed "CePOSS". CePOSS was more UV absorbent in the UVc region than POSS or other cerium compounds as measured by solution UV-vis spectroscopy. In addition, CePOSS could be mixed into a POSS-epoxy coating, after pre-blending with poly(ethylene glycol) POSS, to produce films that were essentially opaque in the UV region below a wavelength of about 300 nm, and transparent in the visible region above 300 nm. The discovery of a 'window

  9. Effects of uncoated and citric acid coated cerium oxide nanoparticles, bulk cerium oxide, cerium acetate, and citric acid on tomato plants.

    PubMed

    Barrios, Ana Cecilia; Rico, Cyren M; Trujillo-Reyes, Jesica; Medina-Velo, Illya A; Peralta-Videa, Jose R; Gardea-Torresdey, Jorge L

    2016-09-01

    Little is known about the physiological and biochemical responses of plants exposed to surface modified nanomaterials. In this study, tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) plants were cultivated for 210days in potting soil amended with uncoated and citric acid coated cerium oxide nanoparticles (nCeO2, CA+nCeO2) bulk cerium oxide (bCeO2), and cerium acetate (CeAc). Millipore water (MPW), and citric acid (CA) were used as controls. Physiological and biochemical parameters were measured. At 500mg/kg, both the uncoated and CA+nCeO2 increased shoot length by ~9 and ~13%, respectively, while bCeO2 and CeAc decreased shoot length by ~48 and ~26%, respectively, compared with MPW (p≤0.05). Total chlorophyll, chlo-a, and chlo-b were significantly increased by CA+nCeO2 at 250mg/kg, but reduced by bCeO2 at 62.5mg/kg, compared with MPW. At 250 and 500mg/kg, nCeO2 increased Ce in roots by 10 and 7 times, compared to CA+nCeO2, but none of the treatments affected the Ce concentration in above ground tissues. Neither nCeO2 nor CA+nCeO2 affected the homeostasis of nutrient elements in roots, stems, and leaves or catalase and ascorbate peroxidase in leaves. CeAc at 62.5 and 125mg/kg increased B (81%) and Fe (174%) in roots, while at 250 and 500mg/kg, increased Ca in stems (84% and 86%, respectively). On the other hand, bCeO2 at 62.5 increased Zn (152%) but reduced P (80%) in stems. Only nCeO2 at 62.5mg/kg produced higher total number of tomatoes, compared with control and the rest of the treatments. The surface coating reduced Ce uptake by roots but did not affect its translocation to the aboveground organs. In addition, there was no clear effect of surface coating on fruit production. To our knowledge, this is the first study comparing the effects of coated and uncoated nCeO2 on tomato plants. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Effects of cerium oxide nanoparticles on the proliferation, differentiation, and mineralization function of primary osteoblasts in vitro.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Guoqiang; Gu, Guangqi; Li, Yang; Zhang, Qun; Wang, Wenying; Wang, Shuxiang; Zhang, Jinchao

    2013-06-01

    The effects of cerium oxide nanoparticles on the proliferation, differentiation, and mineralization function of primary osteoblasts in vitro were evaluated. The results showed that the cell biological effects of cerium oxide nanoparticles varied with different diameters. The cytotoxicity of cerium oxide nanoparticles on primary osteoblasts varies with the size and incubation time. Sixty-nanometer cerium oxide nanoparticles show significant cytotoxicity on primary osteoblasts at 48 h exposure. Cerium oxide nanoparticles with diameters of 40 nm promoted the differentiation of osteoblasts and the promotion rate was enhanced with increasing concentration. Cerium oxide nanoparticles with diameters of 60 nm promoted the differentiation of osteoblasts at lower concentrations, but turned to inhibit the differentiation at higher concentrations. Cerium oxide nanoparticles promoted the adipogenic transdifferentiation of osteoblasts at all tested concentrations. Moreover, the effects of 60-nm cerium oxide nanoparticles were stronger than that of 40-nm cerium oxide nanoparticles. Cerium oxide nanoparticles promoted the formation of mineralized matrix nodules of osteoblasts at all tested concentrations in a dose-dependent manner and the promotion rate increased with decreasing size. The results showed that cerium oxide nanoparticles had no acute cytotoxic effects on osteoblasts and could promote the osteogenic differentiation and mineralization of osteoblasts. Moreover, the size, concentration, and culture time of nanoparticles have significant influence on the proliferation, differentiation, and mineralization of osteoblasts.

  11. Cerium oxide nanoparticles protect rodent lungs from hypobaric hypoxia-induced oxidative stress and inflammation.

    PubMed

    Arya, Aditya; Sethy, Niroj Kumar; Singh, Sushil Kumar; Das, Mainak; Bhargava, Kalpana

    2013-01-01

    Cerium oxide nanoparticles (nanoceria) are effective at quenching reactive oxygen species (ROS) in cell culture and animal models. Although nanoceria reportedly deposit in lungs, their efficacy in conferring lung protection during oxidative stress remains unexplored. Thus, the study evaluated the protective efficacy of nanoceria in rat lung tissue during hypobaric hypoxia. A total of 48 animals were randomly divided into four equal groups (control [C], nanoceria treated [T], hypoxia [H], and nanoceria treated plus hypoxia [T+H]). Animals were injected intraperitoneally with either a dose of 0.5 μg/kg body weight/week of nanoceria (T and T+H groups) or vehicle (C and H groups) for 5 weeks. After the final dose, H and T+H animals were challenged with hypobaric hypoxia, while C and T animals were maintained at normoxia. Lungs were isolated and homogenate was obtained for analysis of ROS, lipid peroxidation, glutathione, protein carbonylation, and 4-hydroxynonenal-adduct formation. Plasma was used for estimating major inflammatory cytokines using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Intact lung tissues were fixed and both transmission electron microscopy and histopathological examinations were carried out separately for detecting internalization of nanoparticles as well as altered lung morphology. Spherical nanoceria of 7-10 nm diameter were synthesized using a microemulsion method, and the lung protective efficacy of the nanoceria evaluated during hypobaric hypoxia. With repeated intraperitoneal injections of low micromole concentration, we successfully localized the nanoceria in rodent lung without any inflammatory response. The lung-deposited nanoceria limited ROS formation, lipid peroxidation, and glutathione oxidation, and prevented oxidative protein modifications like nitration and carbonyl formation during hypobaric hypoxia. We also observed reduced lung inflammation in the nanoceria-injected lungs, supporting the anti-inflammatory properties of nanoceria

  12. Fabrication of lactate biosensor based on lactate dehydrogenase immobilized on cerium oxide nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Nesakumar, Noel; Sethuraman, Swaminathan; Krishnan, Uma Maheswari; Rayappan, John Bosco Balaguru

    2013-11-15

    An electrochemical biosensor was developed to determine lactate that plays an important role in clinical diagnosis, fermentation and food quality analysis. Abnormal concentration of lactate has been related to diseases such as hypoxia, acute heart disorders, lactic acidosis, muscle fatigue and meningitis. Also, lactate concentration in blood helps to evaluate the athletic performance in sports. The main aim of the work is to fabricate NADH/LDH/Nano-CeO2/GCE bio-electrode for sensing lactate in human blood samples. Toward this, CeO2 nanoparticles were synthesized by a hydroxide mediated approach using cerium nitrate hexahydrate (Ce(NO3)3·6H2O) and NaOH as precursors. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FE-SEM) studies were carried out to determine the structural and morphological characteristics of CeO2 nanoparticles. XRD pattern indicated the formation of highly crystalline CeO2 nanoparticles with face centered cubic structure. The FE-SEM studies revealed the formation of nanospherical particles of size 29.73±2.59 nm. The working electrode was fabricated by immobilizing nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) on GCE surface with CeO2 nanoparticles as an interface. Electrochemical studies were carried out through cyclic voltammetry using a three electrode system with NADH/LDH/NanoCeO2/GCE as a working electrode, Ag/AgCl saturated with 0.1M KCl as a reference electrode and Pt wire as a counter electrode. From the amperometric study, the linearity was found to be in the range of 0.2-2 mM with the response time of less than 4s.

  13. Modelling the structure of disordered cerium oxide thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peña Leal, José Juan; Barrio, Rafael A.

    2017-10-01

    Cerium oxide is an interesting mixed valence compound of great technological importance. We model the growth of thin films of this substance by describing the statistical nucleation of atomic units containing Ce3+ and Ce4+. The theoretical results are compared with available experimental values of the magnetic susceptibility of the material, which is related to the proportion of magnetic atoms in the solid. The model is able to predict the composition of the final solid under different preparation conditions, namely the oxygen content of the precursor and the temperature of the substrate.

  14. Test beam results of a cerium fluoride crystal matrix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Auffray, E.; Bourotte, J.; Beckers, T.; Chipaux, M.; Commichau, V.; Dafinei, I.; Depasse, P.; Djambazov, L.; Dydak, U.; El Mamouni, H.; Fay, J.; Felcini, M.; Goyot, M.; Haguenauer, M.; Hillemans, H.; Hofer, H.; Ille, B.; Kirn, T.; Kryn, D.; Lebrun, P.; Lecomte, P.; Lecoq, P.; Martin, J. P.; Maurelli, G.; Mattioli, M.; Melnikov, I.; Nessi-Tedaldi, F.; Pacciani, L.; Pirro, S.; Raghavan, R.; Ren, D.; Reynaud, M.; Röser, U.; Sahuc, P.; Schmitz, D.; Schneegans, M.; Schwenke, J.; Soric, I.; Viertel, G.; von Gunten, H. P.; Walder, J. P.; Waldmeier-Wicki, S.

    1995-11-01

    A Cerium Fluoride matrix of 3 × 3 towers with Silicon photodiode readout has been tested in electron and pion beams from 10 to 150 GeV energy. The matrix was assembled with a selection of crystals out of a total of over 40 large crystals (up to 20 cm long and 3 cm × 3 cm in cross section) from various producers. Despite less than optimal geometry and crystal quality, an energy resolution of 0.5% for energies ≥ 50 GeV has been obtained. Fast shaping amplifier prototypes were tested and their performance was found to be appropriate for operation in an LHC-like environment.

  15. Identification of the Charge Carriers in Cerium Phosphate Ceramics

    SciTech Connect

    Ray, Hannah L.; Jonghe, Lutgard C. De

    2010-06-02

    The total conductivity of Sr-doped cerium orthophosphate changes by nearly two orders of magnitude depending on the oxygen and hydrogen content of the atmosphere. The defect model for the system suggests that this is because the identity of the dominant charge carrier can change from electron holes to protons when the sample is in equilibrium with air vs. humidified hydrogen. In this work are presented some preliminary measurements that can help to clarify this exchange between carriers. The conduction behavior of a 2percent Sr-doped CePO4 sample under symmetric atmospheric conditions is investigated using several techniques, including AC impedance, H/D isotope effects, and chronoamperometry.

  16. Assimilation of nitrate by yeasts.

    PubMed

    Siverio, José M

    2002-08-01

    Nitrate assimilation has received much attention in filamentous fungi and plants but not so much in yeasts. Recently the availability of classical genetic and molecular biology tools for the yeast Hansenula polymorpha has allowed the advance of the study of this metabolic pathway in yeasts. The genes YNT1, YNR1 and YNI1, encoding respectively nitrate transport, nitrate reductase and nitrite reductase, have been cloned, as well as two other genes encoding transcriptional regulatory factors. All these genes lie closely together in a cluster. Transcriptional regulation is the main regulatory mechanism that controls the levels of the enzymes involved in nitrate metabolism although other mechanisms may also be operative. The process involved in the sensing and signalling of the presence of nitrate in the medium is not well understood. In this article the current state of the studies of nitrate assimilation in yeasts as well as possible venues for future research are reviewed.

  17. Soil organic matter influences cerium translocation and physiological processes in kidney bean plants exposed to cerium oxide nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Majumdar, Sanghamitra; Peralta-Videa, Jose R; Trujillo-Reyes, Jesica; Sun, Youping; Barrios, Ana C; Niu, Genhua; Margez, Juan P Flores-; Gardea-Torresdey, Jorge L

    2016-11-01

    Soil organic matter plays a major role in determining the fate of the engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) in the soil matrix and effects on the residing plants. In this study, kidney bean plants were grown in soils varying in organic matter content and amended with 0-500mg/kg cerium oxide nanoparticles (nano-CeO2) under greenhouse condition. After 52days of exposure, cerium accumulation in tissues, plant growth and physiological parameters including photosynthetic pigments (chlorophylls and carotenoids), net photosynthesis rate, transpiration rate, and stomatal conductance were recorded. Additionally, catalase and ascorbate peroxidase activities were measured to evaluate oxidative stress in the tissues. The translocation factor of cerium in the nano-CeO2 exposed plants grown in organic matter enriched soil (OMES) was twice as the plants grown in low organic matter soil (LOMS). Although the leaf cover area increased by 65-111% with increasing nano-CeO2 concentration in LOMS, the effect on the physiological processes were inconsequential. In OMES leaves, exposure to 62.5-250mg/kg nano-CeO2 led to an enhancement in the transpiration rate and stomatal conductance, but to a simultaneous decrease in carotenoid contents by 25-28%. Chlorophyll a in the OMES leaves also decreased by 27 and 18% on exposure to 125 and 250mg/kg nano-CeO2. In addition, catalase activity increased in LOMS stems, and ascorbate peroxidase increased in OMES leaves of nano-CeO2 exposed plants, with respect to control. Thus, this study provides clear evidence that the properties of the complex soil matrix play decisive roles in determining the fate, bioavailability, and biological transport of ENMs in the environment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Novel borothermal route for the synthesis of lanthanum cerium hexaborides and their field emission properties

    SciTech Connect

    Menaka; Patra, Rajkumar; Ghosh, Santanu; Ganguli, Ashok K.

    2012-10-15

    The present study describes the development of a simple approach to stabilize polycrystalline lanthanum cerium hexaborides without using any flux and at ambient pressure. The nanostructured lanthanum-cerium borides were synthesized using hydroxide precursors. These precursors (La{sub 1-x}Ce{sub x}(OH){sub 3}, x=0.1, 0.2, 0.3 and 0.5) were synthesized via hydrothermal route in the presence of Tergitol (surfactant, nonylphenol ethoxylate) as a capping agent. The precursors on heating with boron at 1300 Degree-Sign C lead to the formation of nanostructures (cubes, rods and pyramids) of lanthanum cerium hexaboride. We have investigated the field emission behaviour of the hexaboride films fabricated by spin coating. It was observed that the pyramidal shaped nanostructures of La{sub 0.5}Ce{sub 0.5}B{sub 6} shows excellent field emission characteristics with high field enhancement factor of 4502. - Graphical abstract: Nanostructured lanthanum cerium hexaboride with efficient field emission have fabricated by low temperature hydroxide precursor mediated route. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer New methodology to prepare lanthanum cerium hexaboride at 1300 Degree-Sign C via borothermal route. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Nanostructured lanthanum cerium hexaboride film by spin coating process. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Nanopyramids based lanthanum cerium hexaboride shows excellent field emission.

  19. Hydrothermal synthesis of cerium titanate nanorods and its application in visible light photocatalysis

    SciTech Connect

    Pei, L.Z. Liu, H.D.; Lin, N.; Yu, H.Y.

    2015-01-15

    Highlights: • Cerium titanate nanorods have been synthesized by a simple hydrothermal process. • The size of the cerium titanate nanorods can be controlled by growth conditions. • Cerium titanate nanorods exhibit good photocatalytic activities for methyl blue. - Abstract: Cerium titanate nanorods have been prepared via a hydrothermal process using sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) as the surfactant. The cerium titanate nanorods have been analyzed by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), high-resolution TEM (HRTEM), and ultraviolet–visible (UV–vis) diffuse reflectance spectrum. XRD shows that the nanorods are composed of CeTi{sub 21}O{sub 38} phase. Electron microscopy observations indicate that the nanorods have good single crystalline nature. The diameter and length of the nanorods are about 50–200 nm and 1–2 μm, respectively. Cerium titanate nanorods have a band gap of 2.65 eV. The photocatalytic activities of the nanorods have been investigated by degrading methylene blue (MB) under visible light irradiation. MB solution with the concentration of 10 mg L{sup −1} can be degraded totally with the irradiation time increasing to 240 min. Cerium titanate nanorods exhibit great potential in photocatalytic degradation of MB under visible light irradiation.

  20. Tubulin nitration in human gliomas.

    PubMed

    Fiore, Gabriella; Di Cristo, Carlo; Monti, Gianluca; Amoresano, Angela; Columbano, Laura; Pucci, Pietro; Cioffi, Fernando A; Di Cosmo, Anna; Palumbo, Anna; d'Ischia, Marco

    2006-02-06

    Immunohistochemical and biochemical investigations showed that significant protein nitration occurs in human gliomas, especially in grade IV glioblastomas at the level of astrocytes and oligodendrocytes and neurones. Enhanced alpha-tubulin immunoreactivity was co-present in the same elements in the glioblastomas. Proteomic methodologies were employed to identify a nitrated protein band at 55 kDa as alpha-tubulin. Peptide mass fingerprinting procedures demonstrated that tubulin is nitrated at Tyr224 in grade IV tumour samples but is unmodified in grade I samples and in non-cancerous brain tissue. These results provide the first characterisation of endogenously nitrated tubulin from human tumour samples.

  1. Nitration Studies in Oxynitrogen Systems.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-08-01

    the starting pyrene quantities could be accounted for fully in the products. The pyrene nitration yielded a mixture of 1,6-, 1,8- DNP and 1,3,6...trinitropyrene, with a very small quantity of 1,3- DNP . 1-NP in contrast yielded roughly equal quantities of the 3 dinitropyrene isomers. This result clearly...20 El1-NP nitrated 10 / 1,3- DNP 1,6. DNP 1,8- DNP . 1,3,6-TNP Nitration Products JA-61 26-19 FIGURE 1 PRODUCTS OF NITRATION OF PYR ENE AND 1-NITROPYRENE

  2. Interactional effect of cerium and manganese on NO catalytic oxidation.

    PubMed

    Liang, Yanli; Huang, Yufen; Zhang, Hailong; Lan, Li; Zhao, Ming; Gong, Maochu; Chen, Yaoqiang; Wang, Jianli

    2017-04-01

    To preferably catalyze the oxidation of NO to NO2 in diesel after-treatment system, a series of CeO2-MnO x composite oxides was supported on silica-alumina material by the co-impregnation method. The maximum conversion of NO of the catalyst with a Ce/Mn weight ratio of 5:5 was improved by around 40%, compared to the supported manganese-only or cerium-only sample. And its maximum reaction rate was 0.056 μmol g(-1) s(-1) at 250 °C at the gas hourly space velocity of 30,000 h(-1). The experimental results suggested that Ce-Mn solid solution was formed, which could modulate the valence state of cerium and manganese and exhibit great redox properties. Moreover, the strong interaction between ceria and manganese resulted in the largest desorption amount of strong chemical oxygen and oxygen vacancies, leading to the maximum O α area ratio of 62.26% from the O 1s result. These effective oxygen species could be continually transferred to the surface, leading to the best NO catalytic activity of 5Ce5Mn/SA catalyst. Graphical abstract.

  3. Threshold Ionization and Spin-Orbit Coupling of Cerium Monoxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Wenjin; Zhang, Yuchen; Wu, Lu; Yang, Dong-Sheng

    2017-06-01

    Cerium oxides are widely used in heterogeneous catalysis due to their ability to switch between different oxidation states. We report here the mass-analyzed threshold ionization (MATI) spectroscopy of cerium monoxide (CeO) produced by laser ablating a Ce rod in a molecular beam source. The MATI spectrum in the range of 40000-45000 \\wn exhibits several band systems with similar vibrational progressions. The strongest band is at 43015 (5) \\wn, which can be assigned as the adiabatic ionization energy of the neutral species. The spectrum also shows Ce-O stretching frequencies of 817 and 890 \\wn in the neutral and ion states, respectively. By comparing with spin-orbit coupled multireference quasi-degenerate perturbation theory (SO-MCQDPT) calculations, the observed band systems are assigned to transitions from various low-energy spin-orbit levels of the neutral oxide to the two lowest spin-orbit levels of the corresponding ion. The current work will also be compared with previous experimental and computational studies on the neutral species.

  4. Functionalization of nanostructured cerium oxide films with histidine.

    PubMed

    Tsud, Nataliya; Bercha, Sofiia; Acres, Robert G; Vorokhta, Mykhailo; Khalakhan, Ivan; Prince, Kevin C; Matolín, Vladimír

    2015-01-28

    The surfaces of polycrystalline cerium oxide films were modified by histidine adsorption under vacuum and characterized by the synchrotron based techniques of core and valence level photoemission, resonant photoemission and near edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy, as well as atomic force microscopy. Histidine is strongly bound to the oxide surface in the anionic form through the deprotonated carboxylate group, and forms a disordered molecular adlayer. The imidazole ring and the amino side group do not form bonds with the substrate but are involved in the intermolecular hydrogen bonding which stabilizes the molecular adlayer. The surface reaction with histidine results in water desorption accompanied by oxide reduction, which is propagated into the bulk of the film. Previously studied, well-characterized surfaces are a guide to the chemistry of the present polycrystalline surface and histidine bonds via the carboxylate group in both cases. In contrast, bonding via the imidazole group occurs on the well-ordered surface but not in the present case. The morphology and structure of the cerium oxide are decisive factors which define the adsorption geometry of the histidine adlayer.

  5. Pulmonary toxicity in mice following exposure to cerium chloride.

    PubMed

    Hong, Jie; Yu, Xiaohong; Pan, Xiaoyu; Zhao, Xiaoyang; Sheng, Lei; Sang, Xuezi; Lin, Anan; Zhang, Chi; Zhao, Yue; Gui, Suxin; Sun, Qingqing; Wang, Ling; Hong, Fashui

    2014-06-01

    The widespread application of lanthanoids (Lns) in manufacturing industries has raised occupational and environmental health concerns about the possible increased health risks to humans exposed to Lns in their working and living environments. Numerous studies have shown that exposures to Ln cause pulmonary injury in animals, but very little is known about the molecular mechanisms of the pulmonary inflammation caused by cerium chloride (CeCl3) exposure. In this study, we evaluated the oxidative stress and molecular mechanism underlying with the pulmonary inflammation associated with chronic lung toxicity in mice treated with nasally instilled CeCl3 for 90 consecutive days. Our findings suggest that significant cerium accumulated in the lung, leading the obvious increase of the lung indices, significant increases in inflammatory cells and levels of lactate dehydrogenase, alkaline phosphate, and total protein, overproduction of reactive oxygen species and peroxidation of lipids, reduced antioxidant capacity, and pulmonary inflammation. CeCl3 exposure also activated nuclear factor κB, increased the expression of tumor necrosis factor α, cyclooxygenase-2, heme oxygenase 1, interleukin 2, interleukin 4, interleukin 6, interleukin 8, interleukin 10, interleukin 18, interleukin 1β, and CYP1A1. However, CeCl3 reduced the expression of nuclear factor κB (NF-κB)-inhibiting factor and heat shock protein 70. These findings suggest that the pulmonary inflammation caused by CeCl3 in mice is closely associated with oxidative stress and inflammatory cytokine expression.

  6. Fast synthesis of cerium oxide nanoparticles and nanorods.

    PubMed

    Gao, Feng; Lu, Qingyi; Komarneni, Sridhar

    2006-12-01

    The microwave-hydrothermal method has been investigated for the fast synthesis of rare earth cerium oxide (CeO2) nanoparticles and nanorods. This approach combines the advantages of both hydrothermal and microwave heating techniques. It is facile, rapid, energy-saving, and environmentally-benign and leads to high-yields. The average sizes of the obtained CeO2 nanoparticles could be adjusted from approximatrly 1.6 nm to approximately 20 nm. Moreover, by changing cerium source and adjusting the amount of the added ammonia water, CeO2 nanorods could be synthesized under microwave-assisted conditions for the first time. No calcination process or surfactant is required in our experiments for both CeO2 nanoparticles and nanorods. The ultraviolet and visible (UV-vis) spectra show the obvious size-dependence of the position of the absorbance peak. The Brunaur Emmett Teller (BET) nitrogen adsorption indicates that these nanoparticles and nanorods have high specific surface areas, which are needed for potential applications in many fields. Compared with conventional hydrothermal method, microwave-assisted hydrothermal method shows its advantages of rapidity, convenience and perhaps cost-effectiveness and could be extended to the synthesis of other nanoparticles and nanorods.

  7. Toxicity of cerium and thorium on Daphnia magna.

    PubMed

    Ma, Yuhui; Wang, Jingkun; Peng, Can; Ding, Yayun; He, Xiao; Zhang, Peng; Li, Na; Lan, Tu; Wang, Dongqi; Zhang, Zhaohui; Sun, Fuhong; Liao, Haiqing; Zhang, Zhiyong

    2016-12-01

    Cerium (Ce) and thorium (Th) are always thought to be chemically similar and have comparable toxic properties on living organisms. In the present study, the acute and chronic toxicity of these two elements to freshwater crustacean Daphnia magna were investigated in the modified reconstituted water (6mg/L KCl, 123mg/L MgSO4·7H2O, and 294mg/L CaCl2·2H2O in Milli-Q water, pH 7.8). It seemed that Ce and Th had comparable acute toxicity on Daphnia: 24/48h EC50 for Th and Ce were 7.3/4.7μM and 16.4/10.7μM, respectively. However, Ce was present as soluble ions while all of Th was present as particulate ThO2 in the exposure medium. Considering their different chemical forms and bioavailability, the toxic mechanisms of Ce(3+) and ThO2 on Daphnia would be totally different. To our knowledge, this is the first time to investigate the aquatic toxicity of thorium and cerium based on their actual chemical speciation in the exposure medium. The results also suggest that more attention should be paid on the detrimental effect of Th in the form of particulate ThO2.

  8. Cerium Tetrafluoride: Sublimation, Thermolysis, and Atomic Fluorine Migration.

    PubMed

    Chilingarov, N S; Knot'ko, A V; Shlyapnikov, I M; Mazej, Z; Kristl, M; Sidorov, L N

    2015-08-06

    Saturated vapor pressure p° and enthalpy of sublimation (ΔsH°) of cerium tetrafluoride CeF4 were determined by means of Knudsen effusion mass spectrometry in the range of 750-920 K. It was discovered that sublimation of cerium tetrafluoride from a platinum effusion cell competes with thermal decomposition to CeF3 in the solid phase, but no accompanying release of fluorine to the gas phase occurs. Thus, fluorine atoms migrate within the surface layer of CeF4(s) to the regions of their irreversible drain. We used scanning electron microscopy to study the distribution of the residual CeF3(s) across the inner surface of the effusion cell after complete evaporation of CeF4(s). It was observed that CeF3 accumulates near the edge of the effusion orifice and near the junction of the lid and the body of the cell, that is, in those regions where the fluorine atoms can migrate to a free platinum surface and thus be depleted from the system. Distribution of CeF3(s) solid particles indicates the ways of fluorine atoms migration providing CeF3(s) formation inside the CeF4(s) surface layer.

  9. Incorporation of cerium and neodymium in uranyl phases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Cheol-Woon; Wronkiewicz, David J.; Finch, Robert J.; Buck, Edgar C.

    2006-07-01

    The potential for incorporating rare earth elements (REE) into/onto crystalline compounds has been evaluated by precipitating uranyl phases from aqueous solutions containing either cerium or neodymium. These REEs serve both as monitors for evaluating the potential repository behavior of REE radionuclides, and as surrogate elements for actinides (e.g., Ce 4+ and Nd 3+ for Pu 4+ and Am 3+, respectively). The present experiments examined the behavior of REE in the presence of ianthinite ([U24+(UO2)4O6(OH)4(H2O)4](H2O)5), becquerelite (Ca(UO 2) 6O 4(OH) 6(H 2O) 8), and other uranyl hydroxide compounds commonly noted as alteration products during the corrosion of UO 2, spent nuclear fuel, and naturally occurring uraninite. The results of these experiments demonstrate that significant quantities of both cerium ( Kd = 1020) and neodymium ( Kd = 840) are incorporated within the uranium alteration phases and suggest that ionic substitution and/or adsorption to the uranyl phases can play a key role in the limiting the mobility of REE (and by analogy, actinide elements) in a nuclear waste repository.

  10. Altering properties of cerium oxide thin films by Rh doping

    SciTech Connect

    Ševčíková, Klára; Nehasil, Václav; Vorokhta, Mykhailo; Haviar, Stanislav; Matolín, Vladimír; and others

    2015-07-15

    Highlights: • Thin films of ceria doped by rhodium deposited by RF magnetron sputtering. • Concentration of rhodium has great impact on properties of Rh–CeO{sub x} thin films. • Intensive oxygen migration in films with low concentration of rhodium. • Oxygen migration suppressed in films with high amount of Rh dopants. - Abstract: Ceria containing highly dispersed ions of rhodium is a promising material for catalytic applications. The Rh–CeO{sub x} thin films with different concentrations of rhodium were deposited by RF magnetron sputtering and were studied by soft and hard X-ray photoelectron spectroscopies, Temperature programmed reaction and X-ray powder diffraction techniques. The sputtered films consist of rhodium–cerium mixed oxide where cerium exhibits a mixed valency of Ce{sup 4+} and Ce{sup 3+} and rhodium occurs in two oxidation states, Rh{sup 3+} and Rh{sup n+}. We show that the concentration of rhodium has a great influence on the chemical composition, structure and reducibility of the Rh–CeO{sub x} thin films. The films with low concentrations of rhodium are polycrystalline, while the films with higher amount of Rh dopants are amorphous. The morphology of the films strongly influences the mobility of oxygen in the material. Therefore, varying the concentration of rhodium in Rh–CeO{sub x} thin films leads to preparing materials with different properties.

  11. Study on volatilization mechanism of ruthenium tetroxide from nitrosyl ruthenium nitrate by using mass spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kato, Tetsuya; Usami, Tsuyoshi; Tsukada, Takeshi; Shibata, Yuki; Kodama, Takashi

    2016-10-01

    In a cooling malfunction accident of a high-level liquid waste (HLLW) tank, behavior of ruthenium (Ru) attracts much attention, since Ru could be oxidized to a volatile chemical form in the boiling and drying of HLLW, and part of radioactive Ru can potentially be released to the environment. In this study, nitrosyl Ru nitrate (Ru(NO)(NO3)3) dissolved in nitric acid (HNO3), which is commonly contained in a simulated HLLW, was dried and heated up to 723 K, and the evolved gas was introduced into a mass spectrometer. The well-known volatile species, ruthenium tetroxide (RuO4) was detected in a temperature range between 390 K and 500 K with the peak top around 440 K. Various gases such as HNO3, nitrogen dioxide (NO2), nitrogen monoxide (NO) also evolved due to evaporation of the nitric acid and decomposition of the nitrate ions. The ion current of RuO4 seems to increase with the increasing decomposition of nitrate, while the evaporation of HNO3 decreases. More volatilization of RuO4 was observed from the HNO3 solution containing not only Ru(NO)(NO3)3 but also cerium nitrate (Ce(NO3)3·6H2O) which was added for extra supply of nitrate ion, compared with that from the HNO3 solution containing only Ru(NO)(NO3)3. These experimental results suggest that Ru could be oxidized to form RuO4 by the nitrate ion as well as HNO3.

  12. Modeled Wet Nitrate Deposition

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Modeled data on nitrate wet deposition was obtained from Dr. Jeff Grimm at Penn State Univ. Nitrate wet depostion causes acidification and eutrophication of surface water bodies. See below regarding decriptions on how original data was produced. These data will be part of future ReVA publications. The first, https://edg.epa.gov/data/Public/ORD/NERL/ReVA/ReVA_Data.zip, contains the variables used in this study (of which AGSL is one) and is freely available to the public. The second, www.waratah.com/region3edt is available to the general public to learn more about the ReVA program within EPA Region 3. The third, http://www.waratah.com/revanew/Welcome.asp, provides additional information about the tools and variables used in this program, but users must first obtain a user name and password to access it. A user name and password may be obtained from Vasu Kilaru at kilaru.vasu@epa.gov.

  13. Effect of cerium on temper embrittlement of P-doped Mn structural steels

    SciTech Connect

    Zhexi, Yuan; Shenhua, Song; Faulkner, R.G.; Tingdong, Xu

    1994-01-01

    The effect of cerium on temper embrittlement of P-doped Mn structural steels has been investigated by measurements of the ductile-brittle transition temperature and observations by AES, SIMS and SEM of the fracture surfaces of isothermally embrittled steels. It is shown that P can bring about the temper embrittlement of Mn structural steels; cerium may reduce the temper embrittlement of the steels and the segregation of cerium to grain boundaries may play an important part in reducing the temper embrittlement of the steels.

  14. Magnetophotonic crystal with cerium substituted yttrium iron garnet and enhanced Faraday rotation angle.

    PubMed

    Yoshimoto, Takuya; Goto, Taichi; Isogai, Ryosuke; Nakamura, Yuichi; Takagi, Hiroyuki; Ross, C A; Inoue, M

    2016-04-18

    Magnetophotonic crystals (MPCs) comprising cerium-substituted yttrium iron garnet (CeYIG) sandwiched by two Bragg mirrors were fabricated by vacuum annealing. CeYIG was deposited on Bragg mirrors at room temperature and annealed in 5 Pa of residual air. No ceria or other non-garnet phases were detected. Cerium 3 + ions substituted on the yttrium sites and no cerium 4 + ions were found. The Faraday rotation angle of the MPC was -2.92° at a wavelength of λ = 1570 nm was 30 times larger than that of the CeYIG film. These results showed good agreement with calculated values derived using a matrix approach.

  15. Structural, topographical and electrical properties of cerium doped strontium barium niobate (Ce:SBN60) ceramics

    SciTech Connect

    Raj, S. Gokul; Mathivanan, V.; Mohan, R.; Kumar, G. Ramesh Yathavan, S.

    2016-05-06

    Tungsten bronze type cerium doped strontium barium niobate (Ce:SBN - Sr{sub 0.6}B{sub 0.4}Nb{sub 2}O{sub 6}) ceramics were synthesized by solid state process. Cerium was used as dopant to improve its electrical properties. Influence of Ce{sup +} ions on the photoluminescence properties was investigated in detail. The grain size topographical behavior of SBN powders and their associated abnormal grain growth (AGG) were completely analyzed through SEM studies. Finally dielectric, measurement discusses about the broad phase transition observed due to cerium dopant The results were discussed in detail.

  16. Structural, topographical and electrical properties of cerium doped strontium barium niobate (Ce:SBN60) ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raj, S. Gokul; Mathivanan, V.; Kumar, G. Ramesh; Yathavan, S.; Mohan, R.

    2016-05-01

    Tungsten bronze type cerium doped strontium barium niobate (Ce:SBN - Sr0.6B0.4Nb2O6) ceramics were synthesized by solid state process. Cerium was used as dopant to improve its electrical properties. Influence of Ce+ ions on the photoluminescence properties was investigated in detail. The grain size topographical behavior of SBN powders and their associated abnormal grain growth (AGG) were completely analyzed through SEM studies. Finally dielectric, measurement discusses about the broad phase transition observed due to cerium dopant The results were discussed in detail.

  17. Cerium-Based Magnets: Novel High Energy Permanent Magnet Without Critical Elements

    SciTech Connect

    2012-01-01

    REACT Project: Ames Laboratory will develop a new class of permanent magnets based on the more commonly available element cerium for use in both EVs and renewable power generators. Cerium is 4 times more abundant and significantly less expensive than the rare earth element neodymium, which is frequently used in today’s most powerful magnets. Ames Laboratory will combine other metal elements with cerium to create a new magnet that can remain stable at the high temperatures typically found in electric motors. This new magnetic material will ultimately be demonstrated in a prototype electric motor, representing a cost-effective and efficient alternative to neodymium-based motors.

  18. Synthesis of cerium rich intermetallics using molten metal eutectics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tucker, Patricia Christine

    Metal eutectic fluxes are useful for exploratory synthesis of new intermetallic phases. In this work the use of cerium/transition metal eutectics such as: Ce/Co, Ce/Ni, and Ce/Fe have yielded many new synthetically and magnetically complex phases. Structural units that were previously observed in phases grown in La/Ni eutectic reactions have also been observed in new structures and analogs grown from cerium/transition metal eutectics. These structural units include a main group element coordinated by 9 rare-earth atoms (such as the Al Ce9 clusters seen in Ce31.0(2)Fe11.8(5)Al6.5(6) B13C4), trigonal planar FeC3 units (also seen in Ce31.0(2)Fe11.8(5)Al6.5(6)B 13C4), iron clusters capped by light elements (Fe4C 6 frustrated tetrahedral in Ce21Fe8M7C 14, and larger Fe clusters in Ce33Fe14B25 C34). Variants of these building blocks were observed in Ce10Co2B7C16 with square Co units and chains of B and C connected to them, Fe2C8 units observed in Ce7Fe2C9, and FeC4 observed in Ce4FeGa0.85Al0.15C4 and Ce4FeAlC4. Two new phases were grown from Ce/Fe eutectic, Ce33Fe 14B25C34 and Ce33Fe13B 18C34 which exhibits very similar structures, but significantly different magnetic behavior. Structurally these two phases are similar. Both crystallize in the Im-3m space group, but differ by the centering of the Fe clusters. Ce33Fe14B25C34 contains Fe clusters centered by B atoms and Al doped on the Fe2 site. In Ce33Fe13B18C34, the Fe cluster is a perfect cuboctahedron. Ce33Fe14B25 C34 exhibits mixed valent behavior of cerium at 75K and no magnetic moment on iron, where-as Ce33Fe13B18C 34 exhibits tetravalent cerium and its iron clusters undergo a ferromagnetic transition at 180K. Another borocarbide, Ce10Co2B7C 16 was synthesized from Ce/Co eutectic flux. This structure features squares of Co surrounded by chains of C and B and a sea of cerium atoms. Temperature dependent magnetic susceptibility measurements at 1 Tesla were fit to a modified Curie-Weiss law and a moment per Ce was

  19. Effect of heat treatment on the crystal structure and FTIR spectra of Sm doped cerium dioxide film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xiaozhou; Liu, Xiaozhou; Xia, Letian; Chen, Jie; Wang, Xiaoyu

    2017-04-01

    The Sm doped cerium dioxide films were prepared with cerium foils as raw materials by anodization in Sm(NO3)3-Na2C2O4-NH3·H2O-H2O-(CH2OH)2 electrolyte. The anodic Sm doped cerium oxide films were heat treated in 100°C ~ 400°C. The heat treated anodic Sm doped cerium oxide films were characterized with X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) techniques respectively. The heat treated anodic Sm doped cerium oxide film at 100°C is the semi crystalline film. As heat treatment temperatures being in 200°C ~ 400°C, the heat treated anodic Sm doped cerium oxide films have a structure of cubic fluorite respectively. The doping of Sm can be achieved well by anodization method and be recognized as replacement doping or caulking doping. The crystal structure of Sm doped cerium dioxide films become more complete with the increase of heat treatment temperature in 200 ~ 400 °C. The doping of Sm can improve the crystallinity of the cerium dioxide film. The presence of adsorbing water, ethylene glycol and CO2 in the heat treated anodic Sm doped cerium oxide film at 100°C. The adsorbing ethylene glycols and water, CO2 in the anodic Sm doped cerium oxide film are removed at 200°C and 300°C respectively.

  20. TREATMENT OF AMMONIUM NITRATE SOLUTIONS

    DOEpatents

    Boyer, T.W.; MacHutchin, J.G.; Yaffe, L.

    1958-06-10

    The treatment of waste solutions obtained in the processing of neutron- irradiated uranium containing fission products and ammonium nitrate is described. The object of this process is to provide a method whereby the ammonium nitrate is destroyed and removed from the solution so as to permit subsequent concentration of the solution.. In accordance with the process the residual nitrate solutions are treated with an excess of alkyl acid anhydride, such as acetic anhydride. Preferably, the residual nitrate solution is added to an excess of the acetic anhydride at such a rate that external heat is not required. The result of this operation is that the ammonium nitrate and acetic anhydride react to form N/sub 2/ O and acetic acid.

  1. Nitrate reductase from Rhodopseudomonas sphaeroides.

    PubMed Central

    Kerber, N L; Cardenas, J

    1982-01-01

    The facultative phototroph Rhodopseudomonas sphaeroides DSM158 was incapable of either assimilating or dissimilating nitrate, although the organism could reduce it enzymatically to nitrite either anaerobically in the light or aerobically in the dark. Reduction of nitrate was mediated by a nitrate reductase bound to chromatophores that could be easily solubilized and functioned with chemically reduced viologens or photochemically reduced flavins as electron donors. The enzyme was solubilized, and some of its kinetic and molecular parameters were determined. It seemed to be nonadaptive, ammonia did not repress its synthesis, and its activity underwent a rapid decline when the cells entered the stationary growth phase. Studies with inhibitors and with metal antagonists indicated that molybdenum and possibly iron participate in the enzymatic reduction of nitrate. The conjectural significance of this nitrate reductase in phototrophic bacteria is discussed. PMID:6978883

  2. Some History of Nitrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnum, Dennis W.

    2003-12-01

    The history of saltpeter is an interesting combination of chemistry, world trade, technology, politics, and warfare. Originally it was obtained from the dirt floors of stables, sheep pens, pigeon houses, caverns, and even peasants' cottages; any place manure and refuse accumulated in soil under dry conditions. When these sources became inadequate to meet demand it was manufactured on saltpeter plantations, located in dry climates, where piles of dirt, limestone, and manure were allowed to stand for three to five years while soil microbes oxidized the nitrogen to nitrate—an example of early bioengineering. Extensive deposits of sodium nitrate were mined in the Atacama Desert in northern Chile from 1830 until the mid 1920s when the mines were displaced by the Haber Ostwald process.

  3. Nitrate transport system in Neurospora crassa.

    PubMed

    Schloemen, R H; Garrett, R H

    1974-04-01

    Nitrate uptake in Neurospora crassa has been investigated under various conditions of nitrogen nutrition by measuring the rate of disappearance of nitrate from the medium and by determining mycelial nitrate accumulation. The nitrate transport system is induced by either nitrate or nitrite, but is not present in mycelia grown on ammonia or Casamino Acids. The appearance of nitrate uptake activity is prevented by cycloheximide, puromycin, or 6-methyl purine. The induced nitrate transport system displays a K(m) for nitrate of 0.25 mM. Nitrate uptake is inhibited by metabolic poisons such as 2,4-dinitrophenol, cyanide, and antimycin A. Furthermore, mycelia can concentrate nitrate 50-fold. Ammonia and nitrite are non-competitive inhibitors with respect to nitrate, with K(i) values of 0.13 and 0.17 mM, respectively. Ammonia does not repress the formation of the nitrate transport system. In contrast, the nitrate uptake system is repressed by Casamino Acids. All amino acids individually prevent nitrate accumulation, with the exception of methionine, glutamine, and alanine. The influence of nitrate reduction and the nitrate reductase protein on nitrate transport was investigated in wild-type Neurospora lacking a functional nitrate reductase and in nitrate non-utilizing mutants, nit-1, nit-2, and nit-3. These mycelia contain an inducible nitrate transport system which displays the same characteristics as those found in the wild-type mycelia having the functional nitrate reductase. These findings suggest that nitrate transport is not dependent upon nitrate reduction and that these two processes are separate events in the assimilation of nitrate.

  4. Direct growth of cerium oxide nanorods on diverse substrates for superhydrophobicity and corrosion resistance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Young Jun; Jang, Hanmin; Lee, Kwan-Soo; Kim, Dong Rip

    2015-06-01

    Superhydrophobic surfaces with anti-corrosion properties have attracted great interest in many industrial fields, particularly to enhance the thermal performance of offshore applications such as heat exchangers, pipelines, power plants, and platform structures. Nanostructures with hydrophobic materials have been widely utilized to realize superhydrophobicity of surfaces, and cerium oxide has been highlighted due to its good corrosion resistive and intrinsically hydrophobic properties. However, few studies of direct growth of cerium oxide nanostructures on diverse substrates have been reported. Herein we report a facile hydrothermal method to directly grow cerium oxide nanorods on diverse substrates, such as aluminum alloy, stainless steel, titanium, and silicon. Diverse substrates with cerium oxide nanorods exhibited superhydrophobicity with no hydrophobic modifiers on their surfaces, and showed good corrosion resistive properties in corrosive medium. We believe our method could pave the way for realization of scalable and sustainable corrosion resistive superhydrophobic surfaces in many industrial fields.

  5. Inhaled Diesel Emissions Generated with Cerium Oxide Nanoparticle Fuel Additive Induce Adverse Pulmonary and Systemic Effects

    EPA Science Inventory

    Diesel exhaust (DE) exposure induces adverse cardiopulmonary effects. Cerium oxide nanoparticles added to diesel fuel (DECe) increases fuel burning efficiency but leads to altered emission characteristics and potentially altered health effects. Here, we evaluated whether DECe res...

  6. Recent advances (2010-2015) in studies of cerium oxide nanoparticles' health effects.

    PubMed

    Li, Yan; Li, Peng; Yu, Hua; Bian, Ying

    2016-06-01

    Cerium oxide nanoparticles, widespread applied in our life, have attracted much concern for their human health effects. However, most of the works addressing cerium oxide nanoparticles toxicity have only used in vitro models or in vivo intratracheal instillation methods. The toxicity studies have varied results and not all are conclusive. The information about risk assessments derived from epidemiology studies is severely lacking. The knowledge of occupational safety and health (OSH) for exposed workers is very little. Thus this review focuses on recent advances in studies of toxicokinetics, antioxidant activity and toxicity. Additionally, aim to extend previous health effects assessments of cerium oxide nanoparticles, we summarize the epidemiology studies of engineered cerium oxide nanoparticles used as automotive diesel fuel additive, aerosol particulate matter in air pollution, other industrial ultrafine and nanoparticles (e.g., fumes particles generated in welding and flame cutting processes).

  7. Inhaled Diesel Emissions Generated with Cerium Oxide Nanoparticle Fuel Additive Induce Adverse Pulmonary and Systemic Effects

    EPA Science Inventory

    Diesel exhaust (DE) exposure induces adverse cardiopulmonary effects. Cerium oxide nanoparticles added to diesel fuel (DECe) increases fuel burning efficiency but leads to altered emission characteristics and potentially altered health effects. Here, we evaluated whether DECe res...

  8. Nutritional quality assessment of tomato fruits after exposure to uncoated and citric acid coated cerium oxide nanoparticles, bulk cerium oxide, cerium acetate and citric acid.

    PubMed

    Barrios, Ana Cecilia; Medina-Velo, Illya A; Zuverza-Mena, Nubia; Dominguez, Osvaldo E; Peralta-Videa, Jose R; Gardea-Torresdey, Jorge L

    2017-01-01

    Little is known about the effects of surface modification on the interaction of nanoparticles (NPs) with plants. Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) plants were cultivated in potting soil amended with bare and citric acid coated nanoceria (nCeO2, nCeO2+CA), cerium acetate (CeAc), bulk cerium oxide (bCeO2) and citric acid (CA) at 0-500 mg kg(-1). Fruits were collected year-round until the harvesting time (210 days). Results showed that nCeO2+CA at 62.5, 250 and 500 mg kg(-1) reduced dry weight by 54, 57, and 64% and total sugar by 84, 78, and 81%. At 62.5, 125, and 500 mg kg(-1) nCeO2+CA decreased reducing sugar by 63, 75, and 52%, respectively and at 125 mg kg(-1) reduced starch by 78%, compared to control. The bCeO2 at 250 and 500 mg kg(-1), increased reducing sugar by 67 and 58%. In addition, when compared to controls, nCeO2 at 500 mg kg(-1) reduced B (28%), Fe (78%), Mn (33%), and Ca (59%). At 125 mg kg(-1) decreased Al by 24%; while nCeO2+CA at 125 and 500 mg kg(-1) increased B by 33%. On the other hand, bCeO2 at 62.5 mg kg(-1) increased Ca (267%), but at 250 mg kg(-1) reduced Cu (52%), Mn (33%), and Mg (58%). Fruit macromolecules were mainly affected by nCeO2+CA, while nutritional elements by nCeO2; however, all Ce treatments altered, in some way, the nutritional quality of tomato fruit. To our knowledge, this is the first study comparing effects of uncoated and coated nanoceria on tomato fruit quality. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. The influence of a cerium additive on ultrafine diesel particle emissions and kinetics of oxidation

    SciTech Connect

    Jung, Heejung; Kittelson, David B.; Zachariah, Michael R.

    2005-08-01

    The influence of a cerium additive on the kinetics of oxidation and size distribution of ultrafine diesel particles was studied using a high-temperature oxidation-tandem differential mobility analysis method over the temperature range 300-700|{sup o}C. The addition of cerium to the diesel fuel was observed to cause significant changes in number-weighted size distributions, light-off temperature, and kinetics of oxidation. The peak number concentration in the accumulation mode decreased 50 and 65%, respectively, for 25 and 100 ppm dosing levels under 1400 rpm and 75% engine load. The light-off temperature was reduced by 250 and 300|{sup o}C, respectively, for 25 and 100 ppm dosing levels. The oxidation rate increased significantly (x20) with the addition of cerium to the fuel; however, the rate was relatively insensitive to dosing level. The activation energy for cerium-dosed oxidation was, within experimental error, equivalent to that for undosed fuel (E{sub a}=100-110 kJmol{sup -1}). From a phenomenological kinetic rate perspective, the increase in oxidation rate was attributed solely to an increase in the preexponential factor. These results suggested that diesel particles using regular, undosed diesel fuels were already metal-catalyzed to some extent, most likely from metals in the lube oil. The addition of cerium likely increased the number of catalytic sites but had no effect on the overall activation energy due to the presence of other metals in the diesel particulate matter coming from lube oil. The characteristics of cerium-laden diesel particles were also investigated. Two principal types of aggregates were found using transmission electron microscopy and energy-dispersive spectrometry analysis. The first was composed mainly of agglomerates of carbonaceous spherules and a few, considerably smaller cerium oxide nanoparticles. The second consisted of metallic aggregates composed mainly of cerium oxide nanoparticles and some carbon.

  10. Transformation of Cerium Oxide Nanoparticles from a Diesel Fuel Additive during Combustion in a Diesel Engine.

    PubMed

    Dale, James G; Cox, Steven S; Vance, Marina E; Marr, Linsey C; Hochella, Michael F

    2017-02-21

    Nanoscale cerium oxide is used as a diesel fuel additive to reduce particulate matter emissions and increase fuel economy, but its fate in the environment has not been established. Cerium oxide released as a result of the combustion of diesel fuel containing the additive Envirox, which utilizes suspended nanoscale cerium oxide to reduce particulate matter emissions and increase fuel economy, was captured from the exhaust stream of a diesel engine and was characterized using a combination of bulk analytical techniques and high resolution transmission electron microscopy. The combustion process induced significant changes in the size and morphology of the particles; ∼15 nm aggregates consisting of 5-7 nm faceted crystals in the fuel additive became 50-300 nm, near-spherical, single crystals in the exhaust. Electron diffraction identified the original cerium oxide particles as cerium(IV) oxide (CeO2, standard FCC structure) with no detectable quantities of Ce(III), whereas in the exhaust the ceria particles had additional electron diffraction reflections indicative of a CeO2 superstructure containing ordered oxygen vacancies. The surfactant coating present on the cerium oxide particles in the additive was lost during combustion, but in roughly 30% of the observed particles in the exhaust, a new surface coating formed, approximately 2-5 nm thick. The results of this study suggest that pristine, laboratory-produced, nanoscale cerium oxide is not a good substitute for the cerium oxide released from fuel-borne catalyst applications and that future toxicity experiments and modeling will require the use/consideration of more realistic materials.

  11. Antioxidant properties of cerium oxide nanocrystals as a function of nanocrystal diameter and surface coating.

    PubMed

    Lee, Seung Soo; Song, Wensi; Cho, Minjung; Puppala, Hema L; Nguyen, Phuc; Zhu, Huiguang; Segatori, Laura; Colvin, Vicki L

    2013-11-26

    This work examines the effect of nanocrystal diameter and surface coating on the reactivity of cerium oxide nanocrystals with H2O2 both in chemical solutions and in cells. Monodisperse nanocrystals were formed in organic solvents from the decomposition of cerium precursors, and subsequently phase transferred into water using amphiphiles as nanoparticle coatings. Quantitative analysis of the antioxidant capacity of CeO2-x using gas chromatography and a luminol test revealed that 2 mol of H2O2 reacted with every mole of cerium(III), suggesting that the reaction proceeds via a Fenton-type mechanism. Smaller diameter nanocrystals containing more cerium(III) were found to be more reactive toward H2O2. Additionally, the presence of a surface coating did not preclude the reaction between the nanocrystal surface cerium(III) and hydrogen peroxide. Taken together, the most reactive nanoparticles were the smallest (e.g., 3.8 nm diameter) with the thinnest surface coating (e.g., oleic acid). Moreover, a benchmark test of their antioxidant capacity revealed these materials were 9 times more reactive than commercial antioxidants such as Trolox. A unique feature of these antioxidant nanocrystals is that they can be applied multiple times: over weeks, cerium(IV) rich particles slowly return to their starting cerium(III) content. In nearly all cases, the particles remain colloidally stable (e.g., nonaggregated) and could be applied multiple times as antioxidants. These chemical properties were also observed in cell culture, where the materials were able to reduce oxidative stress in human dermal fibroblasts exposed to H2O2 with efficiency comparable to their solution phase reactivity. These data suggest that organic coatings on cerium oxide nanocrystals do not limit the antioxidant behavior of the nanocrystals, and that their redox cycling behavior can be preserved even when stabilized.

  12. The Corrosion Behaviors of the Cerium Conversion Coatings on the Zinc Coating in a 5 % NaCl Solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jianghong; Meng, Binfang; Wang, Xinying; Li, Wei

    2017-01-01

    The present paper investigated the impact of cerium on the corrosion resistance of zinc coating in a 5 % NaCl solution. Electrochemistry was used to measure the electrochemical parameters to compare the corrosion resistance of the zinc coating with that of the cerium conversion coating on the galvanized layer. SEM/EDS and XRD were adopted to analyze the appearance and phases of corrosion products of the cerium conversion coating and to probe the impact of cerium on the corrosion behavior of zinc coating in the Cl- media. The results showed that the cerium conversion coating formed on the zinc coating increased the zinc's corrosion resistance effectively, conversion coating with lower cerium content protected the substrate poorly, resulting in easy erosion of the zinc coating in the Cl- media. The corrosion products mainly consist of complexes, such as Zn(OH)xCly and Ce(OH)xCly.

  13. Growth and composition of nanostructured and nanoporous cerium oxide thin films on a graphite foil.

    PubMed

    Lavkova, Jaroslava; Khalakhan, Ivan; Chundak, Mykhailo; Vorokhta, Mykhailo; Potin, Valerie; Matolin, Vladimir; Matolinova, Iva

    2015-03-07

    The morphology and composition of CeOx films prepared by r.f. magnetron sputtering on a graphite foil have been investigated mainly by using microscopy methods. This study presents the formation of nanocrystalline layers with porous structure due to the modification of a carbon support and the formation of cerium carbide crystallites as a result of the deposition process. Chemical analyses of the layers with different thicknesses performed by energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, electron energy loss spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy have pointed to the reduction of the cerium oxide layers. In the deposited layers, cerium was present in mixed Ce(3+) and Ce(4+) valence. Ce(3+) species were located mainly at the graphite foil-CeOx interface and the chemical state of cerium was gradually changing to Ce(4+) going to the layer surface. It became more stoichiometric in the case of thicker layers except for the surface region, where the presence of Ce(3+) was associated with oxygen vacancies on the surface of cerium oxide grains. The degree of cerium oxide reduction is discussed in the context of particle size.

  14. Measuring technique for thermal ionisation mass spectrometry of human tracer kinetic study with stable cerium isotopes.

    PubMed

    Keiser, Teresa; Höllriegl, Vera; Giussani, Augusto; Oeh, Uwe

    2011-06-01

    Thermal ionisation mass spectrometry (TIMS) method has been developed for the simultaneous detection of different cerium isotopes in biological samples (i.e., blood and urine) at very low concentrations. The work has been done in the frame of a biokinetic study, where different stable cerium isotopes have been administered orally and intravenously as tracers to the human body. In order to develop an appropriate detection method for the tracers in the biological samples, an optimum sample preparation technique has been set and adapted to the specific requirements of the analysis technique used, i.e., TIMS. For sample evaporation and ionisation, the double tantalum filament technique showed the best results. The ions produced were simultaneously collected on a secondary electron multiplier so that the isotopic ratios of the cerium isotopes in the biological samples could be measured. The technique has been optimised for the determination of cerium down to 1 ng loaded on the evaporation filament corresponding to cerium concentrations of down to 1 ng ml(-1) in the blood or urine samples. It has been shown that the technique is reliable in application and enables studies on cerium metabolism and biokinetics in humans without employing radioactive tracers.

  15. Enhanced electrochromism in cerium doped molybdenum oxide thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Dhanasankar, M.; Purushothaman, K.K.; Muralidharan, G.

    2010-12-15

    Cerium (5-15% by weight) doped molybdenum oxide thin films have been prepared on FTO coated glass substrate at 250 {sup o}C using sol-gel dip coating method. The structural and morphological changes were observed with the help of XRD, SEM and EDS analysis. The amorphous structure of the Ce doped samples, favours easy intercalation and deintercalation processes. Mo oxide films with 10 wt.% of Ce exhibit maximum anodic diffusion coefficient of 24.99 x 10{sup -11} cm{sup 2}/s and the change in optical transmittance of ({Delta}T at 550 nm) of 79.28% between coloured and bleached state with the optical density of ({Delta}OD) 1.15.

  16. Structure and Electronic Properties of Cerium Orthophosphate: Theory and Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Adelstein, Nicole; Mun, B. Simon; Ray, Hannah; Ross Jr, Phillip; Neaton, Jeffrey; De Jonghe, Lutgard

    2010-07-27

    Structural and electronic properties of cerium orthophosphate (CePO{sub 4}) are calculated using density functional theory (DFT) with the local spin-density approximation (LSDA+U), with and without gradient corrections (GGA-(PBE)+U), and compared to X-ray diffraction and photoemission spectroscopy measurements. The density of states is found to change significantly as the Hubbard parameter U, which is applied to the Ce 4f states, is varied from 0 to 5 eV. The calculated structural properties are in good agreement with experiment and do not change significantly with U. Choosing U = 3 eV for LDSA provides the best agreement between the calculated density of states and the experimental photoemission spectra.

  17. Characterization of a zinc-cerium flow battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leung, P. K.; Ponce-de-León, C.; Low, C. T. J.; Shah, A. A.; Walsh, F. C.

    The performance of a divided, parallel-plate zinc-cerium redox flow battery using methanesulfonic acid electrolytes was studied. Eight two and three-dimensional electrodes were tested under both constant current density and constant cell voltage discharge. Carbon felt and the three-dimensional platinised titanium mesh electrodes exhibited superior performance over the 2-dimensional electrodes. The charge and discharge characteristics of the redox flow battery were studied under different operating conditions and Zn/Ce reactant, as well as methansulfonic acid concentration. The cell performance improved at higher operating temperatures and faster electrolyte flow velocities. The number of possible cycles increased at reduced states of charge. During 15 min charge/discharge per cycle experiment, 57 cycles were obtained and the zinc reaction was found to be the limiting process during long term operation.

  18. Geometry of electromechanically active structures in Gadolinium - doped Cerium oxides

    DOE PAGES

    Li, Yuanyuan; Kraynis, Olga; Kas, Joshua; ...

    2016-05-20

    Local distortions from average structure are important in many functional materials, such as electrostrictors or piezoelectrics, and contain clues about their mechanism of work. However, the geometric attributes of these distortions are exceedingly difficult to measure, leading to a gap in knowledge regarding their roles in electromechanical response. This task is particularly challenging in the case of recently reported non-classical electrostriction in Cerium-Gadolinium oxides (CGO), where only a small population of Ce-O bonds that are located near oxygen ion vacancies responds to external electric field. In this study, we used high-energy resolution fluorescence detection (HERFD) technique to collect X-ray absorptionmore » spectra in CGO in situ, with and without an external electric field, coupled with theoretical modeling to characterize three-dimensional geometry of electromechanically active units.« less

  19. The Spin Glass-Kondo Competition in Disordered Cerium Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magalhaes, S. G.; Zimmer, F.; Coqblin, B.

    2013-10-01

    We discuss the competition between the Kondo effect, the spin glass state and a magnetic order observed in disordered Cerium systems. We present firstly the experimental situation of disordered alloys such as CeNi1 - xCux and then the different theoretical approaches based on the Kondo lattice model, with different descriptions of the intersite exchange interaction for the spin glass. After the gaussian approach of the Sherrington-Kirkpatrick model, we discuss the Mattis and the van Hemmen models. Then, we present simple cluster calculations in order to describe the percolative evolution of the clusters from the cluster spin glass to the inhomogeneous ferromagnetic order recently observed in CeNi1 - xCux disordered alloys and finally we discuss the effect of random and transverse magnetic field.

  20. Geometry of electromechanically active structures in Gadolinium - doped Cerium oxides

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Yuanyuan; Zacharowicz, Renee; Frenkel, Anatoly I. E-mail: anatoly.frenkel@yu.edu; Kraynis, Olga; Lubomirsky, Igor E-mail: anatoly.frenkel@yu.edu; Kas, Joshua; Weng, Tsu-Chien; Sokaras, Dimosthenis

    2016-05-15

    Local distortions from average structure are important in many functional materials, such as electrostrictors or piezoelectrics, and contain clues about their mechanism of work. However, the geometric attributes of these distortions are exceedingly difficult to measure, leading to a gap in knowledge regarding their roles in electromechanical response. This task is particularly challenging in the case of recently reported non-classical electrostriction in Cerium-Gadolinium oxides (CGO), where only a small population of Ce-O bonds that are located near oxygen ion vacancies responds to external electric field. We used high-energy resolution fluorescence detection (HERFD) technique to collect X-ray absorption spectra in CGO in situ, with and without an external electric field, coupled with theoretical modeling to characterize three-dimensional geometry of electromechanically active units.

  1. Interplay of spin-orbit and entropic effects in cerium

    SciTech Connect

    Lanata, Nicola; Yao, Yong-Xin; Wang, Cai-Zhuang; Ho, Kai-Ming; Kotliar, Gabriel

    2014-10-01

    We perform first-principles calculations of elemental cerium and compute its pressure-temperature phase diagram, finding good quantitative agreement with the experiments. Our calculations indicate that, while a signature of the volume-collapse transition appears in the free energy already at low temperatures, at higher temperatures this signature is enhanced because of the entropic effects, and originates an actual thermodynamical instability. Furthermore, we find that the catalyst determining this feature is—in all temperature regimes—a pressure-induced effective reduction of the f-level degeneracy due to the spin-orbit coupling. Our analysis suggests also that the lattice vibrations might be crucial in order to capture the behavior of the pressure-temperature transition line at large temperatures.

  2. Cerium oxide nanoparticles: a 'radical' approach to neurodegenerative disease treatment.

    PubMed

    Naz, Shuguftha; Beach, James; Heckert, Blaze; Tummala, Tanuja; Pashchenko, Oleksandra; Banerjee, Tuhina; Santra, Santimukul

    2017-03-01

    Despite advances in understanding the factors that cause many neurodegenerative diseases (NDs), no current therapies have yielded significant results. Cerium oxide nanoparticles (CeONPs) have recently emerged as therapeutics for the treatment of NDs due to their antioxidant properties. This report summarizes the recent findings regarding CeONPs in treatment of various NDs, including Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, multiple sclerosis, ischemic stroke and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Interest in CeONPs as a potential nanomedicine for NDs has increased due to: their ability to alter signaling pathways, small diameter allowing passage through the blood-brain barrier and scavenging of reactive oxygen species. Due to these properties, CeONPs could eventually revolutionize existing treatments for NDs.

  3. EPDM composite membranes modified with cerium doped lead zirconate titanate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaharescu, T.; Dumitru, A.; Lungulescu, M. E.; Velciu, G.

    2016-01-01

    This study was performed on γ-irradiated ethylene-propylene diene terpolymer (EPDM) loaded with lead zirconate titanate. The inorganic phase has a perovskite structure with general formula Pb(Zr0.65-xCexTi0.35)O3. The three composites with different Ce dopant concentrations revealed the stabilization activity of filler against oxidation proved by chemiluminescence investigation in respect to pristine polymer. The presence of cerium low concentrations in the solid lead zirconate titanate nanoparticles causes significant slowing of oxidation rate during radiation exposure. The improvement in the stabilization feature of filler is correlated with the existence of traps, whose interaction with free radicals assumes medium energy due to their convenient depth.

  4. Nitrate concentrations under irrigated agriculture

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zaporozec, A.

    1983-01-01

    In recent years, considerable interest has been expressed in the nitrate content of water supplies. The most notable toxic effect of nitrate is infant methemoglobinemia. The risk of this disease increases significantly at nitrate-nitrogen levels exceeding 10 mg/l. For this reason, this concentration has been established as a limit for drinking water in many countries. In natural waters, nitrate is a minor ionic constituent and seldom accounts for more than a few percent of the total anions. However, nitrate in a significant concentration may occur in the vicinity of some point sources such as septic tanks, manure pits, and waste-disposal sites. Non-point sources contributing to groundwater pollution are numerous and a majority of them are related to agricultural activities. The largest single anthropogenic input of nitrate into the groundwater is fertilizer. Even though it has not been proven that nitrogen fertilizers are responsible for much of nitrate pollution, they are generally recognized as the main threat to groundwater quality, especially when inefficiently applied to irrigated fields on sandy soils. The biggest challenge facing today's agriculture is to maintain the balance between the enhancement of crop productivity and the risk of groundwater pollution. ?? 1982 Springer-Verlag New York Inc.

  5. Nitrate photolysis in salty snow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donaldson, D. J.; Morenz, K.; Shi, Q.; Murphy, J. G.

    2016-12-01

    Nitrate photolysis from snow can have a significant impact on the oxidative capacity of the local atmosphere, but the factors affecting the release of gas phase products are not well understood. Here, we report the first systematic study of the amounts of NO, NO2, and total nitrogen oxides (NOy) emitted from illuminated snow samples as a function of both nitrate and total salt (NaCl and Instant Ocean) concentration. We show that the release of nitrogen oxides to the gas phase is directly related to the expected nitrate concentration in the brine at the surface of the snow crystals, increasing to a plateau value with increasing nitrate, and generally decreasing with increasing NaCl or Instant Ocean (I.O.). In frozen mixed nitrate (25 mM) - salt (0-500 mM) solutions, there is an increase in gas phase NO2 seen at low added salt amounts: NO2 production is enhanced by 35% at low prefreezing [NaCl] and by 70% at similar prefreezing [I.O.]. Raman microscopy of frozen nitrate-salt solutions shows evidence of stronger nitrate exclusion to the air interface in the presence of I.O. than with added NaCl. The enhancement in nitrogen oxides emission in the presence of salts may prove to be important to the atmospheric oxidative capacity in polar regions.

  6. Induction of pulmonary fibrosis by cerium oxide nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Jane Y.; Mercer, Robert R.; Barger, Mark; Schwegler-Berry, Diane; Scabilloni, James; Ma, Joseph K.; Castranova, Vincent

    2015-01-01

    Cerium compounds have been used as a diesel engine catalyst to lower the mass of diesel exhaust particles, but are emitted as cerium oxide (CeO2) nanoparticles in the diesel exhaust. In a previous study, we have demonstrated a wide range of CeO2-induced lung responses including sustained pulmonary inflammation and cellular signaling that could lead to pulmonary fibrosis. In this study, we investigated the fibrogenic responses induced by CeO2 in a rat model at various time points up to 84 days post-exposure. Male Sprague Dawley rats were exposed to CeO2 by a single intratracheal instillation. Alveolar macrophages (AM) were isolated by bronchial alveolar lavage (BAL). AM-mediated cellular responses, osteopontin (OPN) and transform growth factor (TGF)-β1 in the fibrotic process were investigated. The results showed that CeO2 exposure significantly increased fibrotic cytokine TGF-β1 and OPN production by AM above controls. The collagen degradation enzymes, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 and -9 and the tissue inhibitor of MMP were markedly increased in the BAL fluid at 1 day- and subsequently declined at 28 days after exposure, but remained much higher than the controls. CeO2 induced elevated phospholipids in BAL fluid and increased hydroxyproline content in lung tissue in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Immunohistochemical analysis showed MMP-2, MMP-9 and MMP-10 expressions in fibrotic regions. Morphological analysis noted increased collagen fibers in the lungs exposed to a single dose of 3.5 mg/kg CeO2 and euthanized at 28 days post-exposure. Collectively, our studies show that CeO2 induced fibrotic lung injury in rats, suggesting it may cause potential health effects. PMID:22613087

  7. Role of nanocrystalline cerium oxide coatings on austenitic stainless steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Haiying

    Protective nanocrystalline cerium oxide coating has been applied to ASTM grade 304L and 304 austenitic stainless steels to improve its oxidation resistance at elevated temperatures. Experimentally, the selected alloy was exposed to 800°C/1000°C under dry air conditions. Weight changes (DeltaW/A) were monitored as a function of time and the results were compared with uncoated alloys tested under similar conditions. It was found that the oxidation resistances of 304L and 304 stainless steels were significantly improved. A comparison of the oxidation rates indicated that the nanocrystalline cerium oxide coating reduced the rate of oxidation by more than two orders of magnitude. Nevertheless, a comprehensive understanding of the mechanisms responsible for the reduction in the oxidation rate is not clear. Consequently, this work is aimed at investigating the mechanisms involved during scale growth in the presence or absence of nanocrystalline coatings. For this purpose, density functional theory was carried out in order to predict oxygen and iron diffusion microscopic activation energies and reveal the intrinsic characteristics of nanocrystalline coatings. A numerical simulation of corrosion process has also been conducted to predict the corrosion rates of alloys with and without coatings. Hence, the results from simulations are compared with the experimental outcome, and possible explanations are given to account for the reduction in the exhibited oxidation rates. The simulation results will provide a highly valuable tool for the realization of functional nanostructures and architectures "by design", particularly in the development of novel coatings, and a new approach of life assessment.

  8. Molten nitrate salt technology development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carling, R. W.; Kramer, C. M.; Bradshaw, R. W.; Nissen, D. A.; Goods, S. H.; Mar, R. W.; Munford, J. W.; Karnowsky, M. M.; Biefeld, R. N.; Norem, N. J.

    1981-03-01

    Of the fluids proposed for heat transfer and energy storage, molten nitrate salts offer significant economic advantages. The nitrate salt of most interest is a binary mixture of NaNO3 and KNO3. Although nitrate/nitrite mixtures were used for decades as heat transfer and heat treatment fluids the use was at temperatures of about 4500 C and lower. In solar thermal power systems the salts will experience a temperature range of 350 to 6000 C. Because central receiver applications place more rigorous demands and higher temperatures on nitrate salts a comprehensive experimental program was developed to examine what effects, if any, the new demands and temperatures have on the salts. The experiments include corrosion testing, environmental cracking of containment materials, and determinations of physical properties and decomposition mechanisms.

  9. Ammonium nitrate cold pack ingestion.

    PubMed

    Challoner, K R; McCarron, M M

    1988-01-01

    Disposable ammonium nitrate cold packs are widely used in emergency departments instead of ice bags. Five confused or suicidal patients who tore open a pack and ingested from 64 to 234 grams of ammonium nitrate in a single dose, and another patient who attempted to do so, are reported. It is known that chronic ingestion of 6 to 12 grams/day of ammonium nitrate may cause gastritis, acidosis, isosmotic diuresis, and nitrite toxicity manifesting as methemoglobinemia or vasodilatation. None of these patients developed severe toxicity, although three had symptoms of gastritis, three had slight methemoglobinemia, and two had mild hypotension. The product was removed from the stomach promptly in three of the five patients. None had pre-existing renal or intestinal dysfunction, which are known to enhance ammonium nitrate toxicity.

  10. The "silver-nitrate-oma".

    PubMed

    McBride, T J; Rand, B; Dhillon, S S

    2012-01-01

    This case report demonstrates and emphasises the unusual radiographic appearance of silver nitrate treatment in a 30-year-old patient, who subsequently underwent excision biopsy of a presumed potentially malignant lesion.

  11. Vasodilator Therapy: Nitrates and Nicorandil.

    PubMed

    Tarkin, Jason M; Kaski, Juan Carlos

    2016-08-01

    Nitrates have been used to treat symptoms of chronic stable angina for over 135 years. These drugs are known to activate nitric oxide (NO)-cyclic guanosine-3',-5'-monophasphate (cGMP) signaling pathways underlying vascular smooth muscle cell relaxation, albeit many questions relating to how nitrates work at the cellular level remain unanswered. Physiologically, the anti-angina effects of nitrates are mostly due to peripheral venous dilatation leading to reduction in preload and therefore left ventricular wall stress, and, to a lesser extent, epicardial coronary artery dilatation and lowering of systemic blood pressure. By counteracting ischemic mechanisms, short-acting nitrates offer rapid relief following an angina attack. Long-acting nitrates, used commonly for angina prophylaxis are recommended second-line, after beta-blockers and calcium channel antagonists. Nicorandil is a balanced vasodilator that acts as both NO donor and arterial K(+) ATP channel opener. Nicorandil might also exhibit cardioprotective properties via mitochondrial ischemic preconditioning. While nitrates and nicorandil are effective pharmacological agents for prevention of angina symptoms, when prescribing these drugs it is important to consider that unwanted and poorly tolerated hemodynamic side-effects such as headache and orthostatic hypotension can often occur owing to systemic vasodilatation. It is also necessary to ensure that a dosing regime is followed that avoids nitrate tolerance, which not only results in loss of drug efficacy, but might also cause endothelial dysfunction and increase long-term cardiovascular risk. Here we provide an update on the pharmacological management of chronic stable angina using nitrates and nicorandil.

  12. 21 CFR 172.170 - Sodium nitrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium nitrate. 172.170 Section 172.170 Food and... Preservatives § 172.170 Sodium nitrate. The food additive sodium nitrate may be safely used in or on specified... sablefish, smoked, cured salmon, and smoked, cured shad, so that the level of sodium nitrate does not exceed...

  13. 21 CFR 172.170 - Sodium nitrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium nitrate. 172.170 Section 172.170 Food and... Preservatives § 172.170 Sodium nitrate. The food additive sodium nitrate may be safely used in or on specified... sablefish, smoked, cured salmon, and smoked, cured shad, so that the level of sodium nitrate does not exceed...

  14. 46 CFR 148.205 - Ammonium nitrate and ammonium nitrate fertilizers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Ammonium nitrate and ammonium nitrate fertilizers. 148... Materials § 148.205 Ammonium nitrate and ammonium nitrate fertilizers. (a) This section applies to the stowage and transportation in bulk of ammonium nitrate and the following fertilizers composed of...

  15. 46 CFR 148.205 - Ammonium nitrate and ammonium nitrate fertilizers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Ammonium nitrate and ammonium nitrate fertilizers. 148... Materials § 148.205 Ammonium nitrate and ammonium nitrate fertilizers. (a) This section applies to the stowage and transportation in bulk of ammonium nitrate and the following fertilizers composed of...

  16. 46 CFR 148.205 - Ammonium nitrate and ammonium nitrate fertilizers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Ammonium nitrate and ammonium nitrate fertilizers. 148... Materials § 148.205 Ammonium nitrate and ammonium nitrate fertilizers. (a) This section applies to the stowage and transportation in bulk of ammonium nitrate and the following fertilizers composed of...

  17. 46 CFR 148.205 - Ammonium nitrate and ammonium nitrate fertilizers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Ammonium nitrate and ammonium nitrate fertilizers. 148... Materials § 148.205 Ammonium nitrate and ammonium nitrate fertilizers. (a) This section applies to the stowage and transportation in bulk of ammonium nitrate and the following fertilizers composed of...

  18. Copper, Boron, and Cerium Additions in Type 347 Austenitic Steel to Improve Creep Rupture Strength

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laha, Kinkar; Kyono, J.; Shinya, Norio

    2012-04-01

    Type 347 austenitic stainless steel (18Cr-12Ni-Nb) was alloyed with copper (3 wt pct), boron (0.01 to 0.06 wt pct), and cerium (0.01 wt pct) with an aim to increase the creep rupture strength of the steel through the improved deformation and cavitation resistance. Short-term creep rupture strength was found to increase with the addition of copper in the 347 steel, but the long-term strength was inferior. Extensive creep cavitation deprived the steel of the beneficial effect of creep deformation resistance induced by nano-size copper particles. Boron and cerium additions in the copper-containing steel increased its creep rupture strength and ductility, which were more for higher boron content. Creep deformation, grain boundary sliding, and creep cavity nucleation and growth in the steel were found to be suppressed by microalloying the copper-containing steel with boron and cerium, and the suppression was more for higher boron content. An auger electron spectroscopic study revealed the segregation of boron instead of sulfur on the cavity surface of the boron- and cerium-microalloyed steel. Cerium acted as a scavenger for soluble sulfur in the steels through the precipitation of cerium sulfide (CeS). This inhibited the segregation of sulfur and facilitated the segregation of boron on cavity surface. Boron segregation on the nucleated cavity surface reduced its growth rate. Microalloying the copper-containing 347 steel with boron and cerium thus enabled to use the full extent of creep deformation resistance rendered by copper nano-size particle by increase in creep rupture strength and ductility.

  19. Low Temperature Constrained Sintering of Cerium Gadolinium OxideFilms for Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Nicholas, Jason Dale

    2007-01-01

    Cerium gadolinium oxide (CGO) has been identified as an acceptable solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) electrolyte at temperatures (500-700 C) where cheap, rigid, stainless steel interconnect substrates can be used. Unfortunately, both the high sintering temperature of pure CGO, >1200 C, and the fact that constraint during sintering often results in cracked, low density ceramic films, have complicated development of metal supported CGO SOFCs. The aim of this work was to find new sintering aids for Ce0.9Gd0.1O1.95, and to evaluate whether they could be used to produce dense, constrained Ce0.9Gd0.1O1.95 films at temperatures below 1000 C. To find the optimal sintering aid, Ce0.9Gd0.1O1.95 was doped with a variety of elements, of which lithium was found to be the most effective. Dilatometric studies indicated that by doping CGO with 3mol% lithium nitrate, it was possible to sinter pellets to a relative density of 98.5% at 800 C--a full one hundred degrees below the previous low temperature sintering record for CGO. Further, it was also found that a sintering aid's effectiveness could be explained in terms of its size, charge and high temperature mobility. A closer examination of lithium doped Ce0.9Gd0.1O1.95 indicated that lithium affects sintering by producing a Li2O-Gd2O3-CeO2 liquid at the CGO grain boundaries. Due to this liquid phase sintering, it was possible to produce dense, crack-free constrained films of CGO at the record low temperature of 950 C using cheap, colloidal spray deposition processes. This is the first time dense constrained CGO films have been produced below 1000 C and could help commercialize metal supported ceria based solid oxide fuel cells.

  20. Nitrate transport and signalling.

    PubMed

    Miller, Anthony J; Fan, Xiaorong; Orsel, Mathilde; Smith, Susan J; Wells, Darren M

    2007-01-01

    Physiological measurements of nitrate (NO(3)(-)) uptake by roots have defined two systems of high and low affinity uptake. In Arabidopsis, genes encoding both of these two uptake systems have been identified. Most is known about the high affinity transport system (HATS) and its regulation and yet measurements of soil NO(3)(-) show that it is more often available in the low affinity range above 1 mM concentration. Several different regulatory mechanisms have been identified for AtNRT2.1, one of the membrane transporters encoding HATS; these include feedback regulation of expression, a second component protein requirement for membrane targeting and phosphorylation, possibly leading to degradation of the protein. These various changes in the protein may be important for a second function in sensing NO(3)(-) availability at the surface of the root. Another transporter protein, AtNRT1.1 also has a role in NO(3)(-) sensing that, like AtNRT2.1, is independent of their transport function. From the range of concentrations present in the soil it is proposed that the NO(3)(-)-inducible part of HATS functions chiefly as a sensor for root NO(3)(-) availability. Two other key NO(3)(-) transport steps for efficient nitrogen use by crops, efflux across membranes and vacuolar storage and remobilization, are discussed. Genes encoding vacuolar transporters have been isolated and these are important for manipulating storage pools in crops, but the efflux system is yet to be identified. Consideration is given to how well our molecular and physiological knowledge can be integrated as well to some key questions and opportunities for the future.

  1. EXTRACTION OF URANYL NITRATE FROM AQUEOUS SOLUTIONS

    DOEpatents

    Furman, N.H.; Mundy, R.J.

    1957-12-10

    An improvement in the process is described for extracting aqueous uranyl nitrate solutions with an organic solvent such as ether. It has been found that the organic phase will extract a larger quantity of uranyl nitrate if the aqueous phase contains in addition to the uranyl nitrate, a quantity of some other soluble nitrate to act as a salting out agent. Mentioned as suitable are the nitrates of lithium, calcium, zinc, bivalent copper, and trivalent iron.

  2. Exposure and Health Effects Review of Engineered Nanoscale Cerium and Cerium Dioxide Associated with its Use as a Fuel Additive - NOW IN PRINT IN THE JOURNAL

    EPA Science Inventory

    Advances of nanoscale science have produced nanomaterials with unique physical and chemical properties at commercial levels that are now incorporated into over 1000 products. Nanoscale cerium (di) oxide (Ce02) has recently gained a wide range of applications which includes coatin...

  3. Exposure, Health and Ecological Effects Review of Engineered Nanoscale Cerium and Cerium Oxide Associated with its Use as a Fuel Additive

    EPA Science Inventory

    Advances of nanoscale science have produced nanomaterials with unique physical and chemical properties at commercial levels which are now incorporated into over 1000 products. Nanoscale cerium (di) oxide (CeO(2)) has recently gained a wide range of applications which includes coa...

  4. Exposure, Health and Ecological Effects Review of Engineered Nanoscale Cerium and Cerium Oxide Associated with its Use as a Fuel Additive

    EPA Science Inventory

    Advances of nanoscale science have produced nanomaterials with unique physical and chemical properties at commercial levels which are now incorporated into over 1000 products. Nanoscale cerium (di) oxide (CeO(2)) has recently gained a wide range of applications which includes coa...

  5. Exposure and Health Effects Review of Engineered Nanoscale Cerium and Cerium Dioxide Associated with its Use as a Fuel Additive - NOW IN PRINT IN THE JOURNAL

    EPA Science Inventory

    Advances of nanoscale science have produced nanomaterials with unique physical and chemical properties at commercial levels that are now incorporated into over 1000 products. Nanoscale cerium (di) oxide (Ce02) has recently gained a wide range of applications which includes coatin...

  6. Sodium nitrate ingestion increases skeletal muscle nitrate content in humans.

    PubMed

    Nyakayiru, Jean; Kouw, Imre W K; Cermak, Naomi M; Senden, Joan M; van Loon, Luc J C; Verdijk, Lex B

    2017-09-01

    Nitrate ([Formula: see text]) ingestion has been shown to have vasoactive and ergogenic effects that have been attributed to increased nitric oxide (NO) production. Recent observations in rodents suggest that skeletal muscle tissue serves as an endogenous [Formula: see text] "reservoir." The present study determined [Formula: see text] contents in human skeletal muscle tissue in a postabsorptive state and following ingestion of a sodium nitrate bolus (NaNO3). Seventeen male, type 2 diabetes patients (age 72 ± 1 yr; body mass index 26.5 ± 0.5 kg/m(2); means ± SE) were randomized to ingest a dose of NaNO3 (NIT; 9.3 mg [Formula: see text]/kg body wt) or placebo (PLA; 8.8 mg NaCl/kg body wt). Blood and muscle biopsy samples were taken before and up to 7 h following [Formula: see text] or placebo ingestion to assess [Formula: see text] [and plasma nitrite ([Formula: see text])] concentrations. Additionally, basal plasma and muscle [Formula: see text] concentrations were assessed in 10 healthy young (CON-Y; age 21 ± 1 yr) and 10 healthy older (CON-O; age 75 ± 1 yr) control subjects. In all groups, baseline [Formula: see text] concentrations were higher in muscle (NIT, 57 ± 7; PLA, 61 ± 7; CON-Y, 80 ± 10; CON-O, 54 ± 6 µmol/l) than in plasma (NIT, 35 ± 3; PLA, 32 ± 3; CON-Y, 38 ± 3; CON-O, 33 ± 3 µmol/l; P ≤ 0.011). Ingestion of NaNO3 resulted in a sustained increase in plasma [Formula: see text], plasma [Formula: see text], and muscle [Formula: see text] concentrations (up to 185 ± 25 µmol/l) in the NIT group (time effect P < 0.001) compared with PLA (treatment effect P < 0.05). In conclusion, basal [Formula: see text] concentrations are substantially higher in human skeletal muscle tissue compared with plasma. Ingestion of a bolus of dietary [Formula: see text] increases both plasma and muscle [Formula: see text] contents in humans.NEW & NOTEWORTHY Literature of the pharmacokinetics following dietary nitrate ingestion is usually limited to the changes

  7. Nitrate transport is independent of NADH and NAD(P)H nitrate reductases in barley seedlings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Warner, R. L.; Huffaker, R. C.

    1989-01-01

    Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) has NADH-specific and NAD(P)H-bispecific nitrate reductase isozymes. Four isogenic lines with different nitrate reductase isozyme combinations were used to determine the role of NADH and NAD(P)H nitrate reductases on nitrate transport and assimilation in barley seedlings. Both nitrate reductase isozymes were induced by nitrate and were required for maximum nitrate assimilation in barley seedlings. Genotypes lacking the NADH isozyme (Az12) or the NAD(P)H isozyme (Az70) assimilated 65 or 85%, respectively, as much nitrate as the wild type. Nitrate assimilation by genotype (Az12;Az70) which is deficient in both nitrate reductases, was only 13% of the wild type indicating that the NADH and NAD(P)H nitrate reductase isozymes are responsible for most of the nitrate reduction in barley seedlings. For all genotypes, nitrate assimilation rates in the dark were about 55% of the rates in light. Hypotheses that nitrate reductase has direct or indirect roles in nitrate uptake were not supported by this study. Induction of nitrate transporters and the kinetics of net nitrate uptake were the same for all four genotypes indicating that neither nitrate reductase isozyme has a direct role in nitrate uptake in barley seedlings.

  8. Nitrate transport is independent of NADH and NAD(P)H nitrate reductases in barley seedlings.

    PubMed

    Warner, R L; Huffaker, R C

    1989-01-01

    Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) has NADH-specific and NAD(P)H-bispecific nitrate reductase isozymes. Four isogenic lines with different nitrate reductase isozyme combinations were used to determine the role of NADH and NAD(P)H nitrate reductases on nitrate transport and assimilation in barley seedlings. Both nitrate reductase isozymes were induced by nitrate and were required for maximum nitrate assimilation in barley seedlings. Genotypes lacking the NADH isozyme (Az12) or the NAD(P)H isozyme (Az70) assimilated 65 or 85%, respectively, as much nitrate as the wild type. Nitrate assimilation by genotype (Az12;Az70) which is deficient in both nitrate reductases, was only 13% of the wild type indicating that the NADH and NAD(P)H nitrate reductase isozymes are responsible for most of the nitrate reduction in barley seedlings. For all genotypes, nitrate assimilation rates in the dark were about 55% of the rates in light. Hypotheses that nitrate reductase has direct or indirect roles in nitrate uptake were not supported by this study. Induction of nitrate transporters and the kinetics of net nitrate uptake were the same for all four genotypes indicating that neither nitrate reductase isozyme has a direct role in nitrate uptake in barley seedlings.

  9. Nitrate transport is independent of NADH and NAD(P)H nitrate reductases in barley seedlings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Warner, R. L.; Huffaker, R. C.

    1989-01-01

    Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) has NADH-specific and NAD(P)H-bispecific nitrate reductase isozymes. Four isogenic lines with different nitrate reductase isozyme combinations were used to determine the role of NADH and NAD(P)H nitrate reductases on nitrate transport and assimilation in barley seedlings. Both nitrate reductase isozymes were induced by nitrate and were required for maximum nitrate assimilation in barley seedlings. Genotypes lacking the NADH isozyme (Az12) or the NAD(P)H isozyme (Az70) assimilated 65 or 85%, respectively, as much nitrate as the wild type. Nitrate assimilation by genotype (Az12;Az70) which is deficient in both nitrate reductases, was only 13% of the wild type indicating that the NADH and NAD(P)H nitrate reductase isozymes are responsible for most of the nitrate reduction in barley seedlings. For all genotypes, nitrate assimilation rates in the dark were about 55% of the rates in light. Hypotheses that nitrate reductase has direct or indirect roles in nitrate uptake were not supported by this study. Induction of nitrate transporters and the kinetics of net nitrate uptake were the same for all four genotypes indicating that neither nitrate reductase isozyme has a direct role in nitrate uptake in barley seedlings.

  10. Thermochemical Modeling of the Uranium-Cerium-Oxygen System

    SciTech Connect

    Voit, Stewart L; Besmann, Theodore M

    2010-10-01

    with actinide materials, fundamental studies with uranium are performed using surrogate materials as stand-ins for transuranic elements. In most cases, cerium can be used as a suitable substitute for plutonium when performing O:M and sintering kinetics studies because of identical valence states. Differences exist between the magnitude of reported thermodynamic data of (U,Pu)O{sub x} and (U,Ce)O{sub x}, however the change in oxygen potential versus O:M follows the same trend for both systems. Cerium is also a major fission product element, and thus understanding its behavior in fuel is an important issue as well.

  11. Structural and luminescent studies on nanosized cerium doped strontium barium niobate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    John, Nuja; Nandakumar, K.

    2017-06-01

    The nanosized cerium doped Strontium Barium Niobate ceramic powder system have been synthesized by sol-gel technique. The X-ray diffraction measurement confirmed the structure of cerium doped Strontium Barium Niobate ceramic powder system. The absorption peaks were analysed by FTIR spectroscopy. Particle morphology and size of the powder were examined using SEM and TEM. Crystal quality and structure were also examined by micro raman spectra. The transmission electron microscopy image of cerium doped Strontium Barium Niobate nano powder system consist of particles with average size of 20 nm. A band gap of the system was measured by optical absorption spectra. Photoluminescence data were recorded at room temperature. The emission peaks were detected under excitation at 305 nm wavelength. The peaks are assigned to the cerium electron transition from lowest 5d level to 2F5/2 and 2F7/2 of 4f, respectively. The decay time were also measured for cerium doped Strontium Barium Niobate powder system.

  12. Synthesis, electrochemistry, and reactivity of cerium(III/IV) methylene-bis-phenolate complexes.

    PubMed

    Mahoney, Brian D; Piro, Nicholas A; Carroll, Patrick J; Schelter, Eric J

    2013-05-20

    A series of cerium complexes containing a 2,2'-methylenebis(6-tert-butyl-4-methylphenolate) (MBP(2-)) ligand framework is described. Electrochemical studies of the compound [Li(THF)2Ce(MBP)2(THF)2] (1) reveal that the metal based oxidation wave occurs at -0.93 V vs Fc/Fc(+). This potential demonstrates significant stabilization of the cerium(IV) ion in the MBP(2-) framework with a shift of ∼2.25 V from the typically reported value for the cerium(III/IV) couple of E°' = +1.30 V vs Fc/Fc(+) for Ce(ClO4)3 in HClO4 solutions. Compound 1 undergoes oxidation to form stable cerium(IV) species in the presence of a variety of common oxidants. The coordination of the redox-active ligands 2,2'-bipyridine and benzophenone to 1 result in complexes in which no apparent metal-to-ligand charge transfer occurs and the cerium ion remains in the +3 oxidation state.

  13. Exposure of cerium oxide nanoparticles to kidney bean shows disturbance in the plant defense mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Majumdar, Sanghamitra; Peralta-Videa, Jose R; Bandyopadhyay, Susmita; Castillo-Michel, Hiram; Hernandez-Viezcas, Jose-Angel; Sahi, Shivendra; Gardea-Torresdey, Jorge L

    2014-08-15

    Overwhelming use of engineered nanoparticles demands rapid assessment of their environmental impacts. The transport of cerium oxide nanoparticles (nCeO2) in plants and their impact on cellular homeostasis as a function of exposure duration is not well understood. In this study, kidney bean plants were exposed to suspensions of ∼ 8 ± 1 nm nCeO2 (62.5 to 500 mg/L) for 15 days in hydroponic conditions. Plant parts were analyzed for cerium accumulation after one, seven, and 15 days of nCeO2 exposure. The primary indicators of stress like lipid peroxidation, antioxidant enzyme activities, total soluble protein and chlorophyll contents were studied. Cerium in tissues was localized using scanning electron microscopy and synchrotron μ-XRF mapping, and the chemical forms were identified using μ-XANES. In the root epidermis, cerium was primarily shown to exist as nCeO2, although a small fraction (12%) was biotransformed to Ce(III) compound. Cerium was found to reach the root vascular tissues and translocate to aerial parts with time. Upon prolonged exposure to 500 mg nCeO2/L, the root antioxidant enzyme activities were significantly reduced, simultaneously increasing the root soluble protein by 204%. In addition, leaf's guaiacol peroxidase activity was enhanced with nCeO2 exposure in order to maintain cellular homeostasis.

  14. Catalysts with Cerium in a Membrane Reactor for the Removal of Formaldehyde Pollutant from Water Effluents.

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez-Arzaluz, Mirella; Noreña-Franco, Luis; Ángel-Cuevas, Saúl; Mugica-Álvarez, Violeta; Torres-Rodríguez, Miguel

    2016-05-24

    We report the synthesis of cerium oxide, cobalt oxide, mixed cerium, and cobalt oxides and a Ce-Co/Al₂O₃ membrane, which are employed as catalysts for the catalytic wet oxidation (CWO) reaction process and the removal of formaldehyde from industrial effluents. Formaldehyde is present in numerous waste streams from the chemical industry in a concentration low enough to make its recovery not economically justified but high enough to create an environmental hazard. Common biological degradation methods do not work for formaldehyde, a highly toxic but refractory, low biodegradability substance. The CWO reaction is a recent, promising alternative that also permits much lower temperature and pressure conditions than other oxidation processes, resulting in economic benefits. The CWO reaction employing Ce- and Co-containing catalysts was carried out inside a slurry batch reactor and a membrane reactor. Experimental results are reported. Next, a mixed Ce-Co oxide film was supported on an γ-alumina membrane used in a catalytic membrane reactor to compare formaldehyde removal between both types of systems. Catalytic materials with cerium and with a relatively large amount of cerium favored the transformation of formaldehyde. Cerium was present as cerianite in the catalytic materials, as indicated by X-ray diffraction patterns.

  15. Application of cerium chloride to improve the acid resistance of dentine.

    PubMed

    Wegehaupt, Florian J; Sener, Beatrice; Attin, Thomas; Schmidlin, Patrick R

    2010-06-01

    To investigate the effect of cerium chloride, cerium chloride/fluoride and fluoride application on calcium release during erosion of treated dentine. Forty dentine samples were prepared from human premolars and randomly assigned to four groups (1-4). Samples were treated twice a day for 5 days, 30s each, with the following solutions: group 1 placebo, group 2 fluoride (Elmex fluid), group 3 cerium chloride and group 4 combined fluoride and cerium chloride. For the determination of acid resistance, the samples were consecutively eroded six times for 5 min with lactic acid (pH 3.0) and the calcium release in the acid was determined. Furthermore, six additional samples per group were prepared and used for EDS analysis. SEM pictures of these samples of each group were also captured. Samples of group 1 presented the highest calcium release when compared with the samples of groups 2-4. The highest acid resistance was observed for group 2. Calcium release in group 3 was similar to that of group 4 for the first two erosive attacks, after which calcium release in group 4 was lower than that of group 3. Generally, the SEM pictures showed a surface coating for groups 2-4. No deposits were observed in group 1. Although fluoride showed the best protective effect, cerium chloride was also able to reduce the acid susceptibility of dentine significantly, which merits further investigation. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Reduction of nitrate in Shewanella

    SciTech Connect

    Gao, Haichun; Yang, Zamin Koo; Barua, Sumitra; Reed, SB; Nealson, Kenneth H.; Fredrikson, JK; Tiedje, James; Zhou, Jizhong

    2009-01-01

    In the genome of Shewanella oneidensis, a napDAGHB gene cluster encoding periplasmic nitrate reductase (NapA) and accessory proteins and an nrfA gene encoding periplasmic nitrite reductase (NrfA) have been identified. These two systems seem to be atypical because the genome lacks genes encoding cytoplasmic membrane electron transport proteins, NapC for NAP and NrfBCD/NrfH for NRF, respectively. Here, we present evidence that reduction of nitrate to ammonium in S. oneidensis is carried out by these atypical systems in a two-step manner. Transcriptional and mutational analyses suggest that CymA, a cytoplasmic membrane electron transport protein, is likely to be the functional replacement of both NapC and NrfH in S. oneidensis. Surprisingly, a strain devoid of napB encoding the small subunit of nitrate reductase exhibited the maximum cell density sooner than the wild type. Further characterization of this strain showed that nitrite was not detected as a free intermediate in its culture and NapB provides a fitness gain for S. oneidensis to compete for nitrate in the environments. On the basis results from mutational analyses of napA, napB, nrfA and napBnrfA in-frame deletion mutants, we propose that NapB is able to favor nitrate reduction by routing electrons to NapA exclusively.

  17. Coupled redox transformations of catechol and cerium at the surface of a cerium(III) phosphate mineral

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cervini-Silva, Javiera; Gilbert, Benjamin; Fakra, Sirine; Friedlich, Stephan; Banfield, Jillian

    2008-05-01

    Highly insoluble Ce-bearing phosphate minerals form by weathering of apatite [Ca5(PO4)3.(OH,F,Cl)], and are important phosphorous repositories in soils. Although these phases can be dissolved via biologically-mediated pathways, the dissolution mechanisms are poorly understood. In this paper we report spectroscopic evidence to support coupling of redox transformations of organic carbon and cerium during the reaction of rhabdophane (CePO4·H2O) and catechol, a ubiquitous biogenic compound, at pH 5. Results show that the oxic-anoxic conditions influence the mineral dissolution behavior. Under anoxic conditions, the release of P and Ce occurs stoichiometrically. In contrast, under oxic conditions, the mineral dissolution behavior is incongruent, with dissolving Ce3+ ions oxidizing to CeO2. Reaction product analysis shows the formation of CO2, polymeric C, and oxalate and malate. The presence of more complex forms of organic carbon was also confirmed. Near edge X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy measurements at Ce-M4,5 and C-K absorption edges on reacted CePO4·H2O samples in the absence or presence of catechol and dissolved oxygen confirm that (1) the mineral surface converts to the oxide during this reaction, while full oxidation is limited to the near-surface region only; (2) the Ce valence remains unchanged when the reaction between CePO4·H2O and O2 but in the absence of catechol. Carbon K-edge spectra acquired from rhabdophane reacted with catechol under oxic conditions show spectral features before and after reaction that are considerably different from catechol, indicating the formation of more complex organic molecules. Decreases in intensity of characteristic catechol peaks are accompanied by the appearance of new π∗ resonances due to carbon in carboxyl (ca. 288.5 eV) and carbonyl (ca. 289.3 eV) groups, and the development of broad structure in the σ∗ region characteristic of aliphatic carbon. Evolution of the C K-edge spectra is consistent

  18. [Characterization and analysis of direction extraction and precipitation of cerium loading organic phase by oxalic acid solution].

    PubMed

    Mei, Yan; Xia, Chuan; Chen, Xiao-Li; Sun, He; Nie, Zuo-Ren

    2011-11-01

    In the condition of sodium hydroxide saponification, the test results using direction extraction and precipitation of cerium from P507 loading organic phase by oxalic acid solution were studied. Infared (IR) spectrum, X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscope (TEM) and thermogravimetry (TG-DSC) were used to study and characterize organic cerium precipitates and the final calcined products. The results showed that organic cerium precipitates and final calcined products were spheric organic cerium coordination and spheric cube CeO2 crystal, respectively, showing their morphologies were successive. IR made out that the structures of organic cerium precipitates and final calcined products were different. TG-DSC indicated that the final calcined products weightlessness was 3.5% and chemical composing was CeO2 x 1/3H2O.

  19. Antioxidant Cerium Oxide Nanoparticles in Biology and Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, Bryant C.; Johnson, Monique E.; Walker, Marlon L.; Riley, Kathryn R.; Sims, Christopher M.

    2016-01-01

    Previously, catalytic cerium oxide nanoparticles (CNPs, nanoceria, CeO2-x NPs) have been widely utilized for chemical mechanical planarization in the semiconductor industry and for reducing harmful emissions and improving fuel combustion efficiency in the automobile industry. Researchers are now harnessing the catalytic repertoire of CNPs to develop potential new treatment modalities for both oxidative- and nitrosative-stress induced disorders and diseases. In order to reach the point where our experimental understanding of the antioxidant activity of CNPs can be translated into useful therapeutics in the clinic, it is necessary to evaluate the most current evidence that supports CNP antioxidant activity in biological systems. Accordingly, the aims of this review are three-fold: (1) To describe the putative reaction mechanisms and physicochemical surface properties that enable CNPs to both scavenge reactive oxygen species (ROS) and to act as antioxidant enzyme-like mimetics in solution; (2) To provide an overview, with commentary, regarding the most robust design and synthesis pathways for preparing CNPs with catalytic antioxidant activity; (3) To provide the reader with the most up-to-date in vitro and in vivo experimental evidence supporting the ROS-scavenging potential of CNPs in biology and medicine. PMID:27196936

  20. Cerium oxide nanoparticles inhibit differentiation of neural stem cells.

    PubMed

    Gliga, Anda R; Edoff, Karin; Caputo, Fanny; Källman, Thomas; Blom, Hans; Karlsson, Hanna L; Ghibelli, Lina; Traversa, Enrico; Ceccatelli, Sandra; Fadeel, Bengt

    2017-08-24

    Cerium oxide nanoparticles (nanoceria) display antioxidant properties and have shown cytoprotective effects both in vitro and in vivo. Here, we explored the effects of nanoceria on neural progenitor cells using the C17.2 murine cell line as a model. First, we assessed the effects of nanoceria versus samarium (Sm) doped nanoceria on cell viability in the presence of the prooxidant, DMNQ. Both particles were taken up by cells and nanoceria, but not Sm-doped nanoceria, elicited a temporary cytoprotective effect upon exposure to DMNQ. Next, we employed RNA sequencing to explore the transcriptional responses induced by nanoceria or Sm-doped nanoceria during neuronal differentiation. Detailed computational analyses showed that nanoceria altered pathways and networks relevant for neuronal development, leading us to hypothesize that nanoceria inhibits neuronal differentiation, and that nanoceria and Sm-doped nanoceria both interfere with cytoskeletal organization. We confirmed that nanoceria reduced neuron specific β3-tubulin expression, a marker of neuronal differentiation, and GFAP, a neuroglial marker. Furthermore, using super-resolution microscopy approaches, we could show that both particles interfered with cytoskeletal organization and altered the structure of neural growth cones. Taken together, these results reveal that nanoceria may impact on neuronal differentiation, suggesting that nanoceria could pose a developmental neurotoxicity hazard.

  1. Solar hydrogen production with cerium oxides thermochemical cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Binotti, Marco; Di Marcoberardino, Gioele; Biassoni, Mauro; Manzolini, Giampaolo

    2017-06-01

    This paper discusses the hydrogen production using a solar driven thermochemical cycle. The thermochemical cycle is based on nonstoichiometric cerium oxides redox and the solar concentration system is a solar dish. Detailed optical and redox models were developed to optimize the hydrogen production performance as function of several design parameters (i.e. concentration ratio, reactor pressures and temperatures) The efficiency of the considered technology is compared against two commercially available technologies namely PV + electrolyzer and Dish Stirling + electrolyzer. Results show that solar-to-fuel efficiency of 21.2% can be achieved at design condition assuming a concentration ratio around 5000, reduction and oxidation temperatures of 1500°C and 1275 °C. When moving to annual performance, the annual yield of the considered approach can be as high as 16.7% which is about 43% higher than the best competitive technology. The higher performance implies that higher installation costs around 40% can be accepted for the innovative concept to achieve the same cost of hydrogen.

  2. Toxicity of Cerium Oxide Nanoparticles in Human Lung Cancer Cells

    SciTech Connect

    Weisheng, Lin; Huang, Yue-wern; Zhou, Xiao Dong; Ma, Yinfa

    2006-12-31

    With the fast development of nanotechnology, the nanomaterials start to cause people's attention for potential toxic effect. In this paper, the cytotoxicity and oxidative stress caused by 20-nm cerium oxide (CeO2) nanoparticles in cultured human lung cancer cells was investigated. The sulforhodamine B method was employed to assess cell viability after exposure to 3.5, 10.5, and 23.3 μg/ml of CeO2 nanoparticles for 24, 48, and 72 h. Cell viability decreased significantly as a function of nanoparticle dose and exposure time. Indicators of oxidative stress and cytotoxicity, including total reactive oxygen species, glutathione, malondialdehyde, α-tocopherol, and lactate dehydrogenase, were quantitatively assessed. It is concluded from the results that free radicals generated by exposure to 3.5 to 23.3 μg/ml CeO2 nanoparticles produce significant oxidative stress in the cells, as reflected by reduced glutathione and α-tocopherol levels; the toxic effects of CeO2 nanoparticles are dose dependent and time dependent; elevated oxidative stress increases the production of malondialdehyde and lactate dehydrogenase, which are indicators of lipid peroxidation and cell membrane damage, respectively.

  3. Cerium negatively impacts the nutritional status in rapeseed.

    PubMed

    Pošćić, Filip; Schat, Henk; Marchiol, Luca

    2017-03-29

    Cerium (Ce) has been reported to be both beneficial and harmful to plants. This contradiction deserves explanation in the light of increased anthropogenic release of Ce in the environment. Ce tolerance and accumulation were evaluated in hydroponically cultivated Brassica napus L. (rapeseed). Ce and other nutrient concentrations were measured with increasing Ce concentration in the nutrient solution. Moreover, Ce and calcium (Ca) accumulation were evaluated at different Ca and Ce concentrations in nutrient solution and a Michaelis-Menten type inhibition model considering Ce and Ca competition was tested. Plants were also sprayed with Ce solution in Ca-deficient media. Ce decreased the growth and root function, which affected shoot nutritional status. Calcium was the most severely inhibited nutrient in both roots and shoots. High Ca concentrations in the nutrient solution inhibited Ce accumulation in a non-competitive way. Moreover, phosphorus (P) precipitated Ce inside root cells. Ce spraying did not alleviate Ca deficiency symptoms and the results were critically compared to the available literature.

  4. Correlation of cerium anomalies with indicators of paleoenvironment

    SciTech Connect

    MacLeod, K.G.; Irving, A.J.

    1996-09-01

    Among 21 whole-rock samples of the Upper Cretaceous Niobrara Formation from Colorado, the abundance of cerium relative to other rate earth elements (Ce anomaly), the weight percent organic carbon (%C{sub org}), and the intensity of bioturbation all covary. This covariation is provocative because %C{sub org} and intensity of bioturbation track changes in the concentration of oxygen in the local water column at the time of deposition (Savrda and Bottjer 1989). Ce anomalies in apatite-rich fractions of the Maastrichtian Zumaya-Algorta Formation from France and Spain and the Miocene Monterey Formation from California show changes that also may coincide with changes in ancient oxygen levels. Results for the Niobrara samples are the closest correspondence demonstrated between paleo-redox conditions and Ce anomalies, but the authors cannot yet determine whether the correspondence reflects a cause-and-effect relationship. Variation in Ce anomalies is influenced by a number of factors, including terrigenous input, depositional environment, and diagenetic conditions. Potential interplay of these factors prevents a unique interpretation of the whole-rock data; dissecting whole-rock Ce anomalies through analysis of isolated sedimentary components, though, is a promising avenue of research.

  5. Antioxidant Cerium Oxide Nanoparticles in Biology and Medicine.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Bryant C; Johnson, Monique E; Walker, Marlon L; Riley, Kathryn R; Sims, Christopher M

    2016-05-17

    Previously, catalytic cerium oxide nanoparticles (CNPs, nanoceria, CeO2-x NPs) have been widely utilized for chemical mechanical planarization in the semiconductor industry and for reducing harmful emissions and improving fuel combustion efficiency in the automobile industry. Researchers are now harnessing the catalytic repertoire of CNPs to develop potential new treatment modalities for both oxidative- and nitrosative-stress induced disorders and diseases. In order to reach the point where our experimental understanding of the antioxidant activity of CNPs can be translated into useful therapeutics in the clinic, it is necessary to evaluate the most current evidence that supports CNP antioxidant activity in biological systems. Accordingly, the aims of this review are three-fold: (1) To describe the putative reaction mechanisms and physicochemical surface properties that enable CNPs to both scavenge reactive oxygen species (ROS) and to act as antioxidant enzyme-like mimetics in solution; (2) To provide an overview, with commentary, regarding the most robust design and synthesis pathways for preparing CNPs with catalytic antioxidant activity; (3) To provide the reader with the most up-to-date in vitro and in vivo experimental evidence supporting the ROS-scavenging potential of CNPs in biology and medicine.

  6. Catalytic Properties and Biomedical Applications of Cerium Oxide Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Walkey, Carl; Das, Soumen; Seal, Sudipta; Erlichman, Joseph; Heckman, Karin; Ghibelli, Lina; Traversa, Enrico; McGinnis, James F.; Self, William T.

    2014-01-01

    Cerium oxide nanoparticles (Nanoceria) have shown promise as catalytic antioxidants in the test tube, cell culture models and animal models of disease. However given the reactivity that is well established at the surface of these nanoparticles, the biological utilization of Nanoceria as a therapeutic still poses many challenges. Moreover the form that these particles take in a biological environment, such as the changes that can occur due to a protein corona, are not well established. This review aims to summarize the existing literature on biological use of Nanoceria, and to raise questions about what further study is needed to apply this interesting catalytic material to biomedical applications. These questions include: 1) How does preparation, exposure dose, route and experimental model influence the reported effects of Nanoceria in animal studies? 2) What are the considerations to develop Nanoceria as a therapeutic agent in regards to these parameters? 3) What biological targets of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS) are relevant to this targeting, and how do these properties also influence the safety of these nanomaterials? PMID:26207185

  7. Cerium dioxide nanoparticles increase immunogenicity of the influenza vaccine.

    PubMed

    Zholobak, Nadezhda M; Mironenko, Alla P; Shcherbakov, Alexander B; Shydlovska, Olga A; Spivak, Mykola Ya; Radchenko, Larysa V; Marinin, Andrey I; Ivanova, Olga S; Baranchikov, Alexander E; Ivanov, Vladimir K

    2016-03-01

    We have demonstrated the influence of cerium dioxide nanoparticles on the immunogenicity of the influenza vaccine on an example of liquid split inactivated Vaxigrip vaccine. Antibody titers were analyzed using the hemagglutination inhibition (HI) assay. Seroprotection, seroconversion, the geometric mean titers (GMTs) and the factor increase (FI) in the GMTs were calculated. The effect of nano-ceria surface stabilizer on the enhancement of immunogenicity was shown. The vaccine modified by citrate-stabilized nano-ceria, in contrast to a non-modified Vaxigrip vaccine, did not provide an adequate level of seroprotection, and seroconversion after vaccination was 66.7% on days 49-63 for virus strain А(H1N1) and 100% on day 49 for virus strain B/Yamagata. For the low immunogenic influenza B virus, the rise in antibody titers (GMT/IF) was 24.38/3.28 after the first injection and 50.40/6.79 on day 49. For the vaccine modified by non-stabilized nano-ceria, for all virus strains under study, on day 63, upon immunization notable levels of seroprotection, seroconversion and GMT/IF were registered (higher than for the non-modified Vaxigrip vaccine). The successful attempt to modify the influenza vaccine demonstrates the possible ways of increasing the specific activity of vaccines using nano-ceria.

  8. Denaturation of Human Serum Albumin by Cerium (iii) Chloride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Behbahani, G. Rezaei; Shalbafan, M.; Gheibi, N.; Barzegar, L.; Behbahani, H. Rezaei; Yaghdavaei, N.; Behbahani, Z. Rezaei

    2013-08-01

    Cerium (III) Chloride-induced conformational changes of human serum albumin, HSA, in phosphate buffer, 10 mM at pH 7.4 was investigated, using isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC), UV and fluorescence emission spectroscopic methods. The results indicate that CeCl3, Ce3+, induces irreversible denaturation of the HSA structure. The UV absorption intensity of HSA + Ce3+ shows a slight blueshift in the absorbance wavelength with increasing Ce3+ concentration. The fluorescence intensity was increased regularly and a slight redshift was observed in the emission wavelength. The HSA + Ce3+ complex quenches the fluorescence of HSA and changes the microenvironment of tryptophan residue. The emission intensity increases suggesting the loss of the tertiary structure of HSA. The results obtained from the ITC data are in agreement with the spectroscopic methods. The strong negative cooperativity of Ce3+ binding with HSA (Table 1) recovered from the extended solvation model, indicates that HSA has been denatured as a result of its interaction with Ce3+ ions.

  9. Anti-angiogenic activity of heparin functionalised cerium oxide nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Lord, Megan S; Tsoi, Bonny; Gunawan, Cindy; Teoh, Wey Yang; Amal, Rose; Whitelock, John M

    2013-11-01

    Cerium oxide nanoparticles (nanoceria) are widely reported to be non-cytotoxic and modulate intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS). In this study, nanoceria (dxRD = 12 nm) were functionalised with either 130 or 880 molecules of unfractionated heparin using the organosilane linker, 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane. Nanoceria with a low level of heparin functionalisation were found to scavenge intracellular ROS to the same extent as unfunctionalised nanoceria and significantly more than cells exposed to medium only. In contrast, nanoceria with the highest level of heparin functionalisation were not as effective at scavenging intracellular ROS. Nanoceria were localised predominantly in the cytoplasm, while heparin-nanoceria were localised in both the cytoplasm and lysosomes. Together these data demonstrated that the level of nanoceria surface functionalisation with heparin determined the intracellular localisation and ROS scavenging ability of these particles. Additionally, heparin-nanoceria were effective in reducing endothelial cell proliferation indicating that they may find application in the control of angiogenesis in cancer in the future.

  10. Synthesis and photocatalytic activity of mesoporous cerium doped TiO{sub 2} as visible light sensitive photocatalyst

    SciTech Connect

    Aman, Noor; Satapathy, P.K.; Mishra, T.; Mahato, M.; Das, N.N.

    2012-02-15

    Graphical abstract: Cerium doped titania having optimum 5 wt% of cerium can decompose methylene blue and reduce selenium (IV) efficiently under visible light. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Effect of cerium doping on the surface properties and visible light mediated photocatalytic reaction is studied. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cerium doping increases the anatase phase stability, surface area (up to 137 m{sup 2}/g) and visible light absorption. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Importance of Ce{sup 3+}/Ce{sup 4+}, oxygen vacancy, surface area and crystallinity is correlated with improved catalytic activity. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Material with 5 wt% Ce is found to be most active photocatalyst for methylene blue decomposition and Se (IV) reduction. -- Abstract: Cerium doped titania materials were synthesized varying the cerium concentration from 0 to 10 wt%. Materials are characterised by XRD, TEM, XPS and N{sub 2} adsorption desorption method. Surface area and visible light absorption substantially increases and crystallite size decreases with the increasing cerium content. Cerium doping stabilizes the anatase phase and surface area even at 600 Degree-Sign C calcination. Photocatalytic activity towards methylene blue decomposition and selenium (IV) reduction is found to increase with the cerium content up to 5 wt% and then decreases. Materials calcined at 600 Degree-Sign C shows better activity than that calcined at 400 Degree-Sign C, even though surface area decreases. Anatase crystallinity mostly decides the photocatalytic activity rather than only surface area. It can be concluded that the optimum visible light absorption and oxygen vacancy with 5% cerium doping enhances the photocatalytic activity. In addition photocatalytic performance is found to depend on the presence of Ce{sup 4+}/Ce{sup 3+} rather than only visible light absorption.

  11. Fabrication of Cerium Oxide and Uranium Oxide Microspheres for Space Nuclear Power Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Jeffrey A. Katalenich; Michael R. Hartman; Robert C. O'Brien

    2013-02-01

    Cerium oxide and uranium oxide microspheres are being produced via an internal gelation sol-gel method to investigate alternative fabrication routes for space nuclear fuels. Depleted uranium and non-radioactive cerium are being utilized as surrogates for plutonium-238 (Pu-238) used in radioisotope thermoelectric generators and for enriched uranium required by nuclear thermal rockets. While current methods used to produce Pu-238 fuels at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) involve the generation of fine powders that pose a respiratory hazard and have a propensity to contaminate glove boxes, the sol-gel route allows for the generation of oxide microsphere fuels through an aqueous route. The sol-gel method does not generate fine powders and may require fewer processing steps than the LANL method with less operator handling. High-quality cerium dioxide microspheres have been fabricated in the desired size range and equipment is being prepared to establish a uranium dioxide microsphere production capability.

  12. Mesoporous cerium oxide nanospheres for the visible-light driven photocatalytic degradation of dyes

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Shi; Ng, Chin Fan; Huan, Cheng Hon Alfred

    2014-01-01

    Summary A facile, solvothermal synthesis of mesoporous cerium oxide nanospheres is reported for the purpose of the photocatalytic degradation of organic dyes and future applications in sustainable energy research. The earth-abundant, relatively affordable, mixed valence cerium oxide sample, which consists of predominantly Ce7O12, has been characterized by powder X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron and UV–vis spectroscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. Together with N2 sorption experiments, the data confirms that the new cerium oxide material is mesoporous and absorbs visible light. The photocatalytic degradation of rhodamin B is investigated with a series of radical scavengers, suggesting that the mechanism of photocatalytic activity under visible-light irradiation involves predominantly hydroxyl radicals as the active species. PMID:24991486

  13. Excitation induced spectroscopic study and quenching effect in cerium samarium codoped lithium aluminoborate glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaur, Parvinder; Kaur, Simranpreet; Singh, Gurinder Pal; Arora, Deepawali; Kumar, Sunil; Singh, D. P.

    2016-08-01

    Lithium aluminium borate host has been codoped with cerium and samarium to prepare glass by conventional melt quench technique. Their structural and spectroscopic investigation has been carried out using XRD, FTIR and density measurements. The UV-Vis absorption spectra and fluorescence spectra (λexc.=380 nm and 400 nm) have been studied for spectroscopic analysis. The amorphous nature of the prepared samples is shown by XRD. The density is increasing with addition of cerium at the expense of aluminium, keeping other components constant. FTIR study also shows the presence of compact and stable tetrahedral BO4 units thus supporting the density results. The UV- Vis absorption spectra show a shift of optical absorption edge towards longer wavelength along with an increase in intensity of peaks with rising samarium concentration. The fluorescence spectra show a blue shift and subsequent suppression of cerium peaks with addition of samarium.

  14. Samarium Doped Cerium Oxide Clusters: a Study on the Modulation of Electronic Structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Topolski, Josey E.; Kafader, Jared O.; Marrero-Colon, Vicmarie; Chick Jarrold, Caroline

    2017-06-01

    Cerium oxide is known for its use in solid oxide fuel cells due to its high ionic conductivity. The doping of trivalent samarium atoms into cerium oxide is known to enhance the ionic conductivity through the generation of additional oxygen vacancies. This study probes the electronic structure of Sm_{x}Ce_{y}O_{z} (x+y=3, z=2-4) anion and neutral clusters. Anion photoelectron spectra of these mixed metal clusters exhibit additional spectral features not present in the previously studied cerium oxide clusters. Density functional theory calculations have been used to aid interpretation of collected spectra. The results of this work can be used to inform the design of materials used for solid oxide fuel cells.

  15. Study of phase transitions in cerium in shock-wave experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhernokletov, M. V.; Borisenok, V. A.; Simakov, V. G.; Bragunets, V. A.; Shestakov, E. E.; Podurets, A. M.; Tkachenko, M. I.

    2015-09-01

    Cerium has a complex phase diagram that is explained by the presence of structure phase transitions. Planar gauges were used in various combinations in experiments for determination of sound velocity dependence on pressure in cerium by the technique of PVDF gauge. The data of time dependence on pressure profiles with use of x(t) diagrams and the D(u) relation for cerium allowed the definition of the Lagrangian velocity of the unloading wave CLagr and the Eulerian velocity CEul by taking into account the compression σ. These results accords with data obtained by using the technique of VISAR and a manganin-based gauge, and calculated pressure dependence of isentropic sound velocity according to the VNIITF EOS. Metallography analysis of post-experimental samples did not find any changes in a phase composition.

  16. Decomposition kinetics of ammonia in gaseous stream by a nanoscale copper-cerium bimetallic catalyst.

    PubMed

    Hung, Chang-Mao

    2008-01-15

    This study performance is to examine the kinetics over nanoscale copper-cerium bimetallic catalyst under selective catalytic oxidation (SCO) of ammonia to N(2) in a tubular fixed-bed reactor (TFBR) at temperatures from 150 to 400 degrees C in the presence of oxygen. The nanoscale copper-cerium bimetallic catalyst was prepared by co-precipitation with Cu(NO(3))(2) and Ce(NO(3))(3) at molar ratio of 6:4. Experimental results showed that the catalyst with transmission electron microscopy (TEM) revealed that copper and cerium are well dispersed and catalyst in the form of nanometer-sized particles. Moreover, the kinetic behavior of NH(3) oxidation with catalysis can be accounted by using the rate expression of the Langmuir-Hinshelwood type kinetic model. Kinetic parameters are also developed on the basis of the differential reactor data. Also, experimental results are compared with those of the model predicted.

  17. Enhanced chemiluminescence of cerium(IV)-Tween 85 system and the analytical application.

    PubMed

    Li, Shifeng; Qian, Li; Zhu, Yan; Liu, Manman; Gao, Yinping; Ni, Yonghong

    2013-01-01

    The oxidation reaction between cerium(IV) and Tween 85 in sulfuric acid medium produced weak chemiluminescence (CL). In this paper, it was found that citrate could strongly enhance the CL of cerium(IV)-Tween 85-polyphenol system. Based on studies of ultraviolet-visible spectra and CL spectra, the CL enhancement mechanism had been proposed. It was surmised that the light emission was from an excited oxygen molecular pair O2((1)Δg)O2((1)∑g(-)). The maximum emission wavelength was about 478 nm. The effects of 17 amino acids and 29 organic compounds on cerium(IV)-Tween 85-citrate CL were investigated by a flow injection procedure. This study showed the present system had a wide application for the determination of these compounds.

  18. THERMAL EFFECTS ON MASS AND SPATIAL RESOLUTION DURING LASER PULSE ATOM PROBE TOMOGRAPHY OF CERIUM OXIDE

    SciTech Connect

    Rita Kirchhofer; Melissa C. Teague; Brian P. Gorman

    2013-05-01

    Cerium oxide (CeO2) is an ideal surrogate material for trans-uranic elements and fission products found in nuclear fuels due to similarities in their thermal properties; therefore, cerium oxide was used to determine the best run condition for atom probe tomography (APT). Laser pulse APT is a technique that allows for spatial resolution in the nm scale and isotopic/elemental chemical identification. A systematic study of the impact of laser pulse energy and specimen base temperature on the mass resolution, measurement of stoichiometry, multiples, and evaporation mechanisms are reported in this paper. It was demonstrated that using laser pulse APT stoichiometric field evaporation of cerium oxide was achieved at 1 pJ laser pulse energy and 20 K specimen base temperature.

  19. Synthesis and characterization of cerium and yttrium alkoxide complexes supported by ferrocene-based chelating ligands.

    PubMed

    Broderick, Erin M; Thuy-Boun, Peter S; Guo, Neng; Vogel, Carola S; Sutter, Jörg; Miller, Jeffrey T; Meyer, Karsten; Diaconescu, Paula L

    2011-04-04

    Two series of Schiff base metal complexes were investigated, where each series was supported by an ancillary ligand incorporating a ferrocene backbone and different N=X functionalities. One ligand is based on an imine, while the other is based on an iminophosphorane group. Cerium(IV), cerium(III), and yttrium(III) alkoxide complexes supported by the two ligands were synthesized. All metal complexes were characterized by cyclic voltammetry. Additionally, NMR, Mössbauer, X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES), and absorption spectroscopies were used. The experimental data indicate that iron remains in the +2 oxidation state and that cerium(IV) does not engage in a redox behavior with the ancillary ligand.

  20. The role of chemical interactions between thorium, cerium, and lanthanum in lymphocyte toxicity.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Monica S; Duarte, Isabelle M; Paiva, Amanda V; Yunes, Samira N; Almeida, Carlos E; Mattos, Rita C; Sarcinelli, Paula N

    2014-01-01

    Thorium, cerium, and lanthanum are metals present in several types of minerals, the most common of which is monazite. Cerium and lanthanum are elements in the lanthanides series. Thorium, an actinide metal, is a hazardous element due to its radioactive characteristics. There is a lack of information describing the possible chemical interactions among these elements and the effects they may have on humans. Toxicological analyses were performed using cell viability, cell death, and DNA damage assays. Chemical interactions were evaluated based on the Loewe additivity model. The results indicate that thorium and cerium individually have no toxic effects on lymphocytes. However, thorium associated with lanthanum increases the toxicity of this element, thereby reducing the viability of lymphocytes at low concentrations of metals in the mixture.

  1. Histochemical localization of nitrate reductase.

    PubMed

    Vaughn, K C; Duke, S O

    1981-01-01

    NADH-dependent nitrate reductase (E.C. 1.6.6.1) was ultrastructurally localized in norflurazon-treated and control soybean cotyledons [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] by a method based upon the increase in osmiophilia due to the formation of an azo dye. The reaction product was observed in small vesicles throughout the cytoplasm. An apparent transport of nitrite to the plastid, the site of nitrite reduction, may occur through fusion of the nitrite-containing vesicles with the chloroplast envelope. Plants grown in tungstate lacked nitrate reductase activity as measured by standard assay procedures, and showed no increase in osmiophilia, suggesting a degree of specificity of this cytochemical procedure.

  2. Nitrate Trends in Minnesota Rivers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wall, Dave; Christopherson, Dave; Lorenz, Dave; Martin, Gary

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to assess long-term trends (30 to 35 years) of flow-adjusted concentrations of nitrite+nitrate-N (hereinafter referred to as nitrate) in a way that would allow us to discern changing trends. Recognizing that these trends are commonly different from one river to another river and from one part of the state to another, our objective was to examine as many river monitoring sites across the state as possible for which sufficient long term streamflow and concentration data were available.

  3. Cytotoxic activity of new cerium (III) complexes of bis-coumarins.

    PubMed

    Kostova, Irena; Manolov, Ilia; Momekov, Georgi; Tzanova, Tzvetomira; Konstantinov, Spiro; Karaivanova, Margarita

    2005-12-01

    Complexes of cerium (III) with bis-coumarins: 3,3'-benzylidene-bis(4-hydroxy-2H-1-benzopyran-2-one) and bis(4-hydroxy-2-oxo-2H-chromen-3-yl)-(1H-pyrazol-3-yl)-methane were synthesized by reaction of cerium (III) salt and the ligands, in amounts equal to metal/ligand molar ratio of 1:2. The complexes were prepared by adding an aqueous solution of cerium (III) salt to an aqueous solution of the ligand subsequently raising the pH of the mixture gradually to ca. 5.0 by adding dilute solution of sodium hydroxide. The cerium (III) complexes with bis-coumarins were characterized by different physicochemical methods--elemental analysis, IR-, 1H- and 13C-NMR-spectroscopies and mass-spectral data. The spectral data of cerium (III) complexes were interpreted on the basis of comparison with the spectra of the free ligands. This analysis showed that in the Ce (III) complexes the ligands coordinated to the metal ion through both deprotonated hydroxyl groups. On the basis of the nu(C=O) red shift observed, participation of the carbonyl groups in the coordination to the metal ion was also suggested. Cytotoxic screening by MTT assay was carried out. In the present study we performed comparative evaluation of the cytotoxic effects of the two newly synthesized cerium complexes against the acute myeloid leukemia derived HL-60 and the chronic myeloid leukemia (CML)-derived BV-173. In addition the cytotoxic effects of Ce (III) complex with 3,3'-benzylidene-bis(4-hydroxy-2H-1-benzopyran-2-one) were evaluated on the CML-derived K-562 and LAMA-84 cells, characterized by relative low responsiveness to chemotherapy. The DNA isolated from the cytosolic fraction of BV-173 cells after 24 h treatment with the same complex (at 100 and 200 microM) demonstrated a laddering phenomenon that is indicative for apoptotic cell death.

  4. Nitrate transport and signalling in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Krapp, Anne; David, Laure C; Chardin, Camille; Girin, Thomas; Marmagne, Anne; Leprince, Anne-Sophie; Chaillou, Sylvain; Ferrario-Méry, Sylvie; Meyer, Christian; Daniel-Vedele, Françoise

    2014-03-01

    Plants have developed adaptive responses allowing them to cope with nitrogen (N) fluctuation in the soil and maintain growth despite changes in external N availability. Nitrate is the most important N form in temperate soils. Nitrate uptake by roots and its transport at the whole-plant level involves a large panoply of transporters and impacts plant performance. Four families of nitrate-transporting proteins have been identified so far: nitrate transporter 1/peptide transporter family (NPF), nitrate transporter 2 family (NRT2), the chloride channel family (CLC), and slow anion channel-associated homologues (SLAC/SLAH). Nitrate transporters are also involved in the sensing of nitrate. It is now well established that plants are able to sense external nitrate availability, and hence that nitrate also acts as a signal molecule that regulates many aspects of plant intake, metabolism, and gene expression. This review will focus on a global picture of the nitrate transporters so far identified and the recent advances in the molecular knowledge of the so-called primary nitrate response, the rapid regulation of gene expression in response to nitrate. The recent discovery of the NIN-like proteins as master regulators for nitrate signalling has led to a new understanding of the regulation cascade.

  5. Short-term effects of a high nitrate diet on nitrate metabolism in healthy individuals.

    PubMed

    Bondonno, Catherine P; Liu, Alex H; Croft, Kevin D; Ward, Natalie C; Puddey, Ian B; Woodman, Richard J; Hodgson, Jonathan M

    2015-03-12

    Dietary nitrate, through the enterosalivary nitrate-nitrite-NO pathway, can improve blood pressure and arterial stiffness. How long systemic nitrate and nitrite remain elevated following cessation of high nitrate intake is unknown. In 19 healthy men and women, the time for salivary and plasma nitrate and nitrite to return to baseline after 7 days increased nitrate intake from green leafy vegetables was determined. Salivary and plasma nitrate and nitrite was measured at baseline [D0], end of high nitrate diet [D7], day 9 [+2D], day 14 [+7D] and day 21 [+14D]. Urinary nitrite and nitrate was assessed at D7 and +14D. Increased dietary nitrate for 7 days resulted in a more than fourfold increase in saliva and plasma nitrate and nitrite (p < 0.001) measured at [D7]. At [+2D] plasma nitrite and nitrate had returned to baseline while saliva nitrate and nitrite were more than 1.5 times higher than at baseline levels. By [+7D] all metabolites had returned to baseline levels. The pattern of response was similar between men and women. Urinary nitrate and nitrate was sevenfold higher at D7 compared to +14D. These results suggest that daily ingestion of nitrate may be required to maintain the physiological changes associated with high nitrate intake.

  6. Synthesis and characterization of two dimensional metal organic framework of cerium with tetraaza macrocyclic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bt Safiin, Nurul Atikah; Yarmo, Ambar; Yamin, Bohari M.

    2013-11-01

    A two dimensional metal organic framework containing cerium sufate layers and ethylenediaminium between layers was obtained by refluxing the mixture of cerium sulphate and 5,5,7,12,12,14-hexamethyl-1,4,8,11-tetraazacyclotetradeca-7, 14-diene bromide. The complex was characterized by infrared spectroscopy and microelemental analysis. X-ray study showed that the complex adopts eleven coordination environments about the central atom. Thermogravimetric study showed the removal of water molecules at about 70°C followed by a gradual mass loss until the whole structure collapsed at about 400°C.

  7. Cerium clustering and radiation damage resistance in aluminophosphate and silicophosphate glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rygel, Jennifer Lynn

    Cerium oxide is a well-known additive for increasing resistance to radiation damage in glass by preventing electrons and holes freed by irradiation from becoming trapped at defect sites and inducing optical absorption bands which can severely darken the glass. Phosphate glasses provide a unique opportunity for studying radiation damage resistance due to their high rare-earth solubility, ˜25 mol%. Two series of glasses, nominally AlP3O9-CeP 3O9 and CeP3O9-SiP2O 7, were synthesized to investigate structure-property relationships in a range of compositions near the metaphosphate. The presence of cerium clustering, or sharing of oxygen between cerium cations, was predicted using the chain fragment cluster model, an extension of earlier models for rare-earth phosphate glasses. Using the atom% composition determined by XPS from vacuum fracture surfaces, and cation coordination measured by Ce K-edge EXAFS, 29Si CPMG NMR, and 27Al MAS NMR, it was determined that clustering occurs for glasses containing ≥ 14 mol% Ce2O3 in the aluminophosphate glass series and ≥ 18 mol% Ce2O3 in the silicophosphate glass series. Many measured properties have been observed to correlate with the presence or absence of cerium clustering, cluster size, or other concomitant structural changes, including: visible coloration, density, refractive index, Ce3+ photoluminescence, and Ce3+ paramagnetic resonance. Additionally, radiation damage resistance was identified in the aluminophosphate and silicophosphate glasses which were predicted to have clustered cerium cations through the absence of radiation-induced phosphorus-related paramagnetic defects. This resistance is attributed to a structural implication of clustering. Specifically, cerium cations will be in close proximity to defect precursor sites at the concentrations required for clustering and are thus able to prevent localization of electrons and holes on those sites. Finally, irradiation-induced optical absorption was measured in all

  8. Systematic variation of rare-earth elements in cerium-earth minerals

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Murata, K.J.; Rose, H.J.; Carron, M.K.; Glass, J.J.

    1957-01-01

    In a continuation of a study reported previously, rare-earth elements and thorium have been determined in monazite, allanite, cerite, bastnaesite, and a number of miscellaneous cerium-earth minerals. A quantity called sigma (???), which is the sum of the atomic percentages of La, Ce, and Pr, is proposed as an index of composition of all cerium-earth minerals with respect to the rare-earth elements. The value of ??? for all of the minerals analysed falls between 58 and 92 atomic per cent. Monazites, allanites, and cerites cover the entire observed range, whereas bastnaesites are sharply restricted to the range between 80 and 92 atomic per cent. The minimum value of ??? for a cerium-earth mineral corresponds to the smallest possible unit-cell size of the mineral. In monazite, this structurally controlled minimum value of ??? is estimated to be around 30 atomic per cent. Neodymium, because of its abundance, and yttrium, because of its small size, have dominant roles in contraction of the structure. In the other direction, the limit of variation in composition will be reached when lanthanum becomes the sole rare-earth element in a cerium-earth mineral. Cerium-earth minerals from alkalic rocks are all characterized by values of ??? greater than 80 atomic per cent, indicating that the processes that formed these rocks were unusually efficient in fractionating the rare-earth elements-efficient in the sense that a highly selected assemblage is produced without eliminating the bulk of these elements. Analyses of inner and outer parts of two large crystals of monazite from different deposits show no difference in ??? in one crystal and a slightly smaller value of ??? in the outer part of the other crystal compared to the inner part. The ??? of monazites from pegmatites that intrude genetically related granitic rocks in North Carolina is found to be either higher or lower than the ??? of monazites in the intruded host rock. These results indicate that the fractionation of the

  9. METHOD OF SEPARATING TETRAVALENT PLUTONIUM VALUES FROM CERIUM SUB-GROUP RARE EARTH VALUES

    DOEpatents

    Duffield, R.B.; Stoughton, R.W.

    1959-02-01

    A method is presented for separating plutonium from the cerium sub-group of rare earths when both are present in an aqueous solution. The method consists in adding an excess of alkali metal carbonate to the solution, which causes the formation of a soluble plutonium carbonate precipitate and at the same time forms an insoluble cerium-group rare earth carbonate. The pH value must be adjusted to bctween 5.5 and 7.5, and prior to the precipitation step the plutonium must be reduced to the tetravalent state since only tetravalent plutonium will form the soluble carbonate complex.

  10. Behavior of cerium in boundary segregation and temper embrittlement of steels

    SciTech Connect

    Yuan, Z.; Li, J.; Feng, S.

    1986-01-01

    The co-segregation of manganese and phosphorus causes temper embrittlement. As the tempering is prolonged, the concentration of manganese in (Fe,Mn)/sub 3/C increases. It upsets the equilibrium of co-segregation and, in turn, reduces the degree of co-segregation of manganese and phosphorus, thus lessening the increase in FATT 50%. Cerium reduces the amounts of phosphorus and manganese segregated to the grain boundaries. As the grain-boundary concentration of cerium increases unceasingly, the resistance against co-segregation increases and the rate of embrittling decreases.

  11. Photocatalytic action of cerium molybdate and iron-titanium oxide hollow nanospheres on Escherichia coli

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kartsonakis, I. A.; Kontogiani, P.; Pappas, G. S.; Kordas, G.

    2013-06-01

    This study is focused on the production of hollow nanospheres that reveal antibacterial action. Cerium molybdate and iron-titanium oxide hollow nanospheres with a diameter of 175 ± 15 and 221 ± 10 nm, respectively, were synthesized using emulsion polymerization and the sol-gel process. Their morphology characterization was accomplished using scanning electron microscopy. Their antibacterial action was examined on pure culture of Escherichia coli considering the loss of their viability. Both hollow nanospheres presented photocatalytic action after illumination with blue-black light, but those of cerium molybdate also demonstrated photocatalytic action in the dark. Therefore, the produced nanospheres can be used for antibacterial applications.

  12. Synthesis and characterization of two dimensional metal organic framework of cerium with tetraaza macrocyclic

    SciTech Connect

    Bt Safiin, Nurul Atikah; Yarmo, Ambar; Yamin, Bohari M.

    2013-11-27

    A two dimensional metal organic framework containing cerium sufate layers and ethylenediaminium between layers was obtained by refluxing the mixture of cerium sulphate and 5,5,7,12,12,14-hexamethyl-1,4,8,11-tetraazacyclotetradeca-7, 14-diene bromide. The complex was characterized by infrared spectroscopy and microelemental analysis. X-ray study showed that the complex adopts eleven coordination environments about the central atom. Thermogravimetric study showed the removal of water molecules at about 70°C followed by a gradual mass loss until the whole structure collapsed at about 400°C.

  13. Preparation of yttrium, lanthanum, cerium, and neodymium basic carbonate particles by homogeneous precipitation

    SciTech Connect

    Akinc, M.; Sordelet, D. )

    1987-07-01

    Uniform yttrium, lanthanum, cerium, and neodymium basic carbonate particles were prepared by homogeneous precipitation. Powders were characterized with respect to size, shape, crystal structure, and thermal decomposition behavior. Yttria precursor particles were spherical, monosized (0.4 {mu}m), and amorphous; whereas lanthana, neodymia, and ceria precursors were prismatic (ranging from 1 to 6 {mu}m in size) and crystalline. Crystal structure was found to be ancylite-type orthorhombic symmetry in all three cases. Upon heating in air, yttrium, lanthanum, and neodymium precursors underwent two-step decomposition to first form oxycarbonate and then oxide. Cerium hydroxycarbonate decomposed in a single step to form the oxide.

  14. Biological denitrification of high concentration nitrate waste

    DOEpatents

    Francis, Chester W.; Brinkley, Frank S.

    1977-01-01

    Biological denitrification of nitrate solutions at concentrations of greater than one kilogram nitrate per cubic meter is accomplished anaerobically in an upflow column having as a packing material a support for denitrifying bacteria.

  15. 76 FR 62311 - Ammonium Nitrate Security Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-07

    ... to best notify agents (AN Agents) when ammonium nitrate purchasers (AN Purchasers) submit those AN... directly to ammonium nitrate sellers (AN Sellers) when it is not possible for an AN Seller to verify the...

  16. Inert Reassessment Document for Ammonium Nitrate

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Magnesium nitrate is used in preservation. Other uses for magnesium nitrate include use as a catalyst in the manufacture of petrochemicals, as a densensitizer for lithographic plates and in pyrotechnics.

  17. Dietary nitrate and cardiovascular health

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ahluwalia, A.; Gladwin, M.T.; Harman, Jane L.; Ward, M.H.; Nolan, Bernard T.

    2014-01-01

    The National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute convened this workshop to discuss the results of recent research on the effects of inorganic nitrate and nitrite on the cardiovascular system, possible long term effects of these compounds in the diet and drinking water, and future research needs including population-wide effects examined through epidemiological studies.

  18. A Novel Chemical Nitrate Destruction Process

    SciTech Connect

    Dziewinski, J.; Marczak, S.

    1999-03-01

    Nitrates represent one of the most significant pollutant discharged to the Baltic Sea by the Sliiamae hydrometallurgical plant. This article contains a brief overview of the existing nitrate destruction technologies followed by the description of a new process developed by the authors. The new chemical process for nitrate destruction is cost effective and simple to operate. It converts the nitrate to nitrogen gas which goes to the atmosphere.

  19. Plasma nitrate and nitrite are increased by a high nitrate supplement, but not by high nitrate foods in older adults

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Gary D.; Marsh, Anthony P.; Dove, Robin W.; Beavers, Daniel; Presley, Tennille; Helms, Christine; Bechtold, Erika; King, S. Bruce; Kim-Shapiro, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    Little is known about the effect of dietary nitrate on the nitrate/nitrite/NO (nitric oxide) cycle in older adults. We examined the effect of a 3-day control diet vs. high nitrate diet, with and without a high nitrate supplement (beetroot juice), on plasma nitrate and nitrite kinetics, and blood pressure using a randomized four period cross-over controlled design. We hypothesized that the high nitrate diet would show higher levels of plasma nitrate/nitrite and blood pressure compared to the control diet, which would be potentiated by the supplement. Participants were eight normotensive older men and women (5 female, 3 male, 72.5±4.7 yrs) with no overt disease or medications that affect NO metabolism. Plasma nitrate and nitrite levels and blood pressure were measured prior to and hourly for 3 hours after each meal. The mean daily changes in plasma nitrate and nitrite were significantly different from baseline for both control diet+supplement (p<0.001 and =0.017 for nitrate and nitrite, respectively) and high nitrate diet+supplement (p=0.001 and 0.002), but not for control diet (p=0.713 and 0.741) or high nitrate diet (p=0.852 and 0.500). Blood pressure decreased from the morning baseline measure to the three 2 hr post-meal follow-up time-points for all treatments, but there was no main effect for treatment. In healthy older adults, a high nitrate supplement consumed at breakfast elevated plasma nitrate and nitrite levels throughout the day. This observation may have practical utility for the timing of intake of a nitrate supplement with physical activity for older adults with vascular dysfunction. PMID:22464802

  20. Fate of cerium dioxide nanoparticles in endothelial cells: exocytosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strobel, Claudia; Oehring, Hartmut; Herrmann, Rudolf; Förster, Martin; Reller, Armin; Hilger, Ingrid

    2015-05-01

    Although cytotoxicity and endocytosis of nanoparticles have been the subject of numerous studies, investigations regarding exocytosis as an important mechanism to reduce intracellular nanoparticle accumulation are rather rare and there is a distinct lack of knowledge. The current study investigated the behavior of human microvascular endothelial cells to exocytose cerium dioxide (CeO2) nanoparticles (18.8 nm) by utilization of specific inhibitors [brefeldin A; nocodazole; methyl-β-cyclodextrin (MβcD)] and different analytical methods (flow cytometry, transmission electron microscopy, inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry). Overall, it was found that endothelial cells were able to release CeO2 nanoparticles via exocytosis after the migration of nanoparticle containing endosomes toward the plasma membrane. The exocytosis process occurred mainly by fusion of vesicular membranes with plasma membrane resulting in the discharge of vesicular content to extracellular environment. Nevertheless, it seems to be likely that nanoparticles present in the cytosol could leave the cells in a direct manner. MβcD treatment led to the strongest inhibition of the nanoparticle exocytosis indicating a significant role of the plasma membrane cholesterol content in the exocytosis process. Brefeldin A (inhibitor of Golgi-to-cell-surface-transport) caused a higher inhibitory effect on exocytosis than nocodazole (inhibitor of microtubules). Thus, the transfer from distal Golgi compartments to the cell surface influenced the exocytosis process of the CeO2 nanoparticles more than the microtubule-associated transport. In conclusion, endothelial cells, which came in contact with nanoparticles, e.g., after intravenously applied nano-based drugs, can regulate their intracellular nanoparticle amount, which is necessary to avoid adverse nanoparticle effects on cells.

  1. Cerium-based conversion coatings on magnesium alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castano Londono, Carlos Eduardo

    This research is primarily focused on gaining a better understanding of the deposition and corrosion behavior of cerium-based conversion coatings (CeCCs) on AZ31B and AZ91D Mg alloys. Deposition of homogenous and protective CeCCs was highly dependent on the surface preparation steps. The best results were obtained when Mg samples underwent grinding, acid cleaning, and alkaline cleaning processes. This reduced the number of active cathodic sites and promoted the formation of a protective Al-rich Mg oxide/hydroxide layer. Electrochemical properties of the CeCCs were also strongly correlated with morphological, microstructural, and chemical characteristics. Protective CeCCs were deposited on both AZ31 and AZ91 Mg alloys using a range of deposition times (5 to 180 s) and temperatures (10 to 80 °C). However, shorter deposition times (5 s) and lower deposition temperatures (~10 °C) showed higher impedance and longer bath stability than other deposition conditions. The increase in impedance was related with fewer cracks and smaller nodule sizes. Additional investigations of post-treated CeCCs exposed to NaCl environments showed an increased in the total impedance. The increase in corrosion protection of the CeCCs was associated with an overall increase in coating thickness from 400 to 800 nm. A microstructural evolution from ~3 nm nodular nanocrystals of CeO2/CePO4*H2O embedded in an amorphous matrix to >50 nm CePO4*H2O nanocrystals was responsible for the electrochemically active corrosion protection. Exposure of CeCCs to sunlight in humid environments promoted the reduction of Ce(IV) into Ce(III) species compared to unexposed coatings. This reduction process was related with photocatalytic water oxidation reaction.

  2. Effects of Cerium Oxide Nanoparticles on Sorghum Plant Traits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mu, L.; Chen, Y.; Darnault, C. J. G.; Rauh, B.; Kresovich, S.; Korte, C.

    2015-12-01

    Nanotechnology and nanomaterials are considered as the development of the modern science. However, besides with that wide application, nanoparticles arouse to the side effects on the environment and human health. As the catalyst of ceramics and fuel industry, Cerium (IV) oxide nanoparticles (CeO2 NPs) can be found in the environment following their use and life-cycle. Therefore, it is critical to assess the potential effects that CeO2 NPs found in soils may have on plants. In this study, CeO2 NPs were analyzed for the potential influence on the sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] (Reg. no. 126) (PI 154844) growth and traits. The objectives of this research were to determine whether CeO2 NPs impact the sorghum germination and growth characteristics. The sorghum was grown in the greenhouse located at Biosystems Research Complex, Clemson University under different CeO2 NPs treatments (0mg; 100mg; 500mg; 1000mg CeO2 NPs/Kg soil) and harvested around each month. At the end of the each growing period, above ground vegetative tissue was air-dried, ground to 2mm particle size and compositional traits estimated using near-infrared spectroscopy. Also, the NPK value of the sorghum tissue was tested by Clemson Agriculture Center. After the first harvest, the result showed that the height of above ground biomass under the nanoparticles stress was higher than that of control group. This difference between the control and the nanoparticles treatments was significant (F>F0.05; LSD). Our results also indicated that some of the compositional traits were impacted by the different treatments, including the presence and/or concentrations of the nanoparticles.

  3. Variations in Reactivity on Different Crystallographic Orientations of Cerium Oxide

    SciTech Connect

    Mullins, David R; Albrecht, Peter M; Calaza, Florencia C

    2013-01-01

    Cerium oxide is a principal component in many heterogeneous catalytic processes. One of its key characteristics is the ability to provide or remove oxygen in chemical reactions. The different crystallographic faces of ceria present significantly different surface structures and compositions that may alter the catalytic reactivity. The structure and composition determine the number of coordination vacancies surrounding surface atoms, the availability of adsorption sites, the spacing between adsorption sites and the ability to remove O from the surface. To investigate the role of surface orientation on reactivity, CeO2 films were grown with two different orientations. CeO2(100) films were grown ex situ by pulsed laser deposition on Nb-doped SrTiO3(100). CeO2(111) films were grown in situ by thermal deposition of Ce metal onto Ru(0001) in an oxygen atmosphere. The chemical reactivity was characterized by the adsorption and decomposition of various molecules such as alcohols, aldehydes and organic acids. In general the CeO2(100) surface was found to be more active, i.e. molecules adsorbed more readily and reacted to form new products, especially on a fully oxidized substrate. However the CeO2(100) surface was less selective with a greater propensity to produce CO, CO2 and water as products. The differences in chemical reactivity are discussed in light of possible structural terminations of the two surfaces. Recently nanocubes and nano-octahedra have been synthesized that display CeO2(100) and CeO2(111) faces, respectively. These nanoparticles enable us to correlate reactions on high surface area model catalysts at atmospheric pressure with model single crystal films in a UHV environment.

  4. Cerium oxide nanoparticle treatment ameliorates peritonitis-induced diaphragm dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Asano, Shinichi; Arvapalli, Ravikumar; Manne, Nandini D P K; Maheshwari, Mani; Ma, Bing; Rice, Kevin M; Selvaraj, Vellaisamy; Blough, Eric R

    2015-01-01

    The severe inflammation observed during sepsis is thought to cause diaphragm dysfunction, which is associated with poor patient prognosis. Cerium oxide (CeO2) nanoparticles have been posited to exhibit anti-inflammatory and antioxidative activities suggesting that these particles may be of potential use for the treatment of inflammatory disorders. To investigate this possibility, Sprague Dawley rats were randomly assigned to the following groups: sham control, CeO2 nanoparticle treatment only (0.5 mg/kg iv), sepsis, and sepsis+CeO2 nanoparticles. Sepsis was induced by the introduction of cecal material (600 mg/kg) directly into the peritoneal cavity. Nanoparticle treatment decreased sepsis-associated impairments in diaphragmatic contractile (P(o)) function (sham: 25.6±1.6 N/cm(2) vs CeO2: 23.4±0.8 N/cm(2) vs Sep: 15.9±1.0 N/cm(2) vs Sep+CeO2: 20.0±1.0 N/cm(2), P<0.05). These improvements in diaphragm contractile function were accompanied by a normalization of protein translation signaling (Akt, FOXO-1, and 4EBP1), diminished proteolysis (caspase 8 and ubiquitin levels), and decreased inflammatory signaling (Stat3 and iNOS). Histological analysis suggested that nanoparticle treatment was associated with diminished sarcolemma damage and diminished inflammatory cell infiltration. These data indicate CeO2 nanoparticles may improve diaphragmatic function in the septic laboratory rat.

  5. 49 CFR 176.410 - Division 1.5 materials, ammonium nitrate and ammonium nitrate mixtures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Division 1.5 materials, ammonium nitrate and ammonium nitrate mixtures. 176.410 Section 176.410 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... nitrate and ammonium nitrate mixtures. (a) This section prescribes requirements to be observed...

  6. 49 CFR 176.410 - Division 1.5 materials, ammonium nitrate and ammonium nitrate mixtures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Division 1.5 materials, ammonium nitrate and ammonium nitrate mixtures. 176.410 Section 176.410 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... nitrate and ammonium nitrate mixtures. (a) This section prescribes requirements to be observed...

  7. 49 CFR 176.410 - Division 1.5 materials, ammonium nitrate and ammonium nitrate mixtures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Division 1.5 materials, ammonium nitrate and ammonium nitrate mixtures. 176.410 Section 176.410 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... nitrate and ammonium nitrate mixtures. (a) This section prescribes requirements to be observed...

  8. 21 CFR 172.160 - Potassium nitrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Potassium nitrate. 172.160 Section 172.160 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... Food Preservatives § 172.160 Potassium nitrate. The food additive potassium nitrate may be safely used...

  9. 21 CFR 172.160 - Potassium nitrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Potassium nitrate. 172.160 Section 172.160 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... Food Preservatives § 172.160 Potassium nitrate. The food additive potassium nitrate may be safely used...

  10. 21 CFR 172.160 - Potassium nitrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Potassium nitrate. 172.160 Section 172.160 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN... Preservatives § 172.160 Potassium nitrate. The food additive potassium nitrate may be safely used as a curing...

  11. 21 CFR 172.160 - Potassium nitrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Potassium nitrate. 172.160 Section 172.160 Food... ADDITIVES PERMITTED FOR DIRECT ADDITION TO FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Food Preservatives § 172.160 Potassium nitrate. The food additive potassium nitrate may be safely used as a curing agent in the processing of cod...

  12. 21 CFR 172.160 - Potassium nitrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Potassium nitrate. 172.160 Section 172.160 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... Food Preservatives § 172.160 Potassium nitrate. The food additive potassium nitrate may be safely used...

  13. 21 CFR 172.170 - Sodium nitrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium nitrate. 172.170 Section 172.170 Food and... PERMITTED FOR DIRECT ADDITION TO FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Food Preservatives § 172.170 Sodium nitrate. The food additive sodium nitrate may be safely used in or on specified foods in accordance with the...

  14. 76 FR 47238 - Ammonium Nitrate From Russia

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-04

    ... COMMISSION Ammonium Nitrate From Russia Determination On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed in the subject... order on ammonium nitrate from Russia would be likely to lead to continuation or recurrence of material... Commission are contained in USITC Publication 4249 (August 2011), entitled Ammonium Nitrate from...

  15. Efflux Of Nitrate From Hydroponically Grown Wheat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huffaker, R. C.; Aslam, M.; Ward, M. R.

    1992-01-01

    Report describes experiments to measure influx, and efflux of nitrate from hydroponically grown wheat seedlings. Ratio between efflux and influx greater in darkness than in light; increased with concentration of nitrate in nutrient solution. On basis of experiments, authors suggest nutrient solution optimized at lowest possible concentration of nitrate.

  16. 76 FR 11273 - Ammonium Nitrate From Russia

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-01

    ... COMMISSION Ammonium Nitrate From Russia AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. ACTION: Institution of a five-year review concerning the suspended investigation on ammonium nitrate from Russia... investigation on ammonium nitrate from Russia would be likely to lead to continuation or recurrence of...

  17. Method of producing thin cellulose nitrate film

    DOEpatents

    Lupica, S.B.

    1975-12-23

    An improved method for forming a thin nitrocellulose film of reproducible thickness is described. The film is a cellulose nitrate film, 10 to 20 microns in thickness, cast from a solution of cellulose nitrate in tetrahydrofuran, said solution containing from 7 to 15 percent, by weight, of dioctyl phthalate, said cellulose nitrate having a nitrogen content of from 10 to 13 percent.

  18. Modeling nitrate removal in a denitrification bed

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Denitrification beds are being promoted to reduce nitrate concentrations in agricultural drainage water to alleviate the adverse environmental effects associated with nitrate pollution in surface water. In this system, water flows through a trench filled with a carbon media where nitrate is transfor...

  19. Nitration of Naphthol: A Laboratory Experiment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mowery, Dwight F.

    1982-01-01

    Products of nitrations, upon distillation or steam distillation, may produce dermatitis in some students. A procedure for nitration of beta-naphthol producing a relatively non-volatile product not purified by steam distillation is described. Nitration of alpha-naphthol by the same procedure yields Martius Yellow dye which dyes wool yellow or…

  20. Nitration of Naphthol: A Laboratory Experiment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mowery, Dwight F.

    1982-01-01

    Products of nitrations, upon distillation or steam distillation, may produce dermatitis in some students. A procedure for nitration of beta-naphthol producing a relatively non-volatile product not purified by steam distillation is described. Nitration of alpha-naphthol by the same procedure yields Martius Yellow dye which dyes wool yellow or…

  1. Post-translational Regulation of Nitrate Reductase

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Nitrate reductase (NR) catalyzes the reduction of nitrate to nitrite, which is the first step in the nitrate assimilation pathway, but can also reduce nitrite to nitric oxide (NO), an important signaling molecule that is thought to mediate a wide array of of developmental and physiological processes...

  2. Efflux Of Nitrate From Hydroponically Grown Wheat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huffaker, R. C.; Aslam, M.; Ward, M. R.

    1992-01-01

    Report describes experiments to measure influx, and efflux of nitrate from hydroponically grown wheat seedlings. Ratio between efflux and influx greater in darkness than in light; increased with concentration of nitrate in nutrient solution. On basis of experiments, authors suggest nutrient solution optimized at lowest possible concentration of nitrate.

  3. Decomposition and Stability Studies of TAGN (Triaminoguanidium Nitrate)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-12-01

    and atomic absorption spectroscopy . TAGN (Triaminoquanidinium Nitrate), DAGN (Diaminoquanidinium Nitrate), Thermal analysis, Mass Spectroscopy, RDX (Trinitrotriazacyclohexane), Decomposition chemistry.

  4. The effects of cerium doping on the size, morphology, and optical properties of α-hematite nanoparticles for ultraviolet filtration

    SciTech Connect

    Cardillo, Dean; Konstantinov, Konstantin; Devers, Thierry

    2013-11-15

    Highlights: • Possible application of cerium-doped α-hematite as ultraviolet filter. • Nanoparticles obtained through co-precipitation technique using various cerium doping levels followed by annealing. • Comprehensive materials characterisation utilizing XRD, DSC/TGA, STEM, UV–vis spectroscopy. • Increasing cerium content reduces particle sizing and alters morphology. • Solubility of cerium in hematite seen between 5 and 10% doping, 10% cerium doping greatly enhances attenuation in ultraviolet region and increases optical bandgap. - Abstract: Metal oxide nanoparticles have potential use in energy storage, electrode materials, as catalysts and in the emerging field of nanomedicine. Being able to accurately tailor the desirable properties of these nanoceramic materials, such as particle size, morphology and optical bandgap (E{sub g}) is integral in the feasibility of their use. In this study we investigate the altering of both the structure and physical properties through the doping of hematite (α-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}) nanocrystals with cerium at a range of concentrations, synthesised using a one-pot co-precipitation method. This extremely simple synthesis followed by thermal treatment results in stable Fe{sub 2−x}Ce{sub x}O{sub y} nanoceramics resulting from the burning of any unreacted precursors and transformation of goethite-cerium doped nanoparticle intermediate. The inclusion of Ce into the crystal lattice of these α-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanoparticles causes a significantly large reduction in mean crystalline size and alteration in particle morphology with increasing cerium content. Finally we report an increase optical semiconductor bandgap, along with a substantial increase in the ultraviolet attenuation found for a 10% Ce-doping concentration which shows the potential application of cerium-doped hematite nanocrystals to be used as a pigmented ultraviolet filter for cosmetic products.

  5. Cerium Oxide Nanoparticles and Bulk Cerium Oxide Leading to Different Physiological and Biochemical Responses in Brassica rapa.

    PubMed

    Ma, Xingmao; Wang, Qiang; Rossi, Lorenzo; Zhang, Weilan

    2016-07-05

    Cerium oxide nanoparticles (CeO2NPs) have been incorporated into many commercial products, and their potential release into the environment through the use and disposal of these products has caused serious concerns. Despite the previous efforts and rapid progress on elucidating the environmental impact of CeO2NPs, the long-term impact of CeO2NPs to plants, a key component of the ecosystem, is still not well understood. The potentially different impact of CeO2NPs and their bulk counterparts to plants is also unclear. The main objectives of this study were (1) to investigate whether continued irrigation with solutions containing different concentrations of CeO2NPs (0, 10, and 100 mg/L) would induce physiological and biochemical adjustments in Brassica rapa in soil growing conditions and (2) to determine whether CeO2NPs and bulk CeO2 particles exert different impacts on plants. The results indicated that bulk CeO2 at 10 and 100 mg/L enhanced plant biomass by 28% and 35%, respectively, while CeO2NPs at equivalent concentrations did not. While the bulk CeO2 treatment resulted in significantly higher concentrations of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) in plant tissues at the vegetative stage, CeO2NPs led to significantly higher H2O2 levels in plant tissues at the floral stage. The activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) in Brassica rapa also displayed a growth-stage dependent response to different sizes of CeO2 while catalase (CAT) activity was not affected by either size of CeO2 throughout the life cycle of Brassica rapa. Altogether, the results demonstrated that plant responses to CeO2 exposure varied with the particle sizes and the growth stages of plants.

  6. Resonant photoemission study of the 4f spectral function of cerium in Ce/Fe(100) interfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Witkowski, N.; Bertran, F.; Gourieux, T.; Kierren, B.; Malterre, D.; Panaccione, G. |

    1997-11-01

    In this paper, we present a resonant photoemission study of the cerium 4f spectral function in Ce/Fe(100) interfaces. By covering cerium ultrathin films with lanthanum, we completely suppress the surface contribution of the spectra. Then we show that the cerium atoms at the interface are in an intermediate valent state, whereas the f{sup 1} configuration is stabilized in the top layer. This method allows us to obtain the genuine 4f spectral function of the interface, and could be extended to a study of Ce-based compounds. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}

  7. Phenotypic and genomic responses to titanium dioxide and cerium oxide nanoparticles in Arabidopsis germinants

    EPA Science Inventory

    The effects of exposure to two nanoparticles (NPs) -titanium dioxide (nano-titania) and cerium oxide (nano-ceria) at 500 mg NPs L-1 on gene expression and growth in Arabidopsis thaliana germinants were studied using microarrays and phenotype studies. After 12 days post treatment,...

  8. Phenotypic and genomic responses to titanium dioxide and cerium oxide nanoparticles in Arabidopsis germinants

    EPA Science Inventory

    The effects of exposure to two nanoparticles (NPs) -titanium dioxide (nano-titania) and cerium oxide (nano-ceria) at 500 mg NPs L-1 on gene expression and growth in Arabidopsis thaliana germinants were studied using microarrays and phenotype studies. After 12 days post treatment,...

  9. Pits confined in ultrathin cerium(IV) oxide for studying catalytic centers in carbon monoxide oxidation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Yongfu; Liu, Qinghua; Gao, Shan; Cheng, Hao; Lei, Fengcai; Sun, Zhihu; Jiang, Yong; Su, Haibin; Wei, Shiqiang; Xie, Yi

    2013-11-01

    Finding ideal material models for studying the role of catalytic active sites remains a great challenge. Here we propose pits confined in an atomically thin sheet as a platform to evaluate carbon monoxide catalytic oxidation at various sites. The artificial three-atomic-layer thin cerium(IV) oxide sheet with approximately 20% pits occupancy possesses abundant pit-surrounding cerium sites having average coordination numbers of 4.6 as revealed by X-ray absorption spectroscopy. Density-functional calculations disclose that the four- and five-fold coordinated pit-surrounding cerium sites assume their respective role in carbon monoxide adsorption and oxygen activation, which lowers the activation barrier and avoids catalytic poisoning. Moreover, the presence of coordination-unsaturated cerium sites increases the carrier density and facilitates carbon monoxide diffusion along the two-dimensional conducting channels of surface pits. The atomically thin sheet with surface-confined pits exhibits lower apparent activation energy than the bulk material (61.7 versus 122.9 kJ mol-1), leading to reduced conversion temperature and enhanced carbon monoxide catalytic ability.

  10. Effects of manganese deficiency and added cerium on photochemical efficiency of maize chloroplasts.

    PubMed

    Qu, Chunxiang; Gong, Xiaolan; Liu, Chao; Hong, Mengmeng; Wang, Ling; Hong, Fashui

    2012-04-01

    The mechanism of the fact that manganese deprivation and cerium addition affect the photochemical efficiency of plants is unclear. In this study, we investigated the improvement by cerium of the damage of the photochemical function of maize chloroplasts under manganese-deprived stress. Chlorophyll fluorescence induction measurements showed that the ratio of variable to maximum fluorescence (Fv/Fm) underwent great decreases under manganese deficiency, which was attributed to the reduction of intrinsic quantum efficiency of the photosystem II units. The electron flow between the two photosystems, activities of Mg(2+)-ATPase and Ca(2+)-ATPase, and rate of photophosphorylation on the thylakoid membrane of maize chloroplasts were reduced significantly by exposure to manganese deprivation. Furthermore, the inhibition of cyclic photophosphorylation was more severe than non-cyclic photophosphorylation under manganese deficiency. However, added cerium could relieve the inhibition of the photochemical reaction caused by manganese deprivation in maize chloroplasts. It implied that manganese deprivation could disturb photochemical reaction of chloroplasts strongly, which could be improved by cerium addition.

  11. Cyclic thermochemical process for producing hydrogen using cerium-titanium compounds

    DOEpatents

    Bamberger, Carlos E.

    1980-01-01

    A thermochemical cyclic process for producing hydrogen employs the reaction between ceric oxide and titanium dioxide to form cerium titanate and oxygen. The titanate is treated with an alkali metal hydroxide to give hydrogen, ceric oxide, an alkali metal titanate and water. Alkali metal titanate and water are boiled to give titanium dioxide which, along with ceric oxide, is recycled.

  12. Cyclic thermochemical process for producing hydrogen using cerium-titanium compounds

    DOEpatents

    Bamberger, C.E.

    A thermochemical cyclic process for producing hydrogen employs the reaction between ceric oxide and titanium dioxide to form cerium titanate and oxygen. The titanate is treated with an alkali metal hydroxide to give hydrogen, ceric oxide, an alkali metal titanate and water. Alkali metal titanate and water are boiled to give titanium dioxide which, along with ceric oxide, is recycled.

  13. Compact x-ray generator utilizing cerium-target tube for angiography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Eiichi; Tanaka, Etsuro; Mori, Hidezo; Kawai, Toshiaki; Ito, Fumihito; Ichimaru, Toshio; Sato, Shigehiro; Takayama, Kazuyoshi; Ido, Hideaki

    2004-11-01

    The cerium-target x-ray tube is useful in order to perform cone beam K-edge angiography because K-series characteristic x rays from the cerium target are absorbed effectively by iodine-based contrast mediums. The x-ray generator consists of a main controller and a unit with a high-voltage circuit and a fixed anode x-ray tube. The tube is a glass-enclosed diode with a cerium target and a 0.5 mm-thick beryllium window. The maximum tube voltage and current were 65 kV and 0.4 mA, respectively, and the focal-spot sizes were 1.3×0.9 mm. Cerium K-series characteristic x rays were left using a 3.0 mm-thick aluminum filter, and the x-ray intensity was 0.59 μC/kg at 1.0 m from the source with a tube voltage of 60 kV, a current of 0.40 mA, and an exposure time of 1.0 s. Angiography was performed with a computed radiography system using iodine-based microspheres 15 μm in diameter. In angiography of non-living animals, we observed fine blood vessels of approximately 100 μm with high contrasts.

  14. Intergenerational responses of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) to cerium oxide nanoparticles exposure

    EPA Science Inventory

    The intergenerational impact of engineered nanomaterials in plants is a key knowledge gap in the literature. A soil microcosm study was performed to assess the effects of multi-generational exposure of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) to cerium oxide nanoparticles (CeO2-NPs). Seeds f...

  15. Demonstration of enhanced K-edge angiography using a cerium target x-ray generator

    SciTech Connect

    Sato, Eiichi; Tanaka, Etsuro; Mori, Hidezo; Kawai, Toshiaki; Ichimaru, Toshio; Sato, Shigehiro; Takayama, Kazuyoshi; Ido, Hideaki

    2004-11-01

    The cerium target x-ray generator is useful in order to perform enhanced K-edge angiography using a cone beam because K-series characteristic x rays from the cerium target are absorbed effectively by iodine-based contrast mediums. The x-ray generator consists of a main controller, a unit with a Cockcroft-Walton circuit and a fixed anode x-ray tube, and a personal computer. The tube is a glass-enclosed diode with a cerium target and a 0.5-mm-thick beryllium window. The maximum tube voltage and current were 65 kV and 0.4 mA, respectively, and the focal-spot sizes were 1.0x1.3 mm. Cerium K{alpha} lines were left using a barium sulfate filter, and the x-ray intensity was 0.48 {mu}C/kg at 1.0 m from the source with a tube voltage of 60 kV, a current of 0.40 mA, and an exposure time of 1.0 s. Angiography was performed with a computed radiography system using iodine-based microspheres. In coronary angiography of nonliving animals, we observed fine blood vessels of approximately 100 {mu}m with high contrasts.

  16. Intergenerational responses of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) to cerium oxide nanoparticles exposure

    EPA Science Inventory

    The intergenerational impact of engineered nanomaterials in plants is a key knowledge gap in the literature. A soil microcosm study was performed to assess the effects of multi-generational exposure of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) to cerium oxide nanoparticles (CeO2-NPs). Seeds f...

  17. Cerium oxide nanoparticles inhibit lipopolysaccharide induced MAP kinase/NF-kB mediated severe sepsis.

    PubMed

    Selvaraj, Vellaisamy; Nepal, Niraj; Rogers, Steven; Manne, Nandini D P K; Arvapalli, Ravikumar; Rice, Kevin M; Asano, Shinichi; Fankenhanel, Erin; Ma, J Y; Shokuhfar, Tolou; Maheshwari, Mani; Blough, Eric R

    2015-09-01

    The life threatening disease of sepsis is associated with high mortality. Septic patient survivability with currently available treatments has failed to improve. The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced sepsis mortality and associated hepatic dysfunction can be prevented by cerium oxide nanoparticles (CeO2NPs) treatment in male Sprague Dawley rats. Here we provide the information about the methods processing of raw data related to our study published in Biomaterials (Selvaraj et al., Biomaterials, 2015, In press) and Data in Brief (Selvaraj et al., Data in Brief, 2015, In Press). The data present here provides confirmation of cerium oxide nanoparticle treatments ability to prevent the LPS induced sepsis associated changes in physiological, blood cell count, inflammatory protein and growth factors in vivo. In vitro assays investigation the treated of macrophages cells with different concentrations of cerium oxide nanoparticle demonstrate that concentration of cerium oxide nanoparticles below 1 µg/ml did not significantly influence cell survival as determined by the MTT assay.

  18. Formation of Self-Assembled Monolayer on Cerium Conversion Coated AZ31 Mg Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salman, S. A.; Akira, N.; Kuroda, K.; Okido, M.

    Magnesium alloys are recognized as alternatives to Al alloys and steel to reduce the weight of structural materials. However, a major obstacle to the widespread use of magnesium alloys is its poor corrosion resistance. Therefore, further surface treatment of magnesium and its alloy is important in meeting several industrial specifications. In a previous research, we investigated the surface treatment of AZ31 magnesium alloy using cerium conversion coating. The anticorrosion properties could be improved with the cerium treatment. In this present research, self-assembled monolayer (SAM) was adsorbed on the surface of cerium conversion coated AZ31 magnesium alloy. The SAM thin film was deposited using (Tridecafluoro-1, 1, 2, 2-tetrahydrooctyl) trimethoxysilane (FAS13) and Tetrakis(trimethylsiloxy)titanium (TTMS) as a catalyst. The corrosion resistance of cerium conversion coated AZ31 Mg alloy was improved with SAM post treatment. Furthermore, the contact angle increases from 13 deg. to 169 deg. indicating to production of super hydrophobic surface with SAM post treatment.

  19. Controlled Redox Chemistry at Cerium within a Tripodal Nitroxide Ligand Framework

    DOE PAGES

    Bogart, Justin A.; Lippincott, Connor A.; Carroll, Patrick J.; ...

    2015-10-27

    Ligand reorganization has been shown to have a profound effect on the outcome of cerium redox chemistry. Through the use of a tethered, tripodal, trianionic nitroxide ligand, [((2-tBuNOH)C 6 H 4 CH 2 ) 3 N] 3- (TriNO x 3- ), controlled redox chemistry at cerium was accomplished, and typically reactive complexes of tetravalent cerium were isolated. These included rare cationic complexes [Ce(TriNO x )thf][BAr F 4 ], in which Ar F =3,5-(CF 3 ) 2 -C 6 H 3 , and [Ce(TriNO x )py][OTf] . A rare complete Ce-halide series, Ce(TriNO x )X, in which X=F - , Clmore » - , Br - , I - , was also synthesized. We explored the solution chemistry of these complexes through detailed solution-phase electrochemistry and 1 H NMR experiments and showed a unique shift in the ratio of species with inner- and outer-sphere anions with size of the anionic X - group. DFT calculations on the series of calculations corroborated the experimental findings. Also, the use of a bulky and strongly donating tethered tripodal nitroxide ligand allowed the controlled redox chemistry at cerium. As a result, rare examples of cationic Ce IV complexes were synthesized and fully characterized. The full Ce-halide series supported by the tripodal ligand framework is also reported (see scheme).« less

  20. Long range ordered alloys modified by addition of niobium and cerium

    DOEpatents

    Liu, C.T.

    1984-08-22

    Long range ordered alloys are described having the nominal composition (Fe,Ni,Co)/sub 3/ (V,M) where M is a ductility enhancing metal selected from the group Ti, Zr, Hf with additions of small amounts of cerium and niobium to dramatically enhance the creep properties of the resulting alloys.

  1. Long range ordered alloys modified by addition of niobium and cerium

    DOEpatents

    Liu, Chain T.

    1987-01-01

    Long range ordered alloys are described having the nominal composition (Fe,Ni,Co).sub.3 (V,M) where M is a ductility enhancing metal selected from the group Ti, Zr, Hf with additions of small amounts of cerium and niobium to drammatically enhance the creep properties of the resulting alloys.

  2. Phosphate ester hydrolysis of biologically relevant molecules by cerium oxide nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Kuchma, Melissa Hirsch; Komanski, Christopher B; Colon, Jimmie; Teblum, Andrew; Masunov, Artëm E; Alvarado, Beatrice; Babu, Suresh; Seal, Sudipta; Summy, Justin; Baker, Cheryl H

    2010-12-01

    In an effort to characterize the interaction of cerium oxide nanoparticles (CNPs) in biological systems, we explored the reactivity of CNPs with the phosphate ester bonds of p-nitrophenylphosphate (pNPP), ATP, o-phospho-l-tyrosine, and DNA. The activity of the bond cleavage for pNPP at pH 7 is calculated to be 0.860 ± 0.010 nmol p-nitrophenol/min/μg CNPs. Interestingly, when CNPs bind to plasmid DNA, no cleavage products are detected. While cerium(IV) complexes generally exhibit the ability to break phosphorus-oxygen bonds, the reactions we report appear to be dependent on the availability of cerium(III) sites, not cerium(IV) sites. We investigated the dephosphorylation mechanism from the first principles and find the reaction proceeds through inversion of the phosphate group similar to an S(N)2 mechanism. The ability of CNPs to interact with phosphate ester bonds of biologically relevant molecules has important implications for their use as potential therapeutics.

  3. Titrimetric and Spectrophotometric Methods for the Assay of Ketotifen Using Cerium(IV) and Two Reagents

    PubMed Central

    Raghu, Madihalli Srinivas; Basavaiah, Kanakapura; Prashanth, Kudige Nagaraj; Vinay, Kanakapura Basavaiah

    2013-01-01

    One titrimetric and two spectrophotometric methods are described for the determination of ketotifen fumarate (KTF) in bulk drug and in tablets using cerium(IV) as the oxidimetric agent. In titrimetry (method A), the drug was treated with a measured excess of cerium(IV) in H2SO4 medium and after a standing time of 10 min, the surplus oxidant was determined by back titration with iron(II). The spectrophotometric procedures involve addition of a known excess of cerium(IV) to KTF in acid medium followed by the determination of unreacted oxidant by reacting with either p-dimethyl amino benzaldehyde and measuring the resulting colour at 460 nm (method B) or o-dianisidine and subsequent measurement of the absorbance of coloured product at 470 nm (method C). Titrimetric assay is based on a 1 : 2 reaction stoichiometry between KTF and cerium(IV) and the method is applicable over 2–18 mg range. In spectrophotometry, regression analysis of Beer's law plots showed a good correlation in 0.4–8.0 and 0.4–10.0 g mL−1 KTF ranges for method B and method C, respectively, and the corresponding molar absorptivity coefficients are calculated to be 4.0 × 104 and 3.7 × 104 L mol−1 cm−1. PMID:24324496

  4. Cerium oxide coated anodes for aluminum electrowinning: Topical report, October 1, 1986-June 30, 1987

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, J. K.

    1987-12-01

    Because of the cost of building and maintaining a carbon anode plant and the energy penalties associated with the use of carbon anodes in the production of aluminum, the use of inert anodes has long been proposed. Various cermet anodes have been investigated. In this paper, tests on a material, cerium oxyfluoride (CEROX), deposited in situ as an anode, are reported. (JDH)

  5. Calculation of the volume effect at an electron phase transition in pure cerium and praseodymium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ponomareva, S. A.; Koval', Yu. N.; Ponomarev, A. P.

    2014-03-01

    The experimental values of the volume effect at an electronic phase transition in several rare-earth metals are discussed. Specifically, volume changes at phase transitions in cerium and praseodymium are calculated using a semiphenomenological relationship derived in terms of the Falikov-Ramirez-Kimball model. A number of factors influencing the amount of the volume effect at electronic phase transitions are analyzed.

  6. Pre-eminence of the Indirect Channel in the Resonant Inverse Photoelectron Spectroscopy of Cerium Oxide

    SciTech Connect

    Tobin, J. G.; Yu, S. -W.; Chung, B. W.; Waddill, G. D.

    2012-04-01

    We recently reported a strong resonance in the inverse photoelectron spectroscopy (IPES) of cerium oxide. Here, we showed that dominance of the indirect channel of the resonant inverse photoelectron spectroscopy (RIPES) is so complete that the photon energy dependence can be explained in terms of emission associated with a single photon energy.

  7. Fabrication and characterization of cerium-doped barium titanate inverse opal by sol-gel method

    SciTech Connect

    Jin Yi; Zhu Yihua Yang Xiaoling; Li Chunzhong; Zhou Jinghong

    2007-01-15

    Cerium-doped barium titanate inverted opal was synthesized from barium acetate contained cerous acetate and tetrabutyl titanate in the interstitial spaces of a polystyrene (PS) opal. This procedure involves infiltration of precursors into the interstices of the PS opal template followed by hydrolytic polycondensation of the precursors to amorphous barium titanate and removal of the PS opal by calcination. The morphologies of opal and inverse opal were characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM). The pores were characterized by mercury intrusion porosimetry (MIP). X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) investigation showed the doping structure of cerium, barium and titanium. And powder X-ray diffraction allows one to observe the influence of doping degree on the grain size. The lattice parameters, crystal size and lattice strain were calculated by the Rietveld refinement method. The synthesis of cerium-doped barium titanate inverted opals provides an opportunity to electrically and optically engineer the photonic band structure and the possibility of developing tunable three-dimensional photonic crystal devices. - Graphical abstract: Cerium-doped barium titanate inverted opal was synthesized from barium acetate acid contained cerous acetate and tetrabutyl titanate in the interstitial spaces of a PS opal, which involves infiltration of precursors into the interstices of the PS opal template and removal of the PS opal by calcination.

  8. Synthesis, electrical and dielectric characterization of cerium doped nano copper ferrites

    SciTech Connect

    Malana, Muhammad Aslam Qureshi, Raheela Beenish; Ashiq, Muhammad Naeem; Zafar, Zafar Iqbal

    2013-11-15

    Graphical abstract: Lattice constant (a) and activation energy (Ea) as a function of Ce (cerium) content. - Highlights: • The simple and economic method has been adopted for the synthesis of nanoferrites. • The electrical resistivity increases with cerium concentration. • DC electrical resistivity of these materials favours their use in microwave devices. • Dielectric measurements show semiconductor nature of the synthesized ferrites. - Abstract: The nanosized CuFe{sub 2−x}Ce{sub x}O{sub 4} (x = 0.0, 0.2, 0.4, 0.6, 0.8) ferrites doped with cerium are synthesized by chemical co-precipitation method. The synthesized materials are characterized by XRD, FTIR, TGA and SEM. XRD analysis of cerium substituted copper ferrites confirms the cubic spinel structure. The average crystallite size calculated by using Scherrer's formula ranges from 37 to 53 nm. The values of cell constant and cell volume vary with the dopant concentration. These variations can be explained in terms of their ionic radii. The DC electrical resistivity, measured by two point probe method, increases with increase in dopant concentration while it decreases with rise in temperature exhibiting semiconductor behaviour. Energy of activation of these ferrites is calculated by using Arrhenius type resistivity plots. Dielectric measurements of the synthesized compounds show exponential decrease in dielectric constant and dielectric loss factor with increase in frequency. This indicates the normal dielectric behaviour of ferrites.

  9. Effects of cerium on key enzymes of carbon assimilation of spinach under magnesium deficiency.

    PubMed

    Yuguan, Ze; Min, Zhou; Luyang, Luo; Zhe, Ji; Chao, Liu; Sitao, Yin; Yanmei, Duan; Na, Li; Fashui, Hong

    2009-11-01

    The mechanism of the fact that cerium improves the photosynthesis of plants under magnesium deficiency is poorly understood. The main aim of the study was to determine the role of cerium in the amelioration of magnesium deficiency effects in CO(2) assimilation of spinach. Spinach plants were cultivated in Hoagland's solution. They were subjected to magnesium deficiency and to cerium chloride administered in the magnesium-present Hoagland's media and magnesium-deficient Hoagland's media. The results showed that the chlorophyll synthesis and oxygen evolution was destroyed, and the activities of Rubisco carboxylasae and Rubisco activase and the expression of Rubisco large subunit (rbcL), Rubisco small subunit (rbcS), and Rubisco activase subunit (rca) were significantly inhibited, then plant growth was inhibited by magnesium deficiency. However, cerium promotes the chlorophyll synthesis, the activities of two key enzymes in CO(2) assimilation, and the expression of rbcL, rbcS, and rca, thus leading to the enhancement of spinach growth under magnesium-deficient conditions.

  10. Anti-erosive potential of amine fluoride, cerium chloride and laser irradiation application on dentine.

    PubMed

    Wegehaupt, Florian J; Sener, Beatrice; Attin, Thomas; Schmidlin, Patrick R

    2011-12-01

    Ninety-six dentine samples were prepared from human premolars and randomly assigned to eight groups (G1-G8). Samples were treated for 30s with the following solutions: placebo (G1/G2), amine fluoride (Elmex fluid; G3/G4), cerium chloride (G5/G6) and combined fluoride/cerium chloride application (G7/G8). Samples of groups G2, G4, G6 and G8 were additionally irradiated with a carbon dioxide laser through the solutions for 30s. Acid resistance was assessed in a six-time 5-min consecutive lactic acid (pH 3.0) erosion model and calcium release was determined by atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS). Furthermore, six additional samples per group were prepared and subjected to EDS-analysis. In the non-irradiated groups, specimens of G1 (placebo) showed the highest calcium release when compared to the other treatments (G3, G5 and G7). The highest acid resistance was observed for G7. In G3, calcium release was lower than in G5, but higher than in G7. In general (except for the placebo groups), calcium release in the laser-irradiated groups was higher compared with the respective non-irradiated groups. EDS showed a replacement of calcium by cerium and of phosphor by fluoride. The highest anti-erosive potential was found after combined cerium chloride and amine fluoride application. Laser irradiation had not adjunctive effect. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Multicolored redox active upconverter cerium oxide nanoparticle for bio-imaging and therapeutics†

    PubMed Central

    Babu, Suresh; Cho, Jung-Hyun; Dowding, Janet M.; Heckert, Eric; Komanski, Chris; Das, Soumen; Colon, Jimmie; Baker, Cheryl H.; Bass, Michael; Self, William T.; Seal, Sudipta

    2011-01-01

    Cytocompatible, co-doped cerium oxide nanoparticles exhibited strong upconversion properties that were found to kill lung cancer cells by inducing apoptosis thereby demonstrating the potential to be used as clinical contrast agents for imaging and as therapeutic agents for treatment of cancer. PMID:20683524

  12. Continuous flow nitration in miniaturized devices

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Summary This review highlights the state of the art in the field of continuous flow nitration with miniaturized devices. Although nitration has been one of the oldest and most important unit reactions, the advent of miniaturized devices has paved the way for new opportunities to reconsider the conventional approach for exothermic and selectivity sensitive nitration reactions. Four different approaches to flow nitration with microreactors are presented herein and discussed in view of their advantages, limitations and applicability of the information towards scale-up. Selected recent patents that disclose scale-up methodologies for continuous flow nitration are also briefly reviewed. PMID:24605161

  13. Nitrated fatty acids: Synthesis and measurement

    PubMed Central

    Woodcock, Steven R.; Bonacci, Gustavo; Gelhaus, Stacy L.; Schopfer, Francisco J.

    2012-01-01

    Nitrated fatty acids are the product of nitrogen dioxide reaction with unsaturated fatty acids. The discovery of peroxynitrite and peroxidase-induced nitration of biomolecules led to the initial reports of endogenous nitrated fatty acids. These species increase during ischemia reperfusion, but concentrations are often at or near the limits of detection. Here, we describe multiple methods for nitrated fatty acid synthesis, sample extraction from complex biological matrices, and a rigorous method of qualitative and quantitative detection of nitrated fatty acids by LC-MS. In addition, optimized instrument conditions and caveats regarding data interpretation are discussed. PMID:23200809

  14. Nitrated fatty acids: synthesis and measurement.

    PubMed

    Woodcock, Steven R; Bonacci, Gustavo; Gelhaus, Stacy L; Schopfer, Francisco J

    2013-06-01

    Nitrated fatty acids are the product of nitrogen dioxide reaction with unsaturated fatty acids. The discovery of peroxynitrite and peroxidase-induced nitration of biomolecules led to the initial reports of endogenous nitrated fatty acids. These species increase during ischemia/reperfusion, but concentrations are often at or near the limits of detection. Here, we describe multiple methods for nitrated fatty acid synthesis and sample extraction from complex biological matrices and a rigorous method of qualitative and quantitative detection of nitrated fatty acids by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. In addition, optimized instrument conditions and caveats regarding data interpretation are discussed.

  15. Pollution of drinking water with nitrate

    SciTech Connect

    Cabel, B.; Kozicki, R.; Lahl, U.; Podbielshi, A.; Stachel, B.; Struss, S.

    1982-01-01

    The main sources of nitrate in man are food and drinking water. The legislature in West Germany intends to lower the permitted level of nitrate in drinking water from the present 90 mg/l to 50 mg/l in 1982. The European Community has issued a directive that recommends a level of only 25 mg/l, and for babies 10 mg/l nitrate should not be exceeded. At present, nitrate cannot be removed from raw water at an acceptable cost. The problem of high nitrate content is mainly one of drinking water generation from ground water. Several analyses indicate rising concentrations of nitrate in ground water in different regions of West Germany, especially in the last few years. The following sources of nitrate-contamination of ground water aquifers in West are discussed: natural sources; over-manuring of agricultural areas with natural organic fertilizers; over-manuring of agricultural areas with synthetic fertilizers.

  16. Nitrate Utilization by the Diatom Skeletonema costatum

    PubMed Central

    Serra, Juan L.; Llama, Maria J.; Cadenas, Eduardo

    1978-01-01

    Nitrate uptake has been studied in nitrogen-deficient cells of the marine diatom Skeletonema costatum. When these cells are incubated in the presence of nitrate, this ion is quickly taken up from the medium, and nitrite is excreted by the cells. Nitrite is excreted following classical saturation kinetics, its rate being independent of nitrate concentration in the incubation medium for nitrate concentration values higher than 3 micromolar. Nitrate uptake shows mixed-transfer kinetics, which can be attributed to the simultaneous contributions of mediated and diffusion transfer. Cycloheximide and p-hydroxymercuribenzoate inhibit the carrier-mediated contribution to nitrate uptake, without affecting the diffusion component. When cells are preincubated with nitrate, the net nitrogen uptake is increased. PMID:16660652

  17. 4d → 4f resonance in photoabsorption of cerium ion Ce3+ and endohedral cerium in fullerene complex {\\rm{Ce}}@{{{\\rm{C}}}_{82}}^{+}

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schrange-Kashenock, G.

    2016-09-01

    The theoretical investigation of the single-photoionization spectra in the 4d-resonance region (120-150 eV) for the ionic cerium Ce3+ and cerium in the endohedral complex {{Ce}}@{{{{C}}}82}+ (in practice, {{{Ce}}}3+@{{{{C}}}82}2-) is presented. The fullerene cage is modeled by ab initio spherical jellium shell with an accurate account for the real distribution of carbon electron density. The oscillator strengths are calculated within the multiconfiguration Dirac-Fock (MCDF) approach for phototransitions from the outermost shells of the ion Ce3+ with and without the influence of the potential generated by a fullerene cage. It is shown that the integrated oscillator strengths have the main contribution from the Ce3+ 4d → 4f (ten possible from the phototransitions {}2F{7/2,5/2}\\to {}2D{3/2,5/2},{}2F{5/2,7/2},{}2G{5/2,7/2}) resonance photoexcitations. The corresponding precise MCDF values for the oscillator strengths and the transition energies are presented for the first time. It is demonstrated that the resonance {f}4d\\to 4f oscillator strengths are slightly affected by the presence of the cage potential, despite the fact that the spectral levels structure is changed when the effect of this potential is included. The Auger 4d -1 decay from the cerium free ion Ce3+ and the encapsulated endohedral ion Ce3+@ are considered within the two-step model and the corresponding Lorentzian profiles are presented. This model clearly reveals the correspondence of the complex resonance profile in the Ce3+ photoabsorption to the fine structure of ion energy levels. The smoothing of the resonance profile in the photoabsorption of the endohedral system {{Ce}}@{{{{C}}}82}+ compared with the free ion Ce3+ is attributed to increasing the linewidths of the Auger transitions. This increase is estimated from the relevant experiment (Müller et al 2008 Phys. Rev. Lett. 101 133001) to be strong; as at least three times the value for an isolated ion. The presence of the confining fullerene

  18. Molten nitrate salt technology development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carling, R. W.

    1981-04-01

    This paper presents an overview of the experimental programs underway in support of the Thermal Energy Storage for Solar Thermal Applications (TESSTA) program. The experimental programs are concentrating on molten nitrate salts which have been proposed as heat transfer and energy storage medium. The salt composition of greatest interest is drawsalt, nominally a 50-50 molar mixture of NaNO3 and KNO3 with a melting point of 220 C. Several technical uncertainties have been identified that must be resolved before nitrate based solar plants can be commercialized. Research programs at Sandia National Laboratories, universities, and industrial suppliers have been implemented to resolve these technical uncertainties. The experimental programs involve corrosion, decomposition, physical properties, and environmental cracking. Summaries of each project and how they impact central receiver applications such as the repowering/industrial retrofit and cogeneration program are presented.

  19. Phase diagram of ammonium nitrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunuwille, M.; Yoo, C. S.

    2014-05-01

    Ammonium Nitrate (AN) has often subjected to uses in improvised explosive devices, due to its wide availability as a fertilizer and its capability of becoming explosive with slight additions of organic and inorganic compounds. Yet, the origin of enhanced energetic properties of impure AN (or AN mixtures) is neither chemically unique nor well understood -resulting in rather catastrophic disasters in the past1 and thereby a significant burden on safety in using ammonium nitrates even today. To remedy this situation, we have carried out an extensive study to investigate the phase stability of AN at high pressure and temperature, using diamond anvil cells and micro-Raman spectroscopy. The present results confirm the recently proposed phase IV-to-IV' transition above 17 GPa2 and provide new constraints for the melting and phase diagram of AN to 40 GPa and 400 °C.

  20. 49 CFR 176.415 - Permit requirements for Division 1.5, ammonium nitrates, and certain ammonium nitrate fertilizers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... nitrates, and certain ammonium nitrate fertilizers. 176.415 Section 176.415 Transportation Other... requirements for Division 1.5, ammonium nitrates, and certain ammonium nitrate fertilizers. (a) Except as... Captain of the Port (COTP). (1) Ammonium nitrate UN1942, ammonium nitrate fertilizers containing more...

  1. 49 CFR 176.415 - Permit requirements for Division 1.5, ammonium nitrates, and certain ammonium nitrate fertilizers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... nitrates, and certain ammonium nitrate fertilizers. 176.415 Section 176.415 Transportation Other... requirements for Division 1.5, ammonium nitrates, and certain ammonium nitrate fertilizers. (a) Except as... Captain of the Port (COTP). (1) Ammonium nitrate UN1942, ammonium nitrate fertilizers containing more...

  2. 49 CFR 176.415 - Permit requirements for Division 1.5, ammonium nitrates, and certain ammonium nitrate fertilizers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... nitrates, and certain ammonium nitrate fertilizers. 176.415 Section 176.415 Transportation Other... requirements for Division 1.5, ammonium nitrates, and certain ammonium nitrate fertilizers. (a) Except as... Captain of the Port (COTP). (1) Ammonium nitrate UN1942, ammonium nitrate fertilizers containing more...

  3. Band structure, cohesive properties, and Compton profile of γ- and α-cerium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Podloucky, R.; Glötzel, D.

    1983-03-01

    Recent Compton scattering experiments on the high-volume (γ) and low-volume (α) phases of fcc cerium and their interpretation in terms of the renormalized-free-atom model cast severe doubts on the promotional model of Pauling and Zachariasen for the γ-α transition. Stimulated by these results, we have extended a previous self-consistent local-density band-structure investigation to study the Compton profiles of γ- and α-cerium. For the band structure, Bloch functions, and their Fourier transforms we use the linear muffin-tin orbital method in the atomic-sphere approximation. We analyze the calculated Compton profiles in terms of band structure and local angular momentum character of the wave functions. The change in band structure and wave functions under compression (with approximately one electron per atom in the 4f band of both phases) accounts well for the observed change in the Compton profile. This provides further evidence against the promotional model in agreement with the analysis of Kornstädt et al. In addition, we study the cohesive energy of fcc cerium as a function of volume in the local-density approximation. For α-cerium in the 4f1(5d 6s)3 configuration we find a cohesive energy of 5.4 eV/atom in good agreement with experiment, whereas the "promotional" 4f0(5d 6s)4 state yields a binding energy of 0.6 eV/atom only. Therefore the fourth valence electron has to be a 4f electron, and α-cerium has to be regarded as an f-band metal.

  4. Molten nitrate salt materials studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carling, R. M.

    1981-03-01

    An overview of the experimental programs underway in support of the Thermal Energy Storage for Solar Thermal Applications (TESSTA) program is presented. The experimental programs are concentrating on molten nitrate salts which were proposed as heat transfer and energy storage medium. The experimental programs involve corrosion, decomposition, physical properties, and environmental cracking. Summaries of each project and how they impact central receiver applications are presented.

  5. High performance ammonium nitrate propellant

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, F. A. (Inventor)

    1979-01-01

    A high performance propellant having greatly reduced hydrogen chloride emission is presented. It is comprised of: (1) a minor amount of hydrocarbon binder (10-15%), (2) at least 85% solids including ammonium nitrate as the primary oxidizer (about 40% to 70%), (3) a significant amount (5-25%) powdered metal fuel, such as aluminum, (4) a small amount (5-25%) of ammonium perchlorate as a supplementary oxidizer, and (5) optionally a small amount (0-20%) of a nitramine.

  6. Catalyzed reduction of nitrate in aqueous solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Haas, P.A.

    1994-08-01

    Sodium nitrate and other nitrate salts in wastes is a major source of difficulty for permanent disposal. Reduction of nitrate using aluminum metal has been demonstrated, but NH{sub 3}, hydrazine, or organic compounds containing oxygen would be advantageous for reduction of nitrate in sodium nitrate solutions. Objective of this seed money study was to determine minimum conditions for reduction. Proposed procedure was batchwise heating of aqueous solutions in closed vessels with monitoring of temperatures and pressures. A simple, convenient apparatus and procedure were demonstrated for observing formation of gaseous products and collecting samples for analyses. The test conditions were 250{degree}C and 1000 psi max. Any useful reduction of sodium nitrate to sodium hydroxide as the primary product was not found. The nitrate present at pHs < 4 as HNO{sub 3} or NH{sub 4}NO{sub 3} is easily decomposed, and the effect of nitromethane at these low pHs was confirmed. When acetic acid or formic acid was added, 21 to 56% of the nitrate in sodium nitrate solutions was reduced by methanol or formaldehyde. With hydrazine and acetic acid, 73 % of the nitrate was decomposed to convert NaNO{sub 3} to sodium acetate. With hydrazine and formic acid, 36% of the nitrate was decomposed. If these products are more acceptable for final disposal than sodium nitrate, the reagents are cheap and the conversion conditions would be practical for easy use. Ammonium acetate or formate salts did not significantly reduce nitrate in sodium nitrate solutions.

  7. Effect of nitrate on microbial perchlorate reduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Y.; Coates, J. D.

    2007-12-01

    Over the last decade perchlorate has been recognized as an important emerging water contaminant that poses a significant public health threat. Because of its chemical stability, low ionic charge density, and significant water solubility microbial remediation has been identified as the most feasible method for its in situ attenuation. Our previous studies have demonstrated that dissimilatory perchlorate reducing bacteria (DPRB) capable of the respiratory reduction of perchlorate into innocuous chloride are ubiquitous in soil and sedimentary environments. As part of their metabolism these organisms reduce perchlorate to chlorite which is subsequently dismutated into chloride and molecular oxygen. These initial steps are mediated by the perchlorate reductase and chlorite dismutase enzymes respectively. Previously we found that the activity of these organisms is dependent on the presence of molybdenum and is inhibited by the presence of oxygen and to different extents nitrate. However, to date, there is little understanding of the mechanisms involved in the regulation of perchlorate reduction by oxygen and nitrate. As a continuation of our studies into the factors that control DPRB activity we investigated these regulatory mechanisms in more detail as a model organism, Dechloromonas aromatica strain RCB, transitions from aerobic metabolism through nitrate reduction to perchlorate reduction. In series of growth transition studies where both nitrate and perchlorate were present, preference for nitrate to perchlorate was observed regardless of the nitrate to perchlorate ratio. Even when the organism was pre-grown anaerobically in perchlorate, nitrate was reduced prior to perchlorate. Using non-growth washed cell suspension, perchlorate- grown D. aromatica was capable of reducing both perchlorate and nitrate concomitantly suggesting the preferentially utilization of nitrate was not a result of enzyme functionality. To elucidate the mechanism for preferential utilization of

  8. Radioactive waste forms stabilized by ChemChar gasification: characterization and leaching behavior of cerium, thorium, protactinium, uranium, and neptunium.

    PubMed

    Marrero, T W; Morris, J S; Manahan, S E

    2004-02-01

    The uses of a thermally reductive gasification process in conjunction with vitrification and cementation for the long-term disposal of low level radioactive materials have been investigated. gamma-ray spectroscopy was used for analysis of carrier-free protactinium-233 and neptunium-239 and a stoichiometric amount of cerium (observed cerium-141) subsequent to gasification and leaching, up to 48 days. High resolution ICP-MS was used to analyze the cerium, thorium, and uranium from 46 to 438 days of leaching. Leaching procedures followed the guidance of ASTM Procedure C 1220-92, Standard Test Method for Static Leaching of Monolithic Waste Forms for Disposal of Radioactive Waste. The combination of the thermally reductive pretreatment, vitrification and cementation produced a highly non-leachable form suitable for long-term disposal of cerium, thorium, protactinium, uranium, and neptunium.

  9. A chemical-spectrochemical method for the determination of rare earth elements and thorium in cerium minerals

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rose, H.J.; Murata, K.J.; Carron, M.K.

    1954-01-01

    In a combined chemical-spectrochemical procedure for quantitatively determining rare earth elements in cerium minerals, cerium is determined volumetrically, a total rare earths plus thoria precipitate is separated chemically, the ceria content of the precipitate is raised to 80??0 percent by adding pure ceria, and the resulting mixture is analyzed for lanthanum, praseodymium, neodymium, samarium, gadolinium, yttrium, and thorium spectrochemically by means of the d.c. carbon arc. Spectral lines of singly ionized cerium are used as internal standard lines in the spectrochemical determination which is patterned after Fassel's procedure [1]. Results of testing the method with synthetic mixtures of rare earths and with samples of chemically analyzed cerium minerals show that the coefficient of variation for a quadruplicate determination of any element does not exceed 5??0 (excepting yttrium at concentrations less than 1 percent) and that the method is free of serious systematic error. ?? 1954.

  10. Fast photolysis of carbonyl nitrates from isoprene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Müller, Jean-Francois; Peeters, Jozef; Stavrakou, Trisevgeni

    2014-05-01

    We show that photolysis is, by far, the major atmospheric sink of isoprene-derived carbonyl nitrates. Empirical evidence from published laboratory studies on the absorption cross sections and photolysis rates of α-nitrooxy ketones suggests that the presence of the nitrate group (i) greatly enhances the absorption cross sections, and (ii) facilitates dissociation to a point that the photolysis quantum yield is close to unity, with O-NO2 dissociation as the likely major channel. On this basis, we provide new recommendations for estimating the cross sections and photolysis rates of carbonyl nitrates. The newly estimated photorates are validated using a chemical box model against measured temporal profiles of carbonyl nitrates in an isoprene oxidation experiment by Paulot et al. (2009). The comparisons for ethanal nitrate and for the sum of methacrolein- and methylvinylketone nitrates strongly supports our assumptions of large cross section enhancements and a near-unit quantum yield for these compounds. These findings have significant atmospheric implications, as carbonyl nitrates constitute an important component of the total organic nitrate pool over vegetated areas: the photorates of key carbonyl nitrates from isoprene are estimated to be typically between ~3 and 20 times higher than their sink due to reaction with OH in relevant atmospheric conditions. Moreover, since the reaction is expected to release NO2, photolysis is especially effective in depleting the total organic nitrate pool.

  11. PREPARATION AND PROPERTIES OF SOME HYDROCARBON SOLUBLE CERIUM AND IRON COMPOUNDS

    DTIC Science & Technology

    REACTIONS, COMPLEX COMPOUNDS, HYDROCARBONS, INFRARED SPECTROSCOPY, IRON COMPOUNDS, LUMINESCENCE, MOLECULAR STRUCTURE, NITRATES, OXIDATION REDUCTION REACTIONS, SODIUM, SOLUBILITY, STABILIZATION, SYNTHESIS , TOLUENES.

  12. Skeletal muscle as an endogenous nitrate reservoir

    PubMed Central

    Piknova, Barbora; Park, Ji Won; Swanson, Kathryn M.; Dey, Soumyadeep; Noguchi, Constance Tom; Schechter, Alan N

    2015-01-01

    The nitric oxide synthase (NOS) family of enzymes form nitric oxide (NO) from arginine in the presence of oxygen. At reduced oxygen availability NO is also generated from nitrate in a two step process by bacterial and mammalian molybdopterin proteins, and also directly from nitrite by a variety of five-coordinated ferrous hemoproteins. The mammalian NO cycle also involves direct oxidation of NO to nitrite, and both NO and nitrite to nitrate by oxy-ferrous hemoproteins. The liver and blood are considered the sites of active mammalian NO metabolism and nitrite and nitrate concentrations in the liver and blood of several mammalian species, including human, have been determined. However, the large tissue mass of skeletal muscle had not been generally considered in the analysis of the NO cycle, in spite of its long-known presence of significant levels of active neuronal NOS (nNOS or NOS1). We hypothesized that skeletal muscle participates in the NO cycle and, due to its NO oxidizing heme protein, oxymyoglobin, has high concentrations of nitrate ions. We measured nitrite and nitrate concentrations in rat and mouse leg skeletal muscle and found unusually high concentrations of nitrate but similar levels of nitrite, when compared to the liver. The nitrate reservoir in muscle is easily accessible via the bloodstream and therefore nitrate is available for transport to internal organs where it can be reduced to nitrite and NO. Nitrate levels in skeletal muscle and blood in nNOS−/− mice were dramatically lower when compared with controls, which support further our hypothesis. Although the nitrate reductase activity of xanthine oxidoreductase in muscle is less than that of liver, the residual activity in muscle could be very important in view of its total mass and the high basal level of nitrate. We suggest that skeletal muscle participates in overall NO metabolism, serving as a nitrate reservoir, for direct formation of nitrite and NO, and for determining levels of nitrate

  13. Light microscopical localization of enzymes by means of cerium-based methods. I.V. Optimization procedures for acid phosphatase.

    PubMed

    Halbhuber, K J; Zimmermann, N; Feuerstein, H

    1986-01-01

    The earlier described cerium based histochemical reaction for acid phosphatase [Ce-Pb-reaction, Zimmermann and Halbhuber (1985)] was optimized. The target tissues (kidney, intestine) were fixed by perfusion with glutaraldehyde in cacodylate or piperazine buffer in anesthetized animals. Postfixation of prefixed sections is not advantageous because of the detectable repressing of the enzyme activity. Moreover, the employment of unfixed cryostat sections, which were postfixed, was always connected with a complete abolition of the acid phosphatase activity. The optimal concentration of the primary capture cerium III chloride in the incubation medium is about 1 mmol. Lower concentrations lead to an incomplete histochemical detection of phosphatase activity in lysosomes. The treatment of cryostat sections of perfusion fixed tissue with borohydride (diminution of aldehyde induced cross links) or with dimethylsulfoxide (extraction of lysosomal materials or the well known vehicle property) brought about an improvement of the penetration capacity for cerium-III-cations into the target structures. After conversion of the cerium phosphate (primary specific reaction product) into cerium perhydroxide, oxalate or fluoride, the Ce-Pb-reaction was negative. Therefore, these blocking reactions represent specific inhibition controls, which indicates the formation and presence of cerium phosphate. On the basis of these reactions it is possible to check the specificity of the histochemical Ce-Pb-reaction for phosphatase activity in sections.

  14. Transitions between two oscillatory states in a closed malonic acid Belousov-Zhabotinsky reaction simultaneously catalyzed by ferroin and cerium ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sjøgren, Carl E.; Kolboe, Stein; Ruoff, Peter

    1986-09-01

    At a certain temperature the malonic acid Belousov-Zhabotinsky reaction, which is simultaneously catalyzed by ferroin and cerium ions, can exhibit regular transitions between the ferroin oscillating and the cerium oscillating states. We believe that this is the first demonstration of transitions between two distinct oscillatory states in a closed system. The differences between ferroin and cerium catalysis are briefly discussed and the observed dynamic behaviour is qualitatively explained in terms of the Field-Körös-Noyes theory.

  15. Influence of cerium on the pulsed UV nanosecond laser processing of photostructurable glass ceramic materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Livingston, F. E.; Adams, P. M.; Helvajian, H.

    2005-07-01

    Photostructurable glass ceramic (PSGC) materials contain a sensitizer that is used to facilitate the optical exposure process. The primary role of the sensitizer is to absorb incident radiation and generate photoelectrons. With thermal treatment, these photoelectrons can then interact with nascent metal ions to induce the formation of metallic clusters and the precipitation of a soluble crystalline phase in the glass matrix. The photo-ionization efficiency of the sensitizer species is strongly dependent on its spectral absorption and oxidation state in the base glass. Stabilizing compounds are typically added to the glass matrix to maintain the photo-active oxidation state and promote efficient exposure. To investigate the effectiveness of the photo-initiator, we have conducted experiments in which sample coupons of a commercial PSGC material (Foturan™, Schott Corp., Germany) were carefully exposed to various photon doses by pulsed UV nanosecond lasers at λ = 266 nm and 355 nm. Foturan is a lithium aluminosilicate glass that contains trace amounts of cerium as the photosensitive agent (0.01-0.04 wt.% admixture Ce 2O 3). The photo-initiator efficiency was investigated by using samples with cerium and without cerium. The irradiation wavelengths were selected because they lie above and below the primary absorption band of the cerium photo-initiator. Optical transmission spectroscopy (OTS) was employed to identify and monitor the population density of the photo-induced trapped electron state as a function of incident laser irradiance. The irradiated samples were thermally processed and then analyzed again with OTS to measure the quenching of the trapped electron state and the concurrent growth of a spectral band associated with the formation of nanometer-scale metallic clusters. The growth of metallic clusters signifies the "fixing" of the exposure and permanent image formation in the glass. The OTS results reveal that for λ = 266 nm laser irradiation, at least two

  16. Nitrates

    MedlinePlus

    ... or interactions with other medicines and vitamin or herbal supplements. This information should not be used as medical ... your doctor about every medicine and vitamin or herbal supplement that you are taking, so he or she ...

  17. Silver nitrate based gel dosimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Titus, D.; Samuel, E. J. J.; Srinivasan, K.; Roopan, S. M.; Madhu, C. S.

    2017-05-01

    A new radiochromic gel dosimeter based on silver nitrate and a normoxic gel dosimeter was investigated using UV-Visible spectrophotometry in the clinical dose range. Gamma radiation induced the synthesis of silver nanoparticles in the gel and is confirmed from the UV-Visible spectrum which shows an absorbance peak at around 450 nm. The dose response function of the dosimeter is found to be linear upto12Gy. In addition, the gel samples were found to be stable which were kept under refrigeration.

  18. Measurement of isoprene nitrates by GCMS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mills, Graham P.; Hiatt-Gipson, Glyn D.; Bew, Sean P.; Reeves, Claire E.

    2016-09-01

    According to atmospheric chemistry models, isoprene nitrates play an important role in determining the ozone production efficiency of isoprene; however this is very poorly constrained through observations as isoprene nitrates have not been widely measured. Measurements have been severely restricted largely due to a limited ability to measure individual isoprene nitrate isomers. An instrument based on gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GCMS) and the associated calibration methods are described for the speciated measurements of individual isoprene nitrate isomers. Five of the primary isoprene nitrates which formed in the presence of NOx by reaction of isoprene with the hydroxyl radical (OH) in the Master Chemical Mechanism are identified using known isomers on two column phases and are fully separated on the Rtx-200 column. Three primary isoprene nitrates from the reaction of isoprene with the nitrate radical (NO3) are identified after synthesis from the already identified analogous hydroxy nitrate. A Tenax adsorbent-based trapping system allows the analysis of the majority of the known hydroxy and carbonyl primary isoprene nitrates, although not the (1,2)-IN isomer, under field-like levels of humidity and showed no impact from typical ambient concentrations of NOx and ozone.

  19. Groundwater nitrate contamination: Factors and indicators

    PubMed Central

    Wick, Katharina; Heumesser, Christine; Schmid, Erwin

    2012-01-01

    Identifying significant determinants of groundwater nitrate contamination is critical in order to define sensible agri-environmental indicators that support the design, enforcement, and monitoring of regulatory policies. We use data from approximately 1200 Austrian municipalities to provide a detailed statistical analysis of (1) the factors influencing groundwater nitrate contamination and (2) the predictive capacity of the Gross Nitrogen Balance, one of the most commonly used agri-environmental indicators. We find that the percentage of cropland in a given region correlates positively with nitrate concentration in groundwater. Additionally, environmental characteristics such as temperature and precipitation are important co-factors. Higher average temperatures result in lower nitrate contamination of groundwater, possibly due to increased evapotranspiration. Higher average precipitation dilutes nitrates in the soil, further reducing groundwater nitrate concentration. Finally, we assess whether the Gross Nitrogen Balance is a valid predictor of groundwater nitrate contamination. Our regression analysis reveals that the Gross Nitrogen Balance is a statistically significant predictor for nitrate contamination. We also show that its predictive power can be improved if we account for average regional precipitation. The Gross Nitrogen Balance predicts nitrate contamination in groundwater more precisely in regions with higher average precipitation. PMID:22906701

  20. Fast photolysis of carbonyl nitrates from isoprene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Müller, J.-F.; Peeters, J.; Stavrakou, T.

    2013-11-01

    Photolysis is shown to be a major sink for isoprene-derived carbonyl nitrates, which constitute an important component of the total organic nitrate pool over vegetated areas. Empirical evidence from published laboratory studies on the absorption cross sections and photolysis rates of α-nitrooxy ketones suggests that the presence of the nitrate group (i) greatly enhances the absorption cross sections, and (ii) facilitates dissociation to a point that the photolysis quantum yield is close to unity, with O-NO2 dissociation as the likely major channel. On this basis, we provide new recommendations for estimating the cross sections and photolysis rates of carbonyl nitrates. The newly estimated photorates are validated using a chemical box model against measured temporal profiles of carbonyl nitrates in an isoprene oxidation experiment by Paulot et al. (2009). The comparisons for ethanal nitrate and for the sum of methacrolein- and methylvinylketone nitrates strongly supports our assumptions of large cross section enhancements and a near-unit quantum yield for these compounds. These findings have significant atmospheric implications: the photorates of key carbonyl nitrates from isoprene are estimated to be typically between ~3 and 20 times higher than their sink due to reaction with OH in relevant atmospheric conditions. Moreover, since the reaction is expected to release NO2, photolysis is especially effective in depleting the total organic nitrate pool.

  1. Fast photolysis of carbonyl nitrates from isoprene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Müller, J.-F.; Peeters, J.; Stavrakou, T.

    2014-03-01

    Photolysis is shown to be a major sink for isoprene-derived carbonyl nitrates, which constitute an important component of the total organic nitrate pool over vegetated areas. Empirical evidence from published laboratory studies on the absorption cross sections and photolysis rates of α-nitrooxy ketones suggests that the presence of the nitrate group (i) greatly enhances the absorption cross sections and (ii) facilitates dissociation to a point that the photolysis quantum yield is close to unity, with O-NO2 dissociation as a likely major channel. On this basis, we provide new recommendations for estimating the cross sections and photolysis rates of carbonyl nitrates. The newly estimated photo rates are validated using a chemical box model against measured temporal profiles of carbonyl nitrates in an isoprene oxidation experiment by Paulot et al. (2009). The comparisons for ethanal nitrate and for the sum of methacrolein- and methyl vinyl ketone nitrates strongly supports our assumptions of large cross-section enhancements and a near-unit quantum yield for these compounds. These findings have significant atmospheric implications: the photorates of key carbonyl nitrates from isoprene are estimated to be typically between ~ 3 and 20 times higher than their sink due to reaction with OH in relevant atmospheric conditions. Moreover, since the reaction is expected to release NO2, photolysis is especially effective in depleting the total organic nitrate pool.

  2. Trend Analyses of Nitrate in Danish Groundwater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansen, B.; Thorling, L.; Dalgaard, T.; Erlandsen, M.

    2012-04-01

    This presentation assesses the long-term development in the oxic groundwater nitrate concentration and nitrogen (N) loss due to intensive farming in Denmark. Firstly, up to 20-year time-series from the national groundwater monitoring network enable a statistically systematic analysis of distribution, trends and trend reversals in the groundwater nitrate concentration. Secondly, knowledge about the N surplus in Danish agriculture since 1950 is used as an indicator of the potential loss of N. Thirdly, groundwater recharge CFC (Chlorofluorocarbon) age determination allows linking of the first two dataset. The development in the nitrate concentration of oxic groundwater clearly mirrors the development in the national agricultural N surplus, and a corresponding trend reversal is found in groundwater. Regulation and technical improvements in the intensive farming in Denmark have succeeded in decreasing the N surplus by 40% since the mid 1980s while at the same time maintaining crop yields and increasing the animal production of especially pigs. Trend analyses prove that the youngest (0-15 years old) oxic groundwater shows more pronounced significant downward nitrate trends (44%) than the oldest (25-50 years old) oxic groundwater (9%). This amounts to clear evidence of the effect of reduced nitrate leaching on groundwater nitrate concentrations in Denmark. Are the Danish groundwater monitoring strategy obtimal for detection of nitrate trends? Will the nitrate concentrations in Danish groundwater continue to decrease or are the Danish nitrate concentration levels now appropriate according to the Water Framework Directive?

  3. Groundwater nitrate contamination: factors and indicators.

    PubMed

    Wick, Katharina; Heumesser, Christine; Schmid, Erwin

    2012-11-30

    Identifying significant determinants of groundwater nitrate contamination is critical in order to define sensible agri-environmental indicators that support the design, enforcement, and monitoring of regulatory policies. We use data from approximately 1200 Austrian municipalities to provide a detailed statistical analysis of (1) the factors influencing groundwater nitrate contamination and (2) the predictive capacity of the Gross Nitrogen Balance, one of the most commonly used agri-environmental indicators. We find that the percentage of cropland in a given region correlates positively with nitrate concentration in groundwater. Additionally, environmental characteristics such as temperature and precipitation are important co-factors. Higher average temperatures result in lower nitrate contamination of groundwater, possibly due to increased evapotranspiration. Higher average precipitation dilutes nitrates in the soil, further reducing groundwater nitrate concentration. Finally, we assess whether the Gross Nitrogen Balance is a valid predictor of groundwater nitrate contamination. Our regression analysis reveals that the Gross Nitrogen Balance is a statistically significant predictor for nitrate contamination. We also show that its predictive power can be improved if we account for average regional precipitation. The Gross Nitrogen Balance predicts nitrate contamination in groundwater more precisely in regions with higher average precipitation.

  4. Safety in the Chemical Laboratory: Nitric Acid, Nitrates, and Nitro Compounds.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bretherick, Leslie

    1989-01-01

    Discussed are the potential hazards associated with nitric acid, inorganic and organic nitrate salts, alkyl nitrates, acyl nitrates, aliphatic nitro compounds, aromatic nitro compounds, and nitration reactions. (CW)

  5. Safety in the Chemical Laboratory: Nitric Acid, Nitrates, and Nitro Compounds.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bretherick, Leslie

    1989-01-01

    Discussed are the potential hazards associated with nitric acid, inorganic and organic nitrate salts, alkyl nitrates, acyl nitrates, aliphatic nitro compounds, aromatic nitro compounds, and nitration reactions. (CW)

  6. Phase Diagram of Ammonium Nitrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunuwille, Mihindra; Yoo, Choong-Shik

    2013-06-01

    Ammonium Nitrate (AN) has often been subjected to uses in improvised explosive devices, due to its wide availability as a fertilizer and its capability of becoming explosive with slight additions of organic and inorganic compounds. Yet, the origin of enhanced energetic properties of impure AN (or AN mixtures) is neither chemically unique nor well understood - resulting in rather catastrophic disasters in the past1 and thereby a significant burden on safety, in using ammonium nitrates even today. To remedy this situation, we have carried out an extensive study to investigate the phase stability of AN, in different chemical environments, at high pressure and temperature, using diamond anvil cells and micro-Raman spectroscopy. The present results confirm the recently proposed phase IV-to-IV' transition above 15 GPa2 and provide new constraints for the melting and phase diagram of AN to 40 GPa and 673 K. The present study has been supported by the U.S. DHS under Award Number 2008-ST-061-ED0001.

  7. REDUCTION OF NITRATE THROUGH THE USE OF NITRATE REDUCTASE FOR THE SMARTCHEM AUTOANALYZER

    EPA Science Inventory

    The standard method for the determination of nitrate in drinking water, USEPA Method 353.2 “Determination of Nitrate-Nitrite by Automated Colorimetry,” employs cadmium as the reductant for the conversion of nitrate to nitrite. The nitrite is then analyzed colorimetrically by way ...

  8. Challenges with nitrate therapy and nitrate tolerance: prevalence, prevention, and clinical relevance.

    PubMed

    Thadani, Udho

    2014-08-01

    Nitrate therapy has been an effective treatment for ischemic heart disease for over 100 years. The anti-ischemic and exercise-promoting benefits of sublingually administered nitrates are well established. Nitroglycerin is indicated for the relief of an established attack of angina and for prophylactic use, but its effects are short lived. In an effort to increase the duration of beneficial effects, long-acting orally administered and topical applications of nitrates have been developed; however, following their continued or frequent daily use, patients soon develop tolerance to these long-acting nitrate preparations. Once tolerance develops, patients begin losing the protective effects of the long-acting nitrate therapy. By providing a nitrate-free interval, or declining nitrate levels at night, one can overcome or reduce the development of tolerance, but cannot provide 24-h anti-anginal and anti-ischemic protection. In addition, patients may be vulnerable to occurrence of rebound angina and myocardial ischemia during periods of absent nitrate levels at night and early hours of the morning, and worsening of exercise capacity prior to the morning dose of the medication. This has been a concern with nitroglycerin patches but not with oral formulations of isosorbide-5 mononitrates, and has not been adequately studied with isosorbide dinitrate. This paper describes problems associated with nitrate tolerance, reviews mechanisms by which nitrate tolerance and loss of efficacy develop, and presents strategies to avoid nitrate tolerance and maintain efficacy when using long-acting nitrate formulations.

  9. REDUCTION OF NITRATE THROUGH THE USE OF NITRATE REDUCTASE FOR THE SMARTCHEM AUTOANALYZER

    EPA Science Inventory

    The standard method for the determination of nitrate in drinking water, USEPA Method 353.2 “Determination of Nitrate-Nitrite by Automated Colorimetry,” employs cadmium as the reductant for the conversion of nitrate to nitrite. The nitrite is then analyzed colorimetrically by way ...

  10. Arabidopsis Nitrate Transporter NRT1.9 Is Important in Phloem Nitrate Transport[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ya-Yun; Tsay, Yi-Fang

    2011-01-01

    This study of the Arabidopsis thaliana nitrate transporter NRT1.9 reveals an important function for a NRT1 family member in phloem nitrate transport. Functional analysis in Xenopus laevis oocytes showed that NRT1.9 is a low-affinity nitrate transporter. Green fluorescent protein and β-glucuronidase reporter analyses indicated that NRT1.9 is a plasma membrane transporter expressed in the companion cells of root phloem. In nrt1.9 mutants, nitrate content in root phloem exudates was decreased, and downward nitrate transport was reduced, suggesting that NRT1.9 may facilitate loading of nitrate into the root phloem and enhance downward nitrate transport in roots. Under high nitrate conditions, the nrt1.9 mutant showed enhanced root-to-shoot nitrate transport and plant growth. We conclude that phloem nitrate transport is facilitated by expression of NRT1.9 in root companion cells. In addition, enhanced root-to-shoot xylem transport of nitrate in nrt1.9 mutants points to a negative correlation between xylem and phloem nitrate transport. PMID:21571952

  11. Arabidopsis nitrate transporter NRT1.9 is important in phloem nitrate transport.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ya-Yun; Tsay, Yi-Fang

    2011-05-01

    This study of the Arabidopsis thaliana nitrate transporter NRT1.9 reveals an important function for a NRT1 family member in phloem nitrate transport. Functional analysis in Xenopus laevis oocytes showed that NRT1.9 is a low-affinity nitrate transporter. Green fluorescent protein and β-glucuronidase reporter analyses indicated that NRT1.9 is a plasma membrane transporter expressed in the companion cells of root phloem. In nrt1.9 mutants, nitrate content in root phloem exudates was decreased, and downward nitrate transport was reduced, suggesting that NRT1.9 may facilitate loading of nitrate into the root phloem and enhance downward nitrate transport in roots. Under high nitrate conditions, the nrt1.9 mutant showed enhanced root-to-shoot nitrate transport and plant growth. We conclude that phloem nitrate transport is facilitated by expression of NRT1.9 in root companion cells. In addition, enhanced root-to-shoot xylem transport of nitrate in nrt1.9 mutants points to a negative correlation between xylem and phloem nitrate transport.

  12. A cerium-lead redox flow battery system employing supporting electrolyte of methanesulfonic acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Na, Zhaolin; Xu, Shengnan; Yin, Dongming; Wang, Limin

    2015-11-01

    A novel cerium-lead redox flow battery (RFB) employing Ce(IV)/Ce(III) and Pb(II)/Pb redox couples in the supporting electrolyte of methanesulfonic acid (MSA) is developed and preliminarily investigated. The RFB requires no additional catalyst and uses kinetically favorable reactions between low-cost reactants, and provides a desirable discharge voltage of approximately 1.7 V, with high average coulombic efficiency (CE) of 92% and energy efficiency (EE) of 86% over 800 cycles at 298 K. Stable cycling with an acceptable performance is achieved for a board operating temperature range of 253 K-313 K. The excellent performance obtained from the preliminary study suggests that the cerium-lead RFB promises to be applicable to large-scale energy storage for electricity grids.

  13. Improvement and analysis of the hydrogen-cerium redox flow cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tucker, Michael C.; Weiss, Alexandra; Weber, Adam Z.

    2016-09-01

    The H2-Ce redox flow cell is optimized using commercially-available cell materials. Cell performance is found to be sensitive to the upper charge cutoff voltage, membrane boiling pretreatment, methanesulfonic-acid concentration, (+) electrode surface area and flow pattern, and operating temperature. Performance is relatively insensitive to membrane thickness, Cerium concentration, and all features of the (-) electrode including hydrogen flow. Cell performance appears to be limited by mass transport and kinetics in the cerium (+) electrode. Maximum discharge power of 895 mW cm-2 was observed at 60 °C; an energy efficiency of 90% was achieved at 50 °C. The H2-Ce cell is promising for energy storage assuming one can optimize Ce reaction kinetics and electrolyte.

  14. Effect of oxygen defects on thermal conductivity of thorium-cerium dioxide solid solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muta, Hiroaki; Kado, Hirohisa; Ohishi, Yuji; Kurosaki, Ken; Yamanaka, Shinsuke

    2017-01-01

    Thermal conductivity of thorium-cerium dioxide solid solutions has been measured and analyzed using the relaxation time approximation. Despite the presence of oxygen defects, the partially reduced Th0.8Ce0.2O1.97 exhibited higher thermal conductivity than the stoichiometric one, Th0.8Ce0.2O2.00, showing the same tendency as that previously reported for Th0.7Pu0.3O2-δ. The increase in thermal conductivity with the oxygen defects can be explained by assuming that cerium ions have an average ionic radius of the ionic radii of Ce3+ and Ce4+ in the description of phonon-impurity scattering. This result indicates that the small reduction of (Th,Pu)O2-δ fuel increases the thermal conductivity, especially at high temperatures.

  15. Predictions of the equation of state of cerium yield interesting insights into experimental results

    SciTech Connect

    Cherne, Frank J; Jensen, Brian J; Rigg, Paulo A; Elkin, Vyacheslav M

    2009-01-01

    There has been much interest in the past in understanding the dynamic properties of phase changing materials. In this paper we begin to explore the dynamic properties of the complex material of cerium. Cerium metal is a good candidate material to explore capabilities in determining a dynamic phase diagram on account of its low dynamic phase boundaries, namely, the {gamma}-{alpha}, and {alpha}-liquid phase boundaries. Here we present a combination of experimental results with calculated results to try to understand the dynamic behavior of the material. Using the front surface impact technique, we performed a series of experiments which displayed a rarefaction shock upon release. These experiments show that the reversion shock stresses occur at different magnitudes, allowing us to plot out the {gamma}-{alpha} phase boundary. Applying a multiphase equation of state a broader understanding of the experimental results will be discussed.

  16. A Green Approach for the Synthesis of a Cerium Oxide Nanoparticle: Characterization and Antibacterial Activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kannan, S. K.; Sundrarajan, M.

    2014-07-01

    In this study, the synthesis of a cerium oxide nanoparticle was carried out from Acalypha indica leaf extract. The synthesized nanoparticle was characterized by using X-ray diffraction (XRD), Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM), Energy Dispersive X-ray (EDX) and Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM) for structural confirmation. The studies clearly indicate that the synthesized CeO2 nanoparticle is a crystalline material with particle size between 25-30 nm. Further analysis was carried out by Fourier Transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), to provide evidence for the presence of Ce-O-Ce asymmetry stretching of the CeO2 nanoparticle. Thermo Gravimetric and Differential Scanning Calorimetry analyses gave the thermal properties of cerium oxide nanoparticles. Antibacterial studies were conducted using the synthesized CeO2. This result showed increasing rate of antibacterial behavior with gram positive and gram negative bacteria.

  17. Structure phase transformation and equation of state of cerium metal under pressures up to 51 GPa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ce, Ma; Zuo-Yong, Dou; Hong-Yang, Zhu; Guang-Yan, Fu; Xiao, Tan; Bin, Bai; Peng-Cheng, Zhang; Qi-Liang, Cui

    2016-04-01

    This study presents high pressure phase transitions and equation of states of cerium under pressures up to 51 GPa at room temperature. The angle-dispersive x-ray diffraction experiments are carried out using a high energy synchrotron x-ray source. The bulk moduli of high pressure phases of cerium are calculated using the Birch-Murnaghan equation. We discuss and correct several previous controversial conclusions, which are caused by the measurement accuracy or personal explanation. The c/a axial ratio of ɛ-Ce has a maximum value at about 29 GPa, i.e., c/a ≈ 1.690. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. NSAF.U1330115) and the National Major Scientific Instrument and Equipment Development Project of China (Grant No. 2012YQ130234).

  18. Improvement and analysis of the hydrogen-cerium redox flow cell

    SciTech Connect

    Tucker, Michael C.; Weiss, Alexandra; Weber, Adam Z.

    2016-08-03

    In this paper, the H2-Ce redox flow cell is optimized using commercially-available cell materials. Cell performance is found to be sensitive to the upper charge cutoff voltage, membrane boiling pretreatment, methanesulfonic-acid concentration, (+) electrode surface area and flow pattern, and operating temperature. Performance is relatively insensitive to membrane thickness, Cerium concentration, and all features of the (-) electrode including hydrogen flow. Cell performance appears to be limited by mass transport and kinetics in the cerium (+) electrode. Maximum discharge power of 895 mW cm-2 was observed at 60 °C; an energy efficiency of 90% was achieved at 50 °C. Finally, the H2-Ce cell is promising for energy storage assuming one can optimize Ce reaction kinetics and electrolyte.

  19. Improvement and analysis of the hydrogen-cerium redox flow cell

    DOE PAGES

    Tucker, Michael C.; Weiss, Alexandra; Weber, Adam Z.

    2016-08-03

    In this paper, the H2-Ce redox flow cell is optimized using commercially-available cell materials. Cell performance is found to be sensitive to the upper charge cutoff voltage, membrane boiling pretreatment, methanesulfonic-acid concentration, (+) electrode surface area and flow pattern, and operating temperature. Performance is relatively insensitive to membrane thickness, Cerium concentration, and all features of the (-) electrode including hydrogen flow. Cell performance appears to be limited by mass transport and kinetics in the cerium (+) electrode. Maximum discharge power of 895 mW cm-2 was observed at 60 °C; an energy efficiency of 90% was achieved at 50 °C. Finally,more » the H2-Ce cell is promising for energy storage assuming one can optimize Ce reaction kinetics and electrolyte.« less

  20. Cerium Binding Activity of Pectins Isolated from the Seagrasses Zostera marina and Phyllospadix iwatensis

    PubMed Central

    Khotimchenko, Yuri; Khozhaenko, Elena; Kovalev, Valeri; Khotimchenko, Maxim

    2012-01-01

    Cerium binding activity of three different water soluble pectin compounds of different origin was studied in a batch sorption system. The Langmuir, Freundlich and BET sorption models were adopted to describe the binding reactions between metal ions and pectin molecules. The Langmuir model provided the best fit. Within the pH range from 4.0 to 6.0, the largest amount of the cerium ions was bound by pectin isolated from the seagrass Phylospadix iwatensis in comparison to pectin extracted from the seagrass Zostera marina and pectin obtained from citrus peel (commercial grade). The Langmuir constants were also highest for the pectin samples isolated from the seagrass P. iwatensis. The results obtained from this study suggest that pectin is a prospective source for the development of radioisotope-removing pharmaceuticals. PMID:22690146

  1. A DFT + U study of cerium solubility in La2Zr2O7

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, X J; Xiao, Haiyan; Zu, X T; Weber, William J

    2012-01-01

    Density functional theory plus Hubbard U correction is employed to study the solubility of cerium in La{sub 2}Zr{sub 2}O{sub 7}. The results show that La{sub 2}Zr{sub 2}O{sub 7} and Ce{sub 2}Zr{sub 2}O{sub 7} form a solid solution over the whole range of cerium content. The solubility of Ce in La{sub 2}Zr{sub 2}O{sub 7} can be partially attributed to the similar ionic radii of La{sup 3+} and Ce{sup 3+}. Electronic structures of the La{sub 2}yCeyZr{sub 2}O{sub 7} solid solution have been analyzed. The Ce 4f states are found to be partially occupied, and Ce in the La{sub 2}yCeyZr{sub 2}O{sub 7} solid solution exhibits a reduced charge state.

  2. A DFT + U study of cerium solubility in La₂Zr₂O₇

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, X. J.; Xiao, Haiyan Y.; Zu, Xiaotao; Weber, William J.

    2012-02-17

    Density functional theory plus Hubbard U correction is employed to study the solubility of cerium in La₂Zr₂O₇. The results show that La₂Zr₂O₇ and Ce₂Zr₂O₇ form a solid solution over the whole range of cerium content. The solubility of Ce in La₂Zr₂O₇ can be partially attributed to the similar ionic radii of La³+ and Ce³+. Electronic structures of the La₂₋yCeyZr₂O₇ solid solution have been analyzed. The Ce 4ƒ states are found to be partially occupied, and Ce in the La₂₋yCeyZr₂O₇ solid solution exhibits a reduced charge state.

  3. Microstructural characteristics of cerium oxide conversion coatings obtained by various aqueous deposition methods

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, B.Y.; Edington, J.; Williams, A.; O'Keefe, M.J. . E-mail: mjokeefe@umr.edu

    2005-01-15

    Microstructural characteristics of cerium oxide conversion coatings obtained by electrolytic, dip-immersion and spray deposition methods from aqueous solutions were studied by transmission electron microscopy and electron diffraction analysis. The coatings were applied to aluminum alloy 7075-T6 panels and the pretreatment conditions were the same for all coating methods. The results indicated that the as-deposited coatings were all composed of nanocrystalline particles with narrow size distributions. Electron diffraction analysis revealed that the electrolytic and the spray coatings developed the same crystal structure, possibly Ce{sub 7}O{sub 12}, while the dip-immersion coating had a different structure that has not been reported in the literature. After post-treatment in phosphate solution, all three as-deposited coatings were converted to hydrated cerium phosphate.

  4. A Novel Open-Framework Cerium Phosphate Fluoride: (NH 4)[Ce IVF 2(PO 4)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Ranbo; Wang, Dan; Takei, Takahiro; Koizumi, Hitoshi; Kumada, Nobuhiro; Kinomura, Nobukazu

    2001-02-01

    A novel open-framework cerium phosphate fluoride, (NH4)[CeIVF2(PO4)], has been synthesized under hydrothermal conditions and characterized by means of single-crystal X-ray diffraction, ion chromatography analysis, and thermal analysis. The compound crystallizes in the monoclinic space group P21/m(No. 11), with a=6.660(2), b=5.875(2), c=7.177(3) Å, β=114.31(2)°, and V=255.9(2) Å3 (R=0.039 and Rw=0.045). In this compound, the cerium-centered CeO4F4 polyhedra link via Ce2F2 rings to form corrugated chains along the b axis of the structure. These are tetrahedrally connected via PO4 groups to create the three-dimensional network with a one-dimensional channel. NH+4 cations are accommodated at the intersection of the channels.

  5. Regulation of nitrate assimilation in cyanobacteria.

    PubMed

    Ohashi, Yoshitake; Shi, Wei; Takatani, Nobuyuki; Aichi, Makiko; Maeda, Shin-ichi; Watanabe, Satoru; Yoshikawa, Hirofumi; Omata, Tatsuo

    2011-02-01

    Nitrate assimilation by cyanobacteria is inhibited by the presence of ammonium in the growth medium. Both nitrate uptake and transcription of the nitrate assimilatory genes are regulated. The major intracellular signal for the regulation is, however, not ammonium or glutamine, but 2-oxoglutarate (2-OG), whose concentration changes according to the change in cellular C/N balance. When nitrogen is limiting growth, accumulation of 2-OG activates the transcription factor NtcA to induce transcription of the nitrate assimilation genes. Ammonium inhibits transcription by quickly depleting the 2-OG pool through its metabolism via the glutamine synthetase/glutamate synthase cycle. The P(II) protein inhibits the ABC-type nitrate transporter, and also nitrate reductase in some strains, by an unknown mechanism(s) when the cellular 2-OG level is low. Upon nitrogen limitation, 2-OG binds to P(II) to prevent the protein from inhibiting nitrate assimilation. A pathway-specific transcriptional regulator NtcB activates the nitrate assimilation genes in response to nitrite, either added to the medium or generated intracellularly by nitrate reduction. It plays an important role in selective activation of the nitrate assimilation pathway during growth under a limited supply of nitrate. P(II) was recently shown to regulate the activity of NtcA negatively by binding to PipX, a small coactivator protein of NtcA. On the basis of accumulating genome information from a variety of cyanobacteria and the molecular genetic data obtained from the representative strains, common features and group- or species-specific characteristics of the response of cyanobacteria to nitrogen is summarized and discussed in terms of ecophysiological significance.

  6. Magnetic properties of the new ternary cerium intermetallic compound CeRuSi{sub 2}

    SciTech Connect

    Velikhovski, A.A.; Nikiforov, V.N.; Mirkovic, J.; Kovacik, V.; Baran, M.; Szymczak, H.

    1994-03-01

    The authors present a study of the magnetic properties of the new cerium ternary intermetallic compound CeRuSi{sub 2} which demonstrates heavy-fermion-like behavior and reveals magnetic transition at {Tc} = 11K. The temperature (5

  7. Transport and magnetic properties of the new cerium ternary Ce-Pt-Ge compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Velikhovski, A.A.; Nikiforov, V.N.; Mirkovic, J.; Kovacik, V.; Baran, M.; Szymczak, H.; Gribanov, A.V.; Seropegin, Y.D.

    1994-03-01

    The new cerium ternary compounds Ce{sub 3}Pt{sub 4}Ge{sub 6} and Ce{sub 2}Pt{sub 7}Ge{sub 4} with novel crystal structure types have been prepared and characterized. The authors present transport and magnetic properties of these compounds in temperature range (2--300) K. Behavior of resistivity and magnetization is similar, both compounds demonstrate Kondo-like features and possible magnetic transition near the helium temperature.

  8. Controlled Redox Chemistry at Cerium within a Tripodal Nitroxide Ligand Framework

    SciTech Connect

    Bogart, Justin A.; Lippincott, Connor A.; Carroll, Patrick J.; Booth, Corwin H.; Schelter, Eric J.

    2015-10-27

    Ligand reorganization has been shown to have a profound effect on the outcome of cerium redox chemistry. Through the use of a tethered, tripodal, trianionic nitroxide ligand, [((2-tBuNOH)C 6 H 4 CH 2 ) 3 N] 3- (TriNO x 3- ), controlled redox chemistry at cerium was accomplished, and typically reactive complexes of tetravalent cerium were isolated. These included rare cationic complexes [Ce(TriNO x )thf][BAr F 4 ], in which Ar F =3,5-(CF 3 ) 2 -C 6 H 3 , and [Ce(TriNO x )py][OTf] . A rare complete Ce-halide series, Ce(TriNO x )X, in which X=F - , Cl - , Br - , I - , was also synthesized. We explored the solution chemistry of these complexes through detailed solution-phase electrochemistry and 1 H NMR experiments and showed a unique shift in the ratio of species with inner- and outer-sphere anions with size of the anionic X - group. DFT calculations on the series of calculations corroborated the experimental findings. Also, the use of a bulky and strongly donating tethered tripodal nitroxide ligand allowed the controlled redox chemistry at cerium. As a result, rare examples of cationic Ce IV complexes were synthesized and fully characterized. The full Ce-halide series supported by the tripodal ligand framework is also reported (see scheme).

  9. Synthesis and characterization of cerium-doped CdZnS nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shrivastava, R.; Shrivastava, S. C.; Singh, R. S.; Singh, A. K.

    2015-11-01

    Cerium-doped cadmium zinc sulfide nanoparticles (CdZnS:Ce) were synthesized by chemical bath deposition method with three different concentrations of cerium (1.2, 2.5 and 3.84 mol%). X-ray diffraction pattern revealed the formation of cadmium zinc sulfide nanoparticles with cubic and hexagonal structure. It was observed that the presence of ceria did not alter the structure of CdZnS. Average crystallite size was measured from X-ray diffraction data by using Scherrer's formula. From the study of absorption spectra, band-to-band absorption was obtained at 455 and 470 nm, respectively, for the Ce-doped (2.5 and 3.84 mol%) CdZnS nanoparticles. Energy band gap for undoped and Ce-doped CdZnS varied from 3.45 to 3.15 eV with error ±0.05 eV. The presence of cerium was confirmed by energy-dispersive analysis of X-rays. The effect of dopant concentration on the photoluminescence intensity was also studied. The photoluminescence emission peak was observed at 520, 540 and 560 nm, respectively, for the Ce-doped (1.2, 2.5 and 3.84 mol%) CdZnS nanoparticles. X-ray diffraction and photoluminescence analysis demonstrated that the Ce3+ ions uniformly substituted Cd2+ sites or interstitial sites in CdZnS lattice, which influenced the optical properties. An increase in the concentration of cerium shifted the UV-Vis absorption spectra and photoluminescence emission spectra toward the higher wavelength side. Particle size and the crystallinity of CdZnS:Ce nanoparticles were confirmed through transmission electron microscopy and selected area electron diffraction patterns.

  10. Cerium Regulates Expression of Alternative Methanol Dehydrogenases in Methylosinus trichosporium OB3b

    PubMed Central

    Farhan Ul Haque, Muhammad; Kalidass, Bhagyalakshmi; Bandow, Nathan; Turpin, Erick A.; DiSpirito, Alan A.

    2015-01-01

    Methanotrophs have multiple methane monooxygenases that are well known to be regulated by copper, i.e., a “copper switch.” At low copper/biomass ratios the soluble methane monooxygenase (sMMO) is expressed while expression and activity of the particulate methane monooxygenase (pMMO) increases with increasing availability of copper. In many methanotrophs there are also multiple methanol dehydrogenases (MeDHs), one based on Mxa and another based on Xox. Mxa-MeDH is known to have calcium in its active site, while Xox-MeDHs have been shown to have rare earth elements in their active site. We show here that the expression levels of Mxa-MeDH and Xox-MeDH in Methylosinus trichosporium OB3b significantly decreased and increased, respectively, when grown in the presence of cerium but the absence of copper compared to the absence of both metals. Expression of sMMO and pMMO was not affected. In the presence of copper, the effect of cerium on gene expression was less significant, i.e., expression of Mxa-MeDH in the presence of copper and cerium was slightly lower than in the presence of copper alone, but Xox-MeDH was again found to increase significantly. As expected, the addition of copper caused sMMO and pMMO expression levels to significantly decrease and increase, respectively, but the simultaneous addition of cerium had no discernible effect on MMO expression. As a result, it appears Mxa-MeDH can be uncoupled from methane oxidation by sMMO in M. trichosporium OB3b but not from pMMO. PMID:26296730

  11. Cerium regulates expression of alternative methanol dehydrogenases in Methylosinus trichosporium OB3b.

    PubMed

    Farhan Ul Haque, Muhammad; Kalidass, Bhagyalakshmi; Bandow, Nathan; Turpin, Erick A; DiSpirito, Alan A; Semrau, Jeremy D

    2015-11-01

    Methanotrophs have multiple methane monooxygenases that are well known to be regulated by copper, i.e., a "copper switch." At low copper/biomass ratios the soluble methane monooxygenase (sMMO) is expressed while expression and activity of the particulate methane monooxygenase (pMMO) increases with increasing availability of copper. In many methanotrophs there are also multiple methanol dehydrogenases (MeDHs), one based on Mxa and another based on Xox. Mxa-MeDH is known to have calcium in its active site, while Xox-MeDHs have been shown to have rare earth elements in their active site. We show here that the expression levels of Mxa-MeDH and Xox-MeDH in Methylosinus trichosporium OB3b significantly decreased and increased, respectively, when grown in the presence of cerium but the absence of copper compared to the absence of both metals. Expression of sMMO and pMMO was not affected. In the presence of copper, the effect of cerium on gene expression was less significant, i.e., expression of Mxa-MeDH in the presence of copper and cerium was slightly lower than in the presence of copper alone, but Xox-MeDH was again found to increase significantly. As expected, the addition of copper caused sMMO and pMMO expression levels to significantly decrease and increase, respectively, but the simultaneous addition of cerium had no discernible effect on MMO expression. As a result, it appears Mxa-MeDH can be uncoupled from methane oxidation by sMMO in M. trichosporium OB3b but not from pMMO.

  12. Single-molecule magnet behaviour in polynuclear assembly of trivalent cerium ions with polyoxomolybdates.

    PubMed

    Khélifa, A Ben; Belkhiria, M Salah; Huang, G; Freslon, S; Guillou, O; Bernot, K

    2015-10-07

    An isopolyoxomolybdate-based POM is coordinated to trivalent cerium ions to afford a hybrid complex namely, [Ce(dmso)8][Ce(η2-NO3)2(dmso)4(α-Mo8O26)0.5][Mo6O19]. The original electrostatic environment created around the Ce(III) by its coordination to the isopolyoxomolybdate core induces complex single-molecule magnet behavior.

  13. Intensification of electrochemical properties of the molten chloride electrolytes of the cerium subgroup lanthanides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shabanov, O. M.; Suleymanov, S. I.; Magomedova, A. O.

    2017-01-01

    The electrical conductivity of molten chloride electrolytes of the cerium subgroup lanthanides increases with rising electric field strength and strive to achieve the limiting high voltage values (Wien effect). On exposure of the high-voltage microsecond pulsed fields, the melts are transited into a prolonged non-equilibrium state with increased electrical conductivity and electrolyze current density. During the relaxation processes in non-equilibrium melts, increased electrical conductivity tends to restore the values that are specific to equilibrium systems.

  14. PURIFICATION OF PLUTONIUM USING A CERIUM PRECIPITATE AS A CARRIER FOR FISSION PRODUCTS

    DOEpatents

    Faris, B.F.; Olson, C.M.

    1961-07-01

    Bismuth phosphate carrier precipitation processes are described for the separation of plutonium from fission products wherein in at least one step bismuth phosphate is precipitated in the presence of hexavalent plutonium thereby carrying a portion of the fission products from soluble plu tonium values. In this step, a cerium phosphate precipitate is formed in conjunction with the bismuth phosphate precipitate, thereby increasing the amount of fission products removed from solution.

  15. Photocatalytic C-C Bond Cleavage and Amination of Cycloalkanols by Cerium(III) Chloride Complex.

    PubMed

    Guo, Jing-Jing; Hu, Anhua; Chen, Yilin; Sun, Jianfeng; Tang, Haoming; Zuo, Zhiwei

    2016-12-05

    A general strategy for the cleavage and amination of C-C bonds of cycloalkanols has been achieved through visible-light-induced photoredox catalysis utilizing a cerium(III) chloride complex. This operationally simple methodology has been successfully applied to a wide array of unstrained cyclic alcohols, and represents the first example of catalytic C-C bond cleavage and functionalization of unstrained secondary cycloalkanols.

  16. Broadly tunable ultraviolet miniature cerium-doped LiLuF lasers.

    PubMed

    Liu, H; Spence, D J; Coutts, D W; Sato, H; Fukuda, T

    2008-02-04

    Ultraviolet (UV) miniature cerium fluoride lasers have been demonstrated using a low cost, frequency-quadrupled microchip Nd:YAG pump laser. The use of miniature laser cavities was shown to significantly improve the laser performance in the low pump power region. We have achieved slope efficiencies up to 70% and pump thresholds as low as 100 nJ. Continuous tuning from 306 nm to 338 nm was achieved using a Brewster angle prism.

  17. Bioavailability of cerium oxide nanoparticles to Raphanus sativus L. in two soils.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Weilan; Musante, Craig; White, Jason C; Schwab, Paul; Wang, Qiang; Ebbs, Stephen D; Ma, Xingmao

    2017-01-01

    Cerium oxide nanoparticles (CeO2 NP) are a common component of many commercial products. Due to the general concerns over the potential toxicity of engineered nanoparticles (ENPs), the phytotoxicity and in planta accumulation of CeO2 NPs have been broadly investigated. However, most previous studies were conducted in hydroponic systems and with grain crops. For a few studies performed with soil grown plants, the impact of soil properties on the fate and transport of CeO2 NPs was generally ignored even though numerous previous studies indicate that soil properties play a critical role in the fate and transport of environmental pollutants. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the soil fractionation and bioavailability of CeO2 NPs to Raphanus sativus L (radish) in two soil types. Our results showed that the silty loam contained slightly higher exchangeable fraction (F1) of cerium element than did loamy sand soil, but significantly lower reducible (F2) and oxidizable (F3) fractions as CeO2 NPs concentration increased. CeO2 NPs associated with silicate minerals or the residue fraction (F4) dominated in both soils. The cerium concentration in radish storage root showed linear correlation with the sum of the first three fractions (r(2) = 0.98 and 0.78 for loamy sand and silty loam respectively). However, the cerium content in radish shoots only exhibited strong correlations with F1 (r(2) = 0.97 and 0.89 for loamy sand and silty loam respectively). Overall, the results demonstrated that soil properties are important factors governing the distribution of CeO2 NPs in soil and subsequent bioavailability to plants. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. Nitrate Reduction Functional Genes and Nitrate Reduction Potentials Persist in Deeper Estuarine Sediments. Why?

    PubMed Central

    Papaspyrou, Sokratis; Smith, Cindy J.; Dong, Liang F.; Whitby, Corinne; Dumbrell, Alex J.; Nedwell, David B.

    2014-01-01

    Denitrification and dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonium (DNRA) are processes occurring simultaneously under oxygen-limited or anaerobic conditions, where both compete for nitrate and organic carbon. Despite their ecological importance, there has been little investigation of how denitrification and DNRA potentials and related functional genes vary vertically with sediment depth. Nitrate reduction potentials measured in sediment depth profiles along the Colne estuary were in the upper range of nitrate reduction rates reported from other sediments and showed the existence of strong decreasing trends both with increasing depth and along the estuary. Denitrification potential decreased along the estuary, decreasing more rapidly with depth towards the estuary mouth. In contrast, DNRA potential increased along the estuary. Significant decreases in copy numbers of 16S rRNA and nitrate reducing genes were observed along the estuary and from surface to deeper sediments. Both metabolic potentials and functional genes persisted at sediment depths where porewater nitrate was absent. Transport of nitrate by bioturbation, based on macrofauna distributions, could only account for the upper 10 cm depth of sediment. A several fold higher combined freeze-lysable KCl-extractable nitrate pool compared to porewater nitrate was detected. We hypothesised that his could be attributed to intracellular nitrate pools from nitrate accumulating microorganisms like Thioploca or Beggiatoa. However, pyrosequencing analysis did not detect any such organisms, leaving other bacteria, microbenthic algae, or foraminiferans which have also been shown to accumulate nitrate, as possible candidates. The importance and bioavailability of a KCl-extractable nitrate sediment pool remains to be tested. The significant variation in the vertical pattern and abundance of the various nitrate reducing genes phylotypes reasonably suggests differences in their activity throughout the sediment column. This

  19. Contraction, cation oxidation state and size effects in cerium oxide nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Pelli Cresi, Jacopo Stefano; Spadaro, Maria Chiara; D'Addato, Sergio; Valeri, Sergio; Amidani, Lucia; Boscherini, Federico; Bertoni, Giovanni; Deiana, Davide; Luches, Paola

    2017-10-10

    An accurate description of the structural and chemical modifications of cerium oxide nanoparticles is mandatory for understanding their functionality in the applications. In this work we investigate the relation between local atomic structure, oxidation state, defectivity and size in cerium oxide nanoparticles with variable diameter below 10 nm, using X-ray absorption fine structure analysis in the near and extended energy range. The nanoparticles are prepared by physical methods under controlled conditions by physical methods and analyzed in morphology and crystalline quality by high resolution transmission electron microscopy. We resolve here an important question on the local structure of cerium oxide nanoparticles: we demonstrate a progressive contraction in the Ce-O interatomic distance with decreasing nanoparticle diameter and we relate the observed effect to the reduced dimensionality. The contraction is not significantly modified by inducing a 4-6% higher Ce3+ concentration through thermal annealing in high vacuum. The consequences of the observed average cation-anion distance contraction on the properties of the nanoparticles are discussed. © 2017 IOP Publishing Ltd.

  20. Microstructure and electrochemical behavior of cerium conversion coating modified with silane agent on magnesium substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lei, Li; Shi, Jing; Wang, Xin; Liu, Dan; Xu, Haigang

    2016-07-01

    The cerium conversion coating with and without different concentrations of silane agent bis-(γ-triethoxysilylpropyl)-tetrasulfide (BTESPT) modification is obtained on magnesium alloys. Detailed properties of the coatings and the role of BTESPT as an additive are studied and followed with careful discussion. The coating morphology, wettability, chemical composition and corrosion resistance are characterized by scanning electronic microscope (SEM), water contact-angle, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), potentiodynamic measurements and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The electrochemical behavior of the coatings is investigated using EIS. The results indicate that the coating morphology and composition can be controlled by changing silane concentration. The combination of cerium ions and silane molecules could promote the formation of more homogenous and higher hydrophobic coating. The coating turns to be more compact and the adhesive strength between the coating and the magnesium substrate are strongly improved with the formation of Sisbnd Osbnd Si and Sisbnd Osbnd M chemical bonds. The optimum corrosion resistance of the coating in the corrosive media is obtained by 25 ml L-1 BTESPT modification. This whole study implies that the cerium conversion coating modified with certain silane agent deserves cautiousness before its application for corrosion resistance.

  1. Deconstruction of lignocellulosic biomass with hydrated cerium (III) chloride in water and ethanol

    DOE PAGES

    Akalin, Mehmet K.; Das, Parthapratim; Alper, Koray; ...

    2017-08-08

    Lignocellulosic biomass was decomposed to produce crude bio-oil in water and ethanol using hydrated cerium (III) chloride as a catalyst. Use of the catalyst affected not only the yield of crude bio-oil but also the composition of bio-crude for both water and ethanol. The catalyst had a detrimental effect on the crude bio-oil yields obtained from water processing for all runs. However, in ethanol, use of the catalyst improved the crude bio-oil yields in all tested runs. The solid residue yields decreased with the catalyst use in the runs with water but increased in all studies with ethanol, except thosemore » with the shortest tested residence time of 10 min. The highest crude bio-oil yield of 48.2 wt% was obtained at 300 °C using 5 mmol of hydrated cerium (III) chloride at a residence time of 90 min in ethanol. The heating values of the crude bio-oils increased with the catalyst use for both water and ethanol processing. In conclusion, the highest heating value of 33.3 MJ kg–1 was obtained with hydrated cerium (III) chloride at 300 °C and a residence time of 120 min.« less

  2. Aqueous Co-precipitation of Pd-doped Cerium Oxide Nanoparticles: Chemistry Structure and Particle Growth

    SciTech Connect

    Liang H.; Zhang L.; Raitano J.M.; He G.; Akey A.J.; Herman I.P.; Chan S.-W.

    2012-01-01

    Nanoparticles of palladium-doped cerium oxide (Pd-CeO{sub 2}) have been prepared by aqueous co-precipitation resulting in a single phase cubic structure after calcination according to X-ray diffraction (XRD). Inhomogeneous strain, calculated using the Williamson-Hall method, was found to increase with palladium content, and the lattice contracts slightly, relative to nano-cerium oxide, as palladium content is increased. Moreover, high resolution transmission electron microscopy reveals some instances of defective microstructure. These factors combined imply that palladium is in solid solution with CeO{sub 2} in these nanoparticles, but palladium (II) oxide (PdO) peaks in the Raman spectra indicate that solid solution formation is partial and that highly dispersed PdO is present as well as the solid solution. Nevertheless, the addition of palladium to the CeO{sub 2} lattice inhibits the growth of the 6% Pd-CeO{sub 2} particles compared to pure CeO{sub 2} between 600 and 850 C. Activation energies for grain growth of 54 {+-} 7 and 79 {+-} 8 kJ/mol were determined for 6% Pd-CeO{sub 2} and pure CeO{sub 2}, respectively, along with pre-exponential Arrhenius factors of 10 for the doped sample and 600 for pure cerium oxide.

  3. Controlled Redox Chemistry at Cerium within a Tripodal Nitroxide Ligand Framework.

    PubMed

    Bogart, Justin A; Lippincott, Connor A; Carroll, Patrick J; Booth, Corwin H; Schelter, Eric J

    2015-12-01

    Ligand reorganization has been shown to have a profound effect on the outcome of cerium redox chemistry. Through the use of a tethered, tripodal, trianionic nitroxide ligand, [((2-tBuNOH)C6 H4 CH2 )3 N](3-) (TriNOx (3-) ), controlled redox chemistry at cerium was accomplished, and typically reactive complexes of tetravalent cerium were isolated. These included rare cationic complexes [Ce(TriNOx )thf][BAr(F) 4 ], in which Ar(F) =3,5-(CF3 )2 -C6 H3 , and [Ce(TriNOx )py][OTf]. A rare complete Ce-halide series, Ce(TriNOx )X, in which X=F(-) , Cl(-) , Br(-) , I(-) , was also synthesized. The solution chemistry of these complexes was explored through detailed solution-phase electrochemistry and (1) H NMR experiments and showed a unique shift in the ratio of species with inner- and outer-sphere anions with size of the anionic X(-) group. DFT calculations on the series of calculations corroborated the experimental findings.

  4. Growth of nanostructured polycrystalline cerium oxide through a solvothermal precipitation using near-supercritical fluids.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jongmin; Ahn, Jae-Pyoung; Kim, Sang Woo

    2010-01-01

    Well-crystallized cerium dioxide with cubic phase were formed and self-assembly grown to nanofibers or nanosheets via a solvothermal precipitation from near-supercritical fluids without any help of metal catalysts or capping agents. The self-assembly attachment process without any preferred or selective orientation dominated the growth of the polycrystalline nanofibers or nanosheets consisting of grains of approximately 3 nm to which are formed by the coalescence of the single crystalline cerium oxide seeds. The growth is attributed to be driven by phase separation due to partial compatibility between ethyl alcohol and supercritical carbon dioxide fluid during the precipitation reaction, not by different surface energies or defects. With increasing temperature, the nanofibers with a weblike network structure were formed and then fused to large spherical particles. As a result, the polycrystalline fibers or sheets consisting of pure cerium dioxide phase were produced by the solvothermal reaction with an aid of the supercritical carbon dioxide from the alcoholic metal salt solution.

  5. Cerium Biomagnification in a Terrestrial Food Chain: Influence of Particle Size and Growth Stage.

    PubMed

    Majumdar, Sanghamitra; Trujillo-Reyes, Jesica; Hernandez-Viezcas, Jose A; White, Jason C; Peralta-Videa, Jose R; Gardea-Torresdey, Jorge L

    2016-07-05

    Mass-flow modeling of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) indicates that a major fraction of released particles partition into soils and sediments. This has aggravated the risk of contaminating agricultural fields, potentially threatening associated food webs. To assess possible ENM trophic transfer, cerium accumulation from cerium oxide nanoparticles (nano-CeO2) and their bulk equivalent (bulk-CeO2) was investigated in producers and consumers from a terrestrial food chain. Kidney bean plants (Phaseolus vulgaris var. red hawk) grown in soil contaminated with 1000-2000 mg/kg nano-CeO2 or 1000 mg/kg bulk-CeO2 were presented to Mexican bean beetles (Epilachna varivestis), which were then consumed by spined soldier bugs (Podisus maculiventris). Cerium accumulation in plant and insects was independent of particle size. After 36 days of exposure to 1000 mg/kg nano- and bulk-CeO2, roots accumulated 26 and 19 μg/g Ce, respectively, and translocated 1.02 and 1.3 μg/g Ce, respectively, to shoots. The beetle larvae feeding on nano-CeO2 exposed leaves accumulated low levels of Ce since ∼98% of Ce was excreted in contrast to bulk-CeO2. However, in nano-CeO2 exposed adults, Ce in tissues was higher than Ce excreted. Additionally, Ce content in tissues was biomagnified by a factor of 5.3 from the plants to adult beetles and further to bugs.

  6. Assessment of the abatement of acelsulfame K using cerium doped ZnO as photocatalyst.

    PubMed

    Calza, P; Gionco, C; Giletta, M; Kalaboka, M; Sakkas, V A; Albanis, T; Paganini, M C

    2017-02-05

    In the present study, we investigated the possibility to abate Acesulfame K, a persistent emerging contaminant, in aqueous media using zinc oxide based materials. For this purpose, bare and Ce-doped zinc oxide was prepared via an easy and cheap hydrothermal process using different cerium salts as precursors. Their photocatalytic performance was evaluated in different media, namely ultrapure and river water under both UV-vis and visible light. Commercial TiO2 P25 was also employed and used as a reference photocatalyst for comparison purposes. The obtained results pointed out that cerium doped zinc oxide composites exhibit higher performance than TiO2 P25, especially under visible light and in the presence of organic matter, when the activity of the latter is greatly depressed. In particular, ZnO doped with cerium (1%) was the most effective material, and could be a promising alternative to TiO2 P25, especially in the treatment of natural waters.

  7. Eucalyptus tolerance mechanisms to lanthanum and cerium: subcellular distribution, antioxidant system and thiol pools.

    PubMed

    Shen, Yichang; Zhang, Shirong; Li, Sen; Xu, Xiaoxun; Jia, Yongxia; Gong, Guoshu

    2014-12-01

    Guanglin 9 (Eucalyptus grandis × Eucalyptus urophlla) and Eucalyptus grandis 5 are two eucalyptus species which have been found to grow normally in soils contaminated with lanthanum and cerium, but the tolerance mechanisms are not clear yet. In this study, a pot experiment was conducted to investigate the tolerance mechanisms of the eucalyptus to lanthanum and cerium. Cell walls stored 45.40-63.44% of the metals under lanthanum or cerium stress. Peroxidase and catalase activities enhanced with increasing soil La or Ce concentrations up to 200 mg kg(-1), while there were no obvious changes in glutathione and ascorbate concentrations. Non-protein thiols concentrations increased with increasing treatment levels up to 200 mg kg(-1), and then decreased. Phytochelatins concentrations continued to increase under La or Ce stress. Therefore, the two eucalyptus species are La and Ce tolerant plants, and the tolerance mechanisms include cell wall deposition, antioxidant system response, and thiol compound synthesis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Cerium Oxide Nanoparticles Reduce Microglial Activation and Neurodegenerative Events in Light Damaged Retina

    PubMed Central

    Fiorani, Lavinia; Passacantando, Maurizio; Santucci, Sandro; Di Marco, Stefano; Bisti, Silvia; Maccarone, Rita

    2015-01-01

    The first target of any therapy for retinal neurodegeneration is to slow down the progression of the disease and to maintain visual function. Cerium oxide or ceria nanoparticles reduce oxidative stress, which is known to play a pivotal role in neurodegeneration. Our aim was to investigate whether cerium oxide nanoparticles were able to mitigate neurodegeneration including microglial activation and related inflammatory processes induced by exposure to high intensity light. Cerium oxide nanoparticles were injected intravitreally or intraveinously in albino Sprague-Dawley rats three weeks before exposing them to light damage of 1000 lux for 24 h. Electroretinographic recordings were performed a week after light damage. The progression of retinal degeneration was evaluated by measuring outer nuclear layer thickness and TUNEL staining to quantify photoreceptors death. Immunohistochemical analysis was used to evaluate retinal stress, neuroinflammatory cytokines and microglial activation. Only intravitreally injected ceria nanoparticles were detected at the level of photoreceptor outer segments 3 weeks after the light damage and electoretinographic recordings showed that ceria nanoparticles maintained visual response. Moreover, this treatment reduced neuronal death and “hot spot” extension preserving the outer nuclear layer morphology. It is noteworthy that in this work we demonstrated, for the first time, the ability of ceria nanoparticles to reduce microglial activation and their migration toward outer nuclear layer. All these evidences support ceria nanoparticles as a powerful therapeutic agent in retinal neurodegenerative processes. PMID:26469804

  9. Application of Cerium (IV) as an Oxidimetric Agent for the Determination of Ethionamide in Pharmaceutical Formulations.

    PubMed

    Basavaiah, Kanakapura; Qarah, Nagib A S; Abdulrahman, Sameer A M

    2016-01-01

    Two simple methods are described for the determination of ethionamide (ETM) in bulk drug and tablets using cerium (IV) sulphate as the oxidimetric agent. In both methods, the sample solution is treated with a measured excess of cerium (IV) solution in H2SO4 medium, and after a fixed standing time, the residual oxidant is determined either by back titration with standard iron (II) solution to a ferroin end point in titrimetry or by reacting with o-dianisidine followed by measurement of the absorbance of the orange-red coloured product at 470 nm in spectrophotometry. In titrimetry, the reaction proceeded with a stoichiometry of 1 : 2 (ETM : Ce (IV)) and the amount of cerium (IV) consumed by ETM was related to the latter's amount, and the method was applicable over 1.0-8.0 mg of drug. In spectrophotometry, Beer's law was obeyed over the concentration range of 0.5-5.0 μg/mL ETM with a molar absorptivity value of 2.66 × 10(4) L/(mol·cm). The limits of detection (LOD) and quantification (LOQ) calculated according to ICH guidelines were 0.013 and 0.043 μg/mL, respectively. The proposed titrimetric and spectrophotometric methods were found to yield reliable results when applied to bulk drug and tablets analysis, and hence they can be applied in quality control laboratories.

  10. Synthesis, physico-chemical characterization, and antioxidant effect of PEGylated cerium oxide nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Xue, Yingfei; Balmuri, Sricharani Rao; Patel, Akhil; Sant, Vinayak; Sant, Shilpa

    2017-06-06

    Cerium oxide nanoparticles (CNPs) represent a promising class of antioxidant nanoparticles with potential therapeutic value. Due to the easily reversible oxidation states of cerium (Ce(3+) and Ce(4+)) at the nanoscale, CNPs scavenge excessive reactive oxygen and nitrogen species in a self-regenerative manner. In this study, we have demonstrated a simple method to functionalize shape-specific CNPs (i.e., rod- and cube-shaped) with polyethylene glycol (PEG) and studied the effect of PEGylation on the physico-chemical properties, antioxidant activity, and biocompatibility of rod- and cube-shaped CNPs. The chemical conjugation of PEG onto the CNP surface was confirmed by a series of physico-chemical characterizations ((1)H-NMR, FTIR, and surface zeta potential). Rod-shaped CNPs demonstrated greater reactive oxygen species scavenging ability compared to cube-shaped CNPs. PEGylation of CNPs did not affect shape, cerium oxidation state, and cytocompatibility. Importantly, PEGylation significantly reduced the amount of proteins adsorbed onto the CNPs. The antioxidant effects of CNPs were maintained in PEGylated CNPs. We envision that PEGylated rod-shaped CNPs synthesized in this study have the potential to be biocompatible nanoparticles that can combat oxidative stress-related diseases.

  11. Cerium Oxide Nanoparticles Reduce Microglial Activation and Neurodegenerative Events in Light Damaged Retina.

    PubMed

    Fiorani, Lavinia; Passacantando, Maurizio; Santucci, Sandro; Di Marco, Stefano; Bisti, Silvia; Maccarone, Rita

    2015-01-01

    The first target of any therapy for retinal neurodegeneration is to slow down the progression of the disease and to maintain visual function. Cerium oxide or ceria nanoparticles reduce oxidative stress, which is known to play a pivotal role in neurodegeneration. Our aim was to investigate whether cerium oxide nanoparticles were able to mitigate neurodegeneration including microglial activation and related inflammatory processes induced by exposure to high intensity light. Cerium oxide nanoparticles were injected intravitreally or intraveinously in albino Sprague-Dawley rats three weeks before exposing them to light damage of 1000 lux for 24 h. Electroretinographic recordings were performed a week after light damage. The progression of retinal degeneration was evaluated by measuring outer nuclear layer thickness and TUNEL staining to quantify photoreceptors death. Immunohistochemical analysis was used to evaluate retinal stress, neuroinflammatory cytokines and microglial activation. Only intravitreally injected ceria nanoparticles were detected at the level of photoreceptor outer segments 3 weeks after the light damage and electoretinographic recordings showed that ceria nanoparticles maintained visual response. Moreover, this treatment reduced neuronal death and "hot spot" extension preserving the outer nuclear layer morphology. It is noteworthy that in this work we demonstrated, for the first time, the ability of ceria nanoparticles to reduce microglial activation and their migration toward outer nuclear layer. All these evidences support ceria nanoparticles as a powerful therapeutic agent in retinal neurodegenerative processes.

  12. Predicting the effects of nanoscale cerium additives in diesel fuel on regional-scale air quality.

    PubMed

    Erdakos, Garnet B; Bhave, Prakash V; Pouliot, George A; Simon, Heather; Mathur, Rohit

    2014-11-04

    Diesel vehicles are a major source of air pollutant emissions. Fuel additives containing nanoparticulate cerium (nCe) are currently being used in some diesel vehicles to improve fuel efficiency. These fuel additives also reduce fine particulate matter (PM2.5) emissions and alter the emissions of carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxides (NOx), and hydrocarbon (HC) species, including several hazardous air pollutants (HAPs). To predict their net effect on regional air quality, we review the emissions literature and develop a multipollutant inventory for a hypothetical scenario in which nCe additives are used in all on-road and nonroad diesel vehicles. We apply the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model to a domain covering the eastern U.S. for a summer and a winter period. Model calculations suggest modest decreases of average PM2.5 concentrations and relatively larger decreases in particulate elemental carbon. The nCe additives also have an effect on 8 h maximum ozone in summer. Variable effects on HAPs are predicted. The total U.S. emissions of fine-particulate cerium are estimated to increase 25-fold and result in elevated levels of airborne cerium (up to 22 ng/m3), which might adversely impact human health and the environment.

  13. Cytochemical localization of adenylate cyclase activity in heart tissue with cerium.

    PubMed

    Schulze, W; Will-Shahab, L; Küttner, I

    1986-01-01

    Adenylate cyclase (AC) activity showed a doses depending inactivation of the basal activity and of the sodium fluoride stimulation by cerium in homogenates of unfixed and fixed guinea pig hearts. The isoproterenol and guanine nucleotide stimulation was not more than two times of the basal activity in glutaraldehyde-prefixed heart homogenates in the presence of 2 mmol/l CeCl3. The inactivation of the AC (activity) by cerium was less than in the presence of lead. Test tube experiments showed no differences in the precipitation of imidodiphosphate in comparison with inorganic phosphate. The substrate AMP-PNP was not spontaneously hydrolysed by 2 mmol/l CeCl3. Ultrastructural analysis of cytochemical incubation of glutaraldehyde-fixed slices and small pieces of guinea pig heart tissue showed fine-amorphous precipitations of reaction products localized along the plasma membrane of the sarcolemma, the nexuses of the intercalated discs and the T-tubule membranes. No precipitates were found neither on the junctional nor on other SR membranes. Nonspecific coarse and clumped precipitates have been detected in the intercellular space on components of the basal membranes. It was not able to demonstrate cytochemically stimulation of AC by hormones or by sodium fluoride. The localization of the basal AC activity in heart tissue seems to be better with cerium as capture agent than with lead. However, differences in the localization of the AC activity in heart tissue were not observed.

  14. Application of Cerium (IV) as an Oxidimetric Agent for the Determination of Ethionamide in Pharmaceutical Formulations

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Two simple methods are described for the determination of ethionamide (ETM) in bulk drug and tablets using cerium (IV) sulphate as the oxidimetric agent. In both methods, the sample solution is treated with a measured excess of cerium (IV) solution in H2SO4 medium, and after a fixed standing time, the residual oxidant is determined either by back titration with standard iron (II) solution to a ferroin end point in titrimetry or by reacting with o-dianisidine followed by measurement of the absorbance of the orange-red coloured product at 470 nm in spectrophotometry. In titrimetry, the reaction proceeded with a stoichiometry of 1 : 2 (ETM : Ce (IV)) and the amount of cerium (IV) consumed by ETM was related to the latter's amount, and the method was applicable over 1.0–8.0 mg of drug. In spectrophotometry, Beer's law was obeyed over the concentration range of 0.5–5.0 μg/mL ETM with a molar absorptivity value of 2.66 × 104 L/(mol·cm). The limits of detection (LOD) and quantification (LOQ) calculated according to ICH guidelines were 0.013 and 0.043 μg/mL, respectively. The proposed titrimetric and spectrophotometric methods were found to yield reliable results when applied to bulk drug and tablets analysis, and hence they can be applied in quality control laboratories. PMID:27818836

  15. The contributions of nitrate uptake and efflux to isotope fractionation during algal nitrate assimilation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karsh, K. L.; Trull, T. W.; Sigman, D. M.; Thompson, P. A.; Granger, J.

    2014-05-01

    In order to strengthen environmental application of nitrate N and O isotopes, we measured the N and O isotopic fractionation associated with cellular nitrate uptake and efflux in the nitrate-assimilating marine diatom Thalassiosira weissflogii. We isolated nitrate uptake and efflux from nitrate reduction by growing the cells in the presence of tungsten, which substitutes for molybdenum in assimilatory nitrate reductase, yielding an inactive enzyme. After growth on ammonium and then N starvation, cells were exposed to nitrate. Numerical models fit to the evolution of intracellular nitrate concentration and N and O isotopic composition yielded distinct N isotope effects (15ɛ) for nitrate uptake and nitrate efflux (2.0 ± 0.3‰ and 1.2 ± 0.4‰, respectively). The O isotope effects (18ɛ) for nitrate uptake and nitrate efflux were indistinguishable (2.8 ± 0.6‰), yielding a ratio of O to N isotopic fractionation for uptake of 1.4 ± 0.4 and for efflux of 2.3 ± 0.9. The 15ɛ for nitrate uptake can account for at most 40% of the organism-level N isotope effect (15ɛorg) measured in laboratory studies of T. weissflogii and in the open ocean (typically 5‰ or greater). This observation supports previous evidence that most isotope fractionation during nitrate assimilation is due to intracellular nitrate reduction, with nitrate efflux allowing the signal to be communicated to the environment. An O to N fractionation ratio (18ɛorg:15ɛorg) of ˜1 has been measured for nitrate assimilation in algal cultures and linked to the N and O isotope effects of nitrate reductase. Our results suggest that the ratios of O to N fractionation for both nitrate uptake and efflux may be distinct from a ratio of 1, to a degree that could cause the net 18ɛorg:15ɛorg to rise appreciably above 1 when 15ɛorg is low (e.g., yielding a ratio of 1.1 when 15ɛorg is 5‰). However, field and culture studies have consistently measured nearly equivalent fractionation of N and O isotopes in

  16. 76 FR 46907 - Ammonium Nitrate Security Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-03

    ... comments. SUMMARY: This proposed rule would implement anti-terrorism measures to better secure the homeland... purpose of preventing the use of ammonium nitrate in an act of terrorism. This proposed rule seeks comment... Regulations Addressing Ammonium Nitrate a. Chemical Facility Anti-Terrorism Standards b. U.S. Coast...

  17. Bacterial nitrate assimilation: gene distribution and regulation.

    PubMed

    Luque-Almagro, Víctor M; Gates, Andrew J; Moreno-Vivián, Conrado; Ferguson, Stuart J; Richardson, David J; Roldán, M Dolores

    2011-12-01

    In the context of the global nitrogen cycle, the importance of inorganic nitrate for the nutrition and growth of marine and freshwater autotrophic phytoplankton has long been recognized. In contrast, the utilization of nitrate by heterotrophic bacteria has historically received less attention because the primary role of these organisms has classically been considered to be the decomposition and mineralization of dissolved and particulate organic nitrogen. In the pre-genome sequence era, it was known that some, but not all, heterotrophic bacteria were capable of growth on nitrate as a sole nitrogen source. However, examination of currently available prokaryotic genome sequences suggests that assimilatory nitrate reductase (Nas) systems are widespread phylogenetically in bacterial and archaeal heterotrophs. Until now, regulation of nitrate assimilation has been mainly studied in cyanobacteria. In contrast, in heterotrophic bacterial strains, the study of nitrate assimilation regulation has been limited to Rhodobacter capsulatus, Klebsiella oxytoca, Azotobacter vinelandii and Bacillus subtilis. In Gram-negative bacteria, the nas genes are subjected to dual control: ammonia repression by the general nitrogen regulatory (Ntr) system and specific nitrate or nitrite induction. The Ntr system is widely distributed in bacteria, whereas the nitrate/nitrite-specific control is variable depending on the organism.

  18. NITRATE CONTAMINATION OF GROUND WATER (GW-761)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The occurrence of nitrate and related compounds in ground water is discussed from the perspectives of its natural as well as anthropogenic origins. A brief explanation of the nitrogen cycle touches on the production as well as utilization of ammonia, nitrite, nitrate, and nitrog...

  19. Dietary Nitrate, Nitric Oxide, and Cardiovascular Health.

    PubMed

    Bondonno, Catherine P; Croft, Kevin D; Hodgson, Jonathan M

    2016-09-09

    Emerging evidence strongly suggests that dietary nitrate, derived in the diet primarily from vegetables, could contribute to cardiovascular health via effects on nitric oxide (NO) status. NO plays an essential role in cardiovascular health. It is produced via the classical L-arginine-NO-synthase pathway and the recently discovered enterosalivary nitrate-nitrite-NO pathway. The discovery of this alternate pathway has highlighted dietary nitrate as a candidate for the cardioprotective effect of a diet rich in fruit and vegetables. Clinical trials with dietary nitrate have observed improvements in blood pressure, endothelial function, ischemia-reperfusion injury, arterial stiffness, platelet function, and exercise performance with a concomitant augmentation of markers of NO status. While these results are indicative of cardiovascular benefits with dietary nitrate intake, there is still a lingering concern about nitrate in relation to methemoglobinemia, cancer, and cardiovascular disease. It is the purpose of this review to present an overview of NO and its critical role in cardiovascular health; to detail the observed vascular benefits of dietary nitrate intake through effects on NO status as well as to discuss the controversy surrounding the possible toxic effects of nitrate.

  20. Intravesical silver nitrate for refractory hemorrhagic cystitis

    PubMed Central

    Montgomery, Brian D.; Boorjian, Stephen A.; Ziegelmann, Matthew J.; Joyce, Daniel D.; Linder, Brian J.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Hemorrhagic cystitis is a challenging clinical entity with limited evidence available to guide treatment. The use of intravesical silver nitrate has been reported, though supporting literature is sparse. Here, we sought to assess outcomes of patients treated with intravesical silver nitrate for refractory hemorrhagic cystitis. Material and methods We identified nine patients with refractory hemorrhagic cystitis treated at our institution with intravesical silver nitrate between 2000–2015. All patients had failed previous continuous bladder irrigation with normal saline and clot evacuation. Treatment success was defined as requiring no additional therapy beyond normal saline irrigation after silver nitrate instillation prior to hospital discharge. Results Median patient age was 80 years (IQR 73, 82). Radiation was the most common etiology for hemorrhagic cystitis 89% (8/9). Two patients underwent high dose (0.1%–0.4%) silver nitrate under anesthesia, while the remaining seven were treated with doses from 0.01% to 0.1% via continuous bladder irrigation for a median of 3 days (range 2–4). All nine patients (100%) had persistent hematuria despite intravesical silver nitrate therapy, requiring additional interventions and red blood cell transfusion during the hospitalization. There were no identified complications related to intravesical silver nitrate instillation. Conclusion Although well tolerated, we found that intravesical silver nitrate was ineffective for bleeding control, suggesting a limited role for this agent in the management of patients with hemorrhagic cystitis. PMID:27635296

  1. COMPARTMENTAL MODEL OF NITRATE RETENTION IN STREAMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A compartmental modeling approach is presented to route nitrate retention along a cascade of stream reach sections. A process transfer function is used for transient storage equations with first order reaction terms to represent nitrate uptake in the free stream, and denitrifica...

  2. COMPARTMENTAL MODEL OF NITRATE RETENTION IN STREAMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A compartmental modeling approach is presented to route nitrate retention along a cascade of stream reach sections. A process transfer function is used for transient storage equations with first order reaction terms to represent nitrate uptake in the free stream, and denitrifica...

  3. 70. INTERIOR VIEW OF AMMONIUM NITRATE HOUSE, LOOKING AT AMMONIUM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    70. INTERIOR VIEW OF AMMONIUM NITRATE HOUSE, LOOKING AT AMMONIUM NITRATE IN STORAGE. APRIL 18, 1919. - United States Nitrate Plant No. 2, Reservation Road, Muscle Shoals, Muscle Shoals, Colbert County, AL

  4. Nitrate removal from drinking water -- Review

    SciTech Connect

    Kapoor, A.; Viraraghavan, T.

    1997-04-01

    Nitrate concentrations in surface water and especially in ground water have increased in Canada, the US, Europe, and other areas of the world. This trend has raised concern because nitrates cause methemoglobiinemia in infants. Several treatment processes including ion exchange, biological denitrification, chemical denitrification, reverse osmosis, electrodialysis, and catalytic denitrification can remove nitrates from water with varying degrees of efficiency, cost, and ease of operation. Available technical data, experience, and economics indicate that ion exchange and biological denitrification are more acceptable for nitrate removal than reverse osmosis. Ion exchange is more viable for ground water while biological denitrification is the preferred alternative for surface water. This paper reviews the developments in the field of nitrate removal processes.

  5. Dietary nitrates, nitrites, and cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Hord, Norman G

    2011-12-01

    Dietary nitrate (NO(3)), nitrite (NO(2)), and arginine can serve as sources for production of NO(x) (a diverse group of metabolites including nitric oxide, nitrosothiols, and nitroalkenes) via ultraviolet light exposure to skin, mammalian nitrate/nitrite reductases in tissues, and nitric oxide synthase enzymes, respectively. NO(x) are responsible for the hypotensive, antiplatelet, and cytoprotective effects of dietary nitrates and nitrites. Current regulatory limits on nitrate intakes, based on concerns regarding potential risk of carcinogenicity and methemoglobinemia, are exceeded by normal daily intakes of single foods, such as soya milk and spinach, as well as by some recommended dietary patterns such as the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension diet. This review includes a call for regulatory bodies to consider all available data on the beneficial physiologic roles of nitrate and nitrite in order to derive rational bases for dietary recommendations.

  6. Use of nitrates in ischemic heart disease.

    PubMed

    Giuseppe, Cocco; Paul, Jerie; Hans-Ulrich, Iselin

    2015-01-01

    Short-acting nitrates are beneficial in acute myocardial ischemia. However, many unresolved questions remain about the use of long-acting nitrates in stable ischemic heart disease. The use of long-acting nitrates is weakened by the development of endothelial dysfunction and tolerance. Also, we currently ignore whether lower doses of transdermal nitroglycerin would be better than those presently used. Multivariate analysis data from large nonrandomized studies suggested that long-acting nitrates increase the incidence of acute coronary syndromes, while data from another multivariate study indicate that they have positive effects. Because of methodological differences and open questions, the two studies cannot be compared. A study in Japanese patients with vasospastic angina has shown that, when compared with calcium antagonists, long-acting nitrates do not improve long-term prognosis and that the risk for cardiac adverse events increases with the combined therapy. We have many unanswered questions.

  7. Methemoglobinemia: nitrate toxicity in rural America

    SciTech Connect

    Kross, B.C.; Ayebo, A.D.; Fuortes, L.J. )

    1992-07-01

    Nitrates are frequently found in vegetables and ground water. Nitrate levels in ground water have increased over the past two decades because of the heightened use of nitrogenous fertilizers. Following ingestion, nitrates are converted to nitrites by fecal organisms. Nitrites are absorbed and form methemoglobin, which interferes with the oxygen-carrying capacity of hemoglobin. Infants are particularly susceptible to nitrate poisoning because fetal hemoglobin is more readily oxidized to methemoglobin. In infants, the most common source of nitrate exposure is well water, which is mixed with infant formula. Affected infants may present with asymptomatic cyanosis, which can progress to dyspnea and lethargy or coma. Blood methemoglobin concentrations are elevated. Treatment consists of the administration of oxygen and intravenous and oral methylene blue.24 references.

  8. Efficient syntheses of climate relevant isoprene nitrates and (1R,5S)-(-)-myrtenol nitrate.

    PubMed

    Bew, Sean P; Hiatt-Gipson, Glyn D; Mills, Graham P; Reeves, Claire E

    2016-01-01

    Here we report the chemoselective synthesis of several important, climate relevant isoprene nitrates using silver nitrate to mediate a 'halide for nitrate' substitution. Employing readily available starting materials, reagents and Horner-Wadsworth-Emmons chemistry the synthesis of easily separable, synthetically versatile 'key building blocks' (E)- and (Z)-3-methyl-4-chlorobut-2-en-1-ol as well as (E)- and (Z)-1-((2-methyl-4-bromobut-2-enyloxy)methyl)-4-methoxybenzene has been achieved using cheap, 'off the shelf' materials. Exploiting their reactivity we have studied their ability to undergo an 'allylic halide for allylic nitrate' substitution reaction which we demonstrate generates (E)- and (Z)-3-methyl-4-hydroxybut-2-enyl nitrate, and (E)- and (Z)-2-methyl-4-hydroxybut-2-enyl nitrates ('isoprene nitrates') in 66-80% overall yields. Using NOESY experiments the elucidation of the carbon-carbon double bond configuration within the purified isoprene nitrates has been established. Further exemplifying our 'halide for nitrate' substitution chemistry we outline the straightforward transformation of (1R,2S)-(-)-myrtenol bromide into the previously unknown monoterpene nitrate (1R,2S)-(-)-myrtenol nitrate.

  9. PREPARATION OF DIBASIC ALUMINUM NITRATE

    DOEpatents

    Gresky, A.T.; Nurmi, E.O.; Foster, D.L.; Wischow, R.P.; Savolainen, J.E.

    1960-04-01

    A method is given for the preparation and recovery of basic aluminum nltrates having an OH: Al ratio of at least two, comprising two steps. First, metallic aluminum is dissolved in aqueous Al(NO/sub 3/)/sub 3/, in the presence of a small quantity of elemental or ionic mercury, to increase its Al: NO/sub 3/ ratio into the range 1 to 1.2. The resulting aqueous solution is then added to an excess of a special organic solvent, typically a mixture of five parts methanol and six parts diethyl ether, whereupon the basic aluminum nitrate, e.g. Al/sub 6/(OH)/sub 13/-(NO/sub 3/)/sub 5/, recoverably precipitates.

  10. Bacterial Nitration of 4-Chlorobiphenyl

    PubMed Central

    Sylvestre, Michel; Massé, Robert; Messier, François; Fauteux, Johanne; Bisaillon, Jean-Guy; Beaudet, Réjean

    1982-01-01

    In the course of a study dealing with the biodegradation of 4-chlorobiphenyl by strain B-206, we noticed that the gram-negative bacterium accumulated different metabolic intermediates depending on the nitrogen source of the medium. Hence, in the presence of nitrate, strain B-206 produced four compounds which were identified as 2- and 4-hydroxy-4′-chlorobiphenyl and 2- and 4-hydroxy-mononitro-4′-chlorobiphenyl. The accumulation of these compounds in the culture medium indicated the presence of a monooxygenase in strain B-206 leading to the production of arene oxide intermediates. The possible transformation of 4-chlorobiphenyl to an arene oxide by this bacterial strain is a matter of concern because of the high reactivity of these arene oxides with biological material. PMID:16346111

  11. Global distribution of peroxyacetyl nitrate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, H. B.; Salas, L. J.; Viezee, W.

    1986-01-01

    Peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN) atmospheric concentration samples were collected hourly from an ocean vessel 50 mi off the continental coast traveling from Seattle to Chile in 1984. Air concentration data for PAN and light hydrocarbons (LHC) were also taken by aircraft in the same period over Wyoming and Colorado and over the eastern Pacific. The PAN concentrations were higher and more variable in the Northern Hemisphere than in the Southern Hemisphere, increased with altitude, and were higher in the winter than in summer. The summer PAN concentrations were higher in the continental troposphere than in the marine troposphere. The results show that photochemical models of the atmosphere which do not account for the reaction between nonmethane hydrocarbons and PAN will probably overestimate the abundances of NO(x) and HNO3. The collection of further PAN concentration data is recommended as a means to characterizing the moderating role of PAN in the photochemistry of the troposphere.

  12. Phase diagram of ammonium nitrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunuwille, Mihindra; Yoo, Choong-Shik

    2013-12-01

    Ammonium Nitrate (AN) is a fertilizer, yet becomes an explosive upon a small addition of chemical impurities. The origin of enhanced chemical sensitivity in impure AN (or AN mixtures) is not well understood, posing significant safety issues in using AN even today. To remedy the situation, we have carried out an extensive study to investigate the phase stability of AN and its mixtures with hexane (ANFO-AN mixed with fuel oil) and Aluminum (Ammonal) at high pressures and temperatures, using diamond anvil cells (DAC) and micro-Raman spectroscopy. The results indicate that pure AN decomposes to N2, N2O, and H2O at the onset of the melt, whereas the mixtures, ANFO and Ammonal, decompose at substantially lower temperatures. The present results also confirm the recently proposed phase IV-IV' transition above 17 GPa and provide new constraints for the melting and phase diagram of AN to 40 GPa and 400°C.

  13. Nitrate Transport, Sensing, and Responses in Plants.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, José A; Vega, Andrea; Bouguyon, Eléonore; Krouk, Gabriel; Gojon, Alain; Coruzzi, Gloria; Gutiérrez, Rodrigo A

    2016-06-06

    Nitrogen (N) is an essential macronutrient that affects plant growth and development. N is an important component of chlorophyll, amino acids, nucleic acids, and secondary metabolites. Nitrate is one of the most abundant N sources in the soil. Because nitrate and other N nutrients are often limiting, plants have developed sophisticated mechanisms to ensure adequate supply of nutrients in a variable environment. Nitrate is absorbed in the root and mobilized to other organs by nitrate transporters. Nitrate sensing activates signaling pathways that impinge upon molecular, metabolic, physiological, and developmental responses locally and at the whole plant level. With the advent of genomics technologies and genetic tools, important advances in our understanding of nitrate and other N nutrient responses have been achieved in the past decade. Furthermore, techniques that take advantage of natural polymorphisms present in divergent individuals from a single species have been essential in uncovering new components. However, there are still gaps in our understanding of how nitrate signaling affects biological processes in plants. Moreover, we still lack an integrated view of how all the regulatory factors identified interact or crosstalk to orchestrate the myriad N responses plants typically exhibit. In this review, we provide an updated overview of mechanisms by which nitrate is sensed and transported throughout the plant. We discuss signaling components and how nitrate sensing crosstalks with hormonal pathways for developmental responses locally and globally in the plant. Understanding how nitrate impacts on plant metabolism, physiology, and growth and development in plants is key to improving crops for sustainable agriculture. Copyright © 2016 The Author. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Using cerium anomaly as an indicator of redox reactions in constructed wetland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, R.

    2013-12-01

    dissolved oxygen (5 ppm) but the NH4 content is still high, which indicates a non-equilibrium condition. In this study, the cerium anomaly is alternatively utilized to evaluate the water redox state. The results demonstrate that the input water has the negative cerium anomaly of -0.16. Along the flow path, the cerium negative anomaly does not change in the first two cells and dramatically becomes -0.23 in cell 3. The trend of cerium anomaly is more close to the removal efficiency of NH4 rather than dissolve oxygen. Accordingly, cerium anomaly could become a better indicator of removal efficiency of constructed wetland.

  15. Sedimentary nitrate reduction and its effect on the N-isotopic composition of oceanic nitrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lehmann, M. F.; Sigman, D. M.; McCorkle, D. C.

    2005-12-01

    A prerequisite for assessing denitrification fluxes in a specific environment using water column nitrate N isotope ratios is the knowledge of the expressed N isotope effects of water column and/or benthic denitrification in this environment. Here, we aim at assessing the effects of benthic nitrogen cycling on the N isotopic composition of the oceanic nitrate pool in deep-sea sediments, which are believed to harbour a large portion of the global benthic denitrification. We report 15N/14N ratios of pore water nitrate in pelagic sediments from the deep Bering Sea, where benthic nitrate reduction has previously been identified as a significant sink of fixed nitrogen. Porewater profiles from multicores indicate strong 15N enrichment in porewater nitrate at all stations, as one goes deeper in the sediments and nitrate concentrations decrease (δ15N generally reached 25-35‰). Our data are consistent with variable biological isotope effect (ɛ) for dissimilatory nitrate reduction ranging between 13 to 30 ‰. A one-dimensional diffusion-reaction model including organic matter degradation, nitrification, and denitrification indicates that, although denitrification leads to a pore water nitrate pool that is enriched in 15N, N isotope fractionation is poorly expressed at the scale of sediment-water nitrate exchange, independent of whether sediments are a net sink or a net source of nitrate. The apparent nitrate isotope effect of sedimentary denitrification on nitrate in overlying waters is generally below 2‰, as a result of diffusive transport limitation into, and within, the sediments and/or the production of light nitrate during nitrification. Thus, our data suggest that the low expressed isotope effect of benthic denitrification observed previously in reactive shelf sediments also applies to deep-sea sediments. However, where ammonium fluxes out of the sediments, it is enriched in 15-N, and may ultimately lead to an N-isotopic enrichment of the water-column nitrate

  16. Pseudo-constitutivity of nitrate-responsive genes in nitrate reductase mutants.

    PubMed

    Schinko, Thorsten; Gallmetzer, Andreas; Amillis, Sotiris; Strauss, Joseph

    2013-05-01

    In fungi, transcriptional activation of genes involved in NO3(-) assimilation requires the presence of an inducer (nitrate or nitrite) and low intracellular concentrations of the pathway products ammonium or glutamine. In Aspergillus nidulans, the two transcription factors NirA and AreA act synergistically to mediate nitrate/nitrite induction and nitrogen metabolite derepression, respectively. In all studied fungi and in plants, mutants lacking nitrate reductase (NR) activity express nitrate-metabolizing enzymes constitutively without the addition of inducer molecules. Based on their work in A. nidulans, Cove and Pateman proposed an "autoregulation control" model for the synthesis of nitrate metabolizing enzymes in which the functional nitrate reductase molecule would act as co-repressor in the absence and as co-inducer in the presence of nitrate. However, NR mutants could simply show "pseudo-constitutivity" due to induction by nitrate which accumulates over time in NR-deficient strains. Here we examined this possibility using strains which lack flavohemoglobins (fhbs), and are thus unable to generate nitrate internally, in combination with nitrate transporter mutations (nrtA, nrtB) and a GFP-labeled NirA protein. Using different combinations of genotypes we demonstrate that nitrate transporters are functional also in NR null mutants and show that the constitutive phenotype of NR mutants is not due to nitrate accumulation from intracellular sources but depends on the activity of nitrate transporters. However, these transporters are not required for nitrate signaling because addition of external nitrate (10 mM) leads to standard induction of nitrate assimilatory genes in the nitrate transporter double mutants. We finally show that NR does not regulate NirA localization and activity, and thus the autoregulation model, in which NR would act as a co-repressor of NirA in the absence of nitrate, is unlikely to be correct. Results from this study instead suggest that

  17. Pseudo-constitutivity of nitrate-responsive genes in nitrate reductase mutants

    PubMed Central

    Schinko, Thorsten; Gallmetzer, Andreas; Amillis, Sotiris; Strauss, Joseph

    2013-01-01

    In fungi, transcriptional activation of genes involved in NO3- assimilation requires the presence of an inducer (nitrate or nitrite) and low intracellular concentrations of the pathway products ammonium or glutamine. In Aspergillus nidulans, the two transcription factors NirA and AreA act synergistically to mediate nitrate/nitrite induction and nitrogen metabolite derepression, respectively. In all studied fungi and in plants, mutants lacking nitrate reductase (NR) activity express nitrate-metabolizing enzymes constitutively without the addition of inducer molecules. Based on their work in A. nidulans, Cove and Pateman proposed an “autoregulation control” model for the synthesis of nitrate metabolizing enzymes in which the functional nitrate reductase molecule would act as co-repressor in the absence and as co-inducer in the presence of nitrate. However, NR mutants could simply show “pseudo-constitutivity” due to induction by nitrate which accumulates over time in NR-deficient strains. Here we examined this possibility using strains which lack flavohemoglobins (fhbs), and are thus unable to generate nitrate internally, in combination with nitrate transporter mutations (nrtA, nrtB) and a GFP-labeled NirA protein. Using different combinations of genotypes we demonstrate that nitrate transporters are functional also in NR null mutants and show that the constitutive phenotype of NR mutants is not due to nitrate accumulation from intracellular sources but depends on the activity of nitrate transporters. However, these transporters are not required for nitrate signaling because addition of external nitrate (10 mM) leads to standard induction of nitrate assimilatory genes in the nitrate transporter double mutants. We finally show that NR does not regulate NirA localization and activity, and thus the autoregulation model, in which NR would act as a co-repressor of NirA in the absence of nitrate, is unlikely to be correct. Results from this study instead suggest

  18. Effect of Adding Cerium on Microstructure and Morphology of Ce-Based Inclusions Formed in Low-Carbon Steel

    PubMed Central

    Adabavazeh, Z.; Hwang, W. S.; Su, Y. H.

    2017-01-01

    Intra-granular Acicular Ferrite (IAF), as one of the most well-known desirable microstructure of ferrite with a chaotic crystallographic orientation, can not only refine the microstructure and retard the propagation of cleavage crack but also provide excellent combination of strength and toughness in steel. The effect of adding cerium on microstructure and controlling proper cerium-based inclusions in order to improve properties in low-carbon commercial steel (SS400) were investigated. The type of inclusions can be controlled by changing S/O ratio and Ce content. Without Ce modification, MnS is a dominate inclusion. After adding Ce, the stable inclusion phases change from AlCeO3 to Ce2O2S. The optimum amount of cerium, 0.0235 wt.%, lead in proper grain refinement and formation of cerium oxide, oxy-sulfide and sulfide inclusions. Having a high amount of cerium results in increasing the number of inclusions significantly as a result it cannot be effective enough and the inclusions will act like barriers for others. It is found that the inclusions with a size of about 4∼7 μm can serve as heterogeneous nucleation sites for AF formation. Thermodynamic calculations have been applied to predict the inclusion formation in this molten steel as well, which show a good agreement with experimental one. PMID:28485376

  19. DFT study of the active site of the XoxF-type natural, cerium-dependent methanol dehydrogenase enzyme.

    PubMed

    Bogart, Justin A; Lewis, Andrew J; Schelter, Eric J

    2015-01-19

    Rare-earth metal cations have recently been demonstrated to be essential co-factors for the growth of the methanotrophic bacterium Methylacidiphilum fumariolicum SolV. A crystal structure of the rare-earth-dependent methanol dehydrogenase (MDH) includes a cerium cation in the active site. Herein, the Ce-MDH active site has been analyzed through DFT calculations. The results show the stability of the Ce(III)-pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ) semiquinone configuration. Calculations on the active oxidized form of this complex indicate a 0.81 eV stabilization of the PQQ(0) LUMO at cerium versus calcium, supporting the observation that the cerium cation in the active site confers a competitive advantage to Methylacidiphilum fumariolicum SolV. Using reported aqueous electrochemical data, a semi-empirical correlation was established based on cerium(IV/III) redox potentials. The correlation allowed estimation of the cerium oxidation potential of +1.35 V versus saturated calomel electrode (SCE) in the active site. The results are expected to guide the design of functional model complexes and alcohol-oxidation catalysts based on lanthanide complexes of biologically relevant quinones.

  20. Mesoporous cerium phosphonate nanostructured hybrid spheres as label-free Hg²⁺ fluorescent probes.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yun-Pei; Ma, Tian-Yi; Ren, Tie-Zhen; Yuan, Zhong-Yong

    2014-09-24

    Porous phosphonate-based organic-inorganic hybrid materials have been shown to have novel and amazing physicochemical properties due to the integration of superiorities from both inorganic components and organic moieties. Herein, mesoporous cerium phosphonate nanostructured hybrid spheres are prepared with the assistance of cationic surfactant cetyltrimethylammonium bromide while using ethylene diamine tetra(methylene phosphonic acid) as the coupling molecule. The resulting hybrid is constructed from the cerium phosphonate nanoparticles, accompanied by high specific surface area of 455 m(2) g(-1). The uniform incorporation of rare-earth element cerium and organophosphonic functionalities endows mesoporous cerium phosphonate with excellent fluorescence properties for the development of an optical sensor for selective Hg(2+) detection on the basis of the fluorescence-quenching mechanism. The signal response of mesoporous cerium phosphonate against the Hg(2+) concentration is linear over the range from 0.05 to 1.5 μmol L(-1), giving a limit of detection of 16 nmol L(-1) (at a signal-to-noise ratio of 3). Most of the common physiologically relevant cations and anions did not interfere with the detection of Hg(2+). This label-free system provides a promising platform for further use in bioimaging and biomedical fields.