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Sample records for cervical epidural abscess

  1. Cervical epidural abscess caused by brucellosis.

    PubMed

    Lampropoulos, Christos; Kamposos, Panagiotis; Papaioannou, Ioanna; Niarou, Vasiliki

    2012-01-01

    A 70-year-old Greek lady presented with fever, arthralgias of knees, cervical and lumbar pain during the last month. On clinical examination the patient was found to have tenderness of the cervical and the lumbar spine with great motion restriction. The blood tests revealed high erythrocyte sedimentation rate and C-reactive protein, abnormal liver function tests and a positive rheumatoid factor. Serological test for Brucella was positive while cervical MRI revealed epidural abscess and spondylodiscitis. Conservative treatment with streptomycin (it was substituted by rifampicin after the third week) and doxycyclin for 4 months significantly improved her symptoms. The frequency as well as the diagnosis and management of this manifestation are discussed. PMID:23188848

  2. Upper Cervical Epidural Abscess in Clinical Practice: Diagnosis and Management

    PubMed Central

    Al-Hourani, Khalid; Al-Aref, Rami; Mesfin, Addisu

    2015-01-01

    Study Design Narrative review. Objective Upper cervical epidural abscess (UCEA) is a rare surgical emergency. Despite increasing incidence, uncertainty remains as to how it should initially be managed. Risk factors for UCEA include immunocompromised hosts, diabetes mellitus, and intravenous drug use. Our objective is to provide a comprehensive overview of the literature including the history, clinical manifestations, diagnosis, and management of UCEA. Methods Using PubMed, studies published prior to 2015 were analyzed. We used the keywords “Upper cervical epidural abscess,” “C1 osteomyelitis,” “C2 osteomyelitis,” “C1 epidural abscess,” “C2 epidural abscess.” We excluded cases with tuberculosis. Results The review addresses epidemiology, etiology, imaging, microbiology, and diagnosis of this condition. We also address the nonoperative and operative management options and the relative indications for each as reviewed in the literature. Conclusion A high index of suspicion is required to diagnose this rare condition with magnetic resonance imaging being the imaging modality of choice. There has been a shift toward surgical management of this condition in recent times, with favorable outcomes. PMID:27190742

  3. Cervical epidural abscess: rare complication of bacterial endocarditis with streptococcus viridans: a case report.

    PubMed

    Oh, Jae-Sang; Shim, Jai-Joon; Lee, Kyeong-Seok; Doh, Jae-Won

    2015-03-01

    Although many patients with infective endocarditis (IE) complain of joint, muscle, and back pain, infections at these sights are rare. The incidence of spinal abscess in cervical spine complicating endocarditis is very rare. Although the surgical management is the mainstay of treatment, conservative treatment can get success in selected patients. We report a patient with cervical epidural abscess due to Streptococcus viridans endocarditis. Both epidural abscess and IE were managed conservatively with intravenous antibiotics for 8 weeks, with recovery. It is important to remind spinal epidural abscess can occur in those patients with bacterial endocarditis. PMID:25883665

  4. Cervical Epidural Abscess in Haemodialysis Patients by Catheter Related Infection: Report of Two Cases

    PubMed Central

    Gezici, Ali Riza

    2010-01-01

    Despite advances in neuroimaging and neurosurgical treatment modalities, spinal epidural abscess remains a challenging problem. Early diagnosis is often difficult and treatment is always delayed. Spinal epidural abscess usually develops in patients with predisposing factors such as IV drug abuse, senillity, diabetes mellitus, spinal attempts, alcoholism, immunosuppression, liver diseases and catheterizations. It is rarely seen in cervical region. A successful treatment is only possible with early diagnosis and accurate surgical and medical treatment. Optimal management is unclear and morbidity and mortality are significant. We present two adult haemodialysis patients with end-stage renal insufficiency who developed cervical epidural abscess following central venous catheter placement. Early surgical intervention is mandatory in cases those have progressive neurological deficit and spinal deformity, and this is also increases the success rate of medical therapy. PMID:20052368

  5. Nontraumatic retropharyngeal abscess complicated by cervical osteomyelitis and epidural abscess in post-Katrina New Orleans: four cases.

    PubMed

    Faruqui, S; Palacios, Enrique; Friedlander, Paul; Melgar, Miguel; Alvernia, Jorge; Parry, Phillip Vaughan

    2009-07-01

    Most retropharyngeal abscesses, including iatrogenic cases, are caused by trauma. Nontraumatic retropharyngeal abscesses usually occur secondary to infection of the retropharyngeal lymph nodes. Because these particular nodes usually disappear by the age of 4 or 5 years, a nontraumatic retropharyngeal abscess in an adult is extremely rare. When they do occur in adults, they are generally seen in immunocompromised patients and in intravenous drug abusers. Left untreated, a retropharyngeal abscess can lead to rare and fatal complications such as cervical osteomyelitis, epidural abscess, and discitis. Retropharyngeal abscesses can be diagnosed with a thorough history of risk factors, an examination for neurologic deficits, and radiologic studies, particularly magnetic resonance imaging. Treatment involves intravenous antibiotic therapy and surgical drainage. During follow-up, it is important to closely monitor the results of clinical neurologic examinations and weekly determinations of the C-reactive protein level and erythrocyte sedimentation rate in order to assess the response to therapy. We report 4 cases of nontraumatic retropharyngeal abscess complicated by cervical osteomyelitis and epidural abscess that were seen in New Orleans within 3 years of Hurricane Katrina, which struck the U.S. Gulf Coast in August 2005.

  6. Insidious Onset of Tetraparesis due to Cervical Epidural Abscess from Enterococcus faecalis.

    PubMed

    Soultanis, Konstantinos Chr; Sakellariou, Vasileios I; Starantzis, Konstantinos A; Stavropoulos, Nikolaos A; Papagelopoulos, Panayiotis J

    2013-01-01

    We report a case of cervical epidural abscess from Enterococcus faecalis, which caused an insidious onset of tetraparesis. This 53-year-old female with a history of diabetes mellitus and chronic renal failure under hemodialysis presented with pain and progressive weakness of upper and lower extremities without fever. Although a recent MRI she did at the beginning of symptoms showed no significant pathologies, except for a cervical disc herniation and adjacent spinal degeneration, and stenosis that confused the diagnostic procedure, newer imaging with CT and MRI, which was performed due to progression of tetraparesis, revealed the formation of a cervical epidural abscess. Surgical drainage was done after a complete infection workup. The patient showed immediate neurological improvement after surgery. She received antibiotics intravenously for 3 weeks and orally for another 6 weeks. The patient was free from complications 24 months after surgery. A high index of suspicion is most important in making a rapid and correct diagnosis of spinal epidural abscess. The classic clinical triad (fever, local pain, and neurologic deficits) is not sensitive enough for early detection. Continuous clinical, laboratory, and imaging monitoring are of paramount importance. Early diagnosis and surgical intervention could optimize the final functional outcome. PMID:23573096

  7. Surgical Management of Cervical Spinal Epidural Abscess Caused by Brucella Melitensis : Report of Two Cases and Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Özbek, Zühtü; Gökoğlu, Abdülkerim; Menkü, Ahmet

    2012-01-01

    Spinal epidural abscess, if especially caused by Brucellosis is a very rare disease which is usually a consequence of spondylodiscitis. The spinal column can be affected at any joint; however, the lumbar spine is the most common region, especially at the level of the L4-5 and L5-S1. The frequency of spinal involvement usually seen at the lumbar, thoracic and cervical spine respectively. As an occupational disease in farmers, veterinaries, butchers, laboratory staff and shepherds, brucellosis can also occur by direct contact to animals and infected materials or ingestion of raw cheese, milk or unpasteurized milk products. In this study, we presented two cases with cervical spinal epidural abscess caused by brucella melitensis, which was successfully treated by surgical approach. Initial treatment was combined with antibiotic therapy after the surgery for 3 months. PMID:22949972

  8. Aspergillus spinal epidural abscess

    SciTech Connect

    Byrd, B.F. III; Weiner, M.H.; McGee, Z.A.

    1982-12-17

    A spinal epidural abscess developed in a renal transplant recipient; results of a serum radioimmunoassay for Aspergillus antigen were positive. Laminectomy disclosed an abscess of the L4-5 interspace and L-5 vertebral body that contained hyphal forms and from which Aspergillus species was cultured. Serum Aspergillus antigen radioimmunoassay may be a valuable, specific early diagnostic test when systemic aspergillosis is a consideration in an immunosuppressed host.

  9. Delayed Presentation of a Cervical Spinal Epidural Abscess of Dental Origin after a Fall in an Elderly Patient

    PubMed Central

    Riordan, Margaret; Chin, Lawrence S.

    2016-01-01

    Spinal epidural abscesses are an uncommon cause of spinal cord injury but, depending on the size and presence of neurological deficits, urgent neurosurgical intervention may be required. We present a unique case of a patient presenting with a spinal epidural collection several days after a fall. While a spinal epidural hematoma was suspected based on the patient’s history and MRI findings, a spinal epidural abscess was found during surgery. The patient underwent laminectomy and instrumented fusion with successful treatment of her infection. PMID:27382529

  10. Cervical Meningomyelitis After Lumbar Epidural Steroid Injection

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Joon-Sung; Kim, Ji Yeon

    2015-01-01

    Epidural steroid injections (ESI) are a common treatment for back pain management. ESI-related complications have increased with the growing number of procedures. We report a case of cervical meningomyelitis followed by multiple lumbar ESI. A 60-year-old male with diabetes mellitus presented to our hospital with severe neck pain. He had a history of multiple lumbar injections from a local pain clinic. After admission, high fever and elevated inflammatory values were detected. L-spine magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed hematoma in the S1 epidural space. Antibiotic treatment began under the diagnosis of a lumbar epidural abscess. Despite the treatment, he started to complain of weakness in both lower extremities. Three days later, the weakness progressed to both upper extremities. C-spine MRI revealed cervical leptomeningeal enhancement in the medulla oblongata and cervical spinal cord. Removal of the epidural abscess was performed, but there was no neurological improvement. PMID:26161360

  11. Cervical Facet Joint Infection and Associated Epidural Abscess with Streptococcus intermedius from a Dental Infection Origin A Case Report and Review.

    PubMed

    Kaye, Ian David; Protopsaltis, Themistocles S

    2016-09-01

    Pyogenic cervical facet joint infections are rare and such infections from a dental origin are even less common. Of these few cases, none have described infection with Streptococcus intermedius as the pathogen. A 65-year-old orthopaedic surgeon complained of fevers, right-sided radiating neck pain, stiffness, swelling, erythema, and right upper extremity weakness one month after he had broken a crown over his right mandibular premolar, a continued source of pain. Imaging of the cervical spine showed a right C4-C5 facet inflammatory arthropathy and a small epidural abscess that was cultured and initially treated with intravenous antibiotics. The oral maxillofacial surgery team performed an extraction of the infected, symptomatic tooth. For continued right upper extremity weakness, the patient underwent C4-C5 laminoforaminotomy and irrigation and debridement of the right C4-C5 facet joint. After 6 weeks of intravenous antibiotics, the patient's infectious and inflammatory markers had normalized. By 4 months, he had regained full strength at his upper extremity and a painless and full range of motion of his cervical spine.Pyogenic cervical facet joint infection is very rare and potentially dangerous. A high clinical suspicion and appropriate imaging, including magnetic resonance imaging, are important for correct diagnosis. Prompt medical and surgical treatment may avert complications, and although the patient presented made a complete recovery, patients may be left with neurological compromise.

  12. Cervical Facet Joint Infection and Associated Epidural Abscess with Streptococcus intermedius from a Dental Infection Origin A Case Report and Review.

    PubMed

    Kaye, Ian David; Protopsaltis, Themistocles S

    2016-09-01

    Pyogenic cervical facet joint infections are rare and such infections from a dental origin are even less common. Of these few cases, none have described infection with Streptococcus intermedius as the pathogen. A 65-year-old orthopaedic surgeon complained of fevers, right-sided radiating neck pain, stiffness, swelling, erythema, and right upper extremity weakness one month after he had broken a crown over his right mandibular premolar, a continued source of pain. Imaging of the cervical spine showed a right C4-C5 facet inflammatory arthropathy and a small epidural abscess that was cultured and initially treated with intravenous antibiotics. The oral maxillofacial surgery team performed an extraction of the infected, symptomatic tooth. For continued right upper extremity weakness, the patient underwent C4-C5 laminoforaminotomy and irrigation and debridement of the right C4-C5 facet joint. After 6 weeks of intravenous antibiotics, the patient's infectious and inflammatory markers had normalized. By 4 months, he had regained full strength at his upper extremity and a painless and full range of motion of his cervical spine.Pyogenic cervical facet joint infection is very rare and potentially dangerous. A high clinical suspicion and appropriate imaging, including magnetic resonance imaging, are important for correct diagnosis. Prompt medical and surgical treatment may avert complications, and although the patient presented made a complete recovery, patients may be left with neurological compromise. PMID:27620549

  13. Rapidly Progressive Spontaneous Spinal Epidural Abscess

    PubMed Central

    Aktas, Ozgür Yusuf; Guzey, Feyza Karagoz; Tufan, Azmi; Isler, Cihan; Aycan, Nur; Gulsen, İsmail

    2016-01-01

    Spinal epidural abscess (SEA) is a rare disease which is often rapidly progressive. Delayed diagnosis of SEA may lead to serious complications and the clinical findings of SEA are generally nonspecific. Paraspinal abscess should be considered in the presence of local low back tenderness, redness, and pain with fever, particularly in children. In case of delayed diagnosis and treatment, SEA may spread to the epidural space and may cause neurological deficits. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) remains the method of choice in the diagnosis of SEA. Treatment of SEA often consists of both medical and surgical therapy including drainage with percutaneous entry, corpectomy, and instrumentation. PMID:27688918

  14. Rapidly Progressive Spontaneous Spinal Epidural Abscess.

    PubMed

    Aycan, Abdurrahman; Aktas, Ozgür Yusuf; Guzey, Feyza Karagoz; Tufan, Azmi; Isler, Cihan; Aycan, Nur; Gulsen, İsmail; Arslan, Harun

    2016-01-01

    Spinal epidural abscess (SEA) is a rare disease which is often rapidly progressive. Delayed diagnosis of SEA may lead to serious complications and the clinical findings of SEA are generally nonspecific. Paraspinal abscess should be considered in the presence of local low back tenderness, redness, and pain with fever, particularly in children. In case of delayed diagnosis and treatment, SEA may spread to the epidural space and may cause neurological deficits. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) remains the method of choice in the diagnosis of SEA. Treatment of SEA often consists of both medical and surgical therapy including drainage with percutaneous entry, corpectomy, and instrumentation. PMID:27688918

  15. Rapidly Progressive Spontaneous Spinal Epidural Abscess

    PubMed Central

    Aktas, Ozgür Yusuf; Guzey, Feyza Karagoz; Tufan, Azmi; Isler, Cihan; Aycan, Nur; Gulsen, İsmail

    2016-01-01

    Spinal epidural abscess (SEA) is a rare disease which is often rapidly progressive. Delayed diagnosis of SEA may lead to serious complications and the clinical findings of SEA are generally nonspecific. Paraspinal abscess should be considered in the presence of local low back tenderness, redness, and pain with fever, particularly in children. In case of delayed diagnosis and treatment, SEA may spread to the epidural space and may cause neurological deficits. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) remains the method of choice in the diagnosis of SEA. Treatment of SEA often consists of both medical and surgical therapy including drainage with percutaneous entry, corpectomy, and instrumentation.

  16. Salmonella Typhi Vertebral Osteomyelitis and Epidural Abscess

    PubMed Central

    Chua, Ying Ying; Chen, John L. T.

    2016-01-01

    Salmonella vertebral osteomyelitis is an uncommon complication of Salmonella infection. We report a case of a 57-year-old transgender male who presented with lower back pain for a period of one month following a fall. Physical examination only revealed tenderness over the lower back with no neurological deficits. MRI of the thoracic and lumbar spine revealed a spondylodiscitis at T10-T11 and T12-L1 and right posterior epidural collection at the T9-T10 level. He underwent decompression laminectomy with segmental instrumentation and fusion of T8 to L3 vertebrae. Intraoperatively, he was found to have acute-on-chronic osteomyelitis in T10 and T11, epidural abscess, and discitis in T12-L1. Tissue and wound culture grew Salmonella Typhi and with antibiotics susceptibility guidance he was treated with intravenous ceftriaxone for a period of six weeks. He recovered well with no neurological deficits. PMID:27034871

  17. Epidural infection: Is it really an abscess?

    PubMed Central

    Avilucea, Frank R.; Patel, Alpesh A.

    2012-01-01

    Background: We reviewed the literature regarding the pathogenesis, clinical presentation, diagnosis, and management of spinal epidural abscess (SEA). Methods: Utilizing PubMed, we performed a comprehensive review of the literature on SEAs. Results: SEA remains a difficult infectious process to diagnose. This is particularly true in the early stages, when patients remain neurologically intact, and before the classic triad of fever, back pain, and neurologic deficit develop. However, knowledge of risk factors, obtaining serologic markers, and employing magnetic resonance scans facilitate obtaining a prompt and accurate diagnosis. In patients without neurologic deficits, lone medical therapy may prove effective. Conclusions: More prevalent over the previous three decades, SEA remains a rare but deleterious infectious process requiring prompt identification and treatment. Historically, identification of SEA is often elusive, diagnosis is delayed, and clinicians contend that surgical debridement is the cornerstone of treatment. Early surgery leads to more favorable outcomes and preserves neurologic function, particularly in the early stages of disease when minimal or no neurologic deficits are present. The advent of improved imaging modalities, diagnostic techniques, and multidrug antimicrobial agents has enabled medical/spinal surgical consultants to more rapidly diagnose SEA and institute more effective early medical treatment (e.g., data suggest that lone medical therapy may prove effective in the early management of SEA). PMID:23248757

  18. Spinal epidural abscess: the importance of early diagnosis and treatment

    PubMed Central

    Mackenzie, A; Laing, R; Smith, C; Kaar, G; Smith, F

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVES—To remind clinicians of the dangers of delayed diagnosis and the importance of early treatment of spinal epidural abscess.
METHODS—A review of the literature on spinal epidural abscess and a comparison of the published literature with local experience.
RESULTS—Imaging with MRI or CT enables early diagnosis of spinal epidural abcess and optimal therapy is surgical evacuation combined with 6-12 weeks (median 8 weeks) of antimicrobial chemotherapy. Clinical features are fever, pain, and focal neurological signs and may be associated with preceding and pre-existing bone or joint disease. The commonest aetiological organism is S aureus.
CONCLUSION—Early diagnosis and appropriate early antimicrobial chemotherapy with surgery is associated with an excellent prognosis.

 PMID:9703173

  19. A sheared Racz catheter in cervical epidural space for thirty months: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Jae Hyuk; Choi, Hoon; Kim, Jin Sung; Lee, Min Kyu

    2015-01-01

    Percutaneous epidural neuroplasty may lead to complications such as hematoma, infection, epidural abscess, meningitis, hypotension, respiratory depression, urinary and fecal dysfunction, sexual dysfunction and paresthesia. Other technical complications may include shearing or tearing, misplacement, blockage and migration of the catheter. We report a case of a 41-year-old female patient, who underwent surgical removal of a sheared catheter, which was retained for 30 months after cervical Racz neuroplasty. PMID:25844142

  20. Spinal epidural angiolipoma complicated by an intratumoral abscess. Case report.

    PubMed

    Petrella, Gianpaolo; Tamburrini, Gianpiero; Lauriola, Libero; Di Rocco, Concezio

    2005-08-01

    Spinal angiolipomas are rare, benign lesions representing 0.14 to 1.2% of all spinal axis tumors. They most commonly involve the midthoracic spine and are located in the posterior epidural space. Up to now, six pediatric cases have been reported in the literature; two of them involved an acute clinical onset that was related to a venous infarction of a tumor. The authors report the case of a 16-year-old boy with a midthoracic epidural angiolipoma who was admitted with a clinical history of an acute paraparesis. In contrast to previous descriptions, the acute onset in this case was related to a spontaneous intratumoral abscess within the tumor.

  1. Cervical epidural arteriovenous fistula with radiculopathy mimicking cervical spondylosis.

    PubMed

    Kawabori, Masahito; Hida, Kazutoshi; Yano, Shunsuke; Asano, Takeshi; Iwasaki, Yoshinobu

    2009-03-01

    A 65-year-old woman presented with a rare case of cervical epidural arteriovenous fistula (AVF) manifesting as radiculopathy of the right upper extremity that mimicked cervical spondylosis. She had a 2-month history of gradually progressive right-hand motor weakness and sensory disturbance. The initial diagnosis was cervical disk herniation. However, computed tomography with contrast medium showed abnormal enhancement at the right C5-6 and C6-7 intervertebral foramina. Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging with gadolinium disclosed an enhanced abnormal epidural mass at the dorsal surface of the dural tube between the C5 and C6 vertebrae. T(2)-weighted MR imaging showed a slight flow void on the dorsal and ventral surfaces of the spinal cord between C3 and T4. Digital subtraction angiography disclosed cervical epidural and dural AVFs fed by the C5 and C6 radicular arteries. The diagnosis was concomitant epidural and dural AVFs. The dilated internal vertebral venous plexus attributable to epidural AVF was considered to be responsible for the radiculopathy. Transarterial embolization using n-butylcyanoacrylate achieved complete occlusion of the lesions. Her symptoms improved immediately and MR imaging and angiography performed 10 days postembolization showed reduction of both the epidural and dural AVFs.

  2. Long-term survival in a dog with meningoencephalitis and epidural abscessation due to Actinomyces species.

    PubMed

    Song, Rachel B; Vitullo, Carina A; da Costa, Ronaldo C; Daniels, Joshua B

    2015-07-01

    A 2-year-old, female spayed Golden Retriever dog was presented to The Ohio State University Veterinary Medical Center for evaluation of ataxia, cervical pain, 1 episode of acute collapse, dull mentation, and inappetence. Physical examination revealed an elevated temperature of 39.7°C and severe cervical pain. Blood work revealed a mature neutrophilia. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) analysis revealed nondegenerative neutrophilic pleocytosis with no infectious agents. A presumptive diagnosis of steroid-responsive meningitis-arteritis was made, and corticosteroid therapy was started. The patient improved initially but experienced a vestibular episode characterized by falling and vertical nystagmus. A magnetic resonance imaging of the brain revealed an epidural abscess in the cervical vertebral canal and diffuse meningeal enhancement in the brain and cranial cervical spine. Abscess drainage revealed degenerate neutrophils and several filamentous, branching organisms. Culture of the initial CSF using an enrichment broth revealed growth of a Gram-positive organism 5 days after fluid collection. The isolate was identified by partial 16S ribosomal DNA sequencing as Actinomyces spp. The patient was successfully treated with long-term antibiotics. Our study reports the long-term survival after medical treatment of bacterial meningoencephalitis and epidural abscessation due to Actinomyces sp. infection in a dog. Bacterial meningoencephalitis should be included as a differential diagnosis in patients with cervical pain and fever, even when a nondegenerative neutrophilic pleocytosis is found on CSF analysis. Culture of the CSF with use of an enrichment broth should be considered in all cases of neutrophilic pleocytosis to rule out infections of the central nervous system.

  3. Spinal epidural abscess and meningitis following short-term epidural catheterisation for postoperative analgaesia.

    PubMed

    van Rappard, Juliaan R M; Tolenaar, Jip L; Smits, Anke B; Go, Peter M N Y H

    2015-08-20

    We present a case of a patient with a spinal epidural abscess (SEA) and meningitis following short-term epidural catheterisation for postoperative pain relief after a laparoscopic sigmoid resection. On the fifth postoperative day, 2 days after removal of the epidural catheter, the patient developed high fever, leucocytosis and elevated C reactive protein. Blood cultures showed a methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus infection. A photon emission tomography scan revealed increased activity of the spinal canal, suggesting S. aureus meningitis. A gadolinium-enhanced MRI showed a SEA that was localised at the epidural catheter insertion site. Conservative management with intravenous flucloxacillin was initiated, as no neurological deficits were seen. At last follow-up, 8 weeks postoperatively, the patient showed complete recovery.

  4. Spinal epidural abscess in a young girl without risk factors.

    PubMed

    Mantadakis, Elpis; Birbilis, Theodosios; Michailidis, Lambros; Souftas, Vasileios; Chatzimichael, Athanassios

    2011-07-01

    Spinal epidural abscess (SEA) is a rare infection associated with well-established risk factors mainly in adults. We describe an 11-year-old girl without any known risk factors who presented with fever and localized spinal tenderness in the lumbar area and was diagnosed with spinal MRI as suffering from a posterior SEA extending between T11 and L4. She was successfully managed with sequential intravenous and oral antibiotics along with minimally invasive surgery without laminectomy. Methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus was the responsible pathogen isolated at surgery. Immediate institution of antibiotics, spinal MRI, and well-timed neurosurgical consultation are mandatory for a favorable outcome in cases of SEA in children. PMID:21360025

  5. Caudal epidural anesthesia during intracavitary brachytherapy for cervical cancer.

    PubMed

    Isoyama-Shirakawa, Yuko; Nakamura, Katsumasa; Abe, Madoka; Kunitake, Naonobu; Matsumoto, Keiji; Ohga, Saiji; Sasaki, Tomonari; Uehara, Satoru; Okushima, Kazuhiro; Shioyama, Yoshiyuki; Honda, Hiroshi

    2015-05-01

    It has been suggested that pain control during intracavitary brachytherapy for cervical cancer is insufficient in most hospitals in Japan. Our hospital began using caudal epidural anesthesia during high-dose-rate (HDR) intracavitary brachytherapy in 2011. The purpose of the present study was to retrospectively investigate the effects of caudal epidural anesthesia during HDR intracavitary brachytherapy for cervical cancer patients. Caudal epidural anesthesia for 34 cervical cancer patients was performed during HDR intracavitary brachytherapy between October 2011 and August 2013. We used the patients' self-reported Numeric Rating Scale (NRS) score at the first session of HDR intracavitary brachytherapy as a subjective evaluation of pain. We compared NRS scores of the patients with anesthesia with those of 30 patients who underwent HDR intracavitary brachytherapy without sacral epidural anesthesia at our hospital between May 2010 and August 2011. Caudal epidural anesthesia succeeded in 33 patients (97%), and the NRS score was recorded in 30 patients. The mean NRS score of the anesthesia group was 5.17 ± 2.97, significantly lower than that of the control group's 6.80 ± 2.59 (P = 0.035). The caudal epidural block resulted in no side-effects. Caudal epidural anesthesia is an effective and safe anesthesia option during HDR intracavitary brachytherapy for cervical cancer.

  6. The pathogenesis of spinal epidural abscess: microangiographic studies in an experimental model.

    PubMed

    Feldenzer, J A; McKeever, P E; Schaberg, D R; Campbell, J A; Hoff, J T

    1988-07-01

    An experimental model of spinal epidural abscess was developed in rabbits by injecting Staphylococcus aureus into the posterior thoracolumbar epidural space. This model has been shown to reproduce the neurological, bacteriological, and radiological aspects of the human disease. In this study, the effect of the infectious epidural mass on the vasculature of the spinal cord in paraplegic rabbits was studied using microangiographic techniques. The normal vascular anatomy of the rabbit spinal cord was defined in control experiments. Vascular proliferation was demonstrated in the epidural space surrounding the abscesses. Anterior and paired posterior spinal arteries remained patent in paraplegic rabbits with mild or moderate spinal cord compression and in some cases of severe compression. In animals with severe compression, the anterior epidural venous plexus remained patent, but the dorsal spinal vein was occluded. Occlusion of perforating arteries occurred only with extreme spinal cord compression. These data indicate that the initial neurological deficit associated with experimental spinal epidural abscess is not due to vascular thrombosis. PMID:2454302

  7. Paraspinal and Extensive Epidural Abscess: The Great Masqueraders of Abdominal Pain.

    PubMed

    Chu, Andrew; Aung, Thu Thu; Shankar, Uday

    2015-01-01

    Paraspinal and epidural abscesses are rare conditions often diagnosed later in the disease process that can have significant morbidity and mortality. Predisposing risk factors include diabetes, human immunodeficiency virus, intravenous drug abuse, and previous history of spinal surgery or injection. They can threaten the spinal cord by compressive effect, leading to sensory motor deficits and ultimately paralysis and death. Diagnosis may be a challenge due to the delayed presentation of nonspecific back pain or radicular pain such as chest pain or abdominal pain. We present a rare case on a patient with periumbilical pain, constipation, and urinary retention who was ultimately diagnosed with a paraspinal abscess extending into the epidural space from T1 to S2. He underwent decompressive laminectomy with incision and drainage of the abscesses. The patient made an excellent recovery postoperatively, and repeat magnetic resonance imaging at six weeks showed resolution of the abscess. PMID:26770847

  8. Paraspinal and Extensive Epidural Abscess: The Great Masqueraders of Abdominal Pain

    PubMed Central

    Chu, Andrew; Aung, Thu Thu; Shankar, Uday

    2015-01-01

    Paraspinal and epidural abscesses are rare conditions often diagnosed later in the disease process that can have significant morbidity and mortality. Predisposing risk factors include diabetes, human immunodeficiency virus, intravenous drug abuse, and previous history of spinal surgery or injection. They can threaten the spinal cord by compressive effect, leading to sensory motor deficits and ultimately paralysis and death. Diagnosis may be a challenge due to the delayed presentation of nonspecific back pain or radicular pain such as chest pain or abdominal pain. We present a rare case on a patient with periumbilical pain, constipation, and urinary retention who was ultimately diagnosed with a paraspinal abscess extending into the epidural space from T1 to S2. He underwent decompressive laminectomy with incision and drainage of the abscesses. The patient made an excellent recovery postoperatively, and repeat magnetic resonance imaging at six weeks showed resolution of the abscess. PMID:26770847

  9. Continuous Cervical Epidural Analgesia in Metastatic Spinal Cord Compression

    PubMed Central

    Menon, Mahesh; Taha, Nafisa; Purohit, Navita; Kothari, Vatsal; Singh, Shweta

    2016-01-01

    Metastatic spinal cord compression is a devastating complication of cancer. Patients may often require high doses of opioids that may cause side effects, myoclonus being one such. A 63-year-old male suffering from malignant spinal cord compression was admitted to our institution. The primary team managed him conservatively with pharmacotherapy with no relief of pain, and he experienced myoclonus and sedation as adverse effects. A continuous cervical epidural catheter with local anesthetic infusion was inserted for 5 days to control his pain. This relieved his pain, which was sustained even after we removed the epidural catheter on day 5, for up to 64 days until the time of his death. Continuous cervical epidural local anesthetic infusions may help with refractory pain by deafferentation of noxious stimuli. Central neuraxial blocks may be a valuable rescue in selected patients. PMID:27803576

  10. Severe Scapular Pain Following Unintentional Cervical Epidural Air Injection.

    PubMed

    Henthorn, Randall W; Murray, Kerra

    2016-03-01

    This a unique case of severe scapular pain following unintentional epidural space air injection during epidural steroid injection.A 70-year-old woman presented for a fluoroscopically guided C7-T1 interlaminar epidural steroid injection. Three injection attempts were made using the loss of resistance with air technique. On the first attempt the epidural space was entered, but contrast injection showed that the needle was intravenous. On the second attempt an equivocal loss of resistance with air was perceived and 5 mL of air was lost from the syringe. The needle was withdrawn and redirected, and upon the third needle passage the contrast injection showed appropriate epidural space filling up to the C4-5 level. Injection of betamethasone mixed in lidocaine was initially uneventful.However, 20 minutes post-injection the patient experienced sudden sharp and continuous pain along the medial edge of the scapula. After failing to respond to multiple intravascular analgesics, the patient was transferred to the emergency room. Her pain subsided completely following an intravenous diazepam injection. Cervical spine computerized tomography showed obvious air in the posterior epidural space from C4-5 to C6-7 as well as outside the spinal canal from (C4-T2). Having recovered fully, she was discharged the following morning. In reviewing the procedure, the equivocal loss of resistance on the second passage was actually a true loss of resistance to epidural space and air was unintentionally injected. Surprisingly, severe scapular pain resulted in a delayed manner after the steroid solution was injected. The authors theorize that unintentional prefilling of the epidural space with air prior to the injection of the subsequent steroid mixture added sufficient pressure to the epidural space to cause right-sided C4 nerve root stretching/entrapment and ensuing radicular pain to the right scapular border. The subsequent intravenous diazepam provided cervical muscle relaxation and

  11. Incidence of intravascular penetration in transforaminal cervical epidural steroid injections.

    PubMed

    Furman, Michael B; Giovanniello, Michael T; O'Brien, Erin M

    2003-01-01

    STUDY DESIGN A prospective, observational, human, study was conducted. OBJECTIVES To evaluate the incidence of vascular penetration during fluoroscopically guided, contrast-enhanced transforaminal cervical epidural steroid injections, and to determine whether the observation of blood in the needle hub can be used to predict a vascular injection. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA Incorrectly placed intravascular cervical spinal injections result in medication flow systemically and not to the desired target. A recently published study demonstrates a high incidence of intravascular injections in transforaminal lumbosacral epidural injections. No studies so far have evaluated the incidence of vascular injections in transforaminal cervical epidural steroid injections, nor have they calculated the ability of observed blood in the needle hub to predict a vascular injection in the cervical spine.METHODS The incidence of fluoroscopically confirmed intravascular uptake of contrast was prospectively observed in 337 patients treated with cervical transforaminal epidural steroid injections. The ability of observed blood in the needle hub to predict intravascular injection was also investigated. For each subject, the injection level was chosen on the basis of the clinical scenario including history, physical examination, and review of imaging studies. Some patients had multilevel injections. Using fluoroscopic guidance, the authors placed a 25-gauge needle into the epidural space using a transforaminal approach according to accepted standard technique. Needle tip location was confirmed with biplanar imaging. The presence or absence of blood in the needle hub spontaneously ("flash") and after attempted aspiration by pulling back on the syringe's plunger was documented. Contrast then was injected under real-time fluoroscopy to determine whether the location of the needle tip was intravascular. The results were recorded in a prospective manner indicating the presence or absence of blood

  12. Gallium-67 scintigraphy as an aid in the detection of spinal epidural abscess.

    PubMed

    Klein, M; Ahn, C S; Drum, D E; Tow, D E

    1994-09-01

    Gadolinium-enhanced MRI is considered the study of choice for diagnosing spinal epidural abscess (SEA). Most of such cases, however, are not suspected initially, and thus do not benefit from the procedure. A case of SEA is described in which positive Ga-67 scintigraphy shortly before onset of lower extremity dysfunction was instrumental in obtaining an emergency gadolinium-enhanced MRI and establishing the diagnosis.

  13. Primary lumbar epidural abscess without spondylodiscitis caused by Fusobacterium necrophorum diagnosed by 16S rRNA PCR.

    PubMed

    Sanmillán, Jose Luis; Pelegrín, Iván; Rodríguez, David; Ardanuy, Carmen; Cabellos, Carmen

    2013-10-01

    We report the case of a 71-year-old woman who presented a primary spinal epidural abscess caused by Fusobacterium necrophorum. This is the second report in the medical literature to associate this organism with a primary spinal epidural abscess without spondylodiscitis. After treatment with emergency laminectomy followed by 8 weeks of antibiotic treatment the patient was cured. Oral metronidazole (500 mg every 8 h) was the definitive choice of treatment. F. necrophorum spinal epidural abscess is rare, although samples for anaerobic culture should be collected in order to improve detection of anaerobic spinal infections. PCR amplification and sequencing of the 16S rRNA permits early diagnosis in anaerobic infections.

  14. Salmonella Enterica Serotype Enteritidis Vertebral Osteomyelitis and Epidural Abscess Complicated with Meningitis.

    PubMed

    Oki, Masayuki; Ueda, Akihiro; Tsuda, Ayumi; Yanagi, Hidetaka; Ozawa, Hideki; Takagi, Atsushi

    2016-01-01

    Infection with non-typhoidal Salmonella often results in a self-limited acute gastroenteritis. Extra-intestinal Salmonella infection is relatively rare and occurs predominantly in infants and adults with significant underlying conditions. We describe a 54-year-old Japanese man with a history of heavy alcohol consumption and daily contact with a dog, who developed bacteremia complicated by vertebral osteomyelitis, spinal epidural abscess, and meningitis, due to Salmonella enterica serotype Enteritidis. This case suggests that Salmonella should be considered as an etiologic pathogen in adult patients with perivertebral infection or meningitis. PMID:27628612

  15. Paraplegia following cervical epidural catheterization using loss of resistance technique with air: a case report.

    PubMed

    Chae, Yun Jeong; Han, Kyung Ream; Park, Hyung Bae; Kim, Chan; Nam, Si Gweon

    2016-02-01

    We report a case of paraplegia without neurologic deficit of upper extremities following cervical epidural catheterization using air during the loss of resistance technique. A 41-year-old woman diagnosed with complex regional pain syndrome had upper and lower extremity pain. A thoracic epidural lead was inserted for a trial spinal cord stimulation for treating lower extremity pain and cervical epidural catheterization was performed for treating upper extremity pain. Rapidly progressive paraplegia developed six hours after cervical epidural catheterization. Spine CT revealed air entrapment in multiple thoracic intervertebral foraminal spaces and surrounding epidural space without obvious spinal cord compression before the decompressive operation, which disappeared one day after the decompressive operation. Her paraplegia symptoms were normalized immediately after the operation. The presumed cause of paraplegia was transient interruption of blood supply to the spinal cord through the segmental radiculomedullary arteries feeding the spinal cord at the thoracic level of the intervertebral foramen caused by the air.

  16. [Epidural abscess due to a Mycobacterium tuberculosis strain with primary resistance to isoniazid and ethambutol].

    PubMed

    Sener, Alper; Akçalı, Alper; Karatağ, Ozan; Koşar, Sule; Değirmenci, Yıldız; Akman, Tarık

    2012-10-01

    Tuberculosis is primarily characterized by pulmonary involvement, however, one third of the cases exhibit extrapulmonary tuberculosis. In this report, a case of epidural abscess due to Mycobacterium tuberculosis with primary resistance to isoniazid and ethambutol was presented. A 57-year-old male patient was admitted to emergency service with ten days history of weakness in legs, disability of walking and fever. Neurological examination revealed paraplegia of lower extremities, numbness distal to T2 disc level and hyperactivity of deep tendon reflexes indicating transverse myelitis. Laboratory findings were as follows; ESR: 74 mm/hour, CRP: 22 g/L, ALT: 42 IU/L, AST: 45 IU/L and white blood cell count 23.000/mm3 (45% polymorphonuclear leukocyte, 45% lymphocyte, 10% monocyte). Spinal magnetic resonance imaging showed a fusiform abscess localized at anterior epidural space and extending along levels of C5-6 and C6-7. The longitudinal dimension of the abscess was 3 cm. The lesion was hypointense on T1 and hyperintense on T2 weighted MRI images with prominent rim shaped contrast enhancement on contrast-enhanced T1-weighted images. At fourth day of hospitalization the patient underwent neurosurgical management. M.tuberculosis was isolated from the cultures of operation material by Mycobacteria Growth Incubator Tube system (MGIT, BBL; BD, USA) on the 12th day. The isolate was found susceptible to streptomycin and rifampisin, but resistant to isoniazid and ethambutol. The treatment was initiated with rifampicin 600 mg/day, pyrazinamid 2 g/day, ethambutol 1.5 g/day and levofloxacin 500 mg/day. At the end of second month levofloxacin 500 mg/day and rifampisin 600 mg/day combination was sustained and total treatment period was planned as nine months. As far as the national literature was considered, this was the first case of extrapulmonary tuberculosis with primary resistance to isoniazid and ethambutol. PMID:23188583

  17. Epidural abscess

    MedlinePlus

    Early diagnosis and treatment greatly improves the chance of a good outcome. Once weakness, paralysis , or sensation changes occur, the chance of recovering lost function are reduced. Permanent nervous system damage or death may occur.

  18. Osteomyelitis, discitis, epidural and psoas abscess secondary to Salmonella enterica in a man with diabetes mellitus and newly diagnosed α-thalassaemia trait.

    PubMed

    Farrar, Helen; Abbey, Aoife; Patel, Vinod; Nair, Rajiv

    2015-01-21

    We report the case of a 65-year-old man with type 2 diabetes mellitus and α-thalassaemia trait. Investigations for relapsing and remitting fever found vertebral osteomyelitis, discitis and epidural and psoas abscess secondary to Salmonella enterica.

  19. Extensive subgaleal abscess and epidural empyema in a patient with acute frontal sinusitis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wen-Hung; Hwang, Tzer-Zen

    2003-05-01

    Acute frontal sinusitis can be a serious condition because of its potential life-threatening complications. These complications, including spread of infection to the frontal bone and intracranially, require prompt diagnosis and intervention to avoid morbidity and mortality. We report a case of acute frontal sinusitis in a 16-year-old girl who presented with fever, severe headache, and vomiting of 3 days' duration. Generalized fluctuant swelling of the nasal root, and bilateral supraorbital and frontoparietal regions was noted. Computed tomography (CT) demonstrated left pansinusitis, extensive subgaleal abscess and epidural empyema with osteomyelitis of the frontal bone. External frontoethmoidectomy with mucoperiostectomy were performed. Endoscopic sinus surgery was then conducted for intranasal ethmoidectomy. Intraoperative cultures grew viridans streptococci, coagulase-negative staphylococci and Peptostreptococcus micros. The patient received 3 weeks of treatment with intravenous antibiotics (penicillin 3 MU 4-hourly, ceftriaxone 500 mg 12-hourly, metronidazole 500 mg 6-hourly) and was discharged uneventfully and prescribed additional oral antibiotics for 5 weeks (clindamycin 150 mg 6-hourly and chloramphenicol 250 mg 6-hourly). CT revealed complete resolution of the abscess and clear maxillary and ethmoid sinuses at 7 weeks posttreatment. The patient was free of sinus infection at 4-years follow-up, without noticeable cosmetic deformity.

  20. Cervical spondylitis and spinal abscess due to Actinomyces meyeri.

    PubMed

    Duvignaud, Alexandre; Ribeiro, Emmanuel; Moynet, Daniel; Longy-Boursier, Maïté; Malvy, Denis

    2014-01-01

    Human actinomycosis with involvement of the spine is a rare condition although it has been first described a long time ago. It is probably underrecognized since its clinical presentation is often misleading and accurate bacteriological diagnosis is challenging. We herein report a rare case of cervical actinomycosis with paravertebral abscess and spondylitis imputed to an infection by Actinomyces meyeri in a 52-year-old immunocompetent Caucasian man. A. meyeri should be considered as a potential cause for subacute or chronic spondylitis, even in immunocompetent subjects. Modern diagnostic tools such as Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption-Ionization Time of Flight mass spectrometry and 16S rRNA sequencing are efficient for accurate microbiological identification.

  1. Catheter-Based Transepidural Approach to Cervical and Thoracic Posterior and Perineural Epidural Spaces: A Cadaveric Feasibility Study

    PubMed Central

    Qureshi, Adnan I.; Qureshi, Mushtaq H.; Malik, Ahmed A.; Khan, Asif A.; Sohail, Amna; Saed, Aveen; Jadhav, Vikram

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES Approaching the cervical and high thoracic level epidural space through transepidural route from lumbar region represents a method to lower the occurrence of complications associated with direct approach. The authors performed a cadaveric pilot project to determine the feasibility of various catheter-based manipulation and cephalad advancement using the transepidural route. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS Two cadavers were used to determine the following: 1. Ability to place a guide sheath over a guidewire using a percutaneous approach within the posterior lumbar epidural space; 2. The highest vertebral level catheter can be advanced within the posterior epidural space; 3. Ability to cross midline within the posterior epidural space; and 4. Ability to catheterize the perineural epidural sheaths of the nerve roots exiting at cervical and thoracic vertebral levels. RESULTS We were able to advance the catheters up to the level of cervical vertebral level of C2 within the posterior epidural space under fluoroscopic guidance from a sheath inserted via oblique parasagittal approach at the lumbar L4–L5 intervertebral space. We were able to cross midline within the posterior epidural space and catheterize multiple perineural epidural sheaths of the nerve roots exiting at cervical vertebral level of C2, C3, and C4 on ipsilateral or contralateral sides. We also catheterized multiple epidural sheaths that surround the nerve roots exiting at the thoracic vertebral level on ipsilateral or contralateral sides. CONCLUSIONS We were able to advance a catheter or microcatheter up to the cervical vertebral level within the posterior epidural space and catheterize the perineural epidural sheath of the nerve root exiting at cervical and thoracic vertebral levels. Such observations support further exploration of percutaneous catheter based transepidural approach to cervical and thoracic dorsal epidural spaces for therapeutic interventions. PMID:26060530

  2. Spinal epidural abscess with a rapid course in young healthy infantry recruits with multiple skin lacerations.

    PubMed

    Honig, Asaf; Or, Omer; Barzilay, Yair; Fraifeld, Shifra; Pikkel, Yoav Y; Eliahou, Ruth; Cohen, José E; Itshayek, Eyal

    2016-09-01

    In recent years, there has been high prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) infection among soldiers in the Israeli military, with devastating sequelae in several cases. Emergency department physicians have developed a high level of suspicion for spinal epidural abscess (SEA) in patients presenting known risk factors; however, SEA is a particularly elusive diagnosis in young healthy adults with no history of drug abuse. We review three cases of SEA secondary to methicillin-sensitive S. aureus (MSSA) infection in young healthy soldiers without known risk factors. We retrospectively reviewed clinical files of soldiers treated at our Medical Center from 2004-2015 to identify patients diagnosed with SEA. Those aged less than 30years with no history of intravenous drug use, spine surgery or spine trauma were included in the study. Three young army recruits met the inclusion criteria. These young men developed SEA through extension of MSSA infection to proximal skin and soft tissue from impetigo secondary to skin scratches sustained during "basic" training. All presented with mild nuchal rigidity and severe persistent unremitting lancinating radicular pain. Although healthy at baseline, they had a severe, rapidly progressive course. Following urgent surgery, two patients recovered after rehabilitation; one remained with paraparesis at late follow-up. Neurological deficits and systemic evidence of S. aureus infection progressed rapidly in these young healthy SEA patients with no history of drug abuse, emphasizing the critical role of timely MRI, diagnosis, and surgery. PMID:27364320

  3. Doxorubicin-induced dilated cardiomyopathy for modified radical mastectomy: A case managed under cervical epidural anaesthesia

    PubMed Central

    Jain, Anuj; Kishore, Kamal

    2013-01-01

    Doxorubicin (Dox) is an antineoplastic agent used in a wide variety of malignancies. Its use is limited because of a cumulative, dose-dependent irreversible cardiomyopathy. We report a case of Dox induced cardiomyopathy, posted for modified radical mastectomy. The patient had poor LV function along with moderate pulmonary hypertension. Regional anaesthesia was planned as the risk associated with general anaesthesia was more. A cervical epidural was placed and a block adequate for surgery could be achived. The haemodynamic parameters as measured by esophageal doppler showed a stable trend. The surgery could be managed well under cervical epidural and also provided a good postoperative pain relief. PMID:23825820

  4. [Interest of cervical epidural anesthesia in perioperative management of thyroidectomy with the high-risk anesthetic patient].

    PubMed

    Mahoungou Guimbi, K C; Itiere Odzili, F A; Soussa, G R

    2014-03-01

    Cervical epidural anesthesia is an anesthetic technique that can be useful in patients with high perioperative risk undergoing to cervical surgery. We report the case of a patient of 49 years old with hypertension, diabetes mellitus, epilepsy, left hemiparesis sequelae of stroke and congestive left ventricular failure. The patient underwent total thyroidectomy under cervical epidural anesthesia. No difficulty breathing or decompensation of chronic underlying diseases were noted in the postoperative.

  5. Composite split cord malformation associated with a dermal sinus tract, dermoid cyst, and epidural abscess: A case report and review of literature

    PubMed Central

    Akhtar, Saad; Azeem, Abdul; Shamim, Muhammad Shahzad; Tahir, Muhammad Zubair

    2016-01-01

    Background: Split cord malformation (SCM) is typically present at a single level but rarely, may be present at multiple levels in the spinal cord and can be associated with a wide array of lesions such as myelomeningoceles, lipomas, teratomas, and dermal sinus tracts (DSTs). Case Description: We describe a case of a 15-month-old female child who presented with high-grade fever and progressive motor weakness in the lower limbs. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed the presence of SCM along with an epidural abscess, DST, and dermoid cyst. The child underwent surgery for excision of DST along with removal of the dermoid cyst and drainage of epidural abscess. The postoperative course was uneventful. Elective repair of the SCM was performed 4 weeks later. The postoperative course was uneventful again. Conclusion: To the best of our knowledge, the combination of a composite SCM with a DST and dermoid cyst with associated epidural abscess has rarely been reported in literature. PMID:27168946

  6. Timing and prognosis of surgery for spinal epidural abscess: A review

    PubMed Central

    Epstein, Nancy E.

    2015-01-01

    Background: The nonsurgical versus surgical management of spinal epidural abscesses (SEAs) remains controversial. Even with the best preoperative screening for multiple risk factors, high nonoperative failure rates are attended by considerable morbidity (e.g., irreversible paralysis) and mortality. Therefore, the focus remains on early surgery. Methods: Most papers promote early recognition of the clinical triad (e.g., fever [50%], spinal pain [92–100%], and neurological deficits [47%]) for SEA. They also identify SEA-related risk factors for choosing nonsurgical versus surgical approaches; advanced age (>65 or 80), diabetes (15–30%), cancer, intravenous drug abuse (25%), smoking (23%), elevated white blood cell count (>12.5), high C-reactive protein >115, positive blood cultures, magnetic resonance imaging/computed tomographic documented cord compression, and significant neurological deficits (e.g., 19–45%). Results: Surgical options include: decompressions, open versus minimally invasive biopsy/culture/irrigation, or fusions. Up to 75% of SEA involve the thoracolumbar spine, and 50% are located ventrally. Wound cultures are positive in up to 78.8% of cases and are often (60%) correlated with positive blood cultures. The most typical offending organism is methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus, followed by methicillin sensitive S. aureus. Unfortunately, the failure rates for nonoperative treatment of SEA remain high (e.g., 41–42.5%), contributing to significant morbidity (22% risk of permanent paralysis), and mortality (3–25%). Conclusion: The vast majority of studies advocated early surgery to achieve better outcomes for treating SEA; this avoids high failure rates (41–42.5%) for nonoperative therapy, and limits morbidity/mortality rates. PMID:26605109

  7. Successful treatment of cervical spinal epidural empyema secondary to grass awn migration in a cat.

    PubMed

    Granger, Nicolas; Hidalgo, Antoine; Leperlier, Dimitri; Gnirs, Kirsten; Thibaud, Jean-Laurent; Delisle, Françoise; Blot, Stéphane

    2007-08-01

    Spinal epidural empyema (SEE) represents a severe pyogenic infection of the epidural space. Clinical signs of the disease are non-specific--increased body temperature, intense neck pain, neurological signs of a transverse myelopathy--and can lead to severe and permanent neurological deficits. This report describes the diagnosis and successful surgical treatment of cervical SEE secondary to grass awn migration in a cat. Although it is uncommon, this disease should be suspected in cats with progressive myelopathy. Early diagnosis and emergency surgery combined with antibiotic therapy are required to allow a complete recovery. PMID:17449314

  8. Development of Epidural and Paraspinal Abscesses after Insufficient Evaluation and Treatment of Acute Pyelonephritis Caused by Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    Kim, Mi Jeoung; Koo, Hyang Mo; Lee, Woo Joo; Choi, Jin Hwan; Choi, Mi Nyong; Park, Sang Young; Kim, Woo Jung; Son, Seung Yeon

    2016-09-01

    Diagnoses of pyelonephritis caused by Staphylococcus aureus should be accompanied by investigations of concomitant bladder obstruction and metastatic infections, especially to the spine or heart. Complicated pyelonephritis due to S. aureus requires more than 2 weeks of antibiotics, which is the typically recommended treatment duration for pyelonephritis. We describe a patient who was diagnosed with complicated epidural and paraspinal abscesses after insufficient evaluation and treatment of acute pyelonephritis due to S. aureus. A 62-year-old man with type 2 diabetes was admitted with fever, increased urinary frequency, and left flank pain. He was diagnosed with acute pyelonephritis caused by S. aureus. His fever and flank pain subsided after 3 days of intravenous antibiotics. Evaluation of bladder obstruction and metastatic infection were not performed, as he declined further evaluation. The patient was discharged with oral antibiotics and was requested to attend weekly appointments but was lost to follow-up. One month later, the patient presented at the outpatient clinic with similar symptoms. Computed tomography showed recurrent pyelonephritis and a distended bladder. His flank pain persisted despite administration of an opioid agent. Therefore, magnetic resonance imaging was performed, revealing epidural and paraspinal abscesses. Ultrasound-guided aspiration of the paraspinal muscle layer was performed, and blood and percutaneous aspirated fluid cultures revealed S. aureus growth. The pattern of antimicrobial sensitivity was identical to that at his first admission. Following more than 4 weeks of antibiotics, magnetic resonance imaging showed the abscesses had decreased in size. The patient was discharged without neurologic sequelae and was provided with oral antibiotics. PMID:27688864

  9. Development of Epidural and Paraspinal Abscesses after Insufficient Evaluation and Treatment of Acute Pyelonephritis Caused by Staphylococcus aureus

    PubMed Central

    Koo, Hyang Mo; Lee, Woo Joo; Choi, Jin Hwan; Choi, Mi Nyong; Park, Sang Young; Kim, Woo Jung; Son, Seung Yeon

    2016-01-01

    Diagnoses of pyelonephritis caused by Staphylococcus aureus should be accompanied by investigations of concomitant bladder obstruction and metastatic infections, especially to the spine or heart. Complicated pyelonephritis due to S. aureus requires more than 2 weeks of antibiotics, which is the typically recommended treatment duration for pyelonephritis. We describe a patient who was diagnosed with complicated epidural and paraspinal abscesses after insufficient evaluation and treatment of acute pyelonephritis due to S. aureus. A 62-year-old man with type 2 diabetes was admitted with fever, increased urinary frequency, and left flank pain. He was diagnosed with acute pyelonephritis caused by S. aureus. His fever and flank pain subsided after 3 days of intravenous antibiotics. Evaluation of bladder obstruction and metastatic infection were not performed, as he declined further evaluation. The patient was discharged with oral antibiotics and was requested to attend weekly appointments but was lost to follow-up. One month later, the patient presented at the outpatient clinic with similar symptoms. Computed tomography showed recurrent pyelonephritis and a distended bladder. His flank pain persisted despite administration of an opioid agent. Therefore, magnetic resonance imaging was performed, revealing epidural and paraspinal abscesses. Ultrasound-guided aspiration of the paraspinal muscle layer was performed, and blood and percutaneous aspirated fluid cultures revealed S. aureus growth. The pattern of antimicrobial sensitivity was identical to that at his first admission. Following more than 4 weeks of antibiotics, magnetic resonance imaging showed the abscesses had decreased in size. The patient was discharged without neurologic sequelae and was provided with oral antibiotics. PMID:27688864

  10. Development of Epidural and Paraspinal Abscesses after Insufficient Evaluation and Treatment of Acute Pyelonephritis Caused by Staphylococcus aureus

    PubMed Central

    Koo, Hyang Mo; Lee, Woo Joo; Choi, Jin Hwan; Choi, Mi Nyong; Park, Sang Young; Kim, Woo Jung; Son, Seung Yeon

    2016-01-01

    Diagnoses of pyelonephritis caused by Staphylococcus aureus should be accompanied by investigations of concomitant bladder obstruction and metastatic infections, especially to the spine or heart. Complicated pyelonephritis due to S. aureus requires more than 2 weeks of antibiotics, which is the typically recommended treatment duration for pyelonephritis. We describe a patient who was diagnosed with complicated epidural and paraspinal abscesses after insufficient evaluation and treatment of acute pyelonephritis due to S. aureus. A 62-year-old man with type 2 diabetes was admitted with fever, increased urinary frequency, and left flank pain. He was diagnosed with acute pyelonephritis caused by S. aureus. His fever and flank pain subsided after 3 days of intravenous antibiotics. Evaluation of bladder obstruction and metastatic infection were not performed, as he declined further evaluation. The patient was discharged with oral antibiotics and was requested to attend weekly appointments but was lost to follow-up. One month later, the patient presented at the outpatient clinic with similar symptoms. Computed tomography showed recurrent pyelonephritis and a distended bladder. His flank pain persisted despite administration of an opioid agent. Therefore, magnetic resonance imaging was performed, revealing epidural and paraspinal abscesses. Ultrasound-guided aspiration of the paraspinal muscle layer was performed, and blood and percutaneous aspirated fluid cultures revealed S. aureus growth. The pattern of antimicrobial sensitivity was identical to that at his first admission. Following more than 4 weeks of antibiotics, magnetic resonance imaging showed the abscesses had decreased in size. The patient was discharged without neurologic sequelae and was provided with oral antibiotics.

  11. Lumbar Epidural Steroid Injection for Painful Spasticity in Cervical Spinal Cord Injury: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Bang, Hyun; Chun, Seong Min; Park, Hee Won; Bang, Moon Suk

    2015-01-01

    We report a case of a 53-year-old male with traumatic cervical spinal cord injury (SCI). He could not maintain a standing position because of painful spasticity in his lower limbs. A magnetic resonance imaging and electromyography indicated chronic lumbosacral radiculopathy, explaining his chronic low back pain before the injury. For diagnostic as well as therapeutic purposes, transforaminal epidural steroid injection (ESI) to the right L5 root was performed. After the intervention, the spasticity decreased and his ambulatory function improved. This case illustrates that lumbar radiculopathy concomitant with a cervical SCI can produce severe spasticity and it can be dramatically improved by ESI. PMID:26361605

  12. Spontaneously Resolved Recurrent Cervical Epidural Hematoma in a 37-Week Primigravida.

    PubMed

    Iwatsuki, Katsuyuki; Deguchi, Masao; Hirata, Hitoshi; Kanamono, Toshihisa

    2015-10-01

    Study Design Case report. Objective To describe a patient with a recurrent spontaneous spinal epidural hematoma (SSEH) during pregnancy that had spontaneous remission. Methods A 27-year-old primigravida at 37 weeks' gestation suddenly felt a strong left shoulder pain without any trauma. She had a history of fenestration for a spontaneous cervical hematoma when she was 18 years old. An emergency magnetic resonance imaging revealed a recurrence of the cervical epidural hematoma at the C4-T1 level, but she had no paralysis. Results The patient subsequently underwent a cesarean section and delivered a healthy male infant. Her spinal epidural hematoma disappeared. Multislice computed tomography showed no evidence for a vascular malformation or tumor. Three years after the initial cesarean section, she underwent a second one and delivered another male infant. Conclusions We report on a rare case of recurrent SSEH during pregnancy with no neurologic deficits that was treated nonoperatively with close observation and resulted in spontaneous resolution. In such patients with no neurologic deficits, nonoperative management with close observation may be a reasonable alternative. PMID:26430600

  13. Cervical Interlaminar Epidural Steroid Injection for Unilateral Cervical Radiculopathy: Comparison of Midline and Paramedian Approaches for Efficacy

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Ji Young; Yoon, Young Cheol; Lee, Jongseok

    2015-01-01

    Objective The objective of this study was to compare the clinical outcomes of the cervical interlaminar epidural steroid injection (CIESI) for unilateral radiculopathy by the midline or paramedian approaches and to determine the prognostic factors of CIESI. Materials and Methods We retrospectively analyzed 182 patients who underwent CIESI from January 2009 to December 2012. Inclusion criteria were no previous spinal steroid injection, presence of a cross-sectional image, and presence of follow-up records. Exclusion criteria were patients with bilateral cervical radiculopathy and/or dominant cervical axial pain, combined peripheral neuropathy, and previous cervical spine surgery. Short-term clinical outcomes were evaluated at the first follow-up after CIESI. We compared the clinical outcomes between the midline and paramedian approaches. Possible prognostic factors for the outcome, such as age, gender, duration of radiculopathy, and cause of radiculopathy were also analyzed. Results Cervical interlaminar epidural steroid injections were effective in 124 of 182 patients (68.1%) at the first follow-up. There was no significant difference in the clinical outcomes of CIESI, between midline (69.6%) and paramedian (63.7%) approaches (p = 0.723). Cause of radiculopathy was the only significant factor affecting the efficacy of CIESI. Patients with disc herniation had significantly better results than patients with neural foraminal stenosis (82.9% vs. 56.0%) (p < 0.001). Conclusion There is no significant difference in treatment efficacy between the midline and paramedian approaches in CIESI, for unilateral radiculopathy. The cause of the radiculopathy is significantly associated with the treatment efficacy; patients with disc herniation experience better pain relief than those with neural foraminal stenosis. PMID:25995690

  14. Evaluation of optimal electrode configurations for epidural spinal cord stimulation in cervical spinal cord injured rats

    PubMed Central

    Alam, Monzurul; Garcia-Alias, Guillermo; Shah, Prithvi K.; Gerasimenko, Yury; Zhong, Hui; Roy, Roland R.; Edgerton, V. Reggie

    2015-01-01

    Background Epidural spinal cord stimulation is a promising technique for modulating the level of excitability and reactivation of dormant spinal neuronal circuits after spinal cord injury (SCI). We examined the ability of chronically implanted epidural stimulation electrodes within the cervical spinal cord to (1) directly elicit spinal motor evoked potentials (sMEPs) in forelimb muscles and (2) determine whether these sMEPs can serve as a biomarker of forelimb motor function after SCI. New method We implanted EMG electrodes in forelimb muscles and epidural stimulation electrodes at C6 and C8 in adult rats. After recovering from a dorsal funiculi crush (C4), rats were tested with different stimulation configurations and current intensities to elicit sMEPs and determined forelimb grip strength. Results: sMEPs were evoked in all muscles tested and their characteristics were dependent on electrode configurations and current intensities. C6(−) stimulation elicited more robust sMEPs than stimulation at C8(−). Stimulating C6 and C8 simultaneously produced better muscle recruitment and higher grip strengths than stimulation at one site. Comparison with existing method(s) Classical method to select the most optimal stimulation configuration is to empirically test each combination individually for every subject and relate to functional improvements. This approach is impractical, requiring extensively long experimental time to determine the more effective stimulation parameters. Our proposed method is fast and physiologically sound. Conclusions Results suggest that sMEPs from forelimb muscles can be useful biomarkers for identifying optimal parameters for epidural stimulation of the cervical spinal cord after SCI. PMID:25791014

  15. Abscess

    MedlinePlus

    ... abscesses resolve quickly once appropriately treated. Community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) is a strain of "staph" bacteria resistant to antibiotics in the penicillin family, which have been the ...

  16. Abscess

    MedlinePlus

    ... En Español Making a Change – Your Personal Plan Hot Topics Meningitis Choosing Your Mood Prescription Drug Abuse ... compress by wetting a washcloth with warm — not hot — water and placing it over the abscess for ...

  17. Abscess

    MedlinePlus

    An abscess is a collection of pus in any part of the body that, in most cases, causes swelling and inflammation around it. ... collect in the damaged tissue. During this process, pus forms. Pus is the buildup of fluid, living ...

  18. Late prevertebral abscess with sinus following anterior cervical corpectomy and fusion

    PubMed Central

    Bhise, Swapnil D.; Mathesul, Ambarish A.; Deokate, Pravin; Chandanwale, Ajay S.; Bartakke, Girish D.

    2015-01-01

    Anterior cervical discectomy/corpectomy and fusion is performed in degenerative, traumatic and neoplastic etiologies of the cervical spine. This procedure is highly successful and associated with fewer complications. The rates of early and late postoperative infection have been reported to be between 0.1% and 1.6%, the late infections are being very rare. We report a rare case of a 30-year-old HIV negative, non-diabetic male who developed a late prevertebral cervical abscess with discharging sinus over posterior triangle of neck 3 years after an anterior cervical C6 corpectomy with fibular grafting and buttress screw fixation performed elsewhere for traumatic fracture C6 vertebra. The abscess was drained using radical neck dissection approach with complete excision of sinus track and removal of the infected implant. On culture, the organism was found to be beta-hemolytic streptococci, for which appropriate antibiotics were administered postoperatively. The sinus tract completely healed in 3 months time. Late infection as a complication of anterior cervical spine surgeries is rare and is associated with esophageal perforation, implant migration, seeding of the deep prevertebral space with oropharyngeal flora, or from surgical site/bacteremia or with Zenker's diverticulum. Few cases have been reported till date, but none have presented with a sinus tract. We present a case of delayed prevertebral abscess after cervical spine instrumentation that followed abnormal path causing sinus track to be developed in the site (the posterior triangle of the neck) other than previous incision site. Exploring both triangles of the neck using radical neck dissection approach was essential for complete excision of sinus track, removal of screw and debridement. PMID:26396628

  19. [Intramedullary Abscess of the Cervical Spinal Cord Caused by Advanced Periodontitis:Case Report].

    PubMed

    Sugawara, Atsushi; Ishigaki, Daiya; Isu, Toyohiko; Ogasawara, Kuniaki

    2016-08-01

    We describe the case of a 60-year-old man with an intramedullary abscess of the cervical spinal cord caused by advanced periodontitis. He suddenly developed severe neck pain and rapidly progressive palsy of the left upper arm. T2-weighted sagittal magnetic resonance imaging(MRI)revealed a hyperintense area extending from C1 to C6. Gadolinium-enhanced T1-weighted MRI showed a ring-enhanced lesion at the C3-4 level that was hyperintense on diffusion-weighted MRI. The patient underwent drainage of the abscess through laminectomy. Cultures of the abscess contents revealed Fusobacterium nucleatum and Peptostreptococcus micros. Antibiotics administered to the patient to treat the infection with these anaerobic bacteria improved the neurological deficit eight weeks after surgery. The patient was also diagnosed with advanced periodontitis due to Fusobacterium nucleatum that might have caused the intramedullary abscess of the cervical spinal cord. PMID:27506846

  20. Upper-limb muscle responses to epidural, subdural and intraspinal stimulation of the cervical spinal cord

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharpe, Abigail N.; Jackson, Andrew

    2014-02-01

    Objective. Electrical stimulation of the spinal cord has potential applications following spinal cord injury for reanimating paralysed limbs and promoting neuroplastic changes that may facilitate motor rehabilitation. Here we systematically compare the efficacy, selectivity and frequency-dependence of different stimulation methods in the cervical enlargement of anaesthetized monkeys. Approach. Stimulating electrodes were positioned at multiple epidural and subdural sites on both dorsal and ventral surfaces, as well as at different depths within the spinal cord. Motor responses were recorded from arm, forearm and hand muscles. Main results. Stimulation efficacy increased from dorsal to ventral stimulation sites, with the exception of ventral epidural electrodes which had the highest recruitment thresholds. Compared to epidural and intraspinal methods, responses to subdural stimulation were more selective but also more similar between adjacent sites. Trains of stimuli delivered to ventral sites elicited consistent responses at all frequencies whereas from dorsal sites we observed a mixture of short-latency facilitation and long-latency suppression. Finally, paired stimuli delivered to dorsal surface and intraspinal sites exhibited symmetric facilitatory interactions at interstimulus intervals between 2-5 ms whereas on the ventral side interactions tended to be suppressive for near-simultaneous stimuli. Significance. We interpret these results in the context of differential activation of afferent and efferent roots and intraspinal circuit elements. In particular, we propose that distinct direct and indirect actions of spinal cord stimulation on motoneurons may be advantageous for different applications, and this should be taken into consideration when designing neuroprostheses for upper-limb function.

  1. [Continuous cervical epidural with ropivacaine in carotid surgery. Description of a case].

    PubMed

    Musinu, C; Cagetti, M

    1998-12-01

    In the light of the recent addition of ropivacaine as a local anesthetic to our pharmacopeia, its effects at the cervical level are examined. A patient undergoing TEAC was given continuous epidural anesthesia with ropivacaine 0.5% (total dose: 167.5 mg in three hours) at C6-C7. No supplementary i.v. anesthetic was administered intraoperatively. The results obtained were compared with those of a similar case as to type of pathology and anesthetic technique, who was anesthetised with bupivacaine 0.375% (total dose: 112.5 mg in three hours-continuous epidural anesthesia) + fentanyl (0.18 mg), supplemented intravenously with ketoprophene (200 mg) + fentanyl (0.15 mg) for analgesic reasons. From this comparison, ropivacaine 0.5% was found to have greater anesthetic potential than bupivacaine 0.375%. However, it did not appear that ropivacaine exerted a protective effect on cardiovascular conditions in the course of carotid surgery. Further anesthesiologic experiences are needed to define the validity of ropivacaine in cervical surgery.

  2. Cervical CT scan-guided epidural blood patches for spontaneous intracranial hypotension.

    PubMed

    Maingard, Julian; Giles, Lauren; Marriott, Mark; Phal, Pramit M

    2015-12-01

    We describe two patients with spontaneous intracranial hypotension (SIH), presenting with postural headache due to C1-C2 cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leak. Both patients were refractory to lumbar epidural blood patching (EBP), and subsequently underwent successful CT scan-guided cervical EBP. SIH affects approximately 1 in 50,000 patients, with females more frequently affected. Its associated features are variable, and as such, misdiagnosis is common. Therefore, imaging plays an important role in the diagnostic workup of SIH and can include MRI of the brain and spine, CT myelogram, and radionuclide cisternography. In patients with an established diagnosis and confirmed CSF leak, symptoms will usually resolve with conservative management. However, in a select subgroup of patients, the symptoms are refractory to medical management and require more invasive therapies. In patients with cervical leaks, EBP in the cervical region is an effective management approach, either in close proximity to, or directly targeting a dural defect. CT scan-guided cervical EBP is an effective treatment approach in refractory SIH, and should be considered in those patients who are refractory to conservative management. PMID:26209918

  3. Cervical CT scan-guided epidural blood patches for spontaneous intracranial hypotension.

    PubMed

    Maingard, Julian; Giles, Lauren; Marriott, Mark; Phal, Pramit M

    2015-12-01

    We describe two patients with spontaneous intracranial hypotension (SIH), presenting with postural headache due to C1-C2 cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leak. Both patients were refractory to lumbar epidural blood patching (EBP), and subsequently underwent successful CT scan-guided cervical EBP. SIH affects approximately 1 in 50,000 patients, with females more frequently affected. Its associated features are variable, and as such, misdiagnosis is common. Therefore, imaging plays an important role in the diagnostic workup of SIH and can include MRI of the brain and spine, CT myelogram, and radionuclide cisternography. In patients with an established diagnosis and confirmed CSF leak, symptoms will usually resolve with conservative management. However, in a select subgroup of patients, the symptoms are refractory to medical management and require more invasive therapies. In patients with cervical leaks, EBP in the cervical region is an effective management approach, either in close proximity to, or directly targeting a dural defect. CT scan-guided cervical EBP is an effective treatment approach in refractory SIH, and should be considered in those patients who are refractory to conservative management.

  4. Foreign body ingestion: rare cause of cervical abscess.

    PubMed

    Costa, Liliana; Larangeiro, João; Pinto Moura, Carla; Santos, Margarida

    2014-01-01

    IntroduçÉo: A ingestÉo de corpo estranho é um motivo frequente de recurso à urgência hospitalar. As complicações graves, embora raras, incluem perfuraçÉo faringo-esofágica, fistula aorto-esofágica e infecçÉo cervical profunda.Material e Métodos: Foram analisados, retrospectivamente, os casos de ingestÉo de corpo estranho com internamento num hospital terciário, entre 1989 e 2011. Seleccionaram-se os casos complicados por abcesso cervical profundo, descrevendo-se a semiótica, resultados de meios complementares de diagnóstico, terapêutica efectuada e evoluçÉo clínica.Resultados: Dos 1679 casos, 319 referentes a crianças e 1360 a adultos, reportam-se dois casos (0,12%): uma criança, 13 meses, com abcesso retrofaríngeo após ingestÉo de osso de frango e um adulto, 41 anos, com abcesso parafaríngeo após ingestÉo de espinha de peixe. As complicações manifestaram-se quatro e três dias após remoçÉo do corpo estranho, respectivamente. Em ambos foram efectuadas Tomografias Computorizadas cervicais com contraste e drenagem cirúrgica dos abcessos; a criança foi ainda submetida a esofagoscopia rígida para remoçÉo de corpo estranho residual e encerramento da perfuraçÉo esofágica associada.DiscussÉo: Os abcessos cervicais sÉo uma complicaçÉo possível da ingestÉo de corpo estranho e constituem um desafio diagnóstico, principalmente em idade pediátrica. A manipulaçÉo esofágica prévia por fibroscopia poderá ser considerada um factor de risco. A imagiologia (Tomografia Computorizada cervical com contraste ou Resson'ncia Magnética Cervical) foi essencial para o diagnóstico e o planeamento cirúrgico.ConclusÉo: Embora raros, perante a história recente de ingestÉo/remoçÉo de corpo estranho esofágico e a presença de sintomas compatíveis, os abcessos cervicais devem ser tidos em consideraçÉo, dado o potencial de morbilidade e mortalidade na ausência de uma abordagem terapêutica adequada.

  5. Cervical Epidural Hematoma after Chiropractic Spinal Manipulation Therapy in a Patient with an Undiagnosed Cervical Spinal Arteriovenous Malformation

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Meng; Barber, Sean M; Moisi, Marc; Powell, Suzanne; Rivera, Andreana; Rose, James

    2015-01-01

    Spinal epidural hematoma (SEH) occurring after chiropractic spinal manipulation therapy (CSMT) is a rare clinical phenomenon. Our case is unique because the patient had an undiagnosed cervical spinal arteriovenous malformation (AVM) discovered on pathological analysis of the evacuated hematoma. Although the spinal manipulation likely contributed to the rupture of the AVM, there was no radiographic evidence of the use of excessive force, which was seen in another reported case. As such, patients with a known AVM who have not undergone surgical intervention should be cautioned against symptomatic treatment with CSMT, even if performed properly. Regardless of etiology, SEH is a surgical emergency and its favorable neurological recovery correlates inversely with time to surgical evacuation. PMID:26430581

  6. Upper-limb muscle responses to epidural, subdural and intraspinal stimulation of the cervical spinal cord

    PubMed Central

    Sharpe, Abigail N; Jackson, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    Objective Electrical stimulation of the spinal cord has potential applications following spinal cord injury for reanimating paralysed limbs and promoting neuroplastic changes that may facilitate motor rehabilitation. Here we systematically compare the efficacy, selectivity and frequency-dependence of different stimulation methods in the cervical enlargement of anaesthetized monkeys. Approach Stimulating electrodes were positioned at multiple epidural and subdural sites on both dorsal and ventral surfaces, as well as at different depths within the spinal cord. Motor responses were recorded from arm, forearm and hand muscles. Main results Stimulation efficacy increased from dorsal to ventral stimulation sites, with the exception of ventral epidural electrodes which had the highest recruitment thresholds. Compared to epidural and intraspinal methods, responses to subdural stimulation were more selective but also more similar between adjacent sites. Trains of stimuli delivered to ventral sites elicited consistent responses at all frequencies whereas from dorsal sites we observed a mixture of short-latency facilitation and long-latency suppression. Finally, paired stimuli delivered to dorsal surface and intraspinal sites exhibited symmetric facilitatory interactions at interstimulus intervals between 2–5 ms whereas on the ventral side interactions tended to be suppressive for near-simultaneous stimuli. Significance We interpret these results in the context of differential activation of afferent and efferent roots and intraspinal circuit elements. In particular, we propose that distinct direct and indirect actions of spinal cord stimulation on motoneurons may be advantageous for different applications, and this should be taken into consideration when designing neuroprostheses for upper-limb function. PMID:24654267

  7. Cervical transforaminal epidural steroid injections: a proposal for optimizing the preprocedural evaluation with available imaging.

    PubMed

    Nishio, Isuta

    2014-01-01

    Cervical transforaminal epidural steroid injection (CTFESI) has been used to treat cervical radicular pain; however, rare but serious complications such as cerebellar or spinal cord infarction have been reported. The most probable causes of the serious complications include vertebral artery trauma, spasm, or accidental arterial injection of particulate steroid. Several recommendations have been made to improve the safety of CTFESI; however, evaluation and risk assessment of the patient's anatomy by the interventionist have not been sufficiently emphasized. Significant correlations between foraminal narrowing and proximity of the vertebral artery to the target of needle have been reported. This correlation is particularly problematic for interventionists because patients considered or referred for CTFESI are more likely to have foraminal narrowing at the level concerned. Without knowing the patient's anatomy, a common practice of rotating the C-arm obliquely to obtain a full view of the target foramen may carry significant risk of needle's encounter with the vertebral artery. Risk assessment through careful preprocedural review of the patient's magnetic resonance imaging by the interventionist is a worthwhile practice to optimize safety. Special attention should be paid to the vital structures such as the vertebral artery, neural foramen, and carotid artery. A preprocedural roadmap for the safest predicted needle trajectory can be created by simulation using the patient's available magnetic resonance imaging scans. These considerations may guide and help the interventionist to minimize the risk of inadvertent needle placement involving vital structures such as the vertebral artery or carotid artery.

  8. Cervical spinal cord injection of epidural corticosteroids; comprehensive longitudinal study including multiparametric MRI

    PubMed Central

    Cohen-Adad, Julien; Buchbinder, Bradley; Oaklander, Anne Louise

    2012-01-01

    Despite widespread use, the efficacy of epidural corticosteroid injections (ESI) for osteoarthritis-associated neck or radicular pain remains uncertain, so even rare serious complications enter into discussions about use. However various factors impede investigation and publication of serious adverse events. To that end, we developed new magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques for spinal cord white-matter quantification and employed best-available physiological tests to characterize a cervical spinal cord lesion caused by inadvertent intramedullary injection of Depo-Medrol. A 29-year-old woman with mild cervical osteoarthritis had 2 years of headache and neck pain (concussion and whiplash) after two minor motor-vehicle accidents. During C5–6 ESI, she developed new left-sided motor and sensory symptoms and MRI demonstrated a new left dorsal spinal cord cavity. Mild left-sided motor and sensory symptoms have persisted for more than 2 years, during which time we performed serial neurological examinations, standard electrodiagnostics, somatosensory evoked potentials, and transcranial measurement of corticospinal central motor conduction time (CMCT). We used 3 tesla MRI with a 32-channel coil developed for high-resolution cervical spinal cord structural imaging, diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and magnetization transfer (MT). T2*-weighted signal, DTI and MT metrics showed delayed spread of the lesion across four vertebral levels rostrally, consistent with Wallerian degeneration within the ascending left dorsal columns. However only CMCT metrics detected objective correlates of her left hemiparesis and bilateral hyperreflexia. DTI and MT metrics may better distinguish between post-traumatic demyelination and axonal degeneration than conventional MRI. These tests should be considered to better characterize similar spinal cord injuries. PMID:22964435

  9. Draft Genome Sequence of Empedobacter (Formerly Wautersiella) falsenii comb. nov. Wf282, a Strain Isolated from a Cervical Neck Abscess

    PubMed Central

    Traglia, German Matías; Dixon, Chelsea; Chiem, Kevin; Almuzara, Marisa; Barberis, Claudia; Montaña, Sabrina; Merino, Cindy; Mussi, María Alejandra; Tolmasky, Marcelo E.; Iriarte, Andres; Vay, Carlos

    2015-01-01

    Empedobacter (formerly Wautersiella) falsenii comb. nov. strain Wf282 was isolated from a cervical neck abscess sample from an 18-year-old female patient. The isolate was resistant to many antibiotics, including meropenem and colistin. The total DNA from the multidrug-resistant E. falsenii comb. nov. Wf282 clinical isolate was sequenced. PMID:25838490

  10. Draft Genome Sequence of Empedobacter (Formerly Wautersiella) falsenii comb. nov. Wf282, a Strain Isolated from a Cervical Neck Abscess.

    PubMed

    Traglia, German Matías; Dixon, Chelsea; Chiem, Kevin; Almuzara, Marisa; Barberis, Claudia; Montaña, Sabrina; Merino, Cindy; Mussi, María Alejandra; Tolmasky, Marcelo E; Iriarte, Andres; Vay, Carlos; Ramírez, María Soledad

    2015-04-02

    Empedobacter (formerly Wautersiella) falsenii comb. nov. strain Wf282 was isolated from a cervical neck abscess sample from an 18-year-old female patient. The isolate was resistant to many antibiotics, including meropenem and colistin. The total DNA from the multidrug-resistant E. falsenii comb. nov. Wf282 clinical isolate was sequenced.

  11. Postoperative meningitis and epidural abscess due to extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae: a case report and a review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Yaita, Kenichiro; Komatsu, Masanari; Oshiro, Yusuke; Yamaguchi, Yukihiro

    2012-01-01

    17-year-old man had been involved in a traffic accident. He underwent a bilateral craniotomy with artificial dura mater to remove bilateral acute subdural hematomas. Seven months later, a right cranioplasty was performed using frozen auto-bone, and he developed extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae meningitis and an epidural abscess. Since his general status was poor, we could not remove the foreign body (artificial dura mater). He was successfully treated with meropenem and chronic suppression with oral trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole. By describing this case and the results of a review of the pertinent literature, we discuss the importance of ESBL-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae meningitis in posttraumatic/postoperative patients. PMID:22989843

  12. Comparison of Clinical Efficacy Between Interlaminar and Transforaminal Epidural Injection in Patients With Axial Pain due to Cervical Disc Herniation.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jung Hwan; Lee, Sang-Ho

    2016-01-01

    Transforaminal (TF) approach is preferred by physician to interlaminar (IL) approach because it can deliver injectates directly around nerve root and dorsal root ganglion, which is regarded as main pain sources. Axial neck pain is originated from sinuvertebral nerve located in ventral epidural spaces, which has been described to be related to central or paramedian disc herniation. It is very questionable that TF injection is also more effective than IL injection in the patients with axial neck or interscapular pain. This study was to evaluate clinical efficacy of cervical epidural injection in patients with axial pain due to cervical disc herniation and to compare the clinical outcomes between TF and IL approaches. Fifty-six and 52 patients who underwent IL and TF epidural injections, respectively, for axial neck/interscapular pain due to central or paramedian cervical disc herniation were included. Numeric Rating Scale (NRS) and Neck Disability Index (NDI) were compared between both groups at 2 and 8 weeks after treatment. Successful pain relief was defined if a 50% or more reduction of NRS score was achieved in comparison with pretreatment one. Successful functional improvement was defined if at least a 40% reduction of NDI was obtained. Overall, 79 (73.1%) and 57 (52.8%) among 108 patients showed successful pain relief at 2 and 8 weeks, respectively. Seventy-six (70.4%) and 52 (48.1%) had successful functional improvement at 2 and 8 weeks, respectively. The IL and TF groups showed no significant difference in proportion of successful results of NRS 2 weeks (73.2% vs 67.3%) and 8 weeks (48.2% vs 48.1%). Also, no significant difference was obtained in proportion of successful NDI between 2 groups at 2 weeks (75.0% vs 71.2%) and 8 weeks (53.6% vs 51.9%). Cervical epidural injection showed favorable results in 2 weeks and moderate results in 8 weeks in patients with axial pain due to cervical disc herniation. IL and TF showed no significant difference in clinical

  13. Spinal cord abscess

    MedlinePlus

    ... irritation (inflammation) and the collection of infected material (pus) in or around the spinal cord. ... occurs as a complication of an epidural abscess . Pus forms as a collection of: Destroyed tissue cells ...

  14. Retropharyngeal abscess with secondary osteomyelitis and epidural abscess: proposed pathophysiological mechanism of an underrecognized complication of unstable craniocervical injuries: case report.

    PubMed

    Goulart, Carlos R; Mattei, Tobias A; Fiore, Mariano E; Thoman, William J; Mendel, Ehud

    2016-01-01

    Because of the proximity of the oropharynx (a naturally contaminated region) to the spinal structures of the craniocervical junction, it is possible that small mucosal lacerations in the oropharynx caused by unstable traumatic craniocervical injuries may become contaminated and lead to secondary infection and osteomyelitis. In this report, the authors describe the case of a previously healthy and immunocompetent patient who developed a large retropharyngeal abscess with spinal osteomyelitis after a high-energy craniocervical injury. This unusual report of osteomyelitis with a delayed presentation after a high-energy traumatic injury of the craniocervical junction highlights the possibility of direct injury to a specific area in the oropharyngeal mucosa adjacent to the osteoligamentous structures of the craniocervical junction, an overall underrecognized complication of unstable craniocervical injuries. PMID:26407087

  15. Retropharyngeal abscess with secondary osteomyelitis and epidural abscess: proposed pathophysiological mechanism of an underrecognized complication of unstable craniocervical injuries: case report.

    PubMed

    Goulart, Carlos R; Mattei, Tobias A; Fiore, Mariano E; Thoman, William J; Mendel, Ehud

    2016-01-01

    Because of the proximity of the oropharynx (a naturally contaminated region) to the spinal structures of the craniocervical junction, it is possible that small mucosal lacerations in the oropharynx caused by unstable traumatic craniocervical injuries may become contaminated and lead to secondary infection and osteomyelitis. In this report, the authors describe the case of a previously healthy and immunocompetent patient who developed a large retropharyngeal abscess with spinal osteomyelitis after a high-energy craniocervical injury. This unusual report of osteomyelitis with a delayed presentation after a high-energy traumatic injury of the craniocervical junction highlights the possibility of direct injury to a specific area in the oropharyngeal mucosa adjacent to the osteoligamentous structures of the craniocervical junction, an overall underrecognized complication of unstable craniocervical injuries.

  16. Epidural analgesia in obstetrics.

    PubMed

    Tan, T K

    1998-03-01

    An ideal analgesic for labour would preferably be non-invasive, as effective as spinals and epidurals without their attendant complications and is safe to mother and child and should not complicate the labour process. Analgesia for labouring women ranges from the use of opioid injections to invasive methods, chiefly epidural injections. Each has its advantages and drawbacks. This article provides a review of analgesic methods and techniques for labouring women. It focuses mainly on the role of epidurals, how it is utilised by anaesthetists and the differing methods of drug delivery through the epidural route. It discusses various concoctions of local anaesthetics and adjuvants used. The epidural route is probably the most effective and most commonly used invasive route for achieving analgesia during labour. Local anaesthetics of varying concentrations are administered as intermittent boluses or as a continuous infusion. Adjuvant drugs are able to enhance the quality and duration of the analgesia. Opioids including fentanyl and sufentanil, and clonidine are discussed. The use of patient-controlled epidural analgesia and combined spinal-epidural analgesia are reviewed. Ambulatory or mobile epidurals are increasingly popular. They are known to improve maternal satisfaction because of preservation of motor power. Ambulation may help with cervical dilatation and engagement, and abolition of backpain, among other advantages. This article describes the methods of establishing mobile epidurals and offers guidelines on safe ambulation and contraindications to its use. PMID:9663317

  17. Posttraumatic Stress Disorder After High-Dose-Rate Brachytherapy for Cervical Cancer With 2 Fractions in 1 Application Under Spinal/Epidural Anesthesia: Incidence and Risk Factors

    SciTech Connect

    Kirchheiner, Kathrin; Czajka-Pepl, Agnieszka; Scharbert, Gisela; Wetzel, Léonore; Sturdza, Alina; Dörr, Wolfgang; Pötter, Richard

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To investigate the psychological consequences of high-dose-rate brachytherapy with 2 fractions in 1 application under spinal/epidural anesthesia in the treatment of locally advanced cervical cancer. Methods and Materials: In 50 patients with locally advanced cervical cancer, validated questionnaires were used for prospective assessment of acute and posttraumatic stress disorder (ASD/PTSD) (Impact of Event Scale–Revision), anxiety/depression (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale), quality of life (European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire Core 30/Cervical Cancer 24), physical functioning (World Health Organization performance status), and pain (visual analogue scale), before and during treatment and 1 week and 3 months after treatment. Qualitative interviews were recorded in open format for content analysis. Results: Symptoms of ASD occurred in 30% of patients 1 week after treatment; and of PTSD in 41% 3 months after treatment in association with this specific brachytherapy procedure. Pretreatment predictive variables explain 82% of the variance of PTSD symptoms. Helpful experiences were the support of the treatment team, psychological support, and a positive attitude. Stressful factors were pain, organizational problems during treatment, and immobility between brachytherapy fractions. Conclusions: The specific brachytherapy procedure, as performed in the investigated mono-institutional setting with 2 fractions in 1 application under spinal/epidural anesthesia, bears a considerable risk of traumatization. The source of stress seems to be not the brachytherapy application itself but the maintenance of the applicator under epidural anesthesia in the time between fractions. Patients at risk may be identified before treatment, to offer targeted psycho-social support. The patients' open reports regarding helpful experiences are an encouraging feedback for the treatment team; the reported stressful factors

  18. Case report of an epidural cervical Onchocerca lupi infection in a 13-year-old boy.

    PubMed

    Chen, Tsinsue; Moon, Karam; deMello, Daphne E; Feiz-Erfan, Iman; Theodore, Nicholas; Bhardwaj, Ratan D

    2015-08-01

    A 13-year-old boy presented with fever and neck pain and stiffness, which was initially misdiagnosed as culture-negative meningitis. Magnetic resonance images of the brain and cervical spine demonstrated what appeared to be an intradural extramedullary mass at the C1-3 level, resulting in moderate cord compression, and a Chiari Type I malformation. The patient underwent a suboccipital craniectomy and a C1-3 laminectomy with intradural exploration for excisional biopsy and resection. The lesion containing the parasite was extradural, extending laterally through the C2-3 foramina. Inflammatory tissue secondary to Onchocerca lupi infection was identified, and treatment with steroids and doxycycline was initiated. At the 6-month follow-up, the patient remained asymptomatic, with MR images demonstrating a significant reduction in lesional size. However, 10 weeks postoperatively, the infection recurred, necessitating a second operation. The patient was treated with an additional course of doxycycline and is currently maintained on ivermectin therapy. This is the second reported case of cervical O. lupi infection in a human. In the authors' experience, oral doxycycline alone was insufficient in controlling the disease, and the addition of ivermectin therapy was necessary.

  19. Pneumococcal Vertebral Osteomyelitis after Epidural Injection: A Rare Event

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Tamara M; Chitturi, Chandrika; Lange, Michael; Suh, Jin S; Slim, Jihad

    2016-01-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae vertebral infections have rarely been reported. Herein, we report a case of pneumococcal vertebral osteomyelitis with paraspinal and epidural abscesses as well as concomitant bacteremia following epidural injection. This will be the second case in the literature reporting pneumococcal vertebral osteomyelitis related to epidural manipulation. PMID:27621563

  20. Pneumococcal Vertebral Osteomyelitis after Epidural Injection: A Rare Event.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Tamara M; Chitturi, Chandrika; Lange, Michael; Suh, Jin S; Slim, Jihad

    2016-01-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae vertebral infections have rarely been reported. Herein, we report a case of pneumococcal vertebral osteomyelitis with paraspinal and epidural abscesses as well as concomitant bacteremia following epidural injection. This will be the second case in the literature reporting pneumococcal vertebral osteomyelitis related to epidural manipulation. PMID:27621563

  1. Epidural Lysis of Adhesions

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Frank; Jamison, David E.; Hurley, Robert W.

    2014-01-01

    As our population ages and the rate of spine surgery continues to rise, the use epidural lysis of adhesions (LOA) has emerged as a popular treatment to treat spinal stenosis and failed back surgery syndrome. There is moderate evidence that percutaneous LOA is more effective than conventional ESI for both failed back surgery syndrome, spinal stenosis, and lumbar radiculopathy. For cervical HNP, cervical stenosis and mechanical pain not associated with nerve root involvement, the evidence is anecdotal. The benefits of LOA stem from a combination of factors to include the high volumes administered and the use of hypertonic saline. Hyaluronidase has been shown in most, but not all studies to improve treatment outcomes. Although infrequent, complications are more likely to occur after epidural LOA than after conventional epidural steroid injections. PMID:24478895

  2. Nonoperative Management of Cervical Radiculopathy.

    PubMed

    Childress, Marc A; Becker, Blair A

    2016-05-01

    Cervical radiculopathy describes pain in one or both of the upper extremities, often in the setting of neck pain, secondary to compression or irritation of nerve roots in the cervical spine. It can be accompanied by motor, sensory, or reflex deficits and is most prevalent in persons 50 to 54 years of age. Cervical radiculopathy most often stems from degenerative disease in the cervical spine. The most common examination findings are painful neck movements and muscle spasm. Diminished deep tendon reflexes, particularly of the triceps, are the most common neurologic finding. The Spurling test, shoulder abduction test, and upper limb tension test can be used to confirm the diagnosis. Imaging is not required unless there is a history of trauma, persistent symptoms, or red flags for malignancy, myelopathy, or abscess. Electrodiagnostic testing is not needed if the diagnosis is clear, but has clinical utility when peripheral neuropathy of the upper extremity is a likely alternate diagnosis. Patients should be reassured that most cases will resolve regardless of the type of treatment. Nonoperative treatment includes physical therapy involving strengthening, stretching, and potentially traction, as well as nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, muscle relaxants, and massage. Epidural steroid injections may be helpful but have higher risks of serious complications. In patients with red flag symptoms or persistent symptoms after four to six weeks of treatment, magnetic resonance imaging can identify pathology amenable to epidural steroid injections or surgery. PMID:27175952

  3. Computed tomography-guided cervical selective transforaminal epidural block for a patient with bilateral anatomical variations of vertebral artery -a case report-.

    PubMed

    Jung, Hoon; Lim, Jung A; Park, Ki-Bum; Hong, Seong Wook; Kwak, Kyung-Hwa; Park, Jun-Mo

    2013-11-01

    A 56-year-old woman complained of radiating pain to the left arm. She was diagnosed with left-sided foraminal stenosis at the C5-6 level. The neurosurgeon requested a left C6 cervical selective transforaminal epidural block (CSTE). Cervical MRI showed a left-sided large tortuous vertebral artery (VA) at the C5-6 level. Before performing CSTE, a CT angiogram was carried out and showed bilateral tortuous VAs. To minimize adverse events, CSTE was performed with non-particulated steroids and under CT guidance. Following the procedure, the patient's symptoms were relieved completely. Although complication rates of CSTE are generally low, if it occurs, disastrous situation could be. Additionally, if the patient has anatomical variations, the possibility of a complication occurring is greatly increased. It is therefore important to determine whether the patient has any anatomical variations of the VA before performing procedures such as CSTE, and to ensure that needle placement is correct during the procedure and an appropriate drug, such as a non-particulated steroid, is selected.

  4. Brain abscess: Current management

    PubMed Central

    Alvis Miranda, Hernando; Castellar-Leones, Sandra Milena; Elzain, Mohammed Awad; Moscote-Salazar, Luis Rafael

    2013-01-01

    Brain abscess (BA) is defined as a focal infection within the brain parenchyma, which starts as a localized area of cerebritis, which is subsequently converted into a collection of pus within a well-vascularized capsule. BA must be differentiated from parameningeal infections, including epidural abscess and subdural empyema. The BA is a challenge for the neurosurgeon because it is needed good clinical, pharmacological, and surgical skills for providing good clinical outcomes and prognosis to BA patients. Considered an infrequent brain infection, BA could be a devastator entity that easily left the patient into dead. The aim of this work is to review the current concepts regarding epidemiology, pathophysiology, etiology, clinical presentation, diagnosis, and management of BA. PMID:24174804

  5. Subareolar abscess

    MedlinePlus

    Abscess - areolar gland; Areolar gland abscess ... is caused by a blockage of the small glands or ducts below the skin of the areola. This blockage leads to infection of the glands. This is an uncommon problem that affects younger ...

  6. Brain abscess

    MedlinePlus

    Tunkel AR. Brain abscess. In: Bennett JE, Dolin R, Blaser MJ, eds. Mandell, Douglas, and Bennett's Principles and Practice ... Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2015:chap 92. Tunkel AR, Scheld WM. Brain abscess. In: Winn HR, ed. ...

  7. [Complications related to epidural catheter in caesarean delivery].

    PubMed

    Leykin, Y; Lucca, M

    2001-09-01

    A review of complications related to epidural catheters in caesarean delivery is presented. Catheters for prolongation of nerve blocks were first used in 1940s. Thereafter, there has been steady development in the design and plastic material technology of the different catheters. In the last decade the regional anaesthesia for caesarean section became very popular, as well as continuous increase in the use of epidural catheters. The anatomical changes of pregnancy like marked distension of the epidural veins resulted in increased risk of the complications due to the epidural catheter placement. It is likely that permanent neurologic sequelae due to regional anaesthesia in obstetrics almost never occur, while minor self-limiting complications do occur. The possible complications of epidural catheter techniques are: trauma, malposition and migration of the catheter, knotting and breaking, radiculopathy, dural puncture, subdural injection, abscess and infection, haematoma and wrong solution injection. Most of the malpositions of the epidural catheter can be avoided by a careful technique, advancing the catheter with no forceful movement and not more than 3 to 4 cm into epidural space. Broken parts of the catheters should be left as a rule within the spinal space. Test dose should be always done for continuous epidural anaesthesia. Early diagnosis and prompt appropriate treatment will usually lead to complete resolution of the neurological deficit even in cases of epidural haematoma or abscess.

  8. Effect of Cervical Interlaminar Epidural Steroid Injection: Analysis According to the Neck Pain Patterns and MRI Findings

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Ji Won; Lim, Hyung Woo; Lee, Jin Young; Lee, Won Il; Lee, Eun Kyung; Chang, Choo Hoon; Yang, Jae Young

    2016-01-01

    Background It is widely accepted that cervical interlaminar steroid injection (CIESI) is more effective in treating radicular pain than axial neck pain, but without direct comparison. And the differences of effect after CIESI according to MRI findings are inconsistent. In this retrospective study, we evaluated the therapeutic response of CIESI according to pain sites, durations, MRI findings, and other predictive factors altogether, unlike previous studies, which evaluated them separately. Methods The medical records of 128 patients who received fluoroscopy guided CIESI were analyzed. We evaluated the therapeutic response (more than a 50% reduction on the visual analog scale [VAS] by their second visit) after CIESI by (1) pain site; neck pain without radicular pain/radicular pain with or without neck pain, (2) pain duration; acute/chronic (more than 6 month), and (3) findings of MRI; herniated intervertebral disc (HIVD)/spinal stenosis, respectively and altogether. Results Eighty-eight patients (68%) responded to CIESI, and there were no significant differences in demographic data, initial VAS score, or laboratory findings. And there were no significant differences in the response rate relating to pain site, pain duration, or MRI findings, respectively. In additional analysis, acute radicular pain with HIVD patients showed significantly better response than chronic neck pain with spinal stenosis (P = 0.04). Conclusions We cannot find any sole predictive factor of therapeutic response to the CIESI. But the patients having acute radicular pain with HIVD showed the best response, and those having other chronic neck pain showed the worst response to CIESI. PMID:27103964

  9. [Brodie's abscess].

    PubMed

    Lindsetmo, R O; Due, J; Singh, K; Stalsberg, H

    1993-08-10

    Brodie's abscess is a localized subacute or chronic osteomyelitis independent of any known previous acute infection. The entity is often mistaken for a bone tumour. The diagnosis requires biopsy. The treatment is curettage, drainage and antibiotics for a minimum of six weeks. We describe the characteristics of Brodie's abscess and describe a patient with an illustrating history, but with an unusual localization of the abscess (osilium).

  10. Epidural Steroid Injections

    MedlinePlus

    ... Assessment Tools Injection Treatments for Spinal Pain Epidural Steroid Injections Lumbar Zygapophysial (Facet) Joint Injections Surgical Options Nonsurgical Treatments Alternative Medicine Epidural Steroid Injections General Information Why Get an Epidural Steroid ...

  11. [Lingual abscess].

    PubMed

    Benito, J I; Martín, G; Morais, D; del Monte, J M

    2000-01-01

    The unilateral abscess of the anterior portion of the tongue is an extremely rare occurrence. We report a case in which we have used the ultrasonography in the diagnosis, and discuss, as etiologic hypothesis the participation of Blandin-Nühn glands in the genesis of these abscess.

  12. Hepatic abscesses

    PubMed Central

    Rajagopalan, S.; Langer, V.

    2012-01-01

    Hepatic abscesses are potentially lethal diseases if early diagnosis and treatment are not instituted. They are prevalent all over the globe and pyogenic abscesses are predominant over amoebic. With better control of intra abdominal and systemic infections by a spectrum of antibiotics, aetiology of pyogenic abscesses are secondary to interventions and diseases in the biliary tree to a large extent today. The common organisms isolated are the Gram negative group. Amoebic abscesses continue to plague some regions of the world where hygiene and sanitation are questionable. Over the years, diagnosis, treatment and prognosis have evolved remarkably. Imaging modalities like ultrasonography and CT scan have become the cornerstone of diagnosis. The absence of ionizing radiation makes MRI an attractive alternative in patients who require multiple follow up scans. Serological testing in amoebic abscesses has become more reliable. Though antibiotics have remained the principal modality of management, percutaneous drainage of abscesses have vastly improved the chances of cure and bring down the morbidity drastically in pyogenic abscesses. Amoebic abscesses respond well to medical treatment with nitroimidazoles, and minimally invasive surgical drainage is an option in cases where open surgery is indicated. PMID:24532886

  13. Varicella Infection Complicated by Group A Beta-Hemolytic Streptococcal Retropharyngeal Abscess

    PubMed Central

    Clark, Christine M.; Huntley, Colin

    2016-01-01

    An unimmunized 19-month-old child presented with a retropharyngeal abscess and coincident varicella infection. The abscess resolved with operative drainage. This is the first published report of this connection, although varicella is known to be associated with abscesses in general. Practitioners should be aware that cervical abscesses may complicate varicella infections.

  14. Varicella Infection Complicated by Group A Beta-Hemolytic Streptococcal Retropharyngeal Abscess

    PubMed Central

    Clark, Christine M.; Huntley, Colin

    2016-01-01

    An unimmunized 19-month-old child presented with a retropharyngeal abscess and coincident varicella infection. The abscess resolved with operative drainage. This is the first published report of this connection, although varicella is known to be associated with abscesses in general. Practitioners should be aware that cervical abscesses may complicate varicella infections. PMID:27651967

  15. Varicella Infection Complicated by Group A Beta-Hemolytic Streptococcal Retropharyngeal Abscess.

    PubMed

    Clark, Christine M; Huntley, Colin; Carr, Michele M

    2016-01-01

    An unimmunized 19-month-old child presented with a retropharyngeal abscess and coincident varicella infection. The abscess resolved with operative drainage. This is the first published report of this connection, although varicella is known to be associated with abscesses in general. Practitioners should be aware that cervical abscesses may complicate varicella infections. PMID:27651967

  16. Epidural steroid warning controversy still dogging FDA.

    PubMed

    Manchikanti, Laxmaiah; Candido, Kenneth D; Singh, Vijay; Gharibo, Christopher G; Boswell, Mark V; Benyamin, Ramsin M; Falco, Frank J E; Grider, Jay S; Diwan, Sudhir; Hirsch, Joshua A

    2014-01-01

    On April 23, 2014, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) issued a letter of warning that injection of corticosteroids into the epidural space of the spine may result in rare, but serious adverse events, including "loss of vision, stroke, paralysis, and death." The advisory also advocated that patients should discuss the benefits and risks of epidural corticosteroid injections with their health care professionals, along with the benefits and risks associated with other possible treatments. In addition, the FDA stated that the effectiveness and safety of the corticosteroids for epidural use have not been established, and the FDA has not approved corticosteroids for such use. To raise awareness of the risks of epidural corticosteroid injections in the medical community, the FDA's Safe Use Initiative convened a panel of experts including pain management experts to help define the techniques for such injections with the aim of reducing preventable harm. The panel was unable to reach an agreement on 20 proposed items related to technical aspects of performing epidural injections. Subsequently, the FDA issued the above referenced warning and a notice that a panel will be convened in November 2014. This review assesses the inaccuracies of the warning and critically analyzes the available literature. The literature has been assessed in reference to alternate techniques and an understanding of the risk factors when performing transforaminal epidural injections in the cervical, thoracic, and lumbar regions, ultimately resulting in improved safety. The results of this review show the efficacy of epidural injections, with or without steroids, in a multitude of spinal ailments utilizing caudal, cervical, thoracic, and lumbar interlaminar approaches as well as lumbar transforaminal epidural injections . The evidence also shows the superiority of steroids in managing lumbar disc herniation utilizing caudal and lumbar interlaminar approaches without any significant difference as

  17. Pancreatic abscess.

    PubMed Central

    Gartell, P C

    1982-01-01

    Three cases of pancreatic abscess are described to show the difficulties in diagnosis and that inadequate treatment is invariably fatal. Early recognition and prompt surgical drainage, together with biliary decompression if indicated, are advised. PMID:7069670

  18. Skin abscess

    MedlinePlus

    ... abscesses may occur after: A bacterial infection (often staphylococcus) A minor wound or injury Boils Folliculitis (infection ... Daum RS. Staphylococcus aureus . In: Long SS, ed. Principles and Practice ... Diseases. 3rd ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2012: ...

  19. Emergency surgery for epidural abcess secondary to sacral fistula after laparoscopic proctectomy

    PubMed Central

    Zeitoun, Jeremie; Menahem, Benjamin; Fohlen, Audrey; Lebreton, Gil; Lubrano, Jean; Alves, Arnaud

    2016-01-01

    A 61-year-old man presented via the emergency department with a few days history of abdominal and colic occlusion symptoms. He presented signs of sepsis, midline lumbar spine tenderness and reduced hip flexion. Computer tomography of the abdomen and pelvis showed a presacral collection contiguous with the posterior part of the colo-rectal anastomosis, and MRI lumbar spine revealed abscess invation into the epidural space. He underwent a laparotomy with washout of the presacral abscess and a colostomy with a prolonged course of intravenous antibiotic therapy. At 3 weeks after initial presentation he had made a full clinical recovery with progressive radiological resolution of the epidural abscess. The objective of the case report is to highlight a unique and clinically significant complication of a rare post-operative complication after rectal surgery and to briefly discuss other intra-abdominal sources of epidural abscess. PMID:27421299

  20. Spinal and epidural anesthesia

    MedlinePlus

    Intraspinal anesthesia; Subarachnoid anesthesia; Epidural; Peridural anesthesia ... Spinal and epidural anesthesia have fewer side effects and risks than general anesthesia (asleep and pain-free). Patients usually recover their senses ...

  1. Pyogenic liver abscess

    MedlinePlus

    Liver abscess; Bacterial liver abscess ... There are many potential causes of liver abscesses, including: Abdominal infection, such as appendicitis , diverticulitis , or a perforated bowel Infection in the blood Infection of the bile draining tubes ...

  2. Can repeat injection provide clinical benefit in patients with cervical disc herniation and stenosis when the first epidural injection results only in partial response?

    PubMed

    Lee, Jung Hwan; Lee, Sang-Ho

    2016-07-01

    Epidural steroid injection (ESI) is known to be an effective treatment for neck or radicular pain due to herniated intervertebral disc (HIVD) and spinal stenosis (SS). Although repeat ESI has generally been indicated to provide more pain relief in partial responders after single ESI, there has been little evidence supporting the usefulness of this procedure. The purpose of this study, therefore, was to determine whether repeat ESI at a prescribed interval of 2 to 3 weeks after the first injection would provide greater clinical benefit in patients with partial pain reduction than intermittent ESI performed only when pain was aggravated. One hundred eighty-four patients who underwent transforaminal ESI (TFESI) for treatment of axial neck and radicular arm pain due to HIVD or SS and could be followed up for 1 year were enrolled. We divided the patients into 2 groups. Group A (N = 108) comprised partial responders (numeric rating scale (NRS) ≥ 3 after the first injection) who underwent repeat injection at a prescribed interval of 2 to 3 weeks after the first injection. Group B (N = 76) comprised partial responders who did not receive repeat injection at the prescribed interval, but received intermittent injections only for aggravation of pain. Various clinical data were assessed, including total number of injections during 1 year, NRS duration of <3 during 1 year (NRS < 3 duration), and time interval until pain was increased to require additional injections after repeat injection in Group A, or after first injection in Group B (time to reinjection). Groups A and B were compared in terms of total population, HIVD, and SS. In the whole population, HIVD subgroup, and SS subgroup, patients in Group A required significantly fewer injections to obtain satisfactory pain relief during the 1-year follow-up period. Group A showed a significantly longer time to reinjection and longer NRS < 3 than Group B did. Repeat TFESI conducted at 2- to 3-week intervals

  3. Abscess in the Lungs

    MedlinePlus

    ... abscesses are streptococci and staphylococci, including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), which is a serious infection. Obstruction ... night sweats. In contrast, lung abscesses caused by Staphylococcus aureus or MRSA can be fatal within days, ...

  4. Abscess - abdomen or pelvis

    MedlinePlus

    ... infected fluid and pus located inside the belly (abdominal cavity). This type of abscess can be located near ... abdominal abscesses: Abdominal x-ray Ultrasound of the abdomen and pelvis CT scan of the abdomen and ...

  5. Abscess scan - radioactive

    MedlinePlus

    Radioactive abscess scan; Abscess scan; Indium Scan; Indium-labelled white blood cell scan ... the white blood cells are tagged with a radioactive substance called indium. The cells are then injected ...

  6. Symmetrical Brodie's abscess.

    PubMed Central

    Chambler, A. F.; Chapman-Sheath, P. J.; Pearse, M. F.; Hollingdale, J.

    1997-01-01

    Chronic recurrent multifocal osteomyelitis is often confused with symmetrical Brodie's abscess as it has a similar pathogenesis. We report an otherwise healthy 17-year-old boy presenting with a true symmetrical Brodie's abscess. We conclude that a symmetrical Brodie's abscess presenting in an otherwise healthy patient is a separate clinical condition with a different management protocol. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:9497984

  7. Symmetrical Brodie's abscess.

    PubMed

    Chambler, A F; Chapman-Sheath, P J; Pearse, M F; Hollingdale, J

    1997-10-01

    Chronic recurrent multifocal osteomyelitis is often confused with symmetrical Brodie's abscess as it has a similar pathogenesis. We report an otherwise healthy 17-year-old boy presenting with a true symmetrical Brodie's abscess. We conclude that a symmetrical Brodie's abscess presenting in an otherwise healthy patient is a separate clinical condition with a different management protocol.

  8. [Postoperative epidural analgesia].

    PubMed

    Donato, S; Malisano, A M; Dogareschi, T; Chiarandini, P; Spasiano, A; Pasetto, A

    1995-01-01

    Epidural analgesia with local anesthetics and opioids is one of the most effective methods for postoperative pain control. In critical patients it seems to improve outcome as well as pain control. This technique works better when started in the intraoperative time. Epidural analgesia is safe on surgical wards if nursing staff is trained in managing epidural catheters and in early detection and treatment of major and minor side effects. Nursing staff cooperates with the Acute Pain Service doctors and nurses who are on call on a 24 hour basis. Many perspective and retrospective studies showed a very low incidence of major side effects with epidurals. So we can consider it safe and effective even if we consider its invasiveness.

  9. Informed consent for epidural analgesia in labour: a survey of Irish practice.

    PubMed

    Hegarty, A; Omer, W; Harmon, D

    2014-06-01

    Currently, we do not have a national standard regarding epidural consent in Ireland. The aim of this survey was to assess practice in obstetric units in Ireland with regard to obtaining informed consent prior to epidural insertion, and whether the risks discussed with women are being documented. A postal survey of anaesthetists in Irish obstetric units was performed in January 2012 to assess practice regarding obtaining informed consent prior to epidural insertion, and documentation of the risks discussed. The response rate was 16/18 (88%). There was major variation both in which risks are discussed with women in labour and what risks are quoted. The most frequently quoted risks were headache--15/16 (93.8% of the respondents), partially/not working epidural--15/16 (93.8%), drop in blood pressure--14/16 (87.5%) and temporary backache/local tenderness--12/16 (75%). The more serious risks were not discussed as frequently: permanent nerve damage--8/16 (50%), paralysis--8/16 (50%), epidural abscess/haematoma--6/16 (37.5%), meningitis--3/16 (18.7%). The vast majority of respondents supported introduction of a national standardised information leaflet, detailing all the benefits and risks of epidural analgesia, to be shown to all women before consenting to epidural insertion.

  10. Spontaneous cholecystocutaneous abscess.

    PubMed

    Metsemakers, W J; Quanten, I; Vanhoenacker, F; Spiessens, T

    2010-01-01

    Spontaneous cholecystocutaneous abscesses or fistulae are rare complications of neglected biliary calculous disease which have become extremely rare during the last decades. We report a case of spontaneous cholecystocutaneous abscess in a 69-year-old male who presented with a mass in the right subcostal region.The diagnosis was made by CT scan with multiplanar reformating. Treatment consisted of incision and drainage of the abdominal wall abscess followed by cholecystectomy in a one-stage protocol.

  11. Amebic liver abscess

    MedlinePlus

    ... liver in response to an intestinal parasite called Entamoeba histolytica . ... Amebic liver abscess is caused by Entamoeba histolytica. This ... dysentery. After an infection has occurred, the parasite may ...

  12. Spontaneous pneumomediastinum and epidural pneumatosis after oral ecstasy consumption.

    PubMed

    Clause, A L; Coche, E; Hantson, P; Jacquet, L M

    2014-04-01

    A 19-year-old man was admitted with acute dyspnoea. Physical examination revealed subcutaneous emphysema in the cervical and thoracic area. This was further confirmed by the total body computed tomography that also demonstrated mediastinal emphysema. Epidural pneumatosis of the thoracis spine was also evident. There was no history of trauma, but well of a recent oral ecstasy consumption during a techno rave party, associated with intense dancing and jumping. Clinical course was favourable with conservative therapy.

  13. Brodie's abscess revisited.

    PubMed

    Kornaat, P R; Camerlinck, M; Vanhoenacker, F M; De Praeter, G; Kroon, H M

    2010-01-01

    Radiology plays an important role in the diagnosis of a Brodie's abscess, as can be difficult for a clinician to identify the disease using clinical information alone. A Brodie's abscess is clinically difficult to diagnose because patients typically have mild local symptoms, few or no constitutional symptoms, and near normal laboratory values. Furthermore, a Brodie's abscess may mimic various benign and malignant conditions, resulting in delayed diagnosis and treatment. The most frequently made incorrect diagnosis is that of a primary bone tumor. The present pictorial review summarizes imaging clues to the diagnosis of a Brodie's abscess, such as the serpentine sign on conventional radiographs and the penumbra sign seen on Magnetic Resonance (MR) images. A Brodie's abscess is difficult to diagnose, however, once diagnosed, it is a curable disease with a 100% cure rate.

  14. Bacterial Infection in Deep Paraspinal Muscles in a Parturient Following Epidural Analgesia

    PubMed Central

    Xue, Xuhong; Song, Jiefu; Liang, Qingyuan; Qin, Jibin

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Bacterial infection related to epidural catheterizations could occur. In general, the incidence of postoperative infection at the insertion site is very low. Paucity literatures are reported for paraspinal muscle infection after epidural analgesia in parturient. We report a case of paraspinal muscle infection shortly after epidural analgesia in a parturient, who was subjected to because of threatened preterm labor. Epidural morphine was administered for 2 days for childbirth pain control. She began to have constant low-back pain and fever on postpartum Day 2. Magnetic resonance image revealed a broad area of subcutaneous edema with a continuum along the catheter trajectory deep to the paraspinal muscles. A catheter-related bacterial infection was suspected. The surgical debridement and drainage was required combined with intravenous antibiotics on postpartum Day 3. She was soon cured uncomplicatedly. Epidural analgesia is effective to control labor pain and, in general, it is safe. However, the sequelae of complicated infection may be underestimated. A literature search yielded 7 other cases of catheter-related epidural abscess or soft tissue infection. Vigilance for these infections, especially in postpartum patients with backache, is needed. Moreover, early detection and proper treatment of infectious signs at postanesthetic visit are very important. PMID:26683923

  15. Klebsiella pneumoniae splenic abscess.

    PubMed

    Gill, V; Marzocca, F J; Cunha, B A

    1994-01-01

    Splenic abscesses may be solitary or multiple and are unusual infections. Signs and symptoms are variable and do not always include left upper quadrant pain or tenderness, as the Case Report illustrate. Abscesses of the spleen may occur as a result of endocarditis or from hematogenous seeding from a distant focus of infection. Computed tomographic scan of the spleen is the diagnostic method of choice. We report a case of multiple splenic abscesses caused by Klebsiella pneumoniae that resulted from a Klebsiella urinary tract infection and was successfully managed with antibiotic therapy and splenectomy. PMID:8039997

  16. Traumatic epidural hematoma in children.

    PubMed

    Rocchi, Giovanni; Caroli, Emanuela; Raco, Antonino; Salvati, Maurizio; Delfini, Roberto

    2005-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the characteristics of childhood acute epidural hematoma and to report our experience in recent years. A series of 35 patients below the age of 15 years treated for acute epidural hematoma at our institution between June 1991 and December 2000 was analyzed in detail. Pediatric epidural hematoma presents both age-related and atypical features when compared with epidural hematoma in adults. In selected cases, prompt surgical evacuation of the hematoma results in an excellent outcome. Outcomes seem to be directly related to the patient's preoperative neurologic status and the presence of associated intracranial lesions.

  17. Nonsurgical drainage of splenic abscess

    SciTech Connect

    Berkman, W.A.; Harris, S.A. Jr.; Bernardino, M.E.

    1983-08-01

    The mortality associated with intraabdominal abscess remains high despite modern surgical methods and antibiotics. Draingae of abscesses of the abdomen, retroperitoneum, pelvis, pancreatic pseudocyst, mediastinum, and lung may be treated effectively by percutaneous catheter placement. In several reports of percutaneous abdominal abscess drainage, only three cases of splenic abscess drainage have been reported. The authors have recently drained two splenic abscesses with the aid of computed tomography (CT) and emphasize several advantages of the percutaneous guided approach.

  18. Parapharyngeal abscess is frequently associated with concomitant peritonsillar abscess.

    PubMed

    Klug, Tejs Ehlers; Fischer, Anne Sophie Lind; Antonsen, Christine; Rusan, Maria; Eskildsen, Helle; Ovesen, Therese

    2014-06-01

    To characterize patients with parapharyngeal abscess admitted to a Danish tertiary care centre and evaluate our management. This is a retrospective chart review. All records of patients with parapharyngeal abscess admitted to the Ear-Nose-Throat Department at Aarhus University Hospital, Denmark, from January 2001 through December 2011 were reviewed. In total, 63 patients (41 males), aged 4-89 years (median, 45 years) were included in the study. The mean annual incidence of parapharyngeal abscess was 0.9 cases/100,000 population. Thirty-three (52%) patients had concomitant peritonsillar abscess. In two patients the parapharyngeal abscess was accompanied by necrotizing fasciitis. The most frequent surgical approach used was intrapharyngeal incision in combination with tonsillectomy. The most commonly used antibiotic regimen was benzylpenicillin plus metronidazole. Seven (13%) patients returned to the operating theatre due to post-tonsillectomy haemorrhage or insufficient abscess drainage. Tonsillectomy and internal incision of the abscess in combination with a narrow-spectrum intravenous penicillin and metronidazole is a safe and efficient approach for managing parapharyngeal abscesses. This approach, however, carries a relatively high complication rate, requiring close surveillance in the early post-operative period. This is especially true for parapharyngeal abscess patients without peritonsillar abscess. In our series, these patients were more ill, more likely to experience complications, require intensive care, intubation, and tracheotomy, than parapharyngeal abscess patients with concurrent peritonsillar abscess. The frequent co-existence of parapharyngeal abscess and peritonsillar abscess favours careful consideration of addition of tonsillectomy to intrapharyngeal incision. PMID:23982668

  19. A missed Behçet’s case presenting with spontaneous epidural hematoma

    PubMed Central

    Karataş, Levent; Mengi, Gönen; Özyemişçi-Taşkıran, Özden

    2015-01-01

    Spinal vascular events related to Behçet’s disease are relatively uncommon. Deep vein thrombosis is the most frequent vascular involvement. Anticoagulant therapy is a debated issue in Behçet’s disease. In this case report, we present a patient with a delayed diagnosis of Behçet’s disease after development of cervical epidural hematoma following anticoagulant therapy due to deep venous thrombosis. Anticoagulant therapy without immunosuppressive therapy leading to uncontrolled systemic inflammation may be the cause of spinal epidural hematoma. On the other hand, epidural vascular involvement as a vasculitic manifestation of Behçet’s disease in conjunction with anticoagulant therapy may have predisposed to spontaneous bleeding via increased fragility or microaneurysms in epidural arteries. In this case report, the importance of a multidisciplinary approach to Behçet’s disease is emphasized.

  20. Anorectal abscess during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Koyama, Shinsuke; Hirota, Masaki; Kobayashi, Masaki; Tanaka, Yusuke; Kubota, Satoshi; Nakamura, Ryo; Isobe, Masanori; Shiki, Yasuhiko

    2014-02-01

    Anorectal symptoms and complaints caused by hemorrhoids or anal fissures are common during pregnancy. It is known that one-third of pregnant women complain of anal pain in the third trimester. Anal pain may be caused by a wide spectrum of conditions, but if it begins gradually and becomes excruciating within a few days it may indicate anorectal abscess. We experienced a case of anorectal abscess during pregnancy which was diagnosed by magnetic resonance imaging and treated by incision and seton drainage at 36 weeks of gestation, followed by a normal spontaneous delivery at 38 weeks of gestation. To our knowledge, this is the first case report of anorectal abscess during pregnancy in the English-language published work. The clinical course of our case and clinical considerations of anorectal abscesses are discussed.

  1. [Psoas abscesses reviewed].

    PubMed

    Loussaïef, Chawki; Toumi, Adnen; Chakroun, Mohamed; Ben Brahim, Hajer; Ben Romdhane, Foued; Bouzouaïa, Noureddine

    2006-02-01

    Psoas abscesses are rare. In the absence of specific symptoms and signs, their diagnosis was usually difficult. Medical imaging advances have helped in their diagnosis and treatment. Eleven cases of psoas abscess were reviewed retrospectively. We tried to determine epidemiologic and clinical features and therapeutic alternatives for this entity. Mean aged 27 years. Three of the 11 cases occurred in females. An underlying disease was observed in three cases. Associated clinical features were fever (n = 11), lumbar pain (n = 10), and psoOtis (n = 5). Diagnosis was confirmed by ultrasonography (n = 10) and computed tomography (n = 1). Blood culture was positive in 6 out of 11 cases: Staphylococcus aureus (n = 5) and Klebsiella pneumonia (n = 1) Staphylococcceus aureus was isolated in 6 abscess pus. Antibiotics were prescribed in all cases for a mean length of 61 days, in association with percutaneous drainage in 5 cases, surgical drainage in one case and abscess puncture in one case. Outcome was favourable in all cases.

  2. Spinal Subdural Abscess Following Laminectomy for Symptomatic Stenosis: A Report of 2 Cases and Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Ramos, Alexander D.; Rolston, John D.; Gauger, Grant E.; Larson, Paul S.

    2016-01-01

    Case series Patient: Male, 87 • Male, 62 Final Diagnosis: Spinal subdural abscess Symptoms: Fever • pain • weakness Medication: — Clinical Procedure: Laminectomy • durotomy • drainage • debridement Specialty: Neurosurgery Objective: Rare disease Background: Spinal subdural abscesses, also known as empyemas, are rare infectious lesions, the exact incidence of which is unknown. Presentation is typically dramatic, with back pain, fever, motor, and sensory deficits. Rapid identification and surgical intervention with laminectomy, durotomy, and washout provides the best outcomes. While hematogenous spread of an extra-spinal infection is the most common cause of this condition, a significant number of cases result from iatrogenic mechanisms, including lumbar punctures, epidural injections, and surgery. Case Report: Here we present 2 cases: 1) an 87-year-old man with type 2 diabetes, schizophrenia, mild cognitive impairment, and symptomatic lumbar spinal stenosis and 2) a 62-year-old man with a prior L3–4 spinal fusion with symptomatic lumbar spinal stenosis. In both cases, patients underwent laminectomy for spinal stenosis and developed epidural abscess. Following successful drainage of the epidural abscess, they continued to be symptomatic, and repeat imaging revealed the presence of a subdural abscess that was subsequently evacuated. Case 1 had significant improvement with residual lower-extremity weakness, while Case 2 made a complete neurological recovery. Conclusions: These cases illustrate patients at increased risk for developing this rare spinal infection, and demonstrate that rapid recognition and surgical treatment is key to cure and recovery. Review of the literature highlights pertinent risk factors and demonstrates nearly one-third of reported cases have an iatrogenic etiology. The cases presented here demonstrate that a subdural process should be suspected in any patient with intractable pain following treatment of an epidural abscess. PMID

  3. Lumbar spinal epidural angiolipoma.

    PubMed

    Nanassis, Kimon; Tsitsopoulos, Parmenion; Marinopoulos, Dimitrios; Mintelis, Apostolos; Tsitsopoulos, Philippos

    2008-04-01

    Spinal angiolipomas are rare benign tumours most commonly found in the thoracic spine. A case of an extradural lumbar angiolipoma in a 47-year-old female is described. She had a recent history of lower back pain accompanied by sciatica. Lumbar MRI revealed a dorsal epidural mass at the L2-L3 level. The patient underwent a bilateral laminectomy, in which the tumour was totally excised. The pathological examination indicated haemangiolipoma. Post-operatively, the patient's neurological signs and symptoms improved remarkably quickly. MRI at 6 and 18 months after surgery revealed no evidence of tumour recurrence.

  4. EPIDURAL ANALGESIA IN LABOR - CONTROVERSIES.

    PubMed

    Bilić, Nada; Djaković, Ivka; Kličan-Jaić, Katarina; Rudman, Senka Sabolović; Ivanec, Željko

    2015-09-01

    Labor pain is one of the most severe pains. Labor is a complex and individual process with varying maternal requesting analgesia. Labor analgesia must be safe and accompanied by minimal amount of unwanted consequences for both the mother and the child, as well as for the delivery procedure. Epidural analgesia is the treatment that best meets these demands. According to the American Congress of Obstetrics and Gynecology and American Society of Anesthesiologists, mother's demand is a reason enough for the introduction of epidural analgesia in labor, providing that no contraindications exist. The application of analgesics should not cease at the end of the second stage of labor, but it is recommended that lower concentration analgesics be then applied. Based on the latest studies, it can be claimed that epidural analgesia can be applied during the major part of the first and second stage of labor. According to previous investigations, there is no definitive conclusion about the incidence of instrumental delivery, duration of second stage of labor, time of epidural analgesia initiation, and long term outcomes for the newborn. Cooperation of obstetric and anesthesiology personnel, as well as appropriate technical equipment significantly decrease the need of instrumental completion of a delivery, as well as other complications encountered in the application of epidural analgesia. Our hospital offers 24/7 epidural analgesia service. The majority of pregnant women in our hospital were aware of the advantages of epidural analgesia for labor, however, only a small proportion of them used it, mainly because of inadequate level of information.

  5. [Paravaginal abscess in pregnancy].

    PubMed

    Hasbargen, U; Hillemanns, P; Scheidler, J; Kimmig, R; Hepp, H

    2001-10-01

    Paravaginal abscess in pregnancy. We report the diagnosis and treatment of an infected Gartner's duct cyst during pregnancy. The patient presented with lower abdominal pain, fever (38.5 degrees C) and an elevated C-reactive Protein level. Pelvic examination revealed a painful paravaginal mass. Sonography was not able to detect the cranial border of the tumor. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed fluid accumulation laterodorsal to the vagina without evidence of a connection with the retroperitoneal space. An infected Gartner's duct cyst with consecutive abscess formation along the mesonephric duct system, was diagnosed. Following transvaginal drainage, the remainder of the pregnancy was uneventful and the patient was delivered vaginally at 40 + 5 weeks without complications. - The rare clinical finding of a paravaginal abscess in pregnancy was treated without termination of the pregnancy. Preoperative planning of the surgical approach using MRI can be easier for pelvic processes extending out of the pelvis than using ultrasound and is less painful for the patient.

  6. Epidural injections for back pain

    MedlinePlus

    ESI; Spinal injection for back pain; Back pain injection; Steroid injection - epidural; Steroid injection - back ... pillow under your stomach. If this position causes pain, you either sit up or lie on your ...

  7. Epidural Injections for Spinal Pain

    MedlinePlus

    ... located outside the dural membrane. Steroids, anesthetics and anti-inflammatory medications are typically delivered in an epidural injection. ... create different effects for patients. Corticosteroids act as anti-inflammatory agents, reducing swelling and nerve irritation to allow ...

  8. Spinal Subdural Abscess Following Laminectomy for Symptomatic Stenosis: A Report of 2 Cases and Review of the Literature.

    PubMed

    Ramos, Alexander D; Rolston, John D; Gauger, Grant E; Larson, Paul S

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Spinal subdural abscesses, also known as empyemas, are rare infectious lesions, the exact incidence of which is unknown. Presentation is typically dramatic, with back pain, fever, motor, and sensory deficits. Rapid identification and surgical intervention with laminectomy, durotomy, and washout provides the best outcomes. While hematogenous spread of an extra-spinal infection is the most common cause of this condition, a significant number of cases result from iatrogenic mechanisms, including lumbar punctures, epidural injections, and surgery. CASE REPORT Here we present 2 cases: 1) an 87-year-old man with type 2 diabetes, schizophrenia, mild cognitive impairment, and symptomatic lumbar spinal stenosis and 2) a 62-year-old man with a prior L3-4 spinal fusion with symptomatic lumbar spinal stenosis. In both cases, patients underwent laminectomy for spinal stenosis and developed epidural abscess. Following successful drainage of the epidural abscess, they continued to be symptomatic, and repeat imaging revealed the presence of a subdural abscess that was subsequently evacuated. Case 1 had significant improvement with residual lower-extremity weakness, while Case 2 made a complete neurological recovery. CONCLUSIONS These cases illustrate patients at increased risk for developing this rare spinal infection, and demonstrate that rapid recognition and surgical treatment is key to cure and recovery. Review of the literature highlights pertinent risk factors and demonstrates nearly one-third of reported cases have an iatrogenic etiology. The cases presented here demonstrate that a subdural process should be suspected in any patient with intractable pain following treatment of an epidural abscess. PMID:27402228

  9. Hepatic abscesses after adhesiolysis

    PubMed Central

    Antonsen, J.; Balachandran, R.; Helgstrand, F.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Hematogenous spread of bacteria from the bowel due to bacterial translocation has been postulated in animal and trauma studies. This case presents a patient with possible hematogenous bacterial spreading after acute laparotomy. Case presentation A 57-year old woman was admitted with abdominal pain. A computed tomography showed mechanical small bowel obstruction. A laparotomy was performed showing no contamination, and no bowel resection was performed. The patient was not given any antibiotics during this time. The patient was re-admitted 24 h after discharge with fever, elevated white count and abdominal pain. A computed tomography showed newly developed intrahepatic abscesses. These were treated with antibiotics, and the patient was discharged with follow-up ultrasound showing diminished abscesses. Discussion This case discusses the possible pathophysiology behind the development of intrahepatic abscesses after small bowel obstruction. Conclusion Febrilia and pain in upper right quadrant of the abdomen days after a simple operation for bowel obstruction could be caused by translocation of intestinal bacteria and subsequent formation of hepatic abscesses. PMID:26410805

  10. Tubercular thyroid abscess.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Awanish; Pahwa, Harvinder Singh; Srivastava, Rohit; Khan, Khursheed Alam

    2013-01-01

    We encountered a patient who presented with neck swelling, difficulty in swallowing, voice change along with systemic features such as evening rise of temperature, chronic cough and weight loss. Ultrasonography of the thyroid gland revealed two cystic swellings. An ultrasound guided fine needle aspiration cytology was suggestive of tubercular abscess. The patient responded well to antigravity aspiration of the swellings and antitubercular treatment.

  11. Hypothalamic-pituitary abscess

    PubMed Central

    Mohr, P. D.

    1975-01-01

    A case of hypothalamic-pituitary abscess is described, and previous case reports discussed. The clinical picture is one of hypopituitarism, a fluctuating clinical course with attacks of meningism, and a background of sphenoid sinusitis. ImagesFig. 1 PMID:1187501

  12. Traumatic spinal epidural hematoma in a 1-year-old boy.

    PubMed

    Tarbé de Saint Hardouin, A-L; Grévent, D; Sainte-Rose, C; Angoulvant, F; Chéron, G

    2016-07-01

    Traumatic spinal epidural hematoma is uncommon in children, making rapid diagnosis difficult. In this report, we present a case of traumatic cervical epidural hematoma in a 1-year-old boy, diagnosed with computed tomography scanning and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Management was conservative and the lesion regressed spontaneously. The presentation in childhood is often nonspecific. MRI is the imaging modality of choice for diagnosing these lesions. Conservative treatment has to be considered in cases with a benign clinical course and provided that the patient is followed up neurologically with repeated MRI.

  13. Large Retropharyngeal Abscesses in an Immunocompetent Adult Patient with Disseminated Tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Amaya-Tapia, Gerardo; Rodríguez-Toledo, Arturo; Aguilar-Benavides, Sergio; Aguirre-Avalos, Guadalupe

    2016-01-01

    Patient: Male, 46 Final Diagnosis: Generalized tuberculous lymphadenitis with retropharyngeal abscesses and disseminated tuberculosis Symptoms: Lymphadenopathy • dysphagia • weight loss Medication: — Clinical Procedure: — Specialty: Infectious Diseases Objective: Unusual clinical course Background: The retropharyngeal abscess is a rare presentation of head and neck tuberculosis. The pathogenesis of the abscess formation in the retropharyngeal space in the adult is controversial. Case Report: We report a case of large retropharyngeal abscesses in a 46-year-old man with disseminated tuberculosis. The patient had severe progressive dysphagia, weight loss, and a slowly enlarging bilateral cervical mass during a period of three months. His posterior pharynx wall was bulging and red, and both tonsils were enlarged and congested. The neck had an abscess of 5 cm in diameter that was firm, tender, and warm along the left sternocleidomastoid muscle. Palpable bilateral lymphadenitis was detected in the submandibular, cervical, axillary, and inguinal regions. A computed tomographic (CT) scan of the neck revealed large bilobulated retropharyngeal abscesses. A liver ultrasound showed multiple hypoechoic lesions. A Ziehl-Neelsen smear for acid-fast bacilli was positive from different abscess samples, and mycobacterial cultures subsequently yielded Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Antituberculous therapy was begun and the retropharyngeal abscesses were aspirated by external incision with complete drainage and relief of symptoms. Conclusions: Large retropharyngeal abscess is a rare entity in which Mycobacterium tuberculosis etiology should be considered, especially in endemic countries, and the diagnosis may be difficult because symptoms and signs are influenced by abscess size and time of onset, or if the etiology is not suspected. PMID:27680292

  14. Unilateral Horner Syndrome Following Epidural Anaesthesia in a Morbidly Obese Parturient.

    PubMed

    Yılmaz, Canan; Karasu, Derya; Özer, Demet; Çağlayan, Ümit; Karakaş, Oya

    2015-06-01

    Horner's syndrome is rarely observed in epidural anaesthesia; it is characterized by ptosis and enophthalmos on the affected side; miosis, anisocoria, and conjunctival hyperemia in the affected eye and anhydrosis, flushing on the affected side of the face. It is usually a complication spontaneously resolved without permanent neurological deficits. Intraoral anaesthesia, stellate, cervical and brachial plexus block, thoracic, lumbar and caudal epidural anaesthesia and intrapleural analgesia are the main causes associated with Horner's syndrome in anaesthesia. Among the other causes of Horner's syndrome are head and neck surgery, trauma and puncture of the internal jugular vein. We aimed to present a case with unilateral Horner's syndrome, which appeared in the morbidly obese parturient after lumbar epidural anaesthesia. PMID:27366494

  15. Fluoroscopy guided transforaminal epidural anesthesia in ankylosing spondylitis

    PubMed Central

    Channabasappa, SM; Dharmappa, S; Pandurangi, R

    2016-01-01

    A 48-year-old male patient with a long-standing history of ankylosing spondylitis (AS) presented for ureteroscopic stone removal. On preoperative assessment, tracheal intubation was likely to be difficult due to decreased cervical spine mobility. Traditional neuraxial block was impossible due to the fusion of vertebral bodies. AS patients present the most serious array of intubation, which is secondary to decrease in cervical spine mobility and possible temporomandibular joint disease. Management of a case of AS can be very challenging when the airway and the central neuraxial blockade, both are difficult. Fluoroscopic assisted central neuraxial blockade may lead to predictable success in AS. We present a case report with severe AS where conventional techniques failed and C-arm assisted helped in successful epidural anesthesia for ureteroscopic stone removal. PMID:26955319

  16. Hematogenous Pasteurella multocida brain abscess

    SciTech Connect

    Wallace, M.; Lipsky, B.A.

    1985-10-01

    A case of hematogenously acquired brain abscess caused by Pasteurella multocida is described. CT scans of the head revealed the lesions in a 67 year old man with mild alcoholic liver disease and severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Ultrasound examinations of the abdomen and chest and an echocardiogram failed to reveal a source for the abscess. On autopsy examination three encapsulated brain abscesses were found. 34 references, 2 figures, 1 table.

  17. Fusarium solani breast abscess.

    PubMed

    Anandi, V; Vishwanathan, P; Sasikala, S; Rangarajan, M; Subramaniyan, C S; Chidambaram, N

    2005-07-01

    An unusual manifestation of breast fusariosis was encountered in a 55-year-old female diabetic patient. Two fine needle aspirates (FNA) from the abscess were done at three days interval and they showed hyaline, septate, branched, fungal hyphae in 10% potassium hydroxide mount. Fungal infection was confirmed by demonstrating the fungal hyphae in the midst of lymphocytes, macrophages and neutrophils in Leishman stained smears. Culture of both FNAs yielded a heavy and pure growth of Fusarium solani. The patient responded to oral ketoconazole 200 mg once daily for 3 weeks. The breast fusariosis reported here is presumably the first case in India. PMID:16100431

  18. Pasteurella multocida liver abscess.

    PubMed

    Cortez, J C; Shapiro, M; Awe, R J

    1986-08-01

    A previously healthy 61-year-old woman was seen with an abnormal chest roentgenogram and a 3-week history of fever, chills, malaise, and right upper quadrant pain. Blood cultures revealed Pasteurella multocida sensitive to penicillin. Liver spleen radioisotope scan and CT scan revealed space occupying lesions in the right lobe of the liver. The patient was a gardener with no pets or animal exposure. This case illustrates P. multocida septicemia and a liver abscess in a patient without animal exposure. In addition, the possibility of soil as another reservoir of infection is raised. PMID:3487981

  19. Operative treatment of Brodie's abscess.

    PubMed

    Dunn, E C; Singer, L

    1991-01-01

    This manuscript deals with a unique operative management of unilateral Brodie's abscess in a 16-year-old male. Brodie's abscess is a common finding in childhood osteomyelitis. A review of the radiographic appearance, clinical presentation, and surgical management is presented.

  20. Sciatica and epidural corticosteroid injections.

    PubMed

    2015-02-01

    According to trials conducted in hundreds of patients with sciatica, epidural corticosteroid injections have no demonstrated efficacy beyond the placebo effect, either in the short-term or the long-term. However, they expose patients to a risk of sometimes serious neurological adverse effects.

  1. Experimental Staphylococcus aureus brain abscess.

    PubMed

    Enzmann, D R; Britt, R R; Obana, W G; Stuart, J; Murphy-Irwin, K

    1986-01-01

    The virulent organism Staphylococcus aureus produced brain abscesses that were quantitatively and qualitatively different from those caused by less virulent organisms. S. aureus abscesses created larger lesions, as earlier ependymitis, delayed progress toward healing, and caused areas of inflammatory escape outside the collagen capsule. Imaging tests revealed similar findings: the abscesses were larger, had more extensive central necrosis, and showed earlier evidence of ependymitis. This virulent organism also demonstrated that white matter is more susceptible than overlying gray matter to destruction by infection. The pattern of spread and other histologic findings suggest that collagen capsule formation has less of an infection "containment" function than was previously thought. PMID:3085444

  2. Radiological management of abdominal abscess.

    PubMed Central

    Mac Erlean, D P; Gibney, R G

    1983-01-01

    Forty-two abdominal and retroperitoneal abscesses were drained percutaneously under ultrasound guidance. A success rate of 85.7% was achieved. Subsequent surgery was required in only 5 patients. Postoperative and spontaneous abscesses did equally well. Most intra-abdominal and retroperitoneal abscesses are amenable to this form of percutaneous drainage. The procedure requires only local anaesthesia and is well tolerated. Surgical management should probably now be reserved for those cases which are considered unsuitable for percutaneous drainage or which fail to resolve following this procedure. PMID:6842496

  3. Amebic abscess of the brain.

    PubMed

    Becker, G L; Knep, S; Lance, K P; Kaufman, L

    1980-02-01

    Brain abscesses caused by Entamoeba histolytica were treated in two residents of New Jersey, neither of whom had traveled beyond the eastern United States. The diagnosis in Case 1 was confirmed by the presence of ameba in both brain and pituitary abscesses. An elevated indirect hemagglutination (IHA) titer of 1:4096 and response to specific treatment with metronidazole and chloroquin were the criteria for diagnosis in Case 2. The computerized tomographic appearance of an amebic abscess is that of a rapidly progressive lesion without reaction in the adjacent brain. Of the seven reported cures, all of the patients received appropriate chemotherapy. Five of the seven were operated upon. PMID:6245387

  4. Epidural spinal myelolipoma in a dog.

    PubMed

    Ueno, Hiroshi; Miyake, Tsuyoshi; Kobayashi, Yoshiyasu; Yamada, Kazutaka; Uzuka, Yuji

    2007-01-01

    Epidural spinal myelolipoma was diagnosed in a 13-year-old, male Siberian husky that was referred for evaluation of progressive pelvic limb paresis and urinary incontinence. An epidural mass was detected by magnetic resonance imaging and computed tomography. The mass was removed and identified histopathologically as an epidural myelolipoma. Pelvic limb paresis improved after surgery, but urinary retention associated with neurological bladder dysfunction persisted.

  5. Cervical Laminoplasty

    MedlinePlus

    ... Treatments for Spinal Pain Surgical Options Anterior Cervical Fusion Artificial Disc Replacement Bone Graft Alternatives Bone Morphogenetic ... Discectomy Percutaneous Vertebral Augmentation Posterior Cervical Foraminotomy Spinal Fusion ... Medicine Cervical Laminoplasty What is ...

  6. Whole Spontaneous Spinal Epidural Hematoma

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Kyeong-Wook; Song, Jae Gyok; Ryu, Jae-Wook

    2014-01-01

    A 26-year-old male who had no underlying disease, including coagulopathy, underwent thoracotomy and bleeding control due to hemothorax. On the fifth postoperative day, paralysis of both lower limbs occurred. Urgent spine magnetic resonance imaging showed a massive anterior spinal epidural hematoma from C2 to L1 level with different signal intensities, which was suspected to be staged hemorrhage. Hematoma evacuation with decompressive laminectomy was performed. The patient's neurologic deterioration was recovered immediately, and he was discharged without neurological deficits. A drug history of naftazone, which could induce a drug-induced platelet dysfunction, was revealed retrospectively. To our knowledge, this is the first report of whole spontaneous spinal epidural hematoma in a young patient, with a history of hemorrhoid medication. PMID:24967052

  7. Thoracic Extraosseous Epidural Cavernous Hemangioma

    PubMed Central

    Asil, Kiyasettin; Ceylan, Davut; Erdem, Sahin

    2015-01-01

    Cavernous hemangiomas were first reported in 1929 by Globus and Doshay, and are defined as benign vascular structures developed between the neural tissues occurring in the central nervous system, consisting of a dilated vascular bed. Cavernous hemangiomas comprise nearly 5-12% of all spinal vascular malformations; however, existence in the epidural space without bone involvement is rare. Only 4% of all cavernous hemangiomas (0.22/1.000.000) are purely epidural cavernous hemangiomas. In this case report, we removed a hemorrhagic thoracic mass presenting with progressive neurological deficits in a 55-year-old male patient. We found this case to be appropriate for presentation due to the rare occurrence of this type of cavernous hemangioma. PMID:25674348

  8. Spontaneous Spinal Epidural Hematoma Report.

    PubMed

    Kukreja, Sunil; Nanda, Anil

    2016-01-01

    We report a case of spontaneous spinal epidural hematoma in a 12-year-old female, who presented with significant upper and lower extremities weakness preceded by pain around the neck and shoulder girdle. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed epidural hematoma extending from C6-T2 with characteristic heterogeneously hyperintensity on T2 and homogenously isointensity on T1. Emergent spinal decompression was performed. However, the patient remained substantially weak in her lower extremities and was wheelchair bound at 3 months postoperatively. We have discussed clinical features, predisposing events, pathogenesis and treatment guidelines described in the literature. We also aim to reinforce the notion of keeping a high degree of clinical suspicion to identify and intervene at the earliest stage to prevent the physically and socially challenging consequences of SSEH. PMID:27598898

  9. [Intramural abscesses of the rectum].

    PubMed

    Denis, J; Ganansia, R; Arnous-Dubois, N; du Puy-Montbrun, T; Lemarchand, N

    1983-05-01

    Intramural abscesses of the rectum developed in the complex longitudinal layer may be isolated or associated with a transphincteric fistula. They may be acute or subacute and are diagnosed by intrarectal palpation. The only treatment is surgical: the abscess is opened into the rectal cavity, except in case of association with suprasphincteric fistula, when it must be drained through the skin. Postoperative complications are minor ones and relapses are rare (1.75% of cases). PMID:6222301

  10. Brodie's abscess: a case report.

    PubMed

    Alter, S A; Sprinkle, R W

    1995-01-01

    The authors present a case report with a 1-year follow-up period, demonstrating the successful diagnosis and surgical treatment of a focal lesion of the distal metaphysis of the right tibia in an 11-year-old female. The author discusses the pathology of hematologic osteomyelitis and its role in the development of a subacute abscess. A review of the literature and a detailed description of the pathogenesis of Brodie's abscess is submitted as well.

  11. Epidural optogenetics for controlled analgesia

    PubMed Central

    Bonin, Robert P; Wang, Feng; Desrochers-Couture, Mireille; Ga¸secka, Alicja; Boulanger, Marie-Eve; Côté, Daniel C

    2016-01-01

    Background Optogenetic tools enable cell selective and temporally precise control of neuronal activity; yet, difficulties in delivering sufficient light to the spinal cord of freely behaving animals have hampered the use of spinal optogenetic approaches to produce analgesia. We describe an epidural optic fiber designed for chronic spinal optogenetics that enables the precise delivery of light at multiple wavelengths to the spinal cord dorsal horn and sensory afferents. Results The epidural delivery of light enabled the optogenetic modulation of nociceptive processes at the spinal level. The acute and repeated activation of channelrhodopsin-2 expressing nociceptive afferents produced robust nocifensive behavior and mechanical sensitization in freely behaving mice, respectively. The optogenetic inhibition of GABAergic interneurons in the spinal cord dorsal horn through the activation of archaerhodopsin also produced a transient, but selective induction of mechanical hypersensitivity. Finally, we demonstrate the capacity of optogenetics to produce analgesia in freely behaving mice through the inhibition of nociceptive afferents via archaerhodopsin. Conclusion Epidural optogenetics provides a robust and powerful solution for activation of both excitatory and inhibitory opsins in sensory processing pathways. Our results demonstrate the potential of spinal optogenetics to modulate sensory behavior and produce analgesia in freely behaving animals. PMID:27030718

  12. Computed tomographic staging of traumatic epidural bleeding

    SciTech Connect

    Zimmerman, R.A.; Bilaniuk, L.T.

    1982-09-01

    The computed tomographic findings in 45 patients with post-traumatic epidural hemotomas are subdivided into three categories (acute, subacute, and chronic) and correlated with the severity of bleeding, clot formation, and clot resorption. Active epidural bleeding may be identified in acute cases.

  13. [A Case of Spinal Epidural Hematoma Presenting with Transient Hemiplegia].

    PubMed

    Komai, Takanori; Nakashima, Kazuya; Tominaga, Takashi; Nogaki, Hidekazu

    2016-04-01

    We report a rare case of a patient with spinal epidural hematoma who presented with transient hemiplegia. A 90-year-old man awakened from sleep due to sudden neck pain. Fifteen minutes later, the man experienced progressively worsening weakness in his left hand, and was transported in an ambulance to our hospital. At the hospital, he presented with hemiplegia, and we suspected intracranial disease. Therefore, we performed magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), which revealed no intracranial lesions. Shortly after the MRI, the patient showed no signs of hemiplegia. However, since the severe neck pain persisted, we performed cervical MRI, which showed a high-intensity area at the C2-C5 level, predominantly on the left side. Despite recovery from hemiplegia, we performed a laminectomy of C3-C5 with evacuation of a hematoma at the C2-C6 level. After the surgery, the patient had no neck pain. PMID:27056873

  14. Consent for labour epidural analgesia: an observational study in a single institution.

    PubMed

    Trumble, J; Lee, J; Slater, P M; Sellors, J; Cyna, A M

    2015-05-01

    There is a wide range of practice amongst obstetric anaesthetists when obtaining consent for women requesting labour epidural analgesia. This is the first prospective observational study recording the number and types of risks mentioned and whether the risk was quantified. Statements of benefits and alternatives to the procedure were also noted. Fourteen anaesthetists, each consulting a single patient, were recorded during the process of obtaining consent and inserting the epidural. The most commonly mentioned risks (median 7) were headache/dural puncture, failure/difficulty with insertion, nerve damage, bleeding/haematoma and infection/epidural abscess. There was no difference between consultants and trainees, although consultants showed greater variance. It was uncommon for anaesthetists to state a benefit (21%) or mention an alternative option (21%), but there was usually a quantitative statement of risk (71%). Data showed a deviation from the Australian and New Zealand College of Anaesthetists guidelines and these findings may encourage anaesthetists to reflect on their own practice and guide future research.

  15. Anatomic Variations of Cervical and High Thoracic Ligamentum Flavum

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Sang Pil; Kim, Hyun Jung

    2014-01-01

    Background Epidural blocks are widely used for the management of acute and chronic pain. The technique of loss of resistance is frequently adopted to determine the epidural space. A discontinuity of the ligamentum flavum may increase the risk of failure to identify the epidural space. The purpose of this study was to investigate the anatomic variations of the cervical and high thoracic ligamentum flavum in embalmed cadavers. Methods Vertebral column specimens of 15 human cadavers were obtained. After vertebral arches were detached from pedicles, the dural sac and epidural connective tissue were removed. The ligamentum flavum from C3 to T6 was directly examined anteriorly. Results The incidence of midline gaps in the ligamentum flavum was 87%-100% between C3 and T2. The incidence decreased below this level and was the lowest at T4-T5 (8%). Among the levels with a gap, the location of a gap in the caudal third of the ligamentum flavum was more frequent than in the middle or cephalic portion of the ligamentum flavum. Conclusions The cervical and high thoracic ligamentum flavum frequently has midline intervals with various features, especially in the caudal portion of the intervertebral space. Therefore, the ligamentum flavum is not always reliable as a perceptible barrier to identify the epidural space at these vertebral levels. Additionally, it may be more useful to insert the needle into the cephalic portion of the intervertebral space than in the caudal portion. PMID:25317280

  16. [Pancreatic abscess and infected pseudocyst].

    PubMed

    Trinidad, E E; Ramírez-Ronda, C H

    1994-01-01

    Acute pancreatitis is a sterile inflammatory process caused by a chemical auto digestion of the pancreas. The pancreatic abscess and infected pseudocyst are complications of acute pancreatitis of a high mortality rate that require a prompt diagnosis. The pseudocyst is defined as a localized collection of pancreatic juices confine to a retroperitoneal area by a fibrous membrane without epithelium; an abscess is a collection of pus and necrotic tissue. This illnesses should be suspected when patients with acute pancreatitis develop fever, tachycardia, abdominal distention or mass after 14-22 days after the initial attack. These entities require different treatment. The definite treatment is surgical intervention.

  17. Fatal Cervical Spine Injury From Diving Accident.

    PubMed

    Voland, Christelle; Vilarino, Raquel; Grabherr, Silke; Lobrinus, Johannes Alexander; Palmiere, Cristian

    2015-09-01

    Spinal cord injuries result after diving into shallow water, often after incautious jumps head first into water of unknown depth during recreational or sport activities. Mortality is generally due to upper cervical trauma. The authors present a case of a diving-related death in a young woman who underwent medicolegal investigations. The measured water depth at the supposed dive site was 1.40 m. Postmortem radiology and autopsy revealed fractures of the body and the posterior arch of the fifth cervical vertebra, a fracture of the right transverse process of the sixth cervical vertebra and hemorrhages involving the cervical paraspinal muscles. Neuropathology showed a posterior epidural hematoma involving the whole cervical region and a symmetric laceration of the spinal cord located at the fourth and fifth cervical vertebra level, surrounded by multiple petechial hemorrhages. Toxicology revealed the presence of ethanol in both blood and urine samples. The death was attributed to cervical spine fracture (C5-C6), spinal cord contusion, and subsequent drowning. This case highlights the usefulness of postmortem radiology, examination of the deep structures of the neck, toxicology, neuropathology, and a detailed research of signs of drowning to formulate appropriate hypotheses pertaining to the cause and mechanism of death.

  18. Epidural anaesthesia and analgesia for liver resection.

    PubMed

    Tzimas, P; Prout, J; Papadopoulos, G; Mallett, S V

    2013-06-01

    Although epidural analgesia is routinely used in many institutions for patients undergoing hepatic resection, there are unresolved issues regarding its safety and efficacy in this setting. We performed a review of papers published in the area of anaesthesia and analgesia for liver resection surgery and selected four areas of current controversy for the focus of this review: the safety of epidural catheters with respect to postoperative coagulopathy, a common feature of this type of surgery; analgesic efficacy; associated peri-operative fluid administration; and the role of epidural analgesia in enhanced recovery protocols. In all four areas, issues are raised that question whether epidural anaesthesia is always the best choice for these patients. Unfortunately, the evidence available is insufficient to provide definitive answers, and it is clear that there are a number of areas of controversy that would benefit from high-quality clinical trials.

  19. [Epidural analgesia in combination with general anesthesia].

    PubMed

    Gottschalk, Antje; Poepping, Daniel M

    2015-07-01

    Epidural anaesthesia is a widely used and accepted technique for perioperative analgesia in different kinds of surgery. Apart from analgetic effect and due to wide positve effects on patients outcome epidural analgesia is often used with general anaesthesia. It represents a reliable and reversible neural deafferentation technique that effectively contributes to a reduction of the surgical stress response with subsequent positive effects on cardiopulmonary, gastrointestinal, and immune function. Animal studies suggest that the use of epidural anaesthesia may be beneficial for cancer surgery because of less tumour recurrence. Further, a benefit is expected in patient's mortality. This article summarizes and critically discusses the current knowledge on the effects of epidural anaesthesia on pain management, cardiopulmonary as well as gastrointestinal functions and patient's outcome.

  20. Cervical Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... the place where a baby grows during pregnancy. Cervical cancer is caused by a virus called HPV. The ... for a long time, or have HIV infection. Cervical cancer may not cause any symptoms at first. Later, ...

  1. [History and Technique of Epidural Anaesthesia].

    PubMed

    Waurick, Katrin; Waurick, René

    2015-07-01

    In 1901, the first Epidural anesthesia via a caudal approach was independently described by two FrenchmanJean-Anthanase Sicard and Fernand Cathelin.. The Spanish military surgeon, Fidel Pagés Miravé, completed the lumbar approach successfully in 1921. The two possibilities for identification of the epidural space the "loss of resistance" technique and the technique of the "hanging drop" were developed by Achille Mario Dogliotti, an Italian, and Alberto Gutierrez, an Argentinean physician, at the same time. In 1956 John J. Bonica published the paramedian approach to the epidural space. As early as 1931 Eugene Aburel, a Romanian obstetrician, injected local anaesthetics via a silk catheter to perform lumbar obstetric Epidural analgesia. In 1949 the first successful continuous lumbar Epidural anaesthesia was reported by Manuel Martinez Curbelo, a Cuban. Epidural anaesthesia can be performed in sitting or lateral position in all segments of the spinal column via the median or paramedian approach. Different off-axis angles pose the challenge in learning the technique.

  2. [Techniques for identifying the epidural space].

    PubMed

    Figueredo, E

    2005-01-01

    A large part of the success of epidural anesthesia rests on correct identification of the epidural space. The last hundred years have seen the description of numerous techniques for locating the space in the most straightforward, effective, safe, and reliable manner. To evaluate the advantages and disadvantages of these approaches and the complications associated with each, we carried out a MEDLINE search using the following key words: "epidural analgesia," "epidural anesthesia," "epidural space," "identification," and "loss of resistance" (LOR). Traditional, complementary, and instrument-guided techniques used to identify the epidural space were analyzed. The results of clinical trials comparing different LOR techniques were evaluated. LOR with air, with isotonic saline, or a combination of both were the techniques shown to be simplest and safest. With respect to safety, LOR with air led to the greatest number of complications (pneumocephalus, air embolism, insufficient analgesia, higher incidence of dural puncture, nerve root compression, subcutaneous emphysema). When a small air bubble is created inside the syringe, LOR with saline solution is reliable and teachable, as well as safe and effective.

  3. Symptomatic Spinal Epidural Lipomatosis After a Single Local Epidural Steroid Injection

    SciTech Connect

    Tok, Chung Hong Kaur, Shaleen; Gangi, Afshin

    2011-02-15

    Spinal epidural lipomatosis is a rare disorder that can manifest with progressive neurological deficits. It is characterized by abnormal accumulation of unencapsulated epidural fat commonly associated with the administration of exogenous steroids associated with a variety of systemic diseases, endocrinopathies, and Cushing syndrome (Fogel et al. Spine J 5:202-211, 2005). Occasionally, spinal epidural lipomatosis may occur in patients not exposed to steroids or in patients with endocrinopathies, primarily in obese individuals (Fogel et al. Spine J 5:202-211, 2005). However, spinal lumbar epidural lipomatosis resulting from local steroid injection has rarely been reported. We report the case of a 45-year-old diabetic man with claudication that was probably due to symptomatic lumbar spinal lipomatosis resulting from a single local epidural steroid injection.

  4. An epidural analgesia program: balancing risks and benefits.

    PubMed

    Rosen, H F; Calio, M M

    1990-09-01

    An alternative to parenteral narcotic management is the administration of analgesics into the epidural space. The recognition and prevention of complications or side effects of epidural analgesia are prime concerns in planning nursing care for these patients.

  5. Retroperitoneoscopic unroofing of a renal cyst under epidural anesthesia.

    PubMed

    Yagisawa, T; Ito, F; Shimizu, T; Toma, H; Yamagata, K; Ikeda, M

    2001-08-01

    Laparoscopic surgery has routinely been performed under general anesthesia. Our first case of a large renal cyst treated successfully with retroperitoneoscopic unroofing under epidural anesthesia is presented here. Epidural anesthesia can be used for retroperitoneoscopic surgery if necessary.

  6. Hepatic abscess complicating ulceroglandular tularemia.

    PubMed

    Gourdeau, M; Lamothe, F; Ishak, M; Côté, J; Breton, G; Villeneuve, J P; D'Amico, P

    1983-12-15

    In a patient with the clinical features of classic ulceroglandular tularemia a solitary hepatic abscess was found during an ultrasound examination. Hepatic tularemia has rarely been reported since the advent of specific therapy, which prevents the disease from reaching the disseminated state. This case, however, shows that the liver can be involved early in the course of tularemia. Increased serum levels of hepatic enzymes may be the only sign of such a complication.

  7. Needle aspiration of peritonsillar abscess in children.

    PubMed

    Weinberg, E; Brodsky, L; Stanievich, J; Volk, M

    1993-02-01

    Needle aspiration for the treatment of peritonsillar abscess was assessed in 43 consecutive children aged 7 to 18 years (mean age, 13.9 +/- 2.5 years) during the 3-year period from 1988 through 1991. A positive aspirate was obtained in 31 (76%) of the 41 patients who cooperated for needle aspiration; a mean of 2.9 +/- 1.9 mL of pus was withdrawn. Of the 31 children with a positive aspirate, in 27 (87%) the abscess resolved, two (6%) required a second aspiration for resolution, and two (6%) underwent immediate tonsillectomy for persistent abscess. Of the 10 children (24%) with negative aspirations, in six (60%) the abscess resolved with antibiotic treatment alone, three (30%) underwent immediate (quinsy) tonsillectomy, and in one (10%) the abscess spontaneously drained. No bleeding, airway obstruction, or anesthetic complications occurred. Needle aspiration of peritonsillar abscess in children, with tonsillectomy reserved for nonresponders, appears to be an efficacious and safe method of treatment.

  8. Role of electrodiagnosis in patients being considered for epidural steroid injections.

    PubMed

    Annaswamy, Thiru M; Bierner, Samuel M; Avraham, Ravid

    2013-05-01

    Electrodiagnostic (EDX) evaluation, and, more specifically, electromyography (EMG), has a well-established role in the diagnostic confirmation of cervical and lumbar radiculopathy. The role of EMG in prognostication, however, is less established and remains a topic of debate. The purpose of this article is to evaluate the diagnostic and prognosticating role of EMG in cervical and lumbar radiculopathies, and to assess the utility of EMG in predicting outcomes after epidural steroid injections (ESI). A review of the existing literature strongly supports a prognosticating role for EDX in predicting outcomes after lumbar ESI in lumbosacral radiculopathies (LSR). Although limited research regarding outcome prediction after cervical ESI in cervical radiculopathies has been performed, no study has specifically evaluated the utility of EMG in predicting outcomes for cervical ESI, and this topic requires further investigation. An EDX evaluation can provide clinicians with accurate and reliable diagnostic information (level I or level II evidence) in the evaluation of patients with lumbosacral radiculopathies, and can provide more valid prognostic information (level I evidence) regarding potential benefits of lumbar ESI. An EDX evaluation, therefore, can enhance a clinician's ability to advise patients on the most appropriate and efficacious evaluation and management plan for the treatment of painful radiculopathies.

  9. Cervical radiculopathy: epidemiology, etiology, diagnosis, and treatment.

    PubMed

    Woods, Barrett I; Hilibrand, Alan S

    2015-06-01

    Cervical radiculopathy is a relatively common neurological disorder resulting from nerve root dysfunction, which is often due to mechanical compression; however, inflammatory cytokines released from damaged intervertebral disks can also result in symptoms. Cervical radiculopathy can often be diagnosed with a thorough history and physical examination, but an magnetic resonance imaging or computed tomographic myelogram should be used to confirm the diagnosis. Because of the ubiquity of degenerative changes found on these imaging modalities, the patient's symptoms must correlate with pathology for a successful diagnosis. In the absence of myelopathy or significant muscle weakness all patients should be treated conservatively for at least 6 weeks. Conservative treatments consist of immobilization, anti-inflammatory medications, physical therapy, cervical traction, and epidural steroid injections. Cervical radiculopathy typically is self-limiting with 75%-90% of patients achieving symptomatic improvement with nonoperative care. For patients who are persistently symptomatic despite conservative treatment, or those who have a significant functional deficit surgical treatment is appropriate. Surgical options include anterior cervical decompression and fusion, cervical disk arthroplasty, and posterior foraminotomy. Patient selection is critical to optimize outcome. PMID:25985461

  10. Iatrogenic Cushing Syndrome Secondary to Ritonavir-Epidural Triamcinolone Interaction: An Illustrative Case and Review

    PubMed Central

    Berg, Melody L.

    2014-01-01

    HIV positive patients on ritonavir-containing antiretroviral therapy (ART) can develop iatrogenic Cushing syndrome (IACS) and adrenal insufficiency as a result of drug-drug interactions with inhaled or intranasal glucocorticoid therapy. Reports related to epidural triamcinolone injections are relatively uncommon but increasingly reported. We describe a 48-year-old woman with immunologically and virologically well-controlled HIV on ritonavir-based ART, who developed headache, dizziness, and candida and herpes simplex virus (HSV) ulcerative esophagitis 7 days after receiving an epidural triamcinolone injection for cervical radicular pain. Iatrogenic Cushing syndrome and relative adrenal insufficiency were suspected and proven. The patient's ART was changed to a non-HIV protease inhibitor- (PI-) containing program, her symptoms improved, and she did not require hydrocortisone replacement. In this paper, we review the literature on IACS and relative secondary adrenal insufficiency from epidural triamcinolone injections in HIV patients on ritonavir-containing ART regimens. A high index of clinical suspicion is needed for diagnosis. Prevention of drug-drug interactions by taking a thorough medication history for patients on ritonavir-containing ART regimens before prescribing any form of corticosteroid is crucial and effective and sustained interdisciplinary communication in the care of such patients. PMID:24895495

  11. Vesicoovarian Fistula on an Endometriosis Abscessed Cyst

    PubMed Central

    Tran, C.; Even, M.; Carbonnel, M.; Preaux, F.; Isnard, F.; Rault, A.; Rouanne, M.; Ayoubi, J. M.

    2014-01-01

    We report the case of a patient who developed a vesicoovarian fistula on an endometriosis abscessed cyst. The patient presented with an advanced endometriosis stage IV complicated with a right ovarian abscessed cyst of 10 cm. A first coelioscopy with cystectomy was realized. After surgery, a voiding cystography highlighted a fistula between the ovarian abscess and the bladder. A second surgery by median laparotomy was realized with the resection of the right ovarian abscess and the resection of vesical fistula. PMID:25152819

  12. Vesicoovarian fistula on an endometriosis abscessed cyst.

    PubMed

    Tran, C; Even, M; Carbonnel, M; Preaux, F; Isnard, F; Rault, A; Rouanne, M; Ayoubi, J M

    2014-01-01

    We report the case of a patient who developed a vesicoovarian fistula on an endometriosis abscessed cyst. The patient presented with an advanced endometriosis stage IV complicated with a right ovarian abscessed cyst of 10 cm. A first coelioscopy with cystectomy was realized. After surgery, a voiding cystography highlighted a fistula between the ovarian abscess and the bladder. A second surgery by median laparotomy was realized with the resection of the right ovarian abscess and the resection of vesical fistula. PMID:25152819

  13. Bone formation within a breast abscess

    PubMed Central

    Mannu, Gurdeep Singh; Ahmed, Farid; Cunnick, Giles; Mungalsingh, Naren

    2014-01-01

    We present a rare case of osseous metaplasia in a poorly healing breast abscess. An 87-year-old woman was referred to the breast surgery clinic with a painful lump in her right breast. Initial imaging and core biopsy suggested a breast abscess. Despite several courses of antibiotics and repeated attempts at aspiration the painful lesion persisted. It was eventually surgically excised in its entirety and final histopathology showed the presence of bone formation within the abscess. The patient's symptoms subsequently resolved. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case in the literature, of osseous metaplasia within a breast abscess in the absence of malignancy. PMID:25246453

  14. Myocardial abscess complicating healed myocardial infarction.

    PubMed Central

    Weisz, S.; Young, D. G.

    1977-01-01

    An isolated myocardial abscess due to Bacteroides fragilis developed in the scar of a myocardial infarction. Fever, chills and signs of pericarditis were the main clinical features. Mild enteritis 1 week prior to the onset of symptoms related to the abscess was the most likely cause of the bacteremia. The diagnosis was established at thoracotomy, performed because of cardiac tamponade. Thirteen other cases of isolated bacterial myocardial abscess accompanying myocardial infarction have been reported, but all the infarctions were recent. Surgical resection for a suspected myocardial abscess should be considered in view of the high mortality, largely from cardiac rupture. Images FIG. 1 PMID:861868

  15. Solitary Spinal Epidural Metastasis from Gastric Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Sako, Taisei; Iida, Yasuaki; Yokoyama, Yuichirou; Tsuge, Shintaro; Hasegawa, Keiji; Wada, Akihito; Mikami, Tetsuo

    2016-01-01

    Solitary epidural space metastasis of a malignant tumor is rare. We encountered a 79-year-old male patient with solitary metastatic epidural tumor who developed paraplegia and dysuria. The patient had undergone total gastrectomy for gastric cancer followed by chemotherapy 8 months priorly. The whole body was examined for suspected metastatic spinal tumor, but no metastases of the spine or important organs were observed, and a solitary mass was present in the thoracic spinal epidural space. The mass was excised for diagnosis and treatment and was histopathologically diagnosed as metastasis from gastric cancer. No solitary metastatic epidural tumor from gastric cancer has been reported in English. Among the Japanese, 3 cases have been reported, in which the outcome was poor in all cases and no definite diagnosis could be made before surgery in any case. Our patient developed concomitant pneumonia after surgery and died shortly after the surgery. When a patient has a past medical history of malignant tumor, the possibility of a solitary metastatic tumor in the epidural space should be considered. PMID:27703825

  16. Unusual Spinal Epidural Lipomatosis and Lumbosacral Instability

    PubMed Central

    Ruiz Picazo, David; Ramírez Villaescusa, José

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Epidural lipomatosis is most frequently observed in patients on chronic steroid treatment. Only a few idiopathic epidural lipomatosis cases have been described. Material and Methods. 64-year-old male patient presented with low back pain and left leg pain. Later, the patient experienced neurogenic claudication and radicular pain in the left leg without urinary dysfunction. Plain radiography and magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated an abnormal fat tissue overgrowth in the epidural space with compression of the dural sac, degenerative disc disease at L4-L5 level, and instability at L5-S1. Endocrinopathic diseases and chronic steroid therapy were excluded. If conservative treatment failed, surgical treatment can be indicated. Results. After surgery, there was a gradual improvement in symptoms and signs, and six months later the patient returned to daily activities and was neurologically normal. Conclusion. In the absence of common causes of neurogenic claudication, epidural lipomatosis should be considered. The standard test for the diagnosis of epidural lipomatosis is magnetic resonance (MR). At first, conservative treatment must be considered; weight loss and the suspension of prior corticosteroid therapy are indicated. In the presence of neurological impairment, the operative treatment of wide surgical decompression must be performed soon after diagnosis. PMID:27069704

  17. Cervical radiculopathy.

    PubMed

    Iyer, Sravisht; Kim, Han Jo

    2016-09-01

    Cervical radiculopathy is a common clinical scenario. Patients with radiculopathy typically present with neck pain, arm pain, or both. We review the epidemiology of cervical radiculopathy and discuss the diagnosis of this condition. This includes an overview of the pertinent findings on the patient history and physical examination. We also discuss relevant clinical syndromes that must be considered in the differential diagnosis including peripheral nerve entrapment syndromes and shoulder pathology. The natural history of cervical radiculopathy is reviewed and options for management are discussed. These options include conservative management, non-operative modalities such as physical therapy, steroid injections, and operative intervention. While the exact indications for surgical intervention have not yet been elucidated, we provide an overview of the available literature regarding indications and discuss the timing of intervention. The surgical outcomes of anterior cervical decompression and fusion (ACDF), cervical disc arthroplasty (CDA), and posterior cervical foraminotomy (PCF) are discussed. PMID:27250042

  18. Cervical cerclage.

    PubMed

    Suhag, Anju; Berghella, Vincenzo

    2014-09-01

    Cervical cerclage is an obstetric procedure performed for prevention of prematurity. Cerclage was first introduced by Drs Shirodkar and McDonald in the mid-1950s for women with repeated second trimester losses and cervical changes in current pregnancy. Currently, cerclage placement is based on 3 common indications in singleton gestations, including history-indicated (prior multiple early preterm births or second trimester losses), ultrasound-indicated (cervical length <25 mm before 24-wk gestational age in women with prior spontaneous preterm birth) and physical examination-indicated (cervical dilation on manual or physical examination before 24 wk).

  19. Treatment of shivering after epidural lidocaine.

    PubMed

    Harris, M M; Lawson, D; Cooper, C M; Ellis, J

    1989-01-01

    The effectiveness of intravenous meperidine and warm local anesthetic for prevention of postanesthetic shivering was evaluated in urology patients undergoing epidural blockade for extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy. When administered before the blockade, meperidine, 12.5 mg or 25 mg, was not significantly better than saline placebo for preventing postepidural shivering. Changes in the concentrations of catecholamines or lidocaine did not result in differences between patients who shivered and those who did not shiver. In a second experiment, patients receiving body-temperature or room-temperature epidural lidocaine did not differ with respect to the incidence of postanesthetic shivering, onset of sensory blockade, or core temperature during a 30-minute observation period. The authors concluded that neither meperidine, in doses employed, nor body-temperature lidocaine prevents shivering after epidural blockade. This shivering appears to be different from that observed during emergence from general anesthesia.

  20. Lumbar Epidural Varix Mimicking Disc Herniation.

    PubMed

    Bursalı, Adem; Akyoldas, Goktug; Guvenal, Ahmet Burak; Yaman, Onur

    2016-07-01

    Lumbar radiculopathy is generally caused by such well-recognized entity as lumbar disc herniation in neurosurgical practice; however rare pathologies such as thrombosed epidural varix may mimic them by causing radicular symptoms. In this case report, we present a 26-year-old man with the complaint of back and right leg pain who was operated for right L4-5 disc herniation. The lesion interpreted as an extruded disc herniation preoperatively was found to be a thrombosed epidural varix compressing the nerve root preoperatively. The nerve root was decompressed by shrinking the lesion with bipolar thermocoagulation and excision. The patient's complaints disappeared in the postoperative period. Thrombosed lumbar epidural varices may mimic lumbar disc herniations both radiologically and clinically. Therefore, must be kept in mind in the differential diagnosis of lumbar disc herniations. Microsurgical techniques are mandatory for the treatment of these pathologies and decompression with thermocoagulation and excision is an efficient method. PMID:27446525

  1. Lumbar Epidural Varix Mimicking Disc Herniation

    PubMed Central

    Bursalı, Adem; Guvenal, Ahmet Burak; Yaman, Onur

    2016-01-01

    Lumbar radiculopathy is generally caused by such well-recognized entity as lumbar disc herniation in neurosurgical practice; however rare pathologies such as thrombosed epidural varix may mimic them by causing radicular symptoms. In this case report, we present a 26-year-old man with the complaint of back and right leg pain who was operated for right L4–5 disc herniation. The lesion interpreted as an extruded disc herniation preoperatively was found to be a thrombosed epidural varix compressing the nerve root preoperatively. The nerve root was decompressed by shrinking the lesion with bipolar thermocoagulation and excision. The patient's complaints disappeared in the postoperative period. Thrombosed lumbar epidural varices may mimic lumbar disc herniations both radiologically and clinically. Therefore, must be kept in mind in the differential diagnosis of lumbar disc herniations. Microsurgical techniques are mandatory for the treatment of these pathologies and decompression with thermocoagulation and excision is an efficient method. PMID:27446525

  2. Sciatica caused by lumbar epidural gas.

    PubMed

    Belfquih, Hatim; El Mostarchid, Brahim; Akhaddar, Ali; gazzaz, Miloudi; Boucetta, Mohammed

    2014-01-01

    Gas production as a part of disc degeneration can occur but rarely causes nerve compression syndromes. The clinical features are similar to those of common sciatica. CT is very useful in the detection of epidural gas accumulation and nerve root compression. We report a case of symptomatic epidural gas accumulation originating from vacuum phenomenon in the intervertebral disc, causing lumbo-sacral radiculopathy. A 45-year-old woman suffered from sciatica for 9 months. The condition worsened in recent days. Computed tomography (CT) demonstrated intradiscal vacuum phenomenon, and accumulation of gas in the lumbar epidural space compressing the dural sac and S1 nerve root. After evacuation of the gas, her pain resolved without recurrence.

  3. Spinal epidural angiolipoma: A rare cause of spinal cord compression.

    PubMed

    Ghanta, Rajesh K; Koti, Kalyan; Dandamudi, Srinivas

    2012-09-01

    Spinal epidural angiolipomas are rare, benign tumors composed of mature lipocytes admixed with abnormal blood vessels. Only 128 cases of spinal epidural angiolipomas have been reported in literature till now. Spinal angiolipomas are predominantly located in the mid-thoracic region. We report a case of dorsal epidural angiolipoma in a 56-year-old male who presented with paraparesis and was diagnosed to have D4-5 epidural angiolipoma. Total surgical excision of the epidural angiolipoma was done and his paraparesis gradually improved.

  4. Spontaneous epidural hematoma due to cervico-thoracic angiolipoma.

    PubMed

    Eap, C; Bannwarth, M; Jazeron, J-F; Kleber, J-C; Theret, É; Duntze, J; Litre, C-F

    2015-12-01

    Epidural angiolipomas are uncommon benign tumors of the spine. Their clinical presentation is usually a progressive spinal cord compression. We report the case of a 22-year-old patient who presented with an acute paraparesis and a spontaneous epidural hematoma, which revealed a epidural angiolipoma which extended from C7 to T3. The patient underwent a C7-T3 laminectomy, in emergency, with evacuation of the hematoma and extradural complete resection of a fibrous epidural tumor bleeding. The postoperative course was favorable with regression of neurological symptoms. Epidural angiolipomas can be revealed by spontaneous intratumoral hemorrhage without traumatism. The standard treatment is total removal by surgery.

  5. Scoliosis associated with idiopathic lumbosacral epidural lipomatosis

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    There are very few reports of spinal epidural lipomatosis (SEL) in association with scoliosis. A 49-year-old man presented with persistent back pain and right hip lump. The lumbar spine X-rays showed scoliosis (Lenke classification 5BN). Lumbar MRI demonstrated circumferential epidural fat deposit from L1 to lower S2 level. There was no obvious etiology of SEL except mild increased body mass index (BMI). The patient was managed with conservative treatment. After 6 months medication (limaprost and ginkgo), his symptoms were relieved.

  6. Scoliosis associated with idiopathic lumbosacral epidural lipomatosis.

    PubMed

    Han, Seong Rok

    2016-03-01

    There are very few reports of spinal epidural lipomatosis (SEL) in association with scoliosis. A 49-year-old man presented with persistent back pain and right hip lump. The lumbar spine X-rays showed scoliosis (Lenke classification 5BN). Lumbar MRI demonstrated circumferential epidural fat deposit from L1 to lower S2 level. There was no obvious etiology of SEL except mild increased body mass index (BMI). The patient was managed with conservative treatment. After 6 months medication (limaprost and ginkgo), his symptoms were relieved. PMID:27683700

  7. Microbiology and Treatment of Acute Apical Abscesses

    PubMed Central

    Rôças, Isabela N.

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY Acute apical abscess is the most common form of dental abscess and is caused by infection of the root canal of the tooth. It is usually localized intraorally, but in some cases the apical abscess may spread and result in severe complications or even mortality. The reasons why dental root canal infections can become symptomatic and evolve to severe spreading and sometimes life-threatening abscesses remain elusive. Studies using culture and advanced molecular microbiology methods for microbial identification in apical abscesses have demonstrated a multispecies community conspicuously dominated by anaerobic bacteria. Species/phylotypes commonly found in these infections belong to the genera Fusobacterium, Parvimonas, Prevotella, Porphyromonas, Dialister, Streptococcus, and Treponema. Advances in DNA sequencing technologies and computational biology have substantially enhanced the knowledge of the microbiota associated with acute apical abscesses and shed some light on the etiopathogeny of this disease. Species richness and abundance and the resulting network of interactions among community members may affect the collective pathogenicity and contribute to the development of acute infections. Disease modifiers, including transient or permanent host-related factors, may also influence the development and severity of acute abscesses. This review focuses on the current evidence about the etiology and treatment of acute apical abscesses and how the process is influenced by host-related factors and proposes future directions in research, diagnosis, and therapeutic approaches to deal with this disease. PMID:23554416

  8. Actinomyces meyeri brain abscess following dental extraction.

    PubMed

    Clancy, U; Ronayne, A; Prentice, M B; Jackson, A

    2015-04-13

    We describe the rare occurrence of an Actinomyces meyeri cerebral abscess in a 55-year-old woman following a dental extraction. This patient presented with a 2-day history of hemisensory loss, hyper-reflexia and retro-orbital headache, 7 days following a dental extraction for apical peridonitis. Neuroimaging showed a large left parietal abscess with surrounding empyema. The patient underwent craniotomy and drainage of the abscess. A. meyeri was cultured. Actinomycosis is a rare cause of cerebral abscess. The A. meyeri subtype is particularly rare, accounting for less than 1% of specimens. This case describes an unusually brief course of the disease, which is usually insidious. Parietal lobe involvement is unusual as cerebral abscesses usually have a predilection for the frontal and temporal regions of the brain. Although there are no randomised trials to guide therapy, current consensus is to use a prolonged course of intravenous antibiotics, followed by 6-12 months of oral therapy.

  9. Spontaneous lingual abscess in an immunocompromised patient.

    PubMed

    Kettaneh, Nick; Williamson, Kelly

    2014-05-01

    Acute lingual abscess is a rare yet life-threatening clinical entity. Lingual abscess must be appropriately diagnosed and treated in the emergency department to avoid acute airway compromise. A 68-year-old woman on immunomodulatory medication for rheumatoid arthritis presented to the emergency department with left facial pain and swelling. An anterior lingual abscess was diagnosed on computed tomographic scan. The most common cause of lingual abscess is direct trauma, although immunocompromised state is a predisposing risk factor. Intravenous antibiotics are the primary treatment modality, with consideration given to adjunctive surgical drainage. We present this case to increase awareness surrounding this diagnosis among emergency physicians. Spontaneous lingual abscess should be considered in immunocompromised patients who present to the emergency department with tongue pain and edema even in the absence of lingual trauma. PMID:24332904

  10. Medical treatment of multiple streptococcal liver abscesses

    SciTech Connect

    Matlow, A.; Vellend, H.

    1983-04-01

    We describe four cases of multiple, cryptogenic, and streptococcal liver abscesses which were cured with antibiotic therapy. Two of the patients were referred for medical management as a last resort after open surgical drainage failed to eradicate the suppurative process. The other two patients were treated from the time of diagnosis with antimicrobial agents alone. Blood cultures or needle aspirates of the abscesses yielded a pure growth of streptococci in all instances. All isolates were susceptible to penicillin G. Cryptogenic streptococcal abscesses may represent a subset of multiple hepatic abscesses particularly amenable to successful medical therapy consisting of a minimum of 6 weeks parenteral antibiotic therapy followed by a period of oral antibiotics until clinical, biochemical, and radiological resolution of the abscesses has occurred.

  11. Nerve abscess in primary neuritic leprosy.

    PubMed

    Rai, Dheeraj; Malhotra, Hardeep Singh; Garg, Ravindra Kumar; Goel, Madhu Mati; Malhotra, Kiran Preet; Kumar, Vijay; Singh, Arun Kumar; Jain, Amita; Kohli, Neera; Singh, Shailesh Kumar

    2013-06-01

    Nerve abscess is an infrequently reported complication of leprosy. We describe a patient with a pure neuritic type of leprosy with multiple nerve abscesses, who presented with tingling and numbness in the medial aspect of his right forearm and hand. Subsequently he developed pain, redness and swelling over the medial side of his right elbow and the flexor aspect of his right wrist. High-resolution ultrasound showed diffuse thickening of the right ulnar nerve with hypoechoic texture housing a cystic lesion with internal debris suggesting an abscess, at the cubital tunnel. Histopathological examination of the pus and tissue obtained from the abscess revealed presence of granulomas with lepra bacilli. The patient responded to surgery and multidrug therapy. In conclusion, the nerve abscess as the first manifestation of leprosy is uncommon and a high index of suspicion is required to make a correct diagnosis. PMID:24171239

  12. Cervical Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... dysplasia of the cervix, vagina, or vulva • A family history of cervical cancer •Smoking •Certain sexually transmitted infections , such as chlamydia • ... to treat your cancer, you still need cervical cancer screening. Cells are taken from the upper vagina ... smallest units of a structure in the body; the building blocks for all ...

  13. Liver Abscess Formation Following Transarterial Chemoembolization

    PubMed Central

    Lv, Wei-Fu; Lu, Dong; He, Yu-Sheng; Xiao, Jing-Kun; Zhou, Chun-Ze; Cheng, De-Lei

    2016-01-01

    Abstract To investigate the clinical features, risk factors, and bacterial spectrum of liver abscess following transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) and evaluate the therapeutic effect of percutaneous catheter drainage (PCD) on the abscesses. A retrospective review of patient charts was performed in 3613 patients who suffered from liver malignancies (2832 patients with hepatocellular carcinoma and 781 with metastatic hepatic tumor) and had undergone 11,054 TACE procedures from January 2005 to October 2013. Liver abscesses were found in 21 patients. PCD was performed in all abscess patients. The clinical features, risk factors, and bacterial spectrum of liver abscess following TACE were investigated and the therapeutic effect of PCD was evaluated. The incidence of liver abscess was 0.58% per patient and 0.19% per procedure. Approximately 57.1% of the patients had a medical history of bilioenteric anastomosis or biliary stent implantation. On computed tomography scans, the abscesses appeared as low-attenuation lesions and high-density iodinate oil scattered in the abscesses. The ultrasound showed the well defined, heterogeneously hypoechoic lesions. Positive microbiological isolates were obtained in all pus cultures and in 47.6% of blood cultures. The most common bacterium was Escherichia coli (52.4%). Twenty patients (95.2%) were cured from abscesses by using PCD, and 1 died of sepsis. Patients with predisposing factors are prone to an increased risk of liver abscess following TACE. Bacterial culture and antibiotic sensitivity tests on pus and blood help on the antibiotics selection. PCD combined with aggressive antibiotics can be recommended as the first-line therapeutic regimen. PMID:27124055

  14. Epidural volume extension in combined spinal epidural anaesthesia for elective caesarean section: a randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Loubert, C; O'Brien, P J; Fernando, R; Walton, N; Philip, S; Addei, T; Columb, M O; Hallworth, S

    2011-05-01

    We investigated the effect of epidural volume extension on spinal blockade in pregnant women undergoing elective caesarean section with a combined spinal-epidural technique. We randomly allocated 90 healthy subjects to three groups to receive spinal hyperbaric bupivacaine 7.5 mg (group B7.5), spinal hyperbaric bupivacaine 7.5 mg immediately followed by epidural volume extension with saline 5 ml (group B7.5-EVE) or spinal hyperbaric bupivacaine 10 mg without epidural volume extension (group B10). We evaluated the height of the block every 5 min for 15 min following the spinal injection. The overall sensory block level increased with time (p < 0.001), regardless of the group studied, and there were significantly fewer failures of block in the group B10 compared with both B7.5 and B7.5-EVE groups (p = 0.001). In conclusion, we could not demonstrate a benefit in using epidural volume extension with 5 ml saline as part of a combined spinal epidural technique in term parturients undergoing elective caesarean section.

  15. Sinus histiocytosis with massive lymphadenopathy and epidural involvement.

    PubMed

    Haas, R J; Helmig, M S; Meister, P

    1981-01-01

    Sinus histiocytosis with massive lymphadenopathy (SHML) was recognized as a new clinical-pathological entity in 1969. Up to the present 134 cases have been described. The disease is characterized by prominent cervical lymph node enlargment. Microscopic features include marked dilatation of sinuses with intrasinusal histiocytes and lymphophagocytosis. About 70% of the patients reported were affected during the first 2 decades of life. The disease is held to be benign on account of spontaneous resolution in some patients. A follow-up survey of 72 patients showed disappearance of the symptoms 10 years after the original diagnosis in 24 patients. In 42 patients the disease still persisted 6 months to 21 years later. Six patients died, but only one of them as a result of the disease. Extranodal involvement was seen in the orbit, eyelid, respiratory tract, skin, bone, salivary glands, and testis. In two cases, one of which will be reported here, paraparesis resulted from infiltration of the epidural space. Treatment with prednisolone was tried in some cases with excellent results. In our case treatment with prednisolone and vinblastine resulted in the disappearance of the neurological symptoms.

  16. Four cases of spinal epidural angiolipoma.

    PubMed

    Sim, Kenneth; Tsui, Alpha; Paldor, Iddo; Kaye, Andrew H; Gaillard, Frank

    2016-03-01

    Spinal angiolipomas are uncommon benign tumours composed of mature fatty tissue and abnormal vascular elements, most commonly found within the posterior spinal epidural space. Most tumours are located within the mid-thoracic spine; in contrast thoracolumbar junction and purely lumbar angiolipomas are rare. We report a case series of four spinal angiolipomas, including a thoracolumbar junction and a purely lumbar tumour.

  17. [Spinal epidural angiolipoma: a case report].

    PubMed

    Dufrenot, Leïla; Pelé, Eric; Cursolle, Jean-Christophe; Coindre, Jean-Michel; Lepreux, Sébastien

    2010-02-01

    Spinal epidural angiolipoma is a rare tumor revealed by a slowly progressive paraplegia. We reported a case of a 44-year-old female and point out the peculiar pattern of this lesion characterized by the prominence of the vascular component over the lipomatous component. Recognition of this entity is important because this is a benign and curable cause of paraplegia.

  18. Spontaneous extracranial decompression of epidural hematoma.

    PubMed

    Neely, John C; Jones, Blaise V; Crone, Kerry R

    2008-03-01

    Epidural hematoma (EDH) is a common sequela of head trauma in children. An increasing number are managed nonsurgically, with close clinical and imaging observation. We report the case of a traumatic EDH that spontaneously decompressed into the subgaleal space, demonstrated on serial CT scans that showed resolution of the EDH and concurrent enlargement of the subgaleal hematoma.

  19. Abscess

    MedlinePlus

    ... 2006-2013 Logical Images, Inc. All rights reserved. Advertising Notice This Site and third parties who place ... would like to obtain more information about these advertising practices and to make choices about online behavioral ...

  20. [Clinical use of spinal or epidural steroids].

    PubMed

    Marinangeli, F; Ciccozzi, A; Donatelli, F; Paladini, A; Varrassi, G

    2002-01-01

    Steroids, drugs with potent antiinflammatory properties on the damaged nervous roots, have been especially used as adjuvants of local anesthetics, by spinal route, in the treatments of low-back pain. Spinal route was chosen to obtain a higher local concentration of drug, with few systemic side effects and to improve drug's action mechanism. Steroids seem to interact with GABA receptors and thus control neural excitability through a stabilising effect on membranes, modification of nervous conduction and membrane hyperpolarization, in supraspinal and spinal site. Epidural steroids are especially used in the treatment of low back pain due to irritation of nervous roots. They have been administered alone or in association with local anesthetics and/or saline solution. Slow release formulations have been generally used (methylprednisolone acetate, and triamcinolone diacetate). Other indications of epidural steroids are: postoperative hemilaminectomy pain, prevention of post herpetic neuralgia, degenerative ostheoartrithis. Intra-thecal steroids have been frequently used in the treatment of lumbar radiculopathy due to discopathy, as an alternative treatment when epidural administration is ineffective. Positive results have been obtained with methylprednisolone acetate, alone or in association with local anesthetics. Complications related to intraspinal steroids injections are due to execution of the block and side effects of drugs. Complications associated with intrathecal steroids are more frequent and severe than epidural injections and include: adhesive arachnoiditis, aseptic meningitis, cauda equina syndrome. Steroidal toxicity seems to be related to the polyethylenic glycole vehicle. Anyway, slow release formulations contain less concentrated polyethylenic glycole. The epidural administration, a correct dilution of steroid with local anesthetics solution and/or saline solution, and a limited number of injections (no more than three) allows a significant reduction of

  1. Perinephric abscess following extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy.

    PubMed

    Pautler, Stephen E.; Vallely, John F.; Denstedt, John D.

    1998-10-01

    Since the introduction and widespread use of extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy (SWL), various complications have been noted. Perinephric hematoma and ureteral obstruction may be anticipated by urologists as potential problems. We report the first case of perinephric abscess encountered after 17 895 SWL treatments at our institution. A 65 year old woman presented 4 months following a second SWL procedure with a perinephric abscess and was successfully treated with percutaneous drainage. A review of the English literature revealed only 3 other cases of perinephric abscess following SWL. This diagnosis should be considered in early and late presentations of flank pain following SWL.

  2. A Pneumococcal Brain Abscess: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Belodu, Rashmi; S., Nagarathna; R., Ravikumar; Kumar, Rakesh; B.A., Chandramouli

    2013-01-01

    A brain abscess which is caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae is a rare entity. Here, we have described a gentle man who presented with the signs and symptoms of a mass lesion which was localized to the temporal lobe. The clinical examination and computerized tomography revealed the diagnosis of a temporal abscess. The loculated mass was tapped and it was sent for histopathology, which confirmed the presence of an organizing abscess. A laboratory investigation of the pus revealed Streptococcus pneumoniae. The treatment included total excision and the administration of prolonged antibiotics, which led to a good outcome in the patient. PMID:24086878

  3. Peritonsillar Abscess in a 40-Day-Old Infant

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Soon Min; Kwon, Byoung Chul; Choi, Sung Yon; Sohn, Myung Hyun; Yoon, Choon Sik

    2006-01-01

    A peritonsillar abscess is one of the most commonly occurring deep space infections of the head and neck in adults and children. A peritonsillar abscess that appears in newborns, however, is extremely rare. The treatment of a peritonsillar abscess requires both the selection of appropriate antibiotics and the best procedure to remove the abscessed material. We report a case of a peritonsillar abscess in a 40-day-old infant who was treated with antibiotic therapy alone. PMID:16941748

  4. Radiological diagnosis of Brodie's abscess.

    PubMed

    Kowalewski, Michał; Swiatkowski, Jan; Michałowska, Ilona; Swiecicka, Dorota

    2002-12-30

    Background. Brodie's abscess is a kind of rare subacute or chronic osteitis. It is probably caused by mistreated or non-treated osteitis, or by bacteria of low virulence.
    Material and methods. In the Orthopedic and Traumatology Clinic of our medical school 5 patients were diagnosed with Brodie's obsecess between 1999 and 2002. all the patients had conventional x-rays, while one also had CT and MRI.
    Results and conclusions. The typical x-ray image shows an osteolytic lesion with sclerotic margin in the diametophysis. Each of the 5 patients had surgery. In 4 cases the histopatological results confirmed the radiological diagnosis. In one case fibrous dysplasia was found.

  5. [Cervical cerclage].

    PubMed

    Akladios, C Y; Sananes, N; Gaudineau, A; Boudier, E; Langer, B

    2015-10-01

    Cervical cerclage aims to strengthen not only the mechanical properties of the cervix, but also its immunological and anti-infectious functions. The demonstration of a strong interrelation between cervical insufficiency as well as decreased cervical length at endo-vaginal ultrasonography and infection has changed the indications cerclage. Actually we can distinguish three indications for cerclage: prophylactic, for obstetrical history; therapeutic, for shortened cervical length at ultrasonography in patients at risk and; emergency cerclage in case of threatening cervix at physical examination. The McDonald's technique is the most recommended. In case of failure, it is proposed to realize cerclage at a higher level on the cervix either by vaginal or abdominal route. PMID:26144289

  6. Cervical Cap

    MedlinePlus

    ... and remove the cap. How Much Does It Cost? A cervical cap costs about $70 and should be replaced every year. In addition, there is also the cost of the doctor's visit. Many health insurance plans ...

  7. Cervical spondylosis

    MedlinePlus

    Cervical osteoarthritis; Arthritis - neck; Neck arthritis; Chronic neck pain; Degenerative disk disease ... pain using stretches. The therapist will teach you exercises that make your neck muscles stronger. The therapist ...

  8. Cervical polyps

    MedlinePlus

    Vaginal bleeding - polyps ... The exact cause of cervical polyps is not known. They may occur with: An abnormal response to increased levels of the female hormone estrogen Chronic inflammation Clogged ...

  9. Parotid abscess: mini-pictorial essay.

    PubMed

    Viselner, G; van der Byl, G; Maira, A; Merico, V; Draghi, F

    2013-01-01

    Bacterial and viral infection of the intraparotideal and periparotideal lymph nodes, or of the glandular parenchyma, can lead to inflammatory and subsequently suppurative changes, which can result in abscess formation. Sonography allows a detailed morphological evaluation of the gland and has an important value, complementary to clinical examination, in the study of parotid inflammatory diseases. Specifically, sonography defines lesion's characteristics and, in a large number of cases, also its nature and, among the various imaging techniques, it is considered first-line imaging for the evaluation of parotid abscesses, which are characterized by hypo-anechoic lesions, with irregular margins. Color Doppler signals are peripheral to the abscess. If combined with color Doppler, sonography is important not only in diagnosis, but also in the evaluation of therapeutic efficacy and as a guide to the aspiration and drainage of abscesses. The rarity of some of these lesions led us to publish this mini-pictorial essay.

  10. Fatal thalamic abscess secondary to dental infection.

    PubMed

    Basyuni, Shadi; Sharma, Valmiki; Santhanam, Vijay; Ferro, Ashley

    2015-01-01

    We present the case of poor neurological recovery and subsequent death secondary to a thalamic abscess in a 53-year-old man. This patient initially presented with sudden dysarthria and left hemiparesis while driving. Neuroimaging showed a multilobular abscess involving the right thalamus with oedema extending to the basal ganglionic region and brainstem. The source of the abscess was initially unknown and it required draining multiple times while the different causes were being explored. The patient's neurological state along with intubation made for a difficult and inconclusive oral examination. It was only after neuroimaging included tooth-bearing areas that it became evident that this patient had extensive periodontal disease with multiple areas of periapical radiolucencies. The patient underwent complete dental clearance alongside repeated drainage of the abscess. Despite initial postoperative improvement, the patient never recovered from the neurological damage and died 3 weeks later. PMID:26678690

  11. Pyogenic liver abscess caused by Gemella morbillorum.

    PubMed

    Borro, Paolo; Sumberaz, Alessandro; Testino, Gianni

    2014-01-01

    Even though Gemella morbillorum infection (GMI) is rare in humans, it may nevertheless, cause endocarditis, meningitis, brain abscess, pleural empyema, nephritis, mediastinitis, and--occasionally--liver abscess. We are describing the case of a 64-years-old Caucasian male admitted with fever and abdominal pain. Laboratory parameters revealed inflammation signs, and instrumental examinations showed the presence of diverticula in the ascending colon. Abdominal ultrasound (US) and computer tomography (CT) showed two focal lesions in the right liver lobe. One had the characteristics of a simple cyst; the second was hypoechoic with a low density area, possibly containing necrotic material. US-guided needle biopsy was found negative for neoplastic cells, showing purulent infiltrate. Pus culture was found positive for GMI. Systemic antibiotic therapy coupled with repeated US-guided needle aspiration, induced the resolution of the hepatic abscess. Few cases have been reported of hepatic abscess caused by GMI in immunocompetent non-cirrhotic subjects.

  12. [Splenic abscess: etiology, diagnosis and possible therapeutics].

    PubMed

    Burnier, C; Ribordy-Baudat, V; Lamy, O

    2007-10-31

    We report the case of a 28-year-old intravenous drug abuser under quadritherapy for stage C3 AIDS and with past history of infectious endocarditis. He was admitted with a diminished general condition, weight loss, progressive unbearable abdominal pain and vomiting, without fever. An inflammatory syndrome is noted and imaging reveals a voluminous splenic abscess. Conservative treatment is initiated with repetitive drainages and intravenous antibiotics. Aetiologies, diagnosis and possible therapeutics of splenic abscesses are discussed. PMID:18018950

  13. [Psoas abscess caused by Staphylococcus lugdunensis].

    PubMed

    Tamargo Delpón, María; Demelo-Rodríguez, Pablo; Cano Ballesteros, Juan Carlos; Vela de la Cruz, Laura

    2016-01-01

    Staphylococcus lugdunensis is a coagulase-negative staphylococcus of growing importance and atypical behavior. The infections caused by this microorganism are becoming more frequent, having a broader spectrum. Psoas abscesses caused by this germ are rare, with few cases reported in the literature. In this work, we present a case of a psoas abscess caused by S. lugdunensis in a patient suffering from diabetes mellitus and rheumatoid arthritis, which was treated with intravenous cloxacillin with a good outcome. PMID:27086257

  14. Bilateral Brodie's abscess at the proximal tibia.

    PubMed

    Buldu, Halil; Bilen, Fikri Erkal; Eralp, Levent; Kocaoglu, Mehmet

    2012-08-01

    Brodie's abscess is a form of subacute osteomyelitis, which typically involves the metaphyses of the long tubular bones, particularly in the tibia. The diagnosis is usually made incidentally, as there are no accompanying symptoms or laboratory studies. Bilateral involvement at the proximal tibia is unusual. However, orthopaedic surgeons should be aware of this entity, as it may present without symptoms. Checking the contralateral limb for concomitant Brodie's abscess is recommended.

  15. Nutcracker syndrome complicating with renal abscess.

    PubMed

    Yavuz, Sevgi; Ece, Aydin; Corapli, Mahmut; Ilter, Cigdem; Guven, Rufat

    2016-04-01

    The nutcracker syndrome refers to compression of left renal vein between the superior mesenteric artery and aorta. Renal abscess consists of purulent and necrotic material localised to the renal parenchyma. These two entities are extremely rare and their coincidence has not previously been described in literature. Here, we report a case of a 10-year-old girl who developed left renal abscess probably due to nutcracker syndrome.

  16. Lab in a needle for epidural space identification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carotenuto, B.; Micco, A.; Ricciardi, A.; Amorizzo, E.; Mercieri, M.; Cutolo, A.; Cusano, A.

    2016-05-01

    This work relies on the development of a sensorized medical needle with an all-optical guidance (Lab in a Needle) system for epidural space identification. The device is based on the judicious integration of a Fiber Bragg grating sensor inside the lumen of an epidural needle to discriminate between different types of tissue and thus providing continuous and real time measurements of the pressure experienced by the needle tip during its advancement. Experiments carried out on an epidural training phantom demonstrate the validity of our approach for the correct and effective identification of the epidural space.

  17. Distal cord-predominant longitudinally extensive myelitis with diffuse spinal meningitis and dural abscesses due to occult tuberculosis: A rare occurrence

    PubMed Central

    Kasundra, Gaurav M.; Sood, Isha; Bhushan, Bharat; Bhargava, Amita Narendra; Shubhkaran, Khichar

    2016-01-01

    Tuberculous myelitis usually involves thoracic and only rarely, distal cord. Longitudinal lesions more than three spinal segments long in tuberculosis (TB) are usually due to intramedullary tuberculomas and not infectious myelitis. We report a 17-year-old male with acute myelitis from D7 to conus medullaris, diffuse spinal meningitis, subdural and epidural abscesses, normal vertebrae, intervertebral discs, and brain imaging. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) showed raised proteins, lymphocytosis, hypoglycorrhagia, and positive TB-polymerase chain reaction. Chest X-ray was normal, and sputum was negative for acid-fast Bacilli. Chest computed tomography (CT) revealed endobronchial TB. The patient was successfully treated with antitubercular drugs and steroids. In endemic areas, a high index of suspicion should be kept for TB in patients with myelitis, especially those with spinal abscesses and a suggestive CSF report. In selected cases, there may be a role of CT scan inspite of normal X-ray. PMID:27195042

  18. Scrotal abscess: Varied etiology, associations, and management

    PubMed Central

    Ramareddy, Raghu S.; Alladi, Anand

    2016-01-01

    Aim: To report a series of scrotal abscess, a rare problem, their etiology, and management. Materials and Methods: A retrospective study of children who presented with scrotal abscess between January 2010 and March 2015, analyzed with respect to clinical features, pathophysiology of spread and management. Results: Eight infants and a 3-year-old phenotypically male child presented with scrotal abscess as a result of abdominal pathologies which included mixed gonadal dysgenesis (MGD) [1]; three anorectal malformations with ectopic ureter [1], urethral stricture [1], and neurogenic bladder [1]; meconium peritonitis with meconium periorchitis [2], ileal atresia [1], and intra-abdominal abscess [1]; posturethroplasty for Y urethral duplication with metal stenosis [1] and idiopathic pyocele [1]. Transmission of the organism had varied routes include fallopian tube [1], urethra ejaculatory reflux [4], hematogenous [2], and the patent process of vaginalis [2]. Two of the nine required extensive evaluation for further management. Treating the predisposing pathology resolved scrotal abscesses in eight of nine patients, one of whom, required vasectomy additionally. Idiopathic pyocele responded to needle aspiration and antibiotics. Conclusion: Scrotal abscess needs a high index of suspicion for predisposing pathology, especially in infants. Laparoscopy is safe and effective in the management of the MGD and ectopic ureter. PMID:27695207

  19. Scrotal abscess: Varied etiology, associations, and management

    PubMed Central

    Ramareddy, Raghu S.; Alladi, Anand

    2016-01-01

    Aim: To report a series of scrotal abscess, a rare problem, their etiology, and management. Materials and Methods: A retrospective study of children who presented with scrotal abscess between January 2010 and March 2015, analyzed with respect to clinical features, pathophysiology of spread and management. Results: Eight infants and a 3-year-old phenotypically male child presented with scrotal abscess as a result of abdominal pathologies which included mixed gonadal dysgenesis (MGD) [1]; three anorectal malformations with ectopic ureter [1], urethral stricture [1], and neurogenic bladder [1]; meconium peritonitis with meconium periorchitis [2], ileal atresia [1], and intra-abdominal abscess [1]; posturethroplasty for Y urethral duplication with metal stenosis [1] and idiopathic pyocele [1]. Transmission of the organism had varied routes include fallopian tube [1], urethra ejaculatory reflux [4], hematogenous [2], and the patent process of vaginalis [2]. Two of the nine required extensive evaluation for further management. Treating the predisposing pathology resolved scrotal abscesses in eight of nine patients, one of whom, required vasectomy additionally. Idiopathic pyocele responded to needle aspiration and antibiotics. Conclusion: Scrotal abscess needs a high index of suspicion for predisposing pathology, especially in infants. Laparoscopy is safe and effective in the management of the MGD and ectopic ureter.

  20. Retrosternal abscess after trigger point injections in a pregnant woman: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Although retrosternal abscess is a well known complication of sternotomy and intravenous drug abuse, to date it has not been described as a consequence of trigger point injections. There are reported cases of serious complications as a result of this procedure including epidural abscess, necrotizing fasciitis, osteomyelitis and gas gangrene. Case presentation A 37-year-old African-American woman, who was 20 weeks pregnant, presented to our emergency room with complaints of progressively worsening chest pain and shortness of breath over the course of the last two months. She was undergoing trigger point injections at multiple different sites including the sternoclavicular joint for chest pain and dystonia. Two years previously she had developed a left-sided pneumothorax as a result of this procedure, requiring chest tube placement and subsequent pleurodesis. Her vital signs in our emergency room were normal except for resting tachycardia, with a pulse of 100 beats per minute. A physical examination revealed swelling and tenderness of the sternal notch with tenderness to palpation over the left sternoclavicular joint. Laboratory data was significant for a white blood count of 13.3 × 109/L with 82% granulocytes. A chest radiograph revealed left basilar scarring with blunting of the left costophrenic angle. A computed tomography angiogram showed a 4.7 cm abscess in the retrosternal region behind the manubrium with associated sclerosis and cortical irregularity of the manubrium and left clavicle. Conclusion Trigger point injection is generally considered very safe. However, there are reported cases of serious complications as a result of this procedure. A computed tomography scan of the chest should strongly be considered in the evaluation of chest pain and shortness of breath of unclear etiology in patients with even a remote history of trigger point injections. PMID:21859491

  1. Spinal epidural empyema in a cat.

    PubMed

    Maeta, Noritaka; Kanda, Teppei; Sasaki, Takanori; Morita, Takehito; Furukawa, Toshinori

    2010-06-01

    The diagnosis and surgical treatment of spinal epidural empyema (SEE) in a 2-year-old neutered male domestic shorthaired cat is described. SEE was diagnosed by computed tomographic myelography (CT myelography) and surgical exploration. The lesion was missed on both non-enhanced CT and conventional myelography. SEE should be considered in the differential diagnosis of progressive myelopathy in cats, and CT myelography should be undertaken when magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) cannot be performed. PMID:20226705

  2. Comparison of continuous epidural infusion and programmed intermittent epidural bolus in labor analgesia

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Yunan; Li, Qiang; Liu, Jinlu; Yang, Ruimin; Liu, Jingchen

    2016-01-01

    Background This study aims to investigate differences between continuous epidural infusion (CEI) and programmed intermittent epidural bolus (IEB) analgesia for the Chinese parturients undergoing spontaneous delivery and to approach their safety to parturients and neonates. Methods Two hundred healthy American Society of Anesthesiologists class I or II, term (≥37 weeks’ gestation), nulliparous women who requested analgesia for labor were recruited. Epidural analgesia was initiated with a solution of 0.15% ropivacaine 10 mL and maintained with 0.1% ropivacaine mixed with sufentanil 0.3 μg/mL by CEI at a rate of 5 mL/h combined with a patient-controlled epidural analgesia (PCEA) bolus of 5 mL of ropivacaine sufentanil mixture or IEB of 5 mL of ropivacaine sufentanil mixture combined with a PCEA bolus of 5 mL of ropivacaine sufentanil mixture. The lockout interval was 20 minutes in each arm between the CEI and the IEB group. After 20 minutes of first dosage, visual analog scale (VAS) score was obtained every 60 minutes. The maternal and fetal outcome and total consumption of analgesic solution were compared. Results There was no difference in demographic characteristics, duration of first and second stages, delivery methods, sensory block, fetal Apgar scores, and the maternal outcomes between the CEI and IEB groups. There was a significant difference in VAS scores and epidural ropivacaine total consumption between the two groups (IEB vs CEI: 51.27±9.61 vs 70.44±12.78 mg, P<0.01). Conclusion The use of programmed IEB mixed with PCEA improved labor analgesia compared to CEI mixed with PCEA, which could act as maintenance mode for epidural labor analgesia. PMID:27471390

  3. [Case of cervical paraspinal arteriovenous fistulae with a huge intracanalicular varix successfully treated with transvenous embolization].

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, Shigeru; Hida, Kazutoshi; Asano, Takeshi; Yano, Shunsuke; Kashiwazaki, Daina; Iwasaki, Yoshinobu

    2008-06-01

    Paraspinal arteriovenous fistulas (AVFs), with the fistulas draining into the epidural veins alone, are relatively rare and few cases have been reported until now. We reported a case of cervical paraspinal AVFs draining only into the epidural venous plexus without reflux into the intradural venous system. The patient showed myelopathy due to direct compression of the spinal cord by a large varix. A 57-year-old man presented with gait disturbance. Neurological findings on admission revealed that tetraparesis, sensory disturbance of four extremitas below the C5 level and bladder bowel dysfunction. Magnetic resonance imaging and computed tomography at the cervical level disclosed remarkable compression of the spinal cord by a large venous pouch at the C6 level. Digital subtraction angiography (DSA) revealed paraspinal arteriovenous fistulas fed by bilateral C6 radicular arteries, the right ascending cervical arteries, and the right deep cervical artery in the right C6 intervertebral foramen. Three-staged transarterial embolization was performed by selective catheterization of the multiple feeders with n-butylcyanoacrylate, followed by transvenous embolization. During transvenous embolization, motor evoked potential (MEP) monitoring was performed. After retrograde catheterization of the epidural venous plexus, the large varix was occluded with Guglielmi detachable coils. The AV fistulas were completely occluded without any change in MEP monitoring during the procedure. The patient's gait improved well after the procedure and follow up DSA six months later showed no recurrence of the paraspinal AVFs.

  4. Myoclonus-like involuntary movements following cesarean delivery epidural anesthesia.

    PubMed

    Kang, Hee Yong; Lee, Sang Wook; Hong, Eun Pyo; Sim, Yeo Hae; Lee, Su-Mi; Park, Sung Wook; Kang, Jong-Man

    2016-11-01

    Spinal myoclonus following neuraxial anesthesia is rare. This report describes a case of myoclonus-like involuntary movement that occurred during the recovery from epidural anesthesia for a cesarean delivery. The patient's symptom improved with the administration of benzodiazepine, and the patient recovered with no neurological sequelae. In conclusion, epidural anesthesia can cause spinal myoclonus, which can be treated with a benzodiazepine. PMID:27687419

  5. Epidural Anesthesia Complicated by Subdural Hygromas and a Subdural Hematoma

    PubMed Central

    Marovic, Paul; Ingram, Brendan

    2016-01-01

    Inadvertent dural puncture during epidural anesthesia leads to intracranial hypotension, which if left unnoticed can cause life-threatening subdural hematomas or cerebellar tonsillar herniation. The highly variable presentation of intracranial hypotension hinders timely diagnosis and treatment. We present the case of a young laboring adult female, who developed subdural hygromas and a subdural hematoma following unintentional dural puncture during initiation of epidural anesthesia.

  6. Skin pulse wave monitoring during lumbar epidural and spinal anesthesia.

    PubMed

    Meijer, J; de Lange, J J; Ros, H H

    1988-04-01

    The effectiveness of pulse wave monitoring of the big toes was compared with loss of cold discrimination to determine the onset of nerve blockade during lumbar epidural and spinal anesthesia. Forty-seven patients scheduled for elective urologic or lower extremity operations were assigned to one of three groups. Group 1 (15 patients) received epidural mepivacaine 1.5% with epinephrine; group 2 (12 patients), epidural bupivacaine 0.5%, and group 3 (20 patients), spinal bupivacaine 0.5%. In the epidural groups, the mean time to onset of increases in pulse wave amplitude was less than half the mean time to onset of decrease in cold discrimination (P less than 0.05). In patients given spinal anesthesia, there was no significant difference. The pulse wave monitor seems to be a sensitive and objective detector of early anesthetic effect during spinal and epidural anesthesia.

  7. The Epidural Treatment of Sciatica: Its Origin and Evolution.

    PubMed

    Ter Meulen, Bastiaan C; Weinstein, Henry; Ostelo, Raymond; Koehler, Peter J

    2016-01-01

    Epidural injection with corticosteroids is a common treatment option for patients with lower back pain or sciatica. In this paper we review its origin and evolution. The first injections were given around 1900 in Paris by Jean Sicard (1872-1929) and Fernand Cathelin (1873-1945), who worked independently. They both injected small volumes of cocaine into the sacral hiatus. After a slow start, the epidural treatment of back pain and sciatica gradually spread to other parts of Europe and Northern America. In the early 1950s, corticosteroids were introduced for epidural use. Since the 1970s, there have been numerous clinical trials that show a significant, although small, effect of epidural corticosteroid injections compared with placebo for leg pain in the short term. Despite an ongoing debate about effectiveness and safety, epidural injections remain popular. PMID:26820578

  8. Postoperative pain relief with epidural buprenorphine versus epidural butorphanol in laparoscopic hysterectomies: A comparative study

    PubMed Central

    Jose, Dona Elsa; Ganapathi, P.; Anish Sharma, N. G.; Shankaranarayana, P.; Aiyappa, D. S.; Nazim, Mohammed

    2016-01-01

    Background: The purpose of this study was to compare the safety and efficacy of postoperative analgesia with epidural buprenorphine and butorphanol tartrate. Methods: Sixty patients who were scheduled for elective laparoscopic hysterectomies were randomly enrolled in the study. At the end of the surgery, in study Group A 1 ml (0.3 mg) of buprenorphine and in Group B 1 ml (1 mg) of butorphanol tartrate both diluted to 10 ml with normal saline was injected through the epidural catheter. Visual analog pain scales (VAPSs) were assessed every hour till the 6th h, then 2nd hourly till the 12th h. To assess sedation, Ramsay sedation score was used. The total duration of postoperative analgesia was taken as the period from the time of giving epidural drug until the patients first complain of pain and the VAPS is more than 6. Patients were observed for any side effects such as respiratory depression, nausea, vomiting, hypotension, bradycardia, pruritus, and headache. Results: Buprenorphine had a longer duration of analgesia when compared to butorphanol tartrate (586.17 ± 73.64 vs. 342.53 ± 47.42 [P < 0.001]). Nausea, vomiting (13% vs. 10%), and headache (20% vs. 13%) were more in buprenorphine group; however, sedation score and pruritus (3% vs. 6%) were found to be more with butorphanol. Conclusion: Epidural buprenorphine significantly reduced pain and increased the quality of analgesia with a longer duration of action and was a better alternative to butorphanol for postoperative pain relief. PMID:26957696

  9. Spontaneous MRSA postcricoid abscess: a case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Boyce, Brian J; deSilva, Brad W

    2014-11-01

    Laryngeal abscesses are rare but potentially life-threatening infections due to potential airway obstruction. Most abscesses occur in the epiglottis or preepiglottic space as a sequela of acute supraglottitis. Abscesses in the posterior larynx are extremely rare and typically due to instrumentation or trauma. Appropriate workup and management of the airway are essential for optimizing outcomes in these patients. We present an interesting case and our management of a spontaneous posterior laryngeal abscess due to methicillin-resistant Staphlococcus aureus.

  10. Complications of Catheter Drainage for Amoebic Liver Abscess

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Navneet; Kaur, Harpreet; Kalra, Naveen; Bhalla, Ashish; Kumar, Susheel; Singh, Virendra

    2015-01-01

    Per-cutaneously inserted catheter drainage is an accepted treatment modality for a large amoebic liver abscess. Complications that can arise are; secondary infection, bleeding into the abscess cavity, inadvertent catheter misplacement into the IVC and rupture of abscess with spillage into the peritoneal cavity. We report a case of a large amoebic liver abscess that presented with complications related to per-cutaneously inserted catheter drainage. PMID:26628843

  11. Low-dose epidural dexmedetomidine improves thoracic epidural anaesthesia for nephrectomy.

    PubMed

    Zeng, X Z; Xu, Y M; Cui, X G; Guo, Y P; Li, W Z

    2014-03-01

    Thoracic epidural anaesthesia alone is an applied technique of anaesthesia for nephrectomy which has both advantages and limitations. Dexmedetomidine is a highly selective alpha2-adrenoreceptor agonist which has both central and peripheral analgesic properties. Forty patients undergoing nephrectomy were enrolled in this clinical trial and allocated randomly to two groups, a control group (C group) and a dexmedetomidine group (D group). The C group received epidural 0.75% levobupivacaine 12 ml with 1 ml of isotonic sodium chloride solution, while the D group received epidural 0.75% levobupivacaine 12 ml with 1 ml (0.5 µg/kg) of dexmedetomidine. Haemodynamic changes, onset time and duration of sensory and motor block, muscle relaxation score, verbal rating score for pain, sedation score and the total postoperative analgesic consumption were evaluated. Sensory blockade duration was longer in the D group than in the C group (P=0.01). The incidence of motor block and the muscle relaxation score were significantly higher in the D group compared with the C group (P=0.01). Compared with the C group, pain scores were significantly lower in the first four postoperative hours in the D group (two hours rest P=0.038; two hours activity P=0.009; four hours rest P=0.044; four hours activity P=0.003). The total amount of flurbiprofen analgesic was significantly lower in the D group compared with the C group (P=0.03). Epidural dexmedetomidine 0.5 µg/kg appears to intensify thoracic epidural anaesthesia with levobupivacaine.

  12. Unusual case of a lung abscess

    PubMed Central

    Musa, Duduzile; Godbole, Gauri; Chiodini, Peter L; Phillips, Russell

    2013-01-01

    A 56-year-old Caucasian lady presented with a short history of pleuritic chest pain on the background of a 2-month history of fever, chills, 10-kg weight loss and cough with brown sputum after a laparoscopic cholecystectomy. She had persistent eosinophilia and was diagnosed with a lung abscess as seen on chest x-ray. She did not respond to standard intravenous broad spectrum antibacterial medication and her chest CT scan showed a moderate pleural collection in continuity with the abscess. She also underwent bronchoscopy, the microscopy of the bronchial washings revealing eggs of the trematode Fasciola. The bacterial and fungal cultures of the washings were sterile. She had visited Turkey in the previous year but did not remember consuming any watercress or aquatic plants. She was successfully treated with two doses of the antiparasitic agent triclabendazole. Ectopic Fasciola can be a rare cause of a lung abscess. PMID:23595175

  13. Bronchoscopic drainage of a malignant lung abscess.

    PubMed

    Katsenos, Stamatis; Psathakis, Konstantinos; Chatzivasiloglou, Fotini; Antonogiannaki, Elvira-Markela; Psara, Anthoula; Tsintiris, Konstantinos

    2015-04-01

    Bronchoscopic drainage of a pyogenic lung abscess is an established therapeutic approach in selected patients in whom conventional antibiotic therapy fails. This intervention has also been undertaken in patients with abscess owing to underlying lung cancer and prior combined radiochemotherapy. However, this procedure has rarely been performed in cavitary lesions of advanced tumor origin before initiating any chemotherapy/radiotherapy scheme. Herein, we describe a case of a 68-year-old woman with lung adenocarcinoma stage IIIB, who underwent bronchoscopic drainage of necrotizing tumor lesion, thus improving her initial poor clinical condition and rendering other treatment modalities, such as radiotherapy, more effective and beneficial. Bronchoscopic drainage of a symptomatic cancerous lung abscess should be considered as an alternative and palliative treatment approach in patients with advanced inoperable non-small cell lung cancer. PMID:25887013

  14. [Surgical treatment of a solitary hepatic abscess].

    PubMed

    Boĭko, V V; Tishchenko, A M; Gusak, I V; Maloshtan, A A; Skoryĭ, D I; Smachilo, R M

    2013-06-01

    Retrospective analysis of the treatment results of 120 patients, suffering solitary hepatic abscess (SHA), was conducted. The sanation methods, in accordance to technology, the treatment impact intensity and aggressiveness, may be divided on three lines: aspirational, draining and resectional. The method of sanation is selected on the background of morphological peculiarities of abscess--its sizes, by presence of sequesters, divisioning septs, dense rigid capsule, grade of periprocess. Surgical access is determined by the abscess localization, the patient's state severity, instrumental equipment of the clinic. Differentiated approach, taking into account genesis, sizes, localization and stage of its formation, constitutes a background of successful treatment of SHA. In totally formatted acute SHA, as a rule, the methods of choice are aspirational and aspiration-draining methods of sanation under ultrasonographic control or laparoscopy. In the presence of chronic SHA or suppurated parasitic hepatic cyst it is mandatory to select the resectional methods.

  15. Brodie's abscess. A long-term review.

    PubMed

    Stephens, M M; MacAuley, P

    1988-09-01

    In 20 patients with 21 Brodie's abscesses, a long-term review revealed that 13 occurred in the second decade of life. All had local symptoms for six weeks or more. The tibia was involved in 11 cases and seven of these were in the proximal metaphysis. The erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) was elevated in only six cases. When the ESR was more than 40 mm per hour, recurrence was more likely. Staphylococcus aureus was cultured from 11 abscesses. Curettage and antibiotics for six weeks were adequate for treatment in most cases. However, lesions larger than 3 cm in diameter should be grafted, and patients with an elevated ESR require more aggressive decompression and prolonged antibiotic therapy. Lesions within the neck of the femur pose particular anatomic problems and should not be approached laterally. All cases were followed to full bone maturity. No significant leg length inequality was clinically or roentgenologically apparent. If an abscess was juxtaphyseal, deformity of the epiphysis could develop.

  16. Epidural anaesthesia and familial dysautonomia (the Riley Day syndrome). Three case reports.

    PubMed

    Challands, J F; Facer, E K

    1998-01-01

    Epidural anaesthesia in Familial Dysautonomia (FD) or the Riley Day syndrome has not previously been reported. Three children with FD presenting for redo Nissen fundoplication were managed with epidural anaesthesia. Cases 1 and 2 had had their original Nissen fundoplication without epidural anaesthesia. In Case 3, FD had not yet been diagnosed when she had her first operation, and it was performed with epidural anaesthesia. The anaesthetic management of these cases with and without epidural anaesthesia is described and discussed.

  17. The Cutaneous Microbiome in Outpatients Presenting With Acute Skin Abscesses

    PubMed Central

    Horton, James M.; Gao, Zhan; Sullivan, D. Matthew; Shopsin, Bo; Perez-Perez, Guillermo I.; Blaser, Martin J.

    2015-01-01

    Background. Previous studies have demonstrated an association between antibiotic use and the development of skin abscesses. We tested the hypothesis that alterations in the composition of the cutaneous microbiota may predispose individuals to skin abscesses. Methods. We studied 25 patients with skin abscesses and 25 age-matched controls, who each completed a questionnaire. Skin swab samples were obtained for DNA analysis from 4 sites around the abscess site (hereafter, “peri-abscess specimens”) and from similar sites on the patient's contralateral side and on healthy control subjects. DNA was extracted and analyzed by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) and high-throughput sequencing. The purulent abscess drainage was sent for culture. Results. Fifteen patients with abscess were infected with Staphylococcus aureus. Use of nuc qPCR to quantitate S. aureus revealed a significantly greater frequency of positive results for peri-abscess and contralateral skin samples, compared with control skin specimens. Analysis of community structure showed greater heterogeneity in the control samples than in the peri-abscess and contralateral samples. Metagenomic analysis detected significantly more predicted genes related to metabolic activity in the peri-abscess specimens than in the control samples. Conclusions. The peri-abscess microbiome was similar to the contralateral microbiome, but both microbiomes differed from that for control patients. Host characteristics affecting microbial populations might be important determinants of abscess risk. PMID:25583170

  18. Brain abscess due to Haemophilus aphrophilus: case report

    PubMed Central

    Yamashita, J.; Bone, F. J.; Hitchcock, Edward

    1972-01-01

    A temporal lobe abscess due to H. aphrophilus occurred in a child of 11 years, and was successfully treated by aspiration, chemotherapy, and excision of the abscess wall. The organism is an unusual cause of brain abscess and this is believed to be the first reported case in Britain. PMID:4647862

  19. Ruptured Liver Abscess in Neonates: Report of Two Cases

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Niyaz Ahmed; Choudhury, SR; Jhanwar, Praveen

    2016-01-01

    Neonatal hepatic abscess is a rare disease seen mainly in preterm following umbilical catheterisation. Liver abscess in term neonates without any predisposing factor is still rarer and only few cases have been reported in the literature. Here we report two cases of liver abscess in term neonates presenting with abdominal mass due to rupture. PMID:27433449

  20. [Report of 2 cases of prostatic abscess].

    PubMed

    Dakir, M; Aboutaieb, R; Dahami, Z; Sarf, I; Zamiati, W; Essakalli, N; el Mrini, M; Meziane, F; Benjelloun, S

    2000-04-01

    Prostatic abscess is a rare disease. In the light of two cases, the authors discuss the diagnostic and therapeutic aspects of this disease. Two patients, aged 17 and 55 years, presented nonspecific clinical features. Medical imaging (US, CT) established the diagnosis by showing a loculated cystic prostatic mass. Treatment consisted of transurethral drainage and antibiotics with a favourable course in both cases. Prostatic abscess is a rare disease for which the diagnosis has been facilitated by progress in medical imaging. The treatment of choice remains transurethral endoscopic drainage.

  1. Acute abdomen caused by brucellar hepatic abscess.

    PubMed

    Ibis, Cem; Sezer, Atakan; Batman, Ali K; Baydar, Serkan; Eker, Alper; Unlu, Ercument; Kuloglu, Figen; Cakir, Bilge; Coskun, Irfan

    2007-10-01

    Brucellosis is a zoonotic infection that is transmitted from animals to humans by ingestion of infected food products, direct contact with an infected animal, or aerosol inhalation. The disease is endemic in many countries, including the Mediterranean basin, the Middle East, India, Mexico, Central and South America and, central and southwest Asia. Human brucellosis is a systemic infection with a wide clinical spectrum. Although hepatic involvement is very common during the course of chronic brucellosis, hepatic abscess is a very rare complication of Brucella infection. We present a case of hepatic abscess caused by Brucella, which resembled the clinical presentation of surgical acute abdomen.

  2. Management of infiltrating spinal epidural angiolipoma.

    PubMed

    Nadi, Mustafa M; Nadi, Arwa M; Zabara, Mohammad Y; Ahmad, Tahani M

    2015-04-01

    Angiolipomas of the spine are rare benign tumors commonly presenting with compressive myelopathy. The present report describes a case of spinal angiolipoma with thoracic mediastinal extension in a 50-year-old woman. She presented with a long-standing history of mid-back pain with progressive lower extremities weakness. An MRI showed a heterogeneously enhancing mass located in the posterior epidural space of the thoracic spine with mediastinal extension. Histopathological examination demonstrated features consistent with spinal angiolipoma. This report emphasizes the diagnosis and therapeutic management options of infiltrating spinal angiolipomas.

  3. Management of infiltrating spinal epidural angiolipoma

    PubMed Central

    Nadi, Mustafa M.; Nadi, Arwa M.; Zabara, Mohammad Y.; Ahmad, Tahani M.

    2015-01-01

    Angiolipomas of the spine are rare benign tumors commonly presenting with compressive myelopathy. The present report describes a case of spinal angiolipoma with thoracic mediastinal extension in a 50-year-old woman. She presented with a long-standing history of mid-back pain with progressive lower extremities weakness. An MRI showed a heterogeneously enhancing mass located in the posterior epidural space of the thoracic spine with mediastinal extension. Histopathological examination demonstrated features consistent with spinal angiolipoma. This report emphasizes the diagnosis and therapeutic management options of infiltrating spinal angiolipomas. PMID:25864069

  4. General Information about Cervical Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Research Cervical Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Cervical Cancer Go to Health Professional Version ... the NCI website . Cervical Cancer During Pregnancy General Information About Cervical Cancer During Pregnancy Treatment of cervical ...

  5. Large retropharyngeal abscess: a case of mistaken identity.

    PubMed

    Makaram, N; Gohil, R; Gardiner, Q; Manickavasagam, J

    2016-01-01

    We report an unusual case of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC), presenting initially as a retropharyngeal collection. We discuss the investigation, diagnosis and management of NPC and furthermore review the literature of NPC, emphasising the varied presentation. A 44-year-old Caucasian male ex-smoker presented with a 10-day history of a painless left-sided neck lump; progressive dysphagia and unintentional weight loss. Examination demonstrated a large left posterior pharyngeal swelling with soft palatal effacement, confirmed on nasoendoscopy. A CT scan revealed a fluid collection in the retropharyngeal space, which partially occluded the nasopharynx, and numerous satellite lesions were identified along with cervical lymphadenopathy. The suspected abscess was drained in theatre and nasopharyngeal biopsies were taken. These revealed Epstein-Barr virus-positive NPC. Staging investigations revealed a T4N2M0l carcinoma. Treatment consisted of radical chemoradiation therapy with curative intent. NPC is known for its varied and late presentation, and is an important condition to be aware of when considering a differential diagnosis of pharyngeal masses. PMID:27637277

  6. Large retropharyngeal abscess: a case of mistaken identity.

    PubMed

    Makaram, N; Gohil, R; Gardiner, Q; Manickavasagam, J

    2016-01-01

    We report an unusual case of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC), presenting initially as a retropharyngeal collection. We discuss the investigation, diagnosis and management of NPC and furthermore review the literature of NPC, emphasising the varied presentation. A 44-year-old Caucasian male ex-smoker presented with a 10-day history of a painless left-sided neck lump; progressive dysphagia and unintentional weight loss. Examination demonstrated a large left posterior pharyngeal swelling with soft palatal effacement, confirmed on nasoendoscopy. A CT scan revealed a fluid collection in the retropharyngeal space, which partially occluded the nasopharynx, and numerous satellite lesions were identified along with cervical lymphadenopathy. The suspected abscess was drained in theatre and nasopharyngeal biopsies were taken. These revealed Epstein-Barr virus-positive NPC. Staging investigations revealed a T4N2M0l carcinoma. Treatment consisted of radical chemoradiation therapy with curative intent. NPC is known for its varied and late presentation, and is an important condition to be aware of when considering a differential diagnosis of pharyngeal masses.

  7. Depth of the thoracic epidural space in children.

    PubMed

    Masir, F; Driessen, J J; Thies, K C; Wijnen, M H; van Egmond, J

    2006-01-01

    Thoracic epidural anaesthesia in anaesthetized children requires a meticulous technique and may have an increased success rate when the distance between skin and epidural space is known. The objective of this observational study was to measure the skin to epidural distance (SED) during thoracic epidural puncture in 61 children. The epidural puncture was performed using the loss of resistance technique with saline 0.9%. The distance from the needle tip to the point where the needle emerged from the skin was measured. The post-operative analgesia parameters were also measured. Skin to epidural distance correlated significantly with the age and weight of the children. The equation for the relation between SED (cm) and age was 2.15 + (0.01 x months) and for SED vs weight was 1.95 + (0.045 x kg). Despite considerable variability among individuals, the observed correlation of SED with both age and weight shows that this parameter may be helpful to guide thoracic epidural puncture in anaesthetized children. PMID:17067139

  8. [Cervical radiculopathy].

    PubMed

    Kuijper, B

    2014-10-01

    Cervical radiculopathy is a common cause of pain in the arm. It is caused by nerve root compression in the neck, as a consequence of a herniated disc, or spondyliotic foraminal stenosis. It causes severe pain, especially during the first few weeks, and paraesthesias in the forearm and hand. Patients also suffer from neck pain and loss of strength in the relevant arm. The arm pain can be exacerbated by certain movements of the head; these should be avoided as much as possible. Diagnosis can be made on the basis of history and physical examination. The pain generally disappears without active patient treatment. A semi-rigid cervical collar is recommended to accelerate pain relief. In cases of persistent pain, surgery will be considered. In such cases an MRI should be performed to show the cause and level of nerve root compression. PMID:26185991

  9. [Cervical radiculopathy].

    PubMed

    Kuijper, B

    2014-10-01

    Cervical radiculopathy is a common cause of pain in the arm. It is caused by nerve root compression in the neck, as a consequence of a herniated disc, or spondyliotic foraminal stenosis. It causes severe pain, especially during the first few weeks, and paraesthesias in the forearm and hand. Patients also suffer from neck pain and loss of strength in the relevant arm. The arm pain can be exacerbated by certain movements of the head; these should be avoided as much as possible. Diagnosis can be made on the basis of history and physical examination. The pain generally disappears without active patient treatment. A semi-rigid cervical collar is recommended to accelerate pain relief. In cases of persistent pain, surgery will be considered. In such cases an MRI should be performed to show the cause and level of nerve root compression.

  10. Orbital abscess from dacryocystitis caused by Morganella morganii.

    PubMed

    Carruth, Bryant P; Wladis, Edward J

    2013-02-01

    A 22-year-old female with multiple developmental abnormalities stemming from cardiofaciocutaneous syndrome presented with a recurrent orbital abscess 2 years after orbitotomy with drainage of an abscess of presumed hematogenous-origin. During careful intraoperative examination the abscess was seen to directly extend from the lacrimal sac. Cultures were taken and grew Morganella morganii, a Gram negative rod uncommon in ocular and periocular infections. To the author's knowledge, this microorganism has been reported in only one previous case of orbital abscess and underscores the need for organism identification and antibiotic sensitivity analysis in cases of orbital abscess, particularly those with extension from dacryocystitis.

  11. Falciform ligament abscess after omphalitis: report of a case.

    PubMed

    Moon, Suk-Bae; Lee, Hae Won; Park, Kwi-Won; Jung, Sung-Eun

    2010-07-01

    A falciform ligament abscess is a rare type of intra-abdominal abscess. A 2-yr-old male, who had omphalitis two months previously, presented with a fever and right upper quadrant abdominal pain. The ultrasound and CT scan showed an abdominal wall abscess located anterior to the liver, which was refractory to conservative management with percutaneous drainage and antibiotics. On the third recurrence, surgical exploration was performed and revealed an abscess arising from the falciform ligament; the falciform ligament was excised. A follow up ultrasound confirmed complete resolution of the abscess with no further recurrence.

  12. General versus epidural anesthesia for lumbar microdiscectomy.

    PubMed

    Ulutas, Murat; Secer, Mehmet; Taskapilioglu, Ozgur; Karadas, Soner; Akyilmaz, Ahmet Aykut; Baydilek, Yunus; Kocamer, Betul; Ozboz, Ayse; Boyaci, Suat

    2015-08-01

    This study was a retrospective analysis of 850 lumbar microdiscectomy (LMD) under epidural anesthesia (EA; n=573) or general anesthesia (GA; n=277) performed by the same surgeon and paid by invoice to the Social Security Institution of the Turkish Republic between April 2003 and May 2013. Although GA is the most frequently used method of anesthesia during LMD, the choice of regional anesthetia (epidural, spinal or a combination of these) differs between surgeons and anesthetists. Studies have reported that EA in surgery for lumbar disc herniation may be more reliable than GA, as it enables the surgeon to communicate with the patient during surgery, but few studies have compared the costs of these two anesthetic methods in LMD. We found that EA patient costs were significantly lower than GA patient costs (p<0.01) and there was a statistically significant difference between the two groups in terms of the time spent in the operating room (p<0.01). There was no difference in the duration of surgery (p>0.05). The anesthetic method used during LMD affected the complication rate, cost and efficiency of operating room use. We suggest that EA is an anesthetic method that can contribute to health care cost savings and enable LMD to be completed with less nerve root manipulation and more comfort, efficacy, reliability and cost efficiency without affecting the success rate of the surgical procedure.

  13. General versus epidural anesthesia for lumbar microdiscectomy.

    PubMed

    Ulutas, Murat; Secer, Mehmet; Taskapilioglu, Ozgur; Karadas, Soner; Akyilmaz, Ahmet Aykut; Baydilek, Yunus; Kocamer, Betul; Ozboz, Ayse; Boyaci, Suat

    2015-08-01

    This study was a retrospective analysis of 850 lumbar microdiscectomy (LMD) under epidural anesthesia (EA; n=573) or general anesthesia (GA; n=277) performed by the same surgeon and paid by invoice to the Social Security Institution of the Turkish Republic between April 2003 and May 2013. Although GA is the most frequently used method of anesthesia during LMD, the choice of regional anesthetia (epidural, spinal or a combination of these) differs between surgeons and anesthetists. Studies have reported that EA in surgery for lumbar disc herniation may be more reliable than GA, as it enables the surgeon to communicate with the patient during surgery, but few studies have compared the costs of these two anesthetic methods in LMD. We found that EA patient costs were significantly lower than GA patient costs (p<0.01) and there was a statistically significant difference between the two groups in terms of the time spent in the operating room (p<0.01). There was no difference in the duration of surgery (p>0.05). The anesthetic method used during LMD affected the complication rate, cost and efficiency of operating room use. We suggest that EA is an anesthetic method that can contribute to health care cost savings and enable LMD to be completed with less nerve root manipulation and more comfort, efficacy, reliability and cost efficiency without affecting the success rate of the surgical procedure. PMID:26067543

  14. Cervical cancer.

    PubMed

    Shepherd, John H

    2012-06-01

    Standard treatment for invasive cervical cancer involves either radical surgery or radiotherapy. Childbearing is therefore impossible after either of these treatments. A fertility-sparing option, however, by radical trachelectomy has been shown to be effective, provided that strict criteria for selection are followed. Fertility rates are high, whereas recurrence is low, indicating that a more conservative approach to dealing with early small cervical tumours is feasible. Careful preoperative assessment by magnetic resonance imaging scans allows accurate measurement of the tumour with precise definition to plan surgery. This will ensure an adequate clear margin by wide excision of the tumour excising the cervix by radical vaginal trachelectomy with surrounding para-cervical and upper vaginal tissues. An isthmic cerclage is inserted to provide competence at the level of the internal orifice. A primary vagino-isthmic anastomosis is conducted to restore continuity of the lower genital tract. Subsequent pregnancies require careful monitoring in view of the high risk of spontaneous premature rupture of the membranes. Delivery by classical caesarean section is necessary at the onset of labour or electively before term. Over 1100 such procedures have been carried out vaginally or abdominally, resulting in 240 live births. Radical vaginal trachelectomy with a laparoscopic pelvic-node dissection offers the least morbid and invasive route for surgery, provided that adequate surgical skills have been obtained. PMID:22353492

  15. Fever following an Epidural Blood Patch in a Child.

    PubMed

    Hunyady, Agnes I; Anderson, Corrie T M; Kuratani, John D; Kundu, Anjana

    2012-01-01

    There is increasing evidence that children suffer from the consequences of spontaneous or iatrogenic intracranial hypotension. Pediatric epidural blood patch is gaining popularity because of its ability to alter cerebrospinal fluid dynamics and to alleviate headaches attributed to low cerebrospinal fluid pressure. There is, however, still not enough data to document the safety profile of an epidural blood patch. Here we describe a case of a fever in a child temporally related to the administration of an epidural blood patch. This case depicts the dilemmas in making the diagnosis and instituting treatment for complications of this procedure in the pediatric population.

  16. Fever following an Epidural Blood Patch in a Child

    PubMed Central

    Hunyady, Agnes I.; Anderson, Corrie T. M.; Kuratani, John D.; Kundu, Anjana

    2012-01-01

    There is increasing evidence that children suffer from the consequences of spontaneous or iatrogenic intracranial hypotension. Pediatric epidural blood patch is gaining popularity because of its ability to alter cerebrospinal fluid dynamics and to alleviate headaches attributed to low cerebrospinal fluid pressure. There is, however, still not enough data to document the safety profile of an epidural blood patch. Here we describe a case of a fever in a child temporally related to the administration of an epidural blood patch. This case depicts the dilemmas in making the diagnosis and instituting treatment for complications of this procedure in the pediatric population. PMID:23029626

  17. Spinal epidural extramedullary haematopoiesis in β-thalassaemia intermedia

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Kin Hoi; Li, Allen; Lui, Tun Hing; Sit, Yan Kit

    2014-01-01

    A 22-year-old man known to have β-thalassaemia intermedia since childhood presented with bilateral lower limb weakness after spinal anaesthesia for an elective minor operation of his left leg. MRI and CT scans were performed to rule out acute epidural haematoma; coincidental imaging features of marrow hyperplasia and spinal epidural extramedullary haematopoiesis were found. This article will present and discuss the imaging features, differential diagnosis, management and literature review of the rare occurrence of extramedullary haematopoiesis in the spinal epidural space. PMID:24390965

  18. [Epidural extraskeletal Ewing sarcoma. Case report and literature review].

    PubMed

    García-Moreno, Rafael; Bernal-García, Luis Miguel; Pineda-Palomo, Manuel; Botana-Fernández, Marcos; Gilete-Tejero, Ignacio Javier; Cabezudo-Artero, José Manuel

    2015-01-01

    Ewing sarcoma is a malignant tumour of the bone that sometimes presents extraskeletal involvement, with the epidural location being rare. We report the case of a 45-year-old woman with paresthesia, paresis and urinary retention. Magnetic resonance imaging showed an epidural mass from C6 to D3. Laminectomy from C7 to D2 and partial resection of the lesion was performed. Pathological analysis was consistent with Ewing sarcoma. The patient received chemotherapy and radiotherapy, without evidence of disease at 8 months follow-up. A review of the literature on all published cases of extraskeletal Ewing sarcoma with epidural involvement is presented. PMID:25497289

  19. Cervical nucleolysis: indications, technique, results. 190 patients.

    PubMed

    Krause, D; Drape, J L; Jambon, F; de Souza-Lima, A; Tongio, J; Maitrot, D; Orenstein, D; Giannetti, A; Boyer, P; Srour, R

    1993-03-01

    For many years now percutaneous techniques have proved effective in the curative treatment of lumbar disc herniation, mostly in young subjects. This technique, however, is seldom indicated, let alone performed, in the cervical spine for a variety of reasons: a) the neck contains several closely arranged structures such as the vasculo-nervous bundles, the airway-digestive tract and the cervical spine around the spinal cord; b) the disc is approached by the anterior route, in contrast with the lumbo-sacral spine where the approach is posterolateral; c) the manufacturers insist on restrictions in the use of chymopapain in view of the potential risk of spinal cord damage, either by possible breaks in the meninges of by accidental diffusion of the enzyme into perimedullary epidural structures which support a particularly developed venous plexus; d) legal protection may be denied to operators who perform cervical chemonucleolysis, since the product has not yet been officially authorized, in France and perhaps elsewhere*, for treatment of cervical disc herniation. Several years of experience in the practice of cervical nucleolysis have convinced the authors that this method is remarkably effective and can be used in the treatment of cervicobrachial neuralgia (CBN) occurring in young subjects. Radiculalgia is essentially due to a disc fragment being positioned within the vertebral canal or a foramen, thereby compressing the nerve roots. During several years microsurgery of the disc has been effective in the treatment of refractory radiculalgia, and to compete with this procedure familiar to neurosurgeons cervical nucleolysis must convincingly demonstrate that its therapeutic value is at least as good as that of surgery. Finally, the vast majority of cervical disc herniations is made up of free disc fragments located within the meshes of the posterior longitudinal ligament of the spine (transligamentous fragment). Cervical nucleolysis was introduced in France by Bonafe and

  20. Breast abscess due to Actinomyces europaeus.

    PubMed

    Silva, W A; Pinheiro, A M; Jahns, B; Bögli-Stuber, K; Droz, S; Zimmerli, S

    2011-06-01

    Actinomyces europaeus was first described in 1997 as a new species causing predominantly skin and soft-tissue infections. Mastitis due to A. europaeus is an unusual condition. This article reports a case of primary breast abscess caused by A. europaeus in a postmenopausal woman.

  1. Recurrent abscess after MammoSite brachytherapy.

    PubMed

    Lopchinsky, Richard A; Giles, Kristina A

    2004-01-01

    Recently a new catheter was introduced to facilitate brachytherapy in a lumpectomy cavity. Data are limited on the side effects of high-dose brachytherapy to the lumpectomy cavity with the MammoSite catheter. We present a case of recurrent abscesses over a 7-month period in the lumpectomy cavity after MammoSite brachytherapy.

  2. Giant horseshoe intra-abdominal abscess.

    PubMed Central

    Altemeier, W A; Culbertson, W R; Fidler, J P

    1975-01-01

    A study of 12 patients with giant horseshoe abscess of the abdominal and pelvic cavities seen at the Surgical Services of the University of Cincinnati Medical Center has emphasized the complexity and bizarre nature of these lesions. These infections represented a huge abscess or series of communicating abscesses extending from one subphrenic space along the corresponding paracolic gutter into the pelvis, up and along the opposite paracolic space, and into the other subphrenic space. Since these lesions occurred infrequently, they were often not recognized until they had become far advanced and had produced profound effects on the patients. The diagnosis was difficult and obscured by various factors including the postoperative state after laparotomy for complex diseases or serious injuries of the biliary tract, the genitourinary tract, or the alimentary tract. An important etiologic component of the formation of these giant abscesses was the continuing escape and collection of large volumes of fluid resulting from lesions of the biliary tract, postoperative hemorrhage, or an unrecognized large perforated peptic ulcer. Nine patients were treated successfully and 3 died. The many diagnostic and therapeutic problems presented by the patients with this interesting and complex lesion have emphasized the importance of earlier and more accurate diagnosis, early and adequate surgical drainage, intelligently applied antibiotic therapy and appropriate supportive treatment. Failure to recognize and drain effectively each of the component sections of this lesion led to continuing sepsis with prolonged morbidity, progressive debility, and death. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. PMID:1079447

  3. Bartholin's gland abscess caused by Brucella melitensis.

    PubMed

    Peled, Neha; David, Yohai; Yagupsky, Pablo

    2004-02-01

    We report herein a case of Bartholin's gland abscess caused by Brucella melitensis. Clinical microbiology laboratory workers in areas where this disease is endemic should be familiar with the bacteriological features of this organism and consider the possibility of a brucellar etiology in a broad range of clinical settings.

  4. Calcinosis in juvenile dermatomyositis mimicking cold abscess.

    PubMed

    Nagar, Rajendra P; Bharati, Joyita; Sheriff, Abraar; Priyadarshini, Praytusha; Chumber, Sunil; Kabra, S K

    2016-01-01

    We report a case of dystrophic calcification presenting as soft cystic swelling in a patient with juvenile dermatomyositis. A 15-year-old boy with lumbosacral cystic swelling, which was considered a cold abscess clinically, was evaluated for nonresponse to antitubercular therapy. The cystic swelling had liquefied calcium with a well circumscribed calcified wall on imaging, which was subsequently excised. PMID:27586213

  5. Herpesviruses in Abscesses and Cellulitis of Endodontic Origin

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Vicky; Chen, Yanwen; Li, Hong; Kent, Karla; Baumgartner, J. Craig; Machida, Curtis A.

    2009-01-01

    Acute apical abscesses and cellulitis are severe endodontic diseases caused by opportunistic bacteria with possible co-infection with latent herpesviruses. The objectives of this study are to identify herpesviruses, including human cytomegalovirus (HCMV), Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV-1) and Varicella zoster virus (VZV), in patients (n=31) presenting with acute apical abscesses and cellulitis of endodontic origin. Primary and nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was conducted using virus-specific primers and DNA isolated from cell-free abscess fluid. From patients exhibiting concurrent spontaneous pain (n=28), nine abscesses contained HCMV, two abscesses contained EBV, one abscess contained HSV-1, and no abscesses contained VZV. Control PCR using genomic or recombinant templates demonstrated detection limits to a single genomic copy of HCMV, 100 genomic copies for EBV, and 1-10 copies for HSV-1, with no cross-amplification between herpesviral DNA targets. Nested PCR was required for detection of herpesviral DNA in the abscess specimens, indicating that these viruses were present in low copy number. Filtration of abscess specimens and virus transfer experiments using human fibroblastic MRC-5 cells confirmed the presence of HCMV particles in several abscess specimens. We conclude that herpesviruses are present, but not required for development of acute apical abscesses and cellulitis of endodontic origin. PMID:19166769

  6. Prognostic indications of the failure to treat amoebic liver abscesses

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez-Aguilar, Martín; Morán-Mendoza, Onofre; Herrera-Hernández, Miguel F; Hernández-Sierra, Juan Francisco; Mandeville, Peter B; Tapia-Pérez, J Humberto; Sánchez-Reyna, Martín; Sánchez-Rodríguez, José Juan; Gordillo-Moscoso, Antonio

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To identify the variables that predict the failure to treat amoebic liver abscesses. Methods We prospectively carried out a case–control study on a cohort of patients who had been diagnosed with amoebic liver abscesses using clinical, ultrasonic, and serologic methods. Patients with pyogenic abscesses, negative ELISA tests for amoebiasis, immunosuppression status, or previous abdominal surgery were excluded. All patients received metronidazole, and those who demonstrated 4 days of unfavorable clinical responses received percutaneous or surgical draining of the abscess. Demographic, laboratory, and ultrasonographic characteristics were assessed as prognostic indications of failure. Results Of 40 patients with amoebic liver abscess, 24 (mean age: 36.7±11.2 years) responded to medical treatment and 16 (41.8±11.6 years) required drainage, including 14 patients who underwent percutaneous drainage and two patients who required surgery. The albumin level, abscess volume, abscess diameter, and alkaline phosphatase level were all statistically significant (P<0.05) on the bivariate analysis. The highest (>99%) sensitivity and negative predictive value were observed for an abscess volume >500 ml and diameter >10 cm, while the best specificity and positive predictive value were achieved with the combination of low serum albumin level, high alkaline phosphatase level, and large abscess volume or diameter. Conclusions The prognostic indications of the failure to treat amoebic liver abscesses include low albumin, high alkaline phosphatase, and large abscess volume or diameter. The combination of these variables is a useful and easy tool for determining appropriate therapy. PMID:23265424

  7. Central temperature changes are poorly perceived during epidural anesthesia.

    PubMed

    Glosten, B; Sessler, D I; Faure, E A; Karl, L; Thisted, R A

    1992-07-01

    Hypothermia and shivering are common during epidural anesthesia for cesarean delivery but are not always accompanied by a sensation of coldness. To test the hypothesis that central temperature changes are not perceived during epidural anesthesia, we measured central and skin temperatures and thermal perception in 30 patients undergoing cesarean delivery with epidural anesthesia. Central temperature decreased 1.0 +/- 0.6 degrees C from control values during anesthesia and surgery, but thermal perception scores did not reflect central temperatures (P = 0.56) or changes in central temperature (P = 0.63). A feeling of warmth was significantly correlated with increased mean skin temperature (P = 0.02) and increased upper body skin temperature (P = 0.03). We conclude that central temperature is poorly perceived and is less important than skin temperature in determining thermal perception during high levels of epidural anesthesia.

  8. Epidural analgesia for labour: maternal knowledge, preferences and informed consent.

    PubMed

    Fröhlich, S; Tan, T; Walsh, A; Carey, M

    2011-01-01

    Epidural analgesia has become increasingly popular as a form of labour analgesia in Ireland. However obtaining true inform consent has always been difficult. Our study recruited 100 parturients who had undergone epidural analgesia for labour, aimed to determine the information they received prior to regional analgesia, and to ascertain their preferences regarding informed consent. Only 65 (65%) of patients planned to have an epidural. Knowledge of potential complications was variable and inaccurate, with less than 30 (30%) of women aware of the most common complications. Most women 79 (79%) believed that discomfort during labour affected their ability to provide informed consent, and believe consent should be taken prior to onset of labour (96, 96%). The results of this study helps define the standards of consent Irish patients expect for epidural analgesia during labour.

  9. Epidural Anesthesia Complicated by Subdural Hygromas and a Subdural Hematoma.

    PubMed

    Vien, Christine; Marovic, Paul; Ingram, Brendan

    2016-01-01

    Inadvertent dural puncture during epidural anesthesia leads to intracranial hypotension, which if left unnoticed can cause life-threatening subdural hematomas or cerebellar tonsillar herniation. The highly variable presentation of intracranial hypotension hinders timely diagnosis and treatment. We present the case of a young laboring adult female, who developed subdural hygromas and a subdural hematoma following unintentional dural puncture during initiation of epidural anesthesia. PMID:27651956

  10. Epidural Anesthesia Complicated by Subdural Hygromas and a Subdural Hematoma

    PubMed Central

    Marovic, Paul; Ingram, Brendan

    2016-01-01

    Inadvertent dural puncture during epidural anesthesia leads to intracranial hypotension, which if left unnoticed can cause life-threatening subdural hematomas or cerebellar tonsillar herniation. The highly variable presentation of intracranial hypotension hinders timely diagnosis and treatment. We present the case of a young laboring adult female, who developed subdural hygromas and a subdural hematoma following unintentional dural puncture during initiation of epidural anesthesia. PMID:27651956

  11. Is epidural steroid injection effective for degenerative lumbar spinal stenosis?

    PubMed

    Flores, Sebastián; Molina, Marcelo

    2015-11-16

    There are several nonsurgical alternatives to treat radicular pain in degenerative lumbar spinal stenosis. Epidural steroid injections have been used for several decades, but the different studies have shown variable effects. Searching in Epistemonikos database, which is maintained by screening 30 databases, we identified nine systematic reviews including seven pertinent randomized controlled trials. We concluded epidural steroid injection probably leads to little or no effect on reducing radicular pain of spinal stenosis.

  12. Unilateral anhidrosis: A rare complication of thoracic epidural analgesia.

    PubMed

    Gulbahar, Gultekin; Gundogdu, Ahmet Gokhan; Alkan, Güzide; Baysalman, Hatice Baran; Kaplan, Tevfik

    2016-02-01

    Management of pain following thoracotomy is an important issue for the control of early morbidity. We herein present the case of a patient who was referred to our hospital after a fall from a height. Right-sided multiple rib fractures, hemopneumothorax, and diaphragmatic rupture were detected. Thoracic epidural catheterization was performed for pain management just before thoracotomy. The patient developed unilateral anhidrosis postoperatively. We discuss this rare complication of thoracic epidural analgesia with a review of relevant literature.

  13. Is epidural steroid injection effective for degenerative lumbar spinal stenosis?

    PubMed

    Flores, Sebastián; Molina, Marcelo

    2015-01-01

    There are several nonsurgical alternatives to treat radicular pain in degenerative lumbar spinal stenosis. Epidural steroid injections have been used for several decades, but the different studies have shown variable effects. Searching in Epistemonikos database, which is maintained by screening 30 databases, we identified nine systematic reviews including seven pertinent randomized controlled trials. We concluded epidural steroid injection probably leads to little or no effect on reducing radicular pain of spinal stenosis. PMID:26610278

  14. Unusual presentation of a spontaneous spinal epidural haematoma.

    PubMed

    Panciani, Pier Paolo; Forgnone, Sara; Fontanella, Marco; Ducati, Alessandro; Lanotte, Michele

    2009-06-01

    Spontaneous spinal epidural haematoma (SSEH) is a rare clinical entity that generally requires an urgent surgical evacuation. The combination of Brown-Séquard syndrome (BSS) and Horner's syndrome (HS) as the presenting symptoms of a traumatic spinal epidural haematoma is very unusual, but it has never been observed in cases of spontaneous haematoma. We herein describe a case of SSEH presenting with simultaneous BSS and HS. The possibility of a conservative management in similar cases is discussed.

  15. Current trends in the diagnosis and treatment of tuboovarian abscess

    SciTech Connect

    Landers, D.V.; Sweet, R.L.

    1985-04-15

    Tuboovarian abscess is a well-recognized complication of acute salpingitis and has been reported in as many as one third of hospital admissions for acute salpingitis. The incidence of tuboovarian abscess is expected to increase as a result of the current epidemic of sexually transmitted diseases and their sequelae. Patients with tuboovarian abscess most commonly present with lower abdominal pain and an adnexal mass(es). Fever and leukocytosis may be absent. Ultrasound, computed tomographic scans, laparoscopy, or laparotomy may be necessary to confirm the diagnosis. Tuboovarian abscess may be unilateral or bilateral regardless of intrauterine contraceptive device usage. Tuboovarian abscess is polymicrobial with a preponderance of anaerobic organisms. An initial conservative antimicrobial approach to the management of the unruptured tuboovarian abscess is appropriate if the antimicrobial agents used can penetrate abscesses, remain active within the abscess environment, and are active against the major pathogens in tuboovarian abscess, including the resistant gram-negative anaerobes such as Bacteroides fragilis and Bacteroides bivius. However, if the patient does not begin to show a response within a reasonable amount of time, about 48 to 72 hours, surgical intervention should be undertaken. Suspicion of rupture should remain an indication for immediate operation. Once operation is undertaken, a conservative approach with unilateral adnexectomy for one-side tuboovarian abscess is appropriate if future fertility or hormone production is desired.

  16. Management and outcome of brain abscess in renal transplant recipients

    PubMed Central

    Arunkumar, M; Rajshekhar, V.; Chandy, M.; Thomas, P.; Jacob, C. K.

    2000-01-01

    Although infection is the commonest central nervous system complication following renal transplantation, brain abscess is uncommon. Over the last 11 years, five renal transplant recipients who had brain abscesses were treated by computed tomography (CT)-guided stereotactic aspiration. Three patients had a fungal abscess, one a tuberculous abscess and the other had a methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus abscess. One patient required a craniotomy for the excision of a fungal abscess which was persistent after two CT-guided stereotactic aspirations. The survivors in this group are the patient with a tuberculous abscess who is alive and well 5 years after diagnosis, and another with a dematiaceous fungal abscess (phaeohyphomycosis). CT-guided stereotactic surgery is minimally invasive, and can safely be performed in these patients. It often leads to an aetiological diagnosis in renal transplant recipients with brain abscesses. Specific antibiotic management directed towards the causative organism rather than empirical treatment can be instituted following the procedure. Although the ultimate prognosis in these patients is bleak even with specific antibiotic therapy, an occasional patient might have a good outcome with prompt and appropriate therapy.


Keywords: brain abscess; computed tomography guided stereotaxy; renal transplant recipients PMID:10727562

  17. Epidural and opioid analgesia following the Nuss procedure

    PubMed Central

    Walaszczyk, Malgorzata; Knapik, Piotr; Misiolek, Hanna; Korlacki, Wojciech

    2011-01-01

    Summary Background Parents have the right to decide on behalf of their children and deny consent to regional anaesthesia. The investigators decided to investigate quality of postoperative analgesia in adolescents undergoing epidural and opioid analgesia following the Nuss procedure. Material/Methods The study subjects were 61 adolescents aged 11–18 years who underwent pectus excavatum repair with the Nuss procedure. Patients were divided into epidural (n=41) and opioid (n=20) groups, depending on their parents’ consent to epidural catheter insertion. Intraoperatively, 0.5% epidural ropivacaine with fentanyl or intermittent intravenous injections of fentanyl were used. Postoperative analgesia was achieved with either epidural infusion of 0.1% ropivacaine with fentanyl, or subcutaneous morphine via an intraoperatively inserted “butterfly” cannula. Additionally, both groups received metamizol and paracetamol. Primary outcome variables were postoperative pain scores (Numeric Rating Scale and Prince Henry Hospital Pain Score). Secondary outcome variables included hemodynamic parameters, additional analgesia and side effects. Results Heart rate and blood pressure values in the postoperative period were significantly higher in the opioid group. Pain scores requiring intervention were noted almost exclusively in the opioid group. Conclusions Denial of parental consent to epidural analgesia following the Nuss procedure results in significantly worse control of postoperative pain. Our data may be useful when discussing with parents the available anaesthetic techniques for exceptionally painful procedures. PMID:22037752

  18. [Ultrasonography-guided identification of the lumbar epidural space].

    PubMed

    Bonazzi, M; Bianchi De Grazia, L; Di Gennaro, S; Lensi, C; Migliavacca, S; Marsicano, M; Riva, A; Laveneziana, D

    1995-05-01

    The study was designed to assess the reliability of sonographic evaluation in the prediction of the depth of the lumbar epidural space. Forty males, scheduled for epidural anesthesia for surgical repair of inguinal hernia, were prospectively studied. Patients were placed in a sitting position and sagittal scanning of the lumbar spine was performed with a 5-MHz transducer over the fourth or fifth interspace in order to identify the deeper hyperechogen interface, which represents the landmark between the ligamentum flavum and the epidural space. Ultrasound depth was measured and transducer removed. A Tuohy needle 18 G was then introduced percutaneously according to the standard technique and a rubber slide placed over it, so that it depth of insertion could be accurately measured. The potential for using ultrasounds for prediction of the distance from skin to epidural space was analyzed using a simple linear regression analysis; p values < 0.05 were considered significant. Mean values of ultrasound depth and needle depth were respectively 51 mm (SD 6.3) and 50.9 mm (SD 6.2); the correlation coefficient was 0.99. Ultrasound scanning of the lumbar spine provides an accurate measurement of the depth of the epidural space, which can facilitate the performance of the epidural anaesthesia and may decrease the complication rate, particularly in those patients in which anatomic landmarks are obscured.

  19. [Combined subarachnoid-epidural technique for obstetric analgesia].

    PubMed

    Fernández-Guisasola, J; García del Valle, S; Gómez-Arnau, J I

    2000-05-01

    Combined spinal-epidural blockade for labor pain has enjoyed increasing popularity in obstetric anesthesia. The usual procedure is to use a single space and a single needle for dural puncture, inserting a spinal needle through an epidural needle followed by insertion of a catheter. A small dose of one or several substances (usually a lipophilic opioid and a local anesthetic) is first injected in the intrathecal space to provide rapid, effective analgesia with minimal muscle blockade. The epidural catheter is used if labor lasts longer than the spinal block, if the spinal block is insufficient, or in case of cesarean section. Combined spinal-epidural blockade is a safe, valid alternative to conventional epidural analgesia and has become the main technique for providing obstetric analgesia in many hospitals. The most widely-recognized advantage of the technique is high maternal satisfaction with rapid and effective analgesia. Mobility of the lower extremities is preserved and the mother is often able to walk. Because opioids are injected into the intrathecal space and because the technique is more invasive than standard epidural analgesia, the potential risk to mother and fetus increases.

  20. Epidural hematoma after minor oral trauma.

    PubMed

    Rice, J O; Walters, C; Olson, R E; Pearson, D

    1976-07-01

    A case report was presented in which a 15-year-old boy was beaten about the head with a baseball bat. Intraoral trauma and facial lacerations were repaired. Since results of the neurological examination were within normal limits, the patient was discharged. The next day, the patient became lethargic; however, the patient's mother did not bring the patient back to the hospital until the routine postoperative visit. At that time, the patient had right hemiparesis, was unable to speak, and was clearly obtunded. A carotid angiogram disclosed a left venous epidural hematoma in the parietal area. A craniotomy was performed with good results. The importance of follow-up neurologic examinations in cases of trauma to the face and head is stressed.

  1. Biomarkers in Cervical Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Yim, Eun-Kyoung; Park, Jong-Sup

    2006-01-01

    Cervical cancer, a potentially preventable disease, remains the second most common malignancy in women worldwide. Human papillomavirus (HPV) is the single most important etiological agent in cervical cancer, contributing to neoplastic progression through the action of viral oncoproteins, mainly E6 and E7. Cervical screening programs using Pap smear testing have dramatically improved cervical cancer incidence and reduced deaths, but cervical cancer still remains a global health burden. The biomarker discovery for accurate detection and diagnosis of cervical carcinoma and its malignant precursors (collectively referred to as high-grade cervical disease) represents one of the current challenges in clinical medicine and cytopathology. PMID:19690652

  2. Comparison of epidural oxycodone and epidural morphine for post-caesarean section analgesia: A randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Sng, Ban Leong; Kwok, Sarah Carol; Mathur, Deepak; Ithnin, Farida; Newton-Dunn, Clare; Assam, Pryseley Nkouibert; Sultana, Rehena; Sia, Alex Tiong Heng

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims: Epidural morphine after caesarean section may cause moderate to severe pruritus in women. Epidural oxycodone has been shown in non-obstetric trials to reduce pruritus when compared to morphine. We hypothesised that epidural oxycodone may reduce pruritus after caesarean section. Methods: A randomised controlled trial was conducted in pregnant women at term who underwent caesarean section with combined spinal-epidural technique initiated with intrathecal fentanyl 15 μg. Women received either epidural morphine 3 mg or epidural oxycodone 3 mg via the epidural catheter after delivery. The primary outcome was the incidence of pruritus at 24 h after caesarean section. The secondary outcomes were the pruritus scores, treatment for post-operative nausea and vomiting (PONV), pain scores and maternal satisfaction. Results: One hundred women were randomised (group oxycodone O = 50, morphine M = 50). There was no difference between Group O and M in the incidence of pruritus (n [%] 28 [56%] vs. 31 [62%], P = 0.68) and the worst pruritus scores (mean [standard deviation] 2.6 (2.8) vs. 3.3 [3.1], P = 0.23), respectively. Both groups had similar pain scores at rest (2.7 [2.3] vs. 2.0 [2.7], P = 0.16) and sitting up (5.0 [2.3] vs. 4.6 [2.4], P = 0.38) at 24 h. Pruritus scores were lower at 4–8, 8–12 and 12–24 h with oxycodone, but pain scores were higher. Both groups had a similar need for treatment of PONV and maternal satisfaction with analgesia. Conclusion: There was no difference in the incidence of pruritus at 24 h between epidural oxycodone and morphine. However, pruritus scores were lower with oxycodone between 4 and 24 h after surgery with higher pain scores in the same period. PMID:27053782

  3. Intraoperative hypotension associated with massive deep space neck abscesses in a 9-month old: A case report.

    PubMed

    Plum, Ann; Sobin, Lindsay; Tatum, Sherard

    2016-04-01

    The neck is divided into multiple compartments by cervical fasciae. The deep space compartments, which all have a potential for becoming infected, are interconnected, providing a mechanism for the spread of infections. Thus, infections of the deep spaces can lead to devastating consequences, especially when there is extension to the mediastinum. Here we report a case of intraoperative hypotension in a 9-month-old child with extensive bilateral parapharyngeal and retropharyngeal abscesses with mediastinal extension with a focus on when hemodynamic monitoring should be considered.

  4. [Pasteurella multocida meningitis with cerebral abscesses].

    PubMed

    Nguefack, S; Moifo, B; Chiabi, A; Mah, E; Bogne, J-B; Fossi, M; Fru, F; Mbonda, E; Djientcheu, V-P

    2014-03-01

    Pasteurella multocida is classically responsible for local soft tissue infections secondary to dog bites or cat scratches. It can be responsible for meningitis in infants and elderly persons. We report the case history of a 5-year-old male child admitted to our pediatric unit for meningitis. Cerebrospinal fluid analysis revealed an infection with P. multocida. The suspected mode of contamination was either from the saliva of a pet dog or through an unnoticed skull fracture sustained after an accident 1 year prior to the occurrence of meningitis. In spite of the neurologic complication (cerebral abscess), the progression was favorable after drainage of the abscess, 5 weeks of parenteral treatment, and 3 weeks of oral antibiotic therapy. Meningitis due to Pasteurella sp. is rare and can lead to neurologic complications. The notion of bites or scratches can be absent and the mode of contamination is sometimes difficult to unveil. PMID:24457110

  5. Brain abscess caused by Nocardia asiatica

    PubMed Central

    Uneda, Atsuhito; Suzuki, Kenta; Okubo, Shuichi; Hirashita, Koji; Yunoki, Masatoshi; Yoshino, Kimihiro

    2016-01-01

    Background: Nocardia infection of the central nervous system leading to brain abscess is a rare condition but has a high mortality rate. Among the species of Nocardia, only three cases of brain abscess due to Nocardia asiatica infection have been reported. Case Description: A 65-year-old man with a history of autoimmune hemolytic anemia treated with prednisolone presented to our hospital because of occipital headache. Brain magnetic resonance imaging showed bilateral occipital lesions. The patient underwent craniotomy and resection of the left occipital lobe lesion. N. asiatica was identified by 16S rRNA sequencing of the resected specimen. Treatment with trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole led to a complete resolution of the brain lesion. Conclusion: Because of the different antimicrobial sensitivity patterns among Nocardia species, both appropriate subtyping and susceptibility testing of uncommon species such as N. asiatica are required for the successful treatment of nocardial infections. PMID:27563485

  6. A fish bone-related hepatic abscess

    PubMed Central

    Jarry, Julien; Nguyen, Vien; Stoltz, Adeline; Imperato, Marc; Michel, Philippe

    2011-01-01

    We report an unusual case of pyogenic, hepatic abscess caused by fish bone penetration of the duodenum in a 68-year-old woman. The fish bone had migrated into the liver through the duodenal wall. The patient was initially admitted to our emergency room with abdominal pain, fever, and asthenia. A contrastenhanced abdominal coputed tomography (CT) scan showed a hepatic abscess in relation with a straight, foreign body, which had entered through the duodenal wall. Surgery was necessary to remove the foreign body, which was identified as a fish bone. The patient's recovery was uneventful and she was discharged on postoperative day 10. This case is discussed together with the data collected by a medline-based extensive review of the literature. PMID:24765356

  7. Radiofrequency ablation of a misdiagnosed Brodie's abscess.

    PubMed

    Chan, Rs; Abdullah, Bjj; Aik, S; Tok, Ch

    2011-04-01

    Radiofrequency ablation (RFA) therapy is recognised as a safe and effective treatment option for osteoid osteoma. This case report describes a 27-year-old man who underwent computed tomography (CT)-guided percutaneous RFA for a femoral osteoid osteoma, which was diagnosed based on his clinical presentation and CT findings. The patient developed worsening symptoms complicated by osteomyelitis after the procedure. His clinical progression and subsequent MRI findings had led to a revised diagnosis of a Brodie's abscess, which was further supported by the eventual resolution of his symptoms following a combination of antibiotics treatment and surgical irrigations. This case report illustrates the unusual MRI features of osteomyelitis mimicking soft tissue tumours following RFA of a misdiagnosed Brodie's abscess and highlights the importance of a confirmatory histopathological diagnosis for an osteoid osteoma prior to treatment.

  8. Scintigraphic findings in a Brodie's abscess.

    PubMed

    Silva, F; Laguna, R; Acevedo, M; Ruíz, C; Orduña, E

    1995-10-01

    A 9-year-old girl had a 6-month history of left hip pain. Radiographs of the left hip showed a metaphyseal osteolytic lesion with sclerotic borders in the femoral neck. Tc-99m MDP bone imaging and a Ga-67 scan showed focal areas of increased activity in the left femoral neck. These areas of increased uptake corresponded to a lytic area on x-rays, which was due to a Brodie's abscess. The combination of Tc-99m MDP bone and Ga-67 imaging has been widely used in the confirmation of bone infection, increasing the accuracy in the diagnosis of osteomyelitis. However, nuclear scintigraphy has not been previously reported in the confirmation of a Brodie's abscess.

  9. Microscopic epidural lesions in goats given repeated epidural injections of morphine: use of a modified autopsy procedure.

    PubMed

    Larsen, J J; Svendsen, O; Andersen, H B

    1986-01-01

    Epidural catheterization was performed in six goats. Five days later either saline or 20 mg (5 mg/ml) preservative free morphine was injected epidurally once daily for 8 days. The goats were sacrificed 4, 24 or 48 hours after the last injection. The lumbar part of columna was removed in toto for microscopic examination of the spinal cord and the entire epidural space after decalcification and transverse sectioning. After saline, minimal changes including a fibrous membrane surrounding the catheter, scattered fat cell necrosis, scattered small focal cell infiltrations and occasionally focal haemorrhages were seen. After morphine the changes were considerably more severe including diffuse cellular inflammatory reaction in the epidural space, fat cell necrosis, occasionally focal exudative inflammation and chronic inflammatory reaction in the vicinity of the fibrous membrane demarcating position of the catheter. It is concluded that the present modified autopsy procedure permits microscopic examination of the epidural space. It has been shown that repeated administration of morphine caused tissue damage in the epidural space of goats. The human predictability of the results obtained is unknown. However, the results are encouraging for investigations with similar procedure in humans. PMID:3953294

  10. Microscopic epidural lesions in goats given repeated epidural injections of morphine: use of a modified autopsy procedure.

    PubMed

    Larsen, J J; Svendsen, O; Andersen, H B

    1986-01-01

    Epidural catheterization was performed in six goats. Five days later either saline or 20 mg (5 mg/ml) preservative free morphine was injected epidurally once daily for 8 days. The goats were sacrificed 4, 24 or 48 hours after the last injection. The lumbar part of columna was removed in toto for microscopic examination of the spinal cord and the entire epidural space after decalcification and transverse sectioning. After saline, minimal changes including a fibrous membrane surrounding the catheter, scattered fat cell necrosis, scattered small focal cell infiltrations and occasionally focal haemorrhages were seen. After morphine the changes were considerably more severe including diffuse cellular inflammatory reaction in the epidural space, fat cell necrosis, occasionally focal exudative inflammation and chronic inflammatory reaction in the vicinity of the fibrous membrane demarcating position of the catheter. It is concluded that the present modified autopsy procedure permits microscopic examination of the epidural space. It has been shown that repeated administration of morphine caused tissue damage in the epidural space of goats. The human predictability of the results obtained is unknown. However, the results are encouraging for investigations with similar procedure in humans.

  11. DESCENDING NECROTIZING MEDIASTINITIS SECONDARY TO RETROPHARYNGEAL ABSCESS.

    PubMed

    Kovacić, Marijan; Kovacić, Ivan; Dželalija, Boris

    2015-12-01

    Descending necrotizing mediastinitis secondary to a nontraumatic retropharyngeal abscess is very rare. This form of mediastinitis in the era of potent antibiotics often ends up with lethal outcome. It usually occurs in immunocompromised patients and requires intensive multidisciplinary treatment approach. We report a case of nontraumatic retropharyngeal abscess complicated by descending necrotizing mediastinitis in a 70-year-old man with insulin dependent diabetes mellitus. The patient was admitted to our hospital after clinical and radiological diagnosis of retropharyngeal abscess. During treatment for retropharyngeal abscess with antibiotic therapy and transoral incision, the patient showed mild clinical improvement but his condition suddenly aggravated on day 4 of hospital stay. He had high fever, chest pain with tachypnea, tachycardia, hypotension, and showed signs of occasional disorientation. Emergency computed tomography (CT) scan of the neck and thorax showed inflammation in the retropharyngeal space, as well as thickening of the upper posterior mediastinum fascia with the presence of air. Emergency surgery including cervicotomy and drainage of the retropharyngeal space and posterior mediastinum was performed. The patient promptly recovered with improvement of the clinical status and laboratory findings. After 16 days of treatment he was discharged from the hospital in good condition. Descending necrotizing mediastinitis can be a serious and life threatening complication of deep neck infection if the diagnosis is not quickly established. Besides inevitable application of antimicrobial drugs, good drainage of the mediastinum is necessary. We believe that transcervical approach can achieve high-quality drainage of the upper mediastinum, especially if it is done timely as in this case. Its efficacy can be verified by intensive monitoring of the patient clinical condition, by CT scan of the thorax, and by laboratory tests. In the case of inefficacy of this type

  12. DESCENDING NECROTIZING MEDIASTINITIS SECONDARY TO RETROPHARYNGEAL ABSCESS.

    PubMed

    Kovacić, Marijan; Kovacić, Ivan; Dželalija, Boris

    2015-12-01

    Descending necrotizing mediastinitis secondary to a nontraumatic retropharyngeal abscess is very rare. This form of mediastinitis in the era of potent antibiotics often ends up with lethal outcome. It usually occurs in immunocompromised patients and requires intensive multidisciplinary treatment approach. We report a case of nontraumatic retropharyngeal abscess complicated by descending necrotizing mediastinitis in a 70-year-old man with insulin dependent diabetes mellitus. The patient was admitted to our hospital after clinical and radiological diagnosis of retropharyngeal abscess. During treatment for retropharyngeal abscess with antibiotic therapy and transoral incision, the patient showed mild clinical improvement but his condition suddenly aggravated on day 4 of hospital stay. He had high fever, chest pain with tachypnea, tachycardia, hypotension, and showed signs of occasional disorientation. Emergency computed tomography (CT) scan of the neck and thorax showed inflammation in the retropharyngeal space, as well as thickening of the upper posterior mediastinum fascia with the presence of air. Emergency surgery including cervicotomy and drainage of the retropharyngeal space and posterior mediastinum was performed. The patient promptly recovered with improvement of the clinical status and laboratory findings. After 16 days of treatment he was discharged from the hospital in good condition. Descending necrotizing mediastinitis can be a serious and life threatening complication of deep neck infection if the diagnosis is not quickly established. Besides inevitable application of antimicrobial drugs, good drainage of the mediastinum is necessary. We believe that transcervical approach can achieve high-quality drainage of the upper mediastinum, especially if it is done timely as in this case. Its efficacy can be verified by intensive monitoring of the patient clinical condition, by CT scan of the thorax, and by laboratory tests. In the case of inefficacy of this type

  13. [Streptococcus intermedius: a rare cause of brain abscess in children].

    PubMed

    Jouhadi, Z; Sadiki, H; Hafid, I; Najib, J

    2013-03-01

    Streptococcus intermedius is a member of the Streptococcus anginosus group, also known as the Streptococcus milleri group. Although this is a commensal agent of the mouth and upper airways, it has been recognized as an important pathogen in the formation of abscesses. However, it has rarely been involved in the formation of brain abscess in children. We report 4 pediatric cases of brain abscess caused by S. intermedius. Three boys and 1 girl, all aged over 2 years, were admitted for a febrile meningeal syndrome and seizures, caused by a S. intermedius brain abscess. Diagnosis was obtained by brain imaging combined with culture of cerebrospinal fluid. The outcome was favorable after antibiotic therapy and abscess puncture. S. intermedius should be considered a potential pathogen involved in the development of brain abscess in children.

  14. Four cases of nocardial brain abscess

    PubMed Central

    Tamarit, Martin; Poveda, Pedro; Barón, Manuel; Del Pozo, Jose Manuel

    2012-01-01

    Background: Nocardial brain abscesses are a rare central nervous system infection with high morbidity and mortality. Infection is acquired through inhalation or direct innoculation and then spreads hematogenously. They are usually associated with immunocompromised patients but may appear in otherwise healthy individuals. Treatment is based on surgical aspiration and antibiotics for several months. Case Description: We present four cases of nocardial brain abscesses treated at our institution and review the literature regarding these lesions. Ages ranged from 22 to 71 years. One patient was a healthy individual without any predisposing condition. Patients were treated with surgical evacuation and long term parenteral antibiotics. Two patients made a full recovery; one patient died and one recovered with significant morbidity. In one case malignancy was suspected, probably delaying diagnosis. Conclusions: Nocardial brain abscesses are a rare condition that needs to be considered in the differential diagnosis of brain lesions. They are not necessarily associated with predisposing factors such as immunosupresion. Treatment must be started as soon as possible with surgical evacuation and long term parenteral antibiotics in order to avoid significant morbidity. PMID:23050202

  15. Melioidosis: A Rare Cause of Liver Abscess.

    PubMed

    Martin, Peter Franz M San; Teh, Catherine S C; Casupang, Ma Amornetta J

    2016-01-01

    Case Presentation. This is a case of a 44-year-old male, farmer, known to be diabetic, presenting with two-week history of vague abdominal pain associated with high grade fever. Abdominal CT scan showed localized liver abscess at segment 8 measuring 7.5 × 6.8 × 6.1 cm. Patient subsequently underwent laparoscopic ultrasound guided pigtail insertion for drainage of abscess. Culture studies showed moderate growth of Burkholderia pseudomallei in which the patient completed seven days of IV Meropenem. On follow-up after 12 weeks of oral Sulfamethoxazole/Trimethoprim, taken twice a day, the patient remained asymptomatic with no residual findings based on the abdominal ultrasound. Discussion. Diagnosis of melioidosis, a known "great masquerader," relies heavily on culture studies. Consensus with regard to the management of liver abscess caused by Burkholderia pseudomallei has not yet been established due to the rarity of cases. Surgical intervention through either a percutaneous or open drainage has shown good outcomes compared to IV antibiotics alone. In Philippines, the possibility of underreporting is highly plausible. This write-up serves not only to report a rare presentation of melioidosis but also to add to the number of cases reported in the country, possibly indicative of disease emergence. PMID:27529039

  16. Intraperitoneal tuberculous abscess: Computed tomography features

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Peng; Chen, Jing-Jing; Wang, Xi-Zhen; Wang, Ya-Qin

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the computed tomography (CT) features of intraperitoneal tuberculous abscess (IPTA). METHODS: Eight patients with IPTA confirmed by pathology were analyzed retrospectively. The clinical symptoms, medical images, and surgical findings were evaluated. Involvement of the intestine, peritoneum, viscera, and lymph nodes was also assessed. RESULTS: All 8 patients had a history of abdominal discomfort for 1 to 6 mo. Physical examination revealed a palpable abdominal mass in 6 patients. Three patients had no evidence of pulmonary tuberculosis (TB). All IPTAs (11 abscesses) were seen as a multiseptated, peripherally enhanced, hypodense mass with enlarged, rim-enhanced lymph nodes. The largest abscess diameter ranged from 4.5 cm to 12.2 cm. CT showed 2 types of IPTA: Lymph node fusion and encapsulation. Of the 8 patients, one had liver tuberculosis and one had splenic and ovarian tuberculosis. Two cases showed involvement of the terminal ileum and ileocecal junction. Ascites were found in 4 cases. Three patients had peritonitis and mesenteritis. Three patients showed involvement of the omentum. Three patients had histological evidence of caseating granuloma, and 5 had histological evidence of acid-fast bacilli. CONCLUSION: CT is crucial in the detection and characterization of IPTA. Certain CT findings are necessary for correct diagnosis. PMID:26435779

  17. Melioidosis: A Rare Cause of Liver Abscess

    PubMed Central

    Teh, Catherine S. C.; Casupang, Ma. Amornetta J.

    2016-01-01

    Case Presentation. This is a case of a 44-year-old male, farmer, known to be diabetic, presenting with two-week history of vague abdominal pain associated with high grade fever. Abdominal CT scan showed localized liver abscess at segment 8 measuring 7.5 × 6.8 × 6.1 cm. Patient subsequently underwent laparoscopic ultrasound guided pigtail insertion for drainage of abscess. Culture studies showed moderate growth of Burkholderia pseudomallei in which the patient completed seven days of IV Meropenem. On follow-up after 12 weeks of oral Sulfamethoxazole/Trimethoprim, taken twice a day, the patient remained asymptomatic with no residual findings based on the abdominal ultrasound. Discussion. Diagnosis of melioidosis, a known “great masquerader,” relies heavily on culture studies. Consensus with regard to the management of liver abscess caused by Burkholderia pseudomallei has not yet been established due to the rarity of cases. Surgical intervention through either a percutaneous or open drainage has shown good outcomes compared to IV antibiotics alone. In Philippines, the possibility of underreporting is highly plausible. This write-up serves not only to report a rare presentation of melioidosis but also to add to the number of cases reported in the country, possibly indicative of disease emergence. PMID:27529039

  18. Ocular tuberculosis with multiple cerebral abscesses.

    PubMed

    Nor-Masniwati, Saidin; Zunaina, Embong; Azhany, Yaakub

    2012-01-01

    A 23-year-old Malay man presented with headache for one-month duration. It was associated with painless blurring of vision of the right eye. He had loss of appetite and reduced weight but no night sweats or hemoptysis. His visual acuity on the right eye was 6/45 and improved to 6/15 with pinhole. Right fundus examination revealed a choroidal tuberculoma located at one disc diameter away from optic disc superiorly with mild vitritis. Systemic examinations revealed no significant finding. Mantoux test reading was 22 mm with erythrocyte sedimentation rate that was 14 mm/h. Other blood investigations were negative with normal chest radiography. The computerized tomography scan of the brain revealed multiple cerebral abscesses. A clinical diagnosis of right ocular tuberculosis with multiple cerebral abscesses was made. He was treated with antituberculosis chemotherapy for one year which divided into intensive phase for three months and maintenance phase for nine months. Cerebral abscesses resolved after three months of antituberculosis drugs and at one-year follow-up, and the choroidal tuberculoma resolved completely with scar formation and significant macular striae.

  19. [Brodie abscess. Primarily misinterpreted as traumatic lesion].

    PubMed

    Nicolajsen, K; Jørgensen, P S; Tørholm, C

    1996-01-01

    Two case histories are presented. In the first, a 49 year-old man fell on his right hip. He was able to walk, but because of pain he came to our emergency room. Radiographics gave an impression of an undislocated intertrochanteric fracture, scintigraphy confirmed the suspicion. There were no signs of infection. On starting osteosynthesis with the drilling of a hole in the lateral cortex, discharge of pus was observed and curettage of the abscess cavity was performed. In the second, a 21 year-old man hit his right knee against a table. Because of pain he was admitted to hospital. Primary signs of a lesion of the lateral meniscus were found and arthroscopy was scheduled. When readmitted we found signs of an infection and X-ray revealed a Brodie's abscess in the proximal tibia. The abscess cavity was opened and curettage was performed. Radiographics, scintigraphics, blood parameters and pathological and microbiological investigations revealed primary chronic osteomyelitis in both patients. Antibiotic therapy was instituted and six weeks after primary operation bone transplantation was performed. The further course was uncomplicated.

  20. Brain Abscesses of Ear, Nose, and Throat Origin

    PubMed Central

    Couloigner, Vincent; Sterkers, Olivier; Redondo, Aimée; Rey, Alain

    1998-01-01

    This retrospective study analyzed 29 cerebral abscesses of ear, nose, and throat (ENT) origin. The mean follow-up of patients was 37 months. ENT etiologies included 45% otitis media (n = 13), 48% sinusitis (n = 14), and 7% ethmoidal sinus tumors (n = 2). Thirty-eight percent (n = 5) of otogenic abscesses occurred within 15 days after a mastoidectomy. Sinogenic abscesses were never due to surgery but were associated in 31% of cases (n = 5) with anterior skull base defects. The main locations of otogenic abscesses were the temporal lobe (54%; n = 7) and the cerebellum (23%; n = 3), whereas sinogenic abscesses were located in the frontal lobe in 75% of cases (n = 12). Because of this location, sinogenic abscesses were less symptomatic than otogenic ones and had greater size and encapsulation at the time of diagnosis. Thus, they required longer antibiotic treatment (p = 0.05) and more numerous surgical drainages (p = 0.02). Bacteriologic abscesses samples were positive in 90% of cases. Bacteria found in brain abscesses were different from the ones found in ENT samples in 62% of cases. Thus, the results of ENT bacteriologic samples were not helpful for choosing adequate antibiotic agents in case of negative brain abscess samples. Although mortality was not significantly higher in otogenic abscesses (31%; n = 4) than in sinogenic ones (6%; n = 1, p = 0.08), otogenic abscesses appeared more threatening. Indeed, they represented 80% (n = 4) of lethal cases and encompassed more clinical or radiological prognosis pejorative factors than sinogenic ones (p = 0.006). In conclusion, higher danger of otogenic abscesses mainly resulted both from their temporal or cerebellous locations and from the bacteria that were more frequently resistant to antibiotics. PMID:17171060

  1. Brodie's abscess of the femoral neck simulating osteoid osteoma.

    PubMed

    Gulati, Yash; Maheshwari, Aditya V

    2007-10-01

    Subacute osteomyelitis (Brodie's abscess) is essentially a problem of diagnosis, and there may be considerable difficulty in distinguishing it from other benign and malignant bone lesions. Though reported in the metaphyseal region of the femur, Brodie's abscess is rarer in the femoral neck. The authors present a case of Brodie's abscess in the femoral neck, which clinico-radiologically simulated an osteoid osteoma. Retrospectively, the presence of a cortical sinus tract should have aroused suspicion.

  2. Brodie's abscess of the cuboid bone: a case report.

    PubMed

    Bagatur, A Erdem; Zorer, Gazi

    2003-03-01

    The case of a patient with Brodie's abscess of the cuboid bone and who presented with a painful and swollen right foot is described. The patient was treated successfully by surgical evacuation of the abscess and with antibiotics. To the authors' knowledge, Brodie's abscess of the cuboid bone has not been reported previously. The clinical presentation and diagnostic difficulties which may be encountered are discussed.

  3. Luc abscess: an extraordinary complication of acute otitis media.

    PubMed

    Er, Anıl; Erdağ, Taner Kemal; Çağlar, Aykut; Kümüş, Özgür; Duman, Murat

    2016-01-01

    Luc abscess is an uncommon suppurative complication of otitis media. Unfamiliarity of this complication leads to delayed diagnosis and treatment. This abscess is usually benign. Infection in the middle ear spreads via anatomic preexisting pathways, and this process results with subperiosteal pus collection. Conservative treatment with drainage under empirical wide spectrum antibiotic is efficient. Here,we present a 9-year-old boy who had left facial swelling after a period of otalgia, diagnosed as Luc abscess without mastoiditis.

  4. Obstetrical epidural and spinal anesthesia in multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Lu, Ellen; Zhao, Yinshan; Dahlgren, Leanne; Preston, Roanne; van der Kop, Mia; Synnes, Anne; Sadovnick, A Dessa; Traboulsee, Anthony; Tremlett, Helen

    2013-10-01

    To examine obstetrical epidural and spinal anesthesia use in women with multiple sclerosis (MS) and the relationship with MS clinical factors. This was a retrospective cohort study, linking clinical data from women with MS in the British Columbia (BC) MS database to obstetrical data (1998-2009) from the BC Perinatal Database Registry. We compared epidural use in 431 deliveries to women with MS and 2,959 deliveries from the general population, as well as spinal use in cesarean deliveries (128 to women with MS and 846 in the general population), considering parity and using multivariate models. We also examined the association between epidural or spinal anesthesia and MS clinical factors-disease duration and disability [Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) score]. Of 431 deliveries to women with MS, 116 were exposed to epidural anesthesia and of 128 cesarean deliveries, 82 were exposed to spinal anesthesia. The use of epidural anesthesia was similar in nullipara (adjusted OR = 0.86, 95 % CI = 0.63-1.18, p = 0.36), but more likely in multipara with MS (adjusted OR = 1.75, 95 % CI = 1.20-2.54, p = 0.004). Spinal anesthesia use in cesarean deliveries was comparable between the MS and general population cohorts (adjusted OR = 0.84, 95 % CI = 0.55-1.31, p = 0.45). Women who delivered 5 to <10 years after MS onset were less likely to have an epidural (adjusted OR = 0.57, 95 % CI = 0.34-0.95, p = 0.03) vs. those delivering within 5 years. EDSS was not associated with use of either type of anesthesia (adjusted p > 0.1). Contrary to previous studies, epidural anesthesia use differed between women with MS and the general population and was influenced by parity and MS disease duration; these findings warrant further investigation.

  5. Labor Epidural Analgesia and Breastfeeding: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    French, Cynthia A; Cong, Xiaomei; Chung, Keun Sam

    2016-08-01

    Despite widespread use of epidural analgesia during labor, no consensus has been reached among obstetric and anesthesia providers regarding its effects on breastfeeding. The purpose of this review was to examine the relationship between labor epidural analgesia and breastfeeding in the immediate postpartum period. PubMed, Cochrane Library, and Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature were searched for articles published in 1990 or thereafter, using the search term breastfeeding combined with epidural, labor epidural analgesia, labor analgesia, or epidural analgesia Of 117 articles, 23 described empirical studies specific to labor epidural analgesia and measured a breastfeeding outcome. Results were conflicting: 12 studies showed negative associations between epidural analgesia and breastfeeding success, 10 studies showed no effect, and 1 study showed a positive association. Most studies were observational. Of 3 randomized controlled studies, randomization methods were inadequate in 2 and not evaluable in 1. Other limitations were related to small sample size or inadequate study power; variation and lack of information regarding type and dosage of analgesia or use of other intrapartum interventions; differences in timing, definition, and method of assessing breastfeeding success; or failure to consider factors such as mothers' intention to breastfeed, social support, siblings, or the mother's need to return to work or school. It is also unclear to what extent results are mediated through effects on infant neurobehavior, maternal fever, oxytocin release, duration of labor, and need for instrumental delivery. Clinician awareness of factors affecting breastfeeding can help identify women at risk for breastfeeding difficulties in order to target support and resources effectively.

  6. Labor Epidural Analgesia and Breastfeeding: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    French, Cynthia A; Cong, Xiaomei; Chung, Keun Sam

    2016-08-01

    Despite widespread use of epidural analgesia during labor, no consensus has been reached among obstetric and anesthesia providers regarding its effects on breastfeeding. The purpose of this review was to examine the relationship between labor epidural analgesia and breastfeeding in the immediate postpartum period. PubMed, Cochrane Library, and Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature were searched for articles published in 1990 or thereafter, using the search term breastfeeding combined with epidural, labor epidural analgesia, labor analgesia, or epidural analgesia Of 117 articles, 23 described empirical studies specific to labor epidural analgesia and measured a breastfeeding outcome. Results were conflicting: 12 studies showed negative associations between epidural analgesia and breastfeeding success, 10 studies showed no effect, and 1 study showed a positive association. Most studies were observational. Of 3 randomized controlled studies, randomization methods were inadequate in 2 and not evaluable in 1. Other limitations were related to small sample size or inadequate study power; variation and lack of information regarding type and dosage of analgesia or use of other intrapartum interventions; differences in timing, definition, and method of assessing breastfeeding success; or failure to consider factors such as mothers' intention to breastfeed, social support, siblings, or the mother's need to return to work or school. It is also unclear to what extent results are mediated through effects on infant neurobehavior, maternal fever, oxytocin release, duration of labor, and need for instrumental delivery. Clinician awareness of factors affecting breastfeeding can help identify women at risk for breastfeeding difficulties in order to target support and resources effectively. PMID:27121239

  7. Labor epidural anesthesia, obstetric factors and breastfeeding cessation.

    PubMed

    Dozier, Ann M; Howard, Cynthia R; Brownell, Elizabeth A; Wissler, Richard N; Glantz, J Christopher; Ternullo, Sharon R; Thevenet-Morrison, Kelly N; Childs, Cynthia K; Lawrence, Ruth A

    2013-05-01

    Breastfeeding benefits both infant and maternal health. Use of epidural anesthesia during labor is increasingly common and may interfere with breastfeeding. Studies analyzing epidural anesthesia's association with breastfeeding outcomes show mixed results; many have methodological flaws. We analyzed potential associations between epidural anesthesia and overall breast-feeding cessation within 30 days postpartum while adjusting for standard and novel covariates and uniquely accounting for labor induction. A pooled analysis using Kaplan-Meier curves and modified Cox Proportional Hazard models included 772 breastfeeding mothers from upstate New York who had vaginal term births of healthy singleton infants. Subjects were drawn from two cohort studies (recruited postpartum between 2005 and 2008) and included maternal self-report and maternal and infant medical record data. Analyses of potential associations between epidural anesthesia and overall breastfeeding cessation within 1 month included additional covariates and uniquely accounted for labor induction. After adjusting for standard demographics and intrapartum factors, epidural anesthesia significantly predicted breastfeeding cessation (hazard ratio 1.26 [95% confidence interval 1.10, 1.44], p < 0.01) as did hospital type, maternal age, income, education, planned breastfeeding goal, and breastfeeding confidence. In post hoc analyses stratified by Baby Friendly Hospital (BFH) status, epidural anesthesia significantly predicted breastfeeding cessation (BFH: 1.19 [1.01, 1.41], p < 0.04; non-BFH: 1.65 [1.31, 2.08], p < 0.01). A relationship between epidural anesthesia and breastfeeding was found but is complex and involves institutional, clinical, maternal and infant factors. These findings have implications for clinical care and hospital policies and point to the need for prospective studies.

  8. Computed Tomography in the Diagnosis of Intra-abdominal Abscesses

    PubMed Central

    Daffner, Richard H.; Halber, Michael D.; Morgan, Carlisle L.; Trought, William S.; Thompson, William M.; Rice, Reed P.

    1979-01-01

    The diagnosis of intra-abdominal abscess by radiographic means often relies on combining the results of several different imaging modalities. Computed tomography (CT) has been shown to be a safe, accurate and rapid diagnostic method of diagnosing these abscesses. Five patients with a variety of intra-abdominal abscesses are presented in whom the CT scan alone provided the correct diagnosis. The various imaging modalities available for the radiologic diagnosis of intra-abdominal abscess are described and are compared to CT diagnosis regarding their pitfalls. ImagesFig. 1.Fig. 2.Fig. 3.Fig. 4.Fig. 5.Fig.5.C. PMID:758860

  9. Right adrenal abscess -- an unusual complication of acute apendicitis.

    PubMed

    Dimofte, Gabriel; Dubei, Liviu; Lozneanu, Lili-Gabriela; Ursulescu, Corina; Grigora Scedil, Mihai

    2004-09-01

    Acute appendicitis represents one of the most frequent abdominal emergencies encountered in everyday surgical practice. Local infectious complications are not unusual and retroperitoneal abscesses after acute retrocaecal appendicitis have been previously described. The authors present the case of a 22-years-young female patient, admitted for a right iliac fossa abscess, secondary to gangrenous appendicitis. A right adrenal mass 35/40 mm was revealed during preoperative ultrasound evaluation, which evolved in an adrenal abscess that spontaneously drained 10 days after appendectomy and retrocecal drainage. Adrenal abscesses are exceptionally rare, with only a few cases being reported in the literature, but none of these after acute appendicitis.

  10. Septic arthritis of the knee associated with calf abscess.

    PubMed

    Izumi, Masashi; Ikeuchi, Masahiko; Tani, Toshikazu

    2012-08-01

    Septic arthritis associated with extra-articular abscess is rare. We report on 2 non-rheumatic patients with septic arthritis of the knee associated with calf abscess. Magnetic resonance imaging showed a distinct leakage pathway from the knee joint in each patient. One was a ruptured popliteal cyst (posteromedial). Another was a pathologic popliteus hiatus (posterolateral). These patients underwent open drainage of the calf abscess via a small incision, followed by arthroscopic debridement of the knee. Careful palpation of the lower leg, followed by magnetic resonance imaging and needle aspiration, is important to exclude a possible extra-articular abscess regardless of the presence of a popliteal cyst.

  11. Brain abscess as a manifestation of spinal dermal sinus

    PubMed Central

    Emami-Naeini, Parisa; Mahdavi, Ali; Ahmadi, Hamed; Baradaran, Nima; Nejat, Farideh

    2008-01-01

    Dermal sinuses have been associated with a wide spectrum of clinical manifestations ranging from asymptomatic to drainage of purulent material from the sinus tract, inclusion tumors, meningitis, and spinal abscess. To date, there has been no documented report of brain abscess as a complication of spinal dermal sinus. Here, we report an 8-month-old girl who was presented initially with a brain abscess at early infancy but lumbar dermal sinus and associated spinal abscess were discovered afterwards. The probable mechanisms of this rare association have been discussed. PMID:19209295

  12. Multifocal Tubercular Osteomyelitis with Tubercular Breast Abscess: An Atypical Presentation of Tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Bar, Mita; Santra, Tuhin; Guha, Pradipta; Agrawal, Neha; Adhikary, Apu; Das, Anirban; Mahapatra, Chanchal

    2015-01-01

    Tuberculosis of spine is common in a developing country like India. However, involvement of spine at multiple levels along with involvement of rib and tubercular breast abscess in an immunocompetent patient without any pulmonary involvement is extremely rare. Here we report a case of 53-year-old immunocompetent lady who presented with quadriparesis and MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) of spine revealed multiple lesions involving cervical, thoracic, lumbar, and sacral region without any involvement of intervertebral disc. On detailed examination she was found to have a lump in right breast. Fine needle aspiration cytology of both paravertebral collection and breast lump revealed presence of acid fast bacilli. She was put on antitubercular drug for one year and she responded well to therapy. PMID:26064720

  13. Pentoxifylline Inhibits Epidural Fibrosis in Post-Laminectomy Rats

    PubMed Central

    Kelten, Bilal; Erdogan, Hakan; Antar, Veysel; Sanel, Selim; Tuncdemir, Matem; Kutnu, Muge; Karaoglan, Alper; Orki, Tulay

    2016-01-01

    Background The aim of this experimental study was to investigate the effectiveness of intramuscular pentoxifylline in the prevention of postoperative fibrosis. Material/Methods We divided 16 adult Wistar albino rats into 2 equal groups: treatment and control. Both groups underwent L1 vertebral total laminectomy to expose the dura. The intramuscular treatment group received pentoxifylline. Four weeks later, epidural fibrosis was studied in both groups using electron microscopy, light microscopy, histology, biochemistry, and macroscopy. Results The evaluation of epidural fibrosis in the 2 groups according to macroscopic (p<0.01) assessment and light microscopy revealed that epidural scar tissue formation was lower in the treatment group compared to the control group (p<0.001) and the number of fibroblasts was also decreased significantly in the pentoxifylline-treated group (p<0.05). More immature fibers were demonstrated in the treatment group by electron microscopy in comparison with the control group. In biochemical analysis, a statistically significant decrease was detected in hydroxyproline, which indicates fibrosis and myeloperoxidase activity, and shows an inflammatory response (P<0.001). Conclusions Systemic pentoxifylline application prevents postoperative epidural fibrosis and adhesions with various mechanisms. Our study is the first to present evidence of experimental epidural fibrosis prevention with pentoxifylline. PMID:26974057

  14. Analysis of the Bacterial Diversity in Liver Abscess: Differences Between Pyogenic and Amebic Abscesses.

    PubMed

    Reyna-Fabián, Miriam E; Zermeño, Valeria; Ximénez, Cecilia; Flores, Janin; Romero, Miguel F; Diaz, Daniel; Argueta, Jesús; Moran, Patricia; Valadez, Alicia; Cerritos, René

    2016-01-01

    Several recent studies have demonstrated that virulence in Entamoeba histolytica is triggered in the presence of both pathogenic and nonpathogenic bacteria species using in vitro and in vivo experimental animal models. In this study, we examined samples aspirated from abscess material obtained from patients who were clinically diagnosed with amebic liver abscess (ALA) or pyogenic liver abscess (PLA). To determine the diversity of bacterial species in the abscesses, we performed partial 16S rRNA gene sequencing. In addition, the E. histolytica and Entamoeba dispar species were genotyped using tRNA-linked short tandem repeats as specific molecular markers. The association between clinical data and bacterial and parasite genotypes were examined through a correspondence analysis. The results showed the presence of numerous bacterial groups. These taxonomic groups constitute common members of the gut microbiota, although all of the detected bacterial species have a close phylogenetic relationship with bacterial pathogens. Furthermore, some patients clinically diagnosed with PLA and ALA were coinfected with E. dispar or E. histolytica, which suggests that the virulence of these parasites increased in the presence of bacteria. However, no specific bacterial groups were associated with this effect. Together, our results suggest a nonspecific mechanism of virulence modulation by bacteria in Entamoeba.

  15. Analysis of the Bacterial Diversity in Liver Abscess: Differences Between Pyogenic and Amebic Abscesses.

    PubMed

    Reyna-Fabián, Miriam E; Zermeño, Valeria; Ximénez, Cecilia; Flores, Janin; Romero, Miguel F; Diaz, Daniel; Argueta, Jesús; Moran, Patricia; Valadez, Alicia; Cerritos, René

    2016-01-01

    Several recent studies have demonstrated that virulence in Entamoeba histolytica is triggered in the presence of both pathogenic and nonpathogenic bacteria species using in vitro and in vivo experimental animal models. In this study, we examined samples aspirated from abscess material obtained from patients who were clinically diagnosed with amebic liver abscess (ALA) or pyogenic liver abscess (PLA). To determine the diversity of bacterial species in the abscesses, we performed partial 16S rRNA gene sequencing. In addition, the E. histolytica and Entamoeba dispar species were genotyped using tRNA-linked short tandem repeats as specific molecular markers. The association between clinical data and bacterial and parasite genotypes were examined through a correspondence analysis. The results showed the presence of numerous bacterial groups. These taxonomic groups constitute common members of the gut microbiota, although all of the detected bacterial species have a close phylogenetic relationship with bacterial pathogens. Furthermore, some patients clinically diagnosed with PLA and ALA were coinfected with E. dispar or E. histolytica, which suggests that the virulence of these parasites increased in the presence of bacteria. However, no specific bacterial groups were associated with this effect. Together, our results suggest a nonspecific mechanism of virulence modulation by bacteria in Entamoeba. PMID:26572872

  16. Computational modeling of epidural cortical stimulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wongsarnpigoon, Amorn; Grill, Warren M.

    2008-12-01

    Epidural cortical stimulation (ECS) is a developing therapy to treat neurological disorders. However, it is not clear how the cortical anatomy or the polarity and position of the electrode affects current flow and neural activation in the cortex. We developed a 3D computational model simulating ECS over the precentral gyrus. With the electrode placed directly above the gyrus, about half of the stimulus current flowed through the crown of the gyrus while current density was low along the banks deep in the sulci. Beneath the electrode, neurons oriented perpendicular to the cortical surface were depolarized by anodic stimulation, and neurons oriented parallel to the boundary were depolarized by cathodic stimulation. Activation was localized to the crown of the gyrus, and neurons on the banks deep in the sulci were not polarized. During regulated voltage stimulation, the magnitude of the activating function was inversely proportional to the thickness of the CSF and dura. During regulated current stimulation, the activating function was not sensitive to the thickness of the dura but was slightly more sensitive than during regulated voltage stimulation to the thickness of the CSF. Varying the width of the gyrus and the position of the electrode altered the distribution of the activating function due to changes in the orientation of the neurons beneath the electrode. Bipolar stimulation, although often used in clinical practice, reduced spatial selectivity as well as selectivity for neuron orientation.

  17. Cervical Cancer Screening

    MedlinePlus

    ... Cancer found early may be easier to treat. Cervical cancer screening is usually part of a woman's health ... may do more tests, such as a biopsy. Cervical cancer screening has risks. The results can sometimes be ...

  18. Cervical spondylosis (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Cervical spondylosis is a disorder that results from abnormal growth of the bones of the neck and ... Progressive neck pain is a key indication of cervical spondylosis. It may be the only symptom in ...

  19. Combined general–epidural anesthesia with continuous postoperative epidural analgesia preserves sigmoid colon perfusion in elective infrarenal aortic aneurysm repair

    PubMed Central

    Panaretou, Venetiana; Siafaka, Ioanna; Theodorou, Dimitrios; Manouras, Andreas; Seretis, Charalampos; Gourgiotis, Stavros; Katsaragakis, Stylianos; Sigala, Fragiska; Zografos, George; Filis, Konstantinos

    2012-01-01

    Background: In elective open infrarenal aortic aneurysm repair the use of epidural anesthesia and analgesia may preserve splanchnic perfusion. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of epidural anesthesia on gut perfusion with gastrointestinal tonometry in patients undergoing aortic reconstructive surgery. Methods: Thirty patients, scheduled to undergo an elective infrarenal abdominal aortic reconstructive procedure were randomized in two groups: the epidural anesthesia group (Group A, n=16) and the control group (Group B, n=14). After induction of anesthesia, a transanally inserted sigmoid tonometer was placed for the measurement of sigmoid and gastric intramucosal CO2 levels and the calculation of regional–arterial CO2 difference (ΔPCO2). Additional measurements included mean arterial pressure (MAP), cardiac output (CO), systemic vascular resistance (SVR), and arterial lactate levels. Results: There were no significant intra- and inter-group differences for MAP, CO, SVR, and arterial lactate levels. Sigmoid pH and PCO2 increased in both the groups, but this increase was significantly higher in Group B, 20 min after aortic clamping and 10 min after aortic declamping. Conclusions: Patients receiving epidural anesthesia during abdominal aortic reconstruction appear to have less severe disturbances of sigmoid perfusion compared with patients not receiving epidural anesthesia. Further studies are needed to verify these results. PMID:23493852

  20. Tubo-Ovarian Abscess: Pathogenesis and Management

    PubMed Central

    Osborne, Newton G.

    1986-01-01

    That a female patient with abdominal pain is often considered to have pelvic inflammatory disease until proven otherwise is ubiquitous in the medical literature. This view is dangerous and should be challenged because it has resulted in episodes of ruptured appendix, death from ruptured ectopic pregnancies, and serious morbidity from delayed diagnoses of such entities as diverticulitis and endometriosis. Proper diagnostic steps should be taken for all patients with abdominal pain of unclear etiology. This article reviews the pathogenesis of tubo-ovarian abscesses so as to separate and clearly identify fact from fiction. Diagnostic steps and management guidelines are discussed. PMID:3537321

  1. Surgical treatment of supra- and infratentorial epidural hematoma.

    PubMed

    Xiaoyu, Wang; Guoping, Li

    2013-01-01

    Supra- and infratentorial acute epidural hematoma (SIEDH) is a common type of posterior fossa epidural hematoma (PFEDH), representing 11- 64% of all PFEDHs. Although SIEDH is associated with typical characteristics, it might be difficult to diagnose when presenting as infratentorial acute epidural hematoma, which is clinically silent and has nonspecific symptoms. However, this type of hematoma can often be rapidly deteriorating, causing a sharp rise in intracranial pressure that leads to a life-threatening foramen magnum herniation. Early diagnosis and management of SIEDH are imperative. Traditional surgical management has always required relatively large craniotomies, larger than the hematoma itself, to expose its edge, and then tack up the dura matter). It usually opens the window and emphasizes retention of the bone bridge outside the transverse sinus. This method can effectively eliminate the hematoma, but it is associated with larger postoperative wound, longer operation time, larger skull defect, and more complications. Hence, exploration into a better surgical method is direly needed.

  2. Postoperative epidural opioid analgesia: what are the choices?

    PubMed

    de Leon-Casasola, O A; Lema, M J

    1996-10-01

    The administration of hydrophilic opioids via a continuous infusion results in selective spinal analgesia with a low incidence of side effects. Lipophilic opioids may also be associated with spinal effects. However, the doses required to produce postoperative analgesia also produce plasma concentrations within the MEAC. Thus, in clinical practice it may not be possible to limit epidural doses of lipophilic opioids to those associated with spinal analgesia. Regardless of the mechanism of action, epidural administration of lipophilic opioids may offer no clinical advantages over the IV route. Notwithstanding, epidural administration of small doses of lipophilic opioids in combination with local anesthetics may offer significant clinical advantages over systemic administration of opioids alone. Dose-ranging studies will be necessary to determine the ideal concentrations of opioids and local anesthetics, as well as the ratios of the two drugs to obtain optimal analgesia with minimal incidence of side effects.

  3. Lumbar epidural varices: An unusual cause of lumbar claudication

    PubMed Central

    Subbiah, Meenakshisundaram; Yegumuthu, Krishnan

    2016-01-01

    Lumbar epidural varices can also present with radiculopathy similar to acute intervertebral disc prolapse (IVDP). However as the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in these patients are usually normal without significant compressive lesions of the nerve roots, the diagnosis is commonly missed or delayed leading to persistent symptoms. We present a rare case of acute severe unilateral claudication with a normal MRI unresponsive to conservative management who was treated surgically. The nerve root on the symptomatic side was found to be compressed by large anterior epidural varices secondary to an abnormal cranial attachment of ligamentum flavum. Decompression of the root and coagulation of the varices resulted in complete pain relief. To conclude, lumbar epidural varices should be considered in the differential diagnosis of acute onset radiculopathy and claudication in the absence of significant MRI findings. PMID:27512228

  4. Sub-Tenon's space abscess after strabismus surgery.

    PubMed

    Brenner, Christiana; Ashwin, Mallipatna; Smith, David; Blaser, Susan

    2009-04-01

    Inflammatory orbital complications of strabismus surgery are a rare occurrence. They include cellulitis, subconjunctival and sub-Tenon's abscesses, myositis, and endophthalmitis. The incidence of periocular infection is assumed to be one case per 1,100 surgeries. In this report, we describe a case of sub-Tenon's abscess after strabismus surgery.

  5. Retroperitoneal abscesses in two western lowland gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla).

    PubMed

    Hahn, Alicia; D'Agostino, Jennifer; Cole, Gretchen A; Raines, Jan

    2014-03-01

    This report describes two cases of retroperitoneal abscesses in female western lowland gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla). Clinical symptoms included perivulvar discharge, lameness, hindlimb paresis, and general malaise. Retroperitoneal abscesses should be considered as part of a complete differential list in female gorillas with similar clinical signs.

  6. Genomewide association study of liver abscess in beef cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fourteen percent of U.S. cattle slaughtered in 2011 had liver abscesses. As a result, these cattle have reduced carcass weight and poor carcass quality resulting in reduced value. Liver abscess can result from a common bacterial cause Fusobacterium necrophorum, which inhabits rumen lesions caused ...

  7. Endoscopic transmaxillary drainage of an infratemporal fossa abscess

    PubMed Central

    Sundaram, Sreetharan Sivapatha; Rajan, Philip; Balasubramanian, Anusha

    2014-01-01

    Infratemporal fossa abscess is a rare and challenging condition to diagnose and manage. A few reported cases have been mostly due to odontogenic infections and were managed by external or intraoral drainage. This is the first reported case of an infratemporal fossa abscess that was successfully managed by endoscopic drainage via a transmaxillary approach. PMID:24980993

  8. Isolation of Bordetella bronchiseptica from blood and a pancreatic abscess.

    PubMed

    Matic, Nancy A; Bunce, Paul E

    2015-05-01

    Bordetella bronchiseptica is a respiratory pathogen rarely encountered in human hosts. We describe a case of bacteremia and pancreatic abscess caused by this organism. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of B. bronchiseptica causing intra-abdominal infection in the form of an abscess. PMID:25740781

  9. Salmonella typhi Liver Abscess Overlying a Metastatic Melanoma

    PubMed Central

    Jorge, Jannaina F.; Costa, Andressa B. V.; Rodrigues, Jorge L. N.; Girão, Evelyne S.; Luiz, Roberta S. S.; Sousa, Anastácio Q.; Moore, Sean R.; Menezes, Dalgimar B.; Leitão, Terezinha M. J. S.

    2014-01-01

    Pyogenic liver abscesses caused by Salmonella enterica serotype Typhi, although rare, can occur especially in patients with pre-existing hepatobiliary disease, hepatocellular carcinoma, and metastatic liver tumors. We present a case of Salmonella liver abscesses complicating metastatic melanoma in a 24-year-old alcoholic male. PMID:24591434

  10. [Splenic abscess after angiography. Considerations on a clinical case].

    PubMed

    Tridico, F; Panier Suffat, P; Rebecchi, F; Contessa, L; Zan, S; Caldart, M

    1995-04-01

    A case of splenic abscess in a diabetic, cardiopathic and arteriopathic 49-year-old man is reported. The abscess developed on a previous splenic infarction caused by an embolus coming from an intraventricular thrombus. The angiographic procedure was the source of bacterial contamination (Staphylococcus aureus). The patient was successfully treated with splenectomy.

  11. Brodie's abscess--an uncommon cause of leg pain.

    PubMed

    Amin, Muhammad Umar; Shafique, Mobeen; Jalil, Jawad; Nafees, Muhammad; Khan, Shamraiz

    2008-03-01

    A rare case of Brodie's abscess of distal left tibia is presented in a child which was initially missed on clinical grounds alone. Differentiation from different bone neoplasms was done on radiological grounds. The patient was managed surgically with high dose intravenous antibiotics. Brodie's abscess is very rarely encountered in our reporting of X-rays.

  12. Isolation of Bordetella bronchiseptica from blood and a pancreatic abscess.

    PubMed

    Matic, Nancy A; Bunce, Paul E

    2015-05-01

    Bordetella bronchiseptica is a respiratory pathogen rarely encountered in human hosts. We describe a case of bacteremia and pancreatic abscess caused by this organism. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of B. bronchiseptica causing intra-abdominal infection in the form of an abscess.

  13. RARE ASSOCIATION OF HYPER IgE SYNDROME WITH CERVICAL RIB AND NATAL TEETH

    PubMed Central

    Roshan, Anupama S; Janaki, C; Parveen, B; Gomathy, N

    2009-01-01

    Hyper IgE syndrome (HIES) is a rare immunodeficiency syndrome characterized by a triad of cutaneous abscesses, mostly caused by Staphylococus aureus; pneumonia; and raised IgE levels. Nonimmunological associations include course facial features, multiple bone fractures, joint hyperextensibility, and retained primary dentition. Patients require long-term antibiotic therapy. We report here a classical case of HIES with rare associations of natal teeth, bilateral cervical ribs, and conductive deafness. The patient was being treated with monteleukast and dapsone. PMID:20101342

  14. The cervical myodural bridge, a review of literature and clinical implications.

    PubMed

    Enix, Dennis E; Scali, Frank; Pontell, Matthew E

    2014-06-01

    The role of posterior cervical musculature in sensorimotor control, cervicocephalic pain, and stabilization of the spinal cord has been recently described. Anatomical soft tissue connections which cross the cervical epidural space link suboccipital muscle fascia and dura. These myodural bridges provide passive and active anchoring of the spinal cord. They may also be involved in a dural tension monitoring system to prevent dural infolding, and maintain patency of the spinal cord. Modulation of dural tension may be initiated via a sensory reflex to muscular contractile tissues. Unanticipated movements such as hyperflexion extension injuries stimulate deep suboccipital muscles and transmit tensile forces through the bridge to the cervical dura. Due to its larger cross sectional area, the rectus capitis posterior major myodural bridge may exert greater mechanical traction on the dura than the rectus capitis posterior minor. University ethics committee approval and anatomical donor consent was obtained for this study.

  15. Veliparib, Topotecan Hydrochloride, and Filgrastim or Pegfilgrastim in Treating Patients With Persistent or Recurrent Cervical Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-03-25

    Cervical Adenocarcinoma; Cervical Adenosquamous Carcinoma; Cervical Small Cell Carcinoma; Cervical Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Recurrent Cervical Carcinoma; Stage III Cervical Cancer; Stage IVA Cervical Cancer; Stage IVB Cervical Cancer

  16. Spontaneous intracranial hypotension following epidural anesthesia: a case report.

    PubMed

    An, X; Wu, S; He, F; Li, C; Fang, X

    2016-05-01

    We report a case of refractory spontaneous intracranial hypotension (SIH) following epidural anesthesia. In this case, typical clinical symptoms and concomitant use of regional anesthesia led to the misdiagnosis of SIH as post-dural puncture headache (PDPH). A 56-year-old man received a successful appendectomy under epidural anesthesia performed at a T11-T12 intravertebral space. About 20 h later, the patient started complaining about orthostatic headache when getting up from his lying position, then a PDPH was diagnosed. However, the patient did not respond well to conservative treatment. Three months later, the first epidural blood patch was performed at the L3-L4 level, however, the patient still had an orthostatic headache. Five days later, spine magnetic resonance imaging showed multiple meningeal diverticulum in the cervicothoracic junction, and computerized tomography myelography demonstrated a C5-C6 spinal dural tear suggesting cerebrospinal fluid leaks. Finally, the patient was diagnosed as SIH and received a second epidural blood patch at the T2-T3 level and responded with improvements in symptomatology. The patient was then discharged, and at a 2-year follow-up, he had fully recovered except for some remaining neck stiffness. This case illustrates that SIH was misdiagnosed as PDPH because of the common clinical symptoms and potentially confounding events (epidural/spinal anesthesia and assumption that it was a case of PDPH). It is important to carefully observe patients in such conditions and promptly conduct suitable diagnostic tests. For a successful treatment of SIH, a timely epidural blood patch should be considered as soon as the diagnosis is established. PMID:26939569

  17. Surgical management of an abdominal abscess in a Malayan tapir.

    PubMed

    Lambeth, R R; Dart, A J; Vogelnest, L; Dart, C M; Hodgson, D R

    1998-10-01

    A captive Malayan tapir was observed to have inappetence, weight loss, signs of depression, mild dehydration and diarrhoea. Haematological and serum biochemical tests showed anaemia, hypoproteinaemia, hyperfibrinogenaemia and neutrophilia with a left shift. Ultrasonic examination of the abdomen under anaesthesia revealed a well-encapsulated abscess. The abscess was marsupialised to the ventral body wall. Culture of the pus produced a mixed bacterial growth. Antimicrobial therapy was based on bacterial sensitivity results. Follow-up ultrasonic examinations showed resolution of the abscess. Ninety-one days after surgery the tapir began regurgitating food and water. An abscess originating from the stomach and occluding the lumen of the duodenum was identified at surgery. The abscess ruptured during surgical manipulations and the tapir was euthanased.

  18. Citrobacter koseri: an unusual cause of pyogenic liver abscess

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Monica; Sharma, Alka; Singh, Ram; Lehl, S S

    2013-01-01

    Liver abscess is a common pathology in the Indian subcontinent and usually results from amoebic or bacterial infection. Pyogenic abscesses usually occur in those with underlying predisposing factors like intra-abdominal infections, biliary infections or comorbidities like malignancy, immunosuppression, diabetes mellitus and previous biliary surgery or interventional endoscopy. Citrobacter is an unusual cause of pyogenic liver abscess and may occur in the setting of underlying comorbidities. We report a 56-year-old man with diabetes (operated for periampullary carcinoma 20 years ago), who presented with a history of fever for 1 week and on evaluation was found to have Citrobacter koseri-related hepatic abscess. The patient was managed with parenteral antibiotics, repeated aspiration of liver abscess and pigtail drainage. PMID:23505286

  19. A case series of brain abscesses in Malawian children.

    PubMed

    Mankhambo, L; Phiri, A; Chiwaya, K; Waluza, J; Borgstein, Es; Graham, Sm

    2007-09-01

    We report three cases of brain abscess in children admitted to QECH in 2006. All children were HIV-uninfected. One case was associated with staphylococcal empyema, another with chronic suppurative otitis media and mastoiditis, and the third case had no identified extracranial focus of infection. These cases illustrate the difficulties of diagnosis and management of brain abscesses in the resource-poor setting where other causes of infection of the central nervous system are common. The typical clinical presentation of brain abscess of altered mental state and seizures is also characteristic of cerebral malaria and meningitis and it is likely that many cases of brain abscess in Malawian children are not diagnosed. The value of cranial CT scan, ideally with contrast, for diagnosis and management of brain abscess is highlighted by these cases.

  20. Thalamic abscess caused by a rare pathogen: streptococcus constellatus

    PubMed Central

    Şenol, Özgür; Süslü, Hikmet Turan; Tatarlı, Necati; Tiryaki, Mehmet; Güçlü, Bülent

    2016-01-01

    Streptococcus constellatus is a microorganism that lives commensally in the oropharyngeal region, urogenital region, and intestinal tract. However, it can cause infection in patients with certain predisposing factors. Rarely, this microorganism can cause a brain abscess. Thalamic localization of brain abscesses is much rarer than abscesses in other locations of the brain. Brain abscess caused by streptococcus constellatus are very rarely been reported in the literature. We present a rare case of a left-sided thalamic abscess caused by streptococcus constellatus in a 25-year-old male patient who was injured by shrapnel pieces in the head and who was malnourished. The patient was successfully treated by stereotactic aspiration and antibiotherapy. PMID:27800109

  1. Clinical outcomes of microendoscopic decompression surgery for cervical myelopathy

    PubMed Central

    Yoshida, Munehito; Yamada, Hiroshi; Nakagawa, Yukihiro; Maio, Kazuhiro; Kawai, Masaki; Iwasaki, Hiroshi

    2009-01-01

    Retrospective study on the results of microendoscopic decompression surgery for the treatment of cervical myelopathy. The purpose of this study was to describe the microendoscopic laminoplasty (MEL) technique as the surgical method in the treatment of cervical myelopathy, and to document the clinical outcomes for MEL surgery. Endoscopic surgery poses several challenges for the aspiring endoscopic surgeons, the most critical of which is mastering hand–eye coordination. With training in live animal and cadaver surgery, the technical progress has reduced the problem of morbidity following surgery. The authors have performed microendoscopic decompression surgery on more than 2,000 patients for lumbar spinal canal stenosis. Fifty-one patients underwent the posterior decompression surgery using microendoscopy for cervical myelopathy at authors’ institute. The average age was 62.9 years. The criteria for exclusion were cervical myelopathy with tumor, trauma, severe ossification of posterior longitudinal ligament, rheumatoid arthritis, pyogenic spondylitises, destructive spondylo-arthropathies, and other combined spinal lesions. The items evaluated were neurological evaluation, recovery rates; these were calculated following examination using the Hirabayashi’s method with the criteria proposed by the Japanese Orthopaedic Association scoring system (JOA score). The mean follow-up period was 20.3 months. The average of JOA score was 10.1 points at the initial examination and 13.6 points at the final follow-up. The average recovery rate was 52.5%. The recovery rate according to surgical levels was, respectively, 56.5% in one level, 46.3% in two levels and 54.1% in more than three levels. The complications were as follows: one patient sustained a pin-hole-like dura mater injury inflicted by a high-speed air-drill during surgery, one patient developed an epidural hematoma 3 days after surgery, and two patients had the C5 nerve root palsy after surgery. The epidural

  2. Epidural analgesia complicated by dural ectasia in the Marfan syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Gray, Chelsea; Hofkamp, Michael P.; Noonan, Patrick T.; McAllister, Russell K.; Pilkinton, Kimberly A.; Diao, Zhiying

    2016-01-01

    Patients with the Marfan syndrome are considered to be high risk during pregnancy and warrant a complete multidisciplinary evaluation. One goal is to minimize hemodynamic fluctuations during labor since hypertensive episodes may result in aortic dissection or rupture. Although they may prevent these complications, neuraxial techniques may be complicated by dural ectasia. The case of a parturient with the Marfan syndrome and mild dural ectasia is presented. During attempted labor epidural placement, unintentional dural puncture occurred. A spinal catheter was used for adequate labor analgesia, and a resultant postdural puncture headache was alleviated by an epidural blood patch under fluoroscopic guidance.

  3. Epidural analgesia complicated by dural ectasia in the Marfan syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Gray, Chelsea; Hofkamp, Michael P.; Noonan, Patrick T.; McAllister, Russell K.; Pilkinton, Kimberly A.; Diao, Zhiying

    2016-01-01

    Patients with the Marfan syndrome are considered to be high risk during pregnancy and warrant a complete multidisciplinary evaluation. One goal is to minimize hemodynamic fluctuations during labor since hypertensive episodes may result in aortic dissection or rupture. Although they may prevent these complications, neuraxial techniques may be complicated by dural ectasia. The case of a parturient with the Marfan syndrome and mild dural ectasia is presented. During attempted labor epidural placement, unintentional dural puncture occurred. A spinal catheter was used for adequate labor analgesia, and a resultant postdural puncture headache was alleviated by an epidural blood patch under fluoroscopic guidance. PMID:27695168

  4. Epidural myelolipoma in a Husky-cross: a case report.

    PubMed

    Hoffmann, Marina Verena; Ludwig, Davina Claudia; Lempp, Charlotte; Haist, Verena; Stein, Veronika Maria

    2013-04-04

    Epidural spinal myelolipoma was diagnosed in an 11.5-year-old castrated male Husky-cross that was evaluated at the veterinary teaching hospital due to progressive thoracolumbar spinal hyperaesthesia and mild proprioceptive pelvic limb ataxia. A focal, ill-defined mildly inhomogenous extradural mass lesion was detected by MRI. The dog was euthanized. At necropsy an extradurally located reddish mass of about 2.5 cm in diameter was present in the vertebral canal. The mass was identified histopathologically as an epidural myelolipoma.

  5. Epidural anesthesia for permanent spinal cord stimulation with a cylindrical type lead: a case series.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sang Eun; Choi, Rak Min; Kee, Rim; Lee, Kang Hun; Jeon, Sangyoon; Jung, Jae-Wook; Kim, Woo-Jin; Yoon, Jin Sun

    2015-04-01

    Spinal cord stimulation (SCS) in trials involving external stimulation are easily conducted under local anesthesia. However, implantation of a permanent SCS system is painful, and can be intolerable in some patients. Epidural anesthesia can be used to perform the SCS implantation without discomfort if the patient can localize the area of paresthesia. However, little is known about epidural anesthesia for SCS. This paper reports 23 cases of permanent SCS with a cylindrical type lead implanted under the epidural anesthesia. Epidural anesthesia was sufficient in 22 patients without discomfort and significant complications. The remaining patient experienced incomplete epidural anesthesia and required additional analgesics to blunt the pain. All the leads were placed consistent with the patient's report of paresthesia area under epidural anesthesia. Thus, epidural anesthesia is an effective and safe method for the optimal placement of SCS to minimize the discomfort for patients without impairing patients' response to the intraoperative stimulation test.

  6. Unusual case of persistent Horner's syndrome following epidural anaesthesia and caesarean section.

    PubMed

    Goel, Shubhra; Burkat, Cat Nguyen

    2011-01-01

    This is a rare case of persistent Horner's syndrome following epidural anesthesia and Caesarean section. A 33-year-old female presented with persistent ptosis and miosis following epidural anesthesia and Caesarian section several months prior. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)/magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) of head, neck, and chest were unremarkable. Medline search using terms Horner's, epidural, spinal anesthesia, delivery, childbirth, Caesarian, and pregnancy identified 31 articles describing Horner's syndrome in obstetric epidural anesthesia, of which 11 were following Caesarean section. The increased incidence of Horner's syndrome in the setting of epidural anesthesia in pregnancy may be related to epidural venous engorgement and cephalic spread of the local anaesthetic, with disruption in the oculosympathetic pathway. It is important to include recent epidural anesthesia within the differential diagnosis of acute Horner's syndrome in a postpartum female. Rarely, the ptosis may be permanent and require surgical intervention.

  7. Effect of preloading epidural space with normal saline on the incidence of complications of epidural catheter placement and spinal anesthesia for cesarean section.

    PubMed

    Geng, Guiqi; Sun, Xingfeng; Huang, Shaoqiang

    2014-06-01

    To evaluate the effect of preloading the epidural space with normal saline (NS) on the incidence of complications of epidural catheter placement and spinal anesthesia for cesarean section. Two hundred and ninety parturients at full term, who were scheduled for cesarean section under combined spinal-epidural anesthesia were randomly divided into two groups: group control (I) and group NS (II). The epidural puncture was performed at the estimated L3-4 interspace with a Tuohy needle attached to a 5 ml syringe. Loss of resistance to air was used to identify the epidural space. In group I no fluid was injected into the epidural space before insertion of the catheter; while in group II NS 5 ml was injected into the epidural space before catheter insertion. The incidence of blood vessel trauma and paraesthesia were evaluated. The effect of spinal anesthesia was evaluated. Blood vessel trauma in group II was significantly lower than in group I, P < 0.05. However, the incidence of paraesthesia was similar between the two groups, P > 0.05. Preloading the epidural space with NS can decrease the incidence of clinically apparent injury to blood vessels during epidural catheter placement, and can improve the effects of spinal analgesia, but does not reduce the incidence of paraesthesia.

  8. PYOGENIC LIVER ABSCESS: DIAGNOSTIC AND THERAPEUTIC MANAGEMENT

    PubMed Central

    dos SANTOS-ROSA, Otto Mauro; LUNARDELLI, Henrique Simonsen; RIBEIRO-JUNIOR, Marcelo Augusto Fontenelle

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: The pyogenic liver abscess has an incidence of 1.1/1,000 habitants. Mortality can reach 100%. The use of less invasive procedures diminish morbidity and hospital stay. Aim: Identify risk factors in patients who underwent percutaneous drainage guided by ultrasound as treatment. Method: Were analyzed 10 patients submitted to the method. Epidemiological characteristics, laboratory markers and imaging exams (ultrasound and CT) were evaluated. Results: The majority of the patients were men with mean age of 50 years old. Liver disease, alcoholism and biliary tract disease were the most common prodromes. Abdominal pain (90%), fever (70%) and jaundice (40%) were the most common clinical manifestations. Mortality of 20% was observed in this series. Hypoalbuminemia and days of hospitalization had a statistically significant positive association with death. Conclusion: The pyogenic liver abscess has subacute evolution which makes the diagnosis difficult. Image exams have high sensitivity in diagnosis, particularly computed tomography. Percutaneous drainage associated with antibiotic therapy is safe and effective therapeutic resource. PMID:27759785

  9. Cervical vertebral actinomycosis mimicking malignancy in a paediatric patient.

    PubMed

    Prajapati, Shyam; Yoon, Daniel J; Benitez, Carlos L; Buyuk, Arzu

    2016-01-01

    Actinomyces spp are found in the flora of the oral cavity and vagina and may cause infection with abscess formation and draining sinuses. Cervicofacial manifestations of actinomycosis involve head and neck soft tissue, however, spread to the cervical spine is rare. We report a case of an 8-year-old boy, presenting with neck pain for 1 month and denying a history of trauma or procedures. Radiography revealed an ulceration of the posterior oropharyngeal mucosa with a defect extending to the C1-C2 vertebra, mimicking a neoplastic process. The patient underwent laryngoscopy and multiple biopsies were taken from the ulcer and bone, showing severe osteomyelitis and intraosseous filamentous organisms, morphologically consistent with Actinomyces spp. The boy received long-term antibiotics with response to treatment. Actinomycosis has rarely been reported in the cervical vertebrae of paediatric patients. This should be considered as a differential diagnosis for such a presentation as prompt antibiotic treatment may be lifesaving. PMID:27033296

  10. Epidural hematoma after thoracic epidural analgesia in a patient treated with ketorolac, mefenamic acid, and naftazone: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Jeon, Dae Geun; Kim, Seok-Kon; Kim, Juri

    2014-01-01

    A 26-year-old male undergoing thoracotomy and bleeding control received a preoperative thoracic epidural for postoperative analgesia. On the fifth postoperative day, paralysis of both lower limbs occurred and urgent magnetic resonance imaging showed massive anterior epidural hematoma. During laminectomy and decompression, platelet dysfunction was diagnosed and preoperative non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs medications were supposed to the cause of platelet dysfunction. After infusion of ten units of platelet concentrate, coagulopathy was improved. We should be more careful to drugs with antiplatelet effect when using regional analgesia. PMID:24729848

  11. FDG and FMISO PET Hypoxia Evaluation in Cervical Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-06-03

    Cervical Adenocarcinoma; Cervical Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IB Cervical Cancer; Stage IIA Cervical Cancer; Stage IIB Cervical Cancer; Stage III Cervical Cancer; Stage IVA Cervical Cancer; Stage IVB Cervical Cancer

  12. ADXS11-001 High Dose HPV+ Cervical Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-06-17

    Effects of Immunotherapy; Metastatic/Recurrent Cervical Cancer; Cervical Adenocarcinoma; Cervical Adenosquamous Cell Carcinoma; Cervical Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Cervical Small Cell Carcinoma; Stage III Cervical Cancer; Stage IVA Cervical Cancer; Stage IVB Cervical Cancer

  13. Insidious manifestation of pyogenic liver abscess caused by Streptococcus intermedius and Micrococcus luteus: a case report.

    PubMed

    Ioannou, Antreas; Xenophontos, Eleni; Karatsi, Alexandra; Petrides, Christos; Kleridou, Maro; Zintilis, Chrysostomos

    2016-01-01

    Pyogenic liver abscesses are caused by various microorganisms and usually present with fever, abdominal pain, leukocytosis and liver enzyme abnormalities. This case presents the insidious manifestation of a pyogenic liver abscess in a 34-year-old immunocompetent male, where classical manifestations of a liver abscess were absent. The microorganisms cultured from the abscess belonged to oral cavity's and gastrointestinal tract's normal flora.

  14. Anesthesia management in a child with osteogenesis imperfecta and epidural hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Erdoğan, Mehmet Ali; Sanli, Mukadder; Ersoy, Mehmet Ozcan

    2013-01-01

    Osteogenesis Imperfecta (OI) results from gene mutation that causes defective or insufficient collagen formation. It may cause various anesthetic complications due to the difficulty in airway management, existence of spinal deformity, respiratory disorders, cardiac anomalies, thrombocyte function disorder, risk of hyperthermia, bacillary invagination, bone deformities and metabolic disorders. The anesthesia management of OI patients should be exercised with caution given certain risks of respiratory disorders. These risks are due to thorax deformity, bone fractures during moving or changing position, mandibular and cervical fractures related with intubation, difficult intubation and malignant hyperthermia. The anesthetic technique using Total Intravenous Anesthesia (TIVA) and laryngeal mask airway is suitable for pediatric patient care with OI. However, these techniques have not yet been reported as useful in neurosurgery case reports. In this study, we present the use of TIVA and ProSeal Laringeal Mask in a child with OI and epidural hemorrhage. We came to the conclusion that LMA and TIVA can safely be used in the anesthetic management of OI patients with severe anesthetic problems. PMID:24565246

  15. Does Electrodiagnostic Confirmation of Radiculopathy Predict Pain Reduction after Transforaminal Epidural Steroid Injection? A Multicenter Study

    PubMed Central

    McCormick, Zachary; Cushman, Daniel; Caldwell, Mary; Marshall, Benjamin; Ghannad, Leda; Eng, Christine; Patel, Jaymin; Makovitch, Steven; Chu, Samuel K; Babu, Ashwin N.; Walega, David R.; Marciniak, Christina; Press, Joel; Kennedy, David J.; Plastaras, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    Objective Minimal definitive literature identifies patients with radicular pain who would benefit most from epidural steroid injection (ESI). This study investigated if electromyographic (EMG) confirmation of radiculopathy with active or chronic denervation predicts a positive treatment outcome following ESI. Design Longitudinal cohort study of adults who underwent EMG and subsequent transforaminal ESI within 6 months. The proportion of individuals who experienced >50% pain relief and mean change in daily morphine equivalents (DME) were calculated. Results 170 individuals with respective mean (Standard Deviation) age and duration of symptoms of 55 (15) years and 36 (56) months were included. Mean time to <30 day and >30 day follow-up post-injection were 18 (6) and 99 (130) days, respectively. At >30 day follow-up, a larger proportion of EMG-confirmed individuals (37.7%) reported >50% pain reduction compared to EMG-negative individuals (17.8%) (p=0.03). This was significant for lumbosacral (40% vs. 15%, p=0.01) but not cervical symptoms (p>0.05). Mean decrease in DME at long-term follow-up in EMG-confirmed compared to EMG-negative individuals trended toward significance (-4 vs. -1, p=0.11). There was no significant relationship between myotomal spontaneous activity and pain or opioid use. Conclusions Needle EMG predicts long-term pain reduction from transforaminal ESI in patients with lumbosacral radiculopathy, regardless of the presence of active denervation. PMID:26251843

  16. Tuberculosis as an Etiological Factor in Liver Abscess in Adults

    PubMed Central

    Dey, Jaideep; Venugopal, Shwetha; Mirdha, Bijay Ranjan

    2016-01-01

    Background. Tuberculosis of the liver without active pulmonary or miliary tuberculosis is considered as an uncommon diagnosis. The aim of the present study was to determine the etiological role of tuberculosis in adult patients presenting with features of liver abscess. Methods. A total of 40 patients with liver abscess were included in the study. The liver abscess aspirate was subjected to microscopy, culture, and polymerase chain reaction to determine the role of tuberculosis as an etiological factor in liver abscess. Results. Of the 40 patients enrolled, 25% (10/40) were diagnosed with having tubercular liver abscess. In a total of 40 specimens, 2.5% (1/40) were positive for acid fast bacilli by Ziehl-Neelsen method, while 10% (4/40) were positive for M. tuberculosis by culture using BACTEC 460 and the yield increased to 25% (10/40) by polymerase chain reaction for M. tuberculosis. Conclusion. 25% of the patients presenting with liver abscess had tubercular etiology without features of active pulmonary or miliary tuberculosis. Liver can act as the primary site of involvement in the absence of activity elsewhere in the body. Tuberculosis should be considered as an important differential diagnosis of liver abscess irrespective of evidence of active tuberculosis elsewhere in the body. PMID:27595021

  17. Tuberculosis as an Etiological Factor in Liver Abscess in Adults.

    PubMed

    Dey, Jaideep; Gautam, Hitender; Venugopal, Shwetha; Porwal, Chhavi; Mirdha, Bijay Ranjan; Gupta, Naresh; Singh, Urvashi B

    2016-01-01

    Background. Tuberculosis of the liver without active pulmonary or miliary tuberculosis is considered as an uncommon diagnosis. The aim of the present study was to determine the etiological role of tuberculosis in adult patients presenting with features of liver abscess. Methods. A total of 40 patients with liver abscess were included in the study. The liver abscess aspirate was subjected to microscopy, culture, and polymerase chain reaction to determine the role of tuberculosis as an etiological factor in liver abscess. Results. Of the 40 patients enrolled, 25% (10/40) were diagnosed with having tubercular liver abscess. In a total of 40 specimens, 2.5% (1/40) were positive for acid fast bacilli by Ziehl-Neelsen method, while 10% (4/40) were positive for M. tuberculosis by culture using BACTEC 460 and the yield increased to 25% (10/40) by polymerase chain reaction for M. tuberculosis. Conclusion. 25% of the patients presenting with liver abscess had tubercular etiology without features of active pulmonary or miliary tuberculosis. Liver can act as the primary site of involvement in the absence of activity elsewhere in the body. Tuberculosis should be considered as an important differential diagnosis of liver abscess irrespective of evidence of active tuberculosis elsewhere in the body. PMID:27595021

  18. [Spontaneous spinal epidural hematoma during pregnancy: report of a case].

    PubMed

    Hack, I; Cademartori, M S; Mamani, R S; Beltrame, C M; Cademartori, C G

    1984-03-01

    A case of spontaneous dorso- lumbar spinal epidural hematoma during pregnancy is reported. The hematoma was removed 8 hours after the onset of paraplegia, and there was no evidence of vascular malformation. The motor deficit remained unchanged post-operatively. The etiology, clinical findings and the value of early laminectomy are discussed.

  19. Translaminar lumbar epidural endoscopy: anatomy, technique, and indications.

    PubMed

    De Antoni, D J; Claro, M L; Poehling, G G; Hughes, S S

    1996-06-01

    This article describes a new technique to achieve access to the epidural space via a direct posterior portal. This minimally invasive technique allows treatment of disc protrusions and extrusions with full visualization and minimal dissection of the paraspinal musculature. Hemostasis, visualization, and triangulation is performed with standard arthroscopic instrumentation. The anatomy of, indications for, and advantages of this techniques are described. PMID:8783828

  20. Spinal cord injury following an attempted thoracic epidural.

    PubMed

    Mayall, M F; Calder, I

    1999-10-01

    Unsuccessful attempts were made to insert a thoracic epidural in an anaesthetised patient. Signs of spinal cord damage were observed the following day. Magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated a haematoma anterior to the spinal cord. Surgical exploration revealed an intradural haematoma and a needle puncture of the cord. The patient suffered a permanent paraparesis.

  1. Is epidural analgesia necessary after video-assisted thoracoscopic lobectomy?

    PubMed

    Kamiyoshihara, Mitsuhiro; Nagashima, Toshiteru; Ibe, Takashi; Atsumi, Jun; Shimizu, Kimihiro; Takeyoshi, Isumi

    2010-10-01

    Most studies have shown that thoracic epidural analgesia reduces postoperative pain, but it carries potential risks. Recently, video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery has become an established technique that causes minimal postoperative pain. This report shows that thoracic epidural analgesia is not always necessary after video-assisted thoracoscopic lobectomy. From January to December 2007, 30 consecutive patients who underwent video-assisted thoracoscopic lobectomy were examined retrospectively. We analyzed the necessity for routine thoracic epidural analgesia. The continuous subcutaneous analgesia catheter for morphine (2 mg in 48 h) was removed from 15 patients on postoperative day 1, and from the other 15 on day 2. We administered loxoprofen sodium hydrate, diclofenac sodium suppository, pentazocine hydrochloride, and mexiletine hydrochloride for postoperative analgesia, as needed. The mean pain score was no more than 1.0. The maximum score was 3.0 on day 0, and 2.0 on day 14; subsequently, no pain score exceeded 2.0. The postoperative hospital stay was 8.7 ± 0.8 days. All patients made uneventful postoperative recoveries. There is no need for thoracic epidural analgesia after every video-assisted thoracoscopic lobectomy because our patients recovered with no serious complication. Less invasive surgical approaches should require simpler postoperative pain management. PMID:20947601

  2. Epidural angiomatous meningioma of the thoracic spine: A case report

    PubMed Central

    YANG, TAO; WU, LIANG; YANG, CHENLONG; XU, YULUN

    2016-01-01

    Spinal epidural angiomatous meningiomas (AMs) are extremely rare lesions. Here, we report on a case of an epidural AM of the thoracic spine with chronic but severe cord compression. The patient underwent a T6-T8 laminectomy through the posterior approach. En bloc resection was achieved, and histopathological examination demonstrated an AM. Delayed paraplegia occurred 4 h postoperatively. The patient was treated with methylprednisolone, hyperbaric oxygen and rehabilitation. Gradually, over the next six months, the bilateral leg strength was improved compared with the preoperative status, and no tumor recurrence was noted. Although epidural AM is extremely rare, it should be included in the differential diagnosis of spinal epidural lesions. A definitive diagnosis is difficult based on magnetic resonance imaging alone due to the nonspecific characteristics of the tumor. Since AM is a histologically benign and highly vascularized tumor, timely gross total resection (GTR) is the most effective treatment. A good clinical outcome may be expected following GTR (Simpson grade I and II resection). PMID:26870233

  3. Spinal epidural angiolipomas: Clinical characteristics, management and outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Bouali, Sofiene; Maatar, Nidhal; Bouhoula, Asma; Abderrahmen, Khansa; Said, Imed Ben; Boubaker, Adnen; Kallel, Jalel; Jemel, Hafedh

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The spinal epidural angiolipomas are rare expansive processes made of mature lipomatous and angiomatous elements. They often have a benign character. Their etiology, pathogenesis remains uncertain, and it is a cause of spinal cord compression. The magnetic resonance imaging is the most important neuroradiological examination. Histological examination is the only examination to confirm the diagnosis. Surgery is the treatment of choice. Methods: A retrospective study of all patients operated on for a spinal epidural angiolipoma at the Department of Neurosurgery at the National Institute of Neurology of Tunis between January 2000 and December 2014 (15 years) was performed. The aim of this study is to describe the clinical, radiological, histological characteristics and the treatment of this tumor. Results: A total of nine patients were operated from January 01, 2000 to November 30, 2014. The average age of our patients was 51 years with ages that ranged from 29 to 65 with a male predominance. The period between onset of symptoms and diagnosis ranged from 24 months with an average 12 months. Posterior localization of the tumor was seen in all patients. Surgical resection was performed for all cases. The postoperative course has been satisfactory, with a complete recovery of neurological functions in all patients. Conclusions: The spinal epidural angiolipomas is rare expansive process causing spinal cord compression. Treatment is exclusively surgical resection. The functional outcome of spinal epidural angiolipomas is particularly favorable with a complete neurological recovery is if the patient was quickly operated. PMID:27695535

  4. Horner syndrome during lumbar epidural analgesia for obstetrics.

    PubMed

    Schachner, S M; Reynolds, A C

    1982-06-01

    Horner syndrome (ptosis, miosis, anhidrosis, and facial and conjunctival vasodilation) is a recognized complication of lumbar epidural analgesia for labor and delivery. Alone, it presents no significant risk to mother or fetus, as resolution is spontaneous and complete. Horner syndrome may, however, be associated with significant maternal hypotension and therefore should be an indication for close maternal and fetal monitoring to provide reassurance.

  5. [Epidural sacral anesthesia with 3% mepivacaine in rectal surgery].

    PubMed

    Marzocchi, M; Monti, E; Cesari, D; Vespignani, M G; Gelli, G; Pirazzoli, G

    1990-09-01

    The authors think that the sacral epidural anaesthesia effected with Mepivacaine 3%, 6 ml (180 mg) and Fentanyl 2 ml (100 mcg) is perfectly indicated for the proctologic surgery as it is of simple execution and presents a short latency (12 min.), good deepness and perfect haemodynamic stability. Besides, it does not endanger the lower limbs innervation. No urinary retention.

  6. Translaminar lumbar epidural endoscopy: anatomy, technique, and indications.

    PubMed

    De Antoni, D J; Claro, M L; Poehling, G G; Hughes, S S

    1996-06-01

    This article describes a new technique to achieve access to the epidural space via a direct posterior portal. This minimally invasive technique allows treatment of disc protrusions and extrusions with full visualization and minimal dissection of the paraspinal musculature. Hemostasis, visualization, and triangulation is performed with standard arthroscopic instrumentation. The anatomy of, indications for, and advantages of this techniques are described.

  7. Spinal epidural angiolipomas: Clinical characteristics, management and outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Bouali, Sofiene; Maatar, Nidhal; Bouhoula, Asma; Abderrahmen, Khansa; Said, Imed Ben; Boubaker, Adnen; Kallel, Jalel; Jemel, Hafedh

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The spinal epidural angiolipomas are rare expansive processes made of mature lipomatous and angiomatous elements. They often have a benign character. Their etiology, pathogenesis remains uncertain, and it is a cause of spinal cord compression. The magnetic resonance imaging is the most important neuroradiological examination. Histological examination is the only examination to confirm the diagnosis. Surgery is the treatment of choice. Methods: A retrospective study of all patients operated on for a spinal epidural angiolipoma at the Department of Neurosurgery at the National Institute of Neurology of Tunis between January 2000 and December 2014 (15 years) was performed. The aim of this study is to describe the clinical, radiological, histological characteristics and the treatment of this tumor. Results: A total of nine patients were operated from January 01, 2000 to November 30, 2014. The average age of our patients was 51 years with ages that ranged from 29 to 65 with a male predominance. The period between onset of symptoms and diagnosis ranged from 24 months with an average 12 months. Posterior localization of the tumor was seen in all patients. Surgical resection was performed for all cases. The postoperative course has been satisfactory, with a complete recovery of neurological functions in all patients. Conclusions: The spinal epidural angiolipomas is rare expansive process causing spinal cord compression. Treatment is exclusively surgical resection. The functional outcome of spinal epidural angiolipomas is particularly favorable with a complete neurological recovery is if the patient was quickly operated.

  8. Symptomatic lumbar epidural varices. Report of two cases.

    PubMed

    Zimmerman, G A; Weingarten, K; Lavyne, M H

    1994-05-01

    Lumbar epidural varices have been infrequently described in the literature and rarely accepted as a primary pathophysiological entity. The authors' total experience with symptomatic lumbar epidural varices over the last 15 years includes four cases (incidence 0.067% of all lumbar spine operations), two of which are described in detail in this paper. The mechanism for their formation is proposed: central disc herniations obstruct the anterior epidural venous flow leading to anterolateral caudal venous distention. Subsequent venous endothelial injury predisposes to varying degrees of phlebothrombosis. Decompression of partially thrombosed varices may occur during operative discectomy or spontaneously during regression of the nonoperated disc prolapse. Regression of the central disc herniation may also explain the "disappearing disc" phenomenon, in which patients with clinical and radiographic evidence of apparently large caudal disc herniations exhibit clinical and radiographic resolution. Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging characteristics of the epidural varix depend upon the degree of thrombosis within this anomaly. A thrombosed varix is hyperintense on T1-weighted, proton-density, and T2-weighted images, whereas flowing blood is hypointense. The variable hypo- and hyperintensity on the T2-weighted MR imaging sequences correlate with a partially patent lumen within the varix. PMID:8169634

  9. Oral microbiota species in acute apical endodontic abscesses

    PubMed Central

    George, Noelle; Flamiatos, Erin; Kawasaki, Kellie; Kim, Namgu; Carriere, Charles; Phan, Brian; Joseph, Raphael; Strauss, Shay; Kohli, Richie; Choi, Dongseok; Craig Baumgartner, J.; Sedgley, Christine; Maier, Tom; Machida, Curtis A.

    2016-01-01

    Background and objectives Acute apical abscesses are serious endodontic diseases resulting from pulpal infection with opportunistic oral microorganisms. The objective of this study was to identify and compare the oral microbiota in patients (N=18) exhibiting acute apical abscesses, originating from the demographic region in Portland, Oregon. The study hypothesis is that abscesses obtained from this demographic region may contain unique microorganisms not identified in specimens from other regions. Design Endodontic abscesses were sampled from patients at the Oregon Health & Science University (OHSU) School of Dentistry. DNA from abscess specimens was subjected to polymerase chain reaction amplification using 16S rRNA gene-specific primers and Cy3-dCTP labeling. Labeled DNA was then applied to microbial microarrays (280 species) generated by the Human Oral Microbial Identification Microarray Laboratory (Forsyth Institute, Cambridge, MA). Results The most prevalent microorganisms, found across multiple abscess specimens, include Fusobacterium nucleatum, Parvimonas micra, Megasphaera species clone CS025, Prevotella multisaccharivorax, Atopobium rimae, and Porphyromonas endodontalis. The most abundant microorganisms, found in highest numbers within individual abscesses, include F. nucleatum, P. micra, Streptococcus Cluster III, Solobacterium moorei, Streptococcus constellatus, and Porphyromonas endodontalis. Strong bacterial associations were identified between Prevotella multisaccharivorax, Acidaminococcaceae species clone DM071, Megasphaera species clone CS025, Actinomyces species clone EP053, and Streptococcus cristatus (all with Spearman coefficients >0.9). Conclusions Cultivable and uncultivable bacterial species have been identified in endodontic abscesses obtained from the Portland, Oregon demographic region, and taxa identifications correlated well with other published studies, with the exception of Treponema and Streptococcus cristae, which were not commonly

  10. Neutrophil localization in acute and chronic experimental abscesses

    SciTech Connect

    Bamberger, D.M.; Bettin, K.M.; Gerding, D.N.

    1987-04-01

    Abdominal abscesses are associated with a high mortality, and usually require surgical drainage for cure. A potential mechanism explaining the inability of the host to clear this infection may be in part a result of the inability of the neutrophil to localize at the site of an established infection. To study this question, either acute (4 hours old) or chronic (2 weeks old) abscesses caused by Staphylococcus aureus were created in perforated capsules implanted in the peritoneal cavity of rabbits. Homologous neutrophils were obtained from donor rabbits 4 hours after peritoneal glycogen stimulation and labeled with indium 111 oxine. Only 0.71% of injected /sup 111/In-labeled neutrophils localized in the chronic abscesses, compared with 1.77% in acute abscesses (P less than or equal to 0.01). Animals with chronic infections had a lower intravascular recovery of injected neutrophils (P less than 0.002). Failure of neutrophil localization was not associated with less chemotactic activity within the abscess, as measured by a chemotaxis-under-agarose assay, or caused by a barrier surrounding the abscess as detected by radionuclide imaging. Only 0.07% of injected neutrophils localized into acute abdominal abscesses in animals with a concomitant chronic subcutaneous abscess. These chronically infected animals also demonstrated a low peak intravascular recovery of injected neutrophils when compared with animals with only an acute infection (P less than 0.002). These data reveal that neutrophils localize to abscesses poorly in animals with chronic infections. The mechanism is possibly related to a systemic factor(s) associated with a lower intravascular recovery of injected neutrophils in chronically infected animals.

  11. Acoustic puncture assist device: A novel technique to identify the epidural space

    PubMed Central

    Al-Mokaddam, MA; Al-Harbi, MK; El-Jandali, ST; Al-Zahrani, TA

    2016-01-01

    Background: Acoustic puncture assist device (APAD) is designed to detect and signal the loss of resistance during the epidural procedure. We aimed to evaluate this device in terms of successful identification of the epidural space and the incidence of accidental dural puncture. Patients and Methods: Following Institutional Review Board approval and written informed consent obtained from all patients, 200 adult patients (107 males) American Society of Anesthesiologists I-III who underwent lower limb orthopedic surgery under lumbar epidural anesthesia using APAD were enrolled in the study. APAD system was connected to the epidural needle using normal saline prefilled extension tube. Numbers of successful epidural attempts and accidental dural tap were documented. Results: The mean values of the depth of epidural space and the time to perform epidural puncture were 5.8 ± 1.0 cm and 3.3 ± 1.4 min, respectively. In 63% of patients, epidural puncture was successful from the first attempt and in 1% it was successful from the fourth attempt. Epidural anesthesia by APAD was successful in 198 cases (99 %). Dural tap occurred in 2 cases (1%). Conclusions: Using APAD, the success of identifying the epidural space was high and reliable. PMID:27051369

  12. Scrotal abscess, a rare case of extra intestinal amoebiasis.

    PubMed

    Prasetyo, R H

    2015-09-01

    The majority of amoeba infection are asymptomatic, but clinically intestinal amoebiasis or extra intestinal amoebiasis may result. Genital amoebiasis is very rare manifestation of extra intestial amoebiasis, but a case of amoebic scrotal abscess, seen in Surabaya. The invasive form of Entamoeba histolytica trophozoite was seen in Giemsa stained aspirate of the abscess. In case of an abscess bacteria are primarly considered, but the case presented here shows that amoeba can be the cause, although very rarely. Thus when bacteriological diagnostics are negative amoeba should be considered, especially in case of brown-reddish colored and foul smelling pus. PMID:26695210

  13. Renal abscess with Morganella morganii complicating leukemoid reaction.

    PubMed

    Osanai, Shinobu; Nakata, Hiroaki; Ishida, Kensuke; Hiramatsu, Mie; Toyoshima, Eri; Ogasa, Toshiyuki; Ohsaki, Yoshinobu; Kikuchi, Kenjiro

    2008-01-01

    We report a case of leukemoid reaction (LR) complicating renal abscess caused by Morganella morganii infection in an 80-year-old man. On administration, laboratory tests revealed white blood cell count of 76160 /microL and C reactive protein 3.09 mg/dL. Although chronic myeloid leukemia was suspected, bcr/abl fusion transcript was not observed. Contrast enhanced computer tomography imaging of the abdomen showed abscess in the right kidney. M. morganii was detected repeatedly in material of liquid from the abscess and arterial blood culture. To our knowledge, this is the first case of M. morganii infection complicating LR.

  14. Brodie's abscess of the ulna caused by Salmonella typhi.

    PubMed

    Ip, K C; Lam, Y L; Chang, Robert Y P

    2008-04-01

    Osteomyelitis caused by Salmonella typhi is rare in patients with no haemoglobinopathies or other diseases causing immunosuppression. Brodie's abscess is a special variety of subacute or chronic osteomyelitis. An otherwise healthy woman who presented with forearm swelling for 6 months was diagnosed with a Brodie's abscess of the ulna caused by Salmonella typhi. Magnetic resonance imaging and a computed tomography-guided needle biopsy were performed. She was later found to be a Salmonella carrier. The Brodie's abscess was treated by surgical debridement and a course of antibiotics. The clinical, radiological, and management aspects of the disease are discussed.

  15. Brain abscess caused by Citrobacter koseri infection in an adult.

    PubMed

    Liu, Heng-Wei; Chang, Chih-Ju; Hsieh, Cheng-Ta

    2015-04-01

    Citrobacter koseri is a gram-negative bacillus that causes mostly meningitis and brain abscesses in neonates and infants. However, brain abscess caused by Citrobacter koseri infection in an adult is extremely rare, and only 2 cases have been described. Here, we reported a 73-year-old male presenting with a 3-week headache. A history of diabetes mellitus was noted. The images revealed a brain abscess in the left frontal lobe and pus culture confirmed the growth of Citrobacter koseri. The clinical symptoms improved completely postoperatively.

  16. [Tibial abscess caused by histoplasma capsulatum].

    PubMed

    de Fernández, M I; Negroni, R; Arechavala, A

    2001-01-01

    Disseminated histoplasmosis is the most serious form of the disease produced by the fungus Histoplasma capsulatum. Histoplasmosis was first described by Darling in 1906, and it is endemic in certain areas of Central and Southeastern regions of USA, and most Latin America countries, including the Pampa húmeda and Mesopotamia regions in Argentina, but in other continents it has a limited regional distribution. Lung involvement predominates in 90% of cases, but H. capsulatum may involve bone and soft tissues. Bone lesions without other signs of infection are very rare, and are often misdiagnosed as cancer. We report a case of disseminated histoplasmosis in a man with a myelodysplasia who presented a left tibial abscess, without any clinical evidence of pulmonary involvement. The patient was successfully treated with itraconazole.

  17. Successful Treatment of Multifoci Nocardial Brain Abscesses

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Qingsheng; Zhan, Renya; Feng, Yiping; Chen, Jiajia

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Brain nocardiosis is a serious opportunistic infection with high mortality. It exists more common in the immunocompromised hosts than the immunocompetent patients. Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMZ) has been mostly considered as the choice of the medical treatment. Linezolid is also newly found to be effective to avoid the invasive surgery. The authors reported a case of patient with multifoci nocardial brain abscesses who failed with the combination of linezolid and TMP-SMZ alone but recovered with the surgery intervention and sequential antibiotics for 2 years. The patient lived a high quality life without recurrence and complications during the 30 months follow-up. Through the literature review, we recommend earlier stereotactic aspiration for diagnosis, combination with surgery intervention and prolonged anti-infection therapy would improve the prognosis. PMID:25984673

  18. [The influence of epidural anestesia of the incidence of vaginal operative deliveries. Study of 6,110 deliveries with 4.590 epidrual anesthesias (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Elert, A

    1979-12-01

    6,110 labors and deliveries are reviewed. 4,590 were done under epidural anaesthesia. The incidence of vaginal operative deliveries was not increased by epidural anaesthesia. The technique, complications and advantage of epidural anaesthesia are discussed.

  19. Drugs Approved for Cervical Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Professionals Questions to Ask about Your Treatment Research Drugs Approved for Cervical Cancer This page lists cancer ... in cervical cancer that are not listed here. Drugs Approved to Prevent Cervical Cancer Cervarix (Recombinant HPV ...

  20. Cervical cancer - screening and prevention

    MedlinePlus

    Cancer cervix - screening; HPV - cervical cancer screening; Dysplasia - cervical cancer screening ... Almost all cervical cancers are caused by HPV (human papilloma virus). HPV is a common virus that spreads through sexual contact. Certain types ...

  1. A double-blind assessment of segmental sensory changes with epidural fentanyl versus epidural saline in patients undergoing extracorporeal shock-wave lithotripsy.

    PubMed

    Hore, P J; Silbert, B S; Cook, R J; Beilby, D S

    1990-04-01

    Segmental changes to pin prick and cold stimuli were tested in a double-blind manner in pain-free patients scheduled for extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy (ESWL). Fifty patients were randomly allocated to receive either epidural fentanyl (100 micrograms in 10 ml normal saline) or 10 ml epidural normal saline. In a further 25 patients an epidural catheter was inserted but no solution injected. In contrast to this latter group, epidural fentanyl and normal saline both produced segmental sensory changes. There were no significant differences between fentanyl and normal saline groups in the number of patients reporting sensory changes to pin prick, rate of onset of these changes, or segmental level. For cold stimuli, more patients in the fentanyl group than in the normal saline group reported a change (16 vs. 8; P = 0.02) but the segmental level was similar. The effect of normal saline as a diluent in epidurally administered opioids may be of clinical importance.

  2. Management of brain abscesses. II: Antibiotics and computed tomography.

    PubMed

    Simpson, Donald

    2013-12-01

    The discovery of the sulphonamides in 1935 was followed by the dramatic introduction of penicillin, first used in the management of a brain abscess in 1942 by J.B. Pennybacker of Oxford. He integrated antimicrobial drugs in a system of diagnosis, local and systemic antibiotics, and operative treatment, which was widely accepted. However, the mortality from brain abscess remained high until the advent of computerized tomography in 1973 made diagnosis safe and easy. During the next two decades, Pennybacker’s system of management was modified, and applied with better results to all forms of brain abscess, including opportunistic infections associated with impaired immunity. These modifications have been studied historically in the management of 140 patients with brain abscesses treated in South Australia in the years 1955-95. PMID:24358478

  3. [Unusual location of a brain abscess due to Listeria monocytogenes].

    PubMed

    Coste, J-F; Duval, V; Nguyen, Y; Guillard, T; Brasme, L; David, C; Strady, C; Lecuit, M; de Champs, C

    2012-10-01

    Here we report a case of sustentorial brain abscess due to Listeria monocytogenes. Blood culture and procalcitonine blood measurement were negative. L. monocytogenes was isolated from CSF after inoculation in Castañeda medium. PMID:21835558

  4. Management of brain abscesses. II: Antibiotics and computed tomography.

    PubMed

    Simpson, Donald

    2013-12-01

    The discovery of the sulphonamides in 1935 was followed by the dramatic introduction of penicillin, first used in the management of a brain abscess in 1942 by J.B. Pennybacker of Oxford. He integrated antimicrobial drugs in a system of diagnosis, local and systemic antibiotics, and operative treatment, which was widely accepted. However, the mortality from brain abscess remained high until the advent of computerized tomography in 1973 made diagnosis safe and easy. During the next two decades, Pennybacker’s system of management was modified, and applied with better results to all forms of brain abscess, including opportunistic infections associated with impaired immunity. These modifications have been studied historically in the management of 140 patients with brain abscesses treated in South Australia in the years 1955-95.

  5. Occult Candida thyroid abscess diagnosed by gallium-67 scanning

    SciTech Connect

    Bach, M.C.; Blattner, S. )

    1990-06-01

    A clinically silent fungal thyroid abscess was identified by Ga-67 citrate scanning and successfully drained surgically in a young leukemic patient. Whole-body radionuclide scanning remains a valuable method to help diagnose persistent fever in the immunocompromised host.

  6. [Percutaneous treatment of abscess of the kidney and retroperitoneum].

    PubMed

    Hélénon, O; Cornud, F; Di Stéfano, D; Chiche, J F; Chrétien, Y; Moreau, J F; Dufour, B

    1989-10-01

    Twenty eight abscesses or infected liquid collections located in the kidney or in the retroperitoneum were drained percutaneously. The abscesses were located in the renal parenchyma in most cases (14 cases), in the anterior pararenal space in 3 cases and in the iliopsoas muscle in 9 cases. In all cases, the drain was inserted under TV monitoring after needle puncture, which was most often guided by ultrasound. The percutaneous treatment was successful in 82% of all cases. Among the 5 unsuccessful attempts, 1 case of duodenal fistula required surgical treatment while the anterior pararenal abscess was effectively evacuated by the inserted drain, and 1 case of infected hydatid cyst was treated surgically immediately after the percutaneous needle puncture. Drainage is the first-line method for the treatment of abscesse of the kidney and retroperitoneum. It requires an appropriate technique and strict follow-up, which allow healing the lesion in most cases.

  7. Brodie's abscess of the cuboid in a pediatric male.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, Sharat; Akhtar, Mohammad Nasim; Bareh, Jerryson

    2012-01-01

    Brodie's abscess of the tarsal cuboid is a rare presentation of a common disease. In the present report, we describe the case of Brodie's abscess of the tarsal cuboid after a thorn prick in the foot of a 10-year-old boy. The patient was asymptomatic in the acute phase of the injury, and on presentation, no evidence was found of an open cutaneous wound. The foot radiographs showed a cavitary osteolytic lesion in the cuboid bone. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed a classic penumbra sign and an abscess in the plantar intrinsic musculature. The patient was treated with curettage and debridement combined with broad-spectrum antibiotics, which resulted in complete resolution of the symptoms by 6 weeks postoperatively. Although microbiologic analysis of the surgical specimen failed to reveal a causative microorganism, histopathologic inspection showed chronic inflammation, consistent with Brodie's abscess.

  8. Ultrasound-guided needle aspiration of amoebic liver abscess.

    PubMed Central

    Ramani, A.; Ramani, R.; Kumar, M. S.; Lakhkar, B. N.; Kundaje, G. N.

    1993-01-01

    This prospective study was carried out on 200 patients with clinically, ultrasonographically and serologically confirmed amoebic liver abscess. The role of ultrasound-guided needle aspiration in addition to medications was evaluated compared to drug treatment alone. Both the groups were monitored clinically and sonographically for up to 6 months after diagnosis. The initial response (after 15 days) was better in the aspirated group (P < 0.05) but resolution of abscess after 6 months were similar. There was a more rapid clinical response in the aspirated group, particularly in those with larger (> 6 cm) abscesses and there were no complications. Percutaneous ultrasound-guided needle aspiration is a safe diagnostic and therapeutic approach which enhances clinical recovery, accelerates resolution, especially in large abscesses, and prevents complications. PMID:8346134

  9. Cervical insufficiency and cervical cerclage.

    PubMed

    Brown, Richard; Gagnon, Robert; Delisle, Marie-France; Gagnon, Robert; Bujold, Emmanuel; Basso, Melanie; Bos, Hayley; Brown, Richard; Cooper, Stephanie; Crane, Joan; Davies, Gregory; Gouin, Katy; Menticoglou, Savas; Mundle, William; Pylypjuk, Christy; Roggensack, Anne; Sanderson, Frank; Senikas, Vyta

    2013-12-01

    Objectif : La présente directive clinique a pour but de fournir un cadre de référence que les cliniciens pourront utiliser pour identifier les femmes qui sont exposées aux plus grands risques de connaître une insuffisance cervicale, ainsi que pour déterminer les circonstances en présence desquelles la mise en place d’un cerclage pourrait s’avérer souhaitable. Résultats : La littérature publiée a été récupérée par l’intermédiaire de recherches menées dans PubMed ou MEDLINE, CINAHL et The Cochrane Library en 2012 au moyen d’un vocabulaire contrôlé (p. ex. « uterine cervical incompetence ») et de mots clés appropriés (p. ex. « cervical insufficiency », « cerclage », « Shirodkar », « cerclage », « MacDonald », « cerclage », « abdominal », « cervical length », « mid-trimester pregnancy loss »). Les résultats ont été restreints aux analyses systématiques, aux essais comparatifs randomisés / essais cliniques comparatifs et aux études observationnelles. Aucune restriction n’a été appliquée en matière de date ou de langue. Les recherches ont été mises à jour de façon régulière et intégrées à la directive clinique jusqu’en janvier 2011. La littérature grise (non publiée) a été identifiée par l’intermédiaire de recherches menées dans les sites Web d’organismes s’intéressant à l’évaluation des technologies dans le domaine de la santé et d’organismes connexes, dans des collections de directives cliniques, dans des registres d’essais cliniques et auprès de sociétés de spécialité médicale nationales et internationales. Valeurs : La qualité des résultats est évaluée au moyen des critères décrits dans le rapport du Groupe d’étude canadien sur les soins de santé préventifs (Tableau). Recommandations 1. Les femmes qui sont enceintes ou qui planifient connaître une grossesse devraient faire l’objet d’une évaluation visant les facteurs de

  10. [Acute cholangitis secondary to ascariasis and complicated by liver abscesses].

    PubMed

    Rakotonaivo, A; Ranoharison, H D; Razarimahefa, S H; Rakotozafindrabe, R; Rabenjanahary, T H; Ramanampamonjy, R M

    2015-01-01

    Acute cholangitis secondary to ascariasis is rare and occurs mainly in areas of high endemicity. The clinical presentation is non-specific, sometimes complicated by liver abscess. Abdominal ultrasound plays an important role in diagnosis and therapeutic surveillance. We report the case of a 35-year-old Malagasy woman with an acute cholangitis secondary to ascariasis and complicated by liver abscesses and its course to full recovery under medical treatment. PMID:26742557

  11. Myopericarditis associated with Fusobacterium nucleatum-caused liver abscess.

    PubMed

    Kearney, Alexis; Knoll, Bettina

    2015-03-01

    A wide clinical spectrum of bacteremic disease caused by Fusobacterium has been presented in this journal. We wish to extend this spectrum by presenting a case of myopericarditis resulting from a liver abscess caused by F. nucleatum. While F. nucleatum plays an important role in periodontal disease, and has been isolated from skin ulcers, liver abscesses, urinary tract infections, and endocarditis, a single case of F. nucleatum-induced pericarditis is documented in the literature.

  12. Isolated Aspergillosis Myocardial Abscesses in a Liver-Transplant Patient

    PubMed Central

    Dang-Tran, Kim-Diêp; Chabbert, Valérie; Esposito, Laure; Guilbeau-Frugier, Céline; Dédouit, Fabrice; Rostaing, Lionel; Rousseau, Hervé; Otal, Phillippe; Kamar, Nassim

    2014-01-01

    Cardiac abscess is an uncommon and fatal complication after transplantation. We report a case of an initially isolated aspergillosis myocardial abscess diagnosed by cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMRI). At that time, there was no other biological evidence or other extracardiac manifestations. A three-month course of dual antifungal therapy followed by a single antifungal therapy was empirically given. Six month after admission, Aspergillus fumigatus was isolated for the first time and the patient deceased from a disseminated aspergillosis. PMID:24707433

  13. Brain abscesses in Malawian children: value of CT scan.

    PubMed

    Mankhambo, L; Phiri, A; Chiwaya, K; Graham, S M

    2008-03-01

    The clinical presentation and management of brain abscess in three HIV-uninfected Malawian children are reported. One case was associated with staphylococcal empyema and severe malarial anaemia and another case with chronic suppurative otitis media and mastoiditis. The third case had no identified extracranial focus of infection. These cases illustrate the difficulties of diagnosis and management of brain abscesses in the resource-poor setting where other causes of encephalopathy caused by infection are common, and highlight the value of neuroradiological imaging.

  14. The Evolving Nature of Hepatic Abscess: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Mavilia, Marianna G.; Molina, Marco; Wu, George Y.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Hepatic abscess (HA) remains a serious and often difficult to diagnose problem. HAs can be divided into three main categories based on the underlying conditions: infectious, malignant, and iatrogenic. Infectious abscesses include those secondary to direct extension from local infection, systemic bacteremia, and intra-abdominal infections that seed the portal system. However, over the years, the etiologies and risks factors for HA have continued to evolve. Prompt recognition is important for instituting effective management and obtaining good outcomes. PMID:27350946

  15. Porphyromonas gingivalis causing brain abscess in patient with recurrent periodontitis.

    PubMed

    Rae Yoo, Jeong; Taek Heo, Sang; Kim, Miyeon; Lee, Chang Sub; Kim, Young Ree

    2016-06-01

    We report an extremely rare case of Porphyromonas gingivalis causing brain abscess in a patient with recurrent periodontitis. The patient presented with right-sided homonymous hemianopsia and right hemiparesis. Emergent surgical drainage was performed and antibiotics were administered. P. gingivalis was identified from the anaerobic culture of the abscess. The clinical course of the patient improved with full recovery of the neurologic deficit. PMID:27085200

  16. Ultrasound detection of a subperiosteal abscess secondary to coalescent otomastoiditis.

    PubMed

    Grant, R L; Piotto, L

    2005-08-01

    We report the unusual ultrasound appearance of coalescent otomastoiditis with subperiosteal abscess in a 3-month-old boy with a 1-week history of an enlarging lump behind the left ear. Ultrasound examination of the lump revealed subcutaneous oedema with an abscess extending from a defect in the cranial vault as a result of extension of the inflammatory process. We believe that this sonographic appearance has not been previously described in the published literature.

  17. Preventing cervical cancer globally.

    PubMed

    Schmeler, Kathleen M

    2012-11-01

    Cervical cancer is one of the leading causes of cancer and cancer-related deaths among women worldwide. More than 85% of cases and deaths occur in the developing world where the availability of effective screening is limited. In this issue of the journal, Pierce and colleagues (beginning on page 1273) describe a novel technique using a high-resolution microendoscope (HRME) to diagnose cervical dysplasia. This perspective reviews the limitations of existing cervical cancer screening methods currently in use in low-resource settings and the potential for HRME imaging to contribute to cervical cancer prevention in the developing world.

  18. Hypocholesterolemia in Patients with an Amebic Liver Abscess

    PubMed Central

    Flores, María S.; Obregón-Cárdenas, Adriana; Tamez, Eva; Rodríguez, Elba; Arévalo, Katiushka; Quintero, Isela; Tijerina, Rolando; Bosques, Francisco; Galán, Luis

    2014-01-01

    Background/Aims Many parasites induce changes in the lipid profiles of the host. Cholesterol increases the virulence of Entamoeba histolytica in animal models and in vitro culture. This study aimed to determine, in patients with an amebic liver abscess, the correlation between cholesterol and other features, such as the size and number of abscesses, standard hematological and serum chemistry profiles, liver tests, and duration of hospital stay. Methods A total of 108 patients with an amebic liver abscess and 140 clinically healthy volunteers were investigated. Cholesterol and triglycerides were measured in the sera. The data from medical observations and laboratory tests were obtained from the clinical records. Results A total of 93% of patients with an amebic liver abscess showed hypocholesterolemia not related to any of the studied parameters. Liver function tests correlated with the size of the abscess. The most severe cases of amebic liver disease or death were found in patients whose cholesterol levels continued to decrease despite receiving antiamebic treatment and hospital care. Conclusions Our results show that the hypocholesterolemia observed in patients with an amebic liver abscess is not related to any of the clinical and laboratory features analyzed. This is the first study relating hypocholesterolemia to severity of hepatic amebiasis. PMID:25071907

  19. Pituitary abscess: a case report and review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Karagiannis, Apostolos K A; Dimitropoulou, Fotini; Papatheodorou, Athanasios; Lyra, Stavroula; Seretis, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Summary Pituitary abscess is a rare life-threating entity that is usually misdiagnosed as a pituitary tumor with a definite diagnosis only made postoperatively. Over the last several decades, advances in healthcare have led to a significant decrease in morbidity and mortality due to pituitary abscess. We report a case of a 34-year-old woman who was admitted to our department for investigation of a pituitary mass and with symptoms of pituitary dysfunction, headaches and impaired vision. During her admission, she developed meningitis-like symptoms and was treated with antibiotics. She eventually underwent transsphenoidal surgery for excision of the pituitary mass. A significant amount of pus was evident intraoperatively; however, no pathogen was isolated. Six months later, the patient was well and had full recovery of the anterior pituitary function. Her menses returned, and she was only on treatment with desmopressin for diabetes insipidus that developed postoperatively. Learning points Pituitary abscess is a rare disease and the reported clinical features vary mimicking other pituitary lesions. The diagnosis of pituitary abscess is often very difficult to make and rarely included in the differential. The histological findings of acute inflammatory infiltration confirm the diagnosis of pituitary abscess. Medical and surgical treatment is usually recommended upon diagnosis of a pituitary abscess. PMID:27274845

  20. Community-Acquired Methicillin-Resistant Pyogenic Liver Abscess

    PubMed Central

    Cherian, Joel; Singh, Rahul; Varma, Muralidhar; Vidyasagar, Sudha; Mukhopadhyay, Chiranjay

    2016-01-01

    Pyogenic liver abscesses are rare with an incidence of 0.5% to 0.8% and are mostly due to hepatobiliary causes (40% to 60%). Most are polymicrobial with less than 10% being caused by Staphylococcus aureus. Of these, few are caused by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and fewer still by a community-acquired strain. Here we present a case study of a patient with a community-acquired MRSA liver abscess. The patient presented with fever since 1 month and tender hepatomegaly. Blood tests revealed elevated levels of alkaline phosphatase, C-reactive protein, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, and neutrophilic leukocytosis. Blood cultures were sterile. Ultrasound of the abdomen showed multiple abscesses, from which pus was drained and MRSA isolated. Computed tomography of the abdomen did not show any source of infection, and an amebic serology was negative. The patient was started on vancomycin for 2 weeks, following which he became afebrile and was discharged on oral linezolid for 4 more weeks. Normally a liver abscess is treated empirically with ceftriaxone for pyogenic liver abscess and metronidazole for amebic liver abscess. However, if the patient has risk factors for a Staphylococcal infection, it is imperative that antibiotics covering gram-positive organisms be added while waiting for culture reports. PMID:27540556

  1. Risk of acute hypotension following epidural analgesia during deep regional hyperthermia: a case report.

    PubMed

    van der Zee, J; Hoff, A M; Oudkerk, M; de Kock, W; van de Merwe, S A; de Jong, P C

    1992-01-01

    A potentially dangerous complication occurring during deep regional hyperthermia is described. A patient receiving epidural analgesics for pain caused by a large pelvic recurrent rectal tumour was treated by hyperthermia induced by electromagnetic radiation. The epidural infusion pump failed during heating and further analgesics were administered by bolus injections into the epidural space. Following the second bolus injection, a severe drop in arterial blood pressure was observed. The most likely multifactorial pathogenesis is discussed and measures to avoid such an event are recommended.

  2. Bevacizumab, Radiation Therapy, and Cisplatin in Treating Patients With Previously Untreated Locally Advanced Cervical Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2014-09-22

    Cervical Adenocarcinoma; Cervical Adenosquamous Cell Carcinoma; Cervical Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IB Cervical Cancer; Stage IIA Cervical Cancer; Stage IIB Cervical Cancer; Stage III Cervical Cancer

  3. [Involuntary Movement of Bilateral Lower Limbs Caused by Epidural Anesthesia: A Case Report].

    PubMed

    Toki, Keiko; Yokose, Masashi; Miyashita, Tetsuya; Sato, Hitoshi; Fujimoto, Hiroko; Yamamoto, Sayoko; Goto, Takahisa

    2016-06-01

    Regional anesthesia, especially epidural anesthesia, rarely causes involuntary movement Here we present a case of a patient who demonstrated myoclonus-like involuntary movement of the lower limbs during continuous infusion of ropivacaine, fentanyl, and droperidol through the thoracic epidural catheter. This movement disappeared when the epidural infusion was stopped, but reappeared when the epidural infusion was restarted. Naloxone did not eliminate the movement The patient was thereafter discharged uneventfully. This case and other reports in the literature suggest that involuntary movement associated with regional anesthesia is rare and self-limiting. However, careful consideration should be given to exclude other, potentially dangerous complications. PMID:27483662

  4. Histopathological Alterations after Single Epidural Injection of Ropivacaine, Methylprednizolone Acetate, or Contrast Material in Swine

    SciTech Connect

    Kitsou, Maria-Chrysanthi; Kostopanagiotou, Georgia; Kalimeris, Konstantinos; Vlachodimitropoulos, Demetrios; Soultanis, Konstantinos; Batistaki, Chrysanthi; Kelekis, Alexis

    2011-12-15

    Purpose: The consequences from the injection of different types of drugs in the epidural space remains unknown. Increasing evidence suggests that localized inflammation, fibrosis, and arachnoiditis can complicate sequential epidural blockades, or even epidural contrast injection. We investigate the in vivo effect of epidural injections in the epidural space in an animal model. Materials and Methods: A group of ten male adult pigs, five punctures to each at distinct vertebral interspaces under general anesthesia, were examined, testing different drugs, used regularly in the epidural space (iopamidol, methylprednisolone acetate, ropivacaine). Each site was marked with a percutaneous hook wire marker. Histological analysis of the epidural space, the meninges, and the underlying spinal cord of the punctured sites along with staining for caspase-3 followed 20 days later. Results: The epidural space did not manifest adhesions or any other pathology, and the outer surface of the dura was not impaired in any specimen. The group that had the contrast media injection showed a higher inflammation response compared to the other groups (P = 0.001). Positive staining for caspase-3 was limited to <5% of neurons with all substances used. Conclusion: No proof of arachnoiditis and/or fibrosis was noted in the epidural space with the use of the above-described drugs. A higher inflammation rate was noted with the use of contrast media.

  5. Aesthetic mental and cervical reconstruction after severe acne inversa by using a bilateral pedicled expanded forehead flap.

    PubMed

    Fu, Siqi; Fan, Jincai; Liu, Liqiang; Gan, Cheng; Tian, Jia; Jiao, Hu; Chen, Wenlin; Yang, Zengjie; Yin, Zhuming

    2012-11-01

    Acne inverse (AI), also known as hidradenitis suppurativa, is characterized by inflammatory nodules, fistulating sinus tracts, and painful skin abscesses. The severe AI often produces disfiguring scars influenced in both the appearance and function, especially in the facial and cervical regions. There might be difficulties in the situation for surgical treatment. This report described a 26-year-old man with severe scarring contractures in the neck and mandible regions after a long-term AI treated successfully with a bilateral pedicled expanded forehead flap. With the achievement of mental cervical angle, the patient has been reconstructed well both aesthetically and functionally during the long-term follow-ups. PMID:23172497

  6. Aesthetic mental and cervical reconstruction after severe acne inversa by using a bilateral pedicled expanded forehead flap.

    PubMed

    Fu, Siqi; Fan, Jincai; Liu, Liqiang; Gan, Cheng; Tian, Jia; Jiao, Hu; Chen, Wenlin; Yang, Zengjie; Yin, Zhuming

    2012-11-01

    Acne inverse (AI), also known as hidradenitis suppurativa, is characterized by inflammatory nodules, fistulating sinus tracts, and painful skin abscesses. The severe AI often produces disfiguring scars influenced in both the appearance and function, especially in the facial and cervical regions. There might be difficulties in the situation for surgical treatment. This report described a 26-year-old man with severe scarring contractures in the neck and mandible regions after a long-term AI treated successfully with a bilateral pedicled expanded forehead flap. With the achievement of mental cervical angle, the patient has been reconstructed well both aesthetically and functionally during the long-term follow-ups.

  7. Descending Necrotizing Mediastinitis Treated with Tooth Extractions following Mediastinal and Cervical Drainage

    PubMed Central

    Fukuchi, Minoru; Suzuki, Okihide; Nasu, Daisuke; Koizumi, Kazue; Muta, Yu; Imaizumi, Hideko; Ishiguro, Toru; Kumagai, Youichi; Ishibashi, Keiichiro; Mochiki, Erito; Ishida, Hideyuki

    2015-01-01

    Descending necrotizing mediastinitis (DNM) is a rare condition in which oropharyngeal infection spreads to the mediastinum via the cervical fascia. Delayed diagnosis and surgery result in a high mortality rate among patients with DNM. We present a case of DNM resulting from odontogenic infection treated successfully with tooth extraction following mediastinal and cervical drainage. A 43-year-old, previously healthy Japanese man was admitted to our hospital for treatment of acute mediastinitis. Computed tomography revealed gas collection around the mid-thoracic esophagus and bilateral pleural effusion. We performed mediastinal drainage via right thoracotomy. Cervicotomy was performed on postoperative day 14 to drain a residual cervical abscess. The patient required the extraction of ten teeth over three procedures to address primary odontogenic infection before his fever resolved on postoperative day 40. Prompt diagnosis, aggressive drainage and removal of the source of infection can improve survival among patients with this life-threatening disease. PMID:26600767

  8. Spontaneous spinal epidural hemorrhage from intense piano playing.

    PubMed

    Chang, Hui-Ju; Su, Fang Jy; Huang, Ying C; Chen, Shih-Han

    2014-06-01

    Spontaneous spinal epidural hematoma (SSEH) is a rare but real neurosurgical emergency. It is caused by atraumatic rupture of the vertebral epidural vein that results in nerve root or spinal cord compression. Most cases of SSEH have a multifactorial etiology, including congenital and acquired coagulopathies; platelet dysfunction; vascular malformation; tumors; uncontrolled hypertension; pregnancy; and, very rarely, activities requiring Valsalva. Herein we reported the case of a young pianist who was attacked by SSEH during piano practice. Playing the piano is a joyful, relaxing entertainment; however, this musical activity can be a highly demanding physical and mental exercise for pianists. Emotional and expressive performance, especially in professional performing, has been reported to result in significant increase of sympathetic and decrease of parasympathetic activities and thus influence the cardiorespiratory variables. The increased biomechanical stress from fluctuating hemodynamics was thought to trigger the rupture of her spinal arteriovenous malformation. PMID:24418452

  9. Transient bladder and fecal incontinence following epidural blood patch

    PubMed Central

    Palomero-Rodríguez, Miguel Angel; Palacio-Abinzada, Francisco J.; Campollo, Sara Chacón; Laporta-Báez, Yolanda; Mendez Cendón, Jose Carlos; López-García, Andres

    2015-01-01

    Epidural blood patch (EBP) is the currently accepted treatment of choice for postdural puncture headache because of its high initial success rates and infrequent complications. Many authors recommended a small volume (10-20 mL) of blood to be delivered for an effective EBP. Here, we report an obstetric patient who developed a transient bladder and fecal incontinence after 19 mL of blood EBP at L1 -L2 level. Since the magnetic resonance image did not demonstrate any definitive spinal cord lesion, the exact mechanism remains unclear. We suggest that accumulation of blood performed at L1 to L2 level in a closed relationship with the sacral cord, may have trigger a significant pressure elevation of the epidural space at this level, resulting in a temporal spinal cord-related injury in the sacral cord. PMID:26543470

  10. Cauda Equina Syndrome Caused by Idiopathic Epidural Lipomatosis

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Yun Seong; Ju, Chang Il; Kim, Hyeun Sung

    2015-01-01

    Spinal epidural lipomatosis (SEL) is a rare condition that presents as a back pain with progressive neurologic symptoms. Most affected patients are obese and receiving steroid therapy, or have an endocrinopathies. We report a rare case of cauda equina syndrome caused by SEL in a non-obese healthy young man without any evident traumatic episode. A healthy 19-year-old man, who had experienced lower back pain for two months, visited our emergency room because of the sudden development of motor weakness and voiding difficulty. Lumbar magnetic resonance image revealed extradural fat compressing the cauda equina. Urgent decompression via posterior laminectomy and excision of excess epidural fat resulted in an immediate symptom improvement. PMID:26834816

  11. Communications during epidural catheter placement for labour analgesia.

    PubMed

    Slater, P; Sellors, J; Cyna, A M

    2011-11-01

    Evidence suggests that anaesthetists' communication can affect patient experience. There is a lack of guidance for anaesthetists as to the optimal verbal communication to use during insertion of epidurals on the labour ward. We recorded the verbal communication used by 14 anaesthetists during the siting of epidural catheters in women on the labour ward; a classification of the language used was subsequently devised. We found that commands and information statements were the most common types of communication used. Individual anaesthetists differed markedly in their use of positive and negative verbal language. This classification of verbal communication that we produced may be of value in future training and research of verbal communication used by anaesthetists on the labour ward.

  12. Rosai-Dorfman Disease Isolated to the Thoracic Epidural Spine.

    PubMed

    Kozak, Benjamin; Talbott, Jason; Uzelac, Alina; Rehani, Bhavya

    2015-11-01

    Rosai-Dorfman disease is a rare benign histiocytic disease that infrequently presents in the spine. We report a case of Rosai-Dorfman disease isolated to the epidural thoracic spine in a 26-year-old male. To our knowledge, this is the 15th reported case of isolated spinal disease and only the fourth case of isolated thoracic epidural disease. Given its rarity as well as non-specific symptoms and imaging findings, Rosai-Dorfman disease is often not considered and misdiagnosed on imaging studies. To help improve awareness of Rosai-Dorfman spinal disease, we review the literature and discuss the epidemiology, clinical presentation, imaging features, and treatment considerations for this condition. PMID:27252790

  13. Spontaneous spinal epidural hemorrhage from intense piano playing.

    PubMed

    Chang, Hui-Ju; Su, Fang Jy; Huang, Ying C; Chen, Shih-Han

    2014-06-01

    Spontaneous spinal epidural hematoma (SSEH) is a rare but real neurosurgical emergency. It is caused by atraumatic rupture of the vertebral epidural vein that results in nerve root or spinal cord compression. Most cases of SSEH have a multifactorial etiology, including congenital and acquired coagulopathies; platelet dysfunction; vascular malformation; tumors; uncontrolled hypertension; pregnancy; and, very rarely, activities requiring Valsalva. Herein we reported the case of a young pianist who was attacked by SSEH during piano practice. Playing the piano is a joyful, relaxing entertainment; however, this musical activity can be a highly demanding physical and mental exercise for pianists. Emotional and expressive performance, especially in professional performing, has been reported to result in significant increase of sympathetic and decrease of parasympathetic activities and thus influence the cardiorespiratory variables. The increased biomechanical stress from fluctuating hemodynamics was thought to trigger the rupture of her spinal arteriovenous malformation.

  14. Spontaneous delivery through a cervical tear without cervical os dilatation.

    PubMed

    Djokovic, Dusan; Costa, Cristina; Martins, Ana; Abushad, Shadi

    2015-01-01

    Spontaneous delivery through a cervical tear, provoked by prostaglandin-induced uterine contractions, was described in a G2P0 woman with a history of cervical dilatation and uterine curettage. This rare complication with potentially serious maternal-fetal consequences can be predicted by an aberrant cervical response to prostaglandins in parturients with previous cervical interventions. PMID:25678963

  15. Spontaneous delivery through a cervical tear without cervical os dilatation

    PubMed Central

    Djokovic, Dusan; Costa, Cristina; Martins, Ana; Abushad, Shadi

    2015-01-01

    Key Clinical Message Spontaneous delivery through a cervical tear, provoked by prostaglandin-induced uterine contractions, was described in a G2P0 woman with a history of cervical dilatation and uterine curettage. This rare complication with potentially serious maternal–fetal consequences can be predicted by an aberrant cervical response to prostaglandins in parturients with previous cervical interventions. PMID:25678963

  16. Cervical Discitis in Children.

    PubMed

    Scheuerman, Oded; Landau, Daniel; Schwarz, Michael; Hoffer, Vered; Marcus, Nufar; Hoffnung, Liat Ashkenazi; Levy, Itzhak

    2015-07-01

    Cervical discitis, though rare, should be included in the differential diagnosis of torticollis, neck pain and neurodevelopmental regression in motor skills in children and infants. Magnetic resonance imaging is the diagnostic method of choice. Treatment should be conservative with antibiotics only. The aim of this study was to describe the 10-year experience of a tertiary pediatric medical center with cervical discitis. PMID:25886786

  17. Solitary Spinal Epidural Metastasis from Prostatic Small Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Maeng, Young Hee

    2016-01-01

    Solitary, spinal epidural metastasis (SEM) that is not related to vertebral metastasis is very rare. And solitary SEM from prostatic cancer is rarely found in previously published reports. However, it is clinically significant due to the possibility of neurologic dysfunction, and it can be assessed by MRI. In this report, we show a case of solitary SEM arising from prostatic small cell carcinoma detected by MRI. PMID:27413569

  18. Subdural Hematoma as a Consequence of Epidural Anesthesia

    PubMed Central

    Bishop, Tracy M.; Elsayed, Kareem S.; Kane, Kathleen E.

    2015-01-01

    Regional spinal and epidural anesthesia are used commonly in operative procedures. While the most frequent complication, postdural puncture headache (PDPH), is a clinically diagnosed positional headache that is usually self-limited, subdural hemorrhage (SDH) is a potentially fatal complication that cannot be missed. We report a case of an otherwise healthy female who presented with persistent positional headache and was ultimately found to have a large subdural hematoma with midline shift requiring surgical evacuation. PMID:26697237

  19. Nasal septal abscess complicated with acute sinusitis and facial cellulitis in a child.

    PubMed

    Lin, I-H; Huang, I-S

    2007-06-01

    Non-traumatic nasal septal abscess is rare, commonly seen in patients with poor immunity, and presents as isolated nasal septal abscess. Further, nasal septal abscess complicated with acute sinusitis is rather rare. Very little literature has been generated for non-traumatic nasal septal abscess complicated with acute sinusitis in healthy patients. Prompt diagnosis and adequate treatment will help to prevent the complications associated with nasal septal abscess such as saddle nose and intracranial involvement. Herein, to our knowledge, we present the first case involving an otherwise healthy little girl with nasal septal abscess complicated with acute sinusitis and facial cellulitis.

  20. Amoebic liver abscess production by Entamoeba dispar.

    PubMed

    Dolabella, Silvio S; Serrano-Luna, Jesús; Navarro-García, Fernando; Cerritos, René; Ximénez, Cecilia; Galván-Moroyoqui, José Manuel; Silva, Edward F; Tsutsumi, Víctor; Shibayama, Mineko

    2012-01-01

    Although Entamoeba dispar displays a similar morphology to Entamoeba histolytica, cellular and molecular studies have revealed significant differences between these two amoebae, including the former being characterized as non-pathogenic and the later as pathogenic. However, recent in vivo and in vitro experiments have shown that E. dispar strains of different origin are capable of causing liver damage and destroying cell culture lines in the presence of common intestinal bacteria. These results suggested that E. dispar may present pathogenic behavior according to the specific E. dispar strain, culture and environmental conditions. To investigate this possibility, we carried out in vivo and in vitro studies using a xenic strain E. dispar (ICB-ADO) isolated from a symptomatic non-dysenteric Brazilian patient. This strain was able to induce liver necrosis in a hamster model that was more severe than that produced by E. histolytica. The ICB-ADO isolate also caused significantly more destruction of cultured MDCK cells and increased loss of transepithelial resistance than did the E. histolytica. Xenic E. dispar exhibited high proteolytic activity, which was partially inhibited by the addition of cysteine-protease inhibitors. Based on our biochemical and molecular characterization of E. dispar (ICB-ADO) xenic culture and its ability to produce liver abscesses, we conclude that this specific strain can indeed produce tissue damage, distinct from the frequently used non- pathogenic E. dispar SAW 760 strain.

  1. Tuberculous abscess on the chest wall.

    PubMed

    Aylk, S; Qakan, A; Aslankara, N; Ozsöz, A

    2009-03-01

    A 58-year old patient on dialysis for four years due to chronic renal failure presented with complaints of painless, continuously growing swelling on the left of his back and coughing, symptoms evolving over a period of approximately 3 months. Physical examination revealed a soft fixed mass of 10 x 10 x 4 cm on the left infrascapular area on the chest wall. The sample taken from the inflammation on the chest wall was analyzed with PCR method which resulted positive for Acid Fast Bacilli (AFB), tissue biopsy showed dermatitis with granulomata and sputum was positive for AFB. Thoracic MR, performed for the purpose of detecting the relationship between the lesion on the lung and the one on the chest wall, detected changes in the inflammatory soft tissues and multiple small abscess formations on the chest wall. There was no pathological signal in the bone structures of the chest wall. This case underlines the necessity to include "Empyema necessitatis" in the preliminary diagnosis when there is a soft tissue swelling on the chest wall without inflammatory signs in patients with reduced immune defences.

  2. Experimental Model of Intervertebral Disk Mediated Postoperative Epidural Fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Larionov, Sergey N.; Sorokovikov, V.A.; Erdyneyev, K.C.; Lepekhova, S.A.; Goldberg, O.A.

    2016-01-01

    Background Postoperative epidural fibrosis (EF) after lumbar discectomy is the most common and at the same time controversial issue. Purpose The etiology and pathogenesis creates a lot of discussion and selection of methods of treatment and prevention continues. Methods LIV laminectomy with dura mater (DM) exposition was done in 24 rats, and then, 0.3 ml of elements of suspension of autologous intervertebral disk was implicated on DM. As autologous intervertebral disk, we used the intervertebral disk from amputated tail. In all the animals, incisions were closed with 3/0 Vicryl. EF was examined. Fibroblast cell density was calculated in each field at ×40 magnification: Grade 1 - fewer than 100 fibroblasts in each field; Grade 2 - 100-150 fibroblasts in each field; Grade 3 - more than 150 fibroblasts in each field. Results Based on histological results, we confirmed our model of experiment. On the 30th day of evaluation, there were significant histological evidences of postoperative epidural adhesions in experimental animals, which included the obliteration of epidural space, the presence of adhesions in the dura and nerve roots, the restructuring of the yellow ligament, bone sclerosis, excessive appearance of fibrous tissue around the autologous intervertebral disk tissue that applied on the DM. Conclusion In our work, we describe a new experimental model, where the elements of autologous intervertebral disk play the role of inflammation trigger, which cause postoperative scar and EF. PMID:27647957

  3. Experimental Model of Intervertebral Disk Mediated Postoperative Epidural Fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Larionov, Sergey N.; Sorokovikov, V.A.; Erdyneyev, K.C.; Lepekhova, S.A.; Goldberg, O.A.

    2016-01-01

    Background Postoperative epidural fibrosis (EF) after lumbar discectomy is the most common and at the same time controversial issue. Purpose The etiology and pathogenesis creates a lot of discussion and selection of methods of treatment and prevention continues. Methods LIV laminectomy with dura mater (DM) exposition was done in 24 rats, and then, 0.3 ml of elements of suspension of autologous intervertebral disk was implicated on DM. As autologous intervertebral disk, we used the intervertebral disk from amputated tail. In all the animals, incisions were closed with 3/0 Vicryl. EF was examined. Fibroblast cell density was calculated in each field at ×40 magnification: Grade 1 - fewer than 100 fibroblasts in each field; Grade 2 - 100-150 fibroblasts in each field; Grade 3 - more than 150 fibroblasts in each field. Results Based on histological results, we confirmed our model of experiment. On the 30th day of evaluation, there were significant histological evidences of postoperative epidural adhesions in experimental animals, which included the obliteration of epidural space, the presence of adhesions in the dura and nerve roots, the restructuring of the yellow ligament, bone sclerosis, excessive appearance of fibrous tissue around the autologous intervertebral disk tissue that applied on the DM. Conclusion In our work, we describe a new experimental model, where the elements of autologous intervertebral disk play the role of inflammation trigger, which cause postoperative scar and EF.

  4. Efficacy of continuous epidural block in acute herpes zoster

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Yoo Na; Kim, Dae Woo; Kim, Eung Don

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The aim of the present study was to investigate efficacy of continuous epidural block for prevent postherpetic neuralgia (PHN) progression in cases of acute herpes zoster with severe pain and also to identify predictive factors for PHN in such conditions. We retrospectively analyzed the clinical data of patients with herpes zoster who underwent continuous epidural block between March 2013 and October 2015. Time points were set as 1 month, 3 months, and 6 months after zoster onset. PHN was defined as the presence of pain with NRS ≥3 at certain time points. The incidence of developing PHN was 38.1%, 27.0%, and 19.0% 1 month, 3 months, and 6 months after zoster onset, respectively. Age and duration of catheterization were predictive factors for PHN at 1 month. Age, duration of catheterization, and NRS at first visit were identified as predictive factors for PHN at 3 months. Presence of diabetes, duration of catheterization, and NRS during catheterization were significant predictive factors for PHN at 6 months. The incidence of PHN is higher in zoster patients with severe pain that requires continuous epidural block compared to incidence in the general population. Advanced age and severe initial pain intensity were predictive factors of PHN development. Prolonged catheterization resulting from weak response to treatment strongly suggested progression to PHN. PMID:27512887

  5. Transient neurologic syndrome after spinal anesthesia with epidural steroid treatment

    PubMed Central

    Cöcelli, L. Pirbudak; Erkutlu, Ibrahim; Karakurum, Gunhan; Avci, Neslihan; Gül, Rauf; Öner, Ünsal

    2009-01-01

    Background: Transient neurologic syndrome (TNS) is a rare complication of spinal and epidural anesthesia. It is defined as paradoxic postoperative back pain radiating to the lower extremities with no neurologic deficits. Because it is a self-limited disease, the treatment is usually symptomatic and consists of NSAIDs and injections of a neuromuscular-blocking drug at the trigger points. The syndrome may be resistant to this treatment regimen and may last for several months, resulting in a long convalescence. Case summary: A 63-year-old Turkish woman (height, 165 cm; weight, 71 kg) underwent hemorrhoidectomy in the jackknife position using spinal anesthesia. No adverse events occurred during puncture or surgery or in the immediate postoperative recovery period. Recovery from the sensory and motor block was normal. Twenty-four hours after surgery, lower limb and plantar pain developed with no sensory or motor deficit. Neurologic examination revealed normal motor and sensory function. Electroneuromyography showed partial denervation potential of muscles innervated by the left sciatic nerve. The symptoms were suggestive of TNS. Combination oral NSAID treatment with amitriptyline (25 mg/d) and gabapentin (1200 mg/d) was initiated. Because the pain still persisted 6 weeks after surgery, epidural steroid injection with triamcinolone acetate (80 mg) with isotonic saline was administered, resulting in definite pain relief (visual analog scale score = 0). Conclusions: Epidural steroid treatment was effective in this patient with TNS resistant to treatment with NSAIDs, amitriptyline, and gabapentin. Future studies are needed to evaluate this treatment. PMID:24683240

  6. [Technical difficulties in epidural blocks and spinal bleeding complications].

    PubMed

    Nava, S; Rossignoli, L; Tagariello, V; Bertini, L

    2001-12-01

    The clinical cases of two patients with neurological complications following neuroaxial blocks are reported. The events took place in different institutions where thousands of central blocks were yearly performed. In both instances the blocking procedures presented technical difficulties needing repeated lumbar punctures. The first case concerns a patient receiving anticoagulant and fibrinolytic therapy for vascular pathology. This 89 year-old female experienced severe cord compression requiring surgical decompression and laminectomy. The second case regards a patient with previous minor surgical procedure requiring postoperative antiinflammatory treatment. This 74 year-old male experienced subarachnoid hemorrhage and spinal/epidural hematoma as shown by NMR. The symptoms regressed with steroid therapy. The authors emphasise the risks of mechanical trauma of epidural or spinal anesthesia both during positioning or removal of an epidural catheter. The problem related to the compatibility between central blocks and antithrombotic/anticoagulant prophylaxis/therapy is now of primary concern and has led to publications about guide lines on this topic. If central block is carried out in patients with bleeding diathesis it is mandatory to co-ordinate multidisciplinary assistance for early detection of significant symptoms of the above described complications and subsequent treatment.

  7. [Cervical cord infarction associated with unilateral vertebral artery dissection due to golf swing].

    PubMed

    Tokumoto, Kazuki; Ueda, Nobuhiko

    2014-01-01

    A-68-year-old man experienced nuchal pain and bilateral shoulder weakness that occurred suddenly after he performed a golf swing. He was conscious. His cranial nerves were normal, but bilateral deltoid and biceps muscle strengths weakened. Magnetic resonance image (MRI) showed no brain stem infarctions or cervical epidural hematoma. We tentatively diagnosed him with concussion of the spinal cord because of mild recovery of his bilateral upper limb weakness after several hours; he was later discharged. The next day, he suddenly developed serious tetraplegia and was admitted to the emergency department. His breathing was controlled by a respirator as he had expectoration difficulty and respiratory muscle paralysis. A lesion in the cervical cord became apparent on MRI; the right vertebral artery was not detected on magnetic resonance angiography. Cervical MRI showed the intimal flap and a lack of flow void in the right vertebral artery. These findings revealed a right vertebral artery dissection. Cervical cord infarction due to unilateral vertebral artery dissection is rarer than posterior cerebral infarction due to the same pathogenesis; however, some such cases have been reported. We consider the present case to be caused by cervical cord infarction associated with unilateral vertebral artery dissection resulting from golf swing.

  8. Computed tomographic evaluation of cervical vertebral canal and spinal cord morphometry in normal dogs

    PubMed Central

    Seo, Eunjeong; Choi, Jihye; Choi, Mincheol

    2014-01-01

    The height, width, and cross-sectional area of the vertebral canal and spinal cord along with the area ratio of spinal cord to vertebral canal in the cervical vertebra were evaluated in images obtained using computed tomography (CT). Measurements were taken at the cranial, middle, and caudal point of each cervical vertebra in eight clinically normal small breed dogs (two shih tzu, two miniature schnauzers, and four mixed breed), 10 beagles, and four German shepherds. CT myelography facilitated the delineation of the epidural space, subarachnoid space, and spinal cord except at the caudal portion of the 7th cervical vertebra. The spinal cord had a tendency to have a clear ventral border in the middle portion of the vertebral canal and lateral borders near both end plates. The height, width, and area of the vertebral canal and spinal cord in the cervical vertebra were increased as the size of dog increased. However, the ratio of the spinal cord area to vertebral canal area in the small dogs was higher than that of the larger dogs. Results of the present study could provide basic and quantitative information for CT evaluation of pathologic lesions in the cervical vertebra and spinal cord. PMID:24136210

  9. [Cervical cord infarction associated with unilateral vertebral artery dissection due to golf swing].

    PubMed

    Tokumoto, Kazuki; Ueda, Nobuhiko

    2014-01-01

    A-68-year-old man experienced nuchal pain and bilateral shoulder weakness that occurred suddenly after he performed a golf swing. He was conscious. His cranial nerves were normal, but bilateral deltoid and biceps muscle strengths weakened. Magnetic resonance image (MRI) showed no brain stem infarctions or cervical epidural hematoma. We tentatively diagnosed him with concussion of the spinal cord because of mild recovery of his bilateral upper limb weakness after several hours; he was later discharged. The next day, he suddenly developed serious tetraplegia and was admitted to the emergency department. His breathing was controlled by a respirator as he had expectoration difficulty and respiratory muscle paralysis. A lesion in the cervical cord became apparent on MRI; the right vertebral artery was not detected on magnetic resonance angiography. Cervical MRI showed the intimal flap and a lack of flow void in the right vertebral artery. These findings revealed a right vertebral artery dissection. Cervical cord infarction due to unilateral vertebral artery dissection is rarer than posterior cerebral infarction due to the same pathogenesis; however, some such cases have been reported. We consider the present case to be caused by cervical cord infarction associated with unilateral vertebral artery dissection resulting from golf swing. PMID:24583591

  10. Appendectomy correlates with increased risk of pyogenic liver abscess

    PubMed Central

    Liao, Kuan-Fu; Lai, Shih-Wei; Lin, Cheng-Li; Chien, Sou-Hsin

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Little is known on the association between appendectomy and pyogenic liver abscess. The objective of this study was to investigate the association between appendectomy and the risk of pyogenic liver abscess in Taiwan. This population-based retrospective cohort study was conducted using the hospitalization dataset of the Taiwan National Health Insurance Program. There were 212,530 subjects age 20 to 84 years with newly diagnosed appendectomy as the appendectomy group since 1998 to 2010, and 850,099 randomly selected subjects without appendectomy as the nonappendectomy group. Both appendectomy and nonappendectomy groups were matched with sex, age, comorbidities, and index year of diagnosing appendectomy. The incidence of pyogenic liver abscess at the end of 2011 was estimated in both groups. The multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression model was applied to investigate the hazard ratio (HR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) for risk of pyogenic liver abscess associated with appendectomy and other comorbidities including alcoholism, biliary stone, chronic kidney disease, chronic liver diseases, and diabetes mellitus. The overall incidence of pyogenic liver abscess was 1.73-fold greater in the appendectomy group than that in the nonappendectomy group (3.85 vs 2.22 per 10,000 person-years, 95% CI 1.71, 1.76). The multivariable regression analysis disclosed that the adjusted HR of pyogenic liver abscess was 1.77 for the appendectomy group (95% CI 1.59, 1.97), when compared with the nonappendectomy group. Appendectomy is associated with increased hazard of pyogenic liver abscess. Further studies remain necessary to confirm our findings. PMID:27368018

  11. Brain abscess in hepatopulmonary syndrome associated with biliary atresia.

    PubMed

    Morita, Keiichi; Fukuzawa, Hiroaki; Maeda, Kosaku

    2015-12-01

    The first-choice therapy for biliary atresia (BA) is Kasai hepatoportoenterostomy, which has been shown to greatly improve outcome. Various long-term complications, however, such as portal hypertension and hepatopulmonary syndrome (HPS), can occur in patients with native liver. A rare case of brain abscess in an 11-year-old girl with HPS associated with BA is reported. The patient underwent hepatoportoenterostomy for BA at 53 days of age, with resolution of hyperbilirubinemia. At 10 years of age, she was diagnosed with severe HPS with right-to-left shunting, and preparations for liver transplantation proceeded. Three months after the diagnosis, she had a right parietal brain abscess. Given that the brain abscess enlarged in size, surgical drainage of the brain abscess was performed. The postoperative course was uneventful, but a slight left hemiplegia remained at discharge. The presumed mechanism of abscess formation in HPS may be right-to-left bacterial transit through intrapulmonary vascular dilatations and/or arteriovenous fistulae. PMID:26711920

  12. Iliopsoas Abscess (together with Bullet) Resulting from a Firearms Injury

    PubMed Central

    Güzel, Yunus; Çiftçi, Sadettin; Özdemir, Ali; Acar, Mehmet Ali

    2015-01-01

    Psoas abscess, which is a rarely encountered infection, is defined as the accumulation of suppurative fluid within the fascia surrounding the psoas and iliac muscles. It is categorised as being primary or secondary. Although there are reports in the literature of secondary psoas abscess from foreign bodies, to the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported case of psoas abscess developing due to a bullet, following a firearms injury. The patient was first seen in the Emergency Department following a firearms injury in the posterolateral lumbar region and as the neurovascular examination was normal, the patient was discharged after 24 hours of observation. One month later, the patient presented again to the polyclinic with a high temperature and back pain. As a result of physical examination and tests, a diagnosis was made of psoas abscess and percutaneous drainage was applied under ultrasonography guidance. The complaints improved but, 10 days later with an increase in pain and indications of infection, open abscess drainage was applied and the bullet was removed. At the 6-month follow-up examination, the patient had no complaints. PMID:26075128

  13. Splenic abscess owing to cancer at the splenic flexure

    PubMed Central

    Awotar, Gavish K.; Luo, Fuwen; Zhao, Zhengdong; Guan, Guoxin; Ning, Shili; Ren, Jinshuai; Liu, Yaqing; Wang, Guangzhi; Liu, Pixu

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: The cancer of the splenic flexure of the colon is a rare medical entity with severe morbidity because of its insidious onset. Methods: We present the case of a 59-year-old male patient with dull left upper quadrant pain, leukocytosis, and anemia. A splenic abscess described as an air-fluid level with splenocolic fistula was found on CT scan imaging. Surgery was done for splenic pus drainage. He was again admitted 2 months later for intestinal obstruction. Results: An exploratory laparotomy showed multiple hard, gray liver nodules as well as a hard mass in the small bowel. Owing to extensive adhesions and a late stage of cancer involvement, the splenic flexure tumor was not resected. A loop transverse colostomy was done and a ColoplastTM Colostomy bag placed. We also reviewed the literature-linking colon cancer and splenic abscess with specific attention to the carcinoma of the splenic flexure. As the latter invades through the spleen matter, there is the creation of a splenocolic fistula, which allows the migration of normal gut flora into the spleen. This leads to the formation of the splenic abscess. Conclusion: This is the 13th case report pertaining to invading colonic cancer causing a splenic abscess. Although the treatment for splenic abscesses is shifting from splenectomy to image-guided percutaneous pus drainage, the few reported cases make the proper management of such complication still unclear. PMID:27661050

  14. Chapter 3. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) in Brain Abscess

    PubMed Central

    Esen, Nilufer; Kielian, Tammy

    2014-01-01

    Brain abscesses arise from a localized parenchymal infection, typically elicited by pyogenic bacteria such as S. aureus. Despite improvements in detection and treatment strategies, brain abscesses continue to occur, with an increased prevalence in developing countries and immune compromised patients. Adding to the seriousness of these infections is the recent emergence of antibiotic-resistant strains of bacteria, which are becoming more commonly associated with brain abscesses. Recent studies using a mouse experimental brain abscess model have revealed a complex role for Toll-like receptors (TLRs) in disease pathogenesis. Interestingly, TLR2 has limited impact on the innate immune response during the acute stage of brain abscess formation induced by S. aureus but influences adaptive immunity. In contrast, mice deficient in MyD88, a central adaptor molecule for the majority of TLRs in addition to the IL-1R and IL-18R, demonstrate severe defects in innate immunity coupled with exaggerated tissue destruction. It is envisioned that understanding the roles for TLRs in both resident CNS glia as well as infiltrating immune cells will provide insights as to how the immune response to bacterial infection can be tailored to achieve effective pathogen destruction without inducing excessive bystander damage of surrounding non-infected brain parenchyma. A discussion of recent findings in this field is presented along with outstanding questions and the concept of a pathogen-necrosis-autoantigen triad for the amplification for TLR signaling is introduced. PMID:19688327

  15. MRI and PET Imaging in Predicting Treatment Response in Patients With Stage IB-IVA Cervical Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-06-24

    Cervical Adenocarcinoma; Cervical Adenosquamous Carcinoma; Cervical Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Cervical Undifferentiated Carcinoma; Recurrent Cervical Carcinoma; Stage IB2 Cervical Cancer; Stage IIA Cervical Cancer; Stage IIB Cervical Cancer; Stage IIIA Cervical Cancer; Stage IIIB Cervical Cancer; Stage IVA Cervical Cancer

  16. Vaccum drainage system application in the management of operation-related non-regional epidural hematoma

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Epidural intracranial hematoma is one of the most common complications of surgeries for intracranial tumors. The non-regional epidural hematoma is related to severe fluctuation of the intracranial pressure during the operation. The traditional management of hematoma evacuation through craniotomy is time-consuming and may aggravate intracranial pressure imbalance, which causes further complications. We designed a method using vaccum epidural drainage system, and tried to evaluate advantage and the disadvantage of this new technique. Methods Seven patients of intracranial tumors were selected. All of the patients received tumor resection and intra-operative non-regional epidural hematoma was confirmed through intra-operative ultrasound or CT scan. The vaccum drainage system was applied. Another ten patients who received craniotomy for intra-operative non-regional epidural hematoma evacuation were selected as comparison. Regular tests, like serial CT scan, were performed afterward to evaluate the effectiveness and to help deciding when to remove the drainage system. Results The vaccum drainage method was effective in epidual hemotoma clearance and prevented recurrent epidural hemorrhage. The drainage systems were removed within 4 days. All of the patients recovered well. No complications related to the drainage system were observed. Conclusions Compared to the traditional craniotomy, the new method of epidural hemoatoma management using vaccum epidural drainage system proved to be as effective in hematoma clearance, and was less-invasive and easier to perform, with less complication, shorter hospitalization, less economic burden, and better prognosis. PMID:23842198

  17. Epidural hematoma secondary to sinusitis: a case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Aviner, Shraga; Olshinka, Noam; Cherniavsky, Evgenia; Forer, Boaz; Bibi, Haim

    2014-02-01

    Epidural hematoma is a potentially life threatening event that demands prompt diagnosis and surgical treatment, usually following head trauma. We present a case of a 9-year-old boy with no history of head trauma, and who was diagnosed with epidural hematoma secondary to frontal sinusitis; and the medical literature was reviewed. PMID:24370469

  18. Postoperative urinary retention in a dog following morphine with bupivacaine epidural analgesia.

    PubMed Central

    Herperger, L J

    1998-01-01

    Urinary retention, overflow incontinence, and subsequent detrusor atony were observed following surgery in which a morphine with bupivacaine epidural injection was used for perioperative analgesia. The premise that the urinary retention may have been due to the effects of the morphine component of the epidural is discussed, along with other possible causes. PMID:9789679

  19. Epidural analgesia for childbirth: effects of newer techniques on neonatal outcome.

    PubMed

    Capogna, Giorgio; Camorcia, Michela

    2004-01-01

    New low-dose, local anesthetic-opioid combinations, combined spinal epidural analgesia, and new anesthetic drugs, such as ropivacaine and levobupivacaine, have modified the anesthetic practice in obstetric labor analgesia. These new analgesic techniques have less or no neonatal effects when compared with traditional epidural labor analgesia. They also have less effect on mode of delivery, which may in turn affect neonatal outcome. The use of very diluted or low concentrations of local anesthetic solutions may reduce their placental passage and thus the possible subtle neonatal effects. Small doses of epidural or spinal opioids alone or combined with low doses of local anesthetics does not affect the well-being of the neonate at birth. When considering the neonatal outcome, combined spinal epidural analgesia is as well tolerated as low-dose epidural analgesia. Transient fetal heart rate changes have been described immediately after the administration of intrathecal or epidural opioids. Maternal hypotension may also occur at the onset of epidural analgesia. Whether the occurrence of transient fetal heart rate changes or maternal hypotension immediately after the epidural block may influence the neonatal outcome at birth needs verification.

  20. Case report: perinephric-splenic fistula--a complication of percutaneous perinephric abscess drainage.

    PubMed

    Stewart, I E; Borland, C

    1994-09-01

    A case of acute perinephric abscess due to chronic parenchymal disease and calculi is presented. During percutaneous drainage a reno-splenic vein communication developed acutely. The aetiology and treatment complications of perinephric abscesses are reviewed.

  1. [Cerebellar abscess due to infection with the anaerobic bacteria fusobacterium nucleatum: a case report].

    PubMed

    Shimogawa, Takafumi; Sayama, Tetsuro; Haga, Sei; Akiyama, Tomoaki; Morioka, Takato

    2015-02-01

    We report a rare case of cerebellar abscess produced by anaerobic bacteria. A 76-year-old man was admitted to our hospital with a history of fever, vomiting, and dizziness lasting 14 days. Computed tomography(CT)scan and magnetic resonance images showed the presence of a multiloculated cerebellar abscess with a right subdural abscess. The patient underwent aspiration of the abscess through a suboccipital craniotomy. Fusobacterium nucleatum, which is an anaerobic bacteria naturally present in the human oral cavity, was detected in cultures of the aspirated abscess. The patient was administered antibiotic treatment combined with hyperbaric oxygen therapy(HBO). The symptoms were briefly relieved but the cerebellar abscess recurred, which required a second aspiration. The combined treatment with antibiotics and HBO was maintained after the second operation. After 6 weeks of treatment, the cerebellar abscess was completely controlled. We conclude that antibiotic treatment combined with HBO is useful for treatment of cerebellar abscesses caused by infection with anaerobic bacteria.

  2. [Puncture-drainage sanation of abdominal abscesses: is it sufficient treatment?].

    PubMed

    Shanturov, V A; Kogan, A S; Boĭko, T N; Gumerov, R R; Fadeeva, T V; Grigor'ev, E G

    2000-01-01

    Some anatomical grounds of postoperative extravisceral abscess formation, methods and results of their treatment, therapeutic policy in abscesses of parenchymatous organs are presented. 681 patients with abdominal abscess of various location were examined. Detailed analysis of ultrasonic and computed tomographic semiotics of postoperative extravisceral suppurative focus was carried out in 164 patients. The risk zones of extravisceral abscess formation in the conditions of changed visceral syntopy and destroyed ligamentic structures were determined. The efficiency of puncture-drainage treatment in different variants of subdiaphragmatic abscess was 89.4%, in abscess of omental bursa--83.3%. Intracavital prolonged proteolysis by immobilized proteinases (imosimase) was applied. The injection of imosimase in abscess cavity led to its content lysis, including the thick products of inflammation, improving their secretion through the drainage. In the majority of the patients, the puncture-drainage treatment of abscesses of various etiology and pathogenesis is an adequate method of sanation.

  3. Calvarial tubercular osteomyelitic abscess in an elderly

    PubMed Central

    Srinivas, Bhavanam Hanuma; Uppin, Megha Shantveer; Killi, Sateesh; Subbalaxmi, Malladi Venkata Surya; Patil, Madhusudan; Rajesh, Alugolu

    2016-01-01

    Tuberculous osteomyelitis of skull is very rare, even in areas where tuberculosis is endemic. We herein describe an elderly woman who was apparently immunocompetent and presented with left frontal scalp swelling and right cervical lymphadenopathy. CT scan showed irregular bony destruction of the frontal bone. MRI revealed a large extradural, multiseptate, solid-cystic lesion with peripheral enhancement. FNAC from the lesion showed granulomas with caseation suggestive of tuberculosis. The lesion was debrided and she was started on anti-tubercular therapy. Deterioration of liver parameters led to change from primary drugs to liver-friendly, anti-tubercular agents. Though anti-tubercular therapy is the mainstay of calvarial tuberculosis, surgical debridement reduces the bacterial burden and probably hastens recovery. PMID:27695555

  4. Calvarial tubercular osteomyelitic abscess in an elderly

    PubMed Central

    Srinivas, Bhavanam Hanuma; Uppin, Megha Shantveer; Killi, Sateesh; Subbalaxmi, Malladi Venkata Surya; Patil, Madhusudan; Rajesh, Alugolu

    2016-01-01

    Tuberculous osteomyelitis of skull is very rare, even in areas where tuberculosis is endemic. We herein describe an elderly woman who was apparently immunocompetent and presented with left frontal scalp swelling and right cervical lymphadenopathy. CT scan showed irregular bony destruction of the frontal bone. MRI revealed a large extradural, multiseptate, solid-cystic lesion with peripheral enhancement. FNAC from the lesion showed granulomas with caseation suggestive of tuberculosis. The lesion was debrided and she was started on anti-tubercular therapy. Deterioration of liver parameters led to change from primary drugs to liver-friendly, anti-tubercular agents. Though anti-tubercular therapy is the mainstay of calvarial tuberculosis, surgical debridement reduces the bacterial burden and probably hastens recovery.

  5. Lung abscesses: review of 60 cases.

    PubMed

    Magalhães, Luísa; Valadares, Diana; Oliveira, Júlio R; Reis, Ernestina

    2009-01-01

    Lung abscesses (LA) carry with them severe clinical and social implications. The authors retrospectively analyse case files from a tertiary hospital. Admissions from 2000 to 2005 codified as LA were identified. Forty-five patients were males and the mean age was 56.2 (+/-15.1) years. The average duration of symptoms pre-hospitalisation was 23.0 (+/-50.2) days, with acute respiratory infection the initial syndrome in 36 patients. Clinical data show LA could have been suspected in 40 patients. Diagnosis was established 8.7 (+/-11.4) days after admission. A microbial pathogen was recovered in 26 cases. Primary LA was diagnosed in 27 patients. Dental disease and immunodeficiency were the main risk factors. Other co-morbidities were present in 34 patients. Af- ter LA diagnosis, intravenous (IV) antibiotic (AB) was prescribed for 16.5 (+/-10.9) days with mean total AB time 39.2 (+/-15.7) days. Ten options of AB were used and 23 patients had their initial IV AB changed to a second choice. Six patients needed surgery. Apyrexia was achieved after 6.4 (+/-6.4) days of treatment. 21 patients had complications and 7 died. The mean length of hospital admission was 27.5 (+/-16.3) days and 38 patients were called for a follow-up visit. These data are generally in accordance with the literature. The high male percentage agrees with the similarly high prevalence of alcoholism and lung neoplasms in males. Key facts to ameliorate in order to improve prognosis and length of hospital admission could be a swifter diagnosis and consensus on the AB treatment.

  6. [Cervical cerclage in 2008].

    PubMed

    Fuchs, F; Senat, M-V; Gervaise, A; Deffieux, X; Faivre, E; Frydman, R; Fernandez, H

    2008-11-01

    Cervical cerclage is a common surgical technique that has been used for more than 50 years to prevent preterm deliveries and in the management of a threatened second trimester loss. However, it remains one of the most controversial interventions in obstetrics and this is probably due to difficulties in diagnosing cervical insufficiency, which is based on a history of recurrent second trimester loss or early preterm delivery following painless cervical dilatation in the absence of contractions or bleeding. This article reviews in 2008 the current literature regarding the efficacy of elective cerclage, ultrasound-indicated cerclage, emergency cerclage, and cervico-isthmic cerclage for singletons and multiple pregnancies.

  7. [Cervical cerclage in 2008].

    PubMed

    Fuchs, F; Senat, M-V; Gervaise, A; Deffieux, X; Faivre, E; Frydman, R; Fernandez, H

    2008-11-01

    Cervical cerclage is a common surgical technique that has been used for more than 50 years to prevent preterm deliveries and in the management of a threatened second trimester loss. However, it remains one of the most controversial interventions in obstetrics and this is probably due to difficulties in diagnosing cervical insufficiency, which is based on a history of recurrent second trimester loss or early preterm delivery following painless cervical dilatation in the absence of contractions or bleeding. This article reviews in 2008 the current literature regarding the efficacy of elective cerclage, ultrasound-indicated cerclage, emergency cerclage, and cervico-isthmic cerclage for singletons and multiple pregnancies. PMID:18922730

  8. Insidious manifestation of pyogenic liver abscess caused by Streptococcus intermedius and Micrococcus luteus: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Ioannou, Antreas; Xenophontos, Eleni; Karatsi, Alexandra; Petrides, Christos; Kleridou, Maro; Zintilis, Chrysostomos

    2016-01-01

    Pyogenic liver abscesses are caused by various microorganisms and usually present with fever, abdominal pain, leukocytosis and liver enzyme abnormalities. This case presents the insidious manifestation of a pyogenic liver abscess in a 34-year-old immunocompetent male, where classical manifestations of a liver abscess were absent. The microorganisms cultured from the abscess belonged to oral cavity's and gastrointestinal tract's normal flora. PMID:26770811

  9. Pyogenic liver abscess in beta-thalassemia major--report of two cases.

    PubMed

    Hwang, C F; Lee, C Y; Lee, P I; Chen, J M; Lli, K H; Lin, D T; Chang, M H

    1994-01-01

    Pyogenic liver abscess, which may lead to devastating consequences, is an uncommon medical problem in pediatrics and has generally been reported in compromised hosts. This article describes two patients with beta-thalassemia major and hemochromatosis complicated by Klebsiella pneumoniae liver abscess. One of the patients had severe complications, including subphrenic abscess, pleural effusion and meningitis. To present knowledge, the occurrence of K. pneumoniae liver abscess in patients with beta-thalassemia major has never before been reported in the literature.

  10. Transphrenic fistulization of a subphrenic abscess to lung parenchyma.

    PubMed

    Romijn, Sander; Sturm, Maarten; van der Schelling, Georges

    2005-01-01

    A 53-year-old woman was admitted with respiratory distress. For several years, she had chronic alcoholic pancreatitis with ductal stones that were treated with a stent and with shockwave lithotripsy. Both treatments were unsuccessful, and the pancreatitis was complicated with an infected pseudocyst. The pancreatic head had to be resected, which was complicated with recurrent subphrenic abscesses. She then was admitted with respiratory distress and initially diagnosed with pneumonia of the right lower lobe. Further investigations showed supradiaphragmatic and subdiaphragmatic air-fluid levels. In both collections Streptococcus milleri was cultured, and subsequently the patient was diagnosed with a fistula connecting the subdiaphragmatic abscess with pulmonary tissue. This was treated with intravenous amoxicillin/clavulanate and drainage of the subdiaphragmatic collection. She did not develop a pulmonary empyema, because multiple adhesions, which were due to recurrent abscesses after pancreatic surgery, prevented breakthrough into the pleural cavity.

  11. [US-guided transhepatic drainage of a mediastinal abscess].

    PubMed

    Simón-Yarza, I; Viteri-Ramírez, G; García-Lallana, A; Benito, A

    2014-01-01

    Anastomoses often leak after esophageal surgery; if they are not detected in time, leaks can give rise to complications like fluid collections, superinfections, and mediastinitis. Although these complications usually require surgical treatment, different series of patients successfully treated with conservative or minimally invasive approaches have been reported. We present the case of a patient who developed a mediastinal abscess after epiphrenic diverticulectomy. We treated the abscess with US-guided percutaneous transhepatic drainage to avoid surgical reintervention. Although other cases of a transhepatic approach to thoracic lesions have been reported, to our knowledge this is the first report of this technique in mediastinal abscesses. We recommend that transhepatic drainage be considered a therapeutic option in the management of these complications. PMID:22464798

  12. Perinephric abscess caused by ruptured retrocecal appendix: MDCT demonstration

    PubMed Central

    Wani, Nisar Ahmad; Farooq, Mir; Gojwari, Tariq; Kosar, Tasleem

    2010-01-01

    Acute appendicitis may occasionally become extraordinarily complicated and life threatening yet difficult to diagnose. One such presentation is described in a 60-year-old man who was brought to the hospital due to right lumbar pain and fever for the last 15 days. Ultrasonography showed a right perinephric gas and fluid collection. Abdominal computed tomography with multidetector-row CT (MDCT) revealed gas-containing abscess in the right retroperitoneal region involving the perinephric space, extending from the lower pole of the right kidney up to the bare area of the liver. Inflamed retrocecal appendix was seen on thick multiplanar reformat images with its tip at the lower extent of the abscess. Laparotomy and retroperitoneal exploration were performed immediately and a large volume of foul smelling pus was drained. A ruptured retrocecal appendix was confirmed as the cause of the abscess. PMID:20842255

  13. The role of Streptococcus intermedius in brain abscess.

    PubMed

    Mishra, A K; Fournier, P-E

    2013-04-01

    Brain abscess represents a significant medical problem, despite recent advances made in detection and therapy. Streptococcus intermedius, a commensal organism, has the potential to cause significant morbidity. S. intermedius expresses one or more members of a family of structurally and antigenically related surface proteins termed antigen I/II, which plays a potential role in its pathogenesis. It is involved in binding to human fibronectin and laminin and in inducing IL-8 release from monocytes, which promotes neutrophil chemotaxis and activation. There are few published data on the role of this organism in brain abscess. This review focuses on the clinical evidence, pathogenic role, mechanism of predisposition, and currently employed strategies to fight against S. intermedius associated to brain abscess.

  14. Colonic diverticular abscess presenting as chronic diarrhea: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Introduction Several complications have been reported with diverticular disease of colon. Perforation of the diverticulum of colon may lead to development of abdominal abscesses which can have diverse manifestations. Case presentation This report describes a 72 year-old woman presented with a one month history of non-bloody diarrhea, abdominal pain, and low grade fever. Computed tomography scan confirmed presence of a large local air-fluid level within the culdesac area. Laparotomy revealed a large pelvic abscess which was surrounded between rectosigmoid and uterus with severe tissue necrosis of rectosigmoid colon and uterus. Conclusion Although rarely reported, abdominal abscesses due to colonic diverticulitis may present as refractory chronic diarrhea. PMID:20076780

  15. Penetrating gastric ulcer presenting as a subcapsular liver abscess.

    PubMed

    Venkatesh, Kota R; Halpern, Andrew; Riley, Lee B

    2007-01-01

    This report describes a subcapsular liver abscess secondary to a penetrating gastric ulcer. The initial read on the CT scan misinterpreted the abscess cavity as an opacified loop of bowel, although it was very conspicuous on a retrospective review. A penetrating gastric ulcer was identified with esophagogastroduodenoscopy and the subcapsular liver abscess was subsequently detected using MRI. Although the conventional treatment of this condition is surgery, successful management was accomplished with a combination of percutaneous drainage, Helicobacter pylori eradication, and acid-suppressive therapy. A review of the literature is provided, including associated cases and the diagnostic modalities used in the evaluation of this condition. This case illustrates how one can arrive at the correct diagnosis with the use of multiple complementary modalities of investigation.

  16. Klebsiella pneumoniae liver abscess in an immunocompetent child.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Jang-Mi; Jung, Hye Lim; Shim, Jae Won; Kim, Deok Soo; Shim, Jung Yeon; Park, Moon Soo

    2013-09-01

    Klebsiella pneumoniae has emerged as a leading pathogen that causes pyogenic liver abscesses (PLAs) in Korea. K. pneumoniae liver abscess (KLA) is potentially life threatening, and the diagnosis is difficult. In developed countries, PLA is rarely observed in children and is frequently associated with disorders of granulocyte function and previous abdominal infection. We observed a case of KLA in a healthy 12-year-old boy. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of KLA in an immunocompetent child without an underlying disease in Korea. The patient was treated with percutaneous catheter drainage and antibiotics. The catheter was placed in the intrahepatic abscess for 3 weeks and parenteral antibiotics (ceftriaxone and amikacin) were administered for 4 weeks, followed by oral antibiotics (cefixime) for 2 weeks. We reported this case to raise awareness of KLA in immunocompetent children among physicians, and to review the diagnosis, risk factors, potential complications, and appropriate treatment of KLA.

  17. A Case Of Atypical Presentation of Thoracic Osteomyelitis & Paraspinal Abscess

    PubMed Central

    Acharya, Utkarsh

    2008-01-01

    Here presented is a case involving a 44-year-old man with a chief complaint of sharp lateral right-sided rib pain with notable radiation to the anterior portion of the thorax and minor radiation around the lateral back. The etiology of the pain and radiculopathy, which was initially attributed to a right-sided rib fracture, was later accurately credited to a paraspinal abscess discovered on a lateral X-ray of the thoracic spine. Subsequently, studies including Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI), Computed Tomography (CT), and bone scan all confirmed the diagnosis of a paraspinal abscess between the right lobe and its neighboring T9 and T10 vertebrae. The mass was biopsied and methicillin sensitive Staphylococcus aureus was isolated. Appropriate surgical and medical intervention was possible due to the early diagnosis of the abscess. PMID:19148317

  18. [Occipital dermal sinus associated to a cerebellar abscess. Case].

    PubMed

    Costa, J M; de Reina, L; Guillén, A; Claramunt, E

    2004-10-01

    Congenital dermal sinuses are tubular tracts which communicate the skin with deeper structures. It is a manifestation of defective separation of the ectoderm and neuroderm. The incidence is 1/2500-3000 births alive. Almost 10 % of congenital dermal sinuses are localized in the occipitocervical region. They are usually asymptomatic, unless an infectious process is concurrent (meningitis, abscess). We are presenting the case of a 12 months girl with unnoticed cutaneous stigmata in the occipital region, who was admitted with a meningeal syndrome and secondary neurological impairment. She had a cerebellar abscess and was treated with decompression by puncture of the abscess and antibiotics. When infection was resolved, congenital dermal sinus was excised. Process solves without morbidity. We reviewed the clinical and therapeutic features in cases reported previously in the literature.

  19. Advanced Gastric Cancer Perforation Mimicking Abdominal Wall Abscess

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Jinbeom; Park, Ilyoung; Lee, Dosang; Sung, Kiyoung; Baek, Jongmin

    2015-01-01

    Surgeons occasionally encounter a patient with a gastric cancer invading an adjacent organ, such as the pancreas, liver, or transverse colon. Although there is no established guideline for treatment of invasive gastric cancer, combined resection with radical gastrectomy is conventionally performed for curative purposes. We recently treated a patient with a large gastric cancer invading the abdominal wall, which was initially diagnosed as a simple abdominal wall abscess. Computed tomography showed that an abscess had formed adjacent to the greater curvature of the stomach. During surgery, we made an incision on the abdominal wall to drain the abscess, and performed curative total gastrectomy with partial excision of the involved abdominal wall. The patient received intensive treatment and wound management postoperatively with no surgery-related adverse events. However, the patient could not receive adjuvant chemotherapy and expired on the 82nd postoperative day. PMID:26468420

  20. Simultaneous Esophageal and Tracheal Fistulization Resulting From Pott's Abscess.

    PubMed

    Eroglu, Atilla; Aydin, Yener; Ogul, Hayri; Altuntas, Bayram

    2016-10-01

    We describe a case of a 30-year-old woman who presented with a complaint of coughing while drinking water, which began 2 months earlier and was treated with surgical repair of esophageal and tracheal fistulization that resulted from a Pott's abscess. The patient had been diagnosed with pulmonary tuberculosis 4 years previously and had been treated for 6 months. Esophageal and tracheal fistulization of the abscess cavity was observed both radiologically and intraoperatively. The fistulas were closed through separate operations for the trachea and the esophagus. Simultaneous esophageal and tracheal fistulization of a Pott's abscess is a serious complication of spinal tuberculosis that has not been previously reported in the literature. PMID:27645978

  1. Conservative treatment of retropharyngeal and parapharyngeal abscess in children.

    PubMed

    Pelaz, Andrés Coca; Allende, Ana Vivanco; Llorente Pendás, Jose Luis; Nieto, Carlos Suárez

    2009-07-01

    Parapharyngeal and retropharyngeal infections, which can potentially cause life-threatening complications, could be treated conservatively with no need for surgical drainage. A retrospective analysis of all patients diagnosed with retropharyngeal and parapharyngeal infections was performed. Information regarding age, sex, presenting symptoms, physical examination, laboratory and imaging evaluations, management, duration of hospital stay, and complications were reviewed. Seven children were identified, 4 with retropharyngeal abscess and 3 with parapharyngeal abscess. All but 1 patient were under 7 years old, and all were treated with intravenous amoxicilin/clavulanic acid and corticosteroids. Torticollis and fever were present in all the patients. The mean length of hospital stay was 7 days. There were no complications associated. We demonstrate that retropharyngeal and parapharyngeal abscesses can be treated medically, reserving the surgical drainage for complicated cases. Treatment with intravenous antibiotics and corticosteroids is a safe option, reducing the durations of symptoms and the length of hospital stay.

  2. Prostatic abscess: diagnosis and management in the modern antibiotic era.

    PubMed

    Tiwari, Punit; Pal, Dilip K; Tripathi, Astha; Kumar, Suresh; Vijay, Mukesh; Goel, Amit; Sharma, Pramod; Dutta, Arindam; Kundu, Anup K

    2011-03-01

    This retrospective study was aimed at analyzing the clinical findings and therapeutic strategies in 24 patients who were admitted with prostatic abscess, during the period from 1999 to 2008. The diagnosis of prostatic abscesses was made clinically by digital rectal palpation based on the presence of positive fluctuation with tenderness. All cases were confirmed by trans-rectal ultrasound (TRUS), and only positive cases were included in this study. The diagnostic work-up included analysis of midstream urine and abscess fluid culture for pathogens. Therapeutic options included endoscopic trans-urethral incision or trans-perineal aspiration under ultrasound guidance, or conservative therapy. Of the 24 patients studied, 45.83% of the cases had a pre-disposing factor, and diabetes mellitus (37.50%) was the most common. Digital rectal palpation revealed fluctuation in 70.83% of the cases. Trans-abdominal ultrasonography missed the condition in 29.16% of the cases. On TRUS, all the study patients showed hypo-echoic zones, while nine others showed internal septations. In most of the cases, the lesion was peripheral. A causative pathogen could be identified in 70.83% of the cases. Surgical drainage of the abscess by trans-urethral deroofing was performed in 17 cases (including one with failed aspiration), trans-perineal aspiration under TRUS guidance was performed in three cases and conservative therapy was followed in five cases. Our data confirms the importance of predisposing factors in the pathogenesis of prostatic abscess. In most of the cases, the clue to diagnosis is obtained by digital rectal palpation. TRUS gives the definite diagnosis and also helps in follow-up of patients. Trans-urethral deroofing is the ideal therapy where the abscess cavity is more than 1 cm, although in some selected cases, TRUS-guided aspiration or conservative therapy does have a role in treatment. PMID:21422629

  3. Sterile Seroma after Drainage of Purulent Muscle Abscess in Crohn's Disease: Two Cases

    PubMed Central

    Treitman, Adam; Tabriz, Muhammed

    2016-01-01

    Purulent skeletal muscle abscesses can occur in Crohn's disease. We report a case of a sterile seroma complicating percutaneous drainage of a purulent skeletal muscle abscess in Crohn's ileitis. We compare and contrast this case with a similar case we published earlier. We emphasize the importance of recognition and differentiation from a septic purulent abscess. PMID:27529038

  4. Brodie's abscess in the first decade of life. Report of eleven cases.

    PubMed

    Kozlowski, K

    1980-09-01

    Eleven cases of Brodie's abscess in the first decade of life are presented. Brodie's abscess in the first decade of life usually shows the "Variant type" of X-ray appearances. The X-ray diagnosis is easy if the clinical data is known to the radiologist. The preponderance of Brodie's abscesses in the lower extremities is probably due to trauma.

  5. Infective Endocarditis and Aortic Valve Abscess in an Infant.

    PubMed

    Williamson, Kristy A; Gmuca, Sabrina; Rosman, Eliyahu C; Thomas, Philomena

    2015-09-01

    Infective endocarditis is relatively uncommon in the pediatric population, but when it does occur, results in substantial morbidity and mortality. Children at risk for endocarditis are typically those with an underlying congenital heart condition. Furthermore, an endocardial abscess is a very rare yet serious complication of infective endocarditis. We describe a case of a 23-month-old previously healthy male infant with no known congenital heart disease who returned to the emergency department after a recent hospitalization for pneumococcal bacteremia, presenting acutely ill but without fever. He was found to be in congestive heart failure due to endocarditis and an aortic root abscess. PMID:26335231

  6. Visceral larva migrans presenting as multiple intracranial and intraspinal abscesses.

    PubMed

    Moiyadi, Alefia; Mahadevan, Anita; Anandh, Balasubramaniam; Shivashankar, Ravi Shankar; Chickabasavaiah, Yasha Thagadur; Shankar, Susarla Krishna

    2007-08-01

    Involvement of nervous system by toxocariasis is rare and can produce a spectrum of pathology that includes eosinophillic meningoencephalitis, meningomyelitis, space occupying lesions, vasculitis causing seizures or behavioral abnormalities posing diagnostic dilemmas. We describe a 38-year-old man who presented with multiple intracranial and intramedullary abscesses caused by visceral larva migrans. Neurohelminthiasis as a cause of multiple abscesses, though rare, should be entertained as a differential diagnosis particularly in tropical South-east Asian countries where helminthiasis is still an epidemiological concern prevalent in the pediatric age group. PMID:17899691

  7. Staging of human brain abscess by computed tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Enzmann, D.R.; Britt, R.H.; Placone, R.

    1983-03-01

    Precontrast and postcontrast computed tomograp(hic (CT) scans of patients with brain abscesses were quantitatively studied to determine if the degree of encapsulation could be predicted. The findings in these cases correlated closely to the CT criteria for encapsulation previously established in an experimental model. Time-density curves of serial delayed postcontrast CT scans and the precontrast CT appearance yielded accurate criteria for determining the degree of encapsulation. The effect of corticosteroid treatment on contrast enhancement of brain abscess was also studied in one patient.

  8. [DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS OF TUMOROID-LIKE ABSCESS AND LUNG CANCER].

    PubMed

    Churylin, R

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of work is development and clarification of roentgenology displays of tumoroidea variant of abscess of lungs for differential diagnostics him with the cancer of lungs. Practically in most cases abscess of lungs there is a necessity of leadthrough of differential diagnostics with in a number of nosology forms, including with the cavernous form of peripheral cancer of lungs. The features of flow of roentgenologic picture of tumoroidea variant are resulted, alike symptoms, differ ences and signs which allow to set a correct diagnosis, are resulted, the value of follow-up of roent genologic research and use of computed tomography is underlined.

  9. Melioidosis of Chest Wall Masquerading as a Tubercular Cold Abscess

    PubMed Central

    Vishnu Prasad, Nelamangala Ramakrishnaiah; Balasubramaniam, Gopal; Karthikeyan, Vilvapathy Senguttuvan; Ramesh, Chakravarti Kapil; Srinivasan, Krishnamachari

    2012-01-01

    Melioidosis caused by Burkholderia pseudomallei, an important human pathogen in the tropical regions causes protean and multisystem clinical manifestations. A 50-year-old man on treatment for pulmonary tuberculosis developed a chest wall abscess. With a suspicion of tuberculous cold abscess, pus culture was done and it revealed Burkholderia pseudomallei. He was treated with 10 days of ceftazidime and incision and drainage was done. Wound healed well and he has now completed three months of oral cotrimoxazole eradication therapy and is on follow-up without recurrence. We report this case for the unusual presentation of melioidosis and the diagnostic challenge posed due to clinical similarity with tuberculosis. PMID:23741590

  10. Analysis of brain abscess after penetrating craniocerebral injuries in Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Rish, B L; Caveness, W F; Dillon, J D; Kistler, J P; Mohr, J P; Weiss, G H

    1981-11-01

    A population of 1221 patients from the Vietnam War with penetrating craniocerebral trauma was analyzed. Thirty-seven cases of brain abscess were documented (incidence 3%). This sequela occurred more frequently in association with extensive, deep penetrating injuries; deep, prolonged coma; cerebrospinal fluid fistulas; wound infections; facio-orbital cranial/air sinus injuries; and retained bone fragments. The mortality rate was 54%, and, of the patients who survived, 82% had significant morbidity. This is the last large population study of brain abscess after penetrating craniocerebral trauma before the availability of computed tomographic scanning and more comprehensive coma care. It should serve as base line data against which we can measure improvement.

  11. Treatment of Acute Puerperal Mastitis and Breast Abscess

    PubMed Central

    Cantlie, Helene Bertrand

    1988-01-01

    Mastitis is a benign infection of the breast if it is treated early. If two days elapse before treatment is started, it can lead to serious complications such as chronic or recurrent mastitis or breast abscess. Treatment consists in frequent nursing and massaging or stripping the breast to keep it empty of milk or pus, and appropriate antibiotics. Incision and drainage of a breast abscess can be done in the office under local anesthesia, and the drainage continued at home by the mother. PMID:21253250

  12. Balantidium Coli liver abscess: first case report from India.

    PubMed

    Kapur, P; Das, A K; Kapur, P R; Dudeja, M

    2016-03-01

    Protozoal infections are common in the tropics. Amoebic colitis is the commonest of these infections and can lead to liver abscess as a complication. Balantidium coli is a rare free moving protozoal parasite which is known to infest human large intestine causing a type of colitis very similar to that caused by Entamoeba histolytica. However this pathogen is not known to cause liver invasion in humans. We report here a case of liver abscess caused by B. coli, which is probably the first such case reported in Indian literature. PMID:27065613

  13. Gallbladder Fossa Abscess Masquerading as Cholecystitis After Cholecystectomy.

    PubMed

    Rodrigue, Paul; Fakhri, Asif; Baumgartner, Andrew

    2015-12-01

    We present a case of a 59-y-old woman who had undergone cholecystectomy and was subsequently found to have an abscess within the gallbladder fossa. A hepatobiliary scan using (99m)Tc-diisopropyliminodiacetic acid demonstrated the characteristic rim sign, a photopenic defect surrounded by a rim of mildly increased activity immediately adjacent to the gallbladder fossa. The rim sign was thought to be the result of reactive inflammation in the hepatic tissue adjacent to a postoperative abscess within the gallbladder fossa.

  14. Brain abscess after endosaccular embolisation of a cerebral aneurysm.

    PubMed

    Chen, Guangzhong; Zhan, Shengquan; Chen, Wei; Li, Zhaojie; Zhou, Dong; Zeng, Shaojian; Lin, Xiaofeng; Tang, Kai; Zhou, Dexiang; Shu, Hang

    2014-01-01

    Endovascular embolization has become an important treatment option for cerebral aneurysms, along with surgical clipping. But few literatures mentioned infectious complications after coiling of aneurysms. We present a patient with a brain abscess that developed after endosaccular embolization of a left middle cerebral artery aneurysm. The brain abscess was located adjacent to the aneurysm and discovered more than 2 months after embolization. We discuss the clinical implications of this rare complication and review the literature for infections related to the coils used for embolization of aneurysms.

  15. Infective Endocarditis and Aortic Valve Abscess in an Infant.

    PubMed

    Williamson, Kristy A; Gmuca, Sabrina; Rosman, Eliyahu C; Thomas, Philomena

    2015-09-01

    Infective endocarditis is relatively uncommon in the pediatric population, but when it does occur, results in substantial morbidity and mortality. Children at risk for endocarditis are typically those with an underlying congenital heart condition. Furthermore, an endocardial abscess is a very rare yet serious complication of infective endocarditis. We describe a case of a 23-month-old previously healthy male infant with no known congenital heart disease who returned to the emergency department after a recent hospitalization for pneumococcal bacteremia, presenting acutely ill but without fever. He was found to be in congestive heart failure due to endocarditis and an aortic root abscess.

  16. Prevent Cervical Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Fighting Cervical Cancer Worldwide Stay Informed Printable Versions Standard quality PDF [PDF-877KB] High-quality PDF for professional ... uterus, vagina, and vulva. Stay Informed Printable Versions Standard quality PDF [PDF-877KB] High-quality PDF for professional ...

  17. Cervical Cancer Screening

    MedlinePlus

    ... cervical cancer in women aged 30–65 years. Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV): A virus that attacks certain cells of the body’s immune system and causes acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Human Papillomavirus ( ...

  18. Immunotherapy for Cervical Cancer

    Cancer.gov

    In an early phase NCI clinical trial, two patients with metastatic cervical cancer had a complete disappearance of their tumors after receiving treatment with a form of immunotherapy called adoptive cell transfer.

  19. Radiation Therapy Plus Cisplatin and Gemcitabine in Treating Patients With Cervical Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2014-12-23

    Cervical Adenocarcinoma; Cervical Adenosquamous Carcinoma; Cervical Small Cell Carcinoma; Cervical Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IB Cervical Cancer; Stage IIA Cervical Cancer; Stage IIB Cervical Cancer; Stage III Cervical Cancer; Stage IVA Cervical Cancer

  20. Clinical effects of computed tomography-guided lumbosacral facet joint, transforaminal epidural, and translaminar epidural injections of methylprednisolone acetate in healthy dogs.

    PubMed

    Liotta, Annalisa P; Girod, Maud; Peeters, Dominique; Sandersen, Charlotte; Couvreur, Thierry; Bolen, Géraldine

    2016-10-01

    OBJECTIVE To determine clinical effects of CT-guided lumbosacral facet joint, transforaminal epidural, and translaminar epidural injections of methylprednisolone acetate in healthy dogs. ANIMALS 15 healthy Beagles. PROCEDURES Dogs were randomly assigned to 3 groups (5 dogs/group) and received a single CT-guided lumbosacral facet joint, transforaminal epidural, or translaminar epidural injection of methylprednisolone acetate (0.1 mg/kg). Contrast medium was injected prior to injection of methylprednisolone to verify needle placement. Neurologic examinations were performed 1, 3, 7, and 10 days after the injection. In dogs with neurologic abnormalities, a final neurologic examination was performed 24 days after the procedure. RESULTS Methylprednisolone injections were successfully performed in 14 of the 15 dogs. In 1 dog, vascular puncture occurred, and the methylprednisolone injection was not performed. No major or minor complications were identified during or immediately after the procedure, other than mild transient hyperthermia. During follow-up neurologic examinations, no motor, sensory, or postural deficits were identified, other than mild alterations in the patellar, withdrawal, cranial tibial, and perineal reflexes in some dogs. Overall, altered reflexes were observed in 11 of the 14 dogs, during 27 of 65 neurologic examinations. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results suggested that CT-guided lumbosacral facet joint, transforaminal epidural, and translaminar epidural injections of methylprednisolone acetate were associated with few complications in healthy dogs. However, the number of dogs evaluated was small, and additional studies are needed to assess clinical efficacy and safety of these procedures. PMID:27668585

  1. Pseudoactinomyces in cervical mucus.

    PubMed

    Deen, Suha; Ashford, Keith; Harwood, Andrew; Gray, Trevor

    2011-05-01

    Actinomyces israelii are gram-positive filamentous bacteria forming yellow sulfur granules. They are the most well known complication of intrauterine contraceptive devices (IUCD). Healthcare staff dealing with reporting cervical smears should be aware of pseudoactinomyces entity in a cervical smears and biopsies as it may raise a false alarm to the clinician and may lead to unnecessary removal of IUCD and/or medical treatment.

  2. Postlaminectomy cervical deformity.

    PubMed

    Deutsch, Harel; Haid, Regis W; Rodts, Gerald E; Mummaneni, Praveen V

    2003-09-15

    Postlaminectomy cervical kyphosis is an important consideration when performing surgery. Identifying factors predisposing to postoperative deformity is essential. The goal is to prevent postlaminectomy cervical kyphosis while exposing the patient to minimal additional morbidity. When postlaminectomy kyphosis does occur, surgical correction is often required and performed via an anterior, posterior, or combined approach. The authors discuss the indications for surgical approaches as well as clinical results. PMID:15347223

  3. Comparison of epidural analgesia and cryoanalgesia in thoracic surgery.

    PubMed

    Brichon, P Y; Pison, C; Chaffanjon, P; Fayot, P; Buchberger, M; Néron, L; Bocca, A; Verdier, J; Sarrazin, R

    1994-01-01

    A prospective study was carried out in 120 patients undergoing elective thoracotomy for parenchymal disease. Patients were randomized into three groups: A (control group), B (epidural analgesia), C (freezing of intercostal nerves). Subjective pain relief was assessed on a linear visual analog scale. Analgesic requirements were evaluated during the 12 days following surgery, or until discharge if earlier. The vital capacity (VC) and forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) were measured on the day before operation and on the 1st, 2nd, 3rd and 7th postoperative days (POD). Subjective pain relief was significantly better in Group B in comparison with Group A (P < 0.05) or C (P < 0.05). Group C had the lowest score on the 11th and 12th POD but differences were not statistically significant. Requirements for intravenous analgesics were lower in Group B than in the control group (P < 0.05) during the first 3 POD, and in group C than in the control group the day of operation (P < 0.05). Oral analgesic requirements, when compared with controls, were lower in group B during the first 5 POD, and lower in group C on the 3rd and the 4th POD (P < 0.05). Cryoanalgesia led to a slight but not significant increase in VC and FEV1. Epidural analgesia led to a significant increase when compared with controls in FEV1 during the first 3 POD, and in FVC on the 7th POD (P < 0.05). It is concluded that epidural analgesia led to the best pain relief and restoration of pulmonary function after thoracotomy.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7811482

  4. Bionic epidural stimulation restores arterial pressure regulation during orthostasis.

    PubMed

    Yanagiya, Yusuke; Sato, Takayuki; Kawada, Toru; Inagaki, Masashi; Tatewaki, Teiji; Zheng, Can; Kamiya, Atsunori; Takaki, Hiroshi; Sugimachi, Masaru; Sunagawa, Kenji

    2004-09-01

    A bionic baroreflex system (BBS) is a computer-assisted intelligent feedback system to control arterial pressure (AP) for the treatment of baroreflex failure. To apply this system clinically, an appropriate efferent neural (sympathetic vasomotor) interface has to be explored. We examined whether the spinal cord is a candidate site for such interface. In six anesthetized and baroreflex-deafferentiated cats, a multielectrode catheter was inserted into the epidural space to deliver epidural spinal cord stimulation (ESCS). Stepwise changes in ESCS rate revealed a linear correlation between ESCS rate and AP for ESCS rates of 2 pulses/s and above (r2, 0.876-0.979; slope, 14.3 +/- 5.8 mmHg.pulses(-1).s; pressure axis intercept, 35.7 +/- 25.9 mmHg). Random changes in ESCS rate with a white noise sequence revealed dynamic transfer function of peripheral effectors. The transfer function resembled a second-order, low-pass filter with a lag time (gain, 16.7 +/- 8.3 mmHg.pulses(-1).s; natural frequency, 0.022 +/- 0.007 Hz; damping coefficient, 2.40 +/- 1.07; lag time, 1.06 +/- 0.41 s). On the basis of the transfer function, we designed an artificial vasomotor center to attenuate hypotension. We evaluated the performance of the BBS against hypotension induced by 60 degrees head-up tilt. In the cats with baroreflex failure, head-up tilt dropped AP by 37 +/- 5 mmHg in 5 s and 59 +/- 11 mmHg in 30 s. BBS with optimized feedback parameters attenuated hypotension to 21 +/- 2 mmHg in 5 s (P < 0.05) and 8 +/- 4 mmHg in 30 s (P < 0.05). These results indicate that ESCS-mediated BBS prevents orthostatic hypotension. Because epidural stimulation is a clinically feasible procedure, this BBS can be applied clinically to combat hypotension associated with various pathophysiologies.

  5. Inflammation and Epidural-Related Maternal Fever: Proposed Mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Sultan, Pervez; David, Anna L; Fernando, Roshan; Ackland, Gareth L

    2016-05-01

    Intrapartum fever is associated with excessive maternal interventions as well as higher neonatal morbidity. Epidural-related maternal fever (ERMF) contributes to the development of intrapartum fever. The mechanism(s) for ERMF has remained elusive. Here, we consider how inflammatory mechanisms may be modulated by local anesthetic agents and their relevance to ERMF. We also critically reappraise the clinical data with regard to emerging concepts that explain how anesthetic drug-induced metabolic dysfunction, with or without activation of the inflammasome, might trigger the release of nonpathogenic, inflammatory molecules (danger-associated molecular patterns) likely to underlie ERMF.

  6. Epidural Tube: A Useful Device in Sialendoscopy Operations.

    PubMed

    Li, Jin; Fang, Wei; Chen, Ju-feng; Long, Xing

    2016-03-01

    Salivary endoscopy, which was first described in 1991, is a safe technique with few complications. The sialendoscopy operation has been developed and successfully offered as a minimally invasive and gland-preserving approach for the treatment of chronic obstructive sialadenitis. For many surgeons, entering the duct lumen of the salivary gland is the most difficult and time-consuming step of the sialendoscopy operation. This report introduces a timesaving and straightforward method for entering the duct lumen using an epidural tube, which is a plastic tube with a blunt tip. PMID:26433042

  7. Spontaneous spinal epidural haematoma mimicking acute coronary syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Mohammed, Noor; Shahid, Muhammad; Haque, Munirul; Qureshi, Masood

    2015-01-01

    Spontaneous spinal epidural hematoma (SSEH) is an acute neurological emergency which carries significant morbidity unless diagnosed and treated in a timely fashion. Some cases of SSEH are idiopathic but there is a well-recognised association with deranged coagulation and abnormalities of clotting. In recent years there has been increasing availability of novel anti-platelet agents, often prescribed in the setting of suspected acute coronary syndromes (ACS) and following percutaneous coronary interventions and these agents also present an increased risk of SSEH. We present a case of SSEH following an acute presentation with chest pain and treatment with dual anti-platelet therapy. PMID:26807374

  8. [Caudal epidural anesthesia in pyloromyotomy in infants: our experience].

    PubMed

    Busto Aguirreurreta, N; Cía Armendáriz, M L; Carrascosa Moreno, S; Martínez Bermejo, M A; Conde Cortés, J; Gracia Velilla, A; Bento Bravo, L

    2000-10-01

    The aim of this work is to introduce an alternative to ordinary anaesthetic with tracheal intubation for the surgery of pyloric stenosis. We argue in favour of this alternative that it can be achieved with relative ease if the technique of caudal epidural is well known, a better control of peri and post-operative analgesia without the need of opiates, and that this technique obviates orotracheal intubation and intermittent positive pressure ventilation. Based on our experience with 18 patients, we introduce the anaesthetic technique, the monitoring systems and the obtained results. Our conclusion is that this technique is a good alternative to general anaesthetic for the surgical treatment of pyloric stenosis.

  9. Spontaneous resorption of a large cervical herniated nucleus pulposus.

    PubMed

    Cvetanovich, Gregory L; Hsu, Andrew R; Frank, Rachel M; An, Howard S; Andersson, Gunnar B

    2014-07-01

    The majority of patients with symptomatic herniated discs can be successfully and conservatively managed and can achieve clinical improvement without surgical intervention. Resorption of the herniated nucleus pulposus (HNP) is 1 conservative mechanism for clinical improvement. We present the case of a 76-year-old healthy man with acute cervical radicular right arm pain and positive Spurling test. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed a large disc extrusion behind the C6 vertebral body, causing severe central canal stenosis and right-greater-than-left foraminal stenosis. The patient did not want surgical intervention, and his symptoms resolved with conservative treatment. A follow-up MRI 7 months after his initial presentation showed almost complete resorption of the herniated disc. The patient returned to his normal activities and has not had recurrence of symptoms for 2 years. This report provides an interesting example of complete resorption of a large, extruded cervical herniated disc in a symptomatic patient and a review of the literature on resorption of herniated discs. The review suggests that larger herniations with an epidural location (penetration of the posterior longitudinal ligament) have a greater chance of resorption.

  10. Multiple Medium Amoebic Liver Abscesses Successfully Treated with Medication and Comprehensive Percutaneous Catheter Drainage.

    PubMed

    Kasamatsu, Yu; Shirano, Michinori; Iida, Ko; Shimizu, Sadatoshi; Goto, Tetsushi

    2016-01-01

    Solitary small (<5 cm) amoebic liver abscesses in the right lobe are generally treated using medication alone, while large abscesses are typically treated via a combination of medication and drainage. However, the therapeutic indications for multiple medium (5-10 cm) amoebic liver abscesses remain unclear. We herein report the findings of a 53-year-old woman who was receiving lenalidomide for multiple myeloma and subsequently developed multiple amoebic abscesses. Metronidazole alone was unsuccessful, although metronidazole and repeated percutaneous catheter drainage of the right lobe, left lobe, and thorax proved to ultimately be successful. Therefore, the successful use of medication alone may be associated with the total combined abscess volume. PMID:27523014

  11. Atezolizumab and Bevacizumab in Treating Patients With Recurrent, Persistent, or Metastatic Cervical Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-10-10

    Cervical Adenocarcinoma; Cervical Adenosquamous Carcinoma; Cervical Squamous Cell Carcinoma, Not Otherwise Specified; Recurrent Cervical Carcinoma; Stage IVA Cervical Cancer; Stage IVB Cervical Cancer

  12. Nivolumab in Treating Patients With Persistent, Recurrent, or Metastatic Cervical Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-11-01

    Cervical Adenocarcinoma; Cervical Adenosquamous Carcinoma; Cervical Squamous Cell Carcinoma, Not Otherwise Specified; Recurrent Cervical Carcinoma; Stage IVA Cervical Cancer; Stage IVB Cervical Cancer

  13. Ewing's sarcoma in mandibular similar to dental abscess.

    PubMed

    Keshani, Forouz; Jahanshahi, Gholamreza; Attar, Bijan Movahedian; Kalantari, Mahsa; Razavi, Seyed Mohammad; Hashemzade, Zahra; Tavakoli, Payam

    2014-01-01

    Ewing's sarcoma is a rare malignant neoplasm that comprises approximately 4-6% of primary bone tumors. In most cases, femur and pelvis are affected, and less commonly the head and neck areas (in the jaws, usually the mandible). These tumors have been reported more frequently in males, mostly aged 5-20 years old. Systemic symptoms and signs such as fever, weight loss, anemia, leukocytosis, and elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) may be the first signs in oral Ewing's sarcoma. Such signs and symptoms are also seen in odontogenic infections and abscess. In one case, the patient went to a dentist with pain, swelling, and abscess similar to odontogenic infection and patient's tooth was pulled due to misdiagnosis. This tumor has an aggressive clinical behavior and is identified with rapid growth and high probability of metastasis at diagnosis. Thus, it is necessary to differentiate it from a dental abscess. As for the treatment of Ewing's sarcoma, first the tumor must undergo chemotherapy to reduce its size and, eventually, it undergoes extensive surgery. This case report deals with a 16-year-old patient wrongly diagnosed with odontogenic infection and abscess, and hospitalized. As the symptoms did not remit, biopsy was carried out and the patient was operated on with Ewing's sarcoma diagnosis. PMID:24627870

  14. 9 CFR 311.14 - Abrasions, bruises, abscesses, pus, etc.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Abrasions, bruises, abscesses, pus, etc. 311.14 Section 311.14 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT... excised, leaving only sound, normal tissue, which may be passed for human food. Any organ or other part...

  15. Bilateral lung abscess associated with a severe masticator space infection.

    PubMed

    Zaputowycz, O; Williams, F A; Arthur, A

    1986-04-01

    The clinician should be constantly aware of the danger of aspiration in cases of prolonged sepsis with profuse suppuration. In such cases, it might be wiser to establish dependent extraoral drainage, rather than relying solely on intraoral means. The chances of aspirating septic material and the resultant occurrence of pulmonary abscesses will be lessened.

  16. Pyogenic Liver Abscess Caused by Acinetobacter lwoffii: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Singh, N. Pal; Nirmal, Kirti; Kaur, I. Rajender

    2016-01-01

    Acinetobacter lwoffii is a gram negative aerobic non-fermenter bacilli. It is considered as an important emerging pathogen after Acinetobacter baumannii in patients with impaired immune system and in nosocomial infections. Here, we present a case of community acquired pyogenic liver Abscess caused by Acinetobacter lwoffii in a diabetic patient. PMID:27504286

  17. Abscess caused by vancomycin-resistant Lactobacillus confusus.

    PubMed Central

    Bantar, C E; Relloso, S; Castell, F R; Smayevsky, J; Bianchini, H M

    1991-01-01

    Several isolates of vancomycin-resistant Lactobacillus confusus from human sources have been described, but to our knowledge, no well-documented infection attributable to this organism has been published. A thumb abscess caused by this bacterium in a healthy 49-year-old male is reported here. He was successfully treated by surgical drainage and cephalothin. PMID:1774335

  18. Abscess caused by vancomycin-resistant Lactobacillus confusus.

    PubMed

    Bantar, C E; Relloso, S; Castell, F R; Smayevsky, J; Bianchini, H M

    1991-09-01

    Several isolates of vancomycin-resistant Lactobacillus confusus from human sources have been described, but to our knowledge, no well-documented infection attributable to this organism has been published. A thumb abscess caused by this bacterium in a healthy 49-year-old male is reported here. He was successfully treated by surgical drainage and cephalothin.

  19. Clinical Characteristics Associated with Antibiotic Treatment Failure for Tuboovarian Abscesses

    PubMed Central

    Farid, Huma; Lau, Trevin C.; Karmon, Anatte E.; Styer, Aaron K.

    2016-01-01

    Objective. Although parenteral antibiotic treatment is a standard approach for tuboovarian abscesses, a significant proportion of patients fail therapy and require interventional radiology (IR) guided drainage. The objective of this study is to assess if specific clinical factors are associated with antibiotic treatment failure. Study Design. Retrospective medical record review of patients hospitalized for tuboovarian abscesses from 2001 through 2012 was performed. Clinical characteristics were compared for patients who underwent successful parenteral antibiotic treatment, failed antibiotic treatment necessitating subsequent IR drainage, initial drainage with concurrent antibiotics, and surgery. Results. One hundred thirteen patients admitted for inpatient treatment were identified. Sixty-one (54%) patients were treated with antibiotics alone. Within this group, 24.6% failed antibiotic treatment and required drainage. Mean white blood cell count (K/μL) (18.7 ± 5.94 versus 13.9 ± 5.12) (p = 0.003), mean maximum diameter of tuboovarian abscess (cm) (6.8 ± 2.9 versus 5.2 ± 2.0) (p = 0.03), and length of stay (days) (9.47 ± 7.43 versus 4.59 ± 2.4) (p = 0.002) were significantly greater for patients who failed antibiotic treatment. Conclusions. Admission white blood cell count greater than 16 K/μL and abscess size greater than 5.18 cm are associated with antibiotic treatment failure. These factors may provide guidance for initial selection of IR guided drainage. PMID:26989337

  20. Mycobacterium chelonae abscesses associated with biomesotherapy, Australia, 2008.

    PubMed

    Ivan, Mihaela; Dancer, Craig; Koehler, Ann P; Hobby, Michaela; Lease, Chris

    2013-01-01

    An outbreak of skin abscesses occurred in Adelaide, Australia, in association with biomesotherapy, an alternative therapy practice. Mycobacterium chelonae was identified in 8 patient and 3 environmental samples. Our findings show M. chelonae infection can be associated with alternative therapies when infection-control breaches occur. Tighter regulations of alternative therapy practices are needed. PMID:23968779