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Sample records for cervical spine causing

  1. [Cervicogenic dysphagia: swallowing difficulties caused by functional and organic disorders of the cervical spine].

    PubMed

    Grgić, Vjekoslav

    2013-01-01

    Cervical spine disorders which can cause swallowing difficulties (cervicogenic dysphagia; CD) are: chronic multisegmental/MS dysfunction (dysfunction=functional blockade) of the facet joints, changes in physiological curvature of the cervical spine, degenerative changes (anterior osteophytes, anterior disc herniation, osteochondrosis, osteoarthritis), inflammatory rheumatic diseases, diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis, injuries, conditions after anterior cervical spine surgery, congenital malformations and tumors. According to our clinical observations, degenerative changes in the cervical discs and facet joints and chronic MS dysfunction of the cervical spine facet joints are disorders which can cause swallowing difficulties. However, these disorders have not been recognized enough as the causes of dysphagia and they are not even mentioned in differential diagnosis. Because of the close anatomical relationship of cervical spine with the pharynx and cervical part of esophagus, the consequences of the degenerative changes in the cervical discs and facet joints and chronic MS dysfunction of the cervical spine facet joints such as the changes in the physiological curvature of the cervical spine, changes in elasticity and contractility in the neck muscles and decreased mobility of the cervical spine, adversely affect the dimensions of the pharynx and cervical part of esophagus, that is, swallowing capacity which can result in dysphagia. Degenerative changes in the cervical discs and facet joints are common additional cause of dysphagia in elderly people with disorders of the central control of swallowing (stroke, Parkinson's disease, senile dementia etc). The most important therapeutic options in patients with CD are: medicamentous therapy, physical therapy, manual therapy, kinesiotherapy and surgical treatment. The aim of the conservative therapy in patients with CD is to improve the swallowing capacity (for example, soft tissue techniques, stretching of the

  2. Solitary osteochondroma of the cervical spine causing spinal cord compression.

    PubMed

    Ozturk, Cagatay; Tezer, Mehmet; Hamzaoglu, Azmi

    2007-02-01

    Osteochondromas are common benign tumours of bone that often occur in the metaphysodiaphyseal parts of long bones. They rarely occur in the spine. We present a case of solitary osteochondroma arising from the C-1 vertebral lamina, causing neurological symptoms. A 46-year-old man presented to our institution, complaining of pain and numbness originating from his neck and extending down to his left arm. Radiographs, CT and MRI showed a solitary benign appearing expansile bone tumour arising from the left vertebral lamina of C-1, spreading to C-2, exerting an eccentric posterolateral compression on the spinal cord in the left part of the spinal canal and causing stenosis of the left neural foramen between C-1 and C-2. The lesion was surgically explored through a posterior longitudinal incision. Leaving the left lateral mass of C-1 intact, a left hemilaminectomy was performed. The lesion and the part spreading to C-2 were excised, completely clearing the spinal cord compression. For posterior stabilisation, lateral mass screws were inserted bilaterally in C-1 and pedicle screws and a rod system were used in C-2. The interlaminar region between C-1 and C-2 was fused using cancellous allograft chips. Follow-up controls with radiological examination revealed that the decompression had been adequate and fusion was achieved. Excision of the lesions is necessary to relieve neurological compression in such cases. In order to avoid complications associated with instability following extensive laminectomy, posterior stabilisation and fusion should also be performed.

  3. Fractures of the cervical spine

    PubMed Central

    Marcon, Raphael Martus; Cristante, Alexandre Fogaça; Teixeira, William Jacobsen; Narasaki, Douglas Kenji; Oliveira, Reginaldo Perilo; de Barros Filho, Tarcísio Eloy Pessoa

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to review the literature on cervical spine fractures. METHODS: The literature on the diagnosis, classification, and treatment of lower and upper cervical fractures and dislocations was reviewed. RESULTS: Fractures of the cervical spine may be present in polytraumatized patients and should be suspected in patients complaining of neck pain. These fractures are more common in men approximately 30 years of age and are most often caused by automobile accidents. The cervical spine is divided into the upper cervical spine (occiput-C2) and the lower cervical spine (C3-C7), according to anatomical differences. Fractures in the upper cervical spine include fractures of the occipital condyle and the atlas, atlanto-axial dislocations, fractures of the odontoid process, and hangman's fractures in the C2 segment. These fractures are characterized based on specific classifications. In the lower cervical spine, fractures follow the same pattern as in other segments of the spine; currently, the most widely used classification is the SLIC (Subaxial Injury Classification), which predicts the prognosis of an injury based on morphology, the integrity of the disc-ligamentous complex, and the patient's neurological status. It is important to correctly classify the fracture to ensure appropriate treatment. Nerve or spinal cord injuries, pseudarthrosis or malunion, and postoperative infection are the main complications of cervical spine fractures. CONCLUSIONS: Fractures of the cervical spine are potentially serious and devastating if not properly treated. Achieving the correct diagnosis and classification of a lesion is the first step toward identifying the most appropriate treatment, which can be either surgical or conservative. PMID:24270959

  4. [Cervical spine and pain].

    PubMed

    Cimen, Ali

    2007-04-01

    Chronic pain originating from the cervical spine, that may have diverse etiological factors, is a common condition in the clinical practice. Having distinct properties in the spine, cervical column has a wide range of motion and is commonly subject to traumatic injury. In this review, after the anatomical properties that has clinical significance and the evaluation of a patient with cervical pain are explained, the common cervical spinal pain conditions are discussed by emphasizing the therapeutic approaches in each condition.

  5. Rare cause of neck pain: tumours of the posterior elements of the cervical spine.

    PubMed

    Katsuura, Yoshihiro; Cason, Garrick; Osborn, James

    2016-12-15

    Here we present two cases of primary bone tumours of the cervical spine in patients who had persistent neck pain-in one case, lasting 8 years. In each case, there was a delay in diagnosis and referral to a spine specialist was prolonged. Primary bone tumours of the spine are rare, which is in contrast to the wide prevalence of cervical neck pain. Many primary care providers may go an entire career without encountering a symptomatic primary cervical spine tumour. In this paper, we discuss the clinical course and treatment of each patient and review the current literature on primary bone tumours of the spine. Owing to the subtle roentgenographic findings of primary cervical tumours, we highlight the importance of advanced imaging in the clinical work-up of simple axial neck pain lasting >6 weeks to avoid misdiagnosis of serious pathology. 2016 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  6. Cervical spine trauma

    PubMed Central

    Torretti, Joel A; Sengupta, Dilip K

    2007-01-01

    Cervical spine trauma is a common problem with a wide range of severity from minor ligamentous injury to frank osteo-ligamentous instability with spinal cord injury. The emergent evaluation of patients at risk relies on standardized clinical and radiographic protocols to identify injuries; elucidate associated pathology; classify injuries; and predict instability, treatment and outcomes. The unique anatomy of each region of the cervical spine demands a review of each segment individually. This article examines both upper cervical spine injuries, as well as subaxial spine trauma. The purpose of this article is to provide a review of the broad topic of cervical spine trauma with reference to the classic literature, as well as to summarize all recently available literature on each topic. Identification of References for Inclusion: A Pubmed and Ovid search was performed for each topic in the review to identify recently published articles relevant to the review. In addition prior reviews and classic references were evaluated individually for inclusion of classic papers, classifications and previously unidentified references. PMID:21139776

  7. Head-first impact with head protrusion causes noncontiguous injuries of the cadaveric cervical spine.

    PubMed

    Ivancic, Paul C

    2012-09-01

    To simulate horizontally aligned head-first impacts with initial head protrusion using a human cadaveric neck model and to determine biomechanical responses, injuries, and injury severity. Head-first impacts with initial head protrusion were simulated at 2.4 m/s using a human cadaver neck model (n = 10) mounted horizontally to a torso-equivalent mass on a sled and carrying a surrogate head. Macroscopic neck injuries were determined, and ligamentous injuries were quantified using fluoroscopy and visual inspection after the impacts. Representative time-history responses for injured specimens were determined during impact using load cell data and analyses of high-speed video. Biomechanics research laboratory. Cervical spines of 10 human cadavers. Injury severity at the middle and lower cervical spine was statistically compared using a 2-sample t test (P < 0.05). Neck buckling consisted of hyperflexion at C6/7 and C7/T1 and hyperextension at superior spinal levels. Noncontiguous neck injuries included forward dislocation at C7/T1, spinous process fracture and compression-extension injuries at the middle cervical spine, and atlas and odontoid fractures. Ligamentous injury severity at C7/T1 was significantly greater than at the middle cervical spine. Distinct injury mechanisms were observed throughout the neck, consisting of extension-compression and posterior shear at the upper and middle cervical spine and flexion-compression and anterior shear at C6/7 and C7/T1. Our experimental results highlight the importance of clinical awareness of potential noncontiguous cervical spine injuries due to head-first sports impacts.

  8. Blunt cervical spine trauma as a cause of spinal cord injury and delayed cortical blindness.

    PubMed

    McCormick, M T; Robinson, H K; Bone, I; McLean, A N; Allan, D B

    2007-10-01

    Case report. To present and discuss the case of a patient who sustained a significant flexion compression injury of the cervical spine with resulting tetraplegia and development of cortical blindness. National Spinal Injuries Unit and Institute of Neurological Sciences, Southern General Hospital, Glasgow, Scotland, UK. Clinical and radiological follow-up of the patient. Cortical blindness resulted from vertebral artery dissection associated with blunt cervical spine trauma. The patient is registered blind and is ventilator dependent. The potential complications of blunt vertebral artery injury remain poorly recognised. Screening is routinely not performed. Advances in noninvasive radiological techniques may result in recognition of asymptomatic disease and the potential for therapeutic intervention.

  9. Lift-up laminoplasty for myelopathy caused by ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament of the cervical spine.

    PubMed

    Takami, T; Ohata, K; Goto, T; Nishikawa, M; Nishio, A; Tsuyuguchi, N; Hara, M

    2004-03-01

    We have utilized lift-up laminoplasty to treat patients with myelopathy caused by ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament (OPLL) of the cervical spine. The preliminary surgical outcome with computer-assisted morphological assessment is presented. The surgical technique of lift-up laminoplasty includes standard posterior exposure of the cervical spine, en-bloc laminectomy, and expansion of the cervical canal by lift-up of the laminae with custom-designed hydroxyapatite laminar spacers and stabilization of the laminae using titanium miniplates. From 1998 to 2003, 10 consecutive patients with cervical myelopathy secondary to OPLL have been treated with this method and comprehensively evaluated. Care was taken to tailor the treatment to individual patients by using different sizes of spacers to adjust the degree of expansion depending on the amount of stenosis of the cervical spine. The degree of expansion of the cervical canal was altered by design, based on the preoperative imaging simulation. Preliminary surgical outcome, evaluated at 6 months after surgery, revealed a significant improvement of neurological function. Image analysis revealed that the cervical canals were significantly expanded, with a mean reduction of 13.1% in the stenosis ratio. Lift-up laminoplasty was effective in the treatment of patients with myelopathy secondary to cervical OPLL, and the amount of expansion could be individually adjusted at the discretion of the surgeon. Although analysis with a larger population and a longer follow-up period needs to be undertaken, our method of lift-up laminoplasty appears to be a viable choice among standard posterior cervical approaches for cervical OPLL.

  10. [Injury of upper cervical spine].

    PubMed

    Ryba, Luděk; Cienciala, Jan; Chaloupka, Richard; Repko, Martin; Vyskočil, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Injuries of the upper cervical spine represent 1/3 of all cervical spine injuries and approximately 40 % result by the death. Every level of the cervical spine can be injured - fractures of condyles of the occipital bone (CO), atlantooccipital dislocation (AOD), fractures of the Atlas (C1), atlantoaxial dislocation (AAD) and fractures of the axis (C2). Most of cases in younger patients are caused by high-energy trauma, while by elderly people, because of the osteoporosis, is needed much less energy and even simple falls can cause the injury of the cervical spine. That´s why the etiology of injuries can be different. In younger patients are caused mainly by car accidents, motorcycle and bicycle accidents and pedestrian crashes by car and in elderly populations are the main reason falls. The mechanism of the injury is axial force, hyperflexion, hyperextension, latero-flexion, rotation and combination of all. The basic diagnostic examination is X ray in AP, lateral and transoral projection. But in the most of cases is CT examination necessary and in the suspicion of the ligamentous injury and neurological deterioration must be MRI examination added. Every injury of the upper cervical spine has its own classification. Clinical symptoms can vary from the neck pain, restricted range of motion, antalgic position of the head, injury of the cranial nerves and different neurologic symptoms from the irritation of nerves to quadriplegia. A large percentage of deaths is at the time of the injury. Therapy is divided to conservative treatment, which is indicated in bone injuries with minimal dislocation. In more severe cases, with the dislocation and ligamentous injury, when is high chance of the instability, is indicated the surgical treatment. We can use anterior or posterior approach, make the osteosynthesis, stabilisation and fusion of the spine. Complex fractures and combination of different types of injuries are often present in this part of the spine. Correct and early

  11. [Cervical spine trauma].

    PubMed

    Yilmaz, U; Hellen, P

    2016-08-01

    In the emergency department 65 % of spinal injuries and 2-5 % of blunt force injuries involve the cervical spine. Of these injuries approximately 50 % involve C5 and/or C6 and 30 % involve C2. Older patients tend to have higher spinal injuries and younger patients tend to have lower injuries. The anatomical and development-related characteristics of the pediatric spine as well as degenerative and comorbid pathological changes of the spine in the elderly can make the radiological evaluation of spinal injuries difficult with respect to possible trauma sequelae in young and old patients. Two different North American studies have investigated clinical criteria to rule out cervical spine injuries with sufficient certainty and without using imaging. Imaging of cervical trauma should be performed when injuries cannot be clinically excluded according to evidence-based criteria. Degenerative changes and anatomical differences have to be taken into account in the evaluation of imaging of elderly and pediatric patients.

  12. Brachioradial pruritus and cervical spine manipulation.

    PubMed

    Tait, C P; Grigg, E; Quirk, C J

    1998-08-01

    Brachioradial pruritus (BRP) causes significant morbidity in the majority of patients for whom no effective treatment is found. Chronic ultraviolet radiation exposure has usually been cited as the cause, but nerve damage from cervical spine disease has also been implicated. We report on a small retrospective exploratory study, conducted by questionnaire, of a group of patients who were treated with a specific cervical spine manipulation. Ten of 14 patients reported resolution of symptoms following manipulative treatment. All six patients who had had previous cervical spine disease responded to manipulation, as did half the remaining eight patients who had no previous history of neck symptoms. Although patients with BRP, by definition, share similar symptoms, the aetiology is almost certainly multifactorial. Prospective studies looking for cervical spine disease, as well as assessment of this particular method of cervical spine manipulation as a treatment modality for BRP, should be considered.

  13. The degenerative cervical spine.

    PubMed

    Llopis, E; Belloch, E; León, J P; Higueras, V; Piquer, J

    2016-04-01

    Imaging techniques provide excellent anatomical images of the cervical spine. The choice to use one technique or another will depend on the clinical scenario and on the treatment options. Plain-film X-rays continue to be fundamental, because they make it possible to evaluate the alignment and bone changes; they are also useful for follow-up after treatment. The better contrast resolution provided by magnetic resonance imaging makes it possible to evaluate the soft tissues, including the intervertebral discs, ligaments, bone marrow, and spinal cord. The role of computed tomography in the study of degenerative disease has changed in recent years owing to its great spatial resolution and its capacity to depict osseous components. In this article, we will review the anatomy and biomechanical characteristics of the cervical spine, and then we provide a more detailed discussion of the degenerative diseases that can affect the cervical spine and their clinical management. Copyright © 2015 SERAM. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  14. CPPD crystal deposition disease of the cervical spine: a common cause of acute neck pain encountered in the neurology department.

    PubMed

    Sekijima, Yoshiki; Yoshida, Takuhiro; Ikeda, Shu-Ichi

    2010-09-15

    Calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate (CPPD) crystal deposition disease is one of the most common forms of crystal-associated arthropathy in the elderly. However, CPPD deposition on the cervical spine is less well known, and only a limited number of cases have been reported to date. Here, we report our recent clinical experience with CPPD crystal deposition disease of the cervical spine and describe the clinical features of this disease. Fourteen patients with clinically diagnosed CPPD crystal deposition disease of the cervical spine at our department during the period from January 2005 to December 2008 were analyzed retrospectively. Patients ranged in age from 54 to 92 (mean+/-SD, 77.5+/-8.5). Chief symptoms of patients were acute posterior neck pain and fever. All patients had markedly restricted neck rotation. Serum CRP level was highly elevated in all patients (10.16+/-5.35 mg/dL). Computed tomography of the cervical spine demonstrated linear calcific deposits in the transverse ligament of atlas (crowned dens syndrome) in all patients. Calcific deposits were also found in other periodontoid structures and the ligamenta flava in some patients. Posterior neck pain, fever, and increased serum inflammatory indicators were relieved within 1 to 3 weeks by nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) or a combination of NSAIDs and prednisolone. Most of the patients were misdiagnosed as having other diseases before consultation. CPPD crystal deposition disease of the cervical spine is one of the most common underrecognized causes of acute neck pain in the neurology department, especially in elderly patients. 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Oesophageal perforation caused by screw displacement 16 months following anterior cervical spine fixation

    PubMed Central

    Leaver, Nicholas; Colby, Alexandra; Appleton, Nathan; Vimalachandran, Dale

    2015-01-01

    Anterior cervical spine plating is a standard procedure for fixing unstable vertebral fractures. Following surgery, oesophageal perforation has an incidence of 0.25% and this is usually hours following surgery, due to over prominent screws or friction between the oesophagus and the plate. Instrumentation failure of these plates months or years following surgery is very rare but potentially life-threatening. We report a case of microcytic anaemia which was investigated by oesophagogastroduodenoscopy, and subsequently found that a screw from the anterior plate had lifted off and perforated the oesophagus. This is very rare, but emphasises an important lesson. Anyone presenting with gastrointestinal bleeding or infectious signs, with a history of cervical spine plating should be investigated immediately for instrumentation failure as it brings a high mortality. PMID:25796082

  16. Gunshot-caused Facial Injury Combined with Lower Cervical Spine Injury: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Wang, J; Ye, C Y; Zhu, M Y; Yuan, J D; Ten, H L

    2014-08-01

    A 32-year old male patient was wounded by a pistol. As shown in computed tomography (CT) scanning images, there was comminuted fracture of the left mandible and the bullet was found in the left side behind the sixth cervical vertebra. After the patient was hospitalized, the debridement was done in the emergency room and the operation of open reduction and internal fixation for comminuted fracture of left mandible was performed successfully. Eighteen days later, the patient was taken to surgery for anterior cervical decompression and fusion with autogenous iliac bone grafting for the sixth cervical vertebra. Postoperative follow-up of the patient over two years indicated that the left biceps muscle strength was recovered to level 4. Gunshot wound to the face associated with injury of the low cervical spine has the possibility of survival. It is safe to treat facial wounds early in the patient's treatment course, even if the bullet remains in the cervical vertebral body and there is neurological function damage.

  17. Gunshot-caused Facial Injury Combined with Lower Cervical Spine Injury: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Wang, J; Ye, CY; Zhu, MY; Yuan, JD; Ten, HL

    2014-01-01

    A 32-year old male patient was wounded by a pistol. As shown in computed tomography (CT) scanning images, there was comminuted fracture of the left mandible and the bullet was found in the left side behind the sixth cervical vertebra. After the patient was hospitalized, the debridement was done in the emergency room and the operation of open reduction and internal fixation for comminuted fracture of left mandible was performed successfully. Eighteen days later, the patient was taken to surgery for anterior cervical decompression and fusion with autogenous iliac bone grafting for the sixth cervical vertebra. Postoperative follow-up of the patient over two years indicated that the left biceps muscle strength was recovered to level 4. Gunshot wound to the face associated with injury of the low cervical spine has the possibility of survival. It is safe to treat facial wounds early in the patient's treatment course, even if the bullet remains in the cervical vertebral body and there is neurological function damage. PMID:25429487

  18. Leiomyosarcoma metastatic to the cervical spine causing a C6 compression fracture: A case report

    PubMed Central

    SUN, ZHENZHONG; WANG, HENG; YANG, HUILIN; JIANG, WEIMIN

    2014-01-01

    Leiomyosarcoma is a rare malignant tumor derived from smooth muscle cells, which commonly metastasizes to the lungs, liver, kidney, brain and skin. The current study presents the case of a 42-year-old male who presented with progressive neck pain and numbness of the left arm. Spinal computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging revealed osteolytic lesions of numerous vertebrae (C2, C3, C4, C5, C6, C7, T1 and T2). With regard to the C6 vertebra, total destruction of the vertebral body resulted in vertebral collapse and subsequent spinal cord compression. The patient underwent an anterior C6 corpectomy, reconstruction with a mesh cage filled with polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) and open PMMA infusion to C5 and C7. The surgical procedure significantly alleviated the symptoms and obtained a reliable reconstruction. The clinical follow-up examination at 13 months was uneventful with the exception of mild numbness of the left hand since the surgery. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case of leiomyosarcoma recurrence presenting in the cervical spine, and the present study provides insight into the use of a surgical technique that has rarely been used in the cervical spine. PMID:24959258

  19. [Cervical spine instability in the surgical patient].

    PubMed

    Barbeito, A; Guerri-Guttenberg, R A

    2014-03-01

    Many congenital and acquired diseases, including trauma, may result in cervical spine instability. Given that airway management is closely related to the movement of the cervical spine, it is important that the anesthesiologist has detailed knowledge of the anatomy, the mechanisms of cervical spine instability, and of the effects that the different airway maneuvers have on the cervical spine. We first review the normal anatomy and biomechanics of the cervical spine in the context of airway management and the concept of cervical spine instability. In the second part, we review the protocols for the management of cervical spine instability in trauma victims and some of the airway management options for these patients.

  20. Cervical spine injuries in football.

    PubMed

    Breslow, M J; Rosen, J E

    2000-01-01

    The game of football, as it is played today, poses serious risk of injury for players of all ages. Injury may occur to any structure of the spinal column, including its bony, ligamentous and soft tissue components. The majority of cervical spine injuries occurring in football are self limited, and a full recovery can be expected. While these injuries are relatively uncommon, cervical spine injuries represent a significant proportion of athletic injuries that can produce permanent disability. The low incidence of cervical spine injuries has lead to a lack of emergency management experience of on-site medical staff. This paper will review the numerous injuries sustained by the cervical spine in football players and provide insights into prevention and guidelines for return to play.

  1. CERVICAL SPINE LESIONS IN RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS PATIENTS.

    PubMed

    Macovei, Luana-Andreea; Rezuş, Elena

    2016-01-01

    to gather clinical and laboratory data on rheumatoid arthritis patients with cervical spine damage (incidence and prevalence, correlation between duration of disease and the time of lesion onset, to assess signs and symptoms and the role of laboratory investigations). The spine is an axial organ with an important role in support and resistance. It is a pillar with a very complex morphological and functional structure. The vertebral column is crossed by many kinematic chains. The main problem of the cervical spine caused by rheumatoid arthritis is cervical instability which describes all cervical lesions that can lead to neurovascular damage or major disturbance of pain generating statics at movement. The evolving disease shows chronic inflammation of the synovium, which is a self-maintained process and an immunologically induced phenomenon. The chronic inflammation of the synovium forms granulation tissue that invades peripheral joints towards the center and causes ligament cartilage and bone damage. The present paper investigated cervical spine lesions in 107 rheumatoid arthritis patients who were admitted to the 1st Rheumatology Clinic of Iasi Rehabilitation Hospital between January 2013 and December 2014. Our study focused on assessing signs and symptoms seen in spine affected by rheumatic disease. the disease causes destructive lesions due to granulomatous infiltration of rachidian structures and medullary sheaths. These lesions lead to damaged discs and instability that produces subluxations and dislocations. The suboccipital region is most affected; in other regions of the spine, high lesions of C4-C5 prevail, where osteolysis damage of spinal apophyses are found. In atlas and axis joints, rheumatoid arthritis causes the inflammation of bursa, synovium and joint capsule and leads to synovial pannus formation. This causes the destruction of cartilage and subchondral bone. Atlantoaxial dislocation is caused by erosive synovitis of atlanto-epistrophic joint

  2. Airway management for cervical spine surgery.

    PubMed

    Farag, Ehab

    2016-03-01

    Cervical spine surgery is one of the most commonly performed spine surgeries in the United States, and 90% of the cases are related to degenerative cervical spine disease (the rest to cervical spine trauma and/or instability). The airway management for cervical spine surgery represents a crucial step in the anesthetic management to avoid injury to the cervical cord. The crux for upper airway management for cervical spine surgery is maintaining the neck in a neutral position with minimal neck movement during endotracheal intubation. Therefore, the conventional direct laryngoscopy (DL) can be unsuitable for securing the upper airway in cervical spine surgery, especially in cases of cervical spine instability and myelopathy. This review discusses the most recent evidence-based facts of the main advantages and limitations of different techniques available for upper airway management for cervical spine surgery.

  3. X-Ray Exam: Cervical Spine

    MedlinePlus

    ... to 2-Year-Old X-Ray Exam: Cervical Spine KidsHealth > For Parents > X-Ray Exam: Cervical Spine Print A A A What's in this article? ... Radiografía: columna cervical What It Is A cervical spine X-ray is a safe and painless test ...

  4. X-Ray Exam: Cervical Spine

    MedlinePlus

    ... to 2-Year-Old X-Ray Exam: Cervical Spine KidsHealth > For Parents > X-Ray Exam: Cervical Spine A A A What's in this article? What ... Radiografía: columna cervical What It Is A cervical spine X-ray is a safe and painless test ...

  5. Cervical spine injury: tiger attack.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Meredith; Utter, Philip; Szatkowski, Jan; Patrick, Todd; Duncan, William; Turner, Norman; Dekutoski, Mark

    2008-12-01

    Reports of tiger attacks in the United States are rare. This article presents a case of a young woman who was violently attacked by a Siberian tiger and sustained penetrating trauma to the neck, cervical spine, and bilateral lower extremities. This article presents both diagnostic and therapeutic management of patients who may present with similar injuries. Animal bites from large animals are prone to infection in 10% to 20% of cases. Most infections are polymicrobial, with Pasteurella multicida being the most common isolate. Animal bites also mandate consideration of tetanus and rabies prophylaxis. The decision to administer postexposure rabies prophylaxis is dependent on the type of animal involved, whether the exposure was provoked, the local epidemiology of rabies, and the availability of the animal for observation or testing. Assessment of patients with cervical spine injury requires knowledge of possible associated injuries. Evaluation involves assessment of plain radiographs and computed tomography for evaluation of the cervical spine for bony injury. Furthermore, computed angiography is advantageous to noninvasively evaluate carotid or vertebral artery injury at the same setting in patients with deep cervical puncture wounds. Surgical treatment of unstable cervical spine fractures with lateral mass screw and rod fixation has been reported in the literature to have superior biomechanical properties compared to anterior and posterior instrumentation and fusion. In recent clinical studies, the use of lateral mass screws for traumatic injury of the cervical spine has been associated with excellent maintenance of alignment and minimal complications.

  6. Arrow trauma to cervical spine.

    PubMed

    Geissinger, Gregory; Magid, Gail A; McMahon, Robert C

    2009-07-01

    A 50-year-old man was the victim of an accidental arrow shooting while hunting. The arrow entered his posterolateral neck and came to rest in the space between the C1/C2 vertebrae in his cervical spine. He was able to maintain his own cervical immobilization. His hunting partners drove him to meet emergency medical technicians, who stabilized the arrow shaft, transferred him to a backboard and gurney, and continued manual cervical immobilization en route to a local hospital. Cervical spine X-ray results compelled an air ambulance transfer to a trauma center where he underwent surgical intervention to remove the arrow. Following approximately 12 months of physical and occupational therapy, he returned to work full-time. Adherence to training and utilization of proven techniques involving pre-hospital transfers and positioning of cervically injured patients proved imperative to the patient's ultimate recovery.

  7. Head and Cervical Spine Evaluation for the Pediatric Surgeon.

    PubMed

    Arbuthnot, Mary K; Mooney, David P; Glenn, Ian C

    2017-02-01

    This article is designed to guide pediatric surgeons in the evaluation and stabilization of blunt head and cervical spine injuries in pediatric patients. Trauma remains the number one cause of morbidity and mortality among children, and the incidence of head injuries continues to rise. Cervical spine injuries, on the other hand, are unusual but can be devastating if missed. This article highlights the pathophysiology unique to pediatric head and cervical spine trauma as well as keys to clinical and diagnostic evaluation.

  8. Osteotomies in the Cervical Spine

    PubMed Central

    Nemani, Venu M.; Derman, Peter B.

    2016-01-01

    Rigid cervical deformities are difficult problems to treat. The goals of surgical treatment include deformity correction, achieving a rigid fusion, and performing a thorough neural decompression. In stiff and ankylosed cervical spines, osteotomies are required to restore sagittal and coronal balance. In this chapter, we describe the clinical and radiographic workup for patients with cervical deformities, and delineate the various factors that must be considered when planning surgical treatment. We also describe in detail the various types of cervical osteotomies, along with their surgical technique, advantages, and potential complications. PMID:26949476

  9. Cervical Exercise: The Backbone of Spine Treatment

    MedlinePlus

    Cervical Exercise: The Backbone of Spine Treatment How important is it? What can be done? North American Spine Society ... you should see your physician before starting any exercises. The Importance of Exercise for the Neck Spine ...

  10. Cervical Spine Injuries in the Athlete.

    PubMed

    Schroeder, Gregory D; Vaccaro, Alexander R

    2016-09-01

    Cervical spine injuries are extremely common and range from relatively minor injuries, such as cervical muscle strains, to severe, life-threatening cervical fractures with spinal cord injuries. Although cervical spine injuries are most common in athletes who participate in contact and collision sports, such as American football and rugby, they also have been reported in athletes who participate in noncontact sports, such as baseball, gymnastics, and diving. Cervical spine injuries in athletes are not necessarily the result of substantial spine trauma; some athletes have chronic conditions, such as congenital stenosis, that increase their risk for a serious cervical spine injury after even minor trauma. Therefore, physicians who cover athletic events must have a thorough knowledge of cervical spine injures and the most appropriate ways in which they should be managed. Although cervical spine injuries can be career-ending injuries, athletes often are able to return to play after appropriate treatment if the potential for substantial re-injury is minimized.

  11. Management of Cervical Spine Injuries in Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Bailes, Julian E; Petschauer, Meredith; Guskiewicz, Kevin M; Marano, Gary

    2007-01-01

    Objective: Although the incidence of catastrophic cervical spine injury in sport has been significantly reduced over the past 3 decades, the injury warrants continued attention because of the altered quality of life that often accompanies such an injury. The purpose of our literature review was to provide athletic trainers with an understanding of the mechanisms, anatomical structures, and complications often associated with sport-related cervical spine injury. We also present the most current recommendations for management and treatment of these potentially catastrophic injuries. Data Sources: A review of the most pertinent literature between 1970 and 2005 was conducted using MEDLINE and the search terms spinal cord injury, cervical spine injury, neurosurgical trauma, cervical spinal stenosis, and catastrophic spine injury. Data Synthesis: Flexion of the head places the cervical spine into a straight line and prevents the neck musculature from assisting in force absorption. This mechanism is the primary cause of cervical fracture, dislocation, and quadriplegia. The most serious of the syndromes described in the literature involves a complete spinal cord injury with transverse myelopathy. This injury typically results in total loss of spinal function below the level of the lesion. Conclusions/Recommendations: Spinal trauma may result in a variety of clinical syndromes, according to the type and severity of the impact and bony displacement, as well as subsequent secondary insults such as hemorrhage, ischemia, and edema. Athletic trainers should be prepared to promptly recognize these potentially catastrophic injuries and follow the recommendations of the Inter-Association Task Force for the Appropriate Care of the Spine Injured Athlete in managing such injuries. PMID:17597954

  12. Cervical spine in Treacher Collins syndrome.

    PubMed

    Pun, Amy Hoi-Ying; Clark, Bruce Eric; David, David John; Anderson, Peter John

    2012-05-01

    Treacher Collins syndrome is a congenital syndrome with characteristic craniofacial malformations, which are well described in the literature. However, the presence of cervical spine dysmorphology in this syndrome has been minimally described. This study reviews cervical spine radiographs of 40 patients with Treacher Collins syndrome. In this sample, 7 of 40 patients displayed cervical spine anomalies, with 3 of these patients displaying multiple cervical spine anomalies. The patterns of spinal anomalies were variable, suggesting that the underlying genetic mutation has variable expressivity in cervical spine development as it does elsewhere in the craniofacial skeleton.

  13. Developmental biomechanics of the human cervical spine.

    PubMed

    Nuckley, David J; Linders, David R; Ching, Randal P

    2013-04-05

    Head and neck injuries, the leading cause of death for children in the U.S., are difficult to diagnose, treat, and prevent because of a critical void in our understanding of the biomechanical response of the immature cervical spine. The objective of this study was to investigate the functional and failure biomechanics of the cervical spine across multiple axes of loading throughout maturation. A correlational study design was used to examine the relationships governing spinal maturation and biomechanical flexibility curves and tolerance data using a cadaver human in vitro model. Eleven human cadaver cervical spines from across the developmental spectrum (2-28 years) were dissected into segments (C1-C2, C3-C5, and C6-C7) for biomechanical testing. Non-destructive flexibility tests were performed in tension, compression, flexion, extension, lateral bending, and axial rotation. After measuring their intact biomechanical responses, each segment group was failed in different modes to measure the tissue tolerance in tension (C1-C2), compression (C3-C5), and extension (C5-C6). Classical injury patterns were observed in all of the specimens tested. Both the functional (p<0.014) and failure (p<0.0001) mechanics exhibited significant relationships with age. Nonlinear flexibility curves described the functional response of the cervical spine throughout maturation and elucidated age, spinal level, and mode of loading specificity. These data support our understanding of the child cervical spine from a developmental perspective and facilitate the generation of injury prevention or management schema for the mitigation of child spine injuries and their deleterious effects.

  14. Vertebral artery injuries in cervical spine surgery.

    PubMed

    Lunardini, David J; Eskander, Mark S; Even, Jesse L; Dunlap, James T; Chen, Antonia F; Lee, Joon Y; Ward, Timothy W; Kang, James D; Donaldson, William F

    2014-08-01

    Vertebral artery injuries (VAIs) are rare but serious complications of cervical spine surgery, with the potential to cause catastrophic bleeding, permanent neurologic impairment, and even death. The present literature regarding incidence of this complication largely comprises a single surgeon or small multicenter case series. We sought to gather a large sample of high-volume surgeons to adequately characterize the incidence and risk factors for VAI, management strategies used, and patient outcomes after VAI. The study was constructed as a cross-sectional study comprising all cervical spine patients operated on by the members of the international Cervical Spine Research Society (CSRS). All patients who have undergone cervical spine surgery by a current member of CSRS as of the spring of 2012. For each surgeon surveyed, we collected self-reported measures to include the number of cervical cases performed in the surgeon's career, the number of VAIs encountered, the stage of the case during which the injury occurred, the management strategies used, and the overall patient outcome after injury. An anonymous 10-question web-based survey was distributed to the members of the CSRS. Statistical analysis was performed using Student t tests for numerical outcomes and chi-squared analysis for categorical variables. One hundred forty-one CSRS members (of 195 total, 72%) responded to the survey, accounting for a total of 163,324 cervical spine surgeries performed. The overall incidence of VAI was 0.07% (111/163,324). Posterior instrumentation of the upper cervical spine (32.4%), anterior corpectomy (23.4%), and posterior exposure of the cervical spine (11.7%) were the most common stages of the case to result in an injury to the vertebral artery. Discectomy (9%) and anterior exposure of the spine (7.2%) were also common time points for an arterial injury. One-fifth (22/111) of all VAI involved an anomalous course of the vertebral artery. The most common management of VAI was by

  15. Cervical Exercise: The Backbone of Spine Treatment

    MedlinePlus

    Cervical Exercise: The Backbone of Spine Treatment How important is it? What can be done? North American Spine Society Public Education Series ... flow comes to the area to help repair injury. Your ability to function in your daily activities ...

  16. Anterior Cervical Spine Surgery for Degenerative Disease: A Review

    PubMed Central

    SUGAWARA, Taku

    Anterior cervical spine surgery is an established surgical intervention for cervical degenerative disease and high success rate with excellent long-term outcomes have been reported. However, indications of surgical procedures for certain conditions are still controversial and severe complications to cause neurological dysfunction or deaths may occur. This review is focused mainly on five widely performed procedures by anterior approach for cervical degenerative disease; anterior cervical discectomy, anterior cervical discectomy and fusion, anterior cervical corpectomy and fusion, anterior cervical foraminotomy, and arthroplasty. Indications, procedures, outcomes, and complications of these surgeries are discussed. PMID:26119899

  17. Sagittal alignment of the cervical spine after neck injury.

    PubMed

    Beltsios, Michail; Savvidou, Olga; Mitsiokapa, Evanthia A; Mavrogenis, Andreas F; Kaspiris, Angelos; Efstathopoulos, Nikolaos; Papagelopoulos, Panayiotis J

    2013-07-01

    The normal sagittal alignment of the cervical spine is lordotic and is affected by the posture of the head and neck. The question of whether loss of cervical lordosis is the result of muscle spasm after injury or a normal variation, and the clinical significance of such changes in sagittal profile of the cervical spine has been an issue of several studies. The purpose of this paper is to study the incidence of normal cervical lordosis and its changes after neck injury compared to the healthy population. We studied the lateral radiographs of the cervical spine of 60 patients with neck injury compared to 100 patients without a neck injury. Lateral radiographs were obtained in the standing or sitting position, and the curvature of the cervical spine was measured using the angle formed between the inferior end plates of the C2 and C7 vertebrae. In the patients without neck injury, lordotic and straight cervical spine sagittal alignment was observed in 36.5% each, double curvature in 17%, and kyphotic in 10%. In the patients with neck injury, lordotic sagittal alignment was observed in 36%, straight in 34%, double curvature in 26% and kyphotic in 4%. No significant difference between the two groups regarding all types of sagittal alignment of the cervical spine was found (p > 0.100). The alterations in normal cervical lordosis in patients with neck injury must be considered coincidental. These alterations should not be associated with muscle spasm caused by neck pain.

  18. Complications of Anterior and Posterior Cervical Spine Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Cheung, Jason Pui Yin

    2016-01-01

    Cervical spine surgery performed for the correct indications yields good results. However, surgeons need to be mindful of the many possible pitfalls. Complications may occur starting from the anaesthestic procedure and patient positioning to dura exposure and instrumentation. This review examines specific complications related to anterior and posterior cervical spine surgery, discusses their causes and considers methods to prevent or treat them. In general, avoiding complications is best achieved with meticulous preoperative analysis of the pathology, good patient selection for a specific procedure and careful execution of the surgery. Cervical spine surgery is usually effective in treating most pathologies and only a reasonable complication rate exists. PMID:27114784

  19. Cervical Spine MRI in Abused Infants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feldman, Kenneth W.; And Others

    1997-01-01

    This study attempted to use cervical spine magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to detect cord injury in 12 dead children with head injury from child abuse. Eighty percent of children autopsied had small cervical spine hemorrhages; MRI did not identify them and did not identify cord injury in any child studied, indicating that MRI scans are probably…

  20. Cervical Spine MRI in Abused Infants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feldman, Kenneth W.; And Others

    1997-01-01

    This study attempted to use cervical spine magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to detect cord injury in 12 dead children with head injury from child abuse. Eighty percent of children autopsied had small cervical spine hemorrhages; MRI did not identify them and did not identify cord injury in any child studied, indicating that MRI scans are probably…

  1. Pediatric Cervical Spine Injuries: A Rare But Challenging Entity.

    PubMed

    Baumann, Florian; Ernstberger, Toni; Neumann, Carsten; Nerlich, Michael; Schroeder, Gregory D; Vaccaro, Alexander R; Loibl, Markus

    2015-08-01

    Injuries to the cervical spine in pediatric patients are uncommon. A missed injury can have devastating consequences in this age group. Because of the lack of routine in diagnosis and management of pediatric cervical spine injuries (PCSI), each of these cases represents a logistic and personal challenge. By means of clinical cases, we demonstrate key points in diagnostics and treatment of pediatric spine injuries. We highlight typical pediatric injury patterns and more adult-like injuries. The most common cause of injury is blunt trauma. There is an age-related pattern of injuries in pediatric patients. Children under the age of 8 frequently sustain ligamentous injuries in the upper cervical spine. After the age of 8, the biomechanics of the cervical spine are similar to adults, and therefore, bony injuries of the subaxial cervical spine are most likely to occur. Clinical presentation of PCSI is heterogeneous. Younger children can neither interpret nor communicate neurological abnormalities, which make timely and accurate diagnosis difficult. Plain radiographs are often misinterpreted. We find different types of injuries at different locations, because of different biomechanical properties of the immature spine. We outline that initial management is crucial for long-term outcome. Knowledge of biomechanical properties and radiographic presentation of the immature spine can improve the awareness for PCSI. Diagnosis and management of pediatric patients after neck trauma can be demanding. Level IV.

  2. Congenital anomalies of the cervical spine.

    PubMed

    Klimo, Paul; Rao, Ganesh; Brockmeyer, Douglas

    2007-07-01

    There are numerous congenital anomalies of the cervical spine. They can be simple and clinically inconsequential to complex with serious neurologic and structural implications. They can occur in isolation or as one of several maldeveloped organs in the patients. Many are discovered incidentally. The more common anomalies seen by pediatric spine surgeons include defects of the anterior or posterior arches of C1, occipital assimilation of the atlas, basilar invagination or impression, os odontoideum, and Klippel-Feil syndrome. Management begins with a detailed history, physical examination, and imaging studies. In general, those lesions that are causing or have caused neurologic injury, chronic pain, or spinal deformity or place the patient at high risk for developing these require treatment.

  3. Cervical spine trauma in the pediatric patient.

    PubMed

    Klimo, Paul; Ware, Marcus L; Gupta, Nalin; Brockmeyer, Douglas

    2007-10-01

    Injuries to the pediatric cervical spine occur infrequently. Numerous unique anatomic and biomechanical features of the pediatric spine render it much more flexible than the adult spine. These features give rise to significant differences in the presentation, diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis of pediatric cervical trauma compared with adults. Younger children more often suffer injury to the upper cervical spine with greater neurologic injury and fewer fractures. Once the child reaches the age of 10 years, he or she develops a more adult-type spine, and injuries are thus more similar to those seen in the adult population. The unique anatomic and biomechanical differences in the pediatric spine are discussed, along with the various common and unique injuries.

  4. Clearing the cervical spine in obtunded patients.

    PubMed

    Harris, Tyler J; Blackmore, C Craig; Mirza, Sohail K; Jurkovich, Gregory J

    2008-06-15

    Retrospective cohort study. To determine the frequency of injuries missed by initial computed tomography (CT) of the cervical spine in obtunded blunt trauma victims. Optimal method for excluding cervical spine injury in obtunded trauma patients remains controversial. Trauma centers show marked variation in spine clearance protocols. We reviewed medical records of consecutive obtunded blunt trauma victims admitted over 2 years to a level 1 trauma center and selected patients who had CT imaging of the cervical spine during their initial emergency room evaluation. We excluded patients in whom this study identified an injury and also patients who became examinable before subsequent imaging with upright cervical spine radiographs, as required by institutional protocol. Using composite reference standard of cervical injury diagnosed by subsequent imaging or clinical examinations by the time of discharge from the hospital, we evaluated the frequency and type of injuries missed by the initial CT and the delay in spine clearance due to additional imaging. Of 590 screened patients, 367 met the inclusion and exclusion criteria. The study cohort had mean age 40.2 years (SD 20.8), 75.5% males, mean Glasgow Coma Scale score 5.9 (SD 3.4), and mean Injury Severity Scale score 24.5 (SD 10). Initial CT imaging failed to identify an injury in 1 patient, for a false negative rate of 0.3% (1/367): a cervical cord contusion identified on subsequent physical examination, confirmed by magnetic resonance imaging, and managed nonoperatively. Upright cervical spine radiographs did not identify any injuries missed by CT, but they delayed spine clearance by a mean of 2.6 days and by more than 48 hours in 42% of the patients. Initial CT imaging identified all unstable cervical spine injuries in obtunded trauma patients. Subsequent upright radiographs did not identify any additional injuries but significantly delayed spine clearance.

  5. [Upper cervical spine fracture: sources of misdiagnosis].

    PubMed

    Cusmano, F; Ferrozzi, F; Uccelli, M; Bassi, S

    1999-10-01

    Missing cervical spine fractures during the initial plain film study may lead to severe neurological complications for patients and to medicolegal responsibilities for the physician. The upper cervical spine tract (C1-C2) is considered to be at high risk for misdiagnoses. We decided to investigate the possible causes of mistake in the cases of missed fractures on the initial plain film, performed in the emergency room. We retrospectively reviewed the radiological reports, the original plain films and the CT findings, of 32 patients with upper cervical (C1-C2) fractures, admitted January 1994 to December 1998. Twenty-eight of these patients (87.5%) had multisystem trauma, 4 (12.5%) had minor craniocervical trauma. None of these patients had neurological signs correlated to the cervical injuries, 30 of them had normal consciousness and reported only neck pain, 2 of them were unconscious for the associated head trauma and were hospitalized in the intensive care unit. All the patients with normal consciousness underwent conventional three-view cervical spine radiography; the two unconscious patients in the intensive care unit were submitted to bedside examination with an anteroposterior and a lateral views of the cervical spine. All patients underwent spiral CT of the upper cervical tract. In 9 of 32 patients (28%) a cervical fracture was missed on the plain film and CT was performed only because of persistent neck pain. We found 2 Jefferson's fractures, 2 type II dens fractures, one type I dens fracture and 4 hangman's fractures. In 8 of the 9 patients (89%) the fracture was potentially unstable. Misdiagnoses resulted from overlapping bone structures (3%), suboptimal film quality (3%), satisfaction of search phenomenon (3%), missed mild tilting of the dens (6%), missed double cortex sign (16%), missed C1-C2 lateral subluxation (6%) and marked osteoporosis (3%). Prevertebral soft tissue swelling was not seen in any of the 9 cases of missed fractures. Considering the

  6. Most Cited Publications in Cervical Spine Surgery.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yu Chao; Brooks, Francis; Sandler, Simon; Yau, Yun-Hom; Selby, Michael; Freeman, Brian

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to perform a citation analysis on the most frequently cited articles in the topic of cervical spine surgery and report on the top 100 most cited publication in this topic. We used the Thomson Reuters Web of Science to search citations of all articles from 1945 to 2015 relevant to cervical spine surgery and ranked them according to the number of citations. The 100 most cited articles that matched the search criteria were further analyzed by number of citations, first author, journal, year of publication, country and institution of origin. The top 100 cited articles in the topic of cervical spine surgery were published from 1952-2011. The number of citations ranged from 106 times for the 100th paper to 1206 times for the top paper. The decade of 1990-1999 saw the most publications. The Journal of Spine published the most articles, followed by Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery America. Investigators from America authored the most papers and The University of California contributed the most publications. Cervical spine fusion was the most common topic published with 36 papers, followed by surgical technique and trauma. This article identifies the 100 most cited articles in cervical spine surgery. It has provided insight to the history and development in cervical spine surgery and many of which have shaped the way we practice today.

  7. Most Cited Publications in Cervical Spine Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Brooks, Francis; Sandler, Simon; Yau, Yun-Hom; Selby, Michael; Freeman, Brian

    2017-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study is to perform a citation analysis on the most frequently cited articles in the topic of cervical spine surgery and report on the top 100 most cited publication in this topic. Methods We used the Thomson Reuters Web of Science to search citations of all articles from 1945 to 2015 relevant to cervical spine surgery and ranked them according to the number of citations. The 100 most cited articles that matched the search criteria were further analyzed by number of citations, first author, journal, year of publication, country and institution of origin. Results The top 100 cited articles in the topic of cervical spine surgery were published from 1952-2011. The number of citations ranged from 106 times for the 100th paper to 1206 times for the top paper. The decade of 1990-1999 saw the most publications. The Journal of Spine published the most articles, followed by Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery America. Investigators from America authored the most papers and The University of California contributed the most publications. Cervical spine fusion was the most common topic published with 36 papers, followed by surgical technique and trauma. Conclusion This article identifies the 100 most cited articles in cervical spine surgery. It has provided insight to the history and development in cervical spine surgery and many of which have shaped the way we practice today. PMID:28765803

  8. Cervical spine fracture in a patient with ankylosing spondylitis causing a C2-T9 spinal epidural hematoma- Treatment resulted in a rapid and complete recovery from tetraplegia: Case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Wong, Albert Sii Hieng; Yu, Denis Hee Youg

    2015-01-01

    Full recovery from tetraplegia is uncommon in cervical spine injury. This has not being reported for cervical spine fracture in a patient with ankylosing spondylitis causing spinal epidural hematoma. We report on a case of cervical spine fracture in a patient with ankylosing spondylitis who came with tetraplegia. He underwent a two stage fixation and fusion. He had a complete recovery. Two hours after the operation he regained full strength in all the limbs while in the Intensive Care Unit. He went back to full employment. There are only two other reports in the literature where patients with ankylosing spondylitis and extradural hematoma who underwent treatment within 12 h and recovered completely from tetraparesis and paraplegia respectively. Patient with ankylosing spondylitis has a higher incidence of spinal fracture and extradural hematoma. Good outcome can be achieved by early diagnosis and treatment. This can ensure not only a stable spine, but also a rapid and complete recovery in a tetraplegic patient.

  9. Cervical spine injuries in pediatric patients.

    PubMed

    Platzer, Patrick; Jaindl, Manuela; Thalhammer, Gerhild; Dittrich, Stefan; Kutscha-Lissberg, Florian; Vecsei, Vilmos; Gaebler, Christian

    2007-02-01

    Cervical spine injuries are uncommon in pediatric trauma patients. Previous studies were often limited by the small numbers of patients available for evaluation. The aim of this study was to determine the incidence and characteristics of pediatric cervical spine injuries at this Level 1 trauma center and to review the authors' experiences with documented cases. This study retrospectively analyzed the clinical records of all pediatric trauma patients with skeletal and/or nonskeletal injuries of the spine that were admitted to this Level 1 trauma center between 1980 and 2004. Those with significant injuries of the cervical spine were identified and included in this study. Pediatric patients were defined as patients younger than the age of 17 years. In addition, they were stratified by age into two study groups: group A included patients aged 8 years or fewer and group B contained patients from the ages of 9 to 16 years. We found 56 pediatric patients with injuries of the cervical spine that met criteria for inclusion. Thirty-one female and 25 male patients with an average age of 8.9 years (range, 1-16 years) sustained significant skeletal and/or nonskeletal injuries of the cervical spine and were entered in this study. Thirty patients (54%) were aged 8 years or fewer and entered into study group A, whereas 26 patients (46%) from the ages of 9 to 16 met criteria for inclusion in study group B. An analysis of data revealed that younger patients (group A) showed significantly more injuries of the upper cervical spine, whereas older children (group B) sustained significantly more injuries of the lower level. Spinal cord injuries without radiographic findings were only found in study group A. In addition, younger children were more likely injured by motor vehicle crashes, whereas older children more commonly sustained C-spine injuries during sports activities. Two-thirds of our patients showed neurologic deficits, and the overall mortality was 28%. The results of our

  10. Cervical spine injuries in football players.

    PubMed

    Thomas, B E; McCullen, G M; Yuan, H A

    1999-01-01

    Cervical spine injuries have been estimated to occur in 10% to 15% of football players, most commonly in linemen, defensive ends, and linebackers. The overwhelming majority of such injuries are self-limited, and full recovery can be expected. However, the presenting symptoms of serious cervical spine injuries may closely resemble those of minor injuries. The orthopaedic surgeon frequently must make a judgment, on the field or later in the office, about the advisability of returning the athlete to the game. These decisions can have an enormous impact on the player and his family. Most severe cervical spine injuries share the common mechanism of application of an axial load to the straightened spine. Avoiding techniques that employ head-down "spear" tackling and wearing properly fitted equipment markedly reduce the risk of serious injury.

  11. Micromechanics of Minor Cervical Spine Injuries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niederer, Peter F.; Schmitt, Kai-Uwe; Muser, Markus H.; Walz, Felix H.

    Minor soft tissue injuries of the cervical spine are of increasing significance in public health. They may in particular be associated with long-term impairment. Such injuries are observed primarily in rear-end automobile collisions at low impact speeds and are attributed to a “whiplash”-type event. The question with respect to injury mechanisms of the cervical spine in cases of impacts of a low severity have raised controversial views in the past. Among proposed injury mechanisms, interactions between fluid and solid structures have been postulated: Viscous shear stresses or pressure gradients which arise in the deforming anatomical structures may have an adverse influence, e. g., on cellular membranes. In this communication, mathematical modeling approaches are presented which allow for a quantification of fluid/solid interactions under typical loading conditions of interest here. It is found, that the shear stresses caused by fluids and acting on accelerated surfaces of fluid-filled bodies depend largely on the size of the fluid space under consideration. Accelerations exhibit a stronger influence than their duration. It cannot be excluded that critical levels are reached even in a low speed impact scenario.

  12. Airway management in cervical spine injury

    PubMed Central

    Austin, Naola; Krishnamoorthy, Vijay; Dagal, Arman

    2014-01-01

    To minimize risk of spinal cord injury, airway management providers must understand the anatomic and functional relationship between the airway, cervical column, and spinal cord. Patients with known or suspected cervical spine injury may require emergent intubation for airway protection and ventilatory support or elective intubation for surgery with or without rigid neck stabilization (i.e., halo). To provide safe and efficient care in these patients, practitioners must identify high-risk patients, be comfortable with available methods of airway adjuncts, and know how airway maneuvers, neck stabilization, and positioning affect the cervical spine. This review discusses the risks and benefits of various airway management strategies as well as specific concerns that affect patients with known or suspected cervical spine injury. PMID:24741498

  13. Cervical spine reposition errors after cervical flexion and extension.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xu; Lindstroem, René; Carstens, Niels Peter Bak; Graven-Nielsen, Thomas

    2017-03-13

    Upright head and neck position has been frequently applied as baseline for diagnosis of neck problems. However, the variance of the position after cervical motions has never been demonstrated. Thus, it is unclear if the baseline position varies evenly across the cervical joints. The purpose was to assess reposition errors of upright cervical spine. Cervical reposition errors were measured in twenty healthy subjects (6 females) using video-fluoroscopy. Two flexion movements were performed with a 20 s interval, the same was repeated for extension, with an interval of 5 min between flexion and extension movements. Cervical joint positions were assessed with anatomical landmarks and external markers in a Matlab program. Reposition errors were extracted in degrees (initial position minus reposition) as constant errors (CEs) and absolute errors (AEs). Twelve of twenty-eight CEs (7 joints times 4 repositions) exceeded the minimal detectable change (MDC), while all AEs exceeded the MDC. Averaged AEs across the cervical joints were larger after 5 min' intervals compared to 20 s intervals (p < 0.05). This is the first study to demonstrate single joint reposition errors of the cervical spine. The cervical spine returns to the upright positions with a 2° average absolute difference after cervical flexion and extension movements in healthy adults.

  14. Calcium hydroxyapatite crystal deposition with intraosseous penetration involving the posterior aspect of the cervical spine: a previously unreported cause of neck pain.

    PubMed

    Urrutia, Julio; Contreras, Oscar

    2017-05-01

    Calcific tendinitis is a frequent disorder caused by hydroxyapatite crystal deposition; however, bone erosions from calcific tendinitis are unusual. The spinal manifestation of this disease is calcific tendinitis of the longus colli muscle; this disease has never been described in the posterior aspect of the spine. We report a case of calcium hydroxyapatite crystal deposition involving the posterior cervical spine eroding the bone cortex. A 57-year-old woman presented with a 5-month history of left-sided neck pain. Radiographs showed C4-C5 interspinous calcification with lytic compromise of the posterior arch of C4. Magnetic resonance imaging confirmed a lytic lesion of the posterior arch of C4, with a soft tissue mass extending to the C4-C5 interspinous space; calcifications were observed as very low signal intensity areas on T1 and T2 sequences, surrounded by gadolinium-enhanced soft tissues. A computed tomography (CT) scan confirmed the bone erosions and the soft tissue calcifications. A CT-guided needle biopsy was performed; it showed vascularized connective tissue with inflammatory histiocytic infiltration and multinucleated giant cells; Alizarin Red stain confirmed the presence of hydroxyapatite crystals. The patient was treated with anti-inflammatories for 2 weeks. She has been asymptomatic in a 6-month follow-up; a CT scan at the last follow-up revealed reparative remodeling of bone erosions. This is the first report of calcium hydroxyapatite crystal deposition with intraosseous penetration involving the posterior aspect of the cervical spine. Considering that this unusual lesion can be misinterpreted as a tumor or infection, high suspicion is required to avoid unnecessary surgical procedures.

  15. Preoperative Embolization of Cervical Spine Tumors

    SciTech Connect

    Vetter, Sylvia C.; Strecker, Ernst-Peter; Ackermann, Ludwig W.; Harms, Juergen

    1997-09-15

    Purpose: To assess the technical success rate, complications, and effect on intraoperative blood loss of preoperative transarterial embolization of cervical spine tumors. Methods: A retrospective analysis was performed on 38 patients with tumors of the cervical spine; 69 vertebrae were affected. Polyvinyl alcohol particles, coils, gelfoam particles, either alone or in combination, were used for preoperative tumor embolization. After embolization a total of 57 corporectomies with titanium basket implantation were performed. Results: In 36 of 38 patients, complete (n= 27) or partial (n= 9) embolization was achieved. In 23 patients one vertebral artery was completely occluded by coil placement, and in one patient the ipsilateral internal and external carotid arteries were occluded in addition. No neurological complications could be directly related to the embolization, but two postoperative brain stem infarctions occurred. The mean intraoperative blood loss was 2.4 L. Conclusion: Transarterial embolization of cervical spine tumors is a safe and effective procedure to facilitate extensive surgery.

  16. Current Concepts in Pediatric Cervical Spine Trauma.

    PubMed

    Shah, Kunal; Tikoo, Agnivesh; Kothari, Manish K; Nene, Abhay

    2017-01-01

    Pediatric spinal trauma is rare and challenging entity. Although cervical spine is commonly affected, it is often missed on routine imaging investigations. Therefore better understanding of growing spine and its patho-physiology is crucial. Articles related to pediatric cervical trauma were searched on Pubmed and other online research data banks. We have summarized unique anatomy of pediatric spine, investigations followed by common injury patterns, their diagnostic challenges and management. Immature spine follows typical injury patterns, so thorough knowledge of its presentation should be known. Primary physicians should be able to perform initial assessment based on clinical examination and investigations for early diagnosis. High index of suspicion and strategic approach leads to early diagnosis and prevents further morbidity and mortality. Spinal injuries in children are rare and typical. They are often missed and can have fatal consequences. Thorough understanding of pediatric anatomy and injury patterns helps in early diagnosis.

  17. Cervical Spine Fracture With Vertebral Artery Dissection.

    PubMed

    Halfpap, Joshua P; Cho, Aaron A; Rosenthal, Michael D

    2016-10-01

    A 51-year-old man presented to a direct-access physical therapy clinic with persistent neck pain for 5 days after a fall in shallow water while surfing. Based on "dangerous mechanism of injury" from the Canadian cervical spine rule as being a high risk factor, the physical therapist ordered radiographs of the cervical spine, which were suggestive of a more serious injury. Computed tomography suggested and magnetic resonance imaging confirmed vertebral artery dissection. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 2016;46(10):929. doi:10.2519/jospt.2016.0416.

  18. Cervical spine injuries in rugby players.

    PubMed Central

    Sovio, O. M.; Van Peteghem, P. K.; Schweigel, J. F.

    1984-01-01

    Nine patients with serious cervical spine injuries that occurred while they were playing rugby were seen in a British Columbia acute spinal cord injury unit during the period 1975-82. All the injuries had occurred during the "scrum" or the "tackle". Two of the patients were rendered permanently quadriplegic, and one patient died. There is a need for a central registry that would record all cervical spine injuries in rugby players as well as for changes in the rules of the game. Images Fig. 1 PMID:6697282

  19. Impact of intravenous acetaminophen therapy on the necessity of cervical spine imaging in patients with cervical spine trauma.

    PubMed

    Ahmadi, Koorosh; Hashemian, Amir-Masoud; Pishbin, Elham; Sharif-Alhoseini, Mahdi; Rahimi-Movaghar, Vafa

    2014-01-01

    We evaluated a new hypothesis of acetaminophen therapy to reduce the necessity of imaging in patients with probable traumatic cervical spine injury. Patients with acute blunt trauma to the neck and just posterior midline cervical tenderness received acetaminophen (15 mg/kg) intravenously after cervical spine immobilization. Then, all the patients underwent plain radiography and computerized tomography of the cervical spine. The outcome measure was the presence of traumatic cervical spine injury. Sixty minutes after acetaminophen infusion, posterior midline cervical tenderness was reassessed. Of 1 309 patients, 41 had traumatic cervical spine injuries based on imaging. Sixty minutes after infusion, posterior midline cervical tenderness was eliminated in 1 041 patients, none of whom had abnormal imaging. Patients with cervical spine trauma do not need imaging if posterior midline cervical tenderness is eliminated after acetaminophen infusion. This analgesia could be considered as a diagnostic and therapeutic intervention.

  20. ‘Abnormal’ cervical imaging?: Cervical pneumatocysts – A case report of a cervical spine pneumatocyst

    PubMed Central

    Renshaw, Hanna; Patel, Amit; Boctor, Daniel Sherif Zakaria Matta; Hakmi, Mohamed Atef

    2015-01-01

    To our knowledge there are only 15 reported cases of pneumatocysts in the cervical spine, but awareness of their existence should help the clinician when diagnosing abnormalities in radiological images. When faced with intravertebral gas, in addition to considering more sinister causes, one should consider the differentials including pneumatocysts. Despite our relative lack of understanding of these benign lesions the knowledge that they can change over time should prevent unnecessary testing or treating. We present a patient who fell down stairs and was found to have cervical intravertebral gas, on computed tomography imaging, with the typical appearance of a pneumatocyst. PMID:26719615

  1. Cervical spine injuries in American football.

    PubMed

    Rihn, Jeffrey A; Anderson, David T; Lamb, Kathleen; Deluca, Peter F; Bata, Ahmed; Marchetto, Paul A; Neves, Nuno; Vaccaro, Alexander R

    2009-01-01

    American football is a high-energy contact sport that places players at risk for cervical spine injuries with potential neurological deficits. Advances in tackling and blocking techniques, rules of the game and medical care of the athlete have been made throughout the past few decades to minimize the risk of cervical injury and improve the management of injuries that do occur. Nonetheless, cervical spine injuries remain a serious concern in the game of American football. Injuries have a wide spectrum of severity. The relatively common 'stinger' is a neuropraxia of a cervical nerve root(s) or brachial plexus and represents a reversible peripheral nerve injury. Less common and more serious an injury, cervical cord neuropraxia is the clinical manifestation of neuropraxia of the cervical spinal cord due to hyperextension, hyperflexion or axial loading. Recent data on American football suggest that approximately 0.2 per 100,000 participants at the high school level and 2 per 100,000 participants at the collegiate level are diagnosed with cervical cord neuropraxia. Characterized by temporary pain, paraesthesias and/or motor weakness in more than one extremity, there is a rapid and complete resolution of symptoms and a normal physical examination within 10 minutes to 48 hours after the initial injury. Stenosis of the spinal canal, whether congenital or acquired, is thought to predispose the athlete to cervical cord neuropraxia. Although quite rare, catastrophic neurological injury is a devastating entity referring to permanent neurological injury or death. The mechanism is most often a forced hyperflexion injury, as occurs when 'spear tackling'. The mean incidence of catastrophic neurological injury over the past 30 years has been approximately 0.5 per 100,000 participants at high school level and 1.5 per 100,000 at the collegiate level. This incidence has decreased significantly when compared with the incidence in the early 1970s. This decrease in the incidence of

  2. Brachial Plexopathy After Cervical Spine Surgery.

    PubMed

    Than, Khoi D; Mummaneni, Praveen V; Smith, Zachary A; Hsu, Wellington K; Arnold, Paul M; Fehlings, Michael G; Mroz, Thomas E; Riew, K Daniel

    2017-04-01

    Retrospective, multicenter case-series study and literature review. To determine the prevalence of brachial plexopathy after cervical spine surgery and to review the literature to better understand the etiology and risk factors of brachial plexopathy after cervical spine surgery. A retrospective case-series study of 12 903 patients at 21 different sites was performed to analyze the prevalence of several different complications, including brachial plexopathy. A literature review of the US National Library of Medicine and the National Institutes of Health (PubMed) database was conducted to identify articles pertaining to brachial plexopathy following cervical spine surgery. In our total population of 12 903 patients, only 1 suffered from postoperative brachial plexopathy. The overall prevalence rate was thus 0.01%, but the prevalence rate at the site where this complication occurred was 0.07%. Previously reported risk factors for postoperative brachial plexopathy include age, anterior surgical procedures, and a diagnosis of ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament. The condition can also be due to patient positioning during surgery, which can generally be detected via the use of intraoperative neuromonitoring. Brachial plexopathy following cervical spine surgery is rare and merits further study.

  3. Does applying the Canadian Cervical Spine rule reduce cervical spine radiography rates in alert patients with blunt trauma to the neck? A retrospective analysis

    PubMed Central

    Rethnam, Ulfin; Yesupalan, Rajam; Gandham, Giri

    2008-01-01

    Background A cautious outlook towards neck injuries has been the norm to avoid missing cervical spine injuries. Consequently there has been an increased use of cervical spine radiography. The Canadian Cervical Spine rule was proposed to reduce unnecessary use of cervical spine radiography in alert and stable patients. Our aim was to see whether applying the Canadian Cervical Spine rule reduced the need for cervical spine radiography without missing significant cervical spine injuries. Methods This was a retrospective study conducted in 2 hospitals. 114 alert and stable patients who had cervical spine radiographs for suspected neck injuries were included in the study. Data on patient demographics, high risk & low risk factors as per the Canadian Cervical Spine rule and cervical spine radiography results were collected and analysed. Results 28 patients were included in the high risk category according to the Canadian Cervical Spine rule. 86 patients fell into the low risk category. If the Canadian Cervical Spine rule was applied, there would have been a significant reduction in cervical spine radiographs as 86/114 patients (75.4%) would not have needed cervical spine radiograph. 2/114 patients who had significant cervical spine injuries would have been identified when the Canadian Cervical Spine rule was applied. Conclusion Applying the Canadian Cervical Spine rule for neck injuries in alert and stable patients would have reduced the use of cervical spine radiographs without missing out significant cervical spine injuries. This relates to reduction in radiation exposure to patients and health care costs. PMID:18557998

  4. Does applying the Canadian Cervical Spine rule reduce cervical spine radiography rates in alert patients with blunt trauma to the neck? A retrospective analysis.

    PubMed

    Rethnam, Ulfin; Yesupalan, Rajam; Gandham, Giri

    2008-06-16

    A cautious outlook towards neck injuries has been the norm to avoid missing cervical spine injuries. Consequently there has been an increased use of cervical spine radiography. The Canadian Cervical Spine rule was proposed to reduce unnecessary use of cervical spine radiography in alert and stable patients. Our aim was to see whether applying the Canadian Cervical Spine rule reduced the need for cervical spine radiography without missing significant cervical spine injuries. This was a retrospective study conducted in 2 hospitals. 114 alert and stable patients who had cervical spine radiographs for suspected neck injuries were included in the study. Data on patient demographics, high risk & low risk factors as per the Canadian Cervical Spine rule and cervical spine radiography results were collected and analysed. 28 patients were included in the high risk category according to the Canadian Cervical Spine rule. 86 patients fell into the low risk category. If the Canadian Cervical Spine rule was applied, there would have been a significant reduction in cervical spine radiographs as 86/114 patients (75.4%) would not have needed cervical spine radiograph. 2/114 patients who had significant cervical spine injuries would have been identified when the Canadian Cervical Spine rule was applied. Applying the Canadian Cervical Spine rule for neck injuries in alert and stable patients would have reduced the use of cervical spine radiographs without missing out significant cervical spine injuries. This relates to reduction in radiation exposure to patients and health care costs.

  5. Variation of neck muscle strength along the human cervical spine.

    PubMed

    Oi, Nelson; Pandy, Marcus G; Myers, Barry S; Nightingale, Roger W; Chancey, Valeta Carol

    2004-11-01

    The aim of this study was to describe and explain the variation of neck muscle strength along the cervical spine. A three-dimensional model of the head-neck complex was developed to test the hypothesis that the moment-generating capacity of the neck musculature is lower in the upper cervical spine than in the lower cervical spine. The model calculations suggest that the neck muscles can protect the lower cervical spine from injury during extension and lateral bending. The maximum flexor moment developed in the lower cervical spine was 2 times higher than that developed in the upper spine. The model also predicted that the neck musculature is 30% stronger in the lower cervical spine during lateral bending. Peak compressive forces (up to 3 times body weight) were higher in the lower cervical spine. These results are consistent with the clinical finding that extension loading of the neck often leads to injuries in the upper cervical spine. Analysis of the model results showed that neck flexor strength was greater in the lower cervical spine because of the relatively large size of the sternocleidomastoid muscle. The hyoid muscles developed significant flexor moments about the joints of the upper cervical spine, as these muscles had relatively large flexor moment arms; however, this effect was offset by the action of the sternocleidomastoid, which exerted a large extensor moment in the upper spine. Lateral bending strength of the neck muscles was governed by geometry (i.e., moment arms) rather than by muscle size.

  6. Paraplegia by acute cervical disc protrusion after lumbar spine surgery.

    PubMed

    Chen, Sheng-Huan; Hui, Yu-Ling; Yu, Chong-Ming; Niu, Chi-Chien; Lui, Ping-Wing

    2005-04-01

    Non-traumatic paraplegia caused by herniation of the cervical intervertebral disc is an uncommon postoperative complication. A patient with claudication and radiculopathy was scheduled for lumbar laminectomy due to spinal stenosis. Postoperatively, numbness below T6 was found in his both legs of the patient. MRI showed a protruded intervertebral disc between C6 and C7. Despite urgent disectomy, the patient's lower extremities remained paralyzed without significant improvement for 3 months. Loss of muscle support during general anesthesia, excessive neck extension during endotracheal intubation and positioning, as well as bucking and agitation are believed as triggering factors for the protrusion of the cervical disc. We suggest that a complete history taking and physical examination be accomplished in patients scheduled for lumbar spine surgery in order to exclude coexisting cervical spine disorders. In addition, skillful endotracheal intubation and careful neck positioning are mandatory for patients receiving surgery in the prone position.

  7. [Reduction and positioning of cervical spine injuries].

    PubMed

    Blauth, M; Knop, C; Bastian, L; Schmidt, U

    1998-01-01

    Prerequisites for successful reduction of cervical spine injuries are an exact analysis and classification of every lesion. In locked dislocations disc protrusion should be excluded prior to reduction by MRI or CT-scan. For manual reduction and closed manipulation by the trauma surgeon we use a halo-ring which is applied in local anaesthesia and fluoroscopic control. The anatomic position is maintained by a halo-fixator until surgery. Skeletal traction is used mainly for locked dislocations and late malalignements. Traction is provided by a halo-ring and weights up to 20 kg. Repeated clinical and neurological examinations are necessary to rule out overdistraction of the spine or neurologic deterioration. The weight may be reduced after reduction to 2 kg. For intraoperative positioning and reduction of cervical spine injuries we designed a special device which is connected to the halo ring and allows to fix the head and spine in any desired position. It may be used in prone or supine position of the patient. Operative reductions are rarely necessary on the cervical spine. Typical indication are fractures of posterior elements of the spine preventing closed reduction. Reduction manoeuvers depend on the kind of injury and are mainly composed of traction and a reversal of the trauma mechanism. The most severe complication is a neurologic deterioration. Reports in literature about 13 patients having sustained such a fate are showing the following: In most cases disc material dislocated in the spinal canal during reduction could be made responsible for the catastrophic course. Especially at risk are patients with open reduction from a posterior approach.

  8. The vertical stability of the cervical spine.

    PubMed

    Pal, G P; Sherk, H H

    1988-05-01

    The concept of the three-column cervical spine and load transmission through each column was experimentally tested. Material consisted of five cervical columns removed from cadavers. The experiment was conducted on an Instron load testing machine. Load was applied on superior articular surfaces of the axis vertebra and was recorded below from each column separately at the level of the sixth cervical vertebra. It was found that 36% of the total load applied on the top of the specimen is transmitted through the anterior column formed by bodies and intervertebral discs and 32% each through the two posterior cervical columns formed by the articular processes. The experiment very strongly supported the role of neural arch in transmission of vertebral compressive forces.

  9. Cervical spine in the Apert syndrome.

    PubMed

    Kreiborg, S; Barr, M; Cohen, M M

    1992-07-01

    Radiographs of the cervical spine--in many cases longitudinal--were available for study in 68 cases of Apert syndrome. Autopsy material was available in one of these cases, and a 3-dimensional reconstruction from a CT scan was also studied in one case. Variable degrees of fusion were observed, involving the articular facets, the neural arch or transverse processes, or block fusion of the vertebral bodies. Ossification may not always be evident in some early radiographs. However, early radiographic signs of impending fusion may be irregularity in vertical orientation of the vertebral bodies and narrowing of the involved intervertebral spaces. Cervical fusions occurred in 68%, single fusions being found in 37%, and multiple fusions in 31%. C5-C6 fusion was most common, alone or in combination with other fusions. In contrast, cervical fusions are known to occur in 25% of Crouzon patients, most commonly involving C2-C3 only. It appears that when fusions are present, C5-C6 involvement in the Apert syndrome and C2-C3 involvement in the Crouzon syndrome separate the 2 conditions in most cases. Because cervical anomalies may complicate an already compromised airway in any form of acrocephalosyndactyly, it is imperative to initiate radiographic study of the cervical spine before undertaking anesthesia for surgery.

  10. Cervical angina caused by atlantoaxial instability.

    PubMed

    Ito, Yoshiyuki; Tanaka, Nobuhiro; Fujimoto, Yoshinori; Yasunaga, Yuji; Ishida, Osamu; Ochi, Mitsuo

    2004-10-01

    Cervical angina is defined as a paroxysmal precordialgia that resembles true cardiac angina caused by cervical spondylosis. Cervical angina most commonly results from compression of the C7 ventral root. We present here a case of cervical angina caused by atlantoaxial instability. This case had marked atlantoaxial instability but no flexibility of the middle to lower levels of the cervical spine. Although there was mild C7 root compression on the radiologic findings, the chest pain was induced by neck motion, and the precordialgia disappeared after posterior atlantoaxial fusion without C7 root decompression. Therefore, we diagnosed this case as cervical angina caused by spinal cord compression at the C1-C2 level. It was speculated that a perturbation of the sympathetic nervous system or a hypofunction of the pain suppression pathway in the posterior horn of the spinal cord caused the pectoralgia. Although cervical angina is a rare disease, physicians should be aware of it; if there are no abnormal findings on cardiac examinations for angina pectoris, they should examine the cervical spine. Cervical angina due to atlantoaxial instability is one of the differential diagnoses of precordialgia.

  11. Risk factors for water sports-related cervical spine injuries.

    PubMed

    Chang, Spencer K Y; Tominaga, Gail T; Wong, Jan H; Weldon, Edward J; Kaan, Kenneth T

    2006-05-01

    To examine risk factors associated with water sports-related cervical spine injuries (WSCSI). A retrospective analysis of all patients admitted for WSCSI from 1993 to 1997 was performed. The severity of cervical spine injury was assessed by review of medical records and imaging studies. Mechanisms of injury and activities at the time of injury were noted to determine risk factors for cervical spine injuries caused by wave forced impacts (WFI) from activities such as bodysurfing and body boarding. These risks were compared with injuries incurred by shallow water dives (SWD). One hundred patients were analyzed (mean age, 36 years old); 89% were male, 62% were nonresidents of Hawaii, and 75% had a large build. Patients without radiographic evidence of fractures, subluxations, and/or dislocations (n = 26) were significantly older (48 versus 32 years old, p < 0.0001) with a higher rate of pre-existing cervical spine abnormalities (65% versus 15%, p < 0.0001) compared with the remainder of patients (n = 74). Seventy-seven percent of WFI involved nonresidents. The mean age of WFI patients was significantly older than patients involved in SWD (42 versus 25 years). Ninety-six percent of wave-related accidents occurred at moderately to severely rated shorebreak beaches. Wave forced impacts of the head with the ocean bottom typically occurred at moderate to severe shorebreaks, and involved inexperienced, large-build males in their 40s. Spinal stenosis and degenerative spondylosis may increase the risk of cervical spine injury associated with WFI due to the increased risk of neck hyperextension and hyperflexion impacts inherent to this activity.

  12. AOSpine subaxial cervical spine injury classification system.

    PubMed

    Vaccaro, Alexander R; Koerner, John D; Radcliff, Kris E; Oner, F Cumhur; Reinhold, Maximilian; Schnake, Klaus J; Kandziora, Frank; Fehlings, Michael G; Dvorak, Marcel F; Aarabi, Bizhan; Rajasekaran, Shanmuganathan; Schroeder, Gregory D; Kepler, Christopher K; Vialle, Luiz R

    2016-07-01

    This project describes a morphology-based subaxial cervical spine traumatic injury classification system. Using the same approach as the thoracolumbar system, the goal was to develop a comprehensive yet simple classification system with high intra- and interobserver reliability to be used for clinical and research purposes. A subaxial cervical spine injury classification system was developed using a consensus process among clinical experts. All investigators were required to successfully grade 10 cases to demonstrate comprehension of the system before grading 30 additional cases on two occasions, 1 month apart. Kappa coefficients (κ) were calculated for intraobserver and interobserver reliability. The classification system is based on three injury morphology types similar to the TL system: compression injuries (A), tension band injuries (B), and translational injuries (C), with additional descriptions for facet injuries, as well as patient-specific modifiers and neurologic status. Intraobserver and interobserver reliability was substantial for all injury subtypes (κ = 0.75 and 0.64, respectively). The AOSpine subaxial cervical spine injury classification system demonstrated substantial reliability in this initial assessment, and could be a valuable tool for communication, patient care and for research purposes.

  13. Pediatric cervical spine: normal anatomy, variants, and trauma.

    PubMed

    Lustrin, Elizabeth Susan; Karakas, Sabiha Pinar; Ortiz, A Orlando; Cinnamon, Jay; Castillo, Mauricio; Vaheesan, Kirubahara; Brown, James H; Diamond, Alan S; Black, Karen; Singh, Sudha

    2003-01-01

    Emergency radiologic evaluation of the pediatric cervical spine can be challenging because of the confusing appearance of synchondroses, normal anatomic variants, and injuries that are unique to children. Cervical spine injuries in children are usually seen in the upper cervical region owing to the unique biomechanics and anatomy of the pediatric cervical spine. Knowledge of the normal embryologic development and anatomy of the cervical spine is important to avoid mistaking synchondroses for fractures in the setting of trauma. Familiarity with anatomic variants is also important for correct image interpretation. These variants include pseudosubluxation, absence of cervical lordosis, wedging of the C3 vertebra, widening of the predental space, prevertebral soft-tissue widening, intervertebral widening, and "pseudo-Jefferson fracture." In addition, familiarity with mechanisms of injury and appropriate imaging modalities will aid in the correct interpretation of radiologic images of the pediatric cervical spine.

  14. A Dynamic Model of the Cervical Spine and Head

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-11-01

    neck associated with each motion segment and multiplying by a uniform density. Preliminary simulations have been made of Ox (frontal) and (lateral...Vertebral Column 18 Cervical Spine 23 Vertebrae 23 Ligaments of the Cervical Spine 31 Movement of the Cervical Spine 34 Muscles of the Neck 39 III...GEOMETRIC DATA 62 Vertebral Local and Global Data 62 Ligaments - Geometry 74 Geometry of Muscles 76 Inertial Properties of the Neck 80 APPENDIX B

  15. The cervical spine of Australopithecus sediba.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Marc R; Williams, Scott A; Schmid, Peter; Churchill, Steven E; Berger, Lee R

    2017-03-01

    Cervical vertebrae are rare in the early hominin fossil record, presenting a challenge for understanding the evolution of the neck and head carriage in hominin evolution. Here, we examine the cervical vertebrae of Australopithecus sediba, which unlike other South African taxa is known from associated cervical vertebrae. The A. sediba cervical vertebrae exhibit human-like values for wedging, pedicle cross-sectional areas, and articular facet heights, indicating reduced ventral loading relative to African apes. These features combine with a pattern of vertebral body bone distribution and caudally progressive size expansion suggesting a mode of cervical lordosis, load mitigation, and head carriage similar to humans and distinct from the cantilevered mode of head carriage of the extant African great apes. Yet these derived features in A. sediba are accompanied by ape-like vertebral body and dorsal pillar sizes, articular facet orientation, and uncinate process morphology signaling reduced lateral and rotational coupled movements between vertebral elements and indicate a considerably stiffer neck than in humans. A primitively long and horizontally-oriented C7 spinous process is likely related to a prognathic viscerocranium, although the complimentary C3 spinous process is short, implying large moments emanating from scapular and shoulder elevators rather than large muscles of head stabilization. Cross-sectional spinous process shape and robust anterior tubercles similarly signal increased arm elevation consistent with climbing behavior in corroboration with arboreal signatures previously observed in the shoulder, arms, and hand of A. sediba. Spinal canal shape and size suggests that A. sediba lacked the cervical spinal cord enlargement of Homo that confers humans with enhanced motor control to the upper limbs. The cervical spine of A. sediba thus presents a mosaic of primitive and derived characters, with anatomical features relating to neck posture and head

  16. What defines a distracting injury in cervical spine assessment?

    PubMed

    Heffernan, David S; Schermer, Carol R; Lu, Stephen W

    2005-12-01

    The National Emergency X-Radiography Utilization Study defined five criteria for obtaining cervical spine radiographic investigations in blunt trauma patients. Distracting injury was given as the indication for more than 30% of all x-ray studies ordered. The hypothesis of this study was that upper and lower torso injuries would have different effects on clinical cervical spine assessment. This is a single-center, prospective, observational study of admitted, alert, adult blunt-trauma patients. All patients underwent cervical spine plain-film radiography. Data were collected on all injuries, physical examination findings, narcotic administration, and radiograph results. Patients with upper and lower torso injuries were compared in their ability complain of pain or midline tenderness relative to a cervical spine fracture. In all, 406 patients participated. All patients received narcotic analgesics before examination. Forty patients (9.9%) had cervical spine fractures, of whom seven had a nontender neck examination. All seven patients with a nontender cervical spine and a neck fracture had at least one upper torso injury. None of the 99 patients with injuries isolated to the lower torso and a nontender neck had a cervical spine fracture (p < 0.05). The frequency of cervical spine fracture among patients with cervical spine tenderness was 19.8% (n = 33). The National Emergency X-Radiography Utilization Study definition of a distracting injury may be narrowed. Upper torso injuries may be sufficiently painful to distract from a reliable cervical spine examination. Patients may detect spine tenderness in the presence of isolated painful lower torso injuries. Patients with spine tenderness warrant imaging.

  17. Local and global subaxial cervical spine biomechanics after single-level fusion or cervical arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Finn, Michael A; Brodke, Darrel S; Daubs, Michael; Patel, Alpesh; Bachus, Kent N

    2009-10-01

    An experimental in vitro biomechanical study was conducted on human cadaveric spines to evaluate the motion segment (C4-C5) and global subaxial cervical spine motion after placement of a cervical arthroplasty device (Altia TDI,Amedica, Salt Lake City, UT) as compared to both the intact spine and a single-level fusion. Six specimens (C2-C7) were tested in flexion/extension, lateral bending, and axial rotation under a +/- 1.5 Nm moment with a 100 N axial follower load. Following the intact spine was tested; the cervical arthroplasty device was implanted at C4-C5 and tested. Then, a fusion using lateral mass fixation and an anterior plate was simulated and tested. Stiffness and range of motion (ROM) data were calculated. The ROM of the C4-C5 motion segment with the arthroplasty device was similar to that of the intact spine in flexion/extension and slightly less in lateral bending and rotation, while the fusion construct allowed significantly less motion in all directions. The fusion construct caused broader effects of increasing motion in the remaining segments of the subaxial cervical spine, whereas the TDI did not alter the adjacent and remote motion segments. The fusion construct was also far stiffer in all motion planes than the intact motion segment and the TDI, while the artificial disc treated level was slightly stiffer than the intact segment. The Altia TDI allows for a magnitude of motion similar to that of the intact spine at the treated and adjacent levels in the in vitro setting.

  18. Evaluation of dynamic formation of cervical spine column based on functional radiological studies in patients after cervical spine injury.

    PubMed

    Martynkiewicz, Jacek; Dragan, Szymon Feliks; Płocieniak, Katarzyna; Krawczyk, Artur; Kulej, Mirosław; Dragan, Szymon Łukasz

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate cervical spine function, based on our own functional method of roentgenometric analysis in patients who suffered from cervical spine sprain injury. Study involved 72 patients who suffered from cervical spine whiplash injury. Conventional plain radiographs in all patients included three lateral views: maximum flexion, neutral (resting) and maximum extension. All views allowed roentgenometric evaluation of ligament instability of the lower cervical spine C5-C7 according to the White and Panjabi criteria. Furthermore, based on literature analysis and their own clinical observations, the authors proposed new classification of dynamic formation of cervical spine column. The dynamic formation of cervical column is evaluated based on pathomechanical chain of being between normal and unstable. Authors' own evaluation system in flexion views can be useful in diagnosis and treatment of this type of injury.

  19. Cervical Spine Imaging in Hospitalized Children with Traumatic Brain Injury

    PubMed Central

    Bennett, Tellen D.; Bratton, Susan L.; Riva-Cambrin, Jay; Scaife, Eric R.; Nance, Michael L.; Prince, Jeffrey S.; Wilkes, Jacob; Keenan, Heather T.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives In children with TBI, to describe cervical spine imaging practice, to assess for recent changes in imaging practice, and to determine if cervical spine CT is being used in children at low risk for cervical spine injury. Methods The setting was children’s hospitals participating in the Pediatric Health Information System database, January, 2001 to June, 2011. Participants were children (age < 18 years) with TBI who were evaluated in the Emergency Department, admitted to the hospital, and received a head CT scan on the day of admission. The primary outcome measures were cervical spine imaging studies. This study was exempted from IRB review. Results 30,112 children met study criteria. Overall, 52% (15,687/30,112) received cervical spine imaging. Use of cervical spine radiographs alone decreased between 2001 (47%) and 2011 (23%), annual decrease 2.2% (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.1–3.3%), largely replaced by increased use of CT, with or without radiographs (8.6% in 2001, 19.5% in 2011, annual increase 0.9%, 95% CI 0.1–1.8%). 2,545 children received a cervical spine CT despite being discharged alive from the hospital in < 72 hours, and 1,655 of those had a low-risk mechanism of injury. Conclusions The adoption of CT clearance of the cervical spine in adults appears to have influenced the care of children with TBI, despite concerns about radiation exposure. PMID:25803749

  20. Posterior Bilateral Intermuscular Approach for Upper Cervical Spine Injuries.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yong; Xiong, Wei; Han, Sung I I; Fang, Zhong; Li, Feng

    2017-08-01

    To investigate a novel intermuscular surgical approach for posterior upper cervical spine fixation. Twenty-three healthy volunteers underwent magnetic resonance imaging. By using the magnetic resonance imaging scans in transverse view at the level of lower edge of atlas, the distances from the posterior midline to lateral margin of trapezius, to the medial margin of splenius capitis, and to middle line of semispinalis capitis were recorded. The angle between posterior middle line and the line crossing the lateral margin of trapezius and middle point of ipsilateral pedicles. From October 2009 to May 2013, 12 patients with upper cervical spine injuries were operated via the bilateral intermuscular approach. The time required for surgery, blood loss, and pre- and postoperative visual analogue scale scores were analyzed. The average distance of 0-T was 39.2 ± 7.5 mm, the angle between the approach and posterior middle line was 33.2 ± 8.4°. The surgical time was 78.3 ± 22.5 minutes (45-140 minutes), and the mean intraoperative blood loss was 87.5 ± 44.2 mL (30-200 mL). Preoperative and postoperative visual analogue scale scores were 6.4 ± 0.8 and 1.8 ± 0.7, respectively. The average follow-up time was 19.7 ± 11.5 months (9-48 months). The posterior bilateral intermuscular approach for upper cervical spine injuries is a valid alternative for Hangmans' fractures type I, type II, and type Ia according to Levine and Edwards classification as well as atlantoaxial subluxation caused by upper cervical spine trauma. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Dysphagia associated with cervical spine and postural disorders.

    PubMed

    Papadopoulou, Soultana; Exarchakos, Georgios; Beris, Alexander; Ploumis, Avraam

    2013-12-01

    Difficulties with swallowing may be both persistent and life threatening for the majority of those who experience it irrespective of age, gender, and race. The purpose of this review is to define oropharyngeal dysphagia and describe its relationship to cervical spine disorders and postural disturbances due to either congenital or acquired disorders. The etiology and diagnosis of dysphagia are analyzed, focusing on cervical spine pathology associated with dysphagia as severe cervical spine disorders and postural disturbances largely have been held accountable for deglutition disorders. Scoliosis, kyphosis–lordosis, and osteophytes are the primary focus of this review in an attempt to elucidate the link between cervical spine disorders and dysphagia. It is important for physicians to be knowledgeable about what triggers oropharyngeal dysphagia in cases of cervical spine and postural disorders. Moreover, the optimum treatment for dysphagia, including the use of therapeutic maneuvers during deglutition, neck exercises, and surgical treatment, is discussed.

  2. Cervical Spine Stiffness and Geometry of the Young Human Male

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-11-01

    vertebrae as compared with the cervical , thus, conferring greater mobility to the cervical spine ; c) The articular facet joint subtends, in sagittal section...AFAMRL- TR-80-138 V’o CERVICAL SPINE STIFFNESS AND GEOMETRY OF <P4 THE YOUNG HUMAN MALE Y. KING LIUQ Ph.D. K. W. KRIEGER, Ph.D. G. NJUS, M.S. K. UENO...t3 5-_3_ 4 TITLE and SubItle) 5 TYPE OF REPORT & PERIOD COVERED CERVICAL SPINE STIFFNESS AND GEOMETRY OF THE YOUNG HUM&N MALE s PER•OR,’NGO’G

  3. Investigation of motorcyclist cervical spine trauma using HUMOS model.

    PubMed

    Sun, Jingchao; Rojas, Alban; Bertrand, Pierre; Petit, Yvan; Kraenzler, Reinhard; Arnoux, Pierre Jean

    2012-09-01

    With 16 percent of the total road user fatalities, motorcyclists represent the second highest rate of road fatalities in France after car occupants. Regarding road accidents, a large proportion of trauma was on the lower cervical spine. According to different clinical studies, it is postulated that the cervical spine fragility areas are located on the upper and lower cervical spine. In motorcycle crashes, impact conditions occur on the head segment with various orientations and impact directions, leading to a combination of rotations and compression. Hence, motorcyclist vulnerability was investigated considering many impact conditions. Using the human model for safety (HUMOS), a finite element model, this work aims to provide an evaluation of the cervical spine weaknesses based on an evaluation of injury mechanisms. This evaluation consisted of defining 2 injury risk factors (joint injury and bone fracture) using a design of experiment including various velocities, impact directions, and impact orientations. The results confirmed previously reported clinical and epidemiological work on the fragility of the lower cervical spine and the upper cervical spine segments. Joint injuries appeared before bone fractures on both the upper and lower cervical spine. Bone fracture risk was greater on the lower cervical spine than on the upper cervical spine. The compression induced by a high impact angle was identified as an important injury severity factor. It significantly increased the injury incidence for both joint injuries and bone fractures. It also induced a shift in injury location from the lower to the upper cervical spine. The impact velocity exhibited a linear relationship with injury risks and severity. It also shifted the bone fracture risk from the lower to upper spinal segments.

  4. [Tumours of the upper cervical spine].

    PubMed

    Hernández García, Borja Jesús; Isla Guerrero, Alberto; Castaño, Ana; Alvarez Ruiz, Fernando; Gómez de la Riva, Alvaro

    2013-01-01

    Vertebral tumours arising in the upper cervical spine are rare. We present our experience in managing these neoplasms. We retrospectively reviewed the case histories of patients treated at our institution between January 2000 and June 2011. There were 9 patients with tumours in C1-C2-C3: 2metastases, 3chordomas, 2plasmocytomas, 1chondrosarcoma and 1osteochondroma. All patients complained of neck pain at the time of diagnosis. Three patients underwent an anterior and posterior approach, 3 an exclusively posterior approach and 3 an exclusively anterior surgical approach. Tumour resection was intralesional in 7 cases. Chemo-radiotherapy was used as adjuvant therapy in patients with malignant tumours. Vertebral tumours in the upper cervical spine are usually malignant. Achieving en bloc resection is particularly challenging and is technically unfeasible in many cases. This worsens the prognosis and makes adjuvant treatment very important. Copyright © 2012 Sociedad Española de Neurocirugía. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  5. Mycobacterium Xenopi Found Incidentally on MRI of the Cervical Spine

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-01

    Mycobacterium Xenopi Found Incidentally on MRI of the Cervical Spine Military Medicine Radiology Corner, Vol. 175. January, 2010 Radiology Corner...Mycobacterium Xenopi Found Incidentally on MRI of the Cervical Spine Guarantor: Chris Walker1 Contributors: Chris Walker; 1 Col Les Folio...Mycobacterium xenopi in her lung. A mass was incidentally noted in the right upper apex on an MRI ordered to evaluate a subluxation seen in her cervical

  6. Cervical spine metastases: techniques for anterior reconstruction and stabilization.

    PubMed

    Sayama, Christina M; Schmidt, Meic H; Bisson, Erica F

    2012-10-01

    The surgical management of cervical spine metastases continues to evolve and improve. The authors provide an overview of the various techniques for anterior reconstruction and stabilization of the subaxial cervical spine after corpectomy for spinal metastases. Vertebral body reconstruction can be accomplished using a variety of materials such as bone autograft/allograft, polymethylmethacrylate, interbody spacers, and/or cages with or without supplemental anterior cervical plating. In some instances, posterior instrumentation is needed for additional stabilization.

  7. Cervical spine injury from gunshot wounds.

    PubMed

    Beaty, Narlin; Slavin, Justin; Diaz, Cara; Zeleznick, Kyle; Ibrahimi, David; Sansur, Charles A

    2014-09-01

    Gunshot wounds (GSWs) to the cervical spine have been examined in a limited number of case series, and operative management of this traumatic disease has been sparsely discussed. The current literature supports and the authors hypothesize that patients without neurological deficit need neither surgical fusion nor decompression. Patients with GSWs and neurological deficits, however, pose a greater management challenge. The authors have compiled the experience of the R Adams Cowley Shock Trauma Center in Baltimore, Maryland, over the past 12 years, creating the largest series of such injuries, with a total number of 40 civilian patients needing neurosurgical evaluation. The current analysis examines presenting bone injury, surgical indication, presenting neurological examination, and neurological outcome. In this study, the authors characterize the incidence, severity, and recovery potential of cervical GSWs. The rate of unstable fractures requiring surgical intervention is documented. A detailed discussion of surgical indications with a treatment algorithm for cervical instability is offered. A total of 144 cervical GSWs were retrospectively reviewed. Of these injuries, 40 had documented neurological deficits. No neurosurgical consultation was requested for patients without deficit. Epidemiological and clinical information was collected on patients with neurological deficit, including age, sex, timing, indication, type of surgery, initial examination after resuscitation, follow-up examination, and imaging data. Twenty-eight patients (70%) presented with complete neurological deficits and 12 patients (30%) presented with incomplete injuries. Fourteen (35%) of the 40 patients underwent neurosurgical intervention. Twelve patients (30%) required intervention for cervical instability. Seven patients required internal fixation involving 4 anterior fusions, 2 posterior fusions, and 1 combined approach. Five patients were managed with halo immobilization. Two patients

  8. Missed or Delayed Cervical Spine or Spinal Cord Injuries Treated at a Tertiary Referral Hospital in Rwanda.

    PubMed

    Nkusi, Agabe Emmy; Muneza, Sévérien; Hakizimana, David; Nshuti, Steven; Munyemana, Paulin

    2016-03-01

    This study was aimed at 1) reporting cases of missed cervical spine injuries treated at a tertiary-level hospital, King Faisal Hospital, Rwanda (KFH-R), and 2) identifying the causes of delaying the diagnosis. We prospectively collected data from patients with a missed or delayed cervical spine and/or cord injury treated at King Faisal Hospital, Kigali for a 12-month period (January 2012 to December 2012). The total number of cervical spine injury patients treated at our center was retrieved from the hospital admission registry. Forty-two patients with cervical spine or spinal cord injuries were treated at KFH-R in 2012, and 4 of them had a missed or delayed diagnosis. Clinical and radiologic findings of all 4 patients are presented, and the reasons for delaying diagnosis are identified. This study found that the cervical spine injuries were missed in 9.5% of the cervical spine trauma patients and resulted in a longer hospital stay for all 4 patients and severe disability in 1 patient (25%). The reasons for missed diagnoses in this study were 1) lack of cervical spine radiographic evaluation, 2) inadequate cervical spine radiographs to show the level of injury, 3) poor sensitivity of cervical spine plain radiography, 4) poor physical examination, 5) the presence of a distracting injury, and 6) poor sensitivity of radiographs and computed tomography scans for soft tissue injuries. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. [Injuries to the cervical spine in automobile accidents].

    PubMed

    Münker, H; Langwieder, K; Chen, E; Hell, W

    1995-02-01

    Despite the improvement of protective properties in vehicles acceleration injuries to the cervical spine have not lost their significance. The increase of minor injuries and a high rate of seat belt usage is, beside other reasons, responsible for the increase of mild cervical spine injuries. From a data pool of 15,000 vehicle-vehicle collisions the portion of cervical spine injuries was selected for further investigation. Acceleration injuries to the cervical spine occur especially during rear end collisions. It can be shown that women, front seat occupants and occupants of lighter vehicles have a higher risk of suffering from such injuries. More than 90% of cervical spine injured had mild injuries by AIS standards; the portion of injuries with fractures was 0.6%. The diagnosis "wiplash injury" or "acceleration injury to the cervical spine" was given in more than 30% of all cervical spine injured showing only 1 symptom. Although most patients are first being treated in a hospital only 2/3 from 744 detailed studied cases were x-rayed, which in 71% were without significant conditions. Additional instrumental diagnostic measures (CT, MR) were used in only 1%. The study indicates that the "acceleration injury" requires a critical verification by doctors and insurers. A detailed finding following a thorough history taking and, in case, an interdisciplinary definition of accident injuries an early point of time will certain the diagnosis and facilitate therapy and judgement.

  10. Delayed or missed diagnosis of cervical spine injuries.

    PubMed

    Platzer, Patrick; Hauswirth, Nicole; Jaindl, Manuela; Chatwani, Sheila; Vecsei, Vilmos; Gaebler, Christian

    2006-07-01

    Correct diagnosis of cervical spine injuries is still a common problem in traumatology. The incidence of delayed diagnosis ranges from 5 to 20%. The aim of this study was to analyze the frequency and reasons for delayed or missed diagnosis at this Level I trauma unit and to provide recommendations for optimal examination of patients with suspected cervical spine injuries. Analysis of clinical records showed 367 patients with cervical spine injuries who were admitted to this trauma department between 1980 and 2000. In all, 140 patients had an injury of the upper cervical spine (C1/C2), 212 patients had an injury of the lower cervical spine (C3-C7), and 15 patients had a combined injury of the upper and lower cervical spine. The diagnostic failure rate was 4.9% (n = 18). Results showed several profound reasons for missed or delayed diagnosis. In eight patients (44%), radiologic misinterpretation was responsible for delay in diagnosis; in five patients (28%), incomplete sets of radiographs were responsible. In four cases (22%), the injury was missed because inadequate radiographs did not show the level of the injury; in one case (6%), the treating surgeon did not see the radiographs. For optimal examination of patients with suspected cervical spine injuries, we recommend establishing specific diagnostic algorithms including complete sets of proper radiographs with functional flexion/extension views, secondary evaluation of the radiographs by experienced staff, and further radiologic examinations (computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging) if evaluation of standard views is difficult.

  11. The 100 Most Influential Articles in Cervical Spine Surgery.

    PubMed

    Skovrlj, Branko; Steinberger, Jeremy; Guzman, Javier Z; Overley, Samuel C; Qureshi, Sheeraz A; Caridi, John M; Cho, Samuel K

    2016-02-01

    Study Design Literature review. Objective To identify and analyze the top 100 cited articles in cervical spine surgery. Methods The Thomson Reuters Web of Knowledge was searched for citations of all articles relevant to cervical spine surgery. The number of citations, authorship, year of publication, journal of publication, country of publication, and institution were recorded for each article. Results The most cited article was the classic from 1991 by Vernon and Mior that described the Neck Disability Index. The second most cited was Smith's 1958 article describing the anterior cervical diskectomy and fusion procedure. The third most cited article was Hilibrand's 1999 publication evaluating the incidence, prevalence, and radiographic progression of symptomatic adjacent segment disease following anterior cervical arthrodesis. The majority of the articles originated in the United States (65), and most were published in Spine (39). Most articles were published in the 1990s (34), and the three most common topics were cervical fusion (17), surgical complications (9), and biomechanics (9), respectively. Author Abumi had four articles in the top 100 list, and authors Goffin, Panjabi, and Hadley had three each. The Department of Orthopaedic Surgery at Hokkaido University in Sapporo, Japan, had five articles in the top 100 list. Conclusion This report identifies the top 100 articles in cervical spine surgery and acknowledges those individuals who have contributed the most to the advancement of the study of the cervical spine and the body of knowledge used to guide evidence-based clinical decision making in cervical spine surgery today.

  12. The Burden of Clostridium difficile after Cervical Spine Surgery.

    PubMed

    Guzman, Javier Z; Skovrlj, Branko; Rothenberg, Edward S; Lu, Young; McAnany, Steven; Cho, Samuel K; Hecht, Andrew C; Qureshi, Sheeraz A

    2016-06-01

    Study Design Retrospective database analysis. Objective The purpose of this study is to investigate incidence, comorbidities, and impact on health care resources of Clostridium difficile infection after cervical spine surgery. Methods A total of 1,602,130 cervical spine surgeries from the Nationwide Inpatient Sample database from 2002 to 2011 were included. Patients were included for study based on International Classification of Diseases Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification procedural codes for cervical spine surgery for degenerative spine diagnoses. Baseline patient characteristics were determined. Multivariable analyses assessed factors associated with increased incidence of C. difficile and risk of mortality. Results Incidence of C. difficile infection in postoperative cervical spine surgery hospitalizations is 0.08%, significantly increased since 2002 (p < 0.0001). The odds of postoperative C. difficile infection were significantly increased in patients with comorbidities such as congestive heart failure, renal failure, and perivascular disease. Circumferential cervical fusion (odds ratio [OR] = 2.93, p < 0.0001) increased the likelihood of developing C. difficile infection after degenerative cervical spine surgery. C. difficile infection after cervical spine surgery results in extended length of stay (p < 0.0001) and increased hospital costs (p < 0.0001). Mortality rate in patients who develop C. difficile after cervical spine surgery is nearly 8% versus 0.19% otherwise (p < 0.0001). Moreover, multivariate analysis revealed C. difficile to be a significant predictor of inpatient mortality (OR = 3.99, p < 0.0001). Conclusions C. difficile increases the risk of in-hospital mortality and costs approximately $6,830,695 per year to manage in patients undergoing elective cervical spine surgery. Patients with comorbidities such as renal failure or congestive heart failure have increased probability of developing infection

  13. The association between cervical spine curvature and neck pain

    PubMed Central

    Grob, D.; Frauenfelder, H.

    2006-01-01

    Degenerative changes of the cervical spine are commonly accompanied by a reduction or loss of the segmental or global lordosis, and are often considered to be a cause of neck pain. Nonetheless, such changes may also remain clinically silent. The aim of this study was to examine the correlation between the presence of neck pain and alterations of the normal cervical lordosis in people aged over 45 years. One hundred and seven volunteers, who were otherwise undergoing treatment for lower extremity problems in our hospital, took part. Sagittal radiographs of the cervical spine were taken and a questionnaire was completed, enquiring about neck pain and disability in the last 12 months. Based on the latter, subjects were divided into a group with neck pain (N = 54) and a group without neck pain (N = 53). The global curvature of the cervical spine (C2–C7) and each segmental angle were measured from the radiographs, using the posterior tangent method, and examined in relation to neck complaints. No significant difference between the two groups could be found in relation to the global curvature, the segmental angles, or the incidence of straight-spine or kyphotic deformity (P > 0.05). Twenty-three per cent of the people with neck pain and 17% of those without neck pain showed a segmental kyphosis deformity of more than 4° in at least one segment—most frequently at C4/5, closely followed by C5/6 and C3/4. The average segmental angle at the kyphotic level was 6.5° in the pain group and 6.3° in the group without pain, with a range of 5–10° in each group. In the group with neck pain, there was no association between any of the clinical characteristics (duration, frequency, intensity of pain; radiating pain; sensory/motor disturbances; disability; healthcare utilisation) and either global cervical curvature or segmental angles. The presence of such structural abnormalities in the patient with neck pain must be considered coincidental, i.e. not necessarily

  14. Return to play considerations for cervical spine injuries in athletes.

    PubMed

    Paulus, Stephen; Kennedy, David J

    2014-11-01

    Injuries to the cervical spine during sports are relatively common, depending on the specific sport. Given the adjacent neurovascular structures, any injury to the cervical spine must be evaluated with caution to assess its severity. With proper management, most injuries resolve quickly and allow for rapid return to play (RTP). The purpose of this article is to synthesize the current literature on the most common cervical spine injuries in athletes, including injury prevalence, mechanisms of injury, and RTP decision-making processes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Classification and Management of Pediatric Subaxial Cervical Spine Injuries.

    PubMed

    Madura, Casey J; Johnston, James M

    2017-01-01

    Appropriate management of subaxial spine injury in children requires an appreciation for the differences in anatomy, biomechanics, injury patterns, and treatment options compared with adult patients. Increased flexibility, weak neck muscles, and cranial disproportion predispose younger children to upper cervical injuries and spinal cord injury without radiographic abnormality. A majority of subaxial cervical spine injuries can be treated nonoperatively. Surgical instrumentation options for children have significantly increased in recent years. Future studies of outcomes for children with subaxial cervical spine injury should focus on injury classification and standardized outcome measures to ensure continued improvement in quality of care for this patient population.

  16. Cervical spine surgery in professional athletes: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Joaquim, Andrei F; Hsu, Wellington K; Patel, Alpesh A

    2016-04-01

    Cervical surgery is one of the most common surgical spinal procedures performed around the world. The authors performed a systematic review of the literature reporting the outcomes of cervical spine surgery in high-level athletes in order to better understand the nuances of cervical spine pathology in this population. A search of the MEDLINE database using the search terms "cervical spine" AND "surgery" AND "athletes" yielded 54 abstracts. After exclusion of publications that did not meet the criteria for inclusion, a total of 8 papers reporting the outcome of cervical spine surgery in professional or elite athletes treated for symptoms secondary to cervical spine pathology (focusing in degenerative conditions) remained for analysis. Five of these involved the management of cervical disc herniation, 3 were specifically about traumatic neurapraxia. The majority of the patients included in this review were American football players. Anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF) was commonly performed in high-level athletes for the treatment of cervical disc herniation. Most of the studies suggested that return to play is safe for athletes who are asymptomatic after ACDF for cervical radiculopathy due to disc herniation. Surgical treatment may provide a higher rate of return to play for these athletes than nonsurgical treatment. Return to play after cervical spinal cord contusion may be possible in asymptomatic patients. Cervical cord signal changes on MRI may not be an absolute contraindication for return to play in neurologically intact patients, according to some authors. Cervical contusions secondary to cervical stenosis may be associated with a worse outcome and a higher recurrence rate than those those secondary to disc herniation. The evidence is low (Level IV) and individualized treatment must be recommended.

  17. Head-Spine Structure Modeling: Enhancements to Secondary Loading Path Model and Validation of Head-Cervical Spine Model.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-07-01

    Injuries , Head- Spine Structure, Cervical 06 07 Spine , Muscles. t9 ABSTRACT (Continue on reverse if necesary and...Recent interest in the use of helmet-mounted devices makes the cervical spine an area of potential injury and it is significant to note that limited... Cervical Spine Injuries Cervical spsine injuries are classified according to the suspected mechanisms of injury which have already been described.

  18. 78 FR 36306 - Proposed Information Collection (Neck (Cervical Spine) Conditions Disability Benefits...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-17

    ... AFFAIRS Proposed Information Collection (Neck (Cervical Spine) Conditions Disability Benefits... needed to adjudicate the claim for VA disability benefits related to a claimant's diagnosis of a cervical... (Cervical Spine) Conditions Disability Benefits Questionnaire)'' in any correspondence. During the...

  19. Management of the cervical esophagus and hypofarinx perforations complicating anterior cervical spine surgery.

    PubMed

    Orlando, Epimenio Ramundo; Caroli, Emanuela; Ferrante, Luigi

    2003-08-01

    Five cases of esophageal or pharyngeal perforation diagnosed during or after anterior cervical spine surgery are presented. To outline a protocol for the early diagnosis and treatment of iatrogenic pharyngoesophageal perforations. Pharyngoesophageal perforations after anterior cervical spine surgery are uncommon or rarely reported complications. They may have serious functional consequences, including death, if they are not diagnosed promptly and treated effectively. These potentially fatal conditions require a surgical and medical therapy. Clinical course, diagnostic tools and guidelines for the management of five patients presenting esophagopharingeal perforations are illustrated. These five cases resulted in definitive healing of the laceration without functional consequences. We believe that awareness of these complications and their causes, prompt recognition of the symptoms and immediate and multimodality therapies are essential tools to achieve successful results.

  20. Cervical spine balance: postoperative radiologic changes in adult scoliosis surgery.

    PubMed

    Boissière, Louis; Bernard, Jean; Vital, Jean-Marc; Pointillart, Vincent; Mariey, Rémi; Gille, Olivier; Obeid, Ibrahim

    2015-07-01

    Cervical spine alignment interests appeared recently and relationships between the pelvis and the cervical spine have been reported but remain unclear. In this study, postoperative changes for cranial, cervical, lumbar and sagittal balance parameters have been measured in adult scoliosis surgery without major sagittal malalignment to appreciate the adaptation of the cervical spine. Twenty-nine consecutive patients with a surgical adult degenerative scoliosis treated with a T8-T11 to iliac fusion without PSO or multiple Ponte's osteotomies had preoperative and postoperative full spine EOS radiographies to measure spino-pelvic parameters. Correlation analysis between the different parameters was performed. Lower cervical, lordosis, lumbar lordosis and thoracic kyphosis were increased in postoperative as no changes were observed for upper cervical lordosis. C1-C7 CL highly correlated (0.85 in preoperative and 0.87 in postoperative) with C7 slope, which highly correlated itself with global balance parameters (0.74 in preoperative and 0.71 in postoperative for CAM-PL) underlining the relationship between cervical spine alignment and global malalignment. Modifications of lower CL are observed, as upper CL remains constant. If no correlation was found for LL, TK and CL changes, CL appears to be highly correlated with C7 slope, which highly correlated itself with sagittal global balance parameters. C7 slope appears as a base for CL influenced by the spine global alignment.

  1. Comparison of Cervical Spine Anatomy in Calves, Pigs and Humans.

    PubMed

    Sheng, Sun-Ren; Xu, Hua-Zi; Wang, Yong-Li; Zhu, Qing-An; Mao, Fang-Min; Lin, Yan; Wang, Xiang-Yang

    2016-01-01

    Animals are commonly used to model the human spine for in vitro and in vivo experiments. Many studies have investigated similarities and differences between animals and humans in the lumbar and thoracic vertebrae. However, a quantitative anatomic comparison of calf, pig, and human cervical spines has not been reported. To compare fundamental structural similarities and differences in vertebral bodies from the cervical spines of commonly used experimental animal models and humans. Anatomical morphometric analysis was performed on cervical vertebra specimens harvested from humans and two common large animals (i.e., calves and pigs). Multiple morphometric parameters were directly measured from cervical spine specimens of twelve pigs, twelve calves and twelve human adult cadavers. The following anatomical parameters were measured: vertebral body width (VBW), vertebral body depth (VBD), vertebral body height (VBH), spinal canal width (SCW), spinal canal depth (SCD), pedicle width (PW), pedicle depth (PD), pedicle inclination (PI), dens width (DW), dens depth (DD), total vertebral width (TVW), and total vertebral depth (TVD). The atlantoaxial (C1-2) joint in pigs is similar to that in humans and could serve as a human substitute. The pig cervical spine is highly similar to the human cervical spine, except for two large transverse processes in the anterior regions ofC4-C6. The width and depth of the calf odontoid process were larger than those in humans. VBW and VBD of calf cervical vertebrae were larger than those in humans, but the spinal canal was smaller. Calf C7 was relatively similar to human C7, thus, it may be a good substitute. Pig cervical vertebrae were more suitable human substitutions than calf cervical vertebrae, especially with respect to C1, C2, and C7. The biomechanical properties of nerve vascular anatomy and various segment functions in pig and calf cervical vertebrae must be considered when selecting an animal model for research on the spine.

  2. [Navigation techniques in surgery of cranio-cervical junction and upper cervical spine].

    PubMed

    Suchomel, P; Hradil, J; Frölich, R; Barsa, P; Lukás, R

    2009-04-01

    Spinal navigation has substantially advanced during the past ten years. Surgeons have gained sufficient skills and confidence, and have introduced this technology to the anatomically challenging region of the upper cervical spine and craniocervical junction. The detailed evaluation of individual anatomy, rational pre-operative planning and final intraoperative control improve the safety and precision of classical surgical procedures. As methods technologically evolve, indication criteria change accordingly, but the basic principles of a relevatn choice remain; these are to reduce morbidity due to its three main causes, i.e., mechanical, neurological and vascular. We present an overview of current techniques and discuss their applicability in the region of the upper cervical spine and craniocervical junction. The systems allowing us to obtain live images intra-operatively, such as fluoroscopy or intra.operative CT, seem to be most versatile and accurate, especially when combined with traditional virtual navigation systems. Based on case histories, the authors suggest trends in the development of this field, with a focus on minimally invasive techniques. Key words: navigation, upper cervical spine, craniocervical junction.

  3. Robotic system for cervical spine surgery.

    PubMed

    Kostrzewski, S; Duff, J M; Baur, C; Olszewski, M

    2012-06-01

    In contemporary surgical clinical practice, spinal instability is often treated with mechanical stabilization techniques in order to protect the spinal cord and nerve roots. These techniques involve placing screws in defined regions of the vertebrae, typically the pedicle, where the strongest bone is found. The challenge for the surgeon is the accurate placement of screws for good mechanical purchase and to avoid damage to surrounding vital anatomical structures. This is especially critical in the cervical region, where the target bone mass is smaller and the spinal cord, nerve roots and vertebral arteries are all at risk. A robotic system enabling the surgeon to precisely place implants into the vertebrae should enhance safety and may potentially improve surgical results. We describe such a system, which consists of a compact robot positioned using a passive structure, an optical tracking system, a surgical input device and planning and navigational software. The implant trajectory in each vertebra is planned preoperatively, using fine-cut computerized tomography (CT) scans. During surgery, registration matching between the CT scan and the patient's anatomy is achieved using point to point registration, refined with a surface merge technique. Approximate robot positioning is done passively by the surgeon. Final precise instrument positioning is performed by the robot according to the planned trajectory through the target vertebra. Implants (screws) are then placed through the robot-guided working channel. Six cadaver experiments, consisting of placing transarticular (i.e. crossing the joints between the vertebrae) screws in the upper two vertebrae of the human cervical spine, were performed. Implant placement accuracy was comparable with that achieved using freehand image-guided techniques by an experienced surgeon. These results confirm the utility and applicability of the system. It is currently in redesign to improve accuracy and to render it compatible with on

  4. Comparison of three prehospital cervical spine protocols for missed injuries.

    PubMed

    Hong, Rick; Meenan, Molly; Prince, Erin; Murphy, Ronald; Tambussi, Caitlin; Rohrbach, Rick; Baumann, Brigitte M

    2014-07-01

    We wanted to compare 3 existing emergency medical services (EMS) immobilization protocols: the Prehospital Trauma Life Support (PHTLS, mechanism-based); the Domeier protocol (parallels the National Emergency X-Radiography Utilization Study [NEXUS] criteria); and the Hankins' criteria (immobilization for patients <12 or >65 years, those with altered consciousness, focal neurologic deficit, distracting injury, or midline or paraspinal tenderness).To determine the proportion of patients who would require cervical immobilization per protocol and the number of missed cervical spine injuries, had each protocol been followed with 100% compliance. This was a cross-sectional study of patients ≥18 years transported by EMS post-traumatic mechanism to an inner city emergency department. Demographic and clinical/historical data obtained by physicians were recorded prior to radiologic imaging. Medical record review ascertained cervical spine injuries. Both physicians and EMS were blinded to the objective of the study. Of 498 participants, 58% were male and mean age was 48 years. The following participants would have required cervical spine immobilization based on the respective protocol: PHTLS, 95.4% (95% CI: 93.1-96.9%); Domeier, 68.7% (95% CI: 64.5-72.6%); Hankins, 81.5% (95% CI: 77.9-84.7%). There were 18 cervical spine injuries: 12 vertebral fractures, 2 subluxations/dislocations and 4 spinal cord injuries. Compliance with each of the 3 protocols would have led to appropriate cervical spine immobilization of all injured patients. In practice, 2 injuries were missed when the PHTLS criteria were mis-applied. Although physician-determined presence of cervical spine immobilization criteria cannot be generalized to the findings obtained by EMS personnel, our findings suggest that the mechanism-based PHTLS criteria may result in unnecessary cervical spine immobilization without apparent benefit to injured patients. PHTLS criteria may also be more difficult to implement due to

  5. Declining incidence of catastrophic cervical spine injuries in French rugby: 1996-2006.

    PubMed

    Bohu, Yoann; Julia, Marc; Bagate, Christian; Peyrin, Jean-Claude; Colonna, Jean-Pierre; Thoreux, Patricia; Pascal-Moussellard, Hugues

    2009-02-01

    To investigate the incidence and the risk factors of catastrophic cervical spine injuries in French rugby. Descriptive epidemiology study. The patients included had cervical spine injuries causing neurological disorder classified from the ASIA scale, grade A to D. A retrospective review of all cases that occurred between the 1996-1997 and the 2005-2006 seasons was made. Circumstances of the injuries and of the clinical outcome were collected by interview. There were 37 cases of catastrophic cervical spine injuries in French rugby for the last 10 years. The incidence of the cervical spine injuries decreased during this period. The rates of injury were 2.1 per 100,000 players per year during the 1996-1997 season and 1.4 during the 2005-2006 season (P < .01). The scrum was a major cause of injury, accounting for 51.3% (19/37). The forwards represented 89.2% (33/37) of the injured players. The hookers were involved in 37.8% (14/37) of the cases. The measures of prevention with the modification of the rules of scrum and the creation of a medical certificate required for players to play in the front row must have been successful. The incidence of disabling cervical spine injuries in French rugby has decreased for the last 10 years, which is linked to the decreasing incidence of injuries in the scrum. This epidemiological study shows the effectiveness of the preventive measures on cervical spine injuries in French rugby players. A national register of catastrophic cervical spine injuries extends our epidemiological observations.

  6. Emergency department evaluation and treatment of cervical spine injuries.

    PubMed

    Kanwar, Rajdeep; Delasobera, Bronson E; Hudson, Korin; Frohna, William

    2015-05-01

    Most spinal cord injuries involve the cervical spine, highlighting the importance of recognition and proper management by emergency physicians. Initial cervical spine injury management should follow the ABCDE (airway, breathing, circulation, disability, exposure) procedure detailed by Advanced Trauma Life Support. NEXUS (National Emergency X-Radiography Utilization Study) criteria and Canadian C-spine Rule are clinical decision-making tools providing guidelines of when to obtain imaging. Computed tomography scans are the preferred initial imaging modality. Consider administering intravenous methylprednisolone after discussion with the neurosurgical consultant in patients who present with spinal cord injuries within 8 hours.

  7. Multiple subluxations and comminuted fracture of the cervical spine in a sheep.

    PubMed

    Lin, C-C; Chen, K-S; Lin, Y-L; Chan, J P-W

    2015-01-01

    A 5-month-old, 13.5 kg, female Corriedale sheep was referred to the Veterinary Medicine Teaching Hospital, with a history of traumatic injury of the cervical spine followed by non-ambulatoric tetraparesis that occurred 2 weeks before being admitted to the hospital. At admission, malalignment of the cervical spine with the cranial part of the neck deviating to the right was noted. Neurological examinations identified the absence of postural reactions in both forelimbs, mildly decreased spinal reflexes, and normal reaction to pain perception tests. Radiography revealed malalignment of the cervical vertebrae with subluxations at C1-C2 and C2-C3, and a comminuted fracture of the caudal aspect of C2. The sheep was euthanized due to a presumed poor prognosis. Necropsy and histopathological findings confirmed injuries of the cervical spine from C1 to C3, which were consistent with the clinical finding of tetraparesis in this case. This paper presents a rare case of multiple subluxations of the cervical spine caused by blunt force trauma in a young sheep. These results highlight the importance of an astute clinical diagnosis for such an acute cervical spine trauma and the need for prompt surgical correction for similar cases in the future.

  8. Complications of halo fixation of the cervical spine.

    PubMed

    Hayes, Victor M; Silber, Jeff S; Siddiqi, Farhan N; Kondrachov, Dmitriy; Lipetz, Jason S; Lonner, Baron

    2005-06-01

    Halo fixators play an integral role in stabilizing the cervical spine. They are most widely used after upper cervical to midcervical spine fractures and dislocations and as a supplement to various surgical fixation techniques. Compared with supine cervical traction techniques, halo fixators allow early patient mobilization and shorten hospital stays. The incidence of halo-fixator complications remains high. Minor complications include pin loosening, localized infection, periorbital edema, superficial pressure sores, and unsightly scars. Major complications include pin penetration, osteomyelitis, subdural abscess, nerve palsies, fracture overdistraction, and persistent instability. Many of these potential complications can be avoided with proper pin placement and meticulous pin care.

  9. Fatal Vertebral Artery Injury in Penetrating Cervical Spine Trauma.

    PubMed

    Tannoury, Chadi; Degiacomo, Anthony

    2015-01-01

    Study Design. This case illustrates complications to a vertebral artery injury (VAI) resulting from penetrating cervical spine trauma. Objectives. To discuss the management of both VAI and cervical spine trauma after penetrating gunshot wound to the neck. Summary of Background Data. Vertebral artery injury following cervical spine trauma is infrequent, and a unilateral VAI often occurs without neurologic sequela. Nevertheless, devastating complications of stroke and death do occur. Methods. A gunshot wound to the neck resulted in a C6 vertebral body fracture and C5-C7 transverse foramina fractures. Neck CT angiogram identified a left vertebral artery occlusion. A cerebral angiography confirmed occlusion of the left extracranial vertebral artery and patency of the remaining cerebrovascular system. Following anterior cervical corpectomy and stabilization, brainstem infarction occurred and resulted in death. Results. A fatal outcome resulted from vertebral artery thrombus propagation with occlusion of the basilar artery triggering basilar ischemia and subsequent brainstem and cerebellar infarction. Conclusions. Vertebral artery injury secondary to cervical spine trauma can lead to potentially devastating neurologic sequela. Early surgical stabilization, along with anticoagulation therapy, contributes towards managing the combination of injuries. Unfortunately, despite efforts, a poor outcome is sometimes inevitable when cervical spine trauma is coupled with a VAI.

  10. Improving visual estimates of cervical spine range of motion.

    PubMed

    Hirsch, Brandon P; Webb, Matthew L; Bohl, Daniel D; Fu, Michael; Buerba, Rafael A; Gruskay, Jordan A; Grauer, Jonathan N

    2014-11-01

    Cervical spine range of motion (ROM) is a common measure of cervical conditions, surgical outcomes, and functional impairment. Although ROM is routinely assessed by visual estimation in clinical practice, visual estimates have been shown to be unreliable and inaccurate. Reliable goniometers can be used for assessments, but the associated costs and logistics generally limit their clinical acceptance. To investigate whether training can improve visual estimates of cervical spine ROM, we asked attending surgeons, residents, and medical students at our institution to visually estimate the cervical spine ROM of healthy subjects before and after a training session. This training session included review of normal cervical spine ROM in 3 planes and demonstration of partial and full motion in 3 planes by multiple subjects. Estimates before, immediately after, and 1 month after this training session were compared to assess reliability and accuracy. Immediately after training, errors decreased by 11.9° (flexion-extension), 3.8° (lateral bending), and 2.9° (axial rotation). These improvements were statistically significant. One month after training, visual estimates remained improved, by 9.5°, 1.6°, and 3.1°, respectively, but were statistically significant only in flexion-extension. Although the accuracy of visual estimates can be improved, clinicians should be aware of the limitations of visual estimates of cervical spine ROM. Our study results support scrutiny of visual assessment of ROM as a criterion for diagnosing permanent impairment or disability.

  11. Fatal Vertebral Artery Injury in Penetrating Cervical Spine Trauma

    PubMed Central

    Tannoury, Chadi; Degiacomo, Anthony

    2015-01-01

    Study Design. This case illustrates complications to a vertebral artery injury (VAI) resulting from penetrating cervical spine trauma. Objectives. To discuss the management of both VAI and cervical spine trauma after penetrating gunshot wound to the neck. Summary of Background Data. Vertebral artery injury following cervical spine trauma is infrequent, and a unilateral VAI often occurs without neurologic sequela. Nevertheless, devastating complications of stroke and death do occur. Methods. A gunshot wound to the neck resulted in a C6 vertebral body fracture and C5–C7 transverse foramina fractures. Neck CT angiogram identified a left vertebral artery occlusion. A cerebral angiography confirmed occlusion of the left extracranial vertebral artery and patency of the remaining cerebrovascular system. Following anterior cervical corpectomy and stabilization, brainstem infarction occurred and resulted in death. Results. A fatal outcome resulted from vertebral artery thrombus propagation with occlusion of the basilar artery triggering basilar ischemia and subsequent brainstem and cerebellar infarction. Conclusions. Vertebral artery injury secondary to cervical spine trauma can lead to potentially devastating neurologic sequela. Early surgical stabilization, along with anticoagulation therapy, contributes towards managing the combination of injuries. Unfortunately, despite efforts, a poor outcome is sometimes inevitable when cervical spine trauma is coupled with a VAI. PMID:26640731

  12. Management of cervical spine injuries in young children: lessons learned.

    PubMed

    Smith, Jodi L; Ackerman, Laurie L

    2009-07-01

    Previous studies have shown that the correct use of car safety seats can protect infants and children from vehicular injury. Although child passenger devices are increasingly used in the US, motor vehicle crashes continue to be the leading cause of death and acquired disability in infants and children younger than 14 years of age. These events are likely related, at least in part, to the high percentage of children who are unrestrained or improperly restrained. The authors present 2 cases of severe cervical spine trauma in young children restrained in car safety seats during a motor vehicle crash: 1) a previously healthy 14-month-old girl who was improperly restrained in a forward-facing booster seat secured to the vehicle by a lap belt, and 2) a previously healthy 30-month-old girl who was a rear seat passenger restrained in a car safety seat. This study points out the unique challenges encountered in treating cervical spine injuries in infants and young children, as well as the lessons learned, and emphasizes the significance of continuing efforts to increase family and public awareness regarding the importance of appropriate child safety seat selection and use.

  13. The 100 Most Influential Articles in Cervical Spine Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Skovrlj, Branko; Steinberger, Jeremy; Guzman, Javier Z.; Overley, Samuel C.; Qureshi, Sheeraz A.; Caridi, John M.; Cho, Samuel K.

    2015-01-01

    Study Design Literature review. Objective To identify and analyze the top 100 cited articles in cervical spine surgery. Methods The Thomson Reuters Web of Knowledge was searched for citations of all articles relevant to cervical spine surgery. The number of citations, authorship, year of publication, journal of publication, country of publication, and institution were recorded for each article. Results The most cited article was the classic from 1991 by Vernon and Mior that described the Neck Disability Index. The second most cited was Smith's 1958 article describing the anterior cervical diskectomy and fusion procedure. The third most cited article was Hilibrand's 1999 publication evaluating the incidence, prevalence, and radiographic progression of symptomatic adjacent segment disease following anterior cervical arthrodesis. The majority of the articles originated in the United States (65), and most were published in Spine (39). Most articles were published in the 1990s (34), and the three most common topics were cervical fusion (17), surgical complications (9), and biomechanics (9), respectively. Author Abumi had four articles in the top 100 list, and authors Goffin, Panjabi, and Hadley had three each. The Department of Orthopaedic Surgery at Hokkaido University in Sapporo, Japan, had five articles in the top 100 list. Conclusion This report identifies the top 100 articles in cervical spine surgery and acknowledges those individuals who have contributed the most to the advancement of the study of the cervical spine and the body of knowledge used to guide evidence-based clinical decision making in cervical spine surgery today. PMID:26835204

  14. Head injuries and the risk of concurrent cervical spine fractures.

    PubMed

    Thesleff, Tuomo; Kataja, Anneli; Öhman, Juha; Luoto, Teemu M

    2017-05-01

    Cervical spine injuries of variable severity are common among patients with an acute traumatic brain injury (TBI). We hypothesised that TBI patients with positive head computed tomography (CT) scans would have a significantly higher risk of having an associated cervical spine fracture compared to patients with negative head CT scans. This widely generalisable retrospective sample was derived from 3,023 consecutive patients, who, due to an acute head injury (HI), underwent head CT at the Emergency Department of Tampere University Hospital (August 2010-July 2012). Medical records were reviewed to identify the individuals whose cervical spine was CT-imaged within 1 week after primary head CT due to a clinical suspicion of a cervical spine injury (CSI) (n = 1,091). Of the whole cranio-cervically CT-imaged sample (n = 1,091), 24.7% (n = 269) had an acute CT-positive TBI. Car accidents 22.4% (n = 244) and falls 47.8% (n = 521) were the most frequent injury mechanisms. On cervical CT, any type of fracture was found in 6.6% (n = 72) and dislocation and/or subluxation in 2.8% (n = 31) of the patients. The patients with acute traumatic intracranial lesions had significantly (p = 0.04; OR = 1.689) more cervical spine fractures (9.3%, n = 25) compared to head CT-negative patients (5.7%, n = 47). On an individual cervical column level, head CT positivity was especially related to C6 fractures (p = 0.031, OR = 2.769). Patients with cervical spine fractures (n = 72) had altogether 101 fractured vertebrae, which were most often C2 (22.8, n = 23), C7 (19.8%, n = 20) and C6 (16.8%, n = 17). Head trauma patients with acute intracranial lesions on CT have a higher risk for cervical spine fractures in comparison to patients with a CT-negative head injury. Although statistically significant, the difference in fracture rate was small. However, based on these results, we suggest that cervical spine fractures should be

  15. Cervical spine posteroanterior stiffness differs with neck position.

    PubMed

    Snodgrass, Suzanne J; Rhodes, Haley R

    2012-12-01

    Spinal stiffness is commonly considered when treating patients with neck pain, but there are few studies reporting the objective measurement of cervical spine stiffness or the possible kinesiological factors that may affect its quantification. The aim of this study was to determine if the position of the neck affects cervical spine stiffness. An instrumented stiffness assessment device measured posteroanterior cervical spine stiffness at C4 of 25 prone-lying asymptomatic subjects in three neck positions in randomised order: maximal flexion, maximal extension, and neutral. The device applied five standardised mechanical oscillatory pressures while measuring the applied force and concurrent displacement, defining stiffness as the slope of the linear portion of the force-displacement curve. Repeated measures analysis of variance with Bonferroni-adjusted post hoc comparisons determined whether stiffness differed between neck positions. There was a significant difference in cervical spine stiffness between different neck positions (F((1.6,38.0)) = 16.6, P < 0.001). Stiffness was least in extension with a mean of 3.09 N/mm (95% CI 2.59, 3.58) followed by neutral (3.94, 95% CI 3.49, 4.39), and then flexion (4.32, 95% CI 3.96, 4.69). When assessing cervical spine stiffness, neck position should be standardised to ensure maximal reliability and utility of stiffness judgments. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Cervical Spine Involvement in Mild Traumatic Brain Injury: A Review.

    PubMed

    Morin, Michael; Langevin, Pierre; Fait, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    Background. There is a lack of scientific evidence in the literature on the involvement of the cervical spine in mTBI; however, its involvement is clinically accepted. Objective. This paper reviews evidence for the involvement of the cervical spine in mTBI symptoms, the mechanisms of injury, and the efficacy of therapy for cervical spine with concussion-related symptoms. Methods. A keyword search was conducted on PubMed, ICL, SportDiscus, PEDro, CINAHL, and Cochrane Library databases for articles published since 1990. The reference lists of articles meeting the criteria (original data articles, literature reviews, and clinical guidelines) were also searched in the same databases. Results. 4,854 records were screened and 43 articles were retained. Those articles were used to describe different subjects such as mTBI's signs and symptoms, mechanisms of injury, and treatments of the cervical spine. Conclusions. The hypothesis of cervical spine involvement in post-mTBI symptoms and in PCS (postconcussion syndrome) is supported by increasing evidence and is widely accepted clinically. For the management and treatment of mTBIs, few articles were available in the literature, and relevant studies showed interesting results about manual therapy and exercises as efficient tools for health care practitioners.

  17. Sensitivity of plain radiography for pediatric cervical spine injury.

    PubMed

    Cui, Li W; Probst, Marc A; Hoffman, Jerome R; Mower, William R

    2016-10-01

    Pediatric patients with suspected cervical spine injuries (CSI) often receive a computed tomography (CT) scan as an initial diagnostic imaging test. While sensitive, CT of the cervical spine carries significant radiation and risk of lethal malignant transformation later in life. Plain radiographs carry significantly less radiation and could serve as the preferred screening tool, provided they have a high functional sensitivity in detecting pediatric patients with CSI. We hypothesize that plain cervical spine radiographs can reliably detect pediatric patients with CSI and seek to quantify the functional sensitivity of plain radiography as compared to CT. We analyzed data from the NEXUS cervical spine study to assess the sensitivity of plain radiographs in the evaluation of CSI. We identified all pediatric patients who underwent plain radiographic imaging, and all pediatric patients found to have CSI. We then determined the sensitivity of plain radiographs in detecting pediatric patients with CSI. We identified 44 pediatric patients with CSI in the dataset with age ranging from 2 to 18 years old. Thirty-two of the 44 pediatric patients received cervical spine plain films as a part of their workup. Plain films were able to identify all 32 pediatric patients with CSI to yield a sensitivity of 100 % in detecting injury victims (95 % confidence interval 89.1-100.0 %). Plain radiography was highly sensitive for the identification of CSI in our cohort of pediatric patients and is useful as a screening tool in the evaluation of pediatric CSI.

  18. Cervical Spine Involvement in Mild Traumatic Brain Injury: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Morin, Michael; Langevin, Pierre

    2016-01-01

    Background. There is a lack of scientific evidence in the literature on the involvement of the cervical spine in mTBI; however, its involvement is clinically accepted. Objective. This paper reviews evidence for the involvement of the cervical spine in mTBI symptoms, the mechanisms of injury, and the efficacy of therapy for cervical spine with concussion-related symptoms. Methods. A keyword search was conducted on PubMed, ICL, SportDiscus, PEDro, CINAHL, and Cochrane Library databases for articles published since 1990. The reference lists of articles meeting the criteria (original data articles, literature reviews, and clinical guidelines) were also searched in the same databases. Results. 4,854 records were screened and 43 articles were retained. Those articles were used to describe different subjects such as mTBI's signs and symptoms, mechanisms of injury, and treatments of the cervical spine. Conclusions. The hypothesis of cervical spine involvement in post-mTBI symptoms and in PCS (postconcussion syndrome) is supported by increasing evidence and is widely accepted clinically. For the management and treatment of mTBIs, few articles were available in the literature, and relevant studies showed interesting results about manual therapy and exercises as efficient tools for health care practitioners. PMID:27529079

  19. Catastrophic Cervical Spine Injuries in Contact Sports.

    PubMed

    Hutton, Michael James; McGuire, Robert A; Dunn, Robert; Williams, Richard; Robertson, Peter; Twaddle, Bruce; Kiely, Patrick; Clarke, Andrew; Mazda, Keyvan; Davies, Paul; Pagarigan, Krystle T; Dettori, Joseph R

    2016-11-01

    Study Design Systematic review. Objectives To determine the incidence of catastrophic cervical spine injuries (CCSIs) among elite athletes participating in contact team sports and whether the incidence varies depending on the use of protective gear or by player position. Methods Electronic databases and reference lists of key articles published from January 1, 2000, to January 29, 2016, were searched. Results Fourteen studies were included that reported CCSI in rugby (n = 10), American football (n = 3), and Irish hurling (n = 1). Among Rugby Union players, incidence of CCSI was 4.1 per 100,000 player-hours. Among National Football League players, the CCSI rate was 0.6 per 100,000 player-exposures. At the collegiate level, the CCSI rate ranged from 1.1 to 4.7 per 100,000 player-years. Mixed populations of elite and recreational rugby players in four studies report a CCSI rate of 1.4 to 7.2 per 100,000 player-years. In this same population, the scrum accounted for 30 to 51% of total reported CCSIs in Rugby Union versus 0 to 4% in Rugby League. The tackle accounted for 29 to 39% of injuries in Rugby Union and 78 to 100% of injuries in Rugby League. Making a tackle was responsible for 29 to 80% of injuries in American football. Conclusion CCSIs are infrequent among elite athletes. There is insufficient evidence to determine the effect of protective gear (e.g., helmets, padding) on CCSI incidence. Scrum and tackle in rugby and tackling in American football account for the majority of CCSIs in each respective sport.

  20. Cervical spine injury patterns in children.

    PubMed

    Leonard, Jeffrey R; Jaffe, David M; Kuppermann, Nathan; Olsen, Cody S; Leonard, Julie C

    2014-05-01

    Pediatric cervical spine injuries (CSIs) are rare and differ from adult CSIs. Our objective was to describe CSIs in a large, representative cohort of children. We conducted a 5-year retrospective review of children <16 years old with CSIs at 17 Pediatric Emergency Care Applied Research Network hospitals. Investigators reviewed imaging reports and consultations to assign CSI type. We described cohort characteristics using means and frequencies and used Fisher's exact test to compare differences between 3 age groups: <2 years, 2 to 7 years, and 8 to 15 years. We used logistic regression to explore the relationship between injury level and age and mechanism of injury and between neurologic outcome and cord involvement, injury level, age, and comorbid injuries. A total of 540 children with CSIs were included in the study. CSI level was associated with both age and mechanism of injury. For children <2 and 2 to 7 years old, motor vehicle crash (MVC) was the most common injury mechanism (56%, 37%). Children in these age groups more commonly injured the axial (occiput-C2) region (74%, 78%). In children 8 to 15 years old, sports accounted for as many injuries as MVCs (23%, 23%), and 53% of injuries were subaxial (C3-7). CSIs often necessitated surgical intervention (axial, 39%; subaxial, 30%) and often resulted in neurologic deficits (21%) and death (7%). Neurologic outcome was associated with cord involvement, injury level, age, and comorbid injuries. We demonstrated a high degree of variability of CSI patterns, treatments and outcomes in children. The rarity, variation, and morbidity of pediatric CSIs make prompt recognition and treatment critical. Copyright © 2014 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  1. Catastrophic Cervical Spine Injuries in Contact Sports

    PubMed Central

    Hutton, Michael James; McGuire, Robert A.; Dunn, Robert; Williams, Richard; Robertson, Peter; Twaddle, Bruce; Kiely, Patrick; Clarke, Andrew; Mazda, Keyvan; Davies, Paul; Pagarigan, Krystle T.; Dettori, Joseph R.

    2016-01-01

    Study Design Systematic review. Objectives To determine the incidence of catastrophic cervical spine injuries (CCSIs) among elite athletes participating in contact team sports and whether the incidence varies depending on the use of protective gear or by player position. Methods Electronic databases and reference lists of key articles published from January 1, 2000, to January 29, 2016, were searched. Results Fourteen studies were included that reported CCSI in rugby (n = 10), American football (n = 3), and Irish hurling (n = 1). Among Rugby Union players, incidence of CCSI was 4.1 per 100,000 player-hours. Among National Football League players, the CCSI rate was 0.6 per 100,000 player-exposures. At the collegiate level, the CCSI rate ranged from 1.1 to 4.7 per 100,000 player-years. Mixed populations of elite and recreational rugby players in four studies report a CCSI rate of 1.4 to 7.2 per 100,000 player-years. In this same population, the scrum accounted for 30 to 51% of total reported CCSIs in Rugby Union versus 0 to 4% in Rugby League. The tackle accounted for 29 to 39% of injuries in Rugby Union and 78 to 100% of injuries in Rugby League. Making a tackle was responsible for 29 to 80% of injuries in American football. Conclusion CCSIs are infrequent among elite athletes. There is insufficient evidence to determine the effect of protective gear (e.g., helmets, padding) on CCSI incidence. Scrum and tackle in rugby and tackling in American football account for the majority of CCSIs in each respective sport. PMID:27781193

  2. Magnetic resonance imaging atlas of the cervical spine musculature.

    PubMed

    Au, John; Perriman, Diana M; Pickering, Mark R; Buirski, Graham; Smith, Paul N; Webb, Alexandra L

    2016-07-01

    The anatomy of the cervical spine musculature visible on magnetic resonance (MR) images is poorly described in the literature. However, the correct identification of individual muscles is clinically important because certain conditions of the cervical spine, for example whiplash associated disorders, idiopathic neck pain, cervical nerve root avulsion and cervical spondylotic myelopathy, are associated with different morphological changes in specific muscles visible on MR images. Knowledge of the precise structure of different cervical spine muscles is crucial when comparisons with the contralateral side or with normal are required for accurate description of imaging pathology, management and assessment of treatment efficacy. However, learning the intricate arrangement of 27 muscles is challenging. A multi-level cross-sectional depiction combined with three-dimensional reconstructions could facilitate the understanding of this anatomically complex area. This paper presents a comprehensive series of labeled axial MR images from one individual and serves as a reference atlas of the cervical spine musculature to guide clinicians, researchers, and anatomists in the accurate identification of these muscles on MR imaging. Clin. Anat. 29:643-659, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Reliability of indications for cervical spine films in trauma patients.

    PubMed

    Kreipke, D L; Gillespie, K R; McCarthy, M C; Mail, J T; Lappas, J C; Broadie, T A

    1989-10-01

    Common emergency room practice mandates cervical spine (C-spine) films in all trauma patients with potential injuries. With the increasing costs of medical care, such liberal criteria may not be justified. This 1-year prospective study of 860 patients who presented to a Level I Trauma Center was undertaken to determine the signs and symptoms that would select the patients at risk of C-spine injury. The clinical presentation of each patient was correlated with the presence of C-spine fracture. Twenty-four patients (2.8%) had injuries demonstrated by plain film radiography. The incidence of fracture in 536 symptomatic patients was 4%. A significant likelihood of C-spine fracture was seen in patients with respiratory compromise (100%), motor dysfunction (54.5%), and altered sensorium (8.9%) (p less than 0.001). No fractures were seen in asymptomatic patients (p less than 0.001). Cervical spine radiography should be performed in patients with abnormal neurologic findings or symptoms referable to the neck. In alert asymptomatic patients, cervical spine radiography may be omitted.

  4. Increased risk of death with cervical spine immobilisation in penetrating cervical trauma.

    PubMed

    Vanderlan, Wesley B; Tew, Beverly E; McSwain, Norman E

    2009-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if cervical spine immobilisation was related to patient mortality in penetrating cervical trauma. One hundred and ninety-nine patient charts from the Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center New Orleans (Charity Hospital, New Orleans) were examined. Charts were identified by searching the Charity Hospital Trauma Registry from 01/01/1994 to 04/17/2003 for all cases of penetrating cervical trauma. Thirty-five patient deaths were identified. Cervical spine immobilisation was associated with an increased risk of death (p<0.02, odds ratio 2.77, 95% CI 1.18-6.49).

  5. Posterior Fixation Techniques in the Subaxial Cervical Spine

    PubMed Central

    Ghori, Ahmer; Makanji, Heeren; Cha, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    This article reviews the historical context, indications, techniques, and complications of four posterior fixation techniques to stabilize the subaxial cervical spine. Specifically, posterior wiring, laminar screw fixation, lateral mass fixation, and pedicle screw fixation are among the common methods of operative fixation of the subaxial cervical spine. While wiring and laminar screw fixation are now rarely used, both lateral mass and pedicle screw fixation are technically challenging and present the risk of significant complications if performed incorrectly. With a sound understanding of anatomy and rigorous preoperative evaluation of bony structures, both lateral mass and pedicle screw fixation provide a safe and reliable method for subaxial cervical spine fixation. PMID:26594602

  6. Osteochondromas of the cervical spine in atypical location.

    PubMed

    Schomacher, M; Suess, O; Kombos, T

    2009-06-01

    In the current article we review the available English literature by pubmed search engine on the topic of osteochondromas and their location in the cervical spine. The focus is to investigate the location of the lesions in cervical spine and to analyze clinical presentations and symptoms of patients, the aetiology and histopathology examination of the masses. In addition we report a rare illustrative case of a 62 year-old man with an osteochondroma of the cervical spine. The mass developed at a very slow rate for many years and produced no clinical symptoms. The location of the extradural mass in the right atlanto-axial joint of C1 and C2 is extremely rare and was not been reported so far. After preoperative CT- and MRI-imaging the entire mass could be removed.

  7. Upper cervical spine fusion in children with skeletal dysplasia.

    PubMed

    Pakkasjärvi, N; Mattila, M; Remes, V; Helenius, I

    2013-01-01

    Skeletal dysplasias have been associated with upper cervical instability. Many patients are initially asymptomatic, but the instability may progress to subluxation and dislocation and complications thereof, including death. Surgery is hampered by petite osseous structures and low bone formation rate. To review the outcomes of surgical fusion of upper cervical instability in children with rare skeletal dysplasias. A retrospective study of eight children with five different rare skeletal dysplasias needing upper cervical instrumented stabilization. Cases were evaluated for clinical, radiologic, and quality-of-life outcomes, with median follow-up time of 5 years. Six patients underwent posterior, segmental cervical spine instrumentation and fusion (three C1/C2 fusions, three occipitocervical fusions), one anterior cervical instrumented spinal fusion, and one anteroposterior fusion. Autogenous bone grafting was used in all patients, and seven were immobilized using a halo body jacket. Nonunion in occipitocervical fusions was common in these patients (3/8 patients). Rib autograft from occiput to cervical spine with recombinant human BMP-2 was used to salvage nonunions. Surgical fixation in the pediatric cervical spine is hampered by fragile posterior structures. A postoperative immobilization by halo vest for 4 months is customary. Selective anterior corpectomy and plate fixation is not recommended in pediatric patients with skeletal dysplasias. Level 4, Case Series.

  8. Cervical spine injury in dismounted improvised explosive device trauma

    PubMed Central

    Taddeo, Joseph; Devine, Maj Melissa; McAlister, LCol Vivian C.

    2015-01-01

    Background The injury pattern from improvised explosive device (IED) trauma is different if the target is in a vehicle (mounted) or on foot (dismounted). Combat and civilian first response protocols require the placement of a cervical collar on all victims of a blast injury. Methods We searched the Joint Theatre Trauma Registry (JTTR) and the Role 3 Hospital, Kandahar Airfield (KAF) database from Mar. 1, 2008, to May 31, 2011. We collected data on cervical fracture; head injury; traumatic amputation; initial blood pressure, pulse, injury severity score (ISS), Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score and base excess; and patient demographic information. Results The concordance rate between JTTR and KAF databases was 98%. Of the 15 693 admissions in JTTR, 326 patients with dismounted IED injuries were located. The rate of cervical collar prehospital placement was 7.6%. Cervical fractures were found in 19 (5.8%) dismounted IED victims, but only 4 (1.2%) were considered radiographically unstable. None of these 19 patients had prehospital placement of a collar. Patients with cervical spine fractures were more severely injured than those without (ISS 18.2 v. 13.4; GCS 10.1 v. 12.5). Patients with head injuries had significantly higher risk of cervical spine injury than those with no head injury recorded (13.6% v. 3.9%). No differences in frequency of cervical spine injury were found between patients who had associated traumatic amputations and those who did not (5.4% v. 6.0%). Conclusion Dismounted IED is a mechanism of injury associated with a low risk for cervical spine trauma. A selective protocol for cervical collar placement on victims of dismounted IED blasts is possible and may be more amenable to combat situations. PMID:26100769

  9. Epidemiology of cervical spine fractures in the US military.

    PubMed

    Schoenfeld, Andrew J; Sielski, Bernadette; Rivera, Kenneth P; Bader, Julia O; Harris, Mitchel B

    2012-09-01

    The epidemiology of cervical spine fractures and associated spinal cord injury (SCI) has not previously been estimated within the American population. To determine the incidence of cervical spine fractures and associated SCI and identify potential risk factors for these injuries in a large multicultural military population. Query of a prospectively collected military database. The 13,813,333 military servicemembers serving in the US Armed Forces between 2000 and 2009. The Defense Medical Epidemiology Database (DMED) was queried to identify all servicemembers diagnosed with cervical spine fractures with and without SCI during the time period under investigation. Data were used to determine the incidence of cervical spine fractures and SCI as well as identify risk factors for their development. The DMED was queried for the years 2000 to 2009 using the International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification code for cervical spine fractures with and without SCI (805.0, 805.1, 806.0, and 806.1). The database was also used to determine the total number of servicemembers within the military during the same period. The incidence of cervical spine fractures and fractures associated with SCI was determined, and unadjusted incidence rates were calculated for the demographic characteristics of sex, race, military rank, branch of service, and age. Adjusted incidence rate ratios were then determined using multivariate Poisson regression analysis to control for other factors in the model and identify significant risk factors for cervical spine fractures and cervical injuries associated with SCI. From 2000 to 2009, there were 4,048 cervical spine fractures in a population at risk of 13,813,333 servicemembers. The overall incidence of cervical spine fractures was 0.29 per 1,000 person-years, and the incidence of fracture associated SCI was 70 per 1,000,000. The cohorts at highest risk of cervical spine fracture were males, whites, Enlisted personnel, those

  10. Anterior cervical spine fusion in treatment of cervicobrachialgia.

    PubMed

    Kooijman, M A

    1991-01-01

    Traumatic and degenerative changes in the spine at the level of the neck are frequent causes of pain in the neck, often associated with radiculopathy and sometimes even myelopathic symptoms. The signs and symptoms can generally be attributed to a problem of instability for which there are no specific criteria. If conservative treatment does not help, satisfying results can be achieved by a stable intercorporeal fusion using the modified Robinson technique. An EMG and a cervical myelogram must be carried out before surgical stabilization. In 154 patients followed for an average of 12 years, 75% observed resolution of the pain and paresthesias after surgical stabilization. These results correspond to those described in the literature. The best results are achieved if the signs and symptoms are experienced for no longer than 1 year and if the patient is under age 40.

  11. Dwarf with dual spinal kyphotic deformity at the cervical and dorsal spine unassociated with odontoid hypoplasia: Surgical management

    PubMed Central

    Satyarthee, Guru Dutta; Mankotia, Dipanker Singh

    2016-01-01

    Morquio's syndrome is associated with systemic skeletal hypoplasia leading to generalized skeletal deformation. The hypoplasia of odontoid process is frequent association, which is responsible for atlantoaxial dislocation causing compressive myelopathy. However, development of sub-axial cervical kyphotic deformity unassociated with odontoid hypoplasia is extremely rare, and coexistence of dorsal kyphotic deformity is not reported in the western literature till date and represents first case. Current case is 16-year-old boy, who presented with severe kyphotic deformity of cervical spine with spastic quadriparesis. Interestingly, he also had additional asymptomatic kyphotic deformity of dorsal spine; however, odontoid proves hypoplasia was not observed. He was only symptomatic for cervical compression, accordingly surgery was planned. The patient was planned for correction of cervical kyphotic deformity under general anesthesia, underwent fourth cervical corpectomy with resection of posterior longitudinal ligament and fusion with autologous bone graft derived from right fibula, which was refashioned approximating to the width of the corpectomy size after harvesting and fixed between C3 and C5 vertebral bodies and further secured with anterior cervical plating. He tolerated surgical procedure well with improvement in power with significant reduction in spasticity. Postoperative X-ray, cervical spine revealed complete correction of kyphotic deformity cervical spine. At follow-up 6 months following surgery, he is doing well. Successful surgical correction of symptomatic cervical kyphotic deformity can be achieved utilizing anterior cervical corpectomy, autologous fibular bone graft, and anterior cervical plating. PMID:27857796

  12. Cervical spine surgery in the ancient and medieval worlds.

    PubMed

    Goodrich, James Tait

    2007-01-01

    The early historical literature on cervical spine surgery lacks printed material for review, and we can rely only on pathological material from the prehistoric period that has survived as a result of anthropological investigations. After the introduction of Egyptian and early Hellenic medicine, some written material became available. This paper reviews these materials, from both books and manuscripts, in an effort to understand the development of cervical spine surgery from the perspectives of the personalities involved and the early surgical practices used. The review thus considers the following five eras of medicine: 1) prehistoric; 2) Egyptian and Babylonian; 3) Greek and early Byzantine; 4) Middle Eastern; and 5) medieval.

  13. [Literature review of whiplash injuries of the cervical spine].

    PubMed

    Pavić, Roman

    2011-01-01

    The paper presents the latest information in world literature on whiplash injury of the cervical spine. This injury has been noted through history, mentioned as early as Ancient Egypt, and prevalent in the 19 century, the time before using the car, until today. The mechanism of injury is described, as well as treatment, and news in view of the frequency of injuries in different parts of the world and the impact of socio-cultural, economic, ethnic and geographic factors. Impacts of traffic laws, automobile production and automobile seats that would indicate the possibility of prevention as a result of a whiplash injury of the cervical spine are also presented.

  14. General principles governing radiological examinations in cervical spine injuries.

    PubMed

    Derwinis, T; Białoszewski, D

    2000-03-30

    A review of the general principles governing radiological procedures in cases of acute trauma to the cervical spine, depending on the patient's clinical status, and on the location and nature of the injury. Various X-ray techniques are presented that can be used to attain better differentiation of the sequelae of spinal injury, along with a general assessment of the clinical value of certain other examinations, such as computer tomography and magnetic resonance, in terms of their suitability in cases of acute trauma to the cervical spine.

  15. [Cervical spine instability: point of view of the anesthesiologist].

    PubMed

    Poveda Jaramillo, R; Paredes Sanín, P; Carvajal, H; Carrasquilla, R; Murillo Deluquez, M

    2014-01-01

    The experience in airway management permits the anesthesiologist to participate in cases of cervical spine instability in the operating room when the patient is subjected to surgical procedures, or in cases of difficulty to access or keep the airway open in emergencies. This article reviews the epidemiology, definition, etiology, diagnostic criteria, methods of approach to airway management, and current recommendations on handling cervical instability in different scenarios. There is no approach to the airway that ensures complete immobility of the cervical spine, but there are methods that are better adapted to specific contexts; at the end, the reader will be able to identify the virtues and defects of the various options that the anesthesiologists have to address the airway in cases of cervical instability.

  16. Iatrogenic Spinal Cord Injury Resulting From Cervical Spine Surgery.

    PubMed

    Daniels, Alan H; Hart, Robert A; Hilibrand, Alan S; Fish, David E; Wang, Jeffrey C; Lord, Elizabeth L; Buser, Zorica; Tortolani, P Justin; Stroh, D Alex; Nassr, Ahmad; Currier, Bradford L; Sebastian, Arjun S; Arnold, Paul M; Fehlings, Michael G; Mroz, Thomas E; Riew, K Daniel

    2017-04-01

    Retrospective cohort study of prospectively collected data. To examine the incidence of iatrogenic spinal cord injury following elective cervical spine surgery. A retrospective multicenter case series study involving 21 high-volume surgical centers from the AOSpine North America Clinical Research Network was conducted. Medical records for 17 625 patients who received cervical spine surgery (levels from C2 to C7) between January 1, 2005, and December 31, 2011, were reviewed to identify occurrence of iatrogenic spinal cord injury. In total, 3 cases of iatrogenic spinal cord injury following cervical spine surgery were identified. Institutional incidence rates ranged from 0.0% to 0.24%. Of the 3 patients with quadriplegia, one underwent anterior-only surgery with 2-level cervical corpectomy, one underwent anterior surgery with corpectomy in addition to posterior surgery, and one underwent posterior decompression and fusion surgery alone. One patient had complete neurologic recovery, one partially recovered, and one did not recover motor function. Iatrogenic spinal cord injury following cervical spine surgery is a rare and devastating adverse event. No standard protocol exists that can guarantee prevention of this complication, and there is a lack of consensus regarding evaluation and treatment when it does occur. Emergent imaging with magnetic resonance imaging or computed tomography myelography to evaluate for compressive etiology or malpositioned instrumentation and avoidance of hypotension should be performed in cases of intraoperative and postoperative spinal cord injury.

  17. A Female Ligamentous Cervical Spine Finite Element Model Validated for Physiological Loads.

    PubMed

    Östh, Jonas; Brolin, Karin; Svensson, Mats Y; Linder, Astrid

    2016-06-01

    Mathematical cervical spine models allow for studying of impact loading that can cause whiplash associated disorders (WAD). However, existing models only cover the male anthropometry, despite the female population being at a higher risk of sustaining WAD in automotive rear-end impacts. The aim of this study is to develop and validate a ligamentous cervical spine intended for biomechanical research on the effect of automotive impacts. A female model has the potential to aid the design of better protection systems as well as improve understanding of injury mechanisms causing WAD. A finite element (FE) mesh was created from surface data of the cervical vertebrae of a 26-year old female (stature 167 cm, weight 59 kg). Soft tissues were generated from the skeletal geometry and anatomical literature descriptions. Ligaments were modeled with nonlinear elastic orthotropic membrane elements, intervertebral disks as composites of nonlinear elastic bulk elements, and orthotropic anulus fibrosus fiber layers, while cortical and trabecular bones were modeled as isotropic plastic-elastic. The model has geometrical features representative of the female cervical spine-the largest average difference compared with published anthropometric female data was the vertebral body depth being 3.4% shorter for the model. The majority the cervical segments compare well with respect to biomechanical data at physiological loads, with the best match for flexion-extension loads and less biofidelity for axial rotation. An average female FE ligamentous cervical spine model was developed and validated with respect to physiological loading. In flexion-extension simulations with the developed female model and an existing average male cervical spine model, a greater range of motion (ROM) was found in the female model.

  18. Anterior cervical distraction and screw elevating–pulling reduction for traumatic cervical spine fractures and dislocations

    PubMed Central

    Li, Haoxi; Yong, Zhiyao; Chen, Zhaoxiong; Huang, Yufeng; Lin, Zhoudan; Wu, Desheng

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Treatment of cervical fracture and dislocation by improving the anterior cervical technique. Anterior cervical approach has been extensively used in treating cervical spine fractures and dislocations. However, when this approach is used in the treatment of locked facet joints, an unsatisfactory intraoperative reduction and prying reduction increases the risk of secondary spinal cord injury. Thus, herein, the cervical anterior approach was improved. With distractor and screw elevation therapy during surgery, the restoration rate is increased, and secondary injury to the spinal cord is avoided. To discuss the feasibility of the surgical method of treating traumatic cervical spine fractures and dislocations and the clinical application. This retrospective study included the duration of patients’ hospitalization from January 2005 to June 2015. The potential risks of surgery (including death and other surgical complications) were explained clearly, and written consents were obtained from all patients before surgery. The study was conducted on 86 patients (54 males and 32 females, average age of 40.1 ± 5.6 years) with traumatic cervical spine fractures and dislocations, who underwent one-stage anterior approach treatment. The effective methods were evaluated by postoperative follow-up. The healing of the surgical incision was monitored in 86 patients. The follow-up duration was 18 to 36 (average 26.4 ± 7.1) months. The patients achieved bones grafted fusion and restored spine stability in 3 to 9 (average 6) months after the surgery. Statistically, significant improvement was observed by Frankel score, visual analog scale score, Japanese Orthopedic Association score, and correction rate of the cervical spine dislocation pre- and postoperative (P < .01). The modified anterior cervical approach is simple with a low risk but a good effect in reduction. In addition, it can reduce the risk of iatrogenic secondary spinal cord injury and maintain optimal

  19. Rare Complications of Cervical Spine Surgery: Horner's Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Traynelis, Vincent C; Malone, Hani R; Smith, Zachary A; Hsu, Wellington K; Kanter, Adam S; Qureshi, Sheeraz A; Cho, Samuel K; Baird, Evan O; Isaacs, Robert E; Rahman, Ra'Kerry K; Polevaya, Galina; Smith, Justin S; Shaffrey, Christopher; Tortolani, P Justin; Stroh, D Alex; Arnold, Paul M; Fehlings, Michael G; Mroz, Thomas E; Riew, K Daniel

    2017-04-01

    A multicenter retrospective case series. Horner's syndrome is a known complication of anterior cervical spinal surgery, but it is rarely encountered in clinical practice. To better understand the incidence, risks, and neurologic outcomes associated with Horner's syndrome, a multicenter study was performed to review a large collective experience with this rare complication. We conducted a retrospective multicenter case series study involving 21 high-volume surgical centers from the AOSpine North America Clinical Research Network. Medical records for 17 625 patients who received subaxial cervical spine surgery from 2005 to 2011 were reviewed to identify occurrence of 21 predefined treatment complications. Descriptive statistics were provided for baseline patient characteristics. Paired t test was used to analyze changes in clinical outcomes at follow-up compared to preoperative status. In total, 8887 patients who underwent anterior cervical spine surgery at the participating institutions were screened. Postoperative Horner's syndrome was identified in 5 (0.06%) patients. All patients experienced the complication following anterior cervical discectomy and fusion. The sympathetic trunk appeared to be more vulnerable when operating on midcervical levels (C5, C6), and most patients experienced at least a partial recovery without further treatment. This collective experience suggests that Horner's syndrome is an exceedingly rare complication following anterior cervical spine surgery. Injury to the sympathetic trunk may be limited by maintaining a midline surgical trajectory when possible, and performing careful dissection and retraction of the longus colli muscle when lateral exposure is necessary, especially at caudal cervical levels.

  20. Anatomic Study of Anterior Transdiscal Axial Screw Fixation for Subaxial Cervical Spine Injuries.

    PubMed

    Ji, Wei; Zheng, Minghui; Qu, Dongbin; Zou, Lin; Chen, Yongquan; Chen, Jianting; Zhu, Qingan

    2016-08-01

    Anterior transdiscal axial screw (ATAS) fixation is an alternative or supplement to the plate and screw constructs for the upper cervical spine injury. However, no existing literatures clarified the anatomic feasibility of this technique for subaxial cervical spine. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate the anatomical feasibility and to establish guidelines for the use of the ATAS fixation for the subaxial cervical spine injury.Fifty normal cervical spines had radiographs to determine the proposed screw trajectory (the screw length and insertion angle) and the interbody graft-related parameters (the disc height and depth, and the distance between anterior vertebral margin and the screw) for all levels of the subaxial cervical spine. Following screw insertion in 8 preserved human cadaver specimens, surgical simulation and dissection verified the feasibility and safety of the ATAS fixation.Radiographic measurements showed the mean axial screw length and cephalic incline angle of all levels were 41.2 mm and 25.2°, respectively. The suitable depth of the interbody graft was >11.7 mm (the distance between anterior vertebral margin and the screw), but <17.1 mm (disc depth). Except the axial screw length, increase in all the measurements was seen with level up to C5-C6 segment. Simulated procedure in the preserved specimens demonstrated that ATAS fixation could be successfully performed at C2-C3, C3-C4, C4-C5, and C5-C6 levels, but impossible at C6-C7 due to the obstacle of the sternum. All screws were placed accurately. None of the screws penetrated into the spinal canal and caused fractures determined by dissecting the specimens.The anterior transdiscal axial screw fixation, as an alternative or supplementary instrumentation for subaxial cervical spine injuries, is feasible and safe with meticulous surgical planning.

  1. Cervical spinal cord infarction after cervical spine decompressive surgery.

    PubMed

    Kalb, Samuel; Fakhran, Saeed; Dean, Bruce; Ross, Jeffrey; Porter, Randall W; Kakarla, Udaya K; Ruggieri, Paul; Theodore, Nicholas

    2014-01-01

    To report five patients who underwent cervical decompressive surgeries and developed persistent postoperative neurologic deficits compatible with spinal cord infarctions and evaluate causes for these rare complications. The clinical courses and imaging studies of five patients were retrospectively analyzed. Imaging findings, types of surgeries, vascular compromise or risk factors, hypotensive episodes, intraoperative somatosensory evoked potentials, concomitant brain infarctions, and clinical degree and radiographic extent of spinal cord infarction were studied. The presence of spinal cord infarction was determined by clinical course and imaging evaluation. All five patients had antecedent cervical cord region vascular compromise or generalized vascular risk factors. Four patients developed hypotensive episodes, two intraoperatively and two postoperatively. None of the four patients with hypotensive episodes had imaging or clinical evidence of concomitant brain infarctions. Neuroimaging evaluation of spinal cord infarction after decompressive surgery is done to exclude spinal cord compression, to ensure adequate surgical decompression, and to confirm infarction by imaging. Antecedent, unrecognized preoperative vascular compromise may be a significant contributor to spinal cord infarction by itself or in combination with hypotension. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Comparison of Three Prehospital Cervical Spine Protocols for Missed Injuries

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Rick; Meenan, Molly; Prince, Erin; Murphy, Ronald; Tambussi, Caitlin; Rohrbach, Rick; Baumann, Brigitte M

    2014-01-01

    Introduction We wanted to compare 3 existing emergency medical services (EMS) immobilization protocols: the Prehospital Trauma Life Support (PHTLS, mechanism-based); the Domeier protocol (parallels the National Emergency X-Radiography Utilization Study [NEXUS] criteria); and the Hankins’ criteria (immobilization for patients <12 or >65 years, those with altered consciousness, focal neurologic deficit, distracting injury, or midline or paraspinal tenderness).To determine the proportion of patients who would require cervical immobilization per protocol and the number of missed cervical spine injuries, had each protocol been followed with 100% compliance. Methods This was a cross-sectional study of patients ≥18 years transported by EMS post-traumatic mechanism to an inner city emergency department. Demographic and clinical/historical data obtained by physicians were recorded prior to radiologic imaging. Medical record review ascertained cervical spine injuries. Both physicians and EMS were blinded to the objective of the study. Results Of 498 participants, 58% were male and mean age was 48 years. The following participants would have required cervical spine immobilization based on the respective protocol: PHTLS, 95.4% (95% CI: 93.1–96.9%); Domeier, 68.7% (95% CI: 64.5–72.6%); Hankins, 81.5% (95% CI: 77.9–84.7%). There were 18 cervical spine injuries: 12 vertebral fractures, 2 subluxations/dislocations and 4 spinal cord injuries. Compliance with each of the 3 protocols would have led to appropriate cervical spine immobilization of all injured patients. In practice, 2 injuries were missed when the PHTLS criteria were mis-applied. Conclusion Although physician-determined presence of cervical spine immobilization criteria cannot be generalized to the findings obtained by EMS personnel, our findings suggest that the mechanism-based PHTLS criteria may result in unnecessary cervical spine immobilization without apparent benefit to injured patients. PHTLS criteria

  3. Cervical Spine Deformities in Children With Rhizomelic Chondrodysplasia Punctata.

    PubMed

    Abousamra, Oussama; Kandula, Vinay; Duker, Angela L; Rogers, Kenneth J; Bober, Michael B; Mackenzie, William G

    2017-06-13

    Cervical spine deformity in rhizomelic chondrodysplasia punctata (RCDP) has been described with different findings reported in the literature. However, available literature provides limited data from a few cases with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the cervical spine. Our report describes the MRI findings in a group of children with RCDP, aiming to reach a better understanding of this pathology. An Institutional Review Board-approved RCDP Registry was created at our institution with the goal of identifying pertinent medical issues over the lifespan of individuals with RCDP. Records of children within the registry were evaluated, and magnetic resonance images obtained between 2004 and 2015, were available for review. The levels of spinal canal stenosis were recorded and the severity of the stenosis was decided based on adults' parameters. Cord compression and myelomalacia were confirmed on the axial images. Sagittal lumbar spine magnetic resonance images were also evaluated when available, and the presence of tethered cord and fatty filum was recorded. Twenty-six children (15 boys and 11 girls) were identified in the RCDP Registry. Eleven children (6 boys and 5 girls) had sagittal MRI of the cervical spine available for review. Age at the time of MRI study was variable (1 wk to 32 mo). All patients except 1 had stenosis of the cervical spinal canal. Myelomalacia of the cord was noted only in this patient. This study suggests that, in children with RCDP, cervical spinal stenosis and cord compression are a real risk, and children with this diagnosis should have monitoring for these issues. Tethered cord is also a possible finding that needs to be evaluated. Full sagittal spine MRI is necessary to detect the possible deformities at the cervical and lumbar levels.

  4. An Upper and Middle Cervical Spine Posterior Arch Defect Leading to Myelopathy and a Thoracic Spine Posterior Arch Defect.

    PubMed

    Yun, Dong-Ju; Hwang, Byeong-Wook; Kim, Dae Jin; Lee, Sang-Ho

    2016-09-01

    Abnormalities of the posterior arches of the upper and middle cervical spine that can cause myelopathy are rare, and no reports of such defects at the thoracic spinal level have been published. A 29-year-old male patient reported right arm weakness and pain for 1 year. Magnetic resonance imaging of the cervical spine showed spinal canal stenosis at the C3-4 and C4-5 levels, as well as a posterior arch defect at the C2, 3, and 4 levels that was compressing the spinal cord. Three-dimensional cervical computed tomography (CT) showed that the spinous process and a piece of lamina were fused at each of the posterior C2, 3, and 4 levels, producing a free-floating bony structure. Spina bifida occulta was observed at C1. Osseous formation had failed between the lateral mass and spinous process at the C2 and C3 levels bilaterally, and the C4 level unilaterally. Three-dimensional thoracolumbar CT showed blocked vertebrae and spinous process fusion at T11 and T12. Osseous formation had failed between the lamina and spinous process at the T11 level unilaterally, and the T12 level bilaterally. The free-floating bony structure was successfully removed surgically. A posterior arch defect of the upper and middle cervical spine leading to myelopathy combined with the same defect at the thoracic spine is a rare disease. If this congenital defect is detected at any spinal level, whole-spine CT can be helpful for accurately diagnosing the congenital anomaly. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Does CT Angiography Matter for Patients with Cervical Spine Injuries?

    PubMed

    Hagedorn, John C; Emery, Sanford E; France, John C; Daffner, Scott D

    2014-06-04

    Cervical injury can be associated with vertebral artery injury. This study was performed to determine the impact of computed tomography (CT) angiography of the head and neck on planning treatment of cervical spine fracture, if these tests were ordered appropriately, and to estimate cost and associated exposure to radiation and contrast medium. This retrospective review included all patients who underwent CT of the cervical spine and CT angiography of the head and neck from January 2010 to August 2011 at one institution. Patients were divided into those with and those without cervical spine fracture seen on CT of the cervical spine. We determined if the CT angiography of the head and neck was positive for vascular injury in the patients with a cervical fracture. Vascular injury treatment and alterations in surgical fracture treatment due to positive CT angiography of the head and neck were recorded. A scan was deemed appropriate if it had been ordered per established institutional protocol. Of the 381 patients who underwent CT angiography of the head and neck, 126 had a cervical injury. Sixteen of the CT angiography studies were appropriately ordered for non-spinal indications, and twenty-three were inappropriately ordered. The CT angiography was positive for one patient for whom the imaging was off protocol and one for whom the indication was non-spinal. Nineteen patients had positive CT angiography of the head and neck; no patient underwent surgical intervention for a vascular lesion. Eleven patients underwent surgical intervention for a cervical fracture; the operative plan was changed because of vascular injury in one case. The CT angiography was positive for eleven of forty-eight patients who had sustained a C2 fracture; this group accounted for eleven of the nineteen positive CT angiography studies. Noncontiguous injuries occurred in nineteen patients; three had positive CT angiography of the head and neck. The approximate charge for the CT angiography was

  6. Cervical spine injuries in civilian victims of explosions: Should cervical collars be used?

    PubMed

    Klein, Yoram; Arieli, Izhar; Sagiv, Shaul; Peleg, Kobi; Ben-Galim, Peleg

    2016-06-01

    Semirigid cervical collars (SRCCs) are routinely applied to victims of explosions as part of the prehospital trauma protocols. Previous studies have shown that the use of SRCC in penetrating injuries is not justified because of the scarcity of unstable cervical spine injuries and the risk of obscuring other neck injuries. Explosion can inflict injuries by fragments penetration, blast injury, blunt force, and burns. The purpose of the study was to determine the occurrence of cervical spine instability without irreversible neurologic deficit and other potentially life-threatening nonskeletal neck injuries among victims of explosions. The potential benefits and risks of SRCC application in explosion-related injuries were evaluated. This is a retrospective cohort study of all explosion civilian victims admitted to Israeli hospitals during the years 1998 to 2010. Data collection was based on the Israeli national trauma registry and the hospital records and included demographic, clinical, and radiologic details of all patients with documented cervical spine injuries. The cohort included 2,267 patients. All of them were secondary to terrorist attacks. SRCC was applied to all the patients at the scene. Nineteen patients (0.83%) had cervical spine fractures. Nine patients (0.088%) had unstable cervical spine injury. All but one had irreversible neurologic deficit on admission. A total of 151 patients (6.6%) had potentially life-threatening penetrating nonskeletal neck injuries. Unstable cervical spine injuries secondary to explosion are extremely rare. The majority of unstable cervical spine fractures were secondary to penetrating injuries, with irreversible neurologic deficits on admission. The application of SRCC did not seem to be of any benefit in these patients and might pose a risk of obscuring other neck injuries. We recommend that SRCC will not be used in the prehospital management of victims of explosions. Prognostic/epidemiologic study, level III.

  7. Missed upper cervical spine fracture: clinical and radiological considerations

    PubMed Central

    Hadida, Camille; Lemire, Joe J

    1997-01-01

    Objective: This report presents a case of missed upper cervical spine fracture following a motor vehicle accident and illustrates various clinical and radiographic considerations necessary in the evaluation of post traumatic cervical spine injuries. Specific clinical signs and symptoms, as well as radiographic clues should prompt the astute clinician to suspect a fracture even when plain film radiographs have been reported as normal. Clinical features: A 44-year-old male was referred for an orthopaedic consultation for assessment of headaches following a high speed head-on motor vehicle accident eleven weeks prior to his presentation. Cervical spine radiographs taken at an emergency ward the day of the collision were reported as essentially normal. Subsequent radiographs taken eleven weeks later revealed a fracture through the body of axis with anterior displacement of atlas. A review of the initial radiographs clearly demonstrated signs suggesting an upper cervical fracture. Intervention and outcome: Initially the patient was prescribed a soft collar which he wore daily until an orthopaedic consultation eleven weeks later. Fifteen weeks following trauma, the patient was considered for surgical intervention, due to persistent headaches associated with the development of neurological signs suggestive of early onset of cervical myelopathy. Conclusion: Cervical spine fractures can have disastrous consequences if not detected early. A thorough clinical and radiological evaluation is essential in any patient presenting with a history of neck or head trauma. Repeated plain film radiographs are imperative in the event of inadequate visualization of the cervical vertebrae. When in doubt, further imaging studies such as computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging are required to rule out a fracture. ImagesFigure 1AFigure 1BFigure 2Figure 3

  8. Asymptomatic Stenosis in the Cervical and Thoracic Spines of Patients with Symptomatic Lumbar Stenosis

    PubMed Central

    Park, Moon Soo; Moon, Seong-Hwan; Kim, Tae-Hwan; Oh, Jae Keun; Lyu, Ho Dong; Lee, Jae-Hoo; Riew, K. Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Study Design Retrospective study. Objective Studies on age-related degenerative changes causing concurrent stenoses in the cervical, thoracic, and lumbar spines (triple stenosis) are rare in the literature. Our objectives were to determine: (1) the incidence of asymptomatic radiologic cervical and thoracic stenosis in elderly patients with symptomatic lumbar stenosis, (2) the incidence of concurrent radiologic spinal stenosis in the cervical and thoracic spines, and (3) the radiologic features of cervical stenosis that might predict concurrent thoracic stenosis. Methods Whole-spine T2 sagittal magnetic resonance images of patients older than 80 and diagnosed with lumbar spinal stenosis between January 2003 and January 2012 were evaluated retrospectively. We included patients with asymptomatic spondylotic cervical and thoracic stenosis. We measured the anteroposterior diameters of the vertebral body, bony spinal canal, and spinal cord, along with the Pavlov ratio and anterior or posterior epidural stenosis at the level of the disk for each cervical and thoracic level. We compared the radiologic parameters between the subgroups of cervical stenosis with and without thoracic stenosis. Results Among the 460 patients with lumbar stenosis, 110 (23.9%) had concurrent radiologic cervical stenosis and 112 (24.3%) had concurrent radiologic thoracic stenosis. Fifty-six patients (12.1%) had combined radiologic cervical and thoracic stenosis in addition to their symptomatic lumbar stenosis (triple stenosis). Anterior epidural stenosis at C7–T1 was associated with a high prevalence of thoracic stenosis. Conclusions It appears that asymptomatic radiologic cervical and thoracic stenosis is common in elderly patients with symptomatic lumbar stenosis. PMID:26430589

  9. Pediatric Upper Cervical Spine Giant Cell Tumor: Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Alfawareh, Mohammad D.; Shah, Irfanullah D.; Orief, Tamer I.; Halawani, Mohammad M.; Attia, Walid I.; Almusrea, Khaled N.

    2014-01-01

    Study Design Case report. Objective The purpose of this work is to report the case of a giant cell tumor involving the second cervical vertebra in a pediatric patient. Surgical management included a combined posterior and anterior cervical approach. There has been no recurrence in 2 years of follow-up. Case Report A 13-year-old girl presented with scoliosis with incidentally lytic lesion involving the second cervical vertebra. The radiologic investigations and biopsy result indicated a giant cell tumor of the bone. A combined posterior and anterior cervical approach was performed to resect the lesion, reconstruct the spine, and restore stability. Two years of follow-up revealed no recurrence of the lesion with stable reconstruction of the spine. Results The lesion was surgically managed for excision and spinal fusion by combining a posterior occipitocervical arthrodesis with an anterior retropharyngeal cervical approach. The final histopathology result confirmed a giant cell tumor of the bone. Conclusions Giant cell tumor involving the second cervical vertebra is uncommon; this tumor can be managed surgically by using a combined posterior and anterior cervical retropharyngeal approach. The presented case was unique in terms of the tumor location, patient age, and surgical management. PMID:26225290

  10. Central nervous system and cervical spine abnormalities in Apert syndrome.

    PubMed

    Breik, Omar; Mahindu, Antony; Moore, Mark H; Molloy, Cindy J; Santoreneos, Stephen; David, David J

    2016-05-01

    Apert syndrome characterized by acrocephalosyndactyly is a rare autosomal dominant congenital malformation with a prevalence of 1/65,000 births. With an extensive range of phenotypic and developmental manifestations, its management requires a multidisciplinary approach. A variety of craniofacial, central nervous system (CNS), and cervical spine abnormalities have been reported in these patients. This study aimed to determine the incidence of these CNS abnormalities in our case series. Retrospective review of Australian Craniofacial Unit (ACFU) database for Apert patients was performed. Data collected that included demographics, place of origin, age at presentation, imaging performed, and images were reviewed and recorded. Where available, developmental data was also recorded. Ninety-four patients seen and managed at the ACFU had their CNS and cervical spine abnormalities documented. The main CNS abnormalities were prominent convolutional markings (67 %), ventriculomegaly (48 %), crowded foramen magnum (36 %), deficient septum pellucidum (13 %), and corpus callosum agenesis in 11 %. Major C-spine findings were present in 50.8 % of patients and included fusion of posterior elements of C5/C6 (50 %) and C3/4 (27 %). Multilevel fusion was seen in 20 %. Other abnormalities were C1 spina bifida occulta (7 %) and atlanto-axial subluxation (7 %). Multiple CNS and cervical spine (c-spine) abnormalities are common in Apert syndrome. The significance of these abnormalities remains largely unknown. Further research is needed to better understand the impact of these findings on growth, development, and treatment outcomes.

  11. Dimensional coordinate measurements: application in characterizing cervical spine motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Weilong; Li, Linan; Wang, Shibin; Wang, Zhiyong; Shi, Nianke; Xue, Yuan

    2014-06-01

    Cervical spine as a complicated part in the human body, the form of its movement is diverse. The movements of the segments of vertebrae are three-dimensional, and it is reflected in the changes of the angle between two joint and the displacement in different directions. Under normal conditions, cervical can flex, extend, lateral flex and rotate. For there is no relative motion between measuring marks fixed on one segment of cervical vertebra, the cervical vertebrae with three marked points can be seen as a body. Body's motion in space can be decomposed into translational movement and rotational movement around a base point .This study concerns the calculation of dimensional coordinate of the marked points pasted to the human body's cervical spine by an optical method. Afterward, these measures will allow the calculation of motion parameters for every spine segment. For this study, we choose a three-dimensional measurement method based on binocular stereo vision. The object with marked points is placed in front of the CCD camera. Through each shot, we will get there two parallax images taken from different cameras. According to the principle of binocular vision we can be realized three-dimensional measurements. Cameras are erected parallelly. This paper describes the layout of experimental system and a mathematical model to get the coordinates.

  12. Cervical spine lesions after road traffic accidents: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Uhrenholt, Lars; Grunnet-Nilsson, Niels; Hartvigsen, Jan

    2002-09-01

    A systematic critical literature review. To determine whether occult pathoanatomical lesions in the cervical spine of road traffic fatalities exist and if they can be identified using optimal autopsy techniques. Previous investigations have examined pathoanatomical conditions of the cervical spine of road traffic fatalities. However, different methods of investigation have been used, and results of studies are conflicting. Hence, potential pathoanatomical conditions in fatalities and survivors remain a controversial issue. Articles were retrieved searching the MEDLINE, Mantis, and Cochrane libraries. Studies examining the cervical spine of road traffic fatalities at autopsy were included and evaluated according to a set of quality criteria. For in-depth review, only studies using surface cryoplaning microtomy autopsy technique and a control group were included. Twenty-seven articles of which three fulfilled the quality criteria were reviewed. In these studies, subtle pathoanatomical lesions were found in the cervical intervertebral discs, cartilaginous endplates, and the articular surfaces and capsules of the zygapophysial joints. The lesions were found exclusively in the traumatized patients and in none of the patients in the control group. Occult pathoanatomical lesions in the cervical intervertebral disc and zygapophysial joints after fatal road traffic trauma may exist. Present imaging methods, especially conventional radiography, do not visualize these subtle lesions; hence, underreporting of pathoanatomical lesions during standard autopsy is probably common. These findings may have clinical relevance in the management of road traffic trauma survivors with potentially similar pathoanatomy.

  13. Biomechanics of the cervical spine Part 3: minor injuries.

    PubMed

    Bogduk, N; Yoganandan, N

    2001-05-01

    Minor injuries of the cervical spine are essentially defined as injuries that do not involve a fracture. Archetypical of minor cervical injury is the whiplash injury. Among other reasons, neck pain after whiplash has been controversial because critics do not credit that an injury to the neck can occur in a whiplash accident. In pursuit of the injury mechanism, bioengineers have used mathematical modelling, cadaver studies, and human volunteers to study the kinematics of the neck under the conditions of whiplash. Particularly illuminating have been cinephotographic and cineradiographic studies of cadavers and of normal volunteers. They demonstrate that externally, the head and neck do not exceed normal physiological limits. However, the cervical spine undergoes a sigmoid deformation very early after impact. During this deformation, lower cervical segments undergo posterior rotation around an abnormally high axis of rotation, resulting in abnormal separation of the anterior elements of the cervical spine, and impaction of the zygapophysial joints. The demonstration of a mechanism for injury of the zygapophysial joints complements postmortem studies that reveal lesions in these joints, and clinical studies that have demonstrated that zygapophysial joint pain is the single most common basis for chronic neck pain after injury.

  14. Can emergency physicians accurately rule out clinically important cervical spine injuries by using computed tomography?

    PubMed

    Van Zyl, Hendrik P; Bilbey, James; Vukusic, Alan; Ring, Todd; Oakes, Jennifer; Williamson, Lykke D; Mitchell, Ian V

    2014-03-01

    Emergency physicians are expected to rule out clinically important cervical spine injuries using clinical skills and imaging. Our objective was to determine whether emergency physicians could accurately rule out clinically important cervical spine injuries using computed tomographic (CT) imaging of the cervical spine. Fifteen emergency physicians were enrolled to interpret a sample of 50 cervical spine CT scans in a nonclinical setting. The sample contained a 30% incidence of cervical spine injury. After a 2-hour review session, the participants interpreted the CT scans and categorized them into either a suspected cervical spine injury or no cervical spine injury. Participants were asked to specify the location and type of injury. The gold standard interpretation was the combined opinion of two staff radiologists. Emergency physicians correctly identified 182 of the 210 abnormal cases with cervical spine injury. The sensitivity of emergency physicians was 87% (95% confidence interval [CI] 82-91), and the specificity was 76% (95% CI 74-77). The negative likelihood ratio was 0.18 (95% CI 0.12-0.25). Experienced emergency physicians successfully identified a large proportion of cervical spine injuries on CT; however, they were not sufficiently sensitive to accurately exclude clinically important injuries. Emergency physicians should rely on a radiologist review of cervical spine CT scans prior to discontinuing cervical spine precautions.

  15. Fatigue responses of the human cervical spine intervertebral discs.

    PubMed

    Yoganandan, Narayan; Umale, Sagar; Stemper, Brain; Snyder, Bryan

    2017-05-01

    Numerous studies have been conducted since more than fifty years to understand the behavior of the human lumbar spine under fatigue loading. Applications have been largely driven by low back pain and human body vibration problems. The human neck also sustains fatigue loading in certain type of civilian occupational and military operational activities, and research is very limited in this area. Being a visco-elastic structure, it is important to determine the stress-relaxation properties of the human cervical spine intervertebral discs to enable accurate simulations of these structures in stress-analysis models. While finite element models have the ability to incorporate viscoelastic material definitions, data specific to the cervical spine are limited. The present study was conducted to determine these properties and understand the responses of the human lower cervical spine discs under large number of cyclic loads in the axial compression mode. Eight disc segments consisting of the adjacent vertebral bodies along with the longitudinal ligaments were subjected to compression, followed by 10,000 cycles of loading at 2 or 4Hz frequency by limiting the axial load to approximately 150 N, and subsequent to resting period, subjected to compression to extract the stress-relaxation properties using the quasi-linear viscoelastic (QLV) material model. The coefficients of the model and disc displacements as a function of cycles and loading frequency are presented. The disc responses demonstrated a plateauing effect after the first 2000 to 4000 cycles, which were highly nonlinear. The paper compares these responses with the "work hardening" phenomenon proposed in clinical literature for the lumbar spine to explain the fatigue behavior of the discs. The quantitative results in terms of QLV coefficients can serve as inputs to complex finite element models of the cervical spine to delineate the local and internal load-sharing responses of the disc segment. Published by Elsevier

  16. Does whole-spine lateral radiograph with clavicle positioning reflect the correct cervical sagittal alignment?

    PubMed

    Park, Sang-Min; Song, Kwang-Sup; Park, Seung-Hwan; Kang, Hyun; Daniel Riew, K

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the differences of cervical alignment between standing cervical lateral radiograph and whole-spine lateral radiograph with clavicle position. We prospectively evaluated 101 asymptomatic adults from whom standing cervical lateral radiograph with hands on both side followed by whole-spine lateral radiographs with clavicle position were obtained from April 2012 to December 2013. On two radiographs, cervical sagittal alignment from C2 to C7 was analyzed by Gore angle (GA) and Cobb angle (CA); head position was evaluated using the translation distance (TD, distance of the anterior tubercle of C1 compared with the vertical line through the posterior-inferior body of C7) and McGregor angle (MA, angle between the McGregor and horizontal lines). T1-slope was also evaluated. Cervical alignment on the cervical radiograph (GA -13.59° [-15.58 to -11.60], CA -9.76° [-11.65 to -7.86]) was significantly more lordotic than that on whole-spine radiographs (GA -6.28° [-8.65 to -3.91] and -4.14° [-6.40 to -1.89]). TD and MA on cervical radiographs (TD 34.98 mm [33.22-36.75]; MA 7.20° [6.35-8.35]) were meaningfully higher than those on whole-spine radiographs (TD 31.31 mm [29.47-33.16]; MA 6.32° [5.25-7.39]), but the MA values were not significant (p = 0.064). T1-slope was significantly lower in whole-spine radiographs (20.11° [18.88-21.35]) than in cervical radiographs (24.37° [23.14-25.6]). Values are expressed as mean (95 % confidence interval). Clavicle position during whole-spine radiograph caused a substantial decrease in the T1-slope; head position posteriorly translated followed by the cervical sagittal alignment became more hypo-lordotic, with slight downward gazing in comparison with the cervical radiograph.

  17. Mechanisms of cervical spine injuries for non-fatal motorcycle road crash.

    PubMed

    Ooi, S S; Wong, S V; Radin Umar, R S; Azhar, A A; Yeap, J S; Megat Ahmad, M M H

    2004-06-01

    Cervical spine injuries such as subluxation and fracture dislocation have long been known to result in severe consequences, as well as the trauma management itself. The injury to the region has been identified as one of the major causes of death in Malaysian motorcyclists involved in road crashes, besides head and chest injuries (Pang, 1999). Despite this, cervical spine injury in motorcyclists is not a well-studied injury, unlike the whiplash injury in motorcar accidents. The present study is a retrospective study on the mechanisms of injury in cervical spine sustained by Malaysian motorcyclists, who were involved in road crash using an established mechanistic classification system. This will serve as an initial step to look at the cervical injuries pattern. The information obtained gives engineer ideas to facilitate design and safety features to reduce injuries. All cervical spine injured motorcyclists admitted to Hospital Kuala Lumpur between January 1, 2000 and December 31, 2001 were included in the present study. Based on the medical notes and radiological investigations (X-rays, CT and MRI scans), the mechanisms of injuries were formulated using the injury mechanics classification. The result shows that flexion of the cervical vertebrae is the most common vertebral kinematics in causing injury to motorcyclists. This indicates that the cervical vertebrae sustained a high-energy loading at flexion movement in road crash, and exceeded its tolerance level. The high frequency of injury at the C5 vertebra, C6 vertebra and C5-C6 intervertebral space are recorded. Classification based on the Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) is made to give a view on injury severity, 9.1% of the study samples have been classified as AIS code 1, 51.5% with AIS 2 and 21.2% with AIS 3.

  18. Comparison of hemodynamic responses to intubation: Flexible fiberoptic bronchoscope versus McCoy laryngoscope in presence of rigid cervical collar simulating cervical immobilization for traumatic cervical spine

    PubMed Central

    Gill, Nitesh; Purohit, Shobha; Kalra, Poonam; Lall, Tarun; Khare, Avneesh

    2015-01-01

    Background: Intubation is known to cause an exaggerated hemodynamic response in the form of tachycardia, hypertension, and dysrhythmias. In cervical spine instability, intubation has to be performed using cervical immobilization to prevent exacerbation of spinal cord injuries. Application of rigid cervical collar may reduce cervical spine movements, but it hinders tracheal intubation with a standard laryngoscope. The aim of this study was to compare the hemodynamic responses to fiberoptic bronchoscope (FOB) and McCoy laryngoscope in patients undergoing elective surgery under general anesthesia with rigid cervical collar simulating cervical spine immobilization in the situation of cervical trauma. Methods: Thirty-two patients in the age range 20–50 years, of American Society of Anaesthesiologist I-II, and of either sex undergoing elective surgery under general anesthesia were randomly allocated into each group. There were two groups according to the technique used for intubation: Group A (flexible FOB) and Group B (McCoy laryngoscope). Systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, mean arterial blood pressure and heart rate (HR) were recorded at baseline, intraoperatively, immediately before and after induction, and immediately after intubation. Thereafter, every min for next 5 min. Statistical Analysis: Intergroup comparison of categorical data was done by Chi-square test. P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Intergroup comparison of quantitative data was done by the parametric test (unpaired t-test), and probability was considered to be significant if <0.05. Results: Due to intubation response, HR and blood pressure increased significantly (P < 0.05) above preoperative values in McCoy group as compared to the fiberoptic group. Conclusion: We suggest that the flexible FOB is an effective and better method of intubation in a situation like traumatic cervical spine injury and provides stable hemodynamics. PMID:26712970

  19. Do cervical collars and cervicothoracic orthoses effectively stabilize the injured cervical spine? A biomechanical investigation.

    PubMed

    Ivancic, Paul C

    2013-06-01

    In vitro biomechanical study. Our objective was to determine the effectiveness of cervical collars and cervicothoracic orthoses for stabilizing clinically relevant, experimentally produced cervical spine injuries. Most previous in vitro studies of cervical orthoses used a simplified injury model with all ligaments transected at a single spinal level, which differs from real-life neck injuries. Human volunteer studies are limited to measuring only sagittal motions or 3-dimensional motions only of the head or 1 or 2 spinal levels. Three-plane flexibility tests were performed to evaluate 2 cervical collars (Vista Collar and Vista Multipost Collar) and 2 cervicothoracic orthoses (Vista TS and Vista TS4) using a skull-neck-thorax model with 8 injured cervical spine specimens (manufacturer of orthoses: Aspen Medical Products Inc, Irvine, CA). The injuries consisted of flexion-compression at the lower cervical spine and extension-compression at superior spinal levels. Pair-wise repeated measures analysis of variance (P < 0.05) and Bonferroni post hoc tests determined significant differences in average range of motions of the head relative to the base, C7 or T1, among experimental conditions. RESULTS.: All orthoses significantly reduced unrestricted head/base flexion and extension. The orthoses allowed between 8.4% and 25.8% of unrestricted head/base motion in flexion/extension, 57.8% to 75.5% in axial rotation, and 53.8% to 73.7% in lateral bending. The average percentages of unrestricted motion allowed by the Vista Collar, Vista Multipost Collar, Vista TS, and Vista TS4 were: 14.0, 9.7, 6.1, and 4.7, respectively, for middle cervical spine extension and 13.2, 11.8, 3.3, and 0.4, respectively, for lower cervical spine flexion. Successive increases in immobilization were observed from Vista Collar to Vista Multipost Collar, Vista TS, and Vista TS4 in extension at the injured middle cervical spine and in flexion at the injured lower cervical spine. Our results may assist

  20. Anterior cervical corpectomy and fusion for blastomycosis causing destruction of C6 vertebra: a case report.

    PubMed

    Patel, Kushal R; Szczodry, Michal; Neckrysh, Sergey; Siemionow, Krzysztof

    2015-11-25

    We describe a patient who had cervical spine osteomyelitis caused by Blastomyces dermatitidis that resulted in cord compression and cervical spine instability. A 25-year-old Hispanic woman presented with fever, sweats, neck pain, and an enlarging neck mass with purulent discharge after sustaining a C6 vertebral body fracture. Magnetic resonance imaging confirmed C6 vertebral osteomyelitis, demonstrated by vertebral body destruction, cervical spine instability, prevertebral abscess, and spinal cord compression. She underwent C6 anterior cervical corpectomy and fusion, with fungal cultures confirming Blastomyces dermatitidis. Anterior cervical corpectomy and fusion successful debrided, decompressed, and restored cervical spine stability in a patient with vertebral osteomyelitis caused by Blastomyces dermatitidis. The patient was subsequently treated with a 1-year course of itraconazole and had no recurrence of infection 4 years postoperatively.

  1. Association between roentgenographic findings of the cervical spine and neck symptoms in a Japanese community population.

    PubMed

    Kumagai, Gentaro; Ono, Atsushi; Numasawa, Takuya; Wada, Kanichiro; Inoue, Ryo; Iwasaki, Hiroki; Iwane, Kaori; Matsuzaka, Masashi; Takahashi, Ippei; Umeda, Takashi; Nakaji, Shigeyuki; Ishibashi, Yasuyuki

    2014-05-01

    Radiographic findings may provide clues to the underlying cause of neck symptoms. However, these associations remain controversial. This study investigates the association between roentgenographic findings of the cervical spine and neck symptoms in a Japanese community population. A total of 762 volunteers participated in this study. Sagittal radiographs of the cervical spine were taken and a questionnaire about the presence of and visual analog scale (VAS) for neck pain or stiff shoulder was completed. The sagittal alignment of the cervical spine (C2-C7) and the degenerative index were measured from lateral aspect radiographs. Three groups based on the sagittal alignment of C2-C7 were defined: straight-spine, lordotic-spine, and kyphotic-spine. The roentgenographic findings were examined in relation to symptoms. The prevalence rate of stiff shoulder on the day of examination was significantly higher in females than males. Although the VAS for neck pain and stiff shoulder on the examination day and for stiff shoulder in the preceding 12 months were not significantly different between females and males, that for neck pain in the preceding 12 months was significantly higher in females than males. Although there was no association between the sagittal alignment of C2-C7 and neck symptoms in males or females, a significant correlation between the degenerative index and VAS for neck pain on the examination day and in the preceding 12 months was seen in females after adjusting for age. The prevalence of and VAS for neck pain and stiff shoulder were not significantly different among the three C2-C7 sagittal alignment groups. Although the sagittal alignment of the cervical spine was not associated with neck symptoms, degenerative changes were associated with the severity of neck pain in females.

  2. Multi-Level 3D Printing Implant For Reconstructing Cervical Spine With Metastatic Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiucan; Wang, Yiguo; Zhao, Yongfei; Liu, Jianheng; Xiao, Songhua; Mao, Keya

    2017-05-11

    A unique case report. A three-dimensional (3D) printing technology is proposed for reconstructing multi-level cervical spine (C2-C4) after resection of metastatic papillary thyroid carcinoma in a middle-age female patient. Papillary thyroid carcinoma is a malignant neoplasm with a relatively favorable prognosis. A metastatic lesion in multi-level cervical spine (C2-C4) destroys neurological functions and causes local instability. Radical excision of the metastasis and reconstruction of the cervical vertebrae sequence conforms with therapeutic principles, while the special-shaped multi-level upper-cervical spine requires personalized implants. 3D printing is an additive manufacturing technology that produces personalized products by accurately layering material under digital model control via a computer. Reporting of this recent technology for reconstructing multi-level cervical spine (C2-C4) is rare in the literature. Anterior-posterior surgery was performed in one stage. Radical resection of the metastatic lesion (C2-C4) and thyroid gland, along with insertion of a personalized implant manufactured by 3D printing technology, were performed to rebuild the cervical spine sequences. The porous implant was printed in Ti6AL4 V with perfect physicochemical properties and biological performance, such as biocompatibility and osteogenic activity. Finally, lateral mass screw fixation was performed via a posterior approach. Patient neurological function gradually improved after the surgery. The patient received 11/17 on the Japanese Orthopedic Association scale and ambulated with a personalized skull-neck-thorax orthosis on postoperative day 11. She received radioiodine I therapy. The plane X-rays and computed tomography revealed no implant displacement or subsidence at the 12-month follow-up mark. The presented case substantiates the use of 3D printing technology, which enables the personalization of products to solve unconventional problems in spinal surgery. 5.

  3. Helmet fit and cervical spine motion in collegiate men's lacrosse athletes secured to a spine board.

    PubMed

    Petschauer, Meredith A; Schmitz, Randy; Gill, Diane L

    2010-01-01

    Proper management of cervical spine injuries in men's lacrosse players depends in part upon the ability of the helmet to immobilize the head. To determine if properly and improperly fitted lacrosse helmets provide adequate stabilization of the head in the spine-boarded athlete. Crossover study. Sports medicine research laboratory. Eighteen healthy collegiate men's lacrosse players. Participants were asked to move their heads through 3 planes of motion after being secured to a spine board under 3 helmet conditions. Change in range of motion in the cervical spine was calculated for the sagittal, frontal, and transverse planes for both head-to-thorax and helmet-to-thorax range of motion in all 3 helmet conditions (properly fitted, improperly fitted, and no helmet). Head-to-thorax range of motion with the properly fitted and improperly fitted helmets was greater than in the no-helmet condition (P < .0001). In the sagittal plane, range of motion was greater with the improperly fitted helmet than with the properly fitted helmet. No difference was observed in helmet-to-thorax range of motion between properly and improperly fitted helmet conditions. Head-to-thorax range of motion was greater than helmet-to-thorax range of motion in all 3 planes (P < .0001). Cervical spine motion was minimized the most in the no-helmet condition, indicating that in lacrosse players, unlike football players, the helmet may need to be removed before stabilization.

  4. Tensile mechanical properties of the perinatal and pediatric PMHS osteoligamentous cervical spine.

    PubMed

    Luck, Jason F; Nightingale, Roger W; Loyd, Andre M; Prange, Michael T; Dibb, Alan T; Song, Yin; Fronheiser, Lucy; Myers, Barry S

    2008-11-01

    Pediatric cervical spine biomechanics have been under-researched due to the limited availability of pediatric post-mortem human subjects (PMHS). Scaled data based on human adult and juvenile animal studies have been utilized to augment the limited pediatric PMHS data that exists. Despite these efforts, a significant void in pediatric cervical spine biomechanics remains. Eighteen PMHS osteoligamentous head-neck complexes ranging in age from 20 weeks gestational to 14 years were tested in tension. The tests were initially conducted on the whole cervical spine and then the spines were sectioned into three segments that included two lower cervical spine segments (C4-C5 and C6-C7) and one upper cervical spine segment (O-C2). After non-destructive tests were conducted, each segment was failed in tension. The tensile stiffness of the whole spines ranged from 5.3 to 70.1 N/mm. The perinatal and neonatal specimens had an ultimate strength for the upper cervical spine of 230.9 +/- 38.0 N and for the lower cervical spine of 212.8 +/- 60.9 and 187.1 +/- 39.4 N for the C4-C5 and C6-C7 segments, respectively. The lower cervical segments were significantly weaker and stiffer than the upper cervical spine segments in the older cohort. For the entire cohort of specimens, the stiffness of the upper cervical spine ranged from 7.1 to 199.0 N/mm. The tolerance ranged from 173.6 to 2960 N for the upper cervical spine and from 142 to 1757 N for the lower. There was a statistically significant increase in stiffness and strength with age. The results also suggest that juvenile animal surrogates estimate the stiffness of the human cervical spine fairly well; however, they may not provide accurate estimates of pediatric cervical spine strength.

  5. Destructive spondyloarthropathy of the cervical spine in patients with chronic renal failure.

    PubMed

    Kumar, A; Leventhal, M R; Freedman, E L; Coburn, J; Delamarter, R

    1997-03-01

    Eleven patients with chronic renal failure and destructive spondyloarthropathy of the cervical spine were evaluated with plain radiographs, flexion-extension views, computed tomography myelogram, or magnetic resonance imaging to determine the results of surgical and nonsurgical treatment. To determine if cervical spine fusion is an effective method of treatment for patients with chronic renal failure and destructive spondyloarthropathy. Several reports have described the pathogenesis and appearance of this condition, but little has been reported about the orthopedic management of destructive spondyloarthropathy of the cervical spine. Three patients had no spinal surgery, three patients had laminectomies alone, three patients had laminectomies with anterior fusions, and two patients had laminectomies with posterior fusions. Radiographs, computed tomography myelograms, and magnetic resonance images were evaluated to determine the results of treatment. Histologic examinations were performed in two patients. Patients with laminectomy alone had no improvement in pain or neurologic function (one died in the immediate postoperative period), one of three patients with anterior fusions had some improvement (one died in the immediate postoperative period), and both of those patients with posterior fusions improved, although both died within a year of surgery from unrelated causes. Even though the osteopenia present in patients with chronic renal failure tends to allow wire pull-out and makes internal fixation of the spine difficult, successful cervical spinal fusion can relieve pain and improve neurologic deficits in selected patients with chronic renal failure and destructive spondyloarthropathy, allowing them to remain more active for longer periods of time.

  6. A New Craniothoracic Mattress for Immobilization of the Cervical Spine in Critical Care Patients.

    PubMed

    Holla, Micha; Driessen, Mitchel; Eggen, Thomas G E; Daanen, Robin A; Hosman, Allard J F; Verdonschot, Nico; Hannink, Gerjon

    Current immobilization techniques of the cervical spine are associated with complications including pressure ulcers, discomfort, and elevated intracranial pressures with limited access to the thorax and airway. In this study, a newly developed craniothoracic immobilizer (Pharaoh mattress) for critical care patients with cervical injury was tested for its restriction of cervical movement, peak interface pressures, comfort, and radiolucency, and compared with headblocks strapped to a spineboard. Cervical movement was measured by roentgen stereophotogrammetric analysis in 5 fresh frozen cadavers. Peak interface and discomfort pressures were measured in 10 healthy volunteers. Radiographic absorption was calculated by measuring the total emission radiation with and without immobilizer. The Pharaoh mattress caused a mean restriction of 59% (SD: 15) flexion-extension, 77% (SD: 14) lateral bending, and 93% (SD: 3) rotation, compared with the unrestricted situation. No significant differences in restriction of cervical movement were found between headblocks strapped to a spineboard and the Pharaoh mattress. The mean peak pressures on the Pharaoh mattress were significantly lower than on the spineboard. Healthy volunteers gave significantly lower numeric discomfort scores on the Pharaoh mattress than on the spineboard. The Pharaoh mattress absorbed more x-rays than the spineboard. The Pharaoh mattress provides similar restriction of cervical movement compared with headblocks strapped to a spineboard but with lower interface pressures and increased comfort. This new mattress could be useful for immobilization of the cervical spine in critical care patients with mechanically instable spinal fractures.

  7. Management of the unstable cervical spine: elective versus emergent cases.

    PubMed

    Bonhomme, Vincent; Hans, Pol

    2009-10-01

    The present review focuses on similarities and discrepancies in the management of emergent and elective unstable cervical spine (C-spine) patients. During mobilization, lifting is superior to rolling in limiting spine movements. Before prone position surgery, the transfer of the patient on a rotating table is preferable to rolling. In trauma patients, helical computed tomography (CT) with sagittal reconstruction is the first choice for clearing the C-spine. In those patients, airway compromise may be related to hidden cervical edema or hematoma. Several devices can be of help in performing safe tracheal intubation in patients with limited neck movements, but awake fiberoptic intubation remains the safest procedure. The muscle relaxant antagonist sugammadex can improve safety for rapid sequence induction. It can rapidly reverse profound steroid-based neuromuscular blockade and allows avoidance of succinylcholine in this indication. Propofol anesthesia better prevents coughing upon emergence than inhaled anesthesia. Neuroprotection in cord-damaged patients is disappointing, and the controversy on the efficacy of high-dose methylprednisolone is not closed. Nevertheless, maintenance of homeostasis remains the cornerstone of neuroprotection. Subtle details differentiate the management of emergent and elective unstable C-spine patients. In both situations, the presence or the absence of a neurological insult governs the therapeutic strategy.

  8. Fractures of the articular processes of the cervical spine

    SciTech Connect

    Woodring, J.H.; Goldstein, S.J.

    1982-08-01

    Fractures of the articular processes occurred in 16 (20.8%) of 77 patients with cervical spine fractures as demonstrated by multidirectional tomography. Plain films demonstrated the fractures in only two patients. Acute cervical radiculopathy occurred in five of the patients with articular process fractures (superior process, two cases; inferior process, three cases). Persistent neck pain occurred in one other patient without radiculopathy. Three patients suffered spinal cord damage at the time of injury, which was not the result of the articular process fracture itself. In the other seven cases, no definite sequelae occurred. However, disruption of the facet joint may predispose to early degenerative joint disease and chronic pain; unilateral or bilateral facet dislocation was present in five patients. In patients with cervical trauma who develop cervical radiculopathy, tomography should be performed to evaluate the articular processes.

  9. The Neandertal vertebral column 1: the cervical spine.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Olivencia, Asier; Been, Ella; Arsuaga, Juan Luis; Stock, Jay T

    2013-06-01

    This paper provides a metric analysis of the Neandertal cervical spine in relation to modern human variation. All seven cervical vertebrae have been analysed. Metric data from eight Neandertal individuals are compared with a large sample of modern humans. The significance of morphometric differences is tested using both z-scores and two-tailed Wilcoxon signed rank tests. The results identify significant metric and morphological differences between Neandertals and modern humans in all seven cervical vertebrae. Neandertal vertebrae are mediolaterally wider and dorsoventrally longer than modern humans, due in part to longer and more horizontally oriented spinous processes. This suggests that Neandertal cervical morphology was more stable in both mid-sagittal and coronal planes. It is hypothesized that the differences in cranial size and shape in the Neandertal and modern human lineages from their Middle Pleistocene ancestors could account for some of the differences in the neck anatomy between these species.

  10. Subaxial cervical spine injuries in children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Robert F; Davidson, Austin R; Kelly, Derek M; Warner, William C; Sawyer, Jeffrey R

    2015-03-01

    Limited data exist on pediatric subaxial cervical spine injuries. The goal of this study was to characterize the injuries and initial treatment of a large consecutive series of patients with injuries from C3 to C7. Medical records and radiographs of consecutive patients admitted with cervical spine fractures and/or dislocations at a single level 1 pediatric trauma center from 2003 to 2013 were reviewed. Data abstracted included age, injury type and level, mechanism of injury, associated nonspine injuries, neurological status, length of hospitalization, and initial treatment. Fifty-one patients were grouped into 3 age ranges: infant, 0 to 3 years (2); youth, 4 to 12 years (13); and adolescent, 13 to 16 years (36). Isolated fractures were identified in both infants and accounted for most of injuries in youths (85%) and adolescents (86%). Single vertebra or single vertebral level injuries were present in 65% of patients, most commonly at C7 (36%) or C6 (29%). No correlation existed between cervical level injured and patient age. Multiple cervical spine injuries occurred in 1 infant, 3 youths, and 14 adolescents. Other concomitant thoracic and/or lumbar spine injuries were found in 1 infant and 3 adolescents. The most common mechanisms of injury were motor vehicle accidents (53%) and sports (14%). High-energy trauma was associated with higher rates of noncontiguous spinal injuries and associated nonspinal injuries, with a longer length of hospitalization. Neurological deficits were observed in 8 patients: 1 infant, 2 youths, and 5 adolescents, of which 5 resulted from high-energy trauma. One infant and all youth patients were treated nonoperatively; 26 adolescents (73%) were treated in a cervical collar or with observation, 1 was treated with halo-vest immobilization, and 9 had surgical treatment. Most subaxial cervical spine injuries in pediatric and adolescent patients are isolated fractures at C6 and C7. High-energy mechanisms are associated with noncontiguous

  11. Dynamic Mechanical Properties of Intact Human Cervical Spine Ligaments

    PubMed Central

    Ivancic, Paul C.; Coe, Marcus P.; Ndu, Anthony B.; Tominaga, Yasuhiro; Carlson, Erik J.; Rubin, Wolfgang; (FH), Dipl-Ing; Panjabi, Manohar M.

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND CONTEXT Most previous studies have investigated ligaments mechanical properties at slow elongation rates of less than 25 mm/s. PURPOSE To determine the tensile mechanical properties, at a fast elongation rate, of intact human cervical anterior and posterior longitudinal, capsular, and interspinous and supraspinous ligaments, middle-third disc, and ligamentum flavum. STUDY DESIGN/SETTING In vitro biomechanical study. METHODS A total of 97 intact bone-ligament-bone specimens (C2–C3 to C7-T1) were prepared from six cervical spines (average age: 80.6 years, range, 71 to 92 years) and were elongated to complete rupture at an average (SD) peak rate of 723 (106) mm/s using a custom-built apparatus. Non-linear force vs. elongation curves were plotted and peak force, peak elongation, peak energy, and stiffness were statistically compared (P<0.05) among ligament. A mathematical model was developed to determine the quasi-static physiological ligament elongation. RESULTS Highest average peak force, up to 244.4 and 220.0 N in the ligamentum flavum and capsular ligament, respectively, were significantly greater than in the anterior longitudinal ligament and middle-third disc. Highest peak elongation reached 5.9 mm in the intraspinous and supraspinous ligaments, significantly greater than in the middle-third disc. Highest peak energy of 0.57 J was attained in the capsular ligament, significantly greater than in the anterior longitudinal ligament and middle-third disc. Average stiffness was generally greatest in the ligamentum flavum and least in the intraspinous and supraspinous ligaments. For all ligaments, peak elongation was greater than average physiological elongation computed using the mathematical model. CONCLUSIONS Comparison of the present results with previously reported data indicated that high speed elongation may cause cervical ligaments to fail at a higher peak force and smaller peak elongation and may be stiffer and absorb less energy, as compared to a

  12. Rare Complications of Cervical Spine Surgery: Horner’s Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Malone, Hani R.; Smith, Zachary A.; Hsu, Wellington K.; Kanter, Adam S.; Qureshi, Sheeraz A.; Cho, Samuel K.; Baird, Evan O.; Isaacs, Robert E.; Rahman, Ra’Kerry K.; Polevaya, Galina; Smith, Justin S.; Shaffrey, Christopher; Tortolani, P. Justin; Stroh, D. Alex; Arnold, Paul M.; Fehlings, Michael G.; Mroz, Thomas E.; Riew, K. Daniel

    2017-01-01

    Study Design: A multicenter retrospective case series. Objective: Horner’s syndrome is a known complication of anterior cervical spinal surgery, but it is rarely encountered in clinical practice. To better understand the incidence, risks, and neurologic outcomes associated with Horner’s syndrome, a multicenter study was performed to review a large collective experience with this rare complication. Methods: We conducted a retrospective multicenter case series study involving 21 high-volume surgical centers from the AOSpine North America Clinical Research Network. Medical records for 17 625 patients who received subaxial cervical spine surgery from 2005 to 2011 were reviewed to identify occurrence of 21 predefined treatment complications. Descriptive statistics were provided for baseline patient characteristics. Paired t test was used to analyze changes in clinical outcomes at follow-up compared to preoperative status. Results: In total, 8887 patients who underwent anterior cervical spine surgery at the participating institutions were screened. Postoperative Horner’s syndrome was identified in 5 (0.06%) patients. All patients experienced the complication following anterior cervical discectomy and fusion. The sympathetic trunk appeared to be more vulnerable when operating on midcervical levels (C5, C6), and most patients experienced at least a partial recovery without further treatment. Conclusions: This collective experience suggests that Horner’s syndrome is an exceedingly rare complication following anterior cervical spine surgery. Injury to the sympathetic trunk may be limited by maintaining a midline surgical trajectory when possible, and performing careful dissection and retraction of the longus colli muscle when lateral exposure is necessary, especially at caudal cervical levels. PMID:28451480

  13. Acute motor-sensory axonal neuropathy after cervical spine surgery.

    PubMed

    Miscusi, Massimo; Currà, Antonio; Della Rocca, Carlo; Missori, Paolo; Petrozza, Vincenzo

    2012-07-01

    The authors report the case of a 55-year-old man who presented with acute motor-sensory axonal neuropathy (AMSAN), a variant of Guillain-Barré syndrome with a poor prognosis, immediately after surgery for resection of a cervical chondroma. A misdiagnosis of spinal cord shock due to an acute surgical or vascular postoperative complication was initially made in this patient. Nevertheless, there was continuous transient improvement that was followed by progressive worsening, and further investigation was necessary. The diagnosis of AMSAN, associated with acute colitis caused by Helicobacter pylori, was made based on neurophysiological examinations and colonoscopy. Interestingly, the patient also developed nephrotic syndrome, which was thought to be a further complication of the autoimmune reaction. Delayed administration of immunoglobulins (400 mg/kg/day), mesalazine (800 mg 3×/day), and meropenem (3 g/day) was used to treat the Helicobacter infection and the autoimmune reaction, leading to restoration of renal function and slight neurological improvement. The patient's general condition and neurological status improved slightly, but he remained seriously disabled (Frankel Grade C). This case demonstrates that a new onset of neurological symptoms in the early postoperative period after spine surgery could be related to causes other than iatrogenic myelopathy, and that an early diagnosis can reduce neurological sequelae, leading to a better outcome.

  14. Pharyngoesophageal perforation 3 years after anterior cervical spine surgery: a rare case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Yin, Dan-Hui; Yang, Xin-Ming; Huang, Qi; Yang, Mi; Tang, Qin-Lai; Wang, Shu-Hui; Wang, Shuang; Liu, Jia-Jia; Yang, Tao; Li, Shi-Sheng

    2015-08-01

    Pharyngoesophageal perforation after anterior cervical spine surgery is rare and the delayed cases were more rarely reported but potentially life-threatening. We report a case of pharyngoesophageal perforation 3 years after anterior cervical spine surgery. The patient presented with dysphagia, fever, left cervical mass and developing dyspnea 3 years after cervical spine surgery for trauma. After careful examinations, he underwent an emergency tracheostomy, neck exploration, hardware removal, abscess drainage and infected tissue debridement. 14 days after surgery, CT of the neck with oral contrast demonstrated no contrast extravasation from the esophagus. Upon review of literature, only 14 cases of pharyngoesophageal perforation more than 1 year after anterior cervical spine surgery were found. We discussed possible etiology, diagnosis and management and concluded that in cases of dysphagia, dyspnea, cervical pain, swelling and edema of the cervical area even long time after anterior cervical spine surgery, potential pharyngoesophageal damage should be considered.

  15. Negative Pressure Pulmonary Edema Associated with Anterior Cervical Spine Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Yoneda, Masana; Tanaka, Yasuhito

    2014-01-01

    We report a very rare case of negative pressure pulmonary edema (NPPE) that occurred immediately after anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF). The patient was a 25-year-old man who sustained a facet fracture-dislocation of C5 during a traffic accident. After ACDF, he developed NPPE and needed mechanical ventilation. Fortunately, he recovered fully within 24 hours. NPPE is a rare postoperative complication that may occur after cervical spine surgery. The aims of this report are to present information regarding the diagnosis and emergent treatment of NPPE, and to review the previous literature regarding this serious complication. PMID:25558327

  16. Congenital Absence of a Cervical Spine Pedicle : Report of Two Cases and Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Young-Min

    2008-01-01

    Congenital absence of a cervical spine pedicle is a rare clinical entity, and it is usually found incidentally on radiological studies performed after trauma in patients with cervical pain. We report two cases of congenital absence of a cervical spine pedicle and present a review of the literature. PMID:19137085

  17. MDCT of acute subaxial cervical spine trauma: a mechanism-based approach.

    PubMed

    Raniga, Sameer B; Menon, Venugopal; Al Muzahmi, Khamis S; Butt, Sajid

    2014-06-01

    Injuries to the spinal column are common and road traffic accidents are the commonest cause. Subaxial cervical spine (C3-C7) trauma encompasses a wide spectrum of osseous and ligamentous injuries, in addition to being frequently associated with neurological injury. Multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) is routinely performed to evaluate acute cervical spine trauma, very often as first-line imaging. MDCT provides an insight into the injury morphology, which in turn reflects the mechanics of injury. This article will review the fundamental biomechanical forces underlying the common subaxial spine injuries and resultant injury patterns or "fingerprints" on MDCT. This systematic and focused analysis enables a more accurate and rapid interpretation of cervical spine CT examinations. Mechanical considerations are important in most clinical and surgical decisions to adequately realign the spine, to prevent neurological deterioration and to facilitate appropriate stabilisation. This review will emphasise the variables on CT that affect the surgical management, as well as imaging "pearls" in differentiating "look-alike" lesions with different surgical implications. It will also enable the radiologist in writing clinically relevant CT reports of cervical spine trauma. Teaching Points • Vertebral bodies and disc bear the axial compression forces, while the ligaments bear the distraction forces.• Compressive forces result in fracture and distractive forces result in ligamentous disruption.• Bilateral facet dislocation is the most severe injury of the flexion-distraction spectrum.• Biomechanics-based CT reading will help to rapidly and accurately identify the entire spectrum of injury.• This approach also helps to differentiate look-alike injuries with different clinical implications.

  18. Combined flexion and extension cervical spine fractures with vascular injury.

    PubMed

    Lisanti, Christopher J; Hartness, Christopher

    2009-10-01

    We present a radiologic case report of a combined flexion and extension cervical spine fractures with associated vascular injury in a young patient who presented after a motorcycle crash with bilateral upper extremity paresthesias. CT and MRI examinations demonstrated an unstable anterior spondylolisthesis at C7/T1 with laminar/spinous process fracture of C7 and posterior longitudinal ligament avulsion requiring emergent surgery. Patient also had an extension teardrop fracture of C2 and focal right vertebral artery dissection. The case report reviews the classification of cervical spine injuries both by mechanism of injury and by stability/instability classification. Finally, we discuss the etiology and diagnosis of vascular injury including injury patterns that predispose to vascular trauma.

  19. Glycopyrrolate Induced Bilateral Angle Closure Glaucoma after Cervical Spine Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Jaroudi, Mahmoud; Fadi, Maalouf; Farah, Fadi; El Mollayess, Georges M.

    2013-01-01

    To report a case of bilateral acute angle closure glaucoma (AACG) that occurred after cervical spine surgery with the use of glycopyrolate. A 59-year-old male who presented with severe bilateral bifrontal headache and eye pain that started 12 h postextubation from a cervical spine surgery. Neostigmine 0.05 mg/kg (4.5 mg) and glycopyrrolate 0.01 mg/kg (0.9 mg) were used as muscle relaxant reversals at the end of the surgery. Ophthalmic examination revealed he had bilateral AACG with plateau iris syndrome that was treated medically along with laser iridotomies. Thorough examination of anterior chamber should be performed preoperatively on all patients undergoing surgeries in the prone position and receiving mydriatic agents under general anesthesia. PMID:23741140

  20. Virchow's Triad and spinal manipulative therapy of the cervical spine

    PubMed Central

    Symons, Bruce P; Westaway, Michael

    2001-01-01

    The objective of this review paper is to borrow Virchow's Triad as a conceptual framework to examine the state of the art in research on thrombosis, specifically in the vertebrobasilar system as a consequence of high velocity, low amplitude spinal manipulation of the cervical spine. A revised Virchow's Triad is presented which emphasizes the interactions between various risk factors, as a tool for clinicians and researchers to use in their analyses of vertebrobasilar stroke. Endothelial injury, abnormal blood flow and hypercoagulability are discussed.

  1. The Effect of the Cervical Orthosis on Swallowing Physiology and Cervical Spine Motion During Swallowing.

    PubMed

    Mekata, Kojiro; Takigawa, Tomoyuki; Matsubayashi, Jun; Toda, Kazukiyo; Hasegawa, Yasuhiro; Ito, Yasuo

    2016-02-01

    Cervical orthosis is used to immobilize the neck in various disorders such as trauma and post-operation. However, it is still uncertain how cervical orthosis restricts the degree of movement of the cervical spine during swallowing and how they affect swallowing physiology. The purpose of this study was to evaluate these issues using the Philadelphia(®) Collar. We conducted videofluorography of swallowing in 39 healthy subjects (23 men, 16 women; mean age of 34.3 years) with and without cervical orthosis. To compare the two conditions regarding the cervical spine motion, we determined the angular and positional changes of the occipital bone (C0) and each cervical vertebra (C1-C7) from the oral phase to the pharyngeal phase. Similarly, to compare swallowing physiology, we assessed the start and end times and the durations of soft palate elevation, rapid hyoid anterosuperior movement, epiglottis inversion, closure of the laryngeal vestibule, and pharyngoesophageal segment (PES) opening. Finally, we compared the transit times of contrast agent in the two conditions. The respective extensions of C1, C2, and C3 were 0.31°, 0.07°, and 0.05° (mean) with cervical orthosis, and the respective flexions of C1, C2, and C3 were 0.98°, 1.42°, and 0.85° (mean) without. These results suggested that cervical orthosis restricted the flexion of C1-C3. Analysis of swallowing physiology revealed that the average durations of hyoid anterosuperior elevation, epiglottic inversion, and PES opening were prolonged by 0.09, 0.19, and 0.05 s, respectively. In conclusion, the cervical orthosis restricted the movement of the cervical spine during swallowing and changed swallowing physiology.

  2. Head and cervical spine posture in behaving rats: implications for modeling human conditions involving the head and cervical spine.

    PubMed

    Griffin, C; Choong, W Y; Teh, W; Buxton, A J; Bolton, P S

    2015-02-01

    The aim of this study was to define the temporal and spatial (postural) characteristics of the head and cervical vertebral column (spine) of behaving rats in order to better understand their suitability as a model to study human conditions involving the head and neck. Time spent in each of four behavioral postures was determined from video tape recordings of rats (n = 10) in the absence and presence of an intruder rat. Plain film radiographic examination of a subset of these rats (n = 5) in each of these postures allowed measurement of head and cervical vertebral column positions adopted by the rats. When single they were quadruped or crouched most (∼80%) of the time and bipedal either supported or free standing for only ∼10% of the time. The introduction of an intruder significantly (P < 0.0001) reduced the proportion of time rats spent quadruped (median, from 71% to 47%) and bipedal free standing (median, from 2.9% to 0.4%). The cervical spine was orientated (median, 25-75 percentile) near vertical (18.8°, 4.2°-30.9°) when quadruped, crouched (15.4°, 7.6°-69.3°) and bipedal supported (10.5°, 4.8°-22.6°) but tended to be less vertical oriented when bipedal free standing (25.9°, 7.7°-39.3°). The range of head positions relative to the cervical spine was largest when crouched (73.4°) and smallest when erect free standing (17.7°). This study indicates that, like humans, rats have near vertical orientated cervical vertebral columns but, in contrast to humans, they displace their head in space by movements at both the cervico-thoracic junction and the cranio-cervical regions.

  3. Occurrence of cervical spine injuries during the rugby scrum.

    PubMed

    Wetzler, M J; Akpata, T; Laughlin, W; Levy, A S

    1998-01-01

    A retrospective study of cervical spine injuries that occurred during the rugby scrum in the United States was undertaken. In the U.S., from 1970 to 1996, 36 (58%) of the 62 documented injured players injured their cervical spines during the scrum. Thirty-five men (97%) and one woman (3%) were injured. Twenty-three of the injuries (64%) occurred when the opposing packs came together (engagement), and 13 (36%) occurred when the scrum collapsed. Twenty-eight (78%) hookers, seven (19%) props, and one (3%) second-row player were injured. Twenty (56%) hookers and three (8%) props were hurt during engagement. Eight hookers (22%), four props (11%), and one second-row player (3%) were injured when the scrum collapsed. Significantly more injuries occurred during engagement than during collapse, and hookers were injured significantly more than props. We conclude that in the rugby scrum in the U.S., the hooker suffers most of the cervical spine injuries (78% in this study) and this position is by far the most vulnerable. This study should be used to develop rugby law (rule) changes and educate players, coaches, and referees in United States rugby.

  4. Clearance of the cervical spine in clinically unevaluable trauma patients.

    PubMed

    Halpern, Casey H; Milby, Andrew H; Guo, Wensheng; Schuster, James M; Gracias, Vicente H; Stein, Sherman C

    2010-08-15

    Meta-analytic costeffectiveness analysis. Our goal was to compare the results of different management strategies for trauma patients in whom the cervical spine was not clinically evaluable due to impaired consciousness, endotracheal intubation, or painful distracting injuries. We performed a structured literature review related to cervical spine trauma, radiographic clearance techniques (plain radiography, flexion/extension, CT, and MRI), and complications associated with semirigid collar use. Meta-analytic techniques were used to pool data from multiple sources to calculate pooled mean estimates of sensitivities and specificities of imaging techniques for cervical spinal clearance, rates of complications from various clearance strategies and from empirical use of semirigid collars. A decision analysis model was used to compare outcomes and costs among these strategies. Slightly more than 7.5% of patients who are clinically unevaluable have cervical spine injuries, and 42% of these injuries are associated with spinal instability. Sensitivity of plain radiography or fluoroscopy for spinal clearance was 57% (95% CI: 57%-60%). Sensitivities for CT and MRI alone were 83% (82%-84%) and 87% (84%-89%), respectively. Complications associated with collar use ranged from 1.3% (2 days) to 7.1% (10 days) but were usually minor and short-lived. Quadriplegia resulting from spinal instability missed by a clearance test had enormous impacts on longevity, quality of life, and costs. These impacts overshadowed the effects of prolonged collar application, even when the incidence of quadriplegia was extremely low. As currently used, neuroimaging studies for cervical spinal clearance in clinically unevaluable patients are not cost-effective compared with empirical immobilization in a semirigid collar.

  5. [Surgical tactics in treatment of cervical spine injuries].

    PubMed

    Protsenko, A I; Nikuradze, V K; Mekhtikhanov, D S

    2011-01-01

    Surgical tactics were analyzed in 1350 patients with cervical spine injuries treated during 1972-2009 years. In 80% of cases injuries were caused by car accidents. 855 patients were admitted in acute or early period of trauma. In other cases old injuries were observed. Vertebral neurological syndromes were revealed in most cases and were absent only in 80 patients. All patients were operated using anterior access. Authors consider that reposition of dislocated vertebras can be carried out in acute and early periods of trauma. Unsuccessful reposition, fractures or fracture-dislocations with spinal stenosis served as indications for transcorporal spinal decompression. This operation is considered to be a method of choice for late periods of trauma. Stabilization of spinal column was achieved using carbonic implant (950 patients), bone auto-transplant (400) combined with utilized auto-bone (960) or biocomposite material "KollapAn" (390 patients). Good results were achieved in 1150 patients, satisfactory - in 190, poor - in 10 patients. Long term results with catamnesis more than 25 years were traced in 120 patients. Results were not revalued.

  6. Complications of tracheostomy after anterior cervical spine fixation surgery.

    PubMed

    Romero-Ganuza, Javier; Gambarrutta, Claudia; Merlo-Gonzalez, Victoria Eugenia; Marin-Ruiz, Maria Ángeles; Diez De La Lastra-Buigues, Elena; Oliviero, Antonio

    2011-01-01

    Cervical traumatic spinal cord-injured patients often way require both anterior cervical spine stabilization and tracheostomy in the first few days after the injury. The infectious complication of tracheostomy can interfere with the evolution of the fixation surgery. The aim of our study was to evaluate the safety of tracheostomy performed early after anterior cervical spine stabilization. We reviewed the clinical records of 28 patients admitted to our hospital intensive care unit. In all cases, percutaneous tracheostomy was performed using the percutaneous dilation technique. The average time interval between the fixation surgery and tracheostomy was 8.25 ± 5.57 days. We had complications in tracheostomy in only 3 cases: minor bleeding occurred in 1 patient and stomal infection, not propagated to the fixation surgery wound, was observed in 2 patients. Two patients died without causal relation to these interventions. The early performance of tracheostomy after cervical spinal fixation surgery is safe, still realized early and nearly this, at least if the tracheostomy is performed by percutaneous method. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Technical note: CT scout views of the cervical spine in severely head-injured patients.

    PubMed

    Perugini, S; Bonetti, M G; Ghirlanda, S; Fresina, A; Salvolini, U

    1996-04-01

    The objective of this study was the validation of a CT multiprojection scout view method for the evaluation of cervical spine integrity in severely head-injured patients. Following brain CT, 130 consecutive patients underwent anteroposterior, laterolateral, and 45 degrees right and left oblique scout views of the cervical spine. The method allowed direct and prompt detection of traumatic lesions of the cervical spine in ten cases without moving the patients from the scanner table.

  8. [Assessment of whiplash and cervical spine injury].

    PubMed

    Marx, P

    2011-12-01

    Formulating an expert opinion on whiplash injuries requires that consideration be given to biomechanical, orthopedic, neurological, psychiatric and medicolegal aspects. The greatest difficulties are encountered in cases of mild whiplash where patients complain of constant pain without any physical correlative. Diverse assessments and principles for approving a claim are reflected in the fact that the prevalence of chronic spine pain after whiplash injuries (late whiplash syndrome) varies between 16% and 71% in different countries, and the proportion of whiplash injuries involved in petitions for compensation differs greatly across Europe (UK 75%, Germany 47%, Finland 8.5% and France 3% of all personal injuries).Important biomechanical, orthopedic, neurological, psychiatric and medicolegal aspects of expert testimony on whiplash associated disorders (WAD) are delineated.

  9. Clearing the cervical spine in critically injured patients: a comprehensive C-spine protocol to avoid unnecessary delays in diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Platzer, Patrick; Jaindl, Manuela; Thalhammer, Gerhild; Dittrich, Stefan; Wieland, Thomas; Vecsei, Vilmos; Gaebler, Christian

    2006-12-01

    Clearing the cervical spine in polytrauma patients still presents a challenge to the trauma team. The risk of an overlooked cervical spine injury is substantial since these patients show painful and life-threatening injuries to one or more organ systems so that clinical examination is usually not reliable. A generally approved guideline to assess the cervical spine in polytrauma patients might significantly reduce delays in diagnosis, but a consistent protocol for evaluating the cervical spine has not been uniformly accepted or followed by clinicians. One purpose of this study was to analyse the common methods for cervical spine evaluation in critically injured patients and its safety and efficacy at this trauma centre. The second purpose was to present a comprehensive diagnostic C-spine protocol, based on the authors' experiences with documented cases. From a prospectively gathered polytrauma database, we retrospectively analysed the clinical records of all polytrauma patients, with skeletal and/or non-skeletal cervical spine injuries, who were admitted to this level I trauma centre between 1980 and 2004. All patients were assessed following the trauma algorithm of our unit (modified by Nast-Kolb). Standard radiological evaluation of the cervical spine consisted of either a single lateral view or a three-view cervical spine series (anteroposterior, lateral, odontoid). Further radiological examinations (functional flexion/extension views, oblique views, CT scan, MRI) were carried out for clinical suspicion of an injury or when indicated by the standard radiographs. Sixteen patients (14%) had a single cross-table lateral view for radiological assessment of the cervical spine during initial trauma evaluation, Twenty-nine patients had a three-view cervical spine series (anteroposterior, lateral, odontoid) and 81 patients underwent extended radiological examinations by cervical CT scan (n=52), functional flexion/extension views (n=26) or MRI (n=3). Correct diagnosis

  10. Musculoskeletal disorders of the upper cervical spine in women with episodic or chronic migraine.

    PubMed

    Ferracini, Gabriela N; Florencio, Lidiane L; Dach, Fabíola; Bevilaqua Grossi, Débora; Palacios-Ceña, María; Ordás-Bandera, Carlos; Chaves, Thais C; Speciali, José G; Fernández-de-Las-Peñas, César

    2017-06-01

    The role of musculoskeletal disorders of the cervical spine in migraine is under debate. To investigate differences in musculoskeletal impairments of the neck including active global and upper cervical spine mobility, the presence of symptomatic upper cervical spine joints, cervicocephalic kinesthesia and head/neck posture between women with episodic migraine, chronic migraine, and controls. A cross-sectional study. Tertiary university-based hospital. Fifty-five women with episodic migraine, 16 with chronic migraine, and 22 matched healthy women. Active cervical range of motion, upper cervical spine mobility (i.e., flexion-rotation test), referred pain from upper cervical joints, cervicocephalic kinesthesia (joint position sense error test, JPSE), and head/neck posture (i.e. the cranio-vertebral and cervical lordosis angles) were assessed by an assessor blinded to the subject's condition. Women with migraine showed reduced cervical rotation than healthy women (P=0.012). No differences between episodic and chronic migraine were found in cervical mobility. Significant differences for flexion-rotation test were also reported, suggesting that upper cervical spine mobility was restricted in both migraine groups (P<0.001). Referred pain elicited on manual examination of the upper cervical spine mimicking pain symptoms was present in 50% of migraineurs. No differences were observed on the frequency of symptomatic upper cervical joints between episodic and chronic migraine. No differences on JPSE or posture were found among groups (P>0.121). Women with migraine exhibit musculoskeletal impairments of the upper cervical spine expressed as restricted cervical rotation, decreased upper cervical rotation, and the presence of symptomatic upper cervical joints. No differences were found between episodic or chronic migraine. Identification treatment of the musculoskeletal impairments of the cervical spine may help to clinician for better management of patients with migraine.

  11. Effect of pillow height on the biomechanics of the head-neck complex: investigation of the cranio-cervical pressure and cervical spine alignment

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Hui; Zhou, Yan; Lin, Jin

    2016-01-01

    Background While appropriate pillow height is crucial to maintaining the quality of sleep and overall health, there are no universal, evidence-based guidelines for pillow design or selection. We aimed to evaluate the effect of pillow height on cranio-cervical pressure and cervical spine alignment. Methods Ten healthy subjects (five males) aged 26 ± 3.6 years were recruited. The average height, weight, and neck length were 167 ± 9.3 cm, 59.6 ± 11.9 kg, and 12.9 ± 1.2 cm respectively. The subjects lay on pillows of four different heights (H0, 110 mm; H1, 130 mm; H2, 150 mm; and H3, 170 mm). The cranio-cervical pressure distribution over the pillow was recorded; the peak and average pressures for each pillow height were compared by one-way ANOVA with repeated measures. Cervical spine alignment was studied using a finite element model constructed based on data from the Visible Human Project. The coordinate of the center of each cervical vertebra were predicted for each pillow height. Three spine alignment parameters (cervical angle, lordosis distance and kyphosis distance) were identified. Results The average cranial pressure at pillow height H3 was approximately 30% higher than that at H0, and significantly different from those at H1 and H2 (p < 0.05). The average cervical pressure at pillow height H0 was 65% lower than that at H3, and significantly different from those at H1 and H2 (p < 0.05). The peak cervical pressures at pillow heights H2 and H3 were significantly different from that at H0 (p < 0.05). With respect to cervical spine alignment, raising pillow height from H0 to H3 caused an increase of 66.4% and 25.1% in cervical angle and lordosis distance, respectively, and a reduction of 43.4% in kyphosis distance. Discussion Pillow height elevation significantly increased the average and peak pressures of the cranial and cervical regions, and increased the extension and lordosis of the cervical spine. The cranio-cervical pressures and cervical spine alignment

  12. Effect of pillow height on the biomechanics of the head-neck complex: investigation of the cranio-cervical pressure and cervical spine alignment.

    PubMed

    Ren, Sicong; Wong, Duo Wai-Chi; Yang, Hui; Zhou, Yan; Lin, Jin; Zhang, Ming

    2016-01-01

    While appropriate pillow height is crucial to maintaining the quality of sleep and overall health, there are no universal, evidence-based guidelines for pillow design or selection. We aimed to evaluate the effect of pillow height on cranio-cervical pressure and cervical spine alignment. Ten healthy subjects (five males) aged 26 ± 3.6 years were recruited. The average height, weight, and neck length were 167 ± 9.3 cm, 59.6 ± 11.9 kg, and 12.9 ± 1.2 cm respectively. The subjects lay on pillows of four different heights (H0, 110 mm; H1, 130 mm; H2, 150 mm; and H3, 170 mm). The cranio-cervical pressure distribution over the pillow was recorded; the peak and average pressures for each pillow height were compared by one-way ANOVA with repeated measures. Cervical spine alignment was studied using a finite element model constructed based on data from the Visible Human Project. The coordinate of the center of each cervical vertebra were predicted for each pillow height. Three spine alignment parameters (cervical angle, lordosis distance and kyphosis distance) were identified. The average cranial pressure at pillow height H3 was approximately 30% higher than that at H0, and significantly different from those at H1 and H2 (p < 0.05). The average cervical pressure at pillow height H0 was 65% lower than that at H3, and significantly different from those at H1 and H2 (p < 0.05). The peak cervical pressures at pillow heights H2 and H3 were significantly different from that at H0 (p < 0.05). With respect to cervical spine alignment, raising pillow height from H0 to H3 caused an increase of 66.4% and 25.1% in cervical angle and lordosis distance, respectively, and a reduction of 43.4% in kyphosis distance. Pillow height elevation significantly increased the average and peak pressures of the cranial and cervical regions, and increased the extension and lordosis of the cervical spine. The cranio-cervical pressures and cervical spine alignment were height-specific, and they were

  13. Helmet Fit and Cervical Spine Motion in Collegiate Men's Lacrosse Athletes Secured to a Spine Board

    PubMed Central

    Petschauer, Meredith A.; Schmitz, Randy; Gill, Diane L.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Context: Proper management of cervical spine injuries in men's lacrosse players depends in part upon the ability of the helmet to immobilize the head. Objective: To determine if properly and improperly fitted lacrosse helmets provide adequate stabilization of the head in the spine-boarded athlete. Design: Crossover study. Setting: Sports medicine research laboratory. Patients or Other Participants: Eighteen healthy collegiate men's lacrosse players. Intervention(s): Participants were asked to move their heads through 3 planes of motion after being secured to a spine board under 3 helmet conditions. Main Outcome Measure(s): Change in range of motion in the cervical spine was calculated for the sagittal, frontal, and transverse planes for both head-to-thorax and helmet-to-thorax range of motion in all 3 helmet conditions (properly fitted, improperly fitted, and no helmet). Results: Head-to-thorax range of motion with the properly fitted and improperly fitted helmets was greater than in the no-helmet condition (P < .0001). In the sagittal plane, range of motion was greater with the improperly fitted helmet than with the properly fitted helmet. No difference was observed in helmet-to-thorax range of motion between properly and improperly fitted helmet conditions. Head-to-thorax range of motion was greater than helmet-to-thorax range of motion in all 3 planes (P < .0001). Conclusions: Cervical spine motion was minimized the most in the no-helmet condition, indicating that in lacrosse players, unlike football players, the helmet may need to be removed before stabilization. PMID:20446833

  14. Impact of shoulder position and fatigue on the flexion-relaxation response in cervical spine.

    PubMed

    Nimbarte, Ashish D; Zreiqat, Majed; Ning, Xiaopeng

    2014-03-01

    Neck pain is common among general population with a high prevalence among the people who are routinely exposed to prolonged use of static head-neck postures. Prolonged static loading can cause localized muscle fatigue which may impact the stability of the cervical spine. In this study, flexion-relaxation phenomenon was used to study the post fatigue changes in the stability of cervical spine by evaluating the synergistic load sharing between muscles and viscoelastic elements. Thirteen male participants were recruited for data collection. The variables that influence cervical flexion-relaxation were studied pre- and post-fatigue using neutral and shrugged shoulder postures. The Sorensen protocol was used to induce neck extensor fatigue. Surface electromyography and optical motion capture systems were used to record neck muscle activation and head posture, respectively. Findings The flexion-relaxation phenomenon was observed only in the neutral shoulder position pre- and post-fatigue. The flexion relaxation ratio decreased significantly post-fatigue in neutral shoulder position but remained unchanged in shrugged shoulder position. The onset and offset angles and the corresponding durations of the silence period were significantly affected by the fatigue causing a post-fatigue expansion of silence period. Interpretation The muscular fatigue of neck extensors and shoulder position was found to modulate the cervical flexion-relaxation phenomenon. Early shifting of load sharing under fatigued condition indicates increased demands on the passive tissues to stabilize the cervical spine. Shrugging of shoulder seems to alter muscular demands of neck extensors and make cervical flexion-relaxation phenomenon disappear due to continuous activation of the neck extensors. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. EVALUATION OF THE CERVICAL SPINE AMONG PATIENTS WITH RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS

    PubMed Central

    Passos Cardoso, André Luiz; Da Silva, Nilzio Antonio; Daher, Sérgio; De Moraes, Frederico Barra; Do Carmo, Humberto Franco

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the prevalence of cervical spine abnormalities among patients with rheumatoid arthritis and correlate the imaging findings with the clinical state. Methods: A cross-sectional study on 35 patients was carried out at the School of Medicine of the Federal University of Goiás (UFG) in 2004. The following were evaluated: age, use of medications and the clinical picture of pain and neurological characteristics. The erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) and rheumatoid factor were tested, and radiographs of the cervical spine were produced in anteroposterior, lateral and dynamic views. To evaluate the influence of the variables on the emergence of instabilities, univariate and multivariate logistic regression tests were used (p < 0.05). Results: Among the 35 patients evaluated, 13 (37.1%) presented a stable cervical spine. Out of the 22 patients with instability, six presented more than one type. Atlantoaxial instability was found in 15 patients, with a mean anterior atlantodental distance of 3.40 mm in the neutral lateral radiographic view and 6.54 mm in the lateral view with flexion. Basilar invagination was found in five patients and subaxial subluxation in seven patients. Two thirds of the asymptomatic patients had instabilities. Bicipital hyperreflexia presented statistically significant correlations with atlantoaxial instability (p = 0.024) and subaxial instability (p = 0.01). Age at diagnosis correlated with subaxial instability (p = 0.02). Conclusions: The prevalence of cervical instability was 62.9 % (22/35). The most frequent instabilities were: atlantoaxial subluxation (42.9 %), subaxial subluxation (20%) and basilar invagination (14.3%). The correlation between instabilities and clinical signs and symptoms was poor. The patients with subaxial subluxation presented disease onset at a younger age. Dynamic radiography was important for diagnosing atlantoaxial subluxation. PMID:27022536

  16. Deep Surgical Site Infections Following Pediatric Cervical Spine Surgery.

    PubMed

    Porter, David A; Glotzbecker, Michael P; Timothy Hresko, M; Hedequist, Daniel J

    2016-06-08

    This is the first reported series looking specifically at factors associated with deep surgical site infections (SSI) following pediatric cervical spine surgery. To identify risk factors present in pediatric patients who are at risk for SSI following cervical spine surgery. Level of evidence: level IV-retrospective case series. To date there are no studies regarding SSI in pediatric cervical spine surgery and thus no benchmark data or risk factors have been identified. Patients with acute deep SSIs occurring within 90 days of the index operation were identified. Patient and surgical characteristics were analyzed for possible predictors of SSI outcome using penalized likelihood logistic regression analysis. Characteristics analyzed included: age, diagnosis, comorbidity, levels fused, approach, implants used, allograft, halo, body mass index, revision, antibiotic dosing, and occipital plating. A total of 112 patients were included in the study at a mean age of 12.5 years (2 to 18 y). Comorbidities were present in 51 (46%) patients, 15 patients had a documented connective tissue disorder (CTD). The mean number of levels fused was 3.7 (2 to 7) and mean number of screws was 4.4 (2 to 11). Allograft was used alone in 48 patients, occipital plating in 28 patients, and a halo in 39 patients. Deep SSI occurred in 3 patients: two of which had a CTD (1 Trisomy 21, 1 Ehlers-Danlos) and 1 patient with postradiation cervical kyphosis. All were gram-positive infections requiring return to operating room with prolonged IV antibiotics. All patients recovered and fused with spinal implant retention. The incidence of deep SSI was 2.7%. It was determined that a CTD was the only significant predictor of SSI. Subjects with a CTD had 12 times the odds of SSI [odds ratio=12 (1.5, 137.0); P=0.02]. In our series of pediatric patients the incidence of a deep SSI was 2.7%. The only predictor of SSI was the presence of a CTD.

  17. The Efficacy of the Rapid Form Cervical Vacuum Immobilizer in Cervical Spine Immobilization of the Equipped Football Player

    PubMed Central

    Ransone, Jack; Kersey, Robert; Walsh, Katie

    2000-01-01

    Objective: To determine the effectiveness of the Rapid Form Cervical Vacuum Immobilizer in controlling the cervical spine movements of a football player wearing shoulder pads and a helmet. Design and Setting: We used a 1-group, repeated-measures experimental design to radiographically assess cervical spine range of motion with and without the Rapid Form Cervical Vacuum Immobilizer. Two experimental conditions (with and without vacuum splint) were applied to 10 subjects in a repeated-measures design. Each subject was radiographed in cervical forward flexion, extension, and lateral flexion under each experimental condition. Subjects: Ten healthy male subjects without a history of cervical spine pathology or abnormality volunteered for this study. Measurements: Cervical forward flexion, extension, and lateral flexion range of motion were compared under both treatment conditions. Joint angles were determined by straightedge tangential lines drawn on the radiographs along the foramen magnum, inferior ring border of the atlas, and along the inferior tips of the 2nd through 7th vertebral bodies. The total range of motion was determined and compared with the treatment condition by multiple paired t tests. Results: The Cervical Vacuum Immobilizer limited cervical spine range of motion in forward flexion, extension, and lateral flexion. The secondary statistical analysis for the effect size determined that each group had a large effect size, indicating that the power of the experimental or vacuum splint group was high. Conclusions: We found that the Cervical Vacuum Immobilizer limited cervical spine range of motion in forward flexion, extension, and lateral flexion. The Cervical Vacuum Immobilizer can be easily placed on an injured, fully equipped football player and serves to limit cervical spine range of motion while the athlete is immobilized and transported. Future research should determine how the Cervical Vacuum Immobilizer limits range of motion with the athlete

  18. Pediatric subaxial cervical spine injuries: origins, management, and outcome in 51 patients.

    PubMed

    Dogan, Seref; Safavi-Abbasi, Sam; Theodore, Nicholas; Horn, Eric; Rekate, Harold L; Sonntag, Volker K H

    2006-02-15

    In this study the authors evaluated the mechanisms and patterns of injury and the factors affecting management and outcome of pediatric subaxial cervical spine injuries (C3-7). Fifty-one pediatric patients (38 boys and 13 girls; mean age 12.4 years, range 10 months-16 years) with subaxial cervical spine injuries were reviewed retrospectively. Motor vehicle accidents (MVAs) were the most common cause of injury. Overall, 12% presented with a dislocation, 63% with a fracture, 19% with a fracture-dislocation, and 6% with a ligamentous injury. The most frequently injured level was C6-7 (33%); C3-4 (6%) was least frequently involved. Sixty-four percent of patients were neurologically intact, 16% had incomplete spinal cord injuries (SCIs), 14% had complete SCIs, and three patients (6%) died after admission and before assessment. Treatment was conservative in 64%: seven (13%) wore a halo vest and 26 (51%) wore a rigid cervical orthosis. Surgery was performed in the other 18 patients (36%), with the breakdown as follows: 15 (30%) underwent an anterior approach, two (4%) had posterior approaches, and one (2%) had a combined approach. Postoperatively, four patients (8% who had a neurological deficit improved. The overall mortality rate was 8%; all deaths were related to MVAs. There were no surgery-related deaths or complications. Subaxial cervical spine injuries are common in children 9 to 16 years of age, and occur principally between C-5 and C-7. Multilevel injury is more common in children 8 years of age and older than in younger children and infants. Most patients with subaxial cervical spine injuries can be treated conservatively. Both anterior and posterior approaches are safe and effective.

  19. Asymptomatic cervical spine fractures: Current guidelines can fail older patients.

    PubMed

    Healey, Christopher D; Spilman, Sarah K; King, Bradley D; Sherrill, Joseph E; Pelaez, Carlos A

    2017-07-01

    Older adults represent a growing proportion of trauma patients treated in the United States, and cervical spine (c-spine) fracture is an injury that is increasingly common in this population. Neck pain is a major component of current clinical clearance guidelines, but some older adults with c-spine fractures report no neck pain after injury. The objective of this study was to investigate the frequency at which c-spine fractures were unassociated with neck pain in an aging population. A retrospective review was performed for patients 55 years or older with a c-spine fracture during a 4-year study period. All patients had a Glasgow Coma Scale score of 15 and were considered asymptomatic if they did not complain of neck pain on initial presentation, denied tenderness to palpation of the c-spine on examination, and were without neurologic deficit. Differences between groups were assessed with Kruskal-Wallis and χ tests. Of 173 patients with c-spine fractures, 36 (21%) were asymptomatic and reported no neck pain on presentation or on examination. The group without neck pain had higher median injury severity scores (15 vs 10; p < 0.001), were more likely to have another injured body region (69% vs 42%; p = 0.004), and had longer hospitalization (7 vs 5 days; p = 0.008) than patients with neck pain. Twenty-two percent of the symptomatic group and 19% of the asymptomatic group required halo, fusion, or other surgical intervention. Study results indicate that one fifth of patients with a c-spine fracture reported no pain on initial presentation and denied tenderness to palpation on examination. The presence or absence of pain may be an unreliable indicator of c-spine fracture in an aging population. When used in conjunction with existing clearance guidelines, denial of pain may lead to missed injury. We recommend liberal c-spine imaging for older trauma patients with significant mechanism of trauma. Therapeutic study, level III.

  20. Are cervical spine radiograph examinations useful in patients with low clinical suspicion of cervical spine fracture? An experience with 254 cases.

    PubMed

    Lange, Benjamin B; Penkar, Parul; Binder, William D; Novelline, Robert A

    2010-05-01

    Trauma patients with low clinical suspicion of cervical spine fracture are often examined with a plain X-ray cervical spine series rather than with cervical spine computed tomography (CT). The authors have been concerned by the absence of fractures in the group of patients examined with plain X-ray. The objective of this investigation was to determine the usefulness of plain X-ray examinations in suspected cases of cervical spine fracture compared to CT. A retrospective review was performed of all trauma patients undergoing imaging for suspected cervical spine fracture in our Emergency Department over a one-year period (January 1, 2007 to December 31, 2007). During the study period, 254 cervical spine plain X-ray and 3,080 cervical spine CT examinations were performed. Of the 254 plain X-ray examinations, 237 were interpreted as negative for fracture, 11 were suboptimal examinations, and six were interpreted as possible fractures (later ruled out by further imaging). Of the 3,080 CT examinations, 2,884 were interpreted as negative for fracture and 196 as positive. The overall positivity rates for acute cervical spine fracture were 0.0% in plain X-ray and 6.4% in CT examinations. These data confirm the authors' concern that plain X-ray imaging for patients with low clinical suspicion for cervical spine trauma in our hospital may have too low a yield to justify its use. However, the 6.4% positivity rate in the group of patients selected for CT examination justifies its use in this group.

  1. Screw driver: an unusual cause of cervical spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Rabiu, Taopheeq Bamidele; Aremu, Abayomi Adeniran; Amao, Olusegun Adetunji; Awoleke, Jacob Olumuyiwa

    2011-09-04

    Non-missile penetrating spinal injuries are rare. Screw driver injury, more especially to the cervical spine, represents an even rarer subset. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case from West Africa of cervical spinal cord injury from a screw driver. A middle-aged man was stabbed from the back with a screw driver. He presented with right-sided C4 Brown-Sequard syndrome with the impaling object in situ. Cervical spine x-rays showed the screw driver to have gone into the spine between the spinous processes of C4 and C5, traversing the spinal canal and lodged in the anterior part of the C4/5 intervertebral disc space. C4 and C5 laminectomies were performed and the screw driver removed under vision. The object was found to have traversed the right side of the cervical spinal cord. The dural tear was repaired. He had some neurologic improvement initially, but later declined. He died from severe pulmonary complications 2 weeks postinjury. Screw driver represents an unusual cause of non-missile penetrating cervical spinal injury. Its neurological effects and complications of the cord injury lead to significant morbidity and mortality.

  2. Dimensional changes of the neuroforamina in subaxial cervical spine during in vivo dynamic flexion-extension.

    PubMed

    Mao, Haiqing; Driscoll, Sean J; Li, Jing-Sheng; Li, Guoan; Wood, Kirkham B; Cha, Thomas D

    2016-04-01

    Neuroforaminal stenosis is one of the key factors causing clinical symptoms in patients with cervical radiculopathy. Previous quantitative studies on the neuroforaminal dimensions have focused on measurements in a static position. Little is known about dimensional changes of the neuroforamina in the cervical spine during functional dynamic neck motion under physiological loading conditions. This study aimed to investigate the in vivo dimensional changes of the neuroforamina in human cervical spine (C3-C7) during dynamic flexion-extension neck motion. A case-control study was carried out. Ten asymptomatic subjects were recruited for this study. The cervical spine of each subject underwent magnetic resonance image scanning for construction of three-dimensional (3-D) vertebrae models from C3 to C7. The cervical spine was then imaged using a dual fluoroscopic system while the subject performed a dynamic flexion-extension neck motion in a sitting position. The 3-D vertebral models and the fluoroscopic images were used to reproduce the in vivo vertebral motion. The dimensions (area, height, and width) were measured for each cervical neuroforamen (C3/C4, C4/C5, C5/C6, and C6/C7) in the following functional positions: neutral position, maximal flexion, and maximal extension. Repeated measures analysis of variance and post hoc analysis were used to examine the differences between levels and positions. Compared with the neutral position, almost all dimensional parameters (area, height, and width) of the subaxial cervical neuroforamina decreased in extension and increased in flexion, except the neuroforaminal area at C5/C6 (p=.07), and the neuroforaminal height at C6/C7 (p=.05) remained relatively constant from neutral to extension. When comparisons of the overall change fromextension to flexion were made between segments, the overall changes of the neuroforaminal area and height revealed no significant differences between segments, and the width overall change of the upper

  3. Development of a finite element model of the human cervical spine.

    PubMed

    Zafarparandeh, Iman; Erbulut, Deniz U; Lazoglu, Ismail; Ozer, Ali Fahir

    2014-01-01

    The finite element model has been used as an effective tool in human spine biomechanics. Biomechanical finite element models have provided basic insights into the workings of the cervical spine system. Advancements in numerical methods during the last decade have enabled researchers to propose more accurate models of the cervical spine. The new finite element model of the cervical spine considers the accurate representation of each tissue regarding the geometry and material. The aim of this paper is to address the new advancements in the finite element model of the human cervical spine. The procedures for creating a finite element model are introduced, including geometric construction, material-property assignment, boundary conditions and validation. The most recent and published finite element models of the cervical spine are reviewed.

  4. Mortality Rates Associated With Odontoid and Subaxial Cervical Spine Fractures.

    PubMed

    Miller, Christopher P; Golinvaux, Nicholas S; Brubacher, Jacob W; Bohl, Daniel D; Deng, Yanhong; Grauer, Jonathan N

    2015-06-01

    Cervical spine fractures can lead to many devastating consequences. However, mortality rates of older individuals with odontoid or subaxial spine fractures have not been definitively established. We conducted a retrospective review of all patients who underwent computed tomography of the cervical spine in the emergency department of a level I trauma center over 9 years to compare mortality rates after odontoid and subaxial fractures in elderly persons with those of the general population. We searched the National Death Index for patient death records, and compared mortality rates at 3 months, 1 year, and 2 years to sex- and age-matched data from the general population. Odontoid fracture survival was 84.4% at 3 months, 82.2% at 1 year, and 72.9% at 2 years. Male survival was significantly worse compared with age- and sex-matched counterparts (P < .001), but female survival was not (P = .568). In subaxial fractures, survival was 87.9% at 3 months and 85.7% at 1 and 2 years. Male survival was decreased compared with age- and sex-matched counterparts (P < .0001), whereas female survival was not (P = .554). In conclusion, the mortality of men with either fracture was greater compared with age-matched men initially, but this normalized. Female survival was not affected by either fracture.

  5. Human cervical spine ligaments exhibit fully nonlinear viscoelastic behavior.

    PubMed

    Troyer, Kevin L; Puttlitz, Christian M

    2011-02-01

    Spinal ligaments provide stability and contribute to spinal motion patterns. These hydrated tissues exhibit time-dependent behavior during both static and dynamic loading regimes. Therefore, accurate viscoelastic characterization of these ligaments is requisite for development of computational analogues that model and predict time-dependent spine behavior. The development of accurate viscoelastic models must be preceded by rigorous, empirical evidence of linear viscoelastic, quasi-linear viscoelastic (QLV) or fully nonlinear viscoelastic behavior. This study utilized multiple physiological loading rates (frequencies) and strain amplitudes via cyclic loading and stress relaxation experiments in order to determine the viscoelastic behavior of the human lower cervical spine anterior longitudinal ligament, the posterior longitudinal ligament and the ligamentum flavum. The results indicated that the cyclic material properties of these ligaments were dependent on both strain amplitude and frequency. This strain amplitude-dependent behavior cannot be described using a linear viscoelastic formulation. Stress relaxation experiments at multiple strain magnitudes indicated that the shape of the relaxation curve was strongly dependent on strain magnitude, suggesting that a QLV formulation cannot adequately describe the comprehensive viscoelastic response of these ligaments. Therefore, a fully nonlinear viscoelastic formulation is requisite to model these lower cervical spine ligaments during activities of daily living. Copyright © 2010 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Surgical Therapy of Cervical Spine Fracture in Patients With Ankylosing Spondylitis

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Jun; Wang, Ce; Zhou, Xuhui; Zhou, Shengyuan; Jia, Lianshun

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The present study aimed to explore surgical treatments and assess the effects based on the features of cervical spine fracture in patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS) and to summarize the experiences in perioperative management. Retrospective analysis was performed in 25 AS patients with cervical spine fracture treated in our hospital from January 2011 to December 2013. The patients were divided according to fracture segments, including 4 cases at C4 to C5, 8 cases at C5 to C6, and 13 cases at C6 to C7. Among them, 12 belonged to I type, 5 to II type, and 8 to III type based on the improved classification method for AS cervical spine fracture. The Subaxial Cervical Spine Injury Classification score for these patients was 7.2 ± 1.3, and the assessment of their neurological function states showed 6 patients (24%) were in American Spinal Injury Association (ASIA) A grade, 1 (4%) in ASIA B grade, 3 (12%) in ASIA C grade, 12 (48%) in ASIA D grade, and 3 (12%) in ASIA E grade. Surgical methods contained simple anterior approach alone, posterior approach alone, and combined posterior–anterior or anterior–posterior approach. The average duration of patients’ hospital stay was 38.6 ± 37.6, and the first surgical methods were as follows: anterior approach alone on 6 cases, posterior surgery alone on 9 cases, and combined posterior–anterior or anterior–posterior approach on 10 patients. The median segments of fixation and fusion were 4.1 ± 1.4 sections. Thirteen patients developed complications. During 2 to 36 months of postoperative follow-up, 1 patient died of respiratory failure caused by pulmonary infections 2 months after leaving hospital. At the end of the follow-up, bone graft fusion was achieved in the rest of patients, and obvious looseness or migration of internal fixation was not observed. In addition, the preoperative neurological injury in 12 patients (54.5%) was also alleviated in different levels. AS cervical spine

  7. From less to maximally invasiveness in cervical spine surgery

    PubMed Central

    Visocchi, M.; Conforti, G.; Roselli, R.; La Rocca, G.; Spallone, A.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Multilevel cervical myelopathy without surgical treatment is generally poor in the neurological deficit without surgical decompression. The two main surgical strategies used for the treatment of multilevel cervical myelopathy are anterior decompression via anterior corpectomy or posterior decompression via laminctomy/laminoplasty. Presentation of case We present the case of a 62 year-old lady, harboring rheumatoid artritis (RA) with gait disturbances, pain, and weakness in both arms. A C5 and C6 somatectomy, C4–C7 discectomy and, instrumentation and fusion with telescopic distractor “piston like”, anterior plate and expandable screws were performed. Two days later the patient complained dysfagia, and a cervical X-ray showed hardware dislocation. So a C4 somatectomy, telescopic extension of the construct up to C3 with expandible screws was performed. After one week the patient complained again soft dysfagia. New cervical X-ray showed the pull out of the cranial screws (C3). So the third surgery “one stage combined” an anterior decompression with fusion along with posterior instrumentation, and fusion was performed. Discussion There is a considerable controversy over which surgical approach will receive the best clinical outcome for the minimum cost in the compressive cervical myelopathy. However, the most important factors in patient selection for a particular procedure are the clinical symptoms and the radiographic alignment of the spine. the goals of surgery for cervical multilevel stenosis include the restoration of height, alignment, and stability. Conclusion We stress the importance of a careful patients selection, and invocated still the importance for 360° cervical fixation. PMID:25734320

  8. Cervical Spine Injuries in Children Associated With Sports and Recreational Activities.

    PubMed

    Babcock, Lynn; Olsen, Cody S; Jaffe, David M; Leonard, Julie C

    2016-09-30

    The aim of this study was to ascertain potential factors associated with cervical spine injuries in children injured during sports and recreational activities. This is a secondary analysis of a multicenter retrospective case-control study involving children younger than 16 years who presented to emergency departments after blunt trauma and underwent cervical spine radiography. Cases had cervical spine injury from sports or recreational activities (n = 179). Comparison groups sustained (1) cervical spine injury from other mechanisms (n = 361) or (2) other injuries from sports and recreational activities but were free of cervical spine injury (n = 180). For children with sport and recreational activity-related cervical spine injuries, common injury patterns were subaxial (49%) and fractures (56%). These children were at increased odds of spinal cord injury without radiographic abnormalities compared with children with cervical spine injuries from other mechanisms (25% vs 6%). Children with sport and recreational activity-related trauma had increased odds of cervical spine injury if they had focal neurologic findings (odds ratio [OR], 5.7; 95% confidence interval [CI], 3.5-9.4), had complaints of neck pain (OR, 3.1; 95% CI, 1.9-5.0), were injured diving (OR, 43.5; 95% CI, 5.9-321.3), or sustained axial loading impacts (OR, 2.2; 95% CI, 1.3-3.5). Football (22%), diving (20%), and bicycle crashes (11%) were the leading activities associated with cervical spine injury. In children injured during sports and recreational activities, focal neurologic findings, neck pain, axial loading impacts, and the possibility of spinal cord injury without radiographic abnormality should guide the diagnostic evaluation for potential cervical spine injuries. Certain activities have a considerable frequency of cervical spine injury, which may benefit from activity-specific preventive measures.

  9. Utility of plain radiographs in detecting traumatic injuries of the cervical spine in children.

    PubMed

    Nigrovic, Lise E; Rogers, Alexander J; Adelgais, Kathleen M; Olsen, Cody S; Leonard, Jeffrey R; Jaffe, David M; Leonard, Julie C

    2012-05-01

    The objective of this study was to estimate the sensitivity of plain radiographs in identifying bony or ligamentous cervical spine injury in children. We identified a retrospective cohort of children younger than 16 years with blunt trauma-related bony or ligamentous cervical spine injury evaluated between 2000 and 2004 at 1 of 17 hospitals participating in the Pediatric Emergency Care Applied Research Network. We excluded children who had a single or undocumented number of radiographic views or one of the following injuries types: isolated spinal cord injury, spinal cord injury without radiographic abnormalities, or atlantoaxial rotary subluxation. Using consensus methods, study investigators reviewed the radiology reports and assigned a classification (definite, possible, or no cervical spine injury) as well as film adequacy. A pediatric neurosurgeon, blinded to the classification of the radiology reports, reviewed complete case histories and assigned final cervical spine injury type. We identified 206 children who met inclusion criteria, of which 127 had definite and 41 had possible cervical spine injury identified by plain radiograph. Of the 186 children with adequate cervical spine radiographs, 168 had definite or possible cervical spine injury identified by plain radiograph for a sensitivity of 90% (95% confidence interval, 85%-94%). Cervical spine radiographs did not identify the following cervical spine injuries: fracture (15 children) and ligamentous injury alone (3 children). Nine children with normal cervical spine radiographs presented with 1 or more of the following: endotracheal intubation (4 children), altered mental status (5 children), or focal neurologic findings (5 children). Plain radiographs had a high sensitivity for cervical spine injury in our pediatric cohort.

  10. Prevalence and Distribution of Ossified Lesions in the Whole Spine of Patients with Cervical Ossification of the Posterior Longitudinal Ligament A Multicenter Study (JOSL CT study)

    PubMed Central

    Hirai, Takashi; Yoshii, Toshitaka; Iwanami, Akio; Takeuchi, Kazuhiro; Mori, Kanji; Yamada, Tsuyoshi; Wada, Kanichiro; Koda, Masao; Matsuyama, Yukihiro; Takeshita, Katsushi; Abematsu, Masahiko; Haro, Hirotaka; Watanabe, Masahiko; Watanabe, Kei; Ozawa, Hiroshi; Kanno, Haruo; Imagama, Shiro; Fujibayashi, Shunsuke; Yamazaki, Masashi; Matsumoto, Morio; Nakamura, Masaya; Okawa, Atsushi; Kawaguchi, Yoshiharu

    2016-01-01

    Ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament (OPLL) can cause severe and irreversible paralysis in not only the cervical spine but also the thoracolumbar spine. To date, however, the prevalence and distribution of OPLL in the whole spine has not been precisely evaluated in patients with cervical OPLL. Therefore, we conducted a multi-center study to comprehensively evaluate the prevalence and distribution of OPLL using multi-detector computed tomography (CT) images in the whole spine and to analyze what factors predict the presence of ossified lesions in the thoracolumbar spine in patients who were diagnosed with cervical OPLL by plain X-ray. Three hundred and twenty-two patients with a diagnosis of cervical OPLL underwent CT imaging of the whole spine. The sum of the levels in which OPLL was present in the whole spine was defined as the OP-index and used to evaluate the extent of ossification. The distribution of OPLL in the whole spine was compared between male and female subjects. In addition, a multiple regression model was used to ascertain related factors that affected the OP-index. Among patients with cervical OPLL, women tended to have more ossified lesions in the thoracolumbar spine than did men. A multiple regression model revealed that the OP-index was significantly correlated with the cervical OP-index, sex (female), and body mass index. Furthermore, the prevalence of thoracolumbar OPLL in patients with a cervical OP-index ≥ 10 was 7.8 times greater than that in patients with a cervical OP-index ≤ 5. The results of this study reveal that the extent of OPLL in the whole spine is significantly associated with the extent of cervical OPLL, female sex, and obesity. PMID:27548354

  11. Predictors of difficult intubation in patients with cervical spine limitations.

    PubMed

    Mashour, George A; Stallmer, Meghan L; Kheterpal, Sachin; Shanks, Amy

    2008-04-01

    Cervical spine function is of paramount importance to the management of the airway. What has not been reported in the literature is a systematic analysis of airway management in patients with cervical spine limitation (CSL) compared with their normal counterparts or a predictive model of difficult intubation (DI) in patients with CSL. We reviewed the electronic charts of 14,053 patients and identified those with CSL based on the preoperative airway evaluation. We then compared various airway parameters in patients with CSL to those without CSL and further assessed risk factors for DI in patients with CSL. We develop a predictive model on the basis of multivariate analysis of such risk factors. Of the cohort studied, 1145 or 8.1% of patients were documented as having some form of CSL, with an average age of 60. In the <60 population, CSL was associated with a statistically significant increase in difficult and impossible mask ventilation, difficult laryngoscopy, and DI. In the population > or =60 years old, CSL was associated with a statistically significant increase in difficult laryngoscopy and DI. There were no significant differences in mask ventilation between normal and CSL patients in the population > or =60. Multivariate modeling revealed age > or =48, Mallampati 3 or 4, and thyromental distance <6 cm as independent preoperative risk factors of DI in patients with CSL. A predictive model is developed on the basis of these findings. Limitations of cervical spine mobility are relatively common and increase the incidence of difficulty throughout the spectrum of airway management. DI should be anticipated in CSL patients who are > or =48 years old, have a Mallampati class 3 or 4, and a thyromental distance of <6 cm.

  12. MRI cervical spine findings in asymptomatic fighter pilots.

    PubMed

    Petrén-Mallmin, M; Linder, J

    1999-12-01

    MRI of the cervical spine for evaluation concerning degenerative lesions was performed on asymptomatic experienced military high performance aircraft pilots (mean age 42 yr with mean accumulated flying time of 2600 h), and for comparison on age-matched controls without military flying experience. Young military high performance aircraft pilots (mean age 23 yr with 220 h of flying per person) were also examined. There were significantly more osteophytes, disk protrusions, compressions of the spinal cord and foraminal stenoses in the experienced pilots than in the age-matched controls. Low frequency of low grade degenerative lesions was found in the young and inexperienced pilots.

  13. Epithelioid Sarcoma in the Cervical Spine: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Chungnam; Kim, Nara

    2015-01-01

    Epithelioid sarcoma is a rare and highly malignant soft tissue neoplasm that most commonly occurs in the long bones. This uncommon tumor has a poor clinical outcome, and the modality of its treatment has not yet been fully established. The authors report an extremely rare presentation of epithelioid sarcoma in the cervical spine, along with its clinical progression, imaging, and pathology. The patient underwent three surgical procedures and adjuvant radiochemical management. He survived for 25 months with a good general condition and adapted well to his social activity. Systemic metastasis was not found, but the patient died of respiratory failure due to direct tracheal invasion of the tumor. PMID:26512275

  14. A Mathematical Model of the Cervical Spine Movement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toth-Tascau, Mirela; Pater, Flavius; Stoia, Dan Ioan; Menyhardt, Karoly; Rosu, Serban; Rusu, Lucian; Vigaru, Cosmina

    2011-09-01

    The general purpose of this study was to develop a valid and reliable laboratory tool to evaluate the cervical spine mobility in normal conditions. The paper proposes an approximation function to model the variation in time of movement angles and angular velocities. The measurements have been performed using a Zebris ultrasound-based measuring system in Motion Laboratory of the "Politehnica" University of Timisoara. The approximation functions were compared with the recorded data series and graphically plotted as both time and phase diagram representation.

  15. Treatment of Facet Injuries in the Cervical Spine.

    PubMed

    Khezri, Navid; Ailon, Tamir; Kwon, Brian K

    2017-01-01

    Facet injuries are common in the cervical spine. Many classification systems over the years have characterized the heterogeneity of these injuries. For unilateral facet fractures with minimal displacement and no neurological deficit, there is mounting evidence that better radiographic and clinical outcomes may be achieved with surgical treatment. Anterior and posterior approaches can both be utilized successfully for the surgical management of facet injuries. The anterior approach is well tolerated, allows one to address a disc herniation, and provides a high union rate with good sagittal alignment. The posterior approach allows for easier open reduction and biomechanically superior fixation.

  16. Cervical Spine Motion During Extrication: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Shafer, Jeffery S.; Naunheim, Rosanne S.

    2009-01-01

    Spinal immobilization is one of the most commonly performed pre-hospital procedures. Little research has been done on the movement of the neck during immobilization and extrication. In this study we used a sophisticated infrared six-camera motion-capture system (Motion Analysis Corporation, Santa Rosa, CA), to study the motion of the neck and head during extrication. A mock automobile was constructed to scale, and volunteer patients, with infrared markers on bony prominences, were extricated by experienced paramedics. We found in this pilot study that allowing an individual to exit the car under his own volition with cervical collar in place may result in the least amount of motion of the cervical spine. Further research should be conducted to verify these findings. In addition, this system could be utilized to study a variety of methods of extrication from automobile accidents. PMID:19561822

  17. A selected annotated bibliography of the core biomedical literature pertaining to stroke, cervical spine, manipulation and head/neck movement

    PubMed Central

    Gotlib, Allan C.; Thiel, Haymo

    1985-01-01

    This manuscript’s purpose was to establish a knowledge base of information related to stroke and the cervical spine vascular structures, from both historical and current perspectives. The scientific biomedical literatures both indexed (ie. Index Medicus, CRAC) and non-indexed literature systems were scanned and the pertinent manuscripts were annotated. Citation is by occurence in the literature so that historical trends may be viewed more easily. No analysis of the reference material is offered. Suggested however is that: 1. complications to cervical spine manipulation are being recognized and reported with increasing frequency, 2. a cause and effect relationship between stroke and cervical spine manipulation has not been established, 3. a screening mechanism that is valid, reliable and reasonable needs to be established.

  18. True oblique axis fracture associated with congenital anomalies of the upper cervical spine: Case report of an unusual fracture pattern

    PubMed Central

    Robles, Luis A.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Acute traumatic axis fractures are common cervical spine injuries often caused by road accidents or falls. They are usually classified into three different types, namely, odontoid fractures, Hangman's fractures, and miscellaneous fractures. Congenital malformations of the craniovertebral junction (CVJ), although typically asymptomatic, may result in neural compression or instability, especially following trauma. Here, the authors present an unusual oblique axis fracture occurring in conjunction with several malformations of the upper cervical spine. Case Description: Following a motor vehicle accident, a 25-year-old female's radiographic studies showed an oblique axis fracture involving both the anterior and posterior elements along with an anterior and posterior Klippel–Feil syndrome (KFS) anomaly. Following treatment in a halo vest, the patient maintained alignment, and ultimately the fracture was fused. Conclusions: True oblique fractures of the axis are rare, as in the case presented, and may occasionally occur in conjunction with KFS of the upper cervical spine. PMID:28217386

  19. Cervical abnormalities causing vertebral artery dissection in children.

    PubMed

    Sedney, Cara L; Rosen, Charles L

    2011-03-01

    Vertebral artery dissection (VAD) is rare in children but is increasingly recognized as a cause of stroke in the pediatric population. Traditionally, VAD was thought to be attributable to either trauma or spontaneous dissections. Recently, several underlying causes, such as bony cervical abnormalities, connective tissue diseases, and infection, have been determined to account for spontaneous VAD or those cases associated with only minor trauma. Two pediatric cases of VAD are presented, both caused by bony cervical abnormalities and each treated with different surgical procedures for symptom resolution. The first case required suboccipital decompression and endovascular sacrifice of the vertebral artery. The second case was treated with surgical decompression of the foramen transversarium at C-1 and C-2. The treatment of both of these patients required accurate diagnosis via cervical spine CT to define the bone anatomy and delineate a cause for what was originally theorized to be spontaneous VAD.

  20. Airway complications associated with surgery on the anterior cervical spine.

    PubMed

    Sagi, H Claude; Beutler, William; Carroll, Eben; Connolly, Patrick J

    2002-05-01

    Retrospective chart review of 311 anterior cervical procedures. To assess the incidence and variables that predispose to an airway complication in a large series of anterior cervical surgical procedures. A rare but potentially lethal complication after anterior cervical spine surgery is respiratory compromise and airway obstruction. Some risk factors are thought to include two-level corpectomy in myelopathic patients with a history of heavy smoking and asthma. No previous study in the literature has been directed at examining the factors specifically related to airway complications after anterior cervical spine surgery. Each chart was examined for patient characteristics and pathology, anesthetic parameters and problems, operative procedure, and postoperative course and management. Statistical analysis was performed. Nineteen patients (6.1%) had an airway complication and six (1.9%) required reintubation. One patient died. Symptoms developed on average 36 hours postoperatively. All complications except for two were attributable to pharyngeal edema. Variables that were found to be statistically associated with an airway complication (P < 0.05) were exposing more than three vertebral bodies, a blood loss >300 mL, exposures involving C2, C3, or C4, and an operative time >5 hours. A history of myelopathy, spinal cord injury, pulmonary problems, smoking, anesthetic risk factors, and the absence of a drain did not correlate with an airway complication. Patients with prolonged procedures (i.e., >5 hours) exposing more than three vertebral levels that include C2, C3, or C4 with more than 300-mL blood loss should be watched carefully for respiratory insufficiency.

  1. Cervical Spine Surgery Complications and Risks in the Elderly.

    PubMed

    Radcliff, Kris; Ong, Kevin L; Lovald, Scott; Lau, Edmund; Kurd, Mark

    2017-03-15

    Cervical decompression (CD) and cervical fusion (CF) patients in 5% Medicare Part B claims data. Evaluate the complication rate and associated risk factors after cervical spine surgery using a national sample of elderly patients. The number of cervical spine procedures in the United States has risen along with associated hospital costs. Postoperative complications lead to longer hospitalizations and greater costs. Demographic information and postoperative complications (90 days) were evaluated. Multivariate Cox regression was used to evaluate the risk factors for the complications, while adjusting for age, socioeconomic status, Charlson comorbidity index, race, census region, sex, and year of surgery. Between 2010 and 2012, 1519 CD and 1273 CF Medicare patients were identified in the dataset. Respiratory complications (CD: 12.1% and CF: 14.6%), urinary retention (CD: 8.2% and CF: 9.1%), acute delirium (CD: 5.3% and CF: 6.0%), and nausea/vomiting (CD: 2.8% and CF: 3.1%) were the most commonly diagnosed complications. All other complications had an incidence of less than 1.5%. Older patients had higher risks of respiratory complications for both procedures, and CD patients with Charlson scores of 1 to 2 and 5+ were also at higher risk of respiratory complications. Males (P <0.001) were at higher risk of urinary retention. Patients with dementia (P <0.001) had a higher risk of acute delirium after both CD and CF. For CD patients, those aged 85 years and over had higher risk of acute delirium, along with patients with transient ischemic attack/stroke. Age was also a significant risk factor (P = 0.019) for acute delirium for CF patients. Females were at a significantly higher risk of nausea/vomiting after CD and CF. These data help to provide baseline information regarding the complication rates in the elderly CD and CF patient population in the United States, and will serve to help minimize these complications. 3.

  2. Cervical spine meniscoids: an update on their morphological characteristics and potential clinical significance.

    PubMed

    Farrell, S F; Osmotherly, P G; Cornwall, J; Sterling, M; Rivett, D A

    2017-04-01

    Cervical spine meniscoids are intra-articular folds of synovial membrane that have been theorised to have potential clinical significance in neck pain. Recent anatomical and clinical research has re-visited the pathoanatomical capacity of these structures. The purpose of this review is to discuss cervical spine meniscoid morphology in light of recently published work, to provide an update on the plausible relevance of these structures to clinical practice. Narrative review critically discussing basic science and clinical research regarding cervical spine meniscoids, with focus upon implications for clinical practice. Basic science research indicates that cervical spine meniscoids can be innervated and appear to vary in morphology in the presence of articular degeneration. In a clinical population, associations have been observed between cervical spine meniscoid morphology and presence of cervical spine symptoms. Recent studies regarding cervical spine meniscoid morphology provide further evidence of pathoanatomical capacity of these structures. Further research is required, however, in clinical populations to empirically investigate specific theorised mechanisms of cervical spine meniscoid involvement in neck pain.

  3. Peripheral Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumour (pPNET) in the cervical spine.

    PubMed

    Alexander, H S; Koleda, C; Hunn, M K

    2010-02-01

    Primary spinal primitive neuroectodermal tumours are rare. We present a 45-year-old man with a peripheral primitive neuroectodermal tumour arising in the cervical spine. We believe this to be the first report of this type of tumour in the cervical spine.

  4. Percutaneous Vertebroplasty Relieves Pain in Cervical Spine Metastases

    PubMed Central

    Bao, Li; Jia, Pu; Li, Jinjun; Chen, Hao; Dong, Yipeng; Feng, Fei; Yang, He; Chen, Mengmeng

    2017-01-01

    Percutaneous vertebroplasty (PVP) has been shown to release spinal pain and stabilize the vertebral body. PVP is suggested as an alternative treatment in spinal metastasis. Although cervical metastases is less prevalent than thoracic and lumbar spine, PVP procedure in cervical vertebrae remains technical challenging. We retrospectively analyzed the data from patients (n = 9) who underwent PVP using anterolateral approach to treat severe neck pain and restricted cervical mobility from metastatic disease. Patients were rated using modified Tokuhashi score and Tomita score before the procedure. Visual analog scale (VAS), neck disability index (NDI), analgesic use, and imaging (X-ray or CT) were evaluated before PVP and 3 days, 3 months, and 6 months after PVP. All patients were in late stage of cancer evaluated using modified Tokuhashi and Tomita score. The cement leakage rate was 63.6% (14 of the 22 vertebrae) with no severe complications. VAS, NDI, and analgesic use were significantly decreased 3 days after the procedure and remained at low level until 6 months of follow-up. Our result suggested PVP effectively released the pain from patients with cervical metastasis. The results warrant further clinical investigation. PMID:28239257

  5. ACE Inhibitor-Induced Angioedema following Cervical Spine Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Sabbagh, Hussam

    2017-01-01

    Angioedema is a well-known side effect of angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEi). However, ACE inhibitors induced angioedema after cervical surgery is a rare condition. They result in increased levels of circulating bradykinins. Rare cases of angioedema following local trauma in patients using ACE inhibitors have been published. We present such a case. A 54-year-old Caucasian female with a history significant for hypertension, controlled with lisinopril, was admitted for routine cervical spine surgery. She has severe degenerative cervical disc disease and was admitted to the hospital for an elective cervical diskectomy. The patient failed weaning off the ventilator on multiple attempts postoperatively. There were no observed symptoms of an allergic reaction. A CT scan of the neck showed extensive soft tissue edema at the level of the arytenoids. Dexamethasone was given to reduce the edema without successful resolution. On review of her medications, it was found that the patient was resumed on lisinopril following the procedure. It was subsequently discontinued. By the following day the patient had a positive leak around the ET tube cuff and patient was successfully extubated. PMID:28348897

  6. Paraplegia caused by posture during MRI in a patient with cervical disk herniation.

    PubMed

    Kato, Yoshihiko; Nishida, Norihiro; Taguchi, Toshihiko

    2010-06-09

    A 48-year-old man presented with numbness in the lower left extremity of 4 months' duration. One month earlier, he presented to an orthopedic clinic and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed cervical disk herniation. Because the pain did not subside, he visited the clinic again and MRI was performed. His neck was slightly extended and fixed to the headrest of the MRI instrument. Because of the posture of his cervical spine, he suffered severe pain in the scapular region during the MRI. After 15 minutes the pain was unbearable and the MRI examination was aborted. As the patient tried to descend from the MRI table, he was unable to move his bilateral lower extremities. No muscle contraction was observed in his lower limbs. Following MRI with flexion posture of the cervical spine, he was diagnosed with paraplegia caused by cervical disk herniation. Emergency surgery consisting of anterior decompression and fusion was performed. The patient showed good neurological recovery. Three weeks postoperatively, the patient could walk without assistance and he was discharged. The extension posture of the cervical spine during MRI was considered to be the cause of acute paraplegia in this patient. Care should be taken with the posture of the cervical spine, when performing MRI in patients with cervical disk herniation. Extended posture of the cervical spine during MRI may lead to acute neurological deterioration. Copyright 2010, SLACK Incorporated.

  7. Reliability assessment of a novel cervical spine deformity classification system.

    PubMed

    Ames, Christopher P; Smith, Justin S; Eastlack, Robert; Blaskiewicz, Donald J; Shaffrey, Christopher I; Schwab, Frank; Bess, Shay; Kim, Han Jo; Mundis, Gregory M; Klineberg, Eric; Gupta, Munish; O'Brien, Michael; Hostin, Richard; Scheer, Justin K; Protopsaltis, Themistocles S; Fu, Kai-Ming G; Hart, Robert; Albert, Todd J; Riew, K Daniel; Fehlings, Michael G; Deviren, Vedat; Lafage, Virginie

    2015-12-01

    Despite the complexity of cervical spine deformity (CSD) and its significant impact on patient quality of life, there exists no comprehensive classification system. The objective of this study was to develop a novel classification system based on a modified Delphi approach and to characterize the intra- and interobserver reliability of this classification. Based on an extensive literature review and a modified Delphi approach with an expert panel, a CSD classification system was generated. The classification system included a deformity descriptor and 5 modifiers that incorporated sagittal, regional, and global spinopelvic alignment and neurological status. The descriptors included: "C," "CT," and "T" for primary cervical kyphotic deformities with an apex in the cervical spine, cervicothoracic junction, or thoracic spine, respectively; "S" for primary coronal deformity with a coronal Cobb angle ≥ 15°; and "CVJ" for primary craniovertebral junction deformity. The modifiers included C2-7 sagittal vertical axis (SVA), horizontal gaze (chin-brow to vertical angle [CBVA]), T1 slope (TS) minus C2-7 lordosis (TS-CL), myelopathy (modified Japanese Orthopaedic Association [mJOA] scale score), and the Scoliosis Research Society (SRS)-Schwab classification for thoracolumbar deformity. Application of the classification system requires the following: 1) full-length standing posteroanterior (PA) and lateral spine radiographs that include the cervical spine and femoral heads; 2) standing PA and lateral cervical spine radiographs; 3) completed and scored mJOA questionnaire; and 4) a clinical photograph or radiograph that includes the skull for measurement of the CBVA. A series of 10 CSD cases, broadly representative of the classification system, were selected and sufficient radiographic and clinical history to enable classification were assembled. A panel of spinal deformity surgeons was queried to classify each case twice, with a minimum of 1 intervening week. Inter- and

  8. Finite element analysis of moment-rotation relationships for human cervical spine.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qing Hang; Teo, Ee Chon; Ng, Hong Wan; Lee, Vee Sin

    2006-01-01

    A comprehensive, geometrically accurate, nonlinear C0-C7 FE model of head and cervical spine based on the actual geometry of a human cadaver specimen was developed. The motions of each cervical vertebral level under pure moment loading of 1.0 Nm applied incrementally on the skull to simulate the movements of the head and cervical spine under flexion, tension, axial rotation and lateral bending with the inferior surface of the C7 vertebral body fully constrained were analysed. The predicted range of motion (ROM) for each motion segment were computed and compared with published experimental data. The model predicted the nonlinear moment-rotation relationship of human cervical spine. Under the same loading magnitude, the model predicted the largest rotation in extension, followed by flexion and axial rotation, and least ROM in lateral bending. The upper cervical spines are more flexible than the lower cervical levels. The motions of the two uppermost motion segments account for half (or even higher) of the whole cervical spine motion under rotational loadings. The differences in the ROMs among the lower cervical spines (C3-C7) were relatively small. The FE predicted segmental motions effectively reflect the behavior of human cervical spine and were in agreement with the experimental data. The C0-C7 FE model offers potentials for biomedical and injury studies.

  9. Effects of a cervical disc prosthesis on segmental and cervical spine alignment.

    PubMed

    Pickett, Gwynedd E; Mitsis, Demytra K; Sekhon, Lali H; Sears, William R; Duggal, Neil

    2004-09-15

    Cervical arthroplasty offers the promise of maintaining motion of the functional spinal unit (FSU) after anterior cervical discectomy. The impact of cervical arthroplasty on sagittal alignment of the FSU needs to be addressed, together with its effect on overall sagittal balance of the cervical spine. The authors prospectively reviewed radiographic and clinical outcomes in 14 patients who received the Bryan Cervical Disc prosthesis (Medtronic Sofamor Danek, Memphis, TN), for whom early (< 6 months) and late (6-24 months) follow-up data were available. Static and dynamic radiographs were measured by hand and computer to determine the angles formed by the endplates of the natural disc preoperatively, those formed by the shells of the implanted prosthesis, the angle of the FSU, and the C2-7 Cobb angle. The range of motion (ROM) was also determined radiographically, whereas clinical outcomes were assessed using the Neck Disability Index (NDI), and Short Form-36 (SF-36) questionnaires. The ROM was preserved following surgery, with a mean preoperative sagittal rotation angle of 8.96 degrees , which was not significantly different from the late postoperative value of 8.25 degrees . When compared with the preoperative disc space angle, the shell endplate angle in the neutral position became kyphotic in the early and late postoperative periods (mean change -3.8 degrees in the late follow-up period; p = 0.0035). The FSU angles also became significantly more kyphotic postoperatively, with a mean change of -6 degrees (p = 0.0006). The Cobb angles varied widely preoperatively and did not change significantly after surgery. There was no statistical correlation between the NDI and SF-36 outcomes and cervical kyphosis. Cervical arthroplasty preserves motion of the FSU. Both the endplate angle of the treated disc space and the angle of the FSU became kyphotic after insertion of the Bryan prosthesis. The overall sagittal balance of the cervical spine, however, was preserved.

  10. Traumatically induced vertebral artery occlusion associated with cervical spine injuries: prospective study using magnetic resonance angiography.

    PubMed

    Taneichi, Hiroshi; Suda, Kota; Kajino, Tomomichi; Kaneda, Kiyoshi

    2005-09-01

    A prospective study using magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) on a consecutive cohort of patients with cervical spine injuries. To investigate clinical and radiographic features of vertebral artery injury/occlusion associated with nonpenetrating cervical spine trauma. With the popularization of MRA, vertebral artery injury has been a common complication of cervical spine trauma. However, detailed clinical features such as restoration of blood flow in occluded vessels and collateral circulation have not been fully evaluated. During a 2-year period, 64 consecutive patients with cervical spine fractures and/or dislocations were prospectively evaluated for patency of the vertebral artery and collateral circulation. Extracranial and intracranial MRAs were conducted at initial injury and follow-up. Vertebral artery occlusion occurred in 11 patients, including 10 with unilateral and 1 with bilateral. Only the patient with bilateral occlusion was symptomatic but had no permanent neurologic deficit as a result of brain ischemia. He had complete circle of Willis, which provides sufficient collateral blood supply from anterior circulation. Follow-up MRAs revealed restoration of blood flow in occluded vessel(s) in 3 patients. All of them had compressive injuries. The incidence of traumatically induced vertebral artery occlusion was 17.2%. The potential for blood flow restoration was higher in compressive injuries than in distractive injuries. The mechanism of occlusion in compressive injuries is likely to be vasospasm or minor artery dissection, which may cause reversible occlusion because vessels are subjected to relatively minor stretching in compressive injuries. Vertebral artery occlusion was rarely symptomatic because of sufficient collateral blood supply through not only contralateral vertebral artery but also the circle of Willis.

  11. Therapeutic effects of functional orthodontic appliances on cervical spine posture: a retrospective cephalometric study.

    PubMed

    Ohnmeiß, Maren; Kinzinger, Gero; Wesselbaum, Julia; Korbmacher-Steiner, Heike M

    2014-03-24

    Interactions between the cervical spine and the stomatognathic system have been discussed in literature. The present study was conducted to investigate whether, and to what extent, orthodontically induced mandibular advancement produces changes in cervical spine posture. Furthermore, possible appliance-specific effects should be distinguished. The cephalograms of 64 patients with skeletal class II were analysed before and after mandibular advancement. Linear and angular cephalometric parameters were identified to define the position of the atlanto-occipital and atlantoaxial joints. The total example was divided into two subgroups (comprising 32 individuals each) according to the employed appliance: activator versus bite-jump appliance (BJA). Student's t-test and analysis of covariance were used for statistical analysis. Overall, a significant straightening of the cervical spine was observed during the treatment. This conclusion is based on changes of Chamberlain (p = 0.0055), CVT (p = 0.0003), OPT (p < 0.0001), Redlund-Johnell/Petersson (p < 0.0001), McGregor-mC2 (p = 0.0333) and AT-FH (p = 0.0445). Improvements in occipitoatlantal dislocation were also observed in the total sample. Appliance-specific changes were found in the activator subgroup for a number of linear parameters (Chamberlain, McGregor, CVT, OPT, Redlund-Johnell/Petersson). In contrast, only two linear parameters (OPT and Powers ratio) revealed statistically significant changes in the BJA subgroup. During skeletal class II treatment the position of upper cervical spine changes. In the activator subgroup the observed effects were more pronounced than those in the BJA subgroup. Further studies including a control group comprised with non-treated class II patients are needed to assess whether these effects may be caused directly by the appliances irrespective of growth.

  12. Therapeutic effects of functional orthodontic appliances on cervical spine posture: a retrospective cephalometric study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Interactions between the cervical spine and the stomatognathic system have been discussed in literature. The present study was conducted to investigate whether, and to what extent, orthodontically induced mandibular advancement produces changes in cervical spine posture. Furthermore, possible appliance-specific effects should be distinguished. Material and methods The cephalograms of 64 patients with skeletal class II were analysed before and after mandibular advancement. Linear and angular cephalometric parameters were identified to define the position of the atlanto-occipital and atlantoaxial joints. The total example was divided into two subgroups (comprising 32 individuals each) according to the employed appliance: activator versus bite-jump appliance (BJA). Student's t-test and analysis of covariance were used for statistical analysis. Results Overall, a significant straightening of the cervical spine was observed during the treatment. This conclusion is based on changes of Chamberlain (p = 0.0055), CVT (p = 0.0003), OPT (p < 0.0001), Redlund-Johnell/Petersson (p < 0.0001), McGregor-mC2 (p = 0.0333) and AT-FH (p = 0.0445). Improvements in occipitoatlantal dislocation were also observed in the total sample. Appliance-specific changes were found in the activator subgroup for a number of linear parameters (Chamberlain, McGregor, CVT, OPT, Redlund-Johnell/Petersson). In contrast, only two linear parameters (OPT and Powers ratio) revealed statistically significant changes in the BJA subgroup. Conclusions During skeletal class II treatment the position of upper cervical spine changes. In the activator subgroup the observed effects were more pronounced than those in the BJA subgroup. Further studies including a control group comprised with non-treated class II patients are needed to assess whether these effects may be caused directly by the appliances irrespective of growth. PMID:24661951

  13. Methodology to Calibrate Disc Degeneration in the Cervical Spine During Cyclic Fatigue Loading.

    PubMed

    Masoudi, Aidin; Fama, Daniel; Yoganandan, Narayan; Snyder, Brian

    2015-01-01

    Prolonged exposure to vibrational working conditions can cause neck, back, and shoulder pain. Mechanical degradation of soft tissues resulting from this type of fatigue was experimentally shown to contribute to endplate and compression fractures. However, effects of repetitive subfailure loading on intervertebral disc (IVD) behavior have not been well defined. This manuscript describes a methodology to experimentally characterize changes in cervical spine IVD material properties under fatigue. Bone-disc-bone spinal units with intact ligaments obtained from human cervical spines were obtained and a lack of bony or soft tissue degeneration was confirmed using X-ray and MRI scans. Cranial and caudal specimen extents were fixed in PMMA to facilitate attachment to testing devices. Baseline response was quantified using flexion/extension pure moment protocols. Specimens were immersed in a 34-deg-C saline bath and allowed to acclimate for one hour. A stress-relaxation test was then performed and viscoelasticity quantified using a quasi linear viscoelastic (QLV) material model. Fatigue testing was performed for up to 50,000 cycles with intermittent viscoelasticity, pure moment testing, and imaging scans performed to quantify cycle-dependent changes in disc properties. Preliminary results demonstrated progressive changes in viscoelasticity and bending response of cervical spine segments with increasing number of load cycles. This procedure will be used to quantify degradation of the IVD under repetitive compressive loads, focusing on effects of loading magnitude and frequency.

  14. [Features of the spinal cord injury in distractive flexion and compressive extension cervical spine trauma].

    PubMed

    Kontautas, Egidijus; Ambrozaitis, Kazys Vytautas; Kalesinskas, Romas Jonas; Spakauskas, Bronius; Kontautas, Evaldas

    2004-01-01

    1) to assess neurological status in patients with distractive flexion and compressive extension cervical spine injuries; 2) to determine the relationship between neurological recovery and the patterns of cervical spine injuries. Prospectively collected data on 78 persons with traumatic distractive flexion and compressive extension cervical spine injuries. These patients were treated in Kaunas University of Medicine Hospital between 1998 and 2000. The study included 18 (23.1%) females and 60 (76.9%) males. The age range was 16-80 years, mean age was 46.6 years. Cervical spine injuries in all patients were visualized at using Computed tomography and radiography. The cervical spine injury patterns were recognized by the Ferguson-Allen's classification. We divided these patients into two groups: the first group included patients who had sustained distractive flexion cervical spine injuries; the second group included patients who had sustained compressive extension cervical spine trauma. We assessed neurological status of these patients after admission to hospital in the average of four hours after an accident. Motor and sensory evaluation was conducted using the guidelines established by the American Spinal Cord Injury Association. Forty-nine patients were investigated in the average of four years after trauma and treatment. We assessed their neurological status and determined the relationship between neurological recovery and the patterns of cervical spine injury. Forty-eight (61.5%) patients had distractive flexion cervical spine injuries (the first group) and 30 (38.5%) had compressive extension trauma (the second group). We compared patients from the first and the second groups and did not find any difference among an accident circumstances (p>0.05), the level of the cervical spine injury (p>0.05) and neurological status at the early period after a trauma (p>0.05). Eight (16.7%) patients died from the first group, 5 (16.7%) from the second group due to severe

  15. Kinematics of the Cervical Spine After Unilateral Facet Fracture: An In Vitro Cadaver Study.

    PubMed

    Caravaggi, Paolo; Chen, Linda; Uko, Linda; Zorrilla, Andres; Hauser, Spencer; Vives, Michael J

    2017-09-15

    Biomechanical study utilizing human cadaveric cervical spines. To quantitatively assess the effects on intervertebral motion of isolated unilateral cervical facet fracture, and after disruption of the intervertebral disc at the same level. Clinical evidence has indirectly suggested that cervical facet fractures involving 40% of the height of the lateral mass can cause instability of the involved segment. No study to date has demonstrated the kinematic effects of such an injury in a cadaveric model of the cervical spine. Nine six-segment cervical spines were defrosted and fixated to a spine motion simulator capable to apply unconstrained bending moments in the three anatomical planes. The spines were subjected to a maximum torque of 2 N · m in flexion, extension, left and right lateral bending, and of 4 N · m in left and right axial rotation. Each spine was tested in the intact configuration (INTACT), and following two increasing degrees of injury at C4-C5: fracture of the facet (CF1), and CF1 with disruption of the intervertebral disc at the same level (CF2). Intervertebral kinematics was tracked via clusters of active markers fixated on each vertebra. Differences in kinematics between INTACT and the two injured configurations were assessed via one-way Analysis of Variance (P < 0.05). No significant differences were detected between INTACT and CF1 across all kinematic parameters (P > 0.05) at C4-C5. CF2, however, resulted in significant increase of flexion, left axial rotation, and left lateral bending with respect to INTACT (flexion at C4-C5: INTACT = 8.7° ± 3.5°; CF2 = 14.3 ± 5.7; P < 0.05). Our findings suggest that superior articular facet fractures alone involving 40% of the lateral mass may not necessarily result in intervertebral instability under physiologic loading conditions. The addition of partial injury to the intervertebral disc, however, resulted in statistically significant increase in angular displacement

  16. Are plain radiographs sufficient to exclude cervical spine injuries in low-risk adults?

    PubMed

    Hunter, Benton R; Keim, Samuel M; Seupaul, Rawle A; Hern, Gene

    2014-02-01

    The routine use of clinical decision rules and three-view plain radiography to clear the cervical spine in blunt trauma patients has been recently called into question. In low-risk adult blunt trauma patients, can plain radiographs adequately exclude cervical spine injury when clinical prediction rules cannot? Four observational studies investigating the performance of plain radiographs in detecting cervical spine injury in low-risk adult blunt trauma patients were reviewed. The consistently poor performance of plain radiographs to rule out cervical spine injury in adult blunt trauma victims is concerning. Large, rigorously performed prospective trials focusing on low- or low/moderate-risk patients will be needed to truly define the utility of plain radiographs of the cervical spine in blunt trauma. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Anatomical and functional perspectives of the cervical spine: Part III: the “unstable” cervical spine

    PubMed Central

    McGregor, Marion

    1990-01-01

    In this, the last of the three part series on the anatomical and functional perspectives of the cervical spine, the clinical entity-instability-is addressed. A summative definition of instability, addressing both the clinical and radiographic issues, is presented based on current available literature. The etiology of instability is discussed as it pertains to three possible mechanisms: acute trauma, latent evidence of trauma and repetitive microtrauma. The anatomical, clinical and radiographic aspects in each of these meachanisms is discussed. A case report is presented to illustrate the salient features of this potentially disastrous condition. The conclusion emphasizes the importance of defineable limits in each of the presented definitions, calling for future research into the clinical and radiographic correlations of abnormal cervical motion. ImagesFigure 4Figure 5Figure 6

  18. Imaging current spine hardware: part 1, cervical spine and fracture fixation.

    PubMed

    Petscavage-Thomas, Jonelle M; Ha, Alice S

    2014-08-01

    The goals of this article are to review the indications for use, the materials, and the designs of hardware more commonly used in the cervical spine; to discuss alternatives for each of the different types of hardware; to review normal postoperative imaging findings; to describe the appropriateness of different imaging modalities for postoperative evaluation; and to illustrate examples of hardware complications. This article will also review vertebral body fracture fixation. Stabilization and fusion of the spine with intervertebral disk replacement, artificial ligaments, spinous process distraction devices, plate-and-rod systems, dynamic posterior fusion devices, and implants composed of new types of material are increasingly more common in the contemporary surgical practice. These spinal hardware devices will be seen more often in radiology practice. Successful postoperative radiologic evaluation of spinal hardware necessitates an understanding of the fundamental design of the hardware, the physiologic objective of the hardware, normal and abnormal postoperative imaging appearances, and complications unique to the hardware.

  19. [Cervical spine osteochondroma presenting with torticollis and hemiparesis].

    PubMed

    Castro-Castro, Julián; Rodiño-Padín, Jon; Touceda-Bravo, Alberto; Castro-Bouzas, Daniel; Pinzón-Millán, Alfonso

    2014-01-01

    Osteochondromas are slow-growing benign bone tumors that are located frequently in the long bones. Approximately 1-4% of them occur in the spine. Solitary spinal osteochondromas may produce a wide variety of symptoms depending on their location and relationship to associated structures. We report a case of a 74-year old woman who was admitted to our hospital with complaints of progressive left hemibody weakness and cervicalgia. Neurological examination disclosed mild left-sided hemiparesis and left torticollis. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging of the cervical spine revealed an expansive lesion affecting the left C3-C4 facet joint. The patient underwent a posterior C3 and C4 hemilaminectomy, complete excision of the lesion and instrumented posterior cervical fixation. Histological examination confirmed the diagnosis of osteochondroma. After surgery her symptoms improved progressively with no neurological sequels. Copyright © 2013 Sociedad Española de Neurocirugía. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  20. Cervical spine computed tomography utilization in pediatric trauma patients.

    PubMed

    Adelgais, Kathleen M; Browne, Lorin; Holsti, Maija; Metzger, Ryan R; Murphy, Shannon Cox; Dudley, Nanette

    2014-02-01

    Guidelines for evaluating the cervical spine in pediatric trauma patients recommend cervical spine CT (CSCT) when plain radiographs suggest an injury. Our objective was to compare usage of CSCT between a pediatric trauma center (PTC) and referral general emergency departments (GEDs). Patient data from a pediatric trauma registry from 2002 to 2011 were analyzed. Rates of CSI and CSCT of patients presenting to the PTC and GED were compared. Factors associated with use of CSCT were assessed using multivariate logistic regression. 5148 patients were evaluated, 2142 (41.6%) at the PTC and 3006 (58.4%) at the GED. Groups were similar with regard to age, gender, GCS, and triage category. GED patients had a higher median ISS (14 vs. 9, p<0.05) and more frequent ICU admissions (44.3% vs. 26.1% p<0.05). CSI rate was 2.1% (107/5148) and remained stable. CSCT use increased from 3.5% to 16.1% over time at the PTC (mean 9.6% 95% CI=8.3, 10.9) and increased from 6.8% to 42.0% (mean 26.9%, CI=25.4, 28.4) at the GED. Initial care at a GED remained strongly associated with CSCT. Despite a stable rate of CSI, rate of CSCT increased significantly over time, especially among patients initially evaluated at a GED. © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. The impact of a cervical spine diagnosis on the careers of National Football League athletes.

    PubMed

    Schroeder, Gregory D; Lynch, T Sean; Gibbs, Daniel B; Chow, Ian; LaBelle, Mark W; Patel, Alpesh A; Savage, Jason W; Nuber, Gordon W; Hsu, Wellington K

    2014-05-20

    Cohort study. To determine the effect of cervical spine pathology on athletes entering the National Football League. The association of symptomatic cervical spine pathology with American football athletes has been described; however, it is unknown how preexisting cervical spine pathology affects career performance of a National Football League player. The medical evaluations and imaging reports of American football athletes from 2003 to 2011 during the combine were evaluated. Athletes with a cervical spine diagnosis were matched to controls and career statistics were compiled. Of a total of 2965 evaluated athletes, 143 players met the inclusion criteria. Athletes who attended the National Football League combine without a cervical spine diagnosis were more likely to be drafted than those with a diagnosis (P = 0.001). Players with a cervical spine diagnosis had a decreased total games played (P = 0.01). There was no difference in the number of games started (P = 0.08) or performance score (P = 0.38). In 10 athletes with a sagittal canal diameter of less than 10 mm, there was no difference in years, games played, games started, or performance score (P > 0.24). No neurological injury occurred during their careers. In 7 players who were drafted with a history of cervical spine surgery (4 anterior cervical discectomy and fusion, 2 foraminotomy, and 1 suboccipital craniectomy with a C1 laminectomy), there was no difference in career longevity or performance when compared with matched controls. This study suggests that athletes with preexisting cervical spine pathology were less likely to be drafted than controls. Players with preexisting cervical spine pathology demonstrated a shorter career than those without; however, statistically based performance and numbers of games started were not different. Players with cervical spinal stenosis and those with a history of previous surgery demonstrated no difference in performance-based outcomes and no reports of neurological

  2. Anterior cervical interbody fusion using polyetheretherketone cage filled with synthetic bone graft in acute cervical spine injury.

    PubMed

    Hattou, L; Morandi, X; Lefebvre, J; Le Reste, P-J; Riffaud, L; Hénaux, P-L

    2017-02-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the interbody fusion rate for patients treated by anterior cervical interbody fusion (ACIF) using polyetheretherketone (PEEK) cages filled with synthetic bone graft in acute cervical spine injury. Twenty-nine patients (mean age: 49 years) with monosegmental instability due to cervical spine injury were followed. We assessed the rate of and time to interbody fusion at 1-year follow-up. In case of secondary displacement, we analysed its causes and surgical management. The rate of fusion was 86.2%. The mean time to fusion was 7.2 months. Interbody fusion was observed at 3 months in 4 patients, at 6 months in 14 and at 1 year in 7. Four patients had secondary displacement within 3 months. ACIF with a PEEK cage filled with synthetic bone graft seems to be an alternative to iliac crest bone graft with no morbidity related to the harvest site. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. Risk factors for dysphagia after anterior cervical spine surgery

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Feng-Yu; Yang, Da-Long; Huang, Wen-Zheng; Huo, Li-Shuang; Ma, Lei; Wang, Hui; Yang, Si-Dong; Ding, Wen-Yuan

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background: Dysphagia is a well-known complication following anterior cervical spine surgery. Although risk factors for dysphagia have been reported in the literature, they still remain controversial. This study aims to investigate the risk factors associated with dysphagia following anterior cervical spinal surgery. Methods: PubMed, EMBASE, and The Cochrane Library were searched up to June 2016 for studies examining dysphagia following anterior cervical spinal surgery. Risk factors associated with dysphagia were extracted. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated for outcomes. Data analysis was conducted with RevMan 5.3 and STATA 12.0. Results: The final analysis includes a total of 18 distinct studies. The pooled analysis reveals that there are significant differences in female gender (OR = 2.30, 95% CI: 1.76–2.99, P < 0.001), the use of anterior cervical plate (OR = 1.66, 95% CI: 1.05–2.62, P = 0.03), more than 1 surgical level (OR = 2.07, 95% CI: 1.62–2.66, P < 0.001), the upper surgical level at C3/4 (OR = 3.08, 95% CI: 1.44–6.55, P = 0.004), and the use of bone morphogenetic protein-2 (rhBMP-2) (OR = 5.52, 95% CI: 2.16–14.10, P < 0.001). However, no significant difference is found in revision surgery (OR = 1.67, 95% CI: 0.60–4.68, P = 0.33), the type of fusion (OR = 1.02, 95% CI: 0.62–1.67, P = 0.95), and cervical disc arthroplasty (OR = 1.37, 95% CI: 0.75–2.51, P = 0.30). Conclusion: Female gender, the use of anterior cervical plate, more than 1 surgical level, the upper surgical level at C3/4, and the use of rhBMP-2 are the risk factors for dysphagia following anterior cervical spinal surgery. However, revision surgery, the type of fusion, and cervical disc arthroplasty are unassociated with dysphagia. Considering the limited number of studies, this conclusion should be interpreted cautiously, and larger scale studies are required. PMID

  4. Distal Junctional Disease after Occipitothoracic Fusion for Rheumatoid Cervical Disorders: Correlation with Cervical Spine Sagittal Alignment

    PubMed Central

    Tanouchi, Tetsu; Shimizu, Takachika; Fueki, Keisuke; Ino, Masatake; Toda, Naofumi; Manabe, Nodoka; Itoh, Kanako

    2015-01-01

    Study Design Retrospective radiographic study. Objective We have performed occipitothoracic (OT) fusion for severe rheumatoid cervical disorders since 1991. In our previous study, we reported that the distal junctional disease occurred in patients with fusion of O–T4 or longer due to increased mechanical stress. The present study further evaluated the association between the distal junctional disease and the cervical spine sagittal alignment. Methods Among 60 consecutive OT fusion cases between 1991 and 2010, 24 patients who underwent O–T5 fusion were enrolled in this study. The patients were grouped based on whether they developed postoperative distal junctional disease (group F) or not (group N). We measured pre- and postoperative O–C2, C2–C7, and O–C7 angles and evaluated the association between these values and the occurrence of distal junctional disease. Results Seven (29%) of 24 patients developed adjacent-level vertebral fractures as distal junctional disease. In group F, the mean pre- and postoperative O–C2, C2–C7, and O–C7 angles were 12.1 and 16.8, 7.2 and 11.2, and 19.4 and 27.9 degrees, respectively. In group N, the mean pre- and postoperative O–C2, C2–C7, and O–C7 angles were 15.9 and 15.0, 4.9 and 5.8, and 21.0 and 20.9 degrees, respectively. There were no significant differences between the two groups. The difference in the O–C7 angle (postoperative angle − preoperative angle) in group F was significantly larger than that in group N (p = 0.04). Conclusion Excessive correction of the O–C7 angle (hyperlordotic alignment) is likely to cause postoperative distal junctional disease following the OT fusion. PMID:26430590

  5. Development of Ultrasound to Measure In-vivo Dynamic Cervical Spine Intervertebral Disc Mechanics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-01-01

    images of IVDs and dynamic vertebral motion in-vivo during simulated tasks relevant to acute and chronic cervical spine injury and disease. A semi...of cervical vertebrae. Dynamic IVD displacements of vertebrae C4-5 measured by US were consistent with direct measurements. For motion frequencies...We developed a diagnostic system that applies dynamic cyclic loads to cervical spine over a range of programmable frequencies and amplitudes that

  6. Transient tetraplegia and vegetative dysfunction depending on cervical positioning caused by a cervical spinal chordoma.

    PubMed

    Schulte, T L; Hammersen, S; Heidenreich, J O; Pietilä, T A

    2006-01-01

    A 39-year-old man with acquired torticollis suffering from cervicobrachialgia and neurological deficits is presented. Due to a change in head position a transient reproducible tetraplegia and severe vegetative dysfunctions were caused. The origin of this uncommon serious combination of symptoms and signs was a chordoma of the upper cervical spine. After surgical decompression the patient was free of neurological deficit and pain. Review of the literature did not reveal any similar case.

  7. Factors associated with cervical spine injury in children after blunt trauma.

    PubMed

    Leonard, Julie C; Kuppermann, Nathan; Olsen, Cody; Babcock-Cimpello, Lynn; Brown, Kathleen; Mahajan, Prashant; Adelgais, Kathleen M; Anders, Jennifer; Borgialli, Dominic; Donoghue, Aaron; Hoyle, John D; Kim, Emily; Leonard, Jeffrey R; Lillis, Kathleen A; Nigrovic, Lise E; Powell, Elizabeth C; Rebella, Greg; Reeves, Scott D; Rogers, Alexander J; Stankovic, Curt; Teshome, Getachew; Jaffe, David M

    2011-08-01

    Cervical spine injuries in children are rare. However, immobilization and imaging for potential cervical spine injury after trauma are common and are associated with adverse effects. Risk factors for cervical spine injury have been developed to safely limit immobilization and radiography in adults, but not in children. The purpose of our study is to identify risk factors associated with cervical spine injury in children after blunt trauma. We conducted a case-control study of children younger than 16 years, presenting after blunt trauma, and who received cervical spine radiographs at 17 hospitals in the Pediatric Emergency Care Applied Research Network (PECARN) between January 2000 and December 2004. Cases were children with cervical spine injury. We created 3 control groups of children free of cervical spine injury: (1) random controls, (2) age and mechanism of injury-matched controls, and (3) for cases receiving out-of-hospital emergency medical services (EMS), age-matched controls who also received EMS care. We abstracted data from 3 sources: PECARN hospital, referring hospital, and out-of-hospital patient records. We performed multiple logistic regression analyses to identify predictors of cervical spine injury and calculated the model's sensitivity and specificity. We reviewed 540 records of children with cervical spine injury and 1,060, 1,012, and 702 random, mechanism of injury, and EMS controls, respectively. In the analysis using random controls, we identified 8 factors associated with cervical spine injury: altered mental status, focal neurologic findings, neck pain, torticollis, substantial torso injury, conditions predisposing to cervical spine injury, diving, and high-risk motor vehicle crash. Having 1 or more factors was 98% (95% confidence interval 96% to 99%) sensitive and 26% (95% confidence interval 23% to 29%) specific for cervical spine injury. We identified similar risk factors in the other analyses. We identified an 8-variable model for

  8. Outcomes of pediatric patients with persistent midline cervical spine tenderness and negative imaging result after trauma.

    PubMed

    Dorney, Kate; Kimia, Amir; Hannon, Megan; Hennelly, Kara; Meehan, William P; Proctor, Mark; Mooney, David P; Glotzbecker, Michael; Mannix, Rebekah

    2015-11-01

    There is little evidence to guide management of pediatric patients with persistent cervical spine tenderness after trauma but with negative initial imaging study findings. Our objective was to determine the prevalence of clinically significant cervical spine injury among pediatric blunt trauma patients discharged from the emergency department with negative imaging study findings but persistent midline cervical spine tenderness. We performed a single-center, retrospective study of subjects 1 year to 15 years of age discharged in a rigid cervical spine collar after blunt trauma over a 5-year period. We included patients with negative imaging results who were maintained in a collar because of persistent midline cervical spine tenderness. Primary outcome was clinically significant cervical spine injury. Secondary outcome was continued use of the collar after follow-up. Outcomes were ascertained from the medical record or self-report via telephone call. A total of 307 subjects met inclusion criteria, of whom 289 (94.1%) had follow-up information available (89.6% in chart, 10.4% via telephone call). Of those with follow-up information, 189 (65.4%) had subspecialty follow-up in the spine clinic. Of those with spine clinic follow-up, 84.6% had the hard collar discontinued at the first visit (median time to visit, 10 days). Of subjects with spine clinic follow-up, 10.1% were left in the collar for persistent tenderness without findings on imaging and 2.1% had imaging findings related to their injury; none required surgical intervention. A very small percentage of subjects with persistent midline cervical spine tenderness and normal radiographic study findings have a clinically significant cervical spine injury identified at follow-up. Referral for subspecialty evaluation may only be necessary in a small number of patients with persistent tenderness or concerning signs/symptoms. Therapeutic study, level IV.

  9. Congenital Stenosis of the Cervical Spine: Diagnosis and Management

    PubMed Central

    Countee, Roger W.; Vijayanathan, Thurairasah

    1979-01-01

    An analysis of 11 cases of congenital stenosis of the cervical spine seen over the past three years is reported. The authors' experiences at an urban community hospital, as well as a large Veterans Administration Hospital, lead them to conclude that this disorder is a neurologically significant anomaly which is probably more common than published reports would imply. It can be clinically and radiographically distinguished from “pure” cervical spondylosis, to which it is related, and its treatment should be appropriately modified. It appears to have a predilection for young adult black males, and cervical myelopathy is the predominant clinical feature. Varying degrees of trauma, a disease endemic to the inner city, plays a major role in precipitating the neurological catastrophes associated with this potentially correctable disorder. Proper management of this entity demands a heightened awareness of its existence as well as a high standard of neurological and roentgenographic diagnosis, and operative performance. A flexible operative strategy which takes into account the specific biomechanical factors involved in this disorder as well as the patient's individual physiological and social status is imperative. Surgery offers a good opportunity for improving neurological function. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3Figure 4Figure 5Figure 6Figure 7Figure 8Figure 9 PMID:439156

  10. Cervical Spondylotic Myelopathy due to the Ochronotic Arthropathy of the Cervical Spine

    PubMed Central

    Li, Nan; Yuan, Qiang; He, Da

    2016-01-01

    Ochronosis is a musculoskeletal manifestation of alkaptonuria, a rare hereditary metabolic disorder occurs due to the absence of homogentisic acid oxidase and leading to various systemic abnormalities related to deposition of homogentisic acid pigmentation (ochronotic pigmentation). The present case reports the clinical features, radiographic findings, treatments and results of a cervical spondylotic myelopathy woman patient due to the ochronotic arthropathy of the cervical spine. The patient aged 62 years was presented with gait disturbance and hand clumsiness. Physical examination, X-rays, computed tomography and lab results of the urine sample confirmed the presence of ochronosis with the involvement of the cervical spine. The patient underwent a modified cervical laminoplasty due to multi-segment spinal cord compression. The postoperative follow-up showed a good functional outcome with patient satisfaction. The present study concludes the conditions and important diagnostic and surgical aspects of a patient. It is necessary to identify the condition clinically and if cord compression is observed, appropriate surgical interventions needs to be instituted. PMID:26885289

  11. Epidemiology and Risk Factors of Cervical Spine Injury during Heating Season in the Patients with Cervical Trauma: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Sidong; Ding, Wenyuan; Yang, Dalong; Gu, Tixin; Zhang, Feng; Zhang, Di; Sun, Yapeng; Ma, Lei; Song, Yanli

    2013-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to describe the epidemiology of cervical spine injury in the patients with cervical trauma and analyze its associated risk factors during the special heating season in North China. Methods This cross-sectional study investigated predictors for cervical spine injury in cervical trauma patients using retrospectively collected data of Hebei Provincial Orthopaedic Hospital from 11/2011 to 02/2012, and 11/2012 to 02/2013. Binary logistic regression analysis was used to determine risk factors for cervical fractures/dislocations or cord injury. Results A total of 106 patients were admitted into this study. Of all, 34 patients (32.1%) were treated from 11/2011 to 02/2012 and 72 patients (67.9%) from 11/2012 to 02/2013. The mean age was 41.9±13.3 years old; 85 patients (80.2%) were male and 82 (77.4%) from rural areas. Eighty patients (75.5%) were caused by fall including 45 (42.5%) by severe fall (>2 m). Sixty-five patients (61.3%) of all suffered injuries to other body regions and 32 (30.2%) got head injury. Thirty-one patients (29.2%) sustained cervical cord injury with cervical fractures/dislocations. Twenty-six (83.9%) of cervical cord injury patients were from rural areas and 24 (77.4%) of those resulted from fall including 15 (48.4%) from severe fall (>2 m). Logistic regression displayed that age (OR, 1.47; 95% CI, 1.05–2.07), head injury (OR, 5.63; 95% CI, 2.23–14.26), were risk factors for cervical cord injury and snowing (OR, 8.25; 95% CI, 2.26–30.15) was a risk factor for cervical spine injury due to severe fall (>2 m). Conclusions The elder male patients and patients with head trauma are high-risk population for cervical cord injury. As a seasonal factor, snowing during heating season is of note a risk factor for cervical spine injury resulting from severe fall (>2 m) in the patients with cervical trauma in North China. PMID:24223795

  12. Thoracic spine thrust manipulation versus cervical spine thrust manipulation in patients with acute neck pain: a randomized clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Puentedura, Emilio J; Landers, Merrill R; Cleland, Joshua A; Mintken, Paul E; Huijbregts, Peter; Fernández-de-Las-Peñas, César

    2011-04-01

    Randomized clinical trial. To determine if patients who met the clinical prediction rule (CPR) criteria for the success of thoracic spine thrust joint manipulation (TJM) for the treatment of neck pain would have a different outcome if they were treated with a cervical spine TJM. A CPR had been proposed to identify patients with neck pain who would likely respond favorably to thoracic spine TJM. Research on validation of that CPR had not been completed when this trial was initiated. In our clinical experience, though many patients with neck pain responded favorably to thoracic spine TJM, they often reported that their symptomatic cervical spine area had not been adequately addressed. Twenty-four consecutive patients, who presented to physical therapy with a primary complaint of neck pain and met 4 out of 6 of the CPR criteria for thoracic TJM, were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 treatment groups. The thoracic group received thoracic TJM and a cervical range-of-motion (ROM) exercise for the first 2 sessions, followed by a standardized exercise program for an additional 3 sessions. The cervical group received cervical TJM and the same cervical ROM exercise for the first 2 sessions, and the same exercise program given to the thoracic group for the next 3 sessions. Outcome measures collected at 1 week, 4 weeks, and 6 months from start of treatment included the Neck Disability Index, numeric pain rating scale, and Fear-Avoidance Beliefs Questionnaire. Patients who received cervical TJM demonstrated greater improvements in Neck Disability Index (P ≤.001) and numeric pain rating scale (P ≤.003) scores at all follow-up times. There was also a statistically significant improvement in the Fear-Avoidance Beliefs Questionnaire physical activity subscale score at all follow-up times for the cervical group (P ≤.004). The number needed to treat to avoid an unsuccessful overall outcome was 1.8 at 1 week, 1.6 at 4 weeks, and 1.6 at 6 months. Patients with neck pain who met 4 of 6

  13. Rugby union injuries to the cervical spine and spinal cord.

    PubMed

    Quarrie, Kenneth L; Cantu, Robert C; Chalmers, David J

    2002-01-01

    Injuries to the cervical spine are among the most serious injuries occurring as a result of participation in rugby. Outcomes of such injuries range from complete recovery to death, depending on the degree of spinal cord damage sustained. Much information has been gained regarding the mechanisms and frequency of such injuries, from case reports and case series studies. The most commonly reported mechanism of injury has been hyperflexion of the cervical spine, resulting in fracture dislocation of C4-C5 or C5-C6. Tracking both the trends of incidence of spinal injuries, and the effectiveness of injury prevention initiatives has proved difficult because of a lack of properly conducted epidemiological studies. Within the constraints of the research published to date, it appears that hookers and props have been at disproportionate risk of cervical spine injury, predominantly because of injuries sustained during scrummaging. While the scrum was the phase of play most commonly associated with spinal injuries throughout the 1980s in most rugby playing countries, there has been a trend through the 1990s of an increasing proportion of spinal injuries occurring in the tackle situation. The majority of injuries have occurred early in the season, when grounds tend to be harder, and players are lacking both practice and physical conditioning for the physical contact phases of the sport. A number of injury prevention measures have been launched, including changes to the laws of the game regarding scrummaging, and education programmes aimed at enforcing safe techniques and eliminating illegal play. Calls for case-registers and effective epidemiological studies have been made by researchers and physicians in most countries where rugby is widespread, but it appears to be only recently that definite steps have been made towards this goal. Well-designed epidemiological studies will be able to provide more accurate information about potential risk factors for injury such as age, grade

  14. Correlation between TMD and cervical spine pain and mobility: is the whole body balance TMJ related?

    PubMed

    Walczyńska-Dragon, Karolina; Baron, Stefan; Nitecka-Buchta, Aleksandra; Tkacz, Ewaryst

    2014-01-01

    Temporomandibular dysfunction (TMD) is considered to be associated with imbalance of the whole body. This study aimed to evaluate the influence of TMD therapy on cervical spine range of movement (ROM) and reduction of spinal pain. The study group consisted of 60 patients with TMD, cervical spine pain, and limited cervical spine range of movements. Subjects were interviewed by a questionnaire about symptoms of TMD and neck pain and had also masticatory motor system physically examined (according to RDC-TMD) and analysed by JMA ultrasound device. The cervical spine motion was analysed using an MCS device. Subjects were randomly admitted to two groups, treated and control. Patients from the treated group were treated with an occlusal splint. Patients from control group were ordered to self-control parafunctional habits. Subsequent examinations were planned in both groups 3 weeks and 3 months after treatment was introduced. The results of tests performed 3 months after the beginning of occlusal splint therapy showed a significant improvement in TMJ function (P > 0.05), cervical spine ROM, and a reduction of spinal pain. The conclusion is that there is a significant association between TMD treatment and reduction of cervical spine pain, as far as improvement of cervical spine mobility.

  15. Correlation between TMD and Cervical Spine Pain and Mobility: Is the Whole Body Balance TMJ Related?

    PubMed Central

    Walczyńska-Dragon, Karolina; Baron, Stefan; Nitecka-Buchta, Aleksandra; Tkacz, Ewaryst

    2014-01-01

    Temporomandibular dysfunction (TMD) is considered to be associated with imbalance of the whole body. This study aimed to evaluate the influence of TMD therapy on cervical spine range of movement (ROM) and reduction of spinal pain. The study group consisted of 60 patients with TMD, cervical spine pain, and limited cervical spine range of movements. Subjects were interviewed by a questionnaire about symptoms of TMD and neck pain and had also masticatory motor system physically examined (according to RDC-TMD) and analysed by JMA ultrasound device. The cervical spine motion was analysed using an MCS device. Subjects were randomly admitted to two groups, treated and control. Patients from the treated group were treated with an occlusal splint. Patients from control group were ordered to self-control parafunctional habits. Subsequent examinations were planned in both groups 3 weeks and 3 months after treatment was introduced. The results of tests performed 3 months after the beginning of occlusal splint therapy showed a significant improvement in TMJ function (P > 0.05), cervical spine ROM, and a reduction of spinal pain. The conclusion is that there is a significant association between TMD treatment and reduction of cervical spine pain, as far as improvement of cervical spine mobility. PMID:25050363

  16. Pediatric cervical spine in emergency: radiographic features of normal anatomy, variants and pitfalls.

    PubMed

    Adib, Omar; Berthier, Emeline; Loisel, Didier; Aubé, Christophe

    2016-12-01

    Injuries of the cervical spine are uncommon in children. The distribution of injuries, when they do occur, differs according to age. Young children aged less than 8 years usually have upper cervical injuries because of the anatomic and biomechanical properties of their immature spine, whereas older children, whose biomechanics more closely resemble those of adults, are prone to lower cervical injuries. In all cases, the pediatric cervical spine has distinct radiographic features, making the emergency radiological analysis of it difficult. Such features as hypermobility between C2 and C3, pseudospread of the atlas on the axis, pseudosubluxation, the absence of lordosis, anterior wedging of vertebral bodies, pseudowidening of prevertebral soft tissue and incomplete ossification of synchondrosis can be mistaken for traumatic injuries. The interpretation of a plain radiograph of the pediatric cervical spine following trauma must take into account the age of the child, the location of the injury and the mechanism of trauma. Comprehensive knowledge of the specific anatomy and biomechanics of the childhood spine is essential for the diagnosis of suspected cervical spine injury. With it, the physician can, on one hand, differentiate normal physes or synchondroses from pathological fractures or ligamentous disruptions and, on the other, identify any possible congenital anomalies that may also be mistaken for injury. Thus, in the present work, we discuss normal radiological features of the pediatric cervical spine, variants that may be encountered and pitfalls that must be avoided when interpreting plain radiographs taken in an emergency setting following trauma.

  17. Incidence of combined cranial and cervical spine injuries in patients with blunt minor trauma: are combined CT examinations of the head and cervical spine justified?

    PubMed

    Vahldiek, Janis L; Thieme, Stefan; Hamm, Bernd; Niehues, Stefan M

    2017-07-01

    Background The use of computed tomography (CT) scans of the head and cervical spine has markedly increased in patients with blunt minor trauma. The actual likelihood of a combined injury of head and cervical spine following a minor trauma is estimated to be low. Purpose To determine the incidence of such combined injuries in patients with a blunt minor trauma in order to estimate the need to derive improved diagnostic guidelines. Material and Methods A total of 1854 patients were retrospectively analyzed. All cases presented to the emergency department and in all patients combined CT scans of head and cervical spine were conducted. For the following analysis, only 1342 cases with assured blunt minor trauma were included. Data acquisition covered age, sex, and presence of a head injury as well as presence of a cervical spine injury or both. Results Of the 1342 cases, 46.9% were men. The mean age was 65.6 years. CT scans detected a head injury in 116 patients; of these, 70 cases showed an intracranial hemorrhage, 11 cases a skull fracture, and 35 cases an intracranial hemorrhage as well as a skull fracture. An injury of the cervical spine could be detected in 40 patients. A combined injury of the head and cervical spine could be found in one patient. Conclusion The paradigm of the coincidence of cranial and cervical spine injuries should be revised in patients with blunt minor trauma. Valid imaging decision algorithms are strongly needed to clinically detect high-risk patients in order to save limited resources.

  18. The cervical spine in patients with psoriatic arthritis: a clinical, radiological and immunogenetic study.

    PubMed Central

    Salvarani, C; Macchioni, P; Cremonesi, T; Mantovani, W; Battistel, B; Rossi, F; Capozzoli, N; Baricchi, R; Portioli, I

    1992-01-01

    The radiological changes of the cervical spine were evaluated in 57 patients with psoriatic arthritis and were correlated with clinical, radiological, and immunogenetic features of the disease. Forty patients (70%) showed radiological evidence of the cervical spine being affected by the disease. Two patterns of cervical spine abnormalities were noted. Fifteen patients (26%) had erosive and/or subluxing cervical rheumatoid like lesions; 25 patients (44%) had a more frequently reported pattern similar to ankylosing spondylitis. Although subaxial subluxations were the most frequently observed cervical abnormalities (53%) in the inflammatory subgroup, none of the patients studied had cord compression. Ankylosing cervical spine disease was the only form of axial involvement in nine (36%) of 25 patients with the ankylosing form of psoriatic arthritis. All of these patients had peripheral disease and were B27 negative. Predictors of cervical spine disease patterns were considered using clinical, demographic, and radiological features and HLA antigens. The results of a multivariate analysis showed that the best predictors of inflammatory cervical spine disease are the presence of HLA-B39 and HLA-DR4 antigens, radiocarpal erosions, and the absence of the HLA-DR5 antigen. PMID:1540041

  19. Pediatric Cervical Spine and Spinal Cord Injury: A National Database Study.

    PubMed

    Shin, John I; Lee, Nathan J; Cho, Samuel K

    2016-02-01

    A retrospective administrative database analysis. The aim of this study was to investigate the incidence and characteristics of pediatric cervical spine injury (PCSI) utilizing the Kids' Inpatient Database (KID). PCSI is debilitating, but comprehensive analyses have been difficult due to its rarity. There have been a few database studies on PCSI; however, the studies employed databases that suffer from selection bias. The triennial KID was queried from years 2000 to 2012 using International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-9-CM) codes. Pediatric admissions were divided into five age groups reflecting different developmental stages. PCSI was analyzed in terms of trend, demographics, injury characteristics, hospital characteristics, comorbidities, and outcomes variables. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to identify independent risk factors for PCSI among trauma admissions and to identify independent risk factors for mortality among PCSI admissions. Over the past decade, the overall prevalence of traumatic PCSI was 2.07%, and the mortality rate was 4.87%. Most frequent cause of PCSI was transportation accidents, accounting for 57.51%. Upper cervical spine injury (C1-C4), cervical fracture with spinal cord injury, spinal cord injury without radiographic abnormality (SCIWORA), and dislocation showed a decreasing trend with age. Some comorbidities, including, but not limited to, fluid and electrolyte disorders, and paralysis were common across all age groups, while substance abuse showed a bimodal distribution. Independent risk factors for PCSI after trauma were older cohorts, non-Northeast region, and transportation accidents. For mortality after PCSI, independent risk factors were younger cohorts, transportation accidents, upper cervical spine injury, dislocation, and spinal cord injuries. Median length of stay and cost were 3.84 days and $14 742. Pediatric patients are highly heterogeneous, constantly

  20. The Association Between Cervical Spine Manipulation and Carotid Artery Dissection: A Systematic Review of the Literature.

    PubMed

    Chung, Chadwick L R; Côté, Pierre; Stern, Paula; L'Espérance, Georges

    2015-01-01

    Controversy surrounds the safety of cervical spine manipulation. Ischemic stroke secondary to cervical spine manipulation is a hypothesized adverse event. In Canada, the seriousness of these events and their perceived association to cervical spine manipulation has led some members of the public to call for a ban of the procedure. The primary objective of this study was to determine the incidence of internal carotid artery (ICA) dissection after cervical spine manipulation in patients who experience neck pain and its associated disorders. The secondary objective was to determine whether cervical spine manipulation is associated with an increased risk of ICA dissection in patients with neck pain, upper back pain, or headaches. We systematically searched MEDLINE, CINAHL, Alternative Health, AMED, Index to Chiropractic Literature, and EMBASE from 1970 to November 2012. Two independent reviewers used standardized criteria to screen the eligibility of articles. We considered cohort studies, case-control studies, and randomized clinical trials that addressed our objectives. We planned to critically appraise eligible articles using the Scottish Intercollegiate Guideline Network methodology. We did not find any epidemiologic studies that measured the incidence of cervical spine manipulation and ICA dissection. Similarly, we did not find any studies that determined whether cervical spine manipulation is associated with ICA dissection. The incidence of ICA dissection after cervical spine manipulation is unknown. The relative risk of ICA dissection after cervical spine manipulation compared with other health care interventions for neck pain, back pain, or headache is also unknown. Although several case reports and case series raise the hypothesis of an association, we found no epidemiologic studies that validate this hypothesis. Copyright © 2013 National University of Health Sciences. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Absence of clinical findings reliably excludes unstable cervical spine injuries in children 5 years or younger.

    PubMed

    Hale, Diane F; Fitzpatrick, Colleen M; Doski, John J; Stewart, Ronald M; Mueller, Deborah L

    2015-05-01

    Increased accessibility and rapidity of computed tomography (CT) have led to increased use and radiation exposure to pediatric trauma patients. The thyroid is radiosensitive and therefore at risk for developing malignancy from radiation exposure during cervical spine CT. This analysis aimed to determine which preelementary trauma patients warrant cervical spine CT by defining incidence and clinical characteristics of preelementary cervical spine injury. This was a retrospective review of pre-elementary trauma patients from 1998 to 2010 with cervical spine injury admitted to a Level I trauma center. Patients were identified from the trauma registry using DRG International Classification of Diseases-9th Rev. codes and reviewed for demographics, mechanism of injury, clinical presentation, injury location, injury type, treatment, and outcome. A total of 2,972 preelementary trauma patients were identified. Twenty-two (0.74%) had confirmed cervical spine injuries. Eleven (50%) were boys, and the mean (SD) age was 3 (1.7) years. The most common mechanism of injury was motor vehicle collision (n = 16, 73%). The majority (59%) were in extremis, and 12 (55%) arrived intubated. The median Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score was 3 (interquartile range, 3-10); the median Injury Severity Score (ISS) was 33 (interquartile range, 17-56). Nineteen injuries (76%) were at the level of C4 level and higher. The mortality rate was 50%. All patients had clinical findings suggestive of or diagnostic for cervical spine injury; 18 (82%) had abnormal neurologic examination result, 2 (9%) had torticollis, and 2 (9%) had neck pain. The incidence of cervical spine injury in preelementary patients was consistent with previous reports. Missing a cervical spine injury in asymptomatic preelementary patients is extremely low. Reserving cervical spine CT to symptomatic preelementary patients would decrease unnecessary radiation exposure to the thyroid. Therapeutic study, level IV.

  2. Intubation Biomechanics: Laryngoscope force and cervical spine motion during intubation with Macintosh and Airtraq laryngoscopes

    PubMed Central

    Hindman, Bradley J.; Santoni, Brandon G.; Puttlitz, Christian M.; From, Robert P.; Todd, Michael M.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Laryngoscopy and endotracheal intubation in the presence of cervical spine instability may put patients at risk of cervical cord injury. Nevertheless, the biomechanics of intubation (cervical spine motion as a function of applied force) have not been characterized. This study characterized and compared the relationship between laryngoscope force and cervical spine motion using two laryngoscopes hypothesized to differ in force. Methods Fourteen adults undergoing elective surgery were intubated twice (Macintosh, Airtraq). During each intubation, laryngoscope force, cervical spine motion, and glottic view were recorded. Force and motion were referenced to a pre-intubation baseline (stage 1) and were characterized at three stages: stage 2 (laryngoscope introduction); stage 3 (best glottic view); stage 4 (endotracheal tube in trachea). Results Maximal force and motion occurred at stage 3, and differed between the Macintosh and Airtraq: 1) Force: 48.8±15.8 vs. 10.4±2.8 N, respectively; P=0.0001; 2) occiput-C5 extension: 29.5±8.5 vs. 19.1±8.7 degrees, respectively; P=0.0023. Between stages -2 and -3, the motion/force ratio differed between Macintosh and Airtraq: 0.5±0.2 vs. 2.0±1.4 degrees/N, respectively; P=0.0006. Discussion The relationship between laryngoscope force and cervical spine motion is: 1) non-linear and 2) differs between laryngoscopes. Differences between laryngoscopes in motion/force relationships are likely due to: 1) laryngoscope-specific cervical extension needed for intubation, 2) laryngoscope-specific airway displacement/deformation needed for intubation, and 3) cervical spine and airway tissue viscoelastic properties. Cervical spine motion during endotracheal intubation is not directly proportional to force. Low force laryngoscopes cannot be assumed to result in proportionally low cervical spine motion. PMID:24739996

  3. Intubation biomechanics: laryngoscope force and cervical spine motion during intubation with Macintosh and Airtraq laryngoscopes.

    PubMed

    Hindman, Bradley J; Santoni, Brandon G; Puttlitz, Christian M; From, Robert P; Todd, Michael M

    2014-08-01

    Laryngoscopy and endotracheal intubation in the presence of cervical spine instability may put patients at risk of cervical cord injury. Nevertheless, the biomechanics of intubation (cervical spine motion as a function of applied force) have not been characterized. This study characterized and compared the relationship between laryngoscope force and cervical spine motion using two laryngoscopes hypothesized to differ in force. Fourteen adults undergoing elective surgery were intubated twice (Macintosh, Airtraq). During each intubation, laryngoscope force, cervical spine motion, and glottic view were recorded. Force and motion were referenced to a preintubation baseline (stage 1) and were characterized at three stages: stage 2 (laryngoscope introduction); stage 3 (best glottic view); and stage 4 (endotracheal tube in trachea). Maximal force and motion occurred at stage 3 and differed between the Macintosh and Airtraq: (1) force: 48.8 ± 15.8 versus 10.4 ± 2.8 N, respectively, P = 0.0001; (2) occiput-C5 extension: 29.5 ± 8.5 versus 19.1 ± 8.7 degrees, respectively, P = 0.0023. Between stages 2 and 3, the motion/force ratio differed between Macintosh and Airtraq: 0.5 ± 0.2 versus 2.0 ± 1.4 degrees/N, respectively; P = 0.0006. The relationship between laryngoscope force and cervical spine motion is: (1) nonlinear and (2) differs between laryngoscopes. Differences between laryngoscopes in motion/force relationships are likely due to: (1) laryngoscope-specific cervical extension needed for intubation, (2) laryngoscope-specific airway displacement/deformation needed for intubation, and (3) cervical spine and airway tissue viscoelastic properties. Cervical spine motion during endotracheal intubation is not directly proportional to force. Low-force laryngoscopes cannot be assumed to result in proportionally low cervical spine motion.

  4. Gout Initially Mimicking Rheumatoid Arthritis and Later Cervical Spine Involvement

    PubMed Central

    Nunes, Eduardo Araújo Santana; Rosseti, Adroaldo Guimarães; Ribeiro, Daniel Sá; Santiago, Mittermayer

    2014-01-01

    Gout is clinically characterized by episodes of monoarthritis, but if not treated properly, it can lead to a chronic polyarthritis, which may eventually mimic rheumatoid arthritis (RA). We present the case of a 59-year-old man, with a history of symmetrical polyarthritis of the large and small joints with later development of subcutaneous nodules, which was initially misdiagnosed as RA, being treated with prednisone and methotrexate for a long period of time. He complained of occipital pain and paresthesia in his left upper limb, and computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed the presence of an expansive formation in the cervical spine with compression of the medulla. He was admitted for spinal decompressive surgery and the biopsy specimen demonstrated a gouty tophus. Chronic gout can mimic RA and rarely involves the axial skeleton, and thus its correct diagnosis and the implementation of adequate therapy can halt the development of such damaging complications. PMID:25574418

  5. Surgical management of the symptomatic cervical spine in rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Smith, D S; Yuan, H A

    1982-05-01

    Eleven spinal fusions were performed on 10 patients with symptomatic cervical spines secondary to rheumatoid arthritis. A variety of surgical procedures and various types of postoperative immobilization were used. The average patient age at surgery was 43.2 years, with an average followup of 36.9 months. Six of these patients had instability at C1-2, one each at C4-5, C5-6, and C6-7, and one patient had a complete myelographic block without instability at C5-6. Six of the patients presented with neurologic symptoms - all improved; some dramatically. There were no deaths, four transient complications, and no pseudarthroses. Some authors advocate routine, supine, prolonged skull traction postoperatively. We believe that this is not necessary in the uncomplicated rheumatoid spinal fusion, and may be detrimental. Other recommendations for conservative and surgical management are also made. Copyright 2013, SLACK Incorporated.

  6. Brain Abscess After Halo Fixation for the Cervical Spine.

    PubMed

    Lopes, Arthur; Andrade, Almir; Silva, Igor; Paiva, Wellingson; Brock, Roger; Teixeira, Manoel

    2017-08-01

    Halo fixation is one of the possible treatments for cervical spine fractures. However, improper use of these devices may lead to many complications, such as pin loosening, halo dislocation, pin site infection, and intradural penetration. We report the case of a 43-year-old man who first presented with a seizure and an altered level of consciousness 5 months after halo-vest placement for an odontoid fracture. Brain imaging showed a brain abscess, under the previous left parietal pin. The patient underwent abscess drainage and antibiotics were administered for 12 weeks. On hospital discharge, he presented with only mild impairments. Misapplication of halo fixation devices may lead to serious complications, including intracranial pin penetration and brain abscesses. Proper use of the recommended technique may decrease the risk for complications related to the procedure. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Gelfoam-induced Swallowing Difficulty after Anterior Cervical Spine Surgery.

    PubMed

    Yang, Joo Chul; Kim, Tae Wan; Park, Kwan Ho

    2013-06-01

    Symptomatic diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis (DISH) is not common. Gelfoam is one of the most commonly used topical hemostatic agents. But, in the partially moistened state, air retained in its pores may result in excessive expansion on contact with liquid. The onset of swallowing difficulty after anterior cervical spine surgery due to appling gelfoam is a rare complication. A 77-year-old man with swallowing difficulty was admitted to our hospital and we diagnosed him as DISH confirmed by radiological study. After removing the DISH, patient's symptom was relieved gradually. However, on postoperative day (POD) 7, the symptom recurred but lesser than the preoperative state. We confirmed no hematoma and esophageal perforation on the operation site. We observed him closely and controlled the diet. Three months later, he had no symptom of swallowing difficulty, and was able to be back on a regular diet, including solid foods. We present a complication case of swallowing difficulty occurring by gelfoam application.

  8. Giant Cervical Spine Osteochondroma in an Adolescent Female

    PubMed Central

    Huda, N.; Pant, Ajay; Jameel, Tariq

    2014-01-01

    Osteochondroma or osteocartolaginous exostosis is by far the most common benign bone tumour, which accounts for 35% to 50% of benign bone neoplasms and 10% to 15% of all primary bone tumours. Osteochondroma represents a developmental enchondromatous hyperplasia which leads to formation of cartilage capped bony protrusions on bony surfaces. We present a case report of a 14-year- old female, who presented to us with a hard, gradually progressing, large painless swelling, over the left side of her neck. Swelling was nontender, extending from dorsal to ventral aspect, measuring 6 x 8 cm. Therefore, we are interested in introducing our case to medical fraternity, in which a giant lower cervical spine osteochondroma was seen in an adolescent female patient. PMID:24995199

  9. Mechanisms of Cervical Spine Injury during Impact to the Protected Head.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-03-09

    understanding the mechanics of fracture-dislocation injury to the cervical spine . Some of the cadavers were cut down on one side of the neck for high...3. For crown impacts with a flat rigid impactor, the greatest risk of injury occurs when the body- cervical spine axis-head alignment is in a flexure...AD-7AO99 039 WAYME STATE UNIV DETROIT MI BIOENGINEERING CENTER F/6 6/19 MECHANISMS OF CERVICAL SPINE INJURY DURING IMPACT TO THE PROTEC-ETC(Ul MAR 81

  10. Image Segmentation and Analysis of Flexion-Extension Radiographs of Cervical Spines

    PubMed Central

    Enikov, Eniko T.

    2014-01-01

    We present a new analysis tool for cervical flexion-extension radiographs based on machine vision and computerized image processing. The method is based on semiautomatic image segmentation leading to detection of common landmarks such as the spinolaminar (SL) line or contour lines of the implanted anterior cervical plates. The technique allows for visualization of the local curvature of these landmarks during flexion-extension experiments. In addition to changes in the curvature of the SL line, it has been found that the cervical plates also deform during flexion-extension examination. While extension radiographs reveal larger curvature changes in the SL line, flexion radiographs on the other hand tend to generate larger curvature changes in the implanted cervical plates. Furthermore, while some lordosis is always present in the cervical plates by design, it actually decreases during extension and increases during flexion. Possible causes of this unexpected finding are also discussed. The described analysis may lead to a more precise interpretation of flexion-extension radiographs, allowing diagnosis of spinal instability and/or pseudoarthrosis in already seemingly fused spines. PMID:27006937

  11. Static and dynamic bending responses of the human cervical spine.

    PubMed

    Voo, L M; Pintar, F A; Yoganandan, N; Liu, Y K

    1998-12-01

    The quasi-static and dynamic bending responses of the human mid-lower cervical spine were determined using cadaver intervertebral joints fixed at the base to a six-axis load cell. Flexion bending moment was applied to the superior end of the specimen using an electrohydraulic piston. Each specimen was tested under three cycles of quasi-static load-unload and one high-speed dynamic load. A total of five specimens were included in this study. The maximum intervertebral rotation ranged from 11.0 to 15.4 deg for quasi-static tests and from 22.9 to 34.4 deg for dynamic tests. The resulting peak moments at the center of the intervertebral joint ranged from 3.8 to 6.9 Nm for quasi-static tests and from 14.0 to 31.8 Nm for dynamic tests. The quasi-static stiffness ranged from 0.80 to 1.35 Nm/deg with a mean of 1.03 Nm/deg (+/- 0.11 Nm/deg). The dynamic stiffness ranged from 1.08 to 2.00 Nm/deg with a mean of 1.50 Nm/deg (+/- 0.17 Nm/deg). The differences between the two stiffnesses were statistically significant (p < 0.01). Exponential functions were derived to describe the quasi-static and dynamic moment-rotation responses. These results provide input data for lumped-parameter models and validation data for finite element models to better investigate the biomechanics of the human cervical spine.

  12. Subarachnoid Hematoma of the Craniocervical Junction and Upper Cervical Spine After Traumatic Cerebral Contusion: Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Di Rienzo, Alessandro; Iacoangeli, Maurizio; Alvaro, Lorenzo; Colasanti, Roberto; Moriconi, Elisa; Gladi, Maurizio; Nocchi, Niccolo'; Scerrati, Massimo

    2013-01-01

    Spinal subarachnoid hematoma (SSH) is a rare condition, more commonly occurring after lumbar puncture for diagnostic or anesthesiological procedures. It has also been observed after traumatic events, in patients under anticoagulation therapy or in case of arteriovenous malformation rupture. In a very small number of cases no causative agent can be identified and a diagnosis of spontaneous SSH is established. The lumbar and thoracic spine are the most frequently involved segments and only seven cases of cervical spine SSH have been described until now. Differential diagnosis between subdural and subarachnoid hematoma is complex because the common neuroradiological investigations, including a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), are not enough sensitive to exactly define clot location. Actually, confirmation of the subarachnoid location of bleeding is obtained at surgery, which is necessary to resolve the fast and sometimes dramatic evolution of clinical symptoms. Nonetheless, there are occasional reports on successful conservative treatment of these lesions. We present a peculiar case of subarachnoid hematoma of the craniocervical junction, developing after the rupture of a right temporal lobe contusion within the adjacent arachnoidal spaces and the following clot migration along the right lateral aspect of the foramen magnum and the upper cervical spine, causing severe neurological impairment. After surgical removal of the hematoma, significant symptom improvement was observed. PMID:24067775

  13. Three Dimensional Movements Of The Upper Cervical Spine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panjabi, Manohar M.; Dvorak, Jiri; Duranceau, Joanne; Yamamoto, Isao

    1989-04-01

    Ten fresh cadaveric whole cervical spine specimens (occiput to C7) were studied using well established techniques to document the movements in flexion, extension, left and right lateral bending and left and right axial rotation. Pure moments of maximum 1.5 newton meters were applied incrementally and three dimensional movements of the bones were recorded using stereophotogrammetry. Each moment was applied individually and in a three load/unload cycles. The motion measurements were made on the third load cycle. Parameters of neutral zone, elastic zone and range of motion were computed. Neutral zones for flexion/extension, right/left lateral bending and right/left axial rotation were respectively: 1.1, 1.5 and 1.6 (occiput-C1); and 3.2, 1.2 and 29.6 degrees (C1-C2). Ranges of motion for flexion, extension, lateral bending (one side) and axial rotation (one side) were respectively: 3.5, 21.0, 5.5 and 7.2 degrees (occiput-Cl joint) and 11.5, 10.9, 6.7 and 38.9 degrees (CI-CZ joint). The highest intervertebral motion in the spine was the axial rotation at the Cl-C2 joint, neutral zone constituting 75% of this motion.

  14. Adjacent Segment Disease in the Cervical and Lumbar Spine.

    PubMed

    Tobert, Daniel G; Antoci, Valentin; Patel, Shaun P; Saadat, Ehsan; Bono, Christopher M

    2017-04-01

    Adjacent segment disease (ASD) is disappointing long-term outcome for both the patient and clinician. In contrast to adjacent segment degeneration, which is a common radiographic finding, ASD is less common. The incidence of ASD in both the cervical and lumbar spine is between 2% and 4% per year, and ASD is a significant contributor to reoperation rates after spinal arthrodesis. The etiology of ASD is multifactorial, stemming from existing spondylosis at adjacent levels, predisposed risk to degenerative changes, and altered biomechanical forces near a previous fusion site. Numerous studies have sought to identify both patient and surgical risk factors for ASD, but a consistent, sole predictor has yet to be found. Spinal arthroplasty techniques seek to preserve physiological biomechanics, thereby minimizing the risk of ASD, and long-term clinical outcome studies will help quantify its efficacy. Treatment strategies for ASD are initially nonoperative, provided a progressive neurological deficit is not present. The spine surgeon is afforded many surgical strategies once operative treatment is elected. The goal of this manuscript is to consider the etiologies of ASD, review its manifestations, and offer an approach to treatment.

  15. Effects of Lateral Mass Screw Rod Fixation to the Stability of Cervical Spine after Laminectomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosli, Ruwaida; Kashani, Jamal; Kadir, Mohammed Rafiq Abdul

    There are many cases of injury in the cervical spine due to degenerative disorder, trauma or instability. This condition may produce pressure on the spinal cord or on the nerve coming from the spine. The aim of this study was, to analyze the stabilization of the cervical spine after undergoing laminectomy via computational simulation. For that purpose, a three-dimensional finite element (FE) model for the multilevel cervical spine segment (C1-C7) was developed using computed tomography (CT) data. There are various decompression techniques that can be applied to overcome the injury. Usually, decompression procedures will create an unstable spine. Therefore, in these situations, the spine is often surgically restabilized by using fusion and instrumentation. In this study, a lateral mass screw-rod fixation was created to stabilize the cervical spine after laminectomy. Material properties of the titanium alloy were assigned on the implants. The requirements moments and boundary conditions were applied on simulated implanted bone. Result showed that the bone without implant has a higher flexion and extension angle in comparison to the bone with implant under applied 1Nm moment. The bone without implant has maximum stress distribution at the vertebrae and ligaments. However, the bone with implant has maximum stress distribution at the screws and rods. Overall, the lateral mass screw-rod fixation provides stability to the cervical spine after undergoing laminectomy.

  16. The association between the cervical spine, the stomatognathic system, and craniofacial pain: a critical review.

    PubMed

    Armijo Olivo, Susan; Magee, David J; Parfitt, Martin; Major, Paul; Thie, Norman M R

    2006-01-01

    Craniofacial pain is a term that encompasses pain in the head, face, and related structures. Multiple etiologies and factors may be related to craniofacial pain; however, the association between the cervical spine and its related structures and craniofacial pain is still a topic of debate. The objective of this critical review was to present and analyze the evidence of the associations between the cervical spine, stomatognathic system, and craniofacial pain. A search of the databases Medline, PubMed, Embase, Web of Sciences, Cochrane Library, Cinahl, and HealthStar was conducted for all publications related to the topic in the English and Spanish languages. Relevant information was also derived from reference lists of the retrieved publications. The key words used in the search were cervical spine, cervical vertebrae, neck pain, neck injuries, neck muscles, craniofacial pain, orofacial pain, facial pain, temporomandibular joint pain, and temporomandibular joint disorders. The search provided information referring to the biomechanical, anatomical, and pathological association between craniofacial pain, the stomatognathic system and the cervical spine. The information provided by this review suggests an association between the cervical spine, stomatognathic system, and craniofacial pain, but most of this information is not conclusive and was derived from poor-quality studies (levels 3b, 4, and 5 based on Sackett's classification). Better designed studies are needed in order to clarify the real influence that the cervical spine has in relation to the stomatognathic system and craniofacial pain.

  17. Surgical management of cervical spine deformity in chondrodysplasia punctata.

    PubMed

    Morota, Nobuhito; Ihara, Satoshi; Ogiwara, Hideki; Tamura, Goichiro

    2017-08-11

    OBJECTIVE Chondrodysplasia punctata (CDP), a rare skeletal dysplasia, can lead to cervical spine instability and deformity. However, an optimal neurosurgical intervention has yet to be established. Thus, a retrospective study was conducted to assess the efficacy of various surgical interventions for children with CDP. METHODS The authors retrospectively reviewed 9 cases of CDP in which cervical decompression with or without posterior fusion was performed between April 2007 and May 2016. Patient demographics, preoperative clinical conditions, radiographic findings, surgical procedures, and the postoperative course were analyzed in detail. RESULTS A total of 12 operations were carried out in 9 patients (8 male, 1 female) during the study period. The patients' ages at the initial surgery ranged from 2 months to 2 years. Seven of the children had CDPX1, 1 had CDPX2, and 1 had tibia-metacarpal type CDP (CDP-TM). The lesion occurred at the craniovertebral junction (CVJ) in 7 cases and involved a subaxial deformity in 2 cases. The initial surgery was C-1 laminectomy with occipitocervical fusion (OCF) followed by halo external fixation in 5 cases, OCF alone in 1 case, and C-1 laminectomy alone in 3 cases. Three children required additional surgery. In one of these cases, a staged operation was required because the patient's head was too small to attach a halo ring at the time of the initial procedure (C-1 laminectomy). In another case, OCF was performed 11 months after C-1 laminectomy because of intramedullary signal change on serial MRI, although the child remained asymptomatic. In the third case, additional posterior fusion was performed 17 months after an initial laminectomy and OCF due to newly developed cervical dislocation caudal to the original fusion. This last patient required a third operation 9 months after the second because of deep wound infection. Surgery improved the motor function of all 7 children with CDPX1, but 3 children who had already suffered

  18. COMPARISON OF INTRAOPERATIVE KETAMINE VS. FENTANYL USE DECREASES POSTOPERATIVE OPIOID REQUIREMENTS IN TRAUMA PATIENTS UNDERGOING CERVICAL SPINE SURGERY.

    PubMed

    Berkowitz, Aviva C; Ginsburg, Aryeh M; Pesso, Raymond M; Angus, George L D; Kang, Amiee; Ginsburg, Dov B

    2016-02-01

    Postoperative airway compromise following cervical spine surgery is a potentially serious adverse event. Residual effects of anesthesia and perioperative opioids that can cause both sedation and respiratory depression further increase this risk. Ketamine is an N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist that provides potent analgesia without noticeable respiratory depression. We investigated whether intraoperative ketamine administration could decrease perioperative opioid requirements in trauma patients undergoing cervical spine surgery. We retrospectively reviewed anesthesia records identifying cervical spine surgeries performed between March 2014 and February 2015. All patients received a balanced anesthetic technique utilizing sevoflurane 0.5 minimum alveolar concentration (MAC) and propofol infusion (50-100 mcg/kg/min). For intraoperative analgesia, one group of patients received ketamine (N=25) and a second group received fentanyl (N=27). Cumulative opioid doses in the recovery room and until 24 hours postoperatively were recorded. Fewer patients in the ketamine group (11/25 [44%] vs. 20/27 [74%], respectively; p = 0.03) required analgesics in the recovery room. Additionally, the total cumulative opioid requirements in the ketamine group decreased postoperatively at both 3 and 6 hours (p = 0.01). Ketamine use during cervical spine surgery decreased opioid requirements in both the recovery room and in the first 6 hours postoperatively. This may have the potential to minimize opioid induced respiratory depression in a population at increased risk of airway complications related to the surgical procedure.

  19. Influence of T1 Slope on the Cervical Sagittal Balance in Degenerative Cervical Spine: An Analysis Using Kinematic MRI.

    PubMed

    Weng, Chong; Wang, Justin; Tuchman, Alexander; Wang, Jian; Fu, Changfeng; Hsieh, Patrick C; Buser, Zorica; Wang, Jeffrey C

    2016-02-01

    A retrospective kinematic magnetic resonance imaging (kMRI) study. To evaluate the utility of kMRI in determining the relationship between cervical sagittal balance and TI alignment. Thoracic inlet parameters play an important role in cervical spine sagittal balance. However, most of the literature is based on lower resolution cervical X-rays or CT scans in the supine position. Cervical spine kMRI of 83 patients with degenerative cervical spine conditions (20-68 yr of age) was analyzed for: (1) cervical spine parameters: C2-C7 angle, C2-C7 sagittal vertical axis (SVA), cranial tilt, and cervical tilt; and (2) T1 parameters: thoracic inlet angle (TIA), T1 slope, and neck tilt (NT). Multiple logistic regression analysis and Pearson correlation coefficients were performed. The mean TIA, T1 slope, and NT were 78.0, 33.2, and 44.8°, respectively. The mean C2-7 angle, SVA of C2-C7, cervical tilt, and cranial tilt were -15.4°, 22.0 mm, 18.1°, and 15.1°, respectively. The ratio of cervical:cranial tilt was maintained as 55:45%. A significant correlation was found between the C2-C7 angle and T1 slope (r = 0.731), TIA and C2-C7 angle (r = 0.406), cervical tilt with C2-C7 angle (r = 0.671), T1 slope with TIA (r = 0.429), TIA with neck tilt (r = 0.733), TIA with cervical tilt (r = 0.377), SVA C2-C7 with cervical tilt (r = -0.480), SVA C2-C7 with cranial tilt (r = 0.912), and C2-7 SVA with the ratio of cranial tilt to cervical tilt (r = 0.694). An individual with a large T1 slope required large cervical lordosis to preserve physiologic sagittal balance of the cervical spine. Cranial tilt was the cervical parameter most strongly correlated with SVA C2-C7, and thus may be a good parameter to assess decompensation of cervical sagittal balance. 3.

  20. Stability of cervical spine fractures after gunshot wounds to the head and neck.

    PubMed

    Medzon, Ron; Rothenhaus, Todd; Bono, Christopher M; Grindlinger, Gene; Rathlev, Niels K

    2005-10-15

    Retrospective chart review. To determine the frequency of stable and unstable cervical spine fractures after gunshot wounds to the head or neck; to identify potential risk factor(s) for an unstable versus stable cervical spine fracture. Cervical spine fractures after gunshot wounds to the head and neck are common. Because of the nature of their injuries, patients often present with concomitant airway obstruction and large blood vessel injury that can necessitate emergent procedures. In some cases, acute treatment of these problems can be hindered by the presence of a cervical collar or strict adherence to spinal precautions (i.e., patient laying supine). In such situations, information regarding the probability of a stable versus unstable cervical spine fracture would be useful in emergency treatment decision making. A search for patients with gunshot wounds to the head or neck potentially involving the cervical spine over a 13-year period was performed using a trauma registry. Individuals with cervical spine fractures were identified and their records reviewed in detail. Data collected included information about neurologic deficits, mental status, airway treatment, entrance wounds, fracture level/type, initial/definitive fracture treatment, and final disposition at hospital discharge. A total of 81 patients were identified; 19 had cervical spine fractures. There were 5 patients who were not examinable because of altered mental status (severe head trauma, hemorrhagic shock, or intoxication). All 5 patients had stable cervical spine fractures. There were 11 patients who had an acute spinal cord injury, 3 (30%) of whom underwent surgery for an unstable fracture. Of the 65 awake, alert patients without a neurologic deficit, only 3 (5%) had a fracture, none of which were unstable. Gunshot wounds to the head and neck had a high rate of concomitant cervical spine fracture. Neurologically intact patients have a lower rate of fracture than those presenting with a spinal

  1. Anterior Surgical Fixation for Cervical Spine Flexion-Distraction Injuries.

    PubMed

    Jack, Andrew; Hardy-St-Pierre, Godefroy; Wilson, Mitchell; Choy, Godwin; Fox, Richard; Nataraj, Andrew

    2017-05-01

    Optimal surgical management for flexion-distraction cervical spine injuries remains controversial with current guidelines recommending anterior, posterior, and circumferential approaches. Here, we determined the incidence of and examined risk factors for clinical and radiographic failure in patients with 1-segment cervical distraction injuries having undergone anterior surgical fixation. A retrospective review of 57 consecutive patients undergoing anterior fixation for subaxial flexion-distraction cervical injuries between 2008 and 2012 at our institution was performed. The primary outcome was the number of patients requiring additional surgical stabilization and/or radiographic failure. Data collected included age, gender, mechanism and level of injury, facet pattern injury, and vertebral end plate fracture. A total of 6 patients failed clinically and/or radiographically (11%). Four patients (7%) required additional posterior fixation. Although 2 other patients identified met radiographic failure criteria, at follow-up they had fused radiographically, were stable clinically, and no further treatment was pursued. Progressive kyphosis and translation were found to be significantly correlated with need for revision (P < 0.05 and P = 0.02, respectively). No differences were identified for all other clinical and radiologic factors assessed, including unilateral or bilateral facet injury, facet fracture, and end plate fracture. This study contributes to the growing body of evidence supporting anterior fixation alone for flexion-distraction injuries. Findings suggest that current measurements of radiographic failure including segmental translation and kyphosis may predict radiographic failure and need for further surgical stabilization in some patients. Future follow-up studies assessing for independent risk factors for anterior approach failure with a validated predictive scoring model should be considered. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Surgical approaches for cervical spine facet dislocations in adults.

    PubMed

    Del Curto, David; Tamaoki, Marcel Jun; Martins, Délio E; Puertas, Eduardo Barros; Belloti, João Carlos

    2014-10-30

    The choice of surgical approach for the management of subaxial cervical spine facet dislocations is a controversial subject amongst spine surgeons. Reasons for this include differences in the technical familiarity and experience of surgeons with the different surgical approaches, and variable interpretation of image studies regarding the existence of a traumatic intervertebral disc herniation and of the neurological status of the patient. Moreover, since the approaches are dissimilar, important variations are likely in neurological, radiographical and clinical outcomes. To compare the effects (benefits and harms) of the different surgical approaches used for treating adults with acute cervical spine facet dislocation. We searched the Cochrane Bone, Joint and Muscle Trauma Group Specialised Register (9 May 2014), The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (The Cochrane Library, 2014 Issue 4), MEDLINE (1946 to April Week 5 2014), MEDLINE In-Process & Other Non-Indexed Citations (8 May 2013), EMBASE (1980 to 2014 Week 18), Latin American and Caribbean Health Sciences (9 May 2014), trial registries, conference proceedings and reference lists of articles to May 2014. We included randomised and quasi-randomised controlled trials that compared surgical approaches for the management of adults with acute cervical spine facet dislocations with and without spinal cord injury. Two review authors independently selected studies, assessed risk of bias and extracted data. We included one randomised and one quasi-randomised controlled trial involving a total of 94 participants and reporting results for a maximum of 84 participants. One trial included patients with spinal cord injuries and the other included patients without spinal cord injuries. Both trials compared anterior versus posterior surgical approaches. Both trials were at high risk of bias, including selection bias (one trial), performance bias (both trials) and attrition bias (one trial). Data were pooled for one

  3. 78 FR 65451 - Agency Information Collection (Neck (Cervical Spine) Conditions Disability Benefits Questionnaire...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-31

    ... AFFAIRS Agency Information Collection (Neck (Cervical Spine) Conditions Disability Benefits Questionnaire) Activity Under OMB Review AGENCY: Veterans Benefits Administration, Department of Veterans Affairs. ACTION... notice announces that the Veterans Benefits Administration (VBA), Department of Veterans Affairs, will...

  4. Cervical Spine pain as a presenting complaint in metastatic pancreatic cancer: a case report.

    PubMed

    Rosenberg, Emily; Buchtel, Lindsey

    2016-01-01

    A 48 year-old female presented to her primary care physician with a two-month history of neck pain with negative cervical spine x-rays. During that office visit, the patient was noted to be tachycardic with EKG revealing ST depressions, which led to hospital admission. Acute coronary syndrome was ruled out, however, persistent neck pain warranted inpatient MRI of the cervical spine, which revealed a cervical spine lesion. Extensive investigation and biopsy ultimately confirmed stage IV pancreatic adenocarcinoma with metastases to the bone, liver, and likely lung. In the literature, the findings of a primary metastatic site being bone is rare with only a few case reports showing vertebral or sternal metastasis as the first clinical manifestation of pancreatic cancer. The uniqueness of this case lies in the only presenting complaint being cervical spine pain in the setting of extensive metastases to the liver, bone, and likely lung.

  5. Development of Ultrasound to Measure In-Vivo Dynamic Cervical Spine Intervertebral Disc Mechanics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-01-01

    and aging. To reduce the risk of cervical spine disease , there is a need to measure the effect by helmet, equipment and seating. However, in-vivo...to slightly diseased specimen, were selected. The posterior elements and facets of the segment were removed as per the protocol explained in the...dynamic vertebral motion in-vivo during simulated tasks relevant to acute and chronic cervical spine injury and disease . Software was developed to

  6. When to suspect head injury or cervical spine injury in maxillofacial trauma?

    PubMed Central

    Rahman, Sajjad A.; Chandrasala, Soumithran

    2014-01-01

    Background: The global status report of the World Health Organization (WHO) on road safety suggested that India is leading in road traffic accidents in the world. According to the report on road accidents in India in 2010 by the Transport Research Wing, Ministry of Road Transport and Highways, New Delhi, Kerala ranked third in accidents per lakh population and second in persons injured per lakh population. As the face, brain, and cervical spine are in close proximity with one another, associated injuries can be suspected. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between the severity of head, cervical spine, and facial injury and incidence of facial injury in patients with head and/or cervical spine injury. Materials and Methods: A prospective cohort study was conducted over a period of one year. The study population included all patients having computed tomography (CT)-demonstrable head injury, radiographic evidence of cervical spine injury, and associated head or cervical spine injury with facial injury. Data were analyzed using the chi-square test using statistical package SPSS. A P value less than 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: Of 124 patients, 59 (47.6%) had facial injuries. As severity of head injury increased, the number of facial injuries decreased. Statistically, no significant association between facial and head injury was seen. A statistically significant association between dentoalveolar involvement and cervical spine injury was seen (P < 0.001). The proportion of injuries in patients with cervical spine injuries alone was significantly lower in the frontal (P = 0.001) and orbital (P = 0.004) regions and higher in the mandibular region (P = 0.010). Conclusion: Midface injuries were more commonly associated with head injuries. Decreased facial involvement leads to increased severity of head injury. Simple injuries of the cervical spine were more commonly associated with facial injuries. PMID:25097643

  7. When to suspect head injury or cervical spine injury in maxillofacial trauma?

    PubMed

    Rahman, Sajjad A; Chandrasala, Soumithran

    2014-05-01

    The global status report of the World Health Organization (WHO) on road safety suggested that India is leading in road traffic accidents in the world. According to the report on road accidents in India in 2010 by the Transport Research Wing, Ministry of Road Transport and Highways, New Delhi, Kerala ranked third in accidents per lakh population and second in persons injured per lakh population. As the face, brain, and cervical spine are in close proximity with one another, associated injuries can be suspected. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between the severity of head, cervical spine, and facial injury and incidence of facial injury in patients with head and/or cervical spine injury. A prospective cohort study was conducted over a period of one year. The study population included all patients having computed tomography (CT)-demonstrable head injury, radiographic evidence of cervical spine injury, and associated head or cervical spine injury with facial injury. Data were analyzed using the chi-square test using statistical package SPSS. A P value less than 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Of 124 patients, 59 (47.6%) had facial injuries. As severity of head injury increased, the number of facial injuries decreased. Statistically, no significant association between facial and head injury was seen. A statistically significant association between dentoalveolar involvement and cervical spine injury was seen (P < 0.001). The proportion of injuries in patients with cervical spine injuries alone was significantly lower in the frontal (P = 0.001) and orbital (P = 0.004) regions and higher in the mandibular region (P = 0.010). Midface injuries were more commonly associated with head injuries. Decreased facial involvement leads to increased severity of head injury. Simple injuries of the cervical spine were more commonly associated with facial injuries.

  8. Anterior Cervical Discectomy and Fusion Alters Whole-Spine Sagittal Alignment.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jang Hoon; Park, Jeong Yoon; Yi, Seong; Kim, Kyung Hyun; Kuh, Sung Uk; Chin, Dong Kyu; Kim, Keun Su; Cho, Yong Eun

    2015-07-01

    Anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF) has become a common spine procedure, however, there have been no previous studies on whole spine alignment changes after cervical fusion. Our purpose in this study was to determine whole spine sagittal alignment and pelvic alignment changes after ACDF. Forty-eight patients who had undergone ACDF from January 2011 to December 2012 were enrolled in this study. Cervical lordosis, thoracic kyphosis, lumbar lordosis, sagittal vertical axis (SVA), and pelvic parameters were measured preoperatively and at 1, 3, 6, and 12 months postoperatively. Clinical outcomes were assessed using Visual Analog Scale (VAS) scores and Neck Disability Index (NDI) values. Forty-eight patients were grouped according to operative method (cage only, cage & plate), operative level (upper level: C3/4 & C4/5; lower level: C5/6 & C6/7), and cervical lordosis (high lordosis, low lordosis). All patients experienced significant improvements in VAS scores and NDI values after surgery. Among the radiologic parameters, pelvic tilt increased and sacral slope decreased at 12 months postoperatively. Only the high cervical lordosis group showed significantly-decreased cervical lordosis and a shortened SVA postoperatively. Correlation tests revealed that cervical lordosis was significantly correlated with SVA and that SVA was significantly correlated with pelvic tilt and sacral slope. ACDF affects whole spine sagittal alignment, especially in patients with high cervical lordosis. In these patients, alteration of cervical lordosis to a normal angle shortened the SVA and resulted in reciprocal changes in pelvic tilt and sacral slope.

  9. Yield of computed tomography of the cervical spine in cases of simple assault.

    PubMed

    Uriell, Matthew L; Allen, Jason W; Lovasik, Brendan P; Benayoun, Marc D; Spandorfer, Robert M; Holder, Chad A

    2017-01-01

    Computed tomography (CT) of the cervical spine (C-spine) is routinely ordered for low-impact, non-penetrating or "simple" assault at our institution and others. Common clinical decision tools for C-spine imaging in the setting of trauma include the National Emergency X-Radiography Utilization Study (NEXUS) and the Canadian Cervical Spine Rule for Radiography (CCR). While NEXUS and CCR have served to decrease the amount of unnecessary imaging of the C-spine, overutilization of CT is still of concern. A retrospective, cross-sectional study was performed of the electronic medical record (EMR) database at an urban, Level I Trauma Center over a 6-month period for patients receiving a C-spine CT. The primary outcome of interest was prevalence of cervical spine fracture. Secondary outcomes of interest included appropriateness of C-spine imaging after retrospective application of NEXUS and CCR. The hypothesis was that fracture rates within this patient population would be extremely low. No C-spine fractures were identified in the 460 patients who met inclusion criteria. Approximately 29% of patients did not warrant imaging by CCR, and 25% by NEXUS. Of note, approximately 44% of patients were indeterminate for whether imaging was warranted by CCR, with the most common reason being lack of assessment for active neck rotation. Cervical spine CT is overutilized in the setting of simple assault, despite established clinical decision rules. With no fractures identified regardless of other factors, the likelihood that a CT of the cervical spine will identify clinically significant findings in the setting of "simple" assault is extremely low, approaching zero. At minimum, adherence to CCR and NEXUS within this patient population would serve to reduce both imaging costs and population radiation dose exposure. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Missed cervical spine injuries: a national survey of the practice of evaluation of the cervical spine in confused and comatose patients.

    PubMed

    Craxford, S; Bayley, E; Walsh, M; Clamp, J; Boszczyk, B M; Stokes, O M

    2016-06-01

    Identifying cervical spine injuries in confused or comatose patients with multiple injuries provides a diagnostic challenge. Our aim was to investigate the protocols which are used for the clearance of the cervical spine in these patients in English hospitals. All hospitals in England with an Emergency Department were asked about the protocols which they use for assessing the cervical spine. All 22 Major Trauma Centres (MTCs) and 141 of 156 non-MTCs responded (response rate 91.5%). Written guidelines were used in 138 hospitals (85%). CT scanning was the first-line investigation in 122 (75%). A normal CT scan was sufficient to clear the cervical spine in 73 (45%). However, 40 (25%) would continue precautions until the patient regained full consciousness. MRI was performed in all confused or comatose patients with a possible cervical spinal injury in 15 (9%). There were variations in the grade and speciality of the clinician who had responsibility for deciding when to discontinue precautions. A total of 31 (19%) reported at least one missed cervical spinal injury following discontinuation of spinal precautions within the last five years. Only 93 (57%) had a formal mechanism for reviewing missed injuries. There are significant variations in protocols and practices for the clearance of the cervical spine in multiply injured patients in acute hospitals in England. The establishment of trauma networks should be taken as an opportunity to further standardise trauma care. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2016;98-B:825-8. ©2016 The British Editorial Society of Bone & Joint Surgery.

  11. Carotid Artery Injury in Anterior Cervical Spine Surgery: Multicenter Cohort Study and Literature Review.

    PubMed

    Härtl, Roger; Alimi, Marjan; Abdelatif Boukebir, Mohamed; Berlin, Connor D; Navarro-Ramirez, Rodrigo; Arnold, Paul M; Fehlings, Michael G; Mroz, Thomas E; Riew, K Daniel

    2017-04-01

    Retrospective study and literature review. To provide more comprehensive data about carotid artery injury (CAI) or cerebrovascular accident (CVA) related to anterior cervical spine surgery. We conducted a retrospective, multicenter, case series study involving 21 high-volume surgical centers from the AOSpine North America Clinical Research Network. Medical records of 17 625 patients who went through cervical spine surgery (levels from C2 to C7) between January 1, 2005, and December 31, 2011, were analyzed. Also, we performed a literature review using Medline and PubMed databases. The following terms were used alone, and in combination, to search for relevant articles: cervical, spine, surgery, complication, iatrogenic, carotid artery, injury, cerebrovascular accident, CVA, and carotid stenosis. Among 17 625 patients that were analyzed, no cases were reported to experienced CAI or CVA after cervical spine surgery. Nevertheless, in our PubMed search we found 157 articles, but only 5 articles matched our study objective criteria; 2 cases were reported to present CAI and 3 cases presented CVA. CAI and CVA related to anterior cervical spine surgeries are extremely rare. We were not able to find neither in our retrospective study nor in our literature research a correlation between the type or length of anterior cervical spine procedure with CVA or CAI complications. However, surgeons should be aware of the possibility of vascular complications and minimize intraoperative direct vascular manipulations or retraction. Preoperative screening for underlying vascular pathology and risk factors is also important.

  12. Airway Preparation Techniques for the Cervical Spine-Injured Football Player

    PubMed Central

    Ray, Richard; Luchies, Carl; Bazuin, Doug; Farrell, Robert N.

    1995-01-01

    Athletic health care professionals have been concerned about how to optimize the emergency care the cervical spine-injured football player receives on the field. Much of the discussion has centered on how to best expose and prepare the airway for rescue breathing in the quickest and safest manner possible. This study compared the time required and the extraneous motion induced at the cervical spine during three traditional and one new airway exposure and preparation technique. Twelve subjects wearing football helmets and shoulder pads were exposed to multiple trials of airway exposure via face mask repositioning using a manual screwdriver, power screwdriver, and the Trainer's Angel cutting device. Subjects also underwent airway preparation using the pocket mask insertion technique. Cervical spine motion was measured in two dimensions using an optoelectronic motion analysis system. Time and qualitative assessment were obtained through videotape analysis. Significant differences were found between the techniques with respect to time and cervical spine motion. The pocket mask allowed quicker activation of rescue breathing than the other three traditional techniques. There was no significant difference in the amount of extraneous motion induced at the cervical spine between the pocket mask, manual screwdriver, and power screwdriver techniques. The Trainer's Angel induced significantly more motion than the other three techniques in each of the four motions measured. Changes in traditional protocols used to treat cervical spine-injured football players on the field are recommended based on these data. ImagesFig 1.Fig 2. PMID:16558339

  13. Cervical spine alignment in the immobilized football player. Radiographic analysis before and after helmet removal.

    PubMed

    Swenson, T M; Lauerman, W C; Blanc, R O; Donaldson, W F; Fu, F H

    1997-01-01

    We investigated the effect of football helmet removal on the sagittal alignment of the cervical spine. A quantitative radiographic assessment of relative cervical spine position in subjects immobilized to a standard backboard wearing shoulder pads either with or without a helmet was performed. Comparison was made to a control situation with subjects on a backboard wearing no equipment. Ten subjects were studied using lateral computed tomographic scout films; each subject served as his own control. Radiographs were measured for overall sagittal cervical alignment and the amount of lordosis or kyphosis present within specific segments of the cervical spine. Mean values for each of the three defined situations (no equipment, shoulder pads and helmet, shoulder pads alone after helmet removal) were calculated and subjected to statistical analysis. No statistically significant difference in cervical sagittal alignment was noted when either no equipment or both shoulder pads and helmet were worn. In contrast, a statistically significant increase in cervical lordosis (extension) was found when comparing the control situation to that when only shoulder pads were worn after the helmet had been removed. The majority of this increase occurred in the subaxial spine. Therefore, the authors recommend that football players with a potential cervical spine injury be immobilized for transport with both their helmet and shoulder pads left in place, thereby maintaining the neck in a position most closely approximating "normal."

  14. The biomechanics of cervical spine injury and implications for injury prevention.

    PubMed

    Winkelstein, B A; Myers, B S

    1997-07-01

    Most catastrophic cervical spinal injuries occur as a result of head impacts in which the head stops and the neck is forced to stop the moving torso. In these situations the neck is sufficiently fragile that injuries have been reported at velocities as low as 3.1 m/s with only a fraction of the mass of the torso loading the cervical spine. Cervical spinal injury occurs in less than 20 ms following head impact, explaining the absence of a relationship between clinically reported head motions and the cervical spinal injury mechanism. In contrast, the forces acting on the spine at the time of injury are able to explain the injury mechanism and form a rational basis for classification of vertebral fractures and dislocations. Fortunately, most head impacts do not result in cervical spine injuries. Analysis of the biomechanical and clinical literature shows that the flexibility of the cervical spine frequently allows the head and neck to flex or extend out of the path of the torso and escape injury. Accordingly, constraints which restrict the motion of the neck can increase the risk for cervical spine injury. These observations serve as a foundation on which injury prevention strategies, including coaching, helmets, and padding, may be evaluated.

  15. Traumatic spondyloptosis of the cervical spine: A case report and discussion of worldwide treatment trends.

    PubMed

    Wong, Kelly E; Chang, Peter S; Monasky, Mark S; Samuelson, Rodney M

    2017-01-01

    Cervical spondyloptosis is defined as the dislocation of the spinal column most often caused by trauma. Due to compression or transection of the spinal cord, severe neurological deficits are common. Here, we review the literature and report a case of traumatic C5-6 spondyloptosis that was successfully treated using an anterior-only surgical approach. The patient presented with quadriplegia and absent sensation distal to the C5 dermatome following a rollover motor vehicle accident. The preoperative American Spinal Injury Association Impairment Scale was A. Computed tomography of the cervical spine revealed C5-6 spondyloptosis, lamina fractures on the right side at the C3-4 level, and widened facet joint on the right side at C6-7. The patient underwent cervical traction and anterior cervical discectomy and fusion at the C5-6, C6-7 levels; no 360° fusion was warranted. Six months postoperatively, the patient remained quadriplegic below the C5 level. Presently, no consensus is present regarding the best treatment for spondyloptosis. Worldwide, the 360° approach is the most commonly used (45%), followed by anterior-only surgery (31%) and posterior-only surgery (25%). The surgical choice depends upon patient-specific features but markedly varies among geographical regions.

  16. Usefulness of MRI detection of cervical spine and brain injuries in the evaluation of abusive head trauma.

    PubMed

    Kadom, Nadja; Khademian, Zarir; Vezina, Gilbert; Shalaby-Rana, Eglal; Rice, Amy; Hinds, Tanya

    2014-07-01

    In the evaluation of children younger than 3 years with intracranial hemorrhage it can be difficult to determine whether the cause of hemorrhage was traumatic, and if so, whether abusive head trauma (AHT) is a possibility. Cervical spine MRI is not a routine part of the nationally recommended imaging workup for children with suspected abusive head trauma. There is increasing evidence that spinal injuries are found at autopsy or MRI in abused children. However the prevalence of cervical spine injuries in children evaluated for abusive head trauma is unknown. We sought to determine both the incidence and the spectrum of cervical spine and brain injuries in children being evaluated for possible abusive head trauma. We also examined the relationship between cervical and brain MRI findings and selected study outcome categories. This study is a 3-year retrospective review of children evaluated for abusive head trauma. Inclusion criteria were: children with head trauma seen at our institution between 2008 and 2010, age younger than 36 months, availability of diagnostic-quality brain and cervical spine MRI, and child abuse team involvement because abusive head trauma was a possibility. A child abuse pediatrician and pediatric radiologists, all with board certification, were involved in data collection, image interpretation and data analysis. Statistical analysis was performed using Stata v12.1. The study included 74 children (43 boys, 31 girls) with a mean age of 164 days (range, 20-679 days). Study outcomes were categorized as: n = 26 children with accidental head trauma, n = 38 with abusive head trauma (n = 18 presumptive AHT, n = 20 suspicious for AHT), and n = 10 with undefined head trauma. We found cervical spine injuries in 27/74 (36%) children. Most cervical spine injuries were ligamentous injuries. One child had intrathecal spinal blood and two had spinal cord edema; all three of these children had ligamentous injury. MRI signs of cervical

  17. Commentary: Reoperation for adjacent level disease in the cervical spine: not a simple end point.

    PubMed

    Ghogawala, Zoher

    2012-05-01

    Singh K, Phillips FM, Park DK, et al. Factors affecting reoperations after anterior cervical discectomy and fusion within and outside of a Federal Drug Administration investigational device exemption cervical disc replacement trial. Spine J 2012;12:372-8 (in this issue). Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Misdiagnosing Absent Pedicle of Cervical Spine in the Acute Trauma Setting

    PubMed Central

    Rossel, Felipe; Nooh, Anas; Jarzem, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Congenital absence of cervical spine pedicle can be easily misdiagnosed as facet dislocation on plain radiographs especially in the acute trauma setting. Additional imaging, including computed tomography (CT)-scan with careful interpretation is required in order to not misdiagnose cervical posterior arch malformation with subsequent inappropriate management. A 39-year-old patient presented to the emergency unit of our university hospital after being trampled by a cow over her back and head followed by loss of consciousness, retrograde amnesia and neck pain. Her initial cervical CT-scan showed possible C5-C6 dislocation, then, it became clear that her problem was a misdiagnosed congenital cervical abnormality. Patient was treated symptomatically without consequences. The congenital absence of a cervical pedicle is a very unusual condition that is easily misdiagnosed. Diagnosis can be accurately confirmed with a CT-scan of the cervical spine. Symptomatic conservative treatment will result in resolution of the symptoms. PMID:26605026

  19. Variation in emergency department use of cervical spine radiography for alert, stable trauma patients

    PubMed Central

    Stiell, I G; Wells, G A; Vandemheen, K; Laupacis, A; Brison, R; Eisenhauer, M A; Greenberg, G H; MacPhail, I; McKnight, R D; Reardon, M; Verbeek, R; Worthington, J; Lesiuk, H

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To, assess the emergency department use of cervical spine radiography for alert, stable adult trauma patients in terms of utilization, yield for injury and variation in practices among hospitals and physicians. DESIGN: Retrospective survey of health records. SETTING: Emergency departments of 6 teaching and 2 community hospitals in Ontario and British Columbia. PATIENTS: Consecutive alert, stable adult trauma patients seen with potential cervical spine injury between July 1, 1994, and June 30, 1995. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Total number of eligible patients, referral for cervical spine radiography (overall, by hospital and by physician), presence of cervical spine injury, patient characteristics and hospitals associated with use of radiography. RESULTS: Of 6855 eligible patients, cervical spine radiography was ordered for 3979 (58.0%). Only 60 (0.9%) patients were found to have an acute cervical spine injury (fracture, dislocation or ligamentous instability); 98.5% of the radiographic films were negative for any significant abnormality. The demographic and clinical characteristics of the patients were similar across the 8 hospitals, and no cervical spine injuries were missed. Significant variation was found among the 8 hospitals in the rate of ordering radiography (p < 0.0001), from a low of 37.0% to a high of 72.5%. After possible differences in case severity and patient characteristics at each hospital were controlled for, logistic regression analysis revealed that 6 of the hospitals were significantly associated with the use of radiography. At 7 hospitals, there was significant variation in the rate of ordering radiography among the attending emergency physicians (p < 0.05), from a low of 15.6% to a high of 91.5%. CONCLUSIONS: Despite considerable variation among institutions and individual physicians in the ordering of cervical spine radiography for alert, stable trauma patients with similar characteristics, no cervical spine injuries were missed. The

  20. Degenerative Changes in the Cervical Spine Are More Common in Middle-Aged Individuals with Thalidomide Embryopathy than in Healthy Controls

    PubMed Central

    Ghassemi Jahani, Shadi A.; Danielsson, Aina; Ab-Fawaz, Rana; Hebelka, Hanna; Danielson, Barbro; Brisby, Helena

    2016-01-01

    Background Thalidomide was used as a sedative drug for pregnant women in the 1950–60:s and resulted in children born with thalidomide embryopathy (TE), including upper limb malformations. These may alter the motion pattern of the cervical spine by the use of head/shoulder and mouth grip. Aims To compare degenerative changes in the cervical spine in TE individuals with healthy controls (CTR). Methods and Procedures Twenty-seven middle-aged TE individuals and 27 age- and gender-matched CTR were examined by cervical spine MRI. The presence of malformations, disc herniation(s), osteophytes, nerve and medullary compression and the degree of disc degeneration (DD) were evaluated. Outcomes and Results Significantly higher degree of DD was seen in the TE group compared with the controls (p<0.001). Similar frequencies of disc herniation and disc space narrowing were observed in the two groups, but more foraminal narrowing was seen in the TE group (p = 0.002). DD was observed relatively frequently at all cervical levels in the TE group, however, mainly at the two lower levels in the CTR. Conclusions and Implications Middle-aged individuals with TE have a higher frequency of degenerative changes in the cervical spine than controls, possibly caused by an altered load on the cervical spine. PMID:27175919

  1. MRI morphometric characterisation of the paediatric cervical spine and spinal cord in children with MPS IVA (Morquio-Brailsford syndrome).

    PubMed

    Solanki, Guirish A; Lo, William B; Hendriksz, Christian J

    2013-03-01

    Nearly all children with MPS IVA develop skeletal deformities affecting the spine. At the atlanto-axial spine, odontoid hypoplasia occurs. GAG deposition around the dens, leads to peri-odontoid infiltration. Transverse/alar ligament incompetence causes instability. Atlanto-axial instability is associated with cord compression and myelopathy, leading to major morbidity and mortality. Intervention is often required. Does the presence of widened bullet shaped vertebra in platyspondily encroach on the spinal canal and cause spinal stenosis in MPS IVA? So far, there have been no standardised morphometric measurements of the paediatric MPS IVA cervical spine to evaluate whether there is pre-existing spinal stenosis predisposing to compressive myelopathy or whether this is purely an acquired process secondary to instability and compression. This study provides the first radiological quantitative analysis of the cervical spine and spinal cord in a series of affected children. MRI morphometry indicates that the MPS IVA spine is narrower at C1-2 level giving an inverted funnel shape. There is no evidence of a reduction in the Torg ratio (canal-body ratio) in the cervical spine. The spinal canal does not exceed 11 mm at any level, significantly smaller than normal historical cohorts (14 mm). The sagittal diameter and axial surface area of both spinal canal and cord are reduced. C1-2 level cord compression was evident in the canal-cord ratio but the Torg ratio was not predictive of cord compression. In MPS IVA the reduction in the space available for the cord (SAC) is multifactorial rather than due to congenital spinal stenosis.

  2. A 73-Year-Old Male with Cervical Spine Osteomyelitis Presenting as Urosepsis

    PubMed Central

    Kakarlapudi, H.; Speirs, S.; Lal, A.P.; Alaie, D.; Petrillo, R.; Ashraf, M.B.; Kolanuvada, B.; Bhargava, M.

    2015-01-01

    Vertebral osteomyelitis is a serious debilitating infection if not detected early. Involvement of cervical vertebrae is usually seen in the presence of specific risk factors. Urinary tract infection commonly spreads to the lumbar vertebrae. This is a case presentation of an elderly male who, in the absence of specific risk factors for cervical osteomyelitis, presented with symptoms of urinary tract infection and was found to have cervical spine osteomyelitis. PMID:26715867

  3. A 73-Year-Old Male with Cervical Spine Osteomyelitis Presenting as Urosepsis.

    PubMed

    Kakarlapudi, H; Speirs, S; Lal, A P; Alaie, D; Petrillo, R; Ashraf, M B; Kolanuvada, B; Bhargava, M

    2015-01-01

    Vertebral osteomyelitis is a serious debilitating infection if not detected early. Involvement of cervical vertebrae is usually seen in the presence of specific risk factors. Urinary tract infection commonly spreads to the lumbar vertebrae. This is a case presentation of an elderly male who, in the absence of specific risk factors for cervical osteomyelitis, presented with symptoms of urinary tract infection and was found to have cervical spine osteomyelitis.

  4. Subjective outcome assessments for cervical spine pathology: A narrative review

    PubMed Central

    Resnick, Diane N.

    2005-01-01

    Abstract Background Subjective outcome assessment instruments may be used to determine whether changes occur as a result of a particular treatment intervention. Since 1991, 11 outcome assessment instruments either specific to or validated for use with cervical spine pathologies have been developed and their psychometric properties critically assessed. Though a systematic review of this subject was published in 2002, it included an analysis of only 5 measures available at that time. Objective To present a description of each of the 11 measures and briefly compare their psychometric properties, reliability, validity, and responsiveness to change. Methods Computer-based searches of MEDLINE and CINAHL were performed to capture all data relevant to the eleven outcome assessment tools currently available. Results Data regarding descriptions, reliability and validity of 11 outcome measures were found and collated. Conclusion The choice of which outcome measurement to use becomes a matter of preference based on the particular patient population each clinician treats, the ease of use for the patient and ease of scoring for the clinician, and the domains that are most relevant to a particular patient. PMID:19674654

  5. Cervical cord injury in patients with ankylosed spines: progressive paraplegia in two patients after posterior fusion without decompression.

    PubMed

    Sugimoto, Yoshihisa; Ito, Yasuo; Tanaka, Masato; Tomioka, Masao; Hasegawa, Yasuhiro; Nakago, Kie; Yagata, Yukihisa; Ozaki, Toshifumi

    2009-11-01

    Case report and clinical discussion. To describe technical pitfall to treat 2 cervical cord injuries, including dislocations in patients with ankylosed spine due to diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis (DISH) or ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament (OPLL). DISH and OPLL are disease processes similar in pathology, which can lead to unexpected fractures due to low-energy trauma. In reported cases of fracture of the ankylosed spine in patients with DISH or OPLL, increasing lever arm and a grossly unstable fracture occurred. However, the actual surgical intervention for these fractures and spinal cord injuries was not discussed. We report 2 cervical cord injuries, including dislocations in patients with ankylosed spine due to DISH or OPLL. Two patients underwent posterior fusion without decompression; however, postoperative progressive paraplegia still occurred. There were 3 points in common: these patients had ankylosed spines due to DISH or OPLL; they were elderly and had spinal canal stenosis; and after undergoing posterior fusion without decompression, their bilateral, lower extremity palsies worsened after surgery. Cervical alignment was slightly different after posterior fusion, and this change concentrated in one segment because adjacent vertebral bodies were ankylosed, and thus, immoveable. Additionally, this stress caused infolding of the ligamentum flavum with resultant spinal cord compression. In these cases, we recommend posterior fusion and decompression such as laminoplasty to avoid worsening palsy.

  6. The evolution of degenerative marrow (Modic) changes in the cervical spine in neck pain patients.

    PubMed

    Mann, Eugen; Peterson, Cynthia K; Hodler, Jürg; Pfirrmann, Christian W A

    2014-03-01

    To evaluate the natural course of end plate marrow (Modic) changes (MC) in the cervical spine on MRI scans of patients with neck pain. A few longitudinal studies have assessed the development of MC over time in the lumbar spine but only two recent studies evaluated MC in the cervical spine in asymptomatic volunteers and those with whiplash. Thus, this study now reports on the natural course of MC in the cervical spine in symptomatic patients. From the cervical MRI scans of 426 neck pain patients (mean age 61.2 years), 64 patients had follow-up MRI studies. The prevalence and types of MC were retrospectively assessed on the follow-up scans and compared to the original MRI findings. With an average of 2.5 years between the two MRI scans, the prevalence of MC type 1 (MC1) noted at baseline (7.4% or 19 motion segments) slightly increased (8.2% or 21 segments) but the prevalence of MC2 (14.5% or 37 segments) increased considerably (22.3% or 57 segments). In addition, 14 new MC1 segments and 8 new MC2 segments were noted. Twelve segments with MC1 at baseline converted to MC2 at follow-up. No conversion from MC2 to MC1 or reverting to a normal image was observed. MC in the cervical spine are a dynamic phenomenon similar to the lumbar spine.

  7. Investigation of whiplash injuries in the upper cervical spine using a detailed neck model.

    PubMed

    Fice, Jason B; Cronin, Duane S

    2012-04-05

    Whiplash injuries continue to have significant societal cost; however, the mechanism and location of whiplash injury is still under investigation. Recently, the upper cervical spine ligaments, particularly the alar ligament, have been identified as a potential whiplash injury location. In this study, a detailed and validated explicit finite element model of a 50th percentile male cervical spine in a seated posture was used to investigate upper cervical spine response and the potential for whiplash injury resulting from vehicle crash scenarios. This model was previously validated at the segment and whole spine levels for both kinematics and soft tissue strains in frontal and rear impact scenarios. The model predicted increasing upper cervical spine ligament strain with increasing impact severity. Considering all upper cervical spine ligaments, the distractions in the apical and alar ligaments were the largest relative to their failure strains, in agreement with the clinical findings. The model predicted the potential for injury to the apical ligament for 15.2 g frontal or 11.7 g rear impacts, and to the alar ligament for a 20.7 g frontal or 14.4 g rear impact based on the ligament distractions. Future studies should consider the effect of initial occupant position on ligament distraction. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Laminar screw fixation in the subaxial cervical spine: A report on three cases

    PubMed Central

    Tanabe, Hironori; Aota, Yoichi; Saito, Tomoyuki

    2016-01-01

    Although laminar screw fixation is often used at the C2 and C7 levels, only few previous case reports have presented the use of laminar screws at the C3-C6 levels. Here, we report a novel fixation method involving the use of practical laminar screws in the subaxial spine. We used laminar screws in the subaxial cervical spine in two cases to prevent vertebral artery injury and in one case to minimize exposure of the lamina. This laminar screw technique was successful in all three cases with adequate spinal rigidity, which was achieved without complications. The use of laminar screws in the subaxial cervical spine is a useful option for posterior fusion of the cervical spine. PMID:27795952

  9. National Trends in Outpatient Surgical Treatment of Degenerative Cervical Spine Disease

    PubMed Central

    Baird, Evan O.; Egorova, Natalia N.; McAnany, Steven J.; Qureshi, Sheeraz A.; Hecht, Andrew C.; Cho, Samuel K.

    2014-01-01

    Study Design Retrospective population-based observational study. Objective To assess the growth of cervical spine surgery performed in an outpatient setting. Methods A retrospective study was conducted using the United States Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project's State Inpatient and Ambulatory Surgery Databases for California, New York, Florida, and Maryland from 2005 to 2009. Current Procedural Terminology, fourth revision (CPT-4) and International Classification of Diseases, ninth revision Clinical Modification (ICD-9-CM) codes were used to identify operations for degenerative cervical spine diseases in adults (age > 20 years). Disposition and complication rates were examined. Results There was an increase in cervical spine surgeries performed in an ambulatory setting during the study period. Anterior cervical diskectomy and fusion accounted for 68% of outpatient procedures; posterior decompression made up 21%. Younger patients predominantly underwent anterior fusion procedures, and patients in the eighth and ninth decades of life had more posterior decompressions. Charlson comorbidity index and complication rates were substantially lower for ambulatory cases when compared with inpatients. The majority (>99%) of patients were discharged home following ambulatory surgery. Conclusions Recently, the number of cervical spine surgeries has increased in general, and more of these procedures are being performed in an ambulatory setting. The majority (>99%) of patients are discharged home but the nature of analyzing administrative data limits accurate assessment of postoperative complications and thus patient safety. This increase in outpatient cervical spine surgery necessitates further discussion of its safety. PMID:25083354

  10. The thermoplastic Minerva body jacket: a clinical comparison with other cervical spine splinting techniques.

    PubMed

    Benzel, E C; Larson, S J; Kerk, J J; Millington, P J; Novak, S M; Falkner, R H; Wenninger, W J

    1992-09-01

    A retrospective analysis of the efficacy of a variety of external stabilization techniques used in 155 cases of unstable cervical spine injuries is presented. The movement at each intervertebral level was evaluated during thermoplastic Minerva body jacket stabilization in 18 additional patients. Many currently available approaches to external stabilization of the cervical spine were, thus, assessed. Thermoplastic Minerva body jacket stabilization offered superior segmental immobilization compared with published data for the halo. It is concluded that some unstable injuries to the high cervical spine might best be treated with a halo device, whereas mid to low cervical injuries and the remaining upper cervical spine injuries appear to be optimally treated with a Minerva jacket. Lesser injuries may be treated with a variety of available orthoses. The thermoplastic Minerva body jacket offers a superior limitation of intervertebral movement compared with other commonly used braces, including the halo jacket, for most cervical spine injuries. The technique of application of the thermoplastic Minerva body jacket is reviewed.

  11. Cervical spine immobilization during extrication of the awake patient: a narrative review.

    PubMed

    Cowley, Alan; Hague, Ashley; Durge, Neal

    2016-09-29

    Techniques for extricating vehicle occupants after road-traffic collisions have evolved largely through fear of worsening a cervical spine injury, rather than being evidence-based. Recent research has looked at the safety of allowing the alert patient to self-extricate, rather than being assisted with equipment such as long spinal boards and semirigid cervical collars. This review aims to elucidate whether it is safe to allow an alert, ambulant patient to self-extricate from a vehicle with minimal or no cervical spine immobilization. A literature search was conducted looking for papers that discussed cervical spine motion during extrication from a vehicle. Five papers were yielded, and their methodology, results and limitations were assessed. Motion capture studies suggest that a patient who is allowed to self-extricate from a vehicle will move their cervical spine no more than a patient who is extricated by traditional methods, and may move their neck up to four times less. Furthermore, an alert patient with a neck injury will demonstrate a self-protection mechanism, ensuring injuries are not worsened. Evidence is now building that self-extrication in alert patients with minimal or no cervical spine immobilization is safe. Self-extrication should become more commonplace, conferring not only a potential safety benefit but also advantages in time to definitive care and resource use.

  12. Morphologic evaluation of cervical spine anatomy with computed tomography: anterior cervical plate fixation considerations.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Brian K; Song, Frederick; Morrison, William B; Grauer, Jonathan N; Beiner, John M; Vaccaro, Alexander R; Hilibrand, Alan S; Albert, Todd J

    2004-04-01

    The computed tomography (CT) studies of the cervical spine from 50 males and 50 females were reviewed to provide morphometric data on a variety of anatomic parameters relevant to anterior cervical reconstruction and fixation. Measurements were made of the vertebral body width and midsagittal anteroposterior (AP) diameter and the distance between the medial borders of the longus coli muscles. Distances between adjacent endplates were also measured, both at their midpoint and at the anterior margin. Widths of the vertebral bodies measure 24.6 +/- 2.4 and 23.0 +/- 2.4 mm in males and females, respectively, with the narrowest measuring 17 and 14, respectively. The average midsagittal AP diameter of each vertebral body in males was approximately 17-18 mm, with the smallest AP diameter measured to be 13 mm. The average midsagittal AP diameter of each vertebral body in females was approximately 15-16 mm, with the smallest being 10 mm. CT scanning provides excellent osseous detail for the measurement of such parameters, and with its widespread use in the evaluation of cervical disorders, large numbers of patients can be reviewed.

  13. A discussion of the issue of football helmet removal in suspected cervical spine injuries.

    PubMed

    Segan, R D; Cassidy, C; Bentkowski, J

    1993-01-01

    In some areas, it is a commonly accepted emergency medical technician protocol to remove a helmet during the initial management of suspected cervical spine injures. After a comprehensive survey of relevant literature, four primary reasons why Emergency Medical Services professionals would desire to remove a helmet emerge. Sources suggest that the presence of a helmet might: 1) interfere with immobilization of the athlete; 2) interfere with the ability to visualize injuries; 3) cause hyperflexion of the cervical spine; and 4) prevent proper airway management during a cardiorespiratory emergency. Many available protocols are designed for the removal of closed chamber motorcycle helmets that do not have removable face masks. There are a great number of differing viewpoints regarding this issue. The varying viewpoints are results of the failure of many emergency medical technician management protocols to address the unique situation presented by a football helmet. We: 1) demonstrate that football helmet removal is potentially dangerous and unnecessary, 2) suggest that cardiorespiratory emergencies can be effectively managed without removing the helmet, and 3) provide sports medicine professional with information that may be used to establish a joint Emergency Medical Services/Sports Medicine emergency action plan.

  14. A Discussion of the Issue of Football Helmet Removal in Suspected Cervical Spine Injuries

    PubMed Central

    Segan, Ross D.; Cassidy, Christine; Bentkowski, Jamie

    1993-01-01

    In some areas, it is a commonly accepted emergency medical technician protocol to remove a helmet during the initial management of suspected cervical spine injures. After a comprehensive survey of relevant literature, four primary reasons why Emergency Medical Services professionals would desire to remove a helmet emerge. Sources suggest that the presence of a helmet might: 1) interfere with immobilization of the athlete; 2) interfere with the ability to visualize injuries; 3) cause hyperflexion of the cervical spine; and 4) prevent proper airway management during a cardiorespiratory emergency. Many available protocols are designed for the removal of closed chamber motorcycle helmets that do not have removable face masks. There are a great number of differing viewpoints regarding this issue. The varying viewpoints are results of the failure of many emergency medical technician management protocols to address the unique situation presented by a football helmet. We: 1) demonstrate that football helmet removal is potentially dangerous and unnecessary, 2) suggest that cardiorespiratory emergencies can be effectively managed without removing the helmet, and 3) provide sports medicine professional with information that may be used to establish a joint Emergency Medical Services/Sports Medicine emergency action plan. ImagesFig. 1.Fig 2.Fig 3.Fig 4.Fig 5.Fig 6. PMID:16558244

  15. Diagnosing Tapia syndrome using a videofluoroscopic swallowing study and electromyography after anterior cervical spine surgery.

    PubMed

    Park, Junbum; Ahn, Ryeok; Weon, Youngcheol; Yang, Dongseok

    2011-11-01

    A couple of the most common complications after anterior cervical spine surgery are dysphagia and hoarseness. This is often related to recurrent laryngeal nerve palsy and it can also be caused by injury to the branches of the lower cranial nerves. In general, Tapia syndrome is combined injuries of the recurrent laryngeal nerve of the vagus and the hypoglossal nerves. There has been no reported case until now of Tapia syndrome after a patient underwent anterior cervical spine surgery. We present here the case of a 42-yr-old man who complained of hoarseness, dysphagia, and right deviation of the tongue with an atrophic change for 2 mos after he underwent C3-4 discectomy and anterior fusion body. We found that he has a diagnosis of a variant of Tapia syndrome, although recurrent laryngeal nerve injury did not seem to be involved according to a videofluoroscopic swallowing study and electromyography. Our case report demonstrates that the combined diagnostic tools of videofluoroscopic swallowing study, electromyography, and laryngoscopy can be very useful in localizing and evaluating the level of lesions in patients with Tapia syndrome.

  16. Successful conservative treatment of rheumatoid subaxial subluxation resulting in improvement of myelopathy, reduction of subluxation, and stabilisation of the cervical spine. A report of two cases

    PubMed Central

    Oostveen, J.; van de Laar, M. A F J; Geelen, J.; de Graaff, R.

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—To report the efficacy of conservative treatment with cervical traction and immobilisation with a Halo vest, in two consecutive rheumatoid arthritis patients with progressive cervical myelopathy caused by subaxial subluxation.
METHODS—Description of neurological symptoms and signs and findings in plain radiography (PR) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the cervical spine before and after treatment of the subaxial subluxation by traction and immobilisation with a Halo vest during four months.
RESULTS—During four months of traction and immobilisation neurological examination showed a considerable improvement of the signs and symptoms of cervical myelopathy. Afterwards PR and MRI of the cervical spine showed reduction of the subaxial subluxation. Eventually firm stabilisation was obtained in both patients without surgery of the cervical spine.
CONCLUSION—Cervical traction and immobilisation with a Halo vest can be considered as an independent conservative treatment in rheumatoid arthritis patients with cervical myelopathy caused by subaxial subluxation.

 Keywords: rheumatoid arthrits; rheumatoid subaxial subluxation PMID:10343530

  17. Study of the influence of degenerative intervertebral disc changes on the deformation behavior of the cervical spine segment in flexion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolmakova, Tatyana V.

    2016-11-01

    The paper describes the model of the cervical spine segment (C3-C4) and the calculation results of the deformation behavior of the segment under degenerative changes of the intervertebral disc. The segment model was built based on the experimental literature data taking into account the presence of the cortical and cancellous bone tissue of vertebral bodies. The calculation results show that degenerative changes of the intervertebral disc cause the immobility of the C3 vertebra at flexion.

  18. The Facet Orientation of the Subaxial Cervical Spine and the Implications for Cervical Movements and Clinical Conditions.

    PubMed

    Rong, Xin; Liu, Ziyang; Wang, Beiyu; Chen, Hua; Liu, Hao

    2017-03-15

    Computed tomography study. To obtain detailed information on the facet orientation in the subaxial cervical spine and explore the correlation to the cervical movements and relevant clinical conditions. Although facet orientation was well studied in the lumbar spine, the literatures on the cervical facet orientation were limited and the descriptions were nonspecific. The computed tomography scans of 100 individuals were reconstructed. For each level from C2/C3 to C6/C7, the horizontal plane, the mid-sagittal plane, the coronal plane, and the two facet planes were established. The normal vectors of the five planes were used for the calculation of the facet orientation and the facet tropism. The angle of the facet plane with respect to the horizontal plane at the C6/7 level was the largest (left side: 64.34° ± 6.60°, right side: 63.37° ± 6.81°, P >0.05). The angle of the facet plane with respect to the coronal plane decreased from C2/C3 level to C6/C7 level. Regarding the angle of the facet plane with respect to the sagittal plane, for the paired facet joints, three types were found: posteromedially oriented, posterolaterally oriented, and ipsilaterally oriented. All (100%) of the facet joints at the C2/C3 level and 65% at the C3/C4 level were posteromedially oriented. In the lower levels of the cervical spine, the posteromedially oriented facet joints were less common. The facet tropism was common phenomenon in the subaxial cervical spine. This study provided detailed information on the facet orientation in the subaxial cervical spine. The cervical facet orientation correlated well with the spinal movements and related clinical conditions. 3.

  19. Motion analysis study on sensitivity of finite element model of the cervical spine to geometry.

    PubMed

    Zafarparandeh, Iman; Erbulut, Deniz U; Ozer, Ali F

    2016-07-01

    Numerous finite element models of the cervical spine have been proposed, with exact geometry or with symmetric approximation in the geometry. However, few researches have investigated the sensitivity of predicted motion responses to the geometry of the cervical spine. The goal of this study was to evaluate the effect of symmetric assumption on the predicted motion by finite element model of the cervical spine. We developed two finite element models of the cervical spine C2-C7. One model was based on the exact geometry of the cervical spine (asymmetric model), whereas the other was symmetric (symmetric model) about the mid-sagittal plane. The predicted range of motion of both models-main and coupled motions-was compared with published experimental data for all motion planes under a full range of loads. The maximum differences between the asymmetric model and symmetric model predictions for the principal motion were 31%, 78%, and 126% for flexion-extension, right-left lateral bending, and right-left axial rotation, respectively. For flexion-extension and lateral bending, the minimum difference was 0%, whereas it was 2% for axial rotation. The maximum coupled motions predicted by the symmetric model were 1.5° axial rotation and 3.6° lateral bending, under applied lateral bending and axial rotation, respectively. Those coupled motions predicted by the asymmetric model were 1.6° axial rotation and 4° lateral bending, under applied lateral bending and axial rotation, respectively. In general, the predicted motion response of the cervical spine by the symmetric model was in the acceptable range and nonlinearity of the moment-rotation curve for the cervical spine was properly predicted.

  20. Flexion and extension structural properties and strengths for male cervical spine segments.

    PubMed

    Nightingale, Roger W; Carol Chancey, V; Ottaviano, Danielle; Luck, Jason F; Tran, Laura; Prange, Michael; Myers, Barry S

    2007-01-01

    New vehicle safety standards are designed to limit the amount of neck tension and extension seen by out-of-position motor vehicle occupants during airbag deployments. The criteria used to assess airbag injury risk are currently based on volunteer data and animal studies due to a lack of bending tolerance data for the adult cervical spine. This study provides quantitative data on the flexion-extension bending properties and strength on the male cervical spine, and tests the hypothesis that the male is stronger than the female in pure bending. An additional objective is to determine if there are significant differences in stiffness and strength between the male upper and lower cervical spine. Pure-moment flexibility and failure testing was conducted on 41 male spinal segments (O-C2, C4-C5, C6-C7) in a pure-moment test frame and the results were compared with a previous study of females. Failures were conducted at approximately 90 N-m/s. In extension, the male upper cervical spine (O-C2) fails at a moment of 49.5 (s.d. 17.6)N-m and at an angle of 42.4 degrees (s.d. 8.0 degrees). In flexion, the mean moment at failure is 39.0 (s.d. 6.3 degrees) N-m and an angle of 58.7 degrees (s.d. 5.1 degrees). The difference in strength between flexion and extension is not statistically significant. The difference in the angles is statistically significant. The upper cervical spine was significantly stronger than the lower cervical spine in both flexion and extension. The male upper cervical spine was significantly stiffer than the female and significantly stronger than the female in flexion. Odontoid fractures were the most common injury produced in extension, suggesting a tensile mechanism due to tensile loads in the odontoid ligamentous complex.

  1. Risk Factors for Medical Complication after Cervical Spine Surgery: a multivariate analysis of 582 patients

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Michael J.; Konodi, Mark A.; Cizik, Amy M.; Weinreich, Mark A.; Bransford, Richard J.; Bellabarba, Carlo; Chapman, Jens

    2012-01-01

    Study Design Multivariate analysis of prospectively collected registry data Objective Using multivariate analysis, to determine significant risk factors for medical complication after cervical spine surgery. Summary of Background Data Several studies have examined the occurrence of medical complication after spine surgery. However many of these studies have been done utilizing large national databases. While these allow for analysis of thousands of patients, potentially influential co-variates are not accounted for in these retrospective studies. Furthermore, the accuracy of these retrospective data collection in these databases has been called into question. Methods The Spine End Results Registry (2003–2004) is a collection prospectively collected data on all patients who underwent spine surgery at our two institutions. Extensive demographic and medical information were prospectively recorded as described previously by Mirza et al. Complications were defined in detail a priori and were prospectively recorded for at least 2 years after surgery. We analyzed risk factors for medical complication after lumbar spine surgery using univariate and multivariate analysis. Results We analayzed data from 582 patients who met out inclusion criteria. The cumulative incidences of complication after cervical spine surgery per organ system are as follows: cardiac – 8.4%, pulmonary – 13%, gastrointestinal – 3.9%, neurological – 7.4%, hematological – 10.8% and urologic complications – 9.2%. The occurrence of cardiac or respiratory complication after cervical spine surgery was significantly associated with death within 2 years (RR 4.32, 6.43 respectively). Relative risk values with 95% confidence intervals and p values are listed individually in Tables 2 and 3. Conclusion Risk factors identified in this study can be beneficial to clinicians and patients alike when considering surgical treatment of the cervical spine. Future analyses and models that predict the

  2. Epidemiology of Cervical Spine Injuries in High School Athletes Over a Ten-Year Period.

    PubMed

    Meron, Adele; McMullen, Christopher; Laker, Scott R; Currie, Dustin; Comstock, R Dawn

    2017-09-12

    Over 7 million athletes participate in high school (HS) sports annually, with both the benefits of physical activity and risks of injury. While catastrophic cervical spine injuries have been studied, limited data are available characterizing less severe cervical spine injuries in HS athletes. To describe and compare cervical spine injury rates and patterns among United States (US) HS athletes across 24 sports over a ten-year period. Descriptive epidemiology study SETTING: National sample of high schools participating in the High School Reporting Information Online (High School RIO) injury surveillance system. Athletes from participating schools injured in a school sanctioned practice, competition, or performance during the 2005-2006 through 2014-2015 academic years. Cervical spine injury data captured by High School RIO during the ten-year study period were examined. Cervical spine injury was defined as any injury to the cervical spinal cord, bones, nerves, or supporting structures of the cervical spine including muscles, ligaments, and tendons. Cervical spine injury rates, diagnoses, mechanisms, and severities. During the study period, 1,080 cervical spine injuries were reported during 35,581,036 athlete exposures (AE) for an injury rate of 3.04 per 100,000 AE. Injury rates were highest in football (10.10), wrestling (7.42) and girls' gymnastics (4.95). Muscle injuries were most common (63.1%), followed by nerve injuries (20.5%). A larger proportion of football injuries were nerve injuries compared to all other sports (IPR, 3.31; CI, 2.33-4.72), while in boys' ice hockey fractures represented a greater proportion of injuries compared with all other sports (IPR, 7.64; CI, 2.10-27.83). Overall, the most common mechanisms of injury were contact with another player (70.7%) and contact with playing surface (16.1%). Cervical spine injury rates and patterns vary by sport and gender. Characterizing these differences is the first step in developing effective, evidence

  3. Two-Year Results of the Prospective Spine Treatment Outcomes Study: Analysis of Post-Operative Clinical Outcomes between Patients With and Without a History of Prior Cervical Spine Surgery.

    PubMed

    Radcliff, Kris; Jalai, Cyrus; Vira, Shaleen; Passias, Peter; Yang, Sun; Boniello, Anthony J; Bianco, Kristina; Oh, Cheongeun; Gerling, Michael; Poorman, Gregory; Buza, John A; Isaacs, Robert E; Vaccaro, Alexander R

    2017-09-26

    History of prior cervical spine surgery is a frequently cited cause of worse outcomes following cervical spine surgery. The purpose of this study was to determine any differences in clinical outcomes following cervical spine surgery between patients with and without history of prior cervical spine surgery. A multi-center prospective database was retrospectively reviewed to identify patients with cervical spondylosis undergoing surgery with a minimum 2-year follow-up. Patients were divided into two groups: patients with (W) or without (WO) previous history of cervical spine surgery. Statistical analyses of Health Related Quality of Life scores (HRQOL) were analyzed using statistical software to fit linear mixed models for continuous longitudinal outcome. 1,286 patients (377 W, 909 WO) met criteria for inclusion. Overall, patients in both groups experienced an improvement in their HRQOL scores. However, patients in the W group had significantly decreased improvement compared to WO patients in the Neck Disability Index (NDI) score and the following SF-36 domain scores: Role Physical, Bodily Pain, General Health, Vitality, Social Functioning, Health Transition, and Physical Component Summary (PCS) at all time points (p<0.05). There was no statistically significant difference between the W and WO groups in operative time, estimated blood loss (EBL), length of stay (LOS), or complications. (p>0.05) CONCLUSION: Patients with a history of prior cervical spine surgery had inferior improvement in quality of life outcome scores. Patients with a history of prior surgical intervention who elect to undergo subsequent surgeries should be appropriately counseled about expected results. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  4. Minimally Invasive Surgery for Osteoid Osteoma of the Cervical Spine Using Microendoscopic Discectomy System

    PubMed Central

    Yabuki, Shoji; Kikuchi, Shin-Ichi; Konno, Shin-Ichi

    2013-01-01

    We report herein the case of an 18-year-old man who underwent endoscopic resection for an osteoid osteoma in the seventh cervical facet joint. The patient had experienced right neck pain for approximately one year, but no neurological abnormalities were noted. Cervical magnetic resonance imaging suggested an osteoid osteoma in the superior articular process of the seventh cervical vertebra. The tumor was resected microendoscopically. Operative time was 1 hour 29 minutes, and blood loss was 5 mL. During the two years since surgery, the patient has remained pain free with no cervical spine instability. We thus propose microendoscopic surgery for osteoid osteoma developing in a posterior element of the cervical spine is a potentially effective operative procedure. PMID:23741555

  5. Evaluation of Cervical Spine Clearance by Computed Tomographic Scan Alone in Intoxicated Patients With Blunt Trauma.

    PubMed

    Bush, Lisa; Brookshire, Robert; Roche, Breanna; Johnson, Amelia; Cole, Frederic; Karmy-Jones, Riyad; Long, William; Martin, Matthew J

    2016-09-01

    Current trauma guidelines dictate that the cervical spine should not be cleared in intoxicated patients, resulting in prolonged immobilization or additional imaging. Modern computed tomography (CT) technology may obviate this and allow for immediate clearance. To analyze cervical spine clearance practices and the utility of CT scans of the cervical spine in intoxicated patients with blunt trauma. We performed a prospective observational study of 1668 patients with blunt trauma aged 18 years and older who underwent cervical spine CT scans from March 2014 to March 2015 at an American College of Surgeons-verified Level I trauma center. Intoxication was determined by serum alcohol levels and urine drug screens. Physical examination and CT scan findings were evaluated for cervical spine injuries (CSI) and the incidence of missed injuries. Clinically relevant CSIs requiring cervical stabilization. The hypotheses formed prior to data collection were that cervical CT scans are sensitive and specific enough to diagnose CSIs that require stabilization and that normal CT scans are sufficient to clear CSIs in intoxicated patients. Of 1668 patients, 1103 (66.1%) were male, with a mean (SD) age of 49 (20) years and a mean (SD) Injury Severity Score of 10 (9). Vehicular (734 [44.0%]) and falls (579 [34.7%]) were the most common mechanisms for hospitalization. Intoxication was identified in 632 of 1429 of patients tested (44.2%; 425 [29.7%] by serum alcohol levels and 350 [24.5%] by urine drug screens). Half (316 [50.0%]) were admitted with cervical spine immobilization, and 38 (12%) of these were solely owing to the presence of intoxication. There were 65 abnormal CT scans (10.3%) in the intoxicated group. Among 567 normal CT scans, 4 (0.7%) had central cord syndrome found on initial physical examination, and 1 (0.2%) had a symptomatic unstable ligament injury that was misread as normal on CT scan but was abnormal on magnetic resonance imaging. The 316 patients kept in a

  6. Esophageal Perforation Following Anterior Cervical Spine Surgery: Case Report and Review of the Literature.

    PubMed

    Hershman, Stuart H; Kunkle, William A; Kelly, Michael P; Buchowski, Jacob M; Ray, Wilson Z; Bumpass, David B; Gum, Jeffrey L; Peters, Colleen M; Singhatanadgige, Weerasak; Kim, Jin Young; Smith, Zachary A; Hsu, Wellington K; Nassr, Ahmad; Currier, Bradford L; Rahman, Ra'Kerry K; Isaacs, Robert E; Smith, Justin S; Shaffrey, Christopher; Thompson, Sara E; Wang, Jeffrey C; Lord, Elizabeth L; Buser, Zorica; Arnold, Paul M; Fehlings, Michael G; Mroz, Thomas E; Riew, K Daniel

    2017-04-01

    Multicenter retrospective case series and review of the literature. To determine the rate of esophageal perforations following anterior cervical spine surgery. As part of an AOSpine series on rare complications, a retrospective cohort study was conducted among 21 high-volume surgical centers to identify esophageal perforations following anterior cervical spine surgery. Staff at each center abstracted data from patients' charts and created case report forms for each event identified. Case report forms were then sent to the AOSpine North America Clinical Research Network Methodological Core for data processing and analysis. The records of 9591 patients who underwent anterior cervical spine surgery were reviewed. Two (0.02%) were found to have esophageal perforations following anterior cervical spine surgery. Both cases were detected and treated in the acute postoperative period. One patient was successfully treated with primary repair and debridement. One patient underwent multiple debridement attempts and expired. Esophageal perforation following anterior cervical spine surgery is a relatively rare occurrence. Prompt recognition and treatment of these injuries is critical to minimizing morbidity and mortality.

  7. In-vivo Kinematics of the Cervical Spine in Frontal Sled Tests

    PubMed Central

    Dehner, Christoph; Schick, Sylvia; Hell, Wolfram; Richter, Peter; Kraus, Michael; Kramer, Michael

    2013-01-01

    The description of cervical spine motion and the risk to sustain a cervical spine injury in traffic accidents is mainly based on rear-end collisions. The knowledge about frontal collisions is comparable low. Therefore the objective of this exploratory study was, to describe the in-vivo cervical spine motion and acceleration during simulated frontal sled collisions and to identify sequences of motion in which the risk of injury is increased. A frontal collision with a speed change of 10.2km/h was simulated in a sled test with ten volunteers. Cervical spine kinematics was assessed by the simultaneous analysis of the angular head motion and acceleration as well as the simultaneous analysis of the relative motion and acceleration between the head and the first thoracic vertebral body. The motion sequence was divided into five phases. The combination of peak values of the angular head acceleration to ventral and the relative horizontal head acceleration to dorsal between the time period of 90ms and 110ms (early flexion phase) included – potential injury generating – shear forces. Although a hyperflexion (late rebound phase) as injury pattern didn’t occur, dorsal soft tissue injuries due to eccentric muscle-sprain could not be ruled out completely. In conclusion the study showed under simulated test conditions that during the early flexion phase and the late rebound phase, acceleration and movement pattern occur that could lead to cervical spine injuries. PMID:23618481

  8. Esophageal Perforation Following Anterior Cervical Spine Surgery: Case Report and Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Hershman, Stuart H.; Kunkle, William A.; Kelly, Michael P.; Buchowski, Jacob M.; Ray, Wilson Z.; Bumpass, David B.; Gum, Jeffrey L.; Peters, Colleen M.; Singhatanadgige, Weerasak; Kim, Jin Young; Smith, Zachary A.; Hsu, Wellington K.; Nassr, Ahmad; Currier, Bradford L.; Rahman, Ra’Kerry K.; Isaacs, Robert E.; Smith, Justin S.; Shaffrey, Christopher; Thompson, Sara E.; Wang, Jeffrey C.; Lord, Elizabeth L.; Buser, Zorica; Arnold, Paul M.; Fehlings, Michael G.; Mroz, Thomas E.

    2017-01-01

    Study Design: Multicenter retrospective case series and review of the literature. Objective: To determine the rate of esophageal perforations following anterior cervical spine surgery. Methods: As part of an AOSpine series on rare complications, a retrospective cohort study was conducted among 21 high-volume surgical centers to identify esophageal perforations following anterior cervical spine surgery. Staff at each center abstracted data from patients’ charts and created case report forms for each event identified. Case report forms were then sent to the AOSpine North America Clinical Research Network Methodological Core for data processing and analysis. Results: The records of 9591 patients who underwent anterior cervical spine surgery were reviewed. Two (0.02%) were found to have esophageal perforations following anterior cervical spine surgery. Both cases were detected and treated in the acute postoperative period. One patient was successfully treated with primary repair and debridement. One patient underwent multiple debridement attempts and expired. Conclusions: Esophageal perforation following anterior cervical spine surgery is a relatively rare occurrence. Prompt recognition and treatment of these injuries is critical to minimizing morbidity and mortality. PMID:28451488

  9. Abscess of the cervical spine secondary to injection site infection in a heifer.

    PubMed

    Braun, Ueli; Gerspach, Christian; Kühn, Karolin; Bünter, Julia; Hilbe, Monika

    2017-01-31

    Abscesses in the neck region can result from infection associated with injection of drugs into the neck muscles. To our knowledge, there have been no reports of osteomyelitis of the cervical vertebra and spinal cord compression secondary to an abscess in the neck. This case report describes the findings in a 9.5-month-old heifer with an abscess of the cervical spine secondary to injection site infection. The main clinical findings were swelling on the left side of the neck, proprioceptive deficits in all limbs and generalised ataxia. The ultrasonographic examination of the swelling showed an abscess. Radiographs showed a well-defined lytic lesion in 5th cervical vertebra (C5). Postmortem examination revealed an intramuscular encapsulated abscess on the left side of the neck at the level of C5. The abscess had invaded the vertebral canal and caused marked compression of the spinal cord. Injection technique is critical for the prevention of problems such as those described in this report. Sterile hypodermic needles must be used, and the volume of drug per injection site limited to 10-15 ml in young cattle.

  10. Vertebral stress of a cervical spine model under dynamic load.

    PubMed

    Sadegh, A M; Tchako, A

    2000-01-01

    The objective of this study is to develop cervical spine models that predict the stresses in each vertebra by taking account of the biodynamic characteristics of the neck. The loads and the moments at the head point (Occipital Condyle) used for the models were determined by the rigid body dynamic response of the head due to G-z acceleration. The experimental data used were collected from the biodynamic responses of human volunteers during an acceleration in the z direction on the drop tower facility at Armstrong Laboratory at Wright Patterson Air Force Base (WPAFB). Three finite element models were developed: an elastic local model, viscoelastic local model and complete viscoelastic model. I-DEAS software was used to create the solid models, the loadings and the boundary conditions. Then, ABAQUS finite element software was employed to solve the models, and thus the stresses on each vertebral level were determined. Beam elements with different properties were employed to simulate the ligaments, articular facets and muscles. The complete viscoelastic model was subjected to 11 cases of loadings ranging from 8 G-z to 20 G-z accelerations. The von Mises and Maximum Principal stress fields, which are good indicators of bone failure, were calculated for all the cases. The results indicated that the maximum stress in all cases increased as the magnitude of the acceleration increased. The stresses in the 10 to 12 G-z cases were comfortably below the injury threshold level. The majority of the maximum stresses occurred in C6 and C4 regions.

  11. Peculiarities and Patterns of Cervical Spine Injuries in Children and Adolescents: A Retrospective Series of 84 Patients from a Single Institute.

    PubMed

    Babu, R Arun; Arivazhagan, Arimappamagan; Devi, B Indira; Bhat, Dhananjaya I; Sampath, Somanna; Chandramouli, B A

    2016-01-01

    Cervical spine injuries occur infrequently in children but are associated with significant disability and mortality. A retrospective analysis was performed of 84 consecutive pediatric spine injuries treated at our institute from January 2002 to December 2011. The mean age was 14.7 years. There were 18 patients (21%) in group A (0-12 years) and 66 patients (79%) in group B (13-18 years). Overall, injury was more common in boys (ratio of 6:1). Trivial fall was the predominant cause in group A and fall from height in group B. There were 30 children (36%) with injuries of the upper cervical spine, 53 (63%) with injuries of the lower cervical spine and 1 patient (1%) with a combined injury of upper cervical spine and thoracic spine. Overall, 22% of the group A children and 67% of the group B patients had more severe injuries (Frankel grades A, B and C); 21% (18/84) were treated by surgical fusion. Where follow-up was available, 17 out of 22 children (77%) had good outcome (Frankel grade >C). In conclusion, mechanisms and patterns of injury in children are age related and the majority of the children had good outcome.

  12. PAIN CHARACTERISTICS OF TEMPOROMANDIBULAR DISORDER – A PILOT STUDY IN PATIENTS WITH CERVICAL SPINE DYSFUNCTION

    PubMed Central

    Pedroni, Cristiane Rodrigues; de Oliveira, Anamaria Siriani; Bérzin, Fausto

    2006-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of the present pilot study was to describe pain complaints of TMD patients and cervical spine dysfunction. Methods: Fourteen women with myogenous TMD, cervical motion limitation and rotation of at least one of the three first cervical vertebrae evidenced by radiographic examination participated in this study. The multidimensional pain evaluation was accomplished by a Brazilian version of the McGill Pain Questionnaire. Results: The results showed that the most painful body site mentioned was cervical spine, followed by scapular region and temporomandibular joint. More than half of the volunteers reported temporal pain pattern as rhythmic, periodic and, or still, intermittent. The majority of the patients classified the pain intensity assessed at the moment of the evaluation as mild to discomforting. Absolute agreement was not observed among volunteers regarding word dimensions used to describe their pain, although a great number of patients chose the descriptor related to tension as the better expression to describe their painful complaint. Conclusion: Pain characteristics of TMD patients with cervical spine dysfunction showed cervical spine as a common painful region reported and words related to affective and emotional dimensions of pain perception can be used by these patients to qualify their pain complain. PMID:19089063

  13. Cervical spine injuries from diving accident: a 10-year retrospective descriptive study on 64 patients.

    PubMed

    Chan-Seng, E; Perrin, F E; Segnarbieux, F; Lonjon, N

    2013-09-01

    Ninety percent of the lesions resulting from diving injuries affect the cervical spine and are potentially associated with spinal cord injuries. The objective is to determine the most frequent lesion mechanisms. Evaluate the therapeutic alternatives and the biomechanical evolution (kyphotic deformation) of diving-induced cervical spine injuries. Define epidemiological characteristics of diving injuries. A retrospective analysis over a period of 10 years was undertaken for patients admitted to the Department of Neurosurgery of Montpellier, France, with cervical spinal injuries due to a diving accident. Patients were re-evaluated and clinical and radiological evaluation follow-ups were done. This study included 64 patients. Cervical spine injuries resulting from diving predominantly affect young male subjects. They represent 9.5% of all the cervical spine injuries. In 22% of cases, patients presented severe neurological troubles (ASIA A, B, C) at the time of admission. A surgical treatment was done in 85% of cases, mostly using an anterior cervical approach. This is a retrospective study (type IV) with some limitations. The incidence of diving injuries in our region is one of the highest as compared to reports in the literature. Despite an increase of our surgical indications, 55% of these cases end up with a residual kyphotic deformation but there is no relationship between the severity of late vertebral deformity and high Neck Pain and Disability Scale (NPDS) scores. Level IV, retrospective study. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. Non-invasive methods to maintain cervical spine position after pediatric tracheal resections.

    PubMed

    Aydinyan, Kahren K; Day, Jonathan D; Troiano, Gina M; Digoy, G Paul

    2017-07-01

    To present our experience with two methods of neck stabilization after pediatric tracheal resection with primary anastomosis as possible alternatives to the traditional chest-chin suture. Children undergoing tracheal resection and/or cricotracheal resection with anastomosis under tension were placed in cervical spine flexion postoperatively with either a chest-chin (Grillo) suture, an Aspen cervical collar or Trulife Johnson cervical-thoracic orthosis (CTO). A retrospective chart review of tracheal resections performed between 2005 and 2016 was completed to evaluate the positive and negative factors associated with each neck flexion technique. Of the 20 patients, there were 13 patients with the Grillo suture, 4 with the Aspen collar and 3 patients with the Johnson CTO. There were 13 tracheal resection procedures and 7 cricotracheal resections, all of which had anastomosis under tension. One major anastomosis dehiscence was noted with the Grillo suture technique which required reoperation. Two patients with the Grillo suture experienced skin breakdown at the suture site. The Aspen cervical collar, which fixed the cervical spine and prevented lateral and rotational motion, was limited in several cases in that it placed the spine in slight hyperextension. The Johnson CTO provided the most support in a flexed position and prevented cervical spine motion in all directions. No anastomosis complications were noted with the Aspen collar or the Johnson CTO, however, several patients sustained minor cutaneous wounds. In this series the Aspen cervical collar and Johnson CTO were used successfully as non-Grillo alternatives to postoperative neck stabilization in pediatric tracheal resections. Modifications to both devices are proposed to minimize cutaneous injuries and increase immobilization of the cervical spine in the desired flexed position. Although these devices appear to be safe and may be better tolerated, further innovation is needed to improve the design and fit of

  15. Utility of flexion-extension radiography for the detection of ligamentous cervical spine injury and its current role in the clearance of the cervical spine.

    PubMed

    Oh, Jason Jaeseong; Asha, Stephen Edward

    2016-04-01

    Detecting the presence of injuries to the cervical spine is an important component of the initial assessment of patients sustaining blunt trauma. A small proportion of cervical spine injuries consists of ligamentous disruption. Accurate detection of ligamentous injury is essential as it may result in sequelae including radiculopathy, quadriplegia and death. Flexion-extension (FE) radiography has traditionally been utilised for the detection of ligamentous injury in patients who have been cleared of bony injury. There are controversies surrounding the use of FE for alert patients with neck pain. There are studies that call into question the diagnostic accuracy of FE, the high proportion of inadequate FE images due to muscle spasm and the adverse effects of prolonged cervical collar immobilisation while awaiting FE. Other literature indicates that FE provides no additional diagnostic information following a multi-detector helical computed tomography. This review evaluates the literature on the utility of FE for the detection of ligamentous injury and explores alternate strategies for clearing the cervical spine of ligamentous injury. © 2015 Australasian College for Emergency Medicine and Australasian Society for Emergency Medicine.

  16. The Study of Cobb Angular Velocity in Cervical Spine during Dynamic Extension-Flexion.

    PubMed

    Ren, Dong; Hu, Zhihao; Yuan, Wen

    2016-04-01

    A kinematic study of cervical spine. The aim of the study was to confirm the interesting manifestation observed in the dynamic images of the cervical spine movement from full-extension to full-flexion. To further explore the fine motion of total process of cervical spine movement with the new concept of Cobb angular velocity (CAV). Traditionally range of motion (ROM) is used to describe the cervical spine movement from extension to flexion. It is performed with only end position radiographs. However, these radiographs fail to explain how the elaborate movement happens. The dynamic images of the cervical spine movement from full-extension to full-flexion of 12 asymptomatic subjects were collected. After transforming these dynamic images to static lateral radiographs, we overlapped C7 cervical vertebrae of each subject and divided the total process of cervical spine movement into five equal partitions. Finally, CAV values from C2/3 to C6/7 were measured and analyzed. A broken line graph was created based on the data of CAV values. A simple motion process was observed in C2/3 and C3/4 segments. The motion processes of C4/5 and C5/6 segments exhibited a more complex track of "N" and "W" than the other segments. The peak CAV values of C4/5 and C5/6 were significantly greater than the other segments. From C2/3 to C6/7, the peak CAV value appeared in sequence. The intervertebral movements of cervical spine did not take a uniform motion form when the cervical spine moved from full-extension to full-flexion. From C2/3 to C6/7, the peak CAV value appeared in order. The C4/5 and C5/6 segments exhibited more complex kinematic characteristics in sagittal movement. This leads to C4/5 and C5/6 more vulnerable to injury and degeneration. We had a hypothesis that there was a positive correlation between injury/degeneration and complexity of intervertebral movement in the view of CAV. N/A.

  17. The radiographic distinction of degenerative slippage (spondylolisthesis and retrolisthesis) from traumatic slippage of the cervical spine.

    PubMed

    Lee, C; Woodring, J H; Rogers, L F; Kim, K S

    1986-01-01

    In a review of 42 cases of degenerative arthritis of the cervical spine and 22 cases of cervical spine trauma with an observed anterior slippage (spondylolisthesis) or posterior slippage (retrolisthesis) of the vertebral bodies of 2 mm or more, characteristic features were observed which allowed distinction between degenerative and traumatic slippage of the cervical spine. In degenerative slippage the shape of the articular facets and width of the facet joint space may remain normal; however, in most cases the articular facets become "ground-down" with narrowing of the facet joint space and the articular facets themselves becoming thinned or ribbon-like. In traumatic slippage the articular facets will either be normally shaped or fractured and the facet joint space will be abnormally widened. Plain radiographs will usually allow this distinction to be made; however, in difficult cases polytomography may be required.

  18. Custom fitted thermoplastic Minerva jackets in the treatment of cervical spine instability in preschool age children.

    PubMed

    Gaskill, S J; Marlin, A E

    The options for cervical spine stabilization have traditionally been the Minerva jacket (MJ) or the halo brace. In the preschool age child both of these devices have significant drawbacks; the halo brace because of its erosion and difficulty providing adequate fixation due to the thin calvarium of the young child and the MJ because of its bulk and weight. With the advent of polyethylene plastics, MJs are a more viable option without the disadvantages noted above. Six cases of cervical spine instability in preschool age children treated with a custom-molded MJ are presented. All patients achieved cervical spine stability with minimal morbidity. This technique is recommended as an alternative to the halo brace, as it provides reliable and satisfactory treatment of these difficult problems in preschool children.

  19. [Introduction and interpretation of abcd classification system for subaxial cervical spine injury].

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhida; Lin, Bin; Yu, Zhiyi; Li, Bingwen

    2014-11-01

    To introduce and interpret ABCD classification system for subaxial cervical spine injury. The literature related to subaxial cervical spine injury classification system was extensively reviewed, analyzed, and summarized so as to introduce the ABCD classification system. The ABCD classification system for subaxial cervical spine injury consists of 3 parts. The first part of the proposed classification is an anatomical description of the injury; it delivers the information whether injury is bony, ligamentous, or a combined one. The second part is the classification of nerve function, spinal stenosis, and spinal instability. The last part is optional and denotes radiological examination which is used to define injury type. Several letters have been used for simplicity to deliver the largest amount of information. And a treatment algorithm based on the proposed classification is suggested. The ABCD classification system is proposed for simplification. However further evaluation of this classification is needed.

  20. Detection of degenerative change in lateral projection cervical spine x-ray images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jebri, Beyrem; Phillips, Michael; Knapp, Karen; Appelboam, Andy; Reuben, Adam; Slabaugh, Greg

    2015-03-01

    Degenerative changes to the cervical spine can be accompanied by neck pain, which can result from narrowing of the intervertebral disc space and growth of osteophytes. In a lateral x-ray image of the cervical spine, degenerative changes are characterized by vertebral bodies that have indistinct boundaries and limited spacing between vertebrae. In this paper, we present a machine learning approach to detect and localize degenerative changes in lateral x-ray images of the cervical spine. Starting from a user-supplied set of points in the center of each vertebral body, we fit a central spline, from which a region of interest is extracted and image features are computed. A Random Forest classifier labels regions as degenerative change or normal. Leave-one-out cross-validation studies performed on a dataset of 103 patients demonstrates performance of above 95% accuracy.

  1. CERVICAL SPINE SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS: PERPETUATING RATHER THAN PREDISPOSING FACTORS FOR TEMPOROMANDIBULAR DISORDERS IN WOMEN

    PubMed Central

    Bevilaqua-Grossi, Débora; Chaves, Thaís Cristina; de Oliveira, Anamaria Siriani

    2007-01-01

    Aim: The purpose of this study was to assess in a sample of female community cases the relationship between the increase of percentage of cervical signs and symptoms and the severity of temporomandibular disorders (TMD) and vice-versa. Material and Methods: One hundred women (aged 18-26 years) clinically diagnosed with TMD signs and symptoms and cervical spine disorders were randomly selected from a sample of college students. Results: 43% of the volunteers demonstrated the same severity for TMD and cervical spine disorders (CSD). The increase in TMD signs and symptoms was accompanied by increase in CSD severity, except for pain during palpation of posterior temporal muscle, more frequently observed in the severe CSD group. However, increase in pain during cervical extension, sounds during cervical lateral flexion, and tenderness to palpation of upper fibers of trapezius and suboccipital muscles were observed in association with the progression of TMD severity. Conclusion: The increase in cervical symptomatology seems to accompany TMD severity; nonetheless, the inverse was not verified. Such results suggest that cervical spine signs and symptoms could be better recognized as perpetuating rather than predisposing factors for TMD. PMID:19089141

  2. Anterior Cervical Discectomy and Fusion Alters Whole-Spine Sagittal Alignment

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jang Hoon; Yi, Seong; Kim, Kyung Hyun; Kuh, Sung Uk; Chin, Dong Kyu; Kim, Keun Su; Cho, Yong Eun

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF) has become a common spine procedure, however, there have been no previous studies on whole spine alignment changes after cervical fusion. Our purpose in this study was to determine whole spine sagittal alignment and pelvic alignment changes after ACDF. Materials and Methods Forty-eight patients who had undergone ACDF from January 2011 to December 2012 were enrolled in this study. Cervical lordosis, thoracic kyphosis, lumbar lordosis, sagittal vertical axis (SVA), and pelvic parameters were measured preoperatively and at 1, 3, 6, and 12 months postoperatively. Clinical outcomes were assessed using Visual Analog Scale (VAS) scores and Neck Disability Index (NDI) values. Results Forty-eight patients were grouped according to operative method (cage only, cage & plate), operative level (upper level: C3/4 & C4/5; lower level: C5/6 & C6/7), and cervical lordosis (high lordosis, low lordosis). All patients experienced significant improvements in VAS scores and NDI values after surgery. Among the radiologic parameters, pelvic tilt increased and sacral slope decreased at 12 months postoperatively. Only the high cervical lordosis group showed significantly-decreased cervical lordosis and a shortened SVA postoperatively. Correlation tests revealed that cervical lordosis was significantly correlated with SVA and that SVA was significantly correlated with pelvic tilt and sacral slope. Conclusion ACDF affects whole spine sagittal alignment, especially in patients with high cervical lordosis. In these patients, alteration of cervical lordosis to a normal angle shortened the SVA and resulted in reciprocal changes in pelvic tilt and sacral slope. PMID:26069131

  3. Summary of the National Athletic Trainers' Association position statement on the acute management of the cervical spine-injured athlete.

    PubMed

    Swartz, Erik E; Decoster, Laura C; Norkus, Susan A; Boden, Barry P; Waninger, Kevin N; Courson, Ronald W; Horodyski, Marybeth; Rehberg, Robb S

    2009-12-01

    The incidence of catastrophic cervical spine injury in sports is low compared with other injuries. However, cervical spine injuries necessitate delicate and precise management, often involving the combined efforts of a variety of health care providers. The outcome of a catastrophic cervical spine injury depends on the efficiency of this management process and timeliness of transfer to a controlled environment for diagnosis and treatment. The objective of the National Athletic Trainers' Association (NATA) position statement on the acute care of the cervical spine-injured athlete is to provide the certified athletic trainer, team physician, emergency responder, and other health care professionals with recommendations on how to best manage a catastrophic cervical spine injury in an athlete. Recommendations are based on current evidence pertaining to prevention strategies to reduce the incidence of cervical spine injuries in sport; emergency planning and preparation to increase management efficiency; maintaining or creating neutral alignment in the cervical spine; accessing and maintaining the airway; stabilizing and transferring the athlete with a suspected cervical spine injury; managing the athlete participating in an equipment-laden sport such as football, hockey, or lacrosse; and imaging considerations in the emergency department.

  4. An Independent Inter- and Intraobserver Agreement Evaluation of the AOSpine Subaxial Cervical Spine Injury Classification System.

    PubMed

    Urrutia, Julio; Zamora, Tomas; Yurac, Ratko; Campos, Mauricio; Palma, Joaquin; Mobarec, Sebastian; Prada, Carlos

    2017-03-01

    An agreement study. The aim of this study was to perform an independent interobserver and intraobserver agreement assessment of the AOSpine subaxial cervical spine injury classification system. The AOSpine subaxial cervical spine injury classification system was recently described. It showed substantial inter- and intraobserver agreement in the study describing it; however, an independent evaluation has not been performed. Anteroposterior and lateral radiographs, computed tomography scans, and magnetic resonance imaging of 65 patients with acute traumatic subaxial cervical spine injuries were selected and classified using the morphologic grading of the subaxial cervical spine injury classification system by 6 evaluators (3 spine surgeons and 3 orthopedic surgery residents). After a 6-week interval, the 65 cases were presented to the same evaluators in a random sequence for repeat evaluation. The kappa coefficient (κ) was used to determine the inter- and intraobserver agreement. The interobserver agreement was substantial when considering the fracture main types (A, B, C, or F), with κ = 0.61 (0.57-0.64), but moderate when considering the subtypes: κ = 0.57 (0.54-0.60). The intraobserver agreement was substantial considering the fracture types, with κ = 0.68 (0.62-0.74) and considering subtypes, κ = 0.62 (0.57-0.66). No significant differences were observed between spine surgeons and orthopedic residents in the overall inter- and intraobserver agreement, or in the inter- and intraobserver agreement of specific A, B, C, or F type of injuries. This classification allows adequate agreement among different observers and by the same observer on separate occasions. Future prospective studies should determine whether this classification allows surgeons to decide the best treatment for patients with subaxial cervical spine injuries. 3.

  5. Influence of cervical spine stabilization via Stiff Neck on the postural system in healthy patients: compensation or decompensation of the postural system?

    PubMed

    Schikora, N; Eysel-Gosepath, Katrin; Klünter, H; Delank, S; Guntinas-Lichius, Orlando

    2010-10-01

    Functional and structural disorders of the cervical spine are often regarded as the cause of non-specific vertigo. Pathogenetically, disorders of proprioceptive connections between neck muscles and vestibular cores as well as the proprioceptors in the cervical facette joints are presumed. According to a study by Hülse and Hölzl (HNO 48:295-301, 1), after manual therapeutic intervention in patients with functional disorders of the cervical spine 50% of the probands stated a significant reduction of their vertigo. This was backed up in posturography, which documented an improvement in vestibulospinal reactions. To date, the effects of artificial as well as surgical stabilization of the cervical spine on the balance system have not been explored yet. In a first pilot study, we examined the influence of artificial stabilization of the cervical spine via cervical collar Stiff Neck, manufactured by Ambu/Perfit ACE] on the balance system of 20 healthy probands. For this purpose, a posturography (Balance Master Systems, NeuroCom, Clackamas, OR, USA) was applied to 20 healthy probands (10 males, 10 females) with a mean age of 35 years who had no prior spine pathology. Posturography was analyzed under static and dynamic test situations with and without Stiff Neck cervical collar. The results were compared statistically to the Wilcoxon test. In the static test situation of the modified clinical test of sensory interaction on balance, a significantly improved standing stability occurred. In none of the dynamic tests did fixation of the cervical spine by Stiff Neck cuff lead to a measurable impairment of the movement coordination. All probands felt subjectively more stable when wearing the Stiff Neck. In healthy probands, a fixation of the cervical spine leads to a stabilization of the postural balance situation. This fixation seems to be helpful in compensating the malfunction of other components of balance information. In a next step, this same model of analysis is applied

  6. Relationship between cervical spine injury and helmet use in motorcycle road crashes.

    PubMed

    Ooi, S S; Wong, S V; Yeap, J S; Umar, Radin

    2011-07-01

    Motorcycle helmets have been proven to prevent head injury and reduce fatality in road crashes. However, certain studies indicate that the helmet increases the mass to the head, and thus the potential of neck injury due to the flexion/extension of the head-neck segment in a road crash may increase. This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of motorcycle helmets and the ways in which the accidents that occurred affected the incidence of cervical spine injury. Nevertheless, it is not intended to and does not discredit the fact that helmet use prevents many motorcyclists from sustaining serious and fatal head injuries. A total of 76 cases were collected and analyzed based on the data collected from real-world crashes. The Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) was used to assess the severity of injury, whereas the statistical Pearson χ(2) correlation method was used for analysis. The results showed that motorcycle helmets did not affect the severity of cervical spine injury. However, when the samples were further subcategorized into different crash modes, it was found that helmets affect the incidence of a severe cervical spine injury. In frontal collisions, the use of helmets significantly reduces the severity of cervical spine injury, whereas in rear-end, side impact, and skidded accidents, the use of helmets increases the probability of a severe cervical spine injury. However, in the latter crash modes, a motorcyclist without a helmet will have to trade-off with head injury. A logistic regression model has been developed with respective crash modes and the probabilities of risk in having severe cervical spine injury have been calculated. Future designs in motorcycle helmets should therefore consider the significance of nonfrontal accidents and the interaction of helmet with other parts of the body by possibly considering the weight of the helmet.

  7. A systematic review of the use of expandable cages in the cervical spine.

    PubMed

    Elder, Benjamin D; Lo, Sheng-Fu; Kosztowski, Thomas A; Goodwin, C Rory; Lina, Ioan A; Locke, John E; Witham, Timothy F

    2016-01-01

    Expandable vertebral body replacement cages (VBRs) have been widely used for reconstruction of the thoracolumbar spine following corpectomy. However, their use in the cervical spine is less common, and currently, no expandable cages on the market are cleared or approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for use in the cervical spine. The objective of this study was to perform a systematic review on the use of expandable cages in the treatment of cervical spine pathology with a focus on fusion rates, deformity correction, complications, and indications. A comprehensive Medline search was performed, and 24 applicable articles were identified and included in this review. The advantages of expandable cages include greater ease of implantation with less risk of damage to the end plate, less intraoperative manipulation of the device, and potentially greater control over lordosis. They may be particularly advantageous in cases with poor bone quality, such as patients with osteoporosis or metastatic tumors that have been radiated. However, there is a potential risk of overdistraction, which is increased in the cervical spine, their minimum height limits their use in cases with collapsed vertebra, and the amount of hardware in the expansion mechanism may limit the surface area available for fusion. The use of expandable VBRs are a valuable tool in the armamentarium for reconstruction of the anterior column of the cervical spine with an acceptable safety profile. Although expandable cervical cages are clearly beneficial in certain clinical situations, widespread use following all corpectomies is not justified due to their significantly greater cost compared to structural bone grafts or non-expandable VBRs, which can be utilized to achieve similar clinical outcomes.

  8. Development and validation of a 10-year-old child ligamentous cervical spine finite element model.

    PubMed

    Dong, Liqiang; Li, Guangyao; Mao, Haojie; Marek, Stanley; Yang, King H

    2013-12-01

    Although a number of finite element (FE) adult cervical spine models have been developed to understand the injury mechanisms of the neck in automotive related crash scenarios, there have been fewer efforts to develop a child neck model. In this study, a 10-year-old ligamentous cervical spine FE model was developed for application in the improvement of pediatric safety related to motor vehicle crashes. The model geometry was obtained from medical scans and meshed using a multi-block approach. Appropriate properties based on review of literature in conjunction with scaling were assigned to different parts of the model. Child tensile force-deformation data in three segments, Occipital-C2 (C0-C2), C4-C5 and C6-C7, were used to validate the cervical spine model and predict failure forces and displacements. Design of computer experiments was performed to determine failure properties for intervertebral discs and ligaments needed to set up the FE model. The model-predicted ultimate displacements and forces were within the experimental range. The cervical spine FE model was validated in flexion and extension against the child experimental data in three segments, C0-C2, C4-C5 and C6-C7. Other model predictions were found to be consistent with the experimental responses scaled from adult data. The whole cervical spine model was also validated in tension, flexion and extension against the child experimental data. This study provided methods for developing a child ligamentous cervical spine FE model and to predict soft tissue failures in tension.

  9. A numerical investigation of factors affecting cervical spine injuries during rollover crashes.

    PubMed

    Hu, Jingwen; Yang, King H; Chou, Clifford C; King, Albert I

    2008-11-01

    Factors affecting the risk of cervical spine injury in rollover crashes were investigated using a detailed finite element human head-neck model. Analyze systematically neck responses and associated injury predictors under complex loading conditions similar to real-world rollover scenarios and use the findings to identify potential design improvements. Although many previous experimental and numerical studies have focused on cervical spine injury mechanisms and tolerance, none of them have investigated the risk of cervical spine injuries under loading condition similar to that in rollovers. The effects of changing the coefficient of friction (COF), impact velocity, padding material thickness and stiffness, and muscle force on the risk of neck injuries were analyzed in 16 different impact orientations based on a Taguchi array of design of experiments. Impact velocity is the most important factor in determining the risk of cervical spine fracture (P = 0.000). Decreases in the COF between the head and impact surface can effectively reduce the risk of cervical spine fracture (P = 0.038). If the COF is not 0, an impact with lateral force component could sometimes increase the risk of cervical spine fracture; and the larger the oriented angle of the impact surface, the more important it becomes to reduce the COF to protect the neck. Soft (P = 0.033) and thick (P = 0.137) padding can actually decrease the neck fracture risk, which is in contrast to previous experimental data. A careful selection of proper padding stiffness and thickness, along with a minimized COF between the head and impact surface or between the padding and its supporting structure, may simultaneously decrease the risk of head and neck injuries during rollover crashes. A seatbelt design to effectively reduce/eliminate the head-to-roof impact velocity is also very crucial to enhance the neck protection in rollovers.

  10. Cervical spine disorders and its association with tinnitus: The "triple" hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Bressi, Federica; Casale, Manuele; Papalia, Rocco; Moffa, Antonio; Di Martino, Alberto; Miccinilli, Sandra; Salvinelli, Fabrizio; Denaro, Vincenzo; Sterzi, Silvia

    2017-01-01

    Subjective tinnitus and cervical spine disorders (CSD) are among the most common complaints encountered by physicians. Although the relationship between tinnitus and CSD has attracted great interest during the past several years, the pathogenesis of tinnitus induced by CSD remains unclear. Conceivably, CSD could trigger a somatosensory pathway-induced disinhibition of dorsal cochlear nucleus (DCN) activity in the auditory pathway; furthermore, CSD can cause inner ear blood impairment induced by vertebral arteries hemodynamic alterations and trigeminal irritation. In genetically -predisposed CSD patients with reduced serotoninergic tone, signals from chronically stimulated DCNs could activate specific cortical neuronal networks and plastic neural changes resulting in tinnitus. Therefore, an early specific tailored CSD treatments and/or boosting serotoninergic activity may be required to prevent the creation of 'tinnitus memory circuits' in CSD patients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. The sensitivity and negative predictive value of a pediatric cervical spine clearance algorithm that minimizes computerized tomography.

    PubMed

    Arbuthnot, Mary; Mooney, David P

    2017-01-01

    It is crucial to identify cervical spine injuries while minimizing ionizing radiation. This study analyzes the sensitivity and negative predictive value of a pediatric cervical spine clearance algorithm. We performed a retrospective review of all children <21years old who were admitted following blunt trauma and underwent cervical spine clearance utilizing our institution's cervical spine clearance algorithm over a 10-year period. Age, gender, International Classification of Diseases 9th Edition diagnosis codes, presence or absence of cervical collar on arrival, Injury Severity Score, and type of cervical spine imaging obtained were extracted from the trauma registry and electronic medical record. Descriptive statistics were used and the sensitivity and negative predictive value of the algorithm were calculated. Approximately 125,000 children were evaluated in the Emergency Department and 11,331 were admitted. Of the admitted children, 1023 patients arrived in a cervical collar without advanced cervical spine imaging and were evaluated using the cervical spine clearance algorithm. Algorithm sensitivity was 94.4% and the negative predictive value was 99.9%. There was one missed injury, a spinous process tip fracture in a teenager maintained in a collar. Our algorithm was associated with a low missed injury rate and low CT utilization rate, even in children <3years old. IV. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  12. Tertiary Syphilis in the Cervical Spine: A Case Report and Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Salem, K. M. I.; Majeed, H.; Bommireddy, R.; Klezl, Z.

    2012-01-01

    As the prevalence of syphilis rises, an increase in tertiary syphilis with spinal involvement is predicted. We report what we believe to be the first case of compressive cervical spine syphilitic gummata, with central cord compression signs. We also review the relevant literature to date. The diagnosis of syphilis in the spine relies on the physician to be aware of it as part of the differential diagnosis. Treponemal laboratory tests are an important aid in establishing a diagnosis. PMID:24436850

  13. Surgical resection of neoplastic cervical spine lesions in relation to the vertebral artery V2 segment

    PubMed Central

    Al Barbarawi, Mohamed; Odat, Ziad; Alheis, Mwaffaq; Qudsieh, Suhair; Qudsieh, Tareq

    2010-01-01

    Neoplastic cervical spine lesions are seen infrequently by the spinal surgeon. The surgical management of these tumors, particularly with associated neurovascular compromise, is challenging in terms of achieving proper resection and spinal stabilization and ensuring no subsequent recurrence or failure of fixation. In this report we highlight some of the problems encountered in the surgical management of tumors involving the cervical spine with techniques applied for gross total resection of the tumor without compromising the vertebral arteries. Ten patients with neoplastic cervical spine lesions were managed in our study. The common cardinal presentation was neck and arm pain with progressive cervical radiculo-myelopathy. All patients had plain X-rays, computer tomography scans, and magnetic resonance imaging of the cervical spine. Digital subtraction or magnetic resonance angiograms were performed on both vertebral arteries when the pathology was found to be in proximity to the vertebral artery. When a tumor blush with feeders was evident, endovascular embolization to minimize intraoperative bleeding was also considered. A single approach or a combined anterior cervical approach for corpectomy and cage-with-plate fixation and posterior decompression for resection of the rest of the tumor with spinal fixation was then accomplished as indicated. All cases made a good neurological recovery and had no neural or vascular complications. On the long-term follow-up of the survivors there was no local recurrence or surgical failure. Only three patients died: two from the primary malignancy and one from pulmonary embolism. This report documents a safe and reliable way to deal with neoplastic cervical spine lesions in proximity to vertebral arteries with preservation of both arteries. PMID:21577335

  14. Utility of STIR MRI in pediatric cervical spine clearance after trauma.

    PubMed

    Henry, Mark; Scarlata, Katherine; Riesenburger, Ron I; Kryzanski, James; Rideout, Leslie; Samdani, Amer; Jea, Andrew; Hwang, Steven W

    2013-07-01

    Although MRI with short-term T1 inversion recovery (STIR) sequencing has been widely adopted in the clearance of cervical spine in adults who have sustained trauma, its applicability for cervical spine clearance in pediatric trauma patients remains unclear. The authors sought to review a Level 1 trauma center's experience using MRI for posttraumatic evaluation of the cervical spine in pediatric patients. A pediatric trauma database was retrospectively queried for patients who received an injury warranting radiographic imaging of the cervical spine and had a STIR-MRI sequence of the cervical spine performed within 48 hours of injury between 2002 and 2011. Demographic, radiographic, and outcome data were retrospectively collected through medical records. Seventy-three cases were included in the analysis. The mean duration of follow-up was 10 months (range 4 days-7 years). The mean age of the patients at the time of trauma evaluation was 8.3 ± 5.8 years, and 65% were male. The majority of patients were involved in a motor vehicle accident. In 70 cases, the results of MRI studies were negative, and the patients were cleared prior to discharge with no clinical suggestion of instability on follow-up. In 3 cases, the MRI studies had abnormal findings; 2 of these 3 patients were cleared with dynamic radiographs during the same admission. Only 1 patient had an unstable injury and required surgical stabilization. The sensitivity of STIR MRI to detect cervical instability was 100% with a specificity of 97%. The positive predictive value was 33% and the negative predictive value was 100%. Although interpretation of our results are diminished by limitations of the study, in our series, STIR MRI in routine screening for pediatric cervical trauma had a high sensitivity and slightly lower specificity, but may have utility in future practices and should be considered for implementation into protocols.

  15. Cervical spine injury biomechanics: Applications for under body blast loadings in military environments.

    PubMed

    Yoganandan, Narayan; Stemper, Brian D; Pintar, Frank A; Maiman, Dennis J; McEntire, B Joseph; Chancey, Valeta Carol

    2013-07-01

    While cervical spine injury biomechanics reviews in motor vehicle and sports environments are available, there is a paucity of studies in military loadings. This article presents an analysis on the biomechanics and applications of cervical spine injury research with an emphasis on human tolerance for underbody blast loadings in the military. Following a brief review of published military studies on the occurrence and identification of field trauma, postmortem human subject investigations are described using whole body, intact head-neck complex, osteo-ligamentous cervical spine with head, subaxial cervical column, and isolated segments subjected to differing types of dynamic loadings (electrohydraulic and pendulum impact devices, free-fall drops). Spine injuries have shown an increasing trend over the years, explosive devices are one of the primary causal agents and trauma is attributed to vertical loads. Injuries, mechanisms and tolerances are discussed under these loads. Probability-based injury risk curves are included based on loading rate, direction and age. A unique advantage of human cadaver tests is the ability to obtain fundamental data to delineate injury biomechanics and establish human tolerance and injury criteria. Definitions of tolerances of the spine under vertical loads based on injuries have implications in clinical and biomechanical applications. Primary outputs such as forces and moments can be used to derive secondary variables such as the neck injury criterion. Implications are discussed for designing anthropomorphic test devices that may be used to predict injuries in underbody blast environments and improve the safety of military personnel. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  16. En bloc resection of primary malignant bone tumors of the cervical spine.

    PubMed

    Mattei, Tobias A; Mendel, Ehud

    2014-11-01

    Due to the poor response of primary malignant bone tumors to adjuvant therapies, surgical resection performed in an en bloc fashion with free margins remains the best option for long-term recurrence-free survival of patients harboring such lesions. In this article the authors provide a stepwise review of the technical details involved in the performance of en bloc resections of tumoral lesions in the cervical spine. Due to the anatomical peculiarities of the cervical spine related to the presence of functional nerve roots as well as the vertebral arteries, en bloc resections in this region remains a challenging surgical procedure.

  17. Congenital spine deformities: a new screening indication for blunt cerebrovascular injuries after cervical trauma?

    PubMed

    Capone, Christine; Burjonrappa, Sathyaprasad

    2010-12-01

    Blunt cerebrovascular injuries (BCVI) carry significant morbidity if not diagnosed and treated early. A high index of clinical suspicion is needed to recognize the injury patterns associated with this condition and to order the requisite imaging studies needed to diagnose it accurately. We report of BCVI associated with a congenital cervical spine malformation after blunt trauma. We recommend inclusion of cervical spine malformations to the current Eastern Association for the Surgery of Trauma screening criteria for BCVI and explain our rationale for the same.

  18. Diagnostic imaging of cervical spine injuries following blunt trauma: a review of the literature and practical guideline.

    PubMed

    Saltzherr, T P; Fung Kon Jin, P H P; Beenen, L F M; Vandertop, W P; Goslings, J C

    2009-08-01

    Patients with a (potential) cervical spine injury can be subdivided into low-risk and high-risk patients. With a detailed history and physical examination the cervical spine of patients in the "low-risk" group can be "cleared" without further radiographic examinations. X-ray imaging (3-view series) is currently the primary choice of imaging for patients in the "low-risk" group with a suspected cervical spine injury after blunt trauma. For patients in the "high-risk"group because of its higher sensitivity a computed tomography scan is primarily advised or, alternatively, the cervical spine is immobilised until the patient can be reliably questioned and examined again. For the imaging of traumatic soft tissue injuries of the cervical spine magnetic resonance imaging is the technique of choice.

  19. Bilateral Upper Extremity Hyperesthesia and Absence of Neck Tenderness in Four Adolescent Athletes With Cervical Spine Injuries.

    PubMed

    Fisher, Jay Douglas; Thorpe, Elizabeth Lewis

    2017-01-24

    Cervical spine injury in the pediatric athlete is an uncommon but potentially devastating condition that can require a heightened index of suspicion to correctly diagnose. Although some cervical spine injuries present overtly with paraplegia due to cord transection, others can present more subtly with symptoms suggestive of bilateral peripheral neuropathy. Patients with traumatic brachial neuropraxia or "stinger" physiology can present similarly, but symptoms are exclusively unilateral. We present 4 patients with bilateral upper extremity hyperesthesias and absence of tenderness over the cervical vertebral landmarks who were subsequently diagnosed with cervical spine injuries.

  20. Case Series of an Intraoral Balancing Appliance Therapy on Subjective Symptom Severity and Cervical Spine Alignment

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Young Jun; Lee, Joo Kang; Jung, Soo Chang; Lee, Hwang-woo; Yin, Chang Shik; Lee, Young Jin

    2013-01-01

    Objective. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of a holistic intraoral appliance (OA) on cervical spine alignment and subjective symptom severity. Design. An observational study on case series with holistic OA therapy. Setting. An outpatient clinic for holistic temporomandibular joint (TMJ) therapy under the supervision of the Pain Center, CHA Biomedical center, CHA University. Subjects. Ambulatory patients presenting with diverse chief complaints in the holistic TMJ clinic. Main Measures. Any immediate change in the curvature of cervical spine and the degree of atlantoaxial rotation was investigated in the images of simple X-ray and computed tomography of cervical spine with or without OA. Changes of subjective symptom severity were also analyzed for the holistic OA therapy cases. Results. A total of 59 cases were reviewed. Alignment of upper cervical spine rotation showed an immediate improvement (P < 0.001). Changes of subjective symptom severity also showed significant improvement (P < 0.05). Conclusion. These cases revealed rudimentary clinical evidence that holistic OA therapy may be related to an alleviated symptom severity and an improved cervical spinal alignment. These results show that further researches may warrant for the holistic TMJ therapy. PMID:23935655

  1. Developmental steps of the human cervical spine: parameters for evaluation of skeletal maturation stages.

    PubMed

    dos Santos, Marcos Fabio Henriques; de Lima, Rodrigo Lopes; De-Ary-Pires, Bernardo; Pires-Neto, Mário Ary; de Ary-Pires, Ricardo

    2010-06-01

    The central objective of this investigation was to focus on the development of the cervical spine observed by lateral cephalometric radiological images of children and adolescents (6-16 years old). A sample of 26 individuals (12 girls and 14 boys) was classified according to stages of cervical spine maturation in two subcategories: group I (initiation phase) and group II (acceleration phase). The morphology of the cervical spine was assessed by lateral cephalometric radiographs obtained in accordance with an innovative method for establishing a standardized head posture. A total of 29 linear variables and 5 angular variables were used to clarify the dimensions of the cervical vertebrae. The results suggest that a few measurements can be used as parameters of vertebral maturation both for males and females. The aforementioned measurements include the inferior depth of C2-C4, the inferior depth of C5, the anterior height of C4-C5, and the posterior height of C5. We propose original morphological parameters that may prove remarkably useful in the determination of bone maturational stages of the cervical spine in children and adolescents.

  2. Cerebellar hemorrhage caused by cerebrospinal fluid leak after spine surgery.

    PubMed

    Farag, Ehab; Abdou, Amgad; Riad, Ihab; Borsellino, Sam R; Schubert, Armin

    2005-02-01

    Spine surgery is associated with a wide range of surgical and anesthetic complications. Excessive cerebrospinal fluid leak can be a cause of cerebellar hemorrhage postoperatively. We report a 43-yr-old patient who had lumbar spine reexploration surgery complicated by a cerebrospinal fluid leak which led to cerebellar hemorrhage manifested by postoperative mental status changes. Early detection and proper management resulted in full recovery.

  3. Esophageal perforation after anterior cervical spine surgery: a systematic review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Halani, Sameer H; Baum, Griffin R; Riley, Jonathan P; Pradilla, Gustavo; Refai, Daniel; Rodts, Gerald E; Ahmad, Faiz U

    2016-09-01

    OBJECTIVE Esophageal perforation is a rare but well-known complication of anterior cervical spine surgery. The authors performed a systematic review of the literature to evaluate symptomatology, direct causes, repair methods, and associated complications of esophageal injury. METHODS A PubMed search that adhered to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines included relevant clinical studies and case reports (articles written in the English language that included humans as subjects) that reported patients who underwent anterior spinal surgery and sustained some form of esophageal perforation. Available data on clinical presentation, the surgical procedure performed, outcome measures, and other individual variables were abstracted from 1980 through 2015. RESULTS The PubMed search yielded 65 articles with 153 patients (mean age 44.7 years; range 14-85 years) who underwent anterior spinal surgery and sustained esophageal perforation, either during surgery or in a delayed fashion. The most common indications for initial anterior cervical spine surgery in these cases were vertebral fracture/dislocation (n = 77), spondylotic myelopathy (n = 15), and nucleus pulposus herniation (n = 10). The most commonly involved spinal levels were C5-6 (n = 51) and C6-7 (n = 39). The most common presenting symptoms included dysphagia (n =63), fever (n = 24), neck swelling (n = 23), and wound leakage (n = 18). The etiology of esophageal perforation included hardware failure (n = 31), hardware erosion (n = 23), and intraoperative injury (n = 14). The imaging modalities used to identify the esophageal perforations included modified contrast dye swallow studies, CT, endoscopy, plain radiography, and MRI. Esophageal repair was most commonly achieved using a modified muscle flap, as well as with primary closure. Outcomes measured in the literature were often defined by the time to oral intake following esophageal repair. Complications included

  4. Sagittal alignment of cervical spine in adult idiopathic scoliosis.

    PubMed

    Aykac, Bilal; Ayhan, Selim; Yuksel, Selcen; Guler, Umit Ozgur; Pellise, Ferran; Alanay, Ahmet; Perez-Grueso, Francisco Javier Sanchez; Acaroglu, Emre

    2015-06-01

    Alignment of the cervical spine (CS) in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (IS) as well as in asymptomatic adult populations has recently been studied and described as being less lordotic in the adolescent IS population. However, few studies have examined the sagittal alignment of the CS in adult IS or its association with other radiological variables and clinical relevance. The aim of this study is to analyse the sagittal alignment of CS in adult IS and its association with age, alignment of the thoracic, lumbar and global spinal column as well as health-related quality of life (HRQOL) parameters. A retrospective review of prospectively collected data from a multicenter database was performed. Of 468 consecutive adult IS patients, 213 were included in the study; the remainder were excluded due to poor quality X-rays where the CS was not properly visible, or previous surgery. X-rays were measured for the following CS parameters: [Cranial base-C2 (C0-C2) lordosis, C2-C7 lordosis, thoracic (T1) slope, thoracic inlet angle (TIA) and odontoid (Od)-T1 offset using a measurement software]. These measurements were then evaluated for possible associations with patient age and with pre-existing alignment parameters and HRQOL scores using Pearson correlation tests. The average and standard deviations for CS alignment parameters were 32.3° ± 10.2° for C0-C2; 5.7° ± 14.1° for C2-C7; 23.9° ± 11.3° for T1 slope, 70.5° ± 14.7° for TIA and 20.8° ± 16.5° for Od-T1 offset. CS alignment showed a significant (p < 0.05) correlation with age, T kyphosis and several other sagittal alignment parameters such as sagittal vertical axis (SVA), global tilt and T1 sagittal tilt, but not with the HRQOL parameters. The sagittal alignment of the CS in adult IS is less lordotic than the normal average while less kyphotic than that of IS of a younger age. It correlates with age, thoracic kyphosis and some global sagittal alignment parameters. These findings suggest that CS alignment is

  5. Rolfing structural integration treatment of cervical spine dysfunction.

    PubMed

    James, Helen; Castaneda, Luis; Miller, Marilyn E; Findley, Thomas

    2009-07-01

    significantly decreasing pain and increasing AROM in adult subjects, male and female, with complaints of cervical spine dysfunction regardless of age.

  6. Missed cervical spine fracture-dislocations prior to manipulation: A review of three cases

    PubMed Central

    Nykoliation, J. W.; Cassidy, J. D.; Dupuis, P.; Yong-Hing, K.; Crnec, M.

    1986-01-01

    Three cases of patients with fracture-dislocations of their cervical spines following forced flexion injuries are presented. All received cervical manipulation without proper clinical and radiographic evaluation. These cases stress the importance of a thorough examination prior to the application of manipulative therapy. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3Figure 4Figure 5Figure 6Figure 7Figure 8Figure 9Figure 10Figure 11Figure 12Figure 13

  7. The Role of C2-C7 Angle in the Development of Dysphagia After Anterior and Posterior Cervical Spine Surgery.

    PubMed

    Tian, Wei; Yu, Jie

    2016-12-07

    This is a retrospective clinical study. To analyze the relationship between cervical alignment and the development of dysphagia after anterior and posterior cervical (PC) spine surgery [anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF), cervical disk replacement (CDR), and PC]. Dysphagia is a known complication of cervical surgery and may be prolonged or occasionally serious. A previous study showed dysphagia after occipitocervical fusion was caused by oropharyneal stenosis resulting from O-C2 (upper cervical lordosis) fixation in a flexed position. However, there have been few reports analyzing the association between the C2-C7 angle (middle-lower cervical lordosis) and postoperative dysphagia. In total, 452 patients were reviewed in this study, including 172 patients who underwent the ACDF procedure, 98 patients who had the CDR procedure, and 182 patients who had the PC procedure between June 2007 and May 2010. The presence and duration of postoperative dysphagia were recorded via face-to-face questioning or telephone interview performed at least 1 year after the procedure. Plain cervical radiographs before and after surgery were collected. The O-C2 angle and C2-C7 angle were measured. The change of O-C2 angle and C2-C7 angle were defined as dO-C2 angle=postoperative O-C2 angle-preoperative O-C2 angle and dC2-C7 angle=postoperative C2-C7 angle-preoperative C2-C7 angle. The association between postoperative dysphagia with dO-C2 angle and dC2-C7 angle was studied. A total of 12.8% ACDF, 5.1% CDR, and 9.4% PC patients reported dysphagia after cervical surgery. The dC2-C7 angle has considerable impact on postoperative dysphagia. When dC2-C7 angle is >5 degrees, the chance of developing postoperative dysphagia of this patient is significantly greater. The dO-C2 angle, age, sex, body mass index, operative time, blood loss, procedure type, revision surgery, most cephalic operative level, and number of operative levels did not significantly influence the incidence of

  8. Limitation of previous Allen classification and subaxial cervical spine injury classification (SLIC) system in distractive-extension injury of cervical spine: proposal of modified classification system.

    PubMed

    Song, Kyung-Jin; Lee, Su-Kyung; Ham, Dong-Hun; Kim, Yong-Jin; Choi, Byung-Wan

    2016-01-01

    To verify the clinical applicability of a modified classification system in distractive-extension cervical spine injury that reflects the degrees of soft tissue damage and spinal cord injury while complementing previous Allen classification and subaxial cervical spine injury classification (SLIC) system. A total of 195 patients with cervical spine distraction-extension (DE) injury were retrospectively classified. We added stages IIIA (with concomitant spinal cord injury without bony abnormalities) and IIIB (with concomitant additional soft tissue swelling) to the existing stages I and II of the Allen classification. We also supplemented the SLIC system by refining and assigning scores to bony morphology and soft tissue damage. The previous and proposed classification systems were compared by analyzing their scoring performances in terms of clinical features and prognosis. The Allen classification yielded 153 and 42 patients with stage 1 and 42 stage 2 injuries, respectively. Patients classified according to the proposed system were stratified as follows: stage I, 58; stage II, 27; stage IIIA, 33; and stage IIIB, 77. Regarding neurological symptoms and prognosis, stages IIIA and IIIB were poorer than stage I but significantly better than stage II (P < 0.05). On the SLIC system, 146 patients scored ≥5; and 37 and 12 patients scored 4 and ≤3 points, respectively, whereas the numbers of patients who scored ≥5, 4, and ≤3 points on the modified SLIC system were 170, 21, and 4, respectively. The proposed classification and scoring system to complement the Allen classification and SLIC system with respect to the degrees of soft tissue damage and spinal cord injury is considered effective for diagnosing and determining therapeutic directions and prognosis in cases of cervical spine extension injury.

  9. Degenerative disease of the cervical spine and its relationship to athletes.

    PubMed

    Triantafillou, Konstantinos M; Lauerman, William; Kalantar, S Babak

    2012-07-01

    Each sport presents with unique risk factors and different mechanisms of injury, and therefore extrapolation of the data from one sport to another makes comparison difficult. The current evidence exploring the relationship of athletes and degenerative changes of the cervical spine leaves much to be debated, and future prospective longitudinal studies will be needed to clarify our understanding further. Such research will help structure clinical recommendations and improve sports safety and the care of athletes of all ages. Currently, there is evidence to suggest that participation in collision sports is implicated in premature degeneration of the cervical spine. There is some evidence to suggest that the same is true with noncollision sports and activities that result in direct and indirect repetitive loads to the cervical spine over time. The risk factors have yet to be clearly identified. The natural history and sequelae of premature degeneration have yet to be elucidated. Cervical spondylosis also appears to increase the severity, but not the frequency, of irreversible neurologic injury during collision sport participation. Prudence dictates that we not ignore the present evidence suggesting a link between neuropraxia and cervical stenosis. Proper screening for cervical stenosis in patients with transient neuropraxia with subsequent cessation of participation in collision sports if severe stenosis is present is suggested. There is no consensus for RTP guidelines in the setting of transient neurologic injuries in the athlete when severe degeneration is present, and each case must be considered individually with regard to the sport involved.

  10. Clinical characteristics of rheumatoid arthritis patients undergoing cervical spine surgery: an analysis of National Database of Rheumatic Diseases in Japan.

    PubMed

    Sugita, Shurei; Chikuda, Hirotaka; Kadono, Yuho; Ohtsu, Hiroshi; Takeshita, Katsushi; Nishino, Jinju; Tohma, Shigeto; Tanaka, Sakae

    2014-06-13

    The aim of this study was to examine the clinical characteristics of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients who underwent cervical spine surgery using a multicenter observational database. We obtained data from a nationwide observational cohort database of patients with rheumatic diseases (National Database of Rheumatic Diseases by iR-net in Japan (NinJa)) for the fiscal years 2003 to 2011. A total of 39 out of 60 patients who underwent cervical spine surgery for a RA-related cause and whose data were available for two consecutive years (to assess the preoperative patient status) were chosen as cases. Patients with a non-RA-related cause of surgery (e.g., trauma) were excluded. First, we compared the patient characteristics between the cases and total patients in the same fiscal year. Next, 106 eligible controls, who were defined as RA patients enrolled in the same fiscal year as the case subjects, who were matched for age, gender and disease duration (within ±1 year), were selected. We compared the demographic data between the two groups. We also calculated the percentage of patients who underwent cervical spine surgery (surgeries/total number of patients) in fiscal years 2003 to 2011. Although the proportion of patients using biologics linearly increased during study period, the percentage of patients undergoing cervical spine surgeries remained unchanged, at approximately 0.15%. These cases had more tender joints (3 vs. 1, p < 0.01) and exhibited a significantly higher Modified Health Assessment Questionnaire (MHAQ) score (1.13 vs. 0.5, p < 0.01), C-reactive protein (CRP) (1.5 vs. 0.36, p < 0.01), and disease activity score (DAS) 28-CRP (3.63 vs. 2.81, p < 0.01) compared to the controls. Our study revealed that RA patients requiring cervical spine surgery have a higher disease activity (as represented by the DAS28-CRP) and are more functionally disabled (as represented by the MHAQ) than control patients.

  11. Clinical characteristics of rheumatoid arthritis patients undergoing cervical spine surgery: an analysis of National Database of Rheumatic Diseases in Japan

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to examine the clinical characteristics of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients who underwent cervical spine surgery using a multicenter observational database. Methods We obtained data from a nationwide observational cohort database of patients with rheumatic diseases (National Database of Rheumatic Diseases by iR-net in Japan (NinJa)) for the fiscal years 2003 to 2011. A total of 39 out of 60 patients who underwent cervical spine surgery for a RA-related cause and whose data were available for two consecutive years (to assess the preoperative patient status) were chosen as cases. Patients with a non-RA-related cause of surgery (e.g., trauma) were excluded. First, we compared the patient characteristics between the cases and total patients in the same fiscal year. Next, 106 eligible controls, who were defined as RA patients enrolled in the same fiscal year as the case subjects, who were matched for age, gender and disease duration (within ±1 year), were selected. We compared the demographic data between the two groups. We also calculated the percentage of patients who underwent cervical spine surgery (surgeries/total number of patients) in fiscal years 2003 to 2011. Results Although the proportion of patients using biologics linearly increased during study period, the percentage of patients undergoing cervical spine surgeries remained unchanged, at approximately 0.15%. These cases had more tender joints (3 vs. 1, p < 0.01) and exhibited a significantly higher Modified Health Assessment Questionnaire (MHAQ) score (1.13 vs. 0.5, p < 0.01), C-reactive protein (CRP) (1.5 vs. 0.36, p < 0.01), and disease activity score (DAS) 28-CRP (3.63 vs. 2.81, p < 0.01) compared to the controls. Conclusions Our study revealed that RA patients requiring cervical spine surgery have a higher disease activity (as represented by the DAS28-CRP) and are more functionally disabled (as represented by the MHAQ) than control patients. PMID

  12. The cervical spine of professional front-row rugby players: correlation between degenerative changes and symptoms.

    PubMed

    Hogan, B A; Hogan, N A; Vos, P M; Eustace, S J; Kenny, P J

    2010-06-01

    Injuries to the cervical spine (C-spine) are among the most serious in rugby and are well documented. Front-row players are particularly at risk due to repetitive high-intensity collisions in the scrum. This study evaluates degenerative changes of the C-spine and associated symptomatology in front-row rugby players. C-spine radiographs from 14 professional rugby players and controls were compared. Players averaged 23 years of playing competitive rugby. Two consultant radiologists performed a blind review of radiographs evaluating degeneration of disc spaces and apophyseal joints. Clinical status was assessed using a modified AAOS/NASS/COSS cervical spine outcomes questionnaire. Front-row rugby players exhibited significant radiographic evidence of C-spine degenerative changes compared to the non-rugby playing controls (P < 0.005). Despite these findings the rugby players did not exhibit increased symptoms. This highlights the radiologic degenerative changes of the C-spine of front-row rugby players. However, these changes do not manifest themselves clinically or affect activities of daily living.

  13. Male and Female Cervical Spine Biomechanics and Anatomy: Implication for Scaling Injury Criteria.

    PubMed

    Yoganandan, Narayan; Bass, Cameron R; Voo, Liming; Pintar, Frank A

    2017-05-01

    There is an increased need to develop female-specific injury criteria and anthropomorphic test devices (dummies) for military and automotive environments, especially as women take occupational roles traditionally reserved for men. Although some exhaustive reviews on the biomechanics and injuries of the human spine have appeared in clinical and bioengineering literatures, focus has been largely ignored on the difference between male and female cervical spine responses and characteristics. Current neck injury criteria for automotive dummies for assessing crashworthiness and occupant safety are obtained from animal and human cadaver experiments, computational modeling, and human volunteer studies. They are also used in the military. Since the average human female spines are smaller than average male spines, metrics specific to the female population may be derived using simple geometric scaling, based on the assumption that male and female spines are geometrically scalable. However, as described in this technical brief, studies have shown that the biomechanical responses between males and females do not obey strict geometric similitude. Anatomical differences in terms of the structural component geometry are also different between the two cervical spines. Postural, physiological, and motion responses under automotive scenarios are also different. This technical brief, focused on such nonuniform differences, underscores the need to conduct female spine-specific evaluations/experiments to derive injury criteria for this important group of the population.

  14. Short-term combined effects of thoracic spine thrust manipulation and cervical spine nonthrust manipulation in individuals with mechanical neck pain: a randomized clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Masaracchio, Michael; Cleland, Joshua A; Hellman, Madeleine; Hagins, Marshall

    2013-03-01

    Randomized clinical trial. To investigate the short-term effects of thoracic spine thrust manipulation combined with cervical spine nonthrust manipulation (experimental group) versus cervical spine nonthrust manipulation alone (comparison group) in individuals with mechanical neck pain. Research has demonstrated improved outcomes with both nonthrust manipulation directed at the cervical spine and thrust manipulation directed at the thoracic spine in patients with neck pain. Previous studies have not determined if thoracic spine thrust manipulation may increase benefits beyond those provided by cervical nonthrust manipulation alone. Sixty-four participants with mechanical neck pain were randomized into 1 of 2 groups, an experimental or comparison group. Both groups received 2 treatment sessions of cervical spine nonthrust manipulation and a home exercise program consisting of active range-of-motion exercises, and the experimental group received additional thoracic spine thrust manipulations. Outcome measures were collected at baseline and at a 1-week follow-up, and included the numeric pain rating scale, the Neck Disability Index, and the global rating of change. Participants in the experimental group demonstrated significantly greater improvements (P<.001) on both the numeric pain rating scale and Neck Disability Index at the 1-week follow-up compared to those in the comparison group. In addition, 31 of 33 (94%) participants in the experimental group, compared to 11 of 31 participants (35%) in the comparison group, indicated a global rating of change score of +4 or higher at the 1-week follow-up, with an associated number needed to treat of 2. Individuals with neck pain who received a combination of thoracic spine thrust manipulation and cervical spine nonthrust manipulation plus exercise demonstrated better overall short-term outcomes on the numeric pain rating scale, the Neck Disability Index, and the global rating of change.

  15. A Tunneled Subcricoid Approach for Anterior Cervical Spine Reoperation: Technical and Safety Results.

    PubMed

    Winkler, Ethan A; Rowland, Nathan C; Yue, John K; Birk, Harjus; Ozpinar, Alp; Tay, Bobby; Ames, Christopher P; Mummaneni, Praveen V; El-Sayed, Ivan H

    2016-02-01

    Anterior cervical spine decompression and fusion are common neurosurgical operations. Reoperation of the anterior cervical spine is associated with increased morbidity. The authors describe a novel subcricoid approach to protect the recurrent laryngeal nerve in a cuff of tissue while facilitating surgical access to the anterior cervical spine. Single institution, consecutive case review of 48 patients undergoing reoperation in the anterior cervical region including the level of C5 and below. Univariable and multivariable regression analysis was used to determine predictors of postoperative morbidity. No intraoperative complications were reported. Estimated blood loss for the approach was 13.6 ± 3.1 mL. Nine of 48 patients developed immediate postoperative complications, including vocal cord paresis (10.4%), moderate-to-severe dysphagia (10.4%), and neck edema requiring intubation (2.1%). No postoperative hematomas or death occurred. All complications occurred with 4 or more levels of exposure (1-3 disc levels, 0%, vs. ≥ 4 disc levels, 31%). Extension of the exposure to the upper thoracic spine was associated with odds for postoperative complications (adjusted odds ratio, 6.50; 95% confidence interval, 1.14-37.03) and prolonged hospital stay (adjusted increase 4.23 days, P < 0.01). The tunneled subcricoid approach is a relatively safe corridor to reapproach the anterior cervical spine at the level of C5 and below. However, caution must be exercised when using this approach to expose 4 or more disc levels and with extension of the exposure to the upper thoracic spine. Future comparative studies are needed to establish patient selection criteria in determining the use of this technique compared with classic approaches. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Cadaveric study of movement in the unstable upper cervical spine during emergency management: tracheal intubation and cervical spine immobilisation—a study protocol for a prospective randomised crossover trial

    PubMed Central

    Popp, Erik; Hüttlin, Petra; Weilbacher, Frank; Münzberg, Matthias; Schneider, Niko; Kreinest, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Emergency management of upper cervical spine injuries often requires cervical spine immobilisation and some critical patients also require airway management. The movement of cervical spine created by tracheal intubation and cervical spine immobilisation can potentially exacerbate cervical spinal cord injury. However, the evidence that previous studies have provided remains unclear, due to lack of a direct measurement technique for dural sac's space during dynamic processes. Our study will use myelography method and a wireless human motion tracker to characterise and compare the change of dural sac's space during tracheal intubations and cervical spine immobilisation in the presence of unstable upper cervical spine injury such as atlanto-occipital dislocation or type II odontoid fracture. Methods and analysis Perform laryngoscopy and intubation, video laryngoscope intubation, laryngeal tube insertion, fiberoptic intubation and cervical collar application on cadaveric models of unstable upper cervical spine injury such as atlanto-occipital dislocation or type II odontoid fracture. The change of dural sac's space and the motion of unstable cervical segment are recorded by video fluoroscopy with previously performing myelography, which enables us to directly measure dural sac's space. Simultaneously, the whole cervical spine motion is recorded at a wireless human motion tracker. The maximum dural sac compression and the maximum angulation and distraction of the injured segment are measured by reviewing fluoroscopic and myelography images. Ethics and dissemination This study protocol has been approved by the Ethics Committee of the State Medical Association Rhineland-Palatinate, Mainz, Germany. The results will be published in relevant emergency journals and presented at relevant conferences. Trial registration number DRKS00010499. PMID:28864483

  17. Motion generated in the unstable cervical spine during the application and removal of cervical immobilization collars.

    PubMed

    Prasarn, Mark L; Conrad, Bryan; Del Rossi, Gianluca; Horodyski, MaryBeth; Rechtine, Glenn R

    2012-06-01

    Many studies have compared the restriction of motion that immobilization collars provide to the injured victim. No previous investigation has assessed the amount of motion that is generated during the fitting and removal process. The purpose of this study was to compare the three-dimensional motion generated when one-piece and two-piece cervical collars are applied and removed from cadavers intact and with unstable cervical spine injuries. Five fresh, lightly embalmed cadavers were tested three times each with either a one-piece or two-piece cervical collar in the supine position. Testing was performed in the intact state, following creation of a global ligamentous instability at C5-C6. The amount of angular motion resulting from the collar application and removal was measured using a Fastrak, three-dimensional, electromagnetic motion analysis device (Polhemus Inc., Colchester, VT). The measurements recorded in this investigation included maximum values for flexion/extension, axial rotation, medial/lateral flexion, anterior/posterior displacement, axial distraction, and medial/lateral displacement at the level of instability. There was statistically more motion observed with application or removal of either collar following the creation of a global instability. During application, there was a statistically significant difference in flexion/extension between the one-piece (1.8 degrees) and two-piece (2.6 degrees) collars, p = 0.009. There was also a statistically significant difference in anterior/posterior translation between the one-piece (3.6 mm) and two-piece (3.4 mm) collars, p = 0.015. The maximum angulation and displacement during the application of either collar was 3.4 degrees and 4.4 mm. Statistical analysis revealed no significant differences between the one-piece and two-piece collars during the removal process. The maximum angulation and displacement during removal of either collar type was 1.6 degrees and 2.9 mm. There were statistically significant

  18. Cervical spine surgery performed in ambulatory surgical centers: Are patients being put at increased risk?

    PubMed Central

    Epstein, Nancy E.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Spine surgeons are being increasingly encouraged to perform cervical operations in outpatient ambulatory surgical centers (ASC). However, some studies/data coming out of these centers are provided by spine surgeons who are part or full owners/shareholders. In Florida, for example, there was a 50% increase in ASC (5349) established between 2000–2007; physicians had a stake (invested) in 83%, and outright owned 43% of ASC. Data regarding “excessive” surgery by ASC surgeon-owners from Idaho followed shortly thereafter. Methods: The risks/complications attributed to 3279 cervical spine operations performed in 6 ASC studies were reviewed. Several studies claimed 99% discharge rates the day of the surgery. They also claimed major complications were “picked up” within the average postoperative observation window (e.g., varying from 4–23 hours), allowing for appropriate treatment without further sequelae. Results: Morbidity rates for outpatient cervical spine ASC studies (e.g. some with conflicts of interest) varied up to 0.8–6%, whereas morbidity rates for 3 inpatient cervical studies ranged up to 19.3%. For both groups, morbidity included postoperative dysphagia, epidural hematomas, neck swelling, vocal cord paralysis, and neurological deterioration. Conclusions: Although we have no clear documentation as to their safety, “excessive” and progressively complex cervical surgical procedures are increasingly being performed in ASC. Furthermore, we cannot rely upon ASC-based data. At least some demonstrate an inherent conflict of interest and do not veridically report major morbidity/mortality rates for outpatient procedures. For now, cervical spine surgery performed in ASC would appear to be putting patients at increased risk for the benefit of their surgeon-owners. PMID:27843687

  19. Anterior decompression, fusion and plating in cervical spine injury: Early experience in Abuja, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Ogungbo, Biodun

    2011-01-01

    We present a review of the results of the current surgical management of acute cervical spine injuries in the Federal Capital Territory, Abuja, Nigeria. This is the first detailed retrospective study on the surgical management of patients with cervical spine injuries from Nigeria. The medical reports of patients with traumatic cervical spine and spinal cord injuries undergoing surgery from 1 August 2009 till 30 August 2010 were reviewed. Management and early results of outcome were ascertained and detailed consecutively in a prospective Microsoft Office Access(®) database (Microsoft Group of Companies). Frankel grading was used for pre- and immediate post-operative evaluation (within 48 hours). The Barthel index (BI) was used to classify patients as dependent or independent at follow-up. Twenty consecutive patients presented with acute cervical spine and spinal cord injuries since August 2009. Twenty anterior cervical spine decompression and fixation with an iliac graft and an anterior cervical plate (ACDF) were performed in 18 patients. All operations were performed with general anaesthesia using standard techniques but without a microscope or a high speed drill. Of the 18 patients who were operated, 4 patients died within a short period following surgical intervention. Seven patients have made a full recovery and seven remain fully dependent. Only two of the dependent quadriplegic patients have become reintegrated back into the society. The management of spinal cord injuries in Abuja is evolving. The operations were performed adequately with much limited complement of equipment. Poor intensive care therapy is a major challenge and improvements in this area of care will likely lead to better patient outcomes.

  20. Neurologic outcome of surgical and conservative treatment of rheumatoid cervical spine subluxation: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Wolfs, Jasper F C; Kloppenburg, Margreet; Fehlings, Michael G; van Tulder, Maurits W; Boers, Maarten; Peul, Wilco C

    2009-12-15

    Rheumatoid arthritis commonly involves the upper cervical spine and can cause significant neurologic morbidity and mortality. However, there is no consensus on the optimal timing for surgical intervention: whether surgery should be performed prophylactically or once neurologic deficits have become apparent. A systematic review of the literature was performed to analyze neurologic outcome (Ranawat) and survival time (Kaplan-Meier) after surgical or conservative treatment using the MOOSE (Meta-analysis Of Observational Studies in Epidemiology) and GRADE (Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development and Evaluation system) criteria. Twenty-five observational studies were selected. No randomized controlled trials (RCTs) could be found. All of the studies had a high risk of bias. Twenty-three studies reported the neurologic outcome after surgery for 752 patients. Neurologic deterioration rarely occurred in Ranawat I and II patients. Ranawat III patients did not fully recover. The 10-year survival rates were 77%, 63%, 47%, and 30% for Ranawat I, II, IIIA, and IIIB, respectively. The Ranawat IIIB patients had a significantly worse outcome. Another 185 patients treated conservatively were described in 7 studies. Neurologic deterioration rarely occurred in Ranawat I patients, but was almost inevitable in Ranawat II, IIIA, and IIIB patients. The Kaplan-Meier analysis showed a 10-year overall survival rate of 40%. There are no RCTs that compared surgery with conservative treatment. In observational studies, surgical neurologic outcomes were better than conservative treatment in all patients with cervical spine involvement, and in asymptomatic patients with no neurologic impairment (Ranawat I) the outcomes were similar; however, the evidence is weak. Survival time of surgical and conservative treatment could not be compared.

  1. Primary leptomeningeal melanoma of the cervical spine mimicking a meningioma-a case report.

    PubMed

    Marx, Sascha; Fleck, Steffen K; Manwaring, Jotham; Vogelgesang, Silke; Langner, Soenke; Schroeder, Henry W S

    2014-08-01

    Background and Importance Primary leptomeningeal melanoma (PLM) is highly malignant and exceedingly rare. Due to its rarity, diagnostic and treatment paradigms have been slow to evolve. We report the first case of a PLM that mimics a cervical spine meningioma and then discuss the current clinical, radiologic, and pathologic diagnostic methodologies as well as expected outcomes related to this disease. Clinical Presentation A 54-year-old woman presented a dural-based extramedullary solid mass ventral to the C2-C3 spinal cord causing spinal cord compression without cord signal changes, characteristic of meningioma. Intraoperative microscopic inspection revealed numerous black spots littering the surface of the dura; the tumor itself was yellow in appearance and had a soft consistency. Pathologic analysis of the specimen revealed a malignant melanin-containing tumor. No primary site was found, so a diagnosis of primary leptomeningeal melanoma was made, and the patient subsequently received interferon therapy. To date (2 years postoperatively), no local or systemic recurrence of the tumor has been identified. Conclusion As with most rare tumors, case reports constitute the vast majority of references to PLM. Only an increased awareness and an extensive report of each individual case can help diagnose and clarify the nature of PLM. Clinicians need to be aware of such malignant conditions when diagnosing benign tumoral lesions of the spine such as meningiomas.

  2. Primary Leptomeningeal Melanoma of the Cervical Spine Mimicking a Meningioma—A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Marx, Sascha; Fleck, Steffen K.; Manwaring, Jotham; Vogelgesang, Silke; Langner, Soenke; Schroeder, Henry W.S.

    2014-01-01

    Background and Importance Primary leptomeningeal melanoma (PLM) is highly malignant and exceedingly rare. Due to its rarity, diagnostic and treatment paradigms have been slow to evolve. We report the first case of a PLM that mimics a cervical spine meningioma and then discuss the current clinical, radiologic, and pathologic diagnostic methodologies as well as expected outcomes related to this disease. Clinical Presentation A 54-year-old woman presented a dural-based extramedullary solid mass ventral to the C2–C3 spinal cord causing spinal cord compression without cord signal changes, characteristic of meningioma. Intraoperative microscopic inspection revealed numerous black spots littering the surface of the dura; the tumor itself was yellow in appearance and had a soft consistency. Pathologic analysis of the specimen revealed a malignant melanin-containing tumor. No primary site was found, so a diagnosis of primary leptomeningeal melanoma was made, and the patient subsequently received interferon therapy. To date (2 years postoperatively), no local or systemic recurrence of the tumor has been identified. Conclusion As with most rare tumors, case reports constitute the vast majority of references to PLM. Only an increased awareness and an extensive report of each individual case can help diagnose and clarify the nature of PLM. Clinicians need to be aware of such malignant conditions when diagnosing benign tumoral lesions of the spine such as meningiomas. PMID:25083399

  3. Learning the lessons from conflict: pre-hospital cervical spine stabilisation following ballistic neck trauma.

    PubMed

    Ramasamy, Arul; Midwinter, Mark; Mahoney, Peter; Clasper, Jon

    2009-12-01

    Current ATLS protocols dictate that spinal precautions should be in place when a casualty has sustained trauma from a significant mechanism of injury likely to damage the cervical spine. In hostile environments, the application of these precautions can place pre-hospital medical teams at considerable personal risk. It may also prevent or delay the identification of airway problems. In today's global threat from terrorism, this hostile environment is no longer restricted to conflict zones. The aim of this study was to ascertain the incidence of cervical spine injury following penetrating ballistic neck trauma in order to evaluate the need for pre-hospital cervical immobilisation in these casualties. We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of British military casualties of combat, from Iraq and Afghanistan presenting with a penetrating neck injury during the last 5.5 years. For each patient, the mechanism of injury, neurological state on admission, medical and surgical intervention was recorded. During the study period, 90 casualties sustained a penetrating neck injury. The mechanism of injury was by explosion in 66 (73%) and from gunshot wounds in 24 (27%). Cervical spine injuries (either cervical spine fracture or cervical spinal cord injury) were present in 20 of the 90 (22%) casualties, but only 6 of these (7%) actually survived to reach hospital. Four of this six subsequently died from injuries within 72 h. Only 1 (1.8%) of the 56 survivors to reach a surgical facility sustained an unstable cervical spine injury that required surgical stabilisation. This patient later died as result of a co-existing head injury. Penetrating ballistic trauma to the neck is associated with a high mortality rate. Our data suggests that it is very unlikely that penetrating ballistic trauma to the neck will result in an unstable cervical spine in survivors. In a hazardous environment (e.g. shooting incidents or terrorist bombings), the risk/benefit ratio of mandatory spinal

  4. Cervical Spine Clearance in Pediatric Trauma Centers: The Need for Standardization and an Evidence-based Protocol.

    PubMed

    Pannu, Gurpal S; Shah, Mitesh P; Herman, Marty J

    Cervical spine clearance in the pediatric trauma patient represents a particularly challenging task. Unfortunately, standardized clearance protocols for pediatric cervical clearance are poorly reported in the literature and imaging recommendations demonstrate considerable variability. With the use of a web-based survey, this study aims to define the methods utilized by pediatric trauma centers throughout North America. Specific attention was given to the identification of personnel responsible for cervical spine care, diagnostic imaging modalities used, and the presence or absence of a written pediatric cervical spine clearance protocol. A 10-question electronic survey was given to members of the newly formed Pediatric Cervical Spine Study Group, all of whom are active POSNA members. The survey was submitted via the online service SurveyMonkey (https://www.surveymonkey.com/r/7NVVQZR). The survey assessed the respondent's institution demographics, such as trauma level and services primarily responsible for consultation and operative management of cervical spine injuries. In addition, respondents were asked to identify the protocols and primary imaging modality used for cervical spine clearance. Finally, respondents were asked if their institution had a documented cervical spine clearance protocol. Of the 25 separate institutions evaluated, 21 were designated as level 1 trauma centers. Considerable variation was reported with regards to the primary service responsible for cervical spine clearance. General Surgery/Trauma (44%) is most commonly the primary service, followed by a rotating schedule (33%), Neurosugery (11%), and Orthopaedic Surgery (8%). Spine consults tend to be seen most commonly by a rotating schedule of Orthopaedic Surgery and Neurosurgery. The majority of responding institutions utilize computed tomographic imaging (46%) as the primary imaging modality, whereas 42% of hospitals used x-ray primarily. The remaining institutions reported using a

  5. Pseudarthrosis of the Cervical Spine: Risk Factors, Diagnosis and Management

    PubMed Central

    Leven, Dante

    2016-01-01

    Cervical myelopathy and radiculopathy are common pathologies that often improve with spinal decompression and fusion. Postoperative complications include pseudarthrosis, which can be challenging to diagnose and manage. We reviewed the literature with regard to risk factors, diagnosis, controversies, and management of cervical pseudarthrosis. PMID:27559462

  6. Vertebral body pneumatocyst in the cervical spine and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Coşar, Murat; Eser, Olcay; Aslan, Adem; Korkmaz, Serhat; Boyaci, Gazi; Değirmenci, Bumin; Albayrak, Ramazan

    2008-04-01

    A pneumatocyst in the cervical spine is extremely rare and to our knowledge only a few reports have been published in the English literature. Although the etiology and natural course of vertebral body pneumatocyst is unclear, nitrogen gas accumulation is claimed. A 65-year-old-man was admitted to the emergency department with neck pain and numbness and incapacity in his both hands and fingers. The radiological images revealed a vertebral located pneumatocyst in the C4 cervical vertebra. In this report, we present a case of cervical pneumatocyst located in the C4 vertebral body. The clinical and radiological features and natural course of the pneumatocyst were evaluated.

  7. Metastatic lesion of the cervical spine secondary to an extraocular sebaceous carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Antuña, S A; Méndez, J G; Cincunegui, J A; López-Fanjul, J C

    1996-12-01

    A case of cervical spine metastasis from an extraocular sebaceous carcinoma of the scalp is presented. Anterior decompression and fusion were performed and resulted in complete relief of symptoms. Postoperatively the primary tumor behaved in a very aggressive manner, with visceral metastases leading to the death of the patient in a few weeks.

  8. Cervical spine injuries in children, part II: management and special considerations.

    PubMed

    Easter, Joshua S; Barkin, Roger; Rosen, Carlo L; Ban, Kevin

    2011-09-01

    The diagnosis and management of cervical spine injury is more complex in children than in adults. Part I of this series stressed the importance of tailoring the evaluation of cervical spine injuries based on age, mechanism of injury, and physical examination findings. Part II will discuss the role of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) as well as the management of pediatric cervical spine injuries in the emergency department. Children have several common variations in their anatomy, such as pseudosubluxation of C2-C3, widening of the atlantodens interval, and ossification centers, that can appear concerning on imaging but are normal. Physicians should be alert for signs or symptoms of atlantorotary subluxation and spinal cord injury without radiologic abnormality when treating children with spinal cord injury, as these conditions have significant morbidity. MRI can identify injuries to the spinal cord that are not apparent with other modalities, and should be used when a child presents with a neurologic deficit but normal X-ray study or CT scan. With knowledge of these variations in pediatric anatomy, emergency physicians can appropriately identify injuries to the cervical spine and determine when further imaging is needed. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Vallecular rupture with cervical spine fracture after a failed hanging suicide attempt.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Joong Keun; Lee, Seong Rok; Lee, Ho Min; Lee, Jung Min; Lee, Jong Cheol

    2013-09-01

    Hanging is a common method of suicide. We present a case of vallecular rupture and cervical spine fracture without an external wound after a failed hanging suicide attempt. Surgical treatment involved posterior fusion of C2 to 3, followed by repair of the vallecular rupture via an external approach. The patient recovered with no residual physical or mental sequelae.

  10. Primary cervical spine carcinoid tumor in a woman with arm paresthesias and weakness: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Carcinoid tumors are neuroendocrine neoplasms derived from the enterochromaffin cells. Central nervous system involvement is rare and has been reported either as metastases to the brain and spine or primary tumors involving the sacrococcygeal spine. We report the first case of a primary carcinoid tumor of the cervical spine. Case presentation A 50-year-old African-American woman presented with a 4-month history of numbness, paresthesias, and mild left-hand weakness. Magnetic resonance imaging of her cervical spine revealed a homogenously enhancing extradural mass, indenting the cervical cord and expanding the left neural foramen at C7–T1. A C7 corpectomy, en bloc resection of the tumor, and anterior C6–T1 fusion were performed to decompress the spinal cord and nerves and provide stability. Postoperative histopathologic examination and immunohistochemical analysis were consistent with carcinoid tumor. There has been no recurrence at the 6-year follow-up visit. Conclusions Primary cervical carcinoid tumor is extremely rare, but should be included in the differential diagnosis of enhancing expansile extradural masses compressing the spinal cord and nerves. Surgical resection may provide a definitive cure. PMID:23972315

  11. Sticking our neck out: is magnetic resonance imaging needed to clear an obtunded patient's cervical spine?

    PubMed

    Satahoo, Shevonne S; Davis, James S; Garcia, George D; Alsafran, Salman; Pandya, Reeni K; Richie, Cheryl D; Habib, Fahim; Rivas, Luis; Namias, Nicholas; Schulman, Carl I

    2014-03-01

    Evaluating the cervical spine in the obtunded trauma patient is a subject fraught with controversy. Some authors assert that a negative computed tomography (CT) scan is sufficient. Others argue that CT alone misses occult unstable injuries, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) will alter treatment. This study examines the data in an urban, county trauma center to determine if a negative cervical spine CT scan is sufficient to clear the obtunded trauma patient. Records of all consecutive patients admitted to a level 1 trauma center from January 2000 to December 2011 were retrospectively analyzed. Patients directly admitted to the intensive care unit with a Glasgow Coma Scale score ≤13, contemporaneous CT and MRI, and a negative CT reading were included. The results of the cervical spine MRI were analyzed. A total of 309 patients had both CT and MRI, 107 (35%) of whom had negative CTs. Mean time between CT and MRI was 16 d. Of those patients, seven (7%) had positive acute traumatic findings on MRI. Findings included ligamentous injury, subluxation, and fracture. However, only two of these patients required surgical intervention. None had unstable injuries. In the obtunded trauma patient with a negative cervical spine CT, obtaining an MRI does not appear to significantly alter management, and no unstable injuries were missed on CT scan. This should be taken into consideration given the current efforts at cost-containment in the health care system. It is one of the larger studies published to date. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. The relationship between chronic type III acromioclavicular joint dislocation and cervical spine pain

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background This study was aimed at evaluating whether or not patients with chronic type III acromioclavicular dislocation develop cervical spine pain and degenerative changes more frequently than normal subjects. Methods The cervical spine of 34 patients with chronic type III AC dislocation was radiographically evaluated. Osteophytosis presence was registered and the narrowing of the intervertebral disc and cervical lordosis were evaluated. Subjective cervical symptoms were investigated using the Northwick Park Neck Pain Questionnaire (NPQ). One-hundred healthy volunteers were recruited as a control group. Results The rate and distribution of osteophytosis and narrowed intervertebral disc were similar in both of the groups. Patients with chronic AC dislocation had a lower value of cervical lordosis. NPQ score was 17.3% in patients with AC separation (100% = the worst result) and 2.2% in the control group (p < 0.05). An inverse significant nonparametric correlation was found between the NPQ value and the lordosis degree in the AC dislocation group (p = 0.001) wheras results were not correlated (p = 0.27) in the control group. Conclusions Our study shows that chronic type III AC dislocation does not interfere with osteophytes formation or intervertebral disc narrowing, but that it may predispose cervical hypolordosis. The higher average NPQ values were observed in patients with chronic AC dislocation, especially in those that developed cervical hypolordosis. PMID:20015356

  13. Osteoradionecrosis of the subaxial cervical spine following treatment for head and neck carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Khorsandi, A S; Su, H K; Mourad, W F; Urken, M L; Persky, M S; Lazarus, C L; Jacobson, A S

    2015-01-01

    To study MRI and positron emission tomography (PET)/CT imaging of osteoradionecrosis (ORN) of the subaxial cervical spine, a serious long-term complication of radiation therapy (RT) for head and neck cancers that can lead to pain, vertebral instability, myelopathy and cord compression. This is a single-institution retrospective review of patients diagnosed and treated for ORN of the subaxial cervical spine following surgery and radiation for head and neck cancer. We report PET/CT imaging and MRI for four patients, each with extensive treatment for recurrent head and neck cancer. Osteomyelitis (OM) and discitis are the end-stage manifestations of ORN of the subaxial spine. ORN of the subaxial spine has variable imaging appearance and needs to be differentiated from recurrent or metastatic disease. Surgical violation of the posterior pharyngeal wall on top of the compromised vasculature in patients treated heavily with RT may pre-dispose the subaxial cervical vertebrae to ORN, with possible resultant OM and discitis. MRI and PET/CT imaging are complimentary in this setting. PET/CT images may be misinterpreted in view of the history of head and neck cancer. MRI should be utilized for definitive diagnosis of OM and discitis in view of its imaging specificity. We identify the end-stage manifestation of ORN in the sub-axial spine on PET/CT and MRI to facilitate its correct diagnosis.

  14. Osteoradionecrosis of the subaxial cervical spine following treatment for head and neck carcinomas

    PubMed Central

    Khorsandi, A S; Mourad, W F; Urken, M L; Persky, M S; Lazarus, C L; Jacobson, A S

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To study MRI and positron emission tomography (PET)/CT imaging of osteoradionecrosis (ORN) of the subaxial cervical spine, a serious long-term complication of radiation therapy (RT) for head and neck cancers that can lead to pain, vertebral instability, myelopathy and cord compression. Methods: This is a single-institution retrospective review of patients diagnosed and treated for ORN of the subaxial cervical spine following surgery and radiation for head and neck cancer. Results: We report PET/CT imaging and MRI for four patients, each with extensive treatment for recurrent head and neck cancer. Osteomyelitis (OM) and discitis are the end-stage manifestations of ORN of the subaxial spine. Conclusion: ORN of the subaxial spine has variable imaging appearance and needs to be differentiated from recurrent or metastatic disease. Surgical violation of the posterior pharyngeal wall on top of the compromised vasculature in patients treated heavily with RT may pre-dispose the subaxial cervical vertebrae to ORN, with possible resultant OM and discitis. MRI and PET/CT imaging are complimentary in this setting. PET/CT images may be misinterpreted in view of the history of head and neck cancer. MRI should be utilized for definitive diagnosis of OM and discitis in view of its imaging specificity. Advances in knowledge: We identify the end-stage manifestation of ORN in the sub-axial spine on PET/CT and MRI to facilitate its correct diagnosis. PMID:25375626

  15. Traumatic Cervical Spondyloptosis of the Subaxial Cervical Spine: A Case Series with a Literature Review and a New Classification

    PubMed Central

    Modi, Jayprakash Vrajlal; Dalal, Shaival

    2016-01-01

    Study Design This is a retrospective study on patients with traumatic subaxial cervical spondyloptosis and includes a review of the available literature regarding the management of this injury. Purpose This study aimed to assess the biomechanics and varied clinical presentations of this rare but devastating injury. Overview of Literature This is a case series of three patients and a review of the available literature on subaxial cervical spondyloptosis. Traumatic cervical spondyloptosis of the subaxial spine is rare, with varied clinical presentations. Methods The management of cervical subaxial spondyloptosis represents a challenge to all spine care specialists, and there is a paucity of literature on the best methods for managing this condition. Our experience includes three such patients who visited our tertiary trauma center. This article explains the diverse clinical features of the injury as well as the management of these patients and includes a review of the available literature. Results Subaxial cervical spondyloptosis is a devastating injury with diverse clinical features. We present a classification of these fractures based on clinical presentation and magnetic resonance imaging results, which can help in decision-making regarding the management of such patients. Conclusions This article may help physicians assess this injury in an evidence-based manner and also elucidates the management strategies available for such patients. PMID:27994781

  16. Are flexion extension films necessary for cervical spine clearance in patients with neck pain after negative cervical CT scan?

    PubMed

    Tran, Baotram; Saxe, Jonathan M; Ekeh, Akpofure Peter

    2013-09-01

    There are variations in cervical spine (CS) clearance protocols in neurologically intact blunt trauma patients with negative radiological imaging but persistent neck pain. Current guidelines from the current Eastern Association for the Surgery of Trauma include options of maintaining the cervical collar or obtaining either magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) or flexion-extension films (FEF). We evaluated the utility of FEF in the current era of routine computerized tomography (CT) for imaging the CS in trauma. All neurologically intact, awake, nonintoxicated patients who underwent FEF for persistent neck pain after negative CT scan of the CS at our level I trauma center over a 13-mo period were identified. Their charts were reviewed and demographic data obtained. There were 354 patients (58.5% male) with negative cervical CS CT scans who had FEF for residual neck pain. Incidental degenerative changes were seen in 37%--which did not affect their acute management. FEF were positive for possible ligamentous injury in 5 patients (1.4%). Two of these patients had negative magnetic resonance images and the other three had collars removed within 3 wk as the findings were ultimately determined to be degenerative. In the current era, where cervical CT has universally supplanted initial plain films, FEF appear to be of little value in the evaluation of persistent neck pain. Their use should be excluded from cervical spine clearance protocols in neurologically intact, awake patients. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Stabilization of subaxial cervical spines by lateral mass screw fixation with modified Magerl's technique.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jau-Ching; Huang, Wen-Cheng; Chen, Yu-Chun; Shih, Yang-Hsin; Cheng, Henrich

    2008-12-01

    There are various techniques in lateral mass screw placement in the cervical spine currently available, including the Roy-Camille, Magerl, Anderson, and An techniques. Each has different entrance points and trajectories for screw insertion, and some even have different methods for different level of the subaxial cervical spine. The potential risk of vascular and neurologic injury varies with different techniques and different levels of the cervical spine. We proposed a modified technique with a universal method of screw placement suitable for stabilization of every level of the subaxial cervical spines, from C3 to C7. We have applied this modified technique on a large series of patients and obtained satisfactory results. A retrospective study was conducted of the charts, records, and clinical follow-up of 115 patients who received internal fixation with lateral mass screws and rods in the Department of Neurosurgery of Taipei Veterans General Hospital (Taipei, Taiwan) from 2004 to 2006. All patients received lateral mass screw placement in various levels of the subaxial cervical spines. The clinical and radiologic follow-up were carefully evaluated and analyzed. All 115 patients with different pathological situations requiring stabilization received instrumentations with polyaxial screws and rod systems, in which 673 screws in total were used in various levels of the cervical spine between C3 and C7: 129 screws in C3, 115 in C4, 193 in C5, 101 in C6, and 135 in C7. The most often used screw length was 16 mm (385/673, 57%). Good bony fusion was observed in all patients except 1 (99.1%). The mean follow-up period was 14 months (4-35 months). No neurologic or vascular injury was noted clinically. Follow-up radiologic examinations found that the screw placements were well positioned. Based on our experience, lateral mass fixation of subaxial cervical spines with our modified technique is safe and effective. This technique of lateral mass screw placement yielded good

  18. Is radiography justified for the evaluation of patients presenting with cervical spine trauma?

    SciTech Connect

    Theocharopoulos, Nicholas; Chatzakis, Georgios; Damilakis, John

    2009-10-15

    Conventional radiography has been for decades the standard method of evaluation for cervical spine trauma patients. However, currently available helical multidetector CT scanners allow multiplanar reconstruction of images, leading to increased diagnostic accuracy. The purpose of this study was to determine the relative benefit/risk ratio between cervical spine CT and cervical spine radiography and between cervical spine CT and cervical spine radiography, followed by CT as an adjunct for positive findings. A decision analysis model for the determination of the optimum imaging technique was developed. The sensitivity and specificity of CT and radiography were obtained by dedicated meta-analysis. Lifetime attributable risk of mortal cancer from CT and radiography was calculated using updated organ-specific risk coefficients and organ-absorbed doses. Patient organ doses from radiography were calculated using Monte Carlo techniques, simulated exposures performed on an anthropomorphic phantom, and thermoluminescence dosimetry. A prospective patient study was performed regarding helical CT scans of the cervical spine. Patient doses were calculated based on the dose-length-product values and Monte Carlo-based CT dosimetry software program. Three groups of patient risk for cervical spine fracture were incorporated in the decision model on the basis of hypothetical trauma mechanism and clinical findings. Radiation effects were assessed separately for males and females for four age groups (20, 40, 60, and 80 yr old). Effective dose from radiography amounts to 0.050 mSv and from a typical CT scan to 3.8 mSv. The use of CT in a hypothetical cohort of 10{sup 6} patients prevents approximately 130 incidents of paralysis in the low risk group (a priori fracture probability of 0.5%), 500 in the moderate risk group (a priori fracture probability of 2%), and 5100 in the high risk group (a priori fracture probability of 20%). The expense of this CT-based prevention is 15-32 additional

  19. Cervical spine clearance protocols in Level I, II, and III trauma centers in California.

    PubMed

    Pekmezci, Murat; Theologis, Alexander A; Dionisio, Robert; Mackersie, Robert; McClellan, R Trigg

    2015-03-01

    Cervical spine clearance protocols were developed to standardize the clearance of the cervical spine after blunt trauma and prevent secondary neurologic injuries. The degree of incorporation of evidence-based guidelines into protocols at trauma centers in California is unknown. To evaluate the cervical spine clearance protocols in all trauma centers of California. An observational cross-sectional study. Included from Level I, II, III trauma centers in California. The self-reported outcomes of each trauma center's cervical spine clearance protocols were assessed. Level I (n=15), II (n=30), and III (n=11) trauma centers in California were contacted. Each available protocol was reviewed for four scenarios: clearing the asymptomatic patient, the initial imaging modality used in patients not amenable to clinical clearance, and the management strategies for patients with persistent neck pain with a negative computed tomography (CT) scan and those who are obtunded. Results were compared with the 2009 Eastern Association for the Surgery of Trauma (EAST) cervical spine clearance guidelines. The response rate was 96%. Sixty-three percent of California's trauma centers (Level I, 93%; Level II, 60%; Level III, 27%) had written cervical spine clearance protocols. For asymptomatic patients, 83% of Level I and 61% of Level II centers used National Emergency X-Radiography Utilization Study criteria with/without painless range of motion. For those requiring imaging, 67% of Level I and 56% of Level II centers stated a CT scan should be the first line of imaging. For obtunded patients and patients with persistent neck pain and a negative CT scan, more than 90% of Level I and more than 70% of Level II trauma centers incorporated the 2009 EAST recommendations. No institution recommended passive flexion-extension radiographs for the obtunded patient. Written cervical spine clearance protocols exist in 63% of California's trauma centers and only 51% of the centers have protocols that

  20. Femur fractures should not be considered distracting injuries for cervical spine assessment.

    PubMed

    Dahlquist, Robert T; Fischer, Peter E; Desai, Harsh; Rogers, Amelia; Christmas, A Britton; Gibbs, Michael A; Sing, Ronald F

    2015-12-01

    The National Emergency X-Radiography Utilization Study (NEXUS) clinical decision rule is extremely sensitive for clearance of cervical spine (C-spine) injury in blunt trauma patients with distracting injuries. We sought to determine whether the NEXUS criteria would maintain sensitivity for blunt trauma patients when femur fractures were not considered a distracting injury and an absolute indication for diagnostic imaging. We retrospectively analyzed blunt trauma patients with at least 1 femur fracture who presented to our emergency department as trauma activations from 2009 to 2011 and underwent C-spine injury evaluation. Presence of C-spine injury requiring surgical intervention was evaluated. Of 566 trauma patients included, 77 (13.6%) were younger than 18 years. Cervical spine injury was diagnosed in 53 (9.4%) of 566. A total of 241 patients (42.6%) had positive NEXUS findings in addition to distracting injury; 51 (21.2%) of these had C-spine injuries. Of 325 patients (57.4%) with femur fractures who were otherwise NEXUS negative, only 2 (0.6%) had C-spine injuries (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.2%-2.2%); both were stable and required no operative intervention. Use of NEXUS criteria, excluding femur fracture as an indication for imaging, detected all significant injuries with a sensitivity for any C-spine injury of 96.2% (95% CI, 85.9%-99.3%) and negative predictive value of 99.4% (95% CI, 97.6%-99.9%). In our patient population, all significant C-spine injuries were identified by NEXUS criteria without considering the femur fracture a distracting injury and indication for computed tomographic imaging. Reconsidering femur fracture in this context may decrease radiation exposure and health care expenditure with little risk of missed diagnoses. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Changes in use of cervical spine magnetic resonance imaging for pediatric patients with nonaccidental trauma.

    PubMed

    Oh, Ahyuda; Sawvel, Michael; Heaner, David; Bhatia, Amina; Reisner, Andrew; Tubbs, R Shane; Chern, Joshua J

    2017-09-01

    OBJECTIVE Past studies have suggested correlations between abusive head trauma and concurrent cervical spine (c-spine) injury. Accordingly, c-spine MRI (cMRI) has been increasingly used in radiographic assessments. This study aimed to determine trends in cMRI use and treatment, and outcomes related to c-spine injury in children with nonaccidental trauma (NAT). METHODS A total of 503 patients with NAT who were treated between 2009 and 2014 at a single pediatric health care system were identified from a prospectively maintained database. Additional data on selected clinical events were retrospectively collected from electronic medical records. In 2012, a clinical pathway on cMRI usage for patients with NAT was implemented. The present study compared cMRI use and clinical outcomes between the prepathway (2009-2011) and postpathway (2012-2014) periods. RESULTS There were 249 patients in the prepathway and 254 in the postpathway groups. Incidences of cranial injury and Injury Severity Scores were not significantly different between the 2 groups. More patients underwent cMRI in the years after clinical pathway implementation than before (2.8% vs 33.1%, p < 0.0001). There was also a significant increase in cervical collar usage from 16.5% to 27.6% (p = 0.004), and more patients were discharged home with cervical collar immobilization. Surgical stabilization occurred in a single case in the postpathway group. CONCLUSIONS Heightened awareness of potential c-spine injury in this population increased the use of cMRI and cervical collar immobilization over a 6-year period. However, severe c-spine injury remains rare, and increased use of cMRI might not affect outcomes markedly.

  2. Analysis of patients ≥65 with predominant cervical spine fractures: Issues of disposition and dysphagia

    PubMed Central

    Poole, Lisa M.; Le, Phong; Drake, Rachel M.; Helmer, Stephen D.; Haan, James M.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Cervical spine fractures occur in 2.6% to 4.7% of trauma patients aged 65 years or older. Mortality rates in this population ranges from 19% to 24%. A few studies have specifically looked at dysphagia in elderly patients with cervical spine injury. Aims: The aim of this study is to evaluate dysphagia, disposition, and mortality in elderly patients with cervical spine injury. Settings and Design: Retrospective review at an the American College of Surgeons-verified level 1 trauma center. Methods: Patients 65 years or older with cervical spine fracture, either isolated or in association with other minor injuries were included in the study. Data included demographics, injury details, neurologic deficits, dysphagia evaluation and treatment, hospitalization details, and outcomes. Statistical Analysis: Categorical and continuous data were analyzed using Chi-square analysis and one-way analysis of variance, respectively. Results: Of 136 patients in this study, 2 (1.5%) had a sensory deficit alone, 4 (2.9%) had a motor deficit alone, and 4 (2.9%) had a combined sensory and motor deficit. Nearly one-third of patients (n = 43, 31.6%) underwent formal swallow evaluation, and 4 (2.9%) had a nasogastric tube or Dobhoff tube placed for enteral nutrition, whereas eight others (5.9%) had a gastrostomy tube or percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy tube placed. Most patients were discharged to a skilled nursing unit (n = 50, 36.8%), or to home or home with home health (n = 48, 35.3%). Seven patients (5.1%) died in the hospital, and eight more (5.9%) were transferred to hospice. Conclusion: Cervical spine injury in the elderly patient can lead to significant consequences, including dysphagia and need for skilled nursing care at discharge. PMID:28243007

  3. Maximum neck extension strength and relative neck muscular load in different cervical spine positions.

    PubMed

    Harms-Ringdahl, K; Schüldt, K

    1989-02-01

    The aim of this project was to study how the isometrical neck extensor strength varies at different joint angles in the sagittal plane in order to calculate what fractions of the maximum strength are used in sitting postures to counteract the load moment induced by the weight of the head and neck segments. Ten female subjects sat with the torso fixed in a special device. The resistive force during maximum neck extension was recorded with a strain gauge in four different positions of the lower cervical spine; extended, vertical, slightly flexed and much flexed. For each of these four positions the upper cervical spine was kept in three positions-flexed, neutral and extended. Moments of force about the bilateral motion axes of the atlanto-occipital (Occ-C1) joint and the C7-T1 motion segment were calculated. Moment arms were measured from video images. The maximum muscular moment for Occ-C1 did not vary systematically, either with different positions of the lower or upper cervical spine. The mean neck extensor strength for C7-T, was lowest in the extended lower cervical spine position. In the vertical, slightly flexed or much flexed position little or no variation in strength was seen. However, the fraction of the strength (% MUR) utilized to counteract the load moment induced by the weight of the head and neck in the different postures showed higher utilization ratios when the head-and-neck was flexed (about 10 and 17% MUR, respectively) than when it was kept in a vertical position (about 2% MUR). The results strongly indicate that the flexed cervical spine position produces higher muscular load than vertical, even when taking muscular strength into account, and should thus be avoided during prolonged sitting. Copyright © 1989. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  4. Injuries and abnormalities of the cervical spine and return to play criteria.

    PubMed

    Kepler, Christopher K; Vaccaro, Alexander R

    2012-07-01

    Cervical spine injury has a wide spectrum of consequences for the contact athlete, ranging from minimal to catastrophic. Because of the potentially grave sequelae of cervical injury, it is incumbent on team physicians or treating spine surgeons to be knowledgeable of postinjury treatment and return-to-play algorithms. Sideline physicians must have a rehearsed, comprehensive protocol for ensuring rapid treatment should an on-field injury occur with contingency plans to transport an injured player to a medical facility if necessary. Likelihood of return to play is variable with the extent of injury, but high for stingers, relatively low for patients who suffer episodes of transient neuropraxia, and intermediate for players who undergo cervical fusion for disk herniation based on the best available evidence. However, patients must be evaluated carefully on a case-by-case basis because of the heterogeneity of injury severity and associated pathology.

  5. Helmet use and cervical spine injury: a review of motorcycle, moped, and bicycle accidents at a level 1 trauma center.

    PubMed

    Hooten, Kristopher G; Murad, Gregory J A

    2014-08-01

    Helmet use in two-wheeled vehicle accidents is widely reported to decrease the rates of death and traumatic brain injury. Previous reports suggest that there exists a trade off with helmet use consisting of an increased risk of cervical spine injuries. Recently, a review of a national trauma database demonstrated the opposite, with reduction in cervical spinal cord injuries in motorcycle crashes (MCC). In 2000, the State of Florida repealed its mandatory helmet law to make helmet use optional for individuals older than 21 with $10,000 of health insurance coverage. To better ascertain the risks of cervical spine injury with non-helmet use in all two-wheeled vehicles, we analyzed the University of Florida level one trauma center experience. We reviewed the Traumatic injury database over a five-year period (January 1, 2005, to July 1, 2010) for all patients involved in two-wheeled vehicle accidents. Patients were stratified according to vehicle type (motorcycle, scooter, and bicycle), helmet use, and the presence or absence of a cervical spine injury. Outcomes were compared for injury severity, cervical spine injury, cervical spinal cord injury, and presence of cervical spine injuries requiring surgery. Population means were compared using paired t-test. A total of 1331 patients were identified: 995 involved in motorcycle accidents, 87 involved in low-powered scooter accidents, and 249 involved in bicycle accidents. Helmet use was variable between each group. One hundred thirty-five total cervical spine injuries were identified. No evidence was found to suggest an increased risk of cervical spine injury or increased severity of cervical spine injury with helmet use. This fact, in combination with our previous findings, suggest that the law's age and insurance exemption should be revoked and a universal helmet law be reinstated in the state of Florida.

  6. Motion within the unstable cervical spine during patient maneuvering: the neck pivot-shift phenomenon.

    PubMed

    Lador, Ran; Ben-Galim, Peleg; Hipp, John A

    2011-01-01

    Cervical extrication collars are applied to millions of blunt trauma victims despite the lack of any evidence that a collar can protect against secondary injuries to the cervical spine. Cadaver studies support that in the presence of a dissociative injury, substantial motion can occur within the occipitocervical spine with collar application or during patient transfers. Little is known about the biomechanics of cervical stabilization; hence, it is difficult to develop and test improved immobilization strategies. Severe unstable injuries were created in seven fresh whole human cadavers. Rigid collars were applied with the body in a neutral position. Computed tomographic examinations were obtained before and after tilting the body or backboard as would be done during patient transport or to inspect the back. Relative displacements between vertebrae at the site of the injury were measured from the Computed tomographic examinations. The overall relative alignment between body and collar was assessed to understand the mechanisms that may facilitate motion at the injury site. Intervertebral motion averaged 7.7 mm±6.8 mm in the axial plain and 2.9 mm±2.5 mm in the cranial-caudal direction. The rigid collars appeared to create pivot points where the collar contacts the head in the region under the ear and where the collar contacts the shoulders. Rigid cervical collars appear to create pivot points that shift the center of rotation lateral to the spine and contribute to the intervertebral motions that were measured. Immobilization strategies that avoid these neck pivot-shift phenomena may help to reduce secondary injuries to the cervical spine. The whole cadaver model with simulation of patient maneuvers may provide an effective test method for cervical immobilization.

  7. Prolonged upright posture induces degenerative changes in intervertebral discs of rat cervical spine.

    PubMed

    Liang, Qian-Qian; Cui, Xue-Jun; Xi, Zhi-Jie; Bian, Qin; Hou, Wei; Zhao, Yong-Jian; Shi, Qi; Wang, Yong-Jun

    2011-01-01

    An in vivo study of the cervical intervertebral discs (IVDs) response to upright posture was performed using an amputated bipedal rat model. To investigate the effects of upright posture on IVDs of rat cervical spine. The distinct arrangement of human neck muscle from that of cat and rhesus indicated that in the evolution process, upright posture might have affected cervical spine of human ancestors. However, the effects of upright posture on cervical spine have not been assessed. Forty-one-month-old rats were randomly divided into 5-month-control, 5-month-surgery, 7-month-control, and 7-month surgery group (n = 10 per group). Both forelimbs of 2 surgery group rats were amputated, and those rats were then induced to be upright in the custom-made cages. Two control group rats were kept in regular cages. These rats were respectively killed at the fifth and seventh month after surgery and the IVD samples of lumbar spine were harvested for histologic and immunohistochemical studies. Total RNA isolated from these samples were used for real-time polymerase chain reaction of type II collagen (Col2a1), type X collagen, matrix metalloproteinase 13 (MMP-13), MMP-3, aggre-can, and aggrecanase-2 (ADAMTS-5). Upright posture affects histologic changes of the cervical IVDs such as fissures of anulus fibrosus and decreased height of disc, decreased protein level of Col2a1 at nucleus pulposus and anulus fibrosus, up-regulated MMP-13, MMP-3, ADAMTS-5, and type X collagen mRNA expression, and downregulated mRNA expression of Col2a1 and aggrecan. Upright stance accelerates cervical disc degeneration in rats.

  8. Dysphagia after anterior cervical spine surgery: a systematic review of potential preventative measures.

    PubMed

    Joaquim, Andrei F; Murar, Jozef; Savage, Jason W; Patel, Alpesh A

    2014-09-01

    Anterior cervical spine surgery is one of the most common spinal procedures performed around the world, but dysphagia is a frequent postoperative complication. Many factors have been associated with an increased risk of swallowing difficulties, including multilevel surgery, revision surgery, and female gender. The objective of this study was to review and define potential preventative measures that can decrease the incidence of dysphagia after anterior cervical spine surgery. This was a systematic literature review. A systematic review in the Medline database was performed. Articles related to dysphagia after anterior cervical spine surgery and potential preventative measures were included. Twenty articles met all inclusion and exclusion criteria. These articles reported several potential preventative measures to avoid postoperative dysphagia. Preoperative measures include performing tracheal exercises before the surgical procedure. Intraoperative measures can be summarized as avoiding a prolonged operative time and the use of recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein in routine anterior cervical spine surgery, using small and smoother cervical plates, using anchored spacers instead of plates, application of steroid before wound closure, performing arthroplasty instead of anterior cervical fusion for one-level disease, decreasing tracheal cuff pressure during medial retraction, using specific retractors, and changing the dissection plan. Current literature supports several preventative measures that may decrease the incidence of postoperative dysphagia. Although the evidence is limited and weak, most of these measures did not appear to increase other complications and can be easily incorporated into a surgical practice, especially in patients who are at high risk for postoperative dysphagia. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Factors determining cervical spine sagittal balance in asymptomatic adults: correlation with spinopelvic balance and thoracic inlet alignment.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sang-Hun; Son, Eun-Seok; Seo, Eun-Min; Suk, Kyung-Soo; Kim, Ki-Tack

    2015-04-01

    Based on the previous studies, cervical lordosis (CL) is a parameter influenced by thoracic kyphosis (TK); however, the correlations still remain unclear. Few studies have analyzed the correlations between the cervical spine lordosis and global spinopelvic balance. To date, there has been no study focused on the factors determining cervical spine sagittal balance. Seventy-seven asymptomatic volunteers without the history of symptoms related to whole spine. Statistical significance of correlations of radiographic parameters on cervical spine and whole-spine standing lateral radiograph. To analyze the factors determining cervical spine sagittal balance, including global spinopelvic balance and thoracic inlet (TI) alignment in asymptomatic adults. A prospective radiographic study. Cervical and whole-spine standing lateral radiographs were taken to analyze the following parameters: spinopelvic parameters pelvic incidence (PI), sacral slope (SS), lumbar lordosis (LL), and TK; TI parameters thoracic inlet angle (TIA) and T1 slope; and cervical spine parameters C0-C2, C2-C7, and C0-C7 angles and cervical tilting. Statistical analysis was performed using the Pearson correlation coefficients and multiple regression analysis. All the parameters showed a normal distribution. There was a significant sequential linkage between PI and SS (r=0.653), SS and LL (r=0.807), LL and TK (r=-0.516), and TK and C0-C7 angle (r=-0.322). There was a significant relationship between TK and T1 slope (r=0.351) but no significant relationship between TK and TIA. There were significant sequential relationships between TIA and T1 slope (r=0.694), T1 slope and C2-C7 angle (r=-0.624), and C2-C7 and C0-C2 angles (r=-0.547). T1 slope was the only parameter that demonstrated a significant correlation with both SP and TI parameters. A linear regression model showed that T1 slope had a stronger relationship with TIA (r=0.694) than TK (r=0.351). T1 slope was a key factor determining cervical spine

  10. Functional cervical MRI within the scope of whiplash injuries: presentation of a new motion device for the cervical spine.

    PubMed

    Birnbaum, Klaus; Maus, Uwe; Tacke, Josef

    2010-02-01

    Frequently following a whiplash injury of the cervical spine, patients suffer from persistent pain symptoms. The MRI will in some of these cases show changes consistent with disk pathology or spinal stenosis, although in most instances the imaging studies will offer no adequate explanation for the described symptoms. The goal of our research was to develop and test a new MRI compatible device that will allow functional imaging of the cervical spine. A total of 30 patients with whiplash injuries were evaluated during the first 6 weeks following trauma with the functional MRI. The examination was carried out with a T2-weighted turbo spin-echo sequence utilizing a new apparatus consisting of an inflatable air bag contained in a Plexiglas housing. Thanks to a valve placed outside of the examination room, it was possible to individually regulate the amount of air used to fill the pillow, thereby obtaining a full range of motion between flexion and extension. In 25 cases no pathology was found during this examination. Two patients presented with scarring of the alar ligaments, indicative of a traumatic lesion. In two other instances the images in reclination revealed a bulging disk, while in one case a widening of the disk space was found as a sign for a rupture of the anterior longitudinal ligament. Our study was able to demonstrate the applicability of the new functional testing device, which permits a standardized, continuous and dynamic evaluation of the cervical spine in a closed MRI.

  11. Clinical clearance of the cervical spine in patients with distracting injuries: It is time to dispel the myth.

    PubMed

    Rose, Melanie K; Rosal, Lindy M; Gonzalez, Richard P; Rostas, Jack W; Baker, Jeremy A; Simmons, Jon D; Frotan, Mohammed A; Brevard, Sydney B

    2012-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to prospectively assess the sensitivity and efficacy of clinical examination for screening of cervical spine (c-spine) injury in awake and alert blunt trauma patients with concomitant "distracting injuries." During the 24-month period from December 2009 to December 2011, all blunt trauma patients older than 13 years were prospectively evaluated with a standard cervical spine examination protocol by the trauma surgery team at a Level 1 trauma center. Awake and alert patients with a Glasgow Coma Score (GCS) ≥14 underwent clinical examination of the cervical spine. Clinical examination was performed regardless of "distracting injuries." Patients without complaints of pain or tenderness on physical exam had their cervical collar removed, and the c-spine was considered clinically cleared of injury. All awake and alert patients with "distracting injuries," including those clinically cleared and those with complaints of c-spine pain or tenderness underwent computerized tomographic (CT) scanning of the entire c-spine. "Distracting injuries" were categorized into three anatomic regions: head injuries, torso injuries and long bone fractures. Patients with minor distracting injuries were not considered to have a "distracting injury." During the 24-month study period, 761 blunt trauma patients with GCS ≥14 and at least one "distracting injury" had been entered into the study protocol. Two-hundred ninety-six (39%) of the patients with "distracting injuries" had a positive c-spine clinical examination, 85 (29%) of whom were diagnosed with c-spine injury. Four hundred sixty-four (61%) of the patients with "distracting injuries"’ were initially clinically cleared, with one patient (0.2%) diagnosed with a c-spine injury. This yielded an overall sensitivity of 99% (85/86) and negative predictive value greater than 99% (463/464) for cervical spine clinical examination in awake and alert blunt trauma patients with "distracting injuries." In the

  12. Factors affecting survival of patients in the acute phase of upper cervical spine injuries.

    PubMed

    Morita, Tomonori; Takebayashi, Tsuneo; Irifune, Hideto; Ohnishi, Hirofumi; Hirayama, Suguru; Yamashita, Toshihiko

    2017-04-01

    In recent years, on the one hand, the mortality rates of upper cervical spine injuries, such as odontoid fractures, were suggested to be not so high, but on the other hand reported to be significantly high. Furthermore, it has not been well documented the relationship between survival rates and various clinical features in those patients during the acute phase of injury because of few reports. This study aimed to evaluate survival rates and acute-phase clinical features of upper cervical spine injuries. We conducted a retrospective review of all patients who were transported to the advanced emergency medical center and underwent computed tomography of the cervical spine at our hospital between January 2006 and December 2015. We excluded the patients who were discovered in a state of cardiopulmonary arrest (CPA) and could not be resuscitated after transportation. Of the 215 consecutive patients with cervical spine injuries, we examined 40 patients (18.6%) diagnosed with upper cervical spine injury (males, 28; females, 12; median age, 58.5 years). Age, sex, mechanism of injury, degree of paralysis, the level of cervical injury, injury severity score (ISS), and incidence of CPA at discovery were evaluated and compared among patients classified into the survival and mortality groups. The survival rate was 77.5% (31/40 patients). In addition, complete paralysis was observed in 32.5% of patients. The median of ISS was 34.0 points, and 14 patients (35.0%) presented with CPA at discovery. Age, the proportion of patients with complete paralysis, a high ISS, and incidence of CPA at discovery were significantly higher in the mortality group (p = 0.038, p = 0.038, p < 0.001, and p < 0.001, respectively). Elderly people were more likely to experience upper cervical spine injuries, and their mortality rate was significantly higher than that in injured younger people. In addition, complete paralysis, high ISS, a state of CPA at discovery, was significantly higher

  13. An unusual presentation of autonomic dysreflexia in a patient with cold abscess of cervical spine for anterolateral decompression

    PubMed Central

    Sarangi, Susmita; Taneja, Dipali; Saxena, Bhavna

    2016-01-01

    A young female having complaints of quadriparesis along with bladder and bowel involvement, diagnosed to have osseous destruction of C4, C6, C7, T2 vertebral bodies with pre- and para-vertebral abscess, was taken up for anterolateral decompression and fusion of cervical spine. She presented with anxiety, agitation, sweating and headache and was in hypertensive crisis which was refractory to antihypertensives, anxiolytics and analgesics but showed a reasonable response to intravenous dexmedetomidine and finally responded dramatically to rectal evacuation. Autonomic dysreflexia was suspected with stimulus arising from distended rectum as all other causes of hypertension were ruled out. PMID:28003699

  14. Cervical spine in patients with diastrophic dysplasia--radiographic findings in 122 patients.

    PubMed

    Remes, Ville M; Marttinen, Eino J; Poussa, Mikko S; Helenius, Ilkka J; Peltonen, Jari I

    2002-09-01

    In previous studies, typical radiological findings in the cervical spine of patients with diastrophic dysplasia (DD) have been kyphosis, displacement of the vertebrae, spina bifida occulta (SBO), anterior hypoplasia of vertebrae C3-5, and hyperplasia and dysmorphism of the odontoid process. To make a radiological analysis of the cervical spine in patients with DD. The study comprised 122 patients (50 males, 72 females), with an average age of 19 years (range newborn-63 years). Follow-up was available on 62 patients (51%), for an average duration of 11 years. Cervical spine alignment was measured according to Cobb's method. The height (H) and depth (D) of the vertebral body and sagittal diameter (S) of the spinal canal were measured. H/D and S/D ratios were then calculated from the measurements. The shape of the vertebrae was assessed. Displacement and movement of cervical vertebrae in neutral and bending radiographs were measured. RESULTS. The average lordosis in the last radiograph was 17(degrees) (range 4 degrees -55(degrees)). Five (4%) patients had a cervical kyphosis with an average of 92(degrees) (range 10-165(degrees)) on their last radiograph. The H/D ratio increased slowly during growth and showed significant correlation with age. There was no growth spurt at puberty. The S/D ratio was fairly stable until 7-8 years of age, when it started to decline slowly. The percentage of vertebrae with a flat vertebral body and narrow spinal canal value tended to increase with age. Vertebral hypoplasia and displacement between vertebrae were most common in the mid-cervical region and resolved spontaneously with age. Degenerative changes seemed to increase with age and were already visible during the second decade of life. SBO was noted in 79% of patients. The most common alignment in the cervical spine is lordosis in adulthood. The vertebral bodies are flattened and the spinal canal is narrowed. Vertebral body hypoplasia and displacement usually resolve spontaneously

  15. Bootstrap prediction bands for cervical spine intervertebral kinematics during in vivo three-dimensional head movements.

    PubMed

    Anderst, William J

    2015-05-01

    There is substantial inter-subject variability in intervertebral range of motion (ROM) in the cervical spine. This makes it difficult to define "normal" ROM, and to assess the effects of age, injury, and surgical procedures on spine kinematics. The objective of this study was to define normal intervertebral kinematics in the cervical spine during dynamic functional loading. Twenty-nine participants performed dynamic flexion\\extension, axial rotation, and lateral bending while biplane radiographs were collected at 30 images/s. Vertebral motion was tracked with sub-millimeter accuracy using a validated volumetric model-based tracking process that matched subject-specific CT-based bone models to the radiographs. Gaussian point-by-point and bootstrap techniques were used to determine 90% prediction bands for the intervertebral kinematic curves at 1% intervals of each movement cycle. Cross validation was performed to estimate the true achieved coverage for each method. For a targeted coverage of 90%, the estimated true coverage using bootstrap prediction bands averaged 86±5%, while the estimated true coverage using Gaussian point-by-point intervals averaged 56±10% over all movements and all motion segments. Bootstrap prediction bands are recommended as the standard for evaluating full ROM cervical spine kinematic curves. The data presented here can be used to identify abnormal motion in patients presenting with neck pain, to drive computational models, and to assess the biofidelity of in vitro loading paradigms. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Clearing the Cervical Spine in a War Zone: What Other Injuries Matter?

    PubMed

    Drew, Jennifer; Chou, Victoria B; Miller, Catriona; Borg, Bryson; Ingalls, Nichole; Shackelford, Stacy

    2015-07-01

    Cervical spine clearance requires clinicians to assess the reliability of physical examination based on a patient's mental status and distracting injuries. Distracting injuries have never been clearly defined in military casualties. Retrospective review was conducted of patients entered into Department of Defense Trauma Registry January 2008 to August 2013, identifying blunt trauma patients with cervical spine injury and Glasgow Coma Score ≥ 14. Physical examination and radiology results were abstracted from medical records and injury diagnoses were obtained from Department of Defense Trauma Registry. Groups were compared, p-value of < 0.05 was considered significant. A total of 149 patients met study criteria; 20 patients (13%) had a negative clinical examination of the cervical spine. Coexisting injuries identified in patients with negative physical examination included injuries in proximity to the neck (head, thoracic spine, chest, or humerus) in 17 (85%) patients. In 3 patients (15%), coexisting injuries were not in proximity to the neck and included pelvic, femur, and tibia fractures. All patients without coexisting injury (n = 37) had a positive physical examination. Physical examination of multitrauma casualties with neck injury may be unreliable when distracting injuries are present. When no distracting injuries were present, the physical examination was accurate in all patients. Reprint & Copyright © 2015 Association of Military Surgeons of the U.S.

  17. Accuracy of the Canadian C-spine rule and NEXUS to screen for clinically important cervical spine injury in patients following blunt trauma: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Michaleff, Zoe A; Maher, Chris G; Verhagen, Arianne P; Rebbeck, Trudy; Lin, Chung-Wei Christine

    2012-11-06

    There is uncertainty about the optimal approach to screen for clinically important cervical spine (C-spine) injury following blunt trauma. We conducted a systematic review to investigate the diagnostic accuracy of the Canadian C-spine rule and the National Emergency X-Radiography Utilization Study (NEXUS) criteria, 2 rules that are available to assist emergency physicians to assess the need for cervical spine imaging. We identified studies by an electronic search of CINAHL, Embase and MEDLINE. We included articles that reported on a cohort of patients who experienced blunt trauma and for whom clinically important cervical spine injury detectable by diagnostic imaging was the differential diagnosis; evaluated the diagnostic accuracy of the Canadian C-spine rule or NEXUS or both; and used an adequate reference standard. We assessed the methodologic quality using the Quality Assessment of Diagnostic Accuracy Studies criteria. We used the extracted data to calculate sensitivity, specificity, likelihood ratios and post-test probabilities. We included 15 studies of modest methodologic quality. For the Canadian C-spine rule, sensitivity ranged from 0.90 to 1.00 and specificity ranged from 0.01 to 0.77. For NEXUS, sensitivity ranged from 0.83 to 1.00 and specificity ranged from 0.02 to 0.46. One study directly compared the accuracy of these 2 rules using the same cohort and found that the Canadian C-spine rule had better accuracy. For both rules, a negative test was more informative for reducing the probability of a clinically important cervical spine injury. Based on studies with modest methodologic quality and only one direct comparison, we found that the Canadian C-spine rule appears to have better diagnostic accuracy than the NEXUS criteria. Future studies need to follow rigorous methodologic procedures to ensure that the findings are as free of bias as possible.

  18. Characteristics of Cervical Spine Trauma in Patients with Ankylosing Spondylitis and Ossification of the Posterior Longitudinal Ligament.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chang Kyu; Yoon, Do Heum; Kim, Keung Nyun; Yi, Seong; Shin, Dong Ah; Kim, Byeongwoo; Lee, Nam; Ha, Yoon

    2016-12-01

    To compare the clinical characteristics of cervical spine trauma in patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS) and cervical ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament (OPLL) with those of a control group. A total of 124 patients with cervical spine trauma from January 2004 to December 2013 were reviewed. Fourteen patients were diagnosed with AS and 25 patients were diagnosed with OPLL; 85 patients were controls. C-spine plain radiography, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging were obtained for evaluation of cervical spine trauma. The American Spinal Injury Association impairment scale and Subaxial Cervical Spine Injury Classification were used to evaluate the neurologic status of patients and the fracture mechanism. Patients with AS or OPLL had more spinal injuries associated with minor trauma than did the control group. All patients with AS had spinal fracture injuries after cervical spine trauma, but patients with OPLL mostly had spinal cord injuries without bony fractures. After cervical spine trauma, delayed diagnosis occurred in 3 patients with AS (21.4%) and 4 patients with OPLL (15.6%). Improvement from neurologic deficit after treatment showed better outcomes in patients with AS and OPLL than in controls (P = 0.106). Patients with AS or OPLL who had cervical spine trauma showed different characteristics and outcomes than control patients. Proper surgical treatment led to better outcomes in both patients with AS and patients with OPLL than in control patients. Moreover, it is important to thoroughly examine patients with AS or OPLL after cervical trauma so as not to delay diagnosis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Prevalence of pain and dysfunction in the cervical and thoracic spine in persons with and without lateral elbow pain.

    PubMed

    Berglund, K M; Persson, B H; Denison, E

    2008-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to survey the prevalence of pain in the cervical and thoracic spine (C2-T7) in persons with and without lateral elbow pain. Thirty-one subjects with lateral elbow pain and 31 healthy controls participated in the study. The assessment comprised a pain drawing, provocation tests of the cervical and thoracic spine, a neurodynamic test of the radial nerve, and active cervical range of motion. Seventy percent of the subjects with lateral elbow pain indicated pain in the cervical or thoracic spine, as compared to 16% in the control group (p<0.001). The frequency of pain responses to the provocation tests of the cervical and thoracic spine was significantly higher (p<0.05) in the lateral elbow pain (LEP) group, as was the frequency of pain responses to the neurodynamic test of the radial nerve (p<0.001). Cervical flexion and extension range of motion was significantly lower (p<0.01) in the LEP group. The results indicate a relation between lateral elbow pain and pain in the vertebral spine (C2-T7). The cervical and thoracic spine should be included in the assessment of patients with lateral elbow pain.

  20. Blunt craniocervical artery injury in cervical spine lesions: the value of CT angiography.

    PubMed

    Fleck, Steffen Kristian; Langner, Soenke; Baldauf, Joerg; Kirsch, Michael; Rosenstengel, Christian; Schroeder, Henry W

    2010-10-01

    The awareness of traumatic craniocervical artery injuries has increased over the last years, and the detection rate varies in published trauma series. These injuries are often associated with cervical spinal and cranial trauma. The purpose of this prospective study was to determine the frequency and injury characteristics of blunt traumatic cervical artery injuries in patients suffering from cervical spine injuries by using a standardized CT angiography (CTA) protocol of the craniocervical vessels. Over a period of 32 months (February 2006 to September 2008), we prospectively evaluated 53 patients with osseous cervical spine injuries. Of these, 41 patients were screened for blunt craniocervical vessel injuries using CT angiography in 718 consecutive patients requiring a whole-body trauma CT due to the mechanism of their injury and injury patterns. All examinations were performed using a 16-row multi-slice computed tomography (Sensation 16, Siemens, Erlangen, Germany). Initially, a scan of the neurocranium angulated in orbito-meatal orientation was acquired. Then, a CT angiography of the craniocervical vessels with 40 ml of iodinated contrast agent (flow 4 ml/s; 40 ml saline flush, flow 4 ml/s) was performed starting at the level of Th2 up to the roof of the lateral ventricles. The scan was started using bolus tracking. Finally, a contrast-enhanced spiral thoraco-abdominal scan was performed with a delay of 20 s after administering a second contrast bolus of 60 ml. Besides, 11 patients with already detected isolated cervical spine injury, who were not initially involved in the whole-body trauma imaging protocol, underwent a secondary CT angiography with 60 ml of contrast agent (flow 4 ml/s; 40 ml saline flush, flow 4 ml/s), starting at the level of Th2 up to the roof of the lateral ventricles. The craniocervical vessels were analyzed in the source images, with the use of maximum-intensity projections and curved multi-planar reconstructions. Alternatively, a duplex

  1. Prehospital clearance of the cervical spine: does it need to be a pain in the neck?

    PubMed

    Armstrong, B P; Simpson, H K; Crouch, R; Deakin, C D

    2007-07-01

    Prehospital cervical spine (c-spine) immobilisation is common, despite c-spine injury being relatively rare. Unnecessary immobilisation results in a significant burden on limited prehospital and emergency department (ED) resources. This study aimed to determine whether the incidence of unnecessary c-spine immobilisation by ambulance personnel could be safely reduced through the implementation of an evidence-based algorithm. Following a training programme, complete forms on 103 patients were identified during the audit period, of which 69 (67%) patients had their c-spines cleared at scene. Of these, 60 (87%) were discharged at scene, with no clinical adverse events reported, and 9 (13%) were taken to the local ED with non-distracting minor injuries, all being discharged home the same day. 34 (33%) patients could not have their c-spines safely cleared at scene according to the algorithm. Of these, 4 (12%) patients self-discharged at scene and 30 (88%) were conveyed to an ED as per the normal procedure. C-spine clearance at scene by ambulance personnel may have positive impacts on patient care, efficient use of resources and cost to healthcare organisations.

  2. A radiological review of cervical spine injuries from an accident and emergency department: has the ATLS made a difference?

    PubMed Central

    Palmer, S H; Maheson, M

    1995-01-01

    The importance of visualizing the entire cervical spine on radiological examination in patients with cervical trauma is well known. A review of the cervical films of 98 patients attending an accident and emergency (A&E) department was undertaken in order to assess the adequacy of imaging. It was found that 33.7% of the films were not sufficient to exclude fracture or dislocation of the cervical spine. The number of patients with inadequate views was significantly reduced when an advanced trauma life support trained senior doctor was involved. PMID:8581244

  3. Role of multimodal intraoperative neurophysiological monitoring during positioning of patient prior to cervical spine surgery.

    PubMed

    Plata Bello, Julio; Pérez-Lorensu, Pedro Javier; Roldán-Delgado, Héctor; Brage, Liberto; Rocha, Verónica; Hernández-Hernández, Vanessa; Dóniz, Ayoze; García-Marín, Víctor

    2015-06-01

    To determine the use of multimodal intraoperative neurophysiological monitoring (IONM) during positioning procedures in cervical spine surgery. IONM data was collected from 75 patients from the onset of positioning to the end of the surgical procedure. These included: transcranial motor evoked potentials (TcMEP), somatosensory evoked potentials (SEP) and free running electromyography (EMG) recordings. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (PNV) were calculated. IONM warnings were given in 5 cases during neck positioning. These consisted of the disappearance of TcMEP in all the cases, while two cases showed a loss of SEPs as well. Four of these patients presented a complete recovery of TcMEP and SEPs after neck repositioning. The patient in which this recovery was not present, woke up with new postoperative neurological deficits. Sensitivity, specificity, PPV and NPV of TcMEP during cervical positioning were all 100%. Sensitivity of SEPs was 40%; specificity and PPV were 100%; and the NPV of SEPs was 95.9%. Multimodal IONM is a useful method to prevent spinal cord injury during neck positioning in cervical spine surgical procedures. TcMEPs showed the highest sensitivity in detecting injuries to cervical spine related to neck positioning. Multimodal IONM should not only be considered for detecting intra-operative warnings, but also during positioning. Copyright © 2014 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Extensive cervical spine and foregut anomaly in ‘serpentine syndrome’

    PubMed Central

    Dargan, D.; McMorrow, A.; Bourke, T.W.; McCallion, W.A.; Verner, A.M.; Lyons, J.; McConnell, R.S.; Lundy, C.T.; Eames, N.W.A.

    2013-01-01

    INTRODUCTION We report an extremely rare and challenging combination of congenital anomalies. Only five similar cases have been described in the English language medical literature to date. PRESENTATION OF CASE A male infant was born at 30+5 weeks gestation by emergency caesarian section. Cervical spine rachischisis, shortened oesophagus, intrathoracic stomach, atretic duodenum and absent spleen were noted, in addition to respiratory insufficiency. Gastrointestinal re-anastomosis, particularly oesophageal lengthening, was not feasible at the initial thoracotomy. Surgical stabilization of the cervical spine was unlikely to be successful until two years of age. Asplenia predisposed the infant to sepsis from encapsulated organisms, and recurrent respiratory infections occurred. DISCUSSION A close relationship exists between the upper gastrointestinal tract and cervical spine during embryonic development. An embryonic aberration at this level could account for all the deformities present in this infant. Tethering of the embryonic cervical oesophagus to the somites in the first trimester, preventing foregut elongation, and producing ischaemia at the coeliac axis, is suggested as the aetiology. CONCLUSION This case presented a challenge to the multi-disciplinary team involved in his management and prompted extensive consultation with international experts. After considerable counseling of the parents, care was directed towards palliation. PMID:23567544

  5. Reduced field-of-view DTI segmentation of cervical spine tissue.

    PubMed

    Tang, Lihua; Wen, Ying; Zhou, Zhenyu; von Deneen, Karen M; Huang, Dehui; Ma, Lin

    2013-11-01

    The number of diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) studies regarding the human spine has considerably increased and