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Sample records for cesium strontium actinides

  1. Strategic Design and Optimization of Inorganic Sorbents for Cesium, Strontium and Actinides

    SciTech Connect

    Edward J. Maginn

    2009-11-09

    The primary objective of the Notre Dame component of the project was computational in nature. The goal was to provide a design tool for the synthesis of optimized sorbents for the removal of cesium, strontium and actinides from nuclear waste solutions. Molecular modeling enables us to observe and better understand the molecular level interactions that govern the selectivity of specific radionuclides in a particular sorbent. The research focused on the development and validation of a suitable and transferable model for all the cations and ion exchangers of interest, nd then subsequent simulations which determined the siting and mobility of water and cations. Speciic accomplishments include: (1) improving existing intermolecular force fields to accurately model the sorbents of interest; (2) utilizing energy-minimizations and molecular dynamics simulations for structural prediction of CST and niobium-substituted CST materials; (3) determining Na+/water positions in polyoxoniobate materials using molecular dynamics simulations; and (4) developing Hybrid Monte Carlo methods for improved structural prediction.

  2. DEVELOPMENT OF PROTOTYPE TITANATE ION EXCHANGE LOADED MEMBRANES FOR STRONTIUM, CESIUM AND ACTINIDE DECONTAMINATION FROM AQUEOUS MEDIA

    SciTech Connect

    Oji, L; Keisha Martin, K; David Hobbs, D

    2008-05-30

    We have successfully incorporated high surface area particles of titanate ion exchange materials (monosodium titanate and crystalline silicotitanate) with acceptable particle size distribution into porous and inert support membrane fibrils consisting of polytetrafluoroethylene (Teflon{reg_sign}), polyethylene and cellulose materials. The resulting membrane sheets, under laboratory conditions, were used to evaluate the removal of surrogate radioactive materials for cesium-137 and strontium-90 from high caustic nuclear waste simulants. These membrane supports met the nominal requirement for nonchemical interaction with the embedded ion exchange materials and were porous enough to allow sufficient liquid flow. Some of this 47-mm size stamped out prototype titanium impregnated ion exchange membrane discs was found to remove more than 96% of dissolved cesium-133 and strontium-88 from a caustic nuclear waste salt simulants. Since in traditional ion exchange based column technology monosodium titanate (MST) is known to have great affinity for the sorbing of other actinides like plutonium, neptunium and even uranium, we expect that the MST-based membranes developed here, although not directly evaluated for uptake of these three actinides because of costs associated with working with actinides which do not have 'true' experimental surrogates, would also show significant affinity for these actinides in aqueous media. It was also observed that crystalline silicotitanate impregnated polytetrafluoroethylene or polyethylene membranes became less selective and sorbed both cesium and strontium from the caustic aqueous salt simulants.

  3. Extraction processes and solvents for recovery of cesium, strontium, rare earth elements, technetium and actinides from liquid radioactive waste

    DOEpatents

    Zaitsev, Boris N.; Esimantovskiy, Vyacheslav M.; Lazarev, Leonard N.; Dzekun, Evgeniy G.; Romanovskiy, Valeriy N.; Todd, Terry A.; Brewer, Ken N.; Herbst, Ronald S.; Law, Jack D.

    2001-01-01

    Cesium and strontium are extracted from aqueous acidic radioactive waste containing rare earth elements, technetium and actinides, by contacting the waste with a composition of a complex organoboron compound and polyethylene glycol in an organofluorine diluent mixture. In a preferred embodiment the complex organoboron compound is chlorinated cobalt dicarbollide, the polyethylene glycol has the formula RC.sub.6 H.sub.4 (OCH.sub.2 CH.sub.2).sub.n OH, and the organofluorine diluent is a mixture of bis-tetrafluoropropyl ether of diethylene glycol with at least one of bis-tetrafluoropropyl ether of ethylene glycol and bis-tetrafluoropropyl formal. The rare earths, technetium and the actinides (especially uranium, plutonium and americium), are extracted from the aqueous phase using a phosphine oxide in a hydrocarbon diluent, and reextracted from the resulting organic phase into an aqueous phase by using a suitable strip reagent.

  4. The Universal Solvent Extraction (UNEX) Process I: Development of the UNEX Process Solvent for the Separation of Cesium, Strontium, and the Actinides from Acidic Radioactive Waste

    SciTech Connect

    Law, Jack Douglas; Todd, Terry Allen; Herbst, Ronald Scott; Brewer, Ken Neal; Romanovskiy, V. N.; Smirnov, I. V.; Babain, V. A.

    2001-01-01

    A synergistic extraction mixture containing chlorinated cobalt dicarbollide (CCD), carbamoylmethyl phosphine oxide (CMPO), and polyethylene glycol (PEG) has been investigated for the simultaneous recovery of cesium, strontium, lanthanides, and actinides from highly acidic media. The extraction properties of this mixture depend on the concentration ratio of the components. For recovery of all major radionuclides, the optimal ratio of [CCD]:[PEG]: [CMPO] = 5:1:1 should be used. The use of diphenyl-N,N-dibutylcarbamoylmethyl phosphine oxide and PEG-400 provides the most efficient recovery of cesium, strontium, lanthanides, and actinides. The possibility of using polyfluorinated ethers, esters, ketones, and sulfones as diluents was examined. Phenyltrifluoromethyl sulfone was the most suitable diluent tested. The use of this diluent allows good extraction properties, chemical and radiation stability, excellent explosion/fire-safety properties, and favorable hydrodynamic characteristics. The extraction of radionuclides from HNO3 media by mixtures of CCD:PEG:CMPO in phenyltrifluoromethyl sulfone and the subsequent stripping behavior were evaluated.

  5. Cesium and Strontium Separation Technologies Literature Review

    SciTech Connect

    T. A. Todd; T. A. Todd; J. D. Law; R. S. Herbst

    2004-03-01

    Integral to the Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) Program’s proposed closed nuclear fuel cycle, the fission products cesium and strontium in the dissolved spent nuclear fuel stream are to be separated and managed separately. A comprehensive literature survey is presented to identify cesium and strontium separation technologies that have the highest potential and to focus research and development efforts on these technologies. Removal of these high-heat-emitting fission products reduces the radiation fields in subsequent fuel cycle reprocessing streams and provides a significant short-term (100 yr) heat source reduction in the repository. This, along with separation of actinides, may provide a substantial future improvement in the amount of fuel that could be stored in a geologic repository. The survey and review of the candidate cesium and strontium separation technologies are presented herein. Because the AFCI program intends to manage cesium and strontium together, technologies that simultaneously separate both elements are of the greatest interest, relative to technologies that separate only one of the two elements.

  6. Demonstration of the UNEX Process for the Simultaneous Separation of Cesium, Strontium, and the Actinides from Actual INEEL Sodium-Bearing Waste

    SciTech Connect

    Law, Jack Douglas; Herbst, Ronald Scott; Todd, Terry Allen; Romanovskiy, V.; Smirnov, I.; Babain, V.; Zaitsev, B.; Esimantovskiy, V.

    1999-11-01

    A universal solvent extraction (UNEX) process for the simultaneous separation of cesium, strontium, and the actinides from actual radioactive acidic tank waste was demonstrated at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. The waste solution used in the countercurrent flowsheet demonstration was obtained from tank WM-185. The UNEX process uses a tertiary solvent containing 0.08 M chlorinated cobalt dicarbollide, 0.5% polyethylene glycol-400 (PEG-400), and 0.02 M diphenyl-N,N-dibutylcarbamoyl phosphine oxide (Ph2Bu2CMPO) in a diluent consisting of phenyltrifluoromethyl sulfone (FS-13). The countercurrent flowsheet demonstration was performed in a shielded cell facility using 24 stages of 2-cm diameter centrifugal contactors. Removal efficiencies of 99.4%, 99.995%, and 99.96% were obtained for 137Cs, 90Sr, and total alpha, respectively. This is sufficient to reduce the activities of 137Cs, 90Sr, and actinides in the WM-185 waste to below NRC Class A LLW requirements. Flooding and/or precipitate formation were not observed during testing. Significant amounts of the Zr (87%), Ba (>99%), Pb (98.8%), Fe (8%), Ca (10%), Mo (32%), and K (28%) were also removed from the feed with the universal solvent extraction flowsheet. 99Tc, Al, Hg, and Na were essentially inextractable (<1% extracted).

  7. Cesium and strontium ion specific exchangers

    SciTech Connect

    Yates, S.

    1996-10-01

    This work is one of two parallel projects that are part of an ESP task to develop high-capacity, selective, solid extractants for cesium, strontium, and technetium from nuclear wastes. In this subtask, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is collaborating with AlliedSignal, Inc. (Des Plaines, Illinois) to develop inorganic ion exchangers that are selective for strontium and cesium from alkaline high-level waste and groundwater streams.

  8. Crystalline silicotitanates for cesium/strontium removal

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, N.; Miller, J.; Sherman, J.

    1996-10-01

    A new class of inorganic ion exchangers called crystalline silicotitanates (CST) has been developed that exhibits very high selectivity for cesium and strontium in the highly alkaline radioactive wastes at the Hanford Site and other DOE sites. Tests have also shown that CSTs have high selectivity for cesium in acidic and neutral solutions. The ESP is supporting an effort at Sandia National Laboratories and Texas A & M University to further develop and characterize the important chemical and physical properties that will determine the applicability of CST to radioactive waste treatment at Hanford and other DOE facilities.

  9. Lanthanide doped strontium-barium cesium halide scintillators

    DOEpatents

    Bizarri, Gregory; Bourret-Courchesne, Edith; Derenzo, Stephen E.; Borade, Ramesh B.; Gundiah, Gautam; Yan, Zewu; Hanrahan, Stephen M.; Chaudhry, Anurag; Canning, Andrew

    2015-06-09

    The present invention provides for a composition comprising an inorganic scintillator comprising an optionally lanthanide-doped strontium-barium, optionally cesium, halide, useful for detecting nuclear material.

  10. Combined Extraction of Cesium, Strontium, and Actinides from Alkaline Media: An Extension of the Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX) Process Technology

    SciTech Connect

    Kenneth Raymond

    2004-11-03

    The wastes present at DOE long-term storage sites are usually highly alkaline, and because of this, much of the actinides in these wastes are in the sludge phase. Enough actinide materials still remain in the supernatant liquid that they require separation followed by long-term storage in a geological repository. The removal of these metals from the liquid waste stream would permit their disposal as low-level waste and dramatically reduce the volume of high-level wastes.

  11. A combined cesium-strontium extraction/recovery process

    SciTech Connect

    Horwitz, E.P.; Dietz, M.L.; Jensen, M.P.

    1996-03-01

    A new solvent extraction process for the simultaneous extraction of cesium and strontium from acidic nitrate media is described. This process uses a solvent formulation comprised of 0.05 M di-t-butylcyclohexano-18-crown-6 (DtBuCH18C6), 0.1 M Crown 100{prime} (a proprietary, cesium-selective derivative of dibenzo-18-crown-6), 1.2 M tributyl phosphate (TBP), and 5% (v/v) lauryl nitrile in an isoparaffinic hydrocarbon diluent. Distribution ratios for cesium and strontium from 4 M nitric acid are 4.13 and 3.46, respectively. A benchtop batch countercurrent extraction experiment indicates that >98% of the cesium and strontium initially present in the feed solution can be removed in only four extraction stages. Through proper choice of extraction and strip conditions, extracted cesium and strontium can be recovered either together or individually.

  12. Strontium-90 and cesium-137 distribution in Baltic Sea waters

    SciTech Connect

    Lazarev, L.N.; Gedeonov, L.I.; Ivanova, L.M.; Stepanov, A.V.

    1988-09-01

    The strontium-90 and cesium-137 concentrations determined in 1983 in the Baltic Sea proper and the Gulf of Finland and in the Soviet Baltic rivers are furnished. The cesium-137 content has been found to be directly proportional to the salinity of the water. Significant influx of technogenic radioactive contaminants from the North to the Baltic Sea was noted in 1983.

  13. Membrane-based separation technologies for cesium, strontium, and technetium

    SciTech Connect

    Kafka, T.

    1996-10-01

    This work is one of two parallel projects that are part of an ESP task to develop high-capacity, selective, solid extractants for cesium, strontium, and technetium from nuclear wastes. In this subtask, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is collaborating with 3M, St. Paul, Minnesota, working in cooperation with IBC Advanced Technologies, American Fork, Utah.

  14. The diffusion of cesium, strontium, and europium in silicon carbide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dwaraknath, S. S.; Was, G. S.

    2016-08-01

    A novel multi-layer diffusion couple was used to isolate the diffusion of strontium, europium and cesium in SiC without introducing radiation damage to SiC and at concentrations below the solubility limit for the fission products in SiC. Diffusion occurred by both bulk and grain boundary pathways for all three fission products between 900∘ C and 1 ,300∘ C. Cesium was the fastest diffuser below 1 ,100∘ C and the slowest above this temperature. Strontium and europium diffusion tracked very closely as a function of temperature for both bulk and grain boundary diffusion. Migration energies ranged from 1.0 eV to 5.7 eV for bulk diffusion and between 2.2 eV and 4.7 eV for grain boundary diffusion. These constitute the first measurements of diffusion of cesium, europium, and strontium in silicon carbide, and the magnitude of the cesium diffusion coefficient supports the premise that high quality TRISO fuel should have minimal cesium release.

  15. Detection of the actinides and cesium from environmental samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snow, Mathew Spencer

    Detection of the actinides and cesium in the environment is important for a variety of applications ranging from environmental remediation to safeguards and nuclear forensics. The utilization of multiple different elemental concentrations and isotopic ratios together can significantly improve the ability to attribute contamination to a unique source term and/or generation process; however, the utilization of multiple elemental "signatures" together from environmental samples requires knowledge of the impact of chemical fractionation for various elements under a variety of environmental conditions (including predominantly aqueous versus arid conditions). The research reported in this dissertation focuses on three major areas: 1. Improving the understanding of actinide-mineral interactions at ultra-low concentrations. Chapter 2 reports a batch sorption and modeling study of Np(V) sorption to the mineral goethite from attomolar to micromolar concentrations. 2. Improving the detection capabilities for Thermal Ionization Mass Spectrometry (TIMS) analyses of ultra-trace cesium from environmental samples. Chapter 4 reports a new method which significantly improves the chemical yields, purification, sample processing time, and ultimately, the detection limits for TIMS analyses of femtogram quantities of cesium from a variety of environmental sample matrices. 3. Demonstrating how actinide and cesium concentrations and isotopic ratios from environmental samples can be utilized together to determine a wealth of information including environmental transport mechanisms (e.g. aqueous versus arid transport) and information on the processes which generated the original material. Chapters1, 3 and 5 demonstrate these principles using Pu, Am, Np, and Cs concentrations and isotopic ratios from contaminated soils taken near the Subsurface Disposal Area (SDA) of Idaho National Laboratory (INL) (a low level radioactive waste disposal site in southeastern Idaho).

  16. Extraction of cesium and strontium from nuclear waste

    DOEpatents

    Davis, M.W. Jr.; Bowers, C.B. Jr.

    1988-06-07

    Cesium is extracted from acidified nuclear waste by contacting the waste with a bis 4,4[prime](5) [1-hydroxy-2-ethylhexyl]benzo 18-crown-6 compound and a cation exchanger in a matrix solution. Strontium is extracted from acidified nuclear waste by contacting the waste with a bis 4,4[prime](5[prime]) [1-hydroxyheptyl]cyclohexo 18-crown-6 compound, and a cation exchanger in a matrix solution. 3 figs.

  17. Extraction of cesium and strontium from nuclear waste

    DOEpatents

    Davis, Jr., Milton W.; Bowers, Jr., Charles B.

    1988-01-01

    Cesium is extracted from acidified nuclear waste by contacting the waste with a bis 4,4'(5) [1-hydroxy-2-ethylhexyl]benzo 18-crown-6 compound and a cation exchanger in a matrix solution. Strontium is extracted from acidified nuclear waste by contacting the waste with a bis 4,4'(5') [1-hydroxyheptyl]cyclohexo 18-crown-6 compound, and a cation exchanger in a matrix solution.

  18. SODIUM ALUMINOSILICATE SOLIDS AFFINITY FOR CESIUM AND ACTINIDES

    SciTech Connect

    Peters, T; Bill Wilmarth, B; Samuel Fink, S

    2007-07-31

    Washed sodium-aluminosilicate (NAS) solids at initial concentrations of 3.55 and 5.4 g/L sorb or uptake virtually no cesium over 288 hours, nor do any NAS solids generated during that time. These concentrations of solids are believed to conservatively bound current and near-term operations. Hence, the NAS solids should not have affected measurements of the cesium during the mass transfer tests and there is minimal risk of accumulating cesium during routine operations (and hence posing a gamma radiation exposure risk in maintenance). With respect to actinide uptake, it appears that NAS solids sorb minimal quantities of uranium - up to 58 mg U per kg NAS solid. The behavior with plutonium is less well understood. Additional study may be needed for radioactive operations relative to plutonium or other fissile component sorption or trapping by the solids. We recommend this testing be incorporated in the planned tests using samples from Tank 25F and Tank 49H to extend the duration to bound expected inventory time for solution.

  19. Effects of mineralogy on sorption of strontium and cesium onto Calico Hills Tuff

    SciTech Connect

    Meyer, R.E.; Arnold, W.D.; Case, F.I.; O`Kelley, G.D.; Land, J.F.

    1990-04-01

    The sorption properties of tuff formations at the proposed site for the high-level nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, have been extensively studied. Sorption and desorption measurements were made of strontium and cesium onto clinoptilolite and Calico Hills Tuff. The object was to see whether there was a correlation between sorption of strontium and cesium onto Calico Hills Tuff and the sorption of strontium and cesium onto clinoptilolite based on the content of clinoptilolite in the Calico Hills Tuff. 13 refs., 10 figs., 6 tabs.

  20. High-temperature sorption of cesium and strontium on dispersed kaolinite powders.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Jong-Ik; Shinagawa, Takuya; Wood, Joseph P; Linak, William P; Santoianni, Dawn A; King, Charles J; Seo, Yong-Chil; Wendt, Jost O L

    2005-07-01

    Sorption of cesium and strontium on kaolinite powders was investigated as a means to minimize the emissions of these metals during certain high-temperature processes currently being developed to isolate and dispose of radiological and mixed wastes. In this work, nonradioactive aqueous cesium acetate or strontium acetate was atomized down the center of a natural gas flame supported on a variable-swirl burner in a refractory-lined laboratory-scale combustion facility. Kaolinite powder was injected at a postflame location in the combustor. Cesium readily vaporized in the high-temperature regions of the combustor, but was reactively scavenged onto dispersed kaolinite. Global sorption mechanisms of cesium vapor on kaolinite were quantified, and are related to those available in the literature for sodium and lead. Both metal adsorption and substrate deactivation steps are important, so there is an optimum temperature, between 1400 and 1500 K, at which maximum sorption occurs. The presence of chlorine inhibits cesium sorption. In contrast to cesium, and in the absence of chlorine, strontium was only partially vaporized and was, therefore, only partially scavengeable. The strontium data did not allow quantification of global kinetic mechanisms of interaction, although equilibrium arguments provided insight into the effects of chlorine on strontium sorption. These results have implications for the use of sorbents to control cesium and strontium emissions during high-temperature waste processing including incineration and vitrification.

  1. Trade study for the disposition of cesium and strontium capsules

    SciTech Connect

    Claghorn, R.D.

    1996-03-01

    This trade study analyzes alternatives for the eventual disposal of cesium and strontium capsules currently stored at the Waste Encapsulation and Storage Facility as by-product. However, for purposes of this study, it is assumed that at some time in the future, the capsules will be declared high-level waste and therefore will require disposal at an offsite geologic repository. The study considered numerous alternatives and selected three for detailed analysis: (1) overpack and storage at high-level waste canister storage building, (2) overpack at the high-level waste vitrification facility followed by storage at a high-level waste canister storage building, and (3) blend capsule contents with other high-level waste feed streams and vitrify at the high-level waste vitrification facility.

  2. Cesium and strontium sorption behavior in amended agricultural soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mehmood, Khalid; Hofmann, Diana; Burauel, Peter; Vereecken, Harry; Berns, Anne E.

    2014-05-01

    Biogas digestates and biochar are emerging soil amendments. Biochar is a byproduct of pyrolysis process which is thermal decomposition of biomass to produce syngas and bio-oil. The use of biochar for soil amendment is being promoted for higher crop yields and carbon sequestration. Currently, the numbers of biogas plants in Germany are increasing to meet the new energy scenarios. The sustainability of biogas industry requires proper disposal options for digestate. Biogas digestates being rich in nutrients are beneficial to enhance agricultural productions. Contrary to the agronomical benefits of these organic amendments, their use can influence the mobility and bioavailability of soil contaminants due to nutrients competition and high organic matter content. So far, the impact of such amendments on highly problematic contaminants like radionuclides is not truly accounted for. In the present study, sorption-desorption behavior of cesium and strontium was investigated in three soils of different origin and texture. Two agricultural soils, a loamy sand and a silty soil, were amended with biochar and digestate in separate experiments, with field application rates of 25 Mg/ha and 34 Mg/ha, respectively. For comparison a third soil, a forest soil, was incubated without any amendment. The amendments were mixed into the top 20 cm of the field soils, resulting in final concentrations of 8-9 g biochar/Kg soil and 11-12 g digestate/Kg soil. The soils were incubated for about six months at room temperature. Sorption-desorption experiments were performed with CsCl and SrCl2 after pre-equilibrating the soils with CaCl2 solutions. The amendments with field application rates did not have a significant effect on the relevant soil parameters responsible for the sorption behavior of the two radionuclides. Comparatively, the soil type lead to distinctive differences in sorption-desorption dynamics of the two radionuclides. Cesium showed a higher affinity for silty soil followed by

  3. ADVANCED TECHNOLOGIES FOR THE SIMULTANEOUS SEPARATION OF CESIUM AND STRONTIUM FROM SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL

    SciTech Connect

    Jack D. Law; Terry A. Todd; R. Scott Herbst; David H. Meikrantz; Dean R. Peterman; Catherine L. Riddle; Richard D. Tillotson

    2005-02-01

    Two new solvent extraction technologies have been recently developed to simultaneously separate cesium and strontium from spent nuclear fuel, following dissolution in nitric acid. The first process utilizes a solvent consisting of chlorinated cobalt dicarbollide and polyethylene glycol extractants in a phenyltrifluoromethyl sulfone diluent. Recent improvements to the process include development of a new, non-nitroaromatic diluent and development of new stripping reagents, including a regenerable strip reagent that can be recovered and recycled. This new strip reagent reduces product volume by a factor of 20, over the baseline process. Countercurrent flowsheet tests on simulated spent nuclear fuel feed streams have been performed with both cesium and strontium removal efficiencies of greater than 99 %. The second process developed to simultaneously separate cesium and strontium from spent nuclear fuel is based on two highly-specific extractants: 4',4',(5')-Di-(t-butyldicyclo-hexano)-18-crown-6 (DtBuCH18C6) and Calix[4]arene-bis-(tert-octylbenzo-crown-6) (BOBCalixC6). The DtBuCH18C6 extractant is selective for strontium and the BOBCalixC6 extractant is selective for cesium. A solvent composition has been developed that enables both elements to be removed together and, in fact, a synergistic effect was observed with strontium distributions in the combined solvent that are much higher that in the strontium extraction (SREX) process. Initial laboratory test results of the new combined cesium and strontium extraction process indicate good extraction and stripping performance.

  4. Screening Evaluation of Sodium Nonatitanate for Strontium and Actinide Removal from Alkaline Salt Solution

    SciTech Connect

    Hobbs, D.T.

    2001-02-13

    This report describes results from screening tests evaluating strontium and actinide removal characteristics of a sodium titanate material developed by Clearfield and coworkers at Texas A and M University and offered commercially by Honeywell. Sodium nonatitanate may exhibit improved actinide removal kinetics and filtration characteristics compared to MST and thus merit testing.

  5. Engineered Materials for Cesium and Strontium Storage Final Technical Report

    SciTech Connect

    Sean M. McDeavitt

    2010-04-14

    Closing the nuclear fuel cycle requires reprocessing spent fuel to recover the long-lived components that still have useful energy content while immobilizing the remnant waste fission products in stable forms. At the genesis of this project, next generation spent fuel reprocessing methods were being developed as part of the U.S. Department of Energy's Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative. One of these processes was focused on solvent extraction schemes to isolate cesium (Cs) and strontium (Sr) from spent nuclear fuel. Isolating these isotopes for short-term decay storage eases the design requirements for long-term repository disposal; a significant amount of the radiation and decay heat in fission product waste comes from Cs-137 and Sr-90. For the purposes of this project, the Fission Product Extraction (FPEX) process is being considered to be the baseline extraction method. The objective of this project was to evaluate the nature and behavior of candidate materials for cesium and strontium immobilization; this will include assessments with minor additions of yttrium, barium, and rubidium in these materials. More specifically, the proposed research achieved the following objectives (as stated in the original proposal): (1) Synthesize simulated storage ceramics for Cs and Sr using an existing labscale steam reformer at Purdue University. The simulated storage materials will include aluminosilicates, zirconates and other stable ceramics with the potential for high Cs and Sr loading. (2) Characterize the immobilization performance, phase structure, thermal properties and stability of the simulated storage ceramics. The ceramic products will be stable oxide powders and will be characterized to quantify their leach resistance, phase structure, and thermophysical properties. The research progressed in two stages. First, a steam reforming process was used to generate candidate Cs/Sr storage materials for characterization. This portion of the research was carried out at Purdue

  6. Comparison of organic and inorganic ion exchange materials for removal of cesium and strontium from tank waste

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, G.

    1996-10-01

    This work is part of an ESP task to develop high-capacity, selective, solid extractants for cesium, strontium, and technetium from nuclear wastes. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) staff are investigating novel ion exchangers for use in nuclear waste remediation (groundwater, high-level waste (HLW), and low-level waste (LLW)). Waste components targeted for remediation include cesium, strontium, and technetium.

  7. Cesium and Strontium Retentions Governed by Aluminosilicate Gel in Alkali-Activated Cements

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Jeong Gook; Park, Sol Moi; Lee, Haeng Ki

    2017-01-01

    The present study investigates the retention mechanisms of cesium and strontium for alkali-activated cements. Retention mechanisms such as adsorption and precipitation were examined in light of chemical interactions. Batch adsorption experiments and multi-technical characterizations by using X-ray diffraction, zeta potential measurements, and the N2 gas adsorption/desorption methods were conducted for this purpose. Strontium was found to crystalize in alkali-activated cements, while no cesium-bearing crystalline phases were detected. The adsorption kinetics of alkali-activated cements having relatively high adsorption capacities were compatible with pseudo-second-order kinetic model, thereby suggesting that it is governed by complex multistep adsorption. The results provide new insight, demonstrating that characteristics of aluminosilicate gel with a highly negatively charged surface and high micropore surface area facilitated more effective immobilization of cesium and strontium in comparison with calcium silicate hydrates. PMID:28772803

  8. Strontium and Actinide Separations from High Level Nuclear Waste Solutions using Monosodium Titanate - Actual Waste Testing

    SciTech Connect

    Peters, T.B.; Barnes, M.J.; Hobbs,D.T.; Walker, D.D.; Fondeur, F.F.; Norato, M.A.; Pulmano, R.L.; Fink, S.D.

    2005-11-01

    Pretreatment processes at the Savannah River Site will separate {sup 90}Sr, alpha-emitting and radionuclides (i.e., actinides) and {sup 137}Cs prior to disposal of the high-level nuclear waste. Separation of {sup 90}Sr and alpha-emitting radionuclides occurs by ion exchange/adsorption using an inorganic material, monosodium titanate (MST). Previously reported testing with simulants indicates that the MST exhibits high selectivity for strontium and actinides in high ionic strength and strongly alkaline salt solutions. This paper provides a summary of data acquired to measure the performance of MST to remove strontium and actinides from actual waste solutions. These tests evaluated the effects of ionic strength, mixing, elevated alpha activities, and multiple contacts of the waste with MST. Tests also provided confirmation that MST performs well at much larger laboratory scales (300-700 times larger) and exhibits little affinity for desorption of strontium and plutonium during washing.

  9. Concentration Ratios for Cesium and Strontium in Produce Near Los Alamos

    SciTech Connect

    S. Salazar, M.McNaughton, P.R. Fresquez

    2006-03-01

    The ratios of the concentrations of radionuclides in produce (fruits, vegetables, and grains) to the concentrations in the soil have been measured for cesium and strontium at locations near Los Alamos. The Soil, Foodstuffs, and Biota Team of the Meteorology and Air Quality Group of the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) obtained the data at locations within a radius of 50 miles of LANL. The concentration ratios are in good agreement with previous measurements: 0.01 to 0.06 for cesium-137 and 0.1 to 0.5 for strontium-90 (wet-weight basis).

  10. HIGH TEMPERATURE SORPTION OF CESIUM AND STRONTIUM ON DISPERSED KAOLINITE POWDERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sorption of cesium and strontium on kaolinite powders was investigated as a means to minimize the emissions of these metals during certain high-temperature processes currently being developed to isolate and dispose of radiological and mixed wastes. In this work, nonradioactive aq...

  11. HIGH TEMPERATURE SORPTION OF CESIUM AND STRONTIUM ON DISPERSED KAOLINITE POWDERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sorption of cesium and strontium on kaolinite powders was investigated as a means to minimize the emissions of these metals during certain high-temperature processes currently being developed to isolate and dispose of radiological and mixed wastes. In this work, nonradioactive aq...

  12. Physical barrier effect of geopolymeric waste form on diffusivity of cesium and strontium.

    PubMed

    Jang, J G; Park, S M; Lee, H K

    2016-11-15

    The present study investigates the physical barrier effect of geopolymeric waste form on leaching behavior of cesium and strontium. Fly ash-based geopolymers and slag-blended geopolymers were used as solidification agents. The leaching behavior of cesium and strontium from geopolymers was evaluated in accordance with ANSI/ANS-16.1. The diffusivity of cesium and strontium in a fly ash-based geopolymer was lower than that in Portland cement by a factor of 10(3) and 10(4), respectively, showing significantly improved immobilization performance. The leaching resistance of fly ash-based geopolymer was relatively constant regardless of the type of fly ash. The diffusivity of water-soluble cesium and strontium ions were highly correlated with the critical pore diameter of the binder. The critical pore diameter of the fly ash-based geopolymer was remarkably smaller than those of Portland cement and slag-blended geopolymer; consequently, its ability physically to retard the diffusion of nuclides (physical barrier effect) was superior.

  13. Equilibrium sorption of cobalt, cesium, and strontium on Bandelier Tuff: analysis of alternative mathematical modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Polzer, W.L.; Fuentes, H.R.; Essington, E.H.; Roensch, F.R.

    1985-01-01

    Sorption isotherms are derived from batch equilibrium data for cobalt, cesium and strontium on Bandelier Tuff. Experiments were conducted at an average temperature of 23/sup 0/C and equilibrium was defined at 48 hours. The solute concentrations ranged from 0 to 500 mg/L. The radioactive isotopes /sup 60/Co, /sup 137/Cs, and /sup 85/Sr were used to trace the sorption of the stable solutes. The Linear, Langmuir, Freundlich and a Modified Freundlich isotherm equations are evaluated. The Modified Freundlich isotherm equation is validated as a preferred general mathematical tool for representing the sorption of the three solutes. The empirical constants derived from the Modified Freundlich isotherm equation indicate that under dynamic flow conditions strontium will move most rapidly and cobalt least rapidly. On the other hand, chemical dispersion will be greatest for cesium and least for strontium. Hill Plots of the sorption data suggest that in the region of low saturation sorption of all three solutes is impeded by interactions among sorption sites; cobalt exhibits the greatest effect of interactions and strontium shows only a minimal effect. In the saturation region of 50% or more, sorption of cobalt is enhanced slightly by interactions among sorption sites whereas sorption of cesium and strontium appears to be independent of site interactions. 9 references, 4 figures, 2 tables.

  14. Preparation and use of polymeric materials containing hydrophobic anions and plasticizers for separation of cesium and strontium

    DOEpatents

    Abney, K.D.; Kinkead, S.A.; Mason, C.F.V.; Rais, J.

    1997-09-09

    Preparation and use is described for polymeric materials containing hydrophobic anions and plasticizers for extraction of cesium and strontium. The use of polymeric materials containing plasticizers which are solvents for hydrophobic anions such as derivatives of cobalt dicarbollide or tetraphenylborate which are capable of extracting cesium and strontium ions from aqueous solutions in contact with the polymeric materials, is described. The polymeric material may also include a synergistic agent for a given ion like polyethylene glycol or a crown ether, for removal of radioactive isotopes of cesium and strontium from solutions of diverse composition and, in particular, for solutions containing large excess of sodium nitrate.

  15. Preparation and use of polymeric materials containing hydrophobic anions and plasticizers for separation of cesium and strontium

    DOEpatents

    Abney, Kent D.; Kinkead, Scott A.; Mason, Caroline F. V.; Rais, Jiri

    1997-01-01

    Preparation and use of polymeric materials containing hydrophobic anions and plasticizers for extraction of cesium and strontium. The use of polymeric materials containing plasticizers which are solvents for hydrophobic anions such as derivatives of cobalt dicarbollide or tetraphenylborate which are capable of extracting cesium and strontium ions from aqueous solutions in contact with the polymeric materials, is described. The polymeric material may also include a synergistic agent for a given ion like polyethylene glycol or a crown ether, for removal of radioactive isotopes of cesium and strontium from solutions of diverse composition and, in particular, for solutions containing large excess of sodium nitrate.

  16. Bench-scale treatability studies for simulated incinerator scrubber blowdown containing radioactive cesium and strontium

    SciTech Connect

    Coroneos, A.C.; Taylor, P.A.; Arnold, W.D. Jr.; Bostick, D.A.; Perona, J.J.

    1994-12-01

    The purpose of this report is to document the results of bench-scale testing completed to remove {sup 137}Cs and {sup 90}Sr from the Oak Ridge K-25 Site Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) Incinerator blowdown at the K-25 Site Central Neutralization Facility, a wastewater treatment facility designed to remove heavy metals and uranium from various wastewaters. The report presents results of bench-scale testing using chabazite and clinoptilolite zeolites to remove cesium and strontium; using potassium cobalt ferrocyanide (KCCF) to remove cesium; and using strontium chloride coprecipitation, sodium phosphate coprecipitation, and calcium sulfate coprecipitation to remove strontium. Low-range, average-range, and high-range concentration blowdown surrogates were used to complete the bench-scale testing.

  17. REVIEW OF ACTINIDE AND STRONTIUM LOADING DATA FOR MST AND MMST

    SciTech Connect

    Peters, T.; Hobbs, D.; Fink, S.

    2010-10-20

    SRNL reviewed the relevant data from MST and mMST fissile loading studies to determine if further studies were required. With respect to MST, SRNL found that the published results adequately bound the expected conditions that Small Column Ion Exchange (SCIX) process will operate under. The lack of strontium data does not represent an issue as strontium is not relevant to criticality. There is no threat to criticality safety from the lack of strontium loading data. However, SRNL proposes a single test with MST to ensure that future SCIX operations are conservatively bounded and strontium maximum loading is understood. With respect to attempts to maximally load mMST, SRNL's knowledge on actinide and strontium loading is limited to uranium behavior. mMST has a very weak affinity for uranium, and even extended contact time at high uranium concentration shows minimal loading onto mMST. This leaves questions about the ability to load plutonium, neptunium and strontium. SRNL proposes to perform two tests with mMST to ensure that questions on plutonium, neptunium, and strontium sorption are answered, as well as ensuring that future mMST operations are conservatively bounded.

  18. Sorption of cesium and strontium on Savannah River soils impregnated with colloidal silica

    SciTech Connect

    Hakem, N.; Al Mahamid, I.; Apps, J.; Moridis, G.

    1997-01-01

    Colloidal silica (CS) is being considered as an injectable low viscosity fluid for creation of impermeable barrier containment of low level radioactive waste at the Savannah River Site (SRS), South Carolina. The sorption behavior of cesium and strontium on Savannah River Site Soils impregnated with Colloidal Silica was studied using a batch experimental method. The samples were prepared by addition of CS and an aqueous solution of CaCl{sub 2} to the soil materials. Sorption studies were conducted after the gelation of the CS samples had occurred. The variation of the sorption ratio, R, as a function of cesium or strontium concentration was examined. The Freundlich isotherm was used to fit the data and very good results were obtained.

  19. Phenolic cation-exchange resin material for recovery of cesium and strontium. [Patent application

    DOEpatents

    Ebra, M.A.; Wallace, R.M.

    1982-05-05

    A phenolic cation exchange resin with a chelating group has been prepared by reacting resorcinol with iminodiacetic acid in the presence of formaldehyde at a molar ratio of about 1:1:6. The material is highly selective for the simultaneous recovery of both cesium and strontium from aqueous alkaline solutions, such as, aqueous alkaline nuclear wate solutions. The organic resins are condensation polymers of resorcinol and formaldehyde with attached chelating groups. The column performance of the resins compares favorably with that of commercially available resins for either cesium or strontium removal. By combining Cs/sup +/ and Sr/sup 2 +/ removal in the same bed, the resins allow significant reduction of the size and complexity of facilities for processing nuclear waste.

  20. Phenolic cation exchange resin material for recovery of cesium and strontium

    DOEpatents

    Ebra, Martha A.; Wallace, Richard M.

    1983-01-01

    A phenolic cation exchange resin with a chelating group has been prepared by reacting resorcinol with iminodiacetic acid in the presence of formaldehyde at a molar ratio of about 1:1:6. The material is highly selective for the simultaneous recovery of both cesium and strontium from aqueous alkaline solutions, such as, aqueous alkaline nuclear waste solutions. The organic resins are condensation polymers of resorcinol and formaldehyde with attached chelating groups. The column performance of the resins compares favorably with that of commercially available resins for either cesium or strontium removal. By combining Cs.sup.+ and Sr.sup.2+ removal in the same bed, the resins allow significant reduction of the size and complexity of facilities for processing nuclear waste.

  1. Cesium and strontium tolerant Arthrobacter sp. strain KMSZP6 isolated from a pristine uranium ore deposit.

    PubMed

    Swer, Pynskhem Bok; Joshi, Santa Ram; Acharya, Celin

    2016-12-01

    Arthrobacter sp. KMSZP6 isolated from a pristine uranium ore deposit at Domiasiat located in North-East India exhibited noteworthy tolerance for cesium (Cs) and strontium (Sr). The strain displayed a high minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 400 mM for CsCl and for SrCl2. Flow cytometric analysis employing membrane integrity indicators like propidium iodide (PI) and thiazole orange (TO) indicated a greater sensitivity of Arthrobacter cells to cesium than to strontium. On being challenged with 75 mM of Cs, the cells sequestered 9612 mg Cs g(-1) dry weight of cells in 12 h. On being challenged with 75 mM of Sr, the cells sequestered 9989 mg Sr g(-1) dry weight of cells in 18 h. Heat killed cells exhibited limited Cs and Sr binding as compared to live cells highlighting the importance of cell viability for optimal binding. The association of the metals with Arthrobacter sp. KMSZP6 was further substantiated by Field Emission-Scanning Electron Microscopy (FE-SEM) coupled with Energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectroscopy. This organism tolerated up to 1 kGy (60)Co-gamma rays without loss of survival. The present report highlights the superior tolerance and binding capacity of the KMSZP6 strain for cesium and strontium over other earlier reported strains and reveals its potential for bioremediation of nuclear waste.

  2. Sintered bentonite ceramics for the immobilization of cesium- and strontium-bearing radioactive waste

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ortega, Luis Humberto

    The Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) is a Department of Energy (DOE) program, that has been investigating technologies to improve fuel cycle sustainability and proliferation resistance. One of the program's goals is to reduce the amount of radioactive waste requiring repository disposal. Cesium and strontium are two primary heat sources during the first 300 years of spent nuclear fuel's decay, specifically isotopes Cs-137 and Sr-90. Removal of these isotopes from spent nuclear fuel will reduce the activity of the bulk spent fuel, reducing the heat given off by the waste. Once the cesium and strontium are separated from the bulk of the spent nuclear fuel, the isotopes must be immobilized. This study is focused on a method to immobilize a cesium- and strontium-bearing radioactive liquid waste stream. While there are various schemes to remove these isotopes from spent fuel, this study has focused on a nitric acid based liquid waste. The waste liquid was mixed with the bentonite, dried then sintered. To be effective sintering temperatures from 1100 to 1200°C were required, and waste concentrations must be at least 25 wt%. The product is a leach resistant ceramic solid with the waste elements embedded within alumino-silicates and a silicon rich phase. The cesium is primarily incorporated into pollucite and the strontium into a monoclinic feldspar. The simulated waste was prepared from nitrate salts of stable ions. These ions were limited to cesium, strontium, barium and rubidium. Barium and rubidium will be co-extracted during separation due to similar chemical properties to cesium and strontium. The waste liquid was added to the bentonite clay incrementally with drying steps between each addition. The dry powder was pressed and then sintered at various temperatures. The maximum loading tested is 32 wt. percent waste, which refers to 13.9 wt. percent cesium, 12.2 wt. percent barium, 4.1 wt. percent strontium, and 2.0 wt. percent rubidium. Lower loadings of waste

  3. Cesium and strontium extraction using a mixed extractant solvent including crown ether and calixarene extractants

    DOEpatents

    Meikrantz, David H.; Todd, Terry A.; Riddle, Catherine L.; Law, Jack D.; Peterman, Dean R.; Mincher, Bruce J.; McGrath, Christopher A.; Baker, John D.

    2007-11-06

    A mixed extractant solvent including calix[4]arene-bis-(tert-octylbenzo)-crown-6 ("BOBCalixC6"), 4',4',(5')-di-(t-butyldicyclo-hexano)-18-crown-6 ("DtBu18C6"), and at least one modifier dissolved in a diluent. The mixed extractant solvent may be used to remove cesium and strontium from an acidic solution. The DtBu18C6 may be present from approximately 0.01 M to approximately 0.4M, such as from approximately 0.086 M to approximately 0.108 M. The modifier may be 1-(2,2,3,3-tetrafluoropropoxy)-3-(4-sec-butylphenoxy)-2-propanol ("Cs-7SB") and may be present from approximately 0.01M to approximately 0.8M. In one embodiment, the mixed extractant solvent includes approximately 0.15M DtBu18C6, approximately 0.007M BOBCalixC6, and approximately 0.75M Cs-7SB modifier dissolved in an isoparaffinic hydrocarbon diluent. The mixed extractant solvent may form an organic phase in an extraction system that also includes an aqueous phase. Methods of extracting cesium and strontium as well as strontium alone are also disclosed.

  4. Measurement of actinides and strontium-90 in high activity waste

    SciTech Connect

    Maxwell, S.L. III; Nelson, M.R.

    1994-08-01

    The reliable measurement of trace radionuclides in high activity waste is important to support waste processing activities at SRS (F and H Area Waste Tanks, Extended Sludge Processing (ESP) and In-Tank precipitation (ITP) processing). Separation techniques are needed to remove high levels of gamma activity and alpha/beta interferences prior to analytical measurement. Using new extraction chromatographic resins from EiChrom Industries, Inc., the SRS Central Laboratory has developed new high speed separation methods that enable measurement of neptunium, thorium, uranium, plutonium, americium and strontium-90 in high activity waste solutions. Small particle size resin and applied vacuum are used to reduce analysis times and enhance column performance. Extraction chromatographic resins are easy to use and eliminate the generation of contaminated liquid organic waste.

  5. Steam Reforming Solidification of Cesium and Strontium Separations Product from Advanced Aqueous Processing of Spent Nuclear Fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Julia L. Tripp; T. G. Garn; R. D. Boardman; J. D. Law

    2006-02-01

    The Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative program is conducting research on aqueous separations processes for the nuclear fuel cycle. This research includes development of solvent extraction processes for the separation of cesium and strontium from dissolved spent nuclear fuel solutions to reduce the short-term decay heat load. The cesium/strontium strip solution from candidate separation processes will require treatment and solidification for managed storage. Steam reforming is currently being investigated for stabilization of these streams because it can potentially destroy the nitrates and organics present in these aqueous, nitrate-bearing solutions, while converting the cesium and strontium into leach-resistant aluminosilicate minerals, such as pollucite. These ongoing experimental studies are being conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of steam reforming for this application.

  6. Physical properties of an alumino-silicate waste form for cesium and strontium.

    SciTech Connect

    Kaminski, M.; Mertz, C.; Ferrandon, M.; Dietz, N.; Sandi-Tapia, G.

    2009-08-01

    Nuclear fuel reprocessing will be required to sustain nuclear power as a baseload energy supplier for the world. New reprocessing schemes offer an opportunity to develop a better strategy for recycling elements in the fuel and preparing stable waste forms. Advanced strategies could create a waste stream of cesium, strontium, rubidium, and barium. Some physical properties of a waste form containing these elements sintered into bentonite clay were evaluated. We prepared samples loaded to 27% by mass to a density of approximately 3 g/cm{sup 3}. Sintering temperatures of up to 1000 C did not result in volatility of cesium. Instead, the crystallinity noticeably increased in the waste form as temperatures increased from 600 to 1000 C. Assemblages of silicates were formed. Significant water evolved at approximately 600 C but no other gases were generated at higher temperatures.

  7. Physical properties of an alumino-silicate waste form for cesium and strontium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaminski, M. D.; Mertz, C. J.; Ferrandon, M.; Dietz, N. L.; Sandi, G.

    2009-08-01

    Nuclear fuel reprocessing will be required to sustain nuclear power as a baseload energy supplier for the world. New reprocessing schemes offer an opportunity to develop a better strategy for recycling elements in the fuel and preparing stable waste forms. Advanced strategies could create a waste stream of cesium, strontium, rubidium, and barium. Some physical properties of a waste form containing these elements sintered into bentonite clay were evaluated. We prepared samples loaded to 27% by mass to a density of approximately 3 g/cm 3. Sintering temperatures of up to 1000 °C did not result in volatility of cesium. Instead, the crystallinity noticeably increased in the waste form as temperatures increased from 600 to 1000 °C. Assemblages of silicates were formed. Significant water evolved at approximately 600 °C but no other gases were generated at higher temperatures.

  8. Precursors for the Immobilization of Radioactive Cesium and Strontium from Spent Nuclear Fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Ortega, Luis H.; McDeavitt, Sean M.

    2007-07-01

    Next generation processes for the recycling of spent nuclear fuel are being developed by the US Department of Energy; this includes solvent extraction methods developed to isolate Cs and Sr fission products and immobilize them in a stable storage form. In this study, simulated (i.e., non-radioactive) cesium and strontium bearing liquid wastes were created and treated with carbon, silica, and alumina at 700 deg. C. The overall goal of this 2006 Nuclear Energy Research Initiative (NERI) project is to synthesize candidate ceramics for Cs and Sr storage and characterize their behavior. The initial results described here confirm the formation of stable compounds resembling strontianite (SrCO{sub 3}) and cesium-aluminosilicate (CsAlSi{sub 2}O{sub 4}). (authors)

  9. Contents of cesium, iodine, strontium, thorium, and uranium in selected human organs of adult asian population.

    PubMed

    Iyengar, G V; Kawamura, H; Dang, H S; Parr, R M; Wang, J W; Cho, S Y; Natera, E S

    2004-08-01

    Contents of cesium, iodine, strontium, thorium, and uranium in some selected human organs were estimated for adult Asian population using data obtained in four Asian countries: China, India, Philippines, and Republic of Korea, as part of a Coordinated Research Program of the International Atomic Energy Agency on "Ingestion and Organ contents of elements of importance in radiation protection." These countries together represent more than 40% of the world population. Highly sensitive analytical techniques were employed to measure cesium in skeletal muscle, iodine in thyroid, strontium in skeleton, thorium and uranium in skeleton, liver, kidneys, and lungs where, in comparison to other organs, these elements are present in higher concentrations. The organ contents for adult Asian population, when compared with the corresponding data proposed for Reference Man by International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP), showed about 40 times lower kidneys content and about 10 times lower skeleton content of uranium. The content of thorium in skeleton for Asian population was also half of the ICRP Reference Man value. Interestingly, organ contents for the other elements such as iodine in thyroid, cesium in skeletal muscle, and strontium in skeleton were comparable for Asian and the Caucasian population (represented by ICRP Reference Man). Organ contents for these elements were also calculated by applying the new ICRP models of these elements to their daily intakes. The comparison of the calculated and measured organ contents showed that despite uncertainties in the organ content values arising due to the inter-country variations in daily dietary intakes, the contents were within a factor of two to three. This observation is significant since human data both on organ contents and ingestion were obtained at environmental level of intakes. The study suggests that currently available ICRP models for these elements are quite realistic.

  10. NEW METHOD FOR DETERMINATION OF ACTINIDES AND STRONTIUM IN ANIMAL TISSUE

    SciTech Connect

    Maxwell, S; Jay Hutchison, J; Don Faison, D

    2007-05-07

    The analysis of actinides in animal tissue samples is very important for environmental monitoring. There is a need to measure actinide isotopes with very low detection limits in animal tissue samples, including fish, deer, hogs, beef and shellfish. A new, rapid actinide separation method has been developed and implemented that allows the measurement of plutonium, neptunium, uranium, americium, curium and strontium isotopes in large animal tissue samples (100-200 g) with high chemical recoveries and effective removal of matrix interferences. This method uses stacked TEVA Resin{reg_sign}, TRU Resin{reg_sign} and DGA-Resin{reg_sign} cartridges from Eichrom Technologies (Darien, IL, USA) that allows the rapid separation of plutonium (Pu), neptunium (Np), uranium (U), americium (Am), and curium (Cm) using a single multi-stage column combined with alpha spectrometry. Sr-90 is collected on Sr Resin{reg_sign} from Eichrom Technologies (Darien, IL, USA). After acid digestion and furnace heating of the animal tissue samples, the actinides and Sr-89/90 are separated using column extraction chromatography. This method has been shown to be effective over a wide range of animal tissue matrices. By using vacuum box cartridge technology with rapid flow rates, sample preparation time is minimized.

  11. Strontium and cesium radionuclide leak detection alternatives in a capsule storage pool

    SciTech Connect

    Larson, D.E.; Crawford, T.W.; Joyce, S.M.

    1981-08-01

    A study was performed to assess radionuclide leak-detection systems for use in locating a capsule leaking strontium-90 or cesium-137 into a water-filled pool. Each storage pool contains about 35,000 L of water and up to 715 capsules, each of which contains up to 150 kCi strontium-90 or 80 kCi cesium-137. Potential systems assessed included instrumental chemical analyses, radionuclide detection, visual examination, and other nondestructive nuclear-fuel examination techniques. Factors considered in the assessment include: cost, simplicity of maintenance and operation, technology availability, reliability, remote operation, sensitivity, and ability to locate an individual leaking capsule in its storage location. The study concluded that an adaption of the spent nuclear-fuel examination technique of wet sipping be considered for adaption. In the suggested approoch, samples would be taken continuously from pool water adjacent to the capsule(s) being examined for remote radiation detection. In-place capsule isolation and subsequent water sampling would confirm that a capsule was leaking radionuclides. Additional studies are needed before implementing this option. Two other techniques that show promise are ultrasonic testing and eddy-current testing.

  12. Sodium cobalt hexacyanoferrate encapsulated in alginate vesicle with CNT for both cesium and strontium removal.

    PubMed

    Vipin, Adavan Kiliyankil; Ling, Sun; Fugetsu, Bunshi

    2014-10-13

    Sodium cobalt hexacyanoferrate (CoFC)-encapsulating alginate beads reinforced with highly dispersed multiwalled carbon nanotubes were prepared for the aqueous removal of cesium and strontium ions. Carbon nanotubes enhanced the effective surface area, encapsulation ability and adsorption capacity of beads. Equilibrium and kinetic studies were conducted with different mathematical models. The goodness of mathematical fitting of experimental data on the adsorption isotherm model was in the order Langmuir higher than Freundlich. The maximum Cs(+)/Sr(2+) adsorption capacity of beads modified with carbon nanotubes were 133/72 mg/g and that of beads without carbon nanotubes were 121/70 mg/g. Similarly in kinetic models pseudo-second-order gave better fitting than pseudo-first-order. The performance of beads was consistent in a wide range of pH as well as in high ionic competitions. The fixed bed adsorption column analysis indicated that beads can be used for large scale treatment of cesium and strontium contaminated water.

  13. Microcrystalline hexagonal tungsten bronze. 1. Basis of ion exchange selectivity for cesium and strontium.

    PubMed

    Griffith, Christopher S; Luca, Vittorio; Hanna, John V; Pike, Kevin J; Smith, Mark E; Thorogood, Gordon S

    2009-07-06

    The structural basis of selectivity for cesium and strontium of microcrystalline hexagonal tungsten bronze (HTB) phase Na(x)WO(3+x/2).zH(2)O has been studied using X-ray and neutron diffraction techniques, 1D and 2D (23)Na magic angle spinning (MAS) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, and radiochemical ion exchange investigations. For the HTB system, this study has shown that scattering techniques alone provide an incomplete description of the disorder and rapid exchange of water (with tunnel cations) occurring in this system. However, 1D and 2D (23)Na MAS NMR has identified three sodium species within the HTB tunnels-species A, which is located at the center of the hexagonal window and is devoid of coordinated water, and species B and C, which are the di- and monohydrated variants, respectively, of species A. Although species B accords with the traditional crystallographic model of the HTB phase, this work is the first to propose and identify the anhydrous species A and monohydrate species C. The population (total) of species B and C decreases in comparison to that of species A with increasing exchange of either cesium or strontium; that is, species B and C appear more exchangeable than species A. Moreover, a significant proportion of tunnel water is redistributed by these cations. Multiple ion exchange investigations with radiotracers (137)Cs and (85)Sr have shown that for strontium there is a definite advantage in ensuring that any easily exchanged sodium is removed from the HTB tunnels prior to exchange. The decrease in selectivity (wrt cesium) is most probably due to the slightly smaller effective size of Sr(2+); namely, it is less of a good fit for the hexagonal window, ion exchange site. The selectivity of the HTB framework for cesium has been shown unequivocally to be defined by the structure of the hexagonal window, ion exchange site. Compromising the geometry of this window even in the slightest way by either (1) varying the cell volume through

  14. Uptake and transport of radioactive cesium and strontium into grapevines after leaf contamination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zehnder, H. J.; Kopp, P.; Eikenberg, J.; Feller, U.; Oertli, J. J.

    1995-07-01

    From 1989 to 1993 the foliar uptake of radioactive strontium (Sr-85) and cesium (Cs-134) by selected leaves of grapevine plants and the subsequent redistribution within the plants was examined under controlled conditions in a greenhouse. The radionuclides were applied as chlorides. These plants were grown in large pots containing a mixture of local soil and peat. Plant and soil samples were analyzed throughout the growing season and also during the following vegetation period. Only traces of the applied radiostrontium were taken up by the leaves. This element was essentially not redistributed within the plants. In contrast, radiocesium was easily taken up through the leaf surface, transported to other plant parts and to some extent released from the roots into the soil. Cesium reaching the soil may interact with clay particles causing a very reduced availability for plants. Therefore the soil may act as a long-term sink for radiocesium. On the other hand, grape berries represent transient sinks. The cesium levels in the berries decreased again in a late phase of maturation, but the mechanisms causing this loss are not yet identified. During the second vegetation period, only a very minor proportion of the radiocesium taken up previously by the plants was present in the above ground parts.

  15. Feasibility study for the processing of Hanford Site cesium and strontium isotopic sources in the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Anantatmula, R.P.; Watrous, R.A.; Nelson, J.L.; Perez, J.M.; Peters, R.D.; Peterson, M.E.

    1991-09-01

    The final environmental impact statement for the disposal of defense-related wastes at the Hanford Site (Final Environmental Impact Statement: Disposal of Hanford Defense High-Level, Transuranic and Tank Wastes [HDW-EIS] [DOE 1987]) states that the preferred alternative for disposal of cesium and strontium wastes at the Hanford Site will be to package and ship these wastes to the commercial high-level waste repository. The Record of Decision for this EIS states that before shipment to a geologic repository, these wastes will be packaged in accordance with repository waste acceptance criteria. However, the high cost per canister for repository disposal and uncertainty about the acceptability of overpacked capsules by the repository suggest that additional alternative means of disposal be considered. Vitrification of the cesium and strontium salts in the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP) has been identified as a possible alternative to overpacking. Subsequently, Westinghouse Hanford Company`s (Westinghouse Hanford) Projects Technical Support Office undertook a feasibility study to determine if any significant technical issues preclude the vitrification of the cesium and strontium salts. Based on the information presented in this report, it is considered technically feasible to blend the cesium chloride and strontium fluoride salts with neutralized current acid waste (NCAW) and/or complexant concentrate (CC) waste feedstreams, or to blend the salts with fresh frit and process the waste through the HWVP.

  16. Removal efficiency of water purifier and adsorbent for iodine, cesium, strontium, barium and zirconium in drinking water.

    PubMed

    Sato, Itaru; Kudo, Hiroaki; Tsuda, Shuji

    2011-01-01

    The severe incident of Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station has caused radioactive contamination of environment including drinking water. Radioactive iodine, cesium, strontium, barium and zirconium are hazardous fission products because of the high yield and/or relatively long half-life. In the present study, 4 pot-type water purifiers and several adsorbents were examined for the removal effects on these elements from drinking water. Iodide, iodate, cesium and barium were removed by all water purifiers with efficiencies about 85%, 40%, 75-90% and higher than 85%, respectively. These efficiencies lasted for 200 l, which is near the recommended limits for use of filter cartridges, without decay. Strontium was removed with initial efficiencies from 70% to 100%, but the efficiencies were slightly decreased by use. Zirconium was removed by two models, but hardly removed by the other models. Synthetic zeolite A4 efficiently removed cesium, strontium and barium, but had no effect on iodine and zirconium. Natural zeolite, mordenite, removed cesium with an efficiency as high as zeolite A4, but the removal efficiencies for strontium and barium were far less than those of zeolite A4. Activated carbon had little removal effects on these elements. In case of radioactive contamination of tap water, water purifiers may be available for convenient decontamination of drinking water in the home.

  17. Extractant compositions for co-extracting cesium and strontium, a method of separating cesium and strontium from an aqueous feed, and calixarene compounds

    DOEpatents

    Peterman, Dean R [Idaho Falls, ID; Meikrantz, David H [Idaho Falls, ID; Law, Jack D [Pocatello, ID; Riddle, Catherine L [Idaho Falls, ID; Todd, Terry A [Firth, ID; Greenhalgh, Mitchell R [Iona, ID; Tillotson, Richard D [Moore, ID; Bartsch, Richard A [Lubbock, TX; Moyer, Bruce A [Oak Ridge, TN; Delmau, Laetitia H [Oak Ridge, TN; Bonnesen, Peter V [Knoxville, TN

    2012-04-17

    A mixed extractant solvent that includes at least one dialkyloxycalix[4]arenebenzocrown-6 compound, 4',4',(5')-di-(t-butyldicyclohexano)-18-crown-6, at least one modifier, and, optionally, a diluent. The dialkyloxycalix[4]arenebenzocrown-6 compound is 1,3-alternate-25,27-di(octyloxy)calix[4]arenebenzocrown-6, 1,3-alternate-25,27-di(decyloxy)calix[4]arenebenzocrown-6, 1,3-alternate-25,27-di(dodecyloxy)calix[4]arenebenzocrown-6, 1,3-alternate-25,27-di(2-ethylhexyl-1-oxy)calix[4]arenebenzocrown-6, 1,3-alternate-25,27-di(3,7-dimethyloctyl-1-oxy)calix[4]arenebenzocrown-6, 1,3-alternate-25,27-di(4-butyloctyl-1-oxy)calix[4]arenebenzocrown-6, or combinations thereof. The modifier is a primary alcohol. A method of separating cesium and strontium from an aqueous feed is also disclosed, as are dialkyloxycalix[4]arenebenzocrown-6 compounds and an alcohol modifier.

  18. Selective removal of cesium and strontium using porous frameworks from high level nuclear waste.

    PubMed

    Aguila, Briana; Banerjee, Debasis; Nie, Zimin; Shin, Yongsoon; Ma, Shengqian; Thallapally, Praveen K

    2016-05-01

    Efficient and cost-effective removal of radioactive (137)Cs and (90)Sr found in spent fuel is an important step for safe, long-term storage of nuclear waste. Solid-state materials such as resins and titanosilicate zeolites have been assessed for the removal of Cs and Sr from aqueous solutions, but there is room for improvement in terms of capacity and selectivity. Herein, we report the Cs(+) and Sr(2+) exchange potential of an ultra stable MOF, namely, MIL-101-SO3H, as a function of different contact times, concentrations, pH levels, and in the presence of competing ions. Our preliminary results suggest that MOFs with suitable ion exchange groups can be promising alternate materials for cesium and strontium removal.

  19. TAILORING INORGANIC SORBENTS FOR SRS STRONTIUM AND ACTINIDE SEPARATIONS: OPTIMIZED MONOSODIUM TITANATE PHASE II FINAL REPORT

    SciTech Connect

    Hobbs, D; Thomas Peters, T; Michael Poirier, M; Mark Barnes, M; Major Thompson, M; Samuel Fink, S

    2007-06-29

    This document provides a final report of Phase II testing activities for the development of a modified monosodium titanate (MST) that exhibits improved strontium and actinide removal characteristics compared to the baseline MST material. The activities included determining the key synthesis conditions for preparation of the modified MST, preparation of the modified MST at a larger scale by a commercial vendor, demonstration of the strontium and actinide removal characteristics with actual tank waste supernate and measurement of filtration characteristics. Key findings and conclusions include the following. Testing evaluated three synthetic methods and eleven process parameters for the optimum synthesis conditions for the preparation on an improved form of MST. We selected the post synthesis method (Method 3) for continued development based on overall sorbate removal performance. We successfully prepared three batches of the modified MST using Method 3 procedure at a 25-gram scale. The laboratory prepared modified MST exhibited increased sorption kinetics with simulated and actual waste solutions and similar filtration characteristics to the baseline MST. Characterization of the modified MST indicated that the post synthesis treatment did not significantly alter the particle size distribution, but did significantly increase the surface area and porosity compared to the original MST. Testing indicated that the modified MST exhibits reduced affinity for uranium compared to the baseline MST, reducing risk of fissile loading. Shelf-life testing indicated no change in strontium and actinide performance removal after storing the modified MST for 12-months at ambient laboratory temperature. The material releases oxygen during the synthesis and continues to offgas after the synthesis at a rapidly diminishing rate until below a measurable rate after 4 months. Optima Chemical Group LLC prepared a 15-kilogram batch of the modified MST using the post synthesis procedure (Method

  20. Foliar uptake of cesium, iodine and strontium and their transfer to the edible parts of beans, potatoes and radishes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oestling, O.; Kopp, P.; Burkart, W.

    Considerable fractions of radionuclide solutions deposited on the surface of the leaves may be transferred to the edible parts of plants. In radishes we observed a transfer of more than 40% of the applied cesium radioisotope within a few days. A rather similar uptake was found for beans and potatoes when harvested a month after application of radioactivity. As much as 60% of the applied cesium-isotope remained in (or on) the potato leaves even 8 days after application. The major part could however be washed off the leaves a few hours after application. When radishes were showered with water within 7 h after the application of activity the uptake was greatly reduced. No competitive effect of potassium chloride for the foliar uptake of cesium was found. A 10 -2 M colloidal suspension of Prussian Blue, a chelating agent for monovalent alkali metals such as potassium, cesium, or other monovalent cations, applied as droplets to the leaves one day prior to application of active cesium was found to strongly inhibit the transfer of cesium to the radish. The transfer of iodine and strontium to the edible parts was found to be negligible (or slower) as compared to cesium. In most cases no detectable amounts of these two nuclides were transfered to the edible parts of the radish after 2-5 weeks.

  1. Silicon control of strontium and cesium partitioning in hydroxide-weathered sediments

    SciTech Connect

    Chorover, Jon; Choi, Sunkyung; Rotenberg, P.; Serne, R. Jeffrey; Rivera, Nelson; Strepka, Caleb R.; Thompson, Aaron; Mueller, Karl T.; O'Day, Peggy A.

    2008-04-15

    Sorption of cesium and strontium during weathering of uncontaminated sediments from the Hanford Site was studied under geochemical conditions chosen to model that of high level radioactive waste leachate at Hanford. Based on prior studies of a range of model clay mineral systems, we postulated that Cs and Sr uptake in the sediments would reflect concurrent and competitive adsorption and co-precipitation effects. Batch experiments were conducted from 0 to 374 d at 298 K to measure long-term kinetics of Cs and Sr uptake to and release from three representative Hanford Site sediments; Ringold silt (RS), Hanford fine sand (HF), and Hanford coarse sand (HC). Sorbent affinity for Cs decreased in the order RS >HF > HC. Similar trends were observed for Sr at early times, but all sediments showed similar Sr sorption capacities after several months reaction time. Strontium uptake by all sediments exceeded that of Cs at nearly all reaction times. After 374 d, the total amount of Cs and Sr sorbed in all systems ranged from 15-37% and 80-93% of the initial concentrations, respectively. Although time-dependent trends for Cs uptake were not clearly evident, the fraction of nonexchangeable Cs increased slightly over time despite fluctuations. Strontium became progressively recalcitrant to desorption after 92 d, suggesting that coprecipitation in neoformed phases may be a significant sequestration mechanism for Sr in sediments of the Hanford vadose zone. SEM-EDS showed formation of Cs and Sr containing secondary solid phases after 183 d. Synchrotron μ-XRF, μ-XRD identified these phases as cancrinite and sodalite. Results indicate that while both Sr and Cs are incorporated into neo-formed precipitates, Sr uptake and lability is more sensitively dependent on mineral transformation reactions in the sediments, whereas Cs uptake is strongly influenced by adsorption, probably associated with high-affiinity and edge sites of native micaceous minerals.

  2. REVIEW OF EXPERIMENTAL STUDIES INVESTIGATING THE RATE OF STRONTIUM AND ACTINIDE ADSORPTION BY MONOSODIUM TITANATE

    SciTech Connect

    Hobbs, D.

    2010-10-01

    A number of laboratory studies have been conducted to determine the influence of mixing and mixing intensity, solution ionic strength, initial sorbate concentrations, temperature, and monosodium titanate (MST) concentration on the rates of sorbate removal by MST in high-level nuclear waste solutions. Of these parameters, initial sorbate concentrations, ionic strength, and MST concentration have the greater impact on sorbate removal rates. The lack of a significant influence of mixing and mixing intensity on sorbate removal rates indicates that bulk solution transport is not the rate controlling step in the removal of strontium and actinides over the range of conditions and laboratory-scales investigated. However, bulk solution transport may be a significant parameter upon use of MST in a 1.3 million-gallon waste tank such as that planned for the Small Column Ion Exchange (SCIX) program. Thus, Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) recommends completing the experiments in progress to determine if mixing intensity influences sorption rates under conditions appropriate for this program. Adsorption models have been developed from these experimental studies that allow prediction of strontium (Sr), plutonium (Pu), neptunium (Np) and uranium (U) concentrations as a function of contact time with MST. Fairly good agreement has been observed between the predicted and measured sorbate concentrations in the laboratory-scale experiments.

  3. Development of Technologies for the Simultaneous Separation of Cesium and Strontium from Spent Nuclear Fuel as Part of an Advanced Fuel Cycle

    SciTech Connect

    Jack D. Law; R. Scott HErbst; David H. Meikrantz; Dean R. Peterman; Catherine L. Riddle; Richard D. Tillotson; Terry A. Todd

    2005-04-01

    As part of the Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative, two solvent extraction technologies are being developed to simultaneously separate cesium and strontium from dissolved spent nuclear fuel. The first process utilizes a solvent consisting of chlorinated cobalt dicarbollide and polyethylene glycol extractants in a phenyltrifluoromethyl sulfone diluent. Recent improvements to the process include development of a new, non-nitroaromatic diluent and development of new stripping reagents, including a regenerable strip reagent that can be recovered and recycled. Countercurrent flowsheets have been designed and tested on simulated and actual spent nuclear fuel feed streams with both cesium and strontium removal efficiencies of greater than 99 %. The second process developed to simultaneously separate cesium and strontium from spent nuclear fuel is based on two highly-specific extractants: 4,4',(5')-Di-(t-butyldicyclo-hexano)-18-crown-6 (DtBuCH18C6) and Calix[4]arene-bis-(tert-octylbenzo-crown-6) (BOBCalixC6). The DtBuCH18C6 extractant is selective for strontium and the BOBCalixC6 extractant is selective for cesium. A solvent composition has been developed that enables both elements to be removed together and, in fact, a synergistic effect was observed with strontium distributions in the combined solvent that are much higher that in the strontium extraction (SREX) process. Initial laboratory test results of the new combined cesium and strontium extraction process indicate good extraction and stripping performance. A flowsheet for treatment of spent nuclear fuel is currently being developed.

  4. Comparison of silver, cesium, and strontium release predictions using PARFUME with results from the AGR-1 irradiation experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collin, Blaise P.; Petti, David A.; Demkowicz, Paul A.; Maki, John T.

    2015-11-01

    The PARFUME (PARticle FUel ModEl) code was used to predict the release of fission products silver, cesium, and strontium from tristructural isotropic coated fuel particles and compacts during the first irradiation experiment (AGR-1) of the Advanced Gas Reactor Fuel Development and Qualification program. The PARFUME model for the AGR-1 experiment used the fuel compact volume average temperature for each of the 620 days of irradiation to calculate the release of silver, cesium, and strontium from a representative particle for a select number of AGR-1 compacts. Post-irradiation examination (PIE) measurements provided data on release of these fission products from fuel compacts and fuel particles, and retention of silver in the compacts outside of the silicon carbide (SiC) layer. PARFUME-predicted fractional release of silver, cesium, and strontium was determined and compared to the PIE measurements. For silver, comparisons show a trend of over-prediction at low burnup and under-prediction at high burnup. PARFUME has limitations in the modeling of the temporal and spatial distributions of the temperature and burnup across the compacts, which affects the accuracy of its predictions. Nevertheless, the comparisons on silver release lie in the same order of magnitude. Results show an overall over-prediction of the fractional release of cesium by PARFUME. For particles with failed SiC layers, the over-prediction is by a factor of up to 3, corresponding to a potential over-estimation of the diffusivity in uranium oxycarbide (UCO) by a factor of up to 250. For intact particles, whose release is much lower, the over-prediction is by a factor of up to 100, which could be attributed to an over-estimated diffusivity in SiC by about 40% on average. The release of strontium from intact particles is also over-predicted by PARFUME, which also points towards an over-estimated diffusivity of strontium in either SiC or UCO, or possibly both. The measured strontium fractional release

  5. Comparison of silver, cesium, and strontium release predictions using PARFUME with results from the AGR-1 irradiation experiment

    DOE PAGES

    Collin, Blaise P.; Petti, David A.; Demkowicz, Paul A.; ...

    2015-08-22

    Here, the PARFUME (PARticle FUel ModEl) code was used to predict the release of fission products silver, cesium, and strontium from tristructural isotropic coated fuel particles and compacts during the first irradiation experiment (AGR-1) of the Advanced Gas Reactor Fuel Development and Qualification program. The PARFUME model for the AGR-1 experiment used the fuel compact volume average temperature for each of the 620 days of irradiation to calculate the release of silver, cesium, and strontium from a representative particle for a select number of AGR-1 compacts. Post-irradiation examination measurements provided data on release of these fission products from fuel compactsmore » and fuel particles, and retention of silver in the compacts outside of the silicon carbide (SiC) layer. PARFUME-predicted fractional release of silver, cesium, and strontium was determined and compared to the PIE measurements. For silver, comparisons show a trend of over-prediction at low burnup and under-prediction at high burnup. PARFUME has limitations in the modeling of the temporal and spatial distributions of the temperature and burnup across the compacts, which affects the accuracy of its predictions. Nevertheless, the comparisons on silver release lie in the same order of magnitude. Results show an overall over-prediction of the fractional release of cesium by PARFUME. For particles with failed SiC layers, the over-prediction is by a factor of up to 3, corresponding to a potential over-estimation of the diffusivity in uranium oxycarbide (UCO) by a factor of up to 250. For intact particles, whose release is much lower, the over-prediction is by a factor of up to 100, which could be attributed to an over-estimated diffusivity in SiC by about 40% on average. The release of strontium from intact particles is also over-predicted by PARFUME, which also points towards an over-estimated diffusivity of strontium in either SiC or UCO, or possibly both. The measured strontium fractional

  6. Comparison of silver, cesium, and strontium release predictions using PARFUME with results from the AGR-1 irradiation experiment

    DOE PAGES

    Collin, Blaise P.; Petti, David A.; Demkowicz, Paul A.; ...

    2015-08-22

    The PARFUME (PARticle FUel ModEl) code was used to predict the release of fission products silver, cesium, and strontium from tristructural isotropic coated fuel particles and compacts during the first irradiation experiment (AGR-1) of the Advanced Gas Reactor Fuel Development and Qualification program. The PARFUME model for the AGR-1 experiment used the fuel compact volume average temperature for each of the 620 days of irradiation to calculate the release of silver, cesium, and strontium from a representative particle for a select number of AGR-1 compacts. Post-irradiation examination measurements provided data on release of these fission products from fuel compacts andmore » fuel particles, and retention of silver in the compacts outside of the silicon carbide (SiC) layer. PARFUME-predicted fractional release of silver, cesium, and strontium was determined and compared to the PIE measurements. For silver, comparisons show a trend of over-prediction at low burnup and under-prediction at high burnup. PARFUME has limitations in the modeling of the temporal and spatial distributions of the temperature and burnup across the compacts, which affects the accuracy of its predictions. Nevertheless, the comparisons on silver release lie in the same order of magnitude. Results show an overall over-prediction of the fractional release of cesium by PARFUME. For particles with failed SiC layers, the over-prediction is by a factor of up to 3, corresponding to a potential over-estimation of the diffusivity in uranium oxycarbide (UCO) by a factor of up to 250. For intact particles, whose release is much lower, the over-prediction is by a factor of up to 100, which could be attributed to an over-estimated diffusivity in SiC by about 40% on average. The release of strontium from intact particles is also over-predicted by PARFUME, which also points towards an over-estimated diffusivity of strontium in either SiC or UCO, or possibly both. The measured strontium fractional release

  7. Comparison of silver, cesium, and strontium release predictions using PARFUME with results from the AGR-1 irradiation experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Collin, Blaise P.; Petti, David A.; Demkowicz, Paul A.; Maki, John T.

    2015-08-22

    The PARFUME (PARticle FUel ModEl) code was used to predict the release of fission products silver, cesium, and strontium from tristructural isotropic coated fuel particles and compacts during the first irradiation experiment (AGR-1) of the Advanced Gas Reactor Fuel Development and Qualification program. The PARFUME model for the AGR-1 experiment used the fuel compact volume average temperature for each of the 620 days of irradiation to calculate the release of silver, cesium, and strontium from a representative particle for a select number of AGR-1 compacts. Post-irradiation examination measurements provided data on release of these fission products from fuel compacts and fuel particles, and retention of silver in the compacts outside of the silicon carbide (SiC) layer. PARFUME-predicted fractional release of silver, cesium, and strontium was determined and compared to the PIE measurements. For silver, comparisons show a trend of over-prediction at low burnup and under-prediction at high burnup. PARFUME has limitations in the modeling of the temporal and spatial distributions of the temperature and burnup across the compacts, which affects the accuracy of its predictions. Nevertheless, the comparisons on silver release lie in the same order of magnitude. Results show an overall over-prediction of the fractional release of cesium by PARFUME. For particles with failed SiC layers, the over-prediction is by a factor of up to 3, corresponding to a potential over-estimation of the diffusivity in uranium oxycarbide (UCO) by a factor of up to 250. For intact particles, whose release is much lower, the over-prediction is by a factor of up to 100, which could be attributed to an over-estimated diffusivity in SiC by about 40% on average. The release of strontium from intact particles is also over-predicted by PARFUME, which also points towards an over-estimated diffusivity of strontium in either SiC or UCO, or possibly both. The measured strontium fractional release from

  8. Comparison of silver, cesium, and strontium release predictions using PARFUME with results from the AGR-1 irradiation experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Collin, Blaise P.; Petti, David A.; Demkowicz, Paul A.; Maki, John T.

    2015-08-22

    Here, the PARFUME (PARticle FUel ModEl) code was used to predict the release of fission products silver, cesium, and strontium from tristructural isotropic coated fuel particles and compacts during the first irradiation experiment (AGR-1) of the Advanced Gas Reactor Fuel Development and Qualification program. The PARFUME model for the AGR-1 experiment used the fuel compact volume average temperature for each of the 620 days of irradiation to calculate the release of silver, cesium, and strontium from a representative particle for a select number of AGR-1 compacts. Post-irradiation examination measurements provided data on release of these fission products from fuel compacts and fuel particles, and retention of silver in the compacts outside of the silicon carbide (SiC) layer. PARFUME-predicted fractional release of silver, cesium, and strontium was determined and compared to the PIE measurements. For silver, comparisons show a trend of over-prediction at low burnup and under-prediction at high burnup. PARFUME has limitations in the modeling of the temporal and spatial distributions of the temperature and burnup across the compacts, which affects the accuracy of its predictions. Nevertheless, the comparisons on silver release lie in the same order of magnitude. Results show an overall over-prediction of the fractional release of cesium by PARFUME. For particles with failed SiC layers, the over-prediction is by a factor of up to 3, corresponding to a potential over-estimation of the diffusivity in uranium oxycarbide (UCO) by a factor of up to 250. For intact particles, whose release is much lower, the over-prediction is by a factor of up to 100, which could be attributed to an over-estimated diffusivity in SiC by about 40% on average. The release of strontium from intact particles is also over-predicted by PARFUME, which also points towards an over-estimated diffusivity of strontium in either SiC or UCO, or possibly both. The measured strontium fractional release

  9. Bentonite-Clay Waste Form for the Immobilization of Cesium and Strontium from Fuel Processing Waste Streams

    SciTech Connect

    Kaminski, Michael D.; Mertz, Carol J.

    2016-01-01

    The physical properties of a surrogate waste form containing cesium, strontium, rubidium, and barium sintered into bentonite clay were evaluated for several simulant feed streams: chlorinated cobalt dicarbollide/polyethylene glycol (CCD-PEG) strip solution, nitrate salt, and chloride salt feeds. We sintered bentonite clay samples with a loading of 30 mass% of cesium, strontium, rubidium, and barium to a density of approximately 3 g/cm3. Sintering temperatures of up to 1000°C did not result in volatility of cesium. Instead, there was an increase in crystallinity of the waste form upon sintering to 1000ºC for chloride- and nitrate-salt loaded clays. The nitrate salt feed produced various cesium pollucite phases, while the chloride salt feed did not produce these familiar phases. In fact, many of the x-ray diffraction peaks could not be matched to known phases. Assemblages of silicates were formed that incorporated the Sr, Rb, and Ba ions. Gas evolution during sintering to 1000°C was significant (35% weight loss for the CCD-PEG waste-loaded clay), with significant water being evolved at approximately 600°C.

  10. Role of Desorption Kinetics and Porous Medium Heterogeneity in Colloid-Facilitated Transport of Cesium and Strontium: Preliminary Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dittrich, T. M.; Ryan, J. N.

    2008-12-01

    to adapt current models for colloid-facilitated transport in saturated porous media to colloid transport in unsaturated media. Colloid and colloid-facilitated transport experiments are being conducted on two soil systems: (1) constructed porous media with quartz sand containing an artificial macropore and (2) natural undisturbed cores from two DOE sites (Rocky Flats, CO and Oak Ridge, TN). Cesium and strontium isotopes are being used to examine the role of sorption kinetics and to quantify the influence of exchange between preferential flow paths and the soil matrix on the fate of colloid-bound contaminants.

  11. Sorption of cesium and strontium from concentrated brines by backfill barrier materials

    SciTech Connect

    Winslow, C D

    1981-03-01

    The sorption of radionuclides from potentially intruding groundwater at a nuclear waste repository is a major chemical function of backfill barriers. In this study, various materials (including clays, zeolites and an inorganic ion exchanger) were screened for the sorption of the fission products cesium and strontium in concentrated brines. Representative brines A and B for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), a proposed radioactive waste repository and test facility in bedded salt were used. Sorption properties were quantified using empirical distribution coefficients, k/sub d/. Of the materials examined, sodium titanate had the highest k/sub d/ for the sorption of Sr(II) in both brine A (k/sub d/ = 125 ml/g) and brine B(k/sub d/ = 500 to 600 ml/g). A mordenite-type zeolite was the most effective getter for Cs(I) in brine A (k/sub d = 27 ml/g), while illite yielded the highest k/sub d/ for Cs(I) in brine B (k/sub d/ = 115 ml/g). The relative merit of these k/sub d/ values is evaluated in terms of calculated estimates of breakthrough times for a backfill barrier containing the getter. Results show that a backfill mixture containing these getters is potentially an effective barrier to the migration of Sr(II) and Cs(I), although further study (especially for the sorption of cesium from brine A) is recommended. Initial mechanistic studies revealed competing ion effects which would support an ion exchange mechanism. K/sub d/'s were constant over a Sr(II) concentration range of 10/sup -11/ to 10/sup -5/ M and a Cs(I) concentration range of 10/sup -8/ to 10/sup -5/ M, supporting the choice of a linear sorption isotherm as a model for the results. Constant batch composition was shown to be attained within one week.

  12. Silicon Control of Strontium and Cesium Partitioning in Hydroxide-Weathered Sediments

    SciTech Connect

    Chorover, Jon; Choi, Sunkyung; Rotenberg, P.; Serne, R. Jeffrey; Rivera, Nelson; Strepka, Caleb R.; Thompson, Aaron; Mueller, Karl T.; O'Day, Peggy A.

    2008-04-15

    Cation partitioning in an aqueous soil suspension depends on the coupling of reaction time, sorbate amount and mineral weathering reactions. These factors were varied in sediment suspension experiments to identify geochemical processes that affect migration of Sr2+ and Cs+ introduced to the subsurface by caustic high level radioactive waste (HLRW). Three glacio-fluvial and lacustrine sediments from the Hanford Site were subjected to hyperalkaline (pH > 13), Na–Al–NO3–OH solution conditions within a gradient field of (i) sorptive concentration (10-5–10-3 M) and (ii) reaction time (0–365 d). Strontium uptake (qSr) exceeded that of cesium at nearly all reaction times. Sorbent affinity for both Cs+ and Sr2+ increased with clay plus silt content at early times, but a prolonged slow uptake process was observed over the course of sediment weathering that erased the texture effect for Sr2+; all sediments showed similar mass normalized uptake after several months of reaction time. Strontium became progressively recalcitrant to desorption after 92 d, with accumulation and aging of neoformed aluminosilicates. Formation of Cs+ and Sr2+-containing cancrinite and sodalite was observed after 183 d by SEM and synchrotron u-XRF and u-XRD. EXAFS data showed ncorporation of Sr2+ into both feldspathoid and SrCO3(s) coordination environments after one year. Adsorption was predominant at early times and low sorbate amount, whereas recipitation, controlled largely by sediment Si release, became increasingly important at longer times and higher sorbate amount. Kinetics of contaminant desorption at pH 8 from one year-weathered sediments showed significant dependence on background cation (Ca2+ versus K+) composition. Results of this study indicate that co-precipitation and ion exchange in neoformed aluminosilicates may be an important mechanism controlling Sr2+ and Cs+ mobility in siliceous sediments impacted by hyperalkaline HLRW.

  13. Silicon control of strontium and cesium partitioning in hydroxide-weathered sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chorover, Jon; Choi, Sunkyung; Rotenberg, Paula; Serne, R. Jeff; Rivera, Nelson; Strepka, Caleb; Thompson, Aaron; Mueller, Karl T.; O'Day, Peggy A.

    2008-04-01

    Cation partitioning and speciation in an aqueous soil suspension may depend on the coupling of reaction time, sorbate amount and mineral weathering reactions. These factors were varied in sediment suspension experiments to identify geochemical processes that affect migration of Sr 2+ and Cs + introduced to the subsurface by caustic high level radioactive waste (HLRW). Three glacio-fluvial and lacustrine sediments from the Hanford Site (WA, USA) were subjected to hyperalkaline (pH > 13), Na-Al-NO 3-OH solution conditions within a gradient field of (i) sorptive concentration (10 -5-10 -3 m) and (ii) reaction time (0-365 d). Strontium uptake ( qSr) exceeded that of cesium at nearly all reaction times. Sorbent affinity for both Cs + and Sr 2+ increased with clay plus silt content at early times, but a prolonged slow uptake process was observed over the course of sediment weathering that erased the texture effect for Sr 2+; all sediments showed similar mass normalized uptake after several months of reaction time. Strontium became progressively recalcitrant to desorption after 92 d, with accumulation and aging of neoformed aluminosilicates. Formation of Cs + and Sr 2+-containing cancrinite and sodalite was observed after 183 d by SEM and synchrotron μ-XRF and μ-XRD. EXAFS data for qSr ≈ 40 mmol kg -1 showed incorporation of Sr 2+ into both feldspathoid and SrCO 3(s) coordination environments after one year. Adsorption was predominant at early times and low sorbate amount, whereas precipitation, controlled largely by sediment Si release, became increasingly important at longer times and higher sorbate amount. Kinetics of contaminant desorption at pH 8 from one year-weathered sediments showed significant dependence on background cation (Ca 2+ versus K +) composition. Results of this study indicate that co-precipitation and ion exchange in neoformed aluminosilicates may be an important mechanism controlling Sr 2+ and Cs + mobility in siliceous sediments impacted by

  14. SELECTIVE REMOVAL OF STRONTIUM AND CESIUM FROM SIMULATED WASTE SOLUTION WITH TITANATE ION-EXCHANGERS IN A FILTER CARTRIDGE CONFIGURATIONS-12092

    SciTech Connect

    Oji, L.; Martin, K.; Hobbs, D.

    2012-01-03

    Experimental results for the selective removal of strontium and cesium from simulated waste solutions with monosodium titanate and crystalline silicotitanate laden filter cartridges are presented. In these proof-of-principle tests, effective uptake of both strontium-85 and cesium-137 were observed using ion-exchangers in this filter cartridge configuration. At low salt simulant conditions, the instantaneous decontamination factor for strontium-85 with monosodium titanate impregnated filter membrane cartridges measured 26, representing 96% strontium-85 removal efficiency. On the other hand, the strontium-85 instantaneous decontamination factor with co-sintered active monosodium titanate cartridges measured 40 or 98% Sr-85 removal efficiency. Strontium-85 removal with the monosodium titanate impregnated membrane cartridges and crystalline silicotitanate impregnated membrane cartridges, placed in series arrangement, produced an instantaneous decontamination factor of 41 compared to an instantaneous decontamination factor of 368 for strontium-85 with co-sintered active monosodium titanate cartridges and co-sintered active crystalline silicotitanate cartridges placed in series. Overall, polyethylene co-sintered active titanates cartridges performed as well as titanate impregnated filter membrane cartridges in the uptake of strontium. At low ionic strength conditions, there was a significant uptake of cesium-137 with co-sintered crystalline silicotitanate cartridges. Tests results with crystalline silicotitanate impregnated membrane cartridges for cesium-137 decontamination are currently being re-evaluated. Based on these preliminary findings we conclude that incorporating monosodium titanate and crystalline silicotitanate sorbents into membranes represent a promising method for the semicontinuous removal of radioisotopes of strontium and cesium from nuclear waste solutions.

  15. Accumulation of cesium-137 and strontium-90 in ponderosa pine and monterey pine seedlings

    SciTech Connect

    Entry, J.A.; Rygiewicz, P.T.; Emmingham, W.H.

    1993-01-01

    Because Pinus ponderosa (Dougl.ex Laws) and P. radiata (D.Don) have exceptionally fast growth rates and their abscised needles are not readily dispersed by wind, these species may be valuable for removing radioisotopes from contaminated soils. P. ponderosa and P. radiata seedlings were tested for their ability to accumulate Cesium 137 and Strontium 90--characteristic radioisotopes of nuclear fallout--from contaminated soil. All seedlings were grown for 3 months in cu cm of sphagnum peat moss:perlite (1:1 V:V) in a growth chamber. In experiment 1, seedling accumulation of 137 CS and 90 Sr after 1 month of exposure was measured. In experiment 2, seedling accumulation of the radioisotopes during different-length exposures was measured. Experiment 3 measured seedling accumulation of CS 137 and SR 90 at different concentrations of the radioisotopes in the growth medium. Accumulation of CS 137 and SR 90 by both species increased with increasing concentration in the growth medium and correlated curvilinearly with radioisotope concentration in the growth medium. (Copyright (c) 1993, Environmental Quality.)

  16. Alginate enhances excretion and reduces absorption of strontium and cesium in rats.

    PubMed

    Idota, Yoko; Harada, Hitomi; Tomono, Takumi; Morimoto, Kaori; Kobayashi, Shoko; Kakinuma, Chihaya; Miyajima, Chihiro; Kasahara, Fumiyoshi; Ogihara, Takuo

    2013-01-01

    Alginate (ALA), which is an intercellular polysaccharide associated with brown algae, is used as a food additive, a health food and a medicine. Here, we first examined the adsorption of strontium (Sr) and cesium (Cs) by ALA in vitro, and then evaluated the effects of ALA on absorption and excretion of Sr and Cs in rats, in order to evaluate its potential usefulness for minimizing radiation damage from materials released after a nuclear accident. Both Sr and Cs were concentration-dependently adsorbed by sodium alginate (ALA-Na) in vitro. In rats given diet containing either ALA-Na or calcium alginate (ALA-Ca) for two weeks, the plasma concentration of Sr gradually decreased compared with the controls (normal diet); however, in the case of Cs, the plasma concentration was decreased only in the ALA-Ca group, but not the ALA-Na group. Moreover, we examined the effect of preadministration of diet containing either ALA-Na or ALA-Ca on absorption of Sr and Cs administered orally as the chloride salts to rats. Absorption of both Sr and Cs was reduced in the ALA-Ca group, while absorption of only Sr was reduced in the ALA-Na group. Safety assessments indicated that ALA-Ca is safer than ALA-Na. These results indicate that ALA-Ca reduces absorption and promotes excretion of both Sr and Cs, while ALA-Na does so only for Sr.

  17. Determination of stable cesium and strontium in rice samples by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srinuttrakul, W.; Yoshida, S.

    2017-06-01

    For long-term radiation dose assessment models, food ingestion is one of the major exposure pathways to human. In general, the stable isotopes can serve as analogues of radioisotopes. In this study, rice samples were collected from 30 paddy fields in Si Sa Ket, Yasothon and Roi Et in the northeast of Thailand in November 2014. The concentrations of stable cesium (Cs-133) and strontium (Sr-88) in polished rice were determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The standard reference material of rice flour (NIST 1568a) with spiked Cs and Sr was used to validate the analytical method. The concentration of Cs in polished rice from Si Sa Ket, Yasothon and Roi Et was 0.158 ± 0.167 mg kg-1, 0.090 ± 0.117 mg kg-1 and 0.054 ± 0.031 mg kg-1, respectively. The concentration of Sr in polished rice from Si Sa Ket, Yasothon and Roi Et was 0.351 ± 0.108 mg kg-1, 0.364 ± 0.215 mg kg-1 and 0.287 ± 0.102 mg kg-1, respectively. Comparison of the results with Japanese data before the Fukushima Di-ichi nuclear power plant accident showed that the concentrations of both Cs and Sr for Thai rice were higher than those for Japanese rice.

  18. Measurements to Elucidate the Mechanism of Thermal and Radiation Enhanced Diffusion of Cesium, Europium, and Strontium in Silicon Carbide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dwaraknath, Shyam S.

    Containment of fission products (FP) within the TRISO fuel particle is critical to the success of the very high temperature reactor (VHTR). Over sixty years of experience developing and testing this fuel has yet to identify the mechanism by which several key fission products (cesium, europium, and strontium) escape through intact SiC at temperatures between 900C and 1,300C. A novel diffusion couple was developed that was successful in making the first measurements of fission product diffusion in SiC. This design allows for the isolation of thermal diffusion and investigation of radiation enhanced diffusion using ion irradiation as a simulant for neutron radiation damage. The thermal and radiation enhanced diffusion of cesium, europium, and strontium were measured between 900°C and 1,300°C. The ion irradiation significantly enhanced the diffusion of all three fission products with enhancement factors ranging from 100x to 107x over thermal diffusion. All three fission products exhibits mixed diffusion kinetics between 900°C and 1,300°C under purely thermal conditions, and between 900°C and 1,100°C under ion irradiation. This indicates that both bulk and grain boundary diffusion are active mechanisms for fission product release. A defect reaction model indicates that fission product diffusion can occur on both the silicon or carbon sub-lattices. Comparison of cesium diffusion with the literature suggests that the best quality TRISO fuel should exhibit minimal cesium release and that cesium release is a good indicator of TRISO fuel failure.

  19. The Effect of a Simulated Macropore on the Colloid-Facilitated Transport of Cesium and Strontium: Experiment and Model Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dittrich, T. M.; Ryan, J. N.; Saiers, J. E.

    2011-12-01

    The sorption of contaminants to mobile colloids has been shown to increase the transport of the contaminants in a process known as colloid-facilitated transport. Many laboratory experiments and computer model simulations have shown that enhanced transport can occur when a contaminant strongly associates with mobile colloids and release kinetics are slow relative to the rate of flow. Knowing when colloid-facilitated transport will affect field-scale situations and risk assessment decisions has been difficult. The three parts of our research were (1) conduct a set of isotherms and breakthrough curves for a well-characterized system (illite colloids, homogeneous quartz sand, saturated and unsaturated conditions), (2) conduct breakthrough experiments with the addition of a central macropore and, (3) model the results to identify and quantify the effects of desorption kinetics and unsaturated conditions on colloid-facilitated transport with a macropore. Breakthrough experiments used a 12.7 cm diameter and 33.5 cm long column packed with cleaned and sieved quartz sand. The homogeneous experiments used sand with a median grain size of 0.325 mm. For macropore experiments, a 2 cm diameter tube of 1.6 mm sand (about 5× the size of the matrix sand) was packed in the center of the column. A rainfall simulator was suspended over the column and a relative saturation of 1.0, 0.80, or 0.33 was established. Three moisture sensors and three tensiometers monitored the flow conditions. Effluent was collected with a peristaltic pump and a fraction collector and measured for total and dissolved ions, pH, and colloid concentration. Cesium and strontium were used as model contaminants because they are common contaminants found on Department of Energy sites in the United States and because they have contrasting sorption kinetics with illite. A previously developed model for saturated colloid-facilitated transport of cesium and strontium was extended to accommodate unsaturated conditions

  20. The Role of Desorption Kinetics on the Colloid-Facilitated Transport of Cesium and Strontium in a Partially-Saturated Quartz Sand Column

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dittrich, T. M.; Ryan, J. N.; Saiers, J. E.

    2010-12-01

    Colloid-facilitated transport (CFT) is a mechanism for enhanced transport of contaminants under certain environmental conditions. In order for CFT to be significant, three conditions must be met: (1) colloids must be present at a significant concentration, 2) the contaminant must associate with and remain associated with the colloids, and 3) colloids must be transported faster than the contaminant on its own. Colloids are often present in significant concentrations; therefore, CFT strongly depends on slow desorption kinetics and colloid mobility. The goal of this research was to identify and quantify the effects of desorption kinetics on the transport of cesium and strontium through a quartz sand column at different degrees of saturation (moisture contents). Breakthrough experiments were conducted using a rainfall simulator suspended over a column (12.7 cm diameter, 33.5 cm depth) packed with clean, sieved quartz sand (d50 = 360 µm). The effluent was collected with a fraction collector. Cesium and strontium were used as model contaminants because they are common contaminants found on Department of Energy sites in the US and because they have contrasting sorption kinetics with illite, which was used as the model colloid. The column was instrumented with three tensiometers and three moisture sensors to ensure uniform flow under partially-saturated conditions. Relative saturations of 0.33, 0.80, and 1.0 were established in the column. For aqueous breakthrough experiments, solutions at pH 7.3 containing cesium or strontium at a concentration of 7.5 x 10-6 M were applied to the top of the column until breakthrough (C/C0 > 0.5) was achieved. Following breakthrough, the solution was switched to a cesium- or strontium-free pH 7.3 solution for about 40 pore volumes. These experiments were repeated with the addition of illite colloids at a concentration of 100 mg L-1 in equilibrium with the cesium of strontium solution. Cesium and strontium breakthrough was monitored by

  1. TAILORING INORGANIC SORBENTS FOR SRS STRONTIUM AND ACTINIDE SEPARATIONS: OPTIMIZED MONOSODIUM TITANATEPHASE II INTERIM REPORT FOR EXTERNAL RELEASE

    SciTech Connect

    Hobbs, D; Michael Poirier, M; Mark Barnes, M; Mary Thompson, M

    2006-08-31

    This document provides an interim summary report of Phase II testing activities for the development of a modified monosodium titanate (MST) that exhibits improved strontium and actinide removal characteristics compared to the baseline MST materials. The activities included determining the key synthesis conditions for preparation of the modified MST, preparation of the modified MST at a larger laboratory scale, demonstration of the strontium and actinide removal characteristics with actual tank waste supernate and characterization of the modified MST. Key findings and conclusions include the following: (1) Samples of the modified MST prepared by Method 2 and Method 3 exhibited the best combination of strontium and actinide removal. (2) We selected Method 3 to scale up and test performance with actual waste solution. (3) We successfully prepared three batches of the modified MST using the Method 3 procedure at a 25-gram scale. (4) Performance tests indicated successful scale-up to the 25-gram scale with excellent performance and reproducibility among each of the three batches. For example, the plutonium decontamination factors (6-hour contact time) for the modified MST samples averaged 13 times higher than that of the baseline MST sample at half the sorbent concentration (0.2 g L{sup -1} for modified MST versus 0.4 g L{sup -1} for baseline MST). (5) Performance tests with actual waste supernate demonstrated that the modified MST exhibited better strontium and plutonium removal performance than that of the baseline MST. For example, the decontamination factors for the modified MST measured 2.6 times higher for strontium and between 5.2 to 11 times higher for plutonium compared to the baseline MST sample. The modified MST did not exhibit improved neptunium removal performance over that of the baseline MST. (6) Two strikes of the modified MST provided increased removal of strontium and actinides from actual waste compared to a single strike. The improved performance

  2. TAILORING INORGANIC SORBENTS FOR SRS STRONTIUM AND ACTINIDE SEPARATIONS: MODIFIED MONOSODIUM TITANATE PHASE III FINAL REPORT

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor-Pashow, K.; Hobbs, D.

    2010-09-01

    This document provides a final report of Phase III testing activities for the development of modified monosodium titanate (mMST), which exhibits improved strontium and actinide removal characteristics compared to the baseline MST material. The activities included characterization of the crystalline phases present at varying temperatures, solids settling characteristics, quantification of the peroxide content; evaluation of the post-synthesis gas release under different conditions; the extent of desorption of {sup 85}Sr, Np, and Pu under washing conditions; and the effects of age and radiation on the performance of the mMST. Key findings and conclusions include the following. The peroxide content of several mMST samples was determined using iodometric titration. The peroxide content was found to decrease with age or upon extended exposure to elevated temperature. A loss of peroxide was also measured after exposure of the material to an alkaline salt solution similar in composition to the simulated waste solution. To determine if the loss of peroxide with age affects the performance of the material, Sr and actinide removal tests were conducted with samples of varying age. The oldest sample (4 years and 8 months) did show lower Sr and Pu removal performance. When compared to the youngest sample tested (1 month), the oldest sample retained only 15% of the DF for Pu. Previous testing with this sample indicated no decrease in Pu removal performance up to an age of 30 months. No loss in Np removal performance was observed for any of the aged samples, and no uptake of uranium occurred at the typical sorbent loading of 0.2 g/L. Additional testing with a uranium only simulant and higher mMST loading (3.0 g/L) indicated a 10% increase of uranium uptake for a sample aged 3 years and 8 months when compared to the results of the same sample measured at an age of 1 year and 5 months. Performance testing with both baseline-MST and mMST that had been irradiated in a gamma source to

  3. Derivation of strontium-90 and cesium-137 residual radioactive material guidelines for the Laboratory for Energy-Related Health Research, University of California, Davis

    SciTech Connect

    Nimmagadda, M.; Yu, C.

    1993-04-01

    Residual radioactive material guidelines for strontium-90 and cesium-137 were derived for the Laboratory for Energy-Related Health Research (LEHR) site in Davis, California. The guideline derivation was based on a dose limit of 100 mrem/yr. The US Department of Energy (DOE) residual radioactive material guideline computer code, RESRAD, was used in this evaluation; this code implements the methodology described in the DOE manual for implementing residual radioactive material guidelines. Three potential site utilization scenarios were considered with the assumption that, for a period of 1,000 years following remedial action, the site will be utilized without radiological restrictions. The defined scenarios vary with regard to use of the site, time spent at the site, and sources of food consumed. The results of the evaluation indicate that the basic dose limit of 100 mrem/yr will not be exceeded within 1,000 years for either strontium-90 or cesium-137, provided that the soil concentrations of these radionuclides at the LEHR site do not exceed the following levels: 71,000 pCi/g for strontium-90 and 91 pCi/g for cesium-137 for Scenario A (researcher: the expected scenario); 160,000 pCi/g for strontium-90 and 220 pCi/g for cesium-137 for Scenario B (recreationist: a plausible scenario); and 37 pCi/g for strontium-90 and 32 pCi/g for cesium-137 for Scenario C (resident farmer ingesting food produced in the contaminated area: a plausible scenario). The derived guidelines are single-radionuclide guidelines and are linearly proportional to the dose limit used in the calculations. In setting the actual strontium-90 and cesium-137 guidelines for the LEHR site, DOE will apply the as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) policy to the decision-making process, along with other factors such as whether a particular scenario is reasonable and appropriate.

  4. Crystalline silicotitanates--new ion exchanger for selective removal of cesium and strontium from radwastes

    SciTech Connect

    Dosch, R.G.; Klavetter, E.A.; Stephens, H.P.; Brown, N.E.; Anthony, R.G.

    1996-08-01

    A new class of inorganic ion exchange material called crystalline silicotitanates (CST) has been developed for radioactive waste treatment in a collaborative effort between Sandia National Laboratories and Texas A&M University. The Sandia National Laboratories Laboratory Directed Research and Development program provided the initial funding for this effort and this report summarizes the rapid progress that was achieved. A wide range of compositions were synthesized, evaluated for cesium (Cs) removal efficiency, and a composition called TAM-5 was developed that exhibits high selectivity and affinity for Cs and strontium (Sr). Tests show it can remove parts per million concentrations of Cs{sup +} from highly alkaline, high-sodium, simulated radioactive waste solutions modeled after those at Hanford, Oak Ridge, and Savannah River. In experiments with solutions that simulate highly alkaline Hanford defense wastes, the crystalline silicotitanates exhibit distribution coefficients for Cs{sup +} of greater than 2,000 ml/g, and distribution coefficients greater than 10,000 ml/g for solutions adjusted to a pH between 1 and 10. In addition, the CSTs were found to exhibit distribution coefficients for Sr{sup +} greater than 100,000 ml/g and for plutonium of 2,000 ml/g from simulated Hanford waste. The CST crystal structure was determined and positions of individual atoms identified using x-ray and neutron diffraction. The structural information has permitted identification of the ion exchange sites and provided insights into the strong effect of pH on Cs ion exchange. Information on the synthesis, composition, and structure of CST is considered proprietary and is not discussed in this report.

  5. Decontamination of cesium, strontium, and cobalt from aqueous solutions by bentonite

    SciTech Connect

    Khan, M.A.; Khan, S.A.

    1996-12-31

    Sorption studies of cesium, strontium, and cobalt (Cs, Sr, and Co) on bentonite under various experimental conditions, such as contact time, pH, sorbent and sorbate concentration, and temperature, have been performed. The sorption data for all these metals have been interpreted in terms of Freundlich, Langmuir, and Dubinin-Radushkevich equations. Thermodynamics parameters, such as heat of sorption {Delta}H{degrees}, free energy change {Delta}G{degrees}, and entropy change {Delta}S{degrees}, for the sorption of these metals on bentonite have been calculated. The value of {Delta}H{degrees} shows that the sorption of Cs was exothermic, while the sorption of Sr and Co on bentonite were endothermic in nature. The value of {Delta}G{degrees} for their sorption was negative, showing the spontaneity of the process. The maximum loading capacity of Cs, Sr, and Co were 75.5, 22, and 27.5 meq, respectively, for 100 g of bentonite. The mean free energy E of Cs, Sr, and Co sorption on bentonite was 14.5, 9, and 7.7 kJ/mol, respectively. The value of E indicates that ion exchange may be the predominant mode of sorption for these radionuclides. The desorption studies with 0.01 M CaCl{sub 2} and groundwater at low-metal loading on bentonite showed that about 95% of Cs, 85-90% of Sr, and 97% of Co were irreversibly sorbed. Bentonite could be effectively used for the decontamination of wastewater effluent containing low concentrations of radioactive nuclides of Cs, Sr, and Co. 16 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs.

  6. Web technology in the separation of strontium and cesium from INEL-ICPP radioactive acid waste (WM-185)

    SciTech Connect

    Bray, L.A.; Brown, G.N.

    1995-01-01

    Strontium and cesium were successfully removed from radioactive acidic waste (WM-185) at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP), with web technology from 3M and IBC Advanced Technologies, Inc. (IBC). A technical team from Pacific Northwest Laboratory, ICPP, 3M and IBC conducted a very successful series of experiments from August 15 through 18, 1994. The ICPP, Remote Analytical Laboratory, Idaho Falls, Idaho, provided the hot cell facilities and staff to complete these milestone experiments. The actual waste experiments duplicated the initial `cold` simulated waste results and confirmed the selective removal provided by ligand-particle web technology.

  7. Acquisition of improved reference values for cesium, iodine, strontium, thorium, and uranium in selected NIST reference materials.

    PubMed

    Parr, R M; Kawamura, H; Iyengar, G V

    1999-01-01

    As part of a study on the ingestion and organ content of some trace elements of importance in radiological protection, additional work has been undertaken to acquire improved reference values for cesium, iodine, strontium, thorium, and uranium in four selected reference materials provided by the US National Institute of Standards and Technology. The materials are SRM-1548 Total Diet, SRM-1548a Typical Diet, SRM-1486 Bone Meal, and RM-8414 Bovine Muscle. A coordinated study was undertaken with the help of seven selected laboratories in five countries. Instrumental and radiochemical neutron activation analysis and inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry were the analytical main techniques used.

  8. Strontium

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ober, J.A.

    1995-01-01

    Part of the 1994 Industrial Minerals Review. The production, consumption, and applications of strontium are reviewed. Consumption for the year is estimated to have been about 35 kt for strontium contained in celestite, strontium carbonate, and strontium nitrate. Exports of strontium totaled only about 1.1 kt for the year. U.S. strontium imports and consumption increased about 30 percent in 1994 due to increased domestic production of color television picture tube glass. The average customs value of celestite coming into the U.S. was about $75/t, strontium carbonate was valued at $661/t, and strontium nitrate was valued at about $1,069/t.

  9. Advances in Development of the Fission Product Extraction Process for the Separation of Cesium and Strontium from Spent Nuclear Fuel

    SciTech Connect

    JAck D. Law

    2007-09-01

    The Fission Product Extraction (FPEX) Process is being developed as part of the United States Department of Energy Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative for the simultaneous separation of cesium (Cs) and strontium (Sr) from spent light water reactor (LWR) fuel. Separation of the Cs and Sr will reduce the short-term heat load in a geological repository, and when combined with the separation of americium (Am) and curium (Cm), could increase the capacity of the geological repository by a factor of approximately 100. The FPEX process is based on two highly specific extractants: 4,4',(5')-Di-(t-butyldicyclo-hexano)-18-crown-6 (DtBuCH18C6) and Calix[4]arene-bis-(tert-octylbenzo-crown-6) (BOBCalixC6). The DtBuCH18C6 extractant is selective for strontium and the BOBCalixC6 extractant is selective for cesium. Results of flowsheet testing of the FPEX process with a simulated feed solution in 3.3-cm centrifugal contactors are detailed. Removal efficiencies, distribution coefficient data, coextraction of metals, and process hydrodynamic performance are discussed along with recommendations for future flowsheet testing with actual spent nuclear fuel.

  10. Preparation and use of tetra-alkyl cobalt dicarbollide for extraction of cesium and strontium into hydrocarbon solvents

    DOEpatents

    Miller, Rebecca L.; Pinkerton, Anthony B.; Abney, Kent D.; Kinkead, Scott A.

    1997-01-01

    Preparation and use of tetra-C-alkyl cobalt dicarbollide for extraction of cesium and strontium into hydrocarbon solvents. Tetra-C-alkyl derivatives of cobalt dicarbollide, Co(C.sub.2 R.sub.2 B.sub.9 H.sub.9).sub.2.sup.- (CoB.sub.2 R.sub.4.sup.- ; R=CH.sub.3 and C.sub.6 H.sub.13) are demonstrated to be significant cesium and strontium extractants from acidic and alkaline solutions into non-toxic organic solvent systems. Extractions using mesitylene and diethylbenzene are compared to those with nitrobenzene as the organic phase. CoB.sub.2 -hexyl.sub.4.sup.- in diethylbenzene shows improved selectivity (10.sup.4) for Cs over Na in acidic solution. In dilute alkaline solution, CoB.sub.2 -hexyl.sub.4.sup.- extracts Cs less efficiently, but more effectively removes Sr from higher base concentrations. A general synthesis of tetra-C-alkyl cobalt dicarbollides is described.

  11. Preparation and use of tetra-alkyl cobalt dicarbollide for extraction of cesium and strontium into hydrocarbon solvents

    DOEpatents

    Miller, R.L.; Pinkerton, A.B.; Abney, K.D.; Kinkead, S.A.

    1997-02-11

    Preparation and use of tetra-C-alkyl cobalt dicarbollide for extraction of cesium and strontium into hydrocarbon solvents. Tetra-C-alkyl derivatives of cobalt dicarbollide, Co(C{sub 2}R{sub 2}B{sub 9}H{sub 9}){sub 2}{sup {minus}}(CoB{sub 2}R{sub 4}{sup {minus}}; R=CH{sub 3} and C{sub 6}H{sub 13}) are demonstrated to be significant cesium and strontium extractants from acidic and alkaline solutions into non-toxic organic solvent systems. Extractions using mesitylene and diethylbenzene are compared to those with nitrobenzene as the organic phase. CoB{sub 2}-hexyl{sub 4}{sup {minus}} in diethylbenzene shows improved selectivity (10{sup 4}) for Cs over Na in acidic solution. In dilute alkaline solution, CoB{sub 2}-hexyl{sub 4}{sup {minus}} extracts Cs less efficiently, but more effectively removes Sr from higher base concentrations. A general synthesis of tetra-C-alkyl cobalt dicarbollides is described. 6 figs.

  12. Strontium

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ober, J.A.

    1996-01-01

    Part of the Annual Commodities Review 1995. In 1995, U.S. strontium imports and consumption increased nearly 30 percent due to increased domestic production of color television picture tube glass. However, strontium compound exports fell during 1995. Strontium is also used in the production of permanent ceramic ferrite magnets. Strontium nitrate, strontium chromate, and strontium chloride are also commonly used materials. Although the development of an affordable flatscreen display could eliminate the need for strontium in television production, this technology is not expected to be perfected in the immediate future.

  13. [Distribution of rubidium, cesium, beryllium, strontium, and barium in blood and urine in general Chinese population].

    PubMed

    Ding, Chunguang; Pan, Yajuan; Zhang, Aihua; Zhu, Chun; Liu, Deye; Xu, Guang; Zheng, Yuxin; Yan, Huifang

    2015-12-01

    To investigate the distribution of rubidium (Rb), cesium (Cs), beryllium (Be), strontium (Sr), and barium (Ba) in blood and urine in general Chinese population. A total of 18 120 subjects aged 6~60 years were enrolled from 24 regions in 8 provinces in Eastern, Central, and Western China from 2009 to 2010 based on the method of cluster random sampling. Questionnaire survey was conducted to collect the data on living environment and health status. Blood and urine samples were collected from these subjects, and the levels of Rb, Cs, Be, Sr, and Ba in these samples were determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The distribution of these elements in blood and urine in male or female subjects living in different regions was analyzed statistically. In the general Chinese population, the concentration of Be in the whole blood was below the detection limit (0.06 μg/L); the geometric mean (GM) of Ba in the whole blood was below the detection limit (0.45 μg/L), with the 95th percentile (P95)of 1.37 μg/L; the GMs (95% CI)of Rb, Cs, and Sr in the whole blood were 2 374(2 357~2 392) μg/L, 2.01 (1.98~2.05) μg/L, and 23.5 (23.3~23.7) μg/L, respectively; in males and females, the GMs (95%CI)of blood Rb, Cs, and Sr were 2 506 (2 478~2 533) μg/L and 2 248 (2 227~2 270) μg/L, 1.88 (1.83~1.94) μg/L and 2.16 (2.11~2.20) μg/L, and 23.4 (23.1~23.7) μg/L and 23.6 (23.3~23.9) μg/L, respectively(P<0.01, P>0.05, and P>0.05). In the general Chinese population, the GM of urine Be was below the detection limit (0.06 μg/L), while the GMs (95%CI)of urine Rb, Cs, Sr, and Ba were 854 (836~873) μg/L, 3.65 (3.56~3.74) μg/L, 39.5 (38.4~40.6) μg/L, and 1.10 (1.07~1.12) μg/L, respectively; in males and females, the GMs (95%CI)of urine Rb, Cs, Sr, and Ba were 876 (849~904) μg/L and 832 (807~858) μg/L, 3.83 (3.70~3.96) μg/L and 3.47 (3.35~3.60) μg/L, 42.5 (40.9~44.2) μg/L and 36.6 (35.1~38.0) μg/L, and 1.15 (1.12~1.19) μg/L and 1.04 (1.01~1.07) μg/L, respectively

  14. Strontium

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ober, J.A.

    2000-01-01

    Mexico is the leading producer of celestite, the most common strontium ore. Chemical Products is the only major US maker of strontium compounds. It produces all of its strontium carbonate from imported Mexican celestite. Mexico is also a large producer of strontium carbonate, as are China, Germany, Japan and the Republic of Korea. There has been no celestite production in the United States since 1959.

  15. Development of Cesium and Strontium Separation and Immobilization Technologies in Support of an Advanced Nuclear Fuel Cycle

    SciTech Connect

    Jack D. Law; Troy G. Garn; R. Scott Herbst; David H. Meikrantz; Dean R. Peterman; Catherine L. Riddle; Terry A. Todd; Julie L. Tripp

    2006-02-01

    As part of the Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative, two solvent extraction technologies are being developed at the Idaho National Laboratory to simultaneously separate cesium and strontium from dissolved spent nuclear fuel. The chlorinated cobalt dicarbollide/polyethylene glycol (CCD/PEG) process utilizes a solvent consisting of chlorinated cobalt dicarbollide for the extraction of Cs and polyethylene glycol for the synergistic extraction of Sr in a phenyltrifluoromethyl sulfone diluent. Countercurrent flowsheets have been designed and tested on simulated and actual spent nuclear fuel feed streams with both cesium and strontium removal efficiencies of greater than 99%. The Fission Product Extraction (FPEX) process is based on two highly-specific extractants: 4,4',(5')-Di-(t-butyldicyclo-hexano)-18-crown-6 (DtBuCH18C6) for the extraction of Sr and Calix[4]arene-bis-(tert-octylbenzo-crown-6) (BOBCalixC6) for the extraction of Cs. Laboratory test results of the FPEX process, using simulated feed solution spiked with radiotracers, indicate good Cs and Sr extraction and stripping performance. A preliminary solvent extraction flowsheet for the treatment of spent nuclear fuel with the FPEX process has been developed, and testing of the flowsheet with simulated spent nuclear fuel solutions is planned in the near future. Steam reforming is currently being developed for stabilization of the Cs/Sr product stream because it can produce a solid waste form while retaining the Cs and Sr in the solid, destroy the nitrates and organics present in these aqueous solutions, and convert the Cs and Sr into leach resistant aluminosilicate minerals. A bench-scale steam reforming pilot plant has been operated with several potential feed compositions and steam reformed product has been generated and analyzed.

  16. Effects of experimental parameters on the sorption of cesium, strontium, and uranium from saline groundwaters onto shales: Progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Meyer, R.E.; Arnold, W.D.; Case, F.I.; O'Kelley, G.D.

    1988-11-01

    This report concerns an extension of the first series of experiments on the sorption properties of shales and their clay mineral components reported earlier. Studies on the sorption of cesium and strontium were carried out on samples of Chattanooga (Upper Dowelltown), Pierre, Green River Formation, Nolichucky, and Pumpkin Valley Shales that had been heated to 120/degree/C in a 0.1-mol/L NaCl solution for periods up to several months and on samples of the same shales which had been heated to 250/degree/C in air for six months, to simulate limiting scenarios in a HLW repository. To investigate the kinetics of the sorption process in shale/groundwater systems, strontium sorption experiments were done on unheated Pierre, Green River Formation, Nolichucky, and Pumpkin Valley Shales in a diluted, saline groundwater and in 0.03-mol/L NaHCO/sub 3/, for periods of 0.25 to 28 days. Cesium sorption kinetics tests were performed on the same shales in a concentrated brine for the same time periods. The effect of the water/rock (W/R) ratio on sorption for the same combinations of unheated shales, nuclides, and groundwaters used in the kinetics experiments was investigated for a range of W/R ratios of 3 to 20 mL/g. Because of the complexity of the shale/groundwater interaction, a series of tests was conducted on the effects of contact time and W/R ratio on the pH of a 0.03-mol/L NaHCO/sub 3/ simulated groundwater in contact with shales. 8 refs., 12 figs., 15 tabs.

  17. Comparison of inorganic ion exchange materials for removing cesium, strontium, and transuranic elements from K-basin water

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, G.N.; Bontha, J.R.; Carson, K.J.; Elovich, R.J.; DesChane, J.R.

    1997-10-01

    The work presented in this report was conducted by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) under the Efficient Separations and Crosscutting Program (ESP), Office of Science and Technology, U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). The objective of this work was to investigate radionuclide uptake by several newly produced ion exchange materials under actual waste conditions, and to compare the performance of those materials with that of commercially available ion exchangers. The equilibrium uptake data presented in this report are useful for identifying potential materials that are capable of removing cesium and strontium from 105-KE Basin water. The data show the relative selectivities of the ion exchange materials under similar operating conditions. Additional flow studies are needed to predict material capacities and to develop complete ion exchange process flow sheets. The materials investigated in this study include commercially available ion exchangers such as IONSIV{reg_sign} IE-911 (manufactured by UOP), clinoptilolite (a naturally occurring zeolite), and materials produced on an experimental basis by AlliedSignal (biotites and nonatitanates), 3M (hexacyanoferrates), Selion Technologies, Inc. (hexacyanoferrates and titanates), and Texas A&M University (pharmacosiderites, biotites, and nonatitanates). In all, the performance of 14 ion exchange materials was evaluated at two solution-to-exchanger mass ratios (i.e., 10{sup 4} and 10{sup 5}) using actual 105-KE Basin water. Evaluation consisted of determining cesium and strontium batch distribution coefficients, loading, and decontamination factors. Actual 105-KE Basin water was obtained from a sample collected during the sludge dissolution work conducted by PNNL in FY 1996. This sample was taken from the bottom of the basin and contained significantly higher concentrations of the radioactive constituents than do samples taken from the top of the basin.

  18. Mycoextraction of radiolabeled cesium and strontium by Pleurotus eryngii mycelia in the presence of alumina nanoparticles: Sorption and accumulation studies.

    PubMed

    Asztemborska, Monika; Jakubiak, Małgorzata; Rykaczewska, Magdalena; Bembenek, Marcin; Stęborowski, Romuald; Bystrzejewska-Piotrowska, Grażyna

    2016-11-01

    Widespread use of products based on nanomaterials results in the release of nanoparticles into the environment. Nanoparticles can be taken up by organisms, but they can also coexist with other substances such as radionuclides, thus affecting their uptake or toxicity. In contrast, the sorption capacity of nanoparticles is exploited in water purification. The aim of the study was to investigate: (i) bioaccumulation of cesium and strontium by Pleurotus eryngii mycelia in the presence of alumina nanoparticles (Al2O3 NPs); and (ii) sorption of radionuclides on the surface of nanoparticles. For the experiments, living and dried mycelia were used to permit distinguishing between active uptake and passive sorption of the NPs by P. eryngii. The results are discussed from the perspective of the use of P. eryngii in the mycoextraction of radionuclides. The sorption capacity of Al2O3 NPs and the accumulation by P. eryngii mycelia differ for the applied radioisotopes. The efficiency of Cs and Sr sorption by alumina nanoparticles is 20% and 40%, respectively. Mycelia of P. eryngii have the ability to accumulate 30% of both radioisotopes from the medium. More than 60% of strontium can be removed accumulated from water by P. eryngii mycelia in coexistence with Al2O3 NPs, while the efficiency of cesium removal accumulation is negligible. It was found that alumina nanoparticles do not enhance uptake of radionuclides by P. eryngii mycelia; mycoextraction of radionuclides by mycelia and sorption by Al2O3 NPs are concurrent processes. There was no difference between live or dried mycelia uptake. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Strontium

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ober, J.A.

    2006-01-01

    China, Mexico, Spain and Turkey are the world's leading producers of celestite (strontium sulphate). These countries accounted for 98% of the total world production in 2005. For the same period, US apparent consumption of strontium decreased to 12.3 kt. Imports were 21.2 kt, of which 84% came from Mexico. Imports of celestite and strontium carbonate decreased 71% and 24% respectively.

  20. Strontium

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ober, J.A.

    1994-01-01

    Production figures are not published for stronium carbonate because there is only one company producing strontium carbonate domestically. Strontium carbonate is produced in the U.S. from imported celestite. Consumption can be estimated from trade data published by the U.S. Bureau of the Census. Consumption is estimated at approximately 24.5 kt of strontium. The largest end-use of strontium carbonate is in the production of faceplate glass for color television picturetubes. Other applications and markets for strontium are discussed.

  1. In situ Removal of Actinides and Strontium from High Level Waste Tanks, Tea Bag versus Adsorption Column

    SciTech Connect

    MARK, CROWDER

    2004-11-17

    Initiatives are underway at the Savannah River Site (SRS) to accelerate the disposition of the supernate and salt portions of the waste in the SRS High Level Waste (HLW) tank farm system. Significant savings in processing time and overall cost could be achieved by in situ treatment of waste supernate or dissolved salt inside a tank farm waste tank. For treatment of actinides and strontium in waste, the baseline method is sorption onto monosodium titanate (MST), an engineered powder with mean particle size of approximately 10 microns. In a separate study at the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL), engineered forms of MST were developed and compared on a small (250-mL) scale in batch tests. In the current study, a promising form of engineered MST was tested under two conditions: a traditional ion exchange (or adsorption) column and a porous, flow through device called a tea bag, immersed in solution. Both tests used the same amount of engineered MST to treat 10 L of simulated waste solution containing plutonium and strontium.

  2. [Technical support in the testing of microoganisms for their ability to accumulate strontium and cesium from aqueous solutions]. Final reports, Task order No. 2

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-06-15

    This report describes the binding of cesium and strontium ions from aqueous solution in a variety of microorganisms. Data is provided on the absorption by Ashbya gossyppi, Chlorella pyrenoidosa, Candida sp. Ml13, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Scenedesmus obliqus, Streptococcus mutans, Anabaena flosaquae, Escherichia coli, Streptomyces viridochromogenes, Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, Rhizopus oryzae, Bacillus megaterium, Micrococcus luteus, Zoogloea ramigera, Coelastrum proboscideum, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Citrobacter freundii, Paecilomyces marquandi, and Caulobacter fusiformis.

  3. Performance evaluation of 24 ion exchange materials for removing cesium and strontium from actual and simulated N-Reactor storage basin water

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, G.N.; Carson, K.J.; DesChane, J.R.; Elovich, R.J.

    1997-09-01

    This report describes the evaluation of 24 organic and inorganic ion exchange materials for removing cesium and strontium from actual and simulated waters from the 100 Area 105 N-Reactor fuel storage basin. The data described in this report can be applied for developing and evaluating ion exchange pre-treatment process flowsheets. Cesium and strontium batch distribution ratios (K{sub d}`s), decontamination factors (DF), and material loadings (mmol g{sup -1}) are compared as a function of ion exchange material and initial cesium concentration. The actual and simulated N-Basin waters contain relatively low levels of aluminum, barium, calcium, potassium, and magnesium (ranging from 8.33E-04 to 6.40E-05 M), with slightly higher levels of boron (6.63E-03 M) and sodium (1.62E-03 M). The {sup 137}Cs level is 1.74E-06 Ci L-{sup 1} which corresponds to approximately 4.87E-10 M Cs. The initial Na/Cs ratio was 3.33E+06. The concentration of total strontium is 4.45E-06 M, while the {sup 90}Sr radioactive component was measured to be 6.13E-06 Ci L{sup -1}. Simulant tests were conducted by contacting 0.067 g or each ion exchange material with approximately 100 mL of either the actual or simulated N-Basin water. The simulants contained variable initial cesium concentrations ranging from 1.00E-04 to 2.57E- 10 M Cs while all other components were held constant. For all materials, the average cesium K{sub d} was independent of cesium concentration below approximately 1.0E-06 M. Above this level, the average cesium K{sub d} values decreased significantly. Cesium K{sub d} values exceeding 1.0E+07 mL g{sup -1} were measured in the simulated N-Basin water. However, when measured in the actual N-Basin water the values were several orders of magnitude lower, with a maximum of 1.24E+05 mL g{sup -1} observed.

  4. SELECTIVE REMOVAL OF STRONTIUM AND CESIUM FROM SIMULATED WASTE SOLUTION WITH TITANATE ION EXCHANGERS IN A FILTER CARTRIDGE CONFIGURATION

    SciTech Connect

    Oji, L.; Martin, K.; Hobbs, D.

    2011-05-26

    This report describes experimental results for the selective removal of strontium and cesium from simulated waste solutions using monosodium titanate (MST) and crystalline silicotitanate (CST)-laden filter cartridges. Four types of ion exchange cartridge media (CST and MST designed by both 3M and POROX{reg_sign}) were evaluated. In these proof-of-principle tests effective uptake of both Sr-85 and Cs-137 was observed. However, the experiments were not performed long enough to determine the saturation levels or breakthrough curve for each filter cartridge. POREX{reg_sign} MST cartridges, which by design were based on co-sintering of the active titanates with polyethylene particles, seem to perform as well as the 3M-designed MST cartridges (impregnated filter membrane design) in the uptake of strontium. At low salt simulant conditions (0.29 M Na{sup +}), the instantaneous decontamination factor (D{sub F}) for Sr-85 with the 3M-design MST cartridge measured 26, representing the removal of 96% of the Sr-85. On the other hand, the Sr-85 instantaneous D{sub F} with the POREX{reg_sign} design MST cartridge measured 40 or 98% removal of the Sr-85. Strontium removal with the 3M-design MST and CST cartridges placed in series filter arrangement produced an instantaneous decontamination factor of 41 or 97.6% removal compared to an instantaneous decontamination factor of 368 or 99.7% removal of the strontium with the POREX{reg_sign} MST and CST cartridge design placed in series. At high salt simulant conditions (5.6 M Na{sup +}), strontium removal with 3M-designed MST cartridge only and with 3M-designed MST and CST cartridges operated in a series configuration were identical. The instantaneous decontamination factor and the strontium removal efficiency, under the above configuration, averaged 8.6 and 88%, respectively. There were no POREX{reg_sign} cartridge experiments using the higher ionic strength simulant solution. At low salt simulant conditions, the uptake of Cs-137 with

  5. Strontium

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ober, J.A.

    2013-01-01

    In 2012, U.S. apparent consumption of strontium (contained in celestite and manufactured strontium compounds) decreased to 16.7 kt (18,400 st) from 17.3 kt (19,100 st) in 2011. Gross weight of imports was 34.3 kt (37,800 st), 86 percent of which originated in Mexico.

  6. Strontium

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Angulo, M.A.

    2011-01-01

    In 2010, U.S. apparent consumption of strontium (contained in celestite and manufactured strontium compounds) decreased by 11 percent to 10.4 kt (11,460 st) from 11.8 kt (13,000 st) in 2009. Gross weight of imports totaled 20.9 kt (23,000 st), of which 65 percent originated from Mexico.

  7. Strontium

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2012-01-01

    In 2011, U.S. apparent consumption of strontium (contained in celestite and manufactured strontium compounds) increased markedly to 18.4 kt (20,300 st) from 10.4 kt (11,500 st) in 2010. Gross weight of imports was 34.4 kt (38,000 st), of which 76 percent originated from Mexico.

  8. Strontium

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Angulo, M.A.

    2010-01-01

    In 2009, U.S. apparent consumption of strontium (contained in celestite and manufactured strontium compounds) increased to 16 kt (17,600 st) from 10.6 kt (11,700 st) in 2008, an increase of 52 percent. This increase was attributed primarily to an increase in imported celestite. Gross weight of imports totaled 25.3 kt (27,900 st), of which 91 percent came from Mexico. Imports in 2009 were 18 percent more than in 2008. Exports of strontium compounds in 2009 decreased 15 percent to 9.3 kt (10,250 st) from 10.9 kt (12,000 st) in 2008. In 2009, the U.S. Customs value of imported strontium carbonate was 65 cents/kg (29 cents/lb); for strontium nitrate, the unit value was $ 1/kg (45 cents/lb). The unit value of imported celestite, all of which was from Mexico, was about $47/t ($43/st).

  9. Strontium

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ober, J.A.

    1993-01-01

    Part of a special section reviewing the market performance of industrial minerals in 1992. Imports of celestite (strontium ore) reached nearly 45 kt, which represents an increase of 35 percent over 1991. Mexico supplied almost all of the celestite. Nearly 70 percent of the strontium consumed in the U.S. is used in television picture tube faceplate glass to block X-ray emissions.

  10. SELECTIVE REMOVAL OF STRONTIUM AND CESIUM FROM SIMULATED WASTE SOLUTION WITH TITANATE ION-EXCHANGERS IN A FILTER CARTRIDGE CONFIGURATIONS-12092

    SciTech Connect

    Oji, L.; Martin, K.; Hobbs, D.

    2011-11-10

    Experimental results for the selective removal of strontium and cesium from simulated waste solutions with monosodium titanate (MST) and crystalline silicotitanate (CST) laden filter cartridges are presented. In these proof-of-principle tests, effective uptake of both Sr-85 and Cs-137 were observed using ion-exchangers in this filter cartridge configuration. At low salt simulant conditions, the instantaneous decontamination factor (D{sub F}) for Sr-85 with MST impregnated filter membrane cartridges measured 26, representing 96% Sr-85 removal efficiency. On the other hand, the Sr-85 instantaneous D{sub F} with co-sintered active MST cartridges measured 40 or 98% Sr-85 removal efficiency. Strontium-85 removal with the MST impregnated membrane cartridges and CST impregnated membrane cartridges, placed in series arrangement, produced an instantaneous decontamination factor of 41 compared to an instantaneous decontamination factor of 368 for strontium-85 with co-sintered active MST cartridges and co-sintered active CST cartridges placed in series. Overall, polyethylene co-sintered active titanates cartridges performed as well as titanate impregnated filter membrane cartridges in the uptake of strontium. At low ionic strength conditions, there was a significant uptake of Cs-137 with co-sintered CST cartridges. Tests results with CST impregnated membrane cartridges for Cs-137 decontamination are currently being re-evaluated. Based on these preliminary findings we conclude that incorporating MST and CST sorbents into membranes represent a promising method for the semi-continuous removal of radioisotopes of strontium and cesium from nuclear waste solutions.

  11. CHARACTERIZATION OF MODIFIED MONOSODIUM TITANATE - AN IMPROVED SORBENT FOR STRONTIUM AND ACTINIDE SEPARATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Hobbs, D.; Taylor-Pashow, K.; Missimer, D.

    2010-12-21

    High-level nuclear waste produced from fuel reprocessing operations at the Savannah River Site (SRS) requires pretreatment to remove {sup 134,137}Cs, {sup 90}Sr, and alpha-emitting radionuclides (i.e., actinides) prior to disposal onsite as low level waste. An inorganic sorbent, monosodium titanate (MST), is currently used to remove {sup 90}Sr and alpha-emitting radionuclides, while a caustic-side solvent extraction process is used for removing {sup 134,137}Cs. A new peroxotitanate material, modified MST, or mMST, has recently been developed and has shown increased removal kinetics and capacity for {sup 90}Sr and alpha-emitting radionuclides compared to the current baseline material, MST. This paper describes recent results focused on further characterization of this material.

  12. Linking cesium and strontium uptake to kaolinite weathering in simulated tank waste leachate.

    PubMed

    Chorover, Jon; Choi, Sunkyung; Amistadi, Mary Kay; Karthikeyan, K G; Crosson, Garry; Mueller, Karl T

    2003-05-15

    Weathering behavior of kaolinite was studied in batch systems under geochemical conditions characteristic of tank waste released to the vadose zone at the Hanford Site, WA (0.05 M Al(T), 2 M Na+, 1 M N03-, pH approximately 14, Cs+ and Sr2+ present as co-contaminants). Time series experiments were conducted from 0 to 369 d, with initial Cs+ and Sr2+ concentrations ranging from 10(-5) to 10(-3) M. Dissolution of kaolinite increased soluble Si and Al to maximum levels at 7 d (Cs and Sr concentrations of 10(-5) and 10(-4) M) or 33 d (Cs and Sr concentrations of 10(-3) M). Subsequent precipitation of Si and Al was coupled to the formation of oxalate-extractable solids that incorporated Cs and Sr. Strontium sorption was nearly complete within 24 h for initial Sr concentrations (Sr0) < or = 10(-4) whereas Cs uptake increased over the full year of the experiment for all initial Cs concentrations. Spectroscopic analyses revealed neoformed solids including the zeolite Na-Al silicate (Al-chabazite), and feldspathoids sodium aluminum nitrate silicate (NO3-sodalite), and sodium aluminum nitrate silicate hydrate (NO3-cancrinite), which can incorporate Cs. Single-pulse 27Al solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopyyielded first-order rate constants (k)for mineral transformation that decreased from 3.5 x 10(-3) to 2 x 10(-3) d(-1) as Cs and Sr concentrations were increased from 10(-5) to 10(-3) M. Discrete strontium silicate solids were also observed. The incongruent dissolution of kaolinite promoted the sequestration of contaminants into increasingly recalcitrant solid phases over the 1-yr time period.

  13. Cesium and Strontium Uptake to Clay Minerals and Their Weathering Products in a Caustic Waste

    SciTech Connect

    Choi, Sunkyung; Amistadi, Mary Kay; Seraphin, Supapan; Chorover, Jon

    2004-03-28

    Weathering behavior and contaminant (Sr and Cs) uptake by specimen clays (illite, vermiculite, montmorillonite and kaolinite) and their secondary solid phase products were studied in batch systems under geochemical conditions characteristic of leaking tank waste at the Hanford Site in WA (0.05 M AlT, 2 M Na+, 1 M NO3 -, pH {approx}14, Cs+ and Sr2+ present as co-contaminants). Time series experiments were conducted from 0 to 369 days, with initial Cs+ and Sr2+ concentrations ranging from 10-5 to 10-3 M. Cesium sorption after 369 d reaction was the greatest in the order of vermiculite, illite, montmorillonite and kaolinite at 10-3 M Cs/Sr. In the case of Sr, vermiculite showed highest Sr sorption and was followed by kaolinite, montmorillonite and illite at highest loading Cs/Sr after 369 d. Secondary phase products were feldspathoid sodium aluminum nitrate silicate, sodium aluminum nitrate silicate hydrate, Na-Al chabazite and zeolite X in weathered clays. Discrete Sr single phases were found in kaolinite and illite systems after 369 d at 10-3 M Cs/Sr.

  14. Strontium

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Strontium ; CASRN 7440 - 24 - 6 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Effect

  15. Strontium

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ober, J.A.

    2003-01-01

    Mexico and Spain are the leading producers of celestite, the most common strontium ore. Those countries produced nearly 80 percent of the estimated 360 kt (397,000 st) of celestite produced worldwide during 2002. China and Turkey are other significant celestite producers.

  16. Evaluation of Cuprimine® and Syprine® for Decorporation of Radioisotopes of Cesium, Cobalt, Iridium, and Strontium

    SciTech Connect

    Levitskaia, Tatiana G.; Creim, Jeffrey A.; Curry, Terry L.; Luders, Teresa; Peterson, James M.; Thrall, Karla D.; Levinson, Barry

    2011-08-01

    Cuprimine and Syprine are therapeutics approved by FDA to treat copper overload in Wilson Disease (a genetic defect in copper transport) by chelation and accelerated excretion of internally deposited copper. These oral therapeutics are based on respective active ingredients D-penicillamine (DPA) and N,N'-bis (2-aminoethyl)-1,2-ethanediamine dihydrochloride (Trien). Cuprimine is considered the primary treatment, although physicians increasingly are turning to Syprine as first-line therapy. Both drugs exhibit oral systemic activity and low toxicity; their biological effects and safety are established. The literature reports that these agents exhibit high affinity for a range of transition and f-metals and metalloids in vitro. Our previous in vivo studies using a rodent animal model established the decorporation potential of Cuprimine and Syprine for cobalt-60 and polonium-210 (Levitskaia et al 2010a). Currently we are expanding these studies to evaluate in vivo decorporation efficacy of these drugs for several additional radionuclides. In this paper, we discuss results of this investigation using gamma-emitting radionuclides including cesium-137 (137Cs), cobalt-60 (60Co), iridium-192 (192Ir), and strontium-85 (85Sr). Short-term 48 hr pilot studies were undertaken to evaluate DPA and Trien for their in vivo decorporation potency using male Wistar-Han rats. In these studies, radionuclide solution was administered to animals by IV injection, followed by a single IV dose of either DPA or Trien. Control animals received the radionuclide alone. Results show highly effective decorporation of 60Co by DPA. DPA and Trien were modestly effective in decorporation 137Cs and 85Sr, respectively. Based on these promising findings, further studies to evaluate the dose-response pharmacokinetic profiles for decorporation are warranted.

  17. Comparison or organic and inorganic ion exchange materials for removal of cesium and strontium from Hanford waste

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, G.N.; Carson, K.J.; DesChane, J.R.; Elovich, R.J.

    1997-10-01

    This work is part of an ESP-CP task to develop and evaluate high-capacity, selective, solid extractants for the uptake of cesium, strontium, and technetium (Cs, Sr, and Tc) from nuclear wastes. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) staff, in collaboration with researchers from industry, academia, and national laboratories are investigating these and other novel and commercial ion exchangers for use in nuclear waste remediation of groundwater, HLW, and LLW. Since FY 1995, experimental work at PNNL has focused on small-scale batch distribution (K{sub d}) testing of numerous solid sorbents with actual and simulated Hanford wastes, chemical and radiolytic stability of various organic ion exchanger resins, bench-scale column ion exchange testing in actual and simulated Complexant Concentrate (CC) and Neutralized Current Acid Waste (NCAW), and Tc and Sr removal from groundwater and LLW. In addition, PNNL has continued to support various site demonstrations at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Savannah River Site, West Valley Nuclear Services, Hanford N-Springs, and Hanford N-Basin using technologies developed by their industrial partners. This summary will focus on batch distribution results from the actual waste tests. The data collected in these development and testing tasks provide a rational basis for the selection and direct comparison of various ion exchange materials in simulated and actual HLW, LLW, and groundwater. In addition, prediction of large-scale column loading performance for the materials tested is possible using smaller volumes of actual waste solution. The method maximizes information while minimizing experimental expense, time, and laboratory and process wastes.

  18. Evaluation of the adsorptive behavior of cesium and strontium on hydroxyapatite and zeolite for decontamination of radioactive substances.

    PubMed

    Ozeki, K; Aoki, H

    2016-08-12

    Removal of radioactive substances, such as cesium (Cs) and strontium (Sr), has become an emerging issue after the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant Disaster. To assess the possibility that hydroxyapatite (HA) and zeolites can be used for removal of radioactive substances, the adsorption capacities of Cs and Sr on the HA and a zeolite were investigated. The influence of Fe ions on Cs and Sr adsorption on the HA and the zeolite was also evaluated, because Fe ions are the most effective inhibitor of Cs adsorption on the zeolite.In the Cs adsorption process on the HA and the zeolite, the zeolite showed a higher adsorption ratio than the HA, and the maximum sorption capacity of the zeolite was calculated as 196 mg/g, whereas the HA showed a higher Sr adsorption ratio than the zeolite. The maximum sorption capacity of Sr on the HA was 123 mg/g. Under coexistence with Fe, Cs adsorption on the zeolite decreased with increasing Fe concentration, reaching 2.0 ± 0.8% at 0.1 M Fe concentration. In contrast, Cs adsorption on the zeolite was improved by adding the HA. In the case of coexistence of the HA, the Cs adsorption on the mixture of the HA and the zeolite was 52.4% ± 3.6 % at 0.1 M Fe concentration, although Cs adsorption on the HA alone was quite low. In the Fe adsorption processes of the HA and the zeolite, the HA exhibited a maximum sorption capacity of 256 mg/g, which was much higher than that of the zeolite (111 mg/g). The high affinity of Fe on the HA contributes to the improvement of the deteriorated Cs adsorption on the zeolite due to Fe ions.

  19. Content of strontium-90 and cesium-137 in a number of regions of the Baltic Sea in 1982

    SciTech Connect

    Lazarev, L.N.; Flegontov, V.M.; Gedenov, L.I.; Ivanova, L.M.; Orlova, T.B.; Stepanov, A.V.

    1985-07-01

    The authors present the data gathered from the samples of water and bed deposits taken at various sites in the Baltic Sea, the Gulf of Riga, and the Gulf of Finland. By means of the radiochemical method using ferrocyanide-carbonate concentration, they determine strotium-90 and cesium-137 content. The authors conclude by noting an increase in the cesium-137 content in the deep waters of the Baltic Sea and in bed deposits, and by cautioning that this development commands close attention.

  20. Comparison of organic and inorganic ion exchangers for removal of cesium and strontium from simulated and actual Hanford 241-AW-101 DSSF tank waste

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, G.N.; Bray, L.A.; Carlson, C.D.

    1996-04-01

    A number of organic and inorganic exchangers are being developed and evaluated for cesium removal from Hanford tank wastes. The exchangers of interest that are investigated in this work include powdered (IONSIV{reg_sign} IE-910; referred to as IE-910) and engineered (IONSIV{reg_sign} IE-911; referred to as IE-911) forms of the crystalline silico-titanate (CST) inorganic sorbent developed by Sandia National Laboratories (SNL)/Texas A and M and prepared by UOP; a phenol-formaldehyde (CS-100) resin developed by Rohm and Haas; a resorcinol-formaldehyde (R-F) polymer developed at the Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC) and produced by Boulder Scientific; an inorganic zeolite exchanger produced by UOP (IONSIV{reg_sign} TIE-96; referred to as TIE-96); an inorganic sodium titanate produced by Allied Signal/Texas A and M (NaTi); and a macrocyclic organic resin developed and produced by IBC Advanced Technologies (SuperLig{reg_sign} 644; referred to as SL-644). Several of these materials are still under development and may not be in the optimal form. The work described in this report involves the direct comparison of the ion exchange materials for the pretreatment of actual and simulated Hanford tank waste. Data on the performance of all of the exchangers with simulated and actual double shell slurry feed (DSSF) is included. The DSSF waste is a mixture of the supernate from tanks 101-AW (70%), 106-AP (20%) and 102-AP (10%). The comparative parameters include radionuclide removal efficiency under a variety of conditions and material properties (e.g., bed density and percent removable water). Cesium and strontium distribution (K{sub d}), lambda ({lambda} = K{sub d} {times} {rho}{sub b}), and decontamination factors (DF) are compared as a function of exchanger contact duration, solution composition (Na and Cs concentration), exchanger/waste phase ratio, and multiple sequential contacts.

  1. Two-Phase Calorimetry. II. Studies on the Thermodynamics of Cesium and Strontium Extraction by Mixtures of H+CCD- and PEG-400 in FS-13

    SciTech Connect

    Zalupski, Peter R.; Herbst, R. S.; Delmau, Laetitia Helene; Martin, L. R.; Peterman, D. R.; Nash, Ken L

    2010-01-01

    Thermochemical characterization of the partitioning of cesium and strontium from nitric acid solutions into mixtures of the acid form of chlorinated cobalt dicarbollide (H+CCD-) and polyethylene glycol (PEG-400) in FS-13 diluent has been completed using isothermal titration microcalorimetry and radiotracer distribution methods. The phase transfer reaction for Cs+ is a straightforward (H+ for Cs+) cation exchange reaction. In contrast, the extraction of Sr2+ does not proceed in the absence of the co-solvent molecule PEG-400. This molecule is believed to facilitate the dehydration of the Sr2+ aquo cation to overcome its resistance to partitioning. The phase transfer reactions for both Cs+ and Sr2+ are enthalpy driven (exothermic), but partially compensated by an unfavorable entropy. The results of the calorimetry studies suggest that the PEG-400 functions as a stoichiometric phase transfer reagent rather than acting simply as a phase transfer catalyst or phase modifier. The calorimetry results also demonstrate that the extraction of Sr2+ is complex, including evidence for both the partitioning of Sr(NO3)+ and endothermic ion pairing interactions in the organic phase that contribute to the net enthalpic effect. The thermodynamics of the liquid-liquid distribution equilibria are discussed mainly considering the basic features of the ion solvation thermochemistry.

  2. Evaluation of New Inorganic Sorbents for Strontium and Actinide Removal from High-Level Nuclear Waste Solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Hobbs, D.T.; Nyman, M.; Medvedev, D.G.; Tripathi, A.; Clearfield, A.

    2004-03-28

    Monosodium titanate (MST), a hydrous metal oxide sorbent, is the baseline material for the removal of 90Sr and alpha-emitting radionuclides (principally 238Pu, 239Pu, 240Pu and 237Np) from alkaline waste solutions generated during the processing of irradiated nuclear materials at the Savannah River Site. This material exhibits excellent performance characteristics for strontium removal. Plutonium removal is also good, but problematic at the estimated bonding concentration. We are currently developing new inorganic materials for improved sorption characteristics. These materials include sodium nonatitanates, pharmacosiderites and heteropolyniobates. We will present results evaluating the performance of these materials with simulated and actual high level nuclear waste solutions.

  3. STRONTIUM AND ACTINIDE SORPTION BY MST AND MMST UNDER CONDITIONS REVELANT TO THE SMALL COLUMN ION-EXCHANGE PROCESS

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor-Pashow, K.; Hobbs, D.; Poirier, M.

    2011-05-06

    A series of tests were performed to examine the kinetics of Sr and actinide removal by monosodium titanate (MST) and modified monosodium titanate (mMST) under mixing conditions similar to what will be provided in the Small Column Ion Exchange (SCIX) Program. Similar removal kinetics were seen for two different mixing energies, indicating that under these conditions bulk solution transport is not the rate limiting step for Sr and actinide removal. Sr removal was found to be rapid for both MST and mMST, reaching steady-state conditions within six hours. In contrast, at least six weeks is necessary to reach steady-state conditions for Pu with MST. For mMST, steady-state conditions for Pu were achieved within two weeks. The actual contact time required for the SCIX process will depend on starting sorbate concentrations as well as the requirements for the decontaminated salt solution. During testing leaks occurred in both the MST and mMST tests and evidence of potential desorption was observed. The desorption likely occurred as a result of the change in solids to liquid phase ratio that occurred due to the loss of solution. Based on these results, Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) recommended additional testing to further study the effect of changing phase ratios on desorption. This testing is currently in progress and results will be documented in a separate report.

  4. PRODUCTION OF ACTINIDE METAL

    DOEpatents

    Knighton, J.B.

    1963-11-01

    A process of reducing actinide oxide to the metal with magnesium-zinc alloy in a flux of 5 mole% of magnesium fluoride and 95 mole% of magnesium chloride plus lithium, sodium, potassium, calcium, strontium, or barium chloride is presented. The flux contains at least 14 mole% of magnesium cation at 600-- 900 deg C in air. The formed magnesium-zinc-actinide alloy is separated from the magnesium-oxide-containing flux. (AEC)

  5. DEVELOPMENT OF AN IMPROVED TITANATE-BASED SORBENT FOR STRONTIUM AND ACTINIDE SEPARATIONS UNDER STRONGLY ALKALINE CONDITIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Hobbs, D.; Peters, T.; Taylor-Pashow, K.; Fink, S.

    2010-02-18

    High-level nuclear waste produced from fuel reprocessing operations at the Savannah River Site (SRS) requires pretreatment to remove {sup 134,137}Cs, {sup 90}Sr, and alpha-emitting radionuclides (i.e., actinides) prior to disposal onsite as low level waste. Separation processes at SRS include the sorption of {sup 90}Sr and alpha-emitting radionuclides onto monosodium titanate (MST) and caustic side solvent extraction of {sup 137}Cs. The MST and separated {sup 137}Cs is encapsulated along with the sludge fraction of high-level waste (HLW) into a borosilicate glass waste form for eventual entombment at a federal repository. The predominant alpha-emitting radionuclides in the highly alkaline waste solutions include plutonium isotopes {sup 238}Pu, {sup 239}Pu, and {sup 240}Pu; {sup 237}Np; and uranium isotopes, {sup 235}U and {sup 238}U. This paper describes recent results evaluating the performance of an improved sodium titanate material that exhibits increased removal kinetics and capacity for {sup 90}Sr and alpha-emitting radionuclides compared to the current baseline material, MST.

  6. Transport of strontium and cesium in simulated hanford tank waste leachate through quartz sand under saturated and unsaturated flow.

    PubMed

    Rod, Kenton A; Um, Wooyong; Flury, Markus

    2010-11-01

    We investigated the effects of water saturation and secondary precipitate formation on Sr and Cs transport through quartz sand columns under saturated and unsaturated flow. Column experiments were conducted at effective water saturation ranging from 0.2 to 1.0 under steady-state flow using either 0.1 M NaNO(3) or simulated tank waste leachate (STWL; 1 M NaNO(3) and 1 M NaOH) mimicking Hanford (Washington, USA) tank waste. In 0.1 M NaNO(3) columns, Sr transported like a conservative tracer, whereas Cs was retarded relative to Sr. The transport of Sr and Cs in the 0.1 M NaNO(3) columns under all water saturations could be described with the equilibrium convection-dispersion equation (CDE). In STWL columns, Sr mobility was significantly reduced compared to the 0.1 M NaNO(3) column, because Sr was incorporated into or sorbed to neo-formed secondary precipitates. Strontium sequestration by precipitates was confirmed by additional batch and electron micrograph analyses. In contrast(,) the transport of Cs was less affected by the STWL; retardation of Cs in STWL columns was similar to that found in 0.1 M NaNO(3) columns. Analysis of STWL column data revealed that both Sr and Cs breakthrough curves showed nonideal behavior that suggest nonequilibrium conditions, although nonlinear geochemical behavior cannot be ruled out.

  7. DIAMIDE DERIVATIVES OF DIPICOLINIC ACID AS ACTINIDE AND LANTHANIDE EXTRACTANTS IN A VARIATION OF THE UNEX PROCESS

    SciTech Connect

    D. R. Peterman; R. S. Herbst; J. D. Law; R. D. Tillotson; T. G. Garn; T. A. Todd; V. N. Romanovskiy; V. A. Babain; M. Yu. Alyapyshev; I. V. Smirnov

    2007-09-01

    The Universal Extraction (UNEX) process has been developed for simultaneous extraction of cesium, strontium, and actinides from acidic solutions. This process utilizes an extractant consisting of 0.08 M chlorinated cobalt dicarbollide (HCCD), 0.007-0.02 M polyethylene glycol (PEG-400), and 0.02 M diphenyl-N,N-di-n-butylcarbamoylmethylphosphine oxide (Ph2CMPO) in the diluent trifluoromethylphenyl sulfone (CF3C6H5SO2, designated FS-13) and provides simultaneous extraction of Cs, Sr, actinides, and lanthanides from HNO3 solutions. The UNEX process is of limited utility for processing acidic solutions containing large quantities of lanthanides and/or actinides, such as dissolved spent nuclear fuel solutions. These constraints are primarily attributed to the limited concentrations of CMPO (a maximum of ~0.02 M) in the organic phase and limited solubility of the CMPO-metal complexes. As a result, alternative actinide and lanthanide extractants are being investigated for use with HCCD as an improvement for waste processing and for applications where higher concentrations of the metals are present. Our preliminary results indicate that diamide derivatives of dipicolinic acid may function as efficient actinide and lanthanide extractants. The results to be presented indicate that, of the numerous diamides studied to date, the tetrabutyldiamide of dipicolinic acid, TBDPA, shows the most promise as an alternative actinide/lanthanide extractant in the UNEX process.

  8. Interim salt disposition program macrobatch 6 tank 21H qualification monosodium titanate and cesium mass transfer tests

    SciTech Connect

    Washington, A. L. II; Peters, T. B.; Fink, S. D.

    2013-02-25

    Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) performed experiments on qualification material for use in the Interim Salt Disposition Program (ISDP) Batch 6 processing. This qualification material was a set of six samples from Tank 21H in October 2012. This sample was used as a real waste demonstration of the Actinide Removal Process (ARP) and the Extraction-Scrub-Strip (ESS) tests process. The Tank 21H sample was contacted with a reduced amount (0.2 g/L) of MST and characterized for strontium and actinide removal at 0 and 8 hour time intervals in this salt batch. {sup 237}Np and {sup 243}Am were both observed to be below detection limits in the source material, and so these results are not reported in this report. The plutonium and uranium samples had decontamination factor (DF) values that were on par or slightly better than we expected from Batch 5. The strontium DF values are slightly lower than expected but still in an acceptable range. The Extraction, Scrub, and Strip (ESS) testing demonstrated cesium removal, stripping and scrubbing within the acceptable range. Overall, the testing indicated that cesium removal is comparable to prior batches at MCU.

  9. Diamide derivatives of di-picolinic acid as actinide and lanthanide extractants in a variation of the UNEX process

    SciTech Connect

    Peterman, D.R.; Herbst, R.S.; Law, J.D.; Tillotson, R.D.; Garn, T.G.; Todd, T.A.; Romanovskiy, V.N.; Babain, V.A.; Alyapyshev, M. Yu.; Smirnov, I.V.

    2007-07-01

    The Universal Extraction (UNEX) process has been developed for simultaneous extraction of cesium, strontium, and actinides from acidic solutions. This process utilizes an extractant consisting of 0.08 M chlorinated cobalt dicarbollide (HCCD), 0.007-0.02 M polyethylene glycol (PEG-400), and 0.02 M diphenyl- N,N-di-n-butyl-carbamoyl-methyl-phosphine oxide (Ph{sub 2}CMPO) in the diluent tri-fluoro-methyl-phenyl sulfone (CF{sub 3}C{sub 6}H{sub 5}SO{sub 2}, designated FS-13) and provides simultaneous extraction of Cs, Sr, actinides, and lanthanides from HNO{sub 3} solutions. The UNEX process is of limited utility for processing acidic solutions containing large quantities of lanthanides and/or actinides, such as dissolved spent nuclear fuel solutions. These constraints are primarily attributed to the limited concentrations of CMPO (a maximum of {approx} 0.02 M) in the organic phase and limited solubility of the CMPO-metal complexes. As a result, alternative actinide and lanthanide extractants are being investigated for use with HCCD as an improvement for waste processing and for applications where higher concentrations of the metals are present. Our preliminary results indicate that diamide derivatives of di-picolinic acid may function as efficient actinide and lanthanide extractants. The results to be presented indicate that, of the numerous diamides studied to date, the tetra-butyl-diamide of di-picolinic acid, TBDPA, shows the most promise as an alternative actinide/lanthanide extractant in the UNEX process. (authors)

  10. Separation of strontium from fecal matter

    DOEpatents

    Kester, Dianne K.

    1995-01-01

    A method of separating strontium from a sample of biomass potentially contaminated with various radionuclides. After the sample is reduced, dissociated, and carried on a first precipitate of actinides, the first precipitate is removed to leave a supernate. Next, oxalic acid is added to the supernate to cause a second precipitate of strontium and calcium. Then, after separating the second precipitate, nitric acid is added to the second precipitate to cause a third precipitate of strontium. The calcium remains in solution and is discarded to leave essentially the precipitate of strontium.

  11. Separation of strontium from fecal matter

    DOEpatents

    Kester, D.K.

    1995-01-03

    A method is presented of separating strontium from a sample of biomass potentially contaminated with various radionuclides. After the sample is reduced, dissociated, and carried on a first precipitate of actinides, the first precipitate is removed to leave a supernate. Next, oxalic acid is added to the supernate to cause a second precipitate of strontium and calcium. Then, after separating the second precipitate, nitric acid is added to the second precipitate to cause a third precipitate of strontium. The calcium remains in solution and is discarded to leave essentially the precipitate of strontium.

  12. Positron Spectroscopy of Hydrothermally Grown Actinide Oxides

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-03-27

    In this method, the powdered material is placed in a solution which contains extremely powerful mineralizers, such as cesium fluoride for actinide...the isotope that acts as a positron source is sodium -22, which has a relatively short half-life (2.6 y) and emits a characteristic gamma photon (at

  13. Actinides-1981

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-09-01

    Abstracts of 134 papers which were presented at the Actinides-1981 conference are presented. Approximately half of these papers deal with electronic structure of the actinides. Others deal with solid state chemistry, nuclear physic, thermodynamic properties, solution chemistry, and applied chemistry.

  14. Review Article: The Effects of Radiation Chemistry on Solvent Extraction 3: A Review of Actinide and Lanthanide Extraction

    SciTech Connect

    Bruce J. Mincher; Giuseppe Modolo; Stephen P. Mezyk

    2009-12-01

    The partitioning of the long-lived ?-emitters and the high-yield fission products from dissolved nuclear fuel is a key component of processes envisioned for the safe recycling of nuclear fuel and the disposition of high-level waste. These future processes will likely be based on aqueous solvent extraction technologies for light water reactor fuel and consist of four main components for the sequential separation of uranium, fission products, group trivalent actinides and lanthanides, and then trivalent actinides from lanthanides. Since the solvent systems will be in contact with highly radioactive solutions, they must be robust toward radiolytic degradation in an irradiated mixed organic, aqueous acidic environment. Therefore, an understanding of their radiation chemistry is important to the design of a practical system. In the first paper in this series we reviewed the radiation chemistry of irradiated aqueous nitric acid and the tributyl phosphate ligand for uranium extraction in the first step of these extractions. In the second, we reviewed the radiation chemistry of the ligands proposed for use in the extraction of cesium and strontium fission products. Here, we review the radiation chemistry of the ligands that might be used in the third step in the series of separations, for the group extraction of the lanthanides and actinides. This includes traditional organophosphorous reagents such as CMPO and HDEHP, as well as novel reagents such as the amides and diamides currently being investigated.

  15. Separation of strontium from fecal matter

    SciTech Connect

    Kester, D.K.

    1994-12-31

    The present invention relates to a method of separating strontium, and, more particularly, to a method of separating strontium from a sample of biomass potentially contaminated with various radionuclides. Radioactive strontium is a radionuclide which represents a hazard to man because of its long half-life and, if ingested, its tendency to be retained in the human body. In the event that radionuclides such as strontium or various actinides are ingested, it is desirable to monitor the discharge or release of these radionuclides from the human body through analysis of fecal matter. In laboratories and other facilities where potential for radionuclide contamination exists, fecal analysis for strontium is routinely conducted for individuals who are terminating from their position or are suspected of having been contaminated with radionuclides. Methods for separating and analyzing radioactive actinides from a biomass sample are well known and have been extensively developed for the US Department of Energy. These methods, described in the Department`s internal procedure, USDOE, RESL/ID, A-16, 1981, as well as in US Patent 5,190,881, involve the use of an iron phosphate precipitation step to separate actinides from a solution, or supernate. However, there are no established procedures for the separation of strontium from a biomass sample wherein an iron phosphate precipitation step is involved.

  16. STRONTIUM PRECIPITATION

    DOEpatents

    McKenzie, T.R.

    1960-09-13

    A process is given for improving the precipitation of strontium from an aqueous phosphoric-acid-containing solution with nickel or cobalt ferrocyanide by simultaneously precipitating strontium or calcium phosphate. This is accomplished by adding to the ferrocyanide-containing solution calcium or strontium nitrate in a quantity to yield a concentration of from 0.004 to 0.03 and adjusting the pH of the solution to a value of above 8.

  17. Multi-podant diglycolamides and room temperature ionic liquid impregnated resins: An excellent combination for extraction chromatography of actinides.

    PubMed

    Gujar, R B; Ansari, S A; Verboom, W; Mohapatra, P K

    2016-05-27

    Extraction chromatography resins, prepared by impregnating two multi-podant diglycolamide ligands, viz. diglycolamide-functionalized calix[4]arene (C4DGA) and tripodal diglycolamide (T-DGA) dissolved in the room temperature ionic liquid 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)amide (RTIL: C4mimTf2N) on Chromosorb-W (an inert solid support), gave excellent results for the removal of trivalent actinides from acidic waste solutions. Distribution coefficient measurements on several metal ions showed selective sorption of Am(III) over hexavalent uranyl ions and other fission product elements such as strontium and cesium. The sorbed metal ions could be efficiently desorbed with a complexing solution containing guanidine carbonate and EDTA buffer. The sorption of Am(III) on both resins followed pseudo-second order rate kinetics with rate constants of 1.37×10(-6) and 6.88×10(-7)g/cpmmin for T-DGA and C4DGA resins, respectively. The metal sorption on both resins indicated the Langmuir monolayer chemisorption phenomenon with Eu(III) sorption capacities of 4.83±0.21 and 0.52±0.05mg per g of T-DGA and C4DGA resins, respectively. The results of column studies show that these resins are of interest for a possible application for the recovery of hazardous trivalent actinides from dilute aqueous solutions.

  18. High-temperature leaching of an actinide-bearing, simulated high-level waste glass

    SciTech Connect

    Westsik, J.H. Jr.; Harvey, C.O.; Kuhn, W.L.

    1983-03-01

    The chemical durability of a simulated high-level waste glass when exposed to high-temperature geologic solutions was investigated. In this study, simulated high-level waste glass-beads (76 to 68 glass)l doped with technetium, uranium, neptunium, plutonium, curium and americium were leached in deionized water, Waste Isolation Pilot Plant salt brine B, and 0.03M sodium bicarbonate solution at 150 and 250/sup 0/C for 2, 4, 8, 16, and 32 days. The resulting solutions were analyzed for several nonradioactive glass components and for the radioactive dopants. The glass exhibited incongruent leaching behavior, i.e., the normalized releases (g-glass/m/sup 2/) based on the different elements spanned four orders of magnitude. Normalized releases based on boron, molybdenum, sodium, cesium, silicon, and technetium were the same within a factor of three. Most of the nonradioactive components of the glass were released more to the salt brine than to the other two solutions. However, silicon, boron, molybdenum, technetium, and the actinides had their lowest releases in the salt brine. Reaction-layer thickness on the glass surface and weight losses of the glass beads were also smallest in the brine solution. Actinide releases were highest in the sodium bicarbonate solution. Calcium, strontium and barium releases decreased with time and temperature; the releases of most other elements increased with time and temperature. Solubility appears to be limiting the release of most elements. The leachate pH is controlled by chemical species within the original leachant and by species released as the glass leached. Carbonate ion complexes with some elements including uranium, effectively increasing their release. The more soluble elements including sodium, boron, molybdenum and technetium provide an indication of the actual rate of reaction between the glass and water.

  19. Actinide metal processing

    DOEpatents

    Sauer, N.N.; Watkin, J.G.

    1992-03-24

    A process for converting an actinide metal such as thorium, uranium, or plutonium to an actinide oxide material by admixing the actinide metal in an aqueous medium with a hypochlorite as an oxidizing agent for sufficient time to form the actinide oxide material and recovering the actinide oxide material is described together with a low temperature process for preparing an actinide oxide nitrate such as uranyl nitrate. Additionally, a composition of matter comprising the reaction product of uranium metal and sodium hypochlorite is provided, the reaction product being an essentially insoluble uranium oxide material suitable for disposal or long term storage.

  20. Actinide metal processing

    DOEpatents

    Sauer, Nancy N.; Watkin, John G.

    1992-01-01

    A process of converting an actinide metal such as thorium, uranium, or plnium to an actinide oxide material by admixing the actinide metal in an aqueous medium with a hypochlorite as an oxidizing agent for sufficient time to form the actinide oxide material and recovering the actinide oxide material is provided together with a low temperature process of preparing an actinide oxide nitrate such as uranyl nitrte. Additionally, a composition of matter comprising the reaction product of uranium metal and sodium hypochlorite is provided, the reaction product being an essentially insoluble uranium oxide material suitable for disposal or long term storage.

  1. Radionuclide Basics: Cesium-137

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The most common radioactive form of cesium (chemical symbol Cs) is Cesium-137. Cesium-137 is produced by nuclear fission for use in medical devices and gauges and is one of the byproducts of nuclear fission in nuclear reactors and nuclear weapons testing.

  2. Actinide-ion sensor

    DOEpatents

    Li, Shelly X; Jue, Jan-fong; Herbst, Ronald Scott; Herrmann, Steven Douglas

    2015-01-13

    An apparatus for the real-time, in-situ monitoring of actinide-ion concentrations. A working electrolyte is positioned within the interior of a container. The working electrolyte is separated from a reference electrolyte by a separator. A working electrode is at least partially in contact with the working electrolyte. A reference electrode is at least partially in contact with the reference electrolyte. A voltmeter is electrically connected to the working electrode and the reference electrode. The working electrolyte comprises an actinide-ion of interest. The separator is ionically conductive to the actinide-ion of interest. The separator comprises an actinide, Zr, and Nb. Preferably, the actinide of the separator is Am or Np, more preferably Pu. In one embodiment, the actinide of the separator is the actinide of interest. In another embodiment, the separator further comprises P and O.

  3. Actinide Spectroscopy Workshop

    SciTech Connect

    Tobin, J.G.; Shuh, D.K.

    2004-12-05

    Actinide materials present an extreme scientific challenge to the materials research community. The complex electronic structures of actinide materials result in many unusual and unique properties that have yet to be fully understood. The difficulties in handling, preparing, and characterizing actinide materials has frequently precluded investigations and has the limited the detailed understanding of these relevant, complex materials. However, modern experiments with actinide materials have the potential to provide key, fundamental information about many long-standing issues concerning actinide materials. This workshop focused on the scientific and technical challenges posed by actinide materials and the potential that synchrotron radiation approaches available at the ALS can contribute to improving the fundamental understanding of actinides materials. Fundamental experimental approaches and results, as well as theoretical modeling and computational simulations, were part of the workshop program.

  4. Handbook of stable strontium

    SciTech Connect

    Skoryna, S.C.

    1981-01-01

    This book presents information on the following topics: chemistry of strontium; biogeochemistry of strontium; uptake of stable strontium by plants and effects on plant growth; divalent cation-dependent deposits in paramecium; effects of strontium ion on the hydrolysis of ATP; stronium ions and membranes - screening versus binding at charged surfaces; mitochondrial granules in the liver of rats kept on stable strontium supplementation; divalent cations and regulation of cyclic nucleotides in nervous systems; strontium as the substitute for calcium in the excitation-contraction coupling of crayfish muscle fibers; hemodynamic effects of strontium in the dog; some mechanical characteristics of strontium-mediated contractions in heart muscle; effects of calcium, magnesium, and strontium on drug-receptor interactions; strontium and histamine secretion; and effects of strontium in human dental enamel.

  5. Actinide extraction methods

    DOEpatents

    Peterman, Dean R [Idaho Falls, ID; Klaehn, John R [Idaho Falls, ID; Harrup, Mason K [Idaho Falls, ID; Tillotson, Richard D [Moore, ID; Law, Jack D [Pocatello, ID

    2010-09-21

    Methods of separating actinides from lanthanides are disclosed. A regio-specific/stereo-specific dithiophosphinic acid having organic moieties is provided in an organic solvent that is then contacted with an acidic medium containing an actinide and a lanthanide. The method can extend to separating actinides from one another. Actinides are extracted as a complex with the dithiophosphinic acid. Separation compositions include an aqueous phase, an organic phase, dithiophosphinic acid, and at least one actinide. The compositions may include additional actinides and/or lanthanides. A method of producing a dithiophosphinic acid comprising at least two organic moieties selected from aromatics and alkyls, each moiety having at least one functional group is also disclosed. A source of sulfur is reacted with a halophosphine. An ammonium salt of the dithiophosphinic acid product is precipitated out of the reaction mixture. The precipitated salt is dissolved in ether. The ether is removed to yield the dithiophosphinic acid.

  6. Research in actinide chemistry

    SciTech Connect

    Choppin, G.R.

    1993-01-01

    This research studies the behavior of the actinide elements in aqueous solution. The high radioactivity of the transuranium actinides limits the concentrations which can be studied and, consequently, limits the experimental techniques. However, oxidation state analogs (trivalent lanthanides, tetravalent thorium, and hexavalent uranium) do not suffer from these limitations. Behavior of actinides in the environment are a major USDOE concern, whether in connection with long-term releases from a repository, releases from stored defense wastes or accidental releases in reprocessing, etc. Principal goal of our research was expand the thermodynamic data base on complexation of actinides by natural ligands (e.g., OH[sup [minus

  7. Actinide recovery process

    DOEpatents

    Muscatello, Anthony C.; Navratil, James D.; Saba, Mark T.

    1987-07-28

    Process for the removal of plutonium polymer and ionic actinides from aqueous solutions by absorption onto a solid extractant loaded on a solid inert support such as polystyrenedivinylbenzene. The absorbed actinides can then be recovered by incineration, by stripping with organic solvents, or by acid digestion. Preferred solid extractants are trioctylphosphine oxide and octylphenyl-N,N-diisobutylcarbamoylmethylphosphine oxide and the like.

  8. Thermodynamic Properties of Actinides and Actinide Compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konings, Rudy J. M.; Morss, Lester R.; Fuger, Jean

    The necessity of obtaining accurate thermodynamic quantities for the actinide elements and their compounds was recognized at the outset of the Manhattan Project, when a dedicated team of scientists and engineers initiated the program to exploit nuclear energy for military purposes. Since the end of World War II, both fundamental and applied objectives have motivated a great deal of further study of actinide thermodynamics. This chapter brings together many research papers and critical reviews on this subject. It also seeks to assess, to systematize, and to predict important properties of the actinide elements, ions, and compounds, especially for species in which there is significant interest and for which there is an experimental basis for the prediction.

  9. Method for preparing actinide nitrides

    DOEpatents

    Bryan, G.H.; Cleveland, J.M.; Heiple, C.R.

    1975-12-01

    Actinide nitrides, and particularly plutonium and uranium nitrides, are prepared by reacting an ammonia solution of an actinide compound with an ammonia solution of a reactant or reductant metal, to form finely divided actinide nitride precipitate which may then be appropriately separated from the solution. The actinide nitride precipitate is particularly suitable for forming nuclear fuels.

  10. Cesium: a bibliography update

    SciTech Connect

    Messiha, F.S.

    1984-01-01

    A brief outline of both industrial and medicinal uses of cesium is given. This is followed by a survey of literature on cesium salts for the period between January 1981 to May 1984. The bibliography searched indicates an interesting pharmacological and behavioral effect for Cs-salts in addition to its well known physiological and itopic effects. A pattern of clinical trials suggests the potential of cesium salts in certain cancer therapies, affective disorders, tumor imaging, radiotherapy and certain cardiovascular usages. The need for continued probing into the biological activity of this alkalimetal is suggested.

  11. PREFACE: Actinides 2009

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rao, Linfeng; Tobin, James G.; Shuh, David K.

    2010-07-01

    This volume of IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering consists of 98 papers that were presented at Actinides 2009, the 8th International Conference on Actinide Science held on 12-17 July 2009 in San Francisco, California, USA. This conference was jointly organized by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. The Actinides conference series started in Baden-Baden, Germany (1975) and this first conference was followed by meetings at Asilomar, CA, USA (1981), Aix-en-Provence, France (1985), Tashkent, USSR (1989), Santa Fe, NM, USA (1993), Baden-Baden, Germany (1997), Hayama, Japan (2001), and Manchester, UK (2005). The Actinides conference series provides a regular venue for the most recent research results on the chemistry, physics, and technology of the actinides and heaviest elements. Actinides 2009 provided a forum spanning a diverse range of scientific topics, including fundamental materials science, chemistry, physics, environmental science, and nuclear fuels. Of particular importance was a focus on the key roles that basic actinide chemistry and physics research play in advancing the worldwide renaissance of nuclear energy. Editors Linfeng Rao Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (lrao@lbl.gov) James G Tobin Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (tobin1@llnl.gov) David K Shuh Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (dkshuh@lbl.gov)

  12. Actinides in the Geosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Runde, Wolfgang; Neu, Mary P.

    Since the 1950s actinides have been used to benefit industry, science, health, and national security. The largest industrial application, electricity generation from uranium and thorium fuels, is growing worldwide. Thus, more actinides are being mined, produced, used and processed than ever before. The future of nuclear energy hinges on how these increasing amounts of actinides are contained in each stage of the fuel cycle, including disposition. In addition, uranium and plutonium were built up during the Cold War between the United States and the Former Soviet Union for defense purposes and nuclear energy.

  13. Research in actinide chemistry

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    This report contains research results on studies of inorganic and organic complexes of actinide and lanthanide elements. Special attention is given to complexes of humic acids and to spectroscopic studies.

  14. Cesium chloride: preventive medicine for radioactive cesium exposure?

    PubMed

    Braverman, E R; Sohler, A; Pfeiffer, C C

    1988-06-01

    Cesium is produced in high yield fission of uranium and plutonium. Radioactive cesium needles are a radiation hazard for radiotherapists. In this age of nuclear reactors, i.e. Chernobyl, radioactive cesium exposure may be a growing problem. Furthermore, there are numerous therapeutic potentials for cesium therapy, i.e. cancer, depression and schizophrenia. We explored the clearance of cesium in man and found that an oral dose of 50 mg maintains elevated blood cesium levels for 80 days. Cesium is accumulated mainly in the red blood cell fraction. Larger doses (6-9 grams) produce no observed harmful effects and maintain elevated blood levels of cesium for more than a year. Our data suggests there is a threshold of maximum cesium saturation in blood; if maintained, any additional cesium exposure, i.e. radioactive cesium, would be excreted at a more rapid rate. It is probable that large cesium doses can protect against radiation toxicity by blocking sites on red blood cells and thereby result in increased excretion and clearance of the radioactive forms of cesium. This hypothesis should be easily testable in laboratory animals.

  15. Actinide recovery process

    DOEpatents

    Muscatello, A.C.; Navratil, J.D.; Saba, M.T.

    1985-06-13

    Process for the removal of plutonium polymer and ionic actinides from aqueous solutions by absorption onto a solid extractant loaded on a solid inert support such as polystyrene-divinylbenzene. The absorbed actinides can then be recovered by incineration, by stripping with organic solvents, or by acid digestion. Preferred solid extractants are trioctylphosphine oxide and octylphenyl-N,N-diisobutylcarbamoylmethylphosphine oxide and the like. 2 tabs.

  16. Thermochemistry of the actinides

    SciTech Connect

    Kleinschmidt, P.D.

    1993-10-01

    The measurement of equilibria by Knudsen effusion techniques and the enthalpy of formation of the actinide atoms is briefly discussed. Thermochemical data on the sublimation of the actinide fluorides is used to calculate the enthalpies of formation and entropies of the gaseous species. Estimates are made for enthalpies and entropies of the tetrafluorides and trifluorides for those systems where data is not available. The pressure of important species in the tetrafluoride sublimation processes is calculated based on this thermochemical data.

  17. Subsurface Biogeochemistry of Actinides

    SciTech Connect

    Kersting, Annie B.; Zavarin, Mavrik

    2016-06-29

    A major scientific challenge in environmental sciences is to identify the dominant processes controlling actinide transport in the environment. It is estimated that currently, over 2200 metric tons of plutonium (Pu) have been deposited in the subsurface worldwide, a number that increases yearly with additional spent nuclear fuel (Ewing et al., 2010). Plutonium has been shown to migrate on the scale of kilometers, giving way to a critical concern that the fundamental biogeochemical processes that control its behavior in the subsurface are not well understood (Kersting et al., 1999; Novikov et al., 2006; Santschi et al., 2002). Neptunium (Np) is less prevalent in the environment; however, it is predicted to be a significant long-term dose contributor in high-level nuclear waste. Our focus on Np chemistry in this Science Plan is intended to help formulate a better understanding of Pu redox transformations in the environment and clarify the differences between the two long-lived actinides. The research approach of our Science Plan combines (1) Fundamental Mechanistic Studies that identify and quantify biogeochemical processes that control actinide behavior in solution and on solids, (2) Field Integration Studies that investigate the transport characteristics of Pu and test our conceptual understanding of actinide transport, and (3) Actinide Research Capabilities that allow us to achieve the objectives of this Scientific Focus Area (SFA and provide new opportunities for advancing actinide environmental chemistry. These three Research Thrusts form the basis of our SFA Science Program (Figure 1).

  18. Preparation of actinides and actinide compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spirlet, J. C.; Vogt, O.

    1982-10-01

    Starting materials for actinide research are commercially available oxides. The metals are synthesized by the metallothermic reduction of oxides, halides or carbides. The metals are further refined by vacuum-melting, distillation, van Arkel process or electrorefining to 99.9% purity. Crystals of the metals and many compounds in mm sizes are grown by specifically adapted classical methods such as solution-growth, chemical transport, flux-growth, mineralization or melt-growth.

  19. Nonaqueous actinide hydride dissolution and production of actinide $beta$- diketonates

    DOEpatents

    Crisler, L.R.

    1975-11-11

    Actinide beta-diketonate complex molecular compounds are produced by reacting a beta-diketone compound with a hydride of the actinide material in a mixture of carbon tetrachloride and methanol. (auth)

  20. Rapid separation method for actinides in emergency air filter samples.

    PubMed

    Maxwell, Sherrod L; Culligan, Brian K; Noyes, Gary W

    2010-12-01

    A new rapid method for the determination of actinides and strontium in air filter samples has been developed at the Savannah River Site Environmental Lab (Aiken, SC, USA) that can be used in emergency response situations. The actinides and strontium in air filter method utilizes a rapid acid digestion method and a streamlined column separation process with stacked TEVA, TRU and Sr Resin cartridges. Vacuum box technology and rapid flow rates are used to reduce analytical time. Alpha emitters are prepared using cerium fluoride microprecipitation for counting by alpha spectrometry. The purified (90)Sr fractions are mounted directly on planchets and counted by gas flow proportional counting. The method showed high chemical recoveries and effective removal of interferences. This new procedure was applied to emergency air filter samples received in the NRIP Emergency Response exercise administered by the National Institute for Standards and Technology (NIST) in April, 2009. The actinide and (90)Sr in air filter results were reported in less than 4 h with excellent quality. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. RAPID SEPARATION METHOD FOR ACTINIDES IN EMERGENCY AIR FILTER SAMPLES

    SciTech Connect

    Maxwell, S.; Noyes, G.; Culligan, B.

    2010-02-03

    A new rapid method for the determination of actinides and strontium in air filter samples has been developed at the Savannah River Site Environmental Lab (Aiken, SC, USA) that can be used in emergency response situations. The actinides and strontium in air filter method utilizes a rapid acid digestion method and a streamlined column separation process with stacked TEVA, TRU and Sr Resin cartridges. Vacuum box technology and rapid flow rates are used to reduce analytical time. Alpha emitters are prepared using cerium fluoride microprecipitation for counting by alpha spectrometry. The purified {sup 90}Sr fractions are mounted directly on planchets and counted by gas flow proportional counting. The method showed high chemical recoveries and effective removal of interferences. This new procedure was applied to emergency air filter samples received in the NRIP Emergency Response exercise administered by the National Institute for Standards and Technology (NIST) in April, 2009. The actinide and {sup 90}Sr in air filter results were reported in {approx}4 hours with excellent quality.

  2. NPB Cesium Space Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parsons, George M., III

    1992-01-01

    Neutral Particle Beam (NPB) weapons systems are planned to perform the ballistic missile defense functions of nuclear weapon/decoy discrimination and warhead kill at appropriate energy levels and ion currents. Negatively charged ions are produced in a specialized ion source and focused into a high quality particle beam. NPB linear accelerators accelerate and steer the negatively charged ions using electric and magnetic fields. After acceleration and steering the neutralizer system strips away extra electrons from ions to form the electrically neutral particle beam. The neutral beam then travels through space to the target unaffected by the Earth's magnetic fields. Continuing technological advances have greatly reduced the size and weight of NPB accelerator systems. Ion current production has been enhanced by over 100 percent with the intermittent addition of cesium at the NPB ion source device. This increase in current is essential to attain the most light weight, compact NPB platforms and minimize expensive launch costs. Addition of cesium into the ion source has been identified by the NPB community as the highest priority risk reduction space experiment necessary prior to planned NPB accelerator experiments and later weapons systems. The NPB Cesium Space Experiment is planned to successfully demonstrate controlled cesium introduction and vaporization into a simulated ion source chamber. Microgravity effects on the cesium deposition will be studied as will the effects of small amounts of cesium on high voltage accelerator components that might be susceptible to electrical insulator break downs. The experiment design will simulate as closely as possible the environment, physical and operational characteristics of the actual NPB ion source.

  3. Ion exchange in the atomic energy industry with particular reference to actinide and fission product separation

    SciTech Connect

    Jenkins, I.L.

    1984-01-01

    Reviewed are some of the uses of ion exchange processes used by the nuclear industry for the period April, 1978 to April, 1983. The topics dealt with are: thorium, protactinium, uranium, neptunium, plutonium, americium, cesium and actinide-lanthanide separations; the higher actinides - Cm, Bk, Cf, Es and Fm; fission products; ion exchange in the geological disposal of radioactive waste. Consideration is given to safety in the use of ion exchangers and in safe methods of disposal of such materials. Full scale and pilot plant process descriptions are included as well as summaries of laboratory studies. 130 references.

  4. Methods of producing cesium-131

    DOEpatents

    Meikrantz, David H; Snyder, John R

    2012-09-18

    Methods of producing cesium-131. The method comprises dissolving at least one non-irradiated barium source in water or a nitric acid solution to produce a barium target solution. The barium target solution is irradiated with neutron radiation to produce cesium-131, which is removed from the barium target solution. The cesium-131 is complexed with a calixarene compound to separate the cesium-131 from the barium target solution. A liquid:liquid extraction device or extraction column is used to separate the cesium-131 from the barium target solution.

  5. Small-Scale Ion Exchange Removal of Cesium and Technetium from Envelope B Hanford Tank 241-AZ-102

    SciTech Connect

    King, W.D.

    2001-02-15

    The pretreatment process for the Hanford River Protection Project Waste Treatment Plant is to provide decontaminated Low-Activity Waste and concentrated elute streams for vitrification into low- and high-activity waste glass, respectively. The pretreatment includes sludge washing, filtration, precipitation, and ion exchange processes to remove entrained solids, strontium, transuranics, cesium, and technetium.

  6. Tolerance and accumulation of cesium and strontium in saprothophic fungi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seeprasert, P.; Yoneda, M.; Shimada, Y.; Matsui, Y.

    2015-05-01

    Soil contamination by nuclear accidents has led to a resurgence of interest in microbe-radionuclide interactions. Soil fungi accumulate radioactive elements from contaminated soil, and it has been hypothesized that this may alter the availability of radionuclides to plants and alter their movement in particular areas. This study intended to demonstrate how soil saprotrophic fungi accumulated Cs and Sr isotopes in both stable and radioactive solution forms. An experiment to determine the tolerance of fungal growth under extremely inhibitory concentrations of Cs and Sr stable isotopes was conducted. The results showed that fungal cells were more sensitive to Cs than to Sr. Accumulations of Cs and Sr were examined through sorption mechanisms using resting cells in the solutions under various conditions. The sorption capacity was indirectly determined by analysing the elements, which decreased in the solution. The equilibrium data were fitted with sorption isotherms to show the best fit with the Langmuir isotherm for both elements, assuming that the sorption sites form a surface monolayer. In addition, pH was examined to investigate its effect on the sorption capacity of Cs and Sr.

  7. Cobalt dicarbollide containing polymer resins for cesium and strontium uptake

    SciTech Connect

    Steckle, W.P. Jr.; Duke, J.R. Jr.; Jorgensen, B.S.

    1994-04-01

    Cobalt(III) dicarbollide [(C{sub 2}B{sub 9}H{sub 11}){sub 2}Co]{sup {minus}} (CB{sub 2}) is being investigated for Cs and Sr extraction from nuclear waste. Because organic solvents should be avoided, bonding of CB{sub 2} to resins were investigated. CB{sub 2} was successfully covalently bonded to polystyrene and polybenzimidazole resins. Tetrahydrofuran was the most efficient solvent for grafting. Analysis is being performed, and separation coefficients are also being determined. 3 figs, 8 refs.

  8. Uptake of cesium and strontium ions by artificially altered phlogopite.

    PubMed

    Tamura, Kenji; Kogure, Toshihiro; Watanabe, Yujiro; Nagai, Chiemi; Yamada, Hirohisa

    2014-05-20

    Potassium (K(+)) phlogopite was transformed to a vermiculite-like mineral through a topotactic reaction under acidic conditions (pH 2) followed by hydrothermal treatment with Na(+), Mg(2+), Ca(2+), and Al(3+) cations. The resulting Na(+)-, Mg(2+)-, Ca(2+)-, and Al(3+)-altered phlogopites (Phl) denoted as Na-Phl, Mg-Phl, Ca-Phl, and Al-Phl, respectively. Na-Phl, Mg-Phl, and Ca-Phl all exhibited the same high adsorption capacity as natural vermiculite and the absorption of Cs(+) and Sr(2+) ions on these materials followed the Langmuir model. High-angle annular dark-field scanning transmission electron microscopy showed that Cs(+) ions in the Mg-Phl layers were intercalated deep within the crystal structure, along specific interlayer regions. These adsorbed anhydrous Cs(+) ions were firmly fixed at the centers of hexagonal rings positioned simultaneously in the upper and lower tetrahedral silicate sheets, whereas Sr(2+) ions adsorb into the interlayer in the hydrous state. Al-Phl formed a hydroxyl-interlayered vermiculite and demonstrated significant selectivity for Cs(+) at very low concentrations of the isotope. Consequently, the artificially altered phlogopites prepared in this study showed controllable and versatile adsorption capabilities making them significantly more suitable than natural vermiculite for Cs and Sr decontamination.

  9. Intracellular imaging of cesium distribution in Arabidopsis using Cesium Green.

    PubMed

    Akamatsu, Masaaki; Komatsu, Hirokazu; Mori, Taizo; Adams, Eri; Shin, Ryoung; Sakai, Hideki; Abe, Masahiko; Hill, Jonathan P; Ariga, Katsuhiko

    2014-06-11

    The accident at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant, which was one of the most serious adverse effects of the Great East Japan Earthquake, was accompanied by the release of a large quantity of radioactive materials including (137)Cs to the environment. In a previous report, we developed and proposed a cesium (Cs) fluorescent probe, "Cesium Green", that enables the detection of cesium carbonate particles by spraying an alcoholic solution of the Cesium Green probe. In this paper, the sensing activity of this probe was investigated for its selectivity (by using an optode method) and for its application to detect micrometer-sizes Cs particles. Cesium Green was also assessed for its use in plant cellular imaging of Cs localization in Arabidopsis. Cesium Green enabled high-resolution Cs imaging of Cs-containing particles and of Cs contained in plants.

  10. Mineral resource of the month: Strontium

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ober, Joyce A.

    2014-01-01

    Strontium occurs commonly in nature, ranking as the 15th most abundant chemical element on Earth. Only two minerals contain sufficient strontium, however, to be used commercially to produce strontium compounds: Strontianite (strontium carbonate) has a higher strontium content, but celestite (strontium sulfate) is by far the most abundant strontium mineral.

  11. Cesium-137 Decorporation Model

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-10-01

    Decorporation Medical countermeasure Cesium 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT 18. NUMBER (of pages) 19a. NAME OF RESPONSIBLE...Development (RD) Enterprise of the Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA). Contract HDTRA1-10-C- 0025 is titled Medical Countermeasures for CBR Agents...Accurate modeling of medical countermeasure efficacy against chemical, biological and radiological agents (CBR agents) is essential to understanding the

  12. Recovery of cesium

    DOEpatents

    Izatt, Reed M.; Christensen, James J.; Hawkins, Richard T.

    1984-01-01

    A process of recovering cesium ions from mixtures of ions containing them and other ions, e.g., a solution of nuclear waste materials, which comprises establishing a separate source phase containing such a mixture of ions, establishing a separate recipient phase, establishing a liquid membrane phase in interfacial contact with said source and recipient phases, said membrane phase containing a ligand, preferably a selected calixarene as depicted in the drawing, maintaining said interfacial contact for a period of time long enough to transport by said ligand a substantial portion of the cesium ion from the source phase to the recipient phase, and recovering the cesium ion from the recipient phase. The separation of the source and recipient phases may be by the membrane phase only, e.g., where these aqueous phases are emulsified as dispersed phases in a continuous membrane phase, or may include a physical barrier as well, e.g., an open-top outer container with an inner open-ended container of smaller cross-section mounted in the outer container with its open bottom end spaced from and above the closed bottom of the outer container so that the membrane phase may fill the outer container to a level above the bottom of the inner container and have floating on its upper surface a source phase and a recipient phase separated by the wall of the inner container as a physical barrier. A preferred solvent for the ligand is a mixture of methylene chloride and carbon tetrachloride.

  13. Actinide halide complexes

    SciTech Connect

    Avens, L.R.; Zwick, B.D.; Sattelberger, A.P.; Clark, D.L.; Watkin, J.G.

    1991-02-07

    A compound of the formula MX{sub n}L{sub m} wherein M = Th, Pu, Np,or Am thorium, X = a halide atom, n = 3 or 4, L is a coordinating ligand selected from the group consisting of aprotic Lewis bases having an oxygen-, nitrogen-, sulfur-, or phosphorus-donor, and m is 3 or 4 for monodentate ligands or is 2 for bidentate ligands, where n + m = 7 or 8 for monodentate ligands or 5 or 6 for bidentate ligands, a compound of the formula MX{sub n} wherein M, X, and n are as previously defined, and a process of preparing such actinide metal compounds including admixing the actinide metal in an aprotic Lewis base as a coordinating solvent in the presence of a halogen-containing oxidant, are provided.

  14. Novel Separation of Actinides

    SciTech Connect

    Mariella, R

    2011-02-17

    The separation of actinides and other elements of interest for nuclear forensics and threat reduction is currently performed using decades-old chemistries and ion-exchange columns. We propose to determine the technical feasibility of a novel method for separating actinide ions in solution. This method is based upon isotachophoresis (ITP), which has been applied in the purification of pharmaceuticals and other biochemical applications. This technique has the potential to separate inorganic ions more effectively than existing methods, which is key to analyzing very small samples. We will perform a quantitative assessment of the effectiveness of specific isotachophoretic approaches including predicting the physical and chemical properties, such as ion mobility, of inorganic ions under specific solvent conditions using a combination of ab initio calculations and semi-empirical methods. We expect to obtain a thorough understanding of the analytical systems parameters under which ITP is most effective for the separation of inorganic samples, including the influence of the double layer surrounding actinide ions, the Debye length for different ions and ion complexes, and Debye-Hueckel limits. Inorganic separations are key to nuclear forensics for countering terrorism and nuclear proliferation. If found to be feasible and potentially superior to currently used separation approaches, ITP could provide the conceptual basis for an improved means to separate samples of nuclear explosion debris for nuclear forensic analysis, in support of the Laboratory's missions in homeland and national security.

  15. Metals fact sheet--cesium

    SciTech Connect

    1997-03-01

    Cesium, the most alkaline and electropositive metal, is used by several industries for a variety of applications, including chemical catalysis, biomedical, photoelectrical, and glass manufacturing. While the traditional market for cesium has remained small, potential growth areas exist in the chemical catalysis and the oil and gas industry.

  16. Clinical effects of cesium intake.

    PubMed

    Melnikov, Petr; Zanoni, Lourdes Zélia

    2010-06-01

    The knowledge about cesium metabolism and toxicity is sparse. Oral intake of cesium chloride has been widely promoted on the basis of the hypothesis referred to as "high pH cancer therapy", a complimentary alternative medicine method for cancer treatment. However, no properly confirmed tumor regression was reported so far in all probability because of neither theoretical nor experimental grounds for this proposal. The aim of the present review was to resume and discuss the material currently available on cesium salts and their applications in medicine. The presence of cesium in the cell does not guarantee high pH of its content, and there is no clinical evidence to support the claims that cancer cells are vulnerable to cesium. Cesium is relatively safe; signs of its mild toxicity are gastrointestinal distress, hypotension, syncope, numbness, or tingling of the lips. Nevertheless, total cesium intakes of 6 g/day have been found to produce severe hypokalemia, hypomagnesemia, prolonged QTc interval, episodes of polymorphic ventricular tachycardia, with or without torsade de pointes, and even acute heart arrest. However, full information on its acute and chronic toxicity is not sufficiently known. Health care providers should be aware of the cardiac complications, as a result of careless cesium usage as alternative medicine.

  17. PROCESS OF PRODUCING ACTINIDE METALS

    DOEpatents

    Magel, T.T.

    1959-07-14

    The preparation of actinide metals in workable, coherent form is described. In general, the objects of the invention are achieved by heating a mixture of an oxide and a halide of an actinide metal such as uranium with an alkali metal on alkaline earth metal reducing agent in the presence of iodine.

  18. Strontium-89 Chloride

    MedlinePlus

    ... ever had bone marrow disease, blood disorders, or kidney disease.you should know that strontium-89 chloride may interfere with the normal menstrual cycle (period) in women and may stop sperm production ...

  19. Recovery of strontium activity from a strontium-82/rubidium-82 generator

    DOEpatents

    Taylor, Wayne A.; Phillips, Dennis R.; Sosnowski, Kenneth M.

    1999-10-12

    Strontium-82 is recovered from spent strontium-82/rubidium-82 generators to provide a source of strontium-82 for additional strontium-82/rubidium-82 generators. The process involves stripping of the strontium-82 from used strontium-82/rubidium-82 generators followed by purification of the strontium-82 material to remove additional metal contaminants to desired levels.

  20. Mineral resource of the month: cesium

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Angulo, Marc A.

    2010-01-01

    The article offers information on cesium, a golden alkali metal derived from the Latin word caesium which means bluish gray. It mentions that cesium is the first element discovered with the use of spectroscopy. It adds that the leading producer and supplier of cesium is Canada and there are 50,000 kilograms of cesium consumed of the world in a year. Moreover, it states that only 85% of the cesium formate can be retrieved and recycled.

  1. Actinide halide complexes

    DOEpatents

    Avens, L.R.; Zwick, B.D.; Sattelberger, A.P.; Clark, D.L.; Watkin, J.G.

    1992-11-24

    A compound is described of the formula MX[sub n]L[sub m] wherein M is a metal atom selected from the group consisting of thorium, plutonium, neptunium or americium, X is a halide atom, n is an integer selected from the group of three or four, L is a coordinating ligand selected from the group consisting of aprotic Lewis bases having an oxygen-, nitrogen-, sulfur-, or phosphorus-donor, and m is an integer selected from the group of three or four for monodentate ligands or is the integer two for bidentate ligands, where the sum of n+m equals seven or eight for monodentate ligands or five or six for bidentate ligands. A compound of the formula MX[sub n] wherein M, X, and n are as previously defined, and a process of preparing such actinide metal compounds are described including admixing the actinide metal in an aprotic Lewis base as a coordinating solvent in the presence of a halogen-containing oxidant.

  2. Actinide halide complexes

    DOEpatents

    Avens, Larry R.; Zwick, Bill D.; Sattelberger, Alfred P.; Clark, David L.; Watkin, John G.

    1992-01-01

    A compound of the formula MX.sub.n L.sub.m wherein M is a metal atom selected from the group consisting of thorium, plutonium, neptunium or americium, X is a halide atom, n is an integer selected from the group of three or four, L is a coordinating ligand selected from the group consisting of aprotic Lewis bases having an oxygen-, nitrogen-, sulfur-, or phosphorus-donor, and m is an integer selected from the group of three or four for monodentate ligands or is the integer two for bidentate ligands, where the sum of n+m equals seven or eight for monodentate ligands or five or six for bidentate ligands, a compound of the formula MX.sub.n wherein M, X, and n are as previously defined, and a process of preparing such actinide metal compounds including admixing the actinide metal in an aprotic Lewis base as a coordinating solvent in the presence of a halogen-containing oxidant, are provided.

  3. Managing Inventories of Heavy Actinides

    SciTech Connect

    Wham, Robert M; Patton, Bradley D

    2011-01-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has stored a limited inventory of heavy actinides contained in irradiated targets, some partially processed, at the Savannah River Site (SRS) and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The 'heavy actinides' of interest include plutonium, americium, and curium isotopes; specifically 242Pu and 244Pu, 243Am, and 244/246/248Cm. No alternate supplies of these heavy actinides and no other capabilities for producing them are currently available. Some of these heavy actinide materials are important for use as feedstock for producing heavy isotopes and elements needed for research and commercial application. The rare isotope 244Pu is valuable for research, environmental safeguards, and nuclear forensics. Because the production of these heavy actinides was made possible only by the enormous investment of time and money associated with defense production efforts, the remaining inventories of these rare nuclear materials are an important part of the legacy of the Nuclear Weapons Program. Significant unique heavy actinide inventories reside in irradiated Mark-18A and Mark-42 targets at SRS and ORNL, with no plans to separate and store the isotopes for future use. Although the costs of preserving these heavy actinide materials would be considerable, for all practical purposes they are irreplaceable. The effort required to reproduce these heavy actinides today would likely cost billions of dollars and encompass a series of irradiation and chemical separation cycles for at least 50 years; thus, reproduction is virtually impossible. DOE has a limited window of opportunity to recover and preserve these heavy actinides before they are disposed of as waste. A path forward is presented to recover and manage these irreplaceable National Asset materials for future use in research, nuclear forensics, and other potential applications.

  4. Nuclear waste forms for actinides.

    PubMed

    Ewing, R C

    1999-03-30

    The disposition of actinides, most recently 239Pu from dismantled nuclear weapons, requires effective containment of waste generated by the nuclear fuel cycle. Because actinides (e.g., 239Pu and 237Np) are long-lived, they have a major impact on risk assessments of geologic repositories. Thus, demonstrable, long-term chemical and mechanical durability are essential properties of waste forms for the immobilization of actinides. Mineralogic and geologic studies provide excellent candidate phases for immobilization and a unique database that cannot be duplicated by a purely materials science approach. The "mineralogic approach" is illustrated by a discussion of zircon as a phase for the immobilization of excess weapons plutonium.

  5. Actinide Burning in CANDU Reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Hyland, B.; Dyck, G.R.

    2007-07-01

    Actinide burning in CANDU reactors has been studied as a method of reducing the actinide content of spent nuclear fuel from light water reactors, and thereby decreasing the associated long term decay heat load. In this work simulations were performed of actinides mixed with natural uranium to form a mixed oxide (MOX) fuel, and also mixed with silicon carbide to form an inert matrix (IMF) fuel. Both of these fuels were taken to a higher burnup than has previously been studied. The total transuranic element destruction calculated was 40% for the MOX fuel and 71% for the IMF. (authors)

  6. Cesium diffusion in graphite

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, R.B. III; Davis, W. Jr.; Sutton, A.L. Jr.

    1980-05-01

    Experiments on diffusion of /sup 137/Cs in five types of graphite were performed. The document provides a completion of the report that was started and includes a presentation of all of the diffusion data, previously unpublished. Except for data on mass transfer of /sup 137/Cs in the Hawker-Siddeley graphite, analyses of experimental results were initiated but not completed. The mass transfer process of cesium in HS-1-1 graphite at 600 to 1000/sup 0/C in a helium atmosphere is essentially pure diffusion wherein values of (E/epsilon) and ..delta..E of the equation D/epsilon = (D/epsilon)/sub 0/ exp (-..delta..E/RT) are about 4 x 10/sup -2/ cm/sup 2//s and 30 kcal/mole, respectively.

  7. Improved electrodeposited actinide layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ingelbrecht, C.; Moens, A.; Eykens, R.; Dean, A.

    1997-02-01

    Electrodeposition is a relatively simple and high-yielding method for producing actinide layers for nuclear targets. A new design of the cell has been used to deposit U, Pu, Np and Am onto metallic backings from isopropanol and onto carbon-coated polyimide films from isobutanol. The current density was 1-3 mA/cm 2. Deposition yields, determined by low geometry alpha-particle counting, were about 65% for Pu and about 90% for other elements. The same technique was used to investigate thickness homogeneity of 239Pu deposits, and it was observed that targets with mean thickness up to about 100 μg/cm 2 were thicker in the centre than at the edge, but for targets above 100 μg/cm 2, this profile was reversed. Modifications to the electrode shape were made in an attempt to improve the thickness uniformity.

  8. Surveillance of Strontium-90 in Foods after the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant Accident.

    PubMed

    Nabeshi, Hiromi; Tsutsumi, Tomoaki; Uekusa, Yoshinori; Hachisuka, Akiko; Matsuda, Rieko; Teshima, Reiko

    2015-01-01

    As a result of the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant (NPP) accident, various radionuclides were released into the environment. In this study, we surveyed strontium-90 ((90)Sr) concentrations in several foodstuffs. Strontium-90 is thought to be the third most important residual radionuclide in food collected after the Fukushima Daiichi, NPP accident after following cesium-137 ((137)Cs) and cesium-134 ((134)Cs). Results of (90)Sr analyses indicated that (90)Sr was detect in 25 of the 40 radioactive cesium (r-Cs) positive samples collected in areas around the Fukushima Daiichi NPP, ranging in distance from 50 to 250 km. R-Cs positive samples were defined as containing both (134)Cs and (137)Cs which are considered to be indicators of the after-effects of the Fukushima Daiichi NPP accident. We also detected (90)Sr in 8 of 13 r-Cs negative samples, in which (134)Cs was not detected. Strontium-90 concentrations in the r-Cs positive samples did not significantly exceed the (90)Sr concentrations in r-Cs negative samples or the (90)Sr concentration ranges in comparable food groups found in previous surveys before the Fukushima Daiichi NPP accident. Thus, (90)Sr concentrations in r-Cs positive samples were indistinguishable from the background (90)Sr concentrations arising from global fallout prior to the Fukushima accident, suggesting that no marked increase of (90)Sr concentrations has occurred in r-Cs positive samples as a result of the Fukushima Daiichi NPP accident.

  9. Environmental research on actinide elements

    SciTech Connect

    Pinder, J.E. III; Alberts, J.J.; McLeod, K.W.; Schreckhise, R.G.

    1987-08-01

    The papers synthesize the results of research sponsored by DOE's Office of Health and Environmental Research on the behavior of transuranic and actinide elements in the environment. Separate abstracts have been prepared for the 21 individual papers. (ACR)

  10. Actinide transmutation in nuclear reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Ganev, I.K.; Lopatkin, A.V.; Naumov, V.V.; Tocheny, L.V.

    1993-12-31

    Of some interest is the comparison between the actinide nuclide burning up (fission) rates such as americium 241, americium 242, curium 244, and neptunium 237, in the reactors with fast or thermal neutron spectra.

  11. METHOD OF PREPARING RADIOACTIVE CESIUM SOURCES

    DOEpatents

    Quinby, T.C.

    1963-12-17

    A method of preparing a cesium-containing radiation source with physical and chemical properties suitable for high-level use is presented. Finely divided silica is suspended in a solution containing cesium, normally the fission-product isotope cesium 137. Sodium tetraphenyl boron is then added to quantitatively precipitate the cesium. The cesium-containing precipitate is converted to borosilicate glass by heating to the melting point and cooling. Up to 60 weight percent cesium, with a resulting source activity of up to 21 curies per gram, is incorporated in the glass. (AEC)

  12. Cesium chloride-induced torsades de pointes.

    PubMed

    Wiens, Matthew; Gordon, Wendy; Baulcomb, Daisy; Mattman, Andre; Mock, Tom; Brown, Robert

    2009-09-01

    The chloride salt of cesium, a group 1A element, is gaining popularity as an alternative treatment of advanced cancers. Cesium chloride has primarily been used in cardiovascular research for arrhythmogenesis in animals because of its potassium-blocking effects. The present report describes a 45-year-old woman with metastatic breast cancer who experienced repeated episodes of torsades de pointes polymorphic ventricular tachycardia after several months of oral cesium therapy. There was a clear temporal relationship between cesium ingestion and the arrhythmia, which later resolved following discontinuation of cesium therapy. Serial cesium plasma and whole blood levels were measured over the ensuing six months and pharmacokinetic analysis was performed.

  13. Sorption of strontium on uranyl peroxide: implications for a high-level nuclear waste repository.

    PubMed

    Sureda, Rosa; Martínez-Lladó, Xavier; Rovira, Miquel; de Pablo, Joan; Casas, Ignasi; Giménez, Javier

    2010-09-15

    Strontium-90 is considered the most important radioactive isotope in the environment and one of the most frequently occurring radionuclides in groundwaters at nuclear facilities. The uranyl peroxide studtite (UO2O2 . 4H2O) has been observed to be formed in spent nuclear fuel leaching experiments and seems to have a relatively high sorption capacity for some radionuclides. In this work, the sorption of strontium onto studtite is studied as a function of time, strontium concentration in solution and pH. The main results obtained are (a) sorption is relatively fast although slower than for cesium; (b) strontium seems to be sorbed via a monolayer coverage of the studtite surface, (c) sorption has a strong dependence on ionic strength, is negligible at acidic pH, and increases at neutral to alkaline pH (almost 100% of the strontium in solution is sorbed above pH 10). These results point to uranium secondary solid phase formation on the spent nuclear fuel as an important mechanism for strontium retention in a high-level nuclear waste repository (HLNW).

  14. Cesium Concentration in MCU Solvent

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, D

    2006-01-18

    During Modular Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX) Unit (MCU) operations, Cs-137 concentrations in product streams will vary depending on the location in the process and on the recent process conditions. Calculations of cesium concentrations under a variety of operating conditions reveal the following: (1) Under nominal operations with salt solution feed containing 1.1 Ci Cs-137 per gallon, the maximum Cs-137 concentration in the process will occur in the strip effluent (SE) and equal 15-16.5 Ci/gal. (2) Under these conditions, the majority of the solvent will contain 0.005 to 0.01 Ci/gal, with a limited portion of the solvent in the contactor stages containing {approx}4 Ci/gal. (3) When operating conditions yield product near 0.1 Ci Cs-137/gal in the decontaminated salt solution (DSS), the SE cesium concentration will be the same or lower than in nominal operations, but majority of the stripped solvent will increase to {approx}2-3 Ci/gal. (4) Deviations in strip and waste stream flow rates cause the largest variations in cesium content: (a) If strip flow rates deviate by -30% of nominal, the SE will contain {approx}23 Ci/gal, although the cesium content of the solvent will increase to only 0.03 Ci/gal; (b) If strip flow rate deviates by -77% (i.e., 23% of nominal), the SE will contain 54 Ci/gal and solvent will contain 1.65 Ci/gal. At this point, the product DSS will just reach the limit of 0.1 Ci/gal, causing the DSS gamma monitors to alarm; and (c) Moderate (+10 to +30%) deviations in waste flow rate cause approximately proportional increases in the SE and solvent cesium concentrations. Recovery from a process failure due to poor cesium stripping can achieve any low cesium concentration required. Passing the solvent back through the contactors while recycling DSS product will produce a {approx}70% reduction during one pass through the contactors (assuming the stripping D value is no worse than 0.36). If the solvent is returned to the solvent hold tank

  15. Accumulation of bone strontium measured by in vivo XRF in rats supplemented with strontium citrate and strontium ranelate.

    PubMed

    Wohl, Gregory R; Chettle, David R; Pejović-Milić, Ana; Druchok, Cheryl; Webber, Colin E; Adachi, Jonathan D; Beattie, Karen A

    2013-01-01

    Strontium ranelate is an approved pharmacotherapy for osteoporosis in Europe and Australia, but not in Canada or the United States. Strontium citrate, an alternative strontium salt, however, is available for purchase over-the-counter as a nutritional supplement. The effects of strontium citrate on bone are largely unknown. The study's objectives were 1) to quantify bone strontium accumulation in female Sprague Dawley rats administered strontium citrate (N=7) and compare these levels to rats administered strontium ranelate (N=6) and vehicle (N=6) over 8 weeks, and 2) to verify an in vivo X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (XRF) system for measurement of bone strontium in the rat. Daily doses of strontium citrate and strontium ranelate were determined with the intention to achieve equivalent amounts of elemental strontium. However, post-hoc analyses of each strontium compound conducted using energy dispersive spectrometry microanalysis revealed a higher elemental strontium concentration in strontium citrate than strontium ranelate. Bone strontium levels were measured at baseline and 8 weeks follow-up using a unique in vivo XRF technique previously used in humans. XRF measurements were validated against ex vivo measurements of bone strontium using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Weight gain in rats in all three groups was equivalent over the study duration. A two-way ANOVA was conducted to compare bone strontium levels amongst the three groups. Bone strontium levels in rats administered strontium citrate were significantly greater (p<0.05) than rats administered strontium ranelate and vehicle. ANCOVA analyses were performed with Sr dose as a covariate to account for differences in strontium dosing. The ANCOVA revealed differences in bone strontium levels between the strontium groups were not significant, but that bone strontium levels were still very significantly greater than vehicle.

  16. Cesium control and diagnostics in surface plasma negative ion sources

    SciTech Connect

    Dudnikov, Vadim; Chapovsky, Pavel; Dudnikov, Andrei

    2010-02-15

    For efficient and reliable negative ion generation it is very important to improve a cesium control and diagnostics. Laser beam attenuation and resonance fluorescence can be used for measurement of cesium distribution and cesium control. Resonant laser excitation and two-photon excitation can be used for improved cesium ionization and cesium trapping in the discharge chamber. Simple and inexpensive diode lasers can be used for cesium diagnostics and control. Cesium migration along the surface is an important mechanism of cesium escaping. It is important to develop a suppression of cesium migration and cesium accumulation on the extraction system.

  17. Cesium removal and kinetics equilibrium: Precipitation kinetics

    SciTech Connect

    Barnes, M.J.

    1999-12-17

    This task consisted of both non-radioactive and radioactive (tracer) tests examining the influence of potentially significant variables on cesium tetraphenylborate precipitation kinetics. The work investigated the time required to reach cesium decontamination and the conditions that affect the cesium precipitation kinetics.

  18. Process for cesium decontamination and immobilization

    DOEpatents

    Komarneni, S.; Roy, R.

    1988-04-25

    Cesium can be selectively recovered from a nuclear waste solution containing cesium together with other metal ions by contact with a modified phlogopite which is a hydrated, sodium phlogopite mica. Once the cesium has entered the modified phlogopite it is fixed and can be safely stored for long periods of time. 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  19. Method of removing cesium from steam

    DOEpatents

    Carson, Jr., Neill J.; Noland, Robert A.; Ruther, Westly E.

    1991-01-01

    Method for removal of radioactive cesium from a hot vapor, such as high temperature steam, including the steps of passing input hot vapor containing radioactive cesium into a bed of silicate glass particles and chemically incorporating radioactive cesium in the silicate glass particles at a temperature of at least about 700.degree. F.

  20. Process for cesium decontamination and immobilization

    DOEpatents

    Komarneni, Sridhar; Roy, Rustum

    1989-01-01

    Cesium can be selectively recovered from a nuclear waste solution containing cesium together with other metal ions by contact with a modified phlogopite which is a hydrated, sodium phlogopite mica. Once the cesium has entered the modified phlogopite it is fixed and can be safely stored for long periods of time.

  1. 33rd Actinide Separations Conference

    SciTech Connect

    McDonald, L M; Wilk, P A

    2009-05-04

    Welcome to the 33rd Actinide Separations Conference hosted this year by the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. This annual conference is centered on the idea of networking and communication with scientists from throughout the United States, Britain, France and Japan who have expertise in nuclear material processing. This conference forum provides an excellent opportunity for bringing together experts in the fields of chemistry, nuclear and chemical engineering, and actinide processing to present and discuss experiences, research results, testing and application of actinide separation processes. The exchange of information that will take place between you, and other subject matter experts from around the nation and across the international boundaries, is a critical tool to assist in solving both national and international problems associated with the processing of nuclear materials used for both defense and energy purposes, as well as for the safe disposition of excess nuclear material. Granlibakken is a dedicated conference facility and training campus that is set up to provide the venue that supports communication between scientists and engineers attending the 33rd Actinide Separations Conference. We believe that you will find that Granlibakken and the Lake Tahoe views provide an atmosphere that is stimulating for fruitful discussions between participants from both government and private industry. We thank the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and the United States Department of Energy for their support of this conference. We especially thank you, the participants and subject matter experts, for your involvement in the 33rd Actinide Separations Conference.

  2. Kinetics of actinide complexation reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Nash, K.L.; Sullivan, J.C.

    1997-09-01

    Though the literature records extensive compilations of the thermodynamics of actinide complexation reactions, the kinetics of complex formation and dissociation reactions of actinide ions in aqueous solutions have not been extensively investigated. In light of the central role played by such reactions in actinide process and environmental chemistry, this situation is somewhat surprising. The authors report herein a summary of what is known about actinide complexation kinetics. The systems include actinide ions in the four principal oxidation states (III, IV, V, and VI) and complex formation and dissociation rates with both simple and complex ligands. Most of the work reported was conducted in acidic media, but a few address reactions in neutral and alkaline solutions. Complex formation reactions tend in general to be rapid, accessible only to rapid-scan and equilibrium perturbation techniques. Complex dissociation reactions exhibit a wider range of rates and are generally more accessible using standard analytical methods. Literature results are described and correlated with the known properties of the individual ions.

  3. Cesium in the Savannah River Site environment

    SciTech Connect

    Carlton, W.H.; Bauer, L.R.; Evans, A.G.; Geary, L.A.; Murphy, C.E. Jr.; Pinder, J.E.; Strom, R.N.

    1992-03-01

    Cesium in the Savannah River Site Environment is published as a part of the Radiological Assessment Program (RAP). It is the fourth in a series of eight documents on individual radioisotopes released to the environment as a result of Savannah River Site (SRS) operations. The earlier documents describe the environmental consequences of tritium, iodine, and uranium. Documents on plutonium, strontium, carbon, and technetium will be published in the future. These are dynamic documents and current plans call for revising and updating each one on a two-year schedule.Radiocesium exists in the environment as a result of above-ground nuclear weapons tests, the Chernobyl accident, the destruction of satellite Cosmos 954, small releases from reactors and reprocessing plants, and the operation of industrial, medical, and educational facilities. Radiocesium has been produced at SRS during the operation of five production reactors. Several hundred curies of [sup 137]Cs was released into streams in the late 50s and 60s from leaking fuel elements. Smaller quantities were released from the fuel reprocessing operations. About 1400 Ci of [sup 137]Cs was released to seepage basins where it was tightly bound by clay in the soil. A much smaller quantity, about four Ci. was released to the atmosphere. Radiocesium concentration and mechanisms for atmospheric, surface water, and groundwater have been extensively studied by Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) and ecological mechanisms have been studied by Savannah River Ecology Laboratory (SREL). The overall radiological impact of SRS releases on the offsite maximum individual can be characterized by total doses of 033 mrem (atmospheric) and 60 mrem (liquid), compared with a dose of 12,960 mrem from non-SRS sources during the same period of time. Isotope [sup 137]Cs releases have resulted in a negligible risk to the environment and the population it supports.

  4. Cesium in the Savannah River Site environment

    SciTech Connect

    Carlton, W.H.; Bauer, L.R.; Evans, A.G.; Geary, L.A.; Murphy, C.E. Jr.; Pinder, J.E.; Strom, R.N.

    1992-03-01

    Cesium in the Savannah River Site Environment is published as a part of the Radiological Assessment Program (RAP). It is the fourth in a series of eight documents on individual radioisotopes released to the environment as a result of Savannah River Site (SRS) operations. The earlier documents describe the environmental consequences of tritium, iodine, and uranium. Documents on plutonium, strontium, carbon, and technetium will be published in the future. These are dynamic documents and current plans call for revising and updating each one on a two-year schedule.Radiocesium exists in the environment as a result of above-ground nuclear weapons tests, the Chernobyl accident, the destruction of satellite Cosmos 954, small releases from reactors and reprocessing plants, and the operation of industrial, medical, and educational facilities. Radiocesium has been produced at SRS during the operation of five production reactors. Several hundred curies of {sup 137}Cs was released into streams in the late 50s and 60s from leaking fuel elements. Smaller quantities were released from the fuel reprocessing operations. About 1400 Ci of {sup 137}Cs was released to seepage basins where it was tightly bound by clay in the soil. A much smaller quantity, about four Ci. was released to the atmosphere. Radiocesium concentration and mechanisms for atmospheric, surface water, and groundwater have been extensively studied by Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) and ecological mechanisms have been studied by Savannah River Ecology Laboratory (SREL). The overall radiological impact of SRS releases on the offsite maximum individual can be characterized by total doses of 033 mrem (atmospheric) and 60 mrem (liquid), compared with a dose of 12,960 mrem from non-SRS sources during the same period of time. Isotope {sup 137}Cs releases have resulted in a negligible risk to the environment and the population it supports.

  5. Nuclear waste forms for actinides

    PubMed Central

    Ewing, Rodney C.

    1999-01-01

    The disposition of actinides, most recently 239Pu from dismantled nuclear weapons, requires effective containment of waste generated by the nuclear fuel cycle. Because actinides (e.g., 239Pu and 237Np) are long-lived, they have a major impact on risk assessments of geologic repositories. Thus, demonstrable, long-term chemical and mechanical durability are essential properties of waste forms for the immobilization of actinides. Mineralogic and geologic studies provide excellent candidate phases for immobilization and a unique database that cannot be duplicated by a purely materials science approach. The “mineralogic approach” is illustrated by a discussion of zircon as a phase for the immobilization of excess weapons plutonium. PMID:10097054

  6. Actinides and Life's Origins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adam, Zachary

    2007-12-01

    There are growing indications that life began in a radioactive beach environment. A geologic framework for the origin or support of life in a Hadean heavy mineral placer beach has been developed, based on the unique chemical properties of the lower-electronic actinides, which act as nuclear fissile and fertile fuels, radiolytic energy sources, oligomer catalysts, and coordinating ions (along with mineralogically associated lanthanides) for prototypical prebiotic homonuclear and dinuclear metalloenzymes. A four-factor nuclear reactor model was constructed to estimate how much uranium would have been required to initiate a sustainable fission reaction within a placer beach sand 4.3 billion years ago. It was calculated that about 1-8 weight percent of the sand would have to have been uraninite, depending on the weight percent, uranium enrichment, and quantity of neutron poisons present within the remaining placer minerals. Radiolysis experiments were conducted with various solvents with the use of uranium- and thorium-rich minerals (metatorbernite and monazite, respectively) as proxies for radioactive beach sand in contact with different carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen reactants. Radiation bombardment ranged in duration of exposure from 3 weeks to 6 months. Low levels of acetonitrile (estimated to be on the order of parts per billion in concentration) were conclusively identified in 2 setups and tentatively indicated in a 3rd by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. These low levels have been interpreted within the context of a Hadean placer beach prebiotic framework to demonstrate the promise of investigating natural nuclear reactors as power production sites that might have assisted the origins of life on young rocky planets with a sufficiently differentiated crust/mantle structure. Future investigations are recommended to better quantify the complex relationships between energy release, radioactive grain size, fissionability, reactant phase, phosphorus

  7. Actinides and Life's Origins.

    PubMed

    Adam, Zachary

    2007-12-01

    There are growing indications that life began in a radioactive beach environment. A geologic framework for the origin or support of life in a Hadean heavy mineral placer beach has been developed, based on the unique chemical properties of the lower-electronic actinides, which act as nuclear fissile and fertile fuels, radiolytic energy sources, oligomer catalysts, and coordinating ions (along with mineralogically associated lanthanides) for prototypical prebiotic homonuclear and dinuclear metalloenzymes. A four-factor nuclear reactor model was constructed to estimate how much uranium would have been required to initiate a sustainable fission reaction within a placer beach sand 4.3 billion years ago. It was calculated that about 1-8 weight percent of the sand would have to have been uraninite, depending on the weight percent, uranium enrichment, and quantity of neutron poisons present within the remaining placer minerals. Radiolysis experiments were conducted with various solvents with the use of uraniumand thorium-rich minerals (metatorbernite and monazite, respectively) as proxies for radioactive beach sand in contact with different carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen reactants. Radiation bombardment ranged in duration of exposure from 3 weeks to 6 months. Low levels of acetonitrile (estimated to be on the order of parts per billion in concentration) were conclusively identified in 2 setups and tentatively indicated in a 3(rd) by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. These low levels have been interpreted within the context of a Hadean placer beach prebiotic framework to demonstrate the promise of investigating natural nuclear reactors as power production sites that might have assisted the origins of life on young rocky planets with a sufficiently differentiated crust/mantle structure. Future investigations are recommended to better quantify the complex relationships between energy release, radioactive grain size, fissionability, reactant phase, phosphorus

  8. Advanced separations at Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, M.; McCabe, D.

    1996-10-01

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) has many waste streams that are contaminated with radionuclides and/or hazardous materials that must be treated to remove the radioactivity (cesium, strontium, tritium, actinides) and hazardous components (polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), cyanide, metal ions).

  9. Cesium oxide-cesium solution as a source of cesium and oxygen.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gunther, B.; Rufeh, F.; Pigford, T. H.

    1972-01-01

    Examination of the feasibility of using the solution as a source of cesium and oxygen, with description of an experimental system designed for a systematic investigation. Preliminary data are presented. Thermionic performance of the converter was recorded before the injection of oxygen at emitter temperatures of 1600, 1700, 1800, and 1900 K. The power of this converter, which had a polycrystalline tungsten emitter and a polycrystalline molybdenum collector, is compared with other converters. Experimental results show that cesium oxide mole factors higher than 0.18 are needed to achieve oxygen effects. It appears not to be necessary to be concerned about avoiding oxygen impurities in the cesium reservoir, since mole fractions as high as 0.18 have failed to influence the performance.

  10. Intermediate-Scale Ion Exchange Removal of Cesium and Technetium from Hanford Tank 241-AN-102

    SciTech Connect

    King, W.D.

    2001-02-15

    Ion exchange tests have been completed at the Savannah River Technology Center for British Nuclear Fuels Limited, Inc. as part of the Hanford River Protection Project. Radioactive cesium and technetium (pertechnetate form only) were removed by ion exchange from a sample of Envelope C salt solution from Hanford Tank 241-AN-102 (sample volume: approximately 17 L at 4.8 M Na plus). The original sample was diluted and subjected to strontium/transuranics (Sr/TRU) precipitation and filtration processes before ion exchange processing was performed. Batch contact and column tests for the ion exchange removal of cesium and technetium were then completed on the Sr/TRU-decontaminated product. Previous ion exchange tests were conducted on a smaller portion (0.5 L) of the Tank 241-AN-102 supernate sample, which had been similarly pretreated, and the results were reported in a separate document.

  11. Intermediate-Scale Ion Exchange Removal of Cesium and Technetium from Hanford Tank 241-AN-102

    SciTech Connect

    King, W.D.

    2001-09-10

    Ion exchange tests have been completed at the Savannah River Technology Center for British Nuclear Fuels Limited, Inc. as part of the Hanford River Protection Project. Radioactive cesium and technetium (pertechnetate form only) were removed by ion exchange from a sample of Envelope C salt solution from Hanford Tank 241-AN-102 (sample volume: approximately 18 L at 4.8 M Na plus). The original sample was diluted and subjected to strontium/transuranics (Sr/TRU) precipitation and filtration processes before ion exchange processing was performed. Batch contact and column tests for the ion exchange removal of cesium and technetium were then completed on the Sr/TRU-decontaminated product. Previous ion exchange tests were conducted on a smaller portion (0.5 L) of the Tank 241-AN-102 supernate sample, which had been similarly pretreated, and the results were reported in a separate document.

  12. Actinide Thermodynamics at Elevated Temperatures

    SciTech Connect

    Friese, Judah I.; Rao, Linfeng; Xia, Yuanxian; Bachelor, Paula P.; Tian, Guoxin

    2007-11-16

    The postclosure chemical environment in the proposed Yucca Mountain repository is expected to experience elevated temperatures. Predicting migration of actinides is possible if sufficient, reliable thermodynamic data on hydrolysis and complexation are available for these temperatures. Data are scarce and scattered for 25 degrees C, and nonexistent for elevated temperatures. This collaborative project between LBNL and PNNL collects thermodynamic data at elevated temperatures on actinide complexes with inorganic ligands that may be present in Yucca Mountain. The ligands include hydroxide, fluoride, sulfate, phosphate and carbonate. Thermodynamic parameters of complexation, including stability constants, enthalpy, entropy and heat capacity of complexation, are measured with a variety of techniques including solvent extraction, potentiometry, spectrophotometry and calorimetry

  13. Preliminary considerations concerning actinide solubilities

    SciTech Connect

    Newton, T.W.; Bayhurst, B.P.; Daniels, W.R.; Erdal, B.R.; Ogard, A.E.

    1980-01-01

    Work at the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory on the fundamental solution chemistry of the actinides has thus far been confined to preliminary considerations of the problems involved in developing an understanding of the precipitation and dissolution behavior of actinide compounds under environmental conditions. Attempts have been made to calculate solubility as a function of Eh and pH using the appropriate thermodynamic data; results have been presented in terms of contour maps showing lines of constant solubility as a function of Eh and pH. Possible methods of control of the redox potential of rock-groundwater systems by the use of Eh buffers (redox couples) is presented.

  14. Actinide chemistry in ionic liquids.

    PubMed

    Takao, Koichiro; Bell, Thomas James; Ikeda, Yasuhisa

    2013-04-01

    This Forum Article provides an overview of the reported studies on the actinide chemistry in ionic liquids (ILs) with a particular focus on several fundamental chemical aspects: (i) complex formation, (ii) electrochemistry, and (iii) extraction behavior. The majority of investigations have been dedicated to uranium, especially for the 6+ oxidation state (UO2(2+)), because the chemistry of uranium in ordinary solvents has been well investigated and uranium is the most abundant element in the actual nuclear fuel cycles. Other actinides such as thorium, neptunium, plutonium, americium, and curiumm, although less studied, are also of importance in fully understanding the nuclear fuel engineering process and the safe geological disposal of radioactive wastes.

  15. Strontium ranelate discontinued.

    PubMed

    2017-08-02

    Strontium ranelate discontinued ● Limited treatment options for molluscum contagiosum ● Finasteride drug safety alert ● Does doxycycline delay the next COPD exacerbation? ● Support for WHO standards on reporting clinical trial results ● Delayed antibiotic prescription for lower respiratory tract infections ● Nystatin dose change - much ado about nothing? Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  16. SOLUBILIZATION OF ACTINIDE METAL-CONTAINING SLAG

    DOEpatents

    Hopkins, H.H. Jr.

    1959-08-01

    This patent relates to solubilization of the actinide rare earths valves contained in the slag materials resulting from the reduction of actinide salts, such as plutonium tetrafluoride. According to the invention the slag is subjected to a high temperature chloridizing roast, preferably from the reduction of actinide salts, such as plutonium tetrafluoride. According to the invention the slag is subjected to a high temperature chloridizing roast, preferably at about 700 deg C with gaseous hydrogen chloride, until the actinides within the slag are substantially convented to the chlorides. The resultant chlorinated actinides are then leached from the cooled roasted mass by treating with aqueous 0.01 M nitric acid.

  17. Cesium Eluate Physical Property Determination

    SciTech Connect

    Baich, M.A.

    2001-02-13

    Two bench-scale process simulations of the proposed cesium eluate evaporation process of concentrating eluate produced in the Hanford Site Waste Treatment Plant were conducted. The primary objective of these experiments was to determine the physical properties and the saturation concentration of the eluate evaporator bottoms while producing condensate approximately 0.50 molar HN03.

  18. CESIUM RECOVERY FROM AQUEOUS SOLUTIONS

    DOEpatents

    Goodall, C.A.

    1960-09-13

    A process is given for precipitating cesium on zinc ferricyanide (at least 0.0004 M) from aqueous solutions containing mineral acid in a concentration of from 0.2 N acidity to 0.61 N acid-deficiency and advantageously, but not necessarily, also aluminum nitrate in a concentration of from l to 2.5 M.

  19. Separations of actinides, lanthanides and other metals

    DOEpatents

    Smith, Barbara F.; Jarvinen, Gordon D.; Ensor, Dale D.

    1995-01-01

    An organic extracting solution comprised of a bis(acylpyrazolone or a substituted bis(acylpyrazolone) and an extraction method useful for separating certain elements of the actinide series of the periodic table having a valence of four from one other, and also from one or more of the substances in a group consisting of hexavalent actinides, trivalent actinides, trivalent lanthanides, trivalent iron, trivalent aluminum, divalent metals, and monovalent metals and also from one or more of the substances in a group consisting of hexavalent actinides, trivalent actinides, trivalent lanthanides, trivalent iron, trivalent aluminum, divalent metals, and monovalent metals and also useful for separating hexavalent actinides from one or more of the substances in a group consisting of trivalent actinides, trivalent lanthanides, trivalent iron, trivalent aluminum, divalent metals, and monovalent metals.

  20. Molecular models for actinide speciation

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, D.L.; Watkin, J.G.; Morris, D.E.; Berg, J.M.

    1994-06-01

    Much effort has been devoted to the development of sensitive spectroscopic techniques for the study of actinide speciation based on the sensitivity of f-f electronic absorption bands to oxidation state and ligation of the actinide ions. These efforts assume that data obtained in such studies will be interpretable in terms of changes in complexation of the metal center. However, the current understanding of 5f electronic structure is based on data from solid state doped single crystals. In those studies, the local coordination geometry about the central actinide ion is maintained in an almost perfect high-symmetry environment and will have little relevance for species in solution where deviations from perfect high symmetry tend to be the rule rather than the exception. The authors have developed a vigorous research program in the systematic preparation and spectroscopic characterization of synthetic actinide complexes (Th, U, Np, and Pu) in which they can control nuclearity, oxidation state, and molecular structure. These complexes have been used to determine how observable electronic transitions are perturbed in response to structural changes in the complex in solution. From the spectra obtained for these model complexes, the authors have found that the f-f transitions naturally fall into obvious groupings by coordination number and symmetry by which they can now differentiate between monomeric, dimeric, and trimeric species in solution. The study of radionuclide speciation is fundamentally important to the determination of radionuclide solubility in the groundwater at Yucca Mountain.

  1. Evaluation of Alternate Materials and Methods for Strontium and Alpha Removal from Savannah River Site High-Level Waste Solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Hobbs, D.T.

    2000-11-07

    A literature survey indicated a number of alternate materials and methods for the removal of strontium and alpha-emitting radionuclides (actinides). We evaluated the use of alternate materials versus proposed flowsheets for salt processing at the Savannah River Site (SRS). From this evaluation we recommend the following materials for further testing to determine the rate and extent of removal. We do not recommend testing of liquid/liquid extraction and polymer filtration methods at this time.

  2. Presynaptic strontium dynamics and synaptic transmission.

    PubMed

    Xu-Friedman, M A; Regehr, W G

    1999-04-01

    Strontium can replace calcium in triggering neurotransmitter release, although peak release is reduced and the duration of release is prolonged. Strontium has therefore become useful in probing release, but its mechanism of action is not well understood. Here we study the action of strontium at the granule cell to Purkinje cell synapse in mouse cerebellar slices. Presynaptic residual strontium levels were monitored with fluorescent indicators, which all responded to strontium (fura-2, calcium orange, fura-2FF, magnesium green, and mag-fura-5). When calcium was replaced by equimolar concentrations of strontium in the external bath, strontium and calcium both entered presynaptic terminals. Contaminating calcium was eliminated by including EGTA in the extracellular bath, or by loading parallel fibers with EGTA, enabling the actions of strontium to be studied in isolation. After a single stimulus, strontium reached higher peak free levels than did calcium (approximately 1.7 times greater), and decayed more slowly (half-decay time 189 ms for strontium and 32 ms for calcium). These differences in calcium and strontium dynamics are likely a consequence of greater strontium permeability through calcium channels, lower affinity of the endogenous buffer for strontium, and less efficient extrusion of strontium. Measurements of presynaptic divalent levels help to explain properties of release evoked by strontium. Parallel fiber synaptic currents triggered by strontium are smaller in amplitude and longer in duration than those triggered by calcium. In both calcium and strontium, release consists of two components, one more steeply dependent on divalent levels than the other. Strontium drives both components less effectively than does calcium, suggesting that the affinities of the sensors involved in both phases of release are lower for strontium than for calcium. Thus, the larger and slower strontium transients account for the prominent slow component of release triggered by

  3. Presynaptic strontium dynamics and synaptic transmission.

    PubMed Central

    Xu-Friedman, M A; Regehr, W G

    1999-01-01

    Strontium can replace calcium in triggering neurotransmitter release, although peak release is reduced and the duration of release is prolonged. Strontium has therefore become useful in probing release, but its mechanism of action is not well understood. Here we study the action of strontium at the granule cell to Purkinje cell synapse in mouse cerebellar slices. Presynaptic residual strontium levels were monitored with fluorescent indicators, which all responded to strontium (fura-2, calcium orange, fura-2FF, magnesium green, and mag-fura-5). When calcium was replaced by equimolar concentrations of strontium in the external bath, strontium and calcium both entered presynaptic terminals. Contaminating calcium was eliminated by including EGTA in the extracellular bath, or by loading parallel fibers with EGTA, enabling the actions of strontium to be studied in isolation. After a single stimulus, strontium reached higher peak free levels than did calcium (approximately 1.7 times greater), and decayed more slowly (half-decay time 189 ms for strontium and 32 ms for calcium). These differences in calcium and strontium dynamics are likely a consequence of greater strontium permeability through calcium channels, lower affinity of the endogenous buffer for strontium, and less efficient extrusion of strontium. Measurements of presynaptic divalent levels help to explain properties of release evoked by strontium. Parallel fiber synaptic currents triggered by strontium are smaller in amplitude and longer in duration than those triggered by calcium. In both calcium and strontium, release consists of two components, one more steeply dependent on divalent levels than the other. Strontium drives both components less effectively than does calcium, suggesting that the affinities of the sensors involved in both phases of release are lower for strontium than for calcium. Thus, the larger and slower strontium transients account for the prominent slow component of release triggered by

  4. High-resolution stratigraphy with strontium isotopes.

    PubMed

    Depaolo, D J; Ingram, B L

    1985-02-22

    The isotopic ratio of strontium-87 to strontium-86 shows no detectable variation in present-day ocean water but changes slowly over millions of years. The strontium contained in carbonate shells of marine organisms records the ratio of strontium-87 to strontium-86 of the oceans at the time that the shells form. Sedimentary rocks composed of accumulated fossil carbonate shells can be dated and correlated with the use of high precision measurements of the ratio of strontium-87 to strontium-86 with a resolution that is similar to that of other techniques used in age correlation. This method may prove valuable for many geological, paleontological, paleooceanographic, and geochemical problems.

  5. Strontium ranelate in osteoporosis.

    PubMed

    Reginster, J-Y

    2002-01-01

    Strontium ranelate is composed of an organic moiety (ranelic acid) and of two atoms of stable non-radioactive strontium. In vitro, strontium ranelate increases collagen and non-collagenic proteins synthesis by mature osteoblast enriched cells. The effects of strontium ranelate on bone formation were confirmed as strontium ranelate enhanced pre-osteoblastic cells replication. The stimulation by strontium ranelate of the replication of osteoprogenitor cells and collagen as well as non-collagenic protein synthesis in osteoblasts provides substantial evidence to categorise SR ranelate as a bone forming agent. In the mouse calvaria culture system, SR ranelate induces a dose-dependent inhibition of labelled calcium release. The inhibitory effects of SR ranelate on bone resorption were close to those of salmon calcitonin. In the isolated rat osteoclast assay, a pre-incubation of bone slices with SR ranelate induced a dose-dependent inhibition of the bone resorbing activity of a treated rat osteoclast. SR ranelate also dose-dependently inhibited, in a chicken bone marrow culture, the expression of both CA II and the alpha-subunit of the vitronectin receptor. These effects showing that SR ranelate significantly affects bone resorption due to direct and/or matrix-mediated inhibition of osteoclast activity and also inhibits osteoclasts differentiation are compatible with the profile of an anti-resorptive drug. In normal rats, administration of SR ranelate induces an improvement in the mechanical properties of the humerus and/or the lumbar vertebra associated with a commensurate increase in bone dimension, shaft and volume. This was not related to any change in the stiffness, suggesting the absence of a mineralisation defect. After oral administration of SR ranelate in humans, the absolute bio-availability of SR ranelate is 27 % after a dose of 2g is given as sachets. The simultaneous intake of SR ranelate and calcium remarkably reduces the bio-availability of SR. SR ranelate

  6. Interferometry with Strontium Ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, Jarom; Lambert, Enoch; Otterstrom, Nils; Jones, Tyler; Durfee, Dallin

    2014-05-01

    We describe progress on a cold ion matter-wave interferometer. Cold Strontium atoms are extracted from an LVIS. The atoms will be photo-ionized with a two-photon transition to an auto-ionizing state in the continuum. The ions will be split and recombined using stimulated Raman transitions from a pair of diode lasers injection locked to two beams from a master laser which have been shifted up and down by half the hyperfine splitting. We are developing laser instrumentation for this project including a method to prevent mode-hopping by analyzing laser frequency noise, and an inexpensive, robust wavelength meter. Supported by NSF Award No. 1205736.

  7. Method for primary containment of cesium wastes

    DOEpatents

    Angelini, Peter; Lackey, Walter J.; Stinton, David P.; Blanco, Raymond E.; Bond, Walter D.; Arnold, Jr., Wesley D.

    1983-01-01

    A method for producing a cesium-retentive waste form, characterized by a high degree of compositional stability and mechanical integrity, is provided by subjecting a cesium-loaded zeolite to heat under conditions suitable for stabilizing the zeolite and immobilizing the cesium, and coating said zeolite for sufficient duration within a suitable environment with at least one dense layer of pyrolytic carbon to seal therein said cesium to produce a final, cesium-bearing waste form. Typically, the zeolite is stabilized and the cesium immobilized in less than four hours by confinement within an air environment maintained at about 600.degree. C. Coatings are thereafter applied by confining the calcined zeolite within a coating environment comprising inert fluidizing and carbon donor gases maintained at 1,000.degree. C. for a suitable duration.

  8. "Computational Modeling of Actinide Complexes"

    SciTech Connect

    Balasubramanian, K

    2007-03-07

    We will present our recent studies on computational actinide chemistry of complexes which are not only interesting from the standpoint of actinide coordination chemistry but also of relevance to environmental management of high-level nuclear wastes. We will be discussing our recent collaborative efforts with Professor Heino Nitsche of LBNL whose research group has been actively carrying out experimental studies on these species. Computations of actinide complexes are also quintessential to our understanding of the complexes found in geochemical, biochemical environments and actinide chemistry relevant to advanced nuclear systems. In particular we have been studying uranyl, plutonyl, and Cm(III) complexes are in aqueous solution. These studies are made with a variety of relativistic methods such as coupled cluster methods, DFT, and complete active space multi-configuration self-consistent-field (CASSCF) followed by large-scale CI computations and relativistic CI (RCI) computations up to 60 million configurations. Our computational studies on actinide complexes were motivated by ongoing EXAFS studies of speciated complexes in geo and biochemical environments carried out by Prof Heino Nitsche's group at Berkeley, Dr. David Clark at Los Alamos and Dr. Gibson's work on small actinide molecules at ORNL. The hydrolysis reactions of urnayl, neputyl and plutonyl complexes have received considerable attention due to their geochemical and biochemical importance but the results of free energies in solution and the mechanism of deprotonation have been topic of considerable uncertainty. We have computed deprotonating and migration of one water molecule from the first solvation shell to the second shell in UO{sub 2}(H{sub 2}O){sub 5}{sup 2+}, UO{sub 2}(H{sub 2}O){sub 5}{sup 2+}NpO{sub 2}(H{sub 2}O){sub 6}{sup +}, and PuO{sub 2}(H{sub 2}O){sub 5}{sup 2+} complexes. Our computed Gibbs free energy(7.27 kcal/m) in solution for the first time agrees with the experiment (7.1 kcal

  9. Rapid determination of strontium-90 by solid phase extraction using DGA Resin® for seawater monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tazoe, H.; Obata, H.; Yamagata, T.; Karube, Z.; Yamada, M.

    2015-12-01

    Strontium-90 concentrations in seawater exceeding the background level have been observed at the accidents of nuclear facilities, such as Chernobyl and Fukushima. However, analytical procedure for strontium-90 in seawater is still quite complicated and challenging. Here we show a simple and rapid analytical technique for the determination of strontium-90 in seawater samples without time-consuming separation of strontium from calcium. The separation with DGA Resin® is used to determine the abundance of strontium-90, which selectively collects yttrium-90, progeny of strontium-90. Naturally occurring radioactive nuclides (such as potassium, lead, bismuth, uranium, and thorium) and anthropogenic radionuclides (such as cesium, barium, lanthanum, and cerium) were separated from yttrium. Through a sample separation procedure, a high chemical yield of yttrium-90 was achieved at 93.9 % for seawater. The result of IAEA 443 certified seawater analysis was in good agreement with the certified value. At 20 hrs counting a lower detection limit of 1.5 mBq L-1 was obtained from 3 L of seawater. The proposed method can finish analyzing 8 samples per day, which is a reasonably fast throughput in actual seawater monitoring. Reproducibility was found to be 3.4 % according to 10 separate analyses of natural seawater samples from the vicinity of Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant in September 2013.

  10. Cesium-specific phenolic ion exchange resin

    DOEpatents

    Bibler, J.P.; Wallace, R.M.

    1995-08-15

    A phenolic, cesium-specific, cation exchange resin is prepared by neutralizing resorcinol with potassium hydroxide, condensing/polymerizing the resulting intermediate with formaldehyde, heat-curing the resulting polymer to effect cross-linking and grinding it to desired particle size for use. This resin will selectively and efficiently adsorb cesium ions in the presence of a high concentration of sodium ions with a low carbon to cesium ratio. 2 figs.

  11. Cesium-specific phenolic ion exchange resin

    DOEpatents

    Bibler, Jane P.; Wallace, Richard M.

    1995-01-01

    A phenolic, cesium-specific, cation exchange resin is prepared by neutralizing resorcinol with potassium hydroxide, condensing/polymerizing the resulting intermediate with formaldehyde, heat-curing the resulting polymer to effect cross-linking and grinding it to desired particle size for use. This resin will selectively and efficiently adsorb cesium ions in the presence of a high concentration of sodium ions with a low carbon to cesium ratio.

  12. Cesium standard for satellite application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bloch, M. B.; Meirs, M.; Pascaru, I.; Weinstein, B.

    1983-01-01

    A Cesium frequency standard that was developed for satellite applications is discussed. It weighs 23 lbs. and uses 23.5 watts of power, achieves a stability of 1 x ten to the minus 13th power/100,000 seconds, and is radiation hardened. To achieve the weight and reliability requirements, both thick and thin film hybrid circuits were utilized. A crystal oscillator is used to improve short-term stability and performance on a moving platform.

  13. Cesium recovery from aqueous solutions

    DOEpatents

    Goodhall, C. A.

    1960-09-13

    A process for recovering cesium from aqueous solutions is given in which precipitation on zinc ferricyanide is used. The precipitation is preferably carried out in solutions containing at least 0.0004M zinc ferricyanide, an acidity ranging from 0.2N mineral acid to 0.61N acid deficiency, and 1 to 2.5M aluminum nitrate. (D.L.C.)

  14. Cesium heat-pipe thermostat

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, F.; Song, D.; Sheng, K.; Wu, J.; Yi, X.; Yu, Z.

    2013-09-11

    In this paper the authors report a newly developed Cesium Heat-Pipe Thermostat (Cs HPT) with the operation range of 400 °C to 800 °C. The working medium is cesium (Cs) of 99.98% purity and contains no radioisotope. A Cs filing device is developed which can prevent Cs being in contact with air. The structural material is stainless steel. A 5000 h test has been made to confirm the compatibility between cesium and stainless steel. The Cs HPT has several thermometer wells of 220mm depth with different diameters for different sizes of thermometers. The temperature uniformity of the Cs HPT is 0.06 °C to 0.20 °C. A precise temperature controller is used to ensure the temperature fluctuation within ±0.03 °C. The size of Cs HPT is 380mm×320mm×280mm with foot wheels for easy moving. The thermostat has been successfully used for the calibration of industrial platinum resistance thermometers and thermocouples.

  15. One-electron physics of the actinides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toropova, A.; Marianetti, C. A.; Haule, K.; Kotliar, G.

    2007-10-01

    We present a detailed analysis of the one-electron physics of the actinides. Various linear muffin-tin orbital basis sets are analyzed in order to determine a robust bare Hamiltonian for the actinides. The hybridization between f and spd states is compared with the f-f hopping in order to understand the Anderson-like and Hubbard-like contributions to itineracy in the actinides. We show that both contributions decrease strongly as one moves from the light actinides to the heavy actinides, while the Anderson-like contribution dominates in all cases. A real-space analysis of the band structure shows that nearest-neighbor hopping dominates the physics in these materials. Finally, we discuss the implications of our results to the delocalization transition as a function of atomic number across the actinide series.

  16. Actinide Recovery Method for Large Soil Samples

    SciTech Connect

    Maxwell, S.L. III; Nichols, S.

    1998-11-01

    A new Actinide Recovery Method has been developed by the Savannah River Site Central Laboratory to preconcentrate actinides in very large soil samples. Diphonix Resin(r) is used eliminate soil matrix interferences and preconcentrate actinides after soil leaching or soil fusion. A rapid microwave digestion technique is used to remove the actinides from the Diphonix Resin(r). After the resin digestion, the actinides are recovered in a small volume of nitric acid which can be easily loaded onto small extraction-chromatography columns, such as TEVA Resin(r), U-TEVA Resin(r) or TRU Resin(r) (Eichrom Industries). This method enables the application of small, selective extraction-columns to recover actinides from very large soil samples with high selectivity, consistent tracer recoveries and minimal liquid waste.

  17. Actinide recovery techniques utilizing electromechanical processes

    SciTech Connect

    Westphal, B.R.; Benedict, R.W.

    1994-01-01

    Under certain conditions, the separation of actinides using electromechanical techniques may be an effective means of residue processing. The separation of granular mixtures of actinides and other materials discussed in this report is based on appreciable differences in the magnetic and electrical properties of the actinide elements. In addition, the high density of actinides, particularly uranium and plutonium, may render a simultaneous separation based on mutually complementary parameters. Both high intensity magnetic separation and electrostatic separation have been investigated for the concentration of an actinide waste stream. Waste stream constituents include an actinide metal alloy and broken quartz shards. The investigation of these techniques is in support of the Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) concept currently being developed at Argonne National Laboratory under the auspices of the Department of Energy.

  18. Thermoelectricity in strontium titanate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scullin, Matthew Leo

    This dissertation treats the synthesis, experimental characterization, thermoelectric properties, potential applications of, and theoretical basis for strontium titanate thermoelectric materials. It is found that doubly-doped strontium titanate, Sr1-xLaxTiO3-d is an efficient n-type thermoelectric material, yielding a dimensionless thermoelectric figure of merit zT higher than other oxides and among the highest of any thermoelectric material in general. The improvement in thermoelectric efficiency of this material over other oxides is attributed in large part to the oxygen vacancy, which increases the electronic effective mass m* and in turn thermopower, increases electrical conductivity through donating electrons, and decreases lattice thermal conductivity. Through proper selection of La and oxygen vacancy doping, m* can be tuned in the material in the range of 2-20 me and thermal conductivity reduced by over a factor of three compared to stoichiometric SrTiO3. The potential applications of thin-film thermoelectrics in energy conversion are explored. In addition, the remarkable oxygen reduction of SrTiO3 single-crystal substrates is reported as resulting from pulsed laser deposition growth of oxide thin-films on their surfaces.

  19. Boron implanted strontium titanate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooper, C. J. M.

    Single crystals of strontium titanate implanted with boron were found to have highly conductive surface layers. The effects of varying dose from 10 to the 16th power to 10 to the 17th power ions/sq cm, implantation voltage from 50 to 175 keV and annealing conditions on the room temperature surface resistance and Hall mobility are presented. Variation of the implantation voltage did not have a major effect on the sheet resistances obtained by boron implantation of strontium titanate, while dose and annealing conditions have major effects. Doses of 5 x 10 to the 16th power ions/sq cm required annealing on the order of one hour at 500 K for maximum reduction of the room temperature resistance in the implanted layer. Samples implanted with a dose of 1 x 10 to the 17th power ions/sq cm required slightly higher temperatures (approximately 575 K) to obtain a minimum resistance at room temperature. Long term (several weeks) room temperature annealing was found to occur in high dose samples. After one to two months at room temperature followed by an anneal to 575 K, the surface resistances were found to be lower than those produced by the annealing of a freshly implanted sample to 575 K.

  20. Process for recovering actinide values

    DOEpatents

    Horwitz, E. Philip; Mason, George W.

    1980-01-01

    A process for rendering actinide values recoverable from sodium carbonate scrub waste solutions containing these and other values along with organic compounds resulting from the radiolytic and hydrolytic degradation of neutral organophosphorous extractants such as tri-n butyl phosphate (TBP) and dihexyl-N,N-diethyl carbamylmethylene phosphonate (DHDECAMP) which have been used in the reprocessing of irradiated nuclear reactor fuels. The scrub waste solution is preferably made acidic with mineral acid, to form a feed solution which is then contacted with a water-immiscible, highly polar organic extractant which selectively extracts the degradation products from the feed solution. The feed solution can then be processed to recover the actinides for storage or recycled back into the high-level waste process stream. The extractant is recycled after stripping the degradation products with a neutral sodium carbonate solution.

  1. Actinide abundances in ordinary chondrites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hagee, B.; Bernatowicz, T. J.; Podosek, F. A.; Johnson, M. L.; Burnett, D. S.

    1990-01-01

    Measurements of actinide and light REE (LREE) abundances and of phosphate abundances in equilibrated ordinary chondrites were obtained and were used to define the Pu abundance in the solar system and to determine the degree of variation of actinide and LREE abundances. The results were also used to compare directly the Pu/U ratio with the earlier obtained ratio determined indirectly, as (Pu/Nd)x(Nd/U), assuming that Pu behaves chemically as a LREE. The data, combined with high-accuracy isotope-dilution data from the literature, show that the degree of gram-scale variability of the Th, U, and LREE abundances for equilibrated ordinary chondrites is a factor of 2-3 for absolute abundances and up to 50 percent for relative abundances. The observed variations are interpreted as reflecting the differences in the compositions and/or proportions of solar nebula components accreted to ordinary chondrite parent bodies.

  2. Fall MRS 2003: Actinides Symposium

    SciTech Connect

    Tobin, J

    2003-11-24

    {lg_bullet} The focus was on fundamental actinide science and its role. {lg_bullet} History- none except the Nuclear Waste Management Symposia {lg_bullet} Joint Sessions- none but we are open to it in the future. {lg_bullet} Tutorials- none but we are open to it in the future. {lg_bullet} 3 days: 16 Invited talks; 36 Contributed Talks; 10 Posters

  3. Strontium-90 fluoride data sheet

    SciTech Connect

    Fullam, H.T.

    1981-06-01

    This report is a compilation of available data and appropriate literature references on the properties of strontium-90 fluoride and nonradioactive strontium fluoride. The objective of the document is to compile in a single source pertinent data to assist potential users in the development, licensing, and use of /sup 90/SrF/sub 2/-fueled radioisotope heat sources for terrestrial power conversion and thermal applications. The report is an update of the Strontium-90 Fluoride Data Sheet (BNWL-2284) originally issued in April 1977.

  4. THE VISCOSITY OF HELIUM-CESIUM MIXTURES,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    The viscosities of helium-cesium mixtures having mole fractions of cesium from zero to unity were evaluated using a Lennard - Jones 6-12 interaction potential for all encounters in the Enskog Chapman expressions for the viscosity of a binary mixture. (Author)

  5. Small-Scale Ion Exchange Removal of Cesium and Technetium from Hanford Tank 241-AN-103

    SciTech Connect

    Hassan, N.M.

    2000-07-27

    The pretreatment process for BNFL, Inc.'s Hanford River Protection Project is to provide decontaminated low activity waste and concentrated eluate streams for vitrification into low activity and high level waste glass, respectively. The pretreatment includes sludge washing, filtration, precipitation, and ion exchange processes to remove entrained solids, cesium, transuranics, technetium, and strontium. The ion exchange removal of cesium (Cs) and technetium (Tc) ions is accomplished by using SuperLig 644, and 639 resins from IBC Advanced Technologies, American Fork, Utah. The resins were shown to selectively remove cesium and technetium (as pertechnetate), from alkaline salt solutions. The efficiency of ion exchange column loading and elution is a complex function involving feed compositions, equilibrium and kinetic behavior of ion exchange resins, diffusion, and the ionic strength and pH of the aqueous solution. A previous experimental program completed at the Savannah River Technology Center demonstrated the conceptualized flow sheet parameters with a similar Hanford tank sample (241-AW-101). Those experiments included determination of Cs and Tc batch distribution coefficients by SuperLig 644 and 639 resins and demonstration of small-scale column breakthrough and elution. The experimental findings were used in support of preliminary design bases and pretreatment flow sheet development by BNFL, Inc.

  6. Small-Scale Ion Exchange Removal of Cesium and Technetium from Hanford Tank 241-AN-102

    SciTech Connect

    Hassan, N.M.

    2000-07-27

    The pretreatment process for BNFL, Inc.'s Hanford River Protection Project is to provide decontaminated low activity waste and concentrated eluate streams for vitrification into low and high activity waste glass, respectively. The pretreatment includes sludge washing, filtration, precipitation, and ion exchange processes to remove entrained solids, cesium, transuranics, technetium, and strontium. The cesium (Cs-137) and technetium (Tc-99) ion exchange removal is accomplished by using SuperLig 644, and 639 resins from IBC Advanced Technologies, American Fork, Utah. The resins were shown to selectively remove cesium and technetium (as anionic pertechnetate ) from alkaline salt solutions. The efficiency of ion exchange column loading and elution is a complex function involving feed compositions, equilibrium and kinetic behavior of ion exchange resins, diffusion, and the ionic strength and pH of the aqueous solution. A previous experimental program completed at the Savannah River Tech nology Center2 demonstrated the conceptualized flow sheet parameters with an Envelope C sample from Hanford Tank 241-AN-107. Those experiments also included determination of Cs and Tc batch distribution coefficients by SuperLig 644 and 639 resins and demonstration of small-scale column breakthrough and elution. The experimental findings were used in support of preliminary design bases and pretreatment flow sheet development by BNFL, Inc.

  7. PIXE analyses of cesium in rice grains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugai, Hiroyuki; Ishii, Keizo; Matsuyama, Shigeo; Terakawa, Atsuki; Kikuchi, Yohei; Takahashi, Hiroaki; Ishizaki, Azusa; Fujishiro, Fumito; Arai, Hirotsugu; Osada, Naoyuki; Karahashi, Masahiro; Nozawa, Yuichiro; Yamauchi, Shosei; Kikuchi, Kosuke; Koshio, Shigeki; Watanabe, Koji

    2014-01-01

    The Fukushima nuclear power plant accident released vast amounts of radioactive material into the environment. For instance, 134Cs and 137Cs have half-lives of about 2 and 30 years, respectively, and emit many harmful gamma rays. In 2012, rice with radioactivity >100 Bq/kg was occasionally reported in Fukushima prefecture. To determine where and how cesium accumulates in rice, we grew rice in soil containing stable cesium and investigated the distribution of cesium in rice using particle-induced X-ray emission (PIXE). This study found that cesium is accumulated in bran and germ at high concentrations, and white rice contains 40% of the cesium found in brown rice.

  8. CESIUM RECOVERY FROM AQUEOUS SOLUTIONS

    DOEpatents

    Schneider, R.A.

    1961-06-20

    Cesium may be precipitated from an aqueous solution whose acidity ranges between a pH of 1.5 and a molarity of 5 on cobaltous, zinc, cadmium, nickel, or ferrous cobalticyanide. This precipitation brings about a separation from most fission products. Ruthenium which coprecipitates to a great degree can be removed by dissolving in sulfuric acid and boiling the solution in the presence of periodic acid for volatilization; other coprecipitated fission products can then be precipitated from the sulfuric acid solution with a ferric hydroxide carrier.

  9. Analysis of large soil samples for actinides

    DOEpatents

    Maxwell, III; Sherrod, L [Aiken, SC

    2009-03-24

    A method of analyzing relatively large soil samples for actinides by employing a separation process that includes cerium fluoride precipitation for removing the soil matrix and precipitates plutonium, americium, and curium with cerium and hydrofluoric acid followed by separating these actinides using chromatography cartridges.

  10. Prompt fission neutron spectra of actinides

    SciTech Connect

    Capote, R.; Chen, Y. -J.; Hambsch, F. -J.; Kornilov, N. V.; Lestone, J. P.; Litaize, O.; Morillon, B.; Neudecker, D.; Oberstedt, S.; Ohsawa, T.; Otuka, N.; Pronyaev, V. G.; Saxena, A.; Serot, O.; Shcherbakov, O. A.; Shu, N. -C.; Smith, D. L.; Talou, P.; Trkov, A.; Tudora, A. C.; Vogt, R.; Vorobyev, A. S.

    2016-01-06

    Here, the energy spectrum of prompt neutrons emitted in fission (PFNS) plays a very important role in nuclear science and technology. A Coordinated Research Project (CRP) "Evaluation of Prompt Fission Neutron Spectra of Actinides" was established by the IAEA Nuclear Data Section in 2009, with the major goal to produce new PFNS evaluations with uncertainties for actinide nuclei.

  11. Prompt fission neutron spectra of actinides

    DOE PAGES

    Capote, R.; Chen, Y. -J.; Hambsch, F. -J.; ...

    2016-01-06

    Here, the energy spectrum of prompt neutrons emitted in fission (PFNS) plays a very important role in nuclear science and technology. A Coordinated Research Project (CRP) "Evaluation of Prompt Fission Neutron Spectra of Actinides" was established by the IAEA Nuclear Data Section in 2009, with the major goal to produce new PFNS evaluations with uncertainties for actinide nuclei.

  12. Prompt fission neutron spectrum of actinides

    SciTech Connect

    Capote, R.; Chen, Y. -J.; Hambsch, F. J.; Jurado, B.; Lestone, J. P.; Litaize, O.; Morillon, B.; Neudecker, D.; Oberstedt, S.; Ohsawa, T.; Otuka, N.; Pronyaev, V. G.; Saxena, A.; Schmidt, K. H.; Shcherbakov, O. A.; Shu, N. -C.; Smith, D. L.; Talou, P.; Trkov, A.; Tudora, A. C.; Vogt, R.; Vorobyev, A. S.

    2016-01-06

    Here, the energy spectrum of prompt neutron emitted in fission (PFNS) plays a very important role in nuclear science and technology. A Coordinated Research Project (CRP) "Evaluation of Prompt Fission Neutron Spectra of Actinides" was established by the IAEA Nuclear Data Section in 2009, with the major goal to produce new PFNS evaluations with uncertainties for actinide nuclei.

  13. Actinide ion sensor for pyroprocess monitoring

    DOEpatents

    Jue, Jan-fong; Li, Shelly X.

    2014-06-03

    An apparatus for real-time, in-situ monitoring of actinide ion concentrations which comprises a working electrode, a reference electrode, a container, a working electrolyte, a separator, a reference electrolyte, and a voltmeter. The container holds the working electrolyte. The voltmeter is electrically connected to the working electrode and the reference electrode and measures the voltage between those electrodes. The working electrode contacts the working electrolyte. The working electrolyte comprises an actinide ion of interest. The reference electrode contacts the reference electrolyte. The reference electrolyte is separated from the working electrolyte by the separator. The separator contacts both the working electrolyte and the reference electrolyte. The separator is ionically conductive to the actinide ion of interest. The reference electrolyte comprises a known concentration of the actinide ion of interest. The separator comprises a beta double prime alumina exchanged with the actinide ion of interest.

  14. Interactions of microbial exopolymers with actinides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Mitchell T.; Chitwood, Dawn J.; He, Lee; Neu, Mary P.

    2000-07-01

    The development of viable bioremediation strategies for radionuclide contaminated soils, sediments and ground waters at DOE sites is a formidable challenge. Ubiquitous microorganisms can absorb, oxidize, reduce and/or precipitate actinides and thereby affect the speciation, solubility, bioavailability, and migration of these toxic metals. Actinides can interact directly with microorganisms, i.e., via sorption to the cell wall, and indirectly via reaction with their byproducts, such as extracellular polymers. However, very little is known about the fundamental chemistry of any microbial-actinide interactions or their impact on environmental processes. Our goal is to fully characterize specific microbial-actinide interactions and determine how they may be exploited to effect environmental actinide mobility/immobility and remediation efforts.

  15. Exploring actinide materials through synchrotron radiation techniques.

    PubMed

    Shi, Wei-Qun; Yuan, Li-Yong; Wang, Cong-Zhi; Wang, Lin; Mei, Lei; Xiao, Cheng-Liang; Zhang, Li; Li, Zi-Jie; Zhao, Yu-Liang; Chai, Zhi-Fang

    2014-12-10

    Synchrotron radiation (SR) based techniques have been utilized with increasing frequency in the past decade to explore the brilliant and challenging sciences of actinide-based materials. This trend is partially driven by the basic needs for multi-scale actinide speciation and bonding information and also the realistic needs for nuclear energy research. In this review, recent research progresses on actinide related materials by means of various SR techniques were selectively highlighted and summarized, with the emphasis on X-ray absorption spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction and scattering spectroscopy, which are powerful tools to characterize actinide materials. In addition, advanced SR techniques for exploring future advanced nuclear fuel cycles dealing with actinides are illustrated as well. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Actinide abundances in ordinary chondrites

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hagee, B.; Bernatowicz, T.J.; Podosek, F.A.; Johnson, M.L.; Burnett, D.S.; Tatsumoto, M.

    1990-01-01

    Measurements of 244Pu fission Xe, U, Th, and light REE (LREE) abundances, along with modal petrographic determinations of phosphate abundances, were carried out on equilibrated ordinary chondrites in order to define better the solar system Pu abundance and to determine the degree of variation of actinide and LREE abundances. Our data permit comparison of the directly measured Pu/ U ratio with that determined indirectly as (Pu/Nd) ?? (Nd/U) assuming that Pu behaves chemically as a LREE. Except for Guaren??a, and perhaps H chondrites in general, Pu concentrations are similar to that determined previously for St. Se??verin, although less precise because of higher trapped Xe contents. Trapped 130Xe 136Xe ratios appear to vary from meteorite to meteorite, but, relative to AVCC, all are similar in the sense of having less of the interstellar heavy Xe found in carbonaceous chondrite acid residues. The Pu/U and Pu/Nd ratios are consistent with previous data for St. Se??verin, but both tend to be slightly higher than those inferred from previous data on Angra dos Reis. Although significant variations exist, the distribution of our Th/U ratios, along with other precise isotope dilution data for ordinary chondrites, is rather symmetric about the CI chondrite value; however, actinide/(LREE) ratios are systematically lower than the CI value. Variations in actinide or LREE absolute and relative abundances are interpreted as reflecting differences in the proportions and/or compositions of more primitive components (chondrules and CAI materials?) incorporated into different regions of the ordinary chondrite parent bodies. The observed variations of Th/U, Nd/U, or Ce/U suggest that measurements of Pu/U on any single equilibrated ordinary chondrite specimen, such as St. Se??verin, should statistically be within ??20-30% of the average solar system value, although it is also clear that anomalous samples exist. ?? 1990.

  17. Minor Actinides Recycling in PWRs

    SciTech Connect

    Delpech, M.; Golfier, H.; Vasile, A.; Varaine, F.; Boucher, L.; Greneche, D.

    2006-07-01

    Recycling of minor actinides in current and near future PWR is considered as one of the options of the general waste management strategy. This paper presents the analysis of this option both from the core physics and fuel cycle point of view. A first indicator of the efficiency of different neutron spectra for transmutation purposes is the capture to fission cross sections ratio which is less favourable by a factor between 5 to 10 in PWRs compared to fast reactors. Another indicator presented is the production of high ranking isotopes like Curium, Berkelium or Californium in the thermal or epithermal spectrum conditions of PWR cores by successive neutron captures. The impact of the accumulation of this elements on the fabrication process of such PWR fuels strongly penalizes this option. The main constraint on minor actinides loadings in PWR (or fast reactors) fuels are related to their direct impact (or the impact of their transmutation products) on the reactivity coefficients, the reactivity control means and the core kinetics parameters. The main fuel cycle physical parameters like the neutron source, the alpha decay power, the gamma and neutrons dose rate and the criticality aspects are also affected. Recent neutronic calculations based on a reference core of the Evolutionary Pressurized Reactor (EPR), indicates typical maximum values of 1 % loadings. Different fuel design options for minor actinides transmutation purposes in PWRs are presented: UOX and MOX, homogeneous and heterogeneous assemblies. In this later case, Americium loading is concentrated in specific pins of a standard UOX assembly. Recycling of Neptunium in UOX and MOX fuels was also studied to improve the proliferation resistance of the fuel. The impact on the core physics and penalties on Uranium enrichment were underlined in this case. (authors)

  18. Separation of actinides from lanthanides

    DOEpatents

    Smith, Barbara F.; Jarvinen, Gordon D.; Ryan, Robert R.

    1989-01-01

    An organic extracting solution and an extraction method useful for separating elements of the actinide series of the periodic table from elements of the lanthanide series, where both are in trivalent form. The extracting solution consists of a primary ligand and a secondary ligand, preferably in an organic solvent. The primary ligand is a substituted monothio-1,3-dicarbonyl, which includes a substituted 4-acyl-2-pyrazolin-5-thione, such as 4-benzoyl-2,4-dihydro-5-methyl-2-phenyl-3H-pyrazol-3-thione (BMPPT). The secondary ligand is a substituted phosphine oxide, such as trioctylphosphine oxide (TOPO).

  19. Separation of actinides from lanthanides

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, B.F.; Jarvinen, G.D.; Ryan, R.R.

    1989-09-19

    This patent describes an organic extracting solution and an extraction method useful for separating elements of the actinide series of the periodic table from elements of the lanthanide series, where both are in trivalent form. The extracting solution consists of a primary ligand and a secondary ligand, preferably in an organic solvent. The primary ligand is a substituted monothio-1,3-dicarbonyl, which include a substituted 4-acyl-2-pyrazolin-5-thione, such as 4-benzoyl-2,4-dihydro-5-methyl-2-phenyl-3H-pyrazol-3-thione (BMPPT). The secondary ligand is a substituted phosphine oxide, such as trioctylphosphine oxide (TOPO).

  20. Separation of actinides from lanthanides

    DOEpatents

    Smith, B.F.; Jarvinen, G.D.; Ryan, R.R.

    1988-03-31

    An organic extracting solution and an extraction method useful for separating elements of the actinide series of the periodic table from elements of the lanthanide series, where both are in trivalent form is described. The extracting solution consists of a primary ligand and a secondary ligand, preferably in an organic solvent. The primary ligand is a substituted monothio-1,3-dicarbonyl, which includes a substituted 4-acyl-2-pyrazolin-5-thione, such as 4-benzoyl-2,4- dihydro-5-methyl-2-phenyl-3H-pyrazol-3-thione (BMPPT). The secondary ligand is a substituted phosphine oxide, such as trioctylphosphine oxide (TOPO).

  1. Ion Exchange Modeling of Crystalline Silicotitanate (IONSIV(R) IE-911) Column for Cesium Removal from Argentine Waste

    SciTech Connect

    Hang, T.

    2003-07-16

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the Nuclear Energy Commission of Argentina (CNEA) have a collaborative project to separate cesium/strontium from waste resulting from the production of Mo-99. The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is assisting DOE on this joint project by providing technical guidance to CNEA scientists. As part of the collaboration, PNNL staff works with staff at the Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) to run the VERSE-LC model for removal of cesium from the Mo-99 waste using the crystalline silicotitanate (CST) material (IONSIV(R) IE-911, UOP LLC, DesPlaines, IL) based on technical data provided by CNEA. This report discusses the VERSE-LC ion-exchange-column model and the predicted results of CNEA test cases.

  2. 10 CFR 35.2204 - Records of molybdenum-99, strontium-82, and strontium-85 concentrations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... concentrations. 35.2204 Section 35.2204 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION MEDICAL USE OF BYPRODUCT MATERIAL Records § 35.2204 Records of molybdenum-99, strontium-82, and strontium-85 concentrations. A licensee shall maintain a record of the molybdenum-99 concentration or strontium-82 and strontium-85...

  3. 10 CFR 35.2204 - Records of molybdenum-99, strontium-82, and strontium-85 concentrations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... concentrations. 35.2204 Section 35.2204 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION MEDICAL USE OF BYPRODUCT MATERIAL Records § 35.2204 Records of molybdenum-99, strontium-82, and strontium-85 concentrations. A licensee shall maintain a record of the molybdenum-99 concentration or strontium-82 and strontium-85...

  4. 10 CFR 35.2204 - Records of molybdenum-99, strontium-82, and strontium-85 concentrations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... concentrations. 35.2204 Section 35.2204 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION MEDICAL USE OF BYPRODUCT MATERIAL Records § 35.2204 Records of molybdenum-99, strontium-82, and strontium-85 concentrations. A licensee shall maintain a record of the molybdenum-99 concentration or strontium-82 and strontium-85...

  5. 10 CFR 35.2204 - Records of molybdenum-99, strontium-82, and strontium-85 concentrations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... concentrations. 35.2204 Section 35.2204 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION MEDICAL USE OF BYPRODUCT MATERIAL Records § 35.2204 Records of molybdenum-99, strontium-82, and strontium-85 concentrations. A licensee shall maintain a record of the molybdenum-99 concentration or strontium-82 and strontium-85...

  6. 10 CFR 35.2204 - Records of molybdenum-99, strontium-82, and strontium-85 concentrations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... concentrations. 35.2204 Section 35.2204 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION MEDICAL USE OF BYPRODUCT MATERIAL Records § 35.2204 Records of molybdenum-99, strontium-82, and strontium-85 concentrations. A licensee shall maintain a record of the molybdenum-99 concentration or strontium-82 and strontium-85...

  7. The use of strontium-87/strontium-86 ratios to measure atmospheric transport in forested watersheds

    SciTech Connect

    Graustein, W.C.; Armstrong, R.L.

    1983-01-21

    Strontium-87/strontium-86 ratios indicate the sources of strontium in samples of natural waters, vegetation, and soil material taken from watersheds in the Sangre de Cristo Mountains of New Mexico. More than 75 percent of the strontium in the vegetation is ultimately derived from atmospheric transport and less than 25 percent from the weathering of the underlying rock. Much of the airborne strontium enters the watersheds by impacting on coniferous foliage, but deciduous foliage apparently traps little, if any, strontium-bearing aerosol. The strontium and presumably other nutrients are continuously recycled in a nearly closed system consisting of upper soil horizons, forest litter, and the standing crop of vegetation.

  8. The Use of Strontium-87/Strontium-86 Ratios to Measure Atmospheric Transport into Forested Watersheds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graustein, William C.; Armstrong, Richard L.

    1983-01-01

    Strontium-87/strontium-86 ratios indicate the sources of strontium in samples of natural waters, vegetation, and soil material taken from watersheds in the Sangre de Cristo Mountains of New Mexico. More than 75 percent of the strontium in the vegetation is ultimately derived from atmospheric transport and less than 25 percent from the weathering of the underlying rock. Much of the airborne strontium enters the watersheds by impacting on coniferous foliage, but deciduous foliage apparently traps little, if any, strontium-bearing aerosol. The strontium and presumably other nutrients are continuously recycled in a nearly closed system consisting of upper soil horizons, forest litter, and the standing crop of vegetation.

  9. The effect of carrier strontium on the absorption of oral doses of radioactive strontium in rats

    PubMed Central

    Harrison, G. E.; Jones, H. G.; Sutton, A.

    1957-01-01

    Carrier strontium had relatively little effect on the retention of an oral dose of radioactive strontium by the rat when it was administered immediately after the radioactive dose. The proportion of the radioactive dose which was excreted in the urine, on the other hand, increased progressively with the carrier dose. There was a decreased uptake of radioactive strontium in rats fed on a special low strontium diet. The effects of dietary strontium are discussed. Evidence was found of a discrimination by the rat against strontium in favour of calcium which was accounted for, at least in part, by a preferential urinary excretion of strontium. PMID:13460240

  10. Effects of oral supplementation with stable strontium

    PubMed Central

    Skoryna, Stanley C.

    1981-01-01

    The biologic effects of stable strontium, a naturally occurring trace element in the diet and the body, have been little investigated. This paper discusses the effects of oral supplementation with stable strontium in laboratory studies and clinical investigations. The extent of intestinal absorption of various doses of orally administered strontium was estimated by determining serum and tissue levels with atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The central observation is that increased oral intake produces a direct increase in serum levels and intracellular uptake of strontium. The results of these studies, as well as those of other investigators, demonstrate that a moderate dosage of stable strontium does not adversely affect the level of calcium either in the serum or in soft tissues. In studies of patients receiving 1 to 1.5 g/d of strontium gluconate, a sustained increase in the serum level of strontium produced a 100-fold increase in the strontium:calcium ratio. In rats, studies indicate that an increase in intracellular strontium content following supplementation may exert a protective effect on mitochondrial structure, probably by means of a stabilizing effect of strontium on membranes. The strontium:calcium ratio in animals receiving a standard diet is higher in the cell than in the extracellular fluid; this may be of physiologic significance. An increase in density that corresponded to the deposition of stable strontium was observed in areas of bone lesions due to metastatic cancer in patients receiving stable strontium supplementation. This suggests the possibility of using strontium to mineralize osteophenic areas and to relieve bone pain. Also, because of reports of an inverse relation between the incidence of dental caries and a high strontium content in drinking water, the use of natural water containing relatively high levels of stable strontium should be considered. In each of these instances it is important to maintain a normal dietary intake of

  11. Process for strontium-82 separation

    DOEpatents

    Heaton, Richard C.; Jamriska, Sr., David J.; Taylor, Wayne A.

    1992-01-01

    A process for selective separation of strontium-82 and strontium-85 from proton irradiated molybdenum targets comprises dissolving the molybdenum target in a hydrogen peroxide solution to form a first solution containing ions selected from a group consisting of molybdenum, niobium, technetium, selenium, vanadium, arsenic, germanium, zirconium, rubidium, zinc, beryllium, cobalt, iron, manganese, chromium, strontium, and yttrium; passing the solution through a first cationic resin whereby ions selected from a group consisting of zinc, beryllium, cobalt, iron, manganese, chromium, strontium, yttrium a portion of zirconium and a portion of rubidium are selectively absorbed by the first resin; contacting the first resin with an acid solution to strip and remove the absorbed ions from the first cationic exchange resin to form a second solution; evaporating the second solution for a time sufficient to remove substantially all of the acid and water from the solution whereby a residue remains; dissolving the residue in a dilute acid to form a third solution; passing the third solution through a second cationic resin whereby the ions are absorbed by the second resin; contacting the second resin with a dilute sulfuric acid solution whereby the absorbed ions selected from the group consisting of rubidium, zinc, beryllium, cobalt, iron, manganese, chromium and zirconium are selectively removed from the second resin; and contacting the second resin with a dilute acid solution whereby the absorbed strontium ions are selectively removed.

  12. Process for strontium-82 separation

    DOEpatents

    Heaton, R.C.; Jamriska, D.J. Sr.; Taylor, W.A.

    1992-12-01

    A process for selective separation of strontium-82 and strontium-85 from proton irradiated molybdenum targets comprises dissolving the molybdenum target in a hydrogen peroxide solution to form a first solution containing ions selected from a group consisting of molybdenum, niobium, technetium, selenium, vanadium, arsenic, germanium, zirconium, rubidium, zinc, beryllium, cobalt, iron, manganese, chromium, strontium, and yttrium; passing the solution through a first cationic resin whereby ions selected from a group consisting of zinc, beryllium, cobalt, iron, manganese, chromium, strontium, yttrium a portion of zirconium and a portion of rubidium are selectively absorbed by the first resin; contacting the first resin with an acid solution to strip and remove the absorbed ions from the first cationic exchange resin to form a second solution; evaporating the second solution for a time sufficient to remove substantially all of the acid and water from the solution whereby a residue remains; dissolving the residue in a dilute acid to form a third solution; passing the third solution through a second cationic resin whereby the ions are absorbed by the second resin; contacting the second resin with a dilute sulfuric acid solution whereby the absorbed ions selected from the group consisting of rubidium, zinc, beryllium, cobalt, iron, manganese, chromium and zirconium are selectively removed from the second resin; and contacting the second resin with a dilute acid solution whereby the absorbed strontium ions are selectively removed. 1 fig.

  13. Photostriction of strontium ruthenate

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Tzu-Chiao; Wang, Hsin-Ping; Liu, Heng-Jui; Tsai, Dung-Sheng; Ke, Jr-Jian; Wu, Chung-Lun; Yin, Yu-Peng; Zhan, Qian; Lin, Gong-Ru; Chu, Ying-Hao; He, Jr-Hau

    2017-01-01

    Transition metal oxides with a perovskite crystal structure exhibit a variety of physical properties associated with the lattice. Among these materials, strontium ruthenate (SrRuO3) displays unusually strong coupling of charge, spin and lattice degrees of freedom that can give rise to the photostriction, that is, changes in the dimensions of material due to the absorption of light. In this study, we observe a photon-induced strain as high as 1.12% in single domain SrRuO3, which we attribute to a nonequilibrium of phonons that are a result of the strong interaction between the crystalline lattice and electrons excited by light. In addition, these light-induced changes in the SrRuO3 lattice affect its electrical resistance. The observation of both photostriction and photoresistance in SrRuO3 suggests the possibility of utilizing the mechanical and optical functionalities of the material for next-generation optoelectronics, such as remote switches, light-controlled elastic micromotors, microactuators and other optomechanical systems. PMID:28436430

  14. Multiwavelength Strontium Vapor Lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soldatov, A. N.; Yudin, N. A.

    2016-08-01

    Based on an analysis of experimental and theoretical works, modern notion on conditions of forming of population density inversion on self-terminating IR transitions of alkali-earth metals is given. It is demonstrated that there is a significant difference in the inversion formation in lasers on self-terminating transitions in the visible and near-IR ranges and lasers on self-terminating transitions of alkali-earth metals lasing IR lines in the mid-IR range. It is shown that in the discharge circuit of lasers on self-terminating metal atom transitions (LSMT) there are processes strengthening the influence of the known mechanism limiting the frequency and energy characteristics (FEC) of radiation caused by the presence of prepulse electron concentration. The mechanism of influence of these processes on FEC of the LSMT and technical methods of their neutralization are considered. The possibility of obtaining average lasing power of ~200 W from one liter volume of the active medium of the strontium vapor laser is demonstrated under conditions of neutralization of these processes.

  15. Experimental studies of actinides in molten salts

    SciTech Connect

    Reavis, J.G.

    1985-06-01

    This review stresses techniques used in studies of molten salts containing multigram amounts of actinides exhibiting intense alpha activity but little or no penetrating gamma radiation. The preponderance of studies have used halides because oxygen-containing actinide compounds (other than oxides) are generally unstable at high temperatures. Topics discussed here include special enclosures, materials problems, preparation and purification of actinide elements and compounds, and measurements of various properties of the molten volts. Property measurements discussed are phase relationships, vapor pressure, density, viscosity, absorption spectra, electromotive force, and conductance. 188 refs., 17 figs., 6 tabs.

  16. Degenerate Quantum Gases of Strontium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stellmer, Simon; Schreck, Florian; Killian, Thomas C.

    2014-03-01

    Degenerate quantum gases of alkaline-earth-like elements open new opportunities in research areas ranging from molecular physics to the study of strongly correlated systems. These experiments exploit the rich electronic structure of these elements, which is markedly different from the one of other species for which quantum degeneracy has been attained. Specifically, alkaline-earth-like atoms, such as strontium, feature metastable triplet states, narrow intercombination lines, and a nonmagnetic, closed-shell ground state. This review covers the creation of quantum degenerate gases of strontium and the first experiments performed with this new system. It focuses on laser-cooling and evaporation schemes, which enable the creation of Bose-Einstein condensates and degenerate Fermi gases of all strontium isotopes, and shows how they are used for the investigation of optical Feshbach resonances, the study of degenerate gases loaded into an optical lattice, as well as the coherent creation of Sr2 molecules.

  17. Sintered wire cesium dispenser photocathode

    DOEpatents

    Montgomery, Eric J; Ives, R. Lawrence; Falce, Louis R

    2014-03-04

    A photoelectric cathode has a work function lowering material such as cesium placed into an enclosure which couples a thermal energy from a heater to the work function lowering material. The enclosure directs the work function lowering material in vapor form through a low diffusion layer, through a free space layer, and through a uniform porosity layer, one side of which also forms a photoelectric cathode surface. The low diffusion layer may be formed from sintered powdered metal, such as tungsten, and the uniform porosity layer may be formed from wires which are sintered together to form pores between the wires which are continuous from the a back surface to a front surface which is also the photoelectric surface.

  18. Subsurface interactions of actinide species and microorganisms : implications for the bioremediation of actinide-organic mixtures.

    SciTech Connect

    Banaszak, J.E.; Reed, D.T.; Rittmann, B.E.

    1999-02-12

    By reviewing how microorganisms interact with actinides in subsurface environments, we assess how bioremediation controls the fate of actinides. Actinides often are co-contaminants with strong organic chelators, chlorinated solvents, and fuel hydrocarbons. Bioremediation can immobilize the actinides, biodegrade the co-contaminants, or both. Actinides at the IV oxidation state are the least soluble, and microorganisms accelerate precipitation by altering the actinide's oxidation state or its speciation. We describe how microorganisms directly oxidize or reduce actinides and how microbiological reactions that biodegrade strong organic chelators, alter the pH, and consume or produce precipitating anions strongly affect actinide speciation and, therefore, mobility. We explain why inhibition caused by chemical or radiolytic toxicities uniquely affects microbial reactions. Due to the complex interactions of the microbiological and chemical phenomena, mathematical modeling is an essential tool for research on and application of bioremediation involving co-contamination with actinides. We describe the development of mathematical models that link microbiological and geochemical reactions. Throughout, we identify the key research needs.

  19. Environmental Tests Of Cesium Frequency Standards

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sydnor, Richard L.; Tucker, Thomas K.; Greenhall, Charles A.; Diener, William A.; Maleki, Lutfollah

    1992-01-01

    Report describes environmental tests of cesium-beam frequency standards of United States Naval Observatory. Purpose of tests to determine effects of atmospheric temperature, relative humidity, and pressure on frequencies.

  20. Primary cesium time and frequency standards

    SciTech Connect

    Abashev, Yu.G.; Elkin, G.A.; Pushkin, S.B.

    1984-05-01

    Cesium frequency standards are used to determine the atomic second in SI units and to provide a national atomic-time scale at the leading meteorological laboratories of the world. In this paper, the state of cesium and atomic frequency standards are examined and methods of increasing their accuracy are analyzed. High-purity polycrystals of platinum-iridium alloy or high-purity and structurally perfect single crystals of tungsten and molybdenum are used as ionizers in beam detection. Relative frequency instabilities that have been obtained at the various laboratories are presented. The main sources of error in reproducing the unperturbed-transition frequency of cesium atoms are discussed, including the second-order Doppler effect and the Majorana effect. Accuracy estimates for cesium frequency standards of the world's leading meteorological laboratories are shown.

  1. RECOVERY OF CESIUM FROM WASTE SOLUTIONS

    DOEpatents

    Burgus, W.H.

    1959-06-30

    This patent covers the precipitation of fission products including cesium on nickel or ferric ferrocyanide and subsequent selective dissolution from the carrier with a solution of ammonia or mercurlc nitrate.

  2. Merging Maser and Cesium Clocks in Timescales

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-10-01

    OCT 2011 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2011 to 00-00-2011 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Merging Maser And Cesium Clocks In Timescales 5a...Prescribed by ANSI Std Z39-18 Merging Maser and Cesium Clocks In Timescales Demetrios...recent maser data relatively higher than older maser data. A Kalman Filter could assign different phase, frequency, and frequency drift process

  3. Statistical properties of high performance cesium standards

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Percival, D. B.

    1973-01-01

    The intermediate term frequency stability of a group of new high-performance cesium beam tubes at the U.S. Naval Observatory were analyzed from two viewpoints: (1) by comparison of the high-performance standards to the MEAN(USNO) time scale and (2) by intercomparisons among the standards themselves. For sampling times up to 5 days, the frequency stability of the high-performance units shows significant improvement over older commercial cesium beam standards.

  4. Actinide removal from spent salts

    DOEpatents

    Hsu, Peter C.; von Holtz, Erica H.; Hipple, David L.; Summers, Leslie J.; Adamson, Martyn G.

    2002-01-01

    A method for removing actinide contaminants (uranium and thorium) from the spent salt of a molten salt oxidation (MSO) reactor is described. Spent salt is removed from the reactor and analyzed to determine the contaminants present and the carbonate concentration. The salt is dissolved in water, and one or more reagents are added to precipitate the thorium as thorium oxide and/or the uranium as either uranium oxide or as a diuranate salt. The precipitated materials are filtered, dried and packaged for disposal as radioactive waste. About 90% of the thorium and/or uranium present is removed by filtration. After filtration, salt solutions having a carbonate concentration >20% can be dried and returned to the reactor for re-use. Salt solutions containing a carbonate concentration <20% require further clean-up using an ion exchange column, which yields salt solutions that contain less than 0.1 ppm of thorium or uranium.

  5. PF-4 actinide disposition strategy

    SciTech Connect

    Margevicius, Robert W

    2010-05-28

    The dwindling amount of Security Category I processing and storage space across the DOE Complex has driven the need for more effective storage of nuclear materials at LANL's Plutonium Facility's (PF-4's) vault. An effort was begun in 2009 to create a strategy, a roadmap, to identify all accountable nuclear material and determine their disposition paths, the PF-4 Actinide Disposition Strategy (PADS). Approximately seventy bins of nuclear materials with similar characteristics - in terms of isotope, chemical form, impurities, disposition location, etc. - were established in a database. The ultimate disposition paths include the material to remain at LANL, disposition to other DOE sites, and disposition to waste. If all the actions described in the document were taken, over half of the containers currently in the PF-4 vault would been eliminated. The actual amount of projected vault space will depend on budget and competing mission requirements, however, clearly a significant portion of the current LANL inventory can be either dispositioned or consolidated.

  6. A convenient iodination method for alcohols using cesium iodide/methanesulfonic acid and its comparison using cesium iodide/p-toluenesulfonic acid or cesium iodide/aluminium chloride.

    PubMed

    Khan, Khalid Mohammed; Zia-Ullah; Perveen, Shahnaz; Hayat, Safdar; Ali, Muhammad; Voelter, Wolfgang

    2008-01-01

    In situ generation of hydrogen iodide from cesium iodide/methanesulfonic acid was found to be an attractive reagent combination for the conversion of alkyl, allyl, and benzyl alcohols to their corresponding iodides under mild conditions. The method is compared with that using cesium iodide/p-toluenesulfonic acid or cesium iodide/aluminium chloride.

  7. BWR Assembly Optimization for Minor Actinide Recycling

    SciTech Connect

    G. Ivan Maldonado; John M. Christenson; J.P. Renier; T.F. Marcille; J. Casal

    2010-03-22

    The Primary objective of the proposed project is to apply and extend the latest advancements in LWR fuel management optimization to the design of advanced boiling water reactor (BWR) fuel assemblies specifically for the recycling of minor actinides (MAs).

  8. Joint Actinide Shock Physics Experimental Research - JASPER

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    Commonly known as JASPER the Joint Actinide Shock Physics Experimental Research facility is a two stage light gas gun used to study the behavior of plutonium and other materials under high pressures, temperatures, and strain rates.

  9. Joint Actinide Shock Physics Experimental Research - JASPER

    SciTech Connect

    2014-10-31

    Commonly known as JASPER the Joint Actinide Shock Physics Experimental Research facility is a two stage light gas gun used to study the behavior of plutonium and other materials under high pressures, temperatures, and strain rates.

  10. Advanced Aqueous Separation Systems for Actinide Partitioning

    SciTech Connect

    Nash, Kenneth L.; Clark, Sue; Meier, G Patrick; Alexandratos, Spiro; Paine, Robert; Hancock, Robert; Ensor, Dale

    2012-03-21

    One of the most challenging aspects of advanced processing of spent nuclear fuel is the need to isolate transuranium elements from fission product lanthanides. This project expanded the scope of earlier investigations of americium (Am) partitioning from the lanthanides with the synthesis of new separations materials and a centralized focus on radiochemical characterization of the separation systems that could be developed based on these new materials. The primary objective of this program was to explore alternative materials for actinide separations and to link the design of new reagents for actinide separations to characterizations based on actinide chemistry. In the predominant trivalent oxidation state, the chemistry of lanthanides overlaps substantially with that of the trivalent actinides and their mutual separation is quite challenging.

  11. Overview of actinide chemistry in the WIPP

    SciTech Connect

    Borkowski, Marian; Lucchini, Jean - Francois; Richmann, Michael K; Reed, Donald T; Khaing, Hnin; Swanson, Juliet

    2009-01-01

    The year 2009 celebrates 10 years of safe operations at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), the only nuclear waste repository designated to dispose defense-related transuranic (TRU) waste in the United States. Many elements contributed to the success of this one-of-the-kind facility. One of the most important of these is the chemistry of the actinides under WIPP repository conditions. A reliable understanding of the potential release of actinides from the site to the accessible environment is important to the WIPP performance assessment (PA). The environmental chemistry of the major actinides disposed at the WIPP continues to be investigated as part of the ongoing recertification efforts of the WIPP project. This presentation provides an overview of the actinide chemistry for the WIPP repository conditions. The WIPP is a salt-based repository; therefore, the inflow of brine into the repository is minimized, due to the natural tendency of excavated salt to re-seal. Reducing anoxic conditions are expected in WIPP because of microbial activity and metal corrosion processes that consume the oxygen initially present. Should brine be introduced through an intrusion scenario, these same processes will re-establish reducing conditions. In the case of an intrusion scenario involving brine, the solubilization of actinides in brine is considered as a potential source of release to the accessible environment. The following key factors establish the concentrations of dissolved actinides under subsurface conditions: (1) Redox chemistry - The solubility of reduced actinides (III and IV oxidation states) is known to be significantly lower than the oxidized forms (V and/or VI oxidation states). In this context, the reducing conditions in the WIPP and the strong coupling of the chemistry for reduced metals and microbiological processes with actinides are important. (2) Complexation - For the anoxic, reducing and mildly basic brine systems in the WIPP, the most important

  12. PREPARATION OF ACTINIDE-ALUMINUM ALLOYS

    DOEpatents

    Moore, R.H.

    1962-09-01

    BS>A process is given for preparing alloys of aluminum with plutonium, uranium, and/or thorium by chlorinating actinide oxide dissolved in molten alkali metal chloride with hydrochloric acid, chlorine, and/or phosgene, adding aluminum metal, and passing air and/or water vapor through the mass. Actinide metal is formed and alloyed with the aluminum. After cooling to solidification, the alloy is separated from the salt. (AEC)

  13. Transmutation of actinides in power reactors.

    PubMed

    Bergelson, B R; Gerasimov, A S; Tikhomirov, G V

    2005-01-01

    Power reactors can be used for partial short-term transmutation of radwaste. This transmutation is beneficial in terms of subsequent storage conditions for spent fuel in long-term storage facilities. CANDU-type reactors can transmute the main minor actinides from two or three reactors of the VVER-1000 type. A VVER-1000-type reactor can operate in a self-service mode with transmutation of its own actinides.

  14. Predictive Modeling in Actinide Chemistry and Catalysis

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Ping

    2016-05-16

    These are slides from a presentation on predictive modeling in actinide chemistry and catalysis. The following topics are covered in these slides: Structures, bonding, and reactivity (bonding can be quantified by optical probes and theory, and electronic structures and reaction mechanisms of actinide complexes); Magnetic resonance properties (transition metal catalysts with multi-nuclear centers, and NMR/EPR parameters); Moving to more complex systems (surface chemistry of nanomaterials, and interactions of ligands with nanoparticles); Path forward and conclusions.

  15. Recent progress in actinide borate chemistry.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shuao; Alekseev, Evgeny V; Depmeier, Wulf; Albrecht-Schmitt, Thomas E

    2011-10-21

    The use of molten boric acid as a reactive flux for synthesizing actinide borates has been developed in the past two years providing access to a remarkable array of exotic materials with both unusual structures and unprecedented properties. [ThB(5)O(6)(OH)(6)][BO(OH)(2)]·2.5H(2)O possesses a cationic supertetrahedral structure and displays remarkable anion exchange properties with high selectivity for TcO(4)(-). Uranyl borates form noncentrosymmetric structures with extraordinarily rich topological relationships. Neptunium borates are often mixed-valent and yield rare examples of compounds with one metal in three different oxidation states. Plutonium borates display new coordination chemistry for trivalent actinides. Finally, americium borates show a dramatic departure from plutonium borates, and there are scant examples of families of actinides compounds that extend past plutonium to examine the bonding of later actinides. There are several grand challenges that this work addresses. The foremost of these challenges is the development of structure-property relationships in transuranium materials. A deep understanding of the materials chemistry of actinides will likely lead to the development of advanced waste forms for radionuclides present in nuclear waste that prevent their transport in the environment. This work may have also uncovered the solubility-limiting phases of actinides in some repositories, and allows for measurements on the stability of these materials.

  16. Rapid determination of actinides in seawater samples

    DOE PAGES

    Maxwell, Sherrod L.; Culligan, Brian K.; Hutchison, Jay B.; ...

    2014-03-09

    A new rapid method for the determination of actinides in seawater samples has been developed at the Savannah River National Laboratory. The actinides can be measured by alpha spectrometry or inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The new method employs novel pre-concentration steps to collect the actinide isotopes quickly from 80 L or more of seawater. Actinides are co-precipitated using an iron hydroxide co-precipitation step enhanced with Ti+3 reductant, followed by lanthanum fluoride co-precipitation. Stacked TEVA Resin and TRU Resin cartridges are used to rapidly separate Pu, U, and Np isotopes from seawater samples. TEVA Resin and DGA Resin were used tomore » separate and measure Pu, Am and Cm isotopes in seawater volumes up to 80 L. This robust method is ideal for emergency seawater samples following a radiological incident. It can also be used, however, for the routine analysis of seawater samples for oceanographic studies to enhance efficiency and productivity. In contrast, many current methods to determine actinides in seawater can take 1–2 weeks and provide chemical yields of ~30–60 %. This new sample preparation method can be performed in 4–8 h with tracer yields of ~85–95 %. By employing a rapid, robust sample preparation method with high chemical yields, less seawater is needed to achieve lower or comparable detection limits for actinide isotopes with less time and effort.« less

  17. Rapid determination of actinides in seawater samples

    SciTech Connect

    Maxwell, Sherrod L.; Culligan, Brian K.; Hutchison, Jay B.; Utsey, Robin C.; McAlister, Daniel R.

    2014-03-09

    A new rapid method for the determination of actinides in seawater samples has been developed at the Savannah River National Laboratory. The actinides can be measured by alpha spectrometry or inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The new method employs novel pre-concentration steps to collect the actinide isotopes quickly from 80 L or more of seawater. Actinides are co-precipitated using an iron hydroxide co-precipitation step enhanced with Ti+3 reductant, followed by lanthanum fluoride co-precipitation. Stacked TEVA Resin and TRU Resin cartridges are used to rapidly separate Pu, U, and Np isotopes from seawater samples. TEVA Resin and DGA Resin were used to separate and measure Pu, Am and Cm isotopes in seawater volumes up to 80 L. This robust method is ideal for emergency seawater samples following a radiological incident. It can also be used, however, for the routine analysis of seawater samples for oceanographic studies to enhance efficiency and productivity. In contrast, many current methods to determine actinides in seawater can take 1–2 weeks and provide chemical yields of ~30–60 %. This new sample preparation method can be performed in 4–8 h with tracer yields of ~85–95 %. By employing a rapid, robust sample preparation method with high chemical yields, less seawater is needed to achieve lower or comparable detection limits for actinide isotopes with less time and effort.

  18. Recent progress in actinide borate chemistry

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Shuao; Alekseev, Evgeny V.; Depmeier, Wulf; Albrecht-Schmitt, Thomas E.

    2011-01-01

    The use of molten boric acid as a reactive flux for synthesizing actinide borates has been developed in the past two years providing access to a remarkable array of exotic materials with both unusual structures and unprecedented properties. [ThB₅O₆(OH)₆][BO(OH)₂]·2.5H₂O possesses a cationic supertetrahedral structure and displays remarkable anion exchange properties with high selectivity for TcO4- Uranyl borates form noncentrosymmetric structures with extraordinarily rich topological relationships. Neptunium borates are often mixed-valent and yield rare examples of compounds with one metal in three different oxidation states. Plutonium borates display new coordination chemistry for trivalent actinides. Finally, americium borates show a dramatic departure from plutonium borates, and there are scant examples of families of actinides compounds that extend past plutonium to examine the bonding of later actinides. There are several grand challenges that this work addresses. The foremost of these challenges is the development of structure-property relationships in transuranium materials. A deep understanding of the materials chemistry of actinides will likely lead to the development of advanced waste forms for radionuclides present in nuclear waste that prevent their transport in the environment. This work may have also uncovered the solubility-limiting phases of actinides in some repositories, and allows for measurements on the stability of these materials.

  19. Actinide recovery method -- Large soil samples

    SciTech Connect

    Maxwell , S.L. III

    2000-04-25

    There is a need to measure actinides in environmental samples with lower and lower detection limits, requiring larger sample sizes. This analysis is adversely affected by sample-matrix interferences, which make analyzing soil samples above five-grams very difficult. A new Actinide-Recovery Method has been developed by the Savannah River Site Central Laboratory to preconcentrate actinides from large-soil samples. Diphonix Resin (Eichrom Industries), a 1994 R and D 100 winner, is used to preconcentrate the actinides from large soil samples, which are bound powerfully to the resin's diphosphonic acid groups. A rapid microwave-digestion technique is used to remove the actinides from the Diphonix Resin, which effectively eliminates interfering matrix components from the soil matrix. The microwave-digestion technique is more effective and less tedious than catalyzed hydrogen peroxide digestions of the resin or digestion of diphosphonic stripping agents such as HEDPA. After resin digestion, the actinides are recovered in a small volume of nitric acid which can be loaded onto small extraction chromatography columns, such as TEVA Resin, U-TEVA Resin or TRU Resin (Eichrom Industries). Small, selective extraction columns do not generate large volumes of liquid waste and provide consistent tracer recoveries after soil matrix elimination.

  20. Actinide speciation in relation to biological processes.

    PubMed

    Ansoborlo, Eric; Prat, Odette; Moisy, Philippe; Den Auwer, Christophe; Guilbaud, Philippe; Carriere, M; Gouget, Barbara; Duffield, John; Doizi, Denis; Vercouter, Thomas; Moulin, Christophe; Moulin, Valérie

    2006-11-01

    In case of accidental release of radionuclides into the environment, actinides represent a severe health risk to human beings following internal contamination (inhalation, ingestion or wound). For a better understanding of the actinide behaviour in man (in term of metabolism, retention, excretion) and in specific biological systems (organs, cells or biochemical pathways), it is of prime importance to have a good knowledge of the relevant actinide solution chemistry and biochemistry, in particular of the thermodynamic constants needed for computing actinide speciation. To a large extent, speciation governs bioavailability and toxicity of elements and has a significant impact on the mechanisms by which toxics accumulate in cell compartments and organs and by which elements are transferred and transported from cell to cell. From another viewpoint, speciation is the prerequisite for the design and success of potential decorporation therapies. The purpose of this review is to present the state of the art of actinide knowledge within biological media. It is also to discuss how actinide speciation can be determined or predicted and to highlight the areas where information is lacking with the aim to encourage new research efforts.

  1. Strontium substitution for calcium in lithogenesis.

    PubMed

    Blaschko, Sarah D; Chi, Thomas; Miller, Joe; Flechner, Lawrence; Fakra, Sirine; Kapahi, Pankaj; Kahn, Arnold; Stoller, Marshall L

    2013-02-01

    Strontium has chemical similarity to calcium, which enables the replacement of calcium by strontium in biomineralization processes. Incorporating strontium into human bone and teeth has been studied extensively but little research has been performed of the incorporation of strontium into urinary calculi. We used synchrotron based x-ray fluorescence and x-ray absorption techniques to examine the presence of strontium in different types of human kidney stones. Multiple unique human stone samples were obtained via consecutive percutaneous nephrolithotomies/ureteroscopies. A portion of each stone was sent for standard laboratory analysis and a portion was retained for x-ray fluorescence and x-ray absorption measurements. X-ray fluorescence and x-ray absorption measurements determined the presence, spatial distribution and speciation of strontium in each stone sample. Traditional kidney stone analyses identified calcium oxalate, calcium phosphate, uric acid and cystine stones. X-ray fluorescence measurements identified strontium in all stone types except pure cystine. X-ray fluorescence elemental mapping of the samples revealed co-localization of calcium and strontium. X-ray absorption measurements of the calcium phosphate stone showed strontium predominately present as strontium apatite. Advanced x-ray fluorescence imaging identified strontium in all calcium based stones, present as strontium apatite. This finding may be critical since apatite is thought to be the initial nidus for calcium stone formation. Strontium is not identified by standard laboratory stone analyses. Its substitution for calcium can be reliably identified in stones from multiple calcium based stone formers, which may offer opportunities to gain insight into early events in lithogenesis. Copyright © 2013 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Strontium: Part II. Chemistry, Biological Aspects and Applications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Britton, G. C.; Johnson, C. H.

    1987-01-01

    Reviews basic information on the Chemistry of strontium and its compounds. Explains biological aspects of strontium and its pharmaceutical applications. Highlights industrial application of strontium and its components. (ML)

  3. Strontium is incorporated in different levels into bones and teeth of rats treated with strontium ranelate.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Josianne P; Querido, William; Caldas, Rogério J; Campos, Andrea P C; Abraçado, Leida G; Farina, Marcos

    2012-09-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the strontium incorporation into specific bones and teeth of rats treated with strontium ranelate. The relative strontium levels [Sr/(Ca + Sr) ratio] were obtained by synchrotron radiation micro X-ray fluorescence. The incisor teeth were further examined by energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) in a scanning electron microscope. The isolated mineral phase was investigated by EDS in a transmission electron microscope and X-ray diffraction. The strontium content was markedly increased in animals treated with strontium ranelate, with different incorporation levels found among specific bones, regions within the same bone and teeth. The highest strontium levels were observed in the iliac crest, mandible and calvaria, while the lowest were observed in the femoral diaphysis, lumbar vertebrae, rib and alveolar bone. The strontium content was higher in the femoral neck than in the diaphysis. The strontium levels also varied within the alveolar bone. High levels of strontium were found in the incisor tooth, with values similar to those in the iliac crest. Strontium was observed in both enamel and dentin. The strontium content of the molar tooth was negligible. Strontium was incorporated into the mineral substance, with up to one strontium replacing one out of 10 calcium ions within the apatite crystal lattice. The mineral from treated animals presented increased lattice parameters, which might be associated to their bone strontium contents. In conclusion, the incorporation of strontium occurred in different levels into distinct bones, regions within the same bone and teeth of rats treated with strontium ranelate.

  4. Lithium actinide recycle process demonstration

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, G.K.; Pierce, R.D.; McPheeters, C.C.

    1995-10-01

    Several pyrochemical processes have been developed in the Chemical Technology Division of Argonne Laboratory for recovery of actinide elements from LWR spent fuel. The lithium process was selected as the reference process from among the options. In this process the LWR oxide spent fuel is reduced by lithium at 650{degrees}C in the presence of molten LiCl. The Li{sub 2}O formed during the reduction process is soluble in the salt. The spent salt and lithium are recycled after the Li{sub 2}O is electrochemically reduced. The oxygen is liberated as CO{sub 2} at a carbon anode or oxygen at an inert anode. The reduced metal components of the LWR spent fuel are separated from the LiCL salt phase and introduced into an electrorefiner. The electrorefining step separates the uranium and transuranium (TRU) elements into two product streams. The uranium product, which comprises about 96% of the LWR spent fuel mass, may be enriched for recycle into the LWR fuel cycle, stored for future use in breeder reactors, or converted to a suitable form for disposal as waste. The TRU product can be recycled as fast reactor fuel or can be alloyed with constituents of the LWR cladding material to produce a stable waste form.

  5. Actinide recovery from pyrochemical residues

    SciTech Connect

    Avens, L.R.; Clifton, D.G.; Vigil, A.R.

    1985-05-01

    We demonstrated a new process for recovering plutonium and americium from pyrochemical waste. The method is based on chloride solution anion exchange at low acidity, or acidity that eliminates corrosive HCl fumes. Developmental experiments of the process flow chart concentrated on molten salt extraction (MSE) residues and gave >95% plutonium and >90% americium recovery. The recovered plutonium contained <500 ppM americium and <2500 ppM magnesium. The process operates by sorbing PuCl/sub 6//sup 2 -/ from high-chloride low-acid solution. Americium and other metals are washed from the ion exchange column with lN HNO/sub 3/-4.8M NaCl. After elution, plutonium is recovered by hydroxide precipitation, and americium is recovered by NaHCO/sub 3/ precipitation. All filtrates from the process can be discardable as low-level contaminated waste. Production-scale experiments are in progress for MSE residues. Flow charts for actinide recovery from electro-refining and direct oxide reduction residues are presented and discussed.

  6. Nonaqueous method for dissolving lanthanide and actinide metals

    DOEpatents

    Crisler, L.R.

    1975-11-11

    Lanthanide and actinide beta-diketonate complex molecular compounds are produced by reacting a beta-diketone compound with a lanthanide or actinide element in the elemental metallic state in a mixture of carbon tetrachloride and methanol.

  7. Strontium Content and Variable Strontium-Chlorinity Relationship of Sargasso Sea Water.

    PubMed

    Mackenzie, F T

    1964-10-23

    Sargasso Sea water has a variable strontium-chlorinity relationship. This observation is contrary to the view that strontium in the ocean is in constant proportion to chlorinity. It is suggested that the increase in strontium concentration at 500 to 800 meters in Sargasso Sea water results from interaction between organic aggregates and the water.

  8. PREPARATION OF TE SYNTHETIC STRONTIUM ISOMORPH OF COLEMANITE AND OTHER RELATED STRONTIUM BORATE HYDRATES,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    strontium iodate, (2) miscellaneous conversion reactions in borax and boric acid solution, (3) reactions of ammonium pentaborate and strontium...This compound is the strontium isomorph of cole manite (2CaO.3B2O3.5H2O). The following series of reactions were investigated: (1) reactions of borax and

  9. 40 CFR 721.10168 - Cesium tungsten oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Cesium tungsten oxide. 721.10168... Substances § 721.10168 Cesium tungsten oxide. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as cesium tungsten oxide (PMN P-08-275; CAS No....

  10. 40 CFR 721.10168 - Cesium tungsten oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Cesium tungsten oxide. 721.10168... Substances § 721.10168 Cesium tungsten oxide. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as cesium tungsten oxide (PMN P-08-275; CAS No....

  11. 40 CFR 721.10168 - Cesium tungsten oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Cesium tungsten oxide. 721.10168... Substances § 721.10168 Cesium tungsten oxide. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as cesium tungsten oxide (PMN P-08-275; CAS No....

  12. 40 CFR 721.10168 - Cesium tungsten oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Cesium tungsten oxide. 721.10168... Substances § 721.10168 Cesium tungsten oxide. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as cesium tungsten oxide (PMN P-08-275; CAS No....

  13. 40 CFR 721.10168 - Cesium tungsten oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Cesium tungsten oxide. 721.10168... Substances § 721.10168 Cesium tungsten oxide. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as cesium tungsten oxide (PMN P-08-275; CAS No....

  14. REMOVAL OF CESIUM BY SORPTION FROM AQUEOUS SOLUTIONS

    DOEpatents

    Ames, L.L.

    1962-01-16

    ABS>A process is given for selectively removing cesium from acid aqueous solutions containing cesium in microquantities and other cations in macroquantities by absorption on clinoptilolite. The cesium can be eluted from the clinoptilolite with a solution of ammonia, potassium hydroxide, or rubidium hydroxide. (AEC)

  15. Umbellate distortions of the uranyl coordination environment result in a stable and porous polycatenated framework that can effectively remove cesium from aqueous solutions.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yanlong; Liu, Zhiyong; Li, Yuxiang; Bai, Zhuanling; Liu, Wei; Wang, Yaxing; Xu, Xiaomei; Xiao, Chengliang; Sheng, Daopeng; Diwu, Juan; Su, Jing; Chai, Zhifang; Albrecht-Schmitt, Thomas E; Wang, Shuao

    2015-05-20

    Searching for new chemically durable and radiation-resistant absorbent materials for actinides and their fission products generated in the nuclear fuel cycle remain highly desirable, for both waste management and contamination remediation. Here we present a rare case of 3D uranyl organic framework material built through polycatenating of three sets of graphene-like layers, which exhibits significant umbellate distortions in the uranyl equatorial planes studied thoroughly by linear transit calculations. This unique structural arrangement leads to high β and γ radiation-resistance and chemical stability in aqueous solutions within a wide pH range from 3 to 12. Being equipped with the highest surface area among all actinide compounds known to date and completely exchangeable [(CH3)2NH2](+) cations in the structure, this material is able to selectively remove cesium from aqueous solutions while retaining the polycatenated framework structure.

  16. Combined transuranic-strontium extraction process

    DOEpatents

    Horwitz, E. Philip; Dietz, Mark L.

    1992-01-01

    The transuranic (TRU) elements neptunium, plutonium and americium can be separated together with strontium from nitric acid waste solutions in a single process. An extractant solution of a crown ether and an alkyl(phenyl)-N,N-dialkylcarbanylmethylphosphine oxide in an appropriate diluent will extract the TRU's together with strontium, uranium and technetium. The TRU's and the strontium can then be selectively stripped from the extractant for disposal.

  17. Combined transuranic-strontium extraction process

    DOEpatents

    Horwitz, E.P.; Dietz, M.L.

    1992-12-08

    The transuranic (TRU) elements neptunium, plutonium and americium can be separated together with strontium from nitric acid waste solutions in a single process. An extractant solution of a crown ether and an alkyl(phenyl)-N,N-dialkylcarbanylmethylphosphine oxide in an appropriate diluent will extract the TRU's together with strontium, uranium and technetium. The TRU's and the strontium can then be selectively stripped from the extractant for disposal. 3 figs.

  18. Combined transuranic-strontium extraction process

    SciTech Connect

    Horwitz, E.P.; Dietz, M.L.

    1991-12-31

    The transuranic (TRU) elements neptunium, plutonium and amercium can be separated together with strontium from nitric acid waste solutions in a single process. An extractant solution of a crown ether and an alkyl(phenyl)-N.N-dialkylcarbanylmethylphosphine oxide in an appropriate diluent will extract the TRU`s to gather with strontium, uranium and technetium. The TRU`s and the strontium can then be selectively stripped from the extractant for disposal.

  19. Final Technical Progress Report Long term risk from actinides in the environment: Modes of mobility

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas B. Kirchner

    2002-03-22

    The key source of uncertainty in assessing actinide mobility is the relative importance of transport by: (1) wind erosion, (2) water erosion, and (3) vertical migration. Each of these three processes depends on several environmental factors and they compete with one another. A scientific assessment of the long-term risks associated with actinides in surface soils depends on better quantifying each of these three modes of mobility. The objective from our EMSP study was to quantify the mobility of soil actinides by wind erosion, water erosion, and vertical migration at three semiarid sites where actinide mobility is a key technical, social and legal issue. This EMSP project was the first to evaluate all three factors at a site. The approach has been to investigate both short- and long-term issues based on field and lab studies and model comparisons. Our results demonstrate the importance of incorporating threshold responses into a modeling framework that accounts for environmental factors and natural disturbances that trigger large changes in actinide mobility. The study measured erosional losses of sediment and fallout cesium (an actinide analogue) from field plots located near WIPP in 1998. The results highlight the large effect of burning as a disturbance on contaminant transport and mobility via runoff and erosion. The results show that runoff, erosion, and actinide transport are (1) strongly site specific-differences in radionuclide transport between WIPP and Rocky Flats differed by a factor of twelve because of soil and vegetation differences, and (2) are strongly impacted by disturbances such as fire, which can increase runoff, erosion, and actinide transport by more than an order of magnitude. In addition, a laboratory experiment using soil columns was conducted to investigate the vertical transport of contaminants in sandy soils. Nine columns of soil collected from the vicinity of the WIPP site were prepared. The column consisted of a piece of PVC pipe 20 cm

  20. ACTINIDE REMOVAL PROCESS SAMPLE ANALYSIS, CHEMICAL MODELING, AND FILTRATION EVALUATION

    SciTech Connect

    Martino, C.; Herman, D.; Pike, J.; Peters, T.

    2014-06-05

    Filtration within the Actinide Removal Process (ARP) currently limits the throughput in interim salt processing at the Savannah River Site. In this process, batches of salt solution with Monosodium Titanate (MST) sorbent are concentrated by crossflow filtration. The filtrate is subsequently processed to remove cesium in the Modular Caustic Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU) followed by disposal in saltstone grout. The concentrated MST slurry is washed and sent to the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) for vitrification. During recent ARP processing, there has been a degradation of filter performance manifested as the inability to maintain high filtrate flux throughout a multi-batch cycle. The objectives of this effort were to characterize the feed streams, to determine if solids (in addition to MST) are precipitating and causing the degraded performance of the filters, and to assess the particle size and rheological data to address potential filtration impacts. Equilibrium modelling with OLI Analyzer{sup TM} and OLI ESP{sup TM} was performed to determine chemical components at risk of precipitation and to simulate the ARP process. The performance of ARP filtration was evaluated to review potential causes of the observed filter behavior. Task activities for this study included extensive physical and chemical analysis of samples from the Late Wash Pump Tank (LWPT) and the Late Wash Hold Tank (LWHT) within ARP as well as samples of the tank farm feed from Tank 49H. The samples from the LWPT and LWHT were obtained from several stages of processing of Salt Batch 6D, Cycle 6, Batch 16.

  1. TUCS/phosphate mineralization of actinides

    SciTech Connect

    Nash, K.L.

    1997-10-01

    This program has as its objective the development of a new technology that combines cation exchange and mineralization to reduce the concentration of heavy metals (in particular actinides) in groundwaters. The treatment regimen must be compatible with the groundwater and soil, potentially using groundwater/soil components to aid in the immobilization process. The delivery system (probably a water-soluble chelating agent) should first concentrate the radionuclides then release the precipitating anion, which forms thermodynamically stable mineral phases, either with the target metal ions alone or in combination with matrix cations. This approach should generate thermodynamically stable mineral phases resistant to weathering. The chelating agent should decompose spontaneously with time, release the mineralizing agent, and leave a residue that does not interfere with mineral formation. For the actinides, the ideal compound probably will release phosphate, as actinide phosphate mineral phases are among the least soluble species for these metals. The most promising means of delivering the precipitant would be to use a water-soluble, hydrolytically unstable complexant that functions in the initial stages as a cation exchanger to concentrate the metal ions. As it decomposes, the chelating agent releases phosphate to foster formation of crystalline mineral phases. Because it involves only the application of inexpensive reagents, the method of phosphate mineralization promises to be an economical alternative for in situ immobilization of radionuclides (actinides in particular). The method relies on the inherent (thermodynamic) stability of actinide mineral phases.

  2. Cesium injection system for negative ion duoplasmatrons

    DOEpatents

    Kobayashi, Maasaki; Prelec, Krsto; Sluyters, Theodorus J

    1978-01-01

    Longitudinally extending, foraminous cartridge means having a cylindrical side wall forming one flat, circular, tip end surface and an opposite end; an open-ended cavity, and uniformly spaced orifices for venting the cavity through the side wall in the annulus of a plasma ring for uniformly ejecting cesium for coating the flat, circular, surface. To this end, the cavity is filled with a cesium containing substance and attached to a heater in a hollow-discharge duoplasmatron. By coating the flat circular surface with a uniform monolayer of cesium and locating it in an electrical potential well at the end of a hollow-discharge, ion duoplasmatron source of an annular hydrogen plasma ring, the negative hydrogen production from the duoplasmatron is increased. The negative hydrogen is produced on the flat surface of the cartridge and extracted by the electrical potential well along a trajectory coaxial with the axis of the plasma ring.

  3. METHOD FOR THE RECOVERY OF CESIUM VALUES

    DOEpatents

    Rimshaw, S.J.

    1960-02-16

    A method is given for recovering Cs/sup 137/ from radioactive waste solutions together with extraneous impurities. Ammonium alum is precipitated in the waste solution. The alum, which carries the cesium, is separated from the supernatant liquid and then dissolved in water. The resulting aqueous solution is then provided with a source of hydroxyl ions, which precipitates aluminum as the hydroxide, and the aluminum hydroxide is separated from the resulting liquid. This liquid, which contains anionic impurities together with ammonium and cesium, is passed through an anion exchange resin bed which removes the anionic impurities. The ammonium in the effluent is removed by destructive distiilation, leaving a substantiaily pure cesium salt in the effluent.

  4. Ultratrace analysis of transuranic actinides by laser-induced fluorescence

    DOEpatents

    Miller, Steven M.

    1988-01-01

    Ultratrace quantities of transuranic actinides are detected indirectly by their effect on the fluorescent emissions of a preselected fluorescent species. Transuranic actinides in a sample are coprecipitated with a host lattice material containing at least one preselected fluorescent species. The actinide either quenches or enhances the laser-induced fluorescence of the preselected fluorescent species. The degree of enhancement or quenching is quantitatively related to the concentration of actinide in the sample.

  5. Ultratrace analysis of transuranic actinides by laser-induced fluorescence

    DOEpatents

    Miller, S.M.

    1983-10-31

    Ultratrace quantities of transuranic actinides are detected indirectly by their effect on the fluorescent emissions of a preselected fluorescent species. Transuranic actinides in a sample are coprecipitated with a host lattice material containing at least one preselected fluorescent species. The actinide either quenches or enhances the laser-induced fluorescence of the preselected fluorescent species. The degree of enhancement or quenching is quantitatively related to the concentration of actinide in the sample.

  6. Plasma etching of cesium iodide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, X.; Hopwood, J.; Tipnis, S.; Nagarkar, V.; Gaysinskiy, V.

    2002-01-01

    Thick films of cesium iodide (CsI) are often used to convert x-ray images into visible light. Spreading of the visible light within CsI, however, reduces the resolution of the resulting image. Anisotropic etching of the CsI film into an array of micropixels can improve the image resolution by confining light within each pixel. The etching process uses a high-density inductively coupled plasma to pattern CsI samples held by a heated, rf-biased chuck. Fluorine-containing gases such as CF4 are found to enhance the etch rate by an order of magnitude compared to Ar+ sputtering alone. Without inert-gas ion bombardment, however, the CF4 etch becomes self-limited within a few microns of depth due to the blanket deposition of a passivation layer. Using CF4+Ar continuously removes this layer from the lateral surfaces, but the formation of a thick passivation layer on the unbombarded sidewalls of etched features is observed by scanning electron microscopy. At a substrate temperature of 220 °C, the minimum ion-bombardment energy for etching is Ei~50 eV, and the rate depends on Ei1/2 above 65 eV. In dilute mixtures of CF4 and Ar, the etch rate is proportional to the gas-phase density of atomic fluorine. Above 50% CF4, however, the rate decreases, indicating the onset of net surface polymer deposition. These observations suggest that anisotropy is obtained through the ion-enhanced inhibitor etching mechanism. Etching exhibits an Arrhenius-type behavior in which the etch rate increases from ~40 nm/min at 40 °C to 380 nm/min at 330 °C. The temperature dependence corresponds to an activation energy of 0.13+/-0.01 eV. This activation energy is consistent with the electronic sputtering mechanism for alkali halides.

  7. METHOD OF REMOVING STRONTIUM IONS

    DOEpatents

    Rhodes, D.W.; McHenry, J.R.; Ames, L.L. Jr.

    1962-05-01

    A method is given for removing trace amounts of Sr/sup 90/ from solutions. Phosphate ion is added to the solution and it is then brought into contact with a solid salt such as calcium carbonate which will react methathetically with the phosphate ion to form a salt such as calcium phosphate. During this reaction, strontium will be absorbed to a high degree within the newly formed lattice. (AEC)

  8. Initial evaluation of Sandia National Laboratory-prepared crystalline silico-titanates for cesium recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Bray, L.A.; Carson, K.J.; Elovich, R.J.

    1993-10-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory initiated a study of a new class of inorganic ion exchange materials that selectively extracts cesium (Cs), strontium (Sr), and plutonium (Pu) from alkaline radioactive waste solutions. These materials, identified as crystalline silico-titanates (CST), were developed by scientists at the Sandia National Laboratory (SNL) and Texas A&M. This report summarizes preliminary results for the measurement of batch distribution coefficient (K{sub d}) values for the powdered CST materials compared to previously tested ion exchange materials: IONSIV IE-96 (a zeolite produced by UOP), CS-100 (an organic resin produced by Rohm and Haas), and BIB-DJ (a new resorcinol-formaldehyde organic resin produced by Boulder Scientific). Excellent results were obtained for CST inorganic exchangers that could be significant in the development of processes for the near-term pretreatment of Hanford alkaline wastes. The following observations and conclusions resulted from this study: (1) Several CST samples prepared at SNL had a higher capacity to remove Cs from solution as compared to BIB-DJ, IE-96, and CS-100. (2) Cesium distribution results showed that CST samples TAM-40, -42, -43, -70, and -74 had {lambda} values of {approximately}2,200 ({lambda} = Cs K{sub d} {times} {rho}{sub b}; where {lambda} represents the number of exchanger bed volumes of feed that can be loaded on an ion exchange column) at a pH value >14. (3) Cesium distribution values for CST exchangers doubled as the aqueous temperature decreased from 40{degrees} to 10{degrees}C. (4) Crystalline silico-titanates have the capacity to remove Cs as well as Sr and Pu from alkaline wastes unless organic complexants are present. Experimental results indicated that complexed Sr was not removed, and Pu is not expected to be removed.

  9. RECOVERY OF ACTINIDES FROM AQUEOUS NITRIC ACID SOLUTIONS

    DOEpatents

    Ader, M.

    1963-11-19

    A process of recovering actinides is presented. Tetravalent actinides are extracted from rare earths in an aqueous nitric acid solution with a ketone and back-extracted from the ketone into an aqueous medium. The aqueous actinide solution thus obtained, prior to concentration by boiling, is sparged with steam to reduce its ketone to a maximum content of 3 grams per liter. (AEC)

  10. Strontium mineralization of shark vertebrae

    PubMed Central

    Raoult, Vincent; Peddemors, Victor M.; Zahra, David; Howell, Nicholas; Howard, Daryl L.; de Jonge, Martin D.; Williamson, Jane E.

    2016-01-01

    Determining the age of sharks using vertebral banding is a vital component of management, but the causes of banding are not fully understood. Traditional shark ageing is based on fish otolith ageing methods where growth bands are assumed to result from varied seasonal calcification rates. Here we investigate these assumptions by mapping elemental distribution within the growth bands of vertebrae from six species of sharks representing four different taxonomic orders using scanning x-ray fluorescence microscopy. Traditional visual growth bands, determined with light microscopy, were more closely correlated to strontium than calcium in all species tested. Elemental distributions suggest that vertebral strontium bands may be related to environmental variations in salinity. These results highlight the requirement for a better understanding of shark movements, and their influence on vertebral development, if confidence in age estimates is to be improved. Analysis of shark vertebrae using similar strontium-focused elemental techniques, once validated for a given species, may allow more successful estimations of age on individuals with few or no visible vertebral bands. PMID:27424768

  11. Strontium mineralization of shark vertebrae.

    PubMed

    Raoult, Vincent; Peddemors, Victor M; Zahra, David; Howell, Nicholas; Howard, Daryl L; de Jonge, Martin D; Williamson, Jane E

    2016-07-18

    Determining the age of sharks using vertebral banding is a vital component of management, but the causes of banding are not fully understood. Traditional shark ageing is based on fish otolith ageing methods where growth bands are assumed to result from varied seasonal calcification rates. Here we investigate these assumptions by mapping elemental distribution within the growth bands of vertebrae from six species of sharks representing four different taxonomic orders using scanning x-ray fluorescence microscopy. Traditional visual growth bands, determined with light microscopy, were more closely correlated to strontium than calcium in all species tested. Elemental distributions suggest that vertebral strontium bands may be related to environmental variations in salinity. These results highlight the requirement for a better understanding of shark movements, and their influence on vertebral development, if confidence in age estimates is to be improved. Analysis of shark vertebrae using similar strontium-focused elemental techniques, once validated for a given species, may allow more successful estimations of age on individuals with few or no visible vertebral bands.

  12. Microbial accumulation of uranium, radium, and cesium

    SciTech Connect

    Strandberg, G.W.; Shumate, S.E. II; Parrott, J.R. Jr.; North, S.E.

    1981-05-01

    Diverse microbial species varied considerably in their ability to accumulate uranium, cesium, and radium. Mechanistic differences in uranium uptake by Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were indicated. S. serevisiae exhibited a slow (hours) surface accumulation of uranium which was subject to environmental factors, while P. aeruginosa accumulated uranium rapidly (minutes) as dense intracellular deposits and did not appear to be affected by environmental parameters. Metabolism was not required for uranium uptake by either organism. Cesium and radium were concentrated to a considerably lesser extent than uranium by the several species tested.

  13. The Actinide-Lanthanide Separation Process

    SciTech Connect

    Lumetta, Gregg J.; Gelis, Artem V.; Carter, Jennifer C.; Niver, Cynthia M.; Smoot, Margaret R.

    2014-02-21

    The Actinide-Lanthanide SEParation (ALSEP) process is described. The process uses an extractant phase consisting of either N,N,N',N'-tetraoctyldiglycolamide (TODGA) or N,N,N',N'-tetra(2 ethylhexyl)diglycolamide (T2EHDGA) combined with 2-ethylhexylphosphonic acid mono-2-ethylhexyl ester (HEH[EHP]). The neutral TODGA or T2EHDGA serves to co-extract the trivalent actinide and lanthanide ions from nitric acid media. Switching the aqueous phase chemistry to a citrate buffered diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) solution at pH 2.5 to 4 results in selective transfer of the actinides to the aqueous phase, thus resulting in separation of these two groups of elements.

  14. Volatility literature of chlorine, iodine, cesium, strontium, technetium, and rhenium; technetium and rhenium volatility testing

    SciTech Connect

    Langowski, M.H.; Darab, J.G.; Smith, P.A.

    1996-03-01

    A literature review pertaining to the volatilization of Sr, Cs, Tc (and its surrogate Re), Cl, I and other related species during the vitrification of Hanford Low Level Waste (LLW) streams has been performed and the relevant information summarized. For many of these species, the chemistry which occurs in solution prior to the waste stream entering the melter is important in dictating their loss at higher temperatures. In addition, the interactive effects between the species being lost was found to be important. A review of the chemistries of Tc and Re was also performed. It was suggested that Re would indeed act as an excellent surrogate for Tc in non-radioactive materials testing. Experimental results on Tc and Re loss from sodium aluminoborosilicate melts of temperatures ranging from 900--1350{degrees}C performed at PNL are reported and confirm that Re behaves in a nearly identical manner to that of technetium.

  15. Hydrothermal interactions of cesium and strontium phases from spent unreprocessed fuel with basalt phases and basalts

    SciTech Connect

    Komarneni, S.; Scheetz, B.E.; McCarthy, G.J.; Coons, W.E.

    1980-03-01

    This investigation is a segment of an extensive research program aimed at investigating the feasibility of long-term, subsurface storage of commercial nuclear waste. Specifically, it is anticipated that the waste will be housed in a repository mined from the basalt formations which lie beneath the Hanford Site. The elements monitored during the present experiments were Cs and Sr. These two elements represent significant biohazards if released from a repository and are the major heat producing radionuclides present in commercial radioactive waste. Several Cs phases and/or solutions were reacted with either isolated basalt phases or bulk-rock basalt, and the resulting solids and solutions were analyzed. The hydrothermal reactivity of SrZrO/sub 3/, which is believed to be a probable host for Sr in SFE was investigated. While so far no evidence exists which indicates that Sr is present in a water soluble phase in spent fuel elements (SFE), detailed investigation of a potential hazard is warranted. This investigation has determined that some Cs compounds likely to be stable components of spent fuel (i.e., CsOH, Cs/sub 2/MoO/sub 4/, Cs/sub 2/U/sub 2/O/sub 7/) have significant hydrothermal solubilities. These solubilities are greatly decreased in the presence of basalt and/or basalt minerals. The decrease in the amount of Cs in solution results from reactions which form pollucite and/or CsAlSiO/sub 4/, with the production of pollucite exceeding that of CsAlSiO/sub 4/. Dissolution of ..beta..-Cs/sub 2/U/sub 2/O/sub 7/ implies solubilizing a uranium species to an undetermined extent. The production of schoepite (UO/sub 3/.3H/sub 2/O) during some experiments containing basalt phases, indicates a tendency to oxidize U/sup 4 +/ to U/sup 6 +/. When diopside (nominally CaMgSi/sub 2/O/sub 6/) and ..beta..-Cs/sub 2/U/sub 2/O/sub 7/ were hydrothermally reacted, at 300/sup 0/C both UO/sub 2/ and UO/sub 3/.3H/sub 2/O were produced. Results of experiments on SrZrO/sub 3/ show it to be an unreactive phase.

  16. Effects of feed solution chemistry on low pressure reverse osmosis filtration of cesium and strontium.

    PubMed

    Ding, Shiyuan; Yang, Yu; Huang, Haiou; Liu, Hengchen; Hou, Li-an

    2015-08-30

    The objective of this study was to identify the removal mechanisms of radionuclides by reverse osmosis (RO) membranes under conditions relevant to full-scale water treatment. For this purpose, the effects of feed solution chemistry on the removal of Cs and Sr by a low pressure RO system was investigated by systematically varying membrane surface charge, ionic composition, and organic matter concentrations. The results showed that the effects of solution chemistry on the filtration of Cs and Sr were related to their hydrated ionic radius, resulting in the predominance of the Donnan's effect and electrostatic interactions, respectively. Consequently, the rejection of Cs increased more pronouncedly than Sr with the increases of feed concentration. Due to the Donnan's effect, different anions decreased the rejection of Cs to different extents in accordance to the order of anions' radii as SO4(2-)>Cl(-)>NO3(-)>F(-). The variations in Sr rejection were influenced by the electrostatic interactions between Sr(2+) and the membrane. In addition, humic acid (HA) lowered the rejection of Cs and caused significant membrane flux decline, but did not change the rejection of Sr. Sr also aggravated HA fouling of the membrane. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Strontium and cesium release mechanisms during unsaturated flow through waste-weathered Hanford sediments

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, Hyun-Shik; Um, Wooyong; Rod, Kenton A.; Serne, R. Jeffrey; Thompson, Aaron; Perdrial, Nicolas; Steefel, Carl I.; Chorover, Jon

    2011-10-01

    Leaching behavior of Sr and Cs in the vadose zone of Hanford site (WA, USA) was studied with laboratory-weathered sediments mimicking realistic conditions beneath the leaking radioactive waste storage tanks. Unsaturated column leaching experiments were conducted using background Hanford pore water focused on first 200 pore volumes. The weathered sediments were prepared by 6 months reaction with a synthetic Hanford tank waste leachate containing Sr and Cs (10-5 and 10-3 molal representative of LO- and HI-sediment, respectively) as surrogates for 90Sr and 137Cs. The mineral composition of the weathered sediments showed that zeolite (chabazite-type) and feldspathoid (sodalite-type) were the major byproducts but different contents depending on the weathering conditions. Reactive transport modeling indicated that Cs leaching was controlled by ion-exchange, while Sr release was affected primarily by dissolution of the secondary minerals. The later release of K, Al, and Si from the HI-column indicated the additional dissolution of a more crystalline mineral (cancrinite-type). A two-site ion-exchange model successfully simulated the Cs release from the LO-column. However, a three-site ion-exchange model was needed for the HI-column. The study implied that the weathering conditions greatly impact the speciation of the secondary minerals and leaching behavior of sequestrated Sr and Cs.

  18. Evaluation of improved techniques for removing strontium and cesium from process wastewater and groundwater

    SciTech Connect

    Bostick, D.

    1996-10-01

    The goal of this task is to evaluate new sorbent materials, ion-exchange materials, or other processes for groundwater and process wastewater decontamination that will be more selective for the removal of {sup 90}Sr and {sup 137}Cs than standard treatment methods. Laboratory studies will strive to obtain a quantitative understanding of the behavior of these new materials and to evaluate their sorption efficiency in reference to a standard benchmark treatment technique. Testing of the new materials will begin by conducting scoping tests where new treatment materials are compared with standard, commercially available materials in batch shaker tests. Sorption tests will be performed under various treatment conditions (e.g., pH, temperature, simulant waste composition) for the most promising materials. Additional testing with actual wastewater will be conducted with two or three of the most effective treatment methods. Once batch testing of a treatment method is completed, dynamic column tests will be performed using the most successful sorbents, to obtain the defining column operating parameters.

  19. Accumulation of strontium and cesium by kale as a function of age of plant

    SciTech Connect

    Weaver, C.M.; Harris, N.D.; Fox, L.R.

    1981-01-01

    The accumulation of Sr and Cs throughout the growth cycle of a hydroponically grown vegetable crop (Brassica oleracea var. acephala D.C. Blue Curl) was studied. The cumulative effect of supplying the radionuclides through the nutrient solution to kale throughout the growth cycle, simulating a continuous discharge, was compared to exposure at each stage of the growth cycle to a single dose of radioactivity, simulating an accidental release. The time course of accumulation of /sup 137/Cs supplied continuously through the nutrient solution resembled the sigmoidal dry weight growth curve of the vegetable. Accumulation of this nuclide after exposure of kale to radioactivity for 48 hours at each stage of growth decreased with age of the plant. The time course of /sup 90/Sr supplied continuously resembled the pattern of the periodic 48-hour accumulation for this radionuclide, although there was a 1- to 2-week lag period between the two uptake patterns.

  20. Strontium and cesium release mechanisms during unsaturated flow through waste-weathered Hanford sediments.

    PubMed

    Chang, Hyun-Shik; Um, Wooyong; Rod, Kenton; Serne, R Jeff; Thompson, Aaron; Perdrial, Nicolas; Steefel, Carl I; Chorover, Jon

    2011-10-01

    Leaching behavior of Sr and Cs in the vadose zone of Hanford site (Washington) was studied with laboratory-weathered sediments mimicking realistic conditions beneath the leaking radioactive waste storage tanks. Unsaturated column leaching experiments were conducted using background Hanford pore water focused on first 200 pore volumes. The weathered sediments were prepared by 6 months reaction with a synthetic Hanford tank waste leachate containing Sr and Cs (10(-5) and 10(-3) molal representative of LO- and HI-sediment, respectively) as surrogates for (90)Sr and (137)Cs. The mineral composition of the weathered sediments showed that zeolite (chabazite-type) and feldspathoid (sodalite-type) were the major byproducts but different contents depending on the weathering conditions. Reactive transport modeling indicated that Cs leaching was controlled by ion-exchange, while Sr release was affected primarily by dissolution of the secondary minerals. The later release of K, Al, and Si from the HI-column indicated the additional dissolution of a more crystalline mineral (cancrinite-type). A two-site ion-exchange model successfully simulated the Cs release from the LO-column. However, a three-site ion-exchange model was needed for the HI-column. The study implied that the weathering conditions greatly impact the speciation of the secondary minerals and leaching behavior of sequestrated Sr and Cs.

  1. Accumulation of cesium-137 and strontium-90 in ponderosa pine and monterey pine seedlings

    SciTech Connect

    Entry, J.A.; Rygiewicz, P.T.; Emmingham, W.H.

    1993-10-01

    Because ponderosa pine Pinus ponderosa and Monterey pone (P. radiata D Don) have exceptionally fast growth rates and their abscised needles are not readily dispersed by wind, these species may be valuable for removing radioisotopes from contaminated soils. Ponderosa and Monterey pine seedlings were tested for their ability to accumulate {sup 137}Cs and {sup 90}Sr-characteristic radioisotopes of nuclear fallout-from contaminated soil. Seedlings were grown for 3 mo in 165 cm{sup 3} sphagnum peat moss/perlite (1:1 V/V) in a growth chamber. In Exp. 1, seedling accumulation of {sup 137}Cs and {sup 90}Sr after 1 mo of exposure was measured. In Exp. 2, seedling accumulation of the radioisotopes during different-length exposures was measured. Seedling accumulation of {sup 137}CS and {sup 90}Sr at different concentrations of the radioisotopes in the growth medium was measured in Exp. 3. Ponderosa pine accumulated 6.3% of the {sup 137}Cs and I.5% of the {sup 90}Sr present in the growth medium after 1 mo; Monterey pine accumulated 8.3% of the {sup 137}Cs and 4.5% of the {sup 90}Sr. Accumulation of {sup 137}Cs and {sup 90}Sr by both coniferous species was curvilinearly related to duration of exposure. Accumulation of {sup 137}Cs and {sup 90}Sr by both species increased with increasing concentration in the growth medium and correlated curvilinearly with radioisotope concentration in the growth medium. Large areas throughout the world are contaminated with {sup 137}Cs and {sup 90}Sr as a result of nuclear weapons testing or atomic reactor accidents. The ability of trees to sequester and store {sup 137}Cs and {sup 90}Sr introduces the possibility of using reforestation to remediate contaminated soils.

  2. Actinide Lanthanide Separation Process – ALSEP

    SciTech Connect

    Gelis, Artem V.; Lumetta, Gregg J.

    2014-01-29

    Separation of the minor actinides (Am, Cm) from the lanthanides at an industrial scale remains a significant technical challenge for closing the nuclear fuel cycle. To increase the safety of used nuclear fuel (UNF) reprocessing, as well as reduce associated costs, a novel solvent extraction process has been developed. The process allows for partitioning minor actinides, lanthanides and fission products following uranium/plutonium/neptunium removal; minimizing the number of separation steps, flowsheets, chemical consumption, and waste. This new process, Actinide Lanthanide SEParation (ALSEP), uses an organic solvent consisting of a neutral diglycolamide extractant, either N,N,N',N'-tetra(2 ethylhexyl)diglycolamide (T2EHDGA) or N,N,N',N'-tetraoctyldiglycolamide (TODGA), and an acidic extractant 2-ethylhexylphosphonic acid mono-2-ethylhexyl ester (HEH[EHP]), dissolved in an aliphatic diluent (e.g. n-dodecane). The An/Ln co-extraction is conducted from moderate-to-strong nitric acid, while the selective stripping of the minor actinides from the lanthanides is carried out using a polyaminocarboxylic acid/citrate buffered solution at pH anywhere between 3 and 4.5. The extraction and separation of the actinides from the fission products is very effective in a wide range of HNO3 concentrations and the minimum separation factors for lanthanide/Am exceed 30 for Nd/Am, reaching > 60 for Eu/Am under some conditions. The experimental results presented here demonstrate the great potential for a combined system, consisting of a neutral extractant such as T2EHDGA or TODGA, and an acidic extractant such as HEH[EHP], for separating the minor actinides from the lanthanides.

  3. Removal of Radioactive Cesium Using Prussian Blue Magnetic Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Sung-Chan; Hong, Sang-Bum; Yang, Hee-Man; Lee, Kune-Woo; Moon, Jei-Kwon; Seo, Bum-Kyoung; Huh, Yun Suk; Roh, Changhyun

    2014-01-01

    Radioactive cesium (137Cs) has inevitably become a human concern due to exposure from nuclear power plants and nuclear accident releases. Many efforts have been focused on removing cesium and the remediation of the contaminated environment. In this study, we elucidated the ability of Prussian blue-coated magnetic nanoparticles to eliminate cesium from radioactive contaminated waste. Thus, the obtained Prussian blue-coated magnetic nanoparticles were then characterized and examined for their physical and radioactive cesium adsorption properties. This Prussian blue-coated magnetic nanoparticle-based cesium magnetic sorbent can offer great potential for use in in situ remediation. PMID:28344255

  4. Elevated concentrations of actinides in mono lake.

    PubMed

    Anderson, R F; Bacon, M P; Brewer, P G

    1982-04-30

    Tetravalent thorium, pentavalent protactinium, hexavalent uranium, and plutonium (oxidation state uncertain) are present in much higher concentrations in Mono Lake, a saline, alkaline lake in eastern central California, than in seawater. Low ratios of actinium to protactinium and of americium to plutonium indicate that the concentrations of trivalent actinides are not similarly enhanced. The elevated concentrations of the ordinarily very insoluble actinides are maintained in solution by natural ligands, which inhibit their chemical removal from the water column, rather than by an unusually large rate of supply.

  5. Systematization of actinides using cluster analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Kopyrin, A.A.; Terent`eva, T.N.; Khramov, N.N.

    1994-11-01

    A representation of the actinides in multidimensional property space is proposed for systematization of these elements using cluster analysis. Literature data for their atomic properties are used. Owing to the wide variation of published ionization potentials, medians are used to estimate them. Vertical dendograms are used for classification on the basis of distances between the actinides in atomic-property space. The properties of actinium and lawrencium are furthest removed from the main group. Thorium and mendelevium exhibit individualized properties. A cluster based on the einsteinium-fermium pair is joined by californium.

  6. Strong correlations in actinide redox reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horowitz, S. E.; Marston, J. B.

    2011-02-01

    Reduction-oxidation (redox) reactions of the redox couples An(VI)/An(V), An(V)/An(IV), and An(IV)/An(III), where An is an element in the family of early actinides (U, Np, and Pu), as well as Am(VI)/Am(V) and Am(V)/Am(III), are modeled by combining density functional theory with a generalized Anderson impurity model that accounts for the strong correlations between the 5f electrons. Diagonalization of the Anderson impurity model yields improved estimates for the redox potentials and the propensity of the actinide complexes to disproportionate.

  7. The gastrointestinal absorption of the actinide elements.

    PubMed

    Harrison, J D

    1991-03-01

    The greatest uncertainty in dose estimates for the ingestion of long-lived, alpha-emitting isotopes of the actinide elements is in the values used for their fractional absorption from the gastrointestinal tract (f1 values). Recent years have seen a large increase in the available data on actinide absorption. Human data are reviewed here, together with animal data, to illustrate the effect on absorption of chemical form, incorporation into food materials, fasting and other dietary factors, and age at ingestion. The f1 values recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection, by an Expert Group of the Nuclear Energy Agency and by the National Radiological Protection Board are discussed.

  8. Elevated concentrations of actinides in Mono Lake

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, R.F.; Bacon, M.P.; Brewer, P.G.

    1982-04-30

    Tetravalent thorium, pentavalent protactinium, hexavalent uranium, and plutonium (oxidation state uncertain) are present in much higher concentrations in Mono Lake, a saline, alkaline lake in eastern central California, than in seawater. Low ratios of actinium to protactinium and of americium to plutonium indicate that the concentrations of trivalent actinides are not similarly enhanced. The elevated concentrations of the ordinarily very insoluble actinides are maintained in solution by natural ligands, which inhibit their chemical removal from the water column, rather than by an unusually large rate of supply.

  9. Strong correlations in actinide redox reactions.

    PubMed

    Horowitz, S E; Marston, J B

    2011-02-14

    Reduction-oxidation (redox) reactions of the redox couples An(VI)/An(V), An(V)/An(IV), and An(IV)/An(III), where An is an element in the family of early actinides (U, Np, and Pu), as well as Am(VI)/Am(V) and Am(V)/Am(III), are modeled by combining density functional theory with a generalized Anderson impurity model that accounts for the strong correlations between the 5f electrons. Diagonalization of the Anderson impurity model yields improved estimates for the redox potentials and the propensity of the actinide complexes to disproportionate.

  10. Cesium vapor thermionic converter anomalies arising from negative ion emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rasor, Ned S.

    2016-08-01

    Compelling experimental evidence is given that a longstanding limit encountered on cesium vapor thermionic energy converter performance improvement and other anomalies arise from thermionic emission of cesium negative ions. It is shown that the energy that characterizes thermionic emission of cesium negative ions is 1.38 eV and, understandably, is not the electron affinity 0.47 eV determined for the photodetachment threshold of the cesium negative ion. The experimental evidence includes measurements of collector work functions and volt-ampere characteristics in quasi-vacuum cesium vapor thermionic diodes, along with reinterpretation of the classic Taylor-Langmuir S-curve data on electron emission in cesium vapor. The quantitative effects of negative ion emission on performance in the ignited, unignited, and quasi-vacuum modes of cesium vapor thermionic converter operation are estimated.

  11. Cesium promotion in styrene epoxidation on silver catalysts.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Ling; Gorin, Craig F; Madix, Robert J

    2010-01-20

    The adsorption of a small amount of cesium on Ag(110) redirects the partial oxidation products of styrene from phenylacetaldehyde and phenylketene to styrene oxide. The cesium stabilizes the oxametallacycle intermediate and hinders its transformation to the intermediate that leads to the other products. Cesium does not appear to create any electronic effects on the bonding of the intermediates. Low coverages of cesium induce a (1 x 2) missing-row reconstruction of the entire clean Ag(110) surface and a (3 x 5) surface oxide structure on the cesium-reconstructed Ag(110) surface. This (3 x 5)-ordered surface oxide is superimposed on the Ag(111) microfacets produced by the cesium-induced reconstruction, which leads to selectivity and reactivity very similar to those of the extended (111) surface. These studies provide insight into the microscopic origins of the structural effects of cesium in styrene epoxidation on silver catalysts.

  12. Simulating the Transfer of Strontium-90 from Soil to Leafy Vegetables by Using Strontium-88.

    PubMed

    Kuke, Ding; Shujuan, Liu; Yingxue, He; Dong, Yan; Fengshou, Zhang; Shuifeng, Wang; Jinghua, Guo; Wei, Zhang; Xin, Wang; Xiaoyan, Jiang

    2016-01-01

    The transfer, from soil to Chinese cabbage and spinach, of radioactive strontium-90 released as a result of accidents in nuclear power stations was studied using a stable isotope of strontium, namely nuclide strontium-88 ((88)Sr). The study led to an experimental model for assessing the hazard of radionuclide strontium-90 ((90)Sr) entering the food chain and for predicting the risk to food safety. Chinese cabbage and spinach were grown in pots in a greenhouse and irrigated with deionized water containing known quantities of strontium. Based on the strontium content of that water, the plants were divided into five groups (treatments) and strontium content of the soil, and 30-day-old plants were determined by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy instrument (ICP-AES). Data on the strontium content of soil and plants enabled the development of a model using MATLAB, a mathematical software package, which included curve fitting and problem solving using regression equations and differential equations. Although strontium curves for leaves, stems, and roots of Chinese cabbage were not exactly the same, all showed a non-linear increase when compared with the increase in the content of strontium in soil. Strontium curves for leaves, stems, and roots of spinach were very similar and showed an initial increase followed by a decrease. Strontium concentrations in both Chinese cabbage and spinach were initially related to the concentrations of sodium and sulfur, the next two relevant nuclides being calcium and magnesium. The relationship between calcium and strontium in Chinese cabbage was different from that in spinach. By using (88)Sr to simulate the transfer of radionuclide (90)Sr from soil to a crop, the relevant data required to deal with accidental release of strontium can be obtained using a fitting curve and regression equations, thereby providing some experimental basis for evaluating the potential hazards posed by such accidents to the food chain.

  13. Scintillator handbook with emphasis on cesium iodide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tidd, J. L.; Dabbs, J. R.; Levine, N.

    1973-01-01

    This report provides a background of reasonable depth and reference material on scintillators in general. Particular attention is paid to the cesium iodide scintillators as used in the High Energy Astronomy Observatory (HEAO) experiments. It is intended especially for use by persons such as laboratory test personnel who need to obtain a working knowledge of these materials and their characteristics in a short time.

  14. Distribution of radioactive cesium and stable cesium in cattle kept on a highly contaminated area of Fukushima nuclear accident.

    PubMed

    Sato, Itaru; Okada, Keiji; Sasaki, Jun; Chida, Hiroyuki; Satoh, Hiroshi; Miura, Kiyoshi; Kikuchi, Kaoru; Otani, Kumiko; Sato, Shusuke

    2015-07-01

    Radioactivity inspection of slaughtered cattle is generally conducted using a portion of the neck muscle; however, there is limited information about the distribution of radioactive cesium in cattle. In this study, therefore, we measured not only radioactive cesium but also stable cesium in various tissues of 19 cattle that had been kept in the area highly contaminated by the Fukushima nuclear accident. Skeletal muscles showed approximately 1.5-3.0 times higher concentration of radioactive cesium than internal organs. Radioactive cesium concentration in the tenderloin and top round was about 1.2 times as high as that in the neck muscle. The kidney showed the highest concentration of radioactive cesium among internal organs, whereas the liver was lowest. Radioactive cesium concentration in the blood was about 8% of that in the neck muscle. Characteristics of stable cesium distribution were almost the same as those of radioactive cesium. Correlation coefficient between radioactive cesium and stable cesium in tissues of individual cattle was 0.981 ± 0.012. When a suspicious level near 100 Bq/kg is detected in the neck of slaughtered cattle, re-inspection should be conducted using a different region of muscle, for example top round, to prevent marketing of beef that violates the Food Sanitation Act. © 2014 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  15. Composition and process for separating cesium ions from an acidic aqueous solution also containing other ions

    DOEpatents

    Dietz, M.L.; Horwitz, E.P.; Bartsch, R.A.; Barrans, R.E. Jr.; Rausch, D.

    1999-03-30

    A crown ether cesium ion extractant is disclosed as is its synthesis. The crown ether cesium ion extractant is useful for the selective purification of cesium ions from aqueous acidic media, and more particularly useful for the isolation of radioactive cesium-137 from nuclear waste streams. Processes for isolating cesium ions from aqueous acidic media using the crown ether cesium extractant are disclosed as are processes for recycling the crown ether cesium extractant and processes for recovering cesium from a crown ether cesium extractant solution. 4 figs.

  16. Composition and process for separating cesium ions from an acidic aqueous solution also containing other ions

    DOEpatents

    Dietz, Mark L.; Horwitz, E. Philip; Bartsch, Richard A.; Barrans, Jr., Richard E.; Rausch, David

    1999-01-01

    A crown ether cesium ion extractant is disclosed as is its synthesis. The crown ether cesium ion extractant is useful for the selective purification of cesium ions from aqueous acidic media, and more particularly useful for the isolation of radioactive cesium-137 from nuclear waste streams. Processes for isolating cesium ions from aqueous acidic media using the crown ether cesium extractant are disclosed as are processes for recycling the crown ether cesium extractant and processes for recovering cesium from a crown ether cesium extractant solution.

  17. Rapid determination of actinides in asphalt samples

    DOE PAGES

    Maxwell, Sherrod L.; Culligan, Brian K.; Hutchison, Jay B.

    2014-01-12

    A new rapid method for the determination of actinides in asphalt samples has been developed that can be used in emergency response situations or for routine analysis If a radiological dispersive device (RDD), Improvised Nuclear Device (IND) or a nuclear accident such as the accident at the Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant in March, 2011 occurs, there will be an urgent need for rapid analyses of many different environmental matrices, including asphalt materials, to support dose mitigation and environmental clean up. The new method for the determination of actinides in asphalt utilizes a rapid furnace step to destroy bitumen and organicsmore » present in the asphalt and sodium hydroxide fusion to digest the remaining sample. Sample preconcentration steps are used to collect the actinides and a new stacked TRU Resin + DGA Resin column method is employed to separate the actinide isotopes in the asphalt samples. The TRU Resin plus DGA Resin separation approach, which allows sequential separation of plutonium, uranium, americium and curium isotopes in asphalt samples, can be applied to soil samples as well.« less

  18. Semi-empirical models of actinide alloying

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gibson, John K.; Haire, Richard G.; Ogawa, Toru

    1999-07-01

    Alloys of Np have been studied less than those of the neighboring elements, U and Pu; the higher actinides have received even less attention. Recent interest in 237Np, 241Am and other actinide isotopes as significant, long-lived and highly radiotoxic nuclear waste components, and particularly the roles of metallic materials in new handling/separations and remediation technologies, demands that this paucity of information concerning alloy behaviors be addressed. An additional interest in these materials arises from the possibility of revealing fundamental properties and bonding interactions, which would further characterize the unique electronic structures (e.g., 5f electrons) of the actinide elements. The small empirical knowledge basis presently available for understanding and modeling the alloying behavior of Np is summarized here, with emphasis on our recent results for the Np-Am, Np-Zr and Np-Fe phase diagrams. In view of the limited experimental data base for neptunium and the transplutonium metals, the value of semi-empirical intermetallic bonding models for predicting actinide alloy thermodynamics is evaluated.

  19. Actinide measurements by AMS using fluoride matrices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cornett, R. J.; Kazi, Z. H.; Zhao, X.-L.; Chartrand, M. G.; Charles, R. J.; Kieser, W. E.

    2015-10-01

    Actinides can be measured by alpha spectroscopy (AS), mass spectroscopy or accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS). We tested a simple method to separate Pu and Am isotopes from the sample matrix using a single extraction chromatography column. The actinides in the column eluent were then measured by AS or AMS using a fluoride target matrix. Pu and Am were coprecipitated with NdF3. The strongest AMS beams of Pu and Am were produced when there was a large excess of fluoride donor atoms in the target and the NdF3 precipitates were diluted about 6-8 fold with PbF2. The measured concentrations of 239,240Pu and 241Am agreed with the concentrations in standards of known activity and with two IAEA certified reference materials. Measurements of 239,240Pu and 241Am made at A.E. Lalonde AMS Laboratory agree, within their statistical uncertainty, with independent measurements made using the IsoTrace AMS system. This work demonstrated that fluoride targets can produce reliable beams of actinide anions and that the measurement of actinides using fluorides agree with published values in certified reference materials.

  20. Rapid determination of actinides in asphalt samples

    SciTech Connect

    Maxwell, Sherrod L.; Culligan, Brian K.; Hutchison, Jay B.

    2014-01-12

    A new rapid method for the determination of actinides in asphalt samples has been developed that can be used in emergency response situations or for routine analysis If a radiological dispersive device (RDD), Improvised Nuclear Device (IND) or a nuclear accident such as the accident at the Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant in March, 2011 occurs, there will be an urgent need for rapid analyses of many different environmental matrices, including asphalt materials, to support dose mitigation and environmental clean up. The new method for the determination of actinides in asphalt utilizes a rapid furnace step to destroy bitumen and organics present in the asphalt and sodium hydroxide fusion to digest the remaining sample. Sample preconcentration steps are used to collect the actinides and a new stacked TRU Resin + DGA Resin column method is employed to separate the actinide isotopes in the asphalt samples. The TRU Resin plus DGA Resin separation approach, which allows sequential separation of plutonium, uranium, americium and curium isotopes in asphalt samples, can be applied to soil samples as well.

  1. Trends in actinide processing at Hanford

    SciTech Connect

    Harmon, H.D.

    1993-09-01

    In 1989, the mission at the Hanford Site began a dramatic and sometimes painful transition. The days of production--as we used to know it--are over. Our mission officially has become waste management and environmental cleanup. This mission change didn`t eliminate many jobs--in fact, budgets have grown dramatically to support the new mission. Most all of the same skilled crafts, engineers, and scientists are still required for the new mission. This change has not eliminated the need for actinide processing, but it has certainly changed the focus that our actinide chemists and process engineers have. The focus used to be on such things as increasing capacity, improving separations efficiency, and product purity. Minimizing waste had become a more important theme in recent years and it is still a very important concept in the waste management and environmental cleanup arena. However, at Hanford, a new set of words dominates the actinide process scene as we work to deal with actinides that still reside in a variety of forms at the Hanford Site. These words are repackage, stabilize, remove, store and dispose. Some key activities in each of these areas are described in this report.

  2. Imbalance in the oceanic strontium budget

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, Amy C.; Bickle, Mike J.; Teagle, Damon A. H.

    2003-06-01

    Palmer and Edmond [Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 92 (1989) 11-26] indicated that thermally plausible oceanic hydrothermal inputs of strontium to the oceans are not sufficient to balance the riverine input. It has recently been suggested that off-axis low-temperature hydrothermal circulation may reconcile this discrepancy [e.g. Butterfield et al., Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 65 (2001) 4141-4153]. Strontium isotope alteration profiles are compiled for sampled in situ ocean and ophiolite crust to calculate a sustainable cumulative hydrothermal flux to the oceanic strontium budget. High-temperature circulation contributes ˜1.8×10 9 mol yr -1 of basaltic strontium to the oceans. Enhanced hydrothermal systems in arc-related spreading environments (10% of the crust) may increase this to ˜2.3×10 9 mol yr -1. It is shown that low-temperature flow cannot supply the remaining flux required to reconcile the oceanic strontium budget (˜8.7×10 9 mol yr -1) because this would require 100% exchange of seawater strontium for basaltic strontium over an 820 m section of MORB-like crust. Currently sampled in situ ocean crust is not altered to this extent. The isotopic alteration intensity of 120 Myr crust sampled in DSDP Holes 417D and 418A indicates that off-axis low-temperature flow may contribute up to ˜8×10 8 mol yr -1 of basaltic strontium (9% of that required). The ocean crust can sustain a total basaltic strontium flux of ˜3.1±0.8×10 9 mol yr -1 ( 87Sr/ 86Sr ˜0.7025) to the oceans. This is consistent with hydrothermal flux estimates, but remains less than a third of the flux required to balance the oceanic strontium budget. The ocean crust cannot support a higher hydrothermal contribution unless the average ocean crust is significantly more altered than current observation.

  3. Quantum Degenerate Gases of Strontium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desalvo, Brian; Martinez de Escobar, Natali; Mickelson, Pacal; Yan, Mi; Killian, Thomas

    2010-03-01

    We have produced quantum degenerate gases of three of the four stable isotopes of strontium. Using two-stage laser trapping and cooling followed by direct evaporative cooling in a far-off- resonance optical dipole trap (ODT), a stable Bose-Einstein Condensate (BEC) of ^84Sr is formed. Via dual species trapping and sympathetic cooling in an ODT, an attractive BEC of ^88Sr is created, as well as a degenerate Fermi gas of ^87Sr. Differences in the evaporation scheme used to reach degeneracy for each isotope will be presented as well as the varied dynamics of the gases.

  4. Actinide nuclear data for reactor physics calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Brady, M.C.; Wright, R.Q. ); England, T.R. )

    1991-07-01

    Calculational methodologies and data sources used to predict and recommend fission-product yields and delayed neutron and prompt neutron data for a number of actinide nuclides are presented and discussed. This compilation of nuclear data is the result of a nearly three-year effort under the Japan/US Actinide Program (JUSAP) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory to provide nuclear data supporting the preliminary design of an actinide burner reactor. In this type of reactor, minor actinides are the major components of the fuel. Nuclear data for these minor actinides are, therefore, essential in the design of such reactors. Fission yield, delayed neutron, and prompt neutron data are presented in the report for the following nuclides: Neptumium-237, Plutonium-238, -240, and -242, Americium-241 and -243, and Curium-242, -243, -244, -246, and -248. Additionally, prompt neutron data are also presented for these nuclides (except Plutonium-240, -242 and Curium-242) and for Curium-245 and -247. As in all compilations of nuclear data, the information in this report is subject to change as newer data become available. Most of the data presented here are based on calculational methodologies and should be revised as experimental data become available. The release of Version 6 of the Evaluated Nuclear Data Files (ENDF/B-6) is expected to be completed in 1991 and should replace this evaluation in areas of overlap although no serious discrepancies are expected between this compilation and ENDF/B-6. Because of the large amount of data comprising this compilation and limitations in publishing such a voluminous report, a complete listing of the explicit data is not included in this report. The data are, however, available from the authors on 5 {1/2}-in. high-density (1.2-Mbyte) diskettes. The file contents and formats are described in the text, and examples are given in the appendices. 34 refs., 18 tabs.

  5. Plutonium Futures -- The Science. Topical Conference on Plutonium and Actinides. AIP Conference Proceedings, No. 532 [APCPCS

    SciTech Connect

    Pillay, K.K.S.; Kim, K.C.

    2000-12-31

    Presentations at this conference covered the topics of materials science/nuclear fuels, condensed matter physics, actinides in the environment/separation and analysis, actinides/processing, actinides/TRU wastes, materials science, TRU waste forms, nuclear fuels/isotopes, separations and process chemistry, actinides in the environment, detection and analysis, Pu and Pu compounds, actinide compounds and complexes.

  6. Adventures in Actinide Chemistry: A Year of Exploring Uranium and Thorium in Los Alamos

    SciTech Connect

    Pagano, Justin

    2016-01-08

    The first part of this collection of slides is concerned with considerations when working with actinides. The topics discussed in the document as a whole are the following: Actinide chemistry vs. transition metal chemistry--tools we can use; New synthetic methods to obtain actinide hydrides; Actinide metallacycles: synthesis, structure, and properties; and Reactivity of actinide metallacycles.

  7. Synthesis of actinide nitrides, phosphides, sulfides and oxides

    DOEpatents

    Van Der Sluys, William G.; Burns, Carol J.; Smith, David C.

    1992-01-01

    A process of preparing an actinide compound of the formula An.sub.x Z.sub.y wherein An is an actinide metal atom selected from the group consisting of thorium, uranium, plutonium, neptunium, and americium, x is selected from the group consisting of one, two or three, Z is a main group element atom selected from the group consisting of nitrogen, phosphorus, oxygen and sulfur and y is selected from the group consisting of one, two, three or four, by admixing an actinide organometallic precursor wherein said actinide is selected from the group consisting of thorium, uranium, plutonium, neptunium, and americium, a suitable solvent and a protic Lewis base selected from the group consisting of ammonia, phosphine, hydrogen sulfide and water, at temperatures and for time sufficient to form an intermediate actinide complex, heating said intermediate actinide complex at temperatures and for time sufficient to form the actinide compound, and a process of depositing a thin film of such an actinide compound, e.g., uranium mononitride, by subliming an actinide organometallic precursor, e.g., a uranium amide precursor, in the presence of an effectgive amount of a protic Lewis base, e.g., ammonia, within a reactor at temperatures and for time sufficient to form a thin film of the actinide compound, are disclosed.

  8. Solvothermal synthesis of strontium phosphate chloride nanowire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lam, W. M.; Wong, C. T.; Li, Z. Y.; Luk, K. D. K.; Chan, W. K.; Yang, C.; Chiu, K. Y.; Xu, B.; Lu, W. W.

    2007-08-01

    Strontium phosphate chloride nanowire was synthesized via a solvothermal treatment of strontium tri-polyphosphate and Collin salt in 1,4-dioxane at 150 °C. The effects of 1,4-dioxane concentration on particle morphology, crystallinity and phase purity were investigated in this study. The specimen morphology was analyzed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). When the concentration of 1,4-dioxane was below 10%, micron-sized whisker was the dominant form. At 20-25% concentration of 1,4-dioxane, strontium phosphate chloride single-crystalline nanowire was 31±12 nm in diameter and 1.43±0.6 μm in length with an aspect ratio of 52.28±29.41. X-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern of this nanowire matched with that of strontium phosphate chloride (JCPDS #083-0973). When 1,4-dioxane concentration exceeded 25%, nanorod aggregate was the dominant form instead of nanowire. At 20-25% 1,4-dioxane concentration suitable strontium concentration combine with high chemical potential environment favors the formation of nanowires. By adding 1,4-dioxane impure phase such as β-strontium hydrogen phosphate, nanorod formation was suppressed. This method provides an efficient way to synthesize high aspect ratio strontium phosphate chloride nanowire. It has potential bioactive nanocomposite, high mechanical performance bioactive bone cement filler and fluorescent material applications.

  9. Nano-Cesium for Anti-Cancer Properties: An Investigation into Cesium Induced Metabolic Interference.

    PubMed

    Daza, Enrique A; Misra, Santosh K; Schwartz-Duval, Aaron S; Ohoka, Ayako; Miller, Callie; Pan, Dipanjan

    2016-10-03

    The use of cesium chloride (CsCl) for cancer therapy ("high pH therapy") has been theorized to produce anticancer properties by raising intracellular pH to induce apoptosis. Although considered as "alternative medicine", little scientific evidence supports this theory. Alternatively, cells have no cesium ion (Cs(+)) mediated channels for clearance. Thus, such unstable electrochemical distributions have the severe potential to disrupt electrochemical dependent cellular processes, such as glucose cotransporters. Hence, a detailed investigation of pH changing effects and glucose uptake inhibition are warranted as a possible cesium-induced anticancer therapy. We developed and characterized cesium nanoparticles (38 ± 6 nm), termed NanoCs, for nanoparticle-mediated internalization of the ion, and compared its treatment to free CsCl. Our investigations suggest that neither NanoCs nor CsCl drastically changed the intracellular pH, negating the theory. Alternatively, NanoCs lead to a significant decrease in glucose uptake when compared to free CsCl, suggesting cesium inhibited glucose uptake. An apoptosis assay of observed cell death affirms that NanoCs leads tumor cells to initiate apoptosis rather than follow necrotic behavior. Furthermore, NanoCs lead to in vivo tumor regression, where H&E analysis confirmed apoptotic cell populations. Thus, NanoCs performed pH-independent anticancer therapy by inducing metabolic stasis.

  10. Electrorecovery of actinides at room temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Stoll, Michael E; Oldham, Warren J; Costa, David A

    2008-01-01

    There are a large number of purification and processing operations involving actinide species that rely on high-temperature molten salts as the solvent medium. One such application is the electrorefining of impure actinide metals to provide high purity material for subsequent applications. There are some drawbacks to the electrodeposition of actinides in molten salts including relatively low yields, lack of accurate potential control, maintaining efficiency in a highly corrosive environment, and failed runs. With these issues in mind we have been investigating the electrodeposition of actinide metals, mainly uranium, from room temperature ionic liquids (RTILs) and relatively high-boiling organic solvents. The RTILs we have focused on are comprised of 1,3-dialkylimidazolium or quaternary ammonium cations and mainly the {sup -}N(SO{sub 2}CF{sub 3}){sub 2} anion [bis(trif1uoromethylsulfonyl)imide {equivalent_to} {sup -}NTf{sub 2}]. These materials represent a class of solvents that possess great potential for use in applications employing electrochemical procedures. In order to ascertain the feasibility of using RTILs for bulk electrodeposition of actinide metals our research team has been exploring the electron transfer behavior of simple coordination complexes of uranium dissolved in the RTIL solutions. More recently we have begun some fundamental electrochemical studies on the behavior of uranium and plutonium complexes in the organic solvents N-methylpyrrolidone (NMP) and dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO). Our most recent results concerning electrodeposition will be presented in this account. The electrochemical behavior of U(IV) and U(III) species in RTILs and the relatively low vapor pressure solvents NMP and DMSO is described. These studies have been ongoing in our laboratory to uncover conditions that will lead to the successful bulk electrodeposition of actinide metals at a working electrode surface at room temperature or slightly elevated temperatures. The RTILs we

  11. Factors affecting strontium absorption in drownings.

    PubMed

    Azparren, J E; Perucha, E; Martínez, P; Muñoz, R; Vallejo, G

    2007-05-24

    This study examines the effects of age, gender, a cold water medium versus warm water medium, and salinity on strontium levels determined in left ventricular blood in drownings. Significant differences in the amount of strontium absorbed into the bloodstream (p<0.001) were detected between individuals who drowned in fresh water versus those drowning in seawater, and between those drowning in cold water versus warm water (p=0.030). However, no significant differences were noted in the strontium concentrations of left ventricular blood according to gender or age.

  12. Cesium titanium silicate and method of making

    DOEpatents

    Balmer, Mari L.

    1997-01-01

    The invention is the new material, a ternary compound of cesium, silica, and titania, together with a method of making the ternary compound, cesium titanium silicate pollucite. More specifically, the invention is Cs.sub.2 Ti.sub.2 Si.sub.4 O.sub.13 pollucite which is a new crystalline phase representing a novel class of Ti-containing zeolites. Compositions contain relatively high Cs.sub.2 O and TiO.sub.2 loadings and are durable glass and ceramic materials. The amount of TiO.sub.2 and Cs.sub.2 that can be incorporated into these glasses and crystalline ceramics far exceeds the limits set for the borosilicate high level waste glass.

  13. Cesium titanium silicate and method of making

    DOEpatents

    Balmer, M.L.

    1997-01-07

    The invention is the new material, a ternary compound of cesium, silica, and titania, together with a method of making the ternary compound, cesium titanium silicate pollucite. More specifically, the invention is Cs{sub 2}Ti{sub 2}Si{sub 4}O{sub 13} pollucite which is a new crystalline phase representing a novel class of Ti-containing zeolites. Compositions contain relatively high Cs{sub 2}O and TiO{sub 2} loadings and are durable glass and ceramic materials. The amount of TiO{sub 2} and Cs{sub 2} that can be incorporated into these glasses and crystalline ceramics far exceeds the limits set for the borosilicate high level waste glass. 10 figs.

  14. The status of cesium beam frequency standards

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cutler, Leonard S.

    1990-01-01

    There has been a lot of progress in cesium beam frequency standards in the last few years some of which will be reported here. Optical pumping is being pursued actively in a number of laboratories. Optically slowed and cooled beams have been demonstrated as well as traps for cold neutral atoms. The microwave cavity performance with regard to local phase shift at the beam holes was improved by use of carefully designed and built ring structures for the cavity ends. Work is being done on improvements in electronics with some emphasis on use of digital circuitry and microprocessors. The frequency pulling due to microwave Delta M = +/- 1 transitions (Ramsey pulling) was analyzed and shown to be important. Status of cesium beam frequency standards in some of the laboratories as well as some of the commercial work is discussed. Optical pumping and detection are discussed.

  15. Murine immunization by cesium-137 irradiation attenuated Schistosoma mansoni cercariae

    SciTech Connect

    Stek, M. Jr.; Minard, P.; Cruess, D.F.

    1984-06-01

    Cesium-137, becoming a more readily available ionizing gamma radiation source for laboratory use, was shown to effectively attenuate Schistosoma mansoni cercariae for vaccine production. In parallel comparison studies with the murine model, cesium-137 attenuated cercariae consistently afforded better protection than did the cobalt-60 prepared vaccine. Dose-response data indicated that the optimal total irradiation with cesium-137 was between 45 and 50 Krad.

  16. Cesium legacy safety project management work plan

    SciTech Connect

    Durham, J.S.

    1998-04-21

    This Management Work Plan (MWP) describes the process flow, quality assurance controls, and the Environment, Safety, and Health requirements of the Cesium Legacy Safety Project. This MWP provides an overview of the project goals and methods for repackaging the non-conforming Type W overpacks and packaging the CsCl powder and pellets. This MWP is not intended to apply to other activities associated with the CsCl Legacy Safety Program (i.e., clean out of South Cell).

  17. Cesium Atomic Fountain Clocks at NMIJ

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-11-01

    Wynands and S. Weyers, 2005, “Atomic fountain clocks,” Metrologia , 42, S64-S79. [2] M. Takamoto, F. L. Hong, R. Higashi, et al., 2005, “An optical...beam of laser-cooled cesium atoms,” Physical Review, A 60, R4241-R4244. [13] V. Gerginov, N. Nemitz, S. Weyers, et al., 2010, “Uncertainty evaluation of the caesium fountain clock PTB-CSF2,” Metrologia , 47, 65-79.

  18. Trapping and evaporation of strontium-87 and strontium-88 mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mickelson, Pascal Gerry

    This thesis describes trapping and evaporative cooling of ultracold 87Sr and 88Sr mixtures in an optical dipole trap to produce the first Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) of 88Sr. Furthermore, this work presents thermalization studies that characterize the scattering properties of these ultracold strontium samples. Such ultracold atomic gases have become an important area of research because of their potential for improving optical frequency standards and for realizing quantum computation using neutral atoms. A BEC of 88Sr is particularly interesting because the small value of its background s-wave scattering length may enable the use of optical Feshbach resonances to create two-dimensional solitons. However, the small scattering length for 88Sr also hinders efficient evaporative cooling in the optical dipole trap, a necessary step to producing a BEC. Experiments with other ultracold gases have successfully overcome this hurdle by mixing in a second atomic species which, by introducing stronger interactions with the weakly interacting species, enables evaporation to colder temperatures via sympathetic cooling. For this work, we use 87Sr to sympathetically cool 88Sr during forced evaporation to quantum degeneracy. Previous experiments in the Killian Lab characterized 88Sr in detail. Here, I emphasize the new or improved aspects that have allowed trapping and cooling of the mixtures of 87Sr and 88 Sr: trapping of 87Sr by itself, spectroscopic measurements of all the stable strontium isotopes to guide the trapping of isotopic mixtures, imaging of both 87Sr and 88Sr, and the various trade-offs necessary to simultaneously trap 87Sr and 88Sr. Finally, I discuss how the thermalization studies of the scattering properties of the isotopes guide the forced evaporation of mixed isotope samples. These efforts result in the production of the BEC of 88Sr, but they also point the way to future studies of fermionic quantum degeneracy in 87Sr and to the rich physics of mixed species

  19. Hydrogen masers and cesium fountains at NRC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boulanger, J.-S.; Morris, D.; Douglas, R. J.; Gagne, M.-C.

    1994-01-01

    The NRC masers H-3 and H-4 have been operating since June 1993 with cavity servo control. These low-flux active H masers are showing stabilities of about 10(exp -15) from 1 hour to several days. Stability results are presented, and the current and planned uses of the masers are discussed. A cesium fountain primary frequency standard project has been started at NRC. Trapping and launching experiments with the goal of 7 m/s launches are beginning. We discuss our plans for a local oscillator and servo that exploit the pulsed aspect of cesium fountain standards, and meet the challenge of 10(exp -14) tau(exp -1/2) stability without requiring masers. At best, we expect to run this frequency standard initially for periods of hours each working day rather than continuously for years, and so frequency transfer to outside laboratories has been carefully considered. We conclude that masers (or other even better secondary clocks) are required to exploit this potential accuracy of the cesium fountain. We present and discuss our conclusion that it is feasible to transfer frequency in this way with a transfer-induced uncertainty of less than 10(exp -15), even in the presence of maser frequency drift and random walk noise.

  20. Actinide Isotopes for the Synthesis of Superheavy Nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roberto, J. B.; Alexander, C. W.; Boll, R. A.; Dean, D. J.; Ezold, J. G.; Felker, L. K.; Rykaczewski, K. P.

    2014-09-01

    Recent research resulting in the synthesis of isotopes of new elements 113-118 has demonstrated the importance of actinide targets in superheavy element research. Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has unique facilities for the production and processing of actinide target materials, including the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) and the Radiochemical Engineering Development Center (REDC). These facilities have provided actinide target materials that have been used for the synthesis of all superheavy (SHE) elements above Copernicium (element 112). In this paper, the use of actinide targets for SHE research and discovery is described, including recent results for element 117 using 249Bk target material from ORNL. ORNL actinide capabilities are reviewed, including production and separation/purification, availabilities of actinide materials, and future opportunities including novel target materials such as 251Cf.

  1. Direct Grout Stabilization of High Cesium Salt Waste: Cesium Leaching Studies

    SciTech Connect

    Langton, C.A.

    1999-09-19

    'The direct grout alternative is a viable option for treatment/stabilization and disposal of salt waste containing Cs-137 concentrations of 1-3 Ci/gal. The significant difference between these waste solutions is that the high cesium salt solution will contain between 1 and 3 Curies of Cs-137 per gallon compared to a negligible amount in the current salt solution. This difference will require special engineering and shielding for a direct grout processing facility and disposal units to achieve acceptable radiation exposure conditions. The higher cesium concentrations in the direct grout also require that the cesium leaching be evaluated as a function of curing temperature. ANS 16.1 leaching results and distribution ratios (approximations of distribution coefficients) as a function of temperature are presented in this report.'

  2. A Cesium Beam Frequency Standard with Microprocessor Control,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    Frequency, *Control, *Symposia, *Electron beams, *Cesium, *Microprocessors, Laboratory tests, Frequency standards, Performance(Engineering), Reliability, Time , State of the art, Computers, Data acquisition

  3. Surface interactions of cesium and boric acid with stainless steel

    SciTech Connect

    Grossman-Canfield, N.

    1995-08-01

    In this report, the effects of cesium hydroxide and boric acid on oxidized stainless steel surfaces at high temperatures and near one atmosphere of pressure are investigated. This is the first experimental investigation of this chemical system. The experimental investigations were performed using a mass spectrometer and a mass electrobalance. Surfaces from the different experiments were examined using a scanning electron microscope to identify the presence of deposited species, and electron spectroscopy for chemical analysis to identify the species deposited on the surface. A better understanding of the equilibrium thermodynamics, the kinetics of the steam-accelerated volatilizations, and the release kinetics are gained by these experiments. The release rate is characterized by bulk vaporization/gas-phase mass transfer data. The analysis couples vaporization, deposition, and desorption of the compounds formed by cesium hydroxide and boric acid under conditions similar to what is expected during certain nuclear reactor accidents. This study shows that cesium deposits on an oxidized stainless steel surface at temperatures between 1000 and 1200 Kelvin. Cesium also deposits on stainless steel surfaces coated with boric oxide in the same temperature ranges. The mechanism for cesium deposition onto the oxide layer was found to involve the chemical reaction between cesium and chromate. Some revaporization in the cesium hydroxide-boric acid system was observed. It has been found that under the conditions given, boric acid will react with cesium hydroxide to form cesium metaborate. A model is proposed for this chemical reaction.

  4. Actinide phosphonate complexes in aqueous solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Nash, K.L.

    1993-10-01

    Complexes formed by actinides with carboxylic acids, polycarboxylic acids, and aminopolycarboxylic acids play a central role in both the basic and process chemistry of the actinides. Recent studies of f-element complexes with phosphonic acid ligands indicate that new ligands incorporating doubly ionizable phosphonate groups (-PO{sub 3}H{sub 2}) have many properties which are unique chemically, and promise more efficient separation processes for waste cleanup and environmental restoration. Simple diphosphonate ligands form much stronger complexes than isostructural carboxylates, often exhibiting higher solubility as well. In this manuscript recent studies of the thermodynamics and kinetics of f-element complexation by 1,1 and 1,2 diphosphonic acid ligands are described.

  5. Chemistry of the actinide elements. Second edition

    SciTech Connect

    Katz, J.J.; Seaborg, G.T.; Morss, L.R.

    1987-01-01

    This is an exhaustive, updated discourse on the chemistry of Actinides, Volume 1 contains a systematic coverage of the elements Ac, Th, Pa, U, Np, and Pu, which constitutes Part 1 of the work. The characterization of each element is discussed in terms of its nuclear properties, occurrence, preparation, atomic and metallic properties, chemistry of specific compounds, and solution chemistry. The first part of Volume 2 follows the same format as Volume 1 but is confined to the elements Am, Cm, Bk, Cf, and Es, plus a more condensed coverage of the Transeinsteinium elements (Fm, Md, No, Lw, and 104-109). Part 2 of this volume is devoted to a discussion of the actinide elements in general, with a specific focus on electronic spectra, thermodynamic and magnetic properties, the metallic state, structural chemistry, solution kinetics, organometallic chemistry for /sigma/- and /pi/-bonded compounds, and some concluding remarks on the superheavy elements.

  6. Microbial Transformations of Actinides and Other Radionuclides

    SciTech Connect

    Francis,A.J.; Dodge, C. J.

    2009-01-07

    Microorganisms can affect the stability and mobility of the actinides and other radionuclides released from nuclear fuel cycle and from nuclear fuel reprocessing plants. Under appropriate conditions, microorganisms can alter the chemical speciation, solubility and sorption properties and thus could increase or decrease the concentrations of radionuclides in solution in the environment and the bioavailability. Dissolution or immobilization of radionuclides is brought about by direct enzymatic action or indirect non-enzymatic action of microorganisms. Although the physical, chemical, and geochemical processes affecting dissolution, precipitation, and mobilization of radionuclides have been extensively investigated, we have only limited information on the effects of microbial processes and biochemical mechanisms which affect the stability and mobility of radionuclides. The mechanisms of microbial transformations of the major and minor actinides U, Pu, Cm, Am, Np, the fission products and other radionuclides such as Ra, Tc, I, Cs, Sr, under aerobic and anaerobic conditions in the presence of electron donors and acceptors are reviewed.

  7. Preparation, properties, and some recent studies of the actinide metals

    SciTech Connect

    Haire, R.G.

    1985-01-01

    The actinide elements form a unique series of metals. The variation in their physial properties combined with the varying availability of the different elements offers a challenge to the preparative scientist. This article provides a brief review of selected methods used for preparing ..mu..g to kg amounts of the actinide metals and the properties of these metals. In addition, some recent studies on selected actinide metals are discussed. 62 refs.

  8. In vitro removal of actinide (IV) ions

    DOEpatents

    Weitl, Frederick L.; Raymond, Kenneth N.

    1982-01-01

    A compound of the formula: ##STR1## wherein X is hydrogen or a conventional electron-withdrawing group, particularly --SO.sub.3 H or a salt thereof; n is 2, 3, or 4; m is 2, 3, or 4; and p is 2 or 3. The present compounds are useful as specific sequestering agents for actinide (IV) ions. Also described is a method for the 2,3-dihydroxybenzamidation of azaalkanes.

  9. Separation of Californium from other Actinides

    DOEpatents

    Mailen, J C; Ferris, L M

    1973-09-25

    A method is provided for separating californium from a fused fluoride composition containing californium and at least one element selected from the group consisting of plutonium, americium, curium, uranium, thorium, and protactinium which comprises contacting said fluoride composition with a liquid bismuth phase containing sufficient lithium or thorium to effect transfer of said actinides to the bismuth phase and then contacting the liquid bismuth phase with molten LiCl to effect selective transfer of californium to the chloride phase.

  10. Surrogate Reactions in the Actinide Region

    SciTech Connect

    Burke, J T; Bernstein, L A; Scielzo, N D; Bleuel, D L; Lesher, S R; Escher, J; Ahle, L; Dietrich, F S; Hoffman, R D; Norman, E B; Sheets, S A; Phair, L; Fallon, P; Clark, R M; Gibelin, J; Jewett, C; Lee, I Y; Macchiavelli, A O; McMahan, M A; Moretto, L G; Rodriguez-Vieitez, E; Wiedeking, M; Lyles, B F; Beausang, C W; Allmond, J M; Ai, H; Cizewski, J A; Hatarik, R; O'Malley, P D; Swan, T

    2008-01-30

    Over the past three years we have studied various surrogate reactions (d,p), ({sup 3}He,t), ({alpha},{alpha}{prime}) on several uranium isotopes {sup 234}U, {sup 235}U, {sup 236}U, and {sup 238}U. An overview of the STARS/LIBERACE surrogate research program as it pertains to the actinides is discussed. A summary of results to date will be presented along with a discussion of experimental difficulties encountered in surrogate experiments and future research directions.

  11. Surrogate Reactions in the Actinide Region

    SciTech Connect

    Burke, J. T.; Bernstein, L. A.; Scielzo, N. D.; Bleuel, D. L.; Lesher, S. R.; Escher, J.; Ahle, L.; Dietrich, F. S.; Hoffman, R. D.; Norman, E. B.; Sheets, S. A.; Phair, L.; Fallon, P.; Clark, R. M.; Gibelin, J.; Jewett, C.; Lee, I. Y.; Macchiavelli, A. O.; McMahan, M. A.; Moretto, L. G.

    2008-04-17

    Over the past three years we have studied various surrogate reactions (d,p), ({sup 3}He,t), ({alpha},{alpha}{sup '}) on several uranium isotopes {sup 234}U, {sup 235}U, {sup 236}U, and {sup 238}U. An overview of the STARS/LIBERACE surrogate research program as it pertains to the actinides is discussed. A summary of results to date will be presented along with a discussion of experimental difficulties encountered in surrogate experiments and future research directions.

  12. Novel Solvent for the Simultaneous recovery of Radioactive Nuclides from Liquid Radioactive Wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Romanovskiy, Valeriy Nicholiavich; Smirnov, Lgor V.; Babain, Vasiliy A.; Todd, Terry A.; Brewer, Ken N.

    1999-10-07

    The present invention relates to solvents, and methods, for selectively extracting and recovering radionuclides, especially cesium and strontium, rare earths and actinides from liquid radioactive wastes. More specifically, the invention relates to extracting agent solvent compositions comprising complex organoboron compounds, substituted polyethylene glycols, and neutral organophosphorus compounds in a diluent. The preferred solvent comprises a chlorinated cobalt dicarbollide, diphenyl-dibutylmethylenecarbamoylphosphine oxide, PEG-400, and a diluent of phenylpolyfluoroalkyl sulfone. The invention also provides a method of using the invention extracting agents to recover cesium, strontium, rare earths and actinides from liquid radioactive waste.

  13. Method for the simultaneous recovery of radionuclides from liquid radioactive wastes using a solvent

    DOEpatents

    Romanovskiy, Valeriy Nicholiavich; Smirnov, Igor V.; Babain, Vasiliy A.; Todd, Terry A.; Brewer, Ken N.

    2001-01-01

    The present invention relates to solvents, and methods, for selectively extracting and recovering radionuclides, especially cesium and strontium, rare earths and actinides from liquid radioactive wastes. More specifically, the invention relates to extracting agent solvent compositions comprising complex organoboron compounds, substituted polyethylene glycols, and neutral organophosphorus compounds in a diluent. The preferred solvent comprises a chlorinated cobalt dicarbollide, diphenyl-dibutylmethylenecarbamoylphosphine oxide, PEG-400, and a diluent of phenylpolyfluoroalkyl sulfone. The invention also provides a method of using the invention extracting agents to recover cesium, strontium, rare earths and actinides from liquid radioactive waste.

  14. Solvent for the simultaneous recovery of radionuclides from liquid radioactive wastes

    DOEpatents

    Romanovskiy, Valeriy Nicholiavich; Smirnov, Igor V.; Babain, Vasiliy A.; Todd, Terry A.; Brewer, Ken N.

    2002-01-01

    The present invention relates to solvents, and methods, for selectively extracting and recovering radionuclides, especially cesium and strontium, rare earths and actinides from liquid radioactive wastes. More specifically, the invention relates to extracting agent solvent compositions comprising complex organoboron compounds, substituted polyethylene glycols, and neutral organophosphorus compounds in a diluent. The preferred solvent comprises a chlorinated cobalt dicarbollide, diphenyl-dibutylmethylenecarbamoylphosphine oxide, PEG-400, and a diluent of phenylpolyfluoroalkyl sulfone. The invention also provides a method of using the invention extracting agents to recover cesium, strontium, rare earths and actinides from liquid radioactive waste.

  15. Laser excited fluorescence in the cesium-xenon excimer and the cesium dimer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Exton, R. J.; Snow, W. L.; Hillard, M. E.

    1978-01-01

    Argon ion laser lines are used to excite fluorescence in a mixture of cesium and xenon. Excimer band fluorescence is observed at higher pressures (about 1 atm) while at lower pressures (several torr) a diffuse fluorescence due to the cesium dimer is observed whose character changes with exciting wavelength. The excimer fluorescence is shown to be directly related to the location of the exciting wavelength within previously measured Cs/Xe line shapes. This fact suggests that the excimer systems may be efficiently pumped through these line shapes. Qualitative energy-level schemes are proposed to explain the observations in both the excimer and dimer systems.

  16. Laser excited fluorescence in the cesium-xenon excimer and the cesium dimer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Exton, R. J.; Snow, W. L.; Hillard, M. E.

    1978-01-01

    Argon ion laser lines are used to excite fluorescence in a mixture of cesium and xenon. Excimer band fluorescence is observed at higher pressures (about 1 atm) while at lower pressures (several torr) a diffuse fluorescence due to the cesium dimer is observed whose character changes with exciting wavelength. The excimer fluorescence is shown to be directly related to the location of the exciting wavelength within previously measured Cs/Xe line shapes. This fact suggests that the excimer systems may be efficiently pumped through these line shapes. Qualitative energy-level schemes are proposed to explain the observations in both the excimer and dimer systems.

  17. Actinide behavior in a freshwater pond

    SciTech Connect

    Trabalka, J.R.; Bogle, M.A.; Scott, T.G.

    1983-01-01

    Long-term investigations of solution chemistry in an alkaline freshwater pond have revealed that actinide oxidation state behavior, particularly that of plutonium, is complex. The Pu(V,VI) fraction was predominant in solution, but it varied over the entire range reported from other natural aquatic environments, in this case, as a result of intrinsic biological and chemical cycles (redox and pH-dependent phenomena). A strong positive correlation between plutonium (Pu), but not uranium (U), and hydroxyl ion over the observation period, especially when both were known to be in higher oxidation states, was particularly notable. Coupled with other examples of divergent U and Pu behavior, this result suggests that Pu(V), or perhaps a mixture of Pu(V,VI), was the prevalent oxidation state in solution. Observations of trivalent actinide sorption behavior during an algal bloom, coupled with the association with a high-molecular weight (nominally 6000 to 10,000 mol wt) organic fraction in solution, indicate that solution-detritus cycling of organic carbon, in turn, may be the primary mechanism in amercium-curium (Am-Cm) cycling. Sorption by sedimentary materials appears to predominate over other factors controlling effective actinide solubility and may explain, at least partially, the absence of an expected strong positive correlation between carbonate and dissolved U. 49 references, 6 figures, 12 tables.

  18. Actinide and lanthanide separation process (ALSEP)

    DOEpatents

    Guelis, Artem V.

    2013-01-15

    The process of the invention is the separation of minor actinides from lanthanides in a fluid mixture comprising, fission products, lanthanides, minor actinides, rare earth elements, nitric acid and water by addition of an organic chelating aid to the fluid; extracting the fluid with a solvent comprising a first extractant, a second extractant and an organic diluent to form an organic extractant stream and an aqueous raffinate. Scrubbing the organic stream with a dicarboxylic acid and a chelating agent to form a scrubber discharge. The scrubber discharge is stripped with a simple buffering agent and a second chelating agent in the pH range of 2.5 to 6.1 to produce actinide and lanthanide streams and spent organic diluents. The first extractant is selected from bis(2-ethylhexyl)hydrogen phosphate (HDEHP) and mono(2-ethylhexyl)2-ethylhexyl phosphonate (HEH(EHP)) and the second extractant is selected from N,N,N,N-tetra-2-ethylhexyl diglycol amide (TEHDGA) and N,N,N',N'-tetraoctyl-3-oxapentanediamide (TODGA).

  19. Bidentate organophosphorus solvent extraction process for actinide recovery and partition

    DOEpatents

    Schulz, Wallace W.

    1976-01-01

    A liquid-liquid extraction process for the recovery and partitioning of actinide values from acidic nuclear waste aqueous solutions, the actinide values including trivalent, tetravalent and hexavalent oxidation states is provided and includes the steps of contacting the aqueous solution with a bidentate organophosphorous extractant to extract essentially all of the actinide values into the organic phase. Thereafter the respective actinide fractions are selectively partitioned into separate aqueous solutions by contact with dilute nitric or nitric-hydrofluoric acid solutions. The hexavalent uranium is finally removed from the organic phase by contact with a dilute sodium carbonate solution.

  20. Development of the Actinide-Lanthanide Separation (ALSEP) Process

    SciTech Connect

    Lumetta, Gregg J.; Carter, Jennifer C.; Niver, Cynthia M.; Gelis, Artem V.

    2014-09-30

    Separating the minor actinide elements (Am and Cm) from acidic high-level raffinates arising from the reprocessing of irradiated nuclear fuel is an important step in closing the nuclear fuel cycle. Most proposed approaches to this problem involve two solvent extraction steps: 1) co-extraction of the trivalent lanthanides and actinides, followed by 2) separation of the actinides from the lanthanides. The objective of our work is to develop a single solvent-extraction process for isolating the minor actinide elements. We report here a solvent containing N,N,N',N'-tetra(2 ethylhexyl)diglycolamide (T2EHDGA) combined with 2-ethylhexylphosphonic acid mono-2-ethylhexyl ester (HEH[EHP]) that can be used to separate the minor actinides in a single solvent-extraction process. T2EHDGA serves to co-extract the trivalent actinide and lanthanide ions from nitric acid solution. Switching the aqueous phase chemistry to a citrate buffered solution of N-(2-hydroxyethyl)ethylenediamine-N,N',N'-triacetic acid at pH 2.5 to 4 results in selective transfer of the actinides to the aqueous phase, thus affecting separation of the actinides from the lanthanides. Separation factors between the lanthanides and actinides are approximately 20 in the pH range of 3 to 4, and the distribution ratios are not highly dependent on the pH in this system.

  1. Preparation of the Superconductor Substrate: Strontium Titanate

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-09-01

    single crystals of strontium titanate is derived from the original method developed by Verneuil . 16 The general procedure for the growth of single... crystals growth are reported. The growth direction was determined to be 5 degrees away from the [2111 direction. ICP-emission spectroscopy irdicates... Growth of Strontium Titanate Crystals 5 2.4 Preparation of Substrates 8 3. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS 8 REFERENCES 13 Illustrations 1. Schematic Diagram

  2. Mineral resource of the month: strontium

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ober, Joyce A.

    2008-01-01

    Last month as Americans sat transfixed watching fireworks on July 4, they were probably unaware that strontium was responsible for the beautiful reds in the display. Strontium, a soft silver-white or yellowish metallic element that turns yellow when exposed to air (and red when it burns), is prized for its brilliant red flame. Because it reacts with air and water, the metal is only present naturally in compounds, such as celestite and strontianite.

  3. Sequential isotopic determination of plutonium, thorium, americium, strontium and uranium in environmental and bioassay samples.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jeng-Jong; Chen, Ing-Jane; Chiu, Jih-Hung

    2004-01-01

    A procedure has been developed to provide sequential analysis of 238Pu, 230Th, 241Am, 238U, and 90Sr in environmental and bioassay samples. Tracers and/or carriers (242Pu, 243Am, 232U, and stable strontium) are added into the sample as chemical yield monitors, and then, plutonium, thorium, strontium, americium, and uranium are sequentially separated and purified by Dowex ion-exchange resin, EiChroM Sr-resin, EiChroM TRU-resin, and Chelate-100 resin, respectively. The radioactivities of 90Sr and the actinides are measured using the liquid scintillation counter and alpha-particle spectrometer, respectively. Acidified water, glass-fiber air filter, soil, synthetic urine and synthetic feces samples of US National Institute of Standard and Technology Radiochemical Intercomparison Program(NRIP) were analyzed to verify this method. All the analytical results of 238Pu, 230Th, 90Sr, 241Am and 238U meet the traceability limit per ANSI N42.22, and when appropriate, evaluation of radiobioassay measurement bias and precision per ANSI N13.30.

  4. Strontium ranelate for the management of osteoporosis.

    PubMed

    Lam, Sum; Zouzias, Katerina

    2008-07-01

    To evaluate the role of strontium ranelate in the management of osteoporosis. A MEDLINE (January 1966 to May 2007) search using the terms osteoporosis, strontium ranelate, bonemineral density, and fractures. All English-language articles identified from the data sources were evaluated. Strontium ranelate stimulates bone formation and inhibits bone resorption. Its safety and efficacy for osteoporosis were evaluated in four prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials. The PREVOS (Prevention of Early Postmenopausal Bone Loss by Strontium Ranelate) trial suggested that 1 g daily is the optimal dose for preventing postmenopausal bone loss and was associated with a 1.41% increase in lumbar bone-mineral density (BMD). However, the STRATOS (Strontium Administration for Treatment of Osteoporosis) study found that a 1 g daily regimen was associated with a higher incidence of new vertebral deformities, and a 2 g daily regimen reduced lumbar BMD by 3% in postmenopausal, osteoporotic women. The SOTI (Spinal Osteoporosis Therapeutic Intervention) and TROPOS (Treatment of Peripheral Osteoporosis) studies suggested that a 2 g daily regimen reduced vertebral fractures by 39% to 41%, nonvertebral fractures by 16%, in postmenopausal, osteoporotic women. Most common adverse events reported were nausea and diarrhea. Four clinical trials demonstrated the efficacy and safety of strontium ranelate for the management of postmenopausal osteoporosis; however, the Food and Drug Administration has not approved it for this indication.

  5. Advanced Aqueous Separation Systems for Actinide Partitioning

    SciTech Connect

    Nash, Ken; Martin, Leigh; Lumetta, Gregg

    2015-04-02

    One of the most challenging aspects of advanced processing of used nuclear fuel is the separation of transplutonium actinides from fission product lanthanides. This separation is essential if actinide transmutation options are to be pursued in advanced fuel cycles, as lanthanides compete with actinides for neutrons in both thermal and fast reactors, thus limiting efficiency. The separation is difficult because the chemistry of Am3+ and Cm3+ is nearly identical to that of the trivalent lanthanides (Ln3+). The prior literature teaches that two approaches offer the greatest probability of devising a successful group separation process based on aqueous processes: 1) the application of complexing agents containing ligand donor atoms that are softer than oxygen (N, S, Cl-) or 2) changing the oxidation state of Am to the IV, V, or VI state to increase the essential differences between Am and lanthanide chemistry (an approach utilized in the PUREX process to selectively remove Pu4+ and UO22+ from fission products). The latter approach offers the additional benefit of enabling a separation of Am from Cm, as Cm(III) is resistant to oxidation and so can easily be made to follow the lanthanides. The fundamental limitations of these approaches are that 1) the soft(er) donor atoms that interact more strongly with actinide cations than lanthanides form substantially weaker bonds than oxygen atoms, thus necessitating modification of extraction conditions for adequate phase transfer efficiency, 2) soft donor reagents have been seen to suffer slow phase transfer kinetics and hydro-/radiolytic stability limitations and 3) the upper oxidation states of Am are all moderately strong oxidants, hence of only transient stability in media representative of conventional aqueous separations systems. There are examples in the literature of both approaches having been described. However, it is not clear at present that any extant process is sufficiently robust for application at the scale

  6. Variation in available cesium concentration with parameters during temperature induced extraction of cesium from soil.

    PubMed

    Parajuli, Durga; Takahashi, Akira; Tanaka, Hisashi; Sato, Mutsuto; Fukuda, Shigeharu; Kamimura, Ryuichi; Kawamoto, Tohru

    2015-02-01

    Cesium extraction behavior of brown forest type soil collected from paddy fields in Fukushima nuclear accident affected areas was studied. In nitric acid or sulfuric acid solutions at elevated temperature, the concentration of Cs in soil available for extraction, m0, has been estimated on the basis of modified canonical equation and the equations derived from assumed equilibria. With the variation in temperature, mixing time, and soil to solvent ratio, the observed m0 values in 0.5 M acid solution ranged between 1.5 and 2.9 mg cesium per kilogram of soil. By increasing the acid concentration to 3 M, the value of m0 could be sharply increased to 5.1 mg/kg even at 95 °C. This variation in the extractable concentration of cesium with the parameters signifies the existence of different binding sites in the soil matrix. The results observed for uncontaminated sample could be reproduced with the radioactive cesium contaminated sample belonging to the same soil group.

  7. Distillation device supplies cesium vapor at constant pressure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Basiulis, A.; Shefsiek, P. K.

    1968-01-01

    Distillation apparatus in the form of a U tube supplies small amounts of pure cesium vapor at constant pressure to a thermionic converter. The upstream leg of the U tube is connected to a vacuum pump to withdraw noncondensable impurities, the bottom portion serves as a reservoir for the liquid cesium.

  8. Coherent 455 nm beam production in a cesium vapor.

    PubMed

    Schultz, J T; Abend, S; Döring, D; Debs, J E; Altin, P A; White, J D; Robins, N P; Close, J D

    2009-08-01

    We observe coherent, cw, 455 nm blue-beam production via frequency upconversion in cesium vapor. Two IR lasers induce strong double excitation in a heated cesium vapor cell, allowing the atoms to undergo a double cascade and produce a coherent, collimated, blue beam copropagating with the two IR pump lasers.

  9. Cesium-associated hypokalemia successfully treated with amiloride.

    PubMed

    Horn, Sarah; Naidus, Elliot; Alper, Seth L; Danziger, John

    2015-06-01

    Self-treatment of cancer with cesium chloride, despite proven lack of efficacy, continues to produce serious adverse effects. Among these is hypokalemia predisposing to life-threatening arrhythmia. The mechanism of cesium-associated hypokalemia (CAH) has not been described. We report urinary potassium wasting responsive to amiloride therapy in a cancer patient with CAH, and discuss possible mechanisms.

  10. [Concentrations of radioactive cesium in different cuts of beef].

    PubMed

    Nabeshi, Hiromi; Kikuchi, Hiroyuki; Tsutsumi, Tomoaki; Hachisuka, Akiko; Matsuda, Rieko

    2013-01-01

    After the Fukushima No. 1 Nuclear Power Plant accident, high levels of radioactive cesium were detected in beef. Many prefectural governments decided to conduct blanket tests on meat from local beef cattle to prevent distribution of beef contaminated with radioactive cesium exceeding the provisional regulation value. In some cases, different concentrations of radioactive cesium were found in different cuts of beef from the same cows. These results raised questions about the reliability of the test results. Here, we investigated the reason for the differences in radioactive cesium concentration in different cuts of beef from the same cows. The concentrations of radioactive cesium in five different parts cuts of beef from three cows were negatively correlated with fat content, suggesting that the difference in radioactive cesium concentration is due to differences in fat content in the meat. In addition, our results showed that the concentration of radioactive cesium in muscle was more than 7-fold higher than that in fat in the same cow. These results suggested that it is necessary to use muscle for testing of radioactive cesium in cows.

  11. Hanford single shell tank saltcake cesium removal test plan

    SciTech Connect

    Duncan, J.B., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-12-11

    This document provides the test preparation and conduct of a cesium removal test using Hanford Single Shell Tank Saltcake from tanks 241-BY-110, 241-U-108, 241 U 109, 241-A-101, and 241-S-102 in a benchscale column. The cesium sorbent to be tested is crystalline silicotitanate

  12. Hanford tank waste supernatant cesium removal test plan

    SciTech Connect

    Hendrickson, D.W., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-05-31

    This document provides the test plan for the preparation and conduct of a cesium removal test using Hanford DSSF supernatant liquor from tank 241-AW-101 in a bench-scale column. Cesium sorbents to be tested include resorcinol-formaldehyde resin and crystalline silicotitanate.

  13. [Biochemical changes in rats under the influence of cesium chloride].

    PubMed

    Mel'nykova, N M; Iermishev, O V

    2013-01-01

    Cesium is lately accumulated actively in the environment, but its influence on human and animal organism is the least studied among heavy metals. It is shown that the action of cesium chloride in rats caused significant changes in blood chemistry, which are characterized by a decrease of total protein content, pH, an increase in the level of urea, creatinine, glucose and total hemoglobin. The results showed that potassium content in all the studied organs and tissues of poisoned rats decreases under the action of cesium chloride. Histological examination of the heart tissue in rats poisoned with cesium chloride indicates the onset of pathology of cardiovascular system. It was found out that use of the drug "Asparkam" reduces the negative effect of cesium chloride on the body of rats.

  14. Investigations of negative and positive cesium ion species

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chanin, L. M.

    1978-01-01

    A direct test is provided of the hypothesis of negative ion creation at the anode or collector of a diode operating under conditions simulating a cesium thermionic converter. The experimental technique involves using direct ion sampling through the collector electrode with mass analysis using a quadrupole mass analyzer. Similar measurements are undertaken on positive ions extracted through the emitter electrode. Measurements were made on a variety of gases including pure cesium, helium-cesium mixtures and cesium-hydrogen as well as cesium-xenon mixtures. The gas additive was used primarily to aid in understanding the negative ion formation processes. Measurements were conducted using emitter (cathode) temperatures up to about 1000 F. The major negative ion identified through the collector was Cs(-) with minor negative ion peaks tentatively identified as H(-), H2(-), H3(-), He(-) and a mass 66. Positive ions detected were believed to be Cs(+), Cs2(+) and Cs3(+).

  15. Evaluation of electrochemical ion exchange for cesium elution

    SciTech Connect

    Bontha, J.D.; Kurath, D.E.; Surma, J.E.; Buehler, M.F.

    1996-04-01

    Electrochemical elution was investigated as an alternative method to acid elution for the desorption of cesium from loaded ion exchange resins. The approach was found to have several potential advantages over existing technologies, in particular, electrochemical elution eliminates the need for addition of chemicals to elute cesium from the ion exchange resin. Also, since, in the electrochemical elution process the eluting solution is not in direct contact with the ion exchange material, very small volumes of the eluting solution can be used in a complete recycle mode in order to minimize the total volume of the cesium elute. In addition, the cesium is eluted as an alkaline solution that does not require neutralization with caustic to meet the tank farm specifications. Other advantages include easy incorporation of the electrochemical elution process into the present cesium recovery schemes.

  16. Method for synthesizing pollucite from chabazite and cesium chloride

    DOEpatents

    Pereira, Candido

    1999-01-01

    A method for immobilizing waste chlorides salts containing radionuclides and hazardous nuclear material for permanent disposal, and in particular, a method for immobilizing waste chloride salts containing cesium, in a synthetic form of pollucite. The method for synthesizing pollucite from chabazite and cesium chloride includes mixing dry, non-aqueous cesium chloride with chabazite and heating the mixture to a temperature greater than the melting temperature of the cesium chloride, or above about 700.degree. C. The method further comprises significantly improving the rate of retention of cesium in ceramic products comprised of a salt-loaded zeolite by adding about 10% chabazite by weight to the salt-loaded zeolite prior to conversion at elevated temperatures and pressures to the ceramic composite.

  17. Method for synthesizing pollucite from chabazite and cesium chloride

    DOEpatents

    Pereira, C.

    1999-02-23

    A method is described for immobilizing waste chlorides salts containing radionuclides and hazardous nuclear material for permanent disposal, and in particular, a method is described for immobilizing waste chloride salts containing cesium, in a synthetic form of pollucite. The method for synthesizing pollucite from chabazite and cesium chloride includes mixing dry, non-aqueous cesium chloride with chabazite and heating the mixture to a temperature greater than the melting temperature of the cesium chloride, or above about 700 C. The method further comprises significantly improving the rate of retention of cesium in ceramic products comprised of a salt-loaded zeolite by adding about 10% chabazite by weight to the salt-loaded zeolite prior to conversion at elevated temperatures and pressures to the ceramic composite. 3 figs.

  18. Negative and positive cesium ion studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuehn, D. G.; Sutliff, D. E.; Chanin, L. M.

    1978-01-01

    Mass spectrometric analyses have been performed on the positive and negative species from discharges in Cs, He-Cs, and He-H2-Cs mixtures. Sampling was conducted through the electrodes of normal glow discharges and from close-spaced heated-cathode conditions, which approximate a cesium thermionic converter. No negative Cs ions were observed for Cs pressures less than .01 torr. Identified species included Cs(+), Cs2(+), Cs(-), and what appeared to be multiply charged ions. Low-mass negative and positive ions attributed to H2 were observed when an He-H2 mixture was also present in the discharge region.

  19. [Surveillance of radioactive cesium in foods].

    PubMed

    Nabeshi, Hiromi; Tsutsumi, Tomoaki; Ikarashi, Atsuko; Hachisuka, Akiko; Matsuda, Rieko

    2013-01-01

    We surveyed foods on the market from areas that had been exposed to radioactive materials contamination following the Fukushima accident. We used a NaI (Tl) scintillation spectrometer for the screening tests and a germanium semiconductor detector for the final tests. Test results from 1,427 samples showed that 6 samples (0.4%) exceeded the regulatory limit of 500 Bq/kg. Considering the detection rate of radioactive cesium in each food category, we suggest that it is necessary to continue monitoring fruits such as chestnuts and ginkgo nuts, mushrooms (especially raw wood-shiitake), mountain vegetables, and sea fish.

  20. Plutonium and Cesium Colloid Mediated Transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boukhalfa, H.; Dittrich, T.; Reimus, P. W.; Ware, D.; Erdmann, B.; Wasserman, N. L.; Abdel-Fattah, A. I.

    2013-12-01

    Plutonium and cesium have been released to the environment at many different locations worldwide and are present in spent fuel at significant levels. Accurate understanding of the mechanisms that control their fate and transport in the environment is important for the management of contaminated sites, for forensic applications, and for the development of robust repositories for the disposal of spent nuclear fuel and nuclear waste. Plutonium, which can be present in the environment in multiple oxidations states and various chemical forms including amorphous oxy(hydr)oxide phases, adsorbs/adheres very strongly to geological materials and is usually immobile in all its chemical forms. However, when associated with natural colloids, it has the potential to migrate significant distances from its point of release. Like plutonium, cesium is not very mobile and tends to remain adhered to geological materials near its release point, although its transport can be enhanced by natural colloids. However, the reactivity of plutonium and cesium are very different, so their colloid-mediated transport might be significantly different in subsurface environments. In this study, we performed controlled experiments in two identically-prepared columns; one dedicated to Pu and natural colloid transport experiments, and the other to Cs and colloid experiments. Multiple flow-through experiments were conducted in each column, with the effluent solutions being collected and re-injected into the same column two times to examine the persistence and scaling behavior of the natural colloids, Pu and Cs. The data show that that a significant fraction of colloids were retained in the first elution through each column, but the eluted colloids collected from the first run transported almost conservatively in subsequent runs. Plutonium transport tracked natural colloids in the first run but deviated from the transport of natural colloids in the second and third runs. Cesium transport tracked natural

  1. Process for making a ceramic composition for immobilization of actinides

    DOEpatents

    Ebbinghaus, Bartley B.; Van Konynenburg, Richard A.; Vance, Eric R.; Stewart, Martin W.; Walls, Philip A.; Brummond, William Allen; Armantrout, Guy A.; Herman, Connie Cicero; Hobson, Beverly F.; Herman, David Thomas; Curtis, Paul G.; Farmer, Joseph

    2001-01-01

    Disclosed is a process for making a ceramic composition for the immobilization of actinides, particularly uranium and plutonium. The ceramic is a titanate material comprising pyrochlore, brannerite and rutile. The process comprises oxidizing the actinides, milling the oxides to a powder, blending them with ceramic precursors, cold pressing the blend and sintering the pressed material.

  2. Improved method for extracting lanthanides and actinides from acid solutions

    DOEpatents

    Horwitz, E.P.; Kalina, D.G.; Kaplan, L.; Mason, G.W.

    1983-07-26

    A process for the recovery of actinide and lanthanide values from aqueous acidic solutions uses a new series of neutral bi-functional extractants, the alkyl(phenyl)-N,N-dialkylcarbamoylmethylphosphine oxides. The process is suitable for the separation of actinide and lanthanide values from fission product values found together in high-level nuclear reprocessing waste solutions.

  3. Process for Making a Ceramic Composition for Immobilization of Actinides

    SciTech Connect

    Ebbinghaus, Bartley B.; Van Konynenburg, Richard A.; Vance, Eric R.; Stewart, Martin W.; Walls, Philip A.; Brummond, William Allen; Armantrout, Guy A.; Curtis, Paul G.; Hobson, Beverly F.; Farmer, Joseph; Herman, Connie Cicero; Herman, David Thomas

    1999-06-22

    Disclosed is a process for making a ceramic composition for the immobilization of actinides, particularly uranium and plutonium. The ceramic is a titanate material comprising pyrochlore, brannerite and rutile. The process comprises oxidizing the actinides, milling the oxides to a powder, blending them with ceramic precursors, cold pressing the blend and sintering the pressed material.

  4. Study of actinide chemistry in saturated potassium fluoride solution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, D.; Thalmayer, C. E.

    1969-01-01

    Study concerning the chemistry of actinides in saturated KF solution included work with neptunium, uranium, and americium. Solubilities, absorption spectra, oxidation-reduction reactions, and solid compounds which can be produced in KF solution were examined. The information is used for preparation of various materials from salts of the actinides.

  5. Detailed calculations of minor actinide transmutation in a fast reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Takeda, Toshikazu

    2015-12-31

    The transmutation of minor actinides in a fast reactor is investigated by a new method to investigate the transmutation behavior of individual minor actinides. It is found that Np-237 and Am-241 mainly contributes to the transmutation rate though the transmutation behaviors are very different.

  6. POTENTIAL BENCHMARKS FOR ACTINIDE PRODUCTION IN HANFORD REACTORS

    SciTech Connect

    PUIGH RJ; TOFFER H

    2011-10-19

    A significant experimental program was conducted in the early Hanford reactors to understand the reactor production of actinides. These experiments were conducted with sufficient rigor, in some cases, to provide useful information that can be utilized today in development of benchmark experiments that may be used for the validation of present computer codes for the production of these actinides in low enriched uranium fuel.

  7. Compliance with the Nevada Test Site`s waste acceptance criteria for vitrified cesium-loaded crystalline silicotitanate (CST)

    SciTech Connect

    Harbour, J.R.; Andrews, M.K.

    1997-12-31

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) are involved in a joint project for immobilization of radionuclides from the Melton Valley Storage Tanks (MVST) at Oak Ridge (OR). The supernate from Tank W-29 of the MVST will be treated by passage through a crystalline silicotitanate (CST) ion exchange medium. The CST was designed to sorb cesium, the primary radio nuclide (Cs-137) in the supernate of MVST`s. A smaller amount of strontium (Sr-90) will also be sorbed. This demonstration will be performed by ORNL. One column volume of cesium-loaded CST ({approximately}10 gallons or 38 liters) will then be shipped to SRTC where it will be mixed with glass formers and fed as an aqueous slurry to a joule-heated melter within the SRTC Shielded Cells. A borosilicate glass formulation which will incorporate the CST has been developed as part oft SRTC`s role in this project. The molten glass ({approximately}1150{degrees}C) will be poured into 500 ml stainless steel beakers which in turn will be placed in 30 gallon drums for disposal. An import&f part of this project is to demonstrate that the glass waste form produced will meet the Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC) for disposal at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). If vitrification of the cesium-loaded CST is implemented as the immobilization method for all of the MVST supernate, then it is essential to demonstrate that the waste can be disposed of at an acceptable disposal facility. NTS accepts low-level radioactive waste as long as it is not TRU and not hazardous. This paper documents the efforts in the development stage of this work to integrate the requirements of NTS into the formulation and processing efforts. This work is funded by the Tank Focus Area with additional funding for ORNL provided by EM-30 at OR.

  8. Cleaning Cesium Radionuclides from BN-350 Primary Sodium

    SciTech Connect

    Romanenko, O.G.; Allen, K.J.; Wachs, D.M.; Planchon, H.P.; Wells, P.B.; Michelbacher, J.A.; Nazarenko, P.; Dumchev, I.; Maev, V.; Zemtzev, B.; Tikhomirov, L.; Yakovlev, V.; Synkov, A

    2005-04-15

    This paper reports the successful design and operation of a system to remove highly radioactive cesium from the sodium coolant of the BN-350 reactor in Aktau, Kazakhstan. As an international effort between the United States and the Republic of Kazakhstan, a cesium-trapping system was jointly designed, fabricated, installed, and successfully operated. The results are significant for a number of reasons, including (a) a significant reduction of radioactivity levels of the BN-350 coolant and reactor surfaces, thereby reducing exposure to workers during shutdown operations; (b) demonstration of scientific ideas; and (c) the engineering application of effective cesium trap deployment for commercial-sized liquid-metal reactors. About 255 300 GBq (6900 Ci) of cesium was trapped, and the {sup 137}Cs specific activity in BN-350 primary sodium was decreased from 296 MBq/kg (8000 {mu}Ci/kg) to 0.37 MBq/kg (10 {mu}Ci/kg) by using seven cesium traps containing reticulated vitreous carbon (RVC) as the cesium adsorbent. Cesium trapping was accomplished by pumping sodium from the primary circuit, passing it through a block of RVC within each trap, and returning the cleaned sodium to the primary circuit. Both to predict and to analyze the behavior of the cesium traps in the BN-350 reactor primary circuit, a model was developed that satisfactorily describes the observed results of the cesium trapping. By using this model, thermodynamic parameters, such as the heat of adsorption of cesium atoms on RVC and on internal piping surfaces of the BN-350 reactor primary circuit, -22.7 and -5.0 kJ/mole, respectively, were extracted from the experimental data.

  9. Persistant photoconductivity of strontium titanate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poole, Violet Mary

    Strontium titanate (SrTiO3) is a transparent conducting oxide with a range of interesting properties, including a large, temperature-dependent dielectric constant and superconductivity at low temperatures. It has a wide indirect band gap of 3.2 eV at room temperature. Annealing in a reducing atmosphere with additional strontium oxide (SrO) powder at 1200°C results in the creation of native defects. These annealed samples show persistent photoconductivity (PPC) at room temperature, when exposed to light of energy 2.9 eV or greater. The three or more order of magnitude change in resistance persists long after the light is turned off. This effect is attributed to an electron being excited from an acceptor defect, with a large barrier for recapture, to the conduction band. This work investigates many of the changes that occur and factors that affect PPC. The right amount of SrO powder is crucial to the formation of PPC. The presence of some oxygen vacancies is also necessary for PPC; however, too many will mute the dramatic change in resistivity. Peaks at 430 nm and 520 nm appear in the visible region of the spectrum. The peak at 430 nm is due to iron, while the peak at 520 nm has not been identified. The infrared region of the spectrum also shows changes. First, the intensity of the transmitted signal drops significantly after light exposure, due to free carrier absorption. Additionally, a hydrogen line at 3500 cm-1 and satellites are often observed in as-received samples. The satellites disappear during annealing and return during PPC. The hydrogen lines have the same thermal kinetics as the 520 nm peak. Hydrogen lines at 3355 and 3384 cm-1, if present, will prevent PPC. An exposed chip can be erased (i.e. returned to its pre-light exposed state) by using a heat treatment. Erasing and polishing an annealed chip prior to light exposure can result in weakly p-type behavior with high mobility holes ( > 100 cm2/Vs). This is an order of magnitude higher than those

  10. Actinide-Aluminate Speciation in Alkaline Radioactive Waste

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. David L. Clark; Dr. Alexander M. Fedosseev

    2001-12-21

    Investigation of behavior of actinides in alkaline media containing AL(III) showed that no aluminate complexes of actinides in oxidation states (IIII-VIII) were formed in alkaline solutions. At alkaline precipitation IPH (10-14) of actinides in presence of AL(III) formation of aluminate compounds is not observed. However, in precipitates contained actinides (IIV)<(VI), and to a lesser degree actinides (III), some interference of components takes place that is reflected in change of solid phase properties in comparison with pure components or their mechanical mixture. The interference decreases with rise of precipitation PH and at PH 14 is exhibited very feebly. In the case of NP(VII) the individual compound with AL(III) is obtained, however it is not aluminate of neptunium(VII), but neptunate of aluminium(III) similar to neptunates of other metals obtained earlier.

  11. Actinides and Rare Earths Topical Conference (Code AC)

    SciTech Connect

    Tobin, J G

    2009-11-24

    Actinide and the Rare Earth materials exhibit many unique and diverse physical, chemical and magnetic properties, in large part because of the complexity of their f electronic structure. This Topical Conference will focus upon the chemistry, physics and materials science in Lanthanide and Actinide materials, driven by 4f and 5f electronic structure. Particular emphasis will be placed upon 4f/5f magnetic structure, surface science and thin film properties. For the actinides, fundamental actinide science and its role in resolving technical challenges posed by actinide materials will be stressed. Both basic and applied experimental approaches, including synchrotron-radiation-based investigations, as well as theoretical modeling and computational simulations, are planned to be part of the Topical Conference. Of particular importance are the issues related to the potential renaissance in Nuclear Fuels, including synthesis, oxidation, corrosion, intermixing, stability in extreme environments, prediction of properties via benchmarked simulations, separation science, environmental impact and disposal of waste products.

  12. Separation of actinides from lanthanides utilizing molten salt electrorefining

    SciTech Connect

    Grimmett, D.L.; Fusselman, S.P.; Roy, J.J.; Gay, R.L.; Krueger, C.L.; Storvick, T.S.; Inoue, T.; Hijikata, T.; Takahashi, N.

    1996-10-01

    TRUMP-S (TRansUranic Management through Pyropartitioning Separation) is a pyrochemical process being developed to separate actinides form fission products in nuclear waste. A key process step involving molten salt electrorefining to separate actinides from lanthanides has been studied on a laboratory scale. Electrorefining of U, Np, Pu, Am, and lanthanide mixtures from molten cadmium at 450 C to a solid cathode utilizing a molten chloride electrolyte resulted in > 99% removal of actinides from the molten cadmium and salt phases. Removal of the last few percent of actinides is accompanied by lowered cathodic current efficiency and some lanthanide codeposition. Actinide/lanthanide separation ratios on the cathode are ordered U > Np > Pu > Am and are consistent with predictions based on equilibrium potentials.

  13. Research in actinide chemistry. Progress report, 1990--1993

    SciTech Connect

    Choppin, G.R.

    1993-04-01

    This research studies the behavior of the actinide elements in aqueous solution. The high radioactivity of the transuranium actinides limits the concentrations which can be studied and, consequently, limits the experimental techniques. However, oxidation state analogs (trivalent lanthanides, tetravalent thorium, and hexavalent uranium) do not suffer from these limitations. Behavior of actinides in the environment are a major USDOE concern, whether in connection with long-term releases from a repository, releases from stored defense wastes or accidental releases in reprocessing, etc. Principal goal of our research was expand the thermodynamic data base on complexation of actinides by natural ligands (e.g., OH{sup {minus}}, CO{sub 3}{sup 2{minus}}, PO{sub 4}{sup 3{minus}}, humates). The research undertakes fundamental studies of actinide complexes which can increase understanding of the environmental behavior of these elements.

  14. Actinide covalency measured by pulsed electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Formanuik, Alasdair; Ariciu, Ana-Maria; Ortu, Fabrizio; Beekmeyer, Reece; Kerridge, Andrew; Tuna, Floriana; McInnes, Eric J. L.; Mills, David P.

    2017-06-01

    Our knowledge of actinide chemical bonds lags far behind our understanding of the bonding regimes of any other series of elements. This is a major issue given the technological as well as fundamental importance of f-block elements. Some key chemical differences between actinides and lanthanides—and between different actinides—can be ascribed to minor differences in covalency, that is, the degree to which electrons are shared between the f-block element and coordinated ligands. Yet there are almost no direct measures of such covalency for actinides. Here we report the first pulsed electron paramagnetic resonance spectra of actinide compounds. We apply the hyperfine sublevel correlation technique to quantify the electron-spin density at ligand nuclei (via the weak hyperfine interactions) in molecular thorium(III) and uranium(III) species and therefore the extent of covalency. Such information will be important in developing our understanding of the chemical bonding, and therefore the reactivity, of actinides.

  15. Chemistry of lower valent actinide halides

    SciTech Connect

    Lau, K.H.; Hildenbrand, D.L.

    1992-01-01

    This research effort was concerned almost entirely with the first two members of the actinide series, thorium and uranium, although the work was later extended to some aspects of the neptunium-fluorine system in a collaborative program with Los Alamos National Laboratory. Detailed information about the lighter actinides will be helpful in modeling the properties of the heavier actinide compounds, which will be much more difficult to study experimentally. In this program, thermochemical information was obtained from high temperature equilibrium measurements made by effusion-beam mass spectrometry and by effusion-pressure techniques. Data were derived primarily from second-law analysis so as to avoid potential errors in third-law calculations resulting from uncertainties in spectroscopic and molecular constants. This approach has the additional advantage of yielding reaction entropies that can be checked for consistency with various molecular constant assignments for the species involved. In the U-F, U-Cl, and U-Br systems, all of the gaseous species UX, UX{sub 2}, UX{sub 3}, UX{sub 4}, and UX{sub 5}, where X represents the halogen, were identified and characterized; the corresponding species ThX, ThX{sub 2}, ThX{sub 3}, and ThX{sub 4} were studied in the Th-F, Th-Cl, and Th-Br systems. A number of oxyhalide species in the systems U-0-F, U-0-Cl, Th-0-F, and Th-O-Cl were studied thermochemically. Additionally, the sublimation thermodynamics of NpF{sub 4}(s) and NpO{sub 2}F{sub 2}(s) were studied by mass spectrometry.

  16. Cesium accumulation of Rhodococcus erythropolis CS98 strain immobilized in hydrogel matrices.

    PubMed

    Takei, Takayuki; Yamasaki, Mika; Yoshida, Masahiro

    2014-04-01

    Agarose gels were superior to calcium-alginate gels for immobilizing Rhodococcus erythropolis CS98 strain to remove cesium from water. Suitable incubation time of the immobilized cells in cesium solutions, cell number in the gels and volume ratio of the cesium solution to the gels for efficient cesium removal were identified.

  17. Characterization of Quantum Efficiency and Robustness of Cesium-Based Photocathodes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-01

    deposited onto a porous sintered tungsten substrate, beneath which is a reservoir of elemental cesium. Under controlled heating cesium diffuses from the...efficiently photoemissive, cesium-based coating deposited onto a porous sintered tungsten substrate, beneath which is a reservoir of elemental cesium. Under...9.1.3 Sintered Tungsten 245

  18. Status of nuclear data for actinides

    SciTech Connect

    Guzhovskii, B.Y.; Gorelov, V.P.; Grebennikov, A.N.

    1995-10-01

    Nuclear data required for transmutation problem include many actinide nuclei. In present paper the analysis of neutron fission, capture, (n,2n) and (n,3n) reaction cross sections at energy region from thermal point to 14 MeV was carried out for Th, Pa, U, Np, Pu, Am and Cm isotops using modern evaluated nuclear data libraries and handbooks of recommended nuclear data. Comparison of these data indicates on substantial discrepancies in different versions of files, that connect with quality and completeness of original experimental data.

  19. Actinide management with commercial fast reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Ohki, Shigeo

    2015-12-31

    The capability of plutonium-breeding and minor-actinide (MA) transmutation in the Japanese commercial sodium-cooled fast reactor offers one of practical solutions for obtaining sustainable energy resources as well as reducing radioactive toxicity and inventory. The reference core design meets the requirement of flexible breeding ratio from 1.03 to 1.2. The MA transmutation amount has been evaluated as 50-100 kg/GW{sub e}y if the MA content in fresh fuel is 3-5 wt%, where about 30-40% of initial MA can be transmuted in the discharged fuel.

  20. Actinide management with commercial fast reactors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohki, Shigeo

    2015-12-01

    The capability of plutonium-breeding and minor-actinide (MA) transmutation in the Japanese commercial sodium-cooled fast reactor offers one of practical solutions for obtaining sustainable energy resources as well as reducing radioactive toxicity and inventory. The reference core design meets the requirement of flexible breeding ratio from 1.03 to 1.2. The MA transmutation amount has been evaluated as 50-100 kg/GWey if the MA content in fresh fuel is 3-5 wt%, where about 30-40% of initial MA can be transmuted in the discharged fuel.

  1. Vapor pressure and thermodynamics of actinide metals

    SciTech Connect

    Ward, J.W.; Kleinschmidt, P.D.; Haire, R.G.; Brown, D.

    1980-01-01

    Precise vapor pressure measurements by target collection/mass spectrometric Knudsen effusion techniques were combined with crystal entropy estimates to produce self-consistent free-enrgy functions, permitting calculation of heats, entropies and free energies from 298/sup 0/K to the highest temperatures of measurement. The vapor pressures and thermodyamics of vaporization of americium, curium, berkelium, and californium are compared in terms of electronic structure and bonding trends in the trans-plutonium elements. These resuslts are contrasted with the behavior of the early actinides, with attention to energy states and possible effects of f-electron bonding. 9 figures, 4 tables.

  2. Actinide removal from nitric acid waste streams

    SciTech Connect

    Muscatello, A.C.; Navratil, J.D.

    1986-01-01

    Actinide separations research at the Rocky Flats Plant (RFP) has found ways to significantly improve plutonium secondary recovery and americium removal from nitric acid waste streams generated by plutonium purification operations. Capacity and breakthrough studies show anion exchange with Dowex 1x4 (50 to 100 mesh) to be superior for secondary recovery of plutonium. Extraction chromatography with TOPO(tri-n-octyl-phosphine oxide) on XAD-4 removes the final traces of plutonium, including hydrolytic polymer. Partial neutralization and solid supported liquid membrane transfer removes americium for sorption on discardable inorganic ion exchangers, potentially allowing for non-TRU waste disposal.

  3. Multicoordinate ligands for actinide/lanthanide separations.

    PubMed

    Dam, Henk H; Reinhoudt, David N; Verboom, Willem

    2007-02-01

    In nuclear waste treatment processes there is a need for improved ligands for the separation of actinides (An(III)) and lanthanides (Ln(III)). Several research groups are involved in the design and synthesis of new An(III) ligands and in the confinement of these and existing An(III) ligands onto molecular platforms giving multicoordinate ligands. The preorganization of ligands considerably improves the An(III) extraction properties, which are largely dependent on the solubility and rigidity of the platform. This tutorial review summarizes the most important An(III) ligands with emphasis on the preorganization strategy using (macrocyclic) platforms.

  4. Cardiac concerns associated with strontium ranelate

    PubMed Central

    Reginster, Jean-Yves

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Strontium ranelate is proven to reduce vertebral and non-vertebral fracture risk in osteoporosis. Concerns about cardiac safety have led to a new contraindication to strontium ranelate in patients with uncontrolled hypertension and/or current or past history of ischaemic heart disease, peripheral arterial disease and/or cerebrovascular disease. Areas covered: A literature search was performed; data were also collected from the European Medicines Agency website. Randomised controlled trial (RCT) data indicate a higher incidence of non-adjudicated myocardial infarction (MI) with strontium ranelate versus placebo (1.7 vs 1.1%; odds ratio [OR]: 1.6; 95% CI: 1.07 – 2.38; p = 0.020) (Mantel-Haenzel estimate of the OR). There was no increase in cardiovascular mortality. MI risk was mitigated by excluding patients with cardiovascular contraindications (OR: 0.99; 95% CI: 0.48 – 2.04; p = 0.988). Three observational studies performed in the context of real-life medical practice in the UK and Denmark did not report a signal. Expert opinion: The increased risk for cardiac events with strontium ranelate has been detected in RCTs but not in real life. Excluding patients with cardiovascular contraindications appears to be an effective measure for controlling the risk of MI. Strontium ranelate remains a useful therapeutic alternative in patients with severe osteoporosis without cardiovascular contraindications who are unable to take another osteoporosis treatment. PMID:25020233

  5. 40 CFR 721.10011 - Barium calcium manganese strontium oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Barium calcium manganese strontium... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10011 Barium calcium manganese strontium oxide. (a) Chemical substance... manganese strontium oxide (PMN P-00-1124; CAS No. 359427-90-0) is subject to reporting under this section...

  6. 40 CFR 721.10011 - Barium calcium manganese strontium oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Barium calcium manganese strontium... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10011 Barium calcium manganese strontium oxide. (a) Chemical substance... manganese strontium oxide (PMN P-00-1124; CAS No. 359427-90-0) is subject to reporting under this section...

  7. 40 CFR 721.10011 - Barium calcium manganese strontium oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Barium calcium manganese strontium... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10011 Barium calcium manganese strontium oxide. (a) Chemical substance... manganese strontium oxide (PMN P-00-1124; CAS No. 359427-90-0) is subject to reporting under this section...

  8. 40 CFR 721.10011 - Barium calcium manganese strontium oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Barium calcium manganese strontium... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10011 Barium calcium manganese strontium oxide. (a) Chemical substance... manganese strontium oxide (PMN P-00-1124; CAS No. 359427-90-0) is subject to reporting under this...

  9. 40 CFR 721.10598 - Lead strontium titanium zirconium oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Lead strontium titanium zirconium... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10598 Lead strontium titanium zirconium oxide. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as lead strontium...

  10. 40 CFR 721.10598 - Lead strontium titanium zirconium oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Lead strontium titanium zirconium... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10598 Lead strontium titanium zirconium oxide. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as lead strontium...

  11. Strontium Removal: Full-Scale Ohio Demonstrations | Science ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The objectives of this presentation are to present a brief overview of past bench-scale research to evaluate the impact lime softening on strontium removal from drinking water and present full-scale drinking water treatment studies to impact of lime softening and ion exchange softening on strontium removal. To inform the public on strontium removal techniques

  12. 40 CFR 721.10011 - Barium calcium manganese strontium oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Barium calcium manganese strontium... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10011 Barium calcium manganese strontium oxide. (a) Chemical substance... manganese strontium oxide (PMN P-00-1124; CAS No. 359427-90-0) is subject to reporting under this...

  13. Specific activity and isotope abundances of strontium in purified strontium-82

    SciTech Connect

    Fitzsimmons, J. M.; Medvedev, D. G.; Mausner, L. F.

    2015-11-12

    A linear accelerator was used to irradiate a rubidium chloride target with protons to produce strontium-82 (Sr-82), and the Sr-82 was purified by ion exchange chromatography. The amount of strontium associated with the purified Sr-82 was determined by either: ICP-OES or method B which consisted of a summation of strontium quantified by gamma spectroscopy and ICP-MS. The summation method agreed within 10% to the ICP-OES for the total mass of strontium and the subsequent specific activities were determined to be 0.25–0.52 TBq mg-1. Method B was used to determine the isotope abundances by weight% of the purified Sr-82, and the abundances were: Sr-82 (10–20.7%), Sr-83 (0–0.05%), Sr-84 (35–48.5%), Sr-85 (16–25%), Sr-86 (12.5–23%), Sr-87 (0%), and Sr-88 (0–10%). The purified strontium contained mass amounts of Sr-82, Sr-84, Sr-85, Sr-86, and Sr-88 in abundances not associated with natural abundance, and 90% of the strontium was produced by the proton irradiation. A comparison of ICP-OES and method B for the analysis of Sr-82 indicated analysis by ICP-OES would be easier to determine total mass of strontium and comply with regulatory requirements. An ICP-OES analytical method for Sr-82 analysis was established and validated according to regulatory guidelines.

  14. Strontium-89 and Strontium-90 Levels in Breast Milk and in Mineral-Supplement Preparations

    PubMed Central

    Jarvis, Anita A.; Brown, John R.; Tiefenbach, Bella

    1963-01-01

    Strontium-90, strontium-89 and S.U. values were determined in human milk before and after the resumption of atmospheric nuclear testings in 1961, and the levels were compared to cows' milk values reported during the same time. S.U.90 levels in human milk were approximately one-fifth of those found in cows' milk. Assuming an average dietary intake of 11-13 S.U.90 during the period tested, the mean strontium/calcium ratio of 1.78 found in human milk represents an Observed Ratio milk-diet of approximately 0.14-0.16. Although strontium-89 was present in cows' milk already in September 1961, it did not appear in human milk until November 1961. It seems, therefore, that there was a two-month lag period between the appearance of fresh fallout in cows' milk and human milk. Calcium-supplement mineral preparations used by pregnant and lactating women were tested to find their strontium-89, strontium-90 and S.U. levels, because strontium isotopes, if present in these products, will be transferred to the fetus and to breast-fed infants. The compounds tested had S.U.90 levels of 0.13-2.62; in none of the preparations was Sr89 present. PMID:14041888

  15. Marking cabbage looper (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) with cesium

    SciTech Connect

    Moss, J.I.; Van Steenwyk, R.A.

    1984-04-01

    Cabbage loopers (CL), Trichoplusia ni (Huebner), adults reared on artificial diet containing 1 x 10/sup -2/ M and 1 x 10/sup -3/ M CsCl were marked with cesium (Cs) which could be detected by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The cesium marks from the 10/sup -2/ M CsCl diet were sufficient to last the expected lifetime of the insects. CL reared on diet containing 1 x 10/sup -1/ M CsCl did not survive. Unmarked females mated to males reared on artificial diet containing 1 x 10/sup -2/ M and 1 x 10/sup -3/ M CsCl were marked. CL reared on cotton plants sprayed with Cs solutions of 1000, 5000, and 10,000 ..mu..g/ml were marked sufficiently to last the expected lifetime of the insect. CL adults exposed for 72 h to cotton plants sprayed with Cs solutions of 1000, 5000, and 10,000 ..mu..g/ml were marked sufficiently to last the expected lifetime of the insect. CL adults reared from field cotton plants sprayed with CsCl solutions at rates of 1.24, 2.47, and 4.94 kg of CsCl per ha were marked. 12 references, 1 figure, 5 tables.

  16. Microbial uptake of uranium, cesium, and radium

    SciTech Connect

    Strandberg, G.W.; Shumate, S.E. II; Parrott, J.R. Jr.; McWhirter, D.A.

    1980-01-01

    The ability of diverse microbial species to concentrate uranium, cesium, and radium was examined. Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and a mixed culture of denitrifying bacteria accumulated uranium to 10 to 15% of the dry cell weight. Only a fraction of the cells in a given population had visible uranium deposits in electron micrographs. While metabolism was not required for uranium uptake, mechanistic differences in the metal uptake process were indicated. Uranium accumulated slowly (hours) on the surface of S. cerevisiae and was subject to environmental factors (i.e., temperature, pH, interfering cations and anions). In contrast, P. aeruginosa and the mixed culture of denitrifying bacteria accumulated uranium rapidly (minutes) as dense, apparently random, intracellular deposits. This very rapid accumulation has prevented us from determining whether the uptake rate during the transient between the initial and equilibrium distribution of uranium is affected by environmental conditions. However, the final equilibrium distributions are not affected by those conditions which affect uptake by S. cerevisiae. Cesium and radium were concentrated to a considerably lesser extent than uranium by the several microbial species tested. The potential utility of microorganisms for the removal and concentration of these metals from nuclear processing wastes and several bioreactor designs for contacting microorganisms with contaminated waste streams will be discussed.

  17. Intense non-relativistic cesium ion beam

    SciTech Connect

    Lampel, M.C.

    1984-02-01

    The Heavy Ion Fusion group at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory has constructed the One Ampere Cesium Injector as a proof of principle source to supply an induction linac with a high charge density and high brightness ion beam. This is studied here. An electron beam probe was developed as the major diagnostic tool for characterizing ion beam space charge. Electron beam probe data inversion is accomplished with the EBEAM code and a parametrically adjusted model radial charge distribution. The longitudinal charge distribution was not derived, although it is possible to do so. The radial charge distribution that is derived reveals an unexpected halo of trapped electrons surrounding the ion beam. A charge fluid theory of the effect of finite electron temperature on the focusing of neutralized ion beams (Nucl. Fus. 21, 529 (1981)) is applied to the problem of the Cesium beam final focus at the end of the injector. It is shown that the theory's predictions and assumptions are consistent with the experimental data, and that it accounts for the observed ion beam radius of approx. 5 cm, and the electron halo, including the determination of an electron Debye length of approx. 10 cm.

  18. Parity nonconservation in Fr-like actinide and Cs-like rare-earth-metal ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roberts, B. M.; Dzuba, V. A.; Flambaum, V. V.

    2013-07-01

    Parity-nonconservation (PNC) amplitudes are calculated for the 7s-6d3/2 transitions of the francium isoelectronic sequence (Fr, Ra+, Ac2+, Th3+, Pa4+, U5+, and Np6+) and for the 6s-5d3/2 transitions of the cesium isoelectronic sequence (Cs, Ba+, La2+, Ce3+, and Pr4+). We show in particular that isotopes of La2+, Ac2+, and Th3+ ions have strong potential in the search for new physics beyond the standard model: The PNC amplitudes are large, the calculations are accurate, and the nuclei are practically stable. In addition, 232Th3+ ions have recently been trapped and cooled [Campbell , Phys. Rev. Lett.PRLTAO0031-900710.1103/PhysRevLett.102.233004 102, 233004 (2009)]. We also extend previous works by calculating the s-s PNC transitions in Ra+ and Ba+ and provide calculations of several energy levels, and electric dipole and quadrupole transition amplitudes for the Fr-like actinide ions.

  19. Medical effects of internal contamination with actinides: further controversy on depleted uranium and radioactive warfare.

    PubMed

    Durakovic, Asaf

    2016-05-01

    The Nuclear Age began in 1945 with testing in New Mexico, USA, and the subsequent bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Regardless of attempts to limit the development of nuclear weapons, the current world arsenal has reached the staggering dimensions and presents a significant concern for the biosphere and mankind. In an explosion of a nuclear weapon, over 400 radioactive isotopes are released into the biosphere, 40 of which pose potential dangers including iodine, cesium, alkaline earths, and actinides. The immediate health effects of nuclear explosions include thermal, mechanical, and acute radiation syndrome. Long-term effects include radioactive fallout, internal contamination, and long-term genotoxicity. The current controversial concern over depleted uranium's somatic and genetic toxicity is still a subject of worldwide sustained research. The host of data generated in the past decades has demonstrated conflicting findings, with the most recent evidence showing that its genotoxicity is greater than previously considered. Of particular concern are the osteotropic properties of uranium isotopes due to their final retention in the crystals of exchangeable and nonexchangeable bone as well as their proximity to pluripotent stem cells. Depleted uranium remains an unresolved issue in both warfare and the search for alternative energy sources.

  20. Adsorption of cesium on cement mortar from aqueous solutions.

    PubMed

    Volchek, Konstantin; Miah, Muhammed Yusuf; Kuang, Wenxing; DeMaleki, Zack; Tezel, F Handan

    2011-10-30

    The adsorption of cesium on cement mortar from aqueous solutions was studied in series of bench-scale tests. The effects of cesium concentration, temperature and contact time on process kinetics and equilibrium were evaluated. Experiments were carried out in a range of initial cesium concentrations from 0.0103 to 10.88 mg L(-1) and temperatures from 278 to 313 K using coupons of cement mortar immersed in the solutions. Non-radioactive cesium chloride was used as a surrogate of the radioactive (137)Cs. Solution samples were taken after set periods of time and analyzed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy. Depending on the initial cesium concentration, its equilibrium concentration in solution ranged from 0.0069 to 8.837 mg L(-1) while the respective surface concentration on coupons varied from 0.0395 to 22.34 μg cm(-2). Equilibrium test results correlated well with the Freundlich isotherm model for the entire test duration. Test results revealed that an increase in temperature resulted in an increase in adsorption rate and a decrease in equilibrium cesium surface concentration. Among several kinetic models considered, the pseudo-second order reaction model was found to be the best to describe the kinetic test results in the studied range of concentrations. The adsorption activation energy determined from Arrhenius equation was found to be approximately 55.9 kJ mol(-1) suggesting that chemisorption was the prevalent mechanism of interaction between cesium ions and cement mortar.

  1. Enhanced magnetic trap loading for atomic strontium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barker, D. S.; Reschovsky, B. J.; Pisenti, N. C.; Campbell, G. K.

    2015-10-01

    We report on a technique to improve the continuous loading of atomic strontium into a magnetic trap from a magneto-optical trap. This is achieved by adding a depumping laser tuned to the P31→S31 (688-nm) transition. The depumping laser increases atom number in the magnetic trap and subsequent cooling stages by up to 65% for the bosonic isotopes and up to 30% for the fermionic isotope of strontium. We optimize this trap loading strategy with respect to the 688-nm laser detuning, intensity, and beam size. To understand the results, we develop a one-dimensional rate equation model of the system, which is in good agreement with the data. We discuss the use of other transitions in strontium for accelerated trap loading and the application of the technique to other alkaline-earth-like atoms.

  2. Thermionic converter with differentially heated cesium-oxygen source and method of operation

    DOEpatents

    Rasor, Ned S.; Riley, David R.; Murray, Christopher S.; Geller, Clint B.

    2000-01-01

    A thermionic converter having an emitter, a collector, and a source of cesium vapor is provided wherein the source of cesium vapor is differentially heated so that said source has a hotter end and a cooler end, with cesium vapor evaporating from said hotter end into the space between the emitter and the collector and with cesium vapor condensing at said cooler end. The condensed cesium vapor migrates through a porous element from the cooler end to the hotter end.

  3. Actinide electronic structure and atomic forces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albers, R. C.; Rudin, Sven P.; Trinkle, Dallas R.; Jones, M. D.

    2000-07-01

    We have developed a new method[1] of fitting tight-binding parameterizations based on functional forms developed at the Naval Research Laboratory.[2] We have applied these methods to actinide metals and report our success using them (see below). The fitting procedure uses first-principles local-density-approximation (LDA) linear augmented plane-wave (LAPW) band structure techniques[3] to first calculate an electronic-structure band structure and total energy for fcc, bcc, and simple cubic crystal structures for the actinide of interest. The tight-binding parameterization is then chosen to fit the detailed energy eigenvalues of the bands along symmetry directions, and the symmetry of the parameterization is constrained to agree with the correct symmetry of the LDA band structure at each eigenvalue and k-vector that is fit to. By fitting to a range of different volumes and the three different crystal structures, we find that the resulting parameterization is robust and appears to accurately calculate other crystal structures and properties of interest.

  4. Evaluation of actinide biosorption by microorganisms

    SciTech Connect

    Happel, A.M.

    1996-06-01

    Conventional methods for removing metals from aqueous solutions include chemical precipitation, chemical oxidation or reduction, ion exchange, reverse osmosis, electrochemical treatment and evaporation. The removal of radionuclides from aqueous waste streams has largely relied on ion exchange methods which can be prohibitively costly given increasingly stringent regulatory effluent limits. The use of microbial cells as biosorbants for heavy metals offers a potential alternative to existing methods for decontamination or recovery of heavy metals from a variety of industrial waste streams and contaminated ground waters. The toxicity and the extreme and variable conditions present in many radionuclide containing waste streams may preclude the use of living microorganisms and favor the use of non-living biomass for the removal of actinides from these waste streams. In the work presented here, we have examined the biosorption of uranium by non-living, non-metabolizing microbial biomass thus avoiding the problems associated with living systems. We are investigating biosorption with the long term goal of developing microbial technologies for the remediation of actinides.

  5. Thermodynamic restrictions on mechanosynthesis of strontium titanate

    SciTech Connect

    Monteiro, J.F.; Ferreira, A.A.L.; Antunes, I.; Fagg, D.P.; Frade, J.R.

    2012-01-15

    Chemical potential phase stability diagrams were calculated from relevant thermodynamic properties and used to predict the thermodynamic driving force under prospective conditions of room temperature mechanosynthesis. One analysed the dependence of chemical potential diagrams on temperature and partial pressure of evolving gases such as oxygen or carbon dioxide, as expected on using strontium peroxide or strontium carbonate as precursor reactants for the alkali earth component. Thermodynamic calculations were also obtained for changes in titania precursor reactants, including thermodynamic predictions for reactivity of strontium carbonate with amorphous titania. Experimental evidence showed that strontium titanate can be obtained by mechanosynthesis of strontium carbonate+anatase mixtures, due to previous amorphization under high energy milling. Ability to perform mechanosynthesis with less energetic milling depends on the suitable choice of alternative precursor reactants, which meet the thermodynamic requirements without previous amorphization; this was demonstrated by mechanosynthesis from anatase+strontium peroxide mixtures. - Graphical abstract: X-Ray diffractograms of the starting TiO{sub 2} (anatase)+SrCO{sub 3} mixture and after mechanical activation at 650 rpm, for 1, 2, and 7 h. Different symbols are used to identify reflections ascribed to anatase (diamonds), SrCO{sub 3} (squares) and SrTiO{sub 3} (triangles). Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Prediction of thermodynamic driving force for room temperature mechanosynthesis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Dependence of chemical potential diagrams on temperature and partial pressure. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Thermodynamic calculations for changes in titania precursor. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Experimental support for thermodynamic predictions.

  6. First principles investigation of substituted strontium hexaferrite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dixit, Vivek

    This dissertation investigates how the magnetic properties of strontium hexaferrite change upon the substitution of foreign atoms at the Fe sites. Strontium hexaferrite, SrFe12O19, is a commonly used hard magnetic material and is produced in large quantities (around 500,000 tons per year). For different applications of strontium hexaferrite, its magnetic properties can be tuned by a proper substitution of the foreign atoms. Experimental screening for a proper substitution is a cost-intensive and time-consuming process, whereas computationally it can be done more efficiently. We used the 'density functional theory' a first principles based method to study substituted strontium hexaferrite. The site occupancies of the substituted atoms were estimated by calculating the substitution energies of different configurations. The formation probabilities of configurations were used to calculate the magnetic properties of substituted strontium hexaferrite. In the first study, Al-substituted strontium hexaferrite, SrFe12-x AlxO19 with x=0.5 and x=1.0 were investigated. It was found that at the annealing temperature the non-magnetic Al +3 ions preferentially replace Fe+3 ions from the 12 k and 2a sites. We found that the magnetization decreases and the magnetic anisotropy field increases as the fraction, x of the Al atoms increases. In the second study, SrFe12-xGaxO19 and SrFe12-xInxO19 with x=0.5 and x=1.0 were investigated. In the case of SrFe12-xGaxO19, the sites where Ga+3 ions prefer to enter are: 12 k, 2a, and 4f1. For SrFe12-xInxO19, In+3 ions most likely to occupy the 12k, 4f1 , and 4f2 sites. In both cases the magnetization was found to decrease slightly as the fraction of substituted atom increases. The magnetic anisotropy field increased for SrFe12-xGaxO 19, and decreased for SrFe12-xInxO19 as the concentration of substituted atoms increased. In the third study, 23 elements (M) were screened for their possible substitution in strontium hexaferrite, SrFe12-xMxO 19

  7. Morphology Tuning of Strontium Tungstate Nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Joseph, S.; George, T.; George, K. C.; Sunny, A. T.; Mathew, S.

    2007-08-22

    Strontium tungstate nanocrystals in two different morphologies are successfully synthesized by controlled precipitation in aqueous and in poly vinyl alcohol (PVA) medium. Structural characterizations are carried out by XRD and SEM. The average particle size calculated for the SrWO4 prepared in the two different solvents ranges 20-24 nm. The SEM pictures show that the surface morphologies of the SrWO4 nanoparticles in aqueous medium resemble mushroom and the SrWO4 nanoparticles in PVA medium resemble cauliflower. Investigations on the room temperature luminescent properties of the strontium tungstate nanoparticles prepared in aqueous and PVA medium shows strong emissions around 425 nm.

  8. Method for removing cesium from a nuclear reactor coolant

    DOEpatents

    Colburn, Richard P.

    1986-01-01

    A method of and system for removing cesium from a liquid metal reactor coolant including a carbon packing trap in the primary coolant system for absorbing a major portion of the radioactive cesium from the coolant flowing therethrough at a reduced temperature. A regeneration subloop system having a secondary carbon packing trap is selectively connected to the primary system for isolating the main trap therefrom and connecting it to the regeneration system. Increasing the temperature of the sodium flowing through the primary trap diffuses a portion of the cesium

  9. Immobilization of cesium in alkaline activated fly ash matrix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernandez-Jimenez, A.; Macphee, D. E.; Lachowski, E. E.; Palomo, A.

    2005-11-01

    The immobilization potential of alkaline activated fly ash (AAFA) matrices for cesium has been investigated. The presence of Cs in the AAFA pastes, prepared using 8M NaOH solution as activator, showed no significant adverse effects on mechanical strength or microstructure, nor were significant quantities of Cs leached following application of the Toxic Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) and American Nuclear Society (ANS) 16.1 leaching protocols. Microstructural analysis shows Cs associated with the main reaction product in the AAFA suggesting that cesium is chemically bound rather than physically encapsulated. It is proposed that cesium is incorporated into the alkaline aluminosilicate gel, a precursor for zeolite formation.

  10. Cesium in mammals: acute toxicity, organ changes and tissue accumulation

    SciTech Connect

    Pinsky C.; Bose, R.; Taylor, J.R.; McKee, J.S.C.; Lapointe, C.; Birchall, J.

    1981-01-01

    The acute toxicity of cesium given intraperitoneally (IP) as CsCl in mice is characterized by autonomic upset and by a multiphasic excitant-depressant action on the central nervous system. The predominantly depressant action can progress to respiratory embarrassment, cyanosis, spinal convulsions and death. Light microscopy of mice treated with 2.0 mEq Cs/sup +/ kg/sup -1/ IP for 14 days showed lymphoid hyperplasia in small intestine. Measurement of tissue cesium by the proton-induced x-ray emission (PIXE) technique is convenient and reproducible. Cesium displays a generalized bioactivity that merits further study.

  11. Diode-pumped 10 W continuous wave cesium laser.

    PubMed

    Zhdanov, Boris; Knize, R J

    2007-08-01

    An efficient cesium vapor laser pumped with a continuous wave laser diode array has been demonstrated. The linewidth of the pump source was narrowed using the external cavity to match it to the cesium absorption line. The output power of the continuous wave cesium laser was 10 W, which exceeds previous results by more than a factor of 10, and the slope efficiency was 68%. The overall optical efficiency was 62%, which is a factor of 6 higher than previous pulsed laser results for alkali lasers with diode laser array pumping.

  12. Fundamental study of cesium decontamination from soil by superconducting magnet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Igarashi, Susumu; Mishima, Fumihito; Akiyama, Yoko; Nishijima, Shigehiro

    2013-11-01

    The radioactive substances have been spread out all over the surrounding area of Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant caused by the accident in March 2011. Decontamination and volume reduction of radioactive substances, especially cesium ion, are desired issue. This study proposed a decontamination method of the soil by the magnetic separation using superconducting magnet. Cesium ion was adsorbed by Prussian blue in the potassium iodide solution. We succeeded in separating selectively the cesium ion-adsorbed Prussian blue out of the liquid phase by high gradient magnetic separation. High recovery ratio of the Prussian blue was achieved by this method.

  13. Electron Temperature Measurements in an Argon/Cesium Plasma Diode.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-12-01

    MEASUREMENTS IN AN ARGON /CESIUM PLASMA DIODE 5, THESIS Michael J. Ward Second Lieutenant, USAF AFIT/GEP/ENP/87D-9 DTIC ELECTE FEB 1 01988 * DEPARTMENT OF...ENP/87D-9 S ELECTRON TEMPERATURE MEASUREMENTS IN AN ARGON /CESIUM PLASMA DIODE THESIS Presented to the Faculty of the School of Engineering of the Air...GEP/ENP/87D-9 * Abstract Line intensity measurements in an argon /cesium plasma *Q diode were made at various locations within the discharge, yielding a

  14. Gas core reactors for actinide transmutation. [uranium hexafluoride

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clement, J. D.; Rust, J. H.; Wan, P. T.; Chow, S.

    1979-01-01

    The preliminary design of a uranium hexafluoride actinide transmutation reactor to convert long-lived actinide wastes to shorter-lived fission product wastes was analyzed. It is shown that externally moderated gas core reactors are ideal radiators. They provide an abundant supply of thermal neutrons and are insensitive to composition changes in the blanket. For the present reactor, an initial load of 6 metric tons of actinides is loaded. This is equivalent to the quantity produced by 300 LWR-years of operation. At the beginning, the core produces 2000 MWt while the blanket generates only 239 MWt. After four years of irradiation, the actinide mass is reduced to 3.9 metric tonnes. During this time, the blanket is becoming more fissile and its power rapidly approaches 1600 MWt. At the end of four years, continuous refueling of actinides is carried out and the actinide mass is held constant. Equilibrium is essentially achieved at the end of eight years. At equilibrium, the core is producing 1400 MWt and the blanket 1600 MWt. At this power level, the actinide destruction rate is equal to the production rate from 32 LWRs.

  15. End point control of an actinide precipitation reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Muske, K.R.; Palmer, M.J.

    1997-10-01

    The actinide precipitation reactors in the nuclear materials processing facility at Los Alamos National Laboratory are used to remove actinides and other heavy metals from the effluent streams generated during the purification of plutonium. These effluent streams consist of hydrochloric acid solutions, ranging from one to five molar in concentration, in which actinides and other metals are dissolved. The actinides present are plutonium and americium. Typical actinide loadings range from one to five grams per liter. The most prevalent heavy metals are iron, chromium, and nickel that are due to stainless steel. Removal of these metals from solution is accomplished by hydroxide precipitation during the neutralization of the effluent. An end point control algorithm for the semi-batch actinide precipitation reactors at Los Alamos National Laboratory is described. The algorithm is based on an equilibrium solubility model of the chemical species in solution. This model is used to predict the amount of base hydroxide necessary to reach the end point of the actinide precipitation reaction. The model parameters are updated by on-line pH measurements.

  16. Spectroscopic investigation of actinide speciation in concentrated chloride solution

    SciTech Connect

    Runde, W.; Neu, M.P.; Conradson, S.D.; Clark, D.L.; Palmer, P.D.; Reilly, S.D.; Scott, B.L.; Tait, C.D.

    1997-12-31

    The proposed disposal of nuclear waste in geological salt formations, e.g., the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (USA) and the Gorleben site (Germany), raises a fundamental question: To what degree actinides will be solubilized and mobilized upon interaction with chloride ions? Actinide solubilities in highly concentrated chloride solutions are about one order of magnitude higher than in similar inert electrolyte (NaClO{sub 4}) solutions. This increased solubility is due to interactions between actinide and chloride ions. Contradictory results exist regarding the interaction mechanism between actinide and chloride ions. Specifically, both inner-sphere complex formation and ion pair association have been implicated in the interpretation of spectrophotometric and extraction data. To address this controversy, the authors investigated the interaction between actinide ions in the (III), (IV), (V) and (VI) oxidation states and chloride ions using a multi-method approach. Spectroscopic techniques (TRLFS, Raman, UV-Vis absorption, EXAFS) were used to distinguish between changes in the inner coordination sphere of the actinide ion and effects of ion pairing, X-ray absorption spectroscopy and single crystal X-ray diffraction were used to determine structural details of the actinide chloro complexes formed in solution and solid states.

  17. Separation of actinides from spent nuclear fuel: A review.

    PubMed

    Veliscek-Carolan, Jessica

    2016-11-15

    This review summarises the methods currently available to extract radioactive actinide elements from solutions of spent nuclear fuel. This separation of actinides reduces the hazards associated with spent nuclear fuel, such as its radiotoxicity, volume and the amount of time required for its' radioactivity to return to naturally occurring levels. Separation of actinides from environmental water systems is also briefly discussed. The actinide elements typically found in spent nuclear fuel include uranium, plutonium and the minor actinides (americium, neptunium and curium). Separation methods for uranium and plutonium are reasonably well established. On the other hand separation of the minor actinides from lanthanide fission products also present in spent nuclear fuel is an ongoing challenge and an area of active research. Several separation methods for selective removal of these actinides from spent nuclear fuel will be described. These separation methods include solvent extraction, which is the most commonly used method for radiochemical separations, as well as the less developed but promising use of adsorption and ion-exchange materials. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Structural Studies of Cesium, Lithium/Cesium, and Sodium/Cesium Bis(trimethylsilyl)amide (HMDS) Complexes.

    PubMed

    Ojeda-Amador, Ana I; Martínez-Martínez, Antonio J; Kennedy, Alan R; O'Hara, Charles T

    2016-06-06

    Reacting cesium fluoride with an equimolar n-hexane solution of lithium bis(trimethylsilyl)amide (LiHMDS) allows the isolation of CsHMDS (1) in 80% yield (after sublimation). This preparative route to 1 negates the need for pyrophoric Cs metal or organocesium reagents in its synthesis. If a 2:1 LiHMDS:CsF ratio is employed, the heterobimetallic polymer [LiCs(HMDS)2]∞ 2 was isolated (57% yield). By combining equimolar quantities of NaHMDS and CsHMDS in hexane/toluene [toluene·NaCs(HMDS)]∞ 3 was isolated (62% yield). Attempts to prepare the corresponding potassium-cesium amide failed and instead yielded the known monometallic polymer [toluene·Cs(HMDS)]∞ 4. With the aim of expanding the structural diversity of Cs(HMDS) species, 1 was reacted with several different Lewis basic donor molecules of varying denticity, namely, (R,R)-N,N,N',N'-tetramethylcyclohexane-1,2-diamine [(R,R)-TMCDA] and N,N,N',N'-tetramethylethylenediamine (TMEDA), N,N,N',N″,N″-pentamethyldiethylenetriamine (PMDETA), tris[2-(dimethylamino)ethyl]amine (Me6-TREN) and tris[2-(2-methoxyethoxy)ethyl]amine (TMEEA). These reactions yielded dimeric [donor·NaCs(HMDS)2]2 5-7 [where donor is (R,R)-TMCDA, TMEDA and PMDETA respectively], the tetranuclear "open"-dimer [{Me6-TREN·Cs(HMDS)}2{Cs(HMDS)}2] 8 and the monomeric [TMEEA·Cs(HMDS)] 9. Complexes 2, 3, and 5-9 were characterized by X-ray crystallography and in solution by multinuclear NMR spectroscopy.

  19. Crystal growth methods dedicated to low solubility actinide oxalates

    SciTech Connect

    Tamain, C.; Arab-Chapelet, B.; Rivenet, M.; Grandjean, S.; Abraham, F.

    2016-04-15

    Two novel crystal growth syntheses dedicated to low solubility actinide-oxalate systems and adapted to glove box handling are described. These methods based on the use of precursors of either actinide metal or oxalic acid have been optimized on lanthanide systems (analogue of actinides(III)) and then assessed on real actinide systems. They allow the synthesis of several actinide oxalate single crystals, Am{sub 2}(C{sub 2}O{sub 4}){sub 3}(H{sub 2}O){sub 3}·xH{sub 2}O, Th(C{sub 2}O{sub 4}){sub 2}·6H{sub 2}O, M{sub 2+x}[Pu{sup IV}{sub 2−x}Pu{sup III}{sub x}(C{sub 2}O{sub 4}){sub 5}]·nH{sub 2}O and M{sub 1−x}[Pu{sup III}{sub 1−x}Pu{sup IV}{sub x}(C{sub 2}O{sub 4}){sub 2}·H{sub 2}O]·nH{sub 2}O. It is the first time that these well-known compounds are formed by crystal growth methods, thus enabling direct structural studies on transuranic element systems and acquisition of basic data beyond deductions from isomorphic (or not) lanthanide compounds. Characterizations by X-ray diffraction, UV–visible solid spectroscopy, demonstrate the potentialities of these two crystal growth methods to obtain oxalate compounds. - Graphical abstract: Two new single crystal growth methods dedicated to actinide oxalate compounds. - Highlights: • Use of diester as oxalate precursor for crystal growth of actinide oxalates. • Use of actinide oxide as precursor for crystal growth of actinide oxalates. • Crystal growth of Pu(III) and Am(III) oxalates. • Crystal growth of mixed Pu(III)/Pu(IV) oxalates.

  20. Rapid Column Extraction Method for Actinides and Sr-89/90 in Water Samples

    SciTech Connect

    MAXWELL III, SHERROD L.

    2005-06-15

    The SRS Environmental Laboratory analyzes water samples for environmental monitoring, including river water and ground water samples. A new, faster actinide and strontium 89/90 separation method has been developed and implemented to improve productivity, reduce labor costs and add capacity to this laboratory. This method uses stacked TEVA Resin{reg_sign}, TRU Resin{reg_sign} and Sr-Resin{reg_sign} cartridges from Eichrom Technologies (Darien, IL, USA) that allows the rapid separation of plutonium (Pu), neptunium (Np), uranium (U), americium (Am), curium (Cm) and thorium (Th) using a single multi-stage column combined with alpha spectrometry. By using vacuum box cartridge technology with rapid flow rates, sample preparation time is minimized. The method can be used for routine analysis or as a rapid method for emergency preparedness. Thorium and curium are often analyzed separately due to the interference of the daughter of Th-229 tracer, actinium (Ac)-225, on curium isotopes when measured by alpha spectrometry. This new method also adds a separation step using DGA Resin{reg_sign}, (Diglycolamide Resin, Eichrom Technologies) to remove Ac-225 and allow the separation and analysis of thorium isotopes and curium isotopes at the same time.

  1. Controls over the strontium isotope composition of river water

    SciTech Connect

    Palmer, M.R. ); Edmond, J.M. )

    1992-05-01

    Strontium concentrations and isotope ratios have been measured in river and ground waters from the Granges, Orinoco, and Amazon river basins. When compared with major element concentrations, the data set has allowed a detailed examination of the controls over the strontium isotope systematics of riverine input to the oceans in the following environments: (1) typical drainage basins containing limestones, evaporites, shales, and alumino-silicate metamorphic and igneous rocks; (2) shield terrains containing no chemical or biogenic sediments; and (3) the flood plains that constitute the largest areas of many large rivers. The strontium concentration and isotope compositions of river waters are largely defined by mixing of strontium derived from limestones and evaporites with strontium derived from silicate rocks. The strontium isotope composition of the limestone end member generally lies within the Phanerozoic seawater range, which buffers the [sup 87]Sr/[sup 86]Sr ratios of major rivers. A major exception is provided by the rivers draining the Himalayas, where widescale regional metamorphism appears to have led to an enrichment in limestones of radiogenic strontium derived from coexisting silicate rocks. The strontium isotope systematics of rivers draining shield areas are controlled by the intense, transport-limited, nature of the weathering reactions, and thereby limits variations in the strontium flux from these terrains. Flood plains are only a minor source of dissolved strontium to river waters, and precipitation of soil salts in some flood plains can reduce the riverine flux of dissolved strontium to the oceans.

  2. Actinide and Xenon reactivity effects in ATW high flux systems

    SciTech Connect

    Woosley, M.; Olson, K.; Henderson, D.L.

    1995-10-01

    In this paper, initial system reactivity response to flux changes caused by the actinides and xenon are investigated separately for a high flux ATW system. The maximum change in reactivity after a flux change due to the effect of the changing quantities of actinides is generally at least two orders of magnitude smaller than either the positive or negative reactivity effect associated with xenon after a shutdown or start-up. In any transient flux event, the reactivity response of the system to xenon will generally occlude the response due to the actinides.

  3. Chemistry of tetravalent actinide phosphates-Part I

    SciTech Connect

    Brandel, V. . E-mail: vbrandel@neuf.fr; Dacheux, N. . E-mail: dacheux@ipno.in2p3.fr

    2004-12-01

    The chemistry and crystal structure of phosphates of tetravalent cations, including that of actinides was reviewed several times up to 1985. Later, new compounds were synthesized and characterized. In more recent studies, it was found that some of previously reported phases, especially those of thorium, uranium and neptunium, were wrongly identified. In the light of these new facts an update review and classification of the tetravalent actinide phosphates is proposed in the two parts of this paper. Their crystal structure and some chemical properties are also compared to non-actinide cation phosphates.

  4. Process to remove actinides from soil using magnetic separation

    DOEpatents

    Avens, Larry R.; Hill, Dallas D.; Prenger, F. Coyne; Stewart, Walter F.; Tolt, Thomas L.; Worl, Laura A.

    1996-01-01

    A process of separating actinide-containing components from an admixture including forming a slurry including actinide-containing components within an admixture, said slurry including a dispersion-promoting surfactant, adjusting the pH of the slurry to within a desired range, and, passing said slurry through a pretreated matrix material, said matrix material adapted to generate high magnetic field gradients upon the application of a strong magnetic field exceeding about 0.1 Tesla whereupon a portion of said actinide-containing components are separated from said slurry and remain adhered upon said matrix material is provided.

  5. Engineering-Scale Distillation of Cadmium for Actinide Recovery

    SciTech Connect

    J.C. Price; D. Vaden; R.W. Benedict

    2007-10-01

    During the recovery of actinide products from spent nuclear fuel, cadmium is separated from the actinide products by a distillation process. Distillation occurs in an induction-heated furnace called a cathode processor capable of processing kilogram quantities of cadmium. Operating parameters have been established for sufficient recovery of the cadmium based on mass balance and product purity. A cadmium distillation rate similar to previous investigators has also been determined. The development of cadmium distillation for spent fuel treatment enhances the capabilities for actinide recovery processes.

  6. Separating the Minor Actinides Through Advances in Selective Coordination Chemistry

    SciTech Connect

    Lumetta, Gregg J.; Braley, Jenifer C.; Sinkov, Sergey I.; Carter, Jennifer C.

    2012-08-22

    This report describes work conducted at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) in Fiscal Year (FY) 2012 under the auspices of the Sigma Team for Minor Actinide Separation, funded by the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Energy. Researchers at PNNL and Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) are investigating a simplified solvent extraction system for providing a single-step process to separate the minor actinide elements from acidic high-level liquid waste (HLW), including separating the minor actinides from the lanthanide fission products.

  7. Hydrothermal Synthesis and Crystal Structures of Actinide Compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Runde, Wolfgang; Neu, Mary P.

    Since the 1950s actinides have been used to benefit industry, science, health, and national security. The largest industrial application, electricity generation from uranium and thorium fuels, is growing worldwide. Thus, more actinides are being mined, produced, used and processed than ever before. The future of nuclear energy hinges on how these increasing amounts of actinides are contained in each stage of the fuel cycle, including disposition. In addition, uranium and plutonium were built up during the Cold War between the United States and the Former Soviet Union for defense purposes and nuclear energy. These stockpiles have been significantly reduced in the last decade.

  8. An emergency bioassay method for actinides in urine.

    PubMed

    Dai, Xiongxin; Kramer-Tremblay, Sheila

    2011-08-01

    A rapid bioassay method has been developed for the sequential measurements of actinides in human urine samples. The method involves actinide separation from a urine matrix by co-precipitation with hydrous titanium oxide (HTiO), followed by anion exchange and extraction chromatography column purification, and final counting by alpha spectrometry after cerium fluoride micro-precipitation. The minimal detectable activities for the method were determined to be 20 mBq L(-1) or less for plutonium, uranium, americium and curium isotopes, with an 8-h sample turn-around time. Spike tests showed that this method would meet the requirements for actinide bioassay following a radiation emergency.

  9. Biokinetics of cesium in Perna viridis

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, P.K.N.; Lam, P.K.S.; Ng, B.K.P.; Li, A.M.Y.

    2000-02-01

    The biokinetics of Cs in four compartments in the green-lipped mussel Perna viridis, namely, gill, viscera, adductor muscle, and foot, were studied. First-order linear differential equations were set up for these four compartments, and their solutions were used to fit the experimental data. The parameters governing the biokinetics, which depend on the elimination rate from each compartment and the transfer coefficient between compartments, were found. These are useful in understanding the physiology of Perna viridis, in predicting the activity of cesium in each compartment of Perna viridis from a contamination history, or in using Perna viridis as a sentinel organism for surveying and monitoring radioactive contamination. The results showed that the viscera should be represented by more than one compartment. Concentration factors for the four compartments and for Perna viridis were also determined, and these agreed well with reported values in the literature.

  10. Biosorption of uranium, radium, and cesium

    SciTech Connect

    Strandberg, G.W.

    1982-01-01

    Some fundamental aspects of the biosorption of metals by microbial cells were investigated. These studies were carried out in conjunction with efforts to develop a process to utilize microbial cells as biosorbents for the removal of radionuclides from waste streams generated by the nuclear fuel cycle. It was felt that an understanding of the mechanism(s) of metal uptake would potentially enable the enhancement of the metal uptake phenomenon through environmental or genetic manipulation of the microorganisms. Also presented are the results of a preliminary investigation of the applicability of microorganisms for the removal of /sup 137/cesium and /sup 226/radium from existing waste solutions. The studies were directed primarily at a characterization of uranium uptake by the yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and the bacterium, Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

  11. Separations and Actinide Science -- 2005 Roadmap

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2005-09-01

    The Separations and Actinide Science Roadmap presents a vision to establish a separations and actinide science research (SASR) base composed of people, facilities, and collaborations and provides new and innovative nuclear fuel cycle solutions to nuclear technology issues that preclude nuclear proliferation. This enabling science base will play a key role in ensuring that Idaho National Laboratory (INL) achieves its long-term vision of revitalizing nuclear energy by providing needed technologies to ensure our nation's energy sustainability and security. To that end, this roadmap suggests a 10-year journey to build a strong SASR technical capability with a clear mission to support nuclear technology development. If nuclear technology is to be used to satisfy the expected growth in U.S. electrical energy demand, the once-through fuel cycle currently in use should be reconsidered. Although the once-through fuel cycle is cost-effective and uranium is inexpensive, a once-through fuel cycle requires long-term disposal to protect the environment and public from long-lived radioactive species. The lack of a current disposal option (i.e., a licensed repository) has resulted in accumulation of more than 50,000 metric tons of spent nuclear fuel. The process required to transition the current once-through fuel cycle to full-recycle will require considerable time and significant technical advancement. INL's extensive expertise in aqueous separations will be used to develop advanced separations processes. Computational chemistry will be expanded to support development of future processing options. In the intermediate stage of this transition, reprocessing options will be deployed, waste forms with higher loading densities and greater stability will be developed, and transmutation of long-lived fission products will be explored. SASR will support these activities using its actinide science and aqueous separations expertise. In the final stage, full recycle will be enabled by

  12. Fuel Sustainability And Actinide Production Of Doping Minor Actinide In Water-Cooled Thorium Reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Permana, Sidik

    2017-07-01

    Fuel sustainability of nuclear energy is coming from an optimum fuel utilization of the reactor and fuel breeding program. Fuel cycle option becomes more important for fuel cycle utilization as well as fuel sustainability capability of the reactor. One of the important issues for recycle fuel option is nuclear proliferation resistance issue due to production plutonium. To reduce the proliferation resistance level, some barriers were used such as matrial barrier of nuclear fuel based on isotopic composition of even mass number of plutonium isotope. Analysis on nuclear fuel sustainability and actinide production composition based on water-cooled thorium reactor system has been done and all actinide composition are recycled into the reactor as a basic fuel cycle scheme. Some important parameters are evaluated such as doping composition of minor actinide (MA) and volume ratio of moderator to fuel (MFR). Some feasible parameters of breeding gains have been obtained by additional MA doping and some less moderation to fuel ratios (MFR). The system shows that plutonium and MA are obtained low compositions and it obtains some higher productions of even mass plutonium, which is mainly Pu-238 composition, as a control material to protect plutonium to be used as explosive devices.

  13. OPERATIONS REVIEW OF THE SAVANNAH RIVER SITE INTEGRATED SALT DISPOSITION PROCESS - 11327

    SciTech Connect

    Peters, T.; Poirier, M.; Fondeur, F.; Fink, S.; Brown, S.; Geeting, M.

    2011-02-07

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) is removing liquid radioactive waste from its Tank Farm. To treat waste streams that are low in Cs-137, Sr-90, and actinides, SRS developed the Actinide Removal Process and implemented the Modular Caustic Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX) Unit (MCU). The Actinide Removal Process contacts salt solution with monosodium titanate to sorb strontium and select actinides. After monosodium titanate contact, the resulting slurry is filtered to remove the monosodium titanate (and sorbed strontium and actinides) and entrained sludge. The filtrate is transferred to the MCU for further treatment to remove cesium. The solid particulates removed by the filter are concentrated to {approx} 5 wt %, washed to reduce the sodium concentration, and transferred to the Defense Waste Processing Facility for vitrification. The CSSX process extracts the cesium from the radioactive waste using a customized solvent to produce a Decontaminated Salt Solution (DSS), and strips and concentrates the cesium from the solvent with dilute nitric acid. The DSS is incorporated in grout while the strip acid solution is transferred to the Defense Waste Processing Facility for vitrification. The facilities began radiological processing in April 2008 and started processing of the third campaign ('MarcoBatch 3') of waste in June 2010. Campaigns to date have processed {approx}1.2 million gallons of dissolved saltcake. Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) personnel performed tests using actual radioactive samples for each waste batch prior to processing. Testing included monosodium titanate sorption of strontium and actinides followed by CSSX batch contact tests to verify expected cesium mass transfer. This paper describes the tests conducted and compares results from facility operations. The results include strontium, plutonium, and cesium removal, cesium concentration, and organic entrainment and recovery data. Additionally, the poster describes lessons learned during operation

  14. Low-energy vibrational dynamics of cesium borate glasses.

    PubMed

    Crupi, C; D'Angelo, G; Vasi, C

    2012-06-07

    Low-temperature specific heat and inelastic light scattering experiments have been performed on a series of cesium borate glasses and on a cesium borate crystal. Raman measurements on the crystalline sample have revealed the existence of cesium rattling modes in the same frequency region where glasses exhibit the boson peak (BP). These localized modes are supposed to overlap with the BP in cesium borate glasses affecting its magnitude. Their influence on the low frequency vibrational dynamics in glassy samples has been considered, and their contribution to the specific heat has been estimated. Evidence for a relation between the changes of the BP induced by the increased amount of metallic oxide and the variations of the elastic medium has been provided.

  15. Low-work-function surfaces produced by cesium carbonate decomposition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Briere, T. R.; Sommer, A. H.

    1977-01-01

    Cesium carbonate (Cs2CO3) was heated to the decomposition temperature of approximately 600 C. The nonvolatile decomposition products were condensed on a nickel substrate while the carbon dioxide was removed by pumping. The deposited material is characterized by an effective work function of between 1.05 and 1.15 eV at 450 K and by photoemission in the visible and near-infrared region of the spectrum. It is suggested that the deposited material consists of Cs2O, possibly Cs2O2, and adsorbed cesium. Silver, evaporated from a heated silver bead, produced the typical photoemissive and thermionic properties of a silver-oxygen-cesium (S-1) photocathode. The material may be of interest for thermionic energy converters and for the formation of silver-oxygen-cesium photocathodes.

  16. [Reduction of radioactive cesium content in pond smelt by cooking].

    PubMed

    Nabeshi, Hiromi; Tsutsumi, Tomoaki; Hachisuka, Akiko; Matsuda, Rieko

    2013-01-01

    In Japan, seafood may be eaten raw or after having been cooked in diverse ways. Therefore, it is important to understand the effect of cooking on the extent of contamination with radioactive materials in order to avoid internal exposure to radioactive materials via seafood. In this study, we investigated the changes in radioactive cesium content in pond smelt cooked in four different ways: grilled, stewed (kanroni), fried and soaked (nanbanzuke). The radioactive cesium content in grilled, kanroni and fried pond smelt was almost unchanged compared with the uncooked state. In contrast, radioactive cesium content in nanbanzuke pond smelt was decreased by about 30%. Our result suggests that soaking cooked pond smelt in seasoning is an effective method of reducing the burden radioactive cesium.

  17. Strontium Removal: Full-Scale Ohio Demonstrations

    EPA Science Inventory

    The objectives of this presentation are to present a brief overview of past bench-scale research to evaluate the impact lime softening on strontium removal from drinking water and present full-scale drinking water treatment studies to impact of lime softening and ion exchange sof...

  18. Strontium Removal: Full-Scale Ohio Demonstrations

    EPA Science Inventory

    The objectives of this presentation are to present a brief overview of past bench-scale research to evaluate the impact lime softening on strontium removal from drinking water and present full-scale drinking water treatment studies to impact of lime softening and ion exchange sof...

  19. Cesium dynamics in long pulse operation of negative hydrogen ion sources for fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Fantz, U.; Wimmer, C.

    2012-02-15

    Large scale negative hydrogen ion sources operating stable for 1 h (cw mode) are required for the neutral beam heating system of the fusion experiment ITER. The formation of negative hydrogen ions relies on the surface effect for which cesium is evaporated into the source. In order to monitor the cesium dynamics the laser absorption spectroscopy technique is applied to the long pulse test facility MANITU. In the vacuum phase, without plasma operation the evaporation of cesium and the built-up of the cesium in the source are measured. Typical neutral cesium densities are 10{sup 15} m{sup -3}. During plasma operation and after the plasma phase a high cesium dynamics is observed, showing also depletion of cesium during long pulses with low cesium amount. The co-extracted electron current decreases with the cesium amount to a certain level whereas the ion current indicates an optimum density range.

  20. Cesium dynamics in long pulse operation of negative hydrogen ion sources for fusion.

    PubMed

    Fantz, U; Wimmer, C

    2012-02-01

    Large scale negative hydrogen ion sources operating stable for 1 h (cw mode) are required for the neutral beam heating system of the fusion experiment ITER. The formation of negative hydrogen ions relies on the surface effect for which cesium is evaporated into the source. In order to monitor the cesium dynamics the laser absorption spectroscopy technique is applied to the long pulse test facility MANITU. In the vacuum phase, without plasma operation the evaporation of cesium and the built-up of the cesium in the source are measured. Typical neutral cesium densities are 10(15) m(-3). During plasma operation and after the plasma phase a high cesium dynamics is observed, showing also depletion of cesium during long pulses with low cesium amount. The co-extracted electron current decreases with the cesium amount to a certain level whereas the ion current indicates an optimum density range.