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Sample records for cessation anrs co3

  1. Incidence and Risk Factors for Severe Bacterial Infections in People Living with HIV. ANRS CO3 Aquitaine Cohort, 2000-2012.

    PubMed

    Collin, Amandine; Le Marec, Fabien; Vandenhende, Marie-Anne; Lazaro, Estibaliz; Duffau, Pierre; Cazanave, Charles; Gérard, Yann; Dabis, François; Bruyand, Mathias; Bonnet, Fabrice

    2016-01-01

    Severe non-AIDS bacterial infections (SBI) are the leading cause of hospital admissions among people living with HIV (PLHIV) in industrialized countries. We aimed to estimate the incidence of SBI and their risk factors in a large prospective cohort of PLHIV patients over a 13-year period in France. Patients followed up in the ANRS CO3 Aquitaine cohort between 2000 and 2012 were eligible; SBI was defined as a clinical diagnosis associated with hospitalization of ≥48 hours or death. Survival analysis was conducted to identify risk factors for SBI.Total follow-up duration was 39,256 person-years [PY] (31,370 PY on antiretroviral treatment [ART]). The incidence of SBI decreased from 26.7/1000 PY [95% CI: 22.9-30.5] over the period 2000-2002 to 11.9/1000 PY [10.1-13.8] in 2009-2012 (p <0.0001). Factors independently associated to increased risk of SBI were: plasma HIVRNA>50 copies/mL (Hazard Ratio [HR] = 5.1, 95% Confidence Interval: 4.2-6.2), CD4 count <500 cells/mm3 and CD4/CD8 ratio <0.8 (with a dose-response relationship for both markers), history of cancer (HR = 1.4 [1.0-1.9]), AIDS stage (HR = 1.7 [1.3-2.1]) and HCV coinfection (HR = 1.4, [1.1-1.6]). HIV-positive patients with diabetes were more prone to SBI (HR = 1.6 [0.9-2.6]). Incidence of SBI decreased over a 13-year period due to the improvement in the virological and immune status of PLHIV on ART. Risk factors for SBI include low CD4 count and detectable HIV RNA, but also CD4/CD8 ratio, HCV coinfection, history of cancer and diabetes, comorbid conditions that have been frequent among PLHIV in recent years.

  2. Incidence and Risk Factors for Severe Bacterial Infections in People Living with HIV. ANRS CO3 Aquitaine Cohort, 2000-2012.

    PubMed

    Collin, Amandine; Le Marec, Fabien; Vandenhende, Marie-Anne; Lazaro, Estibaliz; Duffau, Pierre; Cazanave, Charles; Gérard, Yann; Dabis, François; Bruyand, Mathias; Bonnet, Fabrice

    2016-01-01

    Severe non-AIDS bacterial infections (SBI) are the leading cause of hospital admissions among people living with HIV (PLHIV) in industrialized countries. We aimed to estimate the incidence of SBI and their risk factors in a large prospective cohort of PLHIV patients over a 13-year period in France. Patients followed up in the ANRS CO3 Aquitaine cohort between 2000 and 2012 were eligible; SBI was defined as a clinical diagnosis associated with hospitalization of ≥48 hours or death. Survival analysis was conducted to identify risk factors for SBI.Total follow-up duration was 39,256 person-years [PY] (31,370 PY on antiretroviral treatment [ART]). The incidence of SBI decreased from 26.7/1000 PY [95% CI: 22.9-30.5] over the period 2000-2002 to 11.9/1000 PY [10.1-13.8] in 2009-2012 (p <0.0001). Factors independently associated to increased risk of SBI were: plasma HIVRNA>50 copies/mL (Hazard Ratio [HR] = 5.1, 95% Confidence Interval: 4.2-6.2), CD4 count <500 cells/mm3 and CD4/CD8 ratio <0.8 (with a dose-response relationship for both markers), history of cancer (HR = 1.4 [1.0-1.9]), AIDS stage (HR = 1.7 [1.3-2.1]) and HCV coinfection (HR = 1.4, [1.1-1.6]). HIV-positive patients with diabetes were more prone to SBI (HR = 1.6 [0.9-2.6]). Incidence of SBI decreased over a 13-year period due to the improvement in the virological and immune status of PLHIV on ART. Risk factors for SBI include low CD4 count and detectable HIV RNA, but also CD4/CD8 ratio, HCV coinfection, history of cancer and diabetes, comorbid conditions that have been frequent among PLHIV in recent years. PMID:27050752

  3. Incidence and Risk Factors for Severe Bacterial Infections in People Living with HIV. ANRS CO3 Aquitaine Cohort, 2000–2012

    PubMed Central

    Collin, Amandine; Le Marec, Fabien; Vandenhende, Marie-Anne; Lazaro, Estibaliz; Duffau, Pierre; Cazanave, Charles; Gérard, Yann; Dabis, François; Bruyand, Mathias; Bonnet, Fabrice

    2016-01-01

    Severe non-AIDS bacterial infections (SBI) are the leading cause of hospital admissions among people living with HIV (PLHIV) in industrialized countries. We aimed to estimate the incidence of SBI and their risk factors in a large prospective cohort of PLHIV patients over a 13-year period in France. Patients followed up in the ANRS CO3 Aquitaine cohort between 2000 and 2012 were eligible; SBI was defined as a clinical diagnosis associated with hospitalization of ≥48 hours or death. Survival analysis was conducted to identify risk factors for SBI.Total follow-up duration was 39,256 person-years [PY] (31,370 PY on antiretroviral treatment [ART]). The incidence of SBI decreased from 26.7/1000 PY [95% CI: 22.9–30.5] over the period 2000–2002 to 11.9/1000 PY [10.1–13.8] in 2009–2012 (p <0.0001). Factors independently associated to increased risk of SBI were: plasma HIVRNA>50 copies/mL (Hazard Ratio [HR] = 5.1, 95% Confidence Interval: 4.2–6.2), CD4 count <500 cells/mm3 and CD4/CD8 ratio <0.8 (with a dose-response relationship for both markers), history of cancer (HR = 1.4 [1.0–1.9]), AIDS stage (HR = 1.7 [1.3–2.1]) and HCV coinfection (HR = 1.4, [1.1–1.6]). HIV-positive patients with diabetes were more prone to SBI (HR = 1.6 [0.9–2.6]). Incidence of SBI decreased over a 13-year period due to the improvement in the virological and immune status of PLHIV on ART. Risk factors for SBI include low CD4 count and detectable HIV RNA, but also CD4/CD8 ratio, HCV coinfection, history of cancer and diabetes, comorbid conditions that have been frequent among PLHIV in recent years. PMID:27050752

  4. 76 FR 56191 - Notice of Application; ANR Pipeline Company

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-12

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Notice of Application; ANR Pipeline Company Take notice that on August 23, 2011, ANR Pipeline Company (ANR), 717 Texas Street, Houston, Texas 77002-2761, filed in the above... Wisconsin Electric Power Company, et al. v. ANR Pipeline Company, 136 FERC ] 61,080 (2011). Any...

  5. 75 FR 67351 - ANR Pipeline Company; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-02

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission ANR Pipeline Company; Notice of Application October 26, 2010. Take notice that on October 18, 2010, ANR Pipeline Company (ANR), 717 Texas Street, Houston, Texas 77002-2761... pipeline, 0.2 miles of 8- inch diameter pipeline, and related appurtenances located in federal...

  6. 77 FR 11521 - ANR Pipeline Company; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-27

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission ANR Pipeline Company; Notice of Application Take notice that on February 3, 2012, ANR Pipeline Company (ANR), 717 Texas Street, Houston, Texas 77002-2761 filed with the Federal... through approximately 7.0 miles of 20-inch pipeline extending from High Island Block A-552 to High...

  7. [Smoking cessation].

    PubMed

    Mori, Masahide; Maekura, Ryoji

    2011-10-01

    Smoking has been determined as a cause of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in most patients. Smoking cessation should be stressed above everything else for COPD patients under all conditions. A smoking habit is determined not as a preference but as a dependency on tobacco; therefore, smoking cessation is difficult solely based on one's motivation. Smoking cessation therapy is employed with cessation aids. Now, we can use nicotine-containing gum, patches, and the nicotine-receptor partial agonist varenicline. First, nicotine from tobacco is replaced with a nicotin patch, or a nicotine-free condition is induced by varenicline. Subsequently, the drugs are gradually reduced. In Japan, smoking cessation therapy is covered by public health insurance as definite requirements. PMID:22073582

  8. Links between Anr and Quorum Sensing in Pseudomonas aeruginosa Biofilms

    PubMed Central

    Hammond, John H.; Dolben, Emily F.; Smith, T. Jarrod; Bhuju, Sabin

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT In Pseudomonas aeruginosa, the transcription factor Anr controls the cellular response to low oxygen or anoxia. Anr activity is high in oxygen-limited environments, including biofilms and populations associated with chronic infections, and Anr is necessary for persistence in a model of pulmonary infection. In this study, we characterized the Anr regulon in biofilm-grown cells at 1% oxygen in the laboratory strain PAO1 and in a quorum sensing (QS)-deficient clinical isolate, J215. As expected, transcripts related to denitrification, arginine fermentation, high-affinity cytochrome oxidases, and CupA fimbriae were lower in the Δanr derivatives. In addition, we observed that transcripts associated with quorum sensing regulation, iron acquisition and storage, type VI secretion, and the catabolism of aromatic compounds were also differentially expressed in the Δanr strains. Prior reports have shown that quorum sensing-defective mutants have higher levels of denitrification, and we found that multiple Anr-regulated processes, including denitrification, were strongly inversely proportional to quorum sensing in both transcriptional and protein-based assays. We also found that in LasR-defective strains but not their LasR-intact counterparts, Anr regulated the production of the 4-hydroxy-2-alkylquinolines, which play roles in quorum sensing and interspecies interactions. These data show that Anr was required for the expression of important metabolic pathways in low-oxygen biofilms, and they reveal an expanded and compensatory role for Anr in the regulation of virulence-related genes in quorum sensing mutants, such as those commonly isolated from infections. IMPORTANCE Pseudomonas aeruginosa causes acute ocular, soft tissue, and pulmonary infections, as well as chronic infections in the airways of cystic fibrosis patients. P. aeruginosa uses quorum sensing (QS) to regulate virulence, but mutations in the gene encoding the master regulator of QS, lasR, are frequently

  9. 77 FR 15097 - ANR Storage Company; Notice of Petition for Declaratory Order

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-14

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission ANR Storage Company; Notice of Petition for Declaratory Order Take notice... 284.501, et seq., (2011), ANR Storage Company (ANR Storage) filed a petition for a declaratory order requesting that the Commission issue an order: (1) Granting ANR Storage authorization to charge...

  10. 78 FR 14531 - ANR Storage Company; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-06

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission ANR Storage Company; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization Take notice that on February 21, 2013, ANR Storage Company (ANR Storage), 717 Texas Street, Suite 2400... 157.205 and 157.214 of the Commission's regulations under the Natural Gas Act (NGA). ANR Storage...

  11. 75 FR 63451 - ANR Pipeline Company; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-15

    ... between Eugene Island Blocks 307 and 305, offshore Louisiana, to Dynamic Offshore Resources NS, LLC... Repair and Purchase and Sale Agreement. ANR states that it would cost an estimated $25,186,000...

  12. 76 FR 79669 - ANR Pipeline Company; Notice of Application for Abandonment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-22

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission ANR Pipeline Company; Notice of Application for Abandonment Take notice that on December 5, 2011, ANR Pipeline Company (ANR), 717 Texas Street, Houston, Texas 77002-2761,...

  13. 76 FR 37104 - ANR Pipeline Company; Notice of Application for Abandonment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-24

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission ANR Pipeline Company; Notice of Application for Abandonment Take notice that on June 9, 2011, ANR Pipeline Company (ANR), 717 Texas Street, Houston, Texas 77002-2761, filed...

  14. Anr and its activation by PlcH activity in Pseudomonas aeruginosa host colonization and virulence.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Angelyca A; Gross, Maegan J; Daniels, Emily F; Hampton, Thomas H; Hammond, John H; Vallet-Gely, Isabelle; Dove, Simon L; Stanton, Bruce A; Hogan, Deborah A

    2013-07-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa hemolytic phospholipase C (PlcH) degrades phosphatidylcholine (PC), an abundant lipid in cell membranes and lung surfactant. A ΔplcHR mutant, known to be defective in virulence in animal models, was less able to colonize epithelial cell monolayers and was defective in biofilm formation on plastic when grown in lung surfactant. Microarray analyses found that strains defective in PlcH production had lower levels of Anr-regulated transcripts than the wild type. PC degradation stimulated the Anr regulon in an Anr-dependent manner under conditions where Anr activity was submaximal because of the presence of oxygen. Two PC catabolites, choline and glycine betaine (GB), were sufficient to stimulate Anr activity, and their catabolism was required for Anr activation. The addition of choline or GB to glucose-containing medium did not alter Anr protein levels, growth rates, or respiratory activity, and Anr activation could not be attributed to the osmoprotectant functions of GB. The Δanr mutant was defective in virulence in a mouse pneumonia model. Several lines of evidence indicate that Anr is important for the colonization of biotic and abiotic surfaces in both P. aeruginosa PAO1 and PA14 and that increases in Anr activity resulted in enhanced biofilm formation. Our data suggest that PlcH activity promotes Anr activity in oxic environments and that Anr activity contributes to virulence, even in the acute infection phase, where low oxygen tensions are not expected. This finding highlights the relationships among in vivo bacterial metabolism, the activity of the oxygen-sensitive regulator Anr, and virulence.

  15. 78 FR 59927 - ANR Pipeline Company; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-30

    ..., Jefferson, and Des Moines County, Iowa (Iowa Fertilizer Project). ANR states that the Iowa Fertilizer Project will deliver 81,000 dekatherms per day to a new nitrogen fertilizer manufacturing plant. ANR estimates the cost of the Iowa Fertilizer Project to be approximately $15 million, all as more fully...

  16. Smoking cessation medications

    MedlinePlus

    Smoking cessation - medications; Smokeless tobacco - medications; Medications for stopping tobacco ... provider can prescribe medicines to help you quit tobacco use. These medicines do not contain nicotine. They ...

  17. The Density and Compressibility of BaCO3-SrCO3-CaCO3-K2CO3-Na2CO3-Li2CO3 Liquids: New Measurements and a Systematic Trend with Cation Field Strength

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hurt, S. M.; Lange, R. A.; Ai, Y.

    2015-12-01

    The volumetric properties of multi-component carbonate liquids are required to extend thermodynamic models that describe partial melting of the deep mantle (e.g. pMELTS; Ghiorso et al., 2003) to carbonate-bearing lithologies. Carbonate in the mantle is an important reservoir of carbon, which is released to the atmosphere as CO2 through volcanism, and thus contributes to the carbon cycle. Although MgCO3 is the most important carbonate component in the mantle, it is not possible to directly measure the 1-bar density and compressibility of MgCO3 liquid because, like other alkaline-earth carbonates, it decomposes at a temperature lower than its melting temperature. Despite this challenge, Liu and Lange (2003) and O'Leary et al. (2015) showed that the one bar molar volume, thermal expansion and compressibility of the CaCO3 liquid component could be obtained by measuring the density and sound speeds of stable liquids in the CaCO3-Li2CO3-Na2CO3-K2CO3 quaternary system at one bar. In this study, this same strategy is employed on SrCO3- and BaCO3-bearing alkali carbonate liquids. The density and sound speed of seven liquids in the SrCO3-Li2CO3-Na2CO3-K2CO3 quaternary and three liquids in the BaCO3-Li2CO3-Na2CO3-K2CO3 quaternary were measured from 739-1367K, with SrCO3 and BaCO3 concentrations ranging from 10-50 mol%. The density measurements were made using the double-bob Archimedean method and sound speeds were obtained with a frequency-sweep acoustic interferometer. The molar volume and sound speed measurements were used to calculate the isothermal compressibility of each liquid, and the results show the volumetric properties mix ideally with composition. The partial molar volume and compressibility of the SrCO3 and BaCO3 components are compared to those obtained for the CaCO3 component as a function of cation field strength. The results reveal a systematic trend that allows the partial molar volume and compressibility of the MgCO3 liquid component to be estimated.

  18. ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION REPORT ANR PIPELINE COMPANY PARAMETRIC EMISSIONS MONITORING SYSTEM (PEMS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Environmental Technology Verification report discusses the technology and performance of a gaseous-emissions monitoring system for large, natural-gas-fired internal combustion engines. The device tested is the Parametric Emissions Monitoring System (PEMS) manufactured by ANR ...

  19. Smoking Cessation among Blacks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stotts, R. Craig; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Lung cancer is a serious health problem among blacks, with a mortality rate of 119 per 100,000 black males, compared to 81 per 100,000 for white males. Smoking cessation efforts are most successful when tailored to the black community, using black community networks and broadcast media for black audiences. (SLD)

  20. Metabolic effects of smoking cessation.

    PubMed

    Harris, Kindred K; Zopey, Mohan; Friedman, Theodore C

    2016-05-01

    Smoking continues to be the leading cause of preventable death in the USA, despite the vast and widely publicized knowledge about the negative health effects of tobacco smoking. Data show that smoking cessation is often accompanied by weight gain and an improvement in insulin sensitivity over time. However, paradoxically, post-cessation-related obesity might contribute to insulin resistance. Furthermore, post-cessation weight gain is reportedly the number one reason why smokers, especially women, fail to initiate smoking cessation or relapse after initiating smoking cessation. In this Review, we discuss the metabolic effects of stopping smoking and highlight future considerations for smoking cessation programs and therapies to be designed with an emphasis on reducing post-cessation weight gain.

  1. Metabolic effects of smoking cessation

    PubMed Central

    Harris, Kindred K.; Zopey, Mohan; Friedman, Theodore C.

    2016-01-01

    Smoking continues to be the leading cause of preventable death in the USA, despite the vast and widely publicized knowledge about the negative health effects of tobacco smoking. Data show that smoking cessation is often accompanied by weight gain and an improvement in insulin sensitivity over time. However, paradoxically, post-cessation-related obesity might contribute to insulin resistance. Furthermore, post-cessation weight gain is reportedly the number one reason why smokers, especially women, fail to initiate smoking cessation or relapse after initiating smoking cessation. In this Review, we discuss the metabolic effects of stopping smoking and highlight future considerations for smoking cessation programs and therapies to be designed with an emphasis on reducing post-cessation weight gain. PMID:26939981

  2. Metabolic effects of smoking cessation.

    PubMed

    Harris, Kindred K; Zopey, Mohan; Friedman, Theodore C

    2016-05-01

    Smoking continues to be the leading cause of preventable death in the USA, despite the vast and widely publicized knowledge about the negative health effects of tobacco smoking. Data show that smoking cessation is often accompanied by weight gain and an improvement in insulin sensitivity over time. However, paradoxically, post-cessation-related obesity might contribute to insulin resistance. Furthermore, post-cessation weight gain is reportedly the number one reason why smokers, especially women, fail to initiate smoking cessation or relapse after initiating smoking cessation. In this Review, we discuss the metabolic effects of stopping smoking and highlight future considerations for smoking cessation programs and therapies to be designed with an emphasis on reducing post-cessation weight gain. PMID:26939981

  3. 77 FR 26538 - ANR Storage Company; Notice of Informal Settlement Conference

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-04

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission ANR Storage Company; Notice of Informal Settlement Conference Take notice that an informal settlement conference will be convened in this proceeding commencing at 10:00 a.m....

  4. 75 FR 62533 - ANR Pipeline Company; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-12

    ... pipeline in place with the exception of five side taps, approximately 659 feet of pipe over Deer Creek, and the pipe to be disconnected at milepost 9.00 which ANR will abandon by removal, all as more fully set forth in the application, which is on file with the Commission and open to public inspection. The...

  5. Lopinavir/Ritonavir versus Lamivudine peri-exposure prophylaxis to prevent HIV-1 transmission by breastfeeding: the PROMISE-PEP trial Protocol ANRS 12174

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Postnatal transmission of HIV-1 through breast milk remains an unsolved challenge in many resource-poor settings where replacement feeding is not a safe alternative. WHO now recommends breastfeeding of infants born to HIV-infected mothers until 12 months of age, with either maternal highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) or peri-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) in infants using nevirapine. As PEP, lamivudine showed a similar efficacy and safety as nevirapine, but with an expected lower rate of resistant HIV strains emerging in infants who fail PEP, and lower restrictions for future HIV treatment. Lopinavir/ritonavir (LPV/r) is an attractive PEP candidate with presumably higher efficacy against HIV than nevirapine or lamivudine, and a higher genetic barrier to resistance selection. It showed an acceptable safety profile for the treatment of very young HIV-infected infants. The ANRS 12174 study aims to compare the risk of HIV-1 transmission during and safety of prolonged infant PEP with LPV/r (40/10 mg twice daily if 2-4 kg and 80/20 mg twice daily if >4 kg) versus Lamivudine (7,5 mg twice daily if 2-4 kg, 25 mg twice daily if 4-8 kg and 50 mg twice daily if >8 kg) from day 7 until one week after cessation of BF (maximum 50 weeks of prophylaxis) to prevent postnatal HIV-1 acquisition between 7 days and 50 weeks of age. Methods The ANRS 12174 study is a multinational, randomised controlled clinical trial conducted on 1,500 mother-infant pairs in Burkina Faso, South Africa, Uganda and Zambia. We will recommend exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) until 26th week of life and cessation of breastfeeding at a maximum of 49 weeks in both trial arms. HIV-uninfected infants at day 7 (± 2 days) born to HIV-1 infected mothers not eligible for HAART who choose to breastfeed their infants. The primary endpoint is the acquisition of HIV-1 (as assessed by HIV-1 DNA PCR) between day 7 and 50 weeks of age. Secondary endpoints are safety (including resistance, adverse events and

  6. Melting Relations of Multicomponent Carbonate System MgCO3 - FeCO3- CaCO3- Na2CO3 at 12-23 GPa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spivak, Anna; Solopova, Natalia; Litvin, Yuriy; Dubrovinsky, Leonid; Zakharchenko, Egor

    2014-05-01

    Considerable attention is focused on high-pressure high-temperature experimental study of melting phase relations of carbonates which were involved into a 'super-deep' diamond genesis. High-pressure stability of carbonate melts and their role in 'ultra-deep' diamonds genesis are most essential. Experimental study of melting relations of multicomponent carbonate system was carried out using multi-anvil press at the pressures 12 - 23 GPa and temperatures 800 to 1650 oC. Chemical compositions of starting carbonate system used for melting experiment were prepared by mixing: FeCO3 - 26,00; MgCO3- 26,00; CaCO3 - 25,00; Na2CO3 - 23,00 wt %. A region of partial melting for the system is experimentally determined. The partial melting field is arranged between low-temperature boundary of eutectics melting (solidus line) of the multicomponent carbonate and the boundary of complete melting (liquidus line) at higher temperature. From experimental observations, a Mg-Fe carbonate solid solution is the liquidus phase. At temperature lowering, the assemblage (Mg,Fe)CO3 + (Ca,Na2,Fe)CO3 + L (liquid) is formed. Then, the invariant eutectic assemblage (Mg,Fe)CO3 + (Ca,Na2,Fe)CO3 + Na2(Ca,Fe)(CO3)2+ L (liquid) which is determining for subsolidus assemblage (Mg,Fe)CO3 + (Ca,Na2,Fe)CO3 + Na2(Ca,Fe)(CO3)2 is formed. Next to liquidus line is one-phase field of completely miscible multicomponent carbonate melt. On the whole, the results demonstrate phase relations of solid carbonates and multicomponent carbonate liquid in the immediate vicinity to the low-temperature melting boundary. The early melting of the multicomponent carbonate system is compatible with the lower mantle geothermal conditions because the primary melting temperatures are noticeably below than the geothermal values. It is significant that multicomponent carbonate melts are stable and completely miscible under conditions as partial so complete melting. Thus, high-pressure high-temperature experimental data demonstrate

  7. [Smoking cessation for COPD].

    PubMed

    Uruma, Reiko

    2016-05-01

    Smoking cessation is the most effective intervention to prevent the annual decline in lung function in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. All primary healthcare providers should routinely ask all patients whether tobacco use is active or not, and advise tobacco users to stop smoking. In Japan a treatment of nicotine addiction with varenicline or nicotine patch has been started under health insurance coverage since 2006. About half of the patients taking varenicline could stop smoking. Education on the health risks of smoking in schools for younger ages is essential for prevention of COPD. PMID:27254947

  8. Pharmaceutical care in smoking cessation.

    PubMed

    Marín Armero, Alicia; Calleja Hernandez, Miguel A; Perez-Vicente, Sabina; Martinez-Martinez, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    As a determining factor in various diseases and the leading known cause of preventable mortality and morbidity, tobacco use is the number one public health problem in developed countries. Facing this health problem requires authorities and health professionals to promote, via specific programs, health campaigns that improve patients' access to smoking cessation services. Pharmaceutical care has a number of specific characteristics that enable the pharmacist, as a health professional, to play an active role in dealing with smoking and deliver positive smoking cessation interventions. The objectives of the study were to assess the efficacy of a smoking cessation campaign carried out at a pharmaceutical care center and to evaluate the effects of pharmaceutical care on patients who decide to try to stop smoking. The methodology was an open, analytical, pre-post intervention, quasi-experimental clinical study performed with one patient cohort. The results of the study were that the promotional campaign for the smoking cessation program increased the number of patients from one to 22, and after 12 months into the study, 43.48% of the total number of patients achieved total smoking cessation. We can conclude that advertising of a smoking cessation program in a pharmacy increases the number of patients who use the pharmacy's smoking cessation services, and pharmaceutical care is an effective means of achieving smoking cessation. PMID:25678779

  9. Pharmaceutical care in smoking cessation

    PubMed Central

    Marín Armero, Alicia; Calleja Hernandez, Miguel A; Perez-Vicente, Sabina; Martinez-Martinez, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    As a determining factor in various diseases and the leading known cause of preventable mortality and morbidity, tobacco use is the number one public health problem in developed countries. Facing this health problem requires authorities and health professionals to promote, via specific programs, health campaigns that improve patients’ access to smoking cessation services. Pharmaceutical care has a number of specific characteristics that enable the pharmacist, as a health professional, to play an active role in dealing with smoking and deliver positive smoking cessation interventions. The objectives of the study were to assess the efficacy of a smoking cessation campaign carried out at a pharmaceutical care center and to evaluate the effects of pharmaceutical care on patients who decide to try to stop smoking. The methodology was an open, analytical, pre–post intervention, quasi-experimental clinical study performed with one patient cohort. The results of the study were that the promotional campaign for the smoking cessation program increased the number of patients from one to 22, and after 12 months into the study, 43.48% of the total number of patients achieved total smoking cessation. We can conclude that advertising of a smoking cessation program in a pharmacy increases the number of patients who use the pharmacy’s smoking cessation services, and pharmaceutical care is an effective means of achieving smoking cessation. PMID:25678779

  10. The CHICA smoking cessation system.

    PubMed

    Downs, Stephen M; Zhu, Vivienne; Anand, Vibha; Biondich, Paul G; Carroll, Aaron E

    2008-01-01

    Environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure remains an important cause of morbidity and mortality in children. Pediatricians are well positioned to help smoking parents quit. Parents who smoke may be particularly responsive to advice to quit, repeated smoking cessation messages can be effective, and parents visit the pediatrician 8-10 times for well care in the first two years of their child's life. Yet most pediatricians do not provide smoking cessation advice. We developed a parental smoking cessation module for an established pediatric primary care decision support system (CDSS) that runs as a front-end to the Regenstrief Medical Record System. The system collects data directly from parents and guides the physician through smoking cessation counseling, using stages of change. We present the CDSS and the smoking module as well as descriptive data from our smoking cessation system. We also describe a randomized controlled trial of the system that is now underway.

  11. GREENHOUSE GAS (GHG) VERIFICATION GUIDELINE SERIES: ANR Pipeline Company PARAMETRIC EMISSIONS MONITORING SYSTEM (PEMS) VERSION 1.0

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Environmental Technology Verification report discusses the technology and performance of the Parametric Emissions Monitoring System (PEMS) manufactured by ANR Pipeline Company, a subsidiary of Coastal Corporation, now El Paso Corporation. The PEMS predicts carbon doixide (CO2...

  12. CaCO3 and SrCO3 bioprecipitation by fungi isolated from calcareous soil.

    PubMed

    Li, Qianwei; Csetenyi, Laszlo; Paton, Graeme Iain; Gadd, Geoffrey Michael

    2015-08-01

    The urease-positive fungi Pestalotiopsis sp. and Myrothecium gramineum, isolated from calcareous soil, were examined for their properties of CaCO3 and SrCO3 biomineralization. After incubation in media amended with urea and CaCl2 and/or SrCl2 , calcite (CaCO3 ), strontianite (SrCO3 ), vaterite in different forms [CaCO3 , (Cax Sr1-x )CO3 ] and olekminskite [Sr(Sr,Ca)(CO3 )2 ] were precipitated, and fungal 'footprints' were observed on mineral surfaces. The amorphous precipitate mediated by Pestalotiopsis sp. grown with urea and equivalent concentrations of CaCl2 and SrCl2 was identified as hydrated Ca and Sr carbonates by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Liquid media experiments showed M. gramineum possessed the highest Sr(2+) removal ability, and ∼ 49% of supplied Sr(2+) was removed from solution when grown in media amended with urea and 50 mM SrCl2 . Furthermore, this organism could also precipitate 56% of the available Ca(2+) and 28% of the Sr(2+) in the form of CaCO3 , SrCO3 and (Cax Sr1-x )CO3 when incubated in urea-amended media and equivalent CaCl2 and SrCl2 concentrations. This is the first report of biomineralization of olekminskite and coprecipitation of Sr into vaterite mediated by fungi. These findings suggest that urease-positive fungi could play an important role in the environmental fate, bioremediation or biorecovery of Sr or other metals and radionuclides that form insoluble carbonates.

  13. Smoking cessation programs for adolescents.

    PubMed

    Donovan, K A

    2000-10-01

    Many smoking cessation programs for adult smokers are described in the medical and nursing literature. Programs designed to prevent smoking among adolescents and children also are prevalent in the literature. Despite these prevention programs, many adolescents choose to start smoking. Once adolescents begin smoking, it is difficult to find ways to help them quit. Few programs exist that are targeted to help this population with smoking cessation. This article provides an in-depth review of 5 smoking cessation programs designed for adolescents. Each of the programs presents unique strategies for helping teenage smokers quit. Techniques used in these programs include peer leadership, nicotine patch therapy, peer support, computer instruction, and one-on-one counseling with a nurse practitioner. Each program was studied for efficacy with adolescents. Although none of the programs reviewed showed remarkable success, they serve as guides for future program development. Additional programs need to be developed and studied with larger, more diverse populations. Nurses must identify or develop smoking cessation programs that meet the needs of all types of adolescents and are effective in helping them to quit. Once designed, these smoking cessation programs should be made accessible to adolescents in a variety of settings.

  14. Factors associated with smoking cessation

    PubMed Central

    França, Samires Avelino de Souza; Neves, Ana Ligian Feitosa das; de Souza, Tatiane Andressa Santos; Martins, Nandara Celana Negreiros; Carneiro, Saul Rassy; Sarges, Edilene do Socorro Nascimento Falcão; de Souza, Maria de Fátima Amine Houat

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyze the prevalence and factors associated with smoking abstinence among patients who were treated in a reference unit for smoking cessation. METHODS This cross-sectional study examined the medical records of 532 patients treated in a reference unit for smoking cessation in Belém, PA, Northern Brazil, between January 2010 and June 2012. Sociodemographic variables and those related to smoking history and treatment were analyzed. Statistical significance was set at p < 0.05. RESULTS The mean age of the participants was 50 years; 57.0% of the patients were women. The mean tobacco load was 30 packs/year, and the mean smoking duration was approximately 32 years. Most patients remained in treatment for four months. The rate of smoking abstinence was 75.0%. Regression analysis indicated that maintenance therapy, absence of relapse triggers, and lower chemical dependence were significantly associated with smoking cessation. CONCLUSIONS The smoking abstinence rate observed was 75.0%. The cessation process was associated with several aspects, including the degree of chemical dependence, symptoms of withdrawal, and period of patient follow-up in a multidisciplinary treatment program. Studies of this nature contribute to the collection of consistent epidemiological data and are essential for the implementation of effective smoking prevention and cessation strategies. PMID:25741649

  15. Smoking cessation and bone healing: optimal cessation timing.

    PubMed

    Truntzer, Jeremy; Vopat, Bryan; Feldstein, Michael; Matityahu, Amir

    2015-02-01

    Smoking is a worldwide epidemic. Complications related to smoking behavior generate an economic loss around $193 billion annually. In addition to impacting chronic health conditions, smoking is linked to increased perioperative complications in those with current or previous smoking history. Numerous studies have demonstrated more frequent surgical complications including higher rates of infection, poor wound healing, heightened pain complaints, and increased pulmonary morbidities in patients with a smoking history. Longer preoperative cessation periods also seem to correlate with reduced rates. At roughly 4 weeks of cessation prior to surgery, complication rates more closely reflect individuals without a smoking history in comparison with those that smoke within 4 weeks of surgery. In the musculoskeletal system, a similar trend has been observed in smokers with higher rates of fractures, nonunions, malunions, infections, osteomyelitis, and lower functional scores compared to non-smoking patients. Unfortunately, the present literature lacks robust data suggesting a temporal relationship between smoking cessation and bone healing. In our review, we analyze pseudoarthrosis rates following spinal fusion to suggest that bone healing in the context of smoking behavior follows a similar time sequence as observed in wound healing. We also discuss the implications for further clarity on bone healing and smoking cessation within orthopedics including improved risk stratification and better identification of circumstances where adjunct therapy is appropriate.

  16. Understanding Smoking Cessation in Rural Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hutcheson, Tresza D.; Greiner, K. Allen; Ellerbeck, Edward F.; Jeffries, Shawn K.; Mussulman, Laura M.; Casey, Genevieve N.

    2008-01-01

    Context: Rural communities are adversely impacted by increased rates of tobacco use. Rural residents may be exposed to unique communal norms and other factors that influence smoking cessation. Purpose: This study explored facilitating factors and barriers to cessation and the role of rural health care systems in the smoking-cessation process.…

  17. Improving the Future of Youth Smoking Cessation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Backinger, Cathy L.; McDonald, Paul; Ossip-Klein, Deborah J.; Colby, Suzanne M.; Maule, Catherine O.; Fagan, Pebbles; Husten, Corinne; Colwell, Brian

    2003-01-01

    Objectives: To provide recommendations that will build a better foundation for research on youth smoking cessation. Methods: The Youth Tobacco Collaborative Cessation panel evaluated youth tobacco cessation literature and convened meetings to reach consensus. Results: Methodological issues include design, recruitment and retention, follow-up,…

  18. μ +-SR studies of the weak ferromagnets CoCO 3 and NiCO 3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lancaster, T.; Blundell, S. J.; Pratt, F. L.; Kurmoo, M.

    2003-02-01

    We present the results of zero-field μ +-SR measurements on CoCO 3 and NiCO 3. Both compounds are rhombohedral antiferromagnets which exhibit a spontaneous weak magnetisation below 22.2 and 17.2 K, respectively. This arises due to an anisotropic superexchange (Dzyaloshinsky-Moriya) interaction. We have studied the temperature dependence of the internal field in the ordered state and the magnetic fluctuations in the paramagnetic state. We describe the possible muon-site obtained from dipolar-field calculations.

  19. Superplastic forming by decomposition of (CaCO3 + C) and MgCO3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shyu, J. S.; Chuang, T. H.

    1996-06-01

    An innovative method has been developed that replaces argon as the pressure source for superplastic forming. In this new process, several solid materials are placed in a closed system to generate pressure and are capable of forming superplastic alloy plates at specific temperatures. In the present study, the total pressures for the decomposition of ( CaCO3+ C) and MgCO3 have been theoretically calculated from thermodynamics. The results show that a pressure range of 40 to 396 psi can be obtained for the ( CaCO3 + C) system between 850 and 1000 °, which is suitable for the superplastic forming of Ti-6Al-4V and Superdux 64 ( Nippon Yakin Kogy Co., Ltd., Sanei Bridge, Kyobasi 1-5-8, Chyuoku, Tokyo 104, Japan) stainless steel. The pressure for MgCO3 system between 480 and 515 ° ranges from 78 to 160 psi, which is suitable for the superplastic forming of 8090 Al-Li and 7475 Al-Zn-Mg alloys. The calculated temperature dependence of pressure is consistent with the experimentally measured results. Furthermore, the forming rates, wall thickness distributions, tensile properties, and microstructures of the four alloys after forming have been shown to be very similar to those of conventional superplastic forming by argon pressurization.

  20. Smoking cessation strategies in vascular surgery.

    PubMed

    Spangler, Emily L; Goodney, Philip P

    2015-06-01

    Tobacco abuse is a highly prevalent modifiable risk factor in vascular surgery patient populations. Despite the known benefits of smoking cessation, quitting smoking is difficult for most patients. Physician advice to stop smoking can help, though more intensive or multifactorial interventions have greater impact. Smoking cessation initiatives based in vascular clinics are feasible, although currently there is significant variation in physician delivery of smoking cessation interventions. Vascular surgeons are optimally poised to be able to capitalize on the "teachable moment" of the vascular procedure to encourage smoking cessation. Concise and effective smoking cessation strategies include standardized physician "very brief advice" (a standardized advice delivery developed and validated by the National Health Service), referral to telephone counseling, and prescription of pharmacotherapy, all of which are best utilized together. This review will discuss different smoking cessation strategies, as well as their inclusion in multicenter trials designed to study delivery of smoking cessation interventions in vascular surgery patients.

  1. [The ABC of smoking cessation].

    PubMed

    Bölcskei, Pál L; Walden, Kerstin

    2008-05-01

    The professional support increased chances of success for smoking cessation and is an important goal in health politics. A short advice by pharmacists can make a significant contribution to this. This article describes tobacco dependence and the "stages of change-model". Afterwards we explain possible therapies: besides cognitive-behavioral intervention, different forms of medical treatment, e.g. nicotin replacement therapy, bupropion and varenicline, will be discussed. PMID:18552073

  2. Pharmacogenetics of smoking cessation therapy.

    PubMed

    Kortmann, Gustavo L; Dobler, Cristina J; Bizarro, Lisiane; Bau, Claiton H D

    2010-01-01

    Nicotine dependence is a major health problem, with a large amount of smoking-related premature deaths and disabilities. The dependence mechanism of nicotine is especially complex and is under strong genetic influence. Smoking cessation is associated with substantial health benefits. Evidence from animal and human studies suggests that genetic polymorphisms influencing pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of nicotine may have great potential for aiding smoking treatment. There are more than 30 association studies and one genome-wide association study (GWAS) between genetic polymorphisms and smoking cessation following nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) and/or bupropion therapy. However, only a few candidate genes or regions were analyzed more than twice and even these genes require additional investigations in different therapeutic schemes. There are a growing number of new pharmacologic options that have not been pharmacogenetically assessed according to published literature. In addition, molecular genetics studies are needed to assess the functional mechanisms of some putative association results. Taken together, the preliminary findings are promising but raise the need for new studies with adequate sample sizes and adjustment for several potential confounding factors frequently neglected, such as comorbidity and sociodemographic factors. The current state of the art in the field encourages an optimist view that personalized treatment approaches may become possible. However, the current scientific evidence still does not support the use of pharmacogenetic tests in routine smoking cessation therapy. PMID:19475569

  3. Smoking Cessation Strategies in Pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Leung, Lesley W S; Davies, Gregory A

    2015-09-01

    Although pregnancy often motivates women to quit smoking, 20% to 25% will continue to smoke. Smoking is associated with adverse obstetric and neonatal outcomes such as placental abruption, stillbirth, preterm birth and sudden infant death syndrome, and it is therefore important to motivate women to quit during pregnancy. In this review, we explore the efficacy and evidence for safety of strategies for smoking cessation in pregnancy, including behavioural and pharmacologic therapies. The PubMed, Medline, EMBASE, and Cochrane databases (1990 to 2014) were accessed to identify relevant studies, using the search terms "smoking cessation," "pregnancy," "medicine, behavioural," "nicotine replacement products," "bupropion," and "varenicline." Studies were selected based on the levels of evidence presented by the Canadian Task Force on Preventative Health Care. Based on our review of the evidence, incentives combined with behavioural therapy appear to show the greatest promise for abstaining from smoking in the pregnant population. Nicotine replacement therapy administered in the form of gum may be better than using transdermal forms to avoid high levels of nicotine in the fetal circulation. One small trial demonstrated that bupropion is an effective aid for smoking cessation and that it does not appear to be associated with an increased risk of major congenital malformations. The currently available studies of varenicline in pregnancy are insufficient to provide evidence for the safety or efficacy of its use.

  4. The system MgCO3-FeCO3-CaCO3-Na2CO3 at 12-23 GPa: Phase relations and significance for the genesis of ultradeep diamonds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spivak, A. V.; Solopova, N. A.; Dubrovinsky, L. S.; Litvin, Yu. A.

    2015-09-01

    Physical-chemical experimental studies at 12-23 GPa of phase relationships within four-members carbonate system MgCO3-FeCO3-CaCO3-Na2CO3 and its marginal system MgCO3-FeCO3-Na2CO3 were carried out. The systems are quite representative for a set of carbonate phases from inclusions in diamonds within transitional zone and lower mantle. PT-phase diagrams of multicomponent carbonate systems are suggested. PT parameters of boundaries of their eutectic melting (solidus), complete melting (liquids) are established. These boundaries define area of partial melting. Carbonate melts are stable, completely mixable, and effective solvents of elemental carbon thus defining the possibility of ultra-deep diamonds generation.

  5. Interventions for waterpipe smoking cessation

    PubMed Central

    Maziak, Wasim; Jawad, Mohammed; Jawad, Sena; Ward, Kenneth D; Eissenberg, Thomas; Asfar, Taghrid

    2016-01-01

    Background Waterpipe tobacco smoking is a traditional method of tobacco use, especially in the Eastern Mediterranean Region (EMR), but its use is now spreading worldwide. Recent epidemiological data, for example, show that waterpipe smoking has become the most prevalent tobacco use method among adolescents in the EMR, and the second most prevalent in the US. Waterpipes are used socially, often being shared between friends or family at home, or in dedicated bars and cafes that provide waterpipes to patrons. Because the smoke passes through a reservoir of water, waterpipe tobacco smoking is perceived as being less harmful than other methods of tobacco use. At least in some cultures, women and girls are more likely to use a waterpipe than to use other forms of tobacco, and it is popular among younger smokers. Accumulating evidence suggests that some waterpipe smokers become addicted, have difficulty quitting, and experience similar health risks as cigarette smokers. Objectives To evaluate the effectiveness of tobacco cessation interventions for waterpipe users. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Tobacco Addiction Review Group specialized register in June 2015. We also searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO and CINAHL, using variant terms and spellings (‘waterpipe’ or ‘narghile’ or ‘arghile’ or ‘shisha’ or ‘goza’ or ‘narkeela’ or ‘hookah’ or ‘hubble bubble’). We searched for trials, published or unpublished, in any language, and especially in regions where waterpipe use is widespread. Selection criteria We sought randomized, quasi-randomized or cluster-randomized controlled trials of smoking cessation interventions for waterpipe smokers of any age or gender. The primary outcome of interest was abstinence from tobacco use, measured at six months post-cessation or longer, regardless of whether abstinence was biochemically verified. We included interventions that were pharmacological (for example, nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) or

  6. In the Clinic. Smoking Cessation.

    PubMed

    Patel, Manish S; Steinberg, Michael B

    2016-03-01

    This issue provides a clinical overview of smoking cessation, focusing on health consequences of smoking, prevention of smoking-related disease, treatment, and practice improvement. The content of In the Clinic is drawn from the clinical information and education resources of the American College of Physicians (ACP), including MKSAP (Medical Knowledge and Self-Assessment Program). Annals of Internal Medicine editors develop In the Clinic in collaboration with the ACP's Medical Education and Publishing divisions and with the assistance of additional science writers and physician writers.

  7. The Effect of Five Smoking Cessation Pharmacotherapies on Smoking Cessation Milestones

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Japuntich, Sandra J.; Piper, Megan E.; Leventhal, Adam M.; Bolt, Daniel M.; Baker, Timothy B.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Most smoking cessation studies have used long-term abstinence as their primary outcome measure. Recent research has suggested that long-term abstinence may be an insensitive index of important smoking cessation mechanisms. The goal of the current study was to examine the effects of 5 smoking cessation pharmacotherapies using Shiffman et…

  8. Methadone induction in primary care (ANRS-Methaville): a phase III randomized intervention trial

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background In France, the rapid scale-up of buprenorphine, an opioid maintenance treatment (OMT), in primary care for drug users has led to an impressive reduction in HIV prevalence among injecting drug users (IDU) but has had no major effect on Hepatitis C incidence. To date, patients willing to start methadone can only do so in a methadone clinic (a medical centre for drug and alcohol dependence (CSAPA) or a hospital setting) and are referred to primary care physicians after dose stabilization. This study aims to assess the effectiveness of methadone in patients who initiated treatment in primary care compared with those who initiated it in a CSAPA, by measuring abstinence from street opioid use after one year of treatment. Methods/Design The ANRS-Methaville study is a randomized multicenter non-inferiority control trial comparing methadone induction (lasting approximately 2 weeks) in primary care and in CSAPA. The model of care chosen for methadone induction in primary care was based on study-specific pre-training of all physicians, exclusion criteria and daily supervision of methadone during the initiation phase. Between January 2009 and January 2011, 10 sites each having one CSAPA and several primary care physicians, were identified to recruit patients to be randomized into two groups, one starting methadone in primary care (n = 147), the other in CSAPA (n = 48). The primary outcome of the study is the proportion of participants abstinent from street opioids after 1 year of treatment i.e. non-inferiority of primary care model in terms of the proportion of patients not using street opioids compared with the proportion observed in those starting methadone in a CSAPA. Discussion The ANRS-Methaville study is the first in France to use an interventional trial to improve access to OMT for drug users. Once the non-inferiority results become available, the Ministry of Health and agency for the safety of health products may change the the New Drug Application

  9. Interventions for waterpipe smoking cessation

    PubMed Central

    Maziak, Wasim; Jawad, Mohammed; Jawad, Sena; Ward, Kenneth D; Eissenberg, Thomas; Asfar, Taghrid

    2016-01-01

    Background Waterpipe tobacco smoking is a traditional method of tobacco use, especially in the Eastern Mediterranean Region (EMR), but its use is now spreading worldwide. Recent epidemiological data, for example, show that waterpipe smoking has become the most prevalent tobacco use method among adolescents in the EMR, and the second most prevalent in the US. Waterpipes are used socially, often being shared between friends or family at home, or in dedicated bars and cafes that provide waterpipes to patrons. Because the smoke passes through a reservoir of water, waterpipe tobacco smoking is perceived as being less harmful than other methods of tobacco use. At least in some cultures, women and girls are more likely to use a waterpipe than to use other forms of tobacco, and it is popular among younger smokers. Accumulating evidence suggests that some waterpipe smokers become addicted, have difficulty quitting, and experience similar health risks as cigarette smokers. Objectives To evaluate the effectiveness of tobacco cessation interventions for waterpipe users. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Tobacco Addiction Review Group specialized register in June 2015. We also searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO and CINAHL, using variant terms and spellings (‘waterpipe’ or ‘narghile’ or ‘arghile’ or ‘shisha’ or ‘goza’ or ‘narkeela’ or ‘hookah’ or ‘hubble bubble’). We searched for trials, published or unpublished, in any language, and especially in regions where waterpipe use is widespread. Selection criteria We sought randomized, quasi-randomized or cluster-randomized controlled trials of smoking cessation interventions for waterpipe smokers of any age or gender. The primary outcome of interest was abstinence from tobacco use, measured at six months post-cessation or longer, regardless of whether abstinence was biochemically verified. We included interventions that were pharmacological (for example, nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) or

  10. Smoking Cessation Failure among Korean Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Sung Reul; Kim, Hyun Kyung; Kim, Ji Young; Kim, Hye Young; Ko, Sung Hee; Park, Minyoung

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify smoking cessation failure subgroups among Korean adolescents. Participants were 379 smoking adolescents who joined a smoking cessation program. A questionnaire and a cotinine urine test were administered before the program began. Three months after the program ended, the cotinine urine test was repeated. A…

  11. NCI launches smoking cessation support for teens

    Cancer.gov

    A new effort to help teens quit smoking will use one of today’s teen’s most constant companions—the mobile phone. Developed by smoking cessation experts, SmokefreeTXT is a free text message cessation service that provides 24/7 encouragement, advice, and

  12. Mass Media for Smoking Cessation in Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Solomon, Laura J.; Bunn, Janice Y.; Flynn, Brian S.; Pirie, Phyllis L.; Worden, John K.; Ashikaga, Takamaru

    2009-01-01

    Theory-driven, mass media interventions prevent smoking among youth. This study examined effects of a media campaign on adolescent smoking cessation. Four matched pairs of media markets in four states were randomized to receive or not receive a 3-year television/radio campaign aimed at adolescent smoking cessation based on social cognitive theory.…

  13. Functional Health Literacy and Smoking Cessation Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Varekojis, Sarah M.; Miller, Larry; Schiller, M. Rosita; Stein, David

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to describe the relationship between functional health literacy level and smoking cessation outcomes. Design/methodology/approach: Participants in an inpatient smoking cessation program in a mid-western city in the USA were enrolled and the Short Test of Functional Health Literacy in Adults was administered while the…

  14. 33 CFR 276.8 - Cessation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Cessation. 276.8 Section 276.8 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE WATER RESOURCES POLICIES AND AUTHORITIES: APPLICATION OF SECTION 134a OF PUBLIC LAW 94-587 § 276.8 Cessation....

  15. 33 CFR 276.8 - Cessation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Cessation. 276.8 Section 276.8 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE WATER RESOURCES POLICIES AND AUTHORITIES: APPLICATION OF SECTION 134a OF PUBLIC LAW 94-587 § 276.8 Cessation....

  16. 33 CFR 276.8 - Cessation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Cessation. 276.8 Section 276.8 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE WATER RESOURCES POLICIES AND AUTHORITIES: APPLICATION OF SECTION 134a OF PUBLIC LAW 94-587 § 276.8 Cessation....

  17. 33 CFR 276.8 - Cessation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Cessation. 276.8 Section 276.8 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE WATER RESOURCES POLICIES AND AUTHORITIES: APPLICATION OF SECTION 134a OF PUBLIC LAW 94-587 § 276.8 Cessation....

  18. 33 CFR 276.8 - Cessation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Cessation. 276.8 Section 276.8 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE WATER RESOURCES POLICIES AND AUTHORITIES: APPLICATION OF SECTION 134a OF PUBLIC LAW 94-587 § 276.8 Cessation....

  19. Drug use in prisons: strategies for harm reduction (ANRS-PRIDE Program).

    PubMed

    Michel, Laurent

    2016-06-01

    The existence of risky practices related to drug use inside prisons is a reality everywhere and is a major issue for the community as a whole. The level of implementation of harm reduction (HR) measures recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO) and the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC) is very often poor and reveals inadequate concern about public health issues in the prison environment, without any respect for the principle of equivalence for prevention and health assistance with the general community. In 2009, the French National Agency for Research on AIDS and Viral Hepatitis (ANRS) developed a comprehensive research program focusing on the prevention of infectious risks in prison settings. Different steps were defined and scheduled, and included i) an inventory of harm reduction (HR) measures, ii) a qualitative survey on the reality of risky practices, iii) an assessment of the social acceptability of HR measures, and iv) an intervention trial exploring the feasibility of upgrading existing HR strategies. A progressive implementation of this program has shown it is feasible, but in France, it requires tenacity, simple long-term objectives, support from a scientific authority, pedagogical interventions for all involved, as well as constant discussion with the authorities. The implementation of this program in other countries is equally simple to manage. PMID:27383342

  20. Electronic cigarettes for smoking cessation.

    PubMed

    Bullen, Christopher

    2014-11-01

    Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) are novel vaporising devices that, similar to nicotine replacement treatments, deliver nicotine but in lower amounts and less swiftly than tobacco smoking. However, they enjoy far greater popularity than these medications due in part to their behaviour replacement characteristics. Evidence for their efficacy as cessation aids, based on several randomised trials of now obsolete e-cigarettes, suggests a modest effect equivalent to nicotine patch. E-cigarettes are almost certainly far less harmful than tobacco smoking, but the health effects of long-term use are as yet unknown. Dual use is common and almost as harmful as usual smoking unless it leads to quitting. Population effects, such as re-normalising smoking behaviour, are a concern. Clinicians should be knowledgeable about these products. If patients who smoke are unwilling to quit or cannot succeed using evidence-based approaches, e-cigarettes may be an option to be considered after discussing the limitations of current knowledge.

  1. Nicotine dependence and smoking cessation.

    PubMed

    Tan, Linxiang; Tang, Quansheng; Hao, Wei

    2009-11-01

    Tobacco use is the single most preventable cause of death, disability and disease in the world and is projected to be the leading cause of death and disability across all developed and developing countries by 2020. Nicotine, the primary active ingredient of cigarettes that contributes to physical dependence, acts on nicotine receptors in the central nervous system and leads to the release of neurotransmitters (such as dopamine). Like other drugs of abuse, nicotine is thought to produce reinforcing effect by activating the mesocorticolimbic dopamine system. A wide variety of cessation treatments of nicotine dependence is commercially available, yet only 2 general approaches have received empirical validation: behavioral intervention (including 5 As brief intervention) and pharmacotherapy. The evidences show that 5 As brief intervention is one of the most cost-effective treatments in clinical work for busy physicians. Three types of medications have been available in market for smoking cessation treatment: nicotine replacement treatment (NRT, i.e., transdermal patch, gum, inhaler, nasal spray, and lozenge), sustained release bupropion and varenicline. Varenicline, a novel alpha4beta2 nicotinic receptor partial agonist, is effective for tobacco dependence. Phase III trials suggest that it is more effective than NRT and bupropion SR. The safety profile of varenicline is excellent, with the most commonly occurring adverse events, nausea, typically mild and well tolerated. However, new safety warnings are added to the varenicline label because of post-marketing report including agitation, depression and suicidality. A causal connection between varenicline use and these symptoms has not been established. PMID:19952392

  2. Kinetics and Mechanism of the Hydrogenation of CpCr(CO)3•/[CpCr(CO)3]2 Equilibrium to CpCr(CO)3H

    SciTech Connect

    Norton, Jack R.; Spataru, Tudor; Camaioni, Donald M.; Lee, Suh-Jane; Li, Gang; Choi, Jongwook; Franz, James A.

    2014-05-26

    The kinetics of the hydrogenation of 2 CpCr(CO)3•/[CpCr(CO)3]2 to CpCr(CO)3H has been investigated. The reaction is second-order in Cr and first-order in H2, with a rate constant of 45 M 2s 1 at 25 °C in benzene. DFT calculations rule out an H2 complex as an intermediate, and suggest (a) end-on approach of H2 to one Cr of [CpCr(CO)3]2 as the Cr-Cr bond undergoes heterolytic cleavage, (b) heterolytic cleavage of the coordinated H2 between O and Cr, and (c) isomerization of the resulting O-protonated CpCr(CO)2(COH) to CpCr(CO)3H. The work at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Division of Chemical Sciences, Geosciences and Biosciences; Battelle operates PNNL for DOE.

  3. Melting relations of multicomponent carbonate MgCO3-FeCO3-CaCO3-Na2CO3 system at 12-26 GPa: application to deeper mantle diamond formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spivak, Anna; Solopova, Natalia; Dubrovinsky, Leonid; Litvin, Yuriy

    2015-11-01

    Carbonatic components of parental melts of the deeper mantle diamonds are inferred from their primary inclusions of (Mg, Fe, Ca, Na)-carbonate minerals trapped at PT conditions of the Earth's transition zone and lower mantle. PT phase diagrams of MgCO3-FeCO3-CaCO3-Na2CO3 system and its ternary MgCO3-FeCO3-Na2CO3 boundary join were studied at pressures between 12 and 24 GPa and high temperatures. Experimental data point to eutectic solidus phase relations and indicate liquidus boundaries for completely miscible (Mg, Fe, Ca, Na)- and (Mg, Fe, Ca)-carbonate melts. PT fields for partial carbonate melts associated with (Mg, Fe)-, (Ca, Fe, Na)-, and (Na2Ca, Na2Fe)-carbonate solid solution phases are determined. Effective nucleation and mass crystallization of deeper mantle diamonds are realized in multicomponent (Mg, Fe, Ca, Na)-carbonatite-carbon melts at 18 and 26 GPa. The multicomponent carbonate systems were melted at temperatures that are lower than the geothermal ones. This gives an evidence for generation of diamond-parental carbonatite melts and formation of diamonds at the PT conditions of transition zone and lower mantle.

  4. Tobacco Cessation Interventions for Underserved Women

    PubMed Central

    Hemsing, Natalie; Greaves, Lorraine; Poole, Nancy

    2015-01-01

    Despite high rates of smoking among some subgroups of women, there is a lack of tailored interventions to address smoking cessation among women. We identify components of a women-centered approach to tobacco cessation by analyzing 3 bodies of literature: sex and gender influences in tobacco use and addiction; evidence-based tobacco cessation guidelines; and best practices in delivery of women-centered care. Programming for underserved women should be tailored, build confidence and increase motivation, integrate social justice issues and address inequities, and be holistic and comprehensive. Addressing the complexity of women’s smoking and tailoring appropriately could help address smoking among subpopulations of women. PMID:27226783

  5. Microstructural studies of K 2CO 3 and Rb 2CO 3 doped YBCO HTSC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koblischka-Veneva, A.; Koblischka, M. R.

    2003-10-01

    The influence of Me 2CO 3 (Me=K or Rb) additions on the microstructural morphology of YBa 2Cu 3O x (YBCO) HTSC with nominal composition Y (1-0.2 x) Ba (2-0.2 x) M xCu 3O y ( x=0-2.0) were investigated by means of orientation imaging microscopy which provides a method for measuring a large number of individual grain orientations and relating them directly to the microstructural features by means of evaluating electron backscatter Kikuchi patterns in scanning electron microscopy. We investigated the influence of the alkali additions on the grain orientation distributions of YBCO. The samples are characterized by grain orientation maps, and pole and inverse pole figures. Finally, the grain orientation distribution functions are obtained from the measured data. Within a certain range of doping (up to 5 wt.% in the initial batch), the grain sizes are found to increase as compared to pure YBCO, accompanied by an improvement of the superconducting properties ( Tc). It is shown that the additions of alkali carbonates do not introduce any preferred grain orientations in YBCO HTSC in the entire doping range.

  6. Smoking cessation and lung cancer screening

    PubMed Central

    Pedersen, Jesper Holst; Tønnesen, Philip

    2016-01-01

    Smoking behavior may have a substantial influence on the overall effect of lung cancer screening. Non-randomized studies of smoking behavior during screening have indicated that computer tomography (CT) screening induces smoking cessation. Randomized studies have further elaborated that this effect has to do with participation in screening alone and not dependent on the CT scan. Participants in both CT and control arm in randomized screening trials had higher smoking abstinence rate compared to that of the general population. A positive screening test seems to further promote smoking cessation and decrease smoking relapse rate. Also low smoking dependency and high motivation to quit smoking at baseline predicted smoking abstinence in screening trials. Lung cancer screening therefore seems to be a teachable moment for smoking cessation. Targeted smoking cessation counselling should be an integrated part of future lung cancer screening trials. PMID:27195275

  7. Therapy for Specific Problems: Youth Tobacco Cessation

    PubMed Central

    Curry, Susan J.; Mermelstein, Robin J.; Sporer, Amy K.

    2010-01-01

    Cigarette smoking is the leading cause of premature morbidity and mortality in the United States. The majority of children smoke their first cigarette in early adolescence, and many older teens have well-established dependence on nicotine. Efforts to promote and support smoking cessation among these youth smokers are critical. The available experimental studies of youth cessation interventions find that behavioral interventions increase the chances of youth smokers achieving successful cessation. Currently there is insufficient evidence for the effectiveness of pharmacological treatments with youth smokers. Many innovative studies have been compromised by challenges in recruiting sufficient numbers of youth, obtaining approval for waivers of parental consent, and high attrition in longitudinal studies. Key areas for future work include bridging the fields of adolescent development and treatment design, matching treatments to developmental trajectories of smoking behavior, better understanding treatment processes and treatment moderators, and building demand for evidence-based cessation treatments. PMID:19035825

  8. Smokeless tobacco: challenges, products and, cessation.

    PubMed

    Rankin, K Vendrell; Jones, Daniel L; Benton, Elain

    2010-06-01

    Tobacco companies continue to develop and aggressively market new products for oral use. Most new products are intended to dissolve in the mouth and swallow rather than spit out the juices. These products effectively circumvent smoke-free policies, decrease tobacco cessation efforts, and create individuals who use both smokeless tobacco (ST) and cigarettes. All ST products contain nicotine, carcinogens, and pose multiple health risks. The cancer and health risks associated with ST use extend well beyond the changes in the oral cavity and the risk of oral cancer. Unlike cigarettes, the contents of ST vary widely by brand and product posing difficulty in the use of the available pharmacotherapy for cessation. Although no uniform guidelines exist for the use of pharmacotherapy for smokeless tobacco cessation, research suggests that use of these drugs is effective. The most important motivator for quitting ST cessation remains in the hands of the dentist. PMID:20629366

  9. Smoking cessation and lung cancer screening.

    PubMed

    Pedersen, Jesper Holst; Tønnesen, Philip; Ashraf, Haseem

    2016-04-01

    Smoking behavior may have a substantial influence on the overall effect of lung cancer screening. Non-randomized studies of smoking behavior during screening have indicated that computer tomography (CT) screening induces smoking cessation. Randomized studies have further elaborated that this effect has to do with participation in screening alone and not dependent on the CT scan. Participants in both CT and control arm in randomized screening trials had higher smoking abstinence rate compared to that of the general population. A positive screening test seems to further promote smoking cessation and decrease smoking relapse rate. Also low smoking dependency and high motivation to quit smoking at baseline predicted smoking abstinence in screening trials. Lung cancer screening therefore seems to be a teachable moment for smoking cessation. Targeted smoking cessation counselling should be an integrated part of future lung cancer screening trials. PMID:27195275

  10. Mechanical strength of amorphous CaCO3 colloidal spheres.

    PubMed

    Faatz, Michael; Cheng, Wei; Wegner, Gerhard; Fytas, George; Penciu, Raluca S; Economou, Eleftherios N

    2005-07-19

    Amorphous glassy CaCO3 colloidal spheres of monomodal size distribution were studied by high-resolution Brillouin light scattering. The Young modulus of 37 GPa and shear modulus of 14 GPa of glassy CaCO3 at a density of 1.9 g/cm3 were extracted from the particle vibration frequencies by employing acoustic wave scattering cross-section calculations. The line shape of the low-frequency modes is a sensitive index of the particle polydispersity.

  11. CaCO3 size distribution: A paleocarbonate ion proxy?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Broecker, W. S.; Clark, E.

    1999-10-01

    Lysocline reconstructions play an important role in scenarios purporting to explain the lowered atmospheric CO2 content of glacial time. These reconstructions are based on indicators such as the CaCO3 content, the percent of coarse fraction, the ratio of fragments to whole foraminifera shells, the ratio of solution-susceptible to solution-resistant species, and the ratio of coarse to fine CaCO3. All assume that changes with time in the composition of the input material do not bias the result. However, as the composition of the input material does depend on climate, none of these indicators provides an absolute measure of the extent of dissolution. In this paper we evaluate the reliability of the ratio of >63 µm CaCO3 to total CaCO3 as a dissolution indicator. We present here results that suggest that in today's tropics this ratio appears to be determined solely by CO3= ion concentration and water depth (i.e., the saturation state of bottom waters). This finding offers the possibility that the size fraction index can be used to reconstruct CO3= ion concentrations for the late Quaternary ocean to an accuracy of ±5 µmol kg-1.

  12. Complementary treatments for tobacco cessation: a survey.

    PubMed

    Sood, Amit; Ebbert, Jon O; Sood, Richa; Stevens, Susanna R

    2006-12-01

    Little information is available regarding the prevalence of use and interest in future use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) for tobacco cessation among tobacco users. We conducted a self-administered anonymous survey among 1,175 patients seen at a midwestern outpatient tobacco treatment specialty clinic between November 2003 and July 2005. Patient use of CAM for tobacco cessation, perceived efficacy of these treatments, and interest in future use of CAM were ascertained. Data were summarized using descriptive statistics, and logistic regression models were used to determine the characteristics associated with past CAM use or interest in future use of CAM for tobacco cessation. All of the patients who received the survey completed it. A total of 27% of patients reported previous use of CAM for tobacco cessation. The interventions most commonly used were hypnosis, relaxation, acupuncture, and meditation. CAM treatments most commonly perceived to be efficacious were yoga, relaxation, meditation, and massage therapy. A total of 67% of the patients reported interest in future use of CAM for tobacco cessation. The treatments of greatest interest for use in the future were hypnosis, herbal products, acupuncture, relaxation, and massage therapy. Female gender, previous use of conventional tobacco cessation products, previous use of CAM treatments, and a higher level of education were significantly associated with interest in future CAM use. The high level of interest in CAM among tobacco users underscores the need to conduct further research in this field.

  13. Current treatment options in smoking cessation.

    PubMed

    Crain, Dominique; Bhat, Abid

    2010-02-01

    Cigarette smoking is the most important modifiable risk factor for premature mortality. Many common and serious diseases, including coronary artery disease, chronic obstructive lung disease, stroke, and cancer, are strongly linked to cigarette smoking. Smoking cessation is difficult due to nicotine addiction and withdrawal symptoms. Comprehensive programs for tobacco control can substantially reduce the frequency of tobacco use. Physicians can improve screening and increase cessation rates by asking patients about tobacco use at every office visit. The spectrum of available smoking cessation interventions ranges from simple advice to intensive behavioral support and pharmacological treatment. Medications currently approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for smoking cessation include nicotine replacement therapy (patch, gum, lozenge, inhaler, and nasal spray), bupropion, and varenicline. Nortriptyline and clonidine have been used in patients who do not tolerate first-line agents. New drug therapies, such as nicotine vaccines, are being developed. The US Public Health Service Guideline, published in 2008, recommends a combination of behavioral support and pharmacologic therapy. In summary, smoking cessation should be based on a patient's coexisting medical conditions, level of smoking, compliance, previous experience with cessation agents, and the cost of therapy. PMID:20469625

  14. The ABC transporter AnrAB contributes to the innate resistance of Listeria monocytogenes to nisin, bacitracin, and various beta-lactam antibiotics.

    PubMed

    Collins, Barry; Curtis, Nicola; Cotter, Paul D; Hill, Colin; Ross, R Paul

    2010-10-01

    A mariner transposon bank was used to identify loci that contribute to the innate resistance of Listeria monocytogenes to the lantibiotic nisin. In addition to highlighting the importance of a number of loci previously associated with nisin resistance (mprF, virRS, and telA), a nisin-sensitive phenotype was associated with the disruption of anrB (lmo2115), a gene encoding the permease component of an ABC transporter. The contribution of anrB to nisin resistance was confirmed by the creation of nonpolar deletion mutants. The loss of this putative multidrug resistance transporter also greatly enhanced sensitivity to bacitracin, gallidermin, and a selection of β-lactam antibiotics. A comparison of the relative antimicrobial sensitivities of a number of mutants established the ΔanrB strain as being one of the most bacitracin-sensitive L. monocytogenes strains identified to date. PMID:20643901

  15. Rice-like hollow nano-CaCO3 synthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ulkeryildiz, Eda; Kilic, Sevgi; Ozdemir, Ekrem

    2016-09-01

    We have shown that Ca(OH)2 solution is a natural stabilizer for CaCO3 particles. We designed a CO2 bubbling crystallization reactor to produce nano-CaCO3 particles in homogenous size distribution without aggregation. In the experimental set-up, the crystallization region was separated from the stabilization region. The produced nanoparticles were removed from the crystallization region into the stabilization region before aggregation or crystal growth. It was shown that rice-like hollow nano-CaCO3 particles in about 250 nm in size were produced with almost monodispersed size distribution. The particles started to dissolve through their edges as CO2 bubbles were injected, which opened-up the pores inside the particles. At the late stages of crystallization, the open pores were closed as a result of dissolution-recrystallization of the newly synthesized CaCO3 particles. These particles were stable in Ca(OH)2 solution and no aggregation was detected. The present methodology can be used in drug encapsulation into inorganic CaCO3 particles for cancer treatment with some modifications.

  16. Alternative solution model for the ternary carbonate system CaCO3 - MgCO3 - FeCO3 - I. A ternary Bragg-Williams ordering model

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McSwiggen, P.L.

    1993-01-01

    The minerals of the ternary carbonate system CaCO3 - MgCO3 - FeCO3 represent a complex series of solid solutions and ordering states. An understanding of those complexities requires a solution model that can both duplicate the subsolidus phase relationships and generate correct values for the activities. Such a solution model must account for the changes in the total energy of the system resulting from a change in the ordering state of the individual constituents. Various ordering models have been applied to binary carbonate systems, but no attempts have previously been made to model the ordering in the ternary system. This study derives a new set of equations that allow for the equilibrium degree of order to be calculated for a system involving three cations mixing on two sites, as in the case of the ternary carbonates. The method is based on the Bragg-Williams approach. From the degree of order, the mole fractions of the three cations in each of the two sites can be determined. Once the site occupancies have been established, a Margules-type mixing model can be used to determine the free energy of mixing in the solid solution and therefore the activities of the various components. ?? 1993 Springer-Verlag.

  17. Characterizing Internet Searchers of Smoking Cessation Information

    PubMed Central

    Graham, Amanda L

    2006-01-01

    Background The Internet is a viable channel to deliver evidence-based smoking cessation treatment that has the potential to make a large population impact on reducing smoking prevalence. There is high demand for smoking cessation information and support on the Internet. Approximately 7% (10.2 million) of adult American Internet users have searched for information on quitting smoking. Little is known about these individuals, their smoking status, what type of cessation services they are seeking on the Internet, or how frequently these searches for cessation information are conducted. Objective The primary goal of this study was to characterize individuals who search for smoking cessation information on the Internet to determine appropriate triage and treatment strategies. The secondary goal was to estimate the incidence of searches for cessation information using publicly available search engine data. Methods We recruited individuals who clicked on a link to a leading smoking cessation website (QuitNet) from within the results of a search engine query. Individuals were “intercepted” before seeing the QuitNet home page and were invited to participate in the study. Those accepting the invitation were routed to an online survey about demographics, smoking characteristics, preferences for specific cessation services, and Internet search patterns. To determine the generalizability of our sample, national datasets on search engine usage patterns, market share, and keyword rankings were examined. These datasets were then used to estimate the number of queries for smoking cessation information each year. Results During the 10-day study period, 2265 individuals were recruited and 29% (N = 655) responded. Of these, 59% were female and overall tended to be younger than the previously characterized general Internet population. Most (76%) respondents were current smokers; 17% had quit within the last 7 days, and 7% had quit more than 7 days ago. Slightly more than half of

  18. Tobacco Use Cessation and Prevention - A Review.

    PubMed

    Shaik, Sabiha Shaheen; Doshi, Dolar; Bandari, Srikanth Reddy; Madupu, Padma Reddy; Kulkarni, Suhas

    2016-05-01

    Tobacco use is a major preventable cause of premature death and disease, currently leading to over five million deaths each year worldwide. Smoking or chewing tobacco can seriously affect general, as well as oral health. Oral health professionals play an important role in promoting tobacco free-lifestyles. They should counsel their patients not to smoke; and reinforce the anti-tobacco message and refer the patients to smoking cessation services. Dentists are in a unique position to educate and motivate patients concerning the hazards of tobacco to their oral and systemic health, and to provide intervention programs as a part of routine patient care. Tobacco cessation is necessary to reduce morbidity and mortality related to tobacco use. Strategies for tobacco cessation involves 5 A's and 5 R's approach, quit lines and pharmacotherapy. Additionally, tobacco cessation programs should be conducted at community, state and national levels. Various policies should be employed for better tobacco control. Governments should implement the tobacco control measures to reduce the prevalence of tobacco use and exposure to tobacco smoke. In addition, there should be availability of leaflets, brochures, continuing patient education materials regarding tobacco cessation. PMID:27437378

  19. The decarbonation and heat capacity of ZnCO3

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Haselton, H.T.; Goldsmith, J.R.

    1987-01-01

    The decarbonation curve for ZnCO3 has been determined in the pressure range 3-20 kbar by using a combination of cold-seal vessels and piston-cylinder apparatus with NaCl assemblies. Heat capacities for both synthetic and natural ZnCO3 samples were measured by differential scanning calorimetry at temperatures ranging from 340 to 497 K. The results of these experiments indicate that the enthalpy of formation for smithsonite, ??Hf(1,298.15), is approximately -817. kJ/mol. which is about 4 kJ more negative than most tabulated values. ?? 1987.

  20. Do electronic cigarettes help with smoking cessation?

    PubMed

    2014-11-01

    Smoking causes around 100,000 deaths each year in the UK, and is the leading cause of preventable disease and early mortality. Smoking cessation remains difficult and existing licensed treatments have limited success. Nicotine addiction is thought to be one of the primary reasons that smokers find it so hard to give up, and earlier this year DTB reviewed the effects of nicotine on health. Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) are nicotine delivery devices that aim to mimic the process of smoking but avoid exposing the user to some of the harmful components of traditional cigarettes. However, the increase in the use of e-cigarettes and their potential use as an aid to smoking cessation has been subject to much debate. In this article we consider the regulatory and safety issues associated with the use of e-cigarettes, and their efficacy in smoking cessation and reduction.

  1. Strategies to promote smoking cessation among adolescents.

    PubMed

    Harvey, Johanne; Chadi, Nicholas

    2016-05-01

    In recent years, youth have been exposed to a broader spectrum of tobacco products including smokeless tobacco, hookah (water pipe) and e-cigarettes. Despite active local, provincial/territorial and national prevention strategies and legislated controls, thousands of teenagers develop an addiction to tobacco products each year. Current and available smoking cessation interventions for youth have the potential to help teens stop smoking and, as a result, greatly reduce Canada's health burden in the future. Paediatricians and health care professionals can play a key role in helping teens make informed decisions related to tobacco consumption and cessation. This practice point presents the evidence and rationales for smoking cessation interventions which have been studied in youth specifically, such as individual counselling, psychological support, nicotine replacement therapy, bupropion and varenicline. Interventions for which limited or conflicting data exist are also discussed.

  2. Strategies to promote smoking cessation among adolescents.

    PubMed

    Harvey, Johanne; Chadi, Nicholas

    2016-05-01

    In recent years, youth have been exposed to a broader spectrum of tobacco products including smokeless tobacco, hookah (water pipe) and e-cigarettes. Despite active local, provincial/territorial and national prevention strategies and legislated controls, thousands of teenagers develop an addiction to tobacco products each year. Current and available smoking cessation interventions for youth have the potential to help teens stop smoking and, as a result, greatly reduce Canada's health burden in the future. Paediatricians and health care professionals can play a key role in helping teens make informed decisions related to tobacco consumption and cessation. This practice point presents the evidence and rationales for smoking cessation interventions which have been studied in youth specifically, such as individual counselling, psychological support, nicotine replacement therapy, bupropion and varenicline. Interventions for which limited or conflicting data exist are also discussed. PMID:27429574

  3. Smoking and smoking cessation in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Murin, Susan; Rafii, Rokhsara; Bilello, Kathryn

    2011-03-01

    Smoking during pregnancy is among the leading preventable causes of adverse maternal and fetal outcomes. Smoking prevalence among young women is the primary determinant of smoking prevalence during pregnancy. Smoking among women of childbearing age is associated with reduced fertility, increased complications of pregnancy, and a variety of adverse fetal outcomes. There is increasing evidence of lasting adverse effects on offspring. Guidelines for smoking cessation during pregnancy have been developed. This article reviews the epidemiology of smoking during pregnancy, the adverse effects of smoking on the mother, fetus, and offspring, and recommended approaches to smoking cessation for pregnant women. PMID:21277451

  4. Inhibition by glycosaminoglycans of CaCO3 (calcite) crystallization.

    PubMed Central

    Grant, D; Long, W F; Williamson, F B

    1989-01-01

    Of a range of glycosaminoglycans, heparin and heparan sulphate were the most effective inhibitors in vitro of CaCO3 (calcite) crystallization as assayed by conductimetric measurements. The possible role of such glycosaminoglycans in modulating calcium-salt crystallizations in vivo is discussed. PMID:2719649

  5. Design and Syntheses of Three Novel Carbonate Halides: Cs3 Pb2 (CO3 )3 I, KBa2 (CO3 )2 F, and RbBa2 (CO3 )2 F.

    PubMed

    Liu, Lili; Yang, Yun; Dong, Xiaoyu; Zhang, Bingbing; Wang, Ying; Yang, Zhihua; Pan, Shilie

    2016-02-24

    Three new carbonate halides, Cs3 Pb2 (CO3 )3 I, KBa2 (CO3 )2 F and RbBa2 (CO3 )2 F have been synthesized with hydrothermal and solid-state methods. Cs3 Pb2 (CO3 )3 I is the first product in the lead carbonate iodides family; KBa2 (CO3 )2 F and RbBa2 (CO3 )2 F are the first two centrosymmetric compounds found in the alkaline-alkaline earth carbonate fluorides family. Cs3 Pb2 (CO3 )3 I crystallizes in a centrosymmetric space group C2/m, and exhibits a two- dimensional layered structure which is formed by [Cs4 Pb4 (CO3 )6 I2 ]∞ double-layers consisting of [Pb2 (CO3 )3 I]∞ single-layers bridged by the Cs atoms. KBa2 (CO3 )2 F and RbBa2 (CO3 )2 F, which are isostructural, crystallize in a trigonal crystal system with a centric space group of R3‾ featuring a honeycomb-like framework. First principle calculations indicate that Cs3 Pb2 (CO3 )3 I has a moderate birefringence and explain the difference between the band gaps of the title compounds from electron structures. The effects of cations and halogens on the structures and properties of the title compounds are also discussed. PMID:26822173

  6. The compressibility of CaCO3-Li2CO3-Na2CO3-K2CO3 liquids: application to natrocarbonatite and CO2-bearing nephelinite liquids from Oldoinyo Lengai

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Leary, Mary Catherine; Lange, Rebecca A.; Ai, Yuhui

    2015-07-01

    To constrain the compressibility of natrocarbonate liquids, sound-speed measurements were made on 11 liquids in the CaCO3-Li2CO3-Na2CO3-K2CO3 quaternary system from 808 to 1323 K at 1 bar with a frequency-sweep acoustic interferometer. CaCO3 concentrations range from 15 to 50 mol% in four of the experimental liquids. The sound-speed data for all liquids were converted to isothermal compressibility ( β T ), which were fit to an ideal mixing model with respect to composition; the average residual is 1.2 %. Fitted values (±1 σ) of the partial molar compressibility (10-2 GPa-1) at 1100 K were derived for CaCO3 (5.36 ± 0.13), Li2CO3 (8.09 ± 0.06), Na2CO3 (10.62 ± 0.07), and K2CO3 (14.09 ± 0.06); these values translate to bulk modulus values of 18.7, 12.4, 9.4, and 7.1 GPa, respectively, reflecting the relatively large compressibility of carbonate liquids. The data are additionally used to estimate the partial molar volume and compressibility of the CO2 component dissolved as carbonate in nephelinite liquids; the density of this dissolved component at 1423 K and 1 GPa ranges from 1.62, 1.71 to 1.83 g/cm3 when it is complexed with K+, Na+, and Ca2+, respectively, and is estimated to be ~2.05 and 2.14 g/cm3 when complexed with Fe2+ and Mg2+, respectively. The results from this study can be applied to natrocarbonate liquids, such as those erupted from Oldoinyo Lengai volcano in Africa, and indicate a melt density of ~2.19 g/cm3 at 1150 °C and 1 GPa, which is ~18 % less dense than the average melt density (~2.67 g/cm3) calculated for associated Mg-poor nephelinite liquids at the same conditions and volatile-free. However, the dissolution of 10.1 wt% H2O and 8.7 wt% CO2 in the average nephelinite melt (based on volatile contents reported in the literature for these magmas) reduces its density to ~2.14 g/cm3 at 1150 °C and 1 GPa, eliminating the buoyancy contrast with the natrocarbonate melt. In turn, it is highly likely that the natrocarbonatite melts contained

  7. Maori women's views on smoking cessation initiatives.

    PubMed

    Fernandez, Carole; Wilson, Denise

    2008-07-01

    Smoking is particularly prevalent among Maori women over the age of 15 years and remains a concern despite anti-smoking campaigns. This raises questions about the effectiveness of current smoking cessation initiatives as mainstream tobacco control programmes have not benefited Maori to the same extent as non-Maori. Limited research is available on the effectiveness of smoking cessation initiatives for Maori. In this descriptive qualitative study five Maori women who had ceased smoking were interviewed about such initiatives and what was more likely to influence Maori women to quit. A focus group was used to discuss smoking cessation initiatives and the data were thematically analysed using Boyatzis' (1998) approach. Two themes were identified: (a) Transmission of Whanau (immediate and extended family) Values that includes the sub-categories whanau experiences, being mothers, and role models; and (b) Factors Crucial in Influencing Change that includes the sub-categories choices and exercising own will, a positive perception of self and a Maori approach. The findings provide insight for nurses into Maori women's perspectives. These highlight the importance of whanau and supportive relationships, and can be used to inform strategies to assist Maori women in smoking cessation.

  8. Tobacco Industry Research on Smoking Cessation

    PubMed Central

    Ling, Pamela M; Glantz, Stanton A

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND Smoking rates are declining in the United States, except for young adults (age 18 to 24). Few organized programs target smoking cessation specifically for young adults, except programs for pregnant women. In contrast, the tobacco industry has invested much time and money studying young adult smoking patterns. Some of these data are now available in documents released through litigation. OBJECTIVE Review tobacco industry marketing research on smoking cessation to guide new interventions and improve clinical practice, particularly to address young adult smokers’ needs. METHODS Analysis of previously secret tobacco industry documents. RESULTS Compared to their share of the smoking population, young adult smokers have the highest spontaneous quitting rates. About 10% to 30% of smokers want to quit; light smokers and brand switchers are more likely to try. Tobacco companies attempted to deter quitting by developing products that appeared to be less addictive or more socially acceptable. Contrary to consumer expectations, “ultra low tar” cigarette smokers were actually less likely to quit. CONCLUSIONS Tobacco industry views of young adult quitting behavior contrast with clinical practice. Tobacco marketers concentrate on recapturing young quitters, while organized smoking cessation programs are primarily used by older smokers. As young people have both the greatest propensity to quit and the greatest potential benefits from smoking cessation, targeted programs for young adults are needed. Tobacco marketing data suggest that aspirational messages that decrease the social acceptability of smoking and support smoke-free environments resonate best with young adult smokers’ motivations. PMID:15109339

  9. Smoking Cessation in African-Americans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahluwalia, Jasjit S.

    1996-01-01

    Because the smoking behavior of African Americans differs considerably from that of other groups, researchers examined differences between African Americans who did and did not use the nicotine patch as an adjunct to counseling and education for smoking cessation. Results indicated the nicotine patch significantly improved six-month cessation…

  10. Program Strategies for Adolescent Smoking Cessation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fritz, Deborah J.; Wider, Lottchen Crane; Hardin, Sally B.; Horrocks, Michelle

    2008-01-01

    School nurses who work with adolescents are in an ideal position to promote smoking cessation. This opportunity is important because research suggests teens who smoke are likely to become habitual smokers. This study characterizes adolescents' patterns and levels of smoking, describes adolescents' perceptions toward smoking, and delineates quit…

  11. 78 FR 13236 - TRICARE: Smoking Cessation Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-27

    ... proposed rule was published in the Federal Register (76 FR 58199) dated September 20, 2011, for a 60-day... Cessation, one comment was received from a retiree who was upset that he might be forced to pay more for..., except that the following are not excluded: (i) Services provided by a certified marriage and...

  12. Dental students' attitudes toward tobacco cessation counseling.

    PubMed

    Anders, Patrick L; Davis, Elaine L; McCall, W D

    2014-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to determine if level of education, gender, and tobacco history affected attitudes of dental students toward tobacco cessation counseling. A secondary objective was to examine the psychometric properties of the survey instrument. First- and fourth-year dental students at one school of dental medicine completed a survey examining attitudes toward tobacco cessation and perceived barriers to performing tobacco cessation counseling in a dental setting. Analyses were conducted to determine whether there were differences in attitudes by gender, level of education, or personal and family tobacco use. A main effect for education level was discovered. Fourth-year students were more likely than first-year students to consider the prescription of nicotine gum and transdermal patches to be within the scope and responsibility of the dental profession. No significant differences were seen with regard to gender or students' personal and family tobacco histories. Dental students were in general agreement that tobacco cessation counseling is within the responsibility of the dental profession, is within the scope of dental practice, and can be effective. Psychometric analysis revealed reliability of the survey instrument.

  13. Engaging African Americans in Smoking Cessation Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallen, Jacqueline; Randolph, Suzanne; Carter-Pokras, Olivia; Feldman, Robert; Kanamori-Nishimura, Mariano

    2014-01-01

    Background: African Americans are disproportionately exposed to and targeted by prosmoking advertisements, particularly menthol cigarette ads. Though African Americans begin smoking later than whites, they are less likely to quit smoking than whites. Purpose: This study was designed to explore African American smoking cessation attitudes,…

  14. Smoking Cessation in Chronically Ill Medical Patients.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sirota, Alan D.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Followed eight male smokers with chronic pulmonary or cardiac disease through a smoking cessation program of gradual nicotine withdrawal, self-management, and relapse prevention. At one year, half remained abstinent, while relapsers smoked substantially less than before treatment. Reductions in carbon monoxide and thiocyanate levels were…

  15. Smoking Cessation in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease.

    PubMed

    Tashkin, Donald P

    2015-08-01

    Smoking cessation is the most effective strategy for slowing down the progression of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and reducing mortality in the approximately 50% of patients with diagnosed COPD who continue to smoke. While behavioral interventions (including simple advice) have modest efficacy in improving smoking quit rates, the combination of counseling and pharmacotherapy is more effective than either alone. When combined with even brief counseling, nicotine replacement therapy (NRT), bupropion SR, and varenicline have all been shown to be effective in promoting smoking cessation and sustained abstinence in smokers with COPD to a degree comparable to that observed in the general smoking population. However, the recidivism rate is high after initial quitting so that at the end of 1 year, approximately 80% or more of patients are still smoking. Thus, new approaches to smoking cessation are needed. One approach is to combine different pharmacotherapies, for example, nicotine patch plus rapidly acting NRT (e.g., gum or nasal spray) and/or bupropion or even varenicline plus either NRT or bupropion, in a stepwise approach over a varying duration depending on the severity of nicotine dependence and nicotine withdrawal symptoms during the quit attempt, as proposed in the American College of Chest Physicians Tobacco Dependence Took Kit. Electronic (e)-cigarettes, which deliver vaporized nicotine without most of the noxious components in the smoke from burning tobacco cigarettes, also has potential efficacy as a smoking cessation aid, but their efficacy and safety as either substitutes for regular cigarettes or smoking cessation aids require additional study. This task is complicated because e-cigarettes are currently unregulated and hundreds of different brands are currently available.

  16. Smoking Cessation in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease.

    PubMed

    Tashkin, Donald P

    2015-08-01

    Smoking cessation is the most effective strategy for slowing down the progression of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and reducing mortality in the approximately 50% of patients with diagnosed COPD who continue to smoke. While behavioral interventions (including simple advice) have modest efficacy in improving smoking quit rates, the combination of counseling and pharmacotherapy is more effective than either alone. When combined with even brief counseling, nicotine replacement therapy (NRT), bupropion SR, and varenicline have all been shown to be effective in promoting smoking cessation and sustained abstinence in smokers with COPD to a degree comparable to that observed in the general smoking population. However, the recidivism rate is high after initial quitting so that at the end of 1 year, approximately 80% or more of patients are still smoking. Thus, new approaches to smoking cessation are needed. One approach is to combine different pharmacotherapies, for example, nicotine patch plus rapidly acting NRT (e.g., gum or nasal spray) and/or bupropion or even varenicline plus either NRT or bupropion, in a stepwise approach over a varying duration depending on the severity of nicotine dependence and nicotine withdrawal symptoms during the quit attempt, as proposed in the American College of Chest Physicians Tobacco Dependence Took Kit. Electronic (e)-cigarettes, which deliver vaporized nicotine without most of the noxious components in the smoke from burning tobacco cigarettes, also has potential efficacy as a smoking cessation aid, but their efficacy and safety as either substitutes for regular cigarettes or smoking cessation aids require additional study. This task is complicated because e-cigarettes are currently unregulated and hundreds of different brands are currently available. PMID:26238637

  17. Factors Associated with Smoking Cessation in Pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Moore, Elizabeth; Blatt, Kaitlin; Chen, Aimin; Van Hook, James; DeFranco, Emily A

    2016-05-01

    Objective The objective of this study was to quantify the influence of various patient characteristics on early smoking cessation to better identify target populations for focused counseling and interventions. Study Design This study was a population-based retrospective cohort study of 1,003,532 Ohio live births more than 7 years (2006-2012). Women who quit smoking in the first trimester were compared with those who smoked throughout pregnancy. Logistic regression estimated the strength of association between patient factors and smoking cessation. Results The factors most strongly associated with early smoking cessation were non-white race and Hispanic ethnicity, at least some college education, early prenatal care, marriage, and breastfeeding. Numerous factors commonly associated with adverse perinatal outcomes were found to have a negative association with smoking cessation: low educational attainment, limited or late prenatal care, prior preterm birth, age < 20 years, age ≥ 35 years, and indicators of low SES. In addition, the heaviest smokers (≥ 20 cigarette/day) were least likely to quit (adjusted relative risk [RR], 0.35; 95% confidence interval 0.34, 0.36). Conclusion Early prenatal care and initiation of breastfeeding before discharge from the hospital are associated with increased RR of quitting early in pregnancy by 52 and 99%, respectively. Public health initiatives and interventions should focus on the importance of early access to prenatal care and education regarding smoking cessation for these particularly vulnerable groups of women who are at inherently high risk of pregnancy complications. PMID:26692202

  18. Synthesis and photocatalytic property of multilayered Co3O4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Dong En; Ren, Li Zheng; Hao, Xiao Yun; Pan, Bin Bin; Wang, Ming Yan; Ma, Juan Juan; Li, Feng; Li, Shu An; Tong, Zhi Wei

    2015-11-01

    Co3O4 multilayered structures were successfully synthesized by a facile poly (ethylene glycol 20000) (PEG-20000) assisted hydrothermal technique in combination with calcination method. The final Co3O4 multilayered structures inherited perfectly the morphology of the preliminarily hydrothermal products. Experimental results obtained from the different growth stages demonstrate that the as-prepared precursor exhibit an interesting time-dependent evolution of building blocks, from urchin to multilayer. The possible formation mechanism for the hierarchical structures with various architectures is presented on account of the self-assembled growth induced by Ostwald ripening. Because of the unique structured composed of slices, the photocatalytic activity of the products was examined by measuring the photodecolourisation of methyl violet solution with ultraviolet radiation. The result shows that our products have a good photocatalytic activity.

  19. Magnetic Phase Diagram of Co3V2O8

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yen, Fei; Lorenz, Bernd; Wang, Y. Q.; Sun, Y. Y.; Chu, C. W.

    2007-03-01

    Kagom'e-staircase lattice structures like Ni3V2O8 and Co3V2O8 have recently attracted attention because of their complex magnetic phase diagrams and the magnetically induced ferroelectric (FE) phase observed in Ni3V2O8. Co3V2O8 at zero magnetic field exhibits five subsequent magnetic phase transition in a narrow temperature range. It has an incommensurate antiferromagnetic phase below TN=11.4 K and weak ferromagnetic behavior along the a-axis at TC=6.2 K. Along with three other phase transitions in between; T1=8.9 K, T2=7.0 K and T3=6.9 K, the evolution of these five phase transitions under magnetic field, phase boundaries, is traced through magnetic susceptibility and dielectric constant anomalies. We resolve the complete magnetic phase diagram of Co3V2O8 with the magnetic field applied along the principal crystallographic orientations.

  20. African American Smokers’ Intention to Use Pharmacotherapy for Cessation

    PubMed Central

    Lynam, Ian; Catley, Delwyn; Harris, Kari Jo; Goggin, Kathy; Berkley-Patton, Jannette; Thomas, Janet

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To use the theory of planned behavior to identify predictors of intentions to use cessation aids when quitting smoking. Methods African American smokers completed a survey to assess intentions, attitudes, and normative and control beliefs regarding the use of smoking cessation aids. Results Participants held mildly positive attitudes regarding the use of cessation aids. Beliefs related to the utility of aids, support of referents, and accessibility of a doctor were most strongly associated with intention to use cessation aids. Conclusions African American smokers may be amenable to the use of cessation aids, and specific beliefs may be targets for intervention. PMID:22584089

  1. Smoking Cessation for Crohn's Disease: Clearing the Haze.

    PubMed

    Kaplan, Gilaad G

    2016-03-01

    The TABACROHN Study Group conducted a multicenter prospective cohort study, demonstrating that smoking cessation improved the prognosis of Crohn's disease. Patients who continued to smoke were 50% more likely to relapse compared with non-smokers. Smoking cessation reduced the risk of flaring, regardless of exposure to anti-tumor necrosis factor agents. Despite the evidence that smoking cessation is beneficial, many patients do not quit smoking after their diagnosis of Crohn's disease. Lack of awareness, physical addiction, and social context of smoking inhibit smoking cessation. In spite of this, comprehensive smoking cessation programs have been shown to be effective and reduce costs.

  2. Interventions for smoking cessation in hospitalised patients

    PubMed Central

    Rigotti, Nancy A; Clair, Carole; Munafò, Marcus R; Stead, Lindsay F

    2015-01-01

    Background Smoking contributes to reasons for hospitalisation, and the period of hospitalisation may be a good time to provide help with quitting. Objectives To determine the effectiveness of interventions for smoking cessation that are initiated for hospitalised patients. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Tobacco Addiction Group register which includes papers identified from CENTRAL, MEDLINE, EMBASE and PsycINFO in December 2011 for studies of interventions for smoking cessation in hospitalised patients, using terms including (hospital and patient*) or hospitali* or inpatient* or admission* or admitted. Selection criteria Randomized and quasi-randomized trials of behavioural, pharmacological or multicomponent interventions to help patients stop smoking, conducted with hospitalised patients who were current smokers or recent quitters (defined as having quit more than one month before hospital admission). The intervention had to start in the hospital but could continue after hospital discharge. We excluded studies of patients admitted to facilities that primarily treat psychiatric disorders or substance abuse, studies that did not report abstinence rates and studies with follow-up of less than six months. Both acute care hospitals and rehabilitation hospitals were included in this update, with separate analyses done for each type of hospital. Data collection and analysis Two authors extracted data independently for each paper, with disagreements resolved by consensus. Main results Fifty trials met the inclusion criteria. Intensive counselling interventions that began during the hospital stay and continued with supportive contacts for at least one month after discharge increased smoking cessation rates after discharge (risk ratio (RR) 1.37, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.27 to 1.48; 25 trials). A specific benefit for post-discharge contact compared with usual care was found in a subset of trials in which all participants received a counselling intervention in

  3. Factors associated with smokeless tobacco cessation in an Appalachian population.

    PubMed

    Kauffman, Ross M; Ferketich, Amy K; Wee, Alvin G; Shultz, Jennifer M; Kuun, Patty; Wewers, Mary Ellen

    2008-06-01

    Identifying factors associated with successful tobacco quit attempts may help in the development and targeting of effective cessation strategies. This paper aims to describe factors associated with smokeless tobacco (ST) cessation and compares the results to findings in the smoking cessation literature. Prospective data on 116 men aged 19 to 70 and participating in a ST cessation program were used to examine correlates of successful ST cessation at 1-year post-intervention. Controlling for age, level of education (p=0.002) and daily coffee consumption (p=0.005) had significant independent associations with successful cessation. No ST use variables were significant predictors of cessation success. In a multivariable logistic regression model three factors were significantly associated with cessation: education (p=0.010), coffee consumption (p=0.019), and age (p=0.029). Factors associated with successful ST cessation in this sample are consistent with predictors of smoking cessation reported in the literature. Based on its widespread use and the strength of its association with successful quitting, the role of caffeine consumption in ST cessation merits further study.

  4. Pediatricians' Confidence and Behaviors in Smoking Cessation Promotion and Knowledge of the Smoking Cessation Trust

    PubMed Central

    Hall, Katharine; Kisely, Steve; Gastanaduy, Mariella; Urrego, Fernando

    2016-01-01

    Background: Secondhand smoke exposure increases morbidity and mortality in children. Thirty-one percent of caregivers who accompany their children to the Ochsner Health Center for Children smoke, and none uses the services of the Smoking Cessation Trust (SCT), a free smoking cessation program for eligible Louisiana residents who began smoking before 1988. The objective of this study was 2-fold: first, to assess and compare pediatricians' confidence and behaviors in regard to smoking cessation promotion with caregivers, and second, to determine pediatricians' knowledge and comfort level with the SCT. Methods: Pediatricians were given a questionnaire to assess 12 parameters regarding their confidence and practice when screening, counseling, and referring caregivers to smoking cessation programs. Results: Thirty-six questionnaires were administered, of which 27 were completed (75%). Only 7.41% of respondents had formal training in smoking cessation, 18.52% had never heard of the SCT, and 92.59% do not refer to the SCT. All the pediatrician respondents stated that they were confident in their ability to screen for secondhand smoke exposure, 62.96% were confident in providing counseling, and 44.44% were confident in offering referrals. Most pediatricians very often or always screened for secondhand smoke exposure (77.78%); however, only 25.93% counseled smoking caregivers to quit, and only 11.11% provided a smoking cessation referral. Pediatricians stated that they were confident to screen, counsel, and refer caregivers; however, they were significantly less likely to report actually screening for secondhand smoke exposure (P<0.05), counseling (P<0.05), and referring caregivers (P<0.05). Conclusion: Efforts should be made to increase the rate by which pediatricians provide smoking cessation, counseling, and referrals to the SCT through education and training. PMID:27303221

  5. Mass media for smoking cessation in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Solomon, Laura J; Bunn, Janice Y; Flynn, Brian S; Pirie, Phyllis L; Worden, John K; Ashikaga, Takamaru

    2009-08-01

    Theory-driven, mass media interventions prevent smoking among youth. This study examined effects of a media campaign on adolescent smoking cessation. Four matched pairs of media markets in four states were randomized to receive or not receive a 3-year television/radio campaign aimed at adolescent smoking cessation based on social cognitive theory. The authors enrolled 2,030 adolescent smokers into the cohort (n = 987 experimental; n = 1,043 comparison) and assessed them via annual telephone surveys for 3 years. Although the condition by time interaction was not significant, the proportion of adolescents smoking in the past month was significantly lower in the experimental than comparison condition at 3-year follow-up when adjusted for baseline smoking status. The media campaign did not impact targeted mediating variables. A media campaign based on social cognitive constructs produced a modest overall effect on smoking prevalence among adolescents, but the role of theory-based constructs is unclear.

  6. [A community program to stimulate smoking cessation].

    PubMed

    Villalbí, J R; Ballestín, M; Surós, C; de Miguel-Blondel, E; Cabello, R

    1992-01-01

    A community program to stimulate smoking cessation developed on the 1988 World No-smoking Day in the city of Barcelona (Spain) is presented. Participants in this program could make a written commitment to quit, and received support materials by mail. The results are evaluated in a sample of participants: 69% declare having quit on the specified date, and 29% do not smoke after one year.

  7. Simplicity sells: Making smoking cessation easier.

    PubMed

    Bonniot Saucedo, Catherine; Schroeder, Steven A

    2010-03-01

    Toll-free telephone quitlines are successful alternatives to direct clinician contact. In 2004, the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services created a national quitline number, 1-800-QUIT-NOW. This enabled states without quitlines to establish them, giving free access to cessation services to every smoker in the U.S. It also created a new mechanism for national quitline marketing, employing simplified and streamlined approaches.

  8. SO 2 adsorption capacity of K 2CO 3-impregnated activated carbon as a function of K 2CO 3 content loaded by soaking and incipient wetness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fortier, H.; Zelenietz, C.; Dahn, T. R.; Westreich, P.; Stevens, D. A.; Dahn, J. R.

    2007-01-01

    The SO 2 adsorption capacity of K 2CO 3-impregnated activated carbons, prepared by soaking carbon in large volumes of K 2CO 3 in solution of various concentrations, varies linearly with respect to the loading of K 2CO 3 on the carbon up to about 12% K 2CO 3 by weight. Above 12%, the capacity for SO 2 levels out and then decreases. This suggests that at high loadings the K 2CO 3 either aggregates and/or blocks pores of the activated carbon. In contrast, the adsorption capacity of carbons prepared by repeatedly (maximum of three times total) loading K 2CO 3 via incipient wetness is much larger than that of the soaked samples, up to 70% more, when the loading of K 2CO 3 is greater than 12%. Static and dynamic adsorption, DSC, SEM, EDX and incipient wetness studies of the samples show that the impregnant aggregates but does not block carbon pores.

  9. Smoking Cessation: The Role of the Anesthesiologist.

    PubMed

    Yousefzadeh, Amir; Chung, Frances; Wong, David T; Warner, David O; Wong, Jean

    2016-05-01

    Smoking increases the risk of postoperative morbidity and mortality. Smoking cessation before surgery reduces the risk of complications. The perioperative period may be a "teachable moment" for smoking cessation and provides smokers an opportunity to engage in long-term smoking cessation. Anesthesiologists as the perioperative physicians are well-positioned to take the lead in this area and improve not only short-term surgical outcomes but also long-term health outcomes and costs. Preoperative interventions for tobacco use are effective to reduce postoperative complications and increase the likelihood of long-term abstinence. If intensive interventions (counseling, pharmacotherapy, and follow-up) are impractical, brief interventions should be implemented in preoperative clinics as a routine practice. The "Ask, Advise, Connect" is a practical strategy to be incorporated in the surgical setting. All anesthesiologists should ask their patients about smoking and strongly advise smokers to quit at every visit. Directly connecting patients to existing counseling resources, such as telephone quitlines, family physicians, or pharmacists using fax or electronic referrals, greatly increases the reach and the impact of the intervention.

  10. Smoking Cessation and the Cardiovascular Patient

    PubMed Central

    Prochaska, Judith J.; Benowitz, Neal L.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose of review Smoking remains the leading cause of preventable morbidity and mortality. Our review highlights research from 2013-2015 on the treatment of cigarette smoking, with a focus on heart patients and cardiovascular outcomes. Recent findings Seeking to maximize the reach and effectiveness of existing cessation medications, current tobacco control research has demonstrated the safety and efficacy of combination treatment; extended use; reduce-to-quit strategies; and personalized approaches to treatment matching. Further, cytisine has gained interest as a lower-cost strategy for addressing the global tobacco epidemic. On the harm reduction front, snus and electronic nicotine delivery systems are being widely distributed and promoted with major gaps in knowledge of the safety of long-term and dual use. Quitlines, comparable in outcome to in-person treatment, avail cessation counseling on a national scale though use rates remain relatively low. Lastly, employee reward programs are gaining attention given the high costs of tobacco use to employers; sustaining quit rates post-payment, however, has proven challenging. Summary Evidence-based cessation treatments exist. Broader dissemination, adoption, and implementation are key to addressing the tobacco epidemic. The cardiology team has a professional obligation to advance tobacco control efforts and can play an important role in achieving a smoke-free future. PMID:26196657

  11. Tl(2)CO(3) at 3.56 GPa.

    PubMed

    Grzechnik, A; Friese, K

    2008-08-01

    The crystal structure of thallium carbonate, Tl(2)CO(3) (C2/m, Z = 4), is stable at least up to 3.56 GPa, as demonstrated by hydrostatic single-crystal X-ray diffraction measurements in a diamond anvil cell at room temperature. Our results contradict earlier observations from the literature, which found a structural phase transition for this compound at about 2 GPa. Under atmospheric conditions, all atoms except for one O atom reside on the mirror plane in the high-pressure structure. The compression mainly affects the part of the structure where the nonbonded electron lone pairs on the Tl(+) cations are located. PMID:18682630

  12. Preparation of superhydrophobic coating using modified CaCO3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Yansheng; He, Yi; Qing, Yongquan; Hu, Chuanbo; Mo, Qian

    2013-01-01

    CaCO3 nanoparticles were modified from hydrophilic to hydrophobic with oleic acid, hydrophobic coating was formed on the glass substrates with modified nanoparticles and polydimethylsiloxane via a simple process. The surface wettability and topology of coating were studied by contact angle measurement and scanning electron microscopy. The experimental results showed that the coating exhibited self-cleaning property with a water average contact angle of 160° and sliding angle of 6°, coating surface with hierarchical nano and micro structures, this method has good prospect for applications.

  13. Smoking Cessation 1 Year or More: Experiences of Successful Quitters.

    PubMed

    DiPiazza, Jennifer T; Naegle, Madeline

    2016-01-01

    There is a paucity of research focused on the experience of maintaining cessation for a year or longer, and recidivism rates for smoking cessation are estimated at 50% to 97%. As cigarette smoking is one of the leading causes of death worldwide, there is a critical need for more knowledge about maintaining smoking cessation. Therefore, this study was undertaken to explore the lived experience of maintaining cigarette smoking cessation for a year or more. Using Streubert's nurse-developed descriptive phenomenological method, seven adults who sustained cessation for 1.5 to 18 years, after repeated relapses, were interviewed about their experience of sustaining cessation. Data collection included interviews, field notes, and a reflexive journal. Phenomenological analysis involved dwelling intensely with the data, extracting parts of the transcript, and identifying codes and themes, defined by Streubert as essences, common to all participants' descriptions of the experience of sustained cessation. Through this inductive process, the investigator ascertained relationships among the essences, forming the basis for a formalized, exhaustive description of the experience. Six essences captured participants' experiences of maintaining cigarette smoking cessation: (a) breaking free, (b) developing an olfactory aversion, (c) reframing, (d) learning through relapse, (e) reclaiming acceptance, and (f) self-transformation. The findings suggest that maintaining cessation for a year or more is shaped by biological, psychological, and social conditions, as reflected in the essences. The essences coalesced to a tipping point of motivation and conditions leading to sustained behavior change, allowing participants to maintain cessation.

  14. Smoking Cessation 1 Year or More: Experiences of Successful Quitters.

    PubMed

    DiPiazza, Jennifer T; Naegle, Madeline

    2016-01-01

    There is a paucity of research focused on the experience of maintaining cessation for a year or longer, and recidivism rates for smoking cessation are estimated at 50% to 97%. As cigarette smoking is one of the leading causes of death worldwide, there is a critical need for more knowledge about maintaining smoking cessation. Therefore, this study was undertaken to explore the lived experience of maintaining cigarette smoking cessation for a year or more. Using Streubert's nurse-developed descriptive phenomenological method, seven adults who sustained cessation for 1.5 to 18 years, after repeated relapses, were interviewed about their experience of sustaining cessation. Data collection included interviews, field notes, and a reflexive journal. Phenomenological analysis involved dwelling intensely with the data, extracting parts of the transcript, and identifying codes and themes, defined by Streubert as essences, common to all participants' descriptions of the experience of sustained cessation. Through this inductive process, the investigator ascertained relationships among the essences, forming the basis for a formalized, exhaustive description of the experience. Six essences captured participants' experiences of maintaining cigarette smoking cessation: (a) breaking free, (b) developing an olfactory aversion, (c) reframing, (d) learning through relapse, (e) reclaiming acceptance, and (f) self-transformation. The findings suggest that maintaining cessation for a year or more is shaped by biological, psychological, and social conditions, as reflected in the essences. The essences coalesced to a tipping point of motivation and conditions leading to sustained behavior change, allowing participants to maintain cessation. PMID:27580193

  15. Suicidality prospectively predicts greater urges to smoke following a cessation attempt: Mediation through perceived barriers to cessation.

    PubMed

    Albanese, Brian J; Allan, Nicholas P; Boffa, Joseph W; Chavarria, Jesus; Raines, Amanda M; Zvolensky, Michael J; Schmidt, Norman B

    2016-01-15

    Growing interest in developing more effective smoking cessation treatments has facilitated the need to further investigate cognitive-affective factors that inhibit successful smoking cessation, such as urges to smoke. Research has strongly supported an association between suicidality and smoking, yet no work has investigated whether suicidality may increase urges to smoke. The current study sought to evaluate the impact of suicidality on smoking-related cognitive-affective factors predictive of smoking relapse among a community sample of 209 daily smokers engaged in a smoking cessation program. Structural equation modeling (SEM) was used to test the effects of self-reported pre-cessation suicidality on urges to smoke 1 month post-cessation as well as whether this effect was mediated by greater barriers to cessation. Results indicated that internal barriers to cessation significantly mediated the effect of pre-cessation suicidality on greater urges to smoke 1 month following smoking cessation attempt. These findings suggest that elevated suicidality may affect perceived internal barriers to cessation and subsequently urges to smoke 1 month following a quit attempt.

  16. The implementation of smoking cessation counseling in substance abuse treatment.

    PubMed

    Knudsen, Hannah K; Studts, Christina R; Studts, Jamie L

    2012-01-01

    Research on the implementation of smoking cessation counseling within substance abuse treatment organizations is limited. This study examines associations among counselors' implementation of therapy sessions dedicated to smoking cessation, organizational factors, and counselor-level variables. A two-level hierarchical linear model including organization- and counselor-level variables was estimated using survey data collected from 1,794 counselors working in 359 treatment organizations. Overall implementation of smoking cessation counseling was low. In the final model, implementation was positively associated with counselors' knowledge of the Public Health Service's clinical practice guideline, perceived managerial support, and belief that smoking cessation had a positive impact on recovery. Private versus public funding and presence of a formal smoking cessation program were organization-level variables which interacted with these counselor-level effects. These results highlight the importance of organizational contexts as well as counselors' knowledge and attitudes for effective implementation of smoking cessation counseling in substance abuse treatment organizations.

  17. Community perceptions of repeat HIV-testing: experiences of the ANRS 12249 Treatment as Prevention trial in rural South Africa.

    PubMed

    Orne-Gliemann, Joanna; Zuma, Thembelihle; Chikovore, Jeremiah; Gillespie, Natasha; Grant, Merridy; Iwuji, Collins; Larmarange, Joseph; McGrath, Nuala; Lert, France; Imrie, John

    2016-01-01

    In the context of the ANRS 12249 Treatment as Prevention (TasP) trial, we investigated perceptions of regular and repeat HIV-testing in rural KwaZulu-Natal (South Africa), an area of very high HIV prevalence and incidence. We conducted two qualitative studies, before (2010) and during the early implementation stages of the trial (2013-2014), to appreciate the evolution in community perceptions of repeat HIV-testing over this period of rapid changes in HIV-testing and treatment approaches. Repeated focus group discussions were organized with young adults, older adults and mixed groups. Repeat and regular HIV-testing was overall well perceived before, and well received during, trial implementation. Yet community members were not able to articulate reasons why people might want to test regularly or repeatedly, apart from individual sexual risk-taking. Repeat home-based HIV-testing was considered as feasible and convenient, and described as more acceptable than clinic-based HIV-testing, mostly because of privacy and confidentiality. However, socially regulated discourses around appropriate sexual behaviour and perceptions of stigma and prejudice regarding HIV and sexual risk-taking were consistently reported. This study suggests several avenues to improve HIV-testing acceptability, including implementing diverse and personalised approaches to HIV-testing and care, and providing opportunities for antiretroviral therapy initiation and care at home. PMID:27421048

  18. Indiana family physician attitudes and practices concerning smoking cessation.

    PubMed

    Saywell, R M; Jay, S J; Lukas, P J; Casebeer, L L; Mybeck, K C; Parchman, M L; Haley, A J

    1996-01-01

    Most physicians are aware of the health benefits of smoking cessation and agree they have a responsibility to help smokers quit. Many physicians, however, do not regularly address smoking cessation with their patients. Questionnaires were sent to 2,095 family practice physicians in Indiana. Information obtained included: demographic data; office-based smoking cessation practices; counseling; and physicians' perceptions of intervention outcomes. Most physicians (86%) asked new patients if they smoked, and 23% questioned patients about their exposure to passive smoke. Younger physicians, female physicians and urban physicians were more likely to ask new patients if they smoked. A formal smoking cessation program was used by 28% of the responding physicians. Among those not using a program, 7% reported plans to implement one in the coming year, 40% were not planning to implement one, and 53% were unsure. Physician and practice characteristics were not correlated with the use of smoking cessation programs. Only 11% of physicians considered their smoking cessation counseling skills to be excellent; 27% indicated the need for improvement in skills. One-half (52%) believed their counseling efforts were effective; almost half (45%) believed that current reimbursement policies limited their involvement in smoking cessation interventions. Most respondents have not instituted smoking cessation programs in their practices. It is likely that a combination of strategies, including both undergraduate, graduate and continuing medical education programs and reform in reimbursement practices for cessation programs, will be required to achieve significant increases in long-term smoking abstinence rates.

  19. Interventions for promoting smoking cessation during pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Lumley, Judith; Chamberlain, Catherine; Dowswell, Therese; Oliver, Sandy; Oakley, Laura; Watson, Lyndsey

    2014-01-01

    Background Tobacco smoking in pregnancy remains one of the few preventable factors associated with complications in pregnancy, low birthweight, preterm birth and has serious long-term health implications for women and babies. Smoking in pregnancy is decreasing in high-income countries and increasing in low- to middle-income countries and is strongly associated with poverty, low educational attainment, poor social support and psychological illness. Objectives To assess the effects of smoking cessation interventions during pregnancy on smoking behaviour and perinatal health outcomes. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group’s Trials Register (June 2008), the Cochrane Tobacco Addiction Group’s Trials Register (June 2008), EMBASE, PsycLIT, and CINAHL (all from January 2003 to June 2008). We contacted trial authors to locate additional unpublished data. Selection criteria Randomised controlled trials where smoking cessation during pregnancy was a primary aim of the intervention. Data collection and analysis Trials were identified and data extracted by one person and checked by a second. Subgroup analysis was conducted to assess the effect of risk of trial bias, intensity of the intervention and main intervention strategy used. Main results Seventy-two trials are included. Fifty-six randomised controlled trials (over 20,000 pregnant women) and nine cluster-randomised trials (over 5000 pregnant women) provided data on smoking cessation outcomes. There was a significant reduction in smoking in late pregnancy following interventions (risk ratio (RR) 0.94, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.93 to 0.96), an absolute difference of six in 100 women who stopped smoking during pregnancy. However, there is significant heterogeneity in the combined data (I2 > 60%). In the trials with the lowest risk of bias, the interventions had less effect (RR 0.97, 95% CI 0.94 to 0.99), and lower heterogeneity (I2 = 36%). Eight trials of smoking relapse prevention

  20. Public policy to maximize tobacco cessation.

    PubMed

    McGoldrick, Daniel E; Boonn, Ann V

    2010-03-01

    Tobacco use kills more than 400,000 Americans every year. For smokers, quitting is the biggest step they can take to improve their health, but it is a difficult step. Fortunately, policy-based interventions can both encourage smokers to quit and help them succeed. Evidence shows that tobacco tax increases encourage smokers to quit-recent state and federal increases have created dramatic surges in calls to quitlines. Similarly, smokefree workplace laws not only protect workers and patrons from secondhand smoke but also encourage smokers to quit, help them succeed, and create a social environment less conducive to smoking. The impact of policy changes can be amplified by promoting quitting around the date they are implemented. Outreach to health practitioners can alert them to encourage their patients to quit. Earned and paid media can also be used to motivate smokers to quit when policy changes are put into effect. Although these policies and efforts regarding them can generate great demand for evidence-based cessation services such as counseling and medication, it is important to make these resources available for those wanting to quit. Public and private health insurance plans should provide coverage for cessation services, and states should invest tobacco tax and/or tobacco settlement dollars in smoking-cessation programs as recommended by the CDC. Finally, the Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act has given the U.S. Food and Drug Administration new authority to regulate tobacco products and marketing, and to prevent tobacco companies from deceptively marketing new products that discourage smokers from quitting and keep them addicted. PMID:20176304

  1. Cobalt Borate Phosphate, Co 3[BPO 7], Synthesis and Characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yilmaz, Aysen; Bu, Xianhui; Kizilyalli, Meral; Kniep, Rudiger; Stucky, Galen D.

    2001-02-01

    Single crystals of Co3[BPO7] were obtained by boron flux method and characterized by single-crystal diffraction data. The compound crystallizes in the monoclinic space group Cm with a=9.774(2), b=12.688(2), c=4.9057(8) Å, β=119.749(2)°; V=528.20(15) Å3; Z=4. The structure consists of Co in trigonal bipyramids, square pyramids, and distorted octahedra. Polyhedral Co centers, triangular B centers, and tetrahedral P centers are joined together to form a three-dimensional network. The temperature dependence of the magnetic susceptibility of the compound follows the Curie-Weiss law to 30 K. Below this temperature, the magnetic behavior displayed first antiferromagnetic ordering followed by ferrimagnetic coupling at 25 K.

  2. Using a cessation-related outcome index to assess California's cessation progress at the population level

    PubMed Central

    Abramsohn, Erin; Park, Hye-Youn; Cowling, David W; Al-Delaimy, Wael K

    2010-01-01

    Background The California Tobacco Control Program (CTCP) has employed strategies to change social norms around smoking in order to decrease the prevalence of smoking and tobacco-related diseases. Research is scarce on CTCP's impact on overall smoking cessation in California. Methods Tobacco Use Supplement to the Current Population Survey (TUS-CPS) data from 1992–1993 to 2006–2007 was used to create a cessation-related outcome index (CROI), which was a summarised z score of the following determinants: plan to quit, quit attempt and recent quit rate for each of the 50 US states. CROI trends over the period of six separate TUS-CPSs were plotted for California and other comparison states, for 18–34 year olds and for those 35 years or older separately in the context of historical cigarette price z score trend. Results California had a consistently high CROI for both age groups. The CROI trend line increased moderately in California for both age groups despite a declining cigarette price z score trend. In contrast, other selected states with a declining cigarette price z score trend had a declining CROI trend for both age groups. Conclusions The increase of CROI in California while cigarette price z score trend declined suggests that the implementation of CTCP, even without a significant direct cessation component, has had a profound impact on cessation outcomes. PMID:20382652

  3. Electrochemical properties of Co 3O 4, Ni-Co 3O 4 mixture and Ni-Co 3O 4 composite as anode materials for Li ion secondary batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Yong-Mook; Kim, Ki-Tae; Kim, Jin-Ho; Kim, Hyun-Seok; Lee, Paul S.; Lee, Jai-Young; Liu, H. K.; Dou, S. X.

    By varying the synthetic temperature and time, Co 3O 4 with highly optimized electrochemical properties was obtained from the solid state reaction of CoCO 3. As a result, Co 3O 4 showed a high capacity around 700 mAh/g and stable capacity retention during cycling (93.4% of initial capacity was retained after 100 cycles). However, its initial irreversible capacity reached about 30% of capacity. Several phenomenological examinations in our previous results told us that the main causes of low initial coulombic efficiency, that is, large initial irreversible capacity, were solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) film formation on surface and incomplete decomposition of Li 2O during the first discharge process. SEI film formation cannot be restrained without the development of a special electrolyte, and there has been little research on the proper electrolyte composition, whereas in our research, Ni had the catalytic activity to facilitate Li 2O decomposition. Thus, in order to improve the low initial coulombic efficiency of Co 3O 4 (69%), Ni was added to Co 3O 4 using two methods like physical mixing and mechanical milling. When adding the same amount of Ni, the mechanical milling showed the improvement in initial coulombic efficiency, 79%, but physical mixing had no effect. Finally, when the charge-discharge mechanism of Co 3O 4 was considered and the morphologies of Ni-Co 3O 4 mixture obtained by physical mixing and Ni-Co 3O 4 composite prepared by mechanical milling were compared, it was revealed that the initial coulombic efficiency of Ni-Co 3O 4 composite depends on the contact area between the Ni and the Co 3O 4.

  4. The system Na2CO3-CaCO3-MgCO3 at 6 GPa and 900-1250°C and its relation to the partial melting of carbonated mantle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shatskiy, Anton; Litasov, Konstantin D.; Sharygin, Igor S.; Egonin, Ilya A.; Mironov, Aleksandr M.; Palyanov, Yuri N.; Ohtani, Eiji

    2016-01-01

    In order to constrain the Na2CO3-CaCO3-MgCO3 T-X diagram at 6 GPa in addition to the binary and pseudo-binary systems we conducted experiments along the Na2CO3-Ca0.5Mg0.5CO3 join. At 900-1000°C, melting does not occur and isothermal sections are presented by one-, two- and three-phase regions containing Ca-bearing magnesite, aragonite, Na2CO3 (Na2) and Na2(Ca1-0.9Mg0-0.1)3-4(CO3)4-5 (Na2Ca3-4), Na4(Ca1-0.6Mg0-0.4)(CO3)3 (Na4Ca), Na2(Ca0-0.08Mg1-0.92)(CO3)2 (Na2Mg) phases with intermediate compositions. The minimum melting point locates between 1000°C and 1100°C. This point would resemble that of three eutectics: Mgs-Na2Ca3-Na2Mg, Na2Mg-Na2Ca3-Na4Ca or Na2Mg-Na4Ca-Na2, in the compositional interval of [45Na2CO3.55(Ca0.6Mg0.4)CO3]-[60Na2CO3.40Ca0.6Mg0.4CO3]. The liquidus projection has seven primary solidification phase regions for Mgs, Dol, Arg, Na2Ca3, Na4Ca, Na2 and Na2Mg. The results suggest that extraction of Na and Ca from silicate to carbonate components has to decrease minimum melting temperature of carbonated mantle rocks to 1000-1100°C at 6 GPa and yields Na-rich dolomitic melt with a Na# (Na2O/(Na2O + CaO + MgO)) ≥ 28 mol%.

  5. 43 CFR 3107.2-2 - Cessation of production.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Cessation of production. 3107.2-2 Section 3107.2-2 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) OIL AND GAS LEASING Continuation, Extension or Renewal § 3107.2-2 Cessation...

  6. 43 CFR 3107.2-2 - Cessation of production.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Cessation of production. 3107.2-2 Section... MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) OIL AND GAS LEASING Continuation, Extension or Renewal § 3107.2-2 Cessation of production. A lease which is in its extended term because...

  7. 43 CFR 3107.2-2 - Cessation of production.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Cessation of production. 3107.2-2 Section... MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) OIL AND GAS LEASING Continuation, Extension or Renewal § 3107.2-2 Cessation of production. A lease which is in its extended term because...

  8. 43 CFR 3107.2-2 - Cessation of production.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Cessation of production. 3107.2-2 Section... MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) OIL AND GAS LEASING Continuation, Extension or Renewal § 3107.2-2 Cessation of production. A lease which is in its extended term because...

  9. Factors Influencing Smoking Cessation in Patients with Coronary Artery Disease.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKenna, Kryss; Higgins, Helen

    1997-01-01

    Ten sociodemographic, clinical, and psychological characteristics considered predictors of difficulty with smoking cessation in patients with coronary artery disease are reviewed. The compounding effects of nicotine addiction are discussed. Consideration of these factors may result in individualized programs for smoking cessation. A brief overview…

  10. Internet and Cell Phone Based Smoking Cessation Programs among Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mehta, Purvi; Sharma, Manoj

    2010-01-01

    Smoking cessation among adolescents is a salient public health issue, as it can prevent the adoption of risky health behaviors and reduce negative impacts on health. Self-efficacy, household and social support systems, and perceived benefits are some important cessation determinants. With the popular use of the Internet and cell phone usage among…

  11. 47 CFR 25.207 - Cessation of emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Cessation of emissions. 25.207 Section 25.207 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES SATELLITE COMMUNICATIONS Technical Standards § 25.207 Cessation of emissions. Space stations shall be made capable of ceasing...

  12. 47 CFR 25.207 - Cessation of emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cessation of emissions. 25.207 Section 25.207 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES SATELLITE COMMUNICATIONS Technical Standards § 25.207 Cessation of emissions. Space stations shall be made capable of ceasing...

  13. 47 CFR 25.207 - Cessation of emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Cessation of emissions. 25.207 Section 25.207 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES SATELLITE COMMUNICATIONS Technical Standards § 25.207 Cessation of emissions. Space stations shall be made capable of ceasing...

  14. 47 CFR 25.207 - Cessation of emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Cessation of emissions. 25.207 Section 25.207 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES SATELLITE COMMUNICATIONS Technical Standards § 25.207 Cessation of emissions. Space stations shall be made capable of ceasing...

  15. 47 CFR 25.207 - Cessation of emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Cessation of emissions. 25.207 Section 25.207 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES SATELLITE COMMUNICATIONS Technical Standards § 25.207 Cessation of emissions. Space stations shall be made capable of ceasing...

  16. Feasibility of School-Based Smoking Cessation Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillespie, Amaya; And Others

    1995-01-01

    This study surveyed Australian adolescents about smoking cessation behavior, analyzing previous quitting experience and intentions to quit. Previous quitters and those who intended to quit were significantly more likely to consider cessation assistance options acceptable than nonquitters and nonintenders. Saving money was an important variable in…

  17. The Struggle to Quit: Barriers and Incentives to Smoking Cessation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moffatt, Jenny; Whip, Rosemary

    2004-01-01

    Objective: Decades of research into smoking cessation have created a plethora of knowledge yet quit rates continue to be low and relapse rates high. In order to better understand this complex behaviour, this paper examines incentives and barriers to smoking cessation for a high risk group. Methods: The successful and unsuccessful quitting…

  18. Evaluation of Developmentally Appropriate Programs for Adolescent Tobacco Cessation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coleman-Wallace, Debbie; Lee, Jerry W.; Montgomery, Susanne; Blix, Glen; Wang, Dongqing Terry

    1999-01-01

    Evaluated two adolescent tobacco-cessation programs based on stages of change: an educational program for adolescents not yet thinking about quitting and a cessation program for adolescents ready to quit. Participant evaluation indicated that both interventions successfully helped reduce adolescent smoking. The educational program was the most…

  19. Better Practices for Youth Tobacco Cessation: Evidence of Review Panel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDonald, Paul; Colwell, Brian; Backinger, Cathy L.; Husten, Corinne; Maule, Catherine O.

    2003-01-01

    Objectives: To offer programmers, policy makers, and researchers a scientific basis for developing and selecting smoking cessation treatments for adolescents. Methods: An evidence review panel systematically rated published and unpublished reports of cessation treatments for youth to make recommendations on theoretical foundations, delivery…

  20. 26 CFR 1.455-4 - Cessation of taxpayer's liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Cessation of taxpayer's liability. 1.455-4...-4 Cessation of taxpayer's liability. (a) If a taxpayer has elected to apply the provisions of... for the taxable year in which such liability ends. A taxpayer's liability may end, for...

  1. Recommendations and Guidance for Practice in Youth Tobacco Cessation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milton, Micah H.; Maule, Catherine O.; Backinger, Cathy L.; Gregory, Dena M.

    2003-01-01

    Objectives: To summarize recommendations from Youth Tobacco Cessation: A Guide for Making Informed Decisions for careful consideration, selection, implementation, and evaluation of youth cessation interventions. Methods: Recommendations were developed from an evidence review and consensus from a multidisciplinary advisory panel. Results:…

  2. Efficacy of Incorporating Experiencing Exercises into a Smoking Cessation Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watt, Celia A.; Manaster, Guy

    2003-01-01

    Examines the impact of experiential exercises, combined with a traditional smoking cessation intervention, on quit rates and social learning theory variables known to impact smoking cessation. Measures of self-efficacy and locus of control did not significantly differ between the experimental and control conditions. Quit rates did not differ…

  3. A Critique of Evaluated Adolescent Smoking Cessation Programmes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanton, Warren R.; Smith, Katrina M.

    2002-01-01

    Rates of adolescent smoking appear to be on the increase, with a number of authors documenting increases in the 1990's. However, the issue of prevention rather than cessation has received greater attention in tobacco control programmes among youth. This review provides details of published school based and other tobacco cessation programmes for…

  4. Multiple discriminations experienced by people living with HIV in France: results from the ANRS-Vespa2 study.

    PubMed

    Marsicano, Elise; Dray-Spira, Rosemary; Lert, France; Aubrière, Cindy; Spire, Bruno; Hamelin, Christine

    2014-01-01

    Since the advent of AIDS, discrimination has remained at the core of the experience of people living with HIV (PLHIV). PLHIV who belong to minority groups are exposed to discrimination not only on the grounds of their HIV infection but also because of rejecting attitudes towards drug users, homosexuals and black people. This article aimed to measure the frequency of discrimination and assess its correlates among PLHIV in France. We used data from a national representative survey, the ANRS-Vespa2 study, conducted in France in 2011 among 3022 male and female HIV-positive patients followed at hospitals. Respondents answered a face-to-face questionnaire documenting their health status and living conditions. Discrimination was documented during the previous two years on the grounds of HIV infection, gender, country of birth, skin colour, sexual orientation, place of residence, and substance abuse in a variety of contexts. For each context, we performed logistic regressions on discrimination, controlling for socio-epidemiological group, age, education level and employment status. Discrimination is frequently experienced by PLHIV in France (26%), particularly when applying for a job (24%), interacting with family (11%) or seeking health services (8%). Women from sub-Saharan Africa reported the highest levels of discrimination, whereas heterosexual non-African men reported the lowest. Men who have sex with men experienced levels of discrimination that fell between those of these two groups. The major perceived reason for discrimination was HIV status (13%). Nationality, skin colour and sexual orientation were cited by 5% each, whereas gender was cited by 1% of respondents. Our analyses show that discrimination is a frequent and cross-cutting experience with differences across the various contexts and among the diverse subpopulations. The intertwining of HIV-related stigma with sexism, racism and homophobia needs to be addressed to understand why discrimination against

  5. Multiple discriminations experienced by people living with HIV in France: results from the ANRS-Vespa2 study.

    PubMed

    Marsicano, Elise; Dray-Spira, Rosemary; Lert, France; Aubrière, Cindy; Spire, Bruno; Hamelin, Christine

    2014-01-01

    Since the advent of AIDS, discrimination has remained at the core of the experience of people living with HIV (PLHIV). PLHIV who belong to minority groups are exposed to discrimination not only on the grounds of their HIV infection but also because of rejecting attitudes towards drug users, homosexuals and black people. This article aimed to measure the frequency of discrimination and assess its correlates among PLHIV in France. We used data from a national representative survey, the ANRS-Vespa2 study, conducted in France in 2011 among 3022 male and female HIV-positive patients followed at hospitals. Respondents answered a face-to-face questionnaire documenting their health status and living conditions. Discrimination was documented during the previous two years on the grounds of HIV infection, gender, country of birth, skin colour, sexual orientation, place of residence, and substance abuse in a variety of contexts. For each context, we performed logistic regressions on discrimination, controlling for socio-epidemiological group, age, education level and employment status. Discrimination is frequently experienced by PLHIV in France (26%), particularly when applying for a job (24%), interacting with family (11%) or seeking health services (8%). Women from sub-Saharan Africa reported the highest levels of discrimination, whereas heterosexual non-African men reported the lowest. Men who have sex with men experienced levels of discrimination that fell between those of these two groups. The major perceived reason for discrimination was HIV status (13%). Nationality, skin colour and sexual orientation were cited by 5% each, whereas gender was cited by 1% of respondents. Our analyses show that discrimination is a frequent and cross-cutting experience with differences across the various contexts and among the diverse subpopulations. The intertwining of HIV-related stigma with sexism, racism and homophobia needs to be addressed to understand why discrimination against

  6. Carbon monoxide bonding with BeO and BeCO3 : surprisingly high CO stretching frequency of OCBeCO3.

    PubMed

    Chen, Mohua; Zhang, Qingnan; Zhou, Mingfei; Andrada, Diego M; Frenking, Gernot

    2015-01-01

    The complexes OCBeCO3 and COBeCO3 have been isolated in a low-temperature neon matrix. The more stable isomer OCBeCO3 has a very high CO stretching mode of 2263 cm(-1) , which is blue-shifted by 122 cm(-1) with respect to free CO and 79 cm(-1) higher than in OCBeO. Bonding analysis of the complexes shows that OCBeO has a stronger OCBeY bond than OCBeCO3 because it encounters stronger π backdonation. The isomers COBeCO3 and COBeO exhibit red-shifted CO stretching modes with respect to free CO. The inverse change of CO stretching frequency in OCBeY and COBeY is explained with the reversed polarization of the σ and π bonds in CO. PMID:25369759

  7. Smoking Use and Cessation Among People with Serious Mental Illness.

    PubMed

    Annamalai, Aniyizhai; Singh, Noreen; O'Malley, Stephanie S

    2015-09-01

    Smoking rates in people with serious mental illness (SMI) are disproportionately high compared to the general population. It is a leading contributor to the early mortality in this population. Smoking cessation rates are low in this group, though patients are motivated to quit. Unfortunately, health care providers do not always prioritize smoking cessation for this population. This review provides an overview of prevalence rates, biological effects that maintain smoking, and evidence-based treatments for smoking cessation in SMI. In addition, objective and qualitative data from a chart review of 78 patients with SMI prescribed smoking cessation treatment at one community mental health center are described. Of these, 30 (38.5 percent) were found to either quit (16/78) or reduce (14/78) smoking. Varenicline appeared to be particularly effective. Review of the literature and results of this study suggest that smoking cessation pharmacotherapies are effective for SMI patients and should be offered to those who smoke.

  8. Smoking Use and Cessation Among People with Serious Mental Illness

    PubMed Central

    Annamalai, Aniyizhai; Singh, Noreen; O’Malley, Stephanie S.

    2015-01-01

    Smoking rates in people with serious mental illness (SMI) are disproportionately high compared to the general population. It is a leading contributor to the early mortality in this population. Smoking cessation rates are low in this group, though patients are motivated to quit. Unfortunately, health care providers do not always prioritize smoking cessation for this population. This review provides an overview of prevalence rates, biological effects that maintain smoking, and evidence-based treatments for smoking cessation in SMI. In addition, objective and qualitative data from a chart review of 78 patients with SMI prescribed smoking cessation treatment at one community mental health center are described. Of these, 30 (38.5 percent) were found to either quit (16/78) or reduce (14/78) smoking. Varenicline appeared to be particularly effective. Review of the literature and results of this study suggest that smoking cessation pharmacotherapies are effective for SMI patients and should be offered to those who smoke. PMID:26339210

  9. Impact of anthropogenic CO2 on the CaCO3 system in the oceans.

    PubMed

    Feely, Richard A; Sabine, Christopher L; Lee, Kitack; Berelson, Will; Kleypas, Joanie; Fabry, Victoria J; Millero, Frank J

    2004-07-16

    Rising atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations over the past two centuries have led to greater CO2 uptake by the oceans. This acidification process has changed the saturation state of the oceans with respect to calcium carbonate (CaCO3) particles. Here we estimate the in situ CaCO3 dissolution rates for the global oceans from total alkalinity and chlorofluorocarbon data, and we also discuss the future impacts of anthropogenic CO2 on CaCO3 shell-forming species. CaCO3 dissolution rates, ranging from 0.003 to 1.2 micromoles per kilogram per year, are observed beginning near the aragonite saturation horizon. The total water column CaCO3 dissolution rate for the global oceans is approximately 0.5 +/- 0.2 petagrams of CaCO3-C per year, which is approximately 45 to 65% of the export production of CaCO3.

  10. Pretreatment task persistence predicts smoking cessation outcome.

    PubMed

    Brandon, Thomas H; Herzog, Thaddeus A; Juliano, Laura M; Irvin, Jennifer E; Lazev, Amy B; Simmons, Vani Nath

    2003-08-01

    R. Eisenberger's (1992) learned industriousness theory states that individuals display differing degrees of persistence depending on their history of reinforcement for effortful behavior. These differences may influence the development, maintenance, and cessation of addictive behaviors. In cross-sectional studies, E. P. Quinn, T. H. Brandon, and A. L. Copeland (1996) found that cigarette smokers were less persistent than nonsmokers, and R. A. Brown, C. W. Lejuez, C. W. Kahler, and D. R. Strong (2002) found that smokers who had previously abstained for 3 months were more persistent than those who had never quit. The present study extended these findings by using a prospective design. A pretreatment measure of task persistence (mirror tracing) completed by 144 smokers predicted sustained abstinence throughout 12 months of follow-up. Moreover, persistence predicted outcome independent of other significant predictors: gender, nicotine dependence, negative affect, and self-efficacy.

  11. Update on medicines for smoking cessation

    PubMed Central

    McDonough, Mike

    2015-01-01

    Summary Persistent cigarette smokers usually have a nicotine addiction. This addiction has a chronic relapsing and sometimes remitting course and may persist lifelong. Remission can be facilitated by the use of medication as part of a comprehensive management strategy tailored to the individual patient. Nicotine replacement therapy is a first-line drug treatment. It is available in many formulations. Varenicline is also a first-line drug treatment. It should be started before the patient stops smoking. Bupropion is a second-line therapy. It may be associated with an increased risk of seizures and drug interactions. While there is some evidence that electronic cigarettes might facilitate smoking cessation, quit rates are not yet comparable with those of the drugs approved on the Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme. PMID:26648633

  12. [Moving from patient information to involvement in associations for people living with HIV participating in a medical study in Senegal - ANRS cohort 1215].

    PubMed

    Couderc, M; Desclaux Sall, C

    2014-10-01

    Based on work in anthropology and the experience of the implementation of a project on ethics, this article describes the contributions of the ANRS 1215 cohort to information of participants and community involvement in research. It draws a parallel between the development of information methods and the roles gradually held by PLWA individually or collectively. From 1998 to 2011, the PLWA have diversified theirs activities (psycho-social support, administrative tasks, ethical watch function) and have contributed to improve the information of participants. This involvement of PLWHIV in ethics, which belongs to a long-term process, is analyzed through social, political, economical and ethical evolutions, both at national and international level.

  13. Influence of Co2+ in CaCO3 polymorphism.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González-López, Jorge; Fernández-González, Angeles; Jiménez, Amalia

    2014-05-01

    Cobalt is a trace element in the Earth crust but also a toxic metal. Furthermore, Co2+can accumulate in some specific areas due to both natural and anthropogenic factors and hence soils and groundwater can be contaminated. Numerous studies have demonstrated that toxic elements can be removed from aqueous solution by its incorporation in mineral structures. In particular, the uptake of divalent metallic cations in the crystal structure of calcium carbonates has been postulated as a valuable solution to resolve and / or reduce some environmental problems. Here, we have investigated the cobalt uptake during calcium carbonate precipitation at ambient conditions. It is well known that certain anions such as sulphate, chromate and selenite favour the precipitation of vaterite while other cations as Sr2+ or Mg2+, avoid the calcite crystallization favouring the aragonite precipitation. Similar scenery can be depicted for Co2+ behaviour since the precipitation of both aragonite and a low crystallinity phase from aqueous solution have been described. However, the evolution of the polymorphic transformations after the precipitation of the phases remains unknown. In the present work we have precipitated calcium carbonate at room temperature in the presence of a certain amount of Co2+. Then, the precipitated solid has been aged in the remaining aqueous solution for two months. The experiment was carried out by mixing two different aqueous solutions: a) 50 mL of CoCl2 (0.02M) and CaCl2(0.05M) and b) 50 mL of Na2CO3 (0.05M). The aging process was monitored after 5 minutes, 1, 5, 24, and 48 hours and 4, 7, 30 and 60 days by analysing both the aqueous solution and the aged solids. The evolution of the different crystalline phases in the solid was followed by X-ray Powder Diffraction, their morphology was observed by Scanning Electron Microscopy and their chemical composition was analysed by Energy-dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy. Furthermore, the aqueous solution has also been

  14. Complex magnetic couplings in Co3TeO6

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Chin-Wei; Lee, Chi-Hung; Li, Chi-Yen; Wu, Chun-Ming; Li, Wen-Hsien; Chou, Chih-Chieh; Yang, Hung-Duen; Lynn, Jeffrey W.; Huang, Qingzhen; Harris, A. Brooks; Berger, Helmuth

    2013-11-01

    We report powder and single-crystal neutron diffraction measurements, combined with x-ray powder diffraction data, to unravel the complex magnetic phase diagram and exchange coupling in Co3TeO6. The magnetic structures of the various phases differ markedly from those proposed by Ivanov [Mater. Res. Bull.MRBUAC0025-540810.1016/j.materresbull.2011.10.003 47, 63 (2012)] on the basis of only powder diffraction data. The dominant exchange interactions are identified by considering the geometrical arrangement of severely distorted CoO6 octahedra and CoO4 tetrahedra, which naturally divide into two different types of layers, one of which consists of zigzag chains. These zigzag chains are the first to develop magnetic order at TM1 = 26 K, which is incommensurate in nature. The other separate layer of Co spins develops antiferromagnetic order of Γ4 symmetry at zero wave vector at TM2 = 19.5 K. Our results are consistent with the previous findings of a spontaneous polarization below TM3 = 18 K. Our neutron powder diffraction data indicate that the increase in the single-crystal (600) Bragg peak is due to a relief of extinction rather than to magnetic effects associated with the observed anomalous variation in the incommensurate wave vector at TM4 = 16 K. The commensurate order parameter is shown to have a small dependence on the applied electric field, whereas no such effect is found for the incommensurate ordering. Below TM3, the thermal expansion is negative, and it also exhibits anomalies at TM2 and TM4. A symmetry analysis and comprehensive phase diagram are given.

  15. CAIs in CO3 Meteorites: Parent Body or Nebular Alteration?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greenwood, R. C.; Hutchison, R.; Huss, G. R.; Hutcheon, I. D.

    1992-07-01

    It is widely held that alteration of Ca Al-rich inclusions (CAIs) in CV3 and CO3 meteorites occurred in the nebula (Hashimoto 1992). The CO3 chondrites, however, appear to define a metamorphic sequence dominated by parent body, and not nebular, metamorphic effects (Scott and Jones, 1990). To investigate the effects of metamorphism on CAIs we have studied inclusions from 4 CO chondrites: Colony (3.0), Felix (3.2), Lance (3.4), and Warrenton (3.6). In a section of Colony (74 mm^2) 81 CAIs, 30-870 micrometers long, comprise 52 nodular spinel-rich inclusions (fragments of Type-A CAI composed largely of spinel), 12 spinel-pyroxene inclusions, 10 melilite-rich inclusions, 2 hibonite-only inclusions, 2 CaAl4O7-bearing inclusions, and 3 spinel-pyroxene- olivine inclusions. Although a find, CAIs in Colony are relatively fresh, melilite in particular being little altered. In 79% of the spinel-bearing inclusions, spinel has <2wt% FeO, which otherwise ranges to 34.8%. Mg isotopic compositions were determined in 5 selected Colony inclusion; evidence of ^26Mg* from decay of ^26Al was found in 4 CAI. A hibonite-only inclusion has the largest ^26Mg* excess, delta^26Mg 32o/oo. Data show no evidence of isotopic disturbance and define a linear array with slope ^26Mg* /^27Al = (3.4+- 0.6) x 10^-5, like that obtained by Davis and Hinton (1986) in a hibonite-bearing spherule from Ornans. Despite Al/Mg ratios of up to 1500, CaAl4O7 in one inclusion shows no evidence of ^26Mg*; ^26Mg* < 4 x 10^-6. All three melilite-bearing inclusions from Colony C21 (angstrom k(sub)8.3-14.3), C56 (angstrom k(sub)10.5-16) and C62 (angstrom k(sub)15-21) show evidence of radiogenic ^26Mg*. Excess ^26Mg positively correlates with the Al/Mg ratios but the data do not define a unique initial value of ^26Al/^27Al. Data for melilite in C21, in particular, show evidence for disturbance of the Al-Mg system, as is common for Allende CAI (Podosek et al. 1991). Melilites in C56 in contrast show no evidence of

  16. Effects of aging on the effectiveness of smoking cessation medication

    PubMed Central

    Scholz, Jaqueline; Santos, Paulo Caleb Junior Lima; Buzo, Carolina Giusti; Lopes, Neuza Helena Moreira; Abe, Tania Marie Ogawa; Gaya, Patricia Viviane; Pierri, Humberto; Amorim, Clarice; Pereira, Alexandre Costa

    2016-01-01

    Background Considering the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic aspects of different medications, it is plausible that the age of a smoker could affect the half-life of these drugs. The aim of this study was to compare the effectiveness of smoking cessation drugs (nicotine replacement therapy, bupropion, and varenicline) used either in isolation or in combination in adults under and over 60 years of age. Methods Data were collected from 940 Brazilian patients participating in a smoking cessation program. Participants were prescribed smoking cessation medication to be used for at least 12 weeks and were followed for 52 weeks. Results Cessation rates were significantly different among younger and older participants who were using nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) alone. Being over 60 years of age was significantly associated with increased cessation success among those who used NRT alone (OR 2.34, 95% CI: 1.36 to 4.04, p = 0.002). The effectiveness of varenicline and bupropion were not significantly different according to age groups. Conclusion Using age as a predictor for tailoring smoking cessation drugs might potentially lead to a more individualized prescription of smoking cessation therapy. These results should be tested in randomized controlled trials. PMID:27166253

  17. Smoking cessation treatment among office-based buprenorphine treatment patients.

    PubMed

    Nahvi, Shadi; Blackstock, Oni; Sohler, Nancy L; Thompson, Devin; Cunningham, Chinazo O

    2014-08-01

    Opioid-dependent patients smoke at high rates, and office-based buprenorphine treatment provides an opportunity to offer cessation treatment. We examined tobacco use and smoking cessation treatment patterns among office-based buprenorphine treatment patients. We reviewed records of 319 patients treated with buprenorphine from 2005 to 2010. We examined smoking status, cessation medication prescriptions, and factors associated with receipt of cessation prescriptions. Mean age was 43.9 years; most were men (74.2%) and Hispanic (70.9%). At buprenorphine initiation, 21.9% had no documentation of smoking status, while 67.4% were current, 10% former, and 0.9% never smokers. Of current smokers, 16.8% received smoking cessation prescriptions. Patients retained (vs. not retained) in buprenorphine treatment were more likely to receive smoking cessation medications (26.3% vs. 11.2%, p<0.005). We observed a high tobacco use prevalence among buprenorphine patients, and limited provision of cessation treatment. This is a missed opportunity to impact the high tobacco use burden in opioid-dependent persons.

  18. Uptake of PrEP and condom and sexual risk behavior among MSM during the ANRS IPERGAY trial.

    PubMed

    Sagaon-Teyssier, Luis; Suzan-Monti, Marie; Demoulin, Baptiste; Capitant, Catherine; Lorente, Nicolas; Préau, Marie; Mora, Marion; Rojas Castro, Daniela; Chidiac, Christian; Chas, Julie; Meyer, Laurence; Molina, Jean-Michel; Spire, Bruno

    2016-01-01

    The double-blind phase of the randomized ANRS IPERGAY trial, evaluating sexual activity-based oral HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP), was conducted among high-risk men who have sex with men (MSM). Results showed an 86% (95% CI: 40-98) relative reduction in HIV incidence among participants with tenofovir disoproxil fumarate-emtricitabine vs. placebo. The present pooled analysis aimed to analyze (i) participants' adherence to the prescribed treatment and/or condom use during sexual intercourse and (ii) sexual behavior during the double-blind phase of the study. Four hundred MSM were enrolled in the trial. Every 2 months they completed online questionnaires collecting sexual behavior and PrEP adherence data regarding their most recent sexual intercourse. A total of 2232 questionnaires (M0-M24) were analyzed. Changes over time were evaluated using a mixed model accounting for multiple measures. Irrespective of sexual partner and practice type, on average, 42.6% (min: 32.1-max: 45.8%) reported PrEP use only during their most recent episode of sexual intercourse; 29% (22.9-35.6%) reported both PrEP and condom use; 11.7% (7.2-18.9%) reported condom-use only, and 16.7% (10.8-29.6%) reported no PrEP or condom use with no significant change during the study. Scheduled (i.e., correct) PrEP use was reported on average by 59.0% (47.2-68.5%) of those reporting PrEP use during their most recent sexual intercourse. Overall, 70.3% (65.3-79.4%) and 69.3% (58.3-75.4%) of participants reported, respectively, condomless anal and condomless receptive anal intercourse during their most recent sexual encounter without significant change during follow-up. Overall, on average 83.3% (min: 70.4-max: 89.2%) of participants protected themselves by PrEP intake or condom use or both during the trial, and no increase in at-risk sexual practices was observed. None of these indicators showed significant trend during the follow-up, although we found a tendency toward decrease (p = .19) of the

  19. Uptake of PrEP and condom and sexual risk behavior among MSM during the ANRS IPERGAY trial

    PubMed Central

    Sagaon-Teyssier, Luis; Suzan-Monti, Marie; Demoulin, Baptiste; Capitant, Catherine; Lorente, Nicolas; Préau, Marie; Mora, Marion; Rojas Castro, Daniela; Chidiac, Christian; Chas, Julie; Meyer, Laurence; Molina, Jean-Michel; Spire, Bruno; for the ANRS IPERGAY Study Group

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The double-blind phase of the randomized ANRS IPERGAY trial, evaluating sexual activity-based oral HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP), was conducted among high-risk men who have sex with men (MSM). Results showed an 86% (95% CI: 40–98) relative reduction in HIV incidence among participants with tenofovir disoproxil fumarate–emtricitabine vs. placebo. The present pooled analysis aimed to analyze (i) participants’ adherence to the prescribed treatment and/or condom use during sexual intercourse and (ii) sexual behavior during the double-blind phase of the study. Four hundred MSM were enrolled in the trial. Every 2 months they completed online questionnaires collecting sexual behavior and PrEP adherence data regarding their most recent sexual intercourse. A total of 2232 questionnaires (M0–M24) were analyzed. Changes over time were evaluated using a mixed model accounting for multiple measures. Irrespective of sexual partner and practice type, on average, 42.6% (min: 32.1–max: 45.8%) reported PrEP use only during their most recent episode of sexual intercourse; 29% (22.9–35.6%) reported both PrEP and condom use; 11.7% (7.2–18.9%) reported condom-use only, and 16.7% (10.8–29.6%) reported no PrEP or condom use with no significant change during the study. Scheduled (i.e., correct) PrEP use was reported on average by 59.0% (47.2–68.5%) of those reporting PrEP use during their most recent sexual intercourse. Overall, 70.3% (65.3–79.4%) and 69.3% (58.3–75.4%) of participants reported, respectively, condomless anal and condomless receptive anal intercourse during their most recent sexual encounter without significant change during follow-up. Overall, on average 83.3% (min: 70.4–max: 89.2%) of participants protected themselves by PrEP intake or condom use or both during the trial, and no increase in at-risk sexual practices was observed. None of these indicators showed significant trend during the follow-up, although we found a tendency

  20. Uptake of PrEP and condom and sexual risk behavior among MSM during the ANRS IPERGAY trial.

    PubMed

    Sagaon-Teyssier, Luis; Suzan-Monti, Marie; Demoulin, Baptiste; Capitant, Catherine; Lorente, Nicolas; Préau, Marie; Mora, Marion; Rojas Castro, Daniela; Chidiac, Christian; Chas, Julie; Meyer, Laurence; Molina, Jean-Michel; Spire, Bruno

    2016-01-01

    The double-blind phase of the randomized ANRS IPERGAY trial, evaluating sexual activity-based oral HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP), was conducted among high-risk men who have sex with men (MSM). Results showed an 86% (95% CI: 40-98) relative reduction in HIV incidence among participants with tenofovir disoproxil fumarate-emtricitabine vs. placebo. The present pooled analysis aimed to analyze (i) participants' adherence to the prescribed treatment and/or condom use during sexual intercourse and (ii) sexual behavior during the double-blind phase of the study. Four hundred MSM were enrolled in the trial. Every 2 months they completed online questionnaires collecting sexual behavior and PrEP adherence data regarding their most recent sexual intercourse. A total of 2232 questionnaires (M0-M24) were analyzed. Changes over time were evaluated using a mixed model accounting for multiple measures. Irrespective of sexual partner and practice type, on average, 42.6% (min: 32.1-max: 45.8%) reported PrEP use only during their most recent episode of sexual intercourse; 29% (22.9-35.6%) reported both PrEP and condom use; 11.7% (7.2-18.9%) reported condom-use only, and 16.7% (10.8-29.6%) reported no PrEP or condom use with no significant change during the study. Scheduled (i.e., correct) PrEP use was reported on average by 59.0% (47.2-68.5%) of those reporting PrEP use during their most recent sexual intercourse. Overall, 70.3% (65.3-79.4%) and 69.3% (58.3-75.4%) of participants reported, respectively, condomless anal and condomless receptive anal intercourse during their most recent sexual encounter without significant change during follow-up. Overall, on average 83.3% (min: 70.4-max: 89.2%) of participants protected themselves by PrEP intake or condom use or both during the trial, and no increase in at-risk sexual practices was observed. None of these indicators showed significant trend during the follow-up, although we found a tendency toward decrease (p = .19) of the

  1. Smoking cessation strategies by nurses in an acute care setting.

    PubMed

    Bryant, Saovarot K

    2008-01-01

    Smoking Cessation Strategies by Nurses in an Acute Care Setting is a pilot educational project for registered nurses (RNs) at a teaching community hospital in the Southeast. The purpose of this project is to provide an inservice education session using the recommendation of the National Guideline Clearinghouse in Treating Tobacco Use and Dependence and the Guideline from the U.S. Public Health Service. A convenience sample of 49 RNs completed a 10-question pretest and 10-question posttest on perceptions about smoking cessation assessment, strategies, and documentation. After the inservice education, the result showed a significant improvement of RN perception in smoking cessation assessment, strategies, and documentation.

  2. Suicide Prevention Referrals in a Mobile Health Smoking Cessation Intervention.

    PubMed

    Christofferson, Dana E; Hamlett-Berry, Kim; Augustson, Erik

    2015-08-01

    Automated mobile health (mHealth) programs deliver effective smoking cessation interventions through text message platforms. Smoking is an independent risk factor for suicide, so the Department of Veterans Affairs incorporated information about the Veterans Crisis Line into its SmokefreeVET smoking cessation text messaging program. Almost 7% of all SmokefreeVET enrollees have accessed this information. Because of the reach and automated nature of this and similar programs, we recommend including a referral to a suicide prevention hotline for all smoking cessation mHealth interventions. PMID:26066949

  3. Carbon Dioxide Activation by Scandium Atoms and Scandium Monoxide Molecules: Formation and Spectroscopic Characterization of ScCO3 and OCScCO3 in Solid Neon.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qingnan; Qu, Hui; Chen, Mohua; Zhou, Mingfei

    2016-01-28

    The reactions of carbon dioxide with scandium monoxide molecules and scandium atoms are investigated using matrix isolation infrared spectroscopy in solid neon. The species formed are identified by the effects of isotopic substitution on their infrared spectra as well as density functional calculations. The results show that the ground state ScO molecule reacts with carbon dioxide to form the carbonate complex ScCO3 spontaneously on annealing. The ground state Sc atom reacts with two carbon dioxide molecules to give the carbonate carbonyl complex OCScCO3 via the previously reported OScCO insertion intermediate on annealing. The observation of these spontaneous reactions is consistent with theoretical predictions that both the Sc + 2CO2 → OCScCO3 and ScO + CO2 → ScCO3 reactions are thermodynamically exothermic and are kinetically facile, requiring little or no activation energy. PMID:26738558

  4. Carbon Dioxide Activation by Scandium Atoms and Scandium Monoxide Molecules: Formation and Spectroscopic Characterization of ScCO3 and OCScCO3 in Solid Neon.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qingnan; Qu, Hui; Chen, Mohua; Zhou, Mingfei

    2016-01-28

    The reactions of carbon dioxide with scandium monoxide molecules and scandium atoms are investigated using matrix isolation infrared spectroscopy in solid neon. The species formed are identified by the effects of isotopic substitution on their infrared spectra as well as density functional calculations. The results show that the ground state ScO molecule reacts with carbon dioxide to form the carbonate complex ScCO3 spontaneously on annealing. The ground state Sc atom reacts with two carbon dioxide molecules to give the carbonate carbonyl complex OCScCO3 via the previously reported OScCO insertion intermediate on annealing. The observation of these spontaneous reactions is consistent with theoretical predictions that both the Sc + 2CO2 → OCScCO3 and ScO + CO2 → ScCO3 reactions are thermodynamically exothermic and are kinetically facile, requiring little or no activation energy.

  5. High-temperature heat capacity of Co3O4 spinel: thermally induced spin unpairing transition

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mocala, K.; Navrotsky, A.; Sherman, David M.

    1992-01-01

    A strong anomaly was found in the heat capacity of Co3O4 between 1000 K and the decomposition temperature. This anomaly is not related to the decomposition of Co3O4 to CoO. The measured entropy of transition, ??S=46??4 J mol-1 K-1 of Co3O4, supports the interpretation that this anomaly reflects a spin unpairing transition in octahedrally coordinated Co3+ cations. Experimental values of heat capacity, heat content and entropy of Co3O4 in the high temperature region are provided. The enthalpy of the spin unpairing transition is 53??4 kJ mol-1 of Co3O4. ?? 1992 Springer-Verlag.

  6. Functionalisation of terpyridine complexes containing the Re(CO)3(+) moiety.

    PubMed

    Amoroso, Angelo J; Banu, Afrosa; Coogan, Michael P; Edwards, Peter G; Hossain, Golzar; Malik, K M Abdul

    2010-08-14

    The investigation into the substitution and addition chemistry of Re(sigma(2)-terpy)(CO)(3)Cl shows that the chloride in Re(sigma(2)-terpy)(CO)(3)Cl (1) may be substituted for acetonitrile to give [Re(sigma(2)-terpy)(CO)(3)(CH(3)CN)][PF(6)] (2), but in the cationic complex [Re(sigma(2)-terpyMe)(CO)(3)Cl][PF(6)] (4), where the pendant pyridine has been methylated, substitution of the chloride could not be achieved using standard conditions. However, use of [Re(sigma(2)-terpyMe)(CO)(3)I][PF(6)] (3) results in the formation of [Re(sigma(2)-terpyMe)(CO)(3)(CH(3)CN)][PF(6)](2) (5). The acetonitrile ligand in complex 2 was found to be labile and could be substituted by pyridine donors.

  7. Heat capacities and entropies of rhodochrosite (MnCO3) and siderite (FeCO3) between 5 and 600 K.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robie, R.A.; Haselton, H.T.; Hemingway, B.S.

    1984-01-01

    The heat capacities of rhodochrosite, (Mn0.994Fe0.005Mg0.001)CO3, and siderite, 171(Fe0.956Mn0.042Mg0.002)CO3, were measured between 5 and 550 K by combined cryogenic-adiabatic and differential scanning calorimetry. These new data were used to reanalyse the thermodynamic properties of these phases.-J.A.Z.

  8. Dynamics of fossil fuel CO2 neutralization by marine CaCO3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Archer, David; Kheshgi, Haroon; Maier-Reimer, Ernst

    1998-06-01

    A detailed model of the ocean circulation and carbon cycle was coupled to a mechanistic model of CaCO3 diagenesis in deep sea sediments to simulate the millennium-scale response of the oceans to future fossil fuel CO2 emissions to the atmosphere and deep sea. Simulations of deep sea injection of CO2 show that CaCO3 dissolution is sensitive to passage of high-CO2 waters through the Atlantic Ocean, but CaCO3 dissolution has a negligible impact on atmospheric pCO2 or the atmospheric stabilization CO2 emission in the coming centuries. The ultimate fate of the fossil fuel CO2 will be to react with CaCO3 on the seafloor and on land. An initial CaCO3 dissolution spike reverses the net sedimentation rate in the ocean until it is attenuated by an enhanced vertical gradient of alkalinity after about 1000 years. The magnitude of the initial spike is sensitive to assumptions about the kinetics for CaCO3 dissolution, but subsequent behavior appears to be less model dependent. Neutralization by seafloor CaCO3 occurs on a timescale of 5-6 kyr, and is limited to at most 60-70% of the fossil fuel release, even if the fossil fuel release is smaller than the seafloor erodible inventory of CaCO3. Additional neutralization by terrestrial CaCO3 restores a balance between CaCO3 weathering and seafloor accumulation on a timescale of 8.5 kyr, while the deficit of seafloor CaCO3 (the lysocline) is replenished with an e-folding timescale of approximately 18 kyr. The final equilibrium with CaCO3 leaves 7-8% of the fossil fuel CO2 remaining in the atmosphere, to be neutralized by the silicate rock cycle on a time frame of hundreds of thousands of years.

  9. Facile synthesis of monodisperse porous Co3O4 microspheres with superior ethanol sensing properties.

    PubMed

    Sun, Chunwen; Rajasekhara, Shreyas; Chen, Yujin; Goodenough, John B

    2011-12-28

    A solvothermal method was developed to prepare on a large scale monodisperse porous β-Co(OH)(2) microspheres consisting of nanoplatelets. Co(3)O(4) microspheres with porous platelets were obtained via subsequent thermal decomposition. These Co(3)O(4) microspheres show much higher ethanol sensitivity and selectivity at a relatively low temperature (135 °C) compared with those of commercial Co(3)O(4) nanoparticles.

  10. Uniaxial magnetic anisotropy of rhombohedral CoCO3 crystals at T = 0 K

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Men'shikov, V. V.; Rudenko, V. V.; Tugarinov, V. I.; Vorotynov, A. M.; Ovchinnikov, S. G.

    2014-03-01

    A method for calculating the contribution of exchange interaction to uniaxial anisotropy with the use of g' factors has been worked out using CoCO3 crystals as an example. The calculated contribution of dipole-dipole interactions to the anisotropy of CoCO3 is 0.93 cm-1. The sum of the contributions to the anisotropy constant of CoCO3 with the inclusion of the dipole-dipole interactions is 36.1 cm-1.

  11. Electrochemical investigation of sodium reactivity with nanostructured Co3O4 for sodium-ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Md Mokhlesur; Glushenkov, Alexey M; Ramireddy, Thrinathreddy; Chen, Ying

    2014-05-21

    The electrochemical behaviour of Co3O4 with sodium is reported here. Upon cycling in the voltage window of 0.01-3.0 V, Co3O4 undergoes a conversion reaction and exhibits a reversible capacity of 447 mA h g(-1) after 50 cycles. Therefore, nanostructured Co3O4 presents feasible electrochemical sodium storage, offering possibilities to develop new anode materials for sodium-ion batteries.

  12. 30 CFR 285.401 - When may MMS issue a cessation order?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false When may MMS issue a cessation order? 285.401... CONTINENTAL SHELF Lease and Grant Administration Noncompliance and Cessation Orders § 285.401 When may MMS issue a cessation order? (a) The MMS may issue a cessation order during the term of your lease or...

  13. High-pressure phase transitions and compressibilities of aragonite-structure carbonates: SrCO3 and BaCO3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Meili; Liu, Qiong; Nie, Shufang; Li, Baosheng; Wu, Ye; Gao, Jing; Wei, Xiaozhuo; Wu, Xiang

    2015-06-01

    The aragonite-structure carbonates—strontianite (SrCO3) and witherite (BaCO3)—were investigated by synchrotron X-ray diffraction combined with diamond anvil cells up to 30 and 15 GPa at room temperature, respectively. Phase transitions in SrCO3 ( Pmcn to P21212) and BaCO3 ( Pmcn to Pmmn) were observed at 22.2-26.9 and 9.8-11.2 GPa, respectively. Both strontianite and witherite display anisotropic linear compression under pressure, with the c-axis 2-3 times more compressible than the a-axis and b-axis. The obtained second-order Birch-Murnaghan equation of state parameters for strontianite and witherite are V 0 = 258.4(3) Å3, K 0 = 62(1) GPa; and V 0 = 304.8(3) Å3, K 0 = 48(1) GPa, respectively. Based on the current results for strontianite and witherite and previous data for aragonite (CaCO3) and cerussite (PbCO3), the bulk moduli of the aragonite-structure carbonates exhibit a linear correlation with ambient molar volume [ K T0 (GPa) = 138 (5) - 2.0 (3) × V 0], with V 0 in cm3/mol, and the aragonite-structure to post-aragonite-structure phase transition pressures increase with decreasing ionic radius of the cations.

  14. Compound Method to Disperse CaCO3 Nanoparticles to Nano-Size in Water.

    PubMed

    Gu, Sui; Cai, Jihua; Wang, Jijun; Yuan, Ye; Chang, Dewu; Chikhotkin, Viktor F

    2015-12-01

    The invalidation of CaCO3 nanoparticles (nCaCO3) is often caused by the fact of agglomeration and inhomogeneous dispersion which limits its application into water-based drilling muds for low permeability reservoirs such as coalbed methane reservoir and shale gas/oil reservoir. Effective methods to disperse nCaCO3 to nano-size (≤ 100 nm) in water have seldom been reported. Here we developed a compound method containing mechanical stirring, ultrasonic treatment, the use of surfactant and stabilizer to disperse nCaCO3 in water. It comprises the steps adding 2% nCaCO3, 1% sodium dodecyl sulfonate (SDS), 2% cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB), 2% OP-10, 3% to 4% biopolymer (XC) in water successively, stirring it at a shear rate of 6000 to 8000 r/min for 15 minutes and treating it with ultrasonic at a frequency of 28 KHz for 30 to 40 minutes. The dispersed nCaCO3 was characterized with scanning electron microscope (SEM), transmission electron microscope (TEM) and particle size distribution (PSD) tests. We found that nCaCO3 could be dispersed to below 100 nm in water and the medium value of nCaCO3 was below 50 nm. This method paved the way for the utilization of nCaCO3 in drilling fluid and completion fluid for low permeability reservoirs such as coal seams and shale gas/oil formations. PMID:26682370

  15. [Motivational interviewing and cognitive behavior therapy for smoking cessation].

    PubMed

    Kawai, Atsuko; Kano, Masato; Sato, Tadahiro

    2013-03-01

    The combination therapy of counseling and medication is very important in smoking cessation treatment. Motivational interviewing (MI) and cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) are interventions recommended in two well-recognized guidelines for smoking cessation in the United States. MI is effective for those who do not want to quit smoking; CBT for those who cannot but want to quit smoking, those who repeatedly quit and re-smoke, those who are depressed, and women who are concerned about their weight. However, neither MI nor CBT for smoking cessation is widely practiced in Japan. We describe the nature of, evidence for, and practice of MI and CBT in smoking cessation treatment, hopeful that clinicians and other healthcare staff learn and apply these techniques.

  16. Teaching smoking cessation to future nurses: Quebec educators' beliefs.

    PubMed

    Lepage, Mario; Dumas, Louise; Saint-Pierre, Chantal

    2015-03-01

    Smoking cessation strategies are barely discussed in nursing education programs, even though initial education shapes how future professionals practice their profession. The aim of this research is to describe the practices, attitudes, and beliefs of nursing educators of Quebec with regard to smoking cessation strategies in initial nursing education. A descriptive design was chosen along with an online questionnaire. A total of 278 educators (20.8%) participated in the survey. Although educators recognize the importance of incorporating smoking cessation strategies into their teaching practice, they allocate an average of only one hour per year to the topic. Tobacco use is addressed mostly in terms of risk factors, with little focus on how to help patients quit. The perceived obstacles are related to false beliefs and a lack of knowledge. The results of this study demonstrate the need to raise educators' awareness of the importance of incorporating smoking cessation strategies into classroom teaching.

  17. Oral health risks of tobacco use and effects of cessation.

    PubMed

    Warnakulasuriya, Saman; Dietrich, Thomas; Bornstein, Michael M; Casals Peidró, Elías; Preshaw, Philip M; Walter, Clemens; Wennström, Jan L; Bergström, Jan

    2010-02-01

    The purpose of this paper is to review the epidemiologic evidence for the effects of tobacco use and tobacco use cessation on a variety of oral diseases and conditions. Exposures considered include cigarette and bidi smoking, pipe and cigar smoking, and smokeless tobacco use. Oral diseases and disorders considered include oral cancer and precancer, periodontal disease, caries and tooth loss, gingival recession and other benign mucosal disorders as well as implant failure. Particular attention is given to the impact of tobacco use cessation on oral health outcomes. We conclude that robust epidemiologic evidence exists for adverse oral health effects of tobacco smoking and other types of tobacco use. In addition, there is compelling evidence to support significant benefits of tobacco use cessation with regard to various oral health outcomes. Substantial oral health benefits can be expected from abstention and successful smoking cessation in a variety of populations across all ages. PMID:20361572

  18. Activating Lay Health Influencers to Promote Tobacco Cessation

    PubMed Central

    Muramoto, Myra L.; Hall, John R.; Nichter, Mark; Nichter, Mimi; Aickin, Mikel; Connolly, Tim; Matthews, Eva; Campbell, Jean Z.; Lando, Harry A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Evaluate the effect of tobacco cessation brief-intervention (BI) training for lay “health influencers,” on knowledge, self-efficacy and the proportion of participants reporting BI delivery post-training. Methods Randomized, community-based study comparing In-person or Web-based training, with mailed materials. Results In-person and Web-training groups had significant post-training cessation knowledge and self-efficacy gains. All groups increased the proportion of individuals reporting BIs at follow-up, with no significant between-group differences. Irrespective of participants’ prior intervention experience, 80–86% reported BIs within the past 90 days; 71–79% reported ≥1 in the past 30. Conclusions Web and In-person training significantly increase health influencer cessation knowledge and self-efficacy. With minimal prompting and materials, even persons without BI experience can be activated to encourage tobacco cessation. PMID:24636035

  19. OLD FIELD SUCCESSIONAL DYNAMICS FOLLOWING CESSATION OF CHRONIC DISTURBANCE

    EPA Science Inventory

    In grasslands dominated by warm-season grasses, community composition and successional patterns can be altered by disturbance and exotic species invasions. Our objective was to describe vegetation dynamics following cessation of a chronic disturbance (heavy grazing by cattle) in...

  20. Use of Smoking Cessation Interventions by Physicians in Argentina

    PubMed Central

    Schoj, Veronica; Mejia, Raul; Alderete, Mariela; Kaplan, Celia P.; Peña, Lorena; Gregorich, Steven E.; Alderete, Ethel; Pérez-Stable, Eliseo J.

    2015-01-01

    Background Physician-implemented interventions for smoking cessation are effective but infrequently used. We evaluated smoking cessation practices among physicians in Argentina. Methods A self-administered survey of physicians from six clinical systems asked about smoking cessation counselling practices, barriers to tobacco use counselling and perceived quality of training received in smoking cessation practices. Results Of 254 physicians, 52.3% were women, 11.8% were current smokers and 52% never smoked. Perceived quality of training in tobacco cessation counselling was rated as very good or good by 41.8% and as poor/very poor by 58.2%. Most physicians (90%) reported asking and recording smoking status, 89% advised patients to quit smoking but only 37% asked them to set a quit date and 44% prescribed medications. Multivariate analyses showed that Physicians’ perceived quality of their training in smoking cessation methods was associated with greater use of evidence-based cessation interventions. (OR = 6.5; 95% CI = 2.2–19.1); motivating patients to quit (OR: 7.9 CI 3.44–18.5), assisting patients to quit (OR = 9.9; 95% CI = 4.0–24.2) prescribing medications (OR = 9.6; 95% CI = 3.5–26.7), and setting up follow-up (OR = 13.0; 95% CI = 4.4–38.5). Conclusions Perceived quality of training in smoking cessation was associated with using evidence-based interventions and among physicians from Argentina. Medical training programs should enhance the quality of this curriculum. PMID:27594922

  1. Use of Smoking Cessation Interventions by Physicians in Argentina

    PubMed Central

    Schoj, Veronica; Mejia, Raul; Alderete, Mariela; Kaplan, Celia P.; Peña, Lorena; Gregorich, Steven E.; Alderete, Ethel; Pérez-Stable, Eliseo J.

    2015-01-01

    Background Physician-implemented interventions for smoking cessation are effective but infrequently used. We evaluated smoking cessation practices among physicians in Argentina. Methods A self-administered survey of physicians from six clinical systems asked about smoking cessation counselling practices, barriers to tobacco use counselling and perceived quality of training received in smoking cessation practices. Results Of 254 physicians, 52.3% were women, 11.8% were current smokers and 52% never smoked. Perceived quality of training in tobacco cessation counselling was rated as very good or good by 41.8% and as poor/very poor by 58.2%. Most physicians (90%) reported asking and recording smoking status, 89% advised patients to quit smoking but only 37% asked them to set a quit date and 44% prescribed medications. Multivariate analyses showed that Physicians’ perceived quality of their training in smoking cessation methods was associated with greater use of evidence-based cessation interventions. (OR = 6.5; 95% CI = 2.2–19.1); motivating patients to quit (OR: 7.9 CI 3.44–18.5), assisting patients to quit (OR = 9.9; 95% CI = 4.0–24.2) prescribing medications (OR = 9.6; 95% CI = 3.5–26.7), and setting up follow-up (OR = 13.0; 95% CI = 4.4–38.5). Conclusions Perceived quality of training in smoking cessation was associated with using evidence-based interventions and among physicians from Argentina. Medical training programs should enhance the quality of this curriculum.

  2. Initial uptake of the Ontario Pharmacy Smoking Cessation Program

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Lindsay; Burden, Andrea M.; Liu, Yan Yun; Tadrous, Mina; Pojskic, Nedzad; Dolovich, Lisa; Calzavara, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Background: Smoking is a significant public health concern. The Ontario Pharmacy Smoking Cessation Program was launched in September 2011 to leverage community pharmacists and expand access to smoking cessation services for public drug plan beneficiaries. Methods: We examined health care utilization data in Ontario to describe public drug plan beneficiaries receiving, and pharmacies providing, smoking cessation services between September 2011 and September 2013. Patient characteristics were summarized, stratified by drug plan group: seniors (age ≥65 years) or social assistance. Trends over time were examined by plotting the number of services, unique patients and unique pharmacies by month. We then examined use of follow-up services and prescription smoking cessation medications. Results: We identified 7767 residents receiving pharmacy smoking cessation services: 28% seniors (mean age = 69.9, SD = 4.8; 53% male) and 72% social assistance (mean age = 44.4 years, SD = 11.8; 48% male). Cumulative patient enrollment increased over time with an average of 311 (SD = 61) new patients per month, and one-third (n = 1253) of pharmacies participated by the end of September 2013. Regions with the highest number of patients were Erie St. Clair (n = 1328) and Hamilton Niagara Haldimand Brant (n = 1312). Sixteen percent of all patients received another pharmacy service (e.g., MedsCheck) on the same day as smoking cessation program enrollment. Among patients with follow-up data, 56% received follow-up smoking cessation services (60% seniors, 55% social assistance) and 74% received a prescription smoking cessation medication. One-year quit status was reported for 12%, with a 29% success rate. Conclusions: Program enrollment has increased steadily since its launch, yet only a third of pharmacies participated and 56% of patients received follow-up services. PMID:26759563

  3. Association between Positivity and Smoking Cessation

    PubMed Central

    Alessandri, Guido; Milioni, Michela; Enea, Domenico; Ceccanti, Mauro; Nencini, Paolo; Caprara, Gian Vittorio

    2014-01-01

    The literature documents that personality characteristics are associated with healthy lifestyles, including smoking. Among positive traits, Positivity (POS), defined as a general disposition conducive to facing experience under a positive outlook has shown robust associations with psychological health. Thus, the present study investigated the extent to which POS is able to predict (i) relapse after quitting smoking and (ii) the desire to smoke again. All participants (481) had previously attended a Group Counselling Program (GCP) for Smoking Cessation (from 2005 through 2010). They were contacted through telephone interview. Among participants, 244 were ex-smokers (age: years 56.3 ± 10.08, 52% female) and 237 were still-smokers (age: years 55.0 ± 9.63; 63.5% female). The association of POS with “craving to smoke” levels was assessed with multivariate linear regression analysis while controlling also for important differences in personality such as conscientiousness and general self-efficacy, as well as for gender and age. Results showed that POS was significantly and negatively associated with smoking status and with craving to smoke. Among covariates (i.e., conscientiousness, generalized self-efficacy), gender was associated with smoking status and with craving to smoke. Altogether these findings corroborate the idea that POS plays a significant role in sustaining individuals' efforts to quit smoking. PMID:24967403

  4. Applying the performance partnership model to smoking cessation: lessons learned by the smoking cessation leadership center.

    PubMed

    Revell, Connie C; Meriwether, Margaret B

    2011-11-01

    A wide array of partners can be convened around a single measurable outcome, such as driving down smoking prevalence, through the use of an innovative approach called the performance partnership model. This approach has certain key characteristics that make it different from ordinary coalition building, such as following four steps leading to a baseline, a target, an action plan, and an impact measurement plan. It also employs great speed and focus to keep partners engaged, and it has led to demonstrable progress on smoking cessation nationwide. PMID:22068575

  5. A Rural Appalachian Faith-Placed Smoking Cessation Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Schoenberg, Nancy E.; Bundy, Henry E.; Baeker Bispo, Jordan A.; Studts, Christina R.; Shelton, Brent J.; Fields, Nell

    2014-01-01

    Although health promotion programming in faith institutions is promising, most faith-based or placed health projects focus on diet, exercise, or cancer screening and many have been located in urban environments. This article addresses the notable absence of faith programming for smoking cessation among underserved rural US residents who experience tobacco-related health inequities. In this article, we describe our faith-oriented smoking cessation program in rural Appalachia, involving 590 smokers in 26 rural churches randomized to early and delayed intervention groups. We present three main themes that account for participants’ positive evaluation of the program; the program’s ability to leverage social connections; the program’s convenience orientation; and the program’s financial support for smoking cessation. We also present themes on the roles of faith and church in smoking cessation programming, including some mixed perceptions on smoking stigma and comfort in church settings; challenges in faith-placed smoking cessation recruitment; and the positive perception of such programming by church leaders. We conclude that faith-placed smoking cessation program offer great potential, although they must be administered with great sensitivity to individual and community norms. PMID:24691565

  6. Accuracy of self-reported smoking cessation during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Tong, Van T; Althabe, Fernando; Alemán, Alicia; Johnson, Carolyn C; Dietz, Patricia M; Berrueta, Mabel; Morello, Paola; Colomar, Mercedes; Buekens, Pierre; Sosnoff, Connie S; Farr, Sherry L; Mazzoni, Agustina; Ciganda, Alvaro; Becú, Ana; Bittar Gonzalez, Maria G; Llambi, Laura; Gibbons, Luz; Smith, Ruben A; Belizán, José M

    2015-01-01

    Evidence of bias of self-reported smoking cessation during pregnancy is reported in high-income countries but not elsewhere. We sought to evaluate self-reported smoking cessation during pregnancy using biochemical verification and to compare characteristics of women with and without biochemically confirmed cessation in Argentina and Uruguay. In a cross-sectional study from October 2011 to May 2012, women who attended one of 21 prenatal clinics and delivered at selected hospitals in Buenos Aires, Argentina and Montevideo, Uruguay, were surveyed about their smoking cessation during pregnancy. We tested saliva collected from women <12 h after delivery for cotinine to evaluate self-reported smoking cessation during pregnancy. Overall, 10.0% (44/441) of women who self-reported smoking cessation during pregnancy had biochemical evidence of continued smoking. Women who reported quitting later in pregnancy had a higher percentage of nondisclosure (17.2%) than women who reported quitting when learning of their pregnancy (6.4%).

  7. A rural Appalachian faith-placed smoking cessation intervention.

    PubMed

    Schoenberg, Nancy E; Bundy, Henry E; Baeker Bispo, Jordan A; Studts, Christina R; Shelton, Brent J; Fields, Nell

    2015-04-01

    Although health promotion programming in faith institutions is promising, most faith-based or placed health projects focus on diet, exercise, or cancer screening and many have been located in urban environments. This article addresses the notable absence of faith programming for smoking cessation among underserved rural US residents who experience tobacco-related health inequities. In this article, we describe our faith-oriented smoking cessation program in rural Appalachia, involving 590 smokers in 26 rural churches randomized to early and delayed intervention groups. We present three main themes that account for participants' positive evaluation of the program; the program's ability to leverage social connections; the program's convenience orientation; and the program's financial support for smoking cessation. We also present themes on the roles of faith and church in smoking cessation programming, including some mixed perceptions on smoking stigma and comfort in church settings; challenges in faith-placed smoking cessation recruitment; and the positive perception of such programming by church leaders. We conclude that faith-placed smoking cessation programs offer great potential, although they must be administered with great sensitivity to individual and community norms. PMID:24691565

  8. The internet and the industrial revolution in smoking cessation counselling.

    PubMed

    Etter, Jean-François

    2006-01-01

    The internet can provide wide access to online smoking cessation programmes developed by highly qualified professionals. Compared with one-to-one counselling in smoking cessation clinics or on telephone quitlines, the mass-level dissemination of automatised, individualised counselling on the internet is comparable to the industrial revolution, when skilled craftsmen working in small shops were replaced by huge plants. Hundreds of websites provide information and advice on smoking cessation, but very few of them have been evaluated scientifically. Therefore, it is not yet known whether web-based smoking cessation interventions are effective in the long term, and which of their components are most effective for subgroups of smokers. Claims for efficacy found on some popular websites have not been evaluated. The internet is being used increasingly by tobacco companies to promote their products. The overall effect of internet smoking cessation programs on smoking prevalence is unknown. Greater efforts should be expended to improve the reach and efficacy of smoking cessation websites.

  9. Accuracy of self-reported smoking cessation during pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    TONG, VAN T.; ALTHABE, FERNANDO; ALEMÁN, ALICIA; JOHNSON, CAROLYN C.; DIETZ, PATRICIA M.; BERRUETA, MABEL; MORELLO, PAOLA; COLOMAR, MERCEDES; BUEKENS, PIERRE; SOSNOFF, CONNIE S.; FARR, SHERRY L.; MAZZONI, AGUSTINA; CIGANDA, ALVARO; BECÚ, ANA; GONZALEZ, MARIA G. BITTAR; LLAMBI, LAURA; GIBBONS, LUZ; SMITH, RUBEN A.; BELIZÁN, JOSÉ M.

    2015-01-01

    Evidence of bias of self-reported smoking cessation during pregnancy is reported in high-income countries but not elsewhere. We sought to evaluate self-reported smoking cessation during pregnancy using biochemical verification and to compare characteristics of women with and without biochemically confirmed cessation in Argentina and Uruguay. In a cross-sectional study from October 2011 to May 2012, women who attended one of 21 prenatal clinics and delivered at selected hospitals in Buenos Aires, Argentina and Montevideo, Uruguay, were surveyed about their smoking cessation during pregnancy. We tested saliva collected from women <12 h after delivery for cotinine to evaluate self-reported smoking cessation during pregnancy. Overall, 10.0% (44/441) of women who self-reported smoking cessation during pregnancy had biochemical evidence of continued smoking. Women who reported quitting later in pregnancy had a higher percentage of nondisclosure (17.2%) than women who reported quitting when learning of their pregnancy (6.4%). PMID:25350478

  10. Improving smoking cessation policy by assessing user demand for an inpatient smoking cessation service in adult psychiatric wards.

    PubMed

    Liu, Kathy; Creamer, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Smoking rates are higher among people with mental health conditions compared to the general population. Smoking reduces physical, mental and financial well-being, and interacts with psychotropic drugs. An inpatient admission provides an opportunity to engage and support smokers in smoking cessation. Compliance with Trust/NICE smoking cessation guidelines was assessed in two inpatient wards, and a questionnaire evaluated user demand for an inpatient smoking cessation service. A need for improved documentation of smoking status to identify and treat smokers routinely was revealed. A new electronic health form was designed and introduced, and a clear pathway for onward referrals was developed. This intervention preceded the introduction of the Trust-wide smoke free policy from October 2014. The intervention doubled rates of documentation of smoking status, cessation advice and offer of NRT/referral. There were large differences between the two wards, highlighting the need for a tailored approach. PMID:26734337

  11. Improving smoking cessation policy by assessing user demand for an inpatient smoking cessation service in adult psychiatric wards.

    PubMed

    Liu, Kathy; Creamer, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Smoking rates are higher among people with mental health conditions compared to the general population. Smoking reduces physical, mental and financial well-being, and interacts with psychotropic drugs. An inpatient admission provides an opportunity to engage and support smokers in smoking cessation. Compliance with Trust/NICE smoking cessation guidelines was assessed in two inpatient wards, and a questionnaire evaluated user demand for an inpatient smoking cessation service. A need for improved documentation of smoking status to identify and treat smokers routinely was revealed. A new electronic health form was designed and introduced, and a clear pathway for onward referrals was developed. This intervention preceded the introduction of the Trust-wide smoke free policy from October 2014. The intervention doubled rates of documentation of smoking status, cessation advice and offer of NRT/referral. There were large differences between the two wards, highlighting the need for a tailored approach.

  12. Integrating smoking cessation into routine public prenatal care: the Smoking Cessation in Pregnancy project.

    PubMed Central

    Kendrick, J S; Zahniser, S C; Miller, N; Salas, N; Stine, J; Gargiullo, P M; Floyd, R L; Spierto, F W; Sexton, M; Metzger, R W

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVES. In 1986, the state health departments of Colorado, Maryland, and Missouri conducted a federally-funded demonstration project to increase smoking cessation among pregnant women receiving prenatal care and services from the Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) program in public clinics. METHODS. Low-intensity interventions were designed to be integrated into routine prenatal care. Clinics were randomly assigned to intervention or control status; pregnant smokers filled out questionnaires and gave urine specimens at enrollment, in the eighth month of pregnancy, and postpartum. Urine cotinine concentrations were determined at CDC by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and were used to verify self-reported smoking status. RESULTS. At the eighth month of pregnancy, self-reported quitting was higher for intervention clinics than control clinics in all three states. However, the cotinine-verified quit rates were not significantly different. CONCLUSIONS. Biochemical verification of self-reported quitting is essential to the evaluation of smoking cessation interventions. Achieving changes in smoking behavior in pregnant women with low-intensity interventions is difficult. PMID:7856781

  13. Making an Asteroid: Effects of Thermal Metamorphism on CO3 Meteorites as Determined by XRD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonato, E.; King, A. J.; Schofield, P. F.; Lee, M. R.; Russell, S. S.

    2016-08-01

    Investigation of the effects of thermal metamorphism in CO3 meteorites through the characterisation of amorphous silicates present in the matrix. Quantitative phase analyses results for CO 3.0–3.8 meteorites obtained with PSD-XRD will be discussed.

  14. [Synthesis and characterization of CO-3(2-) doping nano-hydroxyapatite].

    PubMed

    Liao, Jian-Guo; Li, Yan-Qun; Duan, Xing-Ze; Liu, Qiong

    2014-11-01

    CO3(2-) doping is an effective method to increase the biological activity of nano-hydroxyapatite (n-HA). In the present study, calcium nitrate and trisodium phosphate were chosen as raw materials, with a certain amount of Na2CO3 as a source of CO-3(2-) ions, to synthesize nano-carbonate hydroxyapatite (n-CHA) slurry by solution precipitation method. The structure and micro-morphology of n-CHA were characterized by transmission electron microscope (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and Raman spectroscopy (RS). The results revealed that the synthetic n-HA crystals are acicular in nanometer scale and have a crystal size of 20-30 nm in diameter and 60-80 nm in length, which are similar to natural bone apatite. And the crystallinity of n-CHA crystals decreases to the increment of CO3(2-). Samples with more CO3(2) have composition and structure more similar to the bone apatite. The value of lattice parameters a decreases, value of c increases, and c/a value increases with the increase in the amount of CO3(2-), in accordance with crystal cell parameters change rule of type B replacement. In the AB mixed type (substitution OH- and PO4(3-)) CHA, IR characteristic peak of CO3(2-) out-of-plane bending vibration appears at 872 cm(-1), meanwhile, the asymmetry flexible vibration band is split into band at 1 454 cm(-1) and band at 1 420 cm(-1), while weak CO3(2)-peak appears at 1 540 cm(-1). CO3(2-) Raman peak of symmetric stretching vibration appears at 1 122 cm(-1). CO3(2-) B-type (substitution PO4(3-)) peak appeared at 1 071 cm(-1). Through the calculation of integral area ratio of PO4(3-)/ CO3(2-), OH-/CO3(2-), and PO4(3-)/OH-, low quantity CO3(2-) is B-type and high quantity CO3(2-) is A-type (substitution OH-). The results show that the synthesized apatite crystals are AB hybrid substitued nano-carbonate hydroxyapatite, however B-type replacement is the main substitute mode. Due to similarity inthe shape, size, crystal structure

  15. Controlled precipitation of nesquehonite (MgCO 3·3H 2O) by the reaction of MgCl 2 with (NH 4) 2CO 3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yong; Li, Zhibao; Demopoulos, George P.

    2008-03-01

    In this study, homogeneous (unseeded) precipitation of nesquehonite (MgCO 3·3H 2O) by the reaction of MgCl 2 with (NH 4) 2CO 3 in supersaturated solutions was investigated. Factors that influence the precipitation of MgCO 3·3H 2O, such as reaction temperature, initial concentration, stirring speed, titration speed, equilibration time, have been studied. SEM images and particle size distribution show that the temperature, initial concentration and titration speed have significant effect on nesquehonite's crystal morphology and particle size. In addition, stirring speed and equilibration time also have some influence on its properties. X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) results show that the obtained crystals compositions are greatly affected by the reaction temperature. With the morphological transformation, their corresponding composition also change from MgCO 3· xH 2O to Mg 5(CO 3) 4(OH) 2·4H 2O in the interval of 288-333 K. With the optimization of operating conditions, the crystals can grow up to a length of about 40 μm and a width of 5 μm, indicating good filtration properties. High-purity nesquehonite obtained in this study was calcined to produce highly pure MgO at 1073 K as shown by XRD results.

  16. Facile synthesis of SrCO3 nanostructures in methanol/water solution without additives

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Highly dispersive strontium carbonate (SrCO3) nanostructures with uniform dumbbell, ellipsoid, and rod-like morphologies were synthesized in methanol solution without any additives. These SrCO3 were characterized by X-ray diffraction, field emission scanning electron microscopy, and N2 adsorption-desorption. The results showed that the reaction temperature and the methanol/water ratio had important effects on the morphologies of SrCO3 particles. The dumbbell-like SrCO3 exhibited a Broader-Emmett-Teller surface area of 14.9 m2 g−1 and an average pore size of about 32 nm with narrow pore size distribution. The formation mechanism of the SrCO3 crystal was preliminary presented. PMID:22704526

  17. Fe2O3/Co3O4 composite nanoparticle ethanol sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mirzaei, Ali; Park, Sunghoon; Sun, Gun-Joo; Kheel, Hyejoon; Lee, Chongmu; Lee, Sangmin

    2016-08-01

    In this study Fe2O3/Co3O4 nanocomposites were synthesized by using a simple hydrothermal route. The X-ray diffraction analysis results showed that the synthesized powders were pure and nanocrystalline in nature. Moreover, scanning electron microscopy revealed that Fe2O3 nanoparticles had spherical shapes while Co3O4 particles had a rod-like morphology. The ethanol sensing properties of Fe2O3/Co3O4 nanocomposites were examined and compared with those of pristine Fe2O3 nanoparticles. The gas sensing properties of Fe2O3/Co3O4 nanocomposites were shown to be superior to those of pristine Fe2O3 nanoparticles and for all concentrations of ethanol, the response of the nanocomposite sensor was shown to be higher than that of the pristine Fe2O3 nanoparticle sensor. In detail, the response of the Fe2O3/Co3O4 nanocomposite sensor to 200 ppm of ethanol at 300 °C was about 3 times higher than that of pristine sensor. Also, in general, the response and recovery times of the Fe2O3/Co3O4 nanocomposite sensor were shorter than those of the pristine one. The improved sensing characteristics of the Fe2O3/Co3O4 sensor were attributed to a combination of several effects: the formation of a potential barrier at the Fe2O3-Co3O4 interface, the enhanced modulation of the conduction channel width accompanying the adsorption and desorption of ethanol gas, the catalytic activity of Co3O4 for the oxidation of ethanol, the stronger oxygen adsorption of p-type Co3O4, and the formation of preferential adsorption sites.

  18. Nonjudging facet of mindfulness predicts enhanced smoking cessation in Hispanics.

    PubMed

    Spears, Claire Adams; Houchins, Sean C; Stewart, Diana W; Chen, Minxing; Correa-Fernández, Virmarie; Cano, Miguel Ángel; Heppner, Whitney L; Vidrine, Jennifer I; Wetter, David W

    2015-12-01

    Although most smokers express interest in quitting, actual quit rates are low. Identifying strategies to enhance smoking cessation is critical, particularly among underserved populations, including Hispanics, for whom many of the leading causes of death are related to smoking. Mindfulness (purposeful, nonjudgmental attention to the present moment) has been linked to increased likelihood of cessation. Given that mindfulness is multifaceted, determining which aspects of mindfulness predict cessation could help to inform interventions. This study examined whether facets of mindfulness predict cessation in 199 Spanish-speaking smokers of Mexican heritage (63.3% male, mean age of 39 years, 77.9% with a high school education or less) receiving smoking cessation treatment. Primary outcomes were 7-day abstinence at weeks 3 and 26 postquit (biochemically confirmed and determined using an intent-to-treat approach). Logistic random coefficient regression models were utilized to examine the relationship between mindfulness facets and abstinence over time. Independent variables were subscales of the Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire (Observing, Describing, Acting With Awareness, Nonjudging, and Nonreactivity). The Nonjudging subscale (i.e., accepting thoughts and feelings without evaluating them) uniquely predicted better odds of abstinence up to 26 weeks postquit. This is the first known study to examine whether specific facets of mindfulness predict smoking cessation. The ability to experience thoughts, emotions, and withdrawal symptoms without judging them may be critical in the process of quitting smoking. Results indicate potential benefits of mindfulness among smokers of Mexican heritage and suggest that smoking cessation interventions might be enhanced by central focus on the Nonjudging aspect of mindfulness.

  19. Nonjudging Facet of Mindfulness Predicts Enhanced Smoking Cessation in Hispanics

    PubMed Central

    Spears, Claire Adams; Houchins, Sean C.; Stewart, Diana W.; Chen, Minxing; Correa-Fernández, Virmarie; Cano, Miguel Ángel; Heppner, Whitney L.; Vidrine, Jennifer I.; Wetter, David W.

    2015-01-01

    Although most smokers express interest in quitting, actual quit rates are low. Identifying strategies to enhance smoking cessation is critical, particularly among underserved populations including Hispanics, for whom many of the leading causes of death are related to smoking. Mindfulness (purposeful, non-judgmental attention to the present moment) has been linked to increased likelihood of cessation. Given that mindfulness is multifaceted, determining which aspects of mindfulness predict cessation could help to inform interventions. This study examined whether facets of mindfulness predict cessation in 199 Spanish-speaking smokers of Mexican heritage (63.3% male, mean age=39, 77.9% ≤ high school education) receiving smoking cessation treatment. Primary outcomes were 7-day abstinence at weeks 3 and 26 post-quit (biochemically-confirmed and determined using an intent-to-treat approach). Logistic random coefficients regression models were utilized to examine the relationship between mindfulness facets and abstinence over time. Independent variables were subscales of the Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire (Observing, Describing, Acting with Awareness, Nonjudging, Nonreactivity). The Nonjudging subscale (i.e., accepting thoughts and feelings without evaluating them) uniquely predicted better odds of abstinence up to 26 weeks post-quit. This is the first known study to examine whether specific facets of mindfulness predict smoking cessation. The ability to experience thoughts, emotions, and withdrawal symptoms without judging them may be critical in the process of quitting smoking. Results indicate potential benefits of mindfulness among smokers of Mexican heritage and suggest that smoking cessation interventions might be enhanced by central focus on the Nonjudging aspect of mindfulness. PMID:25961148

  20. Varenicline for smoking cessation: A review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Kaur, Kirandeep; Kaushal, Sandeep; Chopra, Sarvesh C.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Smoking is the leading preventable risk to human health. Various agents have been used to promote smoking cessation, but none has had long-term efficacy. Varenicline, a new nicotinic ligand based on the structure of cytosine, was approved by the US Food amd Drug Administration for use as a smoking cessation aid. Objectives: The aims of this review were to provide an overview on the mechanism of action and preclinical and clinical data of the new drug, varenicline, and to discuss the current and future impact of varenicline as a treatment for smoking cessation. Methods: MEDLINE, BIOSIS, and Google scholar databases were searched (March 1, 2007–July 1, 2008) using the terms varenicline, smoking cessation, and nicotinic receptors. Full-text articles in English were selected for reference, and articles presenting the mechanism of action, pharmacokinetics, and data from preclinical and clinical trials were included. Results: The initial literature search yielded 70 papers. A total of 20 articles fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Varenicline, an α4β2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor partial agonist, inhibits dopaminergic activation produced by smoking and decreases the craving and withdrawal syndrome that accompanies cessation attempts. In Phase III clinical trials, the carbon monoxide-confirmed 4-week continuous abstinence rates were significantly higher with varenicline than with buproprion sustained release or placebo for weeks 9 through 12. Varenicline has been found to be well tolerated, with nausea being the most commonly reported (28.1%) adverse event. Conclusions: Varenicline is the first drug for smoking cessation that has been found to have significant effectiveness in long-term relapse prevention (up to 52 weeks). Varenicline, with its unique profile of agonist and antagonist properties, increased cessation rates (both short- and long-term) compared with both placebo and bupropion sustained release. PMID:24692831

  1. Predictors of Utilization of a Novel Smoking Cessation Smartphone App

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Emily Y.; Vilardaga, Roger; Heffner, Jaimee L.; Mull, Kristin E.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background: Understanding the characteristics of high and low utilizers of smartphone applications (apps) for smoking cessation would inform development of more engaging and effective apps, yet no studies to date have addressed this critical question. Informed by prior research on predictors of cessation Web site utilization, this study examines the degree to which baseline demographic factors (gender, age, and education), smoking-related factors (smoking level and friends' smoking), and psychological factors (depression and anxiety) are predictive of utilization of a smartphone app for smoking cessation called SmartQuit. Materials and Methods: Data came from 98 participants randomized to SmartQuit as part of a pilot trial from March to May 2013. We used negative binomial count regressions to examine the relationship between user characteristics and utilization of the app over an 8-week treatment period. Results: Lower education (risk ratio [RR]=0.492; p=0.021), heavier smoking (RR=0.613; p=0.033), and depression (RR=0.958; p=0.017) prospectively predicted lower app utilization. Women (RR=0.320; p=0.022), those with lower education (RR=0.491; p=0.013), and heavier smokers (RR=0.418; p=0.039) had lower utilization of app features known to predict smoking cessation. Conclusions: Many of the predictors of utilization of smoking cessation apps are the same as those of cessation Web sites. App-delivered smoking cessation treatment effectiveness could be enhanced by focusing on increasing engagement of women, those with lower education, heavy smokers, and those with current depressive symptoms. PMID:26171733

  2. Using the VAHIRR Radar Algorithm to Investigate Lightning Cessation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stano, Geoffrey T.; Schultz, Elise V.; Petersen, Walter A.

    2012-01-01

    Accurately determining the threat posed by lightning is a major area for improved operational forecasts. Most efforts have focused on the initiation of lightning within a storm, with far less effort spent investigating lightning cessation. Understanding both components, initiation and cessation, are vital to improving lightning safety. Few organizations actively forecast lightning onset or cessation. One such organization is the 45th Weather Squadron (45WS) for the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) and Cape Canaveral Air Force Station (CCAFS). The 45WS has identified that charged anvil clouds remain a major threat of continued lightning and can greatly extend the window of a potential lightning strike. Furthermore, no discernable trend of total lightning activity has been observed consistently for all storms. This highlights the need for more research to find a robust method of knowing when a storm will cease producing lightning. Previous lightning cessation work has primarily focused on forecasting the cessation of cloud-to -ground lightning only. A more recent, statistical study involved total lightning (both cloud-to-ground and intracloud). Each of these previous works has helped the 45WS take steps forward in creating improved and ultimately safer lightning cessation forecasts. Each study has either relied on radar data or recommended increased use of radar data to improve cessation forecasts. The reasoning is that radar data is able to either directly or by proxy infer more about dynamical environment leading to cloud electrification and eventually lightning cessation. The authors of this project are focusing on a two ]step approach to better incorporate radar data and total lightning to improve cessation forecasts. This project will utilize the Volume Averaged Height Integrated Radar Reflectivity (VAHIRR) algorithm originally developed during the Airborne Field Mill II (ABFM II) research project. During the project, the VAHIRR product showed a trend of increasing

  3. Tobacco Use Cessation and Prevention – A Review

    PubMed Central

    Doshi, Dolar; Bandari, Srikanth Reddy; Madupu, Padma Reddy; Kulkarni, Suhas

    2016-01-01

    Tobacco use is a major preventable cause of premature death and disease, currently leading to over five million deaths each year worldwide. Smoking or chewing tobacco can seriously affect general, as well as oral health. Oral health professionals play an important role in promoting tobacco free-lifestyles. They should counsel their patients not to smoke; and reinforce the anti-tobacco message and refer the patients to smoking cessation services. Dentists are in a unique position to educate and motivate patients concerning the hazards of tobacco to their oral and systemic health, and to provide intervention programs as a part of routine patient care. Tobacco cessation is necessary to reduce morbidity and mortality related to tobacco use. Strategies for tobacco cessation involves 5 A’s and 5 R’s approach, quit lines and pharmacotherapy. Additionally, tobacco cessation programs should be conducted at community, state and national levels. Various policies should be employed for better tobacco control. Governments should implement the tobacco control measures to reduce the prevalence of tobacco use and exposure to tobacco smoke. In addition, there should be availability of leaflets, brochures, continuing patient education materials regarding tobacco cessation. PMID:27437378

  4. Exploring a Physically Based Tool for Lightning Cessation: Preliminary Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schultz, Elsie V.; Petersen, Walter A.; Carey, Lawrence D.; Buechler, Dennis E.; Gatlin, Patrick N.

    2010-01-01

    The University of Alabama in Huntsville (UAHuntsville) and NASA s Marshall Space Flight Center are collaborating with the 45th Weather Squadron (45WS) at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station (CCAFS) to enable improved nowcasting of lightning cessation. The project centers on use of dual-polarimetric radar capabilities, and in particular, the new C-band dual-polarimetric weather radar acquired by the 45WS. Special emphasis is placed on the development of a physically based operational algorithm to predict lightning cessation. While previous studies have developed statistically based lightning cessation algorithms, we believe that dual-polarimetric radar variables offer the possibility to improve existing algorithms through the inclusion of physically meaningful trends reflecting interactions between in-cloud electric fields and microphysics. Specifically, decades of polarimetric radar research using propagation differential phase has demonstrated the presence of distinct phase and ice crystal alignment signatures in the presence of strong electric fields associated with lightning. One question yet to be addressed is: To what extent can these ice-crystal alignment signatures be used to nowcast the cessation of lightning activity in a given storm? Accordingly, data from the UAHuntsville Advanced Radar for Meteorological and Operational Research (ARMOR) along with the North Alabama Lightning Mapping Array are used in this study to investigate the radar signatures present before and after lightning cessation. A summary of preliminary results will be presented.

  5. Effects of smoking cessation on hormonal levels in men.

    PubMed

    Hruškovičová, H; Dušková, M; Simůnková, K; Hill, M; Pospíšilová, H; Rácz, B; Králíková, E; Vondra, K; Stárka, L

    2013-01-01

    Chronic smoking can cause imbalance in endocrine homeostasis and impairment of fertility in both sexes. The male reproductive system is more resilient, still the literature provides conflicting results about the influence of smoking on the steroid hormone levels. The data about smoking cessation are limited; there has not yet been a study primarily focused on changes in steroids levels. In our study, we analyzed levels of testosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate (DHEAS), cortisol and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) in male smokers and during smoking cessation. Monitored analytes were determined by RIA. The free testosterone index was calculated. Basal samples of men successful and unsuccessful in smoking cessation did not differ and monitored hormones could hardly predict success of smoking cessation. After one year without smoking, a significant BMI increase and SHBG decrease in former smokers was observed. The decrease in total testosterone was non-significant. Changes in SHBG and testosterone did not correlate with BMI, presumably due to the direct effect of smoking cessation.

  6. The Use of Financial Incentives in Promoting Smoking Cessation

    PubMed Central

    Sigmon, Stacey C.; Patrick, Mollie E.

    2012-01-01

    Objective Cigarette smoking is the leading cause of preventable death in the U.S. and world. Despite the availability of numerous therapies for smoking cessation, additional efficacious interventions are greatly needed. We provide a narrative review of published studies evaluating financial incentives for smoking cessation and discuss the parameters important for ensuring the efficacy of incentive interventions for smoking cessation. Methods Published studies that evaluated the impact of incentives to promote smoking cessation and included an appropriate control or comparison condition were identified and reviewed. Results Incentives are efficacious for promoting smoking abstinence across the general population of smokers as well as substance abusers, adolescents, patients with pulmonary disease, patients with serious mental illness and other challenging subgroups. To develop and implement an effective incentive treatment for smoking, special attention should be paid to biochemical verification of smoking status, incentive magnitude and the schedule of incentive delivery. Conclusion Consistent with the extensive literature showing that incentives are effective in reducing illicit drug use, a large body of evidence supports their effectiveness in reducing smoking. Continued efforts are warranted to further develop and disseminate incentive-based treatments for smoking cessation across clinical settings and populations. PMID:22525802

  7. Cellulose/CaCO3 nanocomposites: microwave ionic liquid synthesis, characterization, and biological activity.

    PubMed

    Ma, Ming-Guo; Dong, Yan-Yan; Fu, Lian-Hua; Li, Shu-Ming; Sun, Run-Cang

    2013-02-15

    The purposes of this article are to synthesize the biomass-based hybrid nanocomposites using green method in green solvent and evaluate its biological activity. In this paper, microwave-assisted ionic liquid method is applied to the preparation of cellulose/CaCO(3) hybrid nanocomposites in the alkali extraction cellulose using CaCl(2) and Na(2)CO(3) as starting reactants. The ionic liquid acts as the excellent solvent for absorbing microwave and the dissolution of cellulose, and the synthesis of cellulose/CaCO(3) nanocomposites. The influences of reaction parameters such as the cellulose concentration and the types of solvent on the products were investigated. The increasing cellulose concentration favored the growth of CaCO(3). The morphologies of CaCO(3) changed from polyhedral to cube to particle with increasing cellulose concentration. Moreover, the solvents had an effect on the shape and dispersion of CaCO(3). Cytotoxicity experiments demonstrated that the cellulose/CaCO(3) nanocomposites had good biocompatibility and could be a candidate for the biomedical applications. PMID:23399205

  8. Facile synthesis of Cr-decorated hexagonal Co3O4 nanosheets for ultrasensitive ethanol detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Pingping; Wang, Jiwei; Lv, Xiaoxin; Zhang, Hui; Sun, Xuhui

    2015-07-01

    Cr-decorated hexagonal Co3O4 nanosheets were synthesized by a facile hydrothermal method on a SiO2/Si substrate, followed by a simple physical deposition of Cr film and a thermal annealing treatment. The Co3O4 nanosheets possess a porous and polycrystalline structure consisting of Co3O4 nanoparticles; Cr2O3 nanoparticles are uniformly formed on the surface of the Co3O4 nanosheets after the annealing treatment. The ethanol-sensing properties of the Cr-decorated hexagonal Co3O4 nanosheets were investigated in detail, and compared to pure hexagonal Co3O4 nanosheets, they show unique sensing properties toward ethanol, including high response (5.4) even when the ethanol concentration is as low as 10 ppm, ultrafast response (1 s) and recovery (7 s) rates, and good selectivity at a 300 °C operating temperature. These properties make the Cr-decorated hexagonal Co3O4 nanosheets good candidates for ethanol detection.

  9. Enhanced biohydrogen production from sugarcane bagasse by Clostridium thermocellum supplemented with CaCO3.

    PubMed

    Tian, Qing-Qing; Liang, Lei; Zhu, Ming-Jun

    2015-12-01

    Clostridium thermocellum ATCC 27405 was used to degrade sugarcane bagasse (SCB) directly for hydrogen production, which was significantly enhanced by supplementing medium with CaCO3. The effect of CaCO3 concentration on the hydrogen production was investigated. The hydrogen production was significantly enhanced with the CaCO3 concentration increased from 10mM to 20mM. However, with the CaCO3 concentration further increased from 20mM to 100mM, the hydrogen production didn't increase further. Under the optimal CaCO3 concentration of 20mM, the hydrogen production reached 97.83±5.19mmol/L from 2% sodium hydroxide-pretreated SCB, a 116.72% increase over the control (45.14±1.03mmol/L), and the yield of hydrogen production reached 4.89mmol H2/g SCBadded. Additionally, CaCO3 promoted the biodegradation of SCB and the growth of C. thermocellum. The stimulatory effects of CaCO3 on biohydrogen production are mainly attributed to the buffering capacity of carbonate. The study provides a novel strategy to enhance biohydrogen production from lignocellulose.

  10. Structural, morphological, optical and magnetic properties of Co3O4 nanoparticles prepared by conventional method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gopinath, S.; Sivakumar, K.; Karthikeyen, B.; Ragupathi, C.; Sundaram, R.

    2016-07-01

    Cobalt oxide (Co3O4) is one of the favorable nanoparticles (NPs) that possesses many remarkable properties so that it can be used in medicine, chemistry, environment, energy, information, industry, and so on. In this study, the crystalline Co3O4 nanoparticles (NPs) were successfully prepared by an efficient conventional method technique from an using different fuels. In the present paper, pure phase and well-dispersed Co3O4 were synthesized via the starch and aqueous ammonia solution in the stoichiometric fuel compositions. The structure and morphology of by way of organized Co3O4 nanoparticles were characterized by the structural analysis, electron microscopy studies, and optical properties studies. Magnetic properties exposed that the Co3O4 nanoparticles had ferromagnetic performance at room temperature with saturation magnetization of 71.09 emu/g. The results revealed that the changing the precursor led to great effects on the crystal size, emission peaks, and the reaction time of preparing the Co3O4 NPs. The significant feature of this manuscript is that the effects of different precursors on the structural magnetic and optical properties of Co3O4 NPs were investigated for the first time. The average particle size of samples (A and B) 23.6 and 22.2 nm, respectively.

  11. In situ biosynthesis of bacterial nanocellulose-CaCO3 hybrid bionanocomposite: One-step process.

    PubMed

    Mohammadkazemi, Faranak; Faria, Marisa; Cordeiro, Nereida

    2016-08-01

    In this work, a simple and green route to the synthesis of the bacterial nanocellulose-calcium carbonate (BNC/CaCO3) hybrid bionanocomposites using one-step in situ biosynthesis was studied. The CaCO3 was incorporated in the bacterial nanocellulose structure during the cellulose biosynthesis by Gluconacetobacter xylinus PTCC 1734 bacteria. Hestrin-Schramm (HS) and Zhou (Z) culture media were used to the hybrid bionanocomposites production and the effect of ethanol addition was investigated. Attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, field emission scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, inverse gas chromatography and thermogravimetric analysis were used to characterize the samples. The experimental results demonstrated that the ethanol and culture medium play an important role in the BNC/CaCO3 hybrid bionanocomposites production, structure and properties. The BNC/CaCO3 biosynthesized in Z culture medium revealed higher O/C ratio and amphoteric surface character, which justify the highest CaCO3 content incorporation. The CaCO3 was incorporated into the cellulosic matrix decreasing the bacterial nanocellulose crystallinity. This work reveals the high potential of in situ biosynthesis of BNC/CaCO3 hybrid bionanocomposites and opens a new way to the high value-added applications of bacterial nanocellulose. PMID:27157766

  12. CaCO3-III and CaCO3-VI, high-pressure polymorphs of calcite: Possible host structures for carbon in the Earth's mantle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merlini, M.; Hanfland, M.; Crichton, W. A.

    2012-06-01

    Calcite, CaCO3, undergoes several high pressure phase transitions. We report here the crystal structure determination of the CaCO3-III and CaCO3-VI high-pressure polymorphs obtained by single-crystal synchrotron X-ray diffraction. This new technical development at synchrotron beamlines currently affords the possibility of collecting single-crystal data suitable for structure determination in-situ at non-ambient conditions, even after multiphase transitions. CaCO3-III, observed in the pressure range 2.5-15 GPa, is triclinic, and it presents two closely related structural modifications, one, CaCO3-III, with 50 atoms in the unit cell [a=6.281(1) Å, b=7.507(2) Å, c=12.516(3) Å, α=93.76(2)°, β=98.95(2)°, γ=106.49(2)°, V=555.26(20) Å3 at 2.8 GPa], the second, CaCO3-IIIb, with 20 atoms [a=6.144(3) Å, b=6.3715(14) Å, c=6.3759(15) Å, α= 93.84(2)°, β=107.34(3)°, γ=107.16(3)°, V=224.33(13) Å3 at 3.1 GPa]. Different pressure-time experimental paths can stabilise one or the other polymorph. Both structures are characterised by the presence of non-coplanar CO3 groups. The densities of CaCO3-III (2.99 g/cm3 at 2.8 GPa) and CaCO3-IIIb (2.96 g/cm3 at 3.1 GPa) are lower than aragonite, in agreement with the currently accepted view of aragonite as the thermodynamically stable Ca-carbonate phase at these pressures. The presence of different cation sites, with variable volume and coordination number (7-9), suggests however that these structures have the potential to accommodate cations with different sizes without introducing major structural strain. Indeed, this structure can be adopted by natural Ca-rich carbonates, which often exhibit compositions deviating from pure calcite. Mg-calcites are found both in nature (Frezzotti et al., 2011) and in experimental syntheses at conditions corresponding to deep subduction environments (Poli et al., 2009). At these conditions, the low pressure rhombohedral calcite structure is most unlikely to be stable, and, at the same

  13. High-Energy Magneto-Dielectric Effect in Co3V2O8.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vergara, L. I.; Rai, R. C.; Cao, J.; Brown, S.; Musfeldt, J. L.; Singh, D. J.; Lawes, G.; Rogado, N.; Cava, R. J.; Wei, X.

    2007-03-01

    We investigate the optical and magneto-optical properties of the Kagom'e staircase compound Co3V2O8 in order to explore mechanistic aspects of the high-energy magneto-dielectric effect. Co3V2O8 displays a much smaller dielectric contrast compared to quasi-isostructural Ni3V2O8, a result that we attribute to a high-temperature local structural distortion in Co3V2O8 along the cross-tie direction. Such a distortion prevents the low temperature magnetic transitions from having a strongly coupled lattice component. This proposition is supported by vibrational studies.

  14. A Pilot Test of Self-Affirmations to Promote Smoking Cessation in a National Smoking Cessation Text Messaging Program

    PubMed Central

    Klein, William M.P; Ferrer, Rebecca A; Augustson, Erik; Patrick, Heather

    2016-01-01

    Background Although effective smoking cessation treatments, including mHealth interventions, have been empirically validated and are widely available, smoking relapse is likely. Self-affirmation, a process through which individuals focus on their strengths and behaviors, has been shown to reduce negative effects of self-threats and to promote engagement in healthier behavior. Objective To assess the feasibility of incorporating self-affirmations into an existing text messaging-based smoking cessation program (Smokefree TXT) and to determine whether self-affirmation led to greater engagement and higher cessation rates than the standard intervention. Methods Data were collected from smokers (n=1261) who subscribed to a free smoking cessation program and met eligibility criteria. The intervention lasted 42 days. The original design was a 2 (Baseline affirmation: 5-item questionnaire present vs absent) × 2 (Integrated affirmation: texts present vs absent) factorial design. Only 17 eligible users completed all baseline affirmation questions and these conditions did not influence any outcomes, so we collapsed across baseline affirmation conditions in analysis. In the integrated affirmation conditions, affirmations replaced approximately 20% of texts delivering motivational content. Results In all, 687 users remained enrolled throughout the 42-day intervention and 81 reported smoking status at day 42. Among initiators (n=1261), self-affirmation did not significantly improve (1) intervention completion, (2) days enrolled, (3) 1-week smoking status, or (4) 6-week smoking status (all Ps>.10); and among the 687 completers, there were no significant effects of affirmation on cessation (Ps>.25). However, among the 81 responders, those who received affirmations were more likely to report cessation at 6 weeks (97.5%; 39 of 40) than those not given affirmations (78.1%; 32 of 41; χ2(1)=7.08, P=.008). Conclusion This proof-of-concept study provides preliminary evidence that self

  15. Continuous-time system identification of a smoking cessation intervention

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Timms, Kevin P.; Rivera, Daniel E.; Collins, Linda M.; Piper, Megan E.

    2014-07-01

    Cigarette smoking is a major global public health issue and the leading cause of preventable death in the United States. Toward a goal of designing better smoking cessation treatments, system identification techniques are applied to intervention data to describe smoking cessation as a process of behaviour change. System identification problems that draw from two modelling paradigms in quantitative psychology (statistical mediation and self-regulation) are considered, consisting of a series of continuous-time estimation problems. A continuous-time dynamic modelling approach is employed to describe the response of craving and smoking rates during a quit attempt, as captured in data from a smoking cessation clinical trial. The use of continuous-time models provide benefits of parsimony, ease of interpretation, and the opportunity to work with uneven or missing data.

  16. [Smoking cessation--a central role for physicians].

    PubMed

    Cornuz, J

    2005-09-01

    Physicians are in a unique position to advice smokers to quit by the ability to integrate the various aspects of nicotine dependence. This review provides an overview of intervention with smokers presenting in a primary care setting. Strategies used for smoking cessation counseling differed according to patient's readiness to quit. For smokers who do not intend to quit smoking, physicians should inform and sensitize patients about tobacco use and cessation, especially by personalizing benefits to quit and challenging smokers 'beliefs. For smokers who are dissonant, physicians should use motivational strategies, such as discussing barriers to cessation and their solutions. For smokers ready to quit, the physician should show strong support, help set a quit date, prescribe pharmaceutical therapies for nicotine dependence, such as replacement therapy and/or bupropion, with instructions for use, and suggest behavioral strategies to prevent relapse.

  17. [Electronic Cigarettes: Lifestyle Gadget or Smoking Cessation Aid?].

    PubMed

    Schuurmans, Macé M

    2015-07-01

    Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) are vaporisers of liquids often containing nicotine. In the inhaled aerosol carcinogens, ultrafine and metal particles are detected usually in concentrations below those measured in tobacco smoke. Therefore, these products are expected to be less harmful. This has not yet been proven. The long-term safety of e-cigarettes is unknown. Short duration use leads to airway irritation and increased diastolic blood pressure. So far only two randomised controlled trials have investigated efficacy and safety of e-cigarettes for smoking cessation: No clear advantage was shown in comparison to smoking cessation medication. Due to insufficient evidence, e-cigarettes cannot be recommended for smoking cessation. Problematic are the lack of regulation and standardisation of e-cigarette products, which makes general conclusions impossible.

  18. SMOKED: a pharmacist-monitored tobacco cessation program.

    PubMed

    Huntzinger, Paul Evan

    2002-12-01

    Tobacco users use an array of pharmaceutical aids in their quest to become tobacco free. Tobacco cessation aids are indicated to assist individuals to become tobacco free when used in conjunction with a behavior modification program. For many persons, attending traditional group behavioral modification classes of 1- to 2-hour weekly meetings for 4 to 6 weeks is either undesirable or impractical. This article describes a nontraditional tobacco cessation program offered by a pharmacist at a Coast Guard military treatment facility. The program required persons desiring tobacco cessation aids to see a medical provider who then referred the individual to the pharmacy officer for counseling. Of the 20 persons completing all designated counseling sessions with the pharmacy officer, 4 were tobacco free after 1 year.

  19. mHealth for Smoking Cessation Programs: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Ghorai, Koel; Akter, Shahriar; Khatun, Fatema; Ray, Pradeep

    2014-01-01

    mHealth transforms healthcare delivery around the world due to its affordability and right time availability. It has been used for delivery of various smoking cessation programs and interventions over the past decade. With the proliferation of smartphone usage around the world, many smartphone applications are being developed for curbing smoking among smokers. Various interventions like SMS, progress tracking, distractions, peer chats and others are being provided to users through smartphone applications. This paper presents a systematic review that analyses the applications of mobile phones in smoking cessations. The synthesis of the diverse concepts within the literature on smoking cessations using mobile phones provides deeper insights in the emerging mHealth landscape. PMID:25563359

  20. Continuous-Time System Identification of a Smoking Cessation Intervention.

    PubMed

    Timms, Kevin P; Rivera, Daniel E; Collins, Linda M; Piper, Megan E

    2014-01-01

    Cigarette smoking is a major global public health issue and the leading cause of preventable death in the United States. Toward a goal of designing better smoking cessation treatments, system identification techniques are applied to intervention data to describe smoking cessation as a process of behavior change. System identification problems that draw from two modeling paradigms in quantitative psychology (statistical mediation and self-regulation) are considered, consisting of a series of continuous-time estimation problems. A continuous-time dynamic modeling approach is employed to describe the response of craving and smoking rates during a quit attempt, as captured in data from a smoking cessation clinical trial. The use of continuous-time models provide benefits of parsimony, ease of interpretation, and the opportunity to work with uneven or missing data. PMID:25382865

  1. Lay Health Influencers: How They Tailor Brief Tobacco Cessation Interventions

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Nicole P.; Castañeda, Heide; Nichter, Mark; Nichter, Mimi; Wind, Steven; Carruth, Lauren; Muramoto, Myra

    2014-01-01

    Interventions tailored to individual smoker characteristics have increasingly received attention in the tobacco control literature. The majority of tailored interventions are generated by computers and administered with printed materials or Web-based programs. The purpose of this study was to examine the tailoring activities of community lay health influencers who were trained to perform face-to-face brief tobacco cessation interventions. Eighty participants of a large-scale, randomized controlled trial completed a 6-week qualitative follow-up interview. A majority of participants (86%) reported that they made adjustments in their intervention behaviors based on individual smoker characteristics, their relationship with the smoker, and/or setting. Situational contexts (i.e., location and timing) primarily played a role after targeted smokers were selected. The findings suggest that lay health influencers benefit from a training curriculum that emphasizes a motivational, person-centered approach to brief cessation interventions. Recommendations for future tobacco cessation intervention trainings are presented. PMID:21986244

  2. Update on effective interventions to increase tobacco cessation.

    PubMed

    Husten, Corinne G

    2002-12-01

    Tobacco use is the leading preventable cause of death in the USA and will soon be the leading cause of preventable death worldwide. The only way to decrease tobacco-related morbidity and mortality in the short term is to help current smokers quit. Fortunately, effective clinical- and population-based interventions that increase tobacco cessation exist. However, these interventions are not being implemented, leaving most smokers to use the least effective approach to cessation (an unassisted quit attempt). This review summarizes the evidence for the effectiveness of clinical- and population-based interventions and recommendations from various organizations regarding tobacco use treatment. It also outlines proposed strategies for improving clinical and public health practice to increase tobacco cessation.

  3. Cost-effectiveness of Extended Cessation Treatment for Older Smokers

    PubMed Central

    Barnett, Paul G.; Wong, Wynnie; Jeffers, Abra; Munoz, Ricardo; Humfleet, Gary; Hall, Sharon

    2014-01-01

    Aims To examine the cost-effectiveness of extended smoking cessation treatment in older smokers. Design Participants who completed a 12 week smoking cessation program were factorial randomized to extended cognitive behavioral treatment and extended nicotine replacement therapy. Setting A free-standing smoking cessation clinic in the United States. Participants 402 smokers aged 50 years and older were recruited from the community. Measurements The trial measured biochemically-verified abstinence from cigarettes after 24 months and the quantity of smoking cessation services used. Trial findings were combined with literature on changes in smoking status and the age and gender adjusted effect of smoking on health care cost, mortality, and qualify of life over the long-term in a Markov model of cost-effectiveness over a lifetime horizon. Findings The addition of extended cognitive behavioral therapy added $83 in smoking cessation services cost (p =.012, CI $21-$212). At the end of follow-up, cigarette abstinence rates were 50.0% with extended cognitive behavioral therapy and 37.2% without this therapy (p <.05, odds ratio 1.69, CI 1.18-2.54). The model-based incremental cost-effectiveness ratio was $6,324 per Quality Adjusted Life Year (QALY). Probabilistic sensitivity analysis found that the additional $947 in lifetime cost of the intervention had a 95% confidence interval of –$331 – $2,081; the 0.150 additional QALYs had a confidence interval of 0.035- 0.280, and that the intervention was cost-effective against a $50,000/QALY acceptance criterion in 99.6% of the replicates. Extended nicotine replacement therapy was not cost-effective. Conclusions Adding extended cognitive behavior therapy to standard smoking cessation treatment can be cost-effective. PMID:24329972

  4. Smoking and HIV: prevalence, health risks, and cessation strategies.

    PubMed

    Lifson, Alan R; Lando, Harry A

    2012-09-01

    Health hazards due to smoking may undermine benefits of HIV treatment on morbidity and mortality. Over 40% of persons with HIV are current smokers. Health risks of smoking include increases in some HIV-associated infections, cardiovascular disease, some cancers, bacterial pneumonia and other lung disease, and overall mortality. Proven strategies for smoking cessation include various counseling approaches, nicotine replacement therapy and other pharmacotherapy; approaches may need to be individualized to address specific client needs and comorbidities. HIV clinicians and other service providers can have an influential role in screening their patients for smoking and promoting cessation programs to improve health.

  5. Smoking cessation results in a clinical lung cancer screening program

    PubMed Central

    McKee, Andrea B.; Regis, Shawn M.; Wald, Christoph; Flacke, Sebastian; McKee, Brady J.

    2016-01-01

    Background Lung cancer screening may provide a “teachable moment” for promoting smoking cessation. This study assessed smoking cessation and relapse rates among individuals undergoing follow-up low-dose chest computed tomography (CT) in a clinical CT lung screening program and assessed the influence of initial screening results on smoking behavior. Methods Self-reported smoking status for individuals enrolled in a clinical CT lung screening program undergoing a follow-up CT lung screening exam between 1st February, 2014 and 31st March, 2015 was retrospectively reviewed and compared to self-reported smoking status using a standardized questionnaire at program entry. Point prevalence smoking cessation and relapse rates were calculated across the entire population and compared with exam results. All individuals undergoing screening fulfilled the National Comprehensive Cancer Network Clinical Practice Guidelines in Oncology: Lung Cancer Screening v1.2012® high-risk criteria and had an order for CT lung screening. Results A total of 1,483 individuals underwent a follow-up CT lung screening exam during the study interval. Smoking status at time of follow-up exam was available for 1,461/1,483 (98.5%). A total of 46% (678/1,461) were active smokers at program entry. The overall point prevalence smoking cessation and relapse rates were 20.8% and 9.3%, respectively. Prior positive screening exam results were not predictive of smoking cessation (OR 1.092; 95% CI, 0.715–1.693) but were predictive of reduced relapse among former smokers who had stopped smoking for 2 years or less (OR 0.330; 95% CI, 0.143–0.710). Duration of program enrollment was predictive of smoking cessation (OR 0.647; 95% CI, 0.477–0.877). Conclusions Smoking cessation and relapse rates in a clinical CT lung screening program rates are more favorable than those observed in the general population. Duration of participation in the screening program correlated with increased smoking cessation rates

  6. Smoking cessation results in a clinical lung cancer screening program

    PubMed Central

    McKee, Andrea B.; Regis, Shawn M.; Wald, Christoph; Flacke, Sebastian; McKee, Brady J.

    2016-01-01

    Background Lung cancer screening may provide a “teachable moment” for promoting smoking cessation. This study assessed smoking cessation and relapse rates among individuals undergoing follow-up low-dose chest computed tomography (CT) in a clinical CT lung screening program and assessed the influence of initial screening results on smoking behavior. Methods Self-reported smoking status for individuals enrolled in a clinical CT lung screening program undergoing a follow-up CT lung screening exam between 1st February, 2014 and 31st March, 2015 was retrospectively reviewed and compared to self-reported smoking status using a standardized questionnaire at program entry. Point prevalence smoking cessation and relapse rates were calculated across the entire population and compared with exam results. All individuals undergoing screening fulfilled the National Comprehensive Cancer Network Clinical Practice Guidelines in Oncology: Lung Cancer Screening v1.2012® high-risk criteria and had an order for CT lung screening. Results A total of 1,483 individuals underwent a follow-up CT lung screening exam during the study interval. Smoking status at time of follow-up exam was available for 1,461/1,483 (98.5%). A total of 46% (678/1,461) were active smokers at program entry. The overall point prevalence smoking cessation and relapse rates were 20.8% and 9.3%, respectively. Prior positive screening exam results were not predictive of smoking cessation (OR 1.092; 95% CI, 0.715–1.693) but were predictive of reduced relapse among former smokers who had stopped smoking for 2 years or less (OR 0.330; 95% CI, 0.143–0.710). Duration of program enrollment was predictive of smoking cessation (OR 0.647; 95% CI, 0.477–0.877). Conclusions Smoking cessation and relapse rates in a clinical CT lung screening program rates are more favorable than those observed in the general population. Duration of participation in the screening program correlated with increased smoking cessation rates

  7. Impact of spontaneous smoking cessation on sperm quality: case report.

    PubMed

    Santos, E Prentki; López-Costa, S; Chenlo, P; Pugliese, M N; Curi, S; Ariagno, J; Repetto, H; Sardi, M; Palaoro, L; Mendeluk, G

    2011-12-01

    We evaluated sperm quality after a 3-month smoking cessation programme by sperm analysis, objective sperm motility analysis, protein tyrosine phosphorylation in capacitating conditions and DNA fragmentation (TUNEL). Sperm analysis after smoking cessation revealed a distinctive improvement in sperm concentration, fast spermatozoa (≥35 μm/s), sperm vitality, percentage of spermatozoa recuperated after an enrichment technique and protein tyrosine phosphorylation. However, no changes were observed in the number of germinal cells in the ejaculate, sperm morphology and sperm DNA fragmentation. It is concluded that physicians should strongly advise their patients to quit smoking before undergoing medical treatment or assisted reproduction techniques to achieve pregnancy.

  8. Intrinsic ferromagnetic coupling in Co3O4 quantum dots activatedby graphene hybridization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Lin; Hu, Fengchun; Duan, Hengli; Liu, Qinghua; Tan, Hao; Yan, Wensheng; Yao, Tao; Jiang, Yong; Sun, Zhihu; Wei, Shiqiang

    2016-06-01

    Activating ferromagnetic couplings of transition-metallic ions in the antiferromagnetic metal oxide semiconductors is desired for creating ferromagnetic semiconductors for spintronics applications. Here, we report intrinsic ferromagnetic coupling in a typical antiferromagnetic metal oxide Co3O4, by virtue of a hybrid structure that modifies the valence state of Co ions. The Co3O4 quantum dots exhibit ferromagnetism of 2.2 emu/g at 2 K after hybridization with reduced graphene oxide (RGO). In this hybrid structure, electron-transfer from RGO to Co3O4 occurs and Co3+ ions occupying the octahedral (Oh) positions are converted into Co2+. Then the super-exchange interactions between Co2+ ions at Td (tetrahedral) and Oh positions switch the magnetic coupling of Co2+(Td)-Co2+(Td) from antiferromagnetic to ferromagnetic. These results offer promise for tailoring the spin exchange interactions of oxide semiconductors for spintronics applications.

  9. Chrysanthemum-like Co3O4 architectures: Hydrothermal synthesis and lithium storage performances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Manman; Yuan, Shuming; Su, Liwei; Zhou, Zhen

    2012-04-01

    Three-dimensional chrysanthemum-like Co3O4 was prepared via a facile hydrothermal route without any template, and a subsequent calcination process. With a controlled concentration of the homogeneous precipitation agent, urea, a chrysanthemum-like precursor was hydrothermally obtained at 120 °C for 20 h, and the morphology was kept for Co3O4 after a subsequent calcination at 300 °C for 2 h. Co3O4 chrysanthemum-like architectures are assemblies of nanorods radiating from a common centre, and the nanorods consisted of interconnected nanoparticles with the size of about 30 nm. When tested as an anode material of Li-ion batteries, chrysanthemum-like Co3O4 presented a discharge capacity of ˜450 mA h/g after 50 discharge/charge cycles.

  10. High-performance anode based on porous Co3O4 nanodiscs

    SciTech Connect

    Pan, Anqiang; Wang, Yaping; Xu, Wu; Nie, Zhiwei; Liang, Shuquan; Nie, Zimin; Wang, Chong M.; Cao, Guozhong; Zhang, Jiguang

    2014-06-01

    In this article, two-dimensional, Co3O4 hexagonal nanodiscs are prepared using a hydrothermal method without surfactants. X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) have been employed to characterize the structural properties. As revealed by the SEM and TEM experiments, the thickness of our as-fabricated Co3O4 hexagonal nanodiscs is about 20 nm, and the pore diameters range from several nanometers to 30 nm. As an anode for lithium-ion batteries, porous Co3O4 nanodiscs exhibit an average discharge voltage of ~1 V (Vs. Li/Li+) and a high specific charge capacity of 1161 mAh g-1 after 100 cycles. They also demonstrate excellent rate performance and high Coloumbic efficiency at various rates. These results indicate that porous Co3O4 nanodiscs are good candidates as anode materials for lithium-ion batteries.

  11. Controllable synthesis of self-assembly Co3O4 nanoflake microspheres for electrochemical performance.

    PubMed

    Liu, Fangyan; Zhang, Binbin; Su, Hai; Zhang, Haitao; Zhang, Lei; Yang, Weiqing

    2016-09-01

    Tuning the ratios of ethanol to water, self-assembling microspheres composed of Co3O4 nanoflakes are synthesized by the hydrothermal method. The scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images of as-grown samples obviously show that the dispersive multilayered structures gradually change into micro/nanobelts and cubic blocks structures, and then into the desired self-assembled microspheres with increasing ratios of ethanol to water. Also, all the x-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns evidently demonstrate that all obtained Co3O4 has cubic crystal structure. The corresponding synthesis mechanism is discussed in detail. More importantly, the unique self-assembling Co3O4 nanoflake microspheres have excellent electrochemical performance with large specific capacitance, good rate capability and excellent cycling performance, evidently presenting a potential capability of Co3O4 nanoflake microspheres to act as electrode materials for supercapacitors in sustainable power sources. PMID:27454337

  12. Different radiation and metamorphic history of the Kainsaz CO 3.2 chondrules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kashkarov, L. L.; Kalinina, G. V.

    1993-01-01

    Track and thermoluminescence parameters in chondrules from the Kainsaz CO 3.2 chondrite have been studied. Obtained results elucidate their individual shock-thermal history and the early pre-accretion stage of the meteorite parent body formation.

  13. Controllable synthesis of self-assembly Co3O4 nanoflake microspheres for electrochemical performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Fangyan; Zhang, Binbin; Su, Hai; Zhang, Haitao; Zhang, Lei; Yang, Weiqing

    2016-09-01

    Tuning the ratios of ethanol to water, self-assembling microspheres composed of Co3O4 nanoflakes are synthesized by the hydrothermal method. The scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images of as-grown samples obviously show that the dispersive multilayered structures gradually change into micro/nanobelts and cubic blocks structures, and then into the desired self-assembled microspheres with increasing ratios of ethanol to water. Also, all the x-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns evidently demonstrate that all obtained Co3O4 has cubic crystal structure. The corresponding synthesis mechanism is discussed in detail. More importantly, the unique self-assembling Co3O4 nanoflake microspheres have excellent electrochemical performance with large specific capacitance, good rate capability and excellent cycling performance, evidently presenting a potential capability of Co3O4 nanoflake microspheres to act as electrode materials for supercapacitors in sustainable power sources.

  14. Effects of Calcium Source on Biochemical Properties of Microbial CaCO3 Precipitation

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Jing; Du, Yali; Jiang, Zhengwu; She, Anming

    2015-01-01

    The biochemical properties of CaCO3 precipitation induced by Sporosarcina pasteurii, an ureolytic type microorganism, were investigated. Effects of calcium source on the precipitation process were examined, since calcium source plays a key role in microbiologically induced mineralization. Regardless of the calcium source type, three distinct stages in the precipitation process were identified by Ca2+, NH4+, pH and cell density monitoring. Compared with stage 1 and 3, stage 2 was considered as the most critical part since biotic CaCO3 precipitation occurs during this stage. Kinetics studies showed that the microbial CaCO3 precipitation rate for calcium lactate was over twice of that for calcium nitrate, indicating that calcium lactate is more beneficial for the cell activity, which in turn determines urease production and CaCO3 precipitation. X-ray diffraction analysis confirmed the CaCO3 crystal as calcite, although scanning electron microscopy revealed a difference in crystal size and morphology if calcium source was different. The findings of this paper further suggest a promising application of microbiologically induced CaCO3 precipitation in remediation of surface and cracks of porous media, e.g., cement-based composites, particularly by using organic source of calcium lactate. PMID:26696978

  15. Radioisotope tracer studies of inorganic carbon and Ca in microbially derived CaCO3

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yates, Kimberly K.; Robbins, Lisa L.

    1999-01-01

    Microbial calcification significantly impacts the cycling and deposition of inorganic carbon. This research employs 45Ca and 14C techniques as radioisotopic tracers to examine the role of cellular cycling of Ca2+ and inorganic carbon in CaCO3 precipitation by the unicellular green alga Nannochloris atomus. Implications of the effects of these physiological aspects on CaCO3 precipitation and the effects of microbial calcification on CaCO3 δ13C ratios are discussed. Results from pulse/chase experiments indicate that intracellular Ca2+ is incorporated into extracellular CaCO3. Intracellular inorganic carbon leaks from cells within 10 to 12 s after injection of unlabelled NaHCO3, providing a source of inorganic carbon for extracellular CaCO3. Cellular expulsion of calcium plays a key role in increasing the CaCO3 saturation state at the site of calcification. The δ13C ratios of microbial carbonates may vary depending on the amount of photorespiratory CO2 incorporated.

  16. Effects of Calcium Source on Biochemical Properties of Microbial CaCO3 Precipitation.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jing; Du, Yali; Jiang, Zhengwu; She, Anming

    2015-01-01

    The biochemical properties of CaCO3 precipitation induced by Sporosarcina pasteurii, an ureolytic type microorganism, were investigated. Effects of calcium source on the precipitation process were examined, since calcium source plays a key role in microbiologically induced mineralization. Regardless of the calcium source type, three distinct stages in the precipitation process were identified by Ca(2+), NH4 (+), pH and cell density monitoring. Compared with stage 1 and 3, stage 2 was considered as the most critical part since biotic CaCO3 precipitation occurs during this stage. Kinetics studies showed that the microbial CaCO3 precipitation rate for calcium lactate was over twice of that for calcium nitrate, indicating that calcium lactate is more beneficial for the cell activity, which in turn determines urease production and CaCO3 precipitation. X-ray diffraction analysis confirmed the CaCO3 crystal as calcite, although scanning electron microscopy revealed a difference in crystal size and morphology if calcium source was different. The findings of this paper further suggest a promising application of microbiologically induced CaCO3 precipitation in remediation of surface and cracks of porous media, e.g., cement-based composites, particularly by using organic source of calcium lactate. PMID:26696978

  17. A reduced graphene oxide/Co3O4 composite for supercapacitor electrode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiang, Chengcheng; Li, Ming; Zhi, Mingjia; Manivannan, Ayyakkannu; Wu, Nianqiang

    2013-03-01

    20 nm sized Co3O4 nanoparticles are in-situ grown on the chemically reduced graphene oxide (rGO) sheets to form a rGO-Co3O4 composite during hydrothermal processing. The rGO-Co3O4 composite is employed as the pseudocapacitor electrode in the 2 M KOH aqueous electrolyte solution. The rGO-Co3O4 composite electrode exhibits a specific capacitance of 472 F g-1 at a scan rate of 2 mV s-1 in a two-electrode cell. 82.6% of capacitance is retained when the scan rate increases to 100 mV s-1. The rGO-Co3O4 composite electrode shows high rate capability and excellent long-term stability. It also exhibits high energy density at relatively high power density. The energy density reaches 39.0 Wh kg-1 at a power density of 8.3 kW kg-1. The super performance of the composite electrode is attributed to the synergistic effects of small size and good redox activity of the Co3O4 particles combined with high electronic conductivity of the rGO sheets.

  18. Effects of Calcium Source on Biochemical Properties of Microbial CaCO3 Precipitation.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jing; Du, Yali; Jiang, Zhengwu; She, Anming

    2015-01-01

    The biochemical properties of CaCO3 precipitation induced by Sporosarcina pasteurii, an ureolytic type microorganism, were investigated. Effects of calcium source on the precipitation process were examined, since calcium source plays a key role in microbiologically induced mineralization. Regardless of the calcium source type, three distinct stages in the precipitation process were identified by Ca(2+), NH4 (+), pH and cell density monitoring. Compared with stage 1 and 3, stage 2 was considered as the most critical part since biotic CaCO3 precipitation occurs during this stage. Kinetics studies showed that the microbial CaCO3 precipitation rate for calcium lactate was over twice of that for calcium nitrate, indicating that calcium lactate is more beneficial for the cell activity, which in turn determines urease production and CaCO3 precipitation. X-ray diffraction analysis confirmed the CaCO3 crystal as calcite, although scanning electron microscopy revealed a difference in crystal size and morphology if calcium source was different. The findings of this paper further suggest a promising application of microbiologically induced CaCO3 precipitation in remediation of surface and cracks of porous media, e.g., cement-based composites, particularly by using organic source of calcium lactate.

  19. Study of antibacterial activity of Ag and Ag2CO3 nanoparticles stabilized over montmorillonite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sohrabnezhad, Sh.; Pourahmad, A.; Mehdipour Moghaddam, M. J.; Sadeghi, A.

    2015-02-01

    Silver carbonate and silver nanoparticles (NPs) over of stabilizer montmorillonite (MMT) have been synthesized in aqueous and polyol solvent, respectively. Dispersions of silver nanoparticles have been prepared by the reduction of silver nitrate over of MMT in presence and absence of Na2CO3 compound in ethylene glycol. It was observed that montmorillonite was capable of stabilizing formed Ag nanoparticles through the reduction of Ag+ ions in ethylene glycol. Na2CO3 was used as carbonate source in synthesis of Ag2CO3 NPs in water solvent and also for controlling of Ag nanoparticles size in ethylene glycol medium. The samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and ultraviolet-visible diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS). The TEM images showed that Ag NPs size in presence Na2CO3 salts was smaller than without that. The results indicated intercalation of Ag and Ag2CO3 nanoparticles into the montmorillonite clay layers. The diffuse reflectance spectra exhibited a strong surface plasmon resonance (SPR) adsorption peak in the visible region, resulting from Ag nanoparticles. The antibacterial testing results showed that the Ag2CO3-MMT nanocomposite exhibited an antibacterial activity higher than Ag-MMT sample against Escherichia coli.

  20. Identification of Campaign Recruitment Strategies for a Stepped Smoking Cessation Intervention for a College Campus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Black, David R.; Babrow, Austin S.

    1991-01-01

    Examined outcome expectancies, outcome evaluations, and interest in participating in smoking cessation programs presented in graduated steps of intervention intensity. Concluded that attitudes and control beliefs should be the focus of initial program promotion for college smoking cessation programs. (JOW)

  1. Dynamic effects of smoking cessation on disease incidence, mortality and quality of life: The role of time since cessation

    PubMed Central

    Hoogenveen, Rudolf T; van Baal, Pieter HM; Boshuizen, Hendriek C; Feenstra, Talitha L

    2008-01-01

    Background To support health policy makers in setting priorities, quantifying the potential effects of tobacco control on the burden of disease is useful. However, smoking is related to a variety of diseases and the dynamic effects of smoking cessation on the incidence of these diseases differ. Furthermore, many people who quit smoking relapse, most of them within a relatively short period. Methods In this paper, a method is presented for calculating the effects of smoking cessation interventions on disease incidence that allows to deal with relapse and the effect of time since quitting. A simulation model is described that links smoking to the incidence of 14 smoking related diseases. To demonstrate the model, health effects are estimated of two interventions in which part of current smokers in the Netherlands quits smoking. To illustrate the advantages of the model its results are compared with those of two simpler versions of the model. In one version we assumed no relapse after quitting and equal incidence rates for all former smokers. In the second version, incidence rates depend on time since cessation, but we assumed still no relapse after quitting. Results Not taking into account time since smoking cessation on disease incidence rates results in biased estimates of the effects of interventions. The immediate public health effects are overestimated, since the health risk of quitters immediately drops to the mean level of all former smokers. However, the long-term public health effects are underestimated since after longer periods of time the effects of past smoking disappear and so surviving quitters start to resemble never smokers. On balance, total health gains of smoking cessation are underestimated if one does not account for the effect of time since cessation on disease incidence rates. Not taking into account relapse of quitters overestimates health gains substantially. Conclusion The results show that simulation models are sensitive to assumptions

  2. Melting relations in the system FeCO3-MgCO3 and thermodynamic modelling of Fe-Mg carbonate melts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Nathan; Schmidt, Max W.; Poli, Stefano; Connolly, James A. D.; Franzolin, Ettore

    2016-09-01

    To constrain the thermodynamics and melting relations of the siderite-magnesite (FeCO3-MgCO3) system, 27 piston cylinder experiments were conducted at 3.5 GPa and 1170-1575 °C. Fe-rich compositions were also investigated with 13 multi-anvil experiments at 10, 13.6 and 20 GPa, 1500-1890 °C. At 3.5 GPa, the solid solution siderite-magnesite coexists with melt over a compositional range of X Mg (=Mg/(Mg + Fetot)) = 0.38-1.0, while at ≥10 GPa solid solution appears to be complete. At 3.5 GPa, the system is pseudo-binary because of the limited stability of siderite or liquid FeCO3, Fe-rich carbonates decomposing at subsolidus conditions to magnetite-magnesioferrite solid solution, graphite and CO2. Similar reactions also occur with liquid FeCO3 resulting in melt species with ferric iron components, but the decomposition of the liquid decreases in importance with pressure. At 3.5 GPa, the metastable melting temperature of pure siderite is located at 1264 °C, whereas pure magnesite melts at 1629 °C. The melting loop is non-ideal on the Fe side where the dissociation reaction resulting in Fe3+ in the melt depresses melting temperatures and causes a minimum. Over the pressure range of 3.5-20 GPa, this minimum is 20-35 °C lower than the (metastable) siderite melting temperature. By merging all present and previous experimental data, standard state (298.15 K, 1 bar) thermodynamic properties of the magnesite melt (MgCO3L) end member are calculated and the properties of (Fe,Mg)CO3 melt fit by a regular solution model with an interaction parameter of -7600 J/mol. The solution model reproduces the asymmetric melting loop and predicts the thermal minimum at 1240 °C near the siderite side at X Mg = 0.2 (3.5 GPa). The solution model is applicable to pressures reaching to the bottom of the upper mantle and allows calculation of phase relations in the FeO-MgO-O2-C system.

  3. Employee self-help smoking cessation programs: a review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Windsor, R A; Bartlett, E E

    1984-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to present a review of the literature on employee self-help smoking cessation programs. Included in this discussion are: (1) a rationale for self-help smoking cessation interventions; (2) a synopsis of their applicability to occupational settings; (3) a rational and description of the self-help smoking cessation interventions selected for a large group of employees; and (4) several methodological issues faced in conducting evaluations of smoking cessation programs.

  4. A Model Curriculum for Tobacco Use Cessation and Prevention Intervention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geboy, Michael J.; Fried, Jacquelyn L.

    1994-01-01

    Proposes a curriculum for dental/dental hygiene schools that would teach oral health care providers how to routinely assess tobacco use, advise cessation, and provide assistance and follow-up for tobacco-using patients. The article emphasizes the importance of making tobacco interventions routine components of schools' clinical teaching programs.…

  5. 30 CFR 817.131 - Cessation of operations: Temporary.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... secure surface facilities in areas in which there are no current operations, but operations are to be...-surface strata which have been in the permit area prior to cessation or abandonment, the extent and kind of reclamation of surface area which will have been accomplished, and identification of...

  6. 21 CFR 1141.16 - Disclosures regarding cessation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...) TOBACCO PRODUCTS CIGARETTE PACKAGE AND ADVERTISING WARNINGS Additional Disclosure Requirements for Cigarette Packages and Advertising § 1141.16 Disclosures regarding cessation. (a) The required warning shall..., “Cigarette Required Warnings” (incorporated by reference at § 1141.12). (b) In meeting the smoking...

  7. 21 CFR 1141.16 - Disclosures regarding cessation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...) TOBACCO PRODUCTS CIGARETTE PACKAGE AND ADVERTISING WARNINGS; (Eff. 9-22-12) Additional Disclosure Requirements for Cigarette Packages and Advertising § 1141.16 Disclosures regarding cessation. (a) The required... specified in, “Cigarette Required Warnings” (incorporated by reference at § 1141.12). (b) In meeting...

  8. Self-Efficacy and Marijuana Cessation: A Construct Validity Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stephens, Robert S.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Examines possible relationships between self-efficacy for avoiding marijuana use and theoretically related measures in a sample of 161 men and 51 women who sought marijuana cessation treatments. Predictive validity was stronger for frequency of posttreatment use than for abstinence status. Discusses the need for better assessment of the efficacy…

  9. Menthol cigarettes and smoking cessation during an aided quit attempt.

    PubMed

    Fu, Steven S; Okuyemi, Kolawole S; Partin, Melissa R; Ahluwalia, Jasjit S; Nelson, David B; Clothier, Barbara A; Joseph, Anne M

    2008-03-01

    Menthol may make cigarettes more addictive and rates of menthol cigarette smoking are disproportionately higher among Black. However, few studies have examined the association between menthol cigarette smoking and cessation, and the studies to date have produced conflicting findings. The present study examines the effect of menthol cigarette smoking on cessation among a multi-ethnic sample of smokers making a pharmacotherapy-aided quit attempt. We hypothesized that menthol cigarette smoking would be associated with lower smoking abstinence rates and conducted a secondary analysis of data from a multi-site randomized controlled trial of an intervention designed to facilitate repeat tobacco cessation treatment (N = 1,343). The intervention consisted of a patient phone call and a computerized provider prompt. The primary outcome for this analysis was 7-day point prevalence smoking abstinence. The average age of the sample was 56 years old. Overall, 25% of the sample smoked menthol cigarettes: 19% of Whites, 62% of Blacks, and 25% of other ethnicity (p<.001). We observed no significant effects for menthol cigarette smoking or ethnicity on smoking abstinence rates. In conclusion, combined with findings from previous research, this study suggests that smoking menthol cigarettes does not decrease smoking cessation among older smokers during a quit attempt aided with pharmacotherapy.

  10. Ten Years down the Road: Predictors of Driving Cessation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Jerri D.; Bart, Edward; O'Connor, Melissa L.; Cissell, Gayla

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: Recent prospective studies have found that cognition is a more salient predictor of driving cessation than physical performance or demographic factors among community-dwelling older adults. However, these studies have been limited to 5 years of follow-up. The current study used data from the Maryland Older Drivers Project to examine…

  11. 30 CFR 817.131 - Cessation of operations: Temporary.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...-surface strata which have been in the permit area prior to cessation or abandonment, the extent and kind of reclamation of surface area which will have been accomplished, and identification of the... Section 817.131 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF...

  12. 30 CFR 817.131 - Cessation of operations: Temporary.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...-surface strata which have been in the permit area prior to cessation or abandonment, the extent and kind of reclamation of surface area which will have been accomplished, and identification of the... Section 817.131 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF...

  13. 30 CFR 817.131 - Cessation of operations: Temporary.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...-surface strata which have been in the permit area prior to cessation or abandonment, the extent and kind of reclamation of surface area which will have been accomplished, and identification of the... Section 817.131 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF...

  14. 30 CFR 817.131 - Cessation of operations: Temporary.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...-surface strata which have been in the permit area prior to cessation or abandonment, the extent and kind of reclamation of surface area which will have been accomplished, and identification of the... Section 817.131 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF...

  15. 20 CFR 410.432 - Cessation of disability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cessation of disability. 410.432 Section 410.432 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL COAL MINE HEALTH AND SAFETY ACT OF 1969, TITLE IV-BLACK LUNG BENEFITS (1969- ) Total Disability or Death Due to Pneumoconiosis §...

  16. 20 CFR 410.432 - Cessation of disability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Cessation of disability. 410.432 Section 410.432 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL COAL MINE HEALTH AND SAFETY ACT OF 1969, TITLE IV-BLACK LUNG BENEFITS (1969- ) Total Disability or Death Due to Pneumoconiosis §...

  17. 46 CFR 68.37 - Cessation of qualifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... DOCUMENTATION OF VESSELS: EXCEPTIONS TO COASTWISE QUALIFICATION Documentation of Certain Vessels for Oil Spill Cleanup § 68.37 Cessation of qualifications. (a) If the vessel is owned by a not-for-profit oil spill... change. The not-for-profit oil spill response cooperative shall report the change in writing to...

  18. 46 CFR 68.37 - Cessation of qualifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... DOCUMENTATION OF VESSELS: EXCEPTIONS TO COASTWISE QUALIFICATION Documentation of Certain Vessels for Oil Spill Cleanup § 68.37 Cessation of qualifications. (a) If the vessel is owned by a not-for-profit oil spill... change. The not-for-profit oil spill response cooperative shall report the change in writing to...

  19. 46 CFR 68.37 - Cessation of qualifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... DOCUMENTATION OF VESSELS: EXCEPTIONS TO COASTWISE QUALIFICATION Documentation of Certain Vessels for Oil Spill Cleanup § 68.37 Cessation of qualifications. (a) If the vessel is owned by a not-for-profit oil spill... change. The not-for-profit oil spill response cooperative shall report the change in writing to...

  20. Are Smoking Cessation Treatments Associated with Suicidality Risk? An Overview.

    PubMed

    Penberthy, J Kim; Penberthy, J Morgan; Harris, Marcus R; Nanda, Sonali; Ahn, Jennifer; Martinez, Caridad Ponce; Osika, Apule O; Slepian, Zoe A; Forsyth, Justin C; Starr, J Andrew; Farrell, Jennifer E; Hook, Joshua N

    2016-01-01

    Risk of suicidality during smoking cessation treatment is an important, but often overlooked, aspect of nicotine addiction research and treatment. We explore the relationship between smoking cessation interventions and suicidality and explore common treatments, their associated risks, and effectiveness in promoting smoking reduction and abstinence. Although active smokers have been reported to have twofold to threefold increased risk of suicidality when compared to nonsmokers,1-4 research regarding the safest way to stop smoking does not always provide clear guidelines for practitioners wishing to advise their patients regarding smoking cessation strategies. In this article, we review pharmacological and cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) options that are available for people seeking to quit smoking, focusing on the relationship between the ability of these therapies to reduce smoking behavior and promote abstinence and suicidality risks as assessed by reported suicidality on validated measures, reports of suicidal ideation, behaviors, actual attempts, or completed suicides. Pharmacotherapies such as varenicline, bupropion, and nicotine replacement, and CBTs, including contextual CBT interventions, have been found to help reduce smoking rates and promote and maintain abstinence. Suicidality risks, while present when trying to quit smoking, do not appear to demonstrate a consistent or significant rise associated with use of any particular smoking cessation pharmacotherapy or CBT/contextual CBT intervention reviewed. PMID:27081311

  1. Beliefs and experiences regarding smoking cessation among American Indians.

    PubMed

    Burgess, Diana; Fu, Steven S; Joseph, Anne M; Hatsukami, Dorothy K; Solomon, Jody; van Ryn, Michelle

    2007-01-01

    A dearth of information exists about American Indians' views about smoking and cessation. We present results from six focus groups conducted among current and former smokers from American Indian communities in the Minneapolis/St. Paul metropolitan area, as part of a larger qualitative study. Findings indicate that, although smoking is common and acceptable among this population, many would like to quit. The majority of focus group participants attempted cessation without the aid of counseling and pharmacotherapy. Many held negative attitudes toward pharmacotherapy for smoking cessation, including worries about side effects, skepticism about effectiveness, and dislike of medications in general. Negative attitudes were grounded partly in a lack of trust in conventional medicine and, for some, were related to historic and continuing racism. Participants also reported a lack of information about tobacco dependence treatment from health care providers, including information about the functional benefits of such treatment. Nonetheless, participants thought smokers might try pharmacotherapy if it was made more accessible in their community and if community members could offer word-of-mouth testimonials regarding its effectiveness. Results point to the need for community- and peer-based smoking cessation treatment in the American Indian community, including accurate information from trusted sources.

  2. Extended Treatment with Bupropion SR for Cigarette Smoking Cessation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Killen, Joel D.; Fortmann, Stephen P.; Murphy, Greer M.; Hayward, Chris; Arredondo, Christina; Cromp, DeAnn; Celio, Maria; Abe, Laurie; Wang, Yun; Schatzberg, Alan F.

    2006-01-01

    The authors present results of a randomized clinical trial of the efficacy of extended treatment with bupropion SR in producing longer term cigarette smoking cessation. Adult smokers (N = 362) received open-label treatment (11 weeks) that combined relapse prevention training, bupropion SR, and nicotine patch followed by extended treatment (14…

  3. 21 CFR 1141.16 - Disclosures regarding cessation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... health associated with cigarette smoking and the health benefits of quitting smoking; (2) Provide factual... evidence-based advice about how to formulate a plan to quit smoking; (5) Provide evidence-based information... include a reference to a smoking cessation assistance resource in accordance with, and as specified...

  4. Coping Strategies Used by Adolescents during Smoking Cessation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jannone, Laura; O'Connell, Kathleen A.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine coping strategies used by teens as they attempted to quit smoking. The teens were attending a school-based cessation program titled "Quit 2 Win" that was offered in four high schools. This study examined situations in which teens were tempted to smoke. The study compares coping strategies teens reported in…

  5. Motivational Interviewing for Smoking Cessation: A Meta-Analytic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hettema, Jennifer E.; Hendricks, Peter S.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Motivational interviewing (MI) is a treatment approach that has been widely examined as an intervention for tobacco dependence and is recommended in clinical practice guidelines. Previous reviews evaluating the efficacy of MI for smoking cessation noted effects that were modest in magnitude but included few studies. The current study is…

  6. Self-Initiated Smoking Cessation in College Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hellmann, Rosemary; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Smoking cessation behaviors of college students using a university health service were examined. Forty successful and 32 unsuccessful quitters were interviewed through an open-ended questionnaire. Differences in success seemed related to techniques used to remain abstinent from cigarette smoking, expectations of ease or difficulty in quitting, and…

  7. Are Smoking Cessation Treatments Associated with Suicidality Risk? An Overview

    PubMed Central

    Penberthy, J. Kim; Penberthy, J. Morgan; Harris, Marcus R.; Nanda, Sonali; Ahn, Jennifer; Ponce Martinez, Caridad; Osika, Apule O.; Slepian, Zoe A.; Forsyth, Justin C.; Starr, J. Andrew; Farrell, Jennifer E.; Hook, Joshua N.

    2016-01-01

    Risk of suicidality during smoking cessation treatment is an important, but often overlooked, aspect of nicotine addiction research and treatment. We explore the relationship between smoking cessation interventions and suicidality and explore common treatments, their associated risks, and effectiveness in promoting smoking reduction and abstinence. Although active smokers have been reported to have twofold to threefold increased risk of suicidality when compared to nonsmokers,1–4 research regarding the safest way to stop smoking does not always provide clear guidelines for practitioners wishing to advise their patients regarding smoking cessation strategies. In this article, we review pharmacological and cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) options that are available for people seeking to quit smoking, focusing on the relationship between the ability of these therapies to reduce smoking behavior and promote abstinence and suicidality risks as assessed by reported suicidality on validated measures, reports of suicidal ideation, behaviors, actual attempts, or completed suicides. Pharmacotherapies such as varenicline, bupropion, and nicotine replacement, and CBTs, including contextual CBT interventions, have been found to help reduce smoking rates and promote and maintain abstinence. Suicidality risks, while present when trying to quit smoking, do not appear to demonstrate a consistent or significant rise associated with use of any particular smoking cessation pharmacotherapy or CBT/contextual CBT intervention reviewed. PMID:27081311

  8. Psychosocial Mediators of Long-Term Abstinence Following Smoking Cessation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horwitz, Michael B.; And Others

    It is well known that many smokers who quit during cessation programs relapse soon after leaving treatment. To investigate the relationship of health locus of control, social support, nonsmoking areas, and objecting to another person's smoking to relapse and long-term maintenance of nonsmoking, male (N=70) and female (N=149) subjects participated…

  9. Styles of Physician Advice about Smoking Cessation in College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gemmell, Leigh; DiClemente, Carlo C.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To examine whether young adult cigarette smokers who were in the precontemplation and contemplation stages of change for smoking cessation would differ in their evaluations of vignettes depicting 2 types of physician advice. Participants: Fifty-seven young adult cigarette smokers who were undergraduate students (49.1% female, mean age =…

  10. 76 FR 58199 - TRICARE; Smoking Cessation Program Under TRICARE

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-20

    ... illness and disease in the United States and yet, the prevalence of smoking among TRICARE beneficiaries... illness in order to access benefits under the TRICARE smoking cessation program. Benefits under this... a smoking related illness to access benefits under this program. The specific benefits...

  11. Nicotine Gum and Behavioral Treatment in Smoking Cessation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Sharon M.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Assigned 120 smoking cessation subjects to either intensive behavioral treatment, nicotine gum in low-contact treatment, or to combined treatment. Combined treatment produced higher abstinence rates than other conditions at all assessments. Differences were significant at 3, 12, and 26 weeks, but not at 52 weeks. (NRB)

  12. Predicting Default from Smoking Cessation Treatment Following Enrolment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Challenger, Alison; Coleman, Tim; Lewis, Sarah

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To determine which factors predict default from subsequent treatment sessions after initial enrolment and attendance at a large, English smoking cessation service. Design: Cross-sectional survey using data obtained at smokers' initial enrolment attendance to compare the characteristics of those who subsequently default with those who do…

  13. Adolescent Smoking Cessation: Development of a School Nurse Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamilton, Greg; O'Connell, Meghan; Cross, Donna

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the feasibility of a range of strategies to engage and to enhance secondary school nurse involvement in teenage smoking prevention and cessation. School nurses were willing to assist students to quit smoking, but they felt unprepared. Information provided by nurses involved in a three-stage review,…

  14. The Role of Academic Pharmacy in Tobacco Cessation and Control

    PubMed Central

    McBane, Sarah E.; Corelli, Robin L.; Albano, Christian B.; Conry, John M.; Della Paolera, Mark A.; Kennedy, Amy K.; Jenkins, Antoine T.

    2013-01-01

    Despite decades of public health initiatives, tobacco use remains the leading known preventable cause of death in the United States. Clinicians have a proven, positive effect on patients’ ability to quit, and pharmacists are strategically positioned to assist patients with quitting. The American Association of Colleges of Pharmacy recognizes health promotion and disease prevention as a key educational outcome; as such, tobacco cessation education should be a required component of pharmacy curricula to ensure that all pharmacy graduates possess the requisite evidence-based knowledge and skills to intervene with patients who use tobacco. Faculty members teaching tobacco cessation-related content must be knowledgeable and proficient in providing comprehensive cessation counseling, and all preceptors and practicing pharmacists providing direct patient care should screen for tobacco use and provide at least minimal counseling as a routine component of care. Pharmacy organizations should establish policies and resolutions addressing the profession’s role in tobacco cessation and control, and the profession should work together to eliminate tobacco sales in all practice settings where pharmacy services are rendered. PMID:23788804

  15. Smoking policy and cessation in an inner-city hospital.

    PubMed

    Montner, P; Bennett, G; Brown, C; Green, S

    1996-01-01

    Hospital policies regarding cigarette smoking can affect the smoking habits of employees, patients, and visitors. Successful smoking policy development and impact have been reported in a number of hospitals. These reports have been from financially secure or university hospitals. This article reports on the policy experience at Interfaith Medical Center, a public hospital serving an economically disadvantaged black inner-city community. Policy implementation and smoking cessation efforts were directed by a broad-based hospital committee. An employee survey demonstrated support for a policy restricting but not banning smoking (89% of nonsmokers, and 80.2% of smokers). Among smoking employees, 87.6% wanted to quit. A policy restricting smoking to designated areas in the cafeteria and coffee shop was enacted. Health fairs and smokeout contests were enthusiastically received and resulted in short-term cessation verified by exhaled carbon monoxide levels. Assemblies where ex-smokers were given "Hall of Fame" certificates, "stop smoking" art contests, and a "stop smoking hotline" generated further cessation activity. The department of medicine, in cooperation with the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute's Smoking Education Program, set up a training program for residents on how to help patients quit. Overall, the smoking prevalence, attitudes, and enthusiasm to quit were similar to previous reports in financially secure hospitals. Unfortunately, lack of resources and staff turnover led to dissolution of the program. Institutional stability and a funding source are critical for the long-term success of hospital smoking cessation programs.

  16. Psychosocial Factors and Enrollment in a Televised Smoking Cessation Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kviz, Frederick J.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Interviews with random samples of 641 registrants for a smoking cessation program on Chicago television news and 2,398 smokers who regularly viewed the news determined that registration was associated with (1) recognition of the need to change behavior; (2) high expectation for quitting; (3) concern about the burden of lung cancer on significant…

  17. 30 CFR 285.401 - When may MMS issue a cessation order?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false When may MMS issue a cessation order? 285.401... Administration Noncompliance and Cessation Orders § 285.401 When may MMS issue a cessation order? (a) The MMS may... applicable law; regulation; order; or provision of a lease, grant, plan, or other MMS approval under...

  18. Addressing Heavy Drinking in Smoking Cessation Treatment: A Randomized Clinical Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kahler, Christopher W.; Metrik, Jane; LaChance, Heather R.; Ramsey, Susan E.; Abrams, David B.; Monti, Peter M.; Brown, Richard A.

    2008-01-01

    Heavy alcohol use frequently co-occurs with cigarette smoking and may impede smoking cessation. This clinical trial examined whether smoking cessation treatment that incorporates brief alcohol intervention can improve smoking cessation outcomes (7-day verified point prevalence abstinence) and reduce drinks consumed per week. Heavy drinkers seeking…

  19. Do Smoking Cessation Websites Meet the Needs of Smokers with Severe Mental Illnesses?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brunette, Mary F.; Ferron, Joelle C.; Devitt, Timothy; Geiger, Pamela; Martin, Wendy M.; Pratt, Sarah; Santos, Meghan; McHugo, Gregory J.

    2012-01-01

    Many people learn about smoking cessation through information on the Internet. Whether people with severe mental illnesses, who have very high rates of smoking, are able to use currently available websites about smoking cessation is unknown. The study reported here assessed whether four smoking cessation websites met usability guidelines and…

  20. A meta-analysis of acupuncture techniques for smoking cessation

    PubMed Central

    White, A.; Resch, K.; Ernst, E.

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—To determine the effectiveness of acupuncture for smoking cessation and to examine whether any individual aspect of trials is associated with an effect.
DATA SOURCES—All randomised controlled trials of acupuncture for smoking cessation that were listed in computerised databases or reference lists of relevant articles.
STUDY SELECTION—All randomised single-blind studies that compared acupuncture with sham acupuncture.
DATA EXTRACTION—Methodological data were extracted for quality assessment. Outcome data were extracted for rates of total smoking cessation at three intervals: early after treatment and after six and 12 months follow up.
DATA SYNTHESIS—Results were expressed as odds ratios of success over failure in intervention over control groups. The combined odds ratio for all studies was calculated. Repeated meta-analyses were subsequently performed on subsets of studies combined according to defined characteristics: acupuncture technique, number of attendances, country of origin, status of journal, and control procedure. The overall quality of studies was poor. The combined odds ratio for smoking cessation calculated for the earliest results after the end of treatment was 1.20 (95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) = 0.98 to 1.48). The combined odds ratio for smoking cessation after six months was 1.29 (95% CI = 0.82 to 2.01), and after 12 months was 1.03 (95% CI = 0.73 to 1.46). There were no significant effects of relevance among subsets of studies grouped according to defined characteristics.
CONCLUSIONS—Acupuncture was not superior to sham acupuncture for smoking cessation; no particular aspect of acupuncture technique was associated with a positive effect. The conclusions are limited by methodological inadequacies of studies and by the absence of testable hypotheses; design of future trials should avoid these deficiencies.


Keywords: acupuncture; smoking cessation PMID:10629245

  1. Interventions for smoking cessation in hospitalised patients: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Munafo, M; Rigotti, N; Lancaster, T; Stead, L; Murphy, M

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND—An admission to hospital provides an opportunity to help people stop smoking. Individuals may be more open to help at a time of perceived vulnerability, and may find it easier to quit in an environment where smoking is restricted or prohibited. Providing smoking cessation services during hospitalisation may help more people to attempt and sustain an attempt to quit. The purpose of this paper is to systematically review the effectiveness of interventions for smoking cessation in hospitalised patients.
METHODS—We searched the Cochrane Tobacco Addiction Group register, CINAHL, and the Smoking and Health database for studies of interventions for smoking cessation in hospitalised patients. Randomised and quasi-randomised trials of behavioural, pharmacological, or multi-component interventions to help patients stop smoking conducted with hospitalised patients who were current smokers or recent quitters were included. Studies of patients admitted for psychiatric disorders or substance abuse, those that did not report abstinence rates, and those with follow up of less than 6 months were excluded. Two of the authors extracted data independently for each paper, with assistance from others.
RESULTS—Intensive intervention (inpatient contact plus follow up for at least 1 month) was associated with a significantly higher cessation rate compared with controls (Peto odds ratio (OR) 1.82,95% CI 1.49 to 2.22). Any contact during hospitalisation followed by minimal follow up failed to detect a statistically significant effect on cessation rate, but did not rule out a 30% increase in smoking cessation (Peto OR 1.09, 95% CI 0.91 to 1.31). There was insufficient evidence to judge the effect of interventions delivered only during the hospital stay. Although the interventions increased quit rates irrespective of whether nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) was used, the results for NRT were compatible with other data indicating that it increases quit rates. There was no

  2. Insight into the Li2CO3-K2CO3 eutectic mixture from classical molecular dynamics: Thermodynamics, structure, and dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corradini, Dario; Coudert, François-Xavier; Vuilleumier, Rodolphe

    2016-03-01

    We use molecular dynamics simulations to study the thermodynamics, structure, and dynamics of the Li2CO3-K2CO3 (62:38 mol. %) eutectic mixture. We present a new classical non-polarizable force field for this molten salt mixture, optimized using experimental and first principles molecular dynamics simulations data as reference. This simple force field allows efficient molecular simulations of phenomena at long time scales. We use this optimized force field to describe the behavior of the eutectic mixture in the 900-1100 K temperature range, at pressures between 0 and 5 GPa. After studying the equation of state in these thermodynamic conditions, we present molecular insight into the structure and dynamics of the melt. In particular, we present an analysis of the temperature and pressure dependence of the eutectic mixture's self-diffusion coefficients, viscosity, and ionic conductivity.

  3. BaCO3 mediated modifications in structural and magnetic properties of natural nanoferrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Widanarto, W.; Jandra, M.; Ghoshal, S. K.; Effendi, M.; Cahyanto, W. T.

    2015-04-01

    Preparing M-type barium hexaferrite and improving the magnetic response of natural ferrites by incorporating barium carbonate (BaCO3) is ever-demanding. Series of barium carbonate doped ferrites with composition (100-x)Fe3O4·xBaCO3 (x=0, 10, 20, 30 wt%) are prepared through solid state reaction method and sintered gradually at temperatures of 800 and 1000 °C. Nanoparticles of natural ferrite and commercial BaCO3 are used as raw materials. Impacts of BaCO3 on structural and magnetic properties of these synthesized ferrites are inspected. The obtained ferrites are characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) at room temperature. Uniform barium hexaferrite particles in terms of both morphology and size are not achieved. The average crystallite size of BaFe12O19 is observed to be within 30-600 nm. The sintering process results phase transformation from Fe3O4 (magnetite) to α-Fe2O3 (hematite) and the formation of hexagonal barium ferrite crystals. The occurrence of barium crystal is found to enhance with the increase of BaCO3 concentrations up to 20 wt% and suddenly drop at 30 wt%. Saturation and remanent magnetization of the doped ferrites are significantly augmented up to 16.37 and 8.92 emu g-1, respectively compared to their pure counterpart. Furthermore, the coercivity field is slightly decreased as BaCO3 concentrations are increased. BaCO3 mediated improvements in the magnetic response of natural ferrites are demonstrated.

  4. Predictors of driving cessation in mild-to-moderate dementia

    PubMed Central

    Herrmann, Nathan; Rapoport, Mark J.; Sambrook, Robert; Hébert, Réjean; McCracken, Peter; Robillard, Alain

    2006-01-01

    Background Although physicians in most provinces are mandated to report patients whose driving ability is impaired by illness, little is known about dementia-related factors associated with driving cessation. The purpose of our study was to explore factors that may affect the likelihood of driving cessation in a sample of elderly, community-dwelling patients with dementia. Methods A 3-year prospective study, the Canadian Outcomes Study in Dementia (COSID) has enrolled 883 patients with mild-to-moderate dementia at 32 centres across Canada. Assessment tools included the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) for cognition, the Global Deterioration Scale (GDS) for staging (severity), the Functional Autonomy Measurement System (SMAF) for function, and the Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI) for behaviour. Factors associated with the decision to quit driving after the baseline assessment were tested with Cox survival analysis. Results Of 719 subjects who were or had been drivers, 203 (28.2%) were still driving at baseline. Over an observation period that averaged 23 months, 97 (48.5%) of 200 patients quit driving. Factors predictive of driving cessation included GDS (hazard ratio [HR] 1.68, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.15–2.45), MMSE score (HR 0.90, 95% CI 0.83– 0.97) and NPI findings (HR 1.63 for presence of ≥ 3 behaviours, 95% CI 1.01– 2.62). Among the NPI behaviours, when they were analyzed separately, agitation led to a decreased likelihood of driving cessation (p = 0.019), whereas apathy (p = 0.031) and hallucinations (p = 0.050) led to an increased likelihood. Interpretation Cognitive impairment and behaviours such as agitation, apathy and hallucinations were significant predictors of driving cessation in patients with a mild to moderate degree of dementia. These findings should be considered when one counsels patients and their families. PMID:16966661

  5. [Social deprivation and time perception, the impact on smoking cessation].

    PubMed

    Merson, Frédéric; Perriot, Jean

    2011-01-01

    Smoking addiction and smoking behaviour are closely related to social deprivation. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of social deprivation and time perspective on smoking cessation in order to improve the support provided to socially deprived persons seeking to quit smoking. The study examined the impact of social disadvantages and time perspective on smoking cessation. 192 patients (including 45% of socially disadvantaged people) participated in the study. Social deprivation was measured using the EPICES scale, while time perspective was measured using the short version of the Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory. Data relating to individuals' characteristics, smoking addiction, behaviour and smoking cessation were collected as part of this research. Compared to the rest of the population, socially disadvantaged people were found to be more likely to stop smoking for financial reasons (p < 0.0001). The study also found that their attempts to quit smoking are more likely to fail (p = 0,006). In addition, socially disadvantaged people suffer more frequently from anxio-depressive disorders (p < 0.0001) and are also prone to a higher level of nicotine dependence (p < 0.0001). The 'Past-Negative' and ?Present-Fatalistic' dimensions of time perspective, toward which socially disadvantaged people are more likely to lean (p < 0.0001), are associated with failed smoking cessation. The ?Future' dimension, in which socially disadvantaged people are less likely to project themselves (p < 0.0002), is a predictive factor of smoking cessation. The results highlight the importance of taking into account social deprivation and time perspective in helping socially disadvantaged patients to quit smoking.

  6. Infrared and electronic absorption spectra as well as ultrafast spin dynamics in isolated Co3+(EtOH) and Co3+(EtOH,H2O) clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Wei; Becherer, Markus; Bellaire, Daniel; Lefkidis, Georgios; Gerhards, Markus; Hübner, Wolfgang

    2014-04-01

    We present a combined theoretical and experimental study of the infrared (IR) and electronic absorption spectra in a molecular beam experiment as well as an analysis of spin dynamics in the clusters Co3+(EtOH) and Co3+(EtOH,H2O). The calculated IR and ground-state absorption spectra show very good agreement with experiment. By using high-level quantum chemistry methods, laser-induced ultrafast spin-flip scenarios in these structures are predicted. For the spin flip in Co3+(EtOH), our investigation indicates a 5 meV tolerance with respect to the laser detuning and a 6.5 meV tolerance with respect to the pulse spectral broadening, which are quite acceptable for the experimental implementation. In addition, we find that with the increase of the laser detuning the fitness of the processes gradually decays to zero on both sides but with different origins. This joint study of the homotrinuclear clusters provides insight into the experimentally observed spectra and optical properties, and steps towards the optical control of molecular magnetism for future spintronics application.

  7. Effects of TiO2 and Co3O4 Nanoparticles on Circulating Angiogenic Cells

    PubMed Central

    Spigoni, Valentina; Cito, Monia; Alinovi, Rossella; Pinelli, Silvana; Passeri, Giovanni; Zavaroni, Ivana; Goldoni, Matteo; Campanini, Marco; Aliatis, Irene; Mutti, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aim Sparse evidence suggests a possible link between exposure to airborne nanoparticles (NPs) and cardiovascular (CV) risk, perhaps through mechanisms involving oxidative stress and inflammation. We assessed the effects of TiO2 and Co3O4 NPs in human circulating angiogenic cells (CACs), which take part in vascular endothelium repair/replacement. Methods CACs were isolated from healthy donors’ buffy coats after culturing lymphomonocytes on fibronectin-coated dishes in endothelial medium for 7 days. CACs were pre-incubated with increasing concentration of TiO2 and Co3O4 (from 1 to 100 μg/ml) to test the effects of NP – characterized by Transmission Electron Microscopy – on CAC viability, apoptosis (caspase 3/7 activation), function (fibronectin adhesion assay), oxidative stress and inflammatory cytokine gene expression. Results Neither oxidative stress nor cell death were associated with exposure to TiO2 NP (except at the highest concentration tested), which, however, induced a higher pro-inflammatory effect compared to Co3O4 NPs (p<0.01). Exposure to Co3O4 NPs significantly reduced cell viability (p<0.01) and increased caspase activity (p<0.01), lipid peroxidation end-products (p<0.05) and pro-inflammatory cytokine gene expression (p<0.05 or lower). Notably, CAC functional activity was impaired after exposure to both TiO2 (p<0.05 or lower) and Co3O4 (p<0.01) NPs. Conclusions In vitro exposure to TiO2 and Co3O4 NPs exerts detrimental effects on CAC viability and function, possibly mediated by accelerated apoptosis, increased oxidant stress (Co3O4 NPs only) and enhancement of inflammatory pathways (both TiO2 and Co3O4 NPs). Such adverse effects may be relevant for a potential role of exposure to TiO2 and Co3O4 NPs in enhancing CV risk in humans. PMID:25803285

  8. The hydration dependence of CaCO3 absorption lines in the Far IR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Powell, Johnny; Emery, Logan P

    2014-06-01

    The far infrared (FIR) absorption lines of CaCO3 have been measured at a range of relative humidities (RH) between 33 and 92% RH using a Bruker 66v/S spectrometer. Hydration measurements on CaCO3 have been made in the mid-infrared (MIR) by [Al-Hosney, H.A. and Grassian, V.H., 2005, Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys., 7, 1266], and astrophysically-motivated temperature-dependent FIR measurements of CaCO3 in vacuum have also been reported [Posch, T., et al., 2007, Ap. J., 668, 993]. The custom sample cell constructed for these hydrated-FIR spectra is required because the 66v/S bench is under vacuum (3 mbar) during typical measurements. Briefly, the sample cell consists of two Thalium Bromoiodide (KRS-5) windows, four O-rings, a plastic ring for separating the windows and providing a volume for the saturated atmosphere. CaCO3 was deposited on KRS-5 windows using doubly-distilled water as an intermediary. The KRS-5 window with sample and assembled sample cell were placed in a desiccator with the appropriated saturated salt solution [Washburn, E.W. (Ed.), International Critical Tables of Numerical Data, Physics Chemistry and Technology, Vol. 1, (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1926), p. 67-68] and allowed to hydrate for 23 hours. For spectroscopy the desiccator was quickly opened and the second KRS-5 window placed in the cell to seal the chamber. A spectrum was then taken of the sample at the appropriate RH. The spectra taken characterize the adsorption of water vapor and CaCO3 that might occur in circumstellar environments [Melnick, G.J., et al. 2001, Nature, 412, 160].The MIR and FIR reflectance spectra of calcite (CaCO3) have been thoroughly studied by [Hellwege, K.H., et al., 1970, Z. Physik, 232, 61]. Five Lorentzian curves were fit to our data in the range from 378-222 cm-1/SUP> and each was able to be assigned to a known mode of CaCO3. The data does not support the conclusion of a hydration effect on these modes of CaCO3, but it does suggest a possible broadening of three modes

  9. How do mineral coatings affect dissolution rates? An experimental study of coupled CaCO 3 dissolution—CdCO 3 precipitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cubillas, Pablo; Köhler, Stephan; Prieto, Manuel; Causserand, Carole; Oelkers, Eric H.

    2005-12-01

    Coupled CaCO 3 dissolution-otavite (CdCO 3) precipitation experiments have been performed to 1) quantify the effect of mineral coatings on dissolution rates, and 2) to explore the possible application of this coupled process to the remediation of polluted waters. All experiments were performed at 25°C in mixed-flow reactors. Various CaCO 3 solids were used in the experiments including calcite, aragonite, and ground clam, mussel, and cockle shells. Precipitation was induced by the presence of Cd(NO 3) 2 in the inlet solution, which combined with aqueous carbonate liberated by CaCO 3 dissolution to supersaturate otavite. The precipitation of an otavite layer of less than 0.01 μm in thickness on calcite surfaces decreases its dissolution rate by close to two orders of magnitude. This decrease in calcite dissolution rates lowers aqueous carbonate concentrations in the reactor such that the mixed-flow reactor experiments attain a steady-state where the reactive fluid is approximately in equilibrium with otavite, arresting its precipitation. In contrast, otavite coatings are far less efficient in lowering aragonite, and ground clam, mussel, and cockle shell dissolution rates, which are comprised primarily of aragonite. A steady-state is only attained after the precipitation of an otavite layer of 3-10 μm thick; the steady state CaCO 3 dissolution rate is 1-2 orders of magnitude lower than that in the absence of otavite coatings. The difference in behavior is interpreted to stem from the relative crystallographic structures of the dissolving and precipitating minerals. As otavite is isostructural with respect to calcite, it precipitates by epitaxial growth directly on the calcite, efficiently slowing dissolution. In contrast, otavite's structure is appreciably different from that of aragonite. Thus, it will precipitate by random three dimensional heterogeneous nucleation, leaving some pore space at the otavite-aragonite interface. This pore space allows aragonite

  10. Mesoporous hexagonal Co3O4 for high performance lithium ion batteries

    PubMed Central

    Su, Dawei; Xie, Xiuqiang; Munroe, Paul; Dou, Shixue; Wang, Guoxiu

    2014-01-01

    Mesoporous Co3O4 nanoplates were successfully prepared by the conversion of hexagonal β-Co(OH)2 nanoplates. TEM, HRTEM and N2 sorption analysis confirmed the facet crystal structure and inner mesoporous architecture. When applied as anode materials for lithium storage in lithium ion batteries, mesoporous Co3O4 nanocrystals delivered a high specific capacity. At 10 C current rate, as-prepared mesoporous Co3O4 nanoplates delivered a specific capacity of 1203 mAh/g at first cycle and after 200 cycles it can still maintain a satisfied value (330 mAh/g). From ex-situ TEM, SAED and FESEM observation, it was found that mesoporous Co3O4 nanoplates were reduced to Li2O and Co during the discharge process and re-oxidised without losing the mesoporous structure during charge process. Even after 100 cycles, mesoporous Co3O4 crystals still preserved their pristine hexagonal shape and mesoporous nanostructure. PMID:25283174

  11. Facile synthesis of nanocage Co3O4 for advanced lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ying; Wang, Baofeng; Xiao, Feng; Huang, Zhenguo; Wang, Yijing; Richardson, Christopher; Chen, Zhixin; Jiao, Lifang; Yuan, Huatang

    2015-12-01

    A facile two-step annealing process is applied to synthesize nanocage Co3O4, using cobalt-based metal-organic framework as precursor and template. The as-obtained nanocages are composed of numerous Co3O4 nanoparticles. N2 adsorption-desorption isotherms show that the as-obtained Co3O4 has a porous structure with a favorable surface area of 110.6 m2 g-1. Electrochemical tests show that nanocage Co3O4 is a potential candidate as anode for lithium-ion batteries. A reversible specific capacity of 810 mAh g-1 was obtained after 100 cycles at a high specific current of 500 mA g-1. The material also displays good rate capability, with a reversible capacity of 1069, 1063, 850, and 720 mAh g-1 at specific current of 100, 200, 800, and 1000 mA g-1, respectively. The good electrochemical performance of nanocage Co3O4 can be attributed to its unique hierarchical hollow structure, which is maintained during electrochemical cycling.

  12. Investigation of miscibility of p(3hydroxybutyrate-co-3hydroxyhexanoate) and epoxidized natural rubber blends

    SciTech Connect

    Akram, Faridah; Chan, Chin Han; Natarajan, Valliyappan David

    2015-08-28

    Poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyhexanoate [P(3HB-co-3HHx)] produced by C. necator PHB{sup −}4 harboring phaC{sub cs} from crude palm kernel oil with 21 mol% of 3-hydroxyhexanoate and epoxidized natural rubber with 25 mol% of epoxy content (ENR-25) were used to study the miscibility of the blends by attenuated total reflection-Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The polymers used were purified and the blends were prepared by solution casting method. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra confirm the purity and molecular structures of P(3HB-co-3HHx) and ENR-25. FTIR spectra for different compositions of P(3HB-co-3HHx) and ENR-25 blends show absorbance change of the absorbance bands but with no significant shifting of the absorbance bands as the P(3HB-co-3HHx) content decreases, which shows that there is no intermolecular interaction between the parent polymer blends. On top of that, there are two T{sub g}s present for the blends and both remain constant for different compositions which corresponds to the T{sub g}s of the parent polymers. This indicates that the blends are immiscible.

  13. Tuneable ultra high specific surface area Mg/Al-CO3 layered double hydroxides.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chunping; Wangriya, Aunchana; Buffet, Jean-Charles; O'Hare, Dermot

    2015-10-01

    We report the synthesis of tuneable ultra high specific surface area Aqueous Miscible Organic solvent-Layered Double Hydroxides (AMO-LDHs). We have investigated the effects of different solvent dispersion volumes, dispersion times and the number of re-dispersion cycles specific surface area of AMO-LDHs. In particular, the effects of acetone dispersion on two different morphology AMO-LDHs (Mg3Al-CO3 AMO-LDH flowers and Mg3Al-CO3 AMO-LDH plates) was investigated. It was found that the amount of acetone used in the dispersion step process can significantly affect the specific surface area of Mg3Al-CO3 AMO-LDH flowers while the dispersion time in acetone is critical factor to obtain high specific surface area Mg3Al-CO3 AMO-LDH plates. Optimisation of the acetone washing steps enables Mg3Al-CO3 AMO-LDH to have high specific surface area up to 365 m(2) g(-1) for LDH flowers and 263 m(2) g(-1) for LDH plates. In addition, spray drying was found to be an effective and practical drying method to increase the specific surface area by a factor of 1.75. Our findings now form the basis of an effective general strategy to obtain ultrahigh specific surface area LDHs.

  14. Characterization of Corn Starch Films Reinforced with CaCO3 Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Qingjie; Xi, Tingting; Li, Ying; Xiong, Liu

    2014-01-01

    The characterization of corn starch (CS) films impregnated with CaCO3 nanoparticles was investigated. Criteria such as morphology, crystallinity, water vapor permeability (WVP), opacity, and mechanical properties were the focus of the investigation. It was found that the CaCO3 contents had significant effects on the tensile properties of the nanocomposite films. The addition of CaCO3 nanoparticles to the CS films significantly increased tensile strength from 1.40 to 2.24 MPa, elongation from 79.21 to 118.98%, and Young’s modulus from 1.82 to 2.41 MPa. The incorporation of CaCO3 nanoparticles increased the opacity of films, lowered the degree of WVP and film solubility value compared to those of the CS films. The results of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) showed that with the increase of CaCO3 nanoparticles content in starch films, the roughness of the films increased, and pores or cavities were found on the surface of the films, while small cracks were observed in the structures of the fractured surfaces. X-ray diffraction showed that the addition of nanoparticles increased the peaks in the intensity of films. PMID:25188503

  15. The synthesis of biologically relevant conjugates of Re(CO)3 using pyridine-2-carboxyaldehyde.

    PubMed

    Costa, Roshinee; Chanawanno, Kullapa; Engle, James T; Baroody, Bertha; Herrick, Richard S; Ziegler, Christopher J

    2013-06-15

    The new pyridine-2-carboxaldehyde adduct, Re(CO)3(NC6H5C(O)H)Cl 1, and previously reported complex Re(CO)3(NC6H5C(O)H)Br 2 react with aniline derivatives sulfanilamide or 4-aminofluorescein in methanol giving Schiff base conjugates Re(CO)3(pyca-R)X (pyca = pyridinecarbaldehyde imine, X = Cl, Br), 3-6. Pre-isolation of compounds 1 and 2 provides a convenient method for preparing conjugate complexes in addition to the known methods of ligand synthesis and one-pot reactions. All new compounds were completely characterized, and compound 1 and the sulfanilamide derivatives 3 and 4 were structurally elucidated by X-ray crystallography. PMID:23976791

  16. Thermal histories of CO3 chondrites - Application of olivine diffusion modelling to parent body metamorphism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Rhian H.; Rubie, David C.

    1991-01-01

    The petrologic sequence observed in the CO3 chondrite group has been suggested to be the result of thermal metamorphism on a parent body. A model developed to examine the possibility that chondrule and matrix olivines equilibrated in situ, during parent body metamorphism is presented. The model considers Fe-Mg interdiffusion between chondrule and matrix olivines. Zoning profiles comparable to those observed in chondrule olivines from partially equilibrated members of the series are reproduced successfully. Metamorphism of CO3 chondrites on a parent body is therefore a viable model for the observed equilibration. Results indicate that peak metamorphic temperatures experienced by the CO3 chondrites were around 500 C, and that the range of peak temperatures between unequilibrated and equilibrated subtypes was relatively narrow, around 100 C.

  17. Wally's Quest to Understand the Ocean's CaCO3 Cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Broecker, W. S.

    2009-01-01

    Aspects of the production and dissolution of CaCO3 hard parts dominate the literature regarding contemporary marine chemistry and paleoceanography. During my long career I have contributed more than 200 papers related to this subject. In this prefatory article in the first volume of the Annual Review of Marine Science, I recount what I consider to be the highlights of my attempts to understand the cycle of CaCO3 in today's ocean and in oceans of the past. These studies began in the Bahamas in the early 1960s and then quickly graduated to the world ocean. Although much of my research has involved stable and radioisotopes contained in shells and coral directed toward reconstruction of the late Quaternary operation of the earth system, in this review I concentrate on carbonate chemistry and, in particular, the compensation in the deep sea for the overproduction of CaCO3 by marine organisms.

  18. Effect of ZnO:Cs2CO3 on the performance of organic photovoltaics

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    We demonstrate a new solution-processed electron transport layer (ETL), zinc oxide doped with cesium carbonate (ZnO:Cs2CO3), for achieving organic photovoltaics (OPVs) with good operational stability at ambient air. An OPV employing the ZnO:Cs2CO3 ETL exhibits a fill factor of 62%, an open circuit voltage of 0.90 V, and a short circuit current density of −6.14 mA/cm2 along with 3.43% power conversion efficiency. The device demonstrated air stability for a period over 4 weeks. In addition, we also studied the device structure dependence on the performance of organic photovoltaics. Thus, we conclude that ZnO:Cs2CO3 ETL could be employed in a suitable architecture to achieve high-performance OPV. PMID:25045340

  19. PUA/PSS multilayer coated CaCO3 microparticles as smart drug delivery vehicles.

    PubMed

    Du, Chao; Shi, Jun; Shi, Jin; Zhang, Li; Cao, Shaokui

    2013-10-01

    Hybrid CaCO3 microparticles coated by sodium poly(styrene sulfonate) (PSS) and aliphatic poly(urethane-amine) (PUA) were developed as thermal-/pH-responsive drug delivery vehicles via LbL self-assembly technique. The DOX release from the CaCO3 microparticles was higher than 60% within 36 h, whereas the value of PUA/PSS-coated microparticles was only 20%. The results demonstrated that the PUA/PSS multilayer coating could reduce the drug release rate and significantly assuage the initial burst release of DOX. In addition, the drug release of the hybrid microparticles was found to be thermal-/pH-dual responsive. More interestingly, more than 90% of DOX was released in 36 h at pH2.1 and 55 °C owing to the combined action of the dissolution of the CaCO3 core and the shrinkage of aliphatic PUA. PMID:23910272

  20. Donut-shaped Co3O4 nanoflakes grown on nickel foam with enhanced supercapacitive performances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Zhicheng; Zheng, Xin; Yao, Shunyu; Xiao, Huanhao; Qu, Fengyu; Wu, Xiang

    2016-03-01

    Donut-shaped Co3O4 nanoflakes grown on nickel foam were successfully fabricated by a simple one-pot hydrothermal approach. The prepared products were functionalized as the supercapacitors electrodes. Electrochemical performance of the as-prepared products demonstrated high specific capacitance (518 mF cm-2) and excellent cycling stability (∼25% loss) after 6000 repetitive cycles at a charge-discharge current density of 1 mA cm-2. The superior electrochemical performance may be ascribed into two reasons: one is the unique spatial structures which possess many active sites and provide enhanced combination between the electrode and nickel foam to support fast ion and electron transfer, the other is that donut-shaped Co3O4 nanoflakes electrodes show relatively lower resistances. It is expected that the as-obtained donut-shaped Co3O4 nanoflakes could have potential applications in portable electronics and electrical vehicles.

  1. SrCO3:Tb3+ hollow microspheres fabricated via solvothermal process and their optical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xue, Yannan; Ren, Xiaolei; Yu, Min

    2012-08-01

    Well-dispersed SrCO3:Tb3+ hollow microspheres have been synthesized in the water-ethanol-ethylene glycol solvent system using oleic acid (OA) as an additive without further annealing treatment. X-ray diffraction (XRD), fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), and field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), as well as photoluminescence spectroscopy (PL) were used to characterize the resulting samples. The dosage of OA and the reaction time play key roles in the formation of the final samples. The possible formation mechanism for SrCO3:Tb3+ hollow microsphere is proposed. The SrCO3:Tb3+ phosphors show strong photoluminescence with green emission 5D4-7F5 (544 nm) as the most prominent group under ultraviolet excitation, which have potential applications in field emission displays. The present synthesis process may be extended to fabricate other inorganic materials with special morphologies and functions.

  2. Nanosheets Co3O4 Interleaved with Graphene for Highly Efficient Oxygen Reduction.

    PubMed

    Odedairo, Taiwo; Yan, Xuecheng; Ma, Jun; Jiao, Yalong; Yao, Xiangdong; Du, Aijun; Zhu, Zhonghua

    2015-09-30

    Efficient yet inexpensive electrocatalysts for oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) are an essential component of renewable energy devices, such as fuel cells and metal-air batteries. We herein interleaved novel Co3O4 nanosheets with graphene to develop a first ever sheet-on-sheet heterostructured electrocatalyst for ORR, whose electrocatalytic activity outperformed the state-of-the-art commercial Pt/C with exceptional durability in alkaline solution. The composite demonstrates the highest activity of all the nonprecious metal electrocatalysts, such as those derived from Co3O4 nanoparticle/nitrogen-doped graphene hybrids and carbon nanotube/nanoparticle composites. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations indicated that the outstanding performance originated from the significant charge transfer from graphene to Co3O4 nanosheets promoting the electron transport through the whole structure. Theoretical calculations revealed that the enhanced stability can be ascribed to the strong interaction generated between both types of sheets. PMID:26345714

  3. PUA/PSS multilayer coated CaCO3 microparticles as smart drug delivery vehicles.

    PubMed

    Du, Chao; Shi, Jun; Shi, Jin; Zhang, Li; Cao, Shaokui

    2013-10-01

    Hybrid CaCO3 microparticles coated by sodium poly(styrene sulfonate) (PSS) and aliphatic poly(urethane-amine) (PUA) were developed as thermal-/pH-responsive drug delivery vehicles via LbL self-assembly technique. The DOX release from the CaCO3 microparticles was higher than 60% within 36 h, whereas the value of PUA/PSS-coated microparticles was only 20%. The results demonstrated that the PUA/PSS multilayer coating could reduce the drug release rate and significantly assuage the initial burst release of DOX. In addition, the drug release of the hybrid microparticles was found to be thermal-/pH-dual responsive. More interestingly, more than 90% of DOX was released in 36 h at pH2.1 and 55 °C owing to the combined action of the dissolution of the CaCO3 core and the shrinkage of aliphatic PUA.

  4. Time-resolved laser fluorescence spectroscopy of UO2(CO3)3(4-).

    PubMed

    Jung, E C; Cho, H-R; Baik, M H; Kim, H; Cha, W

    2015-11-21

    The objective of the present study is to examine the luminescence characteristics of UO2(CO3)3(4-) in detail using time-resolved laser fluorescence spectroscopy. The peak wavelengths and lifetime of UO2(CO3)3(4-) were determined at room temperature using the two excitation laser wavelengths of 266 and 448 nm. The peak wavelengths in the luminescence spectrum exhibited hypsochromic shifts compared with those of UO2(2+). The lifetime determined from several samples containing various uranium concentrations was 8.9 ± 0.8 ns. Explanations for the hindrance to the observation of the luminescence spectrum of UO2(CO3)3(4-) in previous investigations are discussed. The representative experimental parameters, which might interrupt the measurement of weak luminescence, are the insertion delay time of the detection device, the overlapped luminescence of the background materials and the primary inner filter effect in the sample solution.

  5. Controllable synthesis porous Ag2CO3 nanorods for efficient photocatalysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Shenghui; Bao, Jianxing; Hu, Tu; Zhang, Libo; Yang, Li; Peng, Jinhui; Jiang, Caiyi

    2015-04-01

    The novel porous Ag2CO3 nanorods were facilely synthesized via a one-pot aqueous solution reaction at room temperature. The crystalline phase and size distribution of the nanorods were determined by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), respectively. In addition, the porous feature of nanorods was confirmed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and nitrogen adsorption-desorption. The morphology and size of the Ag2CO3 crystal can be regulated via the choice of dispersing agents and adding approaches of reactants. Photocatalytic results show that the porous Ag2CO3 nanorods exhibit excellent photodegradation of rhodamine B (RhB) under visible-light irradiation, particularly the photoactivity performance and stability can be further improved in the presence of sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3). It is indicated that NaHCO3 can prevent effectively the photocorrosion and promote the probability of electron-hole separation.

  6. Role of CaCO3° Neutral Pair in Calcium Carbonate Crystallization

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The molecular structure of the units that get incorporated into the nuclei of the crystalline phase and sustain their growth is a fundamental issue in the pathway from a supersaturated solution to the formation of crystals. Using a fluorescent dye we have recorded the variation of the pH value in time along a gel where CaCl2 and NaHCO3 counter-diffuse to crystallize CaCO3. The same pH–space–time distribution maps were also computationally obtained using a chemical speciation code (phreeqc). Using data arising from this model we investigated the space-time evolution of the activity of the single species (ions and ion pairs) involved in the crystallization process. Our combined results suggest that, whatever the pathway from solution to crystals, the neutral pair CaCO3° is a key species in the CaCO3 precipitation system. PMID:27512345

  7. Scanning tunnelling microscope studies of angstrom-scale Co3O4 nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Yi; Xu, Rui; Yang, Ji-Yong; He, Lin; Nie, Jia-Cai; Dou, Rui-Fen; Zhou, Wei; Guo, Lin

    2010-08-01

    We report the bottom-up assembly of an atomic-scale building block, which consists of four Co3 + cations, two Co2 + cations, and eight O2 - anions, for generating one-dimensional Co3O4 nanostructures with diameters ranging from 0.5 to 3 nm. Controlled experiments were carried out and the growth mechanism of the Co3O4 nanowires was investigated. The effects of a single cation defect on the epitaxial growth of the one-dimensional nanostructures were investigated. We proposed a self-rectifying growth mechanism on the basis of direct experimental observations. This mechanism will help us to understand synthesized crystals usually exhibiting homogeneous composition and uniform morphology, though the existence of defects is inevitable in the growth process.

  8. Time-resolved laser fluorescence spectroscopy of UO2(CO3)3(4-).

    PubMed

    Jung, E C; Cho, H-R; Baik, M H; Kim, H; Cha, W

    2015-11-21

    The objective of the present study is to examine the luminescence characteristics of UO2(CO3)3(4-) in detail using time-resolved laser fluorescence spectroscopy. The peak wavelengths and lifetime of UO2(CO3)3(4-) were determined at room temperature using the two excitation laser wavelengths of 266 and 448 nm. The peak wavelengths in the luminescence spectrum exhibited hypsochromic shifts compared with those of UO2(2+). The lifetime determined from several samples containing various uranium concentrations was 8.9 ± 0.8 ns. Explanations for the hindrance to the observation of the luminescence spectrum of UO2(CO3)3(4-) in previous investigations are discussed. The representative experimental parameters, which might interrupt the measurement of weak luminescence, are the insertion delay time of the detection device, the overlapped luminescence of the background materials and the primary inner filter effect in the sample solution. PMID:26460936

  9. A smoking cessation helpline for Louisiana smokers--and a new resource for medical professionals.

    PubMed

    Gleckler, E; Bates, B R; Schilleci, E; Hargrove-Roberson, D

    2001-01-01

    The Louisiana Office of Public Health Tobacco Control and Prevention Program received funding from the Louisiana State Legislature to expand smoking cessation activities in the state. The Tobacco Control Program conducted a review of other states' current smoking cessation programs, cessation programs in Louisiana, and epidemiological evidence in planning the expansion of the Louisiana tobacco smoking cessation program. As a result, a smoking cessation helpline has been developed. Medical clinicians in Louisiana have a powerful impact on their patients' smoking cessation success. Simple discussion by physicians with their patients about how to quit smoking has improved successful quitting rates by 40%. Approximately 70% of smokers visit a physician each year and 60% visit a dentist, so there is clearly an opportunity to reach many persons at risk. The telephone smoking cessation helpline at 1-800-LUNG-USA is a tool for clinicians to use when advising their patients on ways to improve their health and prevent disease.

  10. Smoking cessation guidelines for health professionals: an update

    PubMed Central

    West, R.; McNeill, A.; Raw, M.

    2000-01-01

    This paper updates the evidence base and key recommendations of the Health Education Authority (HEA) smoking cessation guidelines for health professionals published in Thorax in 1998. The strategy for updating the evidence base makes use of updated Cochrane reviews supplemented by individual studies where appropriate. This update contains additional detail concerning the effectiveness of interventions as well as comments on issues relating to implementation. The recommendations include clarification of some important issues addressed only in general terms in the original guidelines. The conclusion that smoking cessation interventions delivered through the National Health Service are an extremely cost effective way of preserving life and reducing ill health remains unchanged. The strategy recommended by the guidelines involves: (1) GPs opportunistically advising smokers to stop during routine consultations, giving advice on and/or prescribing effective medications to help them and referring them to specialist cessation services; (2) specialist smokers' services providing behavioural support (in groups or individually) for smokers who want help with stopping and using effective medications wherever possible; (3) specialist cessation counsellors providing behavioural support for hospital patients and pregnant smokers who want help with stopping; (4) all health professionals involved in smoking cessation encouraging and assisting smokers in use of nicotine replacement therapies (NRT) or bupropion where appropriate. The key points of clarification of the previous guidelines include: (1) primary health care teams and hospitals should create and maintain readily accessible records on the current smoking status of patients; (2) GPs should aim to advise smokers to stop, and record having done so, at least once a year; (3) inpatient, outpatient, and pregnant smokers should be advised to stop as early as possible and the advice recorded in the notes in a readily accessible

  11. Pressure-induced phase transformations of PbCO3 by X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Jing; Wu, Xiang; Qin, Shan; Li, Yan-chun

    2016-01-01

    By employing synchrotron radiation, X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy, the high pressure structural transformations of lead carbonate PbCO3 was investigated in diamond anvil cells up to ∼50 GPa at room temperature. Three pressure-induced transitions have been observed at ∼8.5, ∼15 and ∼26 GPa, respectively. The transition from PbCO3-I to PbCO3-II is a displacive transformation featured with anti-rotation of [CO3]2- triangles. PbCO3-II is a metastable phase because the [CO3]2- groups are in a unfixed state until they reach the equilibrium positions in PbCO3-III. PbCO3-III adopts a monoclinic symmetry with primitive lattice, and tendentiously exhibits a more compressible b-axis relative to c-axis. Isothermal pressure-volume relationship of PbCO3-III is well described by the Birch-Murnaghan equation of state with K0 = 131(4) GPa, ? (fixed) and V0 = 246(1) Å3. However, little information on the crystal structure of PbCO3-IV can be extracted from the present experiment. The transformation process of PbCO3 exhibits similarity to that of calcite and dolomite.

  12. Photoelectron velocity-map imaging and theoretical studies of heteronuclear metal carbonyls MNi(CO)3- (M = Mg, Ca, Al)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Hua; Zou, Jinghan; Yuan, Qinqin; Fan, Hongjun; Tang, Zichao; Jiang, Ling

    2016-03-01

    The heteronuclear metal carbonyl anions MNi(CO)3- (M = Mg, Ca, Al) have been investigated using photoelectron velocity-map imaging spectroscopy. Electron affinities of neutral MNi(CO)3 (M = Mg, Ca, Al) are measured from the photoelectron spectra to be 1.064 ± 0.063, 1.050 ± 0.064, and 1.541 ± 0.040 eV, respectively. The C-O stretching mode in these three clusters is observed and the vibrational frequency is determined to be 2049, 2000, and 2041 cm-1 for MgNi(CO)3, CaNi(CO)3, and AlNi(CO)3, respectively. Density functional theory calculations are carried out to elucidate the geometric and electronic structures and to aid the experimental assignments. It has been found that three terminal carbonyls are preferentially bonded to the nickel atom in these heterobinuclear nickel carbonyls MNi(CO)3-1/0, resulting in the formation of the Ni(CO)3 motif. Ni remains the 18-electron configuration for MgNi(CO)3 and CaNi(CO)3 neutrals, but not for AlNi(CO)3. This is different from the homobinuclear nickel carbonyl Ni-Ni(CO)3 with the involvement of three bridging ligands. Present findings would be helpful for understanding CO adsorption on alloy surfaces.

  13. A hydrogen isotope study of CO3 type carbonaceous chondrites; comparison with type 3 ordinary chondrites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morse, A. D.; Newton, J.; Pillinger, C. T.

    1993-01-01

    Meteorites of the Ornans type 3 carbonaceous chondrites exhibit a range in degree of equilibration, attributed to differing amounts of thermal metamorphism. These differences have been used to split the CO3 chondrites into petrologic sub-types from 3.0, least equilibrated, to 3.7, being most equilibrated. This is similar to the system of assigning the type 3 ordinary chondrites into petrologic sub-types 3.0 to 3.9 based upon thermoluminescence (TL) and other properties; however, the actual range of thermal metamorphism experienced by CO3 chondrites is much less than that of the type 3 ordinary chondrites. The least equilibrated ordinary chondrites show evidence of aqueous alteration and have high D/H ratios possibly due to a deuterium-rich organic carrier. The aim of this study was to determine whether the CO3 chondrites, which have experienced similar secondary conditions to the type 3 ordinary chondrites, also contain a similar deuterium-rich carrier. To date a total of 5 CO3 meteorites, out of a set of 11 for which carbon and nitrogen isotopic data are available, have been analyzed. Ornans has not been analyzed yet, because it does not appear to fit in with the metamorphic sequence exhibited by the other CO3 chondrites; it also has an extremely high delta-D value of +2150 percent, unusual for such a comparatively equilibrated meteorite (type 3.4). Initial results indicate that the more equilibrated CO3's tend to have lower delta-D values, analogous to the higher petrologic type ordinary chondrites. However this is complicated by the effects of terrestrial weathering and the small data-set.

  14. CaCO3 biomineralization on cyanobacterial surfaces: insights from experiments with three Synechococcus strains.

    PubMed

    Liang, Anqi; Paulo, Carlos; Zhu, Yong; Dittrich, Maria

    2013-11-01

    In the present paper, the impact of freshwater (ARC21 and LS0519) and marine (PCC8806) Synechococcus cyanobacteria on calcium carbonate (CaCO3) precipitation has been examined in respect of the formation rates and morphology of crystals. Acid-base potentiometric titrations were employed to study surface functional groups, while CaCO3 experiments have been carried out in presence and absence of cells at low to near-equilibrium conditions in respect to CaCO3. During these experiments, the pH values have been monitored, Ca and alkalinity were measured and precipitates have been investigated by Raman spectroscopy and Atomic Force and Scanning Electron microscopy. Our results showed that the Synechococcus strains exhibited different surface reactivity with total concentration of surface functional groups of 0.342 and 0.350 mMg(-1) of dry bact. for freshwater strains, and 0.662 mMg(-1) of dry bact. for the marine strain, which are on the same order of magnitude as that reported for bacterial cell surfaces. The marine strain showed the highest CaCO3 formation rate with Ca(2+) removal of 18 mMg(-1) dry bact. compared to 6-7 mMg(-1) dry bact. for freshwater strains. The morphological diversity in crystals has been linked to presence of specific functional groups. The linking cell surface properties to crystal morphologies and precipitation rates propose that bacterial surfaces may modulate CaCO3 formation. Results of this work should allow better understanding of biominiralization in marine and freshwater systems as they define the precipiatation rates in typical range of pH necessary for estimation of CaCO3 formation by cyanobacterial communities.

  15. Testing the cation-hydration effect on the crystallization of Ca-Mg-CO3 systems.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jie; Yan, Chao; Zhang, Fangfu; Konishi, Hiromi; Xu, Huifang; Teng, H Henry

    2013-10-29

    Dolomite and magnesite are simple anhydrous calcium and/or magnesium carbonate minerals occurring mostly at Earth surfaces. However, laboratory synthesis of neither species at ambient temperature and pressure conditions has been proven practically possible, and the lack of success was assumed to be related to the strong solvation shells of magnesium ions in aqueous media. Here, we report the synthesis of MgCO3 and MgxCa(1-x)CO3 (0 < x < 1) solid phases at ambient conditions in the absence of water. Experiments were carried out in dry organic solvent, and the results showed that, although anhydrous phases were readily precipitated in the water-free environment, the precipitates' crystallinity was highly dependent on the Mg molar percentage content in the solution. In specific, magnesian calcite dominated in low [Mg(2+)]/[Ca(2+)] solutions but gave way to exclusive formation of amorphous MgxCa(1-x)CO3 and MgCO3 in high-[Mg(2+)]/[Ca(2+)] and pure-Mg solutions. At conditions of [Mg(2+)]/[Ca(2+)] = 1, both nanocrystals of Ca-rich protodolomite and amorphous phase of Mg-rich MgxCa(1-x)CO3 were formed. These findings exposed a previously unrecognized intrinsic barrier for Mg(2+) and CO3(2-) to develop long-range orders at ambient conditions and suggested that the long-held belief of cation-hydration inhibition on dolomite and magnesite mineralization needed to be reevaluated. Our study provides significant insight into the long-standing "dolomite problem" in geochemistry and mineralogy and may promote a better understanding of the fundamental chemistry in biomineralization and mineral-carbonation processes.

  16. INTERFEROMETRIC CO(3-2) OBSERVATIONS TOWARD THE CENTRAL REGION OF NGC 1068

    SciTech Connect

    Tsai, Mengchun; Hwang, Chorng-Yuan; Matsushita, Satoki; Espada, Daniel; Baker, Andrew J.

    2012-02-20

    We present CO(3-2) interferometric observations of the central region of the Seyfert 2 galaxy NGC 1068 using the Submillimeter Array, together with CO(1-0) data taken with the Owens Valley Radio Observatory Millimeter Array. Both the CO(3-2) and CO(1-0) emission lines are mainly distributed within {approx}5 arcsec of the nucleus and along the spiral arms, but the intensity distributions show differences: the CO(3-2) map peaks in the nucleus, while the CO(1-0) emission is mainly located along the spiral arms. The CO(3-2)/CO(1-0) ratio is about 3.1 in the nucleus, which is four times as large as the average line ratio in the spiral arms, suggesting that the molecular gas there must be affected by the radiation arising from the active galactic nucleus. On the other hand, the line ratios in the spiral arms vary over a wide range from 0.24 to 2.34 with an average value around 0.75, which is similar to the line ratios of star formation regions, indicating that the molecular gas is affected by star formation. Besides, we see a tight correlation between CO(3-2)/(1-0) ratios in the spiral arms and star formation rate surface densities derived from Spitzer 8 {mu}m dust flux densities. We also compare the CO(3-2)/(1-0) ratio and the star formation rate at different positions within the spiral arms; both are found to decrease as the radius from the nucleus increases.

  17. (12)CO (3-2) & (1-0) emission line observations of nearby starburst galaxy nuclei

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Devereux, Nicholas; Taniguchi, Yoshiaki; Sanders, D. B.; Nakai, N.; Young, J. S.

    1994-01-01

    New measurements of the (12)CO (1-0) and (12)CO (3-2) line emission are presented for the nuclei of seven nearby starburst galaxies selected from a complete sample of 21 nearby starburst galaxies for which the nuclear star formation rates are measured to be comparable to the archetype starburst galaxies M82 and NGC 253. The new observations capitalize on the coincidence between the beam size of the 45 m Nobeyama telescope at 115 GHz and that of the 15 m James Clerk Maxwell Telescope at 345 GHz to measure the value of the (12)CO (3-2)/(1-0) emission line ratio in a 15 sec (less than or equal to 2.5 kpc) diameter region centered on the nuclear starburst. In principle, the (12)CO (3-2)/(1-0) emission line ratio provides a measure of temperature and optical depth for the (12)CO gas. The error weighted mean value of the (12)CO (3-2)/(1-0) emission line ratio measured for the seven starburst galaxy nuclei is -0.64 +/- 0.06. The (12)CO (3-2)/(1-0) emission line ratio measured for the starburst galaxy nuclei is significantly higher than the average value measured for molecular gas in the disk of the Galaxy, implying warmer temperatures for the molecular gas in starburst galaxy nuclei. On the other hand, the (12)CO (3-2)/(1-0) emission line ratio measured for the starburst galaxy nuclei is not as high as would be expected if the molecular gas were hot, greater than 20 K, and optically thin, tau much less than 1. The total mass of molecular gas contained within the central 1.2-2.8 kpc diameter region of the starburst galaxy nuclei ranges from 10(exp 8) to 10(exp 9) solar mass. While substantial, the molecular gas mass represents only a small percentage, approximately 9%-16%, of the dynamical mass in the same region.

  18. Engaging HIV-HCV co-infected patients in HCV treatment: the roles played by the prescribing physician and patients' beliefs (ANRS CO13 HEPAVIH cohort, France)

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Treatment for the hepatitis C virus (HCV) may be delayed significantly in HIV/HCV co-infected patients. Our study aims at identifying the correlates of access to HCV treatment in this population. Methods We used 3-year follow-up data from the HEPAVIH ANRS-CO13 nationwide French cohort which enrolled patients living with HIV and HCV. We included pegylated interferon and ribavirin-naive patients (N = 600) at enrolment. Clinical/biological data were retrieved from medical records. Self-administered questionnaires were used for both physicians and their patients to collect data about experience and behaviors, respectively. Results Median [IQR] follow-up was 12[12-24] months and 124 patients (20.7%) had started HCV treatment. After multiple adjustment including patients' negative beliefs about HCV treatment, those followed up by a general practitioner working in a hospital setting were more likely to receive HCV treatment (OR[95%CI]: 1.71 [1.06-2.75]). Patients followed by general practitioners also reported significantly higher levels of alcohol use, severe depressive symptoms and poor social conditions than those followed up by other physicians. Conclusions Hospital-general practitioner networks can play a crucial role in engaging patients who are the most vulnerable and in reducing existing inequities in access to HCV care. Further operational research is needed to assess to what extent these models can be implemented in other settings and for patients who bear the burden of multiple co-morbidities. PMID:22409788

  19. Engineered phage films as scaffolds for CaCO3 biomineralization.

    PubMed

    Tom, Steven; Jin, Hyo-Eon; Heo, Kwang; Lee, Seung-Wuk

    2016-08-25

    M13 bacteriophages (phage) were exploited as CaCO3 mineralization scaffolds for hard tissue engineering applications. M13 phage was first self-assembled into biomimetic fibrous scaffolds, followed by CaCO3 biomineralization via the polymer-induced liquid precursor process. The phage scaffolds successfully incorporated calcium carbonate, facilitating nucleation and growth of spherulitically textured calcite. The Young's modulus of the scaffolds increased by an order of magnitude after mineralization while also supporting the growth of mouse fibroblasts. These findings demonstrate that phage-based biomaterials are a feasible platform for creating biomineralized hard tissue constructs, in support of future studies in hard tissue engineering and biomedical applications.

  20. Fabrication of (Mn,Co)3O4 Surface Coatings onto Alloy Substrates

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Zhenguo; Xia, Guanguang; Li, Xiaohong S.; Singh, Prabhakar; Stevenson, Jeffry W.

    2007-04-30

    Ferritic stainless steels are promising candidates for IT-SOFC interconnect applications due to their low cost and resistance to oxidation at SOFC operating temperatures. However, several challenges remain, including long term electrical conductivity and surface stability under interconnect exposure conditions and chromia scale evaporation. One means of extending interconnect lifetime and improving performance is to apply a protective coating, such as (Mn,Co)3O4 spinel, to the cathode side of the interconnect. These coatings have proven effective in reducing scale growth kinetics and Cr volatility. This report describes several procedures developed at PNNL for fabricating (Mn,Co)3O4 spinel coatings onto ferritic stainless steels.

  1. Bipolar resistive switching in p-type Co3O4 nanosheets prepared by electrochemical deposition

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Metal oxide nanosheets have potential applications in novel nanoelectronics as nanocrystal building blocks. In this work, the devices with a structure of Au/p-type Co3O4 nanosheets/indium tin oxide/glass having bipolar resistive switching characteristics were successfully fabricated. The experimental results demonstrate that the device have stable high/low resistance ratio that is greater than 25, endurance performance more than 200 cycles, and data retention more than 10,000 s. Such a superior performance of the as-fabricated device could be explained by the bulk film and Co3O4/indium tin oxide glass substrate interface effect. PMID:23331856

  2. Fabrication and properties of HDPE/CF/CaCO3/PE-g-MAH quaternary composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, X.-L.; Ming, H.; Yin, H.

    2015-07-01

    In this research, carbon fiber (CF) was taken as reinforcing filler, nano calcium carbonate (CaCO3) was taken as toughener, maleic anhydride grafted polyethylene (PE-g-MAH) was taken as compatibilizer for high density polyethylene (HDPE) modification. Through orthogonal test, the influence of different amount of ingredient CF, CaCO3 and PE-g-MAH on the mechanical properties of the HDPE composites was researched. The optimal composition of the quaternary composites with the good toughness and high strength was obtained.

  3. Smoking-Cessation Counseling Practices of College/University Health-Care Providers--A Theory-Based Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fagan, Kathleen A.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: The author's purpose in this study was to examine the relation between smoking cessation counseling self-efficacy, knowledge of smoking cessation counseling, motivation to counsel smokers, and barriers to performing smoking cessation counseling, relative to the smoking cessation counseling stage of change. Participants and Methods:…

  4. Synthesis and characterization of Co3O4 ultra-nanosheets and Co3O4 ultra-nanosheet-Ni(OH)2 as non-enzymatic electrochemical sensors for glucose detection.

    PubMed

    Mahmoudian, M R; Basirun, W J; Woi, Pei Meng; Sookhakian, M; Yousefi, Ramin; Ghadimi, H; Alias, Y

    2016-02-01

    The present study examines the synthesis of Co3O4 ultra-nanosheets (Co3O4 UNSs) and Co3O4 ultra-nanosheet-Ni(OH)2 (Co3O4 UNS-Ni(OH)2) via solvothermal process and their application as non-enzymatic electrochemical sensors for glucose detection. X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy results confirmed the Co3O4 UNS deposition on Ni(OH)2 surface. The presence of Co3O4 UNSs on Ni (OH) 2 surface improved the sensitivity of glucose detection, from the increase of glucose oxidation peak current at the Co3O4 UNS-Ni(OH)2/glassy carbon electrode (current density: 2000μA·cm(-2)), compared to the Co3O4 UNSs. These results confirmed that Ni(OH)2 on glassy carbon electrode is a sensitive material for glucose detection, moreover the Co3O4 UNSs can increase the interaction and detection of glucose due to their high surface area. The estimated limit of detection (S/N=3) and limit of quantification (S/N=10) of the linear segment (5-40μM) are 1.08μM and 3.60μM respectively. The reproducibility experiments confirmed the feasibility of Co3O4 UNS-Ni(OH)2 for the quantitative detection of certain concentration ranges of glucose. PMID:26652401

  5. Synthesis and characterization of Co3O4 ultra-nanosheets and Co3O4 ultra-nanosheet-Ni(OH)2 as non-enzymatic electrochemical sensors for glucose detection.

    PubMed

    Mahmoudian, M R; Basirun, W J; Woi, Pei Meng; Sookhakian, M; Yousefi, Ramin; Ghadimi, H; Alias, Y

    2016-02-01

    The present study examines the synthesis of Co3O4 ultra-nanosheets (Co3O4 UNSs) and Co3O4 ultra-nanosheet-Ni(OH)2 (Co3O4 UNS-Ni(OH)2) via solvothermal process and their application as non-enzymatic electrochemical sensors for glucose detection. X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy results confirmed the Co3O4 UNS deposition on Ni(OH)2 surface. The presence of Co3O4 UNSs on Ni (OH) 2 surface improved the sensitivity of glucose detection, from the increase of glucose oxidation peak current at the Co3O4 UNS-Ni(OH)2/glassy carbon electrode (current density: 2000μA·cm(-2)), compared to the Co3O4 UNSs. These results confirmed that Ni(OH)2 on glassy carbon electrode is a sensitive material for glucose detection, moreover the Co3O4 UNSs can increase the interaction and detection of glucose due to their high surface area. The estimated limit of detection (S/N=3) and limit of quantification (S/N=10) of the linear segment (5-40μM) are 1.08μM and 3.60μM respectively. The reproducibility experiments confirmed the feasibility of Co3O4 UNS-Ni(OH)2 for the quantitative detection of certain concentration ranges of glucose.

  6. Roasting of La Oroya Zinc Ferrite with Na2CO3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holloway, Preston C.; Etsell, Thomas H.; Murland, Andrea L.

    2007-10-01

    The possibility of metals recovery from zinc ferrite residues using transformational roasting processes was examined by roasting zinc ferrite residue from Doe Run Peru’s La Oroya plant (Peru), containing 19.5 pct Zn, 26.6 pct Fe, 750 g/t In, and 520 g/t Ga, with Na2CO3 and leaching with 200 g/L H2SO4 solutions. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) and diagnostic leaching tests indicate that approximately 87 pct of the zinc in this residue is present as franklinite (ZnFe2O4), with the remaining zinc present as entrained ZnSO4 or unleached ZnO. Both preliminary and design of experiments (DOE) testing, using a 22 central composite design (CCD), were performed to test the effects of temperature and a Na2CO3 addition on metals extraction and on the formation of minerals during roasting, and the solubility of these minerals during leaching. Both methods of testing showed that zinc and iron extractions increased with increasing temperature and Na2CO3 additions over the range of conditions tested. Roasting at 950 °C and 80 pct Na2CO3 produced a roasted residue from which 99 pct of the Zn, 88 pct In, and 85 pct Ga could be recovered by leaching, but from which up to 81 pct Fe was also dissolved. Mineralogical analysis using XRD and scanning electron microscopy (SEM)/energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) analysis showed that, for these conditions, ZnFe2O4 decomposes in the presence of Na2CO3 to form ZnO and either α-NaFeO2 or β-NaFeO2. Some of the ZnO formed reacts with Na2CO3 and silicates in the residue to form Na2ZnSiO4 and some unreacted Na2CO3/Na2O/Na2SO4 was also identified after roasting using SEM/EDX. All these phases are dissolved in acid leaching, leaving unreacted ZnFe2O4 and precipitated PbSO4 as the only phases identified in the leach residues. These results indicate that NaFeO2 is formed preferentially to Fe2O3 during roasting and that the NaFeO2 formed during roasting is highly soluble in acidic solutions. The results were also compared with studies on the roasting of

  7. Comparison of Four Recruiting Strategies in a Smoking Cessation Trial

    PubMed Central

    Buller, David B.; Meenan, Richard; Severson, Herb; Halperin, Abigail; Edwards, Erika; Magnusson, Brooke

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To compare 4 on-line and off-line recruiting methods. Methods Young adult smokers (n=3353) were recruited to a trial comparing smoking cessation services with an on-line health risk assessment (HRA), on-line ads, off-line materials, and quit line screening. Results On-line ads (n=1426; $41.35) and off-line materials recruited the most smokers (n=1341; $56.23) for the lowest cost. Quit line screening was more expensive (n=189; $133.61), but enrollees used cessation services the most (34%-82%). On-line HRA was least successful and most costly (n=397; $630.85) but had the highest follow-up (45%-55%). Conclusions On-line ads and off-line materials were most effective and cost-effective methods. PMID:22584086

  8. Intranasal midazolam for seizure cessation in the community setting

    PubMed Central

    Zelcer, Michal; Goldman, Ran D.

    2016-01-01

    Question There are times when parents arrive to my clinic after their child has had a seizure and a second seizure takes place in the clinic. While waiting for transport to the hospital, are there ways to stop the seizures without the need to obtain intravenous access in the clinic? Answer Intravenous diazepam has been a first-line therapy to stop seizures in children for many years. Other routes of drug administration such as intramuscular, rectal, and buccal are available but have several limitations. More evidence suggests that the intranasal route to administer drugs is quick and effective in children, and the use of midazolam has been continuing to show promise in seizure cessation. With its good safety profile, intranasal midazolam can be used in the clinic and prehospital setting for seizure cessation in children. PMID:27412207

  9. Cardiovascular adverse events associated with smoking-cessation pharmacotherapies.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Abhishek; Thakar, Saurabh; Lavie, Carl J; Garg, Jalaj; Krishnamoorthy, Parasuram; Sochor, Ondrej; Arbab-Zadeh, Armin; Lichstein, Edgar

    2015-01-01

    Smoking continues to be the leading cause of preventable deaths in the USA, accounting for one in every five deaths every year, and cardiovascular (CV) disease remains the leading cause of those deaths. Hence, there is increasing awareness to quit smoking among the public and counseling plays an important role in smoking cessation. There are different pharmacological methods to help quit smoking that includes nicotine replacement products available over the counter, including patch, gum, and lozenges, to prescription medications, such as bupropion and varenicline. There have been reports of both nonserious and serious adverse CV events associated with the use of these different pharmacological methods, especially varenicline, which has been gaining media attention recently. Therefore, we systematically reviewed the various pharmacotherapies used in smoking cessation and analyzed the evidence behind these CV events reported with these therapeutic agents.

  10. Smoking cessation: integration of behavioral and drug therapies.

    PubMed

    Mallin, Robert

    2002-03-15

    Family physicians should take advantage of each contact with smokers to encourage and support smoking cessation. Once a patient is identified as a smoker, tools are available to assess readiness for change. Using motivational interviewing techniques, the physician can help the patient move from the precontemplation stage through the contemplation stage to the preparation stage, where plans are made for the initiation of nicotine replacement and/or bupropion therapy when indicated. Continued motivational techniques and support are needed in the action stage, when the patient stops smoking. Group or individual behavioral counseling can facilitate smoking cessation and improve quit rates. Combined use of behavioral and drug therapies can dramatically improve the patient's chance of quitting smoking. A plan should be in place for recycling the patient through the appropriate stages if relapse should occur.

  11. [Challenges for smoking cessation interventions targeted at women in Poland].

    PubMed

    Goszczyńska, Eliza

    2012-01-01

    The paper addresses the problem of smoking among women. Based on the literature review of research conducted on large representative samples of Poles to define the range of this unhealthy behavior and its gender differences, the groups of Polish women who should especially become the target of smoking cessation interventions were identified. Furthermore, an attempt was made to characterize factors contributing to the initiation and continuation of tobacco smoking among adult women and the specificity of this unhealthy habit among those planning a pregnancy and expecting mothers. This information was based on the outcomes reported in the available literature on this issue. Finally, the guidelines for organizing smoking cessation interventions targeted at women in Poland are provided.

  12. An updated algorithm for choosing among smoking cessation treatments.

    PubMed

    Hughes, John R

    2013-08-01

    Although meta-analyses have documented the efficacy of treatments for smoking cessation, and guidelines have outlined treatment elements, few algorithms for choosing among treatments have been described. The current algorithm updates the author's prior algorithm. The major decisions in the algorithm are (a) use a motivational treatment if the smoker is not currently interested in quitting, (b) assess factors that influence choice of treatment, (c) consider both gradual and abrupt cessation, (d) use combined patch+gum/inhaler/lozenge or varenicline as first line medications, (e) use individual, group, Internet, and phone counseling as first line psychosocial treatments, and (f) continue treatment after a lapse or relapse. Further research is needed to determine whether algorithms improve treatment outcomes. PMID:23518288

  13. Smokeless tobacco cessation guidelines for health professionals in England.

    PubMed

    West, R; McNeill, A; Raw, M

    2004-05-22

    Smokeless tobacco is used in the UK predominantly by members of the Indian, Pakistani and especially Bangladeshi communities. The most commonly used form is tobacco mixed with lime and additional psychoactive compounds, most notably areca nut. The resulting "quid" is chewed or held in the mouth. Studies from Asia indicate that use of this kind of product is linked with an increased risk of oral cancers and possibly low birth-weight infants. There is little high quality research evaluating interventions to promote cessation of smokeless tobacco use, especially of the forms used in the UK. However, what evidence there is suggests that advice to stop coupled with behavioural support and counselling may increase long-term abstinence rates by some 5-10%. It seems appropriate therefore to recommend that dentists, GPs and other relevant health professionals should routinely assess and record smokeless tobacco use in patients belonging to relatively high prevalence groups, that they ensure that smokeless tobacco users know the potential health risks (as well as the health risks of smoking) and that they advise them to stop and keep a record of the outcome. Dental professionals should also examine the oral cavity of smokeless tobacco users for lesions when the opportunity arises. Patients expressing an interest in stopping should be referred to specialist smoking cessation services for behavioural support and specialists in areas of high smokeless tobacco use will need to ensure that they are sufficiently knowledgeable and their services sufficiently accessible to these users. There is insufficient evidence to recommend the use of nicotine replacement therapy or bupropion to aid smokeless tobacco cessation. Research is needed in the UK to quantify the personal and population health risks from smokeless tobacco, the benefits of stopping, the effectiveness of interventions aimed at promoting cessation and patterns of use, knowledge and attitudes of users.

  14. Smoking cessation support for pregnant women: role of mobile technology

    PubMed Central

    Heminger, Christina L; Schindler-Ruwisch, Jennifer M; Abroms, Lorien C

    2016-01-01

    Background Smoking during pregnancy has deleterious health effects for the fetus and mother. Given the high risks associated with smoking in pregnancy, smoking cessation programs that are designed specifically for pregnant smokers are needed. This paper summarizes the current landscape of mHealth cessation programs aimed at pregnant smokers and where available reviews evidence to support their use. Methods A search strategy was conducted in June–August 2015 to identify mHealth programs with at least one component or activity that was explicitly directed at smoking cessation assistance for pregnant women. The search for text messaging programs and applications included keyword searches within public health and medical databases of peer-reviewed literature, Google Play/iTunes stores, and gray literature via Google. Results Five unique short message service programs and two mobile applications were identified and reviewed. Little evidence was identified to support their use. Common tools and features identified included the ability to set your quit date, ability to track smoking status, ability to get help during cravings, referral to quitline, and tailored content for the individual participant. The theoretical approach utilized was varied, and approximately half of the programs included pregnancy-related content, in addition to cessation content. With one exception, the mHealth programs identified were found to have low enrollment. Conclusion Globally, there are a handful of applications and text-based mHealth programs available for pregnant smokers. Future studies are needed that examine the efficacy of such programs, as well as strategies to best promote enrollment. PMID:27110146

  15. Control of viral replication after cessation of HAART

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    We describe two patients who did not experience a viral rebound after cessation of HAART which was initiated for progressive disease. CD4 T-cell count remained stable in one patient and progressively declined in the other, despite apparent viral control. We failed to identify any immune activation or genetic markers that could offer an explanation for this unusual "secondary controller" status. But their viruses are clearly less fit compared to viruses from rebounders. PMID:21314914

  16. Reduction in oxidatively generated DNA damage following smoking cessation

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Cigarette smoking is a known cause of cancer, and cancer may be in part due to effects of oxidative stress. However, whether smoking cessation reverses oxidatively induced DNA damage unclear. The current study sought to examine the extent to which three DNA lesions showed significant reductions after participants quit smoking. Methods Participants (n = 19) in this study were recruited from an ongoing 16-week smoking cessation clinical trial and provided blood samples from which leukocyte DNA was extracted and assessed for 3 DNA lesions (thymine glycol modification [d(TgpA)]; formamide breakdown of pyrimidine bases [d(TgpA)]; 8-oxo-7,8-dihydroguanine [d(Gh)]) via liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Change in lesions over time was assessed using generalized estimating equations, controlling for gender, age, and treatment condition. Results Overall time effects for the d(TgpA) (χ2(3) = 8.068, p < 0.045), d(PfpA) (χ2(3) = 8.477, p < 0.037), and d(Gh) (χ2(3) = 37.599, p < 0.001) lesions were seen, indicating levels of each decreased significantly after CO-confirmed smoking cessation. The d(TgpA) and d(PfpA) lesions show relatively greater rebound at Week 16 compared to the d(Gh) lesion (88% of baseline for d(TgpA), 64% of baseline for d(PfpA), vs 46% of baseline for d(Gh)). Conclusions Overall, results from this analysis suggest that cigarette smoking contributes to oxidatively induced DNA damage, and that smoking cessation appears to reduce levels of specific damage markers between 30-50 percent in the short term. Future research may shed light on the broader array of oxidative damage influenced by smoking and over longer durations of abstinence, to provide further insights into mechanisms underlying carcinogenesis. PMID:21569419

  17. Labor epidural anesthesia, obstetric factors and breastfeeding cessation.

    PubMed

    Dozier, Ann M; Howard, Cynthia R; Brownell, Elizabeth A; Wissler, Richard N; Glantz, J Christopher; Ternullo, Sharon R; Thevenet-Morrison, Kelly N; Childs, Cynthia K; Lawrence, Ruth A

    2013-05-01

    Breastfeeding benefits both infant and maternal health. Use of epidural anesthesia during labor is increasingly common and may interfere with breastfeeding. Studies analyzing epidural anesthesia's association with breastfeeding outcomes show mixed results; many have methodological flaws. We analyzed potential associations between epidural anesthesia and overall breast-feeding cessation within 30 days postpartum while adjusting for standard and novel covariates and uniquely accounting for labor induction. A pooled analysis using Kaplan-Meier curves and modified Cox Proportional Hazard models included 772 breastfeeding mothers from upstate New York who had vaginal term births of healthy singleton infants. Subjects were drawn from two cohort studies (recruited postpartum between 2005 and 2008) and included maternal self-report and maternal and infant medical record data. Analyses of potential associations between epidural anesthesia and overall breastfeeding cessation within 1 month included additional covariates and uniquely accounted for labor induction. After adjusting for standard demographics and intrapartum factors, epidural anesthesia significantly predicted breastfeeding cessation (hazard ratio 1.26 [95% confidence interval 1.10, 1.44], p < 0.01) as did hospital type, maternal age, income, education, planned breastfeeding goal, and breastfeeding confidence. In post hoc analyses stratified by Baby Friendly Hospital (BFH) status, epidural anesthesia significantly predicted breastfeeding cessation (BFH: 1.19 [1.01, 1.41], p < 0.04; non-BFH: 1.65 [1.31, 2.08], p < 0.01). A relationship between epidural anesthesia and breastfeeding was found but is complex and involves institutional, clinical, maternal and infant factors. These findings have implications for clinical care and hospital policies and point to the need for prospective studies.

  18. [Ethical concerns around donors after cessation of active treatment].

    PubMed

    Dorez, Didier

    2016-09-01

    The cessation of treatment in intensive care leads to death through circulatory arrest. In these circumstances there is an opportunity to remove organs, if that was the wish of the patient. This raises legitimate ethical questions. A French national protocol defines the conditions of this donation and ensures a harmonisation of practices as well as an overall improvement in end-of-life support in intensive care. These donors represent an opportunity to increase the number of organs available for transplant. PMID:27596498

  19. Effectiveness of a combined prenatal and postpartum smoking cessation program.

    PubMed

    Gadomski, Anne; Adams, Laurie; Tallman, Nancy; Krupa, Nicole; Jenkins, Paul

    2011-02-01

    Women frequently quit smoking during pregnancy but then relapse postpartum. The BABY & ME-Tobacco Free program combines prenatal and postpartum smoking cessation counseling and biomarker feedback with monthly postpartum incentives. The settings included 22 sites (WIC offices and prenatal clinics) in upstate New York. A quasi-experimental design was used to evaluate this intervention, that included four face-to-face prenatal sessions with a counselor who did smoking cessation counseling, carbon monoxide testing and random saliva cotinine testing. For 1 year postpartum, mothers were biochemically tested every 3-4 weeks and, if negative, were issued a voucher for diapers. Three implementation models were studied: multi-tasking counselors at fixed sites (Models 1 and 2) versus itinerant smoking cessation specialists (Model 3). Outcomes included biochemically validated abstinence rates during pregnancy and postpartum. Logistic regression was used to identify predictors of postpartum abstinence and program dropout. Proportional hazards regression was used to compare implementation models. Of the 777 pregnant women who enrolled in the program, 588 were eligible for the postpartum program. The intention to treat pregnancy quit rate was 60%. Postpartum, Model 3 showed consistently better quit outcomes than the other models. Predictors of abstinence at 6 months postpartum are: older age (OR = 1.07, 95% C.I. 1.02-1.12), lower baseline carbon monoxide level (OR = 0.69, 95% C.I. 0.49-0.97), Model 3 (OR = 4.60, 95% C.I. 2.80-7.57) and attending more prenatal sessions (OR = 3.52; 95% C.I. 2.19-5.65). The BABY & ME-Tobacco Free program is an effective smoking cessation program for pregnant and parenting women.

  20. Simulating smokers' acceptance of modifications in a cessation program.

    PubMed Central

    Spoth, R

    1992-01-01

    Recent research has underscored the importance of assessing barriers to smokers' acceptance of cessation programs. This paper illustrates the use of computer simulations to gauge smokers' response to program modifications which may produce barriers to participation. It also highlights methodological issues encountered in conducting this work. Computer simulations were based on conjoint analysis, a consumer research method which enables measurement of smokers' relative preference for various modifications of cessation programs. Results from two studies are presented in this paper. The primary study used a randomly selected sample of 218 adult smokers who participated in a computer-assisted phone interview. Initially, the study assessed smokers' relative utility rating of 30 features of cessation programs. Utility data were used in computer-simulated comparisons of a low-cost, self-help oriented program under development and five other existing programs. A baseline version of the program under development and two modifications (for example, use of a support group with a higher level of cost) were simulated. Both the baseline version and modifications received a favorable response vis-à-vis comparison programs. Modifications requiring higher program costs were, however, associated with moderately reduced levels of favorable consumer response. The second study used a sample of 70 smokers who responded to an expanded set of smoking cessation program features focusing on program packaging. This secondary study incorporate in-person, computer-assisted interviews at a shopping mall, with smokers viewing an artist's mock-up of various program options on display. A similar pattern of responses to simulated program modifications emerged, with monetary cost apparently playing a key role. The significance of conjoint-based computer simulation as a tool in program development or dissemination, salient methodological issues, and implications for further research are discussed

  1. Design strategy for a smoking cessation trial of survival.

    PubMed

    Shuster, Jonathan J

    2015-04-01

    Despite unequivocal evidence that smoking cessation is beneficial in terms of survival, there is at present no firm evidence that smoking cessation programs save lives. While they do increase quit rates, the collective evidence from randomized trials is inconclusive with respect to long-term survival. Withdrawal symptoms and the potential for harm when a subjects relapses after a prolonged period of cessation (e.g., 5+ years) might mitigate some or all of the benefits of the sustained quitters. This paper will review the key survival epidemiology and argue for a large randomized field trial of about 30,000 subjects, followed personally for 5 years and collectively for 15 years through the National Death Index. The intervention should be personalized, but reproducible through a treatment assignment algorithm. Personal coaching should be a major part of the intervention. Important short-term data on healthcare utilization should also be collected. Strong financial motivation for quitting (or prevention of smoking in the first place) is also presented. This paper is intended to motivate a large collective effort amongst the US Clinical and Translational Science Awardees to design the intervention and bring together the interested players to conduct the study. PMID:25896318

  2. Attitudes Toward Smoking Cessation Among Sheltered Homeless Parents.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Holly C; Stevenson, Terrell N; Bruce, Janine S; Greenberg, Brian; Chamberlain, Lisa J

    2015-12-01

    The prevalence of smoking among homeless adults is approximately 70 %. Cessation programs designed for family shelters should be a high priority given the dangers cigarette smoke poses to children. However, the unique nature of smoking in the family shelter setting remains unstudied. We aimed to assess attitudes toward smoking cessation, and unique barriers and motivators among homeless parents living in family shelters in Northern California. Six focus groups and one interview were conducted (N = 33, ages 23-54). The focus groups and interviews were audiorecorded, transcribed verbatim, and a representative team performed qualitative theme analysis. Eight males and 25 females participated. The following major themes emerged: (1) Most participants intended to quit eventually, citing concern for their children as their primary motivation. (2) Significant barriers to quitting included the ubiquity of cigarette smoking, its central role in social interactions in the family shelter setting, and its importance as a coping mechanism. (3) Participants expressed interest in quitting "cold turkey" and in e-cigarettes, but were skeptical of the patch and pharmacotherapy. (4) Feelings were mixed regarding whether individual, group or family counseling would be most effective. Homeless parents may be uniquely motivated to quit because of their children, but still face significant shelter-based social and environmental barriers to quitting. Successful cessation programs in family shelters must be designed with the unique motivations and barriers of this population in mind.

  3. Design strategy for a smoking cessation trial of survival.

    PubMed

    Shuster, Jonathan J

    2015-04-01

    Despite unequivocal evidence that smoking cessation is beneficial in terms of survival, there is at present no firm evidence that smoking cessation programs save lives. While they do increase quit rates, the collective evidence from randomized trials is inconclusive with respect to long-term survival. Withdrawal symptoms and the potential for harm when a subjects relapses after a prolonged period of cessation (e.g., 5+ years) might mitigate some or all of the benefits of the sustained quitters. This paper will review the key survival epidemiology and argue for a large randomized field trial of about 30,000 subjects, followed personally for 5 years and collectively for 15 years through the National Death Index. The intervention should be personalized, but reproducible through a treatment assignment algorithm. Personal coaching should be a major part of the intervention. Important short-term data on healthcare utilization should also be collected. Strong financial motivation for quitting (or prevention of smoking in the first place) is also presented. This paper is intended to motivate a large collective effort amongst the US Clinical and Translational Science Awardees to design the intervention and bring together the interested players to conduct the study.

  4. Transdermal nicotine for smoking cessation in postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Oncken, Cheryl; Cooney, Judith; Feinn, Richard; Lando, Harry; Kranzler, Henry R

    2007-02-01

    This study examined the efficacy of transdermal nicotine in postmenopausal smokers, and whether a history of depression or hormone replacement therapy (HRT) moderated smoking cessation outcomes. Postmenopausal smokers (N=152) received intensive smoking cessation counseling and were randomly assigned to use either a 21-mg nicotine patch for 3 months, with a 1-month taper, or a placebo patch. The primary outcome was biochemically validated 7-day point prevalence smoking abstinence during treatment (i.e., 1, 2, 6, and 12 weeks after the quit date) and 1 year after study medication was discontinued. Subjects who received transdermal nicotine were significantly more likely than placebo-treated subjects to remain abstinent from smoking during treatment, but not at the 1-year follow-up. The majority of subjects (>50%) in both groups accurately identified their treatment assignment. History of depression was associated with a decreased likelihood to abstain from smoking throughout the study. HRT did not moderate smoking outcomes. These data indicate that transdermal nicotine may provide short-term benefits for smoking cessation in postmenopausal women. However, efforts are needed to improve long-term abstinence rates and smoking outcomes among women with a history of depression.

  5. Outcome research methodology of smoking cessation trials (1994-1998).

    PubMed

    Gutmann, Lori B; Sobell, Linda Carter; Prevo, Melissa H; Toll, Benjamin A; Gutwein, Cindy Levin; Sobell, Mark B; Hyman, Scott M

    2004-05-01

    Although several reviews of smoking cessation trials have been published, none have specifically evaluated the adequacy of the studies' reporting practices in terms of describing the intervention and outcome variables used. This review evaluates the reporting procedures of 109 smoking cessation trials published in English language peer-reviewed publications from 1994 through 1998. MedLine and PsychLIT searches were used to identify potential studies. Each study was evaluated as to whether the following information was reported: (a) demographic characteristics, (b) pretreatment smoking variables, (c) study characteristics, (d) descriptions of the clinical trial, (e) follow-up procedures, and (f) posttreatment outcome measures. Although some areas of methodological strength were identified, inadequate reporting of pre- and posttreatment demographic and smoking variables was also evident. Based on this review, several areas in need of further research are identified and discussed. Lastly, consistent with other recent reviews of smoking cessation trials, this review concluded that the smoking field should consider delineating a uniform set of assessment and outcome measures and a minimum follow-up interval.

  6. Smoking cessation after 12 months with multi-component therapy.

    PubMed

    Raich, Antònia; Martínez-Sánchez, Jose Maria; Marquilles, Emili; Rubio, Lídia; Fu, Marcela; Fernández, Esteve

    2015-03-01

    Smoking is one of the most important causes of morbidity and mortality in developed countries. One of the priorities of public health programmes is the reduction of its prevalence, which would involve millions of people quitting smoking, but cessation programs often have modest results, especially within certain population groups. The aim of this study was to analyze the variables determining the success of a multicomponent therapy programme for smoking cessation. We conducted the study in the Smoking Addiction Unit at the Hospital of Manresa, with 314 patients (91.4% of whom had medium or high-level dependency). We observed that higher educational level, not living with a smoker, following a multimodal programme or smoking cessation with psychological therapy, and pharmacological treatment are relevant factors for quitting smoking. Abstinence rates are not associated with other factors, such as sex, age, smoking behaviour characteristics or psychiatric history. The combination of pharmacological and psychological treatment increased success rates in multicomponent therapy. Psychological therapy only also obtained positive results, though somewhat more modest.

  7. Smoking cessation strategies for patients with asthma: improving patient outcomes.

    PubMed

    Perret, Jennifer L; Bonevski, Billie; McDonald, Christine F; Abramson, Michael J

    2016-01-01

    Smoking is common in adults with asthma, yet a paucity of literature exists on smoking cessation strategies specifically targeting this subgroup. Adverse respiratory effects from personal smoking include worse asthma control and a predisposition to lower lung function and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Some data suggest that individuals with asthma are more likely than their non-asthmatic peers to smoke regularly at an earlier age. While quit attempts can be more frequent in smokers with asthma, they are also of shorter duration than in non-asthmatics. Considering these asthma-specific characteristics is important in order to individualize smoking cessation strategies. In particular, asthma-specific information such as "lung age" should be provided and longer-term follow-up is advised. Promising emerging strategies include reminders by cellular phone and web-based interventions using consumer health informatics. For adolescents, training older peers to deliver asthma education is another promising strategy. For smokers who are hospitalized for asthma, inpatient nicotine replacement therapy and counseling are a priority. Overall, improving smoking cessation rates in smokers with asthma may rely on a more personalized approach, with the potential for substantial health benefits to individuals and the population at large. PMID:27445499

  8. Methods for smoking cessation and treatment of nicotine dependence.

    PubMed

    Balbani, Aracy Pereira Silveira; Montovani, Jair Cortez

    2005-01-01

    Smoking is related to 30% of cancer deaths. It is a risk factor for respiratory tract, esophagus, stomach, pancreas, uterine cervix, kidney and bladder carcinomas. Nicotine induces tolerance and addiction by acting on the central dopaminergic pathways, thus leading to pleasure and reward sensations within the limbic system. It stimulates the central nervous system (CNS), enhances alertness and reduces the appetite. A 50% reduction of nicotine consumption may trigger withdrawal symptoms in addicted individuals: anxiety, anger, sleep disorders, hunger, cognitive dysfunction and cigarette craving. Medical advice is the cornerstone of smoking cessation. Pharmacotherapy of nicotine addiction comprises first-line (bupropion and nicotine replacement therapy) and second-line (clonidine and nortriptyline) drugs. Bupropion is a non-tricyclic antidepressant that inhibits dopamine uptake, whose contraindications are: epilepsy, eating disorders, uncontrolled hypertension, recent alcohol abstinence and current therapy with MAO inhibitors. Nicotine replacement therapy can be done with patches or gums. Counseling groups and behavioral interventions are efficacious. The effects of acupuncture on smoking cessation are not fully elucidated. Prompt smoking cessation or gradual reduction strategies have similar success rates. PMID:16878254

  9. Smoking cessation after 12 months with multi-component therapy.

    PubMed

    Raich, Antònia; Martínez-Sánchez, Jose Maria; Marquilles, Emili; Rubio, Lídia; Fu, Marcela; Fernández, Esteve

    2015-01-01

    Smoking is one of the most important causes of morbidity and mortality in developed countries. One of the priorities of public health programmes is the reduction of its prevalence, which would involve millions of people quitting smoking, but cessation programs often have modest results, especially within certain population groups. The aim of this study was to analyze the variables determining the success of a multicomponent therapy programme for smoking cessation. We conducted the study in the Smoking Addiction Unit at the Hospital of Manresa, with 314 patients (91.4% of whom had medium or high-level dependency). We observed that higher educational level, not living with a smoker, following a multimodal programme or smoking cessation with psychological therapy, and pharmacological treatment are relevant factors for quitting smoking. Abstinence rates are not associated with other factors, such as sex, age, smoking behaviour characteristics or psychiatric history. The combination of pharmacological and psychological treatment increased success rates in multicomponent therapy. Psychological therapy only also obtained positive results, though somewhat more modest. PMID:25879476

  10. Smoking cessation strategies for patients with asthma: improving patient outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Perret, Jennifer L; Bonevski, Billie; McDonald, Christine F; Abramson, Michael J

    2016-01-01

    Smoking is common in adults with asthma, yet a paucity of literature exists on smoking cessation strategies specifically targeting this subgroup. Adverse respiratory effects from personal smoking include worse asthma control and a predisposition to lower lung function and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Some data suggest that individuals with asthma are more likely than their non-asthmatic peers to smoke regularly at an earlier age. While quit attempts can be more frequent in smokers with asthma, they are also of shorter duration than in non-asthmatics. Considering these asthma-specific characteristics is important in order to individualize smoking cessation strategies. In particular, asthma-specific information such as “lung age” should be provided and longer-term follow-up is advised. Promising emerging strategies include reminders by cellular phone and web-based interventions using consumer health informatics. For adolescents, training older peers to deliver asthma education is another promising strategy. For smokers who are hospitalized for asthma, inpatient nicotine replacement therapy and counseling are a priority. Overall, improving smoking cessation rates in smokers with asthma may rely on a more personalized approach, with the potential for substantial health benefits to individuals and the population at large. PMID:27445499

  11. Physician- and nurse-assisted smoking cessation in Harlem.

    PubMed Central

    Royce, J. M.; Ashford, A.; Resnicow, K.; Freeman, H. P.; Caesar, A. A.; Orlandi, M. A.

    1995-01-01

    This study was designed to increase smoking cessation rates, quit attempts, and cutting down among low-income African Americans using brief clinician advice in conjunction with socioculturally appropriate self-help smoking cessation/relapse prevention materials. Physicians and nurses were instructed in the National Cancer Institute's smoking intervention at inservice sessions. Smokers interviewed in a Harlem, New York clinic waiting room were recontacted 7 months later by telephone or mail (77% response). Residents receiving the intervention reported a 21% cessation rate at follow-up. An additional 27% decreased cigarette intake by at least 50%. Those reporting follow-up abstinence were significantly more likely to designate a quit date at baseline. They were also more likely to be men, employed, and have a nonsmoking partner. Smokers who decreased their cigarette intake significantly were older, employed, less nicotine-dependent (eg, delayed their wake-up cigarette), and more likely to use project materials. Physician advice had a significant impact both on patients' cutting down at least 50% and patients' watching the project video. Designation of a quit date and using project materials had a significant impact on making serious quit attempts. Results corroborate large sample, randomized, controlled trials with noninner-city physicians. We conclude that clinician smoking advice for every patient is warranted. PMID:7752283

  12. Pharmacotherapy for smoking cessation: pharmacological principles and clinical practice

    PubMed Central

    Aubin, Henri-Jean; Luquiens, Amandine; Berlin, Ivan

    2014-01-01

    Strategies for assisting smoking cessation include behavioural counselling to enhance motivation and to support attempts to quit and pharmacological intervention to reduce nicotine reinforcement and withdrawal from nicotine. Three drugs are currently used as first line pharmacotherapy for smoking cessation, nicotine replacement therapy, bupropion and varenicline. Compared with placebo, the drug effect varies from 2.27 (95% CI 2.02, 2.55) for varenicline, 1.69 (95% CI 1.53, 1.85) for bupropion and 1.60 (95% CI 1.53, 1.68) for any form of nicotine replacement therapy. Despite some controversy regarding the safety of bupropion and varenicline, regulatory agencies consider these drugs as having a favourable benefit/risk profile. However, given the high rate of psychiatric comorbidity in dependent smokers, practitioners should closely monitor patients for neuropsychiatric symptoms. Second-line pharmacotherapies include nortriptyline and clonidine. This review also offers an overview of pipeline developments and issues related to smoking cessation in special populations such as persons with psychiatric comorbidity and pregnant and adolescent smokers. PMID:23488726

  13. Smoking cessation and reduction in people with chronic mental illness

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Mollie E

    2015-01-01

    The high prevalence of cigarette smoking and tobacco related morbidity and mortality in people with chronic mental illness is well documented. This review summarizes results from studies of smoking cessation treatments in people with schizophrenia, depression, anxiety disorders, and post-traumatic stress disorder. It also summarizes experimental studies aimed at identifying biopsychosocial mechanisms that underlie the high smoking rates seen in people with these disorders. Research indicates that smokers with chronic mental illness can quit with standard cessation approaches with minimal effects on psychiatric symptoms. Although some studies have noted high relapse rates, longer maintenance on pharmacotherapy reduces rates of relapse without untoward effects on psychiatric symptoms. Similar biopsychosocial mechanisms are thought to be involved in the initiation and persistence of smoking in patients with different disorders. An appreciation of these common factors may aid the development of novel tobacco treatments for people with chronic mental illness. Novel nicotine and tobacco products such as electronic cigarettes and very low nicotine content cigarettes may also be used to improve smoking cessation rates in people with chronic mental illness. PMID:26391240

  14. Sustained increase in platelet aggregation after the cessation of clopidogrel.

    PubMed

    Djukanovic, Nina; Todorovic, Zoran; Zamaklar-Trifunovic, Danijela; Protic, Dragana; Dzudovic, Boris; Ostojic, Miodrag; Obradovic, Slobodan

    2016-02-01

    This study shows that the abrupt cessation of one-year clopidogrel treatment was not associated with thrombotic events in a prospective, multicentre study that enrolled 200 patients subjected to coronary stent implantation and treated with aspirin + clopidogrel 1 year after the stent placement. The aim of the study was to investigate the causes of a sustained increase of platelet aggregability, considering that the values of platelet aggregation stimulated with ADP + PGE1 (ADPHS values) significantly increased 10-90 days after the cessation of clopidogrel. Values of platelet aggregation induced by thrombin receptor activating peptide (TRAP values) and arachidonic acid (ASPI values) were divided into quartiles on the basis of ADPHS values 10 days after stopping clopidogrel (ADPHS10 ). There was a significant difference between TRAP values divided into quartiles according to ADPHS10 , 10, 45 and 90 days after stopping clopidogrel (P < 0.001, all), and ASPI values across the same quartiles 10 and 45 days after the cessation of clopidogrel (P = 0.028 and 0.003). The results of the study indicate that patients with early pronounced rebound phenomena to clopidogrel termination have a long-term (at least 90 days) increased platelet aggregation to other agonists such as thrombin-related activated protein and arachidonic acid, suggesting the complex mutual relationship of various factors/agonists influencing the function of platelets. PMID:26515635

  15. Electron-beam induced deposition and autocatalytic decomposition of Co(CO)3NO

    PubMed Central

    Vollnhals, Florian; Drost, Martin; Tu, Fan; Carrasco, Esther; Späth, Andreas; Fink, Rainer H; Steinrück, Hans-Peter

    2014-01-01

    Summary The autocatalytic growth of arbitrarily shaped nanostructures fabricated by electron beam-induced deposition (EBID) and electron beam-induced surface activation (EBISA) is studied for two precursors: iron pentacarbonyl, Fe(CO)5, and cobalt tricarbonyl nitrosyl, Co(CO)3NO. Different deposits are prepared on silicon nitride membranes and silicon wafers under ultrahigh vacuum conditions, and are studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and scanning transmission X-ray microscopy (STXM), including near edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) spectroscopy. It has previously been shown that Fe(CO)5 decomposes autocatalytically on Fe seed layers (EBID) and on certain electron beam-activated surfaces, yielding high purity, polycrystalline Fe nanostructures. In this contribution, we investigate the growth of structures from Co(CO)3NO and compare it to results obtained from Fe(CO)5. Co(CO)3NO exhibits autocatalytic growth on Co-containing seed layers prepared by EBID using the same precursor. The growth yields granular, oxygen-, carbon- and nitrogen-containing deposits. In contrast to Fe(CO)5 no decomposition on electron beam-activated surfaces is observed. In addition, we show that the autocatalytic growth of nanostructures from Co(CO)3NO can also be initiated by an Fe seed layer, which presents a novel approach to the fabrication of layered nanostructures. PMID:25161851

  16. Electron-beam induced deposition and autocatalytic decomposition of Co(CO)3NO.

    PubMed

    Vollnhals, Florian; Drost, Martin; Tu, Fan; Carrasco, Esther; Späth, Andreas; Fink, Rainer H; Steinrück, Hans-Peter; Marbach, Hubertus

    2014-01-01

    The autocatalytic growth of arbitrarily shaped nanostructures fabricated by electron beam-induced deposition (EBID) and electron beam-induced surface activation (EBISA) is studied for two precursors: iron pentacarbonyl, Fe(CO)5, and cobalt tricarbonyl nitrosyl, Co(CO)3NO. Different deposits are prepared on silicon nitride membranes and silicon wafers under ultrahigh vacuum conditions, and are studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and scanning transmission X-ray microscopy (STXM), including near edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) spectroscopy. It has previously been shown that Fe(CO)5 decomposes autocatalytically on Fe seed layers (EBID) and on certain electron beam-activated surfaces, yielding high purity, polycrystalline Fe nanostructures. In this contribution, we investigate the growth of structures from Co(CO)3NO and compare it to results obtained from Fe(CO)5. Co(CO)3NO exhibits autocatalytic growth on Co-containing seed layers prepared by EBID using the same precursor. The growth yields granular, oxygen-, carbon- and nitrogen-containing deposits. In contrast to Fe(CO)5 no decomposition on electron beam-activated surfaces is observed. In addition, we show that the autocatalytic growth of nanostructures from Co(CO)3NO can also be initiated by an Fe seed layer, which presents a novel approach to the fabrication of layered nanostructures.

  17. Rosette-shaped calcite structures at surfaces: mechanistic implications for CaCO3 crystallization.

    PubMed

    Yang, Sung Ho; Choi, Insung S

    2010-07-01

    Biomineralization is believed to be achieved by the intimate cooperation of soluble macromolecules and an insoluble matrix at the specific inorganic-organic interface. It has been reported that positively charged matrices play an important role in controlling the structure of CaCO(3) at surfaces, although detailed mechanisms remain unclear. In this work, we studied the transformation from amorphous CaCO(3) to calcite crystals on surfaces by using thin films of poly(2-(dimethylamino)ethyl methacrylate) (PDMAEMA) and its quaternized form. The positively charged PDMAEMA film was found to possess unique properties for CaCO(3) crystallization: individually separated, single calcite crystals were formed on the PDMAEMA film in the absence of poly(acrylic acid) (PAA), while circularly fused calcite crystals were formed in the presence of PAA. The circularly fused (rosette-shaped) calcite crystals could be changed from a completely packed rosette to a ring-shaped, hollow structure by tuning the crystallization conditions. A number of factors, such as reaction time, amount of (NH(4))(2)CO(3), concentration of PAA, and charge of matrix-films, were varied systematically, and we now propose a mechanism based on these observations.

  18. Templated CaCO3 Crystallization by Submicrometer and Nanosized Fibers.

    PubMed

    Neira-Carrillo, Andrónico; Gentsch, Rafael; Börner, Hans G; Acevedo, Diego Fernando; Barbero, Cesar Alfredo; Cölfen, Helmut

    2016-09-01

    Electrospun submicrometer-sized poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) meshes and nanosized multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) were used as a template for preparing porous and interconnected inorganic-organic hybrid materials composed of CaCO3. Herein, we describe the proportion and incorporation method of submicrometer-sized plasma-treated PCL meshes over areas >1 mm(2) with CaCO3 using three crystallization methods including the use of poly(acrylic acid) (PAA). We found that flexible and rigid acid-functionalized MWCNTs showed a clear capacity and effects to penetrate calcite particles. MWCNTs interacted differently with the individual growth planes of CaCO3, indicating that fibers can undergo changes depending on sulfonate or carboxylate groups, adopt different orientations in solution, and thereby elicit changes in CaCO3 morphology. In summary, the use of PCL and acidic MWCNT fibers as an additive for substrate templates and experimental crystallization provides a viable approach for studying various aspects of biomineralization, including the production of controlled particles, control of porosities, and defined morphologies at microscale and nanoscale levels.

  19. Siderite (FeCO3): Thermal Decomposition in Equilibrium with Graphite.

    PubMed

    French, B M; Rosenberg, P E

    1965-03-12

    The thermal stability of siderite (FeCO(3)) was studied by two independent methods in which the oxygen fugacity of the gas phase was controlled by equilibration with graphite. Both series of experiments indicate that siderite decomposes stably to magnetite + graphite between 455 degrees and 465 degrees C at 500 to 2000 bars PCO2 + P(CO).

  20. Exploring the Potential of (99m)Tc(CO)3-Labeled Triazolyl Peptides for Tumor Diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Gaonkar, Raghuvir H; Ganguly, Soumya; Baishya, Rinku; Dewanjee, Saikat; Sinha, Samarendu; Gupta, Amit; Ganguly, Shantanu; Debnath, Mita C

    2016-04-01

    In recent years the authors have reported on (99m)Tc(CO)3-labeled peptides that serve as carriers for biomolecules or radiopharmaceuticals to the tumors. In continuation of that work they report the synthesis of a pentapeptide (Met-Phe-Phe-Gly-His; pep-1), a hexapeptide (Met-Phe-Phe-Asp-Gly-His; pep-2), and a tetrapeptide (Asp-Gly-Arg-His; pep-3) and the attachment of 3-amino-1,2,4-triazole to the β carboxylic function of the aspartic acid unit of pep-2 and pep-3. The pharmacophores were radiolabeled in high yields with [(99m)Tc(CO)3(H2O)3](+) metal aqua ion, characterized for their stability in serum and saline, as well as in His solution, and found to be substantially stable. B16F10 cell line binding studies showed favorable uptake and internalization. In vivo behavior of the radiolabeled triazolyl peptides was assessed in mice bearing induced tumor. The (99m)Tc(CO)3-triazolyl pep-3 demonstrated rapid urinary clearance and comparatively better tumor uptake. Imaging studies showed visualization of the tumor using (99m)Tc(CO)3-triazolyl pep-3, but due to high abdominal background, low delineation occurred. Based on the results further experiments will be carried out for targeting tumor with triazolyl peptides. PMID:27093344

  1. Reversible amorphization and the catalytically active state of crystalline Co3O4 during oxygen evolution

    PubMed Central

    Bergmann, Arno; Martinez-Moreno, Elias; Teschner, Detre; Chernev, Petko; Gliech, Manuel; de Araújo, Jorge Ferreira; Reier, Tobias; Dau, Holger; Strasser, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Water splitting catalysed by earth-abundant materials is pivotal for global-scale production of non-fossil fuels, yet our understanding of the active catalyst structure and reactivity is still insufficient. Here we report on the structurally reversible evolution of crystalline Co3O4 electrocatalysts during oxygen evolution reaction identified using advanced in situ X-ray techniques. At electrode potentials facilitating oxygen evolution, a sub-nanometre shell of the Co3O4 is transformed into an X-ray amorphous CoOx(OH)y which comprises di-μ-oxo-bridged Co3+/4+ ions. Unlike irreversible amorphizations, here, the formation of the catalytically-active layer is reversed by re-crystallization upon return to non-catalytic electrode conditions. The Co3O4 material thus combines the stability advantages of a controlled, stable crystalline material with high catalytic activity, thanks to the structural flexibility of its active amorphous oxides. We propose that crystalline oxides may be tailored for generating reactive amorphous surface layers at catalytic potentials, just to return to their stable crystalline state under rest conditions. PMID:26456525

  2. Three-dimensionally scaffolded Co3O4 nanosheet anodes with high rate performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jinyun; Kelly, Sean J.; Epstein, Eric S.; Pan, Zeng; Huang, Xingjiu; Liu, Jinhuai; Braun, Paul V.

    2015-12-01

    Advances in secondary batteries are required for realization of many technologies. In particular, there remains a need for stable higher energy batteries. Here we suggest a new anode concept consisting of an ultrathin Co3O4 nanosheet-coated Ni inverse opal which provides high charge-discharge rate performance using a material system with potential for high energy densities. Via a hydrothermal process, about 4 nm thick Co3O4 nanosheets were grown throughout a three-dimensional Ni scaffold. This architecture provides efficient pathways for both lithium and electron transfer, enabling high charge-discharge rate performance. The scaffold also accommodates volume changes during cycling, which serves to reduce capacity fade. Because the scaffold has a low electrical resistance, and is three-dimensionally porous, it enables most of the electrochemically active nanomaterials to take part in lithiation-delithiation reactions, resulting in a near-theoretical capacity. On a Co3O4 basis, the Ni@Co3O4 electrode possesses a capacity of about 726 mAh g-1 at a current density of 500 mA g-1 after 50 cycles, which is about twice the theoretical capacity of graphite. The capacity is 487 mAh g-1, even at a current density of 1786 mA g-1.

  3. Molecular dynamics simulation of the phase transition between calcite and CaCO3-II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawano, Jun; Miyake, Akira; Shimobayashi, Norimasa; Kitamura, Masao

    2009-07-01

    Molecular dynamics (MD) simulation of calcium carbonate at high pressure was performed to understand the phase transition between calcite (R\\bar {3}c) and CaCO3-II (P 21/c). In the 300-800 K temperature range, the transition of calcite to CaCO3-II was reproduced at a pressure of around 8 GPa. This transition is of first order and reversible in the MD calculations except for runs at 300 K where a small hysteresis exists. The slope of the dP/dT curve at the phase boundary between calcite and CaCO3-II is negative at 300 K and turns positive at around 600 K, which was confirmed by analyzing the enthalpy change. Just below the transition pressure, the P 21/c structure appears and its orientation switches among three positions with time, resulting in the maintenance of the R\\bar {3}c structure as a whole. The P 21/c structure resembles the structure of CaCO3-II on an increase of temperature. It can be suggested that the existence of the P 21/c structure and the switching of its orientation just below the transition pressure are responsible for the change of the slope of the dP/dT curve at the boundary from negative to positive on an increase of temperature, because the switching increases entropy and results in an expansion of the stability field of calcite.

  4. Hierarchically ordered mesoporous Co3O4 materials for high performance Li-ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Sun, Shijiao; Zhao, Xiangyu; Yang, Meng; Wu, Linlin; Wen, Zhaoyin; Shen, Xiaodong

    2016-01-01

    Highly ordered mesoporous Co3O4 materials have been prepared via a nanocasting route with three-dimensional KIT-6 and two-dimensional SBA-15 ordered mesoporous silicas as templates and Co(NO3)2 · 6H2O as precursor. Through changing the hydrothermal treating temperature of the silica template, ordered mesoporous Co3O4 materials with hierarchical structures have been developed. The larger pores around 10 nm provide an efficient transport for Li ions, while the smaller pores between 3-5 nm offer large electrochemically active areas. Electrochemical impedance analysis proves that the hierarchical structure contributes to a lower charge transfer resistance in the mesoporous Co3O4 electrode than the mono-sized structure. High reversible capacities around 1141 mAh g(-1) of the hierarchically mesoporous Co3O4 materials are obtained, implying their potential applications for high performance Li-ion batteries. PMID:26781265

  5. Morphological Control of Co3O4 and Its Photocatalytic Properties

    EPA Science Inventory

    Cobaltosic oxide (Co3O4), a p-type semiconductor, belongs to the normal spinel crystal structure based on a cubic close packing array of oxide ions. The size, surface, geometry, and crystal phase of catalysts are important parameters for controlling their chemical, optical, and ...

  6. Porous Co3O4 hollow nanododecahedra for nonenzymatic glucose biosensor and biofuel cell.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Erhuan; Xie, Yu; Ci, Suqin; Jia, Jingchun; Wen, Zhenhai

    2016-07-15

    Cobalt oxide hollow nanododecahedra (Co3O4-HND) is synthesized by a facile thermal transformation of cobalt-based metal-organic framework (Co-MOF, ZIF-67) template. The morphology and properties of the Co3O4-HND are characterized by a set of techniques, including transmission electron microscope (TEM), powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM) and Brunner-Emmet-Teller (BET). When tested as a non-enzymatic electrocatalyst for glucose oxidation reaction, the Co3O4-HND exhibits a high activity and shows an outstanding performance for determining glucose with a wide window of 2.0μM to 6.06mM, a high sensitivity of 708.4μAmM(-1)cm(-2), a low detection limit of 0.58μM (S/N=3), and fast response time(<2s). Based on the nonenzymatic oxidation of glucose, Co3O4-HND could be served as an attractive non-enzyme and noble-metal-free electrocatalyst in glucose fuel cell (GFC) due to its excellent electrochemical properties, low cost and facile preparation. PMID:26918617

  7. Hierarchically triangular prism structured Co3O4: Self-supported fabrication and photocatalytic property

    EPA Science Inventory

    The formation of ammonium cobalt (II) phosphate was utilized to synthesize unprecedented 3D structures of Co3O4, triangular prisms and trunk-like structures, via a self-supported and organics-free method. The length of a triangular side of the prepared 3D triangular prisms is ~1...

  8. Templated CaCO3 Crystallization by Submicrometer and Nanosized Fibers.

    PubMed

    Neira-Carrillo, Andrónico; Gentsch, Rafael; Börner, Hans G; Acevedo, Diego Fernando; Barbero, Cesar Alfredo; Cölfen, Helmut

    2016-09-01

    Electrospun submicrometer-sized poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) meshes and nanosized multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) were used as a template for preparing porous and interconnected inorganic-organic hybrid materials composed of CaCO3. Herein, we describe the proportion and incorporation method of submicrometer-sized plasma-treated PCL meshes over areas >1 mm(2) with CaCO3 using three crystallization methods including the use of poly(acrylic acid) (PAA). We found that flexible and rigid acid-functionalized MWCNTs showed a clear capacity and effects to penetrate calcite particles. MWCNTs interacted differently with the individual growth planes of CaCO3, indicating that fibers can undergo changes depending on sulfonate or carboxylate groups, adopt different orientations in solution, and thereby elicit changes in CaCO3 morphology. In summary, the use of PCL and acidic MWCNT fibers as an additive for substrate templates and experimental crystallization provides a viable approach for studying various aspects of biomineralization, including the production of controlled particles, control of porosities, and defined morphologies at microscale and nanoscale levels. PMID:27529799

  9. 12CO(3-2) Emission in Spiral Galaxies: Warm Molecular Gas in Action?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galaz, Gaspar; Cortés, Paulo; Bronfman, Leonardo; Rubio, Monica

    2008-04-01

    Using the APEX submillimeter telescope we have investigated the 12CO(3-2) emission in five face-on nearby barred spiral galaxies, where three of them are high surface brightness galaxies (HSBs) lying at the Freeman limit, and two are low surface brightness galaxies (LSBs). We have positive detections for two of three HSB spirals and nondetections for the LSBs. For the galaxies with positive detection (NGC 0521 and PGC 070519), the emission is confined to their bulges, with velocity dispersions of ~90 and ~73 km s-1 and integrated intensities of 1.20 and 0.76 K km s-1, respectively. For the nondetections, the estimated upper limit for the integrated intensity is ~0.54 K km s-1. With these figures we estimate the H2 masses as well as the atomic-to-molecular mass ratios. Although all the galaxies are barred, we observe 12CO(3-2) emission only for galaxies with prominent bars. We speculate that bars could dynamically favor the 12CO(3-2) emission, as a second parameter after surface brightness. Therefore, secular evolution could play a major role in boosting collisional transitions of molecular gas, such as 12CO(3-2), especially in LSBs.

  10. Hierarchically ordered mesoporous Co3O4 materials for high performance Li-ion batteries

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Shijiao; Zhao, Xiangyu; Yang, Meng; Wu, Linlin; Wen, Zhaoyin; Shen, Xiaodong

    2016-01-01

    Highly ordered mesoporous Co3O4 materials have been prepared via a nanocasting route with three-dimensional KIT-6 and two-dimensional SBA-15 ordered mesoporous silicas as templates and Co(NO3)2 · 6H2O as precursor. Through changing the hydrothermal treating temperature of the silica template, ordered mesoporous Co3O4 materials with hierarchical structures have been developed. The larger pores around 10 nm provide an efficient transport for Li ions, while the smaller pores between 3–5 nm offer large electrochemically active areas. Electrochemical impedance analysis proves that the hierarchical structure contributes to a lower charge transfer resistance in the mesoporous Co3O4 electrode than the mono-sized structure. High reversible capacities around 1141 mAh g−1 of the hierarchically mesoporous Co3O4 materials are obtained, implying their potential applications for high performance Li-ion batteries. PMID:26781265

  11. Single crystalline Co3O4 nanocrystals exposed with different crystal planes for Li-O2 batteries.

    PubMed

    Su, Dawei; Dou, Shixue; Wang, Guoxiu

    2014-08-29

    Single crystalline Co3O4 nanocrystals exposed with different crystal planes were synthesised, including cubic Co3O4 nanocrystals enclosed by {100} crystal planes, pseudo octahedral Co3O4 enclosed by {100} and {110} crystal planes, Co3O4 nanosheets exposed by {110} crystal planes, hexagonal Co3O4 nanoplatelets exposed with {111} crystal planes, and Co3O4 nanolaminar exposed with {112} crystal planes. Well single crystalline features of these Co3O4 nanocrystals were confirmed by FESEM and HRTEM analyses. The electrochemical performance for Li-O2 batteries shows that Co3O4 nanocrystals can significantly reduce the discharge-charge over-potential via the effect on the oxygen evolution reaction (OER). From the comparison on their catalytic performances, we found that the essential factor to promote the oxygen evolution reactions is the surface crystal planes of Co3O4 nanocrystals, namely, crystal planes-dependent process. The correlation between different Co3O4 crystal planes and their effect on reducing charge-discharge over-potential was established: {100} < {110} < {112} < {111}.

  12. Enzyme-assisted growth of nacreous CaCO3/polymer hybrid nanolaminates via the formation of mineral bridges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeom, Bongjun; Char, Kookheon

    2016-06-01

    Laminated nanostructures in nacre have been adopted as models in the fabrication of strong, tough synthetic nanocomposites. However, the utilization of CaCO3 biominerals in these composites is limited by the complexity of the synthesis method for nanosized biominerals. In this study, we use the enzymatic reaction of urease to generate a nanoscale CaCO3 thin film to prepare CaCO3/polymer hybrid nanolaminates. Additional layers of CaCO3 thin film are consecutively grown over the base CaCO3 layer with the intercalation of organic layers. The morphology and crystallinity of the added CaCO3 layers depend strongly on the thickness of the organic layer coated on the underlying CaCO3 layer. When the organic layer is less than 20 nm thick, the amorphous CaCO3 layer is spontaneously transformed into crystalline calcite layer during the growth process. We also observe crystalline continuity between adjacent CaCO3 layers through interconnecting mineral bridges. The formation of these mineral bridges is crucial to the epitaxial growth of CaCO3 layers, similar to the formation of natural nacre.

  13. Cloning of the Nocardia corallina polyhydroxyalkanoate synthase gene and production of poly-(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyhexanoate) and poly-(3-hydroxyvalerate-co-3-hydroxyheptanoate).

    PubMed

    Hall, B; Baldwin, J; Rhie, H G; Dennis, D

    1998-07-01

    The polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) synthase gene (phaCNc) from Nocardia corallina was identified in a lambda library on a 6-kb BamHI fragment. A 2.8-kb XhoII subfragment was found to contain the intact PHA synthase. This 2.8-kb fragment was subjected to DNA sequencing and was found to contain the coding region for the PHA synthase and a small downstream open reading frame of unknown function. On the basis of DNA sequence, phaCNc is closest in homology to the PHA synthases (phaCPaI and phaCPaII) of Pseudomonas aeruginosa (approximately 41% identity and 55% similarity). The 2.8-kb XhoII fragment containing phaCNc was subcloned into broad host range mobilizable plasmids and transferred into Escherichia coli, Klebsiella aerogenes (both containing a plasmid bearing phaA and phaB from Ralstonia eutropha), and PHA-negative strains of R. eutropha and Pseudomonas putida. The recombinant strains were grown on various carbon sources and the resulting polymers were analyzed. In these strains, the PHA synthase from N. corallina was able to mediate the production of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyhexanoate) containing high levels of 3-hydroxyhexanoate when grown on hexanoate and larger even-chain fatty acids and poly(3-hydroxyvalerate-co-3-hydroxyheptanoate) containing high levels of 3-hydroxyheptanoate when grown on heptanoate or larger odd-chain fatty acids.

  14. Compliance and Effectiveness of Smoking Cessation Program Started on Hospitalized Patients

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Gun Hee; Yi, Sung Won; Park, Eal Whan; Choi, Eun Young

    2016-01-01

    Background Varenicline is now very useful medication for cessation; however, there is only little result of researches with varenicline for cessation of hospitalized patients. This research attempted to analyze the cessation effect of medication and compliance of hospitalized patients. Methods This research included data for 52 patients who were prescribed varenicline among 280 patients who were consulted for cessation during their admission period. This research checked whether smoking was stopped or not after six months and analyzed their compliance, the factors for succeeding in smoking cessation. Results One hundred and ninety hospitalized patients participated in smoking cessation counseling among 280 patients who included consultation from their admission departments. And varenicline was prescribed for only 80 patients after counseling. Nineteen smokers were successful in smoking cessation among 52 final participants representing the rating of success of 36.5%. The linkage between compliance of varenicline and rate of smoking successful has no statistical significance. The factors for succeeding in smoking of hospitalized patients are admission departments, diseases, and economic states. Conclusion Smoking cessation program has low inpatient compliance. Cooperation of each departments is very important for better compliance. Success rate of cessation was relatively high (36.5%). Cessation attempt during hospitalization is very effective strategy. PMID:27274385

  15. Testing the cation-hydration effect on the crystallization of Ca–Mg–CO3 systems

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Jie; Yan, Chao; Zhang, Fangfu; Konishi, Hiromi; Teng, H. Henry

    2013-01-01

    Dolomite and magnesite are simple anhydrous calcium and/or magnesium carbonate minerals occurring mostly at Earth surfaces. However, laboratory synthesis of neither species at ambient temperature and pressure conditions has been proven practically possible, and the lack of success was assumed to be related to the strong solvation shells of magnesium ions in aqueous media. Here, we report the synthesis of MgCO3 and MgxCa(1−x)CO3 (0 < x < 1) solid phases at ambient conditions in the absence of water. Experiments were carried out in dry organic solvent, and the results showed that, although anhydrous phases were readily precipitated in the water-free environment, the precipitates’ crystallinity was highly dependent on the Mg molar percentage content in the solution. In specific, magnesian calcite dominated in low [Mg2+]/[Ca2+] solutions but gave way to exclusive formation of amorphous MgxCa(1−x)CO3 and MgCO3 in high-[Mg2+]/[Ca2+] and pure-Mg solutions. At conditions of [Mg2+]/[Ca2+] = 1, both nanocrystals of Ca-rich protodolomite and amorphous phase of Mg-rich MgxCa(1−x)CO3 were formed. These findings exposed a previously unrecognized intrinsic barrier for Mg2+ and CO32− to develop long-range orders at ambient conditions and suggested that the long-held belief of cation-hydration inhibition on dolomite and magnesite mineralization needed to be reevaluated. Our study provides significant insight into the long-standing “dolomite problem” in geochemistry and mineralogy and may promote a better understanding of the fundamental chemistry in biomineralization and mineral-carbonation processes. PMID:24127571

  16. CaCO3, its reaction and carbonate rocks: terahertz spectroscopy investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhan, Honglei; Wu, Shixiang; Zhao, Kun; Bao, Rima; Xiao, Lizhi

    2016-10-01

    Carbonate-rich rocks cover a primary part of the earth’s petroleum geology reservoir. The study of carbonate has special significance and more effective study methods are now needed. In order to improve the availability of carbonate rock detection, terahertz (THz) spectroscopy was employed to investigate relevant materials in Na2CO3  +  CaCl2  =  CaCO3  +  2NaCl, which is often used to generate CaCO3. By comparing the materials composited with different ions, it can be revealed that Ca2+, \\text{CO}32- , Na+ and Cl- have respective absorption features at different frequencies. Furthermore, by utilizing a conservation equation it can be observed that the average refractive indices of Na2CO3 as well as CaCl2 equal those of CaCO3 and NaCl in the entire range. Combining the absorption and refractive effect of the materials in the reaction can comprehensively characterize the different substances and reveal the inner interaction during the reaction. THz spectra can deduce the process of molecule rearrangement in the chemical reaction of long-term rock evolution. Besides, the absorption features of the real carbonate rock collected from the nearest town of Sinan county, Guizhou province in Yunnan-Guizhou plateau validate the peaks’ central frequencies of ions and the principal components of carbonates, which can be in agreement with the SEM-EDS analysis. This research will supply a spectral tool to identify the particles in the rock and deduce an evolution of petroleum carbonate reservoir.

  17. Effects of Smoking Cessation on Body Composition in Postmenopausal Women

    PubMed Central

    Litt, Mark D.; Kenny, Anne M.; Oncken, Cheryl A.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Smoking cessation is associated with weight gain, but the effects of smoking cessation on measures of body composition (BC) have not been adequately evaluated. The purpose of this study is to examine the effects of 16 months of cigarette abstinence on areas of BC measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Methods One hundred fifty-two postmenopausal women participated in a smoking cessation study using the nicotine patch. Secondary analyses were conducted on data from 119 subjects (age 56 ± 7 years, range 41–78 years) who had had DXA scans at baseline and 16 months later. Participants were classified either as quitters (self-reported cigarette abstinence confirmed with exhaled carbon monoxide [co] ≤8 ppm at 3 and 16 months after quit date) or as continued smokers. BC was assessed using a General Electric Lunar DXA IQ machine. Four areas of BC (kg) were measured: whole body weight, fat mass, muscle mass, and functional skeletal muscle mass in arms and legs (ASM/ht2). Multivariate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA) assessed changes in BC in quitters vs. continued smokers between baseline and 16 months of follow-up. Increases in BC measures were evaluated as a function of increased calorie intake or change in physical activity, using linear regression. Results Quitters significantly increased body weight (p < 0.001), fat mass (p < 0.001), muscle mass (p = 0.04), and functional muscle mass (p = 0.004) over time, when baseline BC measures and other confounding factors were controlled. Regression analysis indicated change in BC could not be accounted for by calorie intake or physical activity. Conclusions Smoking cessation may be associated with increased fat and muscle mass in postmenopausal women. The novel finding of an increase in functional muscle mass suggests that smoking cessation could increase functional capacity. Further studies need to replicate these findings and examine mechanisms of these effects. PMID

  18. Predictors of Smoking Cessation and Duration: Implication for Smoking Prevention

    PubMed Central

    Meamar, Rokhsareh; Etedali, Farshad; Sereshti, Nafiseh; Sabour, Elnaz; Samani, Marzieh Dehghani; Ardakani, Mohammad Reza Piri; Mirhosseini, Seyyed Mohammad Mahdy; Maracy, Mohammad

    2013-01-01

    Background: There are few articles studding the factors associated with successful smoking cessation in Iranian smokers. The aim of this study is to clarify the association between socio-demographic factors and smoking behavior, such as number of failed smoking cessation and duration of abstinence in Iranian population. Methods: A self-administered questionnaire survey of 673 participants was conducted in a local government health-care center. The questionnaire included items on socio-demographic information including, age, marital status, education, income, and job. Furthermore, information on smoking cigarettes including number of smoking per day, duration of smoking, cigarettes brand, nicotine concentration, and history of cessation was obtained. Results: Mean ± SD of age and daily cigarette consumption were 39.7 ± 1.1 and 22.1 ± 1.1 respectively. Failure rate of smoking cessation was higher in the lower age group (odds ratios [OR] 2.9; 95% confidence intervals [CI] 1.1, 7.7) and less than 10 numbers smoking per day (OR 2.4; 95% CI 1.3, 4.5) and duration of smoking more than 30 years (OR 3.4; 95% CI 1.2, 9.3) and foreign cigarette brand (OR 1.8; 95% CI 1.1, 2.7). Length time of cessation was prominent in participants with lower age group (OR 5.4; 95% CI 1.3, 22.1), and less than 10 numbers smoking per day (OR 2.7; 95% CI 1.5, 4.9) and lower in smokers with duration of smoking more than 10 and 10-19 years (OR 0.32; 95% CI 0.12, 0.89), (OR 0.34; 95% CI 0.17, 0.76), respectively. Conclusions: The above results suggest that there are a significant association between socio-demographic factors and smoking-related behaviors in the Iranian population, consistent with previous reports world-wide. These factors should be considered to have appropriate public-health and policy response. PMID:23776723

  19. Multi-Component Smoking Cessation Treatment including Mobile Contingency Management for Smoking Cessation in Homeless Veteran Smokers

    PubMed Central

    Carpenter, Vickie L.; Hertzberg, Jeffrey S.; Kirby, Angela C.; Calhoun, Patrick S.; Moore, Scott D.; Dennis, Michelle F.; Dennis, Paul A.; Dedert, Eric A.; Hair, Lauren P.; Beckham, Jean C.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Smoking rates are 80% among persons who are homeless, and these smokers have decreased odds of quitting smoking. Little is known about relapse rates among homeless smokers, but the dearth of research indicates that more information regarding quit rates in this population is needed. Furthermore, innovative methods are needed to treat smoking cessation among homeless smokers. Web-based contingency management (CM) approaches have been found helpful in reducing smoking among other difficult-to-treat smoker populations but have been generally limited by the need for computers or frequent clinic based carbon monoxide (CO) monitoring. This pilot study builds on a web-based CM approach by evaluating a smart phone based application for CM named mobile CM (mCM). Methods Following a one-week training period, 20 homeless veteran smokers participated in a multi-component smoking cessation intervention including 4 weeks of mCM. All smokers received 4 smoking cessation counseling sessions, nicotine replacement and bupropion (if medically eligible). Participants could earn up to $815 ($480 for mCM, $100 for CO readings showing abstinence at posttreatment and follow up, and $35 for equipment return). Mean compensation for the mCM component was $286 of a possible $480. Results Video transmission compliance was high during the one-week training (97%) and the four-week treatment period (87%). Bioverified 7-day point prevalence abstinence was 50% at four weeks. Follow up bioverified single assessment point prevalence abstinence was 65% at three months and 60% at six months. Conclusions mCM may be a useful adjunctive smoking cessation treatment component for reducing smoking among homeless smokers. PMID:25699616

  20. Changes in CaCO3 Burial Trump the Biological Pump

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toggweiler, J.; Dunne, J. P.

    2008-12-01

    The dramatic increases in atmospheric CO2 at the ends of ice ages are usually attributed to a one-two punch coming from the ocean. First, a weakened biological pump vents organically cycled CO2 from the deep ocean via changes in the ventilation of the deep ocean around Antarctica. The initial CO2 increase is then augmented by an enhancement of CaCO3 burial due to a process called CaCO3 compensation (after Broecker, W. S and T.-H. Peng, Global Biogeochem. Cycles, 1, 15-29, 1987). Here, we argue that the importance of the biological pump has been exaggerated. The main effect comes from circulation-induced changes in the burial of CaCO3. As shown in a recent paper by Andreas Schmittner and co-authors (Schmittner, A., E. Brook and J. Ahn, Impact of the ocean's overturning circulation on atmospheric CO2, in Ocean Circulation: Mechanisms and Impacts, Geophys. Monogr. 173, A. Schmittner, J. Chiang, and S. Hemming, eds., pp. 209-246, AGU, 2007) changes in the ventilation of the deep ocean around Antarctica gave rise to 20-30 ppm increases in atmospheric CO2 every 5,000-7,000 years during isotope stages 3 and 4 (30,000 to 70,000 years ago). None of these venting events gave rise to a compensation response. Meanwhile, Jaccard et al. (Science, 308, 1003-1006, 2005) show that all the big CO2 increases during terminations through stage 11 were accompanied by huge increases in CaCO3 burial. This suggests that the enhanced burial of CaCO3 is obligatory rather than compensatory with respect to the dramatic CO2 increases. Broecker and Peng's compensation idea is based on an assumption that the rain of CaCO3 to the sea floor is the same everywhere. More specifically, it assumes that there is no spatial correlation between the production of CaCO3 at the surface and the burial on the sea floor. We find instead that the production and burial of CaCO3 tend to be co-located in regional "hot spots" and that burial in the hot spots balances the input of Ca++ and HCO3- ions in rivers. The

  1. Effect of alendronate on HIV-associated osteoporosis: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, 96-week trial (ANRS 120).

    PubMed

    Rozenberg, Sylvie; Lanoy, Emillie; Bentata, Michelle; Viard, Jean-Paul; Valantin, Marc Antoine; Missy, Pascale; Darasteanu, Iuliana; Roux, Christian; Kolta, Sami; Costagliola, Dominique

    2012-09-01

    Low bone mineral density (BMD) is common in HIV-infected patients. Bisphosphonates such as alendronate potently inhibit bone resorption and are effective against osteoporosis. The aim of the ANRS 120 Fosivir trial was to evaluate the effect of alendronate on low BMD in HIV-infected patients. HIV-1-infected adults with a t-score≤-2.5 at the lumbar spine and/or total hip, as assessed by dual x-ray absorptiometry, and no other known risk factors for low BMD, were randomized to receive either extended-release alendronate 70 mg weekly or placebo for 96 weeks, with stratification for gender. All the patients also received daily calcium carbonate (500 mg) and vitamin D (400 U). The primary endpoint for efficacy was the percentage change in BMD at the site with a t-score≤-2.5. Forty-four antiretroviral-treated patients (42 men, 2 women) were enrolled. The median age was 45 years, the median CD4 cell count was 422/mm(3), and viral load was <400 copies/ml in 84% of patients. Baseline characteristics were well balanced between the alendronate (n=20) and placebo (n=24) groups. At baseline, 15 patients (75%) in the alendronate group and 17 patients (71%) in the placebo group had a t-score≤-2.5 at the lumbar spine. In the main analysis, BMD at the site with a t-score≤-2.5 increased by 7.1% and 1.0%, respectively, in the alendronate (n=14) and placebo (n=20) groups at week 96 [mean difference, 6.1% (95% CI 2.8 to 9.3); p=0.0003]. Alendronate 70 mg weekly for 96 weeks improves BMD in HIV-1-infected patients on antiretroviral therapy.

  2. Long-term outcomes in adolescents perinatally infected with HIV-1 and followed up since birth in the French perinatal cohort (EPF/ANRS CO10).

    PubMed

    Dollfus, C; Le Chenadec, J; Faye, A; Blanche, S; Briand, N; Rouzioux, C; Warszawski, J

    2010-07-15

    BACKGROUND. Increasing numbers of children perinatally infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) are reaching adolescence, largely because of advances in treatment over the past 10 years, but little is known about their current health status. We describe here the living conditions and clinical and immunovirologic outcomes at last evaluation among this pioneering generation of adolescents who were born before the introduction of prophylaxis for vertical transmission and whose infections were diagnosed at a time when treatment options were limited. METHODS. The eligible population consisted of HIV-1-infected children who were born before December 1993 and who were included at birth in the prospective national French Perinatal Cohort (EPF/ANRS CO10). RESULTS. Of the 348 eligible children, 210 (60%; median age, 15 years) were still alive and regularly followed up. Current treatment was highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) in 77% and 2 nucleoside analogues in 5.0%; 16% had stopped treatment, and 2% had never been treated. The median CD4 cell count was 557 cells/microL, and 200 cells/microL was exceeded in 94% of patients. The median viral load was 200 copies/mL. Viral load was undetectable in 43% of the adolescents and in 54.5% of those receiving HAART. Median height, weight, and body mass index were similar to French reference values for age, and school achievement was similar to nationwide statistics. Better immunologic status was associated with being younger and with having begun HAART earlier. Undetectable viral load was associated with maternal geographic origin and current HAART. CONCLUSIONS. Given the limited therapeutic options available during the early years of these patients' lives and the challenge presented by treatment adherence during adolescence, the long-term outcomes among this population are encouraging. PMID:20536367

  3. Pharmacology and immuno-virologic efficacy of once-a-day HAART in African HIV-infected children: ANRS 12103 phase II trial

    PubMed Central

    Nacro, Boubacar; Zoure, Emmanuelle; Hien, Hervé; Tamboura, Hassane; Rouet, François; Ouiminga, Adama; Drabo, Ali; Yameogo, Souleymane; Hien, Alain; Peyriere, Hélène; Mathieu, Olivier; Hirt, Deborah; Treluyer, Jean-Marc; Nicolas, Joëlle; Foulongne, Vincent; Segondy, Michel; van de Perre, Philippe; Diagbouga, Serge

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Objective To assess 12-month survival, pharmacokinetics, immunologic and virologic efficacy, tolerance, compliance and drug resistance in HIV-infected children in Bobo-Dioulasso, Burkina Faso, receiving once-daily highly-active antiretroviral therapy as a combination of didanosine (DDI), lamivudine (3TC) and efavirenz (EFV). Methods In the ANRS 12103 open phase II trial, HIV-infected children were examined at inclusion and monthly thereafter. CD4+ T-lymphocyte (CD4) count, plasma concentration of ribonucleic acid (RNA) of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and haematologic and biochemical parameters were measured at baseline and every trimester. HIV-1 resistance testing was performed in case of viral escape. Drug plasma concentrations were determined with high-performance liquid chromatography. Findings From February 2006 to November 2007, 51 children (39% girls) with a mean age of 6.8 years were enrolled and treated for 12 months. At baseline, Z scores for mean weight-for-age and mean height-for-age were −2.01 and −2.12, respectively. Mean CD4% was 9.0. Median plasma HIV-1 RNA viral load was 5.51 log10 copies per millilitre (cp/ml). Two children (3.9%) died and another 11 (22%) suffered 13 severe clinical events. At month 12, mean WAZ had improved by 0.63 (P < 0.001) and mean HAZ by 0.57 (P < 0.001). Mean CD4% had risen to 24 (P < 0.001). Viral load was below 300 RNA cp/ml in 81% of the children; HIV resistance mutations were detected in 11 (21.6%). Conclusion The once-a-day combination of DDI + 3TC + EFV is an alternative first-line treatment for HIV-1-infected children. Dose adjustment should further improve efficacy. PMID:21673861

  4. Emtricitabine seminal plasma and blood plasma population pharmacokinetics in HIV-infected men in the EVARIST ANRS-EP 49 study.

    PubMed

    Valade, Elodie; Tréluyer, Jean-Marc; Illamola, Silvia M; Bouazza, Naïm; Foissac, Frantz; De Sousa Mendes, Maïlys; Lui, Gabrielle; Chenevier-Gobeaux, Camille; Suzan-Monti, Marie; Rouzioux, Christine; Assoumou, Lambert; Viard, Jean-Paul; Hirt, Déborah; Urien, Saïk; Ghosn, Jade

    2015-11-01

    We aimed to describe blood plasma (BP) and seminal plasma (SP) pharmacokinetics of emtricitabine (FTC) in HIV-1-infected men, assess its penetration in the male genital tract, and evaluate its impact on seminal plasma HIV load (spVL) detection. Men from the EVARIST ANRS EP49 study receiving combined antiretroviral therapy with FTC and with suppressed BP viral load were included in the study. A total of 236 and 209 FTC BP and SP concentrations, respectively, were available. A population pharmacokinetic model was developed with Monolix 4.1.4. The impact of FTC seminal exposure on spVL detection was explored by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves and mixed-effects logistic regressions. FTC BP pharmacokinetics was described by a two-compartment model. The addition of an effect compartment with different input and output constants best described FTC SP pharmacokinetics. No covariates were found to explain the variability in SP. FTC exposures (area under the concentration-time curve from 0 to 24 h [AUC0-24]) were higher in SP than in BP (median AUC0-24, 38.04 and 12.95 mg · liter(-1) · h, respectively). The median (range) SP-to-BP AUC0-24 ratio was 2.91 (0.84 to 10.08). Less than 1% of FTC AUC0-24 ratios were lower than 1. The impact of FTC SP AUC0-24 or FTC SP-to-BP AUC0-24 ratio on spVL detection was not significant (P = 0.943 or 0.893, respectively). This is the first population model describing FTC pharmacokinetics simultaneously in both BP and SP. FTC distributes well in the male genital tract with higher FTC concentrations in SP than in BP. FTC seminal plasma exposures were considered efficient in the majority of men.

  5. New and old complex recombinant HIV-1 strains among patients with primary infection in 1996–2006 in France: The French ANRS CO06 primo cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Frange, Pierre; Galimand, Julie; Vidal, Nicole; Goujard, Cécile; Deveau, Christiane; Souala, Faouzi; Peeters, Martine; Meyer, Laurence; Rouzioux, Christine; Chaix, Marie-Laure

    2008-01-01

    Background Prevalence of HIV-1 non-B subtypes has increased overtime in patients diagnosed at the time of primary infection (PHI) in France. Our objective was to characterize in detail non-B strains which could not be genetically classified into the known subtypes/Circulating Recombinant Forms (CRFs). Methods Among 744 patients enrolled in the ANRS PRIMO Cohort since 1996, 176 (23.7%) were infected with HIV-1 non-B strains. The subtype/CRF could not be identified in RT for 15 (2%). The V3-V5 env region was sequenced and 3 strains (04FR-KZS, 06FR-CRN, 04FR-AUK) were full-length sequenced. Phylogenetic and bootscan analyses were used to characterize the mosaic structures. Results Among V3-V5 sequences, 6 were divergent A, 2 distantly related to E or D, 2 C, 1 B and 2 remained unclassified. 04FR-KZS, isolated in a Congolese woman infected in France, clustered with 2 previously described viruses from the Democratic Republic of Congo. They represent CRF27_cpx involving A/E/G/H/J/K/U subtypes. 06FR-CRN, isolated in a homosexual Caucasian patient, was a B/C/U recombinant involving a Brazilian C strain. 04FR-AUK, isolated in a Congolese patient infected in France, was a A/K/CRF09/U recombinant clustering from gag to vif with HIV-1 MAL. Others PHI were further observed in 2006–2007 with 1 KZS and 5 CRN-like viruses, suggesting their spread in France. Conclusion This study illustrates the increasing HIV-1 diversity in France associating new (06FR-CRN) and old (CRF27_cpx and "MAL-like" 04FR-AUK) strains, which are rare in their region of origin but may have a possible founder effect in France. Our results strengthen the French guidelines recommending viro-epidemiological surveillance of HIV-1 diversity. PMID:18673538

  6. Emtricitabine Seminal Plasma and Blood Plasma Population Pharmacokinetics in HIV-Infected Men in the EVARIST ANRS-EP 49 Study

    PubMed Central

    Tréluyer, Jean-Marc; Illamola, Silvia M.; Bouazza, Naïm; Foissac, Frantz; De Sousa Mendes, Maïlys; Lui, Gabrielle; Chenevier-Gobeaux, Camille; Suzan-Monti, Marie; Rouzioux, Christine; Assoumou, Lambert; Viard, Jean-Paul; Hirt, Déborah; Urien, Saïk; Ghosn, Jade

    2015-01-01

    We aimed to describe blood plasma (BP) and seminal plasma (SP) pharmacokinetics of emtricitabine (FTC) in HIV-1-infected men, assess its penetration in the male genital tract, and evaluate its impact on seminal plasma HIV load (spVL) detection. Men from the EVARIST ANRS EP49 study receiving combined antiretroviral therapy with FTC and with suppressed BP viral load were included in the study. A total of 236 and 209 FTC BP and SP concentrations, respectively, were available. A population pharmacokinetic model was developed with Monolix 4.1.4. The impact of FTC seminal exposure on spVL detection was explored by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves and mixed-effects logistic regressions. FTC BP pharmacokinetics was described by a two-compartment model. The addition of an effect compartment with different input and output constants best described FTC SP pharmacokinetics. No covariates were found to explain the variability in SP. FTC exposures (area under the concentration-time curve from 0 to 24 h [AUC0–24]) were higher in SP than in BP (median AUC0–24, 38.04 and 12.95 mg · liter−1 · h, respectively). The median (range) SP-to-BP AUC0–24 ratio was 2.91 (0.84 to 10.08). Less than 1% of FTC AUC0–24 ratios were lower than 1. The impact of FTC SP AUC0–24 or FTC SP-to-BP AUC0–24 ratio on spVL detection was not significant (P = 0.943 or 0.893, respectively). This is the first population model describing FTC pharmacokinetics simultaneously in both BP and SP. FTC distributes well in the male genital tract with higher FTC concentrations in SP than in BP. FTC seminal plasma exposures were considered efficient in the majority of men. PMID:26282407

  7. HIV-positive men who have sex with men: biography, diversity in lifestyles, common experience of living with HIV. ANRS-EN12 VESPA Study, 2003.

    PubMed

    Lert, France; Sitta, Rémi; Bouhnik, Anne-Deborah; Dray-Spira, Rosemary; Spire, Bruno

    2010-01-01

    The conceptualisation of male who have sex with male (MSM) to account for male homosexual behaviour has been developed to facilitate the endorsement of prevention message since the advent of HIV infection. Population studies performed to understand and monitor sexual and preventive behaviour usually recruit respondents through gay-friendly channels such as media, sexual venues or festivals, leading to recruitment bias. Few studies question possible differences according to varying sexual biography and current behaviour within the MSM population. The random sample of HIV+ individuals treated in specialised outpatient clinics (ANRS-EN12-VESPA study, 2003) provides the opportunity to question the MSM conceptualisation regarding sexual biography, social characteristics, current sexual behaviour, use of condom, living with HIV (quality of life, discrimination and participation in NGOs). Among the 2932 respondents, 1309 men reported a lifetime male sexual partner. Information regarding sexual biography (lifetime and current numbers of male and female sexual partners, lifetime number of male and female stable couples) was computed using cluster analysis and identified five profiles: exclusive gay (53.7%), gay with some bisexuality (21.8%), gay with mixed sexual history (8.1%), bisexual (7.8%) and heterosexual with male-to-male sex (8.6%). The profiles matched self-identification better among the most exclusive homosexuals than among men with current bisexuality. These five subgroups differed regarding demographic and social characteristics (except migration status), their period of diagnosis, age and CD4 count at diagnosis. Sexual activity, steady partnership, number of male and female partners, use of sexual venues and illegal substance use were different across subgroups. Reversely, these groups are homogenous regarding experience of discrimination and involvement in People living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) activities. These findings among men living with HIV support the MSM

  8. Feasibility of promoting smoking cessation in small worksites: an exploratory study.

    PubMed

    Tiede, Lara P; Hennrikus, Deborah J; Cohen, Barry B; Hilgers, Diana L; Madsen, RaeJean; Lando, Harry A

    2007-01-01

    The workplace is recognized as an appropriate site for smoking cessation efforts, but little is known about promoting cessation at smaller worksites. The goal of the present study was to identify strategies for promoting smoking cessation in worksites employing 10-100 workers. Qualitative interviews were conducted with 22 employers in small businesses in the manufacturing-labor and hospitality-service sectors; and eight focus groups were conducted with 59 smokers employed in these sectors. Employers mentioned practical barriers to implementing cessation activities and reluctance to intervene in employees' personal health decisions. Nevertheless, both employers and smokers thought it was desirable and appropriate for employers to promote cessation resources to people who want to quit. Discrepancies existed between the worksite activities favored by employers and those endorsed as potentially useful by smokers. Smokers expressed interest in incentive programs, contests, and nicotine replacement products; employers favored providing information. Both groups were generally unaware of smoking cessation resources available through health plans or in the community. Results suggest that interventions should attempt to increase knowledge about available cessation resources and support for cessation at the workplace. Contests, incentives, and free samples of nicotine replacement products might be feasible and effective for promoting cessation.

  9. Feasibility of promoting smoking cessation in small worksites: an exploratory study.

    PubMed

    Tiede, Lara P; Hennrikus, Deborah J; Cohen, Barry B; Hilgers, Diana L; Madsen, RaeJean; Lando, Harry A

    2007-01-01

    The workplace is recognized as an appropriate site for smoking cessation efforts, but little is known about promoting cessation at smaller worksites. The goal of the present study was to identify strategies for promoting smoking cessation in worksites employing 10-100 workers. Qualitative interviews were conducted with 22 employers in small businesses in the manufacturing-labor and hospitality-service sectors; and eight focus groups were conducted with 59 smokers employed in these sectors. Employers mentioned practical barriers to implementing cessation activities and reluctance to intervene in employees' personal health decisions. Nevertheless, both employers and smokers thought it was desirable and appropriate for employers to promote cessation resources to people who want to quit. Discrepancies existed between the worksite activities favored by employers and those endorsed as potentially useful by smokers. Smokers expressed interest in incentive programs, contests, and nicotine replacement products; employers favored providing information. Both groups were generally unaware of smoking cessation resources available through health plans or in the community. Results suggest that interventions should attempt to increase knowledge about available cessation resources and support for cessation at the workplace. Contests, incentives, and free samples of nicotine replacement products might be feasible and effective for promoting cessation. PMID:17365730

  10. Co3O4 nanocages with highly exposed {110} facets for high-performance lithium storage

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Dequan; Wang, Xi; Wang, Xuebin; Tian, Wei; Bando, Yoshio; Golberg, Dmitri

    2013-01-01

    Functional materials with both exposed highly reactive planes and hollow structures have attracted considerable attentions with respect to improved catalytic activity and enhanced electrochemical energy storage. Herein, we report the synthesis of unusual single-crystal Co3O4 nanocages with highly exposed {110} reactive facets via a one-step solution method. When tested as anode materials in lithium-ion batteries, these Co3O4 nanocages deliver a high reversible lithium storage capacity of 864 mAh g−1 at 0.2C over 50 cycles and exhibit an excellent rate capability. The dominantly exposed {110} planes, a high density of atomic steps in nanocages, and the large void interiors lead to the regarded superior electrochemical performance. PMID:23995848

  11. Facet-dependent electrochemical properties of Co3O4 nanocrystals toward heavy metal ions

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Xin-Yao; Meng, Qiang-Qiang; Luo, Tao; Jia, Yong; Sun, Bai; Li, Qun-Xiang; Liu, Jin-Huai; Huang, Xing-Jiu

    2013-01-01

    We revealed an interesting facet-dependent electrochemical behavior toward heavy metal ions (HMIs) based on their adsorption behaviors. The (111) facet of Co3O4 nanoplates has better electrochemical sensing performance than that of the (001) facet of Co3O4 nanocubes. Adsorption measurements and density-functional theory (DFT) calculations reveals that adsorption of HMIs is responsible for the difference of electrochemical properties. Our combined experimental and theoretical studies provide a solid hint to explain the mechanism of electrochemical detection of HMIs using nanoscale metal oxides. Furthermore, this study not only suggests a promising new strategy for designing high performance electrochemical sensing interface through the selective synthesis of nanoscale materials exposed with different well-defined facets, but also provides a deep understanding for a more sensitive and selective electroanalysis at nanomaterials modified electrodes. PMID:24097175

  12. Hierarchical CaCO3 chromatography: a stationary phase based on biominerals.

    PubMed

    Sato, Kosuke; Oaki, Yuya; Takahashi, Daisuke; Toshima, Kazunobu; Imai, Hiroaki

    2015-03-23

    In biomineralization, acidic macromolecules play important roles for the growth control of crystals through a specific interaction. Inspired by this interaction, we report on an application of the hierarchical structures in CaCO3 biominerals to a stationary phase of chromatography. The separation and purification of acidic small organic molecules are achieved by thin-layer chromatography and flash chromatography using the powder of biominerals as the stationary phase. The unit nanocrystals and their oriented assembly, the hierarchical structure, are suitable for the adsorption site of the target organic molecules and the flow path of the elution solvents, respectively. The separation mode is ascribed to the specific adsorption of the acidic molecules on the crystal face and the coordination of the functional groups to the calcium ions. The results imply that a new family of stationary phase of chromatography can be developed by the fine tuning of hierarchical structures in CaCO3 materials.

  13. Synthesis and characterization of cobalt oxide nanocomposite based on the Co3O4-zeolite Y

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davar, Fatemeh; Fereshteh, Zeinab; Shoja Razavi, Hadi; Razavi, Reza Shoja; Loghman-Estarki, Mohammad Reza

    2014-02-01

    The Co3O4 nanocomposite was synthesized by an ion-exchange of cobalt ions and Y zeolite in the presence of sodium hydroxide and calcination treatment. The products were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman analysis, scanning electron microscope (SEM), transmission electron microscope (TEM), BET, Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. The sizes of the migrated Co3O4 particles out of Y zeolite super cage were in the range of 29 ± 5 nm. Finally, the magnetic property of as-obtained product was investigated in a vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM). This nanocomposite showed a paramagnetic behavior at room temperature.

  14. Fabrication of superhydrophobic surfaces via CaCO3 mineralization mediated by poly(glutamic acid)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Heng; Yao, Jinrong; Shao, Zhengzhong

    2013-03-01

    Surfaces with micrometer and nanometer sized hierarchical structures were fabricated by an one-step in situ additive controlled CaCO3 mineralization method. After chemical modification, the surfaces with various morphologies showed superhydrophobicity in different states, which could be easily adjusted by the initial supersaturation of the mineralization solution (concentration of calcium ion and poly(glutamic acid)). Generally, the "lotus state" surface which was covered by a thick layer of tetrahedron-shaped CaCO3 particles to exhibit a contact angle (CA) of 157±1° and a very low contact angle hysteresis (CAH) (roll-off angle=1°) was produced under high supersaturation. On the other hands, the petal-like surface with flower-shaped calcite spherulites was obtained in a relative low supersaturation, which showed both high CA (156±2°) and CAH (180°) in a "Cassie impregnating wetting state".

  15. Preservation properties of in situ modified CaCO3-chitosan composite coatings.

    PubMed

    Sun, Tong; Hao, Wen-ting; Li, Jian-rong; Dong, Zhi-jian; Wu, Chao-ling

    2015-09-15

    To improve the dispersibility, hydrophilia constraints of primitive particle size, and reduce the economic cost, in situ modified CaCO3-chitosan composite coatings were prepared by tape-casting with different modifiers. The coating structures were characterised, and the preservation properties of the coatings were evaluated by fresh indices of Sciaenops ocellatus. The results revealed that the coatings were homogeneous and compact when the in situ modifier was sodium stearate. Besides, the amide I group of chitosan disappeared and hydrogen bonds were formed between the nano-CaCO3 and the chitosan. Meanwhile, the preservation effects to S. ocellatus of the coatings modified in situ by sodium stearate and sodium citrate were better. This was because the coatings effectively prevented oxygen and bacteria from reaching S. ocellatus, and thus inhibited the degradation of the proteins and lipids. The in situ modified method is conducive to chitosan coating properties, which will be widely used in the food preservation field.

  16. Electric Field-Controlled Crystallizing CaCO3 Nanostructures from Solution.

    PubMed

    Qi, Jian Quan; Guo, Rui; Wang, Yu; Liu, Xuan Wen; Chan, Helen Lai Wah

    2016-12-01

    The role of electric field is investigated in determining the structure, morphology, and crystallographic characteristics of CaCO3 nanostructures crystallized from solution. It is found that the lattice structure and crystalline morphology of CaCO3 can be tailed by the electric field applied to the solution during its crystallization. The calcite structure with cubic-like morphology can be obtained generally without electric field, and the vaterite structure with the morphology of nanorod is formed under the high electric field. The vaterite nanorods can be piled up to the petaliform layers. Both the nanorod and the petaliform layer can have mesocrystal structures which are piled up by much fine units of the rods with the size of several nanometers. Beautiful rose-like nanoflowers can be self-arranged by the petaliform layers. These structures can have potential application as carrier for medicine to involve into metabolism of living cell.

  17. Engineered phage films as scaffolds for CaCO3 biomineralization.

    PubMed

    Tom, Steven; Jin, Hyo-Eon; Heo, Kwang; Lee, Seung-Wuk

    2016-08-25

    M13 bacteriophages (phage) were exploited as CaCO3 mineralization scaffolds for hard tissue engineering applications. M13 phage was first self-assembled into biomimetic fibrous scaffolds, followed by CaCO3 biomineralization via the polymer-induced liquid precursor process. The phage scaffolds successfully incorporated calcium carbonate, facilitating nucleation and growth of spherulitically textured calcite. The Young's modulus of the scaffolds increased by an order of magnitude after mineralization while also supporting the growth of mouse fibroblasts. These findings demonstrate that phage-based biomaterials are a feasible platform for creating biomineralized hard tissue constructs, in support of future studies in hard tissue engineering and biomedical applications. PMID:27524198

  18. Magnetic phase diagrams of the Kagomé staircase compound Co3V2O8

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yen, F.; Chaudhury, R. P.; Galstyan, E.; Lorenz, B.; Wang, Y. Q.; Sun, Y. Y.; Chu, C. W.

    2008-04-01

    At zero magnetic field, a series of five phase transitions occur in Co3V2O8. The Néel temperature, TN=11.4 K, is followed by four additional phase changes at T1=8.9 K, T2=7.0 K, T3=6.9 K, and T4=6.2 K. The different phases are distinguished by the commensurability of the b-component of its spin density wave vector. We investigate the stability of these various phases under magnetic fields through dielectric constant and magnetic susceptibility anomalies. The field-temperature phase diagram of Co3V2O8 is completely resolved. The complexity of the phase diagram results from the competition of different magnetic states with almost equal ground state energies due to competing exchange interactions and frustration.

  19. Magnetic field-induced transitions in geometrically frustrated Co3V2O8 single crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szymczak, R.; Baran, M.; Diduszko, R.; Fink-Finowicki, J.; Gutowska, M.; Szewczyk, A.; Szymczak, H.

    2006-03-01

    Magnetization and specific heat of the S=3/2 antiferromagnet on a kagome staircase, Co3V2O8 , were investigated as a function of temperature and magnetic field. The low temperature magnetization data revealed unusual features related to the strongly frustrated spin lattice. Of particular interest were magnetic field induced phase transitions observed for various orientations of the magnetic field. Abrupt macroscopic magnetization jumps induced by a magnetic field directed along the c -axis have been observed below 6K . This effect was also observed for a high enough magnetic field applied in the a-c plane. It is suggested that the jump, observed for H∥c is due to a spin reorientation phase transition. It was shown that Co3V2O8 crystals are characterized by a strong magnetocrystalline anisotropy of an easy-plane type. This anisotropy is due to the presence of Co2+ ions in octahedral positions.

  20. 51V-NMR study of the Kagome staircase compound Co3V2O8

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogloblichev, V.; Kumagai, K.; Yakubovsky, A.; Mikhalev, K.; Furukawa, Y.; Verkhovskii, S.; Gerashenko, A.; Barilo, S.; Bychkov, G.; Shiryaev, S.; Korolev, A.

    2009-03-01

    Kagome staircase compound Co3V2O8 (S = 3/2) has a structure very similar to multiferroic compound Ni3V2Og (S = 1), but their magnetic phase diagrams differ noticeably. We present the results of the first NMR study in Co3V2O8 single crystal. From 51V-NMR spectra, the components of electric field gradient (EFG) tensor and of magnetic shifts tensor, Ki, are obtained. The temperature dependences of NMR shifts 51Ki for each main crystal axis direction are well described by a spin contributions in the paramagnetic phase. In ferromagnetic phase the zero field 51V-NMR spectrum is observed in the temperature range of 1.5-6.3 K.

  1. Electric Field-Controlled Crystallizing CaCO3 Nanostructures from Solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qi, Jian Quan; Guo, Rui; Wang, Yu; Liu, Xuan Wen; Chan, Helen Lai Wah

    2016-03-01

    The role of electric field is investigated in determining the structure, morphology, and crystallographic characteristics of CaCO3 nanostructures crystallized from solution. It is found that the lattice structure and crystalline morphology of CaCO3 can be tailed by the electric field applied to the solution during its crystallization. The calcite structure with cubic-like morphology can be obtained generally without electric field, and the vaterite structure with the morphology of nanorod is formed under the high electric field. The vaterite nanorods can be piled up to the petaliform layers. Both the nanorod and the petaliform layer can have mesocrystal structures which are piled up by much fine units of the rods with the size of several nanometers. Beautiful rose-like nanoflowers can be self-arranged by the petaliform layers. These structures can have potential application as carrier for medicine to involve into metabolism of living cell.

  2. Development of a tobacco cessation intervention for Alaska Native youth

    PubMed Central

    Patten, Christi A.; Fadahunsi, Oluwole; Hanza, Marcelo; Smith, Christina M.; Hughes, Christine A.; Brockman, Tabetha A.; Boyer, Rahnia; Decker, Paul A.; Luger, Elizabeth; Sinicrope, Pamela S.; Offord, Kenneth P.

    2013-01-01

    Tobacco cessation treatments have not been evaluated among Alaska Native (AN) adolescents. This pilot study evaluated the feasibility and acceptability of a targeted cessation intervention developed for AN youth. Intervention components were informed by prior focus groups assessing treatment preferences among AN youth, a social cognitive theoretical framework and feedback obtained from a teen advisory group. The intervention consisted of a weekend program where youth traveled by small airplane from their villages to stay overnight with other adolescents who quit tobacco use together. The program included recreational activities, talking circles, personal stories from elders and teen advisors, and cognitive behavioral counseling. Two intervention pilots were conducted from October 2010 to January 2011 using a non-randomized, uncontrolled study design with assessments at baseline and six-week follow-up. One village in Western Alaska was selected for each pilot with a targeted enrollment of 10 adolescents each. Participants were recruited for each pilot within five days, but recruitment challenges and ‘‘lessons learned’’ are described. The first pilot enrolled nine adolescents (all female) aged 13–16 years; all nine attended the intervention program and 78% (7/9) completed follow-up. The second pilot enrolled 12 adolescents (eight females, four males) aged 12–17 years, of which seven attended the intervention program. Six of these seven participants (86%) completed follow-up. In both pilots, participants rated the intervention as highly acceptable. A targeted cessation intervention was feasible and acceptable to AN youth. The intervention will be tested for efficacy in a subsequent randomized controlled trial. PMID:24058327

  3. Temperament and Impulsivity Predictors of Smoking Cessation Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    López-Torrecillas, Francisca; Perales, José C.; Nieto-Ruiz, Ana; Verdejo-García, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    Aims Temperament and impulsivity are powerful predictors of addiction treatment outcomes. However, a comprehensive assessment of these features has not been examined in relation to smoking cessation outcomes. Methods Naturalistic prospective study. Treatment-seeking smokers (n = 140) were recruited as they engaged in an occupational health clinic providing smoking cessation treatment between 2009 and 2013. Participants were assessed at baseline with measures of temperament (Temperament and Character Inventory), trait impulsivity (Barratt Impulsivity Scale), and cognitive impulsivity (Go/No Go, Delay Discounting and Iowa Gambling Task). The outcome measure was treatment status, coded as “dropout” versus “relapse” versus “abstinence” at 3, 6, and 12 months endpoints. Participants were telephonically contacted and reminded of follow-up face to face assessments at each endpoint. The participants that failed to answer the phone calls or self-reported discontinuation of treatment and failed to attend the upcoming follow-up session were coded as dropouts. The participants that self-reported continuing treatment, and successfully attended the upcoming follow-up session were coded as either “relapse” or “abstinence”, based on the results of smoking behavior self-reports cross-validated with co-oximetry hemoglobin levels. Multinomial regression models were conducted to test whether temperament and impulsivity measures predicted dropout and relapse relative to abstinence outcomes. Results Higher scores on temperament dimensions of novelty seeking and reward dependence predicted poorer retention across endpoints, whereas only higher scores on persistence predicted greater relapse. Higher scores on the trait dimension of non-planning impulsivity but not performance on cognitive impulsivity predicted poorer retention. Higher non-planning impulsivity and poorer performance in the Iowa Gambling Task predicted greater relapse at 3 and 6 months and 6 months

  4. Engaging Physicians and Pharmacists in Providing Smoking Cessation Counseling

    PubMed Central

    Prokhorov, Alexander V.; Hudmon, Karen Suchanek; Marani, Salma; Foxhall, Lewis; Ford, Kentya H.; Luca, Nancy Stancic; Wetter, David W.; Cantor, Scott B.; Vitale, Frank; Gritz, Ellen R.

    2016-01-01

    Background Health professionals have a proven, positive impact on patients’ ability to quit smoking, yet few integrate cessation counseling into routine practice.The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of continuing education training on physicians’ and pharmacists’ cessation counseling. Methods A group-randomized trial of health care providers (87 physicians and 83 pharmacists) from 16 Texas communities compared smoking cessation training (intervention group) with skin cancer prevention training (control group). Pretraining, posttraining, and extended follow-up surveys were collected from providers. Perceived ability, confidence, and intention (ACI) to address smoking with patients were assessed with a composite ACI index. Patient exit interviews (at baseline, 1452 patients completed interviews; after 12 months, 1303 completed interviews) assessed counseling practices. Results There was a significant increase in the percentage of physicians with a high ACI index in the intervention group from pretraining to posttraining (27% to 73%; P <.001) vs the control group (27% to 34%; P=.42) and for pharmacists (4% to 60%; P <.001) vs the control group (10% to 14%; P=.99). Similar results were seen from pretraining to extended follow-up. At baseline, fewer pharmacy patients reported being asked about smoking compared with patients seen by physicians (7% vs 33%; P=.001). There was an increase in assisting patients to quit (6% to 36%; P=.002) by physicians (baseline vs 12 months) in the intervention group, but not in the control group. Conclusions Training led to significant and lasting improvement in counseling among physicians. Low levels of counseling were seen among pharmacists. PMID:20937922

  5. Onset and Cessation of Thermal Convection within Titan's Ice Shell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitri, G.; Tobie, G.; Choblet, G.

    2015-12-01

    The onset of thermal convection within the outer ice shell of Titan is believed to be at the origin of methane outgassing on Titan (Tobie et al., 2006), a possible factor in Titan's resurfacing processes (Mitri et al., 2008), and to have a major role in the evolution and tectonic activity of this Saturnian icy satellite (Tobie et al., 2005; Mitri and Showman, 2008; Mitri et al., 2010). Recent measurements of the gravity field (Iess et al., 2010, 2012) and the modeling of the shape and topography (Zebker et al., 2009; Mitri et al., 2014) have recently improved our knowledge of the thermal state and structure of Titan's outer ice shell. Mitri et al. (2014) found that Titan's surface topography is consistent with an isostatically compensated ice shell of variable thickness, likely at the present in a thermally conductive state (see also Nimmo and Bills, 2010; Hemingway et al., 2013), overlying a relatively dense (~1200-1350 kg m-3) subsurface ocean. As Titan's ice shell is not currently experiencing thermal convection it is likely that the ice shell could have experienced during its history both the onset and the cessation of thermal convection; thermal convection could be present within the ice shell for limited times or in fact be episodic. We investigate the evolution of Titan's outer ice shell from the crystallization of the underlying ocean with a focus on the onset and cessation of thermal convection. To simulate convection in a growing ice shell, we numerically solve the thermal convection equations for a Newtonian rheology in a two dimensional Cartesian domain using finite element method, with a moving bottom boundary to ocean crystallization. We discuss how the crystallization process affects the onset of convection and in which conditions the cessation of thermal convection may occur. The geological consequences of the changes of the thermal state and structure of the outer ice shell will also be discussed.

  6. Effects of Smoking Cessation on Pain in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Yu; Hooten, W. Michael

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: Smokers are at increased risk of developing chronic pain and suffering higher pain intensity. However, nicotine has analgesic properties, and smokers may view smoking as a means to cope with pain. Smoking cessation is clearly beneficial to the long-term health of smokers. However, it is not known how abstinence from smoking affects pain. The aim of this study was to determine the association between smoking cessation and changes in pain symptoms by secondary analysis of a large longitudinal dataset of older adults. Methods: Secondary analyses were performed of longitudinal biennial survey data (1992 through 2006) from the nationally representative Health and Retirement Study of United States adults older than 50 years. Multivariate logistic regressions were utilized to determine the relationship between the changes in smoking status and changes in pain symptoms, controlling for demographics, depression, self-rated health, history of arthritis, and body mass index. Results: In multivariate analyses, among the 4,695 smokers who reported no pain or mild pain at enrollment, smoking status was not independently associated with exacerbation of pain (odds ratio [OR]: 0.95, 95% CI: 0.84, 1.08). Among the 1,118 smokers who reported moderate to severe pain at enrollment, smoking status was not independently associated with improvement of pain (OR: 0.87, 95% CI: 0.70, 1.08). Conclusions: Smoking cessation was not independently associated with changes in pain symptoms in older adults. These results suggest that concerns regarding the effects of abstinence from smoking on pain should not pose a barrier to offering tobacco use interventions to smokers with chronic pain. PMID:21571690

  7. Biomarkers of Response to Smoking Cessation Pharmacotherapies: Progress to Date

    PubMed Central

    Mamoun, Michael; Bergen, Andrew W.; Shieh, Jennifer; Wiggins, Anna; Brody, Arthur L.

    2015-01-01

    For the past thirty years, research examining predictors of successful smoking cessation treatment response has focused primarily on clinical variables, such as levels of tobacco dependence, craving, and self-efficacy. Recent research, however, has begun to determine biomarkers (such as genotype, nicotine and metabolite levels, and brain imaging findings) that may have utility in predicting smoking cessation. For genotype, genes associated with nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) and related proteins have been found to predict response to first line medications (e.g., nicotine replacement therapy [NRT], bupropion, or varenicline) or quitting over time without a controlled treatment trial. For nicotine and metabolite levels, function of the CYP 2A6 liver enzyme, which can be assessed with the nicotine metabolite ratio or via genotype, has been found to predict response, with slow nicotine metabolizers having less severe nicotine dependence and a greater likelihood of quitting with NRT than normal metabolizers. And for brain imaging, decreased activation of brain regions associated with emotion regulation and increased connectivity in emotion regulation networks, increased responsiveness to pleasant cues, and altered activation with the Stroop effect have been found in smokers who quit with the first-line medications listed above or counseling. In addition, our group recently demonstrated that lower pre-treatment brain nAChR density is associated with a greater chance of quitting smoking with NRT or placebo. Several of these studies found that specific biomarkers may provide additional information for predicting response beyond subjective symptom or rating scale measures, thereby giving an initial indication that biomarkers may, in the future, be useful for guiding smoking cessation treatment intensity, duration, and type. PMID:25895022

  8. Crystal structure and stability of Tl2CO3 at high pressures.

    PubMed

    Grzechnik, A; Friese, K

    2010-03-01

    The crystal structure of dithallium carbonate, Tl(2)CO(3) (C2/m, Z = 4), was investigated at pressures of up to 7.4 GPa using single-crystal X-ray diffraction in a diamond anvil cell. It is stable to at least 5.82 GPa. All atoms except for one of the O atoms lie on crystallographic mirror planes. At higher pressures, the material undergoes a phase transition that destroys the single crystal. PMID:20203393

  9. Effect of metamorphism on isolated olivine grains in CO3 chondrites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Rhian H.

    1993-01-01

    The presence of a metamorphic sequence in the CO3 chondrite group has been shown previously to result in changes in properties of chondrule silicates. However, the role of isolated olivine grains during metamorphism of these chondrites has not been addressed. Isolated olivine grains in two metamorphosed CO3 chondrites, Lance and Isna, have been investigated in this study in order to assess the compositional properties of isolated olivine grains that may be attributable to metamorphism. Compositional changes in isolated olivines with increasing petrologic subtype are very similar to changes in chondrule olivines in the same chondrites. Olivine compositions from all occurrences (chondrules, isolated grains, and matrix) converge with increasing petrologic subtype. The degree of equilibration of minor elements is qualitatively related to the diffusion rate of each element in olivine, suggesting that diffusion-controlled processes are the most important processes responsible for compositional changes within the metamorphic sequence. The data are consistent with metamorphism taking place in a closed system on the CO3 chondrite parent body. Fe-poor olivine grains in metamorphosed chondrites are characterized by an Fe-rich rim, which is the result of diffusion of Fe into the grains from Fe-rich matrix. In some instances, 'complex', Fe-rich rims have been identified, which appear to have originated as igneous overgrowths and subsequently to have been overprinted by diffusion processes during metamorphism. Processes experienced by CO3 chondrites are more similar to those experienced by the ordinary chondrites than to those encountered by other carbonaceous chondrites, such as the CV3 group.

  10. Poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyhexanoate)-based scaffolds for tissue engineering

    PubMed Central

    Chang, H.M.; Wang, Z.H.; Luo, H.N.; Xu, M.; Ren, X.Y.; Zheng, G.X.; Wu, B.J.; Zhang, X.H.; Lu, X.Y.; Chen, F.; Jing, X.H.; Wang, L.

    2014-01-01

    Development and selection of an ideal scaffold is of importance for tissue engineering. Poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyhexanoate) (PHBHHx) is a biocompatible bioresorbable copolymer that belongs to the polyhydroxyalkanoate family. Because of its good biocompatibility, PHBHHx has been widely used as a cell scaffold for tissue engineering. This review focuses on the utilization of PHBHHx-based scaffolds in tissue engineering. Advances in the preparation, modification, and application of PHBHHx scaffolds are discussed. PMID:25003631

  11. Benthic marine calcifiers coexist with CaCO3-undersaturated seawater worldwide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lebrato, M.; Andersson, A. J.; Ries, J. B.; Aronson, R. B.; Lamare, M. D.; Koeve, W.; Oschlies, A.; Iglesias-Rodriguez, M. D.; Thatje, S.; Amsler, M.; Vos, S. C.; Jones, D. O. B.; Ruhl, H. A.; Gates, A. R.; McClintock, J. B.

    2016-07-01

    Ocean acidification and decreasing seawater saturation state with respect to calcium carbonate (CaCO3) minerals have raised concerns about the consequences to marine organisms that build CaCO3 structures. A large proportion of benthic marine calcifiers incorporate Mg2+ into their skeletons (Mg-calcite), which, in general, reduces mineral stability. The relative vulnerability of some marine calcifiers to ocean acidification appears linked to the relative solubility of their shell or skeletal mineralogy, although some organisms have sophisticated mechanisms for constructing and maintaining their CaCO3 structures causing deviation from this dependence. Nevertheless, few studies consider seawater saturation state with respect to the actual Mg-calcite mineralogy (ΩMg-x) of a species when evaluating the effect of ocean acidification on that species. Here, a global dataset of skeletal mole % MgCO3 of benthic calcifiers and in situ environmental conditions spanning a depth range of 0 m (subtidal/neritic) to 5600 m (abyssal) was assembled to calculate in situ ΩMg-x. This analysis shows that 24% of the studied benthic calcifiers currently experience seawater mineral undersaturation (ΩMg-x < 1). As a result of ongoing anthropogenic ocean acidification over the next 200 to 3000 years, the predicted decrease in seawater mineral saturation will expose approximately 57% of all studied benthic calcifying species to seawater undersaturation. These observations reveal a surprisingly high proportion of benthic marine calcifiers exposed to seawater that is undersaturated with respect to their skeletal mineralogy, underscoring the importance of using species-specific seawater mineral saturation states when investigating the impact of CO2-induced ocean acidification on benthic marine calcification.

  12. Fabrication of superporous agarose beads for protein adsorption: effect of CaCO3 granules content.

    PubMed

    Du, Kai-Feng; Bai, Shu; Dong, Xiao-Yan; Sun, Yan

    2010-09-10

    Agarose gels were fabricated by water-in-oil emulsification with the addition of CaCO(3) granules at 8-16 wt%. Thus agarose beads of different superporosities were produced after dissolving the solid porogen. The superporous agarose (SA) and homogeneous agarose gels were double cross-linked and modified with diethylaminoethyl chloride to produce anion exchangers. We have proposed to use a superporous replica (porous titania microspheres) to examine the superporous structure and pore size distribution of the soft gel. The replica was prepared with the agarose gel entrapping CaCO(3) granules by a sol-gel-templating method. It was found that the superpores created by CaCO(3) granules were uniformly distributed and ranged from 0.95 microm to 1.33 microm. The physical properties of the gels were significantly affected by the porogen content. Importantly, by increasing the solid porogen to 12 wt%, the bed permeability and effective porosity increased about 48% and 33%, respectively. Further increase in the porogen to 16 wt% led to a decrease of the mechanical strength. With increasing superpores in the beads, the dynamic adsorption capacity of the packed columns increased obviously at 305-916 cm/h. Besides, the column efficiency changed less with increasing flow velocity up to 1200 cm/h. It was concluded that the use of 12 wt% CaCO(3) granules in agarose solution was beneficial for the fabrication of the SA gel with good mechanical stability and promising performance for protein chromatography.

  13. [Nurses' support in smoking cessation therapy in Japan].

    PubMed

    Taniguchi, Chie

    2013-03-01

    Smoking cessation therapy (SCT) was introduced in 2006 in Japan. The patients who wish to stop smoking and receive SCT routinely undergo counseling and advice provided by trained nurse. This paper introduces rationale, methods and contents of the nurses counseling and advice by differentiating physicians' roles in the SCT. We show these supports performed at Nagoya Medical Center, which is one of the famous hospital for the SCT in Japan. Three key issues for the nurses' approach: encouragement of self-decision, promoting self-efficacy and yielding positive thinking are discussed in this paper.

  14. Adolescent Attributes and Young Adult Smoking Cessation Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Brook, Judith S.; Marcus, Stephen E.; Zhang, Chenshu; Stimmel, Matthew A.; Balka, Elinor B.; Brook, David W.

    2010-01-01

    This study collected data five times between 1983–2002 from 400 participants who originally came from upstate New York. These participants completed structured interviews as did their mothers three times. LISREL analysis generally supported the hypothesized model. The results indicated that having parents who smoked and having low educational aspirations and expectations were associated with being unconventional, which, in turn, was related to having low emotional control and reporting more internalizing behaviors. Internalizing behaviors were directly associated with a lower likelihood of smoking cessation, as was parental smoking. Research and clinical implications are discussed and the limitations noted. PMID:20482339

  15. Outbreaks of human monkeypox after cessation of smallpox vaccination.

    PubMed

    Reynolds, Mary G; Damon, Inger K

    2012-02-01

    The recent observation of a surge in human monkeypox in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) prompts the question of whether cessation of smallpox vaccination is driving the phenomenon, and if so, why is re-emergence not universal throughout the historic geographic range of the virus? Research addressing the virus's mechanisms for immune evasion and induction, as well as that directed at elucidating the genes involved in pathogenesis in different viral lineages (West African vs Congo Basin), provide insights to help explain why emergence appears to be geographically limited. Novel vaccines offer one solution to curtail the spread of this disease.

  16. Conversion of cheese whey into poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) by Haloferax mediterranei.

    PubMed

    Pais, Joana; Serafim, Luísa S; Freitas, Filomena; Reis, Maria A M

    2016-01-25

    Haloferax mediterranei was cultivated in highly saline medium using cheese whey as the substrate for the production of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate), P(3HB-co-3HV). Acid hydrolysis provided a simple inexpensive method to obtain a cheese whey hydrolysate that was used for cultivation of H. mediterranei. Batch bioreactor cultivation of H. mediterranei resulted in the production of an active biomass concentration of 7.54 g L(-1) with a polymer content of 53%, and a volumetric productivity of 4.04 g L(-1) day(-1). Supplementation of the cultivation medium with micronutrients favored galactose consumption that was used for polymer synthesis after exhaustion of the available glucose. P(3HB-co-3HV) with a 3-hydroxyvalerate content of 1.5 mol% was extracted from the biomass by hypo-osmotic shock. The polymer presented a molecular mass of 4.4×10(5), with a polydispersity index of 1.5. This work demonstrated the feasibility of using cheese whey for the production of a value-added biopolymer with high volumetric productivity, by using a glucose- and galactose-rich substrate obtained by acid hydrolysis of cheese whey. The use of H. mediterranei as the producing strain avoids the need for strict sterility due to the culture's high salinity requirements and, also, allows for polymer extraction by simply contacting the biomass with water.

  17. Effect of Li 2CO 3 additive on gas generation in lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shin, Jee-Sun; Han, Chi-Hwan; Jung, Un-Ho; Lee, Shung-Ik; Kim, Hyeong-Jin; Kim, Keon

    To elucidate the mechanism of gas generation during charge-discharge cycling of a lithium-ion cell, the generated gases and passive films on the carbon electrode are examined by means of gas chromatography (GC) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. In ethyl carbonate/dimethyl carbonate and ethyl carbonate/diethyl carbonate 1 M LiPF 6 electrolytes, the detected gaseous products are CO 2, CO, CH 4, C 2H 4, C 2H 6, etc. The FTIR spectrum of the surface of the carbon electrode shows bands which correspond to Li 2CO 3, ROCO 2Li, (ROCO 2Li) 2, and RCO 2Li. These results suggest that gas evolution is caused by electrode decomposition, reactive trace impurities, and electrolyte reduction. The surface of the electrode is composed of electrolyte reduction products. When 0.05 M Li 2CO 3 is added as an electrolyte additive, the total volume of generated gases is reduced, and the discharge capacity and the conductivity of lithium-ions are increased. These results can be explained by a more compact and thin 'solid electrolyte interface' film on the carbon electrode formed by Li 2CO 3, which effectively prevents solvent co-intercalation and carbon exfoliation.

  18. Effect of nano BaCO3 on pyrolytic reaction of phenol-formaldehyde resin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xu; Ma, Qing-zhi; Zhang, Zhong-feng; Peng, Wan-xi; Zhang, Ming-long

    2009-07-01

    Phenol-formaldehyde resin is used as the most adhesive to produce waterproof plant-based composite. However, this product contains phenol and formaldehyde which can be easily released to pollute air and water. Based on the single-factor method, the effect of nano BaCO3 on situabtion of pyrolytic reaction of PF resin was studied by Py-GC/MS. There were components including carbon dioxide, D,.alpha.-tocopherol, 1,3-bis(trimethylsilyl) benzene, phenol from PF resin in 590(see manuscript) He gas. However, the 17 compounds including phenol, 2-methyl-, phenol, carbon dioxide, p-xylene, toluene, phenol, 2-ethyl-, phenol, 2,3-dimethyl-, benzene, 1,2,3-trimethyl-, etc were identified by Py-GC/MS after PF/BaCO3 composite was pyrolyzed in 590(see manuscript) He gas, and phenol and phenol derivants were found in the compounds. The result showed that nano BaCO3 could effectively delay the pyrolysis of PF resin.

  19. Conversion of cheese whey into poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) by Haloferax mediterranei.

    PubMed

    Pais, Joana; Serafim, Luísa S; Freitas, Filomena; Reis, Maria A M

    2016-01-25

    Haloferax mediterranei was cultivated in highly saline medium using cheese whey as the substrate for the production of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate), P(3HB-co-3HV). Acid hydrolysis provided a simple inexpensive method to obtain a cheese whey hydrolysate that was used for cultivation of H. mediterranei. Batch bioreactor cultivation of H. mediterranei resulted in the production of an active biomass concentration of 7.54 g L(-1) with a polymer content of 53%, and a volumetric productivity of 4.04 g L(-1) day(-1). Supplementation of the cultivation medium with micronutrients favored galactose consumption that was used for polymer synthesis after exhaustion of the available glucose. P(3HB-co-3HV) with a 3-hydroxyvalerate content of 1.5 mol% was extracted from the biomass by hypo-osmotic shock. The polymer presented a molecular mass of 4.4×10(5), with a polydispersity index of 1.5. This work demonstrated the feasibility of using cheese whey for the production of a value-added biopolymer with high volumetric productivity, by using a glucose- and galactose-rich substrate obtained by acid hydrolysis of cheese whey. The use of H. mediterranei as the producing strain avoids the need for strict sterility due to the culture's high salinity requirements and, also, allows for polymer extraction by simply contacting the biomass with water. PMID:26134839

  20. Preparation of Shape-Controlled Graphene/Co3O4 Composites for Supercapacitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jun; Chen, Ningna; Feng, Xiaomiao; Hou, Wenhua

    2016-06-01

    Graphene/Co3O4 nanocomposites with different morphologies were fabricated by hydrothermal method. The morphology of nanocomposites was characterized by scanning electron microscopy. These composites could be used as the electrode materials for supercapacitors. The eletrochemical behavior of the composite was tested by cyclic voltammetry and galvanostatic charge-discharge measurements in 1.0 mol/L KOH solution. The results showed that the graphene/Co3O4 nanopetal composite exhibited excellent electrochemical performance. The specific capacitance value could reach up to 714 F/g at a scan rate of 2 mV/s. Besides, the capacitance of the graphene/Co3O4 nanopetal composite was 841 F/g at a current density of 0.1 A/g. After galvanostatic charge-discharge 1000 laps at the current density of 0.4 A/g, the specific capacitance could keep 96.7% of original capacitive value, demonstrating its good cycling stability.

  1. Structure and energetics in dissociative electron attachment to HFeCo3(CO)12

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    T P, Ragesh Kumar; Barth, Sven; Bjornsson, Ragnar; Ingólfsson, Oddur

    2016-08-01

    Here we report structural parameters on the heteronuclear transition metal complex HFeCo3(CO)12 and its anion formed upon electron attachment, as well as the thermochemical thresholds for sequential CO loss and the loss of the apical group (as Fe(CO)- 3 and Fe(CO)- 4). Geometrical parameters from single crystal X-ray diffraction are compared with calculated values from density functional theory calculations, for the neutral and anionic ground state of this transition metal cluster. Further, experimental appearance energies for sequential CO loss and the formation of Fe(CO)- 3 and Fe(CO)- 4 are compared to the respective calculated threshold values. Geometry optimizations were performed at the BP86/def2-TZVP level of theory while the threshold energies were calculated at the PBE0/ma-def2-TZVP level of theory. The SOMO of the anion is found to have a clear Fe-Co anti-bonding character resulting in elongation of the Fe-Co bonds and the transformation of one of the terminal Co-CO groups to a bridging Co-CO-Fe group upon electron attachment. The thermochemical threshold PBE0 calculations are concordant with the observed appearance energies and structural parameters from single crystal X-ray diffraction for the neutral molecule are well reproduced at the BP86/def2-TZVP level of theory.

  2. Preparation of Shape-Controlled Graphene/Co3O4 Composites for Supercapacitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jun; Chen, Ningna; Feng, Xiaomiao; Hou, Wenhua

    2016-09-01

    Graphene/Co3O4 nanocomposites with different morphologies were fabricated by hydrothermal method. The morphology of nanocomposites was characterized by scanning electron microscopy. These composites could be used as the electrode materials for supercapacitors. The eletrochemical behavior of the composite was tested by cyclic voltammetry and galvanostatic charge-discharge measurements in 1.0 mol/L KOH solution. The results showed that the graphene/Co3O4 nanopetal composite exhibited excellent electrochemical performance. The specific capacitance value could reach up to 714 F/g at a scan rate of 2 mV/s. Besides, the capacitance of the graphene/Co3O4 nanopetal composite was 841 F/g at a current density of 0.1 A/g. After galvanostatic charge-discharge 1000 laps at the current density of 0.4 A/g, the specific capacitance could keep 96.7% of original capacitive value, demonstrating its good cycling stability.

  3. Production of CaCO3/hyperbranched polyglycidol hybrid films using spray-coating technique.

    PubMed

    Malinova, Kalina; Gunesch, Manfred; Montero Pancera, Sabrina; Wengeler, Robert; Rieger, Bernhard; Volkmer, Dirk

    2012-05-15

    Biomineralizing organisms employ macromolecules and cellular processing strategies in order to produce highly complex composite materials such as nacre. Bionic approaches translating this knowledge into viable technical production schemes for a large-scale production of biomimetic hybrid materials have met with limited success so far. Investigations presented here thus focus on the production of CaCO(3)/polymer hybrid coatings that can be applied to huge surface areas via reactive spray-coating. Technical requirements for simplicity and cost efficiency include a straightforward one-pot synthesis of low molecular weight hyperbranched polyglycidols (polyethers of 2,3-epoxy-1-propanol) as a simple mimic of biological macromolecules. Polymers functionalized with phosphate monoester, sulfate or carboxylate groups provide a means of controlling CaCO(3) particle density and morphology in the final coatings. We employ reactive spray-coating techniques to generate CaCO(3)/hybrid coatings among which vaterite composites can be prepared in the presence of sulfate-containing hyperbranched polyglycidol. These coatings show high stability and remained unchanged for periods longer than 9 months. By employing carboxylate-based hyperbranched polyglycidol, it is possible to deposit vaterite-calcite composites, whereas phosphate-ester-based hyperbranched polyglycidol leads to calcite composites. Nanoindentation was used to study mechanical properties, showing that coatings thus obtained are slightly harder than pure calcite.

  4. Disentangling nebular and asteroidal features of CO3 carbonaceous chondrite meteorites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scott, Edward R. D.; Jones, Rhian H.

    1990-01-01

    Ten carbonaceous CO3 chondrites (including four chondrites from Antarctica and the Colony, Isna, Kainsaz, Lance , Ornans, and Warrenton chondrites) were analyzed with respect to mean compositions of olivines and low-Ca pyroxenes in order to distinguish the primary nebular features of these chondrites from the secondary (asteroidal or nebular) features. In three of the Antarctic chondrites, matrices and metal grains were analyzed in order to investigate the origin of mineralogical trends in the CO3 sequence. Based on these results, the CO3 chondrites were classified into subtypes 3.0-3.7. In the silicates of chondrites ALH A77307 and Colony, classified as type 3.0, metamorphic effects appear to be absent. Chemical and mineralogical studies suggest that the type 3.1 to 3.7 CO chondrites represent a metamorphic sequence that formed from material closely resembling type 3.0 CO chondrites by metamorphism in one or more planetesimals or asteroids, not by interactions between chondritic ingredients in the solar nebula.

  5. Carbon-Encapsulated Co3O4 Nanoparticles as Anode Materials with Super Lithium Storage Performance

    PubMed Central

    Leng, Xuning; Wei, Sufeng; Jiang, Zhonghao; Lian, Jianshe; Wang, Guoyong; Jiang, Qing

    2015-01-01

    A high-performance anode material for lithium storage was successfully synthesized by glucose as carbon source and cobalt nitrate as Co3O4 precursor with the assistance of sodium chloride surface as a template to reduce the carbon sheet thickness. Ultrafine Co3O4 nanoparticles were homogeneously embedded in ultrathin porous graphitic carbon in this material. The carbon sheets, which have large specific surface area, high electronic conductivity, and outstanding mechanical flexibility, are very effective to keep the stability of Co3O4 nanoparticales which has a large capacity. As a consequence, a very high reversible capacity of up to 1413 mA h g−1 at a current density of 0.1 A g−1 after 100 cycles, a high rate capability (845, 560, 461 and 345 mA h g−1 at 5, 10, 15 and 20 C, respectively, 1 C = 1 A g−1), and a superior cycling performance at an ultrahigh rate (760 mA h g−1 at 5 C after 1000 cycles) are achieved by this lithium-ion-battery anode material. PMID:26564802

  6. Sub-3 nm Co3O4 nanofilms with enhanced supercapacitor properties.

    PubMed

    Feng, Chao; Zhang, Jinfeng; He, Yu; Zhong, Cheng; Hu, Wenbin; Liu, Lei; Deng, Yida

    2015-02-24

    Two-dimensional materials often show a range of intriguing electronic, catalytic, and optical properties that differ greatly from conventional nanoparticles. Herein, we demonstrate the large-scale preparation of sub-3 nm atomic layers Co3O4 nanofilms with a nonsurfactant and substrate-free hydrothermal method. This successful preparation of ultrathin nanofilms highlighted the reconstruction of cobalt-ammonia complexes and synergistic effect of free ammonia and nitrate on film growth control. Subsequent performance tests uncovered that these sub-3 nm atomic layer Co3O4 nanofilms exhibited an ultrahigh specific capacitance of 1400 F/g in the first galvanostatic charge/discharge test. The specific capacitance of Co3O4 nanofilms only slightly decayed less than 3% after 1500 cycling tests. With some parameter adjustments, similar Co(OH)2 nanofilms with a thickness of 3.70 ± 0.10 nm were also prepared. The Co(OH)2 nanofilms possessed maximum specific capacitance of 1076 F/g and peak performance attenuation of about 2% after a cycle stability test. PMID:25611212

  7. Precipitation of ALn(CO3),xH2O and Dy2(CO3),xH2O compounds from aqueous solutions for A=Li,Na,K,Cs,NH4+ and =La,Nd,Eu,Dy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Philippini, Violaine; Vercouter, Thomas; Chaussé, Annie; Vitorge, Pierre

    2008-09-01

    Double carbonates of lanthanide ( Ln) and alkaline or ammonium ( A) ions, noted ALn(CO3)2,xH2O, were precipitated from concentrated A2CO3 aqueous solutions at room temperature and atmospheric pressure. Twelve hydrated compounds out of the twenty targeted ones have been obtained: Li(Nd or Eu)(CO3)2, NaLa(CO3)2, KNd(CO3)2,xH2O, Cs(La or Nd)(CO3)2, NH4(Nd, Eu or Dy)(CO3)2, Dy2(CO3)3 from concentrated A2CO3 solutions and Na(Nd, Eu or Dy)(CO3)2 from concentrated AHCO3 solutions. Although the trivalent lanthanide ions are often considered as analogs in solution, differences in their precipitation behaviour was observed, which is believed to have a kinetic origin in relation to the small differences in their ionic radii. The solid compounds were characterised by elemental analyses, thermogravimetry (TG), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscope-energy dispersive spectroscopy (SEM-EDS). The powder diffraction patterns of nine solids were fitted using the tetragonal P4/mmm Laüe class: LiNd(CO3)2,xH2O: a=(12.16±0.02) A˚, c=(9.21±0.02) A˚, LiEu(CO3)2,3H2O: a=(12.201±0.007) A˚, c=(9.23±0.01) A˚, KNd(CO3)2,xH2O: a=(13.28±0.04) A˚, c=(10.00±0.04) A˚, CsLa(CO3)2,xH2O: a=(10.82±0.02) A˚, c=(8.18±0.02) A˚, CsNd(CO3)2,xH2O: a=(10.81±0.07) A˚, c=(8.16±0.07) A˚ for NaLn(CO3)2,xH2O: a=(11.10+1.75r) A˚ and c=(8.60+1.13r) A˚, where r is the ionic radius of for a coordination number of 8 ( r=1.16 A˚, r=1.12 A˚, r=1.07 A˚ and r=1.03 A˚). It is proposed that all the NaLn(CO3)2,xH2O compounds are of very similar structure, as evidenced by their XRD patterns and by the linear variations of the lattice parameters with r. The small differences in the lattice parameters can induce large modification of the precipitation pathways. Conversely, structural changes were evidenced within the A+ series for ANd(CO3)2,xH2O. Dy2(CO3)3,xH2O was also obtained as a by-product. Its lattice parameters are in good agreement with Eu2(CO3)3,3H2O ones.

  8. Exploring the intermediates of photochemical CO2 reduction: reaction of Re(dmb)(CO)3 COOH with CO2.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, Jay; Sanders, Brian C; Fujita, Etsuko; Schaefer, Henry F; Harrop, Todd C; Muckerman, James T

    2012-07-11

    We have investigated the reaction of Re(dmb)(CO)(3)COOH with CO(2) using density functional theory, and propose a mechanism for the production of CO. This mechanism supports the role of Re(dmb)(CO)(3)COOH as a key intermediate in the formation of CO. Our new experimental work supports the proposed scheme.

  9. Formation of Co3O4 microframes from MOFs with enhanced electrochemical performance for lithium storage and water oxidation.

    PubMed

    Feng, Yi; Yu, Xin-Yao; Paik, Ungyu

    2016-05-01

    Co3O4 microframes are synthesized through a template-engaged strategy via the etching of Co-Co Prussian blue analogue microcubes with ammonia solution and subsequent annealing treatment. Benefitting from their unique structural merits including 3D open structure and high porosity, these Co3O4 microframes exhibit enhanced electrochemical properties for both lithium-ion batteries and water oxidation.

  10. Primary Care Provider-Delivered Smoking Cessation Interventions and Smoking Cessation Among Participants in the National Lung Screening Trial

    PubMed Central

    Park, Elyse R.; Gareen, Ilana F.; Japuntich, Sandra; Lennes, Inga; Hyland, Kelly; DeMello, Sarah; Sicks, JoRean D.; Rigotti, Nancy A.

    2016-01-01

    Importance The National Lung Screening Trial (NLST) found a reduction in lung cancer mortality among participants screened with low-dose computed tomography vs chest radiography. In February 2015, Medicare announced its decision to cover annual lung screening for patients with a significant smoking history. These guidelines promote smoking cessation treatment as an adjunct to screening, but the frequency and effectiveness of clinician-delivered smoking cessation interventions delivered after lung screening are unknown. Objective To determine the association between the reported clinician-delivered 5As (ask, advise, assess, assist [talk about quitting or recommend stop-smoking medications or recommend counseling], and arrange follow-up) after lung screening and smoking behavior changes. Design, Setting, and Participants A matched case-control study (cases were quitters and controls were continued smokers) of 3336 NLST participants who were smokers at enrollment examined participants' rates and patterns of 5A delivery after a lung screen and reported smoking cessation behaviors. Main outcomes and Measures Prevalence of the clinician-delivered 5As and associated smoking cessation after lung screening. Results Delivery of the 5As 1 year after screening were as follows: ask, 77.2%; advise, 75.6%; assess, 63.4%; assist, 56.4%; and arrange follow-up, 10.4%. Receipt of ask, advise, and assess was not significantly associated with quitting in multivariate models that adjusted for sociodemographic characteristics, medical history, screening results, nicotine dependence, and motivation to quit. Assist was associated with a 40% increase in the odds of quitting (odds ratio, 1.40; 95% CI, 1.21-1.63), and arrange was associated with a 46% increase in the odds of quitting (odds ratio, 1.46; 95% CI, 1.19-1.79). Conclusions and Relevance Assist and arrange follow-up delivered by primary care providers to smokers who were participating in the NLST were associated with increased

  11. Thiol- and thioether-based bifunctional chelates for the {M(CO)3}+ core (M = Tc, Re).

    PubMed

    Lazarova, Neva; Babich, John; Valliant, John; Schaffer, Paul; James, Shelly; Zubieta, Jon

    2005-09-19

    By analogy to the recently described single amino acid chelate (SAAC) technology for complexation of the {M(CO)3}+ core (M = Tc, Re), a series of tridentate ligands containing thiolate and thioether groups, as well as amino and pyridyl nitrogen donors, have been prepared: (NC5H4CH2)2NCH2CH2SEt (L1); (NC5H4CH2)2NCH2CH2SH (L2); NC5H4CH2N(CH2CH2SH)2 (L3); (NC5H4CH2)N(CH2CH2SH)(CH2CO2R) [R = H (L4); R = -C2H5 (L5). The {Re(CO)3}+ core complexes of L1-L5 were prepared by the reaction of [Re(CO)3(H2O)3]Br or [NEt4]2[Re(CO)3Br3] with the appropriate ligand in methanol and characterized by infrared spectroscopy, 1H and 13C NMR spectroscopy, mass spectrometry, and in the case of [Re(CO)3(L2)] (Re-2) and [Re(CO)3(L1)Re(CO)3Br2] (Re-1a) by X-ray crystallography. The structure of Re-2 consists of discrete neutral monomers with a fac-Re(CO)3 coordination unit and the remaining coordination sites occupied by the amine, pyridyl, and thiolate donors of L2, leaving a pendant pyridyl arm. In contrast, the structure of Re-1a consists of discrete binuclear units, constructed from a {Re(CO)3(L1)}+ subunit linked to a {Re(CO)3Br2}- group through the sulfur donor of the pendant thioether arm. The series of complexes establishes that thiolate donors are effective ligands for the {M(CO)3}+ core and that a qualitative ordering of the coordination preferences of the core may be proposed: pyridyl nitrogen approximately thiolate > carboxylate > thioether sulfur > thiophene sulfur. The ligands L1 and L2 react cleanly with [99mTc(CO)3(H2O)3]+ in H2O/DMSO to give [99mTc(CO)3(L1)]+ (99m)Tc-1) and [99mTc(CO)3(L2)] (99mTc-2), respectively, in ca. 90% yield after HPLC purification. The Tc analogues 99mTc-1 and 99mTc-2 were subjected to ligand challenges by incubating each in the presence of 1000-fold excesses of both cysteine and histidine. The radiochromatograms showed greater than 95% recovery of the complexes. PMID:16156635

  12. Nanoparticle Decorated Ultrathin Porous Nanosheets as Hierarchical Co3O4 Nanostructures for Lithium Ion Battery Anode Materials.

    PubMed

    Mujtaba, Jawayria; Sun, Hongyu; Huang, Guoyong; Mølhave, Kristian; Liu, Yanguo; Zhao, Yanyan; Wang, Xun; Xu, Shengming; Zhu, Jing

    2016-02-05

    We report a facile synthesis of a novel cobalt oxide (Co3O4) hierarchical nanostructure, in which crystalline core-amorphous shell Co3O4 nanoparticles with a bimodal size distribution are uniformly dispersed on ultrathin Co3O4 nanosheets. When tested as anode materials for lithium ion batteries, the as-prepared Co3O4 hierarchical electrodes delivered high lithium storage properties comparing to the other Co3O4 nanostructures, including a high reversible capacity of 1053.1 mAhg(-1) after 50 cycles at a current density of 0.2 C (1 C = 890 mAg(-1)), good cycling stability and rate capability.

  13. [Reparation and desulfurization of Na2CO3/straw sorbents for removing SO2 from flue gas].

    PubMed

    Shang, Hongshan; Yang, Fan; Kou, Yuan

    2003-11-01

    A series of SO2 sorbents 5%-90% (mass percent) Na2CO3/straw were prepared by conventional incipient wetness impregnation of straw with an aqueous solution of Na2CO3. It was showed that small particle size (< or = 0.28 mm) of the straw and low flow rate (40 mL/min) of the feed gas favor the removal of SO2, while temperature (70 degrees C-300 degrees C) has little effect on the desulfurization efficiency. Based on XRD, SEM and ATR-IR analysis it can be concluded that the Na2CO3 on the surface of the straw is mainly in an amorphous state. The unique structural features of the straw and its interaction with Na2CO3 lead to the amorphous structure having greater surface area (12.14 m2/g) and pore volume (0.093 cm3/g) with a high loading of Na2CO3.

  14. Synthesis of urchin-like Co 3O 4 hierarchical micro/nanostructures and their photocatalytic activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Hui; Fei, Guang Tao; Fang, Ming; Cui, Ping; Guo, Xiao; Yan, Peng; Zhang, Li De

    2011-05-01

    Urchin-like Co 3O 4 hierarchical micro/nanostructures have been successfully synthesized by calcining urchin-like precursor CoCO 3, which are prepared by a facile hydrothermal route. The particle size of the urchin-like Co 3O 4 could be easily controlled by altering the calcination temperature. The morphology and structure of the as-prepared urchin-like products were characterized by XRD, FESEM and TEM. Photocatalytic measurement demonstrates that these urchin-like Co 3O 4 micro/nanostructures show good photocatalytic effect and their degradation efficiency is strongly dependent on their particle size. Furthermore, a plausible reaction mechanism is also proposed to illustrate the photocatalytic processes of Co 3O 4.

  15. Microwave-assisted synthesis of spheroidal vaterite CaCO 3 in ethylene glycol-water mixed solvents without surfactants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yinxia; Ji, Xianbing; Wang, Xiaobo

    2010-10-01

    Spheroidal vaterite CaCO 3 composed of irregular nanoparticals have been synthesized by a fast microwave-assisted method. The structures are fabricated by the reaction of Ca(CH 3COO) 2 with (NH 4) 2CO 3 at 90 °C in ethylene glycol-water mixed solvents without any surfactants. The diameters of the spheroidal vaterite CaCO 3 range from 1 to 2 μm, and the average size of the nanoparticals is about 70 nm. Bundle-shaped aragonite and rhombohedral calcite are also obtained by adjusting the experimental parameters. Our experiments show that the ratio of ethylene glycol to water, microwave power, reaction time, and two sources of ammonium ions and acetate anions are key parameters for the fabrication of spheroidal vaterite CaCO 3. A possible growth mechanism for the spheroidal structures has been proposed, which suggests that the spheroidal vaterite CaCO 3 is formed by an aggregation mechanism.

  16. Nanoparticle Decorated Ultrathin Porous Nanosheets as Hierarchical Co3O4 Nanostructures for Lithium Ion Battery Anode Materials

    PubMed Central

    Mujtaba, Jawayria; Sun, Hongyu; Huang, Guoyong; Mølhave, Kristian; Liu, Yanguo; Zhao, Yanyan; Wang, Xun; Xu, Shengming; Zhu, Jing

    2016-01-01

    We report a facile synthesis of a novel cobalt oxide (Co3O4) hierarchical nanostructure, in which crystalline core-amorphous shell Co3O4 nanoparticles with a bimodal size distribution are uniformly dispersed on ultrathin Co3O4 nanosheets. When tested as anode materials for lithium ion batteries, the as-prepared Co3O4 hierarchical electrodes delivered high lithium storage properties comparing to the other Co3O4 nanostructures, including a high reversible capacity of 1053.1 mAhg−1 after 50 cycles at a current density of 0.2 C (1 C = 890 mAg−1), good cycling stability and rate capability. PMID:26846434

  17. A comparison of pharmacological tobacco cessation relapse rates.

    PubMed

    McMurry, Timothy B

    2006-01-01

    Tobacco use is the nation's leading preventable cause of chronic illness and injury; it takes the lives of 450,000 of our citizens each year. Currently, there are numerous treatment programs and pharmacological aids that may be obtained with a prescription or purchased over the counter at your local drugstore. The purpose of this study was to compare differences in tobacco cessation relapse rates of military personnel at the 1-, 3-, and 6-month intervals among 4 categories of pharmacological and cognitive regimens used at an outpatient naval treatment facility. A nonprobability convenience sampling plan was used to obtain (a) 10 patient-participant Freedom From Smoking (FFS) course records that utilized Zyban and Nicotine Replacement Therapy, (b) 10 patient-participant FFS course records that utilized Zyban only, (c) 10 patient-participant FFS course records that utilized Nicotine Replacement Therapy only, and (d) 10 patient-participant FFS course records that utilized Nicotine Replacement Therapy and nicotine gum (as needed). Findings revealed no significant difference between relapse and associated pharmacological treatment program. There was, however, a moderate increased cessation effort in Program 4 (nicotine replacement patch and nicotine gum). Results also demonstrated no significant difference between demographic variables and relapse cohorts. A significant positive relation between length of smoking and packs smoked per day was revealed, however. PMID:16445361

  18. Online Social Networks and Smoking Cessation: A Scientific Research Agenda

    PubMed Central

    Graham, Amanda L; Byron, M. Justin; Niaura, Raymond S; Abrams, David B

    2011-01-01

    Background Smoking remains one of the most pressing public health problems in the United States and internationally. The concurrent evolution of the Internet, social network science, and online communities offers a potential target for high-yield interventions capable of shifting population-level smoking rates and substantially improving public health. Objective Our objective was to convene leading practitioners in relevant disciplines to develop the core of a strategic research agenda on online social networks and their use for smoking cessation, with implications for other health behaviors. Methods We conducted a 100-person, 2-day, multidisciplinary workshop in Washington, DC, USA. Participants worked in small groups to formulate research questions that could move the field forward. Discussions and resulting questions were synthesized by the workshop planning committee. Results We considered 34 questions in four categories (advancing theory, understanding fundamental mechanisms, intervention approaches, and evaluation) to be the most pressing. Conclusions Online social networks might facilitate smoking cessation in several ways. Identifying new theories, translating these into functional interventions, and evaluating the results will require a concerted transdisciplinary effort. This report presents a series of research questions to assist researchers, developers, and funders in the process of efficiently moving this field forward. PMID:22182518

  19. [Smoking cessation in smokers with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease].

    PubMed

    Underner, M; Perriot, J; Peiffer, G

    2014-12-01

    One out of two smokers who smoke throughout their lifetime will die from a disease related to smoking. Tobacco smoking therefore represents a major global public health issue. Smoking is the leading cause of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Projections for 2020 indicate that by then, COPD will have become the third cause of death and the fifth cause of disability worldwide. Stopping smoking reduces the risk of developing COPD and is an essential treatment for this inflammatory disease. Smoking cessation decreases the prevalence of respiratory symptoms, number of hospitalizations, and decline in FEV1, as well as exacerbation frequency and overall mortality. Among the patients, 38-77% with COPD are smokers. Their daily cigarette consumption and level of nicotine dependence are often high. The combination of high intensity behavioral interventions and medication treatments (nicotine replacement therapy, varenicline, bupropion) is the most effective strategy for smokers with COPD. In contrast, behavioral interventions without medication are not more effective than simple advice to stop. Two factors seem to predict the success of the attempt to quit in smokers with COPD: a strong motivation to quit and the use of smoking cessation medications.

  20. Pharmacological Options for Smoking Cessation in Heavy-Drinking Smokers.

    PubMed

    Yardley, Megan M; Mirbaba, Michael M; Ray, Lara A

    2015-01-01

    There is a high prevalence of comorbid tobacco use and alcohol use disorder (AUD), affecting more than 6 million people in the US. Globally, tobacco and alcohol use rank fourth and fifth, respectively, for disability-adjusted life-years lost. Levels of alcohol use are higher in smokers than nonsmokers, and the prevalence of smoking is higher in heavy drinkers compared with nondrinkers. This relationship is driven by many different factors, including genetics, neurobiological mechanisms, conditioning processes, and psychosocial influences. Although this unique population tends to experience more negative health consequences, more severe AUD, and poorer response to treatment than those with either AUD or tobacco use disorder alone, there are currently no available treatment protocols tailored to this comorbid condition. In this review, we provide a comprehensive review of ongoing clinical research into smoking cessation options for heavy-drinking smokers (HDS) through an evaluation of the effect of promising novel pharmacotherapies as well as combination therapies, including varenicline, naltrexone, the combination of varenicline and naltrexone, and the combination of naltrexone and nicotine replacement therapy (NRT). These treatments are considered in light of the standard of care for smoking cessation, and seek to improve upon the available guidelines for this sizeable subgroup of smokers, namely those smokers who drink heavily.

  1. Evaluation of a culturally appropriate smoking cessation intervention for Latinos

    PubMed Central

    Woodruff, S; Talavera, G; Elder, J

    2002-01-01

    Background: Many believe that smoking cessation programmes for Latinos should be tailored to the values and beliefs of the culture. However, randomised studies of culturally appropriate smoking cessation interventions with Latinos are rare. Methods: Latino smokers (n = 313) were randomised to an intervention condition or a comparison group. The intervention was a three month programme based on social cognitive constructs and delivered in the smoker's home by trained lay health advisors, or promotores. Comparison group participants were referred to the California Smoker's Helpline in Spanish. Predictors of abstinence among all participants also were examined. Results: About one week post-intervention, validated (carbon monoxide) past week abstinence rates were more than twice as high in the intervention group (20.5%) than in the comparison (8.7%) (p ≤ 0.005). The pattern of results held for self reported abstinence, and after recoding dropouts to non-abstinence. The primary predictor of abstinence was number of cigarettes smoked per day at baseline, a common measure of addiction. Conclusions: The culturally appropriate intervention facilitated abstinence in Latino smokers, at least in the short term. Strengths and weaknesses of the study are discussed. PMID:12432162

  2. [Sustainable efficacy of oral varenicline for smoking cessation].

    PubMed

    Onizawa, Shigemitsu; Taniguchi, Haruko; Nozu, Tomoko; Asano, Asuka; Katsura, Hideki; Saiki, Kumiko; Kiguchi, Toshio; Hasegawa, Mizue; Nagai, Atsushi

    2010-11-01

    Varenicline (Champix) is an alpha4beta2 nicotinic receptor antagonist that is used orally for treatment of nicotine dependence. We conducted a study to examine the sustainable efficacy of varenicline in smoking cessation. The subjects were 148 outpatients (113 men, 35 women; average age; 54.4 +/- 14.0 years) at 6 different hospitals, and their adverse events were monitored in each hospital. The 4-week continuous abstinence rates of smoking cessation were 17.6%, 75.0%, and 84.6% in groups treated for 4 or fewer weeks, 5 to 8 weeks, and 9 to 12 weeks, respectively, with the rate showing a significant increase according to treatment period. Among 83 patients who had adverse events, the abstinence rates were 76.9%, 92.3%, 54.5%, and 55.6% in an observed (OB) group, a nosotropic medication (NM) group, a dose-reduction (RD) group, and a drug-discontinuation (DC) group, respectively. Among 56 patients with nausea, the respective rates were 80.8%, 100.0%, 61.1%, and 50.0%, respectively, with a significantly higher success rate in the NM group than in the RD or DC groups (each p < 0.05). To sustain the efficacy of varenicline in patients with adverse events, we recommend a therapeutic strategy in which the active nosotropic medicine is administered over 12 weeks at the regular dosage.

  3. Characteristics of participants in a televised smoking cessation intervention.

    PubMed

    Warnecke, R B; Flay, B R; Kviz, F J; Gruder, C L; Langenberg, P; Crittenden, K S; Mermelstein, R J; Aitken, M; Wong, S C; Cook, T D

    1991-05-01

    Participants in various components of a televised self-help smoking cessation program, based on the American Lung Association's Freedom From Smoking in 20 Days, are compared with a sample of the population of smokers to whom the intervention was addressed. Over 325,000 smokers in the target population were exposed to the program at some level. Most watched televised segments. Approximately 75,000 manuals were distributed and about 55,000 were used. Comparisons between participants and the targeted smoking population indicate that the intervention attracted those in the smoking population who are expected to be the majority of smokers by the Year 2000-blacks, females, and those with incomes under $13,000 per year. Participants with these characteristics were most likely to view the televised segments. Heavy smokers, females, and those with the most education were most likely to refer to the manual at least twice a week during the intervention. Older, nonblack participants and those with incomes of $13,000 or more per year were most likely to attend group support sessions outside the home. Overall, the patterns of association indicate that although a televised smoking cessation program can attract individuals similar to those projected to be smokers in 2000, participation in various components of the intervention will vary by demographic characteristics. PMID:1862060

  4. Acceptance of cravings: how smoking cessation experiences affect craving beliefs.

    PubMed

    Nosen, Elizabeth; Woody, Sheila R

    2014-08-01

    Metacognitive models theorize that more negative appraisals of craving-related thoughts and feelings, and greater efforts to avoid or control these experiences, exacerbate suffering and increase chances the person will use substances to obtain relief. Thus far, little research has examined how attempts to quit smoking influence the way people perceive and respond to cravings. As part of a larger study, 176 adult smokers interested in quitting participated in two lab sessions, four days apart. Half the sample began a quit attempt the day after the first session; craving-related beliefs, metacognitive strategies, and negative affect were assessed at the second session. Participants who failed to abstain from smoking more strongly endorsed appraisals of craving-related thoughts as negative and personally relevant. Negative appraisals correlated strongly with distress and withdrawal symptoms. Attempting to quit smoking increased use of distraction, thought suppression and re-appraisal techniques, with no difference between successful and unsuccessful quitters. Negative beliefs about cravings and rumination predicted less change in smoking one month later. Results suggest that smoking cessation outcomes and metacognitive beliefs likely have a bidirectional relationship that is strongly related to negative affect. Greater consideration of the impact of cessation experiences on mood and craving beliefs is warranted. PMID:25014920

  5. Onset and cessation of motion in hydrodynamically sheared granular beds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, Abram H.; Shattuck, Mark D.; Ouellette, Nicholas T.; O'Hern, Corey S.

    2015-10-01

    We performed molecular dynamics simulations of granular beds driven by a model hydrodynamic shear flow to elucidate general grain-scale mechanisms that determine the onset and cessation of sediment transport. By varying the Shields number (the nondimensional shear stress at the top of the bed) and particle Reynolds number (the ratio of particle inertia to viscous damping), we explore how variations of the fluid flow rate, particle inertia, and fluid viscosity affect the onset and cessation of bed motion. For low to moderate particle Reynolds numbers, a critical boundary separates mobile and static states. Transition times between these states diverge as this boundary is approached both from above and below. At high particle Reynolds number, inertial effects become dominant, and particle motion can be sustained well below flow rates at which mobilization of a static bed occurs. We also find that the onset of bed motion (for both low and high particle Reynolds numbers) is described by Weibullian weakest-link statistics and thus is crucially dependent on the packing structure of the granular bed, even deep beneath the surface.

  6. Pharmacological Options for Smoking Cessation in Heavy Drinking Smokers

    PubMed Central

    Yardley, Megan M.; Mirbaba, Michael M.; Ray, Lara A.

    2015-01-01

    There is a high prevalence of comorbid tobacco and alcohol use disorder (AUD), affecting more than 6 million people in the United States. Globally, tobacco and alcohol use rank fourth and fifth, respectively, for disability adjusted life years lost. Levels of alcohol use are higher in smokers than non-smokers, and the prevalence of smoking is higher in heavy drinkers compared to non-drinkers. This relationship is driven by many different factors including genetics, neurobiological mechanisms, conditioning processes, and psychosocial influences. Although this unique population tends to experience more negative health consequences, more severe AUD and poorer response to treatment than those with either AUD or tobacco use disorder alone, there are currently no available treatment protocols tailored to this comorbid condition. Here, we provide a comprehensive review of ongoing clinical research into smoking cessation options for heavy drinking smokers (HDS) through an evaluation of the effect of promising novel pharmacotherapies as well as combination therapies including: varenicline, naltrexone, the combination of varenicline and naltrexone, and the combination of naltrexone and nicotine replacement therapy (NRT). These treatments are considered in light of the standard of care for smoking cessation and seek to improve upon the available guidelines for this sizable subgroup of smokers, namely those smokers who drink heavily. PMID:26507831

  7. Tobacco cessation treatment education for dental students using standardized patients.

    PubMed

    Singleton, Jacqueline A; Carrico, Ruth M; Myers, John A; Scott, David A; Wilson, Richard W; Worth, Celeste T

    2014-06-01

    The use of standardized patients (SPs) shows promise in tobacco cessation treatment (TCT) training by providing a simulated clinical environment for dental students to practice counseling skills with individuals trained to portray patients. The purpose of this study was to determine if there was a difference in attitudes, perceptions, and knowledge between dental students who received a lecture and practice sessions with SPs and those who received a lecture only. Dental students in an introductory clinical course at one dental school were invited to participate in the study by completing a pre and post questionnaire. The pre questionnaire was administered to all students prior to a tobacco cessation lecture. Students were group-randomized to either the intervention or control group. The intervention group completed the post questionnaire after the lecture and practice sessions with SPs, and the control group completed it after the lecture only. Of ninety-eight students who attended the lecture and were invited to participate in the study, a total of ninety-four from the two groups (96 percent) provided two linkable questionnaires for analysis. In the results, training with lecture and SPs increased the students' understanding of barriers, subjective norms, perceived skills, self-efficacy, and intentions to provide TCT more than those in the lecture only; however, it did not significantly increase their attitudes and knowledge. These findings suggest that using SPs is a valuable educational method to promote the provision of TCT by dental students and graduates. PMID:24882775

  8. Promoting the Recovery of Injured Liver with Poly (3-Hydroxybutyrate-Co-3-Hydroxyvalerate-Co-3-Hydroxyhexanoate) Scaffolds Loaded with Umbilical Cord-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Li, Pengshan; Zhang, Jin; Liu, Jing; Ma, Huan; Liu, Jie; Lie, Puchang; Wang, Yuechun; Liu, Gexiu; Zeng, Huilan; Li, Zhizhong

    2015-01-01

    Cell-based therapies are major focus of current research for treatment of liver diseases. In this study, mesenchymal stem cells were isolated from human umbilical cord Wharton's jelly (WJ-MSCs). Results confirmed that WJ-MSCs isolated in this study could express the typical MSC-specific markers and be induced to differentiate into adipocytes, osteoblasts, and chondrocytes. They could also be induced to differentiate into hepatocyte-like cells. Poly (3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate-co-3-hydroxyhexanoate) (PHBVHHx) is a new member of polyhydroxyalkanoate family and biodegradable polyester produced by bacteria. PHBVHHx scaffolds showed much higher cell attachment and viability than the other polymers tested. PHBVHHx scaffolds loaded with WJ-MSCs were transplanted into liver-injured mice. Liver morphology improved after 30 days of transplantation and looked similar to normal liver. Concentrations of serum alanine aminotransferase and total bilirubin were significantly lower, and albumin was significantly higher on days 14 and 30 in the WJ-MSCs+scaffold group than in the carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) group. Hematoxylin-eosin staining showed that liver had similar structure of normal liver lobules and similar size and shape of normal hepatic cells, and Masson staining demonstrated that liver had less blue staining for collagen after 30 days of transplantation. Real-time reverse transcription–polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) showed that the expression of the bile duct epithelial cell gene CK-19 in mouse liver is significantly lower on days 14 and 30 in the WJ-MSCs+scaffold group than in the CCl4 group. Real-time RT-PCR, immunocytochemistry, and periodic acid–Schiff staining showed that WJ-MSCs in scaffolds differentiated into hepatocyte-like cells on days 14 and 30 in the WJ-MSCs+scaffold group. Real-time RT-PCR also demonstrated that WJ-MSCs in scaffolds expressed endothelial cell genes Flk-1, vWF, and VE-cadherin on days 14 and 30 in the WJ

  9. Sexual risk behaviour among people living with HIV according to the biomedical risk of transmission: results from the ANRS-VESPA2 survey

    PubMed Central

    Suzan-Monti, Marie; Lorente, Nicolas; Demoulin, Baptiste; Marcellin, Fabienne; Préau, Marie; Dray-Spira, Rosemary; Lert, France; Spire, Bruno

    2016-01-01

    Introduction People living with HIV (PLHIV) on antiretroviral therapy (ART), with sustained undetectable viral load (sUVL) and no history of sexually transmitted infections for at least six months, are considered to have a low risk of HIV transmission (LRT). We aimed to characterize, in a representative sample of French PLHIV, the sexual behaviour of LRT PLHIV compared with non-LRT PLHIV. Methods The cross-sectional ANRS-VESPA2 survey was conducted on adult PLHIV attending French hospitals in 2011. The LRT PLHIV group included participants with sUVL and no sexually transmitted infection for at least 12 months. Socio-behavioural and medical data were collected. Chi-square tests helped compare sexual risk indicators between LRT and non-LRT PLHIV. The survey's retrospective nature allowed us to perform complementary category-based analyses of LRT PLHIV according to whether they had sUVL for at least 18, 24 or 36 months in three socio-epidemiological groups: men who have sex with men (MSM), other men and women. Results Analysis included 2638 PLHIV diagnosed >12 months with available viral load data. The proportion of LRT PLHIV varied from 58% (≥12 months sUVL) to 38% (≥36 months sUVL). Irrespective of sUVL duration, we found the following: 1) LRT men (MSM and other men) were more likely to report having no sexual partner than their non-LRT counterparts. Among men having sexual partners in the previous 12 months, no significant difference was seen between LRT and non-LRT men in the number of sexual partners. LRT women were less likely to report having more than one sexual partner than non-LRT women; 2) LRT MSM were more likely to report being in sexually inactive couples than their non-LRT counterparts; 3) among sexually active participants, no difference was observed between LRT and non-LRT PLHIV concerning condom use with their serodiscordant steady partner or with their most recent casual sexual partners. Conclusions LRT PLHIV with sUVL ≥12 months did not

  10. Increased Uptake of HCV Testing through a Community-Based Educational Intervention in Difficult-to-Reach People Who Inject Drugs: Results from the ANRS-AERLI Study

    PubMed Central

    Roux, Perrine; Rojas Castro, Daniela; Ndiaye, Khadim; Debrus, Marie; Protopopescu, Camélia; Le Gall, Jean-Marie; Haas, Aurélie; Mora, Marion; Spire, Bruno; Suzan-Monti, Marie; Carrieri, Patrizia

    2016-01-01

    Aims The community-based AERLI intervention provided training and education to people who inject drugs (PWID) about HIV and HCV transmission risk reduction, with a focus on drug injecting practices, other injection-related complications, and access to HIV and HCV testing and care. We hypothesized that in such a population where HCV prevalence is very high and where few know their HCV serostatus, AERLI would lead to increased HCV testing. Methods The national multisite intervention study ANRS-AERLI consisted in assessing the impact of an injection-centered face-to-face educational session offered in volunteer harm reduction (HR) centers (“with intervention”) compared with standard HR centers (“without intervention”). The study included 271 PWID interviewed on three occasions: enrolment, 6 and 12 months. Participants in the intervention group received at least one face-to-face educational session during the first 6 months. Measurements The primary outcome of this analysis was reporting to have been tested for HCV during the previous 6 months. Statistical analyses used a two-step Heckman approach to account for bias arising from the non-randomized clustering design. This approach identified factors associated with HCV testing during the previous 6 months. Findings Of the 271 participants, 127 and 144 were enrolled in the control and intervention groups, respectively. Of the latter, 113 received at least one educational session. For the present analysis, we selected 114 and 88 participants eligible for HCV testing in the control and intervention groups, respectively. In the intervention group, 44% of participants reported having being tested for HCV during the previous 6 months at enrolment and 85% at 6 months or 12 months. In the control group, these percentages were 51% at enrolment and 78% at 12 months. Multivariable analyses showed that participants who received at least one educational session during follow-up were more likely to report HCV testing

  11. HIV Protease Inhibitors Do Not Cause the Accumulation of Prelamin A in PBMCs from Patients Receiving First Line Therapy: The ANRS EP45 “Aging” Study

    PubMed Central

    Perrin, Sophie; Cremer, Jonathan; Faucher, Olivia; Reynes, Jacques; Dellamonica, Pierre; Micallef, Joëlle; Solas, Caroline; Lacarelle, Bruno; Stretti, Charlotte; Kaspi, Elise; Robaglia-Schlupp, Andrée; Tamalet, Corine Nicolino-Brunet Catherine; Lévy, Nicolas; Poizot-Martin, Isabelle; Cau, Pierre; Roll, Patrice

    2012-01-01

    Background The ANRS EP45 “Aging” study investigates the cellular mechanisms involved in the accelerated aging of HIV-1 infected and treated patients. The present report focuses on lamin A processing, a pathway known to be altered in systemic genetic progeroid syndromes. Methods 35 HIV-1 infected patients being treated with first line antiretroviral therapy (ART, mean duration at inclusion: 2.7±1.3 years) containing boosted protease inhibitors (PI/r) (comprising lopinavir/ritonavir in 65% of patients) were recruited together with 49 seronegative age- and sex-matched control subjects (http://clinicaltrials.gov/, NCT01038999). In more than 88% of patients, the viral load was <40 copies/ml and the CD4+ cell count was >500/mm3. Prelamin A processing in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from patients and controls was analysed by western blotting at inclusion. PBMCs from patients were also investigated at 12 and 24 months after enrolment in the study. PBMCs from healthy controls were also incubated with boosted lopinavir in culture medium containing various concentrations of proteins (4 to 80 g/L). Results Lamin A precursor was not observed in cohort patient PBMC regardless of the PI/r used, the dose and the plasma concentration. Prelamin A was detected in PBMC incubated in culture medium containing a low protein concentration (4 g/L) but not in plasma (60–80 g/L) or in medium supplemented with BSA (40 g/L), both of which contain a high protein concentration. Conclusions Prelamin A processing abnormalities were not observed in PBMCs from patients under the PI/r first line regimen. Therefore, PI/r do not appear to contribute to lamin A-related aging in PBMCs. In cultured PBMCs from healthy donors, prelamin A processing abnormalities were only observed when the protein concentration in the culture medium was low, thus increasing the amount of PI available to enter cells. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01038999 http://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01038999. PMID

  12. Synthesis and characterization of fac-Re(CO)3-aspartic-N-monoacetic acid, a structural analogue of a potential new renal tracer, fac-(99m)Tc(CO)3(ASMA).

    PubMed

    Klenc, Jeffrey; Lipowska, Malgorzata; Taylor, Andrew T; Marzilli, Luigi G

    2012-09-01

    The reaction of an aminopolycarboxylate ligand, aspartic-N-monoacetic acid (ASMA), with [Re(CO)3(H2O)3](+) was examined. The tridentate coordination of ASMA to this Re(I) tricarbonyl precursor yielded fac-Re(CO)3(ASMA) as a mixture of diastereomers. The chemistry is analogous to that of the Tc(I) tricarbonyl complex, which yields fac-(99m)Tc(CO)3(ASMA) under similar conditions. The formation, structure, and isomerization of fac-Re(CO)3(ASMA) products were characterized by HPLC, (1)H NMR spectroscopy, and X-ray crystallography. The two major fac-Re(CO)3(ASMA) diastereomeric products each have a linear ONO coordination mode with two adjacent five-membered chelate rings, but they differ in the endo or exo orientation of the uncoordinated acetate group, in agreement with expectations based on previous studies. Conditions have been identified for the expedient isomerization of fac-Re(CO)3(ASMA) to a mixture consisting primarily of one major product. Because different isomeric species typically have different pharmacokinetic characteristics, these conditions may provide for the practical isolation of a single (99m)Tc(CO)3(ASMA) species, thus allowing the isolation of the isomer that has optimal imaging and pharmacokinetic characteristics. This information will aid in the design of future (99m)Tc radiopharmaceuticals.

  13. Mapping of photoperiod induced growth cessation in the wild grape vitis riparia michx. using microsatellite markers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In grapevines, the timing of growth cessation in the fall is an important aspect of adaptation and a key objective in breeding new grape varieties suitable for continental climates. Growth cessation is a complex biological process that is initiated by environmental cues such as day length and temper...

  14. 10 CFR 430.71 - Cessation of distribution of a basic model.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Cessation of distribution of a basic model. 430.71 Section... PRODUCTS Certification and Enforcement § 430.71 Cessation of distribution of a basic model. (a) In the event that a model is determined noncompliant by DOE in accordance with § 430.70 of this part or if...

  15. Preliminary Examination of Adolescent Spending in a Contingency Management-Based Smoking-Cessation Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavallo, Dana A.; Nich, Charla; Schepis, Ty S.; Smith, Anne E.; Liss, Thomas B.; McFetridge, Amanda K.; Krishnan-Sarin, Suchitra

    2010-01-01

    Contingency management (CM) utilizing monetary incentives is efficacious in enhancing abstinence in an adolescent smoking-cessation program, but how adolescents spend their money has not been examined. We assessed spending habits of 38 adolescent smokers in a CM-based smoking-cessation project prior to quitting and during treatment using a…

  16. A Randomized Evaluation of Smoking Cessation Interventions for Pregnant Women at a WIC Clinic.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayer, Jeffrey P.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Investigates a randomized trial of a self-help smoking cessation program for pregnant smokers at the Kent County Health Department in Grand Rapids, (Michigan). Results indicate larger quit rates amongst program participants than those in the usual care group. Suggests that smoking cessation programs for low-income pregnant WIC clients are…

  17. 26 CFR 25.2511-2 - Cessation of donor's dominion and control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) ESTATE AND GIFT TAXES GIFT TAX; GIFTS MADE AFTER DECEMBER 31, 1954 Transfers § 25.2511-2 Cessation of donor's dominion and control. (a) The gift tax is not imposed upon the receipt of the property... 26 Internal Revenue 14 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cessation of donor's dominion and control....

  18. Use of and Interest in Smoking Cessation Strategies among Daily and Nondaily College Student Smokers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berg, Carla J.; Sutfin, Erin L.; Mendel, Jennifer; Ahluwalia, Jasjit S.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To examine use of and interest in cessation strategies among nondaily and daily college student smokers. Participants: 800 undergraduate student smokers aged 18 to 25. Methods: The authors examined nondaily versus daily smoking in relation to use of and interest in cessation strategies using an online survey. Results: Nondaily (65.8%)…

  19. Providing smoking cessation programs to homeless youth: the perspective of service providers.

    PubMed

    Shadel, William G; Tucker, Joan S; Mullins, Leslie; Staplefoote, Lynette

    2014-10-01

    There is almost no information available on cigarette smoking among homeless youth, whether they are currently receiving services for smoking cessation, and how to best help them quit. This paper presents data collected from a series of semi-structured telephone interviews with service providers from 23 shelters and drop-in centers serving homeless youth in Los Angeles County about their current smoking cessation programming, interest in providing smoking cessation services to their clients, potential barriers to providing this service, and ways to overcome these barriers. Results indicated that 84% of facilities did not offer smoking cessation services, although nearly all (91%) were interested in doing so. Barriers to implementing formal smoking cessation programs on site included lack of resources (e.g., money, personnel) to support the programs, staff training, and concern that smoking cessation may not be a high priority for homeless youth themselves. Overall, service providers seemed to prefer a less intensive smoking cessation program that could be delivered at their site by existing staff. Data from this formative needs assessment will be useful for developing and evaluating a smoking cessation treatment that could be integrated into the busy, complex environment that characterizes agencies that serve homeless youth. PMID:25012554

  20. Smoking Cessation and Relapse Prevention among Undergraduate Students: A Pilot Demonstration Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramsay, Jim; Hoffmann, Anne

    2004-01-01

    The prevalence of college students' tobacco use is widely recognized, but successful cessation and relapse-prevention programs for these smokers have drawn little attention. The authors, who explored the feasibility of training peers to lead cessation and relapse-prevention programs for undergraduates, found a quit rate of 88.2%, suggesting that…

  1. 10 CFR 431.385 - Cessation of distribution of a basic model of an electric motor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cessation of distribution of a basic model of an electric motor. 431.385 Section 431.385 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY PROGRAM FOR CERTAIN COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT Enforcement § 431.385 Cessation of distribution of...

  2. Beliefs of Turkish and Moroccan Immigrants in The Netherlands about Smoking Cessation: Implications for Prevention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nierkens, Vera; Stronks, Karien; van Oel, Clarine J.; de Vries, Hein

    2005-01-01

    Tobacco smoking is a very important preventable cause of mortality and morbidity, and this is also the case in immigrant populations. Therefore, smoking cessation interventions need to take these groups into account. Insight into the applicability of behavioral smoking cessation interventions for non-Western populations is necessary. The objective…

  3. Psychiatric Disorders in Smokers Seeking Treatment for Tobacco Dependence: Relations with Tobacco Dependence and Cessation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piper, Megan E.; Smith, Stevens S.; Schlam, Tanya R.; Fleming, Michael F.; Bittrich, Amy A.; Brown, Jennifer L.; Leitzke, Cathlyn J.; Zehner, Mark E.; Fiore, Michael C.; Baker, Timothy B.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The present research examined the relation of psychiatric disorders to tobacco dependence and cessation outcomes. Method: Data were collected from 1,504 smokers (58.2% women; 83.9% White; mean age = 44.67 years, SD = 11.08) making an aided smoking cessation attempt as part of a clinical trial. Psychiatric diagnoses were determined with…

  4. An Evaluation of the Effects of Chronic Diseases and Health Conditions on Tobacco Cessation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowden, Dawn E.; Barr, Nikki; Rickert, Shannon

    2012-01-01

    Objective: This study examined the effects of chronic health conditions on tobacco cessation and participation in a follow-up assessment among 13,900 smokers in a telephone-based tobacco cessation programme. Design: This study involved gathering data from individuals during pre- and post-intervention telephonic assessments following their decision…

  5. Predictors of Retention in Smoking Cessation Treatment among Latino Smokers in the Northeast United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Christina S.; Hayes, Rashelle B.; McQuaid, Elizabeth L.; Borrelli, Belinda

    2010-01-01

    Introduction. Only one previous study on minority retention in smoking cessation treatment has been conducted (Nevid JS, Javier RA, Moulton JL III. "Factors predicting participant attrition in a community-based, culturally specific smoking cessation program for Hispanic smokers." "Health Psychol" 1996; 15: 226-29). We investigated predictors of…

  6. What Factors Are Important in Smoking Cessation Amongst Deprived Communities?: A Qualitative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henderson, Hazel J.; Memon, Anjum; Lawson, Kate; Jacobs, Barbara; Koutsogeorgou, Eleni

    2011-01-01

    Objective: There is limited evidence regarding effective smoking cessation interventions in deprived communities. This study explored what factors are considered most important in smoking cessation, from the perspective of a group of NHS Stop Smoking Service users from a deprived community. Design: A qualitative study. Setting: A deprived…

  7. Smoking Cessation Delivered by Medical Students Is Helpful to Homeless Population

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spector, Andrew; Alpert, Hilary; Karam-Hage, Maher

    2007-01-01

    Objective: The authors pilot a smoking-cessation outreach for the homeless that extends medical students' tobacco cessation education. Method: In this prospective study, second-year medical students administered cognitive behavior therapy or unstructured support to homeless subjects to help them quit smoking. Self-report and biological measures…

  8. Relations of Alcohol Consumption with Smoking Cessation Milestones and Tobacco Dependence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, Jessica W.; Fucito, Lisa M.; Piasecki, Thomas M.; Piper, Megan E.; Schlam, Tanya R.; Berg, Kristin M.; Baker, Timothy B.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Alcohol consumption is associated with smoking cessation failure in both community and clinical research. However, little is known about the relation between alcohol consumption and smoking cessation milestones (i.e., achieving initial abstinence, avoiding lapses and relapse). Our objective in this research was to examine the relations…

  9. 20 CFR 725.203 - Duration and cessation of entitlement; miner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Duration and cessation of entitlement; miner. 725.203 Section 725.203 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT STANDARDS ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... Duration of Entitlement Conditions and Duration of Entitlement: Miner § 725.203 Duration and cessation...

  10. Changes in Energy Balance Following Smoking Cessation and Resumption of Smoking in Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perkins, Kenneth A.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Prospectively examined caloric intake, resting metabolic rate (RMR), leisure time physical activity, and sensitivity and preference for sweet taste in seven female smokers during normal smoking, complete cessation, and resumption of smoking. Findings suggest that smoking cessation may cause rapid change in energy balance which is quickly reversed…

  11. Randomized Controlled Trial of Behavioral Activation Smoking Cessation Treatment for Smokers with Elevated Depressive Symptoms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacPherson, Laura; Tull, Matthew T.; Matusiewicz, Alexis K.; Rodman, Samantha; Strong, David R.; Kahler, Christopher W.; Hopko, Derek R.; Zvolensky, Michael J.; Brown, Richard A.; Lejuez, C. W.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Depressive symptoms are associated with poor smoking cessation outcomes, and there remains continued interest in behavioral interventions that simultaneously target smoking and depressive symptomatology. In this pilot study, we examined whether a behavioral activation treatment for smoking (BATS) can enhance cessation outcomes. Method:…

  12. 21 CFR 1271.440 - Orders of retention, recall, destruction, and cessation of manufacturing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... cessation of manufacturing. 1271.440 Section 1271.440 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION..., destruction, and cessation of manufacturing. (a) Upon an agency finding that there are reasonable grounds to... upon the establishment an order to cease manufacturing until compliance with the regulations of...

  13. 21 CFR 1271.440 - Orders of retention, recall, destruction, and cessation of manufacturing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... cessation of manufacturing. 1271.440 Section 1271.440 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION..., destruction, and cessation of manufacturing. (a) Upon an agency finding that there are reasonable grounds to... upon the establishment an order to cease manufacturing until compliance with the regulations of...

  14. 21 CFR 1271.440 - Orders of retention, recall, destruction, and cessation of manufacturing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... cessation of manufacturing. 1271.440 Section 1271.440 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION..., destruction, and cessation of manufacturing. (a) Upon an agency finding that there are reasonable grounds to... upon the establishment an order to cease manufacturing until compliance with the regulations of...

  15. Using the Web To Promote Smoking Cessation and Health for College-Aged Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Col, Nananda F.; Fortin, Jennifer M.; Weber, Griffin; Braithwaite, R. Scott; Bowman, Stacie A.; Kim, Jung A.; Lyons, Jennifer L.; Dibble, Emily

    Smoking among college students is on the rise, particularly among women and minorities. This paper explores smoking among college women, reviews different types of smoking cessation interventions, and describes a newly developed interactive Web site that combines tailored smoking cessation information with other health information in an attempt to…

  16. Neural correlates of message tailoring and self-relatedness in smoking cessation programming

    PubMed Central

    Chua, Hannah Faye; Liberzon, Israel; Welsh, Robert C.; Strecher, Victor J.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND Smoking leads to illnesses including addiction, cancer, and cardiovascular and respiratory diseases. Different intervention programs have become available. In the past decade, providing tailored smoking cessation messages has been shown to be more effective in inducing smoking cessation than one-size-fits-all interventions. However, little is known about the brain responses of smokers when they receive tailored smoking cessation messages. METHODS A neuroimaging study using blocked and event-related designs examined neural activity in 24 smokers exposed to high-tailored and low-tailored smoking cessation messages. RESULTS: In both blocked and event-related conditions, rostral medial prefrontal cortex and precuneus/posterior cingulate were engaged more during the processing of high-tailored smoking cessation messages than low-tailored smoking cessation messages. CONCLUSION The activation patterns of smokers to tailored cessation messages show involvement of brain areas commonly implicated in self-related processing. Results seem to add support to the suggested role of self-relevance in tailored cessation programs, where previous studies have shown a potential mediating role of self-relevance on smoking abstinence. The findings are relevant to understanding the cognitive mechanisms underlying tailored message processing and may point to new directions for testing response to health communications programming. PMID:18926523

  17. Evaluation of Multidisciplinary Tobacco Cessation Training Program in a Large Health Care System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Timothy C.; Hamlett-Berry, Kim W.; Watanabe, Jonathan H.; Bounthavong, Mark; Zillich, Alan J.; Christofferson, Dana E.; Myers, Mark G.; Himstreet, Julianne E.; Belperio, Pamela S.; Hudmon, Karen Suchanek

    2015-01-01

    Background: Health care professionals can have a dramatic impact by assisting patients with tobacco cessation but most have limited training. Purpose: To evaluate the effectiveness of a 4-hour tobacco cessation training program. Methods: A team of multidisciplinary health care professionals created a veteran-specific tailored version of the Rx for…

  18. Tobacco Cessation through Community Pharmacies: Knowledge, Attitudes, Practices and Perceived Barriers among Pharmacists in Penang

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taha, Nur Akmar; Tee, Ooi Guat

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Tobacco cessation is the primary goal of tobacco control measures. Community pharmacists are possible providers of tobacco cessation counselling due to their close contact with the public and the availability of non-prescription nicotine replacement therapies in pharmacies. However, community pharmacists often do not provide tobacco…

  19. Tobacco Cessation Intervention for People with Disabilities: Survey of Center for Independent Living Directors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moorhouse, Michael D.; Pomeranz, Jamie L.; Barnett, Tracey E.; Yu, Nami S.; Curbow, Barbara A.

    2011-01-01

    People with disabilities (PWD) are 50% more likely to smoke compared with the general population, yet interventions tailored to the needs of PWD remain limited. The authors surveyed directors from a leading disability service organization to assess their delivery of tobacco cessation interventions. Although tobacco cessation was identified as a…

  20. 10 CFR 430.71 - Cessation of distribution of a basic model.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cessation of distribution of a basic model. 430.71 Section... PRODUCTS Certification and Enforcement § 430.71 Cessation of distribution of a basic model. (a) In the event that a model is determined noncompliant by DOE in accordance with § 430.70 of this part or if...

  1. Understanding Prolonged Cessation From Heroin Use: Findings From a Community-Based Sample

    PubMed Central

    Weiss, Linda; Gass, Jonathon; Egan, James E.; Ompad, Danielle C.; Trezza, Claudia; Vlahov, David

    2014-01-01

    Background There is abundant literature describing heroin initiation, co-morbidities, and treatment. Few studies focus on cessation, examining the factors that motivate and facilitate it. Methods The CHANGE study utilized mixed methods to investigate heroin cessation among low-income New York City participants. This paper describes findings from qualitative interviews with 20 former and 11 current heroin users. Interviews focused on background and current activities, supports, drug history, cessation attempts, and motivators and facilitators to cessation. Results Participants found motivation for cessation in improved quality of life; combination of treatment, strategic avoidance of triggers, and engagement in alternative activities, including support groups, exercise, and faith-based practice. Several reported that progress toward goals served as motivators that increased confidence and facilitated cessation. Ultimatums were key motivators for some participants. Beyond that, they could not articulate factors that distinguished successful from unsuccessful cessation attempts, although data suggest that those who were successful could describe more individualized and concrete—rather than general—motivators and strategies. Conclusions Our findings indicate that cessation may be facilitated by multifaceted and individualized strategies, suggesting a need for personal and comprehensive approaches to treatment. PMID:25052788

  2. Providing smoking cessation programs to homeless youth: the perspective of service providers.

    PubMed

    Shadel, William G; Tucker, Joan S; Mullins, Leslie; Staplefoote, Lynette

    2014-10-01

    There is almost no information available on cigarette smoking among homeless youth, whether they are currently receiving services for smoking cessation, and how to best help them quit. This paper presents data collected from a series of semi-structured telephone interviews with service providers from 23 shelters and drop-in centers serving homeless youth in Los Angeles County about their current smoking cessation programming, interest in providing smoking cessation services to their clients, potential barriers to providing this service, and ways to overcome these barriers. Results indicated that 84% of facilities did not offer smoking cessation services, although nearly all (91%) were interested in doing so. Barriers to implementing formal smoking cessation programs on site included lack of resources (e.g., money, personnel) to support the programs, staff training, and concern that smoking cessation may not be a high priority for homeless youth themselves. Overall, service providers seemed to prefer a less intensive smoking cessation program that could be delivered at their site by existing staff. Data from this formative needs assessment will be useful for developing and evaluating a smoking cessation treatment that could be integrated into the busy, complex environment that characterizes agencies that serve homeless youth.

  3. Use of Propensity Score Matching to Evaluate a National Smoking Cessation Media Campaign

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Villanti, Andrea C.; Cullen, Jennifer; Vallone, Donna M.; Stuart, Elizabeth A.

    2011-01-01

    Sustained mass media campaigns have been recommended to stem the tobacco epidemic in the United States. Propensity score matching (PSM) was used to estimate the effect of awareness of a national smoking cessation media campaign (EX[R]) on quit attempts and cessation-related cognition. Participants were 4,067 smokers and recent quitters aged 18-49…

  4. Treating Tobacco Dependence: Development of a Smoking Cessation Treatment Program for Outpatient Mental Health Clinics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gulliver, Suzy Bird; Wolfsdorf, Barbara A.; Morissette, Sandra Baker

    2004-01-01

    Response to smoking cessation treatment programs sharply decreases when applied to smokers with psychiatric comorbidities. Consequently, the development of smoking cessation treatments that address the needs of psychiatric patients is greatly needed. The primary purpose of this article is to detail the process of development of an empirically…

  5. 10 CFR 431.385 - Cessation of distribution of a basic model of an electric motor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Cessation of distribution of a basic model of an electric motor. 431.385 Section 431.385 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY PROGRAM FOR CERTAIN COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT Enforcement for Electric Motors § 431.385 Cessation...

  6. 10 CFR 431.385 - Cessation of distribution of a basic model of an electric motor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Cessation of distribution of a basic model of an electric motor. 431.385 Section 431.385 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY PROGRAM FOR CERTAIN COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT Enforcement § 431.385 Cessation of distribution of...

  7. 10 CFR 431.385 - Cessation of distribution of a basic model of an electric motor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Cessation of distribution of a basic model of an electric motor. 431.385 Section 431.385 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY PROGRAM FOR CERTAIN COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT Enforcement for Electric Motors § 431.385 Cessation...

  8. 10 CFR 431.385 - Cessation of distribution of a basic model of an electric motor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Cessation of distribution of a basic model of an electric motor. 431.385 Section 431.385 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY PROGRAM FOR CERTAIN COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT Enforcement for Electric Motors § 431.385 Cessation...

  9. 49 CFR 1511.15 - Cessation of the Aviation Security Infrastructure Fee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... AVIATION SECURITY INFRASTRUCTURE FEE § 1511.15 Cessation of the Aviation Security Infrastructure Fee. Notwithstanding 49 CFR 1511.5 and 1511.7, or any other provision of this part, beginning 11:59 p.m. (Eastern... 49 Transportation 9 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Cessation of the Aviation Security...

  10. Defining and predicting short-term alcohol use changes during a smoking cessation attempt

    PubMed Central

    Berg, Kristin M.; Piper, Megan E.; Smith, Stevens S.; Fiore, Michael C.; Jorenby, Douglas E.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Alcohol and nicotine are commonly used substances in the U.S., with significant impacts on health. Using both substances concurrently impacts quit attempts. While studies have sought to examine changes in alcohol use co-occurring with tobacco cessation, results have not been consistent. Understanding these changes has clinical implications. The objective of this study is to identify changes in alcohol consumption that occur following tobacco cessation, as well as predictors of alcohol use patterns following a smoking cessation attempt. Methods A secondary analysis of a randomized, placebo-controlled trial evaluating the efficacy of five tobacco cessation pharmacotherapies. Participants (N = 1301) reported their smoking and alcohol consumption daily for two weeks prior to, and two weeks after, the target quit date (TQD). Results Generally, alcohol use decreased post-TQD. Smokers who reported less pre-quit alcohol use, as well as smokers who were female, non-white, and had a history of alcohol dependence tended to use less alcohol post-quit. Pre- and post-quit alcohol use were more strongly related among men and among those without a history of alcohol dependence. Conclusions For most smokers alcohol use decreased following smoking cessation. These results suggest that the expectation should be of decreased alcohol use post cessation. However, attention may be warranted for those who drink higher amounts of alcohol pre-cessation because they may be more likely to drink more in the post-quit period which may influence smoking cessation success. PMID:25997014

  11. Cessations and reversals of the large-scale circulation in turbulent thermal convection.

    PubMed

    Xi, Heng-Dong; Xia, Ke-Qing

    2007-06-01

    We present an experimental study of cessations and reversals of the large-scale circulation (LSC) in turbulent thermal convection in a cylindrical cell of aspect ratio (Gamma) 1/2 . It is found that cessations and reversals of the LSC occur in Gamma = 1/2 geometry an order-of-magnitude more frequently than they do in Gamma=1 cells, and that after a cessation the LSC is most likely to restart in the opposite direction, i.e., reversals of the LSC are the most probable cessation events. This contrasts sharply to the finding in Gamma=1 geometry and implies that cessations in the two geometries are governed by different dynamics. It is found that the occurrence of reversals is a Poisson process and that a stronger rebound of the flow strength after a reversal or cessation leads to a longer period of stability of the LSC. Several properties of reversals and cessations in this system are found to be statistically similar to those of geomagnetic reversals. A direct measurement of the velocity field reveals that a cessation corresponds to a momentary decoherence of the LSC. PMID:17677357

  12. Understanding the relationship between socioeconomic status, smoking cessation services provided by the health system and smoking cessation behavior in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Szklo, André Salem; Thrasher, James F; Perez, Cristina; Figueiredo, Valeska Carvalho; Fong, Geoffrey; Almeida, Liz Maria de

    2013-03-01

    Increasing the effectiveness of smoking cessation policies requires greater consideration of the cultural and socioeconomic complexities of smoking. The purpose of this paper is to explore the association between socioeconomic status and "selected midpoints" linked to smoking cessation in Brazil. Data was collected from a representative sample of urban adult smokers as part of the ITC-Brazil Survey (2009, N = 1,215). After controlling for age and gender, there were no statistically significant differences quit attempts in the last six months between individuals with different socioeconomic status. However, smokers with high socioeconomic status visited a doctor 1.54 times more often than those with low socioeconomic status (p-value = 0.017), and were also 1.65 times more likely to receive advice to quit smoking (p-value = 0.025). Our results demonstrate that disparities in health and socioeconomic status are still a major challenge for policymakers to increase the population impact of tobacco control actions worldwide.

  13. Evaluation of Post Cessation Weight Gain in a 1-Year Randomized Smoking Cessation Trial of Electronic Cigarettes

    PubMed Central

    Russo, Cristina; Cibella, Fabio; Caponnetto, Pasquale; Campagna, Davide; Maglia, Marilena; Frazzetto, Evelise; Mondati, Enrico; Caruso, Massimo; Polosa, Riccardo

    2016-01-01

    Stop smoking it is often associated to weight gain that is one of the most important causes for relapse. This is the first study to describe long-term changes in body weight in smokers invited to quit or reduce smoking by switching to ECs. Conventional cigarettes consumption and body weight were measured prospectively in a randomized controlled trial of smokers invited to switch to ECs. Post cessation weight changes from baseline at week-12, -24 and -52 were compared among 1) high, medium and zero nicotine strength products and 2) pooled continuous smoking failure, smoking reduction and abstinence phenotypes. Saliva cotinine levels and appetite levels were also measured. No significant changes in body weight were observed among high, medium and zero nicotine strength products. Differences among continuous smoking phenotypes were significant only at week-12 (p = 0.010) and week-24 (p = 0.012) with quitters gaining 2.4{plus minus}4.3 Kg and 2.9{plus minus}4.4 Kg respectively. However, weight gain at week-52 (1.5{plus minus}5.0 Kg) was no longer significant compared to Failures and Reducers. No confounding factors could explain the significant changes in body weight. Smokers who quit smoking by switching to ECs may limit their post-cessation weight gain, with substantial reversal in weight gain being manifest at late time points. PMID:26729619

  14. Effect of smoking reduction and cessation on the plasma levels of the oxidative stress biomarker glutathione--Post-hoc analysis of data from a smoking cessation trial.

    PubMed

    Mons, Ute; Muscat, Joshua E; Modesto, Jennifer; Richie, John P; Brenner, Hermann

    2016-02-01

    Cigarette smoke contains high concentrations of free radical components that induce oxidative stress. Smoking-induced oxidative stress is thought to contribute to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, cardiovascular disease and lung cancer through degenerative processes in the lung and other tissues. It is uncertain however whether smoking cessation lowers the burden of oxidative stress. We used data from a randomized controlled cessation trial of 434 current smokers for a post-hoc examination of the effects of smoking cessation on blood plasma levels of total glutathione (tGSH), the most abundant endogenous antioxidant in cells, and total cysteine (tCys), an amino acid and constituent of glutathione. Smoking status was validated based on serum cotinine levels. Multivariate linear mixed models were fitted to examine the association of smoking cessation and change in cigarette consumption with tGSH and tCys. After 12 months follow-up, quitters (n=55) had significantly increased levels of tGSH compared to subjects who continued to smoke (P<0.01). No significant change in tGSH was found for subjects who continued to smoke but reduced their intensity of smoking. No significant effect of smoking cessation or reduction was observed on levels of tCys. These results suggest that smoking cessation but not smoking reduction reduces levels of oxidative stress. PMID:26708755

  15. Teen smoking cessation help via the Internet: a survey of search engines.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Christine C; Elliott, Sean P; Conway, Terry L; Woodruff, Susan I

    2003-07-01

    The objective of this study was to assess Web sites related to teen smoking cessation on the Internet. Seven Internet search engines were searched using the keywords teen quit smoking. The top 20 hits from each search engine were reviewed and categorized. The keywords teen quit smoking produced between 35 and 400,000 hits depending on the search engine. Of 140 potential hits, 62% were active, unique sites; 85% were listed by only one search engine; and 40% focused on cessation. Findings suggest that legitimate on-line smoking cessation help for teens is constrained by search engine choice and the amount of time teens spend looking through potential sites. Resource listings should be updated regularly. Smoking cessation Web sites need to be picked up on multiple search engine searches. Further evaluation of smoking cessation Web sites need to be conducted to identify the most effective help for teens.

  16. Evaluating the effectiveness of smoking cessation in the management of COPD.

    PubMed

    Temitayo Orisasami, Isimat; Ojo, Omorogieva

    2016-07-28

    The aim of this literature review is to assess the effectiveness of smoking cessation in managing patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). COPD is the fifth leading cause of death in the world and smoking leads to COPD in more than 80% of cases. Smoking cessation aids are considered the most effective intervention to improve quality of life and prevent further deterioration in COPD. Evidence based on the use of pharmacotherapies, patient support and motivation as part of smoking cessation strategies were evaluated and discussed. The findings demonstrate that pharmacotherapies, support and counselling in smoking cessation help reduce hospital stay and hospitalisation and improve symptoms and quality of life. In addition, nurses need more education on how to use open-ended questions and motivation when giving advice on smoking cessation to patients with COPD. PMID:27467642

  17. Views on electronic cigarette use in tobacco screening and cessation in an Alaska Native healthcare setting

    PubMed Central

    Hiratsuka, Vanessa Y.; Avey, Jaedon P.; Trinidad, Susan B.; Beans, Julie A.; Robinson, Renee F.

    2015-01-01

    Background American Indian (AI) and Alaska Native (AN) communities confront some of the highest rates of tobacco use and its sequelae. Methods This formative research project sought to identify the perspectives of 41 stakeholders (community members receiving care within the healthcare system, primary care providers, and tribal healthcare system leaders) surrounding the use of pharmacogenetics toward tobacco cessation treatment in the setting of an AI/AN owned and operated health system in south central Alaska. Results Interviews were held with 20 adult AI/AN current and former tobacco users, 12 healthcare providers, and 9 tribal leaders. An emergent theme from data analysis was that current tobacco screening and cessation efforts lack information on electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) use. Perceptions of the use of e-cigarettes role in tobacco cessation varied. Conclusion Preventive screening for tobacco use and clinical cessation counseling should address e-cigarette use. Healthcare provider tobacco cessation messaging should similarly address e-cigarettes. PMID:26487575

  18. Health Care Workers in the Dominican Republic: Self-perceived role in smoking cessation

    PubMed Central

    Ossip-Klein, Deborah J.; Diaz, Sergio; Sierra, Essie; Quiñones, Zahira; Armstrong, Latoya; Chin, Nancy P.; McIntosh, Scott

    2013-01-01

    A Dominican Republic (DR) based multi-community trial of smoking cessation viewed health care workers (HCWs) as potential interventionists. Effectively engaging them, requires a clear understanding of their attitudes and practices regarding smoking. A Rapid Assessment Procedure, conducted among HCWs in six economically disadvantaged communities, included physicians, nurses, other health professionals, paraprofessionals and lay workers. Attitudes and practices about smoking were consistent across the 82 HCWs and mostly reflected community views. HCWs lacked proactiveness related to smoking cessation and had a limited view of their role, attributing clients’ quitting successes to personal will. Prior cessation training was limited although interest was generally high. Material resources about smoking cessation were virtually absent. DR HCWs’ views represented features both distinct from and common to HCWs elsewhere. Any intervention with HCWs must first raise awareness before addressing their role in smoking cessation, discussing implementation barriers and include training and materials about risks and effective interventions. PMID:19448160

  19. Evidence of DOM Removal by Cretaceous CaCO3 Particles During Chalk-Ex 2001

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goes, J. I.; Balch, W. M.; Bowler, B.; Drapeau, D.; Booth, E.

    2002-12-01

    Any process that regulates the distribution of dissolved organic matter (DOM) in seawater assumes considerable significance, given the role of the DOM pool in radiative transfer, remote sensing and carbon sequestration into the oceans. Since particles that constitute the DOM pool are not dense enough for sinking to be the dominant removal process, their transport into the deep ocean interior has often been associated with advection of the source water mass. In recent years, a growing body of evidence linking DOM with inorganic particles has led to the belief that scavenging and ballasting of DOM by inorganic mineral particles could play an important role in DOM removal from the upper ocean. ChalkEx-2001 was a large-scale manipulative experiment, which involved dispersing a known quantity of Cretaceous chalk into seawater and following its fate by shipboard optical surveys, Langrangian drifters and sediment traps (see Balch et al. presentation for experiment overview). These experiments provided us with the opportunity to assess the importance of DOC binding onto CaCO3 particles. Flow Field-Flow Fractograms of sub-micron particles and dissolved organic carbon measurements in samples obtained from discrete depths prior to, and following deployment of the chalk, provided clear evidence of DOM scavenging by CaCO3 particles. Proof of DOM binding onto the chalk particles was also apparent from the continuous absorption measurements at 412nm of 0.2æm pre-filtered seawater, which showed extreme "lows" in the distribution of colored dissolved organic matter coincident with patches of chalk (see also poster by Bowler et al.). The DOM scavenging capacity of the cretaceous coccolith chalk particles was also evident in independent laboratory investigations. The significance of these findings is that CaCO3 particles, by virtue of their ability to scavenge DOM, could potentially accelerate the transport of DOM to the deep sea.

  20. Physical properties and electronic band structure of noncentrosymmetric Th7Co3 superconductor.

    PubMed

    Sahakyan, M; Tran, V H

    2016-05-25

    The physical properties of the noncentrosymmetric superconductor Th7Co3 have been investigated by means of ac-magnetic susceptibility, magnetization, specific heat, electrical resistivity, magnetoresistance and Hall effect measurements. From these data it is established that Th7Co3 is a dirty type-II superconductor with [Formula: see text] K, [Formula: see text] and moderate electron-phonon coupling [Formula: see text]. Some evidences for anisotropic superconducting gap are found, including e.g. reduced specific heat jump ([Formula: see text]) at T c, diminished superconducting energy gap ([Formula: see text]) as compared to the BCS values, power law field dependence of the Sommerfeld coefficient at 0.4 K ([Formula: see text]), and a concave curvature of the [Formula: see text] line. The magnitudes of the thermodynamic critical field and the energy gap are consistent with mean-squared anisotropy parameter [Formula: see text]. The electronic specific heat in the superconducting state is reasonably fitted to an oblate spheroidal gap model. Calculations of scalar relativistic and fully relativistic electronic band structures reveal considerable differences in the degenerate structure, resulting from asymmetric spin-orbit coupling (ASOC). A large splitting energy of spin-up spin-down bands at the Fermi level E F, [Formula: see text] meV is observed and a sizeable ratio [Formula: see text] could classify the studied compound into the class of noncentrosymmetric superconductors with strong ASOC. The noncentrosymmetry of the crystal structure and the atomic relativistic effects are both responsible for an importance of ASOC in Th7Co3. The calculated results for the density of states show a Van Hove singularity just below E F and dominant role of the 6d electrons of Th to the superconductivity. PMID:27120582