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  1. Incidence and Risk Factors for Severe Bacterial Infections in People Living with HIV. ANRS CO3 Aquitaine Cohort, 2000–2012

    PubMed Central

    Collin, Amandine; Le Marec, Fabien; Vandenhende, Marie-Anne; Lazaro, Estibaliz; Duffau, Pierre; Cazanave, Charles; Gérard, Yann; Dabis, François; Bruyand, Mathias; Bonnet, Fabrice

    2016-01-01

    Severe non-AIDS bacterial infections (SBI) are the leading cause of hospital admissions among people living with HIV (PLHIV) in industrialized countries. We aimed to estimate the incidence of SBI and their risk factors in a large prospective cohort of PLHIV patients over a 13-year period in France. Patients followed up in the ANRS CO3 Aquitaine cohort between 2000 and 2012 were eligible; SBI was defined as a clinical diagnosis associated with hospitalization of ≥48 hours or death. Survival analysis was conducted to identify risk factors for SBI.Total follow-up duration was 39,256 person-years [PY] (31,370 PY on antiretroviral treatment [ART]). The incidence of SBI decreased from 26.7/1000 PY [95% CI: 22.9–30.5] over the period 2000–2002 to 11.9/1000 PY [10.1–13.8] in 2009–2012 (p <0.0001). Factors independently associated to increased risk of SBI were: plasma HIVRNA>50 copies/mL (Hazard Ratio [HR] = 5.1, 95% Confidence Interval: 4.2–6.2), CD4 count <500 cells/mm3 and CD4/CD8 ratio <0.8 (with a dose-response relationship for both markers), history of cancer (HR = 1.4 [1.0–1.9]), AIDS stage (HR = 1.7 [1.3–2.1]) and HCV coinfection (HR = 1.4, [1.1–1.6]). HIV-positive patients with diabetes were more prone to SBI (HR = 1.6 [0.9–2.6]). Incidence of SBI decreased over a 13-year period due to the improvement in the virological and immune status of PLHIV on ART. Risk factors for SBI include low CD4 count and detectable HIV RNA, but also CD4/CD8 ratio, HCV coinfection, history of cancer and diabetes, comorbid conditions that have been frequent among PLHIV in recent years. PMID:27050752

  2. Role of uncontrolled HIV RNA level and immunodeficiency in the occurrence of malignancy in HIV-infected patients during the combination antiretroviral therapy era: Agence Nationale de Recherche sur le Sida (ANRS) CO3 Aquitaine Cohort.

    PubMed

    Bruyand, Mathias; Thiébaut, Rodolphe; Lawson-Ayayi, Sylvie; Joly, Pierre; Sasco, Annie Jeanne; Mercié, Patrick; Pellegrin, Jean Luc; Neau, Didier; Dabis, François; Morlat, Philippe; Chêne, Geneviève; Bonnet, Fabrice

    2009-10-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients are at higher risk of malignancies. In addition to traditional determinants, a specific deleterious effect of HIV and immunodeficiency is speculated. We aimed at studying the association between immunological and virological characteristics of HIV-infected patients in care and the risk of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)-defining and non-AIDS-defining malignancies. Patients consecutively enrolled in the hospital-based Agence Nationale de Recherche sur le Sida (ANRS) CO3 Aquitaine Cohort were included if the duration of follow-up was >3 months during the period 1998-2006. Multivariate modeling used an extended Cox proportional hazards model for time-dependent covariates and delayed entry. The 4194 patients included in the study developed 251 first malignancies during 22,389 person-years. A higher incidence of AIDS-defining malignancies (107 cases) was independently associated with (1) both longer and current exposures to a plasma HIV RNA level >500 copies/mL (hazard ratio [HR], 1.27 per year [P<.001] and 3.30 [P<.001], respectively) and (2) both longer and current exposure to a CD4(+) cell count <200 cells/mm(3) (HR, 1.36 per year [P<.001] and 6.33 [P<.001], respectively). A higher incidence of non-AIDS-defining malignancies (144 cases) was independently associated with longer and current exposure to a CD4(+) cell count <500 cells/mm(3) (HR, 1.13 per year [P=.01] and 2.07 [P<.001], respectively) and male sex (HR, 1.69; P=.02) but not with plasma HIV RNA level (P=.49 and P=.10 for cumulative and current exposures, respectively). Uncontrolled plasma HIV RNA level was independently associated with a higher likelihood of developing AIDS-defining malignancies, whereas immunosuppression was associated with a higher risk of developing any type of malignancies. Antiretroviral treatment should aim at reaching and maintaining a CD4(+) count >500 cells/mm(3) to prevent the occurrence of malignancy, this should be

  3. Acceptability of exclusive breast-feeding with early cessation to prevent HIV transmission through breast milk, ANRS 1201/1202 Ditrame Plus, Abidjan, Cote d'Ivoire

    PubMed Central

    Becquet, Renaud; Ekouevi, Didier K.; Viho, Ida; Sakarovitch, Charlotte; Toure, Hassan; Castetbon, Katia; Coulibaly, Nacoumba; Timite-Konan, Marguerite; Bequet, Laurence; Dabis, François; Leroy, Valériane

    2005-01-01

    Objective We assessed the uptake of a nutritional intervention promoting exclusive breastfeeding with early cessation between three and four months of age to reduce postnatal transmission of HIV in Abidjan, Côte d’Ivoire. Design Between March 2001 and March 2003, HIV infected pregnant women who had received a perinatal antiretroviral prophylaxis were systematically offered prenatally two infant feeding interventions: either artificial feeding, or exclusive breastfeeding during three months then early cessation of breastfeeding. Mother-infant pairs were closely followed for a period of two years, with continuous nutritional counseling and detailed collection of feeding practices. Results Among the 557 mothers enrolled, 262 (47%) initiated breastfeeding. Of these women, the probability of practicing exclusive breastfeeding from birth was 18% and 10% at one and three months of age, respectively. Complete cessation of breastfeeding was obtained in 45% and 63% by four and six months of age, respectively. Environmental factors such as living with partner’s family were associated with failure to initiate early cessation of breastfeeding. Conclusions Acceptability of exclusive breastfeeding was low in this urban population. However, shortening the duration of breastfeeding appeared to be feasible. Further investigations are ongoing to fully evaluate the safety and effectiveness of this intervention in reducing breastmilk HIV transmission. PMID:16284538

  4. ANR storage - a success story

    SciTech Connect

    Cordes, J.F.

    1980-11-01

    In only 2 years, ANR Storage has sold 50 billion CF of long-term underground natural gas storage service and another 15 billion CF under short-term contracts. Most of the new storage capacity lies in the depleted gas fields of Michigan's Niagaran reef trend, where the low development costs, superior field performance, and minimal base-gas requirements make such service economically attractive. Via the in-place transmission-pipeline network, ANR's storage customers now serve 15 states, some over 1000 miles from the storage fields. In partnership with Panhandle Eastern Pipe Line Co., ANR is now developing the Borchers North storage reservoir in southwestern Kansas, which will have a 35 billion CF working capacity. ANR invested $92.4 million in its Michigan operation; the Kansas project will cost about $73 million.

  5. 76 FR 34971 - ANR Pipeline Company; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-15

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission ANR Pipeline Company; Notice of Application Take notice that on May 25, ANR Pipeline Company (ANR), 717 Texas Street, Houston, Texas 77002-2761, filed with the Commission an... directed to Rene Staeb, Manager, Project Determinations & Regulatory Administration, ANR Pipeline...

  6. 76 FR 51017 - ANR Pipeline Company; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-17

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission ANR Pipeline Company; Notice of Application Take notice that on August 2, 2010, ANR Pipeline Company (ANR), 717 Texas Street, Houston, Texas 77002, filed in Docket No. CP11-527... Texas. Specifically, ANR proposes to abandon its present and future obligation to provide...

  7. 75 FR 67351 - ANR Pipeline Company; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-02

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission ANR Pipeline Company; Notice of Application October 26, 2010. Take notice that on October 18, 2010, ANR Pipeline Company (ANR), 717 Texas Street, Houston, Texas 77002-2761... offshore Louisiana in the ] Gulf of Mexico. ANR also requests a determination that upon abandonment,...

  8. 76 FR 61683 - ANR Pipeline Company; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-05

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission ANR Pipeline Company; Notice of Application Take notice that on September 22, 2011, ANR Pipeline Company (ANR Pipeline), 717 Texas Street, Suite 2400, Houston, Texas 77002-2761... should be directed to Rene Staeb, Manager, Project Determinations & Regulatory Administration,...

  9. 77 FR 11521 - ANR Pipeline Company; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-27

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission ANR Pipeline Company; Notice of Application Take notice that on February 3, 2012, ANR Pipeline Company (ANR), 717 Texas Street, Houston, Texas 77002-2761 filed with the Federal... should be directed to Rene Staeb, Manager, Project Determinations & Regulatory Administration,...

  10. 76 FR 56191 - Notice of Application; ANR Pipeline Company

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-12

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Notice of Application; ANR Pipeline Company Take notice that on August 23, 2011, ANR Pipeline Company (ANR), 717 Texas Street, Houston, Texas 77002-2761, filed in the above... shippers to maintain 101,135 dekatherms per day (Dth/day) of primary receipt point capacity at...

  11. Sound source identification with ANR earmuffs.

    PubMed

    Abel, S M; Shelly Paik, J E

    2005-01-01

    The effect of hearing protective earmuffs which incorporate active noise reduction (ANR) on sound source identification was studied. The purpose was determine whether ANR interfered with the encoding of cues normally used for directional hearing. Right/left, front/back and within quadrant confusions were assessed in quiet using a circular array of eight loudspeakers. Three stimuli, one-third octave bands centred at 0.5 kHz and 4 kHz and broadband noise, were presented. These enabled an assessment of the utilization of mainly interaural time-of-arrival and level differences, and binaural and spectral cues in combination, respectively. Two groups of normal hearing subjects aged 18-30 and 40-55 years, half male and half female, participated. Overall, age, gender, and ANR were not significant determinants of outcome. The probably of correctly discriminating among the eight speakers decreased significantly with the muffs worn, relative to unoccluded listening by 10%, 35% and 40% for the 0.5 kHz, 4 kHz and broadband stimuli, respectively. The pattern of errors indicated that the earmuffs interfered with the encoding of both binaural (interaural level differences) and spectral cues. With ANR small additional right/left confusions were observed for the low-frequency stimulus (time-of arrival cue) for speakers close to the midline axis. The results provide further evidence that earmuffs should not be used in situations where the perception of the direction of hazard is a concern. ANR technology does not appear to increase the handicap.

  12. [Smoking cessation].

    PubMed

    Mori, Masahide; Maekura, Ryoji

    2011-10-01

    Smoking has been determined as a cause of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in most patients. Smoking cessation should be stressed above everything else for COPD patients under all conditions. A smoking habit is determined not as a preference but as a dependency on tobacco; therefore, smoking cessation is difficult solely based on one's motivation. Smoking cessation therapy is employed with cessation aids. Now, we can use nicotine-containing gum, patches, and the nicotine-receptor partial agonist varenicline. First, nicotine from tobacco is replaced with a nicotin patch, or a nicotine-free condition is induced by varenicline. Subsequently, the drugs are gradually reduced. In Japan, smoking cessation therapy is covered by public health insurance as definite requirements.

  13. 75 FR 51036 - ANR Pipeline Company; Notice of Technical Conference

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-18

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission ANR Pipeline Company; Notice of Technical Conference August 11, 2010. By... transporting of Associated Liquids discussed in the July 30, 2010 order. \\1\\ ANR Pipeline Company, 132...

  14. Smoking cessation.

    PubMed

    Marlow, Scott P; Stoller, James K

    2003-12-01

    Cigarette smoking is the primary cause of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and smoking cessation is the most effective means of stopping the progression of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Worldwide, approximately a billion people smoke cigarettes and 80% reside in low-income and middle-income countries. Though in the United States there has been a substantial decline in cigarette smoking since 1964, when the Surgeon General's report first reviewed smoking, smoking remains widespread in the United States today (about 23% of the population in 2001). Nicotine is addictive, but there are now effective drugs and behavioral interventions to assist people to overcome the addiction. Available evidence shows that smoking cessation can be helped with counseling, nicotine replacement, and bupropion. Less-studied interventions, including hypnosis, acupuncture, aversive therapy, exercise, lobeline, anxiolytics, mecamylamine, opioid agonists, and silver acetate, have assisted some people in smoking cessation, but none of those interventions has strong research evidence of efficacy. To promote smoking cessation, physicians should discuss with their smoking patients "relevance, risk, rewards, roadblocks, and repetition," and with patients who are willing to attempt to quit, physicians should use the 5-step system of "ask, advise, assess, assist, and arrange." An ideal smoking cessation program is individualized, accounting for the reasons the person smokes, the environment in which smoking occurs, available resources to quit, and individual preferences about how to quit. The clinician should bear in mind that quitting smoking can be very difficult, so it is important to be patient and persistent in developing, implementing, and adjusting each patient's smoking-cessation program. One of the most effective behavioral interventions is advice from a health care professional; it seems not to matter whether the advice is from a doctor, respiratory therapist, nurse, or other

  15. Links between Anr and Quorum Sensing in Pseudomonas aeruginosa Biofilms.

    PubMed

    Hammond, John H; Dolben, Emily F; Smith, T Jarrod; Bhuju, Sabin; Hogan, Deborah A

    2015-09-01

    In Pseudomonas aeruginosa, the transcription factor Anr controls the cellular response to low oxygen or anoxia. Anr activity is high in oxygen-limited environments, including biofilms and populations associated with chronic infections, and Anr is necessary for persistence in a model of pulmonary infection. In this study, we characterized the Anr regulon in biofilm-grown cells at 1% oxygen in the laboratory strain PAO1 and in a quorum sensing (QS)-deficient clinical isolate, J215. As expected, transcripts related to denitrification, arginine fermentation, high-affinity cytochrome oxidases, and CupA fimbriae were lower in the Δanr derivatives. In addition, we observed that transcripts associated with quorum sensing regulation, iron acquisition and storage, type VI secretion, and the catabolism of aromatic compounds were also differentially expressed in the Δanr strains. Prior reports have shown that quorum sensing-defective mutants have higher levels of denitrification, and we found that multiple Anr-regulated processes, including denitrification, were strongly inversely proportional to quorum sensing in both transcriptional and protein-based assays. We also found that in LasR-defective strains but not their LasR-intact counterparts, Anr regulated the production of the 4-hydroxy-2-alkylquinolines, which play roles in quorum sensing and interspecies interactions. These data show that Anr was required for the expression of important metabolic pathways in low-oxygen biofilms, and they reveal an expanded and compensatory role for Anr in the regulation of virulence-related genes in quorum sensing mutants, such as those commonly isolated from infections. Pseudomonas aeruginosa causes acute ocular, soft tissue, and pulmonary infections, as well as chronic infections in the airways of cystic fibrosis patients. P. aeruginosa uses quorum sensing (QS) to regulate virulence, but mutations in the gene encoding the master regulator of QS, lasR, are frequently observed in

  16. 77 FR 15097 - ANR Storage Company; Notice of Petition for Declaratory Order

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-14

    ... rates for the natural gas storage services performed using the ANR Storage Facilities; and (2) approving... Energy Regulatory Commission ANR Storage Company; Notice of Petition for Declaratory Order Take notice... 284.501, et seq., (2011), ANR Storage Company (ANR Storage) filed a petition for a declaratory...

  17. 78 FR 14531 - ANR Storage Company; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-06

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission ANR Storage Company; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization Take notice that on February 21, 2013, ANR Storage Company (ANR Storage), 717 Texas Street, Suite 2400... 157.205 and 157.214 of the Commission's regulations under the Natural Gas Act (NGA). ANR Storage...

  18. 76 FR 37104 - ANR Pipeline Company; Notice of Application for Abandonment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-24

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission ANR Pipeline Company; Notice of Application for Abandonment Take notice that on June 9, 2011, ANR Pipeline Company (ANR), 717 Texas Street, Houston, Texas 77002-2761, filed in..., Manager, Project Determinations & Regulatory Administration, ANR Pipeline Company, 717 Texas...

  19. 78 FR 23551 - ANR Pipeline Company; Notice of Application for Abandonment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-19

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission ANR Pipeline Company; Notice of Application for Abandonment Take notice that on April 4, 2013, ANR Pipeline Company (ANR), 717 Texas Street, Houston, TX 77002-2761, filed in... Regulations under the Natural Gas Act (NGA) as amended. ANR seeks authority to abandon by sale...

  20. 76 FR 71014 - ANR Pipeline Company; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-16

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission ANR Pipeline Company; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization Take notice that on November 1, 2011, ANR Pipeline Company (ANR), 717 Texas Street, Houston, Texas 77002... (CS1) storage field located in Kalkaska County, Michigan. Specifically, ANR proposes to increase...

  1. 78 FR 36770 - ANR Pipeline Company; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-19

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission ANR Pipeline Company; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization Take that on May 31, 2013, ANR Pipeline Company (ANR), 717 Texas Street, Houston, Texas 77002-2761, filed in... Commission's Regulations under the Natural Gas Act, and ANR's blanket certificate issued in Docket No....

  2. 75 FR 62533 - ANR Pipeline Company; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-12

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission ANR Pipeline Company; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization October 4, 2010. Take notice that on September 23, 2010, ANR Pipeline Company (ANR), 717 Texas Street, Suite... of the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission's regulations under the Natural Gas Act (NGA) and...

  3. 76 FR 79669 - ANR Pipeline Company; Notice of Application for Abandonment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-22

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission ANR Pipeline Company; Notice of Application for Abandonment Take notice that on December 5, 2011, ANR Pipeline Company (ANR), 717 Texas Street, Houston, Texas 77002-2761, filed... application should be directed to Rene Staeb, Manager, Project Determinations & Regulatory Administration,...

  4. 76 FR 25686 - ANR Pipeline Company; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-05

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission ANR Pipeline Company; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization Take notice that on April 18, 2011, ANR Pipeline Company (ANR), 717 Texas Street, Suite 2400, Houston, TX... portions of its 24-inch natural gas pipeline located in Federal waters, offshore Louisiana, under...

  5. An integrated approach to demonstrating the ANR pathway of proanthocyanidin biosynthesis in plants.

    PubMed

    Peng, Qing-Zhong; Zhu, Yue; Liu, Zhong; Du, Ci; Li, Ke-Gang; Xie, De-Yu

    2012-09-01

    Proanthocyanidins (PAs) are oligomers or polymers of plant flavan-3-ols and are important to plant adaptation in extreme environmental conditions. The characterization of anthocyanidin reductase (ANR) and leucoanthocyanidin reductase (LAR) has demonstrated the different biogenesis of four stereo-configurations of flavan-3-ols. It is important to understand whether ANR and the ANR pathway widely occur in the plant kingdom. Here, we report an integrated approach to demonstrate the ANR pathway in plants. This includes different methods to extract native ANR from different tissues of eight angiosperm plants (Lotus corniculatus, Desmodium uncinatum, Medicago sativa, Hordeum vulgare, Vitis vinifera, Vitis bellula, Parthenocissus heterophylla, and Cerasus serrulata) and one fern plant (Dryopteris pycnopteroides), a general enzymatic analysis approach to demonstrate the ANR activity, high-performance liquid chromatography-based fingerprinting to demonstrate (-)-epicatechin and other flavan-3-ol molecules, and phytochemical analysis of PAs. Results demonstrate that in addition to leaves of M. sativa, tissues of other eight plants contain an active ANR pathway. Particularly, the leaves, flowers and pods of D. uncinatum, which is a model plant to study LAR and the LAR pathways, are demonstrated to express an active ANR pathway. This finding suggests that the ANR pathway involves PA biosynthesis in D. uncinatum. In addition, a sequence BLAST analysis reveals that ANR homologs have been sequenced in plants from both gymnosperms and angiosperms. These data show that the ANR pathway to PA biosynthesis occurs in both seed and seedless vascular plants.

  6. The global regulator ANR is essential for Pseudomonas chlororaphis strain PA23 biocontrol.

    PubMed

    Nandi, Munmun; Selin, Carrie; Brawerman, Gabriel; Fernando, W G Dilantha; de Kievit, Teresa R

    2016-12-01

    Pseudomonas chlororaphis PA23 is a biocontrol agent capable of protecting canola from stem rot disease caused by the fungus Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. The focus of the current study was to elucidate the role of the transcriptional regulator ANR in the biocontrol capabilities of this bacterium. An anr mutant was created, PA23anr, that was devoid antifungal activity. In other pseudomonads, ANR is essential for regulating HCN production. Characterization of PA23anr revealed that, in addition to HCN, ANR controls phenazine (PHZ), pyrrolnitrin (PRN), protease and autoinducer (AHL) signal molecule production. In gene expression studies, hcnA, phzA, prnA and phzI were found to be downregulated, consistent with our endproduct analysis. Because the phenotype of PA23anr closely resembles that of quorum sensing (QS)-deficient strains, we explored whether there is a connection between ANR and the PhzRI QS system. Both phzI and phzR are positively regulated by ANR, whereas PhzR represses anr transcription. Complementation of PA23anr with pUCP-phzR, C6-HSL or both yielded no change in phenotype. Conversely, PA23phzR harbouring pUCP23-anr exhibited partial-to-full restoration of antifungal activity, HCN, PRN and AHL production together with hcnA, prnA, phzI and rpoS expression. PHZ and protease production remained unchanged indicating that ANR can complement the QS-deficient phenotype with respect to some but not all traits. Our experiments were conducted at atmospheric O2 levels underscoring the fact that ANR has a profound effect on PA23 physiology under aerobic conditions.

  7. Anr and its activation by PlcH activity in Pseudomonas aeruginosa host colonization and virulence.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Angelyca A; Gross, Maegan J; Daniels, Emily F; Hampton, Thomas H; Hammond, John H; Vallet-Gely, Isabelle; Dove, Simon L; Stanton, Bruce A; Hogan, Deborah A

    2013-07-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa hemolytic phospholipase C (PlcH) degrades phosphatidylcholine (PC), an abundant lipid in cell membranes and lung surfactant. A ΔplcHR mutant, known to be defective in virulence in animal models, was less able to colonize epithelial cell monolayers and was defective in biofilm formation on plastic when grown in lung surfactant. Microarray analyses found that strains defective in PlcH production had lower levels of Anr-regulated transcripts than the wild type. PC degradation stimulated the Anr regulon in an Anr-dependent manner under conditions where Anr activity was submaximal because of the presence of oxygen. Two PC catabolites, choline and glycine betaine (GB), were sufficient to stimulate Anr activity, and their catabolism was required for Anr activation. The addition of choline or GB to glucose-containing medium did not alter Anr protein levels, growth rates, or respiratory activity, and Anr activation could not be attributed to the osmoprotectant functions of GB. The Δanr mutant was defective in virulence in a mouse pneumonia model. Several lines of evidence indicate that Anr is important for the colonization of biotic and abiotic surfaces in both P. aeruginosa PAO1 and PA14 and that increases in Anr activity resulted in enhanced biofilm formation. Our data suggest that PlcH activity promotes Anr activity in oxic environments and that Anr activity contributes to virulence, even in the acute infection phase, where low oxygen tensions are not expected. This finding highlights the relationships among in vivo bacterial metabolism, the activity of the oxygen-sensitive regulator Anr, and virulence.

  8. Severe Morbidity According to Sex in the Era of Combined Antiretroviral Therapy: The ANRS CO3 Aquitaine Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Bruyand, Mathias; Decoin, Madeleine; Bonnet, Fabrice; Mercié, Patrick; Neau, Didier; Cazanave, Charles; Pellegrin, Jean-Luc; Dabis, François; Morlat, Philippe; Chêne, Geneviève

    2014-01-01

    Objective To describe trends and determinants of severe morbidity in HIV-infected women and men. Design A French prospective cohort of HIV-infected patients of both sexes and all transmission categories. Methods We used hospital admission data from January 2000 to December 2008. A severe morbid event (SME) was defined as a clinical event requiring hospitalization for ≥48 h, several events could be reported during hospitalization. Yearly incidence rates of SME were estimated and compared using Generalized Estimating Equations. Results Among 4,987 patients (27% women), followed for a median of 8.7 years, 1,473 (30%) were hospitalized (3,049 hospitalizations for 5,963 SME). The yearly incidence rate of hospitalization decreased in men, from 155 in 2000 to 80/1,000 person-years (PY) in 2008 and in women, from 125 to 71/1,000 PY, (p<0.001). This trend was observed for all SME except for hepatic events, stable in men (15 to 13/1,000 PY) and increasing in women (2.5 to 11.5), cardiovascular events increasing in men (6 to 10/1,000 PY) and in women (6 to 14) and non-AIDS non-hepatic malignancies increasing in men (4 to 7/1,000 PY) and stable in women (2.5). Intraveneous drug users, age >50 years, HIV RNA >10,000 copies, CD4 <500/mm3, AIDS stage, hepatitis C co-infection and cardiovascular risk factors (diabetes, high blood pressure, and tobacco use) were associated with SME. Conclusions HIV-infected individuals in care in France require less and less frequently hospitalization. Women are now presenting with severe hepatic and cardio-vascular events. Disparities in SME between men and women are primarily explained by different exposure patterns to risk factors. Women should be targeted to benefit cardiovascular prevention policies as well as men. PMID:25076050

  9. Severe morbidity according to sex in the era of combined antiretroviral therapy: the ANRS CO3 Aquitaine Cohort.

    PubMed

    Hessamfar, Mojgan; Colin, Céline; Bruyand, Mathias; Decoin, Madeleine; Bonnet, Fabrice; Mercié, Patrick; Neau, Didier; Cazanave, Charles; Pellegrin, Jean-Luc; Dabis, François; Morlat, Philippe; Chêne, Geneviève

    2014-01-01

    To describe trends and determinants of severe morbidity in HIV-infected women and men. A French prospective cohort of HIV-infected patients of both sexes and all transmission categories. We used hospital admission data from January 2000 to December 2008. A severe morbid event (SME) was defined as a clinical event requiring hospitalization for ≥48 h, several events could be reported during hospitalization. Yearly incidence rates of SME were estimated and compared using Generalized Estimating Equations. Among 4,987 patients (27% women), followed for a median of 8.7 years, 1,473 (30%) were hospitalized (3,049 hospitalizations for 5,963 SME). The yearly incidence rate of hospitalization decreased in men, from 155 in 2000 to 80/1,000 person-years (PY) in 2008 and in women, from 125 to 71/1,000 PY, (p<0.001). This trend was observed for all SME except for hepatic events, stable in men (15 to 13/1,000 PY) and increasing in women (2.5 to 11.5), cardiovascular events increasing in men (6 to 10/1,000 PY) and in women (6 to 14) and non-AIDS non-hepatic malignancies increasing in men (4 to 7/1,000 PY) and stable in women (2.5). Intraveneous drug users, age >50 years, HIV RNA >10,000 copies, CD4 <500/mm3, AIDS stage, hepatitis C co-infection and cardiovascular risk factors (diabetes, high blood pressure, and tobacco use) were associated with SME. HIV-infected individuals in care in France require less and less frequently hospitalization. Women are now presenting with severe hepatic and cardio-vascular events. Disparities in SME between men and women are primarily explained by different exposure patterns to risk factors. Women should be targeted to benefit cardiovascular prevention policies as well as men.

  10. The effects of mutation of the anr gene on the aerobic respiratory chain of Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Ray, A; Williams, H D

    1997-11-15

    The anr gene of Pseudomonas aeruginosa encodes a transcriptional regulator of anaerobic gene expression, homologous to the Fnr protein of Escherichia coli. We report here that Anr has a role in regulating the activity of the aerobic respiratory chain of P. aeruginosa. Strains with internal deletions in their anr gene had lowered levels of membrane bound cytochromes whilst the activity of the cytochrome c oxidase, cytochrome co (likely to be a cytochrome cbb3-type oxidase), and the cyanide-insensitive respiratory pathway was markedly higher than in the wild-type strains. These data, and the finding that provision of multiple copies of the anr gene led to severe repression of these respiratory activities, suggest that Anr is a repressor of aerobic respiratory pathways and possibly the terminal oxidases themselves. In contrast, Anr activated cytochrome c peroxidase, a respiratory chain linked enzyme induced under low oxygen conditions.

  11. Effect of Assistive Device for Neck Retraction (ANR) on Neck Muscles during Neck Retraction Exercise.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dong-Hyun; Kwon, Hun; Yoo, Won-Gyu

    2013-05-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of present study was to develop an exercise device for assisting neck retraction exercise and to investigate its effectiveness. [Subjects] Fifteen male subjects were recruited. [Methods] The subjects performed the neck retraction exercises with and without assistive device for neck retraction (ANR). EMG activities of the lower cervical erector spinae (LCE), and sternocleidomatoid (SCM) muscles were recorded. [Results] The ANR condition significantly increased LCE activation compared to the control condition. The ANR condition significantly decreased SCM activation compared to the control condition. [Conclusion] We suggest that the ANR condition will help the efficacy of the neck retraction exercise.

  12. The Density and Compressibility of BaCO3-SrCO3-CaCO3-K2CO3-Na2CO3-Li2CO3 Liquids: New Measurements and a Systematic Trend with Cation Field Strength

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hurt, S. M.; Lange, R. A.; Ai, Y.

    2015-12-01

    The volumetric properties of multi-component carbonate liquids are required to extend thermodynamic models that describe partial melting of the deep mantle (e.g. pMELTS; Ghiorso et al., 2003) to carbonate-bearing lithologies. Carbonate in the mantle is an important reservoir of carbon, which is released to the atmosphere as CO2 through volcanism, and thus contributes to the carbon cycle. Although MgCO3 is the most important carbonate component in the mantle, it is not possible to directly measure the 1-bar density and compressibility of MgCO3 liquid because, like other alkaline-earth carbonates, it decomposes at a temperature lower than its melting temperature. Despite this challenge, Liu and Lange (2003) and O'Leary et al. (2015) showed that the one bar molar volume, thermal expansion and compressibility of the CaCO3 liquid component could be obtained by measuring the density and sound speeds of stable liquids in the CaCO3-Li2CO3-Na2CO3-K2CO3 quaternary system at one bar. In this study, this same strategy is employed on SrCO3- and BaCO3-bearing alkali carbonate liquids. The density and sound speed of seven liquids in the SrCO3-Li2CO3-Na2CO3-K2CO3 quaternary and three liquids in the BaCO3-Li2CO3-Na2CO3-K2CO3 quaternary were measured from 739-1367K, with SrCO3 and BaCO3 concentrations ranging from 10-50 mol%. The density measurements were made using the double-bob Archimedean method and sound speeds were obtained with a frequency-sweep acoustic interferometer. The molar volume and sound speed measurements were used to calculate the isothermal compressibility of each liquid, and the results show the volumetric properties mix ideally with composition. The partial molar volume and compressibility of the SrCO3 and BaCO3 components are compared to those obtained for the CaCO3 component as a function of cation field strength. The results reveal a systematic trend that allows the partial molar volume and compressibility of the MgCO3 liquid component to be estimated.

  13. Anaerobic growth and cyanide synthesis of Pseudomonas aeruginosa depend on anr, a regulatory gene homologous with fnr of Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Zimmermann, A; Reimmann, C; Galimand, M; Haas, D

    1991-06-01

    Anaerobic growth of Pseudomonas aeruginosa on nitrate or arginine requires the anr gene, which codes for a positive control element (ANR) capable of functionally complementing an fnr mutation in Escherichia coli. The anr gene was sequenced; it showed 51% identity with the fnr gene at the amino acid sequence level. Four cysteine residues known to be essential in the FNR protein are conserved in ANR. The anr gene product (deduced Mr 27,129) was visualized by the maxicell method and migrated like a 32 kDa protein in gel electrophoresis under denaturing conditions. An anr mutant of P. aeruginosa constructed by gene replacement was defective in nitrate respiration, arginine deiminase activity, and hydrogen cyanide biosynthesis, underscoring the diverse metabolic functions of ANR during oxygen limitation. Pseudomonas fluorescens, Pseudomonas putida, Pseudomonas syringae, and Pseudomonas mendocina all had a functional analogue of ANR, indicating that similar anaerobic control mechanisms exist in these bacteria.

  14. 78 FR 59927 - ANR Pipeline Company; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-30

    ..., Jefferson, and Des Moines County, Iowa (Iowa Fertilizer Project). ANR states that the Iowa Fertilizer Project will deliver 81,000 dekatherms per day to a new nitrogen fertilizer manufacturing plant. ANR estimates the cost of the Iowa Fertilizer Project to be approximately $15 million, all as more fully...

  15. Anaerobic activation of the entire denitrification pathway in Pseudomonas aeruginosa requires Anr, an analog of Fnr.

    PubMed

    Ye, R W; Haas, D; Ka, J O; Krishnapillai, V; Zimmermann, A; Baird, C; Tiedje, J M

    1995-06-01

    The Pseudomonas aeruginosa gene anr, which encodes a structural and functional analog of the anaerobic regulator Fnr in Escherichia coli, was mapped to the SpeI fragment R, which is at about 59 min on the genomic map of P. aeruginosa PAO1. Wild-type P. aeruginosa PAO1 grew under anaerobic conditions with nitrate, nitrite, and nitrous oxide as alternative electron acceptors. An anr deletion mutant, PAO6261, was constructed. It was unable to grow with these alternative electron acceptors; however, its ability to denitrify was restored upon the introduction of the wild-type anr gene. In addition, the activities of two enzymes in the denitrification pathway, nitrite reductase and nitric oxide reductase, were not detectable under oxygen-limiting conditions in strain PAO6261 but were restored when complemented with the anr+ gene. These results indicate that the anr gene product plays a key role in anaerobically activating the entire denitrification pathway.

  16. Global regulator Anr represses PlcH phospholipase activity in Pseudomonas aeruginosa when oxygen is limiting.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Angelyca A; Daniels, Emily F; Hammond, John H; Willger, Sven D; Hogan, Deborah A

    2014-10-01

    Haemolytic phospholipase C (PlcH) is a potent virulence and colonization factor that is expressed at high levels by Pseudomonas aeruginosa within the mammalian host. The phosphorylcholine liberated from phosphatidylcholine and sphingomyelin by PlcH is further catabolized into molecules that both support growth and further induce plcH expression. We have shown previously that the catabolism of PlcH-released choline leads to increased activity of Anr, a global transcriptional regulator that promotes biofilm formation and virulence. Here, we demonstrated the presence of a negative feedback loop in which Anr repressed plcH transcription and we proposed that this regulation allowed for PlcH levels to be maintained in a way that promotes productive host-pathogen interactions. Evidence for Anr-mediated regulation of PlcH came from data showing that growth at low oxygen (1%) repressed PlcH abundance and plcH transcription in the WT, and that plcH transcription was enhanced in an Δanr mutant. The plcH promoter featured an Anr consensus sequence that was conserved across all P. aeruginosa genomes and mutation of conserved nucleotides within the Anr consensus sequence increased plcH expression under hypoxic conditions. The Anr-regulated transcription factor Dnr was not required for this effect. The loss of Anr was not sufficient to completely derepress plcH transcription as GbdR, a positive regulator of plcH, was required for expression. Overexpression of Anr was sufficient to repress plcH transcription even at 21 % oxygen. Anr repressed plcH expression and phospholipase C activity in a cell culture model for P. aeruginosa-epithelial cell interactions.

  17. Smoking cessation medications

    MedlinePlus

    Smoking cessation - medications; Smokeless tobacco - medications; Medications for stopping tobacco ... Creating a plan to help you deal with smoking urges. Getting support from a doctor, counselor, or ...

  18. The coordinate regulation of multiple terminal oxidases by the Pseudomonas putida ANR global regulator.

    PubMed

    Ugidos, Ana; Morales, Gracia; Rial, Eduardo; Williams, Huw D; Rojo, Fernando

    2008-07-01

    Pseudomonas putida KT2440 contains a branched aerobic respiratory chain with multiple terminal oxidases. Their relative proportion varies according to environmental conditions. The role of the oxygen-responsive ANR global regulator on expression of these terminal oxidases was analysed. During exponential growth in a highly aerated complete medium, ANR activated expression of the Cbb3-1 terminal oxidase (equivalent to Pseudomonas aeruginosa Cbb3-2), but had little role on expression of other terminal oxidases. In early stationary phase, or under oxygen limitation, inactivation of the anr gene led to increased expression of the bo(3)-type cytochrome (Cyo) and cyanide-insensitive (CIO) terminal oxidases, and to a much lower expression of Cbb3-1. DNase I footprints identified ANR binding sites at the promoters for these oxidases. Their location suggests that ANR is a transcriptional activator of Cbb3-1 genes and a repressor of CIO genes, consistent with expression data. ANR binding sites at the promoter for Cyo genes suggests a complex regulation in combination with other factors. Therefore, ANR coordinates expression of Cyo, CIO and Cbb3-1, but does not influence cytochrome aa3 and Cbb3-2 terminal oxidases under the conditions analysed. Functional assays showed that Cyo has a leading role during aerobic exponential growth, while Cbb3-1 becomes very important in stationary phase.

  19. ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION REPORT ANR PIPELINE COMPANY PARAMETRIC EMISSIONS MONITORING SYSTEM (PEMS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Environmental Technology Verification report discusses the technology and performance of a gaseous-emissions monitoring system for large, natural-gas-fired internal combustion engines. The device tested is the Parametric Emissions Monitoring System (PEMS) manufactured by ANR ...

  20. Anaerobic adaptation in Pseudomonas aeruginosa: definition of the Anr and Dnr regulons.

    PubMed

    Trunk, Katharina; Benkert, Beatrice; Quäck, Nicole; Münch, Richard; Scheer, Maurice; Garbe, Julia; Jänsch, Lothar; Trost, Matthias; Wehland, Jürgen; Buer, Jan; Jahn, Martina; Schobert, Max; Jahn, Dieter

    2010-06-01

    The anaerobic metabolism of the opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa is important for growth and biofilm formation during persistent infections. The two Fnr-type transcription factors Anr and Dnr regulate different parts of the underlying network in response to oxygen tension and NO. Little is known about all members of the Anr and Dnr regulons and the mediated immediate response to oxygen depletion. Comprehensive transcriptome and bioinformatics analyses in combination with a limited proteome analyses were used for the investigation of the P. aeruginosa response to an immediate oxygen depletion and for definition of the corresponding Anr and Dnr regulons. We observed at first the activation of fermentative pathways for immediate energy generation followed by induction of alternative respiratory chains. A solid position weight matrix model was deduced from the experimentally identified Anr boxes and used for identification of 170 putative Anr boxes in potential P. aeruginosa promoter regions. The combination with the experimental data unambiguously identified 130 new members for the Anr and Dnr regulons. The basis for the understanding of two regulons of P. aeruginosa central to biofilm formation and infection is now defined.

  1. Melting Relations of Multicomponent Carbonate System MgCO3 - FeCO3- CaCO3- Na2CO3 at 12-23 GPa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spivak, Anna; Solopova, Natalia; Litvin, Yuriy; Dubrovinsky, Leonid; Zakharchenko, Egor

    2014-05-01

    Considerable attention is focused on high-pressure high-temperature experimental study of melting phase relations of carbonates which were involved into a 'super-deep' diamond genesis. High-pressure stability of carbonate melts and their role in 'ultra-deep' diamonds genesis are most essential. Experimental study of melting relations of multicomponent carbonate system was carried out using multi-anvil press at the pressures 12 - 23 GPa and temperatures 800 to 1650 oC. Chemical compositions of starting carbonate system used for melting experiment were prepared by mixing: FeCO3 - 26,00; MgCO3- 26,00; CaCO3 - 25,00; Na2CO3 - 23,00 wt %. A region of partial melting for the system is experimentally determined. The partial melting field is arranged between low-temperature boundary of eutectics melting (solidus line) of the multicomponent carbonate and the boundary of complete melting (liquidus line) at higher temperature. From experimental observations, a Mg-Fe carbonate solid solution is the liquidus phase. At temperature lowering, the assemblage (Mg,Fe)CO3 + (Ca,Na2,Fe)CO3 + L (liquid) is formed. Then, the invariant eutectic assemblage (Mg,Fe)CO3 + (Ca,Na2,Fe)CO3 + Na2(Ca,Fe)(CO3)2+ L (liquid) which is determining for subsolidus assemblage (Mg,Fe)CO3 + (Ca,Na2,Fe)CO3 + Na2(Ca,Fe)(CO3)2 is formed. Next to liquidus line is one-phase field of completely miscible multicomponent carbonate melt. On the whole, the results demonstrate phase relations of solid carbonates and multicomponent carbonate liquid in the immediate vicinity to the low-temperature melting boundary. The early melting of the multicomponent carbonate system is compatible with the lower mantle geothermal conditions because the primary melting temperatures are noticeably below than the geothermal values. It is significant that multicomponent carbonate melts are stable and completely miscible under conditions as partial so complete melting. Thus, high-pressure high-temperature experimental data demonstrate

  2. Introduction of apple ANR genes into tobacco inhibits expression of both CHI and DFR genes in flowers, leading to loss of anthocyanin.

    PubMed

    Han, Yuepeng; Vimolmangkang, Sornkanok; Soria-Guerra, Ruth Elena; Korban, Schuyler S

    2012-04-01

    Three genes encoding anthocyanidin reductase (ANR) in apple (Malus×domestica Borkh.), designated MdANR1, MdANR2a, and MdANR2b, have been cloned and characterized. MdANR1 shows 91% identity in coding DNA sequences with MdANR2a and MdANR2b, while MdANR2a and MdANR2b are allelic and share 99% nucleotide sequence identity in the coding region. MdANR1 and MdANR2 genes are located on linkage groups 10 and 5, respectively. Expression levels of both MdANR1 and MdANR2 genes are generally higher in yellow-skinned cv. Golden Delicious than in red-skinned cv. Red Delicious. Transcript accumulation of MdANR1 and MdANR2 genes in fruits gradually decreased throughout fruit development. Ectopic expression of apple MdANR genes in tobacco positively and negatively regulates the biosynthesis of proanthocyanidins (PAs) and anthocyanin, respectively, resulting in white, pale pink-coloured, and white/red variegated flowers. The accumulation of anthocyanin is significantly reduced in all tobacco transgenic flowers, while catechin and epicatechin contents in transgenic flowers are significantly higher than those in flowers of wild-type plants. The inhibition of anthocyanin synthesis in tobacco transgenic flowers overexpressing MdANR genes is probably attributed to down-regulation of CHALCONE ISOMERASE (CHI) and DIHYDROFLAVONOL-4-REDUCTASE (DFR) genes involved in the anthocyanin pathway. Interestingly, several transgenic lines show no detectable transcripts of the gene encoding leucoanthocyanidin reductase (LAR) in flowers, but accumulate higher levels of catechin in flowers of transgenic plants than those of wild-type plants. This finding suggests that the ANR gene may be capable of generating catechin via an alternative route, although this mechanism is yet to be further elucidated.

  3. Reason for clozapine cessation.

    PubMed

    Pai, N B; Vella, S C

    2012-01-01

    Approximately 30% of individuals diagnosed with schizophrenia suffer from treatment-resistant or refractory schizophrenia. The gold standard for treatment of refractory schizophrenia is clozapine. However, a significant number of patients cease clozapine therapy; therefore this study explores patient's motives for cessation. The motives for cessation and duration of clozapine treatment from a retrospective database of 151 patients with schizophrenia or schizo-affective disorder who had ceased clozapine once or more were reviewed, with the motives for cessation coded. The general motives for cessation were non-compliance, own decision, medical, poor response and other. In addition, the medical reasons for cessation were further codified: cardiac complications, neutropenia, fevers, other side effects and pregnancy. The majority of patients ceased clozapine owing to non-compliance with medical protocols or citing their own decision. Approximately half ceased after a period of 6 months or less. Seventeen per cent of patients ceased owing to medical reasons, with the largest proportions discontinuing treatment because of other side effects or neutropenia. Future research should seek to further investigate why patients decide to be non-compliant and formulate their own decision to cease treatment, as this will facilitate strategies to promote adherence amongst these two groups that are potentially the most amenable to change. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  4. Thermal and carbothermic decomposition of Na2CO3 and Li2CO3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jong-Wan; Lee, Hae-Geon

    2001-02-01

    In order to elucidate the decomposition mechanism of Na2CO3 and Li2CO3 in mold-powder systems employed in the continuous casting of steel, decompositions of Na2CO3 and Li2CO3 were investigated using thermogravimetric (TG) and differential scanning calorimetric (DSC) methods at temperatures up to 1200 °C, under a flow of argon gas. For the case of pure Na2CO3, the thermal decomposition started from its melting point and continued as the temperature was increased, but at a very slow rate. For Li2CO3, however, the decomposition occurred at much faster rates than that for Na2CO3. When carbon black was added to the carbonate particles, the decomposition rates of both Na2CO3 and Li2CO3 were significantly enhanced. From mass-balanced calulations and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analyses of the reaction products, it is concluded that decompositions of Na2CO3 and Li2CO3 with carbon black take place according to the respective reactions of Na2CO3 (1) + 2C (s) = 2Na (g) + 3CO (g) and Li2CO3 (l) + C (s) = Li2O (s) + 2CO (g). It was found that liquid droplets of Na2CO3 were initially isolated due to carbon particles surrounding them, but, as the carbon particles were consumed, the liquid droplets were gradually agglomerated. This effected a reduction of the total surface area of the carbonate, resulting in a dependence of the decomposition rate on the amount of carbon black. For the case of Li2CO3, on the other hand, hardly any agglomeration occurred up to the completion of decomposition, and, hence, the rate was almost independent of the amount of carbon black mixed. The apparent activation energies for the decomposition of Na2CO3 and Li2CO3 with carbon black were found to be similar and were estimated to be 180 to 223 kJ mole-1.

  5. Anr, the anaerobic global regulator, modulates the redox state and oxidative stress resistance in Pseudomonas extremaustralis.

    PubMed

    Tribelli, Paula M; Nikel, Pablo I; Oppezzo, Oscar J; López, Nancy I

    2013-02-01

    The role of Anr in oxidative stress resistance was investigated in Pseudomonas extremaustralis, a polyhydroxybutyrate-producing Antarctic bacterium. The absence of Anr caused increased sensitivity to hydrogen peroxide under low oxygen tension. This phenomenon was associated with a decrease in the redox ratio, higher oxygen consumption and higher reactive oxygen species production. Physiological responses of the mutant to the oxidized state included an increase in NADP(H) content, catalase activity and exopolysaccharide production. The wild-type strain showed a sharp decrease in the reduced thiol pool when exposed to hydrogen peroxide, not observed in the mutant strain. In silico analysis of the genome sequence of P. extremaustralis revealed putative Anr binding sites upstream from genes related to oxidative stress. Genes encoding several chaperones and cold shock proteins, a glutathione synthase, a sulfate transporter and a thiol peroxidase were identified as potential targets for Anr regulation. Our results suggest a novel role for Anr in oxidative stress resistance and in redox balance maintenance under conditions of restricted oxygen supply.

  6. Smoking Cessation among Blacks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stotts, R. Craig; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Lung cancer is a serious health problem among blacks, with a mortality rate of 119 per 100,000 black males, compared to 81 per 100,000 for white males. Smoking cessation efforts are most successful when tailored to the black community, using black community networks and broadcast media for black audiences. (SLD)

  7. Smoking Cessation among Blacks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stotts, R. Craig; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Lung cancer is a serious health problem among blacks, with a mortality rate of 119 per 100,000 black males, compared to 81 per 100,000 for white males. Smoking cessation efforts are most successful when tailored to the black community, using black community networks and broadcast media for black audiences. (SLD)

  8. Smoking cessation and COPD.

    PubMed

    Tønnesen, Philip

    2013-03-01

    The mainstay in smoking cessation is counselling in combination with varenicline, nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) or bupropion SR. Varenicline and combination of two NRTs is equally effective, while varenicline alone is more effective than either NRT or bupropion SR. NRT is extremely safe but cardiovascular and psychiatric adverse events with varenicline have been reported. These treatments have also been shown to be effective in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). A model study is the Lung Health Study from the USA. Findings from this study of 5,587 patients with mild COPD showed that repeated smoking cessation for a period of 5 yrs resulted in a quit rate of 37%. After 14.5 yrs the quitters had a higher lung function and a higher survival rate. A study with a new nicotine formulation, a mouth spray, showed high relative efficacy. As 5-10% of quitters use long-term NRT, we report the results of a study where varenicline compared with placebo increased the quit rate in long-term users of NRT. Smoking cessation is the most effective intervention in stopping the progression of COPD, as well as increasing survival and reducing morbidity. This is why smoking cessation should be the top priority in the treatment of COPD.

  9. Pharmacotherapy for smoking cessation.

    PubMed

    Nunn-Thompson, C L; Simon, P A

    1989-10-01

    Nicotine dependence and the role of various pharmacotherapeutic adjuncts in the medical management of nicotine withdrawal and smoking cessation are reviewed. Nicotine has been shown to be the drug in tobacco that causes addiction. The nicotine withdrawal syndrome is primarily characterized by craving, irritability, frustration, anger, anxiety, poor concentration, restlessness, weight gain, and decreased heart rate. Pharmacotherapeutic interventions can be classified into four groups: therapy that (1) replaces nicotine, (2) antagonizes nicotine, (3) provides symptomatic treatment for nicotine withdrawal, and (4) deters smoking. Nicotine replacement therapy with nicotine polacrilex gum has had minimal effect on increasing-smoking cessation among patients seen in a general medical practice setting. It is most effective in nicotine dependent smokers when it is used concomitantly with behavioral or psychological counseling. Nicotine antagonist therapy with mecamylamine may be useful in recalcitrant cases of nicotine dependence. Clonidine, in both oral and transdermal forms, has been shown to be effective for reduction of symptoms and craving associated with smoking cessation. Research on using the tricyclic antidepressants imipramine and doxepin to promote smoking cessation by reducing withdrawal symptoms is in its preliminary phases. Lobeline, an alkaloid with effects similar to those of nicotine, is an FDA Category III drug (i.e., safe, but of unknown efficacy) and is available without prescription. Silver acetate chewing gum deters smoking by producing an unpleasant metallic taste on concomitant ingestion of the agent and tobacco. It is an FDA Category III drug and is available without prescription. Drugs used in therapy of nicotine withdrawal include nicotine replacements, nicotine antagonists, agents to lessen the symptoms of withdrawal, and smoking deterrents. None of the drugs is completely effective. Successful drug use for smoking cessation involves

  10. Metabolic effects of smoking cessation.

    PubMed

    Harris, Kindred K; Zopey, Mohan; Friedman, Theodore C

    2016-05-01

    Smoking continues to be the leading cause of preventable death in the USA, despite the vast and widely publicized knowledge about the negative health effects of tobacco smoking. Data show that smoking cessation is often accompanied by weight gain and an improvement in insulin sensitivity over time. However, paradoxically, post-cessation-related obesity might contribute to insulin resistance. Furthermore, post-cessation weight gain is reportedly the number one reason why smokers, especially women, fail to initiate smoking cessation or relapse after initiating smoking cessation. In this Review, we discuss the metabolic effects of stopping smoking and highlight future considerations for smoking cessation programs and therapies to be designed with an emphasis on reducing post-cessation weight gain.

  11. Metabolic effects of smoking cessation

    PubMed Central

    Harris, Kindred K.; Zopey, Mohan; Friedman, Theodore C.

    2016-01-01

    Smoking continues to be the leading cause of preventable death in the USA, despite the vast and widely publicized knowledge about the negative health effects of tobacco smoking. Data show that smoking cessation is often accompanied by weight gain and an improvement in insulin sensitivity over time. However, paradoxically, post-cessation-related obesity might contribute to insulin resistance. Furthermore, post-cessation weight gain is reportedly the number one reason why smokers, especially women, fail to initiate smoking cessation or relapse after initiating smoking cessation. In this Review, we discuss the metabolic effects of stopping smoking and highlight future considerations for smoking cessation programs and therapies to be designed with an emphasis on reducing post-cessation weight gain. PMID:26939981

  12. CaCO3 and SrCO3 bioprecipitation by fungi isolated from calcareous soil.

    PubMed

    Li, Qianwei; Csetenyi, Laszlo; Paton, Graeme Iain; Gadd, Geoffrey Michael

    2015-08-01

    The urease-positive fungi Pestalotiopsis sp. and Myrothecium gramineum, isolated from calcareous soil, were examined for their properties of CaCO3 and SrCO3 biomineralization. After incubation in media amended with urea and CaCl2 and/or SrCl2 , calcite (CaCO3 ), strontianite (SrCO3 ), vaterite in different forms [CaCO3 , (Cax Sr1-x )CO3 ] and olekminskite [Sr(Sr,Ca)(CO3 )2 ] were precipitated, and fungal 'footprints' were observed on mineral surfaces. The amorphous precipitate mediated by Pestalotiopsis sp. grown with urea and equivalent concentrations of CaCl2 and SrCl2 was identified as hydrated Ca and Sr carbonates by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Liquid media experiments showed M. gramineum possessed the highest Sr(2+) removal ability, and ∼ 49% of supplied Sr(2+) was removed from solution when grown in media amended with urea and 50 mM SrCl2 . Furthermore, this organism could also precipitate 56% of the available Ca(2+) and 28% of the Sr(2+) in the form of CaCO3 , SrCO3 and (Cax Sr1-x )CO3 when incubated in urea-amended media and equivalent CaCl2 and SrCl2 concentrations. This is the first report of biomineralization of olekminskite and coprecipitation of Sr into vaterite mediated by fungi. These findings suggest that urease-positive fungi could play an important role in the environmental fate, bioremediation or biorecovery of Sr or other metals and radionuclides that form insoluble carbonates. © 2015 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Hypnotherapy for smoking cessation.

    PubMed

    Barnes, Jo; Dong, Christine Y; McRobbie, Hayden; Walker, Natalie; Mehta, Monaz; Stead, Lindsay F

    2010-10-06

    Hypnotherapy is widely promoted as a method for aiding smoking cessation. It is proposed to act on underlying impulses to weaken the desire to smoke or strengthen the will to stop. To evaluate the efficacy of hypnotherapy for smoking cessation. We searched the Cochrane Tobacco Addiction Group Specialized Register and the databases MEDLINE, EMBASE, AMED, SCI, SSCI using the terms smoking cessation and hypnotherapy or hypnosis. Date of most recent searches July 2010. There were no language restrictions. We considered randomized controlled trials of hypnotherapy which reported smoking cessation rates at least six months after the beginning of treatment. Three authors independently extracted data on participant characteristics, the type and duration of the hypnotherapy, the nature of the control group, smoking status, method of randomization, and completeness of follow up. They also independently assessed the quality of the included studies.The main outcome measure was abstinence from smoking after at least six months follow up. We used the most rigorous definition of abstinence in each trial, and biochemically validated rates where available. Those lost to follow up were considered to be smoking. We summarised effects as risk ratios (RR). Where possible, we performed meta-analysis using a fixed-effect model. We also noted any adverse events reported. Eleven studies compared hypnotherapy with 18 different control interventions. There was significant heterogeneity between the results of the individual studies, with conflicting results for the effectiveness of hypnotherapy compared to no treatment, or to advice, or psychological treatment. We did not attempt to calculate pooled risk ratios for the overall effect of hypnotherapy. There was no evidence of a greater effect of hypnotherapy when compared to rapid smoking or psychological treatment. Direct comparisons of hypnotherapy with cessation treatments considered to be effective had confidence intervals that were too

  14. Smoking Cessation Quitlines

    PubMed Central

    Lichtenstein, Edward; Zhu, Shu-Hong; Tedeschi, Gary J.

    2011-01-01

    Quitlines providing telephone counseling for smoking cessation derive from behavioral research and theory, have been shown to be effective, and have been adopted and then institutionalized at both the state and national levels. Although psychologists have made seminal contributions to quitline development and evaluation, this accomplishment has gone largely unnoticed by the practice and research communities in clinical, counseling, and health psychology. This article summarizes the development, content, structure, empirical status, and current reach of cessation quitlines. We note the rich research opportunities afforded by quitlines, describe some recent approaches to improving their effectiveness, and suggest that an understanding of how quitlines work could also improve their effectiveness. The implications for practitioners and the potential application of telephone counseling to other disorders are also considered. PMID:20455619

  15. Methods of smoking cessation.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, J L

    1992-03-01

    Smoking-cessation treatment consists of three phases: preparation, intervention, and maintenance. Preparation aims to increase the smoker's motivation to quit and to build confidence that he or she can be successful. Intervention can take any number of forms (or a combination of them) to help smokers to achieve abstinence. Maintenance, including support, coping strategies, and substitute behaviors, is necessary for permanent abstinence. Although most smokers who successfully quit do so on their own, many use cessation programs at some point during their smoking history. Moreover, many people act on the advice of a health professional in deciding to quit. Some are also aided by a smoking-cessation kit from a public or voluntary agency, a book, a tape, or an over-the-counter product. Still others receive help from mass-media campaigns, such as the Great American Smokeout, or community programs. Counseling, voluntary and commercial clinics, nicotine replacement strategies, hypnosis, acupuncture, and behavioral programs are other methods used by smokers to break the habit. Programs that include multiple treatments are more successful than single interventions. The most cost-effective strategy for smoking cessation for most smokers is self-care, which includes quitting on one's own and might also include acting on the advice of a health profession or using an aid such as a quit-smoking guide. Heavier, more addicted smokers are more likely to seek out formal programs after several attempts to quit. Many people can quit smoking, but staying off cigarettes requires maintenance, support, and additional techniques, such as relapse prevention. Physicians, dentists, and other health professionals can provide important assistance to their patients who smoke. Quit rates can be improved if clinicians provide more help (e.g., counseling, support) than just simple advice and warnings. Clinicians also play an important role in providing nicotine replacement products such as nicotine

  16. Acupuncture for smoking cessation.

    PubMed

    White, A R; Rampes, H; Ernst, E

    2002-01-01

    Acupuncture and related techniques are promoted as a treatment for smoking cessation in the belief that they may reduce nicotine withdrawal symptoms. The objective of this review is to determine the effectiveness of acupuncture and the allied therapies of acupressure, laser therapy and electrostimulation, in smoking cessation in comparison with: a) sham treatment, b) other interventions, or c) no intervention. We searched the Cochrane Tobacco Addiction Group trials register, Cochrane Controlled Trials Register, Medline, Embase, BIOSIS Previews, PsycINFO, Science and Social Sciences Citation Index, AMED and CISCOM. Date of last search January 2002. Randomised trials comparing a form of acupuncture, acupressure, laser therapy or electrostimulation with either sham treatment, another intervention or no intervention for smoking cessation. We extracted data in duplicate on the type of smokers recruited, the nature of the acupuncture and control procedures, the outcome measures, method of randomisation, and completeness of follow-up. We assessed abstinence from smoking at the earliest time-point (before 6 weeks), at six months and at one year or more follow-up in patients smoking at baseline. We used the most rigorous definition of abstinence for each trial, and biochemically validated rates if available. Those lost to follow-up were counted as continuing to smoke. Where appropriate, we performed meta-analysis using a fixed effects model. We identified 22 studies. Acupuncture was not superior to sham acupuncture in smoking cessation at any time point. The odds ratio (OR) for early outcomes was 1.22 (95% confidence interval 0.99 to 1.49); the OR after 6 months was 1.50 (95% confidence interval 0.99 to 2.27) and after 12 months 1.08 (95% confidence interval 0.77 to 1.52). Similarly, when acupuncture was compared with other anti-smoking interventions, there were no differences in outcome at any time point. Acupuncture appeared to be superior to no intervention in the early

  17. 75 FR 52938 - ANR Pipeline Company; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-30

    ... (1982). ANR proposes to abandon by sale approximately its Line 607 \\2\\ (4.41 miles of 16-inch diameter... (1999). Any questions concerning this application may be directed to Rene Staeb, Manager, Project... telephone at (832) 320-5215, facsimile (832) 320-6215, or e-mail rene_staeb@transcanada.com . This filing...

  18. 77 FR 26538 - ANR Storage Company; Notice of Informal Settlement Conference

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-04

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission ANR Storage Company; Notice of Informal Settlement Conference Take notice that an informal settlement conference will be convened in this proceeding commencing at 10:00 a.m....

  19. 78 FR 6319 - ANR Pipeline Company; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-30

    ... Commission's Regulations under the Natural Gas Act (NGA) as amended, requesting authorization to abandon an 11,000 rated horsepower compressor unit and appurtenances, located on ] ANR's system at its Jena Compressor Station in La Salle Parish, Louisiana, and associated mainline capacity. The authorizations are...

  20. The compressibility of K2CO3-Na2CO3-Li2CO3-CaCO3 liquids derived from sound speed measurements: implications for the fusion curve of CaCO3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Leary, M. C.; Lange, R. A.; Ai, Y.

    2009-12-01

    Carbonate in the mantle is an important reservoir of carbon, which is released to the atmosphere as CO2 through volcanism. Therefore, it is of considerable interest to extend thermodynamic models of partial melting in the mantle at elevated pressures to carbonate-bearing lithologies. In order to achieve this, thermodynamic data on carbonate liquids are needed, including their density, thermal expansion and compressibility. In order to obtain information on the CaCO3 and MgCO3 liquid components, which are the most important carbonate components in the mantle, we’ve employed a strategy where the alkaline earth carbonates are mixed with the alkali carbonates in order to lower the liquidus temperatures of various sample liquids to values below the decomposition of carbonate liquids at one bar (~1300 K). This permits thermodynamic property measurements of the multi-component liquids to be made at one bar. If it can be shown that the volumetric properties of carbonate liquids mix ideally with respect to composition, then the partial molar volumetric properties of the CaCO3 and MgCO3 liquid components can be derived. In a previous study (Liu et al., 2003), the volume and thermal expansion of mixed K2CO3-Na2CO3-Li2CO3-CaCO3 liquids were reported and shown to behave ideally with respect to composition. In this study, sound speed measurements on mixed K2CO3-Na2CO3-Li2CO3-CaCO3 liquids at one bar, under a CO2 atmosphere from 725 to 1242 K (over 500 degrees) will be reported. Measurements are made with a frequency-sweep acoustic interferometer, where the liquids are held in Pt crucible, and the upper buffer rod is made of alumina. Our sound speed measurements on the pure end-member alkali carbonate liquids (e.g., Na2CO3-) are in excellent agreement with previous sound speed measurements on carbonate liquids reported in the literature (Zhu et al., 1991). The two data sets match within 0.4%, on average, which is within experimental error. The goal of this study is to test

  1. Lopinavir/Ritonavir versus Lamivudine peri-exposure prophylaxis to prevent HIV-1 transmission by breastfeeding: the PROMISE-PEP trial Protocol ANRS 12174

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Postnatal transmission of HIV-1 through breast milk remains an unsolved challenge in many resource-poor settings where replacement feeding is not a safe alternative. WHO now recommends breastfeeding of infants born to HIV-infected mothers until 12 months of age, with either maternal highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) or peri-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) in infants using nevirapine. As PEP, lamivudine showed a similar efficacy and safety as nevirapine, but with an expected lower rate of resistant HIV strains emerging in infants who fail PEP, and lower restrictions for future HIV treatment. Lopinavir/ritonavir (LPV/r) is an attractive PEP candidate with presumably higher efficacy against HIV than nevirapine or lamivudine, and a higher genetic barrier to resistance selection. It showed an acceptable safety profile for the treatment of very young HIV-infected infants. The ANRS 12174 study aims to compare the risk of HIV-1 transmission during and safety of prolonged infant PEP with LPV/r (40/10 mg twice daily if 2-4 kg and 80/20 mg twice daily if >4 kg) versus Lamivudine (7,5 mg twice daily if 2-4 kg, 25 mg twice daily if 4-8 kg and 50 mg twice daily if >8 kg) from day 7 until one week after cessation of BF (maximum 50 weeks of prophylaxis) to prevent postnatal HIV-1 acquisition between 7 days and 50 weeks of age. Methods The ANRS 12174 study is a multinational, randomised controlled clinical trial conducted on 1,500 mother-infant pairs in Burkina Faso, South Africa, Uganda and Zambia. We will recommend exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) until 26th week of life and cessation of breastfeeding at a maximum of 49 weeks in both trial arms. HIV-uninfected infants at day 7 (± 2 days) born to HIV-1 infected mothers not eligible for HAART who choose to breastfeed their infants. The primary endpoint is the acquisition of HIV-1 (as assessed by HIV-1 DNA PCR) between day 7 and 50 weeks of age. Secondary endpoints are safety (including resistance, adverse events and

  2. Weight gain after smoking cessation.

    PubMed

    Pistelli, F; Aquilini, F; Carrozzi, L

    2009-06-01

    Both overweight or obesity and cigarette smoking are relevant risk factors for public health. Cigarette smoking is associated with lower body weight while smoking cessation is associated with weight gain. Most smokers who quit experience a weight gain, particularly within one year, and it may persist up to 8 years after smoking cessation. However, only a minority of quitters gain excessive weight. Some individual characteristics have been found to be associated with excessive weight gain after smoking cessation while methodological problems may affect estimates of weight gain observed in different studies. Main mechanisms to explain weight gain after smoking cessation include increased energy intake, decreased resting metabolic rate, and decreased physical activity. The health benefits of smoking cessation far exceed any health risks that may result from smoking cessation-induced body weight gain. As weight gain may be a barrier against quitting smoking or a reason to restart smoking, behavioural and pharmacological methods have been evaluated to control weight gain after smoking cessation. Physicians should apply efficient strategies to promote smoking cessation on their weight-concerned smoking patient. This review briefly addresses some issues on the relationship between smoking cessation and weight gain, with regard to the size of the problem, mechanisms, health risks and control strategies.

  3. Pharmaceutical care in smoking cessation

    PubMed Central

    Marín Armero, Alicia; Calleja Hernandez, Miguel A; Perez-Vicente, Sabina; Martinez-Martinez, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    As a determining factor in various diseases and the leading known cause of preventable mortality and morbidity, tobacco use is the number one public health problem in developed countries. Facing this health problem requires authorities and health professionals to promote, via specific programs, health campaigns that improve patients’ access to smoking cessation services. Pharmaceutical care has a number of specific characteristics that enable the pharmacist, as a health professional, to play an active role in dealing with smoking and deliver positive smoking cessation interventions. The objectives of the study were to assess the efficacy of a smoking cessation campaign carried out at a pharmaceutical care center and to evaluate the effects of pharmaceutical care on patients who decide to try to stop smoking. The methodology was an open, analytical, pre–post intervention, quasi-experimental clinical study performed with one patient cohort. The results of the study were that the promotional campaign for the smoking cessation program increased the number of patients from one to 22, and after 12 months into the study, 43.48% of the total number of patients achieved total smoking cessation. We can conclude that advertising of a smoking cessation program in a pharmacy increases the number of patients who use the pharmacy’s smoking cessation services, and pharmaceutical care is an effective means of achieving smoking cessation. PMID:25678779

  4. GREENHOUSE GAS (GHG) VERIFICATION GUIDELINE SERIES: ANR Pipeline Company PARAMETRIC EMISSIONS MONITORING SYSTEM (PEMS) VERSION 1.0

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Environmental Technology Verification report discusses the technology and performance of the Parametric Emissions Monitoring System (PEMS) manufactured by ANR Pipeline Company, a subsidiary of Coastal Corporation, now El Paso Corporation. The PEMS predicts carbon doixide (CO2...

  5. GREENHOUSE GAS (GHG) VERIFICATION GUIDELINE SERIES: ANR Pipeline Company PARAMETRIC EMISSIONS MONITORING SYSTEM (PEMS) VERSION 1.0

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Environmental Technology Verification report discusses the technology and performance of the Parametric Emissions Monitoring System (PEMS) manufactured by ANR Pipeline Company, a subsidiary of Coastal Corporation, now El Paso Corporation. The PEMS predicts carbon doixide (CO2...

  6. High pressure elasticity of FeCO3-MgCO3 carbonates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stekiel, Michal; Nguyen-Thanh, Tra; Chariton, Stella; McCammon, Catherine; Bosak, Alexei; Morgenroth, Wolfgang; Milman, Victor; Refson, Keith; Winkler, Björn

    2017-10-01

    We have determined the elastic stiffness moduli of FeCO3 across the spin transition up to 60 GPa by inelastic X-ray scattering and density functional theory calculations. We have derived functions describing the dependence of the components of the elastic tensor of Mg1-xFex CO3 solid solutions on pressure and concluded that there is a linear dependence of the C11, C33, C44 and C14 moduli on the composition parameter x. The elastic tensors were employed to calculate the sound velocities and velocity anisotropies of Mg1-xFex CO3. These results allow an assessment of the potential seismic signature of deep mantle carbonates.

  7. μ +-SR studies of the weak ferromagnets CoCO 3 and NiCO 3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lancaster, T.; Blundell, S. J.; Pratt, F. L.; Kurmoo, M.

    2003-02-01

    We present the results of zero-field μ +-SR measurements on CoCO 3 and NiCO 3. Both compounds are rhombohedral antiferromagnets which exhibit a spontaneous weak magnetisation below 22.2 and 17.2 K, respectively. This arises due to an anisotropic superexchange (Dzyaloshinsky-Moriya) interaction. We have studied the temperature dependence of the internal field in the ordered state and the magnetic fluctuations in the paramagnetic state. We describe the possible muon-site obtained from dipolar-field calculations.

  8. The aerotaxis transducer gene aer, but not aer-2, is transcriptionally regulated by the anaerobic regulator ANR in Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Hong, Chang Soo; Kuroda, Akio; Ikeda, Tsukasa; Takiguchi, Noboru; Ohtake, Hisao; Kato, Junichi

    2004-01-01

    The regulation of aerotaxis in Pseudomonas aeruginosa is reported. P. aeruginosa possesses two aerotaxis transducers, Aer and Aer-2. The aerotactic responses of P. aeruginosa cells were induced during the transition from exponential to stationary growth phase. A deletion mutant for the anaerobic transcriptional regulator ANR showed decreased aerotaxis. The anr mutation eliminated Aer-mediated aerotaxis, but not Aer-2-mediated aerotaxis. Expression of an aer-lacZ transcriptional fusion was also induced during the transition from exponential to stationary growth phase. The anr mutant showed only background levels of aer-lacZ expression. Rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) and DNA sequencing revealed that the 5' end of the mRNA was located at an A nucleotide -67 nt upstream of aer. The aer promoter contained two putative FNR/ANR boxes at -42.5 and -93.5 bp upstream of the transcriptional start site of aer. Mutational analysis of the aer promoter region revealed that both FNR/ANR boxes were essential for the expression of the aer gene. These results indicate that ANR is required for the activation of aer expression but it is not essential for Aer-2-mediated aerotaxis in P. aeruginosa.

  9. [Medications in smoking cessation].

    PubMed

    Mansourati, J; Borel, M-L; Munier, S; Guevel-Jointret, A-L

    2005-10-22

    Physicians can aid their patients' smoking cessation by providing psychological support, advice, behavioral strategies, and drugs. Success depends on appropriate management, including selection of the right moment to begin treatment and an understanding of the development of the withdrawal syndrome, smoking urges, and the possibility of failure. The standard pharmacological treatment for nicotine dependence uses different forms of nicotine substitutes and bupropion, while we await data about other drugs currently under study. The score on the "simplified" Fagerström questionnaire usually determines the initial nicotine dose. Six forms of nicotine substitutes are available. They provide either prolonged nicotine release (transcutaneous patches) that prevents withdrawal symptoms, or rapid release through the buccal and nasal mucosa (chewing gum, suckers, inhalers and nasal sprays) to anticipate the positive effects represented by cigarettes and the urges occurring during withdrawal. The efficacy of these substitutes, widely studied, is approximately twice that of placebo. Their use is no longer contraindicated in patients with heart disease, when necessary. Bupropion should be used in treating nicotine dependence either as a first-line treatment, or if nicotine substitutes (150 mg/d the first week, 300 mg/d thereafter) fail. The combination of bupropion and nicotine substitutes can be considered, either from the outset for heavy or very heavy smokers, or afterwards, if withdrawal symptoms or urges to smoke persist in subjects treated by only one of these two drug classes. One of the new drugs under evaluation is rimonabant, the first representatives of a new class of drugs, selective CB1 endocannabinoid receptor antagonists. Promising results about its use in smoking cessation were released in 2004.

  10. Structure and ANR-dependent transcription of the nir genes for denitrification from Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Arai, H; Igarashi, Y; Kodama, T

    1994-07-01

    In the denitrification gene cluster from Pseudomonas aeruginosa, an operon encoding three open reading frames (nirQ, ORF2, ORF3) was upstream of the structural gene for nitrite reductase (nirS) as a divergent transcriptional organization. A nucleotide-binding protein encoded by nirQ was 76% identical to the Pseudomonas stutzeri nirQ gene product, which was shown to be necessary for activating nitrite and nitric oxide reductases. The gene product of ORF2 was homologous to subunit III of cytochrome oxidases. The nirQ gene was transcribed under denitrifying conditions. The intergenic region of nirS and nirQ has only one binding motif for ANR, a regulatory protein for anaerobic gene expression correspond to FNR in E. coli. Complementation analyses showed that the transcription of both nirS and nirQ completely depended on ANR.

  11. The system MgCO3-FeCO3-CaCO3-Na2CO3 at 12-23 GPa: Phase relations and significance for the genesis of ultradeep diamonds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spivak, A. V.; Solopova, N. A.; Dubrovinsky, L. S.; Litvin, Yu. A.

    2015-09-01

    Physical-chemical experimental studies at 12-23 GPa of phase relationships within four-members carbonate system MgCO3-FeCO3-CaCO3-Na2CO3 and its marginal system MgCO3-FeCO3-Na2CO3 were carried out. The systems are quite representative for a set of carbonate phases from inclusions in diamonds within transitional zone and lower mantle. PT-phase diagrams of multicomponent carbonate systems are suggested. PT parameters of boundaries of their eutectic melting (solidus), complete melting (liquids) are established. These boundaries define area of partial melting. Carbonate melts are stable, completely mixable, and effective solvents of elemental carbon thus defining the possibility of ultra-deep diamonds generation.

  12. The homologous regulators ANR of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and FNR of Escherichia coli have overlapping but distinct specificities for anaerobically inducible promoters.

    PubMed

    Winteler, H V; Haas, D

    1996-03-01

    The anaerobic transcriptional regulator ANR induces the arginine deiminase and denitrification pathways in Pseudomonas aeruginosa during oxygen limitation. The homologous activator FNR of Escherichia coli, when introduced into an anr mutant of P. aeruginosa, could functionally replace ANR for anaerobic growth on nitrate but not for anaerobic induction of arginine deiminase. In an FNR-positive E. coli strain, the ANR-dependent promoter of the arcDABC operon, which encodes the enzymes of the arginine deiminase pathway, was not expressed. To analyse systematically these distinct induction patterns, a lacZ promoter-probe, broad-host-range plasmid containing various -40 regions (the ANR/FNR recognition sequences) and -10 promoter sequences was constructed. These constructs were tested in P. aeruginosa and in E. coli expressing either ANR or FNR. In conjunction with the consensus -10 hexamer of E. coli sigma 70 RNA polymerase (TATAAT), the consensus FNR site (TTGAT ..... ATCAA) was recognized efficiently by ANR and FNR in both hosts. By contrast, when promoters contained the Arc box (TTGAC .... ATCAG), which is found in the arcDABC promoter, or a symmetrical mutant FNR site (CTGAT .... ATCAG), ANR was a more effective activator than was FNR. Conversely, an extended 22 bp, fully symmetrical FNR site allowed better activation with FNR than with ANR. Combination of the arc promoter -10 sequence (CCTAAT) with the Arc box or the consensus FNR site resulted in good ANR-dependent expression in P. aeruginosa but gave practically no expression in E. coli, suggesting that RNA polymerase of P. aeruginosa differs from the E. coli enzyme in -10 recognition specificity. In conclusion, ANR and FNR are able to activate the RNA polymerases of P. aeruginosa and E. coli when the -40 and -10 promoter elements ae identical or close to the E. coli consensus sequences.

  13. Incentives for smoking cessation.

    PubMed

    Cahill, Kate; Hartmann-Boyce, Jamie; Perera, Rafael

    2015-05-18

    Material or financial incentives are widely used in an attempt to precipitate or reinforce behaviour change, including smoking cessation. They operate in workplaces, in clinics and hospitals, and to a lesser extent within community programmes. In this third update of our review we now include trials conducted in pregnant women, to reflect the increasing activity and resources now targeting this high-risk group of smokers. To determine whether incentives and contingency management programmes lead to higher long-term quit rates. We searched the Cochrane Tobacco Addiction Group Specialised Register, with additional searches of MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL and PsycINFO. The most recent searches were in December 2014, although we also include two trials published in 2015. We considered randomised controlled trials, allocating individuals, workplaces, groups within workplaces, or communities to experimental or control conditions. We also considered controlled studies with baseline and post-intervention measures. We include studies in a mixed-population setting (e.g. community-, work-, institution-based), and also, for this update, trials in pregnant smokers. One author (KC) extracted data and a second (JH-B) checked them. We contacted study authors for additional data where necessary. The main outcome measure in the mixed-population studies was abstinence from smoking at longest follow-up, and at least six months from the start of the intervention. In the trials of pregnant smokers abstinence was measured at the longest follow-up, and at least to the end of the pregnancy. Twenty-one mixed-population studies met our inclusion criteria, covering more than 8400 participants. Ten studies were set in clinics or health centres, one in Thai villages served by community health workers, two in academic institutions, and the rest in worksites. All but six of the trials were run in the USA. The incentives included lottery tickets or prize draws, cash payments, vouchers for goods and

  14. Oxygen-sensitive global regulator, Anr, is involved in the biosynthesis of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) in Pseudomonas extremaustralis.

    PubMed

    Tribelli, Paula M; Méndez, Beatriz S; López, Nancy I

    2010-01-01

    We analyzed the influence of the redox global regulator Anr on the accumulation of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) (PHB) in Pseudomonas extremaustralis. Anr regulates a set of genes in the aerobic-anaerobic transition including genes involved in nitrate reduction and arginine fermentation. An anr mutant was constructed using PCR-based strategies. The wild-type strain was able to grow in both microaerobic and anaerobic conditions using nitrate as the terminal electron acceptor while the mutant strain was unable to grow under anaerobic conditions. In bioreactor cultures, PHB content in the wild-type strain was higher in microaerobic and anaerobic cultures compared with highly aerated cultures. The mutant strain showed decreased PHB levels in both aerobic and microaerobic conditions compared with the wild-type strain. Inactivation of anr led to decreased expression of phaC and phaR genes as demonstrated in real-time RT-PCR experiments. Associated with the PHB gene region, two putative binding sites for Anr were found that, in line with the phenotype observed in bioreactor cultures, suggest a role of this regulator in PHB biosynthesis.

  15. Smoking cessation and weight gain.

    PubMed

    Filozof, C; Fernández Pinilla, M C; Fernández-Cruz, A

    2004-05-01

    Cigarette smoking is the single most important preventable cause of death and illness. Smoking cessation is associated with substantial health benefits. Weight gain is cited as a primary reason for not trying to quit smoking. There is a great variability in the amount of weight gain but younger ages, lower socio-economic status and heavier smoking are predictors of higher weight gain. Weight change after smoking cessation appears to be influenced by underlying genetic factors. Besides, weight gain after smoking cessation is largely because of increased body fat and some studies suggest that it mostly occurs in the subcutaneous region of the body. The mechanism of weight gain includes increased energy intake, decreased resting metabolic rate, decreased physical activity and increased lipoprotein lipase activity. Although there is convincing evidence for the association between smoking cessation and weight gain, the molecular mechanisms underlying this relationship are not well understood. This review summarizes current information of the effects of nicotine on peptides involved in feeding behaviour. Smoking was shown to impair glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity and cross-sectional studies have demonstrated that smokers are insulin-resistant and hyperinsulinaemic, as compared with non-smokers. Smoking cessation seems to improve insulin sensitivity in spite of the weight gain. Nicotine replacement - in particular nicotine gum - appears to be effective in delaying post-cessation weight gain. In a group of women who failed to quit smoking because of weight gain, a dietary intervention (intermittent very-low-calorie diet) plus nicotine gum showed to both increase success rate in terms of smoking cessation and prevent weight gain. On the other hand, body weight gain at the end of treatment was significantly lower in the patients receiving bupropion or bupropion plus nicotine patch, compared with placebo. Studies with new drugs available for the treatment of obesity

  16. Smoking cessation in the workplace.

    PubMed

    Fishwick, D; Carroll, C; McGregor, M; Drury, M; Webster, J; Bradshaw, L; Rick, J; Leaviss, J

    2013-12-01

    The workplace is an important setting for reaching potentially large numbers of smokers. To review the evidence about smoking cessation in the workplace. Literature review including a synthesis of findings from recent systematic reviews and meta-analyses of workplace smoking cessation programmes, a separate review of the qualitative evidence, case studies and an expert panel assessment. We found advantages, identified or confirmed from the mixed methods used in this work to holding smoking cessation programmes in the workplace. These included: (i) easy access to large numbers of worker populations for large workplaces, (ii) the potential improved recruitment to such programmes given this, (iii) the opportunity to access young men, traditionally difficult to achieve, (iv) access to occupational health and other staff who can assist with support and delivery and (v) ability for workers to attend relatively easily. Evidence on the importance of developing peer support at work was mixed. The simple provision or availability of programmes and interventions was unlikely to provide any beneficial behaviour change. Interventions should target workers that actively want to stop smoking, use elements that workers have identified as useful or focus on altering beliefs about smoking and the need to stop. Smoking cessation programmes at work can provide useful support for workers wishing to stop smoking. They are only likely to be effective if participants have moved beyond the contemplation stage regarding smoking cessation, so that stopping smoking is a personal priority.

  17. Factors associated with smoking cessation

    PubMed Central

    França, Samires Avelino de Souza; Neves, Ana Ligian Feitosa das; de Souza, Tatiane Andressa Santos; Martins, Nandara Celana Negreiros; Carneiro, Saul Rassy; Sarges, Edilene do Socorro Nascimento Falcão; de Souza, Maria de Fátima Amine Houat

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyze the prevalence and factors associated with smoking abstinence among patients who were treated in a reference unit for smoking cessation. METHODS This cross-sectional study examined the medical records of 532 patients treated in a reference unit for smoking cessation in Belém, PA, Northern Brazil, between January 2010 and June 2012. Sociodemographic variables and those related to smoking history and treatment were analyzed. Statistical significance was set at p < 0.05. RESULTS The mean age of the participants was 50 years; 57.0% of the patients were women. The mean tobacco load was 30 packs/year, and the mean smoking duration was approximately 32 years. Most patients remained in treatment for four months. The rate of smoking abstinence was 75.0%. Regression analysis indicated that maintenance therapy, absence of relapse triggers, and lower chemical dependence were significantly associated with smoking cessation. CONCLUSIONS The smoking abstinence rate observed was 75.0%. The cessation process was associated with several aspects, including the degree of chemical dependence, symptoms of withdrawal, and period of patient follow-up in a multidisciplinary treatment program. Studies of this nature contribute to the collection of consistent epidemiological data and are essential for the implementation of effective smoking prevention and cessation strategies. PMID:25741649

  18. Interventions to facilitate smoking cessation.

    PubMed

    Okuyemi, Kolawole S; Nollen, Nicole L; Ahluwalia, Jasjit S

    2006-07-15

    Tobacco use, primarily cigarette smoking, is the leading cause of preventable morbidity and mortality in the United States, and nearly one third of those who try a cigarette become addicted to nicotine. Family physicians, who see most of these patients in their offices every year, have an important opportunity to decrease smoking rates with office-based interventions. The U.S. Public Health Service recommends that primary care physicians use the five A's (Ask, Advise, Assess, Assist, and Arrange) model when treating patients with nicotine addiction. Physicians can improve screening and increase cessation rates by asking patients about tobacco use at every office visit. Behavior modification can improve long-term smoking cessation success; even brief (five minutes or less) advice on smoking cessation during an office visit can increase cessation rates. The effectiveness of nonpharmacologic treatments generally is lower; therefore, pharmacotherapy is recommended for smokers who are willing to attempt cessation, unless medical contraindications exist. The pharmacologic agents approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration for treatment of tobacco dependence include bupropion (a non-nicotine therapy) and nicotine replacement therapies in the form of a gum, patch, nasal spray, inhaler, and lozenge. These agents have similar long-term success rates.

  19. Replacement of Calcite (CaCO3) by Cerussite (PbCO3)

    DOE PAGES

    Yuan, Ke; Lee, Sang Soo; De Andrade, Vincent; ...

    2016-10-21

    The mobility of toxic elements, such as lead (Pb) can be attenuated by adsorption, incorporation, and precipitation on carbonate minerals in subsurface environments. Here in this paper, we report a study of the bulk transformation of single-crystal calcite (CaCO3) into polycrystalline cerussite (PbCO3) through reaction with acidic Pb-bearing solutions. This reaction began with the growth of a cerussite shell on top of calcite surfaces followed by the replacement of the remaining calcite core. The external shape of the original calcite was preserved by a balance between calcite dissolution and cerussite growth controlled by adjusting the Pb2+ concentration and pH. The relation between the rounded calcite core and the surrounding lath-shaped cerussite aggregates was imaged by transmission X-ray microscopy, which revealed preferentially elongated cerussite crystals parallel to the surface and edge directions of calcite. The replacement reaction involved concurrent development ~100 nm wide pores parallel to calcite c-glide or (1more » $$\\overline{20}$$) planes, which may have provided permeability for chemical exchange during the reaction. X-ray reflectivity measurements showed no clear epitaxial relation of cerussite to the calcite (104) surface. These results demonstrate Pb sequestration through mineral replacement reactions and the critical role of nanoporosity (3% by volume) on the solid phase transformation through a dissolution-recrystallization mechanism.« less

  20. Cascade regulation of the two CRP/FNR-related transcriptional regulators (ANR and DNR) and the denitrification enzymes in Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Arai, H; Kodama, T; Igarashi, Y

    1997-09-01

    ANR, an analogue of Escherichia coli FNR, has been shown to be necessary for denitrification, arginine deiminase activity and cyanide production of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Another CRP/FNR-related regulator, DNR, has also been shown to be necessary for denitrification. In this study, we have found that the transcription of the dnr gene is under the control of ANR. When the dnr gene was expressed by tac promoter in an anr mutant, the strain recovered the ability to grow under anaerobic conditions by denitrification. Nitrate, nitrite, nitric oxide and nitrous oxide reducing activities were expressed, and the structural genes for nitrite and nitric oxide reductases were transcribed under anaerobic conditions in the anr mutant strain transformed with the dnr gene. These findings suggest that the expression of the denitrification system is controlled not directly by ANR but indirectly via DNR. The arginine deiminase activity and cyanide production were not regulated by DNR.

  1. Smoking cessation and bone healing: optimal cessation timing.

    PubMed

    Truntzer, Jeremy; Vopat, Bryan; Feldstein, Michael; Matityahu, Amir

    2015-02-01

    Smoking is a worldwide epidemic. Complications related to smoking behavior generate an economic loss around $193 billion annually. In addition to impacting chronic health conditions, smoking is linked to increased perioperative complications in those with current or previous smoking history. Numerous studies have demonstrated more frequent surgical complications including higher rates of infection, poor wound healing, heightened pain complaints, and increased pulmonary morbidities in patients with a smoking history. Longer preoperative cessation periods also seem to correlate with reduced rates. At roughly 4 weeks of cessation prior to surgery, complication rates more closely reflect individuals without a smoking history in comparison with those that smoke within 4 weeks of surgery. In the musculoskeletal system, a similar trend has been observed in smokers with higher rates of fractures, nonunions, malunions, infections, osteomyelitis, and lower functional scores compared to non-smoking patients. Unfortunately, the present literature lacks robust data suggesting a temporal relationship between smoking cessation and bone healing. In our review, we analyze pseudoarthrosis rates following spinal fusion to suggest that bone healing in the context of smoking behavior follows a similar time sequence as observed in wound healing. We also discuss the implications for further clarity on bone healing and smoking cessation within orthopedics including improved risk stratification and better identification of circumstances where adjunct therapy is appropriate.

  2. Effect of electronic ANR and conventional hearing protectors on vehicle backup alarm detection in noise.

    PubMed

    Casali, John G; Robinson, Gary S; Dabney, Erika Christian; Gauger, Dan

    2004-01-01

    An experiment was conducted wherein masked thresholds (using ascending method of limits) for a backup alarm were obtained in pink and red noise at 85 and 100 dBA for 12 participants immersed in a probability monitoring task and wearing a conventional passive hearing protection device (HPD, an earmuff or a foam earplug), an active noise reduction (ANR) headset, or no HPD at all (only in 85 dBA noise). Results revealed statistically significant between-HPD differences in red noise (from 2.3 to 3.1 dB) and in the 100-dBA noise level (from 2.6 to 4.3 dB). An additional finding, which corroborates other studies using different protocols, was that masked thresholds in 85-dBA noise were significantly lower (from 3.2 to 4.4 dB) for the occluded conditions (wearing an HPD) than for the open-ear (unoccluded) condition. This result refutes the belief among many normal-hearing workers that the use of HPDs in relatively low levels of noise compromises their ability to hear necessary workplace sounds. Actual or potential applications of this research include (a) the selection of appropriate HPDs for low-frequency-biased noise exposures wherein signal detection is important and (b) gaining insight into the appropriateness of ANR-based HPDs for certain industrial noise environments.

  3. Efficacy and safety of direct-acting antiviral regimens in HIV/HCV-co-infected patients - French ANRS CO13 HEPAVIH cohort.

    PubMed

    Piroth, Lionel; Wittkop, Linda; Lacombe, Karine; Rosenthal, Eric; Gilbert, Camille; Miailhes, Patrick; Carrieri, Patrizia; Chas, Julie; Poizot-Martin, Isabelle; Gervais, Anne; Dominguez, Stéphanie; Neau, Didier; Zucman, David; Billaud, Eric; Morlat, Philippe; Aumaitre, Hugues; Lascoux-Combe, Caroline; Simon, Anne; Bouchaud, Olivier; Teicher, Elina; Bani-Sadr, Firouzé; Alric, Laurent; Vittecoq, Daniel; Boué, François; Duvivier, Claudine; Valantin, Marc-Antoine; Esterle, Laure; Dabis, François; Sogni, Philippe; Salmon, Dominique

    2017-07-01

    There is little data available on the use of new oral direct-acting antiviral (DAA) regimens to treat human immunodeficiency virus and hepatitis C virus (HIV/HCV) co-infected patients in real-life settings. Here, the efficacy and safety of all-oral DAA-based regimens in HIV/HCV-co-infected patients enrolled in the French nationwide ANRS CO13 HEPAVIH observational cohort are reported. HIV/HCV-co-infected patients enrolled in the ANRS CO13 HEPAVIH observational cohort were included if they began an all-oral DAA-based regimen before 1st May 2015 (12-week regimens) or 1st February 2015 (24-week regimens). Treatment success (SVR12) was defined by undetectable HCV-RNA 12weeks after treatment cessation. Exact logistic regression analysis was used to identify factors associated with SVR12. A total of 323 patients (74% men) with a median age of 53years were included, 99% of whom were on combination antiretroviral therapy (cART). HIV RNA load was <50 copies/ml in 88% of patients; median CD4 cell count was 540/mm(3); 60% of patients were cirrhotic; 68% had previously received unsuccessful anti-HCV treatment. cART was protease inhibitor (PI)-based in 23%, non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI)-based in 15%, and integrase inhibitor (II)-based in 38%, while 24% of patients received other regimens. The SVR12 rate was 93.5% overall (95% confidence interval [CI]: 90.2-95.9), 93.3% (88.8-96.4) in patients with cirrhosis and 93.8% (88.1-97.3) in patients without cirrhosis. The SVR12 rates were 93.1% (84.5-97.7), 91.8% (80.4-97.7) and 95.8% (90.5-98.6) respectively, in patients receiving PI-based, NNRTI-based and II-based cART. In adjusted analysis, SVR12 was not associated with HIV RNA load, the cART regimen, cirrhosis, prior anti-HCV treatment, the duration of anti-HCV therapy, or ribavirin use. The most common adverse effects were fatigue and digestive disorders. New all-oral DAA regimens were well-tolerated and yielded high SVR12 rates in HIV

  4. Transdermal Nicotine for Smoking Cessation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes, John R.; Glaser, Mitchell

    1993-01-01

    Discusses the use of transdermal nicotine (TN) in smoking cessation and its value as an effective procedure. The article reveals that, compared to a placebo, TN has double the quit rate percentages, and less than 5% of smokers quit TN due to side effects. (GLR)

  5. Understanding Smoking Cessation in Rural Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hutcheson, Tresza D.; Greiner, K. Allen; Ellerbeck, Edward F.; Jeffries, Shawn K.; Mussulman, Laura M.; Casey, Genevieve N.

    2008-01-01

    Context: Rural communities are adversely impacted by increased rates of tobacco use. Rural residents may be exposed to unique communal norms and other factors that influence smoking cessation. Purpose: This study explored facilitating factors and barriers to cessation and the role of rural health care systems in the smoking-cessation process.…

  6. Understanding Smoking Cessation in Rural Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hutcheson, Tresza D.; Greiner, K. Allen; Ellerbeck, Edward F.; Jeffries, Shawn K.; Mussulman, Laura M.; Casey, Genevieve N.

    2008-01-01

    Context: Rural communities are adversely impacted by increased rates of tobacco use. Rural residents may be exposed to unique communal norms and other factors that influence smoking cessation. Purpose: This study explored facilitating factors and barriers to cessation and the role of rural health care systems in the smoking-cessation process.…

  7. Getting pregnant in HIV clinical trials: women's choice and safety needs. The experience from the ANRS12169-2LADY and ANRS12286-MOBIDIP trials.

    PubMed

    Serris, Alexandra; Zoungrana, Jacques; Diallo, Mamadou; Toby, Roselyne; Mpoudi Ngolle, Mireille; Le Gac, Sylvie; Coutherut, Julie; Cournil, Amandine; De Beaudrap, Pierre; Koulla-Shiro, Sinata; Delaporte, Eric; Ciaffi, Laura

    2016-11-01

    Pregnancy is an exclusion criteria in most clinical trials involving antiretroviral therapy (ART) and modern contraception methods are systematically proposed to women of childbearing age. Nevertheless pregnancies are often observed. Reproductive choices during clinical trials should be understood to adapt interventions to the level of risk for mother and baby safety. Our goal was to describe the reproductive behavior and pregnancy outcomes among HIV-infected women on second-line antiretroviral treatment enrolled in two clinical trials and to compare them with those of HIV-positive women in non-research settings. The number and outcomes of pregnancies were recorded among 281 non menopausal women enrolled in the ANRS 12169-2LADY and ANRS 12286-MOBIDIP clinical trials in Cameroon, Senegal and Burkina Faso. All participants had agreed to use a least one contraceptive method (barrier or non-barrier) which was provided for free during the study. Data were collected through revision of pregnancy notification forms and by data extraction from the study database, regularly updated and checked during the study. Sixty-six women had 84 pregnancies between January 2010 and July 2015 resulting in a pregnancy rate of 8.0 per 100 women-years (WY) (95% CI 6.5-9.9) which is similar to the ones observed in cohort studies in Sub-Saharan Africa (varying from 2.5 to 9.4 pregnancies per 100 WY). Among 60 live births, 10 (16.6%) were born prematurely and 9 (15%) had a low birth weight. Sixteen miscarriages/stillbirths occurred (19.5%). This percentage is comparable to the one expected in the seronegative population which is reassuring for HIV-positive women considering pregnancy on ART. Only one minor birth defect was diagnosed. In univariate and multivariate analysis, miscarriages/stillbirths were not associated either with age, nadir of CD4 count, duration of ART, CD4 count, or viral load at the beginning of pregnancy. HIV-positive women participating in clinical trials conducted in

  8. Complaints related to smoking cessation.

    PubMed

    Can, Gamze; Oztuna, Funda; Topbaş, Murat

    2007-01-01

    Problems experienced during quitting smoking, particularly withdrawal symptoms, make giving up difficult. In this study the description of the complaints arising in individuals quitting smoking thus acts as a guide for health professional who dealt with smoking cessation. Data belonging to 194 patients applying to the smoking cessation clinic and quitting smoking were analysed. Behavioural counselling and nicotine support therapy are administered in the smoking cessation programme. Patients are followed up for at least two years after quitting cigarettes, and their complaints are determined. One hundred and two (52.6%) of the 194 patients quitting smoking had various complaints. One of the most frequently experienced problems was weight gain. According to patients' statements, an average weight gain of 6.8 +/- 3.8 kg, minimum 1 kg maximum 16 kg, occurred. Seventeen (8.7%) patients complain of increased appetite. Those with increased appetite gained the most weight, to a significant extent (p= 0.001). In terms of average weight gain, those with increased appetite gained 4.6 +/- 2.3 kg, while those without increased appetite gained 7.3 +/- 3.9 kg, and the difference was significant (p= 0.033). Thirty-eight (19.6%) patients complain of lesions in the mouth, gums or tongue. Twelve (6.1%) patients had complaints of tension, restlessness, nervousness or sleeplessness, 9 (4.6%) of a desire to smoke, 9 (4.6%) of headache, 8 (4.1%) of constipation, and 7 (3.6%) of drowsiness, numbness or concentration impairment. Forty-five (44.1%) of the 102 patients with smoking cessation related complaints and 57 (62%) of 92 patients with no complaints recommenced smoking. Significantly fewer of those with complaints began smoking (p= 0.013). Counselling services to be provided by health personnel regarding the frequency, intensity and resolutions of problems experienced by those quitting smoking will increase cessation success and duration.

  9. Kinetics and Mechanism of the Hydrogenation of CpCr(CO)3•/[CpCr(CO)3]2 Equilibrium to CpCr(CO)3H

    SciTech Connect

    Norton, Jack R.; Spataru, Tudor; Camaioni, Donald M.; Lee, Suh-Jane; Li, Gang; Choi, Jongwook; Franz, James A.

    2014-05-26

    The kinetics of the hydrogenation of 2 CpCr(CO)3•/[CpCr(CO)3]2 to CpCr(CO)3H has been investigated. The reaction is second-order in Cr and first-order in H2, with a rate constant of 45 M 2s 1 at 25 °C in benzene. DFT calculations rule out an H2 complex as an intermediate, and suggest (a) end-on approach of H2 to one Cr of [CpCr(CO)3]2 as the Cr-Cr bond undergoes heterolytic cleavage, (b) heterolytic cleavage of the coordinated H2 between O and Cr, and (c) isomerization of the resulting O-protonated CpCr(CO)2(COH) to CpCr(CO)3H. The work at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Division of Chemical Sciences, Geosciences and Biosciences; Battelle operates PNNL for DOE.

  10. Melting relations of multicomponent carbonate MgCO3-FeCO3-CaCO3-Na2CO3 system at 12-26 GPa: application to deeper mantle diamond formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spivak, Anna; Solopova, Natalia; Dubrovinsky, Leonid; Litvin, Yuriy

    2015-11-01

    Carbonatic components of parental melts of the deeper mantle diamonds are inferred from their primary inclusions of (Mg, Fe, Ca, Na)-carbonate minerals trapped at PT conditions of the Earth's transition zone and lower mantle. PT phase diagrams of MgCO3-FeCO3-CaCO3-Na2CO3 system and its ternary MgCO3-FeCO3-Na2CO3 boundary join were studied at pressures between 12 and 24 GPa and high temperatures. Experimental data point to eutectic solidus phase relations and indicate liquidus boundaries for completely miscible (Mg, Fe, Ca, Na)- and (Mg, Fe, Ca)-carbonate melts. PT fields for partial carbonate melts associated with (Mg, Fe)-, (Ca, Fe, Na)-, and (Na2Ca, Na2Fe)-carbonate solid solution phases are determined. Effective nucleation and mass crystallization of deeper mantle diamonds are realized in multicomponent (Mg, Fe, Ca, Na)-carbonatite-carbon melts at 18 and 26 GPa. The multicomponent carbonate systems were melted at temperatures that are lower than the geothermal ones. This gives an evidence for generation of diamond-parental carbonatite melts and formation of diamonds at the PT conditions of transition zone and lower mantle.

  11. Smoking cessation products and programs.

    PubMed

    Lando, H A

    1996-01-01

    Behavioral treatment techniques have facilitated smoking cessation, with intensive multicomponent interventions sometimes producing long-term abstinence rates approaching 50%. There is little evidence that either hypnosis or acupuncture are effective. Both nicotine gum and nicotine patch significantly improve treatment outcomes, although patch is easier for patients to use correctly. Self-help programs may be of benefit, however, smoking cessation products other than nicotine replacement show little evidence of effectiveness. Health professionals should be informed consumers and should be skeptical in evaluating claims for commercial programs or products. Additional information and materials are available from a number of sources including the National Cancer Institute, the U.S. Office on Smoking and Health, and the voluntary health organizations.

  12. Magnetic behavior of biosynthesized Co3O4 nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diallo, A.; Doyle, T. B.; Mothudi, B. M.; Manikandan, E.; Rajendran, V.; Maaza, M.

    2017-02-01

    This contribution reports for the 1st time on the magnetic behavior of CO3O4 nanoparticles synthesized by a "green" process using an Aspalathus linearis' leaves natural extract. More accurately magnetic behavior of CO3O4 nanoparticles successfully biosynthesized was investigated using vibrating sample magnetometer. The magnetization behavior for the samples manifests a combination of size dependent antiferromagnetic and paramagnetic behaviors, respectively, for the core and shell of the nanoparticles.

  13. [The ABC of smoking cessation].

    PubMed

    Bölcskei, Pál L; Walden, Kerstin

    2008-05-01

    The professional support increased chances of success for smoking cessation and is an important goal in health politics. A short advice by pharmacists can make a significant contribution to this. This article describes tobacco dependence and the "stages of change-model". Afterwards we explain possible therapies: besides cognitive-behavioral intervention, different forms of medical treatment, e.g. nicotin replacement therapy, bupropion and varenicline, will be discussed.

  14. Altered denA and anr gene expression in aminoglycoside adaptive resistance in Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Karlowsky, J A; Hoban, D J; Zelenitsky, S A; Zhanel, G G

    1997-09-01

    Adaptive resistance to aminoglycoside killing and cytoplasmic accumulation occurs in cultures of originally susceptible Pseudomonas aeruginosa following an initial incubation with aminoglycoside. Anaerobiosis has also been reported to reduce bacterial killing and limit cytoplasmic aminoglycoside accumulation. We hypothesized that a common mechanism may facilitate reduced bacterial killing and aminoglycoside accumulation in both cases. Northern blot analysis of P. aeruginosa adaptively resistant to gentamicin demonstrated increased mRNA levels of both denA (nitrite reductase), which facilitates terminal electron acceptance in the anaerobic respiratory pathway, and its regulatory protein, ANR, in the absence of promoter DNA sequence changes, when compared with controls. These observations suggested that P. aeruginosa may regulate the expression of genes in its anaerobic respiratory pathway in response to aminoglycosides and may explain, at least partially, P. aeruginosa adaptive resistance to aminoglycosides.

  15. Smoking Cessation Strategies in Pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Leung, Lesley W S; Davies, Gregory A

    2015-09-01

    Although pregnancy often motivates women to quit smoking, 20% to 25% will continue to smoke. Smoking is associated with adverse obstetric and neonatal outcomes such as placental abruption, stillbirth, preterm birth and sudden infant death syndrome, and it is therefore important to motivate women to quit during pregnancy. In this review, we explore the efficacy and evidence for safety of strategies for smoking cessation in pregnancy, including behavioural and pharmacologic therapies. The PubMed, Medline, EMBASE, and Cochrane databases (1990 to 2014) were accessed to identify relevant studies, using the search terms "smoking cessation," "pregnancy," "medicine, behavioural," "nicotine replacement products," "bupropion," and "varenicline." Studies were selected based on the levels of evidence presented by the Canadian Task Force on Preventative Health Care. Based on our review of the evidence, incentives combined with behavioural therapy appear to show the greatest promise for abstaining from smoking in the pregnant population. Nicotine replacement therapy administered in the form of gum may be better than using transdermal forms to avoid high levels of nicotine in the fetal circulation. One small trial demonstrated that bupropion is an effective aid for smoking cessation and that it does not appear to be associated with an increased risk of major congenital malformations. The currently available studies of varenicline in pregnancy are insufficient to provide evidence for the safety or efficacy of its use.

  16. Overexpressing the ANR1 MADS-box gene in transgenic plants provides new insights into its role in the nitrate regulation of root development.

    PubMed

    Gan, Yinbo; Bernreiter, Andreas; Filleur, Sophie; Abram, Beverley; Forde, Brian G

    2012-06-01

    The expression of the ANR1 MADS-box gene was manipulated in transgenic plants to investigate its role in the NO(3)(-)-dependent regulation of root development in Arabidopsis thaliana. Constitutive overexpression of ANR1 in roots, achieved using GAL4 enhancer trap lines, resulted in more rapid early seedling development, increased lengths and numbers of lateral roots and increased shoot fresh weight. Based on results obtained with five different enhancer trap lines, the overexpression of ANR1 in the lateral root tips appears to be more important for this phenotype than its level of expression in the developing lateral root primordia. Dexamethasone-mediated induction of ANR1 in lines expressing an ANR1-GR (glucocorticoid receptor) fusion protein stimulated lateral root growth but not primary root growth. Short-term (24 h) dexamethasone treatments led to prolonged stimulation of lateral root growth, whether the lateral roots were already mature or still unemerged at the time of treatment. In split-root experiments, localized application of dexamethasone to half of the root system of an ANR1-GR line elicited a localized increase in both the length and numbers of lateral roots, mimicking the effect of a localized NO(3)(-) treatment. In both types of transgenic line, the root phenotype was strongly dependent on the presence of NO(3)(-), indicating that there are additional components involved in ANR1 function that are NO(3)(-) regulated. The implications of these results for our understanding of ANR1's mode of action in the root response to localized NO(3)(-) are discussed.

  17. Rice-like hollow nano-CaCO3 synthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ulkeryildiz, Eda; Kilic, Sevgi; Ozdemir, Ekrem

    2016-09-01

    We have shown that Ca(OH)2 solution is a natural stabilizer for CaCO3 particles. We designed a CO2 bubbling crystallization reactor to produce nano-CaCO3 particles in homogenous size distribution without aggregation. In the experimental set-up, the crystallization region was separated from the stabilization region. The produced nanoparticles were removed from the crystallization region into the stabilization region before aggregation or crystal growth. It was shown that rice-like hollow nano-CaCO3 particles in about 250 nm in size were produced with almost monodispersed size distribution. The particles started to dissolve through their edges as CO2 bubbles were injected, which opened-up the pores inside the particles. At the late stages of crystallization, the open pores were closed as a result of dissolution-recrystallization of the newly synthesized CaCO3 particles. These particles were stable in Ca(OH)2 solution and no aggregation was detected. The present methodology can be used in drug encapsulation into inorganic CaCO3 particles for cancer treatment with some modifications.

  18. Alternative solution model for the ternary carbonate system CaCO3 - MgCO3 - FeCO3 - I. A ternary Bragg-Williams ordering model

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McSwiggen, P.L.

    1993-01-01

    The minerals of the ternary carbonate system CaCO3 - MgCO3 - FeCO3 represent a complex series of solid solutions and ordering states. An understanding of those complexities requires a solution model that can both duplicate the subsolidus phase relationships and generate correct values for the activities. Such a solution model must account for the changes in the total energy of the system resulting from a change in the ordering state of the individual constituents. Various ordering models have been applied to binary carbonate systems, but no attempts have previously been made to model the ordering in the ternary system. This study derives a new set of equations that allow for the equilibrium degree of order to be calculated for a system involving three cations mixing on two sites, as in the case of the ternary carbonates. The method is based on the Bragg-Williams approach. From the degree of order, the mole fractions of the three cations in each of the two sites can be determined. Once the site occupancies have been established, a Margules-type mixing model can be used to determine the free energy of mixing in the solid solution and therefore the activities of the various components. ?? 1993 Springer-Verlag.

  19. The Global Anaerobic Regulator Anr, Is Involved in Cell Attachment and Aggregation Influencing the First Stages of Biofilm Development in Pseudomonas extremaustralis

    PubMed Central

    Tribelli, Paula M.; Hay, Anthony G.; López, Nancy I.

    2013-01-01

    Pseudomonas extremaustralis is a versatile Antarctic bacterium, able to grow under microaerobic and anaerobic conditions and is related to several non-pathogenic Pseudomonads. Here we report on the role of the global anaerobic regulator Anr, in the early steps of P. extremaustralis biofilm development. We found that the anr mutant was reduced in its ability to attach, to form aggregates and to display twitching motility but presented higher swimming motility than the wild type. In addition, microscopy revealed that the wild type biofilm contained more biomass and was thicker, but were less rough than that of the anr mutant. In silico analysis of the P. extremaustralis genome for Anr-like binding sites led to the identification of two biofilm-related genes as potential targets of this regulator. When measured using Quantitative Real Time PCR, we found that the anr mutant expressed lower levels of pilG, which encodes a component of Type IV pili and has been previously implicated in cellular adhesion. Levels of morA, involved in signal transduction and flagella development, were also lower in the mutant. Our data suggest that under low oxygen conditions, such as those encountered in biofilms, Anr differentially regulates aggregation and motility thus affecting the first stages of biofilm formation. PMID:24146909

  20. The global anaerobic regulator Anr, is involved in cell attachment and aggregation influencing the first stages of biofilm development in Pseudomonas extremaustralis.

    PubMed

    Tribelli, Paula M; Hay, Anthony G; López, Nancy I

    2013-01-01

    Pseudomonas extremaustralis is a versatile Antarctic bacterium, able to grow under microaerobic and anaerobic conditions and is related to several non-pathogenic Pseudomonads. Here we report on the role of the global anaerobic regulator Anr, in the early steps of P. extremaustralis biofilm development. We found that the anr mutant was reduced in its ability to attach, to form aggregates and to display twitching motility but presented higher swimming motility than the wild type. In addition, microscopy revealed that the wild type biofilm contained more biomass and was thicker, but were less rough than that of the anr mutant. In silico analysis of the P. extremaustralis genome for Anr-like binding sites led to the identification of two biofilm-related genes as potential targets of this regulator. When measured using Quantitative Real Time PCR, we found that the anr mutant expressed lower levels of pilG, which encodes a component of Type IV pili and has been previously implicated in cellular adhesion. Levels of morA, involved in signal transduction and flagella development, were also lower in the mutant. Our data suggest that under low oxygen conditions, such as those encountered in biofilms, Anr differentially regulates aggregation and motility thus affecting the first stages of biofilm formation.

  1. Interventions for waterpipe smoking cessation

    PubMed Central

    Maziak, Wasim; Jawad, Mohammed; Jawad, Sena; Ward, Kenneth D; Eissenberg, Thomas; Asfar, Taghrid

    2016-01-01

    Background Waterpipe tobacco smoking is a traditional method of tobacco use, especially in the Eastern Mediterranean Region (EMR), but its use is now spreading worldwide. Recent epidemiological data, for example, show that waterpipe smoking has become the most prevalent tobacco use method among adolescents in the EMR, and the second most prevalent in the US. Waterpipes are used socially, often being shared between friends or family at home, or in dedicated bars and cafes that provide waterpipes to patrons. Because the smoke passes through a reservoir of water, waterpipe tobacco smoking is perceived as being less harmful than other methods of tobacco use. At least in some cultures, women and girls are more likely to use a waterpipe than to use other forms of tobacco, and it is popular among younger smokers. Accumulating evidence suggests that some waterpipe smokers become addicted, have difficulty quitting, and experience similar health risks as cigarette smokers. Objectives To evaluate the effectiveness of tobacco cessation interventions for waterpipe users. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Tobacco Addiction Review Group specialized register in June 2015. We also searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO and CINAHL, using variant terms and spellings (‘waterpipe’ or ‘narghile’ or ‘arghile’ or ‘shisha’ or ‘goza’ or ‘narkeela’ or ‘hookah’ or ‘hubble bubble’). We searched for trials, published or unpublished, in any language, and especially in regions where waterpipe use is widespread. Selection criteria We sought randomized, quasi-randomized or cluster-randomized controlled trials of smoking cessation interventions for waterpipe smokers of any age or gender. The primary outcome of interest was abstinence from tobacco use, measured at six months post-cessation or longer, regardless of whether abstinence was biochemically verified. We included interventions that were pharmacological (for example, nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) or

  2. Interventions for waterpipe smoking cessation.

    PubMed

    Maziak, Wasim; Jawad, Mohammed; Jawad, Sena; Ward, Kenneth D; Eissenberg, Thomas; Asfar, Taghrid

    2015-07-31

    Waterpipe tobacco smoking is a traditional method of tobacco use, especially in the Eastern Mediterranean Region (EMR), but its use is now spreading worldwide. Recent epidemiological data, for example, show that waterpipe smoking has become the most prevalent tobacco use method among adolescents in the EMR, and the second most prevalent in the US. Waterpipes are used socially, often being shared between friends or family at home, or in dedicated bars and cafes that provide waterpipes to patrons. Because the smoke passes through a reservoir of water, waterpipe tobacco smoking is perceived as being less harmful than other methods of tobacco use. At least in some cultures, women and girls are more likely to use a waterpipe than to use other forms of tobacco, and it is popular among younger smokers. Accumulating evidence suggests that some waterpipe smokers become addicted, have difficulty quitting, and experience similar health risks as cigarette smokers. To evaluate the effectiveness of tobacco cessation interventions for waterpipe users. We searched the Cochrane Tobacco Addiction Review Group specialized register in June 2015. We also searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO and CINAHL , using variant terms and spellings ('waterpipe' or 'narghile' or 'arghile' or 'shisha' or 'goza' or 'narkeela' or 'hookah' or 'hubble bubble'). We searched for trials, published or unpublished, in any language, and especially in regions where waterpipe use is widespread. We sought randomized, quasi-randomized or cluster-randomized controlled trials of smoking cessation interventions for waterpipe smokers of any age or gender. The primary outcome of interest was abstinence from tobacco use, measured at six months post-cessation or longer, regardless of whether abstinence was biochemically verified. We included interventions that were pharmacological (for example, nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) or bupropion) or behavioural, or both, and could be directed at individual waterpipe users or

  3. The Effect of Five Smoking Cessation Pharmacotherapies on Smoking Cessation Milestones

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Japuntich, Sandra J.; Piper, Megan E.; Leventhal, Adam M.; Bolt, Daniel M.; Baker, Timothy B.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Most smoking cessation studies have used long-term abstinence as their primary outcome measure. Recent research has suggested that long-term abstinence may be an insensitive index of important smoking cessation mechanisms. The goal of the current study was to examine the effects of 5 smoking cessation pharmacotherapies using Shiffman et…

  4. The Effect of Five Smoking Cessation Pharmacotherapies on Smoking Cessation Milestones

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Japuntich, Sandra J.; Piper, Megan E.; Leventhal, Adam M.; Bolt, Daniel M.; Baker, Timothy B.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Most smoking cessation studies have used long-term abstinence as their primary outcome measure. Recent research has suggested that long-term abstinence may be an insensitive index of important smoking cessation mechanisms. The goal of the current study was to examine the effects of 5 smoking cessation pharmacotherapies using Shiffman et…

  5. VERTEX: Manganese transport with CaCO 3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, John H.; Knauer, George A.

    1983-04-01

    Manganese transport was studied off central California in August and September 1981 as part of the VERTEX (Vertica l Transport and Exchange) research program. Refractory, leachable, and dissolved Mn fractions associated with particles caught in traps set at 11 depths (50 to 2000 m) were analyzed. Through intentional and unintentional CaCO 3 dissolution 'experiments', it was learned that the weakly leachable Mn was originally in association with the carbonate phase. Adsorption on surfaces rather than absorption in CaCO 3 matrices was indicated by the finding that Mn was not released in proportion to the CaCo 3 dissolved, instead it appeared to keep readsorbing to the dissolving surface. Ultimately, Mn went into solution when the particulate CaCO 3 was essentially depleted, suggesting that sufficient sites for adsorption were no longer available. Manganese fluxes with CaCO 3 were low near the surface (0.1 mg cm -2 ky -1), but increased rapidly in the 50 to 200-m depth interval, and then became more or less constant (1.3 mg cm -2 ky -1 for the remainder of the water column (300 to 2000 m). Rate-of-change estimates indicate that Mn is rapidly scavenged in near-surface waters (-130 ng 1 -1 y -1) and slowly regenerated at depth (2.7 ng 1 -1 y -1) in our near-shore study area. Residence times for dissolved Mn were estimated at 1.2 y for surface waters and 17 y at depth. The implications of Mn transport with CaCO 3 in relation to open-ocean sediment excess Mn are discussed.

  6. The decarbonation and heat capacity of ZnCO3

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Haselton, H.T.; Goldsmith, J.R.

    1987-01-01

    The decarbonation curve for ZnCO3 has been determined in the pressure range 3-20 kbar by using a combination of cold-seal vessels and piston-cylinder apparatus with NaCl assemblies. Heat capacities for both synthetic and natural ZnCO3 samples were measured by differential scanning calorimetry at temperatures ranging from 340 to 497 K. The results of these experiments indicate that the enthalpy of formation for smithsonite, ??Hf(1,298.15), is approximately -817. kJ/mol. which is about 4 kJ more negative than most tabulated values. ?? 1987.

  7. Magnetic behavior of Gd4Co3 metallic glass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Ji Liang; Zheng, Zhi Gang; Cao, Wen Huan; Shek, Chan Hung

    2013-01-01

    Metallic glass was successfully fabricated of the Gd4Co3 intermetallic composition. Analysis of the magnetization-temperature data showed that the moment per Gd atom was larger than its theoretical value and indicated the contribution from the Co moment. The maximum magnetic entropy change of glassy Gd4Co3 was determined as -7.2 J kg-1 K-1 at 50 kOe and -3.8 J kg-1 K-1 at 20 kOe, which are both much larger than those of its crystalline state.

  8. Reproductive cessation in female mammals.

    PubMed

    Packer, C; Tatar, M; Collins, A

    1998-04-23

    In female mammals, fertility declines abruptly at an advanced age. The human menopause is one example, but reproductive cessation has also been documented in non-human primates, rodents, whales, dogs, rabbits, elephants and domestic livestock. The human menopause has been considered an evolutionary adaptation, assuming that elderly women avoid the increasing complications of continued childbirth to better nurture their current children and grandchildren. But an abrupt reproductive decline might be only a non-adaptive by-product of life-history patterns. Because so many individuals die from starvation, disease and predation, detrimental genetic traits can persist (or even be favoured) as long as their deleterious effects are delayed until an advanced age is reached, and, for a given pattern of mortality, there should be an age by which selection would be too weak to prevent the onset of reproductive senescence. We provide a systematic test of these alternatives using field data from two species in which grandmothers frequently engage in kin-directed behaviour. Both species show abrupt age-specific changes in reproductive performance that are characteristic of menopause. But elderly females do not suffer increased mortality costs of reproduction, nor do post-reproductive females enhance the fitness of grandchildren or older children. Instead, reproductive cessation appears to result from senescence.

  9. Nicotine dependence and smoking cessation.

    PubMed

    Tan, Linxiang; Tang, Quansheng; Hao, Wei

    2009-11-01

    Tobacco use is the single most preventable cause of death, disability and disease in the world and is projected to be the leading cause of death and disability across all developed and developing countries by 2020. Nicotine, the primary active ingredient of cigarettes that contributes to physical dependence, acts on nicotine receptors in the central nervous system and leads to the release of neurotransmitters (such as dopamine). Like other drugs of abuse, nicotine is thought to produce reinforcing effect by activating the mesocorticolimbic dopamine system. A wide variety of cessation treatments of nicotine dependence is commercially available, yet only 2 general approaches have received empirical validation: behavioral intervention (including 5 As brief intervention) and pharmacotherapy. The evidences show that 5 As brief intervention is one of the most cost-effective treatments in clinical work for busy physicians. Three types of medications have been available in market for smoking cessation treatment: nicotine replacement treatment (NRT, i.e., transdermal patch, gum, inhaler, nasal spray, and lozenge), sustained release bupropion and varenicline. Varenicline, a novel alpha4beta2 nicotinic receptor partial agonist, is effective for tobacco dependence. Phase III trials suggest that it is more effective than NRT and bupropion SR. The safety profile of varenicline is excellent, with the most commonly occurring adverse events, nausea, typically mild and well tolerated. However, new safety warnings are added to the varenicline label because of post-marketing report including agitation, depression and suicidality. A causal connection between varenicline use and these symptoms has not been established.

  10. Methadone induction in primary care (ANRS-Methaville): a phase III randomized intervention trial

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background In France, the rapid scale-up of buprenorphine, an opioid maintenance treatment (OMT), in primary care for drug users has led to an impressive reduction in HIV prevalence among injecting drug users (IDU) but has had no major effect on Hepatitis C incidence. To date, patients willing to start methadone can only do so in a methadone clinic (a medical centre for drug and alcohol dependence (CSAPA) or a hospital setting) and are referred to primary care physicians after dose stabilization. This study aims to assess the effectiveness of methadone in patients who initiated treatment in primary care compared with those who initiated it in a CSAPA, by measuring abstinence from street opioid use after one year of treatment. Methods/Design The ANRS-Methaville study is a randomized multicenter non-inferiority control trial comparing methadone induction (lasting approximately 2 weeks) in primary care and in CSAPA. The model of care chosen for methadone induction in primary care was based on study-specific pre-training of all physicians, exclusion criteria and daily supervision of methadone during the initiation phase. Between January 2009 and January 2011, 10 sites each having one CSAPA and several primary care physicians, were identified to recruit patients to be randomized into two groups, one starting methadone in primary care (n = 147), the other in CSAPA (n = 48). The primary outcome of the study is the proportion of participants abstinent from street opioids after 1 year of treatment i.e. non-inferiority of primary care model in terms of the proportion of patients not using street opioids compared with the proportion observed in those starting methadone in a CSAPA. Discussion The ANRS-Methaville study is the first in France to use an interventional trial to improve access to OMT for drug users. Once the non-inferiority results become available, the Ministry of Health and agency for the safety of health products may change the the New Drug Application

  11. Functional Health Literacy and Smoking Cessation Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Varekojis, Sarah M.; Miller, Larry; Schiller, M. Rosita; Stein, David

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to describe the relationship between functional health literacy level and smoking cessation outcomes. Design/methodology/approach: Participants in an inpatient smoking cessation program in a mid-western city in the USA were enrolled and the Short Test of Functional Health Literacy in Adults was administered while the…

  12. Functional Health Literacy and Smoking Cessation Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Varekojis, Sarah M.; Miller, Larry; Schiller, M. Rosita; Stein, David

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to describe the relationship between functional health literacy level and smoking cessation outcomes. Design/methodology/approach: Participants in an inpatient smoking cessation program in a mid-western city in the USA were enrolled and the Short Test of Functional Health Literacy in Adults was administered while the…

  13. 33 CFR 276.8 - Cessation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Cessation. 276.8 Section 276.8 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE WATER RESOURCES POLICIES AND AUTHORITIES: APPLICATION OF SECTION 134a OF PUBLIC LAW 94-587 § 276.8 Cessation....

  14. 33 CFR 276.8 - Cessation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Cessation. 276.8 Section 276.8 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE WATER RESOURCES POLICIES AND AUTHORITIES: APPLICATION OF SECTION 134a OF PUBLIC LAW 94-587 § 276.8 Cessation....

  15. 33 CFR 276.8 - Cessation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Cessation. 276.8 Section 276.8 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE WATER RESOURCES POLICIES AND AUTHORITIES: APPLICATION OF SECTION 134a OF PUBLIC LAW 94-587 § 276.8 Cessation....

  16. 33 CFR 276.8 - Cessation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Cessation. 276.8 Section 276.8 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE WATER RESOURCES POLICIES AND AUTHORITIES: APPLICATION OF SECTION 134a OF PUBLIC LAW 94-587 § 276.8 Cessation....

  17. 33 CFR 276.8 - Cessation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Cessation. 276.8 Section 276.8 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE WATER RESOURCES POLICIES AND AUTHORITIES: APPLICATION OF SECTION 134a OF PUBLIC LAW 94-587 § 276.8 Cessation....

  18. Mass Media for Smoking Cessation in Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Solomon, Laura J.; Bunn, Janice Y.; Flynn, Brian S.; Pirie, Phyllis L.; Worden, John K.; Ashikaga, Takamaru

    2009-01-01

    Theory-driven, mass media interventions prevent smoking among youth. This study examined effects of a media campaign on adolescent smoking cessation. Four matched pairs of media markets in four states were randomized to receive or not receive a 3-year television/radio campaign aimed at adolescent smoking cessation based on social cognitive theory.…

  19. Mass Media for Smoking Cessation in Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Solomon, Laura J.; Bunn, Janice Y.; Flynn, Brian S.; Pirie, Phyllis L.; Worden, John K.; Ashikaga, Takamaru

    2009-01-01

    Theory-driven, mass media interventions prevent smoking among youth. This study examined effects of a media campaign on adolescent smoking cessation. Four matched pairs of media markets in four states were randomized to receive or not receive a 3-year television/radio campaign aimed at adolescent smoking cessation based on social cognitive theory.…

  20. Smoking Cessation Failure among Korean Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Sung Reul; Kim, Hyun Kyung; Kim, Ji Young; Kim, Hye Young; Ko, Sung Hee; Park, Minyoung

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify smoking cessation failure subgroups among Korean adolescents. Participants were 379 smoking adolescents who joined a smoking cessation program. A questionnaire and a cotinine urine test were administered before the program began. Three months after the program ended, the cotinine urine test was repeated. A…

  1. Smoking Cessation Failure among Korean Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Sung Reul; Kim, Hyun Kyung; Kim, Ji Young; Kim, Hye Young; Ko, Sung Hee; Park, Minyoung

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify smoking cessation failure subgroups among Korean adolescents. Participants were 379 smoking adolescents who joined a smoking cessation program. A questionnaire and a cotinine urine test were administered before the program began. Three months after the program ended, the cotinine urine test was repeated. A…

  2. Interactive mobile system for smoking cessation.

    PubMed

    Finkelstein, Joseph; Wood, Jeffrey

    2013-01-01

    Tobacco use remains the single largest preventable cause of death and disease in the United States. We developed an interactive mobile system to facilitate smoking cessation by identifying which stage of change the patient was currently in and creating a custom intervention and cessation action plan based upon their feedback and experience. It is designed to follow the patient through their smoking cessation experience and adapt to their changing attitudes over time. We piloted this program with 49 current smokers hospitalized at Johns Hopkins Hospital. The mobile smoking cessation system was generally well received by hospitalized patients. Improvement in attitudes and stage of change were noticed between pretest and posttest, suggesting an ability to help change patient's attitudes towards smoking and motivate them to quit. Providing real time decision support and tailoring the content shown to the patients to their personal profile can be a viable means in smoking cessation.

  3. Iron regulation of the hcnABC genes encoding hydrogen cyanide synthase depends on the anaerobic regulator ANR rather than on the global activator GacA in Pseudomonas fluorescens CHA0.

    PubMed

    Blumer, C; Haas, D

    2000-10-01

    Pseudomonas fluorescens CHA0 produces hydrogen cyanide (HCN), a secondary metabolite that substantially contributes to this strain's biocontrol ability. Cyanogenesis is induced by oxygen-limiting conditions, but abolished by iron depletion. In P. fluorescens, the anaerobic regulator ANR and the global activator GacA are both required for the maximal expression of the HCN biosynthetic genes hcnABC. The molecular basis of this regulation by ANR and GacA was investigated under conditions of oxygen and iron limitation. A promoter deletion analysis using a translational hcnA'-'lacZ fusion revealed that a conserved FNR/ANR recognition sequence in the -40 promoter region was necessary and sufficient for the regulation by ANR in response to oxygen limitation. Stimulation of hcnA'-'lacZ expression by the addition of iron also depended on the presence of ANR and the FNR/ANR box, but not on GacA, suggesting that in addition to acting as an oxygen-sensitive protein, ANR also responds to iron availability. Expression of the translational hcnA'-'lacZ fusion remained GacA-dependent in hcn promoter mutants that were no longer responsive to ANR, in agreement with earlier evidence for a post-transcriptional regulatory mechanism under GacA control. These data support a model in which cyanogenesis is sequentially activated by ANR at the level of transcription and by components of the GacA network at the level of translation.

  4. iPhone Apps for Smoking Cessation

    PubMed Central

    Abroms, Lorien C.; Padmanabhan, Nalini; Thaweethai, Lalida; Phillips, Todd

    2012-01-01

    Background With the proliferation of smartphones such as the iPhone, mobile phones are being used in novel ways to promote smoking cessation. Purpose This study set out to examine the content of the 47 iPhone applications (apps) for smoking cessation that were distributed through the online iTunes store, as of June 24, 2009. Methods Each app was independently coded by two reviewers for their (1) approach to smoking cessation and their (2) adherence to the U.S. Public Health Service’s 2008 Clinical Practice Guidelines for Treating Tobacco Use and Dependence. Apps were also coded for their (3) frequency of downloads. Results Apps identified for smoking cessation were found to have low levels of adherence to key guidelines in the index. Few, if any, apps recommended or linked the user to proven treatments such as pharmacotherapy, counseling, and/or a quitline. Conclusions iPhone apps for smoking cessation rarely adhere to established guidelines for smoking cessation. It is recommended that current apps be revised and future apps be developed around evidence-based practices for smoking cessation. PMID:21335258

  5. Size-frequency distributions of chondrules in CO3 chondrites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rubin, Alan E.

    1989-01-01

    The size-frequency distributions of chondrules were determined for eleven CO3 chondrites (including ALHA77003, ALHA77307, ALH82101, ALH85003, Colony, Felix, Isna, Kainsaz, Lance, Ornans, and Warrenton), using the results of petrographic analyses of thin sections. The mean proportion of different chondrule types in CO3 chondrites were estimated to be 69 percent POP, 18 percent PP, 8 percent PO, 2 percent BO, 2 percent RP, 1 percent C, and less than 0.1 percent GOP. These proportions are very different from those in ordinary or EH and CV chondrites, with the smaller proportion of nonporphyritic chondrules than EH chondrites, but a larger proportion than CV chondrites. Relative proportions of chondrule types vary with size interval; thus, with decreasing chondrule size, PO chondrules decrease fairly regularly in abundance, while RP chondrules are most abundant in the smallest size intervals.

  6. Understanding smoking cessation in rural communities.

    PubMed

    Hutcheson, Tresza D; Greiner, K Allen; Ellerbeck, Edward F; Jeffries, Shawn K; Mussulman, Laura M; Casey, Genevieve N

    2008-01-01

    Rural communities are adversely impacted by increased rates of tobacco use. Rural residents may be exposed to unique communal norms and other factors that influence smoking cessation. This study explored facilitating factors and barriers to cessation and the role of rural health care systems in the smoking-cessation process. Focus groups were conducted with smokers (N = 63) in 7 Midwestern rural communities. Qualitative analysis and thematic coding of transcripts was conducted. Three levels of pertinent themes--intrinsic, health-system resource, and community/social factors--were identified. Intrinsic factors facilitating cessation included willingness to try various cessation methods, beliefs about consequences of continuing smoking (eg, smoking-related illnesses), and benefits of quitting (eg, saving money). Intrinsic barriers included skepticism about resources, low self-efficacy and motivation for smoking cessation, concern about negative consequences of quitting (eg, weight gain), and perceived benefits of continued smoking (eg, enjoyment). Key health-system resource facilitators were pharmacotherapy use and physician visits. Resource barriers included infrequent physician visits, lack of medical/financial resources, limited local smoking-cessation programs, and lack of knowledge of existing resources. In terms of community/social factors, participants acknowledged the negative social impact/image of smoking, but also cited a lack of alternative activities, few public restrictions, stressors, and exposure to other smokers as barriers to cessation. Smokers in rural communities face significant challenges that must be addressed. A multilevel model centered on improving access to health care system resources while addressing intrinsic and community/social factors might enhance smoking-cessation interventions and programs in rural communities.

  7. Tobacco Cessation Interventions for Underserved Women

    PubMed Central

    Hemsing, Natalie; Greaves, Lorraine; Poole, Nancy

    2015-01-01

    Despite high rates of smoking among some subgroups of women, there is a lack of tailored interventions to address smoking cessation among women. We identify components of a women-centered approach to tobacco cessation by analyzing 3 bodies of literature: sex and gender influences in tobacco use and addiction; evidence-based tobacco cessation guidelines; and best practices in delivery of women-centered care. Programming for underserved women should be tailored, build confidence and increase motivation, integrate social justice issues and address inequities, and be holistic and comprehensive. Addressing the complexity of women’s smoking and tailoring appropriately could help address smoking among subpopulations of women. PMID:27226783

  8. Opioid antagonists for smoking cessation

    PubMed Central

    David, Sean P; Lancaster, Tim; Stead, Lindsay F; Evins, A. Eden; Prochaska, Judith J

    2014-01-01

    Background The reinforcing properties of nicotine may be mediated through release of various neurotransmitters both centrally and systemically. People who smoke report positive effects such as pleasure, arousal, and relaxation as well as relief of negative affect, tension, and anxiety. Opioid (narcotic) antagonists are of particular interest to investigators as potential agents to attenuate the rewarding effects of cigarette smoking. Objectives To evaluate the efficacy of opioid antagonists in promoting long-term smoking cessation. The drugs include naloxone and the longer-acting opioid antagonist naltrexone. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Tobacco Addiction Group Specialised Register for trials of naloxone, naltrexone and other opioid antagonists and conducted an additional search of MEDLINE using ’Narcotic antagonists’ and smoking terms in April 2013. We also contacted investigators, when possible, for information on unpublished studies. Selection criteria We considered randomised controlled trials comparing opioid antagonists to placebo or an alternative therapeutic control for smoking cessation. We included in the meta-analysis only those trials which reported data on abstinence for a minimum of six months. We also reviewed, for descriptive purposes, results from short-term laboratory-based studies of opioid antagonists designed to evaluate psycho-biological mediating variables associated with nicotine dependence. Data collection and analysis We extracted data in duplicate on the study population, the nature of the drug therapy, the outcome measures, method of randomisation, and completeness of follow-up. The main outcome measure was abstinence from smoking after at least six months follow-up in patients smoking at baseline. Abstinence at end of treatment was a secondary outcome. We extracted cotinine- or carbon monoxide-verified abstinence where available. Where appropriate, we performed meta-analysis, pooling risk ratios using a Mantel

  9. [Counseling interventions for smoking cessation: systematic review].

    PubMed

    Alba, Luz Helena; Murillo, Raúl; Castillo, Juan Sebastián

    2013-04-01

    A systematic review on efficacy and safety of smoking cessation counseling was developed. The ADAPTE methodology was used with a search of Clinical Practice Guidelines (CPG) in Medline, EMBASE, CINAHL, LILACS, and Cochrane. DELBI was used to select CPG with score over 60 in methodological rigor and applicability to the Colombian health system. Smoking cessation rates at 6 months were assessed according to counseling provider, model, and format. In total 5 CPG out of 925 references were selected comprising 44 systematic reviews and meta-analyses. Physician brief counseling and trained health professionals' intensive counseling (individual, group, proactive telephone) are effective with abstinence rates between 2.1% and 17.4%. Only practical counseling and motivational interview were found effective intensive interventions. The clinical effect of smoking cessation counseling is low and long term cessation rates uncertain. Cost-effectiveness analyses are recommended for the implementation of counseling in public health programs.

  10. Therapy for Specific Problems: Youth Tobacco Cessation

    PubMed Central

    Curry, Susan J.; Mermelstein, Robin J.; Sporer, Amy K.

    2010-01-01

    Cigarette smoking is the leading cause of premature morbidity and mortality in the United States. The majority of children smoke their first cigarette in early adolescence, and many older teens have well-established dependence on nicotine. Efforts to promote and support smoking cessation among these youth smokers are critical. The available experimental studies of youth cessation interventions find that behavioral interventions increase the chances of youth smokers achieving successful cessation. Currently there is insufficient evidence for the effectiveness of pharmacological treatments with youth smokers. Many innovative studies have been compromised by challenges in recruiting sufficient numbers of youth, obtaining approval for waivers of parental consent, and high attrition in longitudinal studies. Key areas for future work include bridging the fields of adolescent development and treatment design, matching treatments to developmental trajectories of smoking behavior, better understanding treatment processes and treatment moderators, and building demand for evidence-based cessation treatments. PMID:19035825

  11. Smokeless tobacco: challenges, products and, cessation.

    PubMed

    Rankin, K Vendrell; Jones, Daniel L; Benton, Elain

    2010-06-01

    Tobacco companies continue to develop and aggressively market new products for oral use. Most new products are intended to dissolve in the mouth and swallow rather than spit out the juices. These products effectively circumvent smoke-free policies, decrease tobacco cessation efforts, and create individuals who use both smokeless tobacco (ST) and cigarettes. All ST products contain nicotine, carcinogens, and pose multiple health risks. The cancer and health risks associated with ST use extend well beyond the changes in the oral cavity and the risk of oral cancer. Unlike cigarettes, the contents of ST vary widely by brand and product posing difficulty in the use of the available pharmacotherapy for cessation. Although no uniform guidelines exist for the use of pharmacotherapy for smokeless tobacco cessation, research suggests that use of these drugs is effective. The most important motivator for quitting ST cessation remains in the hands of the dentist.

  12. Web-Based Smoking-Cessation Program

    PubMed Central

    Strecher, Victor J.; McClure, Jennifer B.; Alexander, Gwen L.; Chakraborty, Bibhas; Nair, Vijay N.; Konkel, Janine M.; Greene, Sarah M.; Collins, Linda M.; Carlier, Carola C.; Wiese, Cheryl J.; Little, Roderick J.; Pomerleau, Cynthia S.; Pomerleau, Ovide F.

    2009-01-01

    Background Initial trials of web-based smoking-cessation programs have generally been promising. The active components of these programs, however, are not well understood. This study aimed to (1) identify active psychosocial and communication components of a web-based smoking-cessation intervention and (2) examine the impact of increasing the tailoring depth on smoking cessation. Design Randomized fractional factorial design. Setting Two HMOs: Group Health in Washington State and Henry Ford Health System in Michigan. Participants 1866 smokers. Intervention A web-based smoking-cessation program plus nicotine patch. Five components of the intervention were randomized using a fractional factorial design: high- versus low-depth tailored success story, outcome expectation, and efficacy expectation messages; high- versus low-personalized source; and multiple versus single exposure to the intervention components. Measurements Primary outcome was 7 day point-prevalence abstinence at the 6-month follow-up. Findings Abstinence was most influenced by high-depth tailored success stories and a high-personalized message source. The cumulative assignment of the three tailoring depth factors also resulted in increasing the rates of 6-month cessation, demonstrating an effect of tailoring depth. Conclusions The study identified relevant components of smoking-cessation interventions that should be generalizable to other cessation interventions. The study also demonstrated the importance of higher-depth tailoring in smoking-cessation programs. Finally, the use of a novel fractional factorial design allowed efficient examination of the study aims. The rapidly changing interfaces, software, and capabilities of eHealth are likely to require such dynamic experimental approaches to intervention discovery. PMID:18407003

  13. Smoker Characteristics and Smoking-Cessation Milestones

    PubMed Central

    Japuntich, Sandra J.; Leventhal, Adam M.; Piper, Megan E.; Bolt, Daniel M.; Roberts, Linda J.; Fiore, Michael C.; Baker, Timothy B.

    2011-01-01

    Background Contextual variables often predict long-term abstinence, but little is known about how these variables exert their effects. These variables could influence abstinence by affecting the ability to quit at all, or by altering risk of lapsing, or progressing from a lapse to relapse. Purpose To examine the effect of common predictors of smoking-cessation failure on smoking-cessation processes. Methods The current study (N = 1504, 58% female, 84% Caucasian; recruited from January 2005 to June 2007; data analyzed in 2009) uses the approach advocated by Shiffman et al., (2006), which measures cessation outcomes on three different cessation milestones (achieving initial abstinence, lapse risk, and the lapse-relapse transition) to examine relationships of smoker characteristics (dependence, contextual and demographic factors) with smoking-cessation process. Results High nicotine dependence strongly predicted all milestones: not achieving initial abstinence, and a higher risk of both lapse and transitioning from lapse to complete relapse. Numerous contextual and demographic variables were associated with higher initial cessation rates and/or decreased lapse risk at 6 months post-quit (e.g., ethnicity, gender, marital status, education, smoking in the workplace, number of smokers in the social network, and number of supportive others). However, aside from nicotine dependence, only gender significantly predicted the risk of transition from lapse to relapse. Conclusions These findings demonstrate that: (1) higher nicotine dependence predicted worse outcomes across every cessation milestone; (2) demographic and contextual variables are generally associated with initial abstinence rates and lapse risk and not the lapse-relapse transition. These results identify groups who are at risk for failure at specific stages of the smoking-cessation process, and this may have implications for treatment. PMID:21335259

  14. Smoking cessation programs in occupational settings

    PubMed Central

    Danaher, Brian G.

    1980-01-01

    For reasons of health and economics, the business community is displaying a growing interest in providing smoking cessation programs for employees. An examination of the current research on smoking cessation methods has revealed a number of promising directions that smoking cessation programs can take, for example, aversive smoking approaches combined with self-control strategies. A review of current smoking cessation programs in occupational settings revealed some emphasis on physician counseling, but a relatively greater emphasis on use of consultants (especially in proprietary programs) or of contingency programs to encourage nonsmoking. The smoking cessation programs in businesses can move in a number of innovative directions, including (a) increased use of inhouse programs with a variety of smoking cessation strategies; (b) greater emphasis on the training of program participants in nonsmoking behavioral skills, combined with contingency or incentive programs for smoking control; (c) vastly improved research methods, including complete followup assessments of program participants and chemical tests to validate their self-reported abstinence; (d) greater concern about the need for empirically tested procedures for recruitment of participants for the programs; and (e) expanded interchange among behavioral scientists (especially behavioral psychologists), health professionals in occupational health and medicine, union and employee groups, and management. PMID:7360872

  15. Complementary treatments for tobacco cessation: a survey.

    PubMed

    Sood, Amit; Ebbert, Jon O; Sood, Richa; Stevens, Susanna R

    2006-12-01

    Little information is available regarding the prevalence of use and interest in future use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) for tobacco cessation among tobacco users. We conducted a self-administered anonymous survey among 1,175 patients seen at a midwestern outpatient tobacco treatment specialty clinic between November 2003 and July 2005. Patient use of CAM for tobacco cessation, perceived efficacy of these treatments, and interest in future use of CAM were ascertained. Data were summarized using descriptive statistics, and logistic regression models were used to determine the characteristics associated with past CAM use or interest in future use of CAM for tobacco cessation. All of the patients who received the survey completed it. A total of 27% of patients reported previous use of CAM for tobacco cessation. The interventions most commonly used were hypnosis, relaxation, acupuncture, and meditation. CAM treatments most commonly perceived to be efficacious were yoga, relaxation, meditation, and massage therapy. A total of 67% of the patients reported interest in future use of CAM for tobacco cessation. The treatments of greatest interest for use in the future were hypnosis, herbal products, acupuncture, relaxation, and massage therapy. Female gender, previous use of conventional tobacco cessation products, previous use of CAM treatments, and a higher level of education were significantly associated with interest in future CAM use. The high level of interest in CAM among tobacco users underscores the need to conduct further research in this field.

  16. [Recommendations for smoking cessation in Colombia].

    PubMed

    Alba, Luz Helena; Murillo, Raúl; Becerra, Nelci; Páez, Nelson; Cañas, Alejandra; Mosquera, Catalina; Castillo, Juan Sebastián; Camacho, Natalia; Gómez, Javier; García-Herreros, Plutarco; Bernal, Luis Gabriel

    2013-01-01

    Chronic diseases represent the greatest burden of disease in Colombia for which smoking is the major risk factor. To provide clinical practice recommendations based upon efficacy and safety of smoking cessation therapies for Colombian adults. An adaptation of clinical practice guidelines (CPG) based on the ADAPT methodology was performed. We searched CPG on Medline, EMBASE, CINAHL, LILACS, and Cochrane databases. Six months' cessation rates were appraised for brief and intensive counseling, nicotine replacement therapy (NRT), bupropion, varenicline, clonidine, nortriptyline, acupuncture, hypnosis, homeopathy, and combined treatments. CPG were evaluated with DELBI and selected when having a score above 60% for methodological rigor of development and applicability to the Colombian health system. Formal consensus was performed for questions without strong evidence. 925 references were found, 17 CPG were pre-selected and 5 selected for adaptation. Brief and intensive counseling, NRT, bupropion, nortriptyline, and varenicline are effective for smoking cessation (cessation rates augment 5.1%-22.7%). Alternative therapies have not demonstrated cessation efficacy. Concomitant use of different NRT is the only combination with demonstrated efficacy (OR 1.9, 95%CI 1.3-2.7). Several alternatives for giving up tobacco smoking have confirmed efficacy. The absolute difference in cessation rates is variable among therapies and duration of effect requires further research. Brief and intensive counseling necessitate standardized formats for their implementation in Colombia. Economic evaluations are required to assess costs and benefits and to select the most suitable interventions for Colombia.

  17. Regulation of Pseudomonas aeruginosa hemF and hemN by the dual action of the redox response regulators Anr and Dnr.

    PubMed

    Rompf, A; Hungerer, C; Hoffmann, T; Lindenmeyer, M; Römling, U; Gross, U; Doss, M O; Arai, H; Igarashi, Y; Jahn, D

    1998-08-01

    The oxidative decarboxylation of coproporphyrinogen III catalysed by an oxygen-dependent oxidase (HemF) and an oxygen-independent dehydrogenase (HemN) is one of the key regulatory points of haem biosynthesis in Pseudomonas aeruginosa. To investigate the oxygen-dependent regulation of hemF and hemN, the corresponding genes were cloned from the P. aeruginosa chromosome. Recognition sequences for the Fnr-type transcriptional regulator Anr were detected -44.5 bp from the 5' end of the hemF mRNA transcript and at an optimal distance of -41.5 bp with respect to the transcriptional start of hemN. An approximately 10-fold anaerobic induction of hemN gene expression was mediated by the dual action of Anr and a second Fnr-type regulator, Dnr. Regulation by both proteins required the Anr recognition sequence. Surprisingly, aerobic expression of hemN was dependent only on Anr. An anr mutant did not contain detectable amounts of hemN mRNA and accumulated coproporphyrin III both aerobically and anaerobically, indicating the importance of HemN for aerobic and anaerobic haem formation. Mutation of hemN and hemF did not abolish aerobic or anaerobic growth, indicating the existence of an additional HemN-type enzyme, which was termed HemZ. Expression of hemF was induced approximately 20-fold during anaerobic growth and, as was found for hemN, both Anr and Dnr were required for anaerobic induction. Paradoxically, oxygen is necessary for HemF catalysis, suggesting the existence of an additional physiological function for the P. aeruginosa HemF protein.

  18. AgCo3PO4(HPO4)2.

    PubMed

    Guesmi, Abderrahmen; Driss, Ahmed

    2002-01-01

    The structure of the hydrothermally synthesized compound AgCo3PO4(HPO4)2, silver tricobalt phosphate bis(hydrogen phosphate), consists of edge-sharing CoO6 chains linked together by the phosphate groups and hydrogen bonds. The three-dimensional framework delimits two types of tunnels which accommodate Ag+ cations and OH groups. The title compound is isostructural with the compounds AM3H2(XO4)3 (A = Na or Ag, M = Co or Mn, and X = P or As) of the alluaudite structure type.

  19. Preparation of superhydrophobic coating using modified CaCO3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Yansheng; He, Yi; Qing, Yongquan; Hu, Chuanbo; Mo, Qian

    2013-01-01

    CaCO3 nanoparticles were modified from hydrophilic to hydrophobic with oleic acid, hydrophobic coating was formed on the glass substrates with modified nanoparticles and polydimethylsiloxane via a simple process. The surface wettability and topology of coating were studied by contact angle measurement and scanning electron microscopy. The experimental results showed that the coating exhibited self-cleaning property with a water average contact angle of 160° and sliding angle of 6°, coating surface with hierarchical nano and micro structures, this method has good prospect for applications.

  20. Magnetic properties of triangulo cobalt-hydride cluster [H 3Co 3( μ2-CO) 3(PMe 3) 6

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boča, Roman; Klein, Hans-Friedrich; Schmidt, Andreas; Valko, Marián; Linert, Wolfgang

    2000-06-01

    Transformation of [HCo(CO)(PMe 3) 3] in tetrahydrofuran under argon at 90°C yields a solid cobalt-hydrido cluster [H 3(Co(CO)(PMe 3) 2) 3]. The magnetic susceptibility down to 3.8 K confirms an antiferromagnetic coupling within the Co 3 ring and the Co-H interaction is of the antiferromagnetic nature as well: JCo-Co=-192.4 cm -1, JH-Co=-570.0 cm -1, and gCo=2.402.

  1. ANR Pipeline Company Experience in secondary liquids recovery resulting from gas storage operations in three Michigan reservoirs

    SciTech Connect

    Nowaczewski, S.F. )

    1994-08-01

    ANR Pipeline Company operates 16 gas storage fields in Michigan, three of which produce significant quantities of secondary hydrocarbon liquid. This discussion reviews the basic geologic framework at Loreed (Reed City oil field) gas storage field and the 30-yr history of gas cycling and secondary oil and gasoline liquids production. The high-density well pattern and extensive data acquisition programs of ANR Pipeline Company contribute to identification of the most poorly drained zones and aid the efficiency and probable maximizing of liquids recovery from Loreed. The performance thus far is compared to prestorage estimates of probable recovery, which have been exceeded. Similarly, geologic frameworks and liquids production histories are presented for the Niagaran reef reservoirs Central Charlton 1 and South Chester 15, with comments as to the efficiency of natural gas cycling as a means of secondary condensate recovery and the use of gas composition as an indication of relative cleanup of native hydrocarbons in the storage-affected area of the reservoir. The degree of porosity/permeability stratification in all three reservoirs is perhaps the dominant factor affecting additional secondary recovery.

  2. High-pressure compressibility and vibrational properties of (Ca,Mn)CO3

    DOE PAGES

    Liu, Jin; Caracas, Razvan; Fan, Dawei; ...

    2016-12-01

    Knowledge of potential carbon carriers such as carbonates is critical for our understanding of the deep-carbon cycle and related geological processes within the planet. Here we investigated the high-pressure behavior of (Ca,Mn)CO3 up to 75 GPa by synchrotron single-crystal X-ray diffraction, laser Raman spectroscopy, and theoretical calculations. MnCO3-rich carbonate underwent a structural phase transition from the CaCO3-I structure into the CaCO3-VI structure at 45–48 GPa, while CaCO3-rich carbonate transformed into CaCO3-III and CaCO3-VI at approximately 2 and 15 GPa, respectively. The equation of state and vibrational properties of MnCO3-rich and CaCO3-rich carbonates changed dramatically across the phase transition. The CaCO3-VI-structuredmore » CaCO3-rich and MnCO3-rich carbonates were stable at room temperature up to at least 53 and 75 GPa, respectively. In conclusion, the addition of smaller cations (e.g., Mn2+, Mg2+, and Fe2+) can enlarge the stability field of the CaCO3-I phase as well as increase the pressure of the structural transition into the CaCO3-VI phase.« less

  3. Correlates of Cessation Success among Romanian Adults

    PubMed Central

    Dziankowska-Zaborszczyk, Elżbieta; Makowiec-Dąbrowska, Teresa

    2014-01-01

    Background. Tobacco smoking and its consequences are a serious public health problem in Romania. Evidence-based data on factors associated with successful smoking cessation are crucial to optimize tobacco control. The aim of the study was to determine the sociodemographic and other factors associated with smoking cessation success among adults. Materials and Methods. Data was from a sample of 4,517 individuals derived from the Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS). GATS is a cross-sectional, nationally representative household survey implemented in Romania in 2011. Data was analyzed with logistic regression. Results. Among females, the quit rate was 26.3% compared with 33.1% in males (P < 0.02). We found disparities in cessation success among the analyzed groups of respondents. Being economically active, being aged 40 and above, and having an awareness of smoking health consequences were associated with long-term quitting smoking among men, while initiating smoking at a later age increased the odds of quitting smoking among women. However, cohabitation with nonsmokers was the strongest predictor of successful cessation among both genders. Conclusion. Programs increasing quit rates and encourage cessation among groups less likely to quit, adopting voluntary smoke-free homes, and increasing the awareness of smoking and tobacco pollution risks are needed. PMID:24995319

  4. Correlates of cessation success among Romanian adults.

    PubMed

    Kaleta, Dorota; Usidame, Bukola; Dziankowska-Zaborszczyk, Elżbieta; Makowiec-Dąbrowska, Teresa

    2014-01-01

    Tobacco smoking and its consequences are a serious public health problem in Romania. Evidence-based data on factors associated with successful smoking cessation are crucial to optimize tobacco control. The aim of the study was to determine the sociodemographic and other factors associated with smoking cessation success among adults. Data was from a sample of 4,517 individuals derived from the Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS). GATS is a cross-sectional, nationally representative household survey implemented in Romania in 2011. Data was analyzed with logistic regression. Among females, the quit rate was 26.3% compared with 33.1% in males (P < 0.02). We found disparities in cessation success among the analyzed groups of respondents. Being economically active, being aged 40 and above, and having an awareness of smoking health consequences were associated with long-term quitting smoking among men, while initiating smoking at a later age increased the odds of quitting smoking among women. However, cohabitation with nonsmokers was the strongest predictor of successful cessation among both genders. Programs increasing quit rates and encourage cessation among groups less likely to quit, adopting voluntary smoke-free homes, and increasing the awareness of smoking and tobacco pollution risks are needed.

  5. Population-Based Smoking Cessation Strategies

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Executive Summary Objective The objective of this report was to provide the Ministry of Health Promotion (MHP) with a summary of existing evidence-based reviews of the clinical and economic outcomes of population-based smoking cessation strategies. Background Tobacco use is the leading cause of preventable disease and death in Ontario, linked to approximately 13,000 avoidable premature deaths annually – the vast majority of these are attributable to cancer, cardiovascular disease, and chronic obstructive lung disease. (1) In Ontario, tobacco related health care costs amount to $6.1 billion annually, or about $502 per person (including non-smokers) and account for 1.4% of the provincial domestic product. (2) In 2007, there were approximately 1.7 to 1.9 million smokers in Ontario with two-thirds of these intending to quit in the next six months and one-third wanting to quit within 30 days. (3) In 2007/2008, Ontario invested $15 million in cessation programs, services and training. (4) In June 2009, the Ministry of Health Promotion (MHP) requested that MAS provide a summary of the evidence base surrounding population-based smoking cessation strategies. Project Scope The MAS and the MHP agreed that the project would consist of a clinical and economic summary of the evidence surrounding nine population-based strategies for smoking cessation including: Mass media interventions Telephone counselling Post-secondary smoking cessation programs (colleges/universities) Community-wide stop-smoking contests (i.e. Quit and Win) Community interventions Physician advice to quit Nursing interventions for smoking cessation Hospital-based interventions for smoking cessation Pharmacotherapies for smoking cessation, specifically: Nicotine replacement therapies Antidepressants Anxiolytic drugs Opioid antagonists Clonidine Nicotine receptor partial agonists Reviews examining interventions for Cut Down to Quit (CDTQ) or harm reduction were not included in this review. In addition

  6. Negative affect, emotional acceptance, and smoking cessation.

    PubMed

    Carmody, Timothy P; Vieten, Cassandra; Astin, John A

    2007-12-01

    This article describes recent theoretical developments and empirical findings regarding the role of negative affect (NA) and emotion regulation in nicotine dependence and smoking cessation. It begins with a review of affect-based models of addiction that address conditioning, affect motivational, and neurobiological mechanisms and then describes the role of NA and emotion regulation in the initiation and maintenance of cigarette smoking. Next, the role of emotion regulation, coping skill deficits, depression, and anxiety sensitivity in explaining the relationship between NA and smoking relapse are discussed. We then review recent models of affect regulation, including emotional intelligence, reappraisal and suppression, and emotional acceptance, and describe implications for substance abuse and smoking cessation interventions. Finally, we point out the need for further investigations of the moderating role of individual differences in response to NA in the maintenance of nicotine dependence, and controlled randomized trials testing the efficacy of acceptance-based interventions in facilitating smoking cessation and relapse prevention.

  7. Do electronic cigarettes help with smoking cessation?

    PubMed

    2014-11-01

    Smoking causes around 100,000 deaths each year in the UK, and is the leading cause of preventable disease and early mortality. Smoking cessation remains difficult and existing licensed treatments have limited success. Nicotine addiction is thought to be one of the primary reasons that smokers find it so hard to give up, and earlier this year DTB reviewed the effects of nicotine on health. Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) are nicotine delivery devices that aim to mimic the process of smoking but avoid exposing the user to some of the harmful components of traditional cigarettes. However, the increase in the use of e-cigarettes and their potential use as an aid to smoking cessation has been subject to much debate. In this article we consider the regulatory and safety issues associated with the use of e-cigarettes, and their efficacy in smoking cessation and reduction.

  8. Serious mental illness and smoking cessation.

    PubMed

    Snyder, Marsha

    2006-07-01

    Persons with serious mental illness (SMI) are faced with substantial challenges to their health. This population is two to three times more likely to smoke cigarettes than persons who do not suffer from mental illness. In particular, young adults are at high risk for vulnerability to both SMI and cigarette smoking. Although there are proven methods for smoking cessation, both pharmacologic and non-pharmacologic interventions show limited usefulness for SMI who smoke. Alternative health care options as well as support groups and physical exercise are discussed as methods that may be useful in smoking cessation. Finally, integration of smoking cessation programming into existing mental health treatment services may offer the greatest opportunity for client success.

  9. Perspectives on Smoking Cessation in Northern Appalachia.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, Elisa M; Twarozek, Annamaria Masucci; Erwin, Deborah O; Widman, Christy; Saad-Harfouche, Frances G; Fox, Chester H; Underwood, Willie; Mahoney, Martin C

    2016-04-01

    This study applies qualitative research methods to explore perspectives on cessation among smokers/former smokers recruited from an area of Northern Appalachia. Six focus groups, stratified by age group (18-39 years old and 40 years and older), were conducted among participants (n = 54) recruited from community settings. Participants described varied interest in and challenges with quitting smoking. Smokers 40 years and older more readily endorsed the health risks of smoking and had greater interest in quitting assistance. Participants expressed frustration with the US government for allowing a harmful product (e.g., cigarettes) to be promoted with minimal regulation. Use of social media was robust among both age groups; participants expressed limited interest in various social media/technology platforms for promoting smoking cessation. Findings from this understudied area of northern Appalachia reflect the heterogeneity of this region and contribute novel information about the beliefs, attitudes, and experiences of current and formers smokers with regard to cessation.

  10. Strategies to promote smoking cessation among adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Harvey, Johanne; Chadi, Nicholas

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, youth have been exposed to a broader spectrum of tobacco products including smokeless tobacco, hookah (water pipe) and e-cigarettes. Despite active local, provincial/territorial and national prevention strategies and legislated controls, thousands of teenagers develop an addiction to tobacco products each year. Current and available smoking cessation interventions for youth have the potential to help teens stop smoking and, as a result, greatly reduce Canada’s health burden in the future. Paediatricians and health care professionals can play a key role in helping teens make informed decisions related to tobacco consumption and cessation. This practice point presents the evidence and rationales for smoking cessation interventions which have been studied in youth specifically, such as individual counselling, psychological support, nicotine replacement therapy, bupropion and varenicline. Interventions for which limited or conflicting data exist are also discussed. PMID:27429574

  11. Investigation of Mg isotope fractionation during low temperature precipitation of dolomite analogue minerals BaMg(CO3)2 and PbMg(CO3)2 PbMg(CO3)2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, W.; Huang, T.; Liu, C.

    2015-12-01

    Stable Mg isotopes are an emerging geochemical tool for studying dolomite-related problems. Currently available Mg isotope fractionation factors for dolomite are calibrated at hydrothermal conditions. Direct measurement of low temperature Mg isotope fractionation between dolomite and aqueous solution is hampered by the difficulty of synthesis of dolomite at ambient abiotic conditions. Dolomite analogue minerals including PbMg(CO3)2 and BaMg(CO3)2, however, can be readily synthesized at low temperatures. Therefore study of fractionation factors of Mg isotopes during PbMg(CO3)2 and BaMg(CO3)2 precipitation at low temperature conditions provides insights on Mg isotope behavior during dolomitization in geological processes.. We successfully synthesized PbMg(CO3)2 and BaMg(CO3)2 at 30-80ºC and characterized the products using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). In general, the crystallinity of PbMg(CO3)2 and BaMg(CO3)2 correlated with temperature. PbMg(CO3)2 synthesized at below 40℃ formed aggregates of nanocrystals. The aggregates became fewer in experiments at higher temperatures, and fine-grained (200~600nm in size), euhedral rhombohedrons of PbMg(CO3)2 were produced in the experiment at 80℃. In BaMg(CO3)2 synthesis experiments, morphology of BaMg(CO3)2 was mainly granular but the crystal size increased from 20 to 100nm with increasing temperature, and 0.5-1.1µm sized euhedral to subhedral crystals were produced at 70 and 80℃. Preliminary Mg isotope analyses for the experimental products show that Δ26Mg fractionation between PbMg(CO3)2 and aqueous solution at 40℃ is -1.87‰, whereas Δ26Mg fractionation between BaMg(CO3)2 and aqueous solution at 40℃ is -1.40‰. The result is consistent with the idea that heavy Mg isotopes favor shorter and stronger Mg-O bonds in minerals.

  12. Isolation and characterization of genes encoding leucoanthocyanidin reductase (FeLAR) and anthocyanidin reductase (FeANR) in buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum).

    PubMed

    Matsui, Katsuhiro; Hisano, Tomomi; Yasui, Yasuo; Mori, Masashi; Walker, Amanda R; Morishita, Toshikazu; Katsu, Kenjiro

    2016-10-20

    Proanthocyanidins (PAs) are a major group of flavonoids synthesized via the phenylpropanoid biosynthesis pathway, however the pathway has not been fully characterized in buckwheat. Anthocyanidin reductase (ANR) and leucoanthocyanidin reductase (LAR) are involved in the last steps of PA biosynthesis. To isolate the genes for these enzymes from buckwheat we performed PCR using degenerate primers and obtained cDNAs of ANR and LAR, which we designated FeANR and FeLAR1. A search for homologs in a buckwheat genome database with both sequences returned two more LAR sequences, designated FeLAR2 and FeLAR3. Linkage analysis with an F2 segregating population indicated that the three LAR loci were not genetically linked. We detected high levels of PAs in roots and cotyledons of buckwheat seedlings and in buds and flowers of mature plants. FeANR and FeLAR1-3 were expressed in most organs but had different expression patterns. Our findings would be useful for breeding and further analysis of PA synthesis and its regulation in buckwheat. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  13. The ArgR regulatory protein, a helper to the anaerobic regulator ANR during transcriptional activation of the arcD promoter in Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Lu, C D; Winteler, H; Abdelal, A; Haas, D

    1999-04-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa, when deprived of oxygen, generates ATP from arginine catabolism by enzymes of the arginine deiminase pathway, encoded by the arcDABC operon. Under conditions of low oxygen tension, the transcriptional activator ANR binds to a site centered 41.5 bp upstream of the arcD transcriptional start. ANR-mediated anaerobic induction was enhanced two- to threefold by extracellular arginine. This arginine effect depended, in trans, on the transcriptional regulator ArgR and, in cis, on an ArgR binding site centered at -73.5 bp in the arcD promoter. Binding of purified ArgR protein to this site was demonstrated by electrophoretic mobility shift assays and DNase I footprinting. This ArgR recognition site contained a sequence, 5'-TGACGC-3', which deviated in only 1 base from the common sequence motif 5'-TGTCGC-3' found in other ArgR binding sites of P. aeruginosa. Furthermore, an alignment of all known ArgR binding sites confirmed that they consist of two directly repeated half-sites. In the absence of ANR, arginine did not induce the arc operon, suggesting that ArgR alone does not activate the arcD promoter. According to a model proposed, ArgR makes physical contact with ANR and thereby facilitates initiation of arc transcription.

  14. Characterization of the hcnABC Gene Cluster Encoding Hydrogen Cyanide Synthase and Anaerobic Regulation by ANR in the Strictly Aerobic Biocontrol Agent Pseudomonas fluorescens CHA0

    PubMed Central

    Laville, Jacques; Blumer, Caroline; Von Schroetter, Christine; Gaia, Valeria; Défago, Geneviève; Keel, Christoph; Haas, Dieter

    1998-01-01

    The secondary metabolite hydrogen cyanide (HCN) is produced by Pseudomonas fluorescens from glycine, essentially under microaerophilic conditions. The genetic basis of HCN synthesis in P. fluorescens CHA0 was investigated. The contiguous structural genes hcnABC encoding HCN synthase were expressed from the T7 promoter in Escherichia coli, resulting in HCN production in this bacterium. Analysis of the nucleotide sequence of the hcnABC genes showed that each HCN synthase subunit was similar to known enzymes involved in hydrogen transfer, i.e., to formate dehydrogenase (for HcnA) or amino acid oxidases (for HcnB and HcnC). These similarities and the presence of flavin adenine dinucleotide- or NAD(P)-binding motifs in HcnB and HcnC suggest that HCN synthase may act as a dehydrogenase in the reaction leading from glycine to HCN and CO2. The hcnA promoter was mapped by primer extension; the −40 sequence (TTGGC … .ATCAA) resembled the consensus FNR (fumarate and nitrate reductase regulator) binding sequence (TTGAT … .ATCAA). The gene encoding the FNR-like protein ANR (anaerobic regulator) was cloned from P. fluorescens CHA0 and sequenced. ANR of strain CHA0 was most similar to ANR of P. aeruginosa and CydR of Azotobacter vinelandii. An anr mutant of P. fluorescens (CHA21) produced little HCN and was unable to express an hcnA-lacZ translational fusion, whereas in wild-type strain CHA0, microaerophilic conditions strongly favored the expression of the hcnA-lacZ fusion. Mutant CHA21 as well as an hcn deletion mutant were impaired in their capacity to suppress black root rot of tobacco, a disease caused by Thielaviopsis basicola, under gnotobiotic conditions. This effect was most pronounced in water-saturated artificial soil, where the anr mutant had lost about 30% of disease suppression ability, compared with wild-type strain CHA0. These results show that the anaerobic regulator ANR is required for cyanide synthesis in the strictly aerobic strain CHA0 and

  15. Characterization of the hcnABC gene cluster encoding hydrogen cyanide synthase and anaerobic regulation by ANR in the strictly aerobic biocontrol agent Pseudomonas fluorescens CHA0.

    PubMed

    Laville, J; Blumer, C; Von Schroetter, C; Gaia, V; Défago, G; Keel, C; Haas, D

    1998-06-01

    The secondary metabolite hydrogen cyanide (HCN) is produced by Pseudomonas fluorescens from glycine, essentially under microaerophilic conditions. The genetic basis of HCN synthesis in P. fluorescens CHA0 was investigated. The contiguous structural genes hcnABC encoding HCN synthase were expressed from the T7 promoter in Escherichia coli, resulting in HCN production in this bacterium. Analysis of the nucleotide sequence of the hcnABC genes showed that each HCN synthase subunit was similar to known enzymes involved in hydrogen transfer, i.e., to formate dehydrogenase (for HcnA) or amino acid oxidases (for HcnB and HcnC). These similarities and the presence of flavin adenine dinucleotide- or NAD(P)-binding motifs in HcnB and HcnC suggest that HCN synthase may act as a dehydrogenase in the reaction leading from glycine to HCN and CO2. The hcnA promoter was mapped by primer extension; the -40 sequence (TTGGC ... ATCAA) resembled the consensus FNR (fumarate and nitrate reductase regulator) binding sequence (TTGAT ... ATCAA). The gene encoding the FNR-like protein ANR (anaerobic regulator) was cloned from P. fluorescens CHA0 and sequenced. ANR of strain CHA0 was most similar to ANR of P. aeruginosa and CydR of Azotobacter vinelandii. An anr mutant of P. fluorescens (CHA21) produced little HCN and was unable to express an hcnA-lacZ translational fusion, whereas in wild-type strain CHA0, microaerophilic conditions strongly favored the expression of the hcnA-lacZ fusion. Mutant CHA21 as well as an hcn deletion mutant were impaired in their capacity to suppress black root rot of tobacco, a disease caused by Thielaviopsis basicola, under gnotobiotic conditions. This effect was most pronounced in water-saturated artificial soil, where the anr mutant had lost about 30% of disease suppression ability, compared with wild-type strain CHA0. These results show that the anaerobic regulator ANR is required for cyanide synthesis in the strictly aerobic strain CHA0 and suggest that ANR

  16. Effect of Morphology of Co3O4 for Oxygen Evolution Reaction in Alkaline Water Electrolysis

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Qi-Zhi; Xu, Qi-Zhi; Su, Yu-Zhi; Wu, Hao; Cheng, Hui; Hui, Yun-Ping; Li, Nan; Liu, Zhao-Qing

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, three different morphological Co3O4 electrodes for oxygen evolution reaction (OER) have been synthesized. By comparing the three morphologies of Co3O4, the electrocatalytic properties show that the urchin-like spheres of Co3O4 electrode has relative low overpotential and good electrocatalysis stability, indicating that the structure of urchin-like Co3O4 spheres exhibit an easy OER for water splitting. PMID:25525423

  17. Comparison of BBL Crystal ANR ID Kit and API rapid ID 32 A for identification of anaerobic bacteria.

    PubMed

    Moll, W M; Ungerechts, J; Marklein, G; Schaal, K P

    1996-07-01

    BBL Crystal ANR ID Kit and the API System rapid ID 32 A are miniaturized identification systems for anaerobes using enzymatic tests. The incubation period of both systems is 4 hours. A comparative evaluation of the BBL Crystal Identification System Anaerobe ID Kit (Becton Dickinson Microbiology Systems, Cockeysville, USA) with anaerobes grown on Columbia and Schaedler agar plates (Becton Dickinson Microbiology Systems, Cockeysville, USA) and the API System rapid ID 32 A (BioMérieux SA, Lyon, France) with bacteria grown on Columbia agar (Becton Dickinson Microbiology Systems, Cockeysville, USA) which is recommended by the manufacturer as cultivation medium, was performed with 207 mostly fresh clinical anaerobe isolates, including 104 gram-negative bacilli, 12 gram-negative cocci, 15 gram-positive cocci, 14 gram-positive sporeforming bacilli and 62 representatives of gram-positive non-sporeforming bacilli. With supplemental testing the Crystal system with inocula from Columbia and Schaedler agar and API inoculates from Columbia agar identified to genus level 144 (69.6%), 152 (73.4%) and 109 (52.7%) isolates, respectively. Misidentification to genus level was found by Crystal from Columbia and Schaedler agar and by API from Columbia agar in 17 (8.2%), 15 (7.3%) and 12 (5.8%) isolates, respectively. 36 isolates were not determined to species level by classical anaerobic methods or the systems only identified to genus level. 26 anaerobes were not included in the database of the Crystal or API system. From the remaining 145 clinical isolates with supplemental testing, Crystal from Columbia and Schaedler agar plates correctly identified 91 (62.8%) and 102 (70.3%), respectively, and API, 69 (47.6%) isolates. For the correct identification to genus and species level of the 207 clinical isolates tested, the Crystal system from Columbia and Schaedler agar and API system from Columbia agar required supplemental testing, as specified by the manufacturer, for 39 (27.1%), 34 (22

  18. The system Na2CO3-CaCO3-MgCO3 at 6 GPa and 900-1250°C and its relation to the partial melting of carbonated mantle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shatskiy, Anton; Litasov, Konstantin D.; Sharygin, Igor S.; Egonin, Ilya A.; Mironov, Aleksandr M.; Palyanov, Yuri N.; Ohtani, Eiji

    2016-01-01

    In order to constrain the Na2CO3-CaCO3-MgCO3 T-X diagram at 6 GPa in addition to the binary and pseudo-binary systems we conducted experiments along the Na2CO3-Ca0.5Mg0.5CO3 join. At 900-1000°C, melting does not occur and isothermal sections are presented by one-, two- and three-phase regions containing Ca-bearing magnesite, aragonite, Na2CO3 (Na2) and Na2(Ca1-0.9Mg0-0.1)3-4(CO3)4-5 (Na2Ca3-4), Na4(Ca1-0.6Mg0-0.4)(CO3)3 (Na4Ca), Na2(Ca0-0.08Mg1-0.92)(CO3)2 (Na2Mg) phases with intermediate compositions. The minimum melting point locates between 1000°C and 1100°C. This point would resemble that of three eutectics: Mgs-Na2Ca3-Na2Mg, Na2Mg-Na2Ca3-Na4Ca or Na2Mg-Na4Ca-Na2, in the compositional interval of [45Na2CO3.55(Ca0.6Mg0.4)CO3]-[60Na2CO3.40Ca0.6Mg0.4CO3]. The liquidus projection has seven primary solidification phase regions for Mgs, Dol, Arg, Na2Ca3, Na4Ca, Na2 and Na2Mg. The results suggest that extraction of Na and Ca from silicate to carbonate components has to decrease minimum melting temperature of carbonated mantle rocks to 1000-1100°C at 6 GPa and yields Na-rich dolomitic melt with a Na# (Na2O/(Na2O + CaO + MgO)) ≥ 28 mol%.

  19. Agro-Industrial Wastes for Production of Biosurfactant by Bacillus subtilis ANR 88 and Its Application in Synthesis of Silver and Gold Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Rane, Ashwini N.; Baikar, Vishakha V.; Ravi Kumar, D. V.; Deopurkar, Rajendra L.

    2017-01-01

    Biosurfactants, surface-active amphiphilic compounds, despite having a wide range of applications, have a high cost of production, which severely restricts their use. For cheaper production of biosurfactant, we investigated the potential of the indigenously isolated biosurfactant producing organism, Bacillus subtilis ANR 88, to grow on different cheap carbon sources (molasses, whey, and extracts of potato peels, orange peels, banana peels, and bagasse). We found that, B. subtilis ANR 88 used significant amounts of total sugar to produce cell biomass and biosurfactant. The biosurfactant production in minimal medium containing glucose as sole source of carbon was 0.207 g/l and the same with molasses as carbon source was 0.241 g/l. With whey as carbon source, isolate failed to produce biosurfactant. Amongst the extracts of the agro-wastes, the extracts of bagasse and orange peels gave 0.127 and 0.089 g/l of biosurfactant respectively. One-variable-at-a-time (OVAT) studies carried out to optimize the production of biosurfactant by B. subtilis ANR 88 resulted into maximum biosurfactant yield of 0.513 g/l in medium: molasses 4%, ammonium ferric citrate 0.25%, pH 7. Plackett–Burman design based statistical method for optimization increased the production of biosurfactant to 0.746 g/l, which is 3.6-fold of that produced on glucose. The biosurfactant produced by B. subtilis ANR 88 was analyzed by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR); it showed that the biosurfactant contained alkyl as well as peptide groups. The biosurfactant of B. subtilis ANR 88 was found effective in the synthesis of silver as well as gold nanoparticles in the total absence of conventional chemical reducing agents. Interestingly, nanoparticles produced were almost uniform in their size and shapes i.e., spherical silver (4–18 nm) and hexagonal gold nanoparticles (40–60 nm), as evident in TEM images. PMID:28392783

  20. Agro-Industrial Wastes for Production of Biosurfactant by Bacillus subtilis ANR 88 and Its Application in Synthesis of Silver and Gold Nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Rane, Ashwini N; Baikar, Vishakha V; Ravi Kumar, V; Deopurkar, Rajendra L

    2017-01-01

    Biosurfactants, surface-active amphiphilic compounds, despite having a wide range of applications, have a high cost of production, which severely restricts their use. For cheaper production of biosurfactant, we investigated the potential of the indigenously isolated biosurfactant producing organism, Bacillus subtilis ANR 88, to grow on different cheap carbon sources (molasses, whey, and extracts of potato peels, orange peels, banana peels, and bagasse). We found that, B. subtilis ANR 88 used significant amounts of total sugar to produce cell biomass and biosurfactant. The biosurfactant production in minimal medium containing glucose as sole source of carbon was 0.207 g/l and the same with molasses as carbon source was 0.241 g/l. With whey as carbon source, isolate failed to produce biosurfactant. Amongst the extracts of the agro-wastes, the extracts of bagasse and orange peels gave 0.127 and 0.089 g/l of biosurfactant respectively. One-variable-at-a-time (OVAT) studies carried out to optimize the production of biosurfactant by B. subtilis ANR 88 resulted into maximum biosurfactant yield of 0.513 g/l in medium: molasses 4%, ammonium ferric citrate 0.25%, pH 7. Plackett-Burman design based statistical method for optimization increased the production of biosurfactant to 0.746 g/l, which is 3.6-fold of that produced on glucose. The biosurfactant produced by B. subtilis ANR 88 was analyzed by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR); it showed that the biosurfactant contained alkyl as well as peptide groups. The biosurfactant of B. subtilis ANR 88 was found effective in the synthesis of silver as well as gold nanoparticles in the total absence of conventional chemical reducing agents. Interestingly, nanoparticles produced were almost uniform in their size and shapes i.e., spherical silver (4-18 nm) and hexagonal gold nanoparticles (40-60 nm), as evident in TEM images.

  1. Co3O4/Sm-Doped CeO2/Co3O4 Trilayer Coating on AISI 441 Interconnect for Solid Oxide Fuel Cells.

    PubMed

    Shen, Fengyu; Lu, Kathy

    2017-02-22

    In this work, a novel Co/Sm-doped CeO2 (SDC)/Co trilayer of ∼6 μm is deposited by alternating electrodeposition and electrophoresis and oxidized to a Co3O4/SDC/Co3O4 trilayer structure. This coating is unique and effective in the following aspects: (1) The area specific resistance of the coated interconnect is more stable and lower than that of the uncoated interconnect after thermal treatment at 800 °C for 400 h. (2) The Co3O4/SDC/Co3O4 coating layer can effectively inhibit Cr diffusion and evaporation and significantly slow the oxidation rate of the interconnect. (3) The Sm0.5Sr0.5Co0.2Fe0.8O3 cathode in the electrolyte/cathode/interconnect half-cell retains its initial stoichiometry after 100 h of the thermal treatment. Subsequently, the ohmic resistance RΩ, high frequency polarization resistance RH, and low frequency polarization resistance RL of the half-cell with the Co3O4/SDC/Co3O4 coated interconnect are all smaller than those of the half-cell with the bare interconnect. The Co3O4/SDC/Co3O4 coating layer has great advantages to be used as a protective layer for the metallic interconnect in solid oxide fuel cells to improve cell performance, stability, and durability.

  2. Effect of rGO Coating on Interconnected Co3O4 Nanosheets and Improved Supercapacitive Behavior of Co3O4/rGO/NF Architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Tinghui; Guo, Xin; Qin, Shengchun; Xia, Fangyuan; Li, Qun; Li, Yali; Chen, Qiang; Li, Junshuai; He, Deyan

    2017-10-01

    In this study, the effect of reduced graphene oxide (rGO) on interconnected Co3O4 nanosheets and the improved supercapacitive behaviors is reported. By optimizing the experimental parameters, we achieved a specific capacitance of 1016.4 F g-1 for the Co3O4/rGO/NF (nickel foam) system at a current density of 1 A g-1. However, the Co3O4/NF structure without rGO only delivers a specific capacitance of 520.0 F g-1 at the same current density. The stability test demonstrates that Co3O4/rGO/NF retains 95.5% of the initial capacitance value even after 3000 charge-discharge cycles at a high current density of 7 A g-1. Further investigation reveals that capacitance improvement for the Co3O4/rGO/NF structure is mainly because of a higher specific surface area ( 87.8 m2 g-1) and a more optimal mesoporous size (4-15 nm) compared to the corresponding values of 67.1 m2 g-1 and 6-25 nm, respectively, for the Co3O4/NF structure. rGO and the thinner Co3O4 nanosheets benefit from the strain relaxation during the charge and discharge processes, improving the cycling stability of Co3O4/rGO/NF.

  3. Synthesis of the new compound CaFe(CO 3) 2 and experimental constraints on the (Ca,Fe)CO 3 join

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davidson, Paula M.; Symmes, Gregory H.; Cohen, Barbara A.; Reeder, Richard J.; Lindsley, Donald H.

    1993-12-01

    Synthesis of the new (disordered) compound CaFe(CO 3) 2 has been achieved with the use of Fe-substituted CaCO 3(Cc ss) + Ca-substituted FeCO 3(Sid ss) as starting materials, and high CO 2 pressures. High pressure (20-30 kbar) is needed to stabilize FeCO 3 to sufficiently high temperatures for disordered CaFe(CO 3) 2 to form. Experiments provide reversed compositions of coexisting disordered phases in the CaFe join and locate the solvus temperature for CaFe(C) 3) 2 between 815 and 845°C at 30 kbars. Calculated phase relations predict that the stability of ordered CaFe(CO 3) 2 is limited to T < ˜450°C by the breakdown to Cc ss + Sid ss. A comparison of the unit-cell volume measured for disordered CaFe(CO 3) 2 vs. that estimated for ordered CaFe(CO 3) 2 suggests that increasing pressure stabilizes the disordered phase.

  4. [Current concepts in tobacco cessation and prevention].

    PubMed

    Márk, Antal; Ramseier, Christoph A; Katalin, Barabás; András, Forster; Zsolt, Zalai; Katalin, Nagy

    2012-09-01

    In the recent years, for oral care in general, both improving oral hygiene and tobacco use cessation have been identified as necessary measures to gain and maintain long-term periodontal health. This growing evidence has given the dental team a whole new task to tackle when achieving and maintaining oral health with their patients. In order to support dental patients to quit tobacco use, it is helpful for the clinician to have a clear understanding of the genesis of 'tobacco use disease' in general. At present, the evidence-based method for tobacco use cessation consists of professional counselling on behavioural change using the so called "5A Method" (Ask, Advise, Assess, Assist and Arrange") in combination with pharmacotherapy. A suitable model for behavioural support in tobacco use cessation would help patients to move from one stage to the next. People who want to quit the smoking habit do not always participate in carefully controlled nicotine withdrawal programs, e.g. in linear fashion and from start to finish. Nevertheless, simple instructions - like those offered in the "Assist" (to help) and "Arrange" (to organize follow-up visits) - can be valuable tools for dental professionals supporting their patients to quit smoking. On the basis of significant evidence on the recovery of the oral mucosa and the periodontal tissue following tobacco use cessation, a new task has been emerged in dentistry: the role of oral health professionals providing counselling for patients who ought to quit tobacco use.

  5. Smoking Cessation in Chronically Ill Medical Patients.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sirota, Alan D.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Followed eight male smokers with chronic pulmonary or cardiac disease through a smoking cessation program of gradual nicotine withdrawal, self-management, and relapse prevention. At one year, half remained abstinent, while relapsers smoked substantially less than before treatment. Reductions in carbon monoxide and thiocyanate levels were…

  6. Engaging African Americans in Smoking Cessation Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallen, Jacqueline; Randolph, Suzanne; Carter-Pokras, Olivia; Feldman, Robert; Kanamori-Nishimura, Mariano

    2014-01-01

    Background: African Americans are disproportionately exposed to and targeted by prosmoking advertisements, particularly menthol cigarette ads. Though African Americans begin smoking later than whites, they are less likely to quit smoking than whites. Purpose: This study was designed to explore African American smoking cessation attitudes,…

  7. Dental students' attitudes toward tobacco cessation counseling.

    PubMed

    Anders, Patrick L; Davis, Elaine L; McCall, W D

    2014-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to determine if level of education, gender, and tobacco history affected attitudes of dental students toward tobacco cessation counseling. A secondary objective was to examine the psychometric properties of the survey instrument. First- and fourth-year dental students at one school of dental medicine completed a survey examining attitudes toward tobacco cessation and perceived barriers to performing tobacco cessation counseling in a dental setting. Analyses were conducted to determine whether there were differences in attitudes by gender, level of education, or personal and family tobacco use. A main effect for education level was discovered. Fourth-year students were more likely than first-year students to consider the prescription of nicotine gum and transdermal patches to be within the scope and responsibility of the dental profession. No significant differences were seen with regard to gender or students' personal and family tobacco histories. Dental students were in general agreement that tobacco cessation counseling is within the responsibility of the dental profession, is within the scope of dental practice, and can be effective. Psychometric analysis revealed reliability of the survey instrument.

  8. Engaging African Americans in Smoking Cessation Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallen, Jacqueline; Randolph, Suzanne; Carter-Pokras, Olivia; Feldman, Robert; Kanamori-Nishimura, Mariano

    2014-01-01

    Background: African Americans are disproportionately exposed to and targeted by prosmoking advertisements, particularly menthol cigarette ads. Though African Americans begin smoking later than whites, they are less likely to quit smoking than whites. Purpose: This study was designed to explore African American smoking cessation attitudes,…

  9. Pharmacotherapies to enhance smoking cessation during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Oncken, C A; Kranzler, H R

    2003-06-01

    Smoking during pregnancy is a significant public health concern. Maternal smoking increases the risk of spontaneous abortion, low birth weight, premature delivery, sudden infant death syndrome and learning and behavioral problems in the offspring. Unfortunately, the majority of pregnant women do not quit smoking during pregnancy. Although pharmacotherapy may improve smoking cessation rates in pregnancy, very few studies exist that have studied the safety and efficacy of medications to treat pregnant smokers. This article reviews the available safety and efficacy data for the use in pregnancy of the five first-line therapies and two second-line therapies that are recommended for smoking cessation in non-pregnant smokers. Other promising nicotine replacement therapies are also reviewed. Ultimately, the choice whether to use pharmacotherapy for smoking cessation should be made jointly by the pregnant smoker and her health care provider. This article reviews factors that may be considered when prescribing pharmacotherapy to pregnant smokers (i.e. the role of behavioral counseling, identification of appropriate patients, potential advantages and disadvantages of each of the pharmacotherapies, proposed monitoring strategies, dose and duration and goals of treatment). More research regarding the safety and efficacy of pharmacotherapy during pregnancy is needed to define the risk/benefit profile of each medication for use in smoking cessation in pregnant women.

  10. Program Strategies for Adolescent Smoking Cessation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fritz, Deborah J.; Wider, Lottchen Crane; Hardin, Sally B.; Horrocks, Michelle

    2008-01-01

    School nurses who work with adolescents are in an ideal position to promote smoking cessation. This opportunity is important because research suggests teens who smoke are likely to become habitual smokers. This study characterizes adolescents' patterns and levels of smoking, describes adolescents' perceptions toward smoking, and delineates quit…

  11. Smoking Cessation in African-Americans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahluwalia, Jasjit S.

    1996-01-01

    Because the smoking behavior of African Americans differs considerably from that of other groups, researchers examined differences between African Americans who did and did not use the nicotine patch as an adjunct to counseling and education for smoking cessation. Results indicated the nicotine patch significantly improved six-month cessation…

  12. Smoking Cessation in Chronically Ill Medical Patients.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sirota, Alan D.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Followed eight male smokers with chronic pulmonary or cardiac disease through a smoking cessation program of gradual nicotine withdrawal, self-management, and relapse prevention. At one year, half remained abstinent, while relapsers smoked substantially less than before treatment. Reductions in carbon monoxide and thiocyanate levels were…

  13. Smoking Cessation in African-Americans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahluwalia, Jasjit S.

    1996-01-01

    Because the smoking behavior of African Americans differs considerably from that of other groups, researchers examined differences between African Americans who did and did not use the nicotine patch as an adjunct to counseling and education for smoking cessation. Results indicated the nicotine patch significantly improved six-month cessation…

  14. Interventions for recruiting smokers into cessation programmes.

    PubMed

    Marcano Belisario, José S; Bruggeling, Michelle N; Gunn, Laura H; Brusamento, Serena; Car, Josip

    2012-12-12

    Tobacco control is a top public health priority around the globe due to the high prevalence of cigarette smoking and its associated morbidity and mortality. Much effort has been focused on establishing the effectiveness of different smoking cessation strategies. This review, however, aims to address the initial challenge faced by smoking cessation programmes: recruitment of smokers. The primary objective of this review was to determine the effectiveness of different strategies for recruiting smokers into cessation programmes. The secondary objective was to determine the impact that these strategies had on smoking cessation rates at least six months after enrolment into a cessation programme. We searched the specialised register of the Cochrane Tobacco Addiction Group using a search strategy which included the terms ('recruit$', 'invit$', 'enter', 'entry', 'enrolment') combined with ('smok$', 'cigarette', 'smoking cessation', 'tobacco') in the title, abstract or keyword fields. We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), and registers of current and ongoing trials. We also searched the reference lists of included studies. We included randomised controlled trials and cluster randomised controlled trials that compared at least two different methods of recruiting current smokers into a smoking cessation programme. We also included those studies which focused on the effectiveness of a smoking cessation programme as long as the study involved multiple recruitment methods and reported results of the recruitment phase. From each included study, we extracted data on the type of participants, type of recruitment strategies (i.e., setting, mode of communication used, intensity and duration) and comparisons, and on randomisation, allocation concealment, and blinding procedures.Our primary outcome was the proportion of smokers successfully recruited to each cessation programme compared to alternative modalities of recruitment. Our

  15. Tennessee health plan tobacco cessation coverage.

    PubMed

    Kolade, Folasade M

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the smoking cessation coverage available from public and private Tennessee health plans. Cross-sectional study. The sampling frame for private plans was a register of licensed plans obtained from the Tennessee Commerce Department. Government websites and reports provided TennCare data. Data were abstracted from plan manuals and formularies for benefit year 2012. Classification of coverage included comprehensive-all seven recommended medications plus individual and group counseling; moderate-at least two forms of nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) plus bupropion and varenicline and one form of counseling; inadequate-at least one treatment, or none-no medications or counseling, or coverage only for pregnant women. Of nine private plans, one provided comprehensive coverage; two, moderate coverage; four, inadequate coverage, as did TennCare; and two plans provided no coverage. Over 362,800 smokers had inadequate access to cessation treatments under TennCare, while 119,094 smokers had inadequate or no cessation coverage under private plans. In 2012, Tennessee fell short of Healthy People goals for total managed care and comprehensive TennCare coverage of smoking cessation. If Tennessee mandates that all health plans provide full coverage, 481,900 smokers may immediately be in a better position to quit. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Is Weight Gain after Smoking Cessation Inevitable?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Talcott, Gerald W.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Studied weight gain after smoking cessation in a naturalistic setting where all smokers quit and risk factors for postcessation weight gain were modified. Results showed no significant weight changes for smokers who quit. Suggests that an intensive program featuring dietary guidelines and increased physical activity can attenuate weight gain. (RJM)

  17. Tobacco Industry Research on Smoking Cessation

    PubMed Central

    Ling, Pamela M; Glantz, Stanton A

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND Smoking rates are declining in the United States, except for young adults (age 18 to 24). Few organized programs target smoking cessation specifically for young adults, except programs for pregnant women. In contrast, the tobacco industry has invested much time and money studying young adult smoking patterns. Some of these data are now available in documents released through litigation. OBJECTIVE Review tobacco industry marketing research on smoking cessation to guide new interventions and improve clinical practice, particularly to address young adult smokers’ needs. METHODS Analysis of previously secret tobacco industry documents. RESULTS Compared to their share of the smoking population, young adult smokers have the highest spontaneous quitting rates. About 10% to 30% of smokers want to quit; light smokers and brand switchers are more likely to try. Tobacco companies attempted to deter quitting by developing products that appeared to be less addictive or more socially acceptable. Contrary to consumer expectations, “ultra low tar” cigarette smokers were actually less likely to quit. CONCLUSIONS Tobacco industry views of young adult quitting behavior contrast with clinical practice. Tobacco marketers concentrate on recapturing young quitters, while organized smoking cessation programs are primarily used by older smokers. As young people have both the greatest propensity to quit and the greatest potential benefits from smoking cessation, targeted programs for young adults are needed. Tobacco marketing data suggest that aspirational messages that decrease the social acceptability of smoking and support smoke-free environments resonate best with young adult smokers’ motivations. PMID:15109339

  18. Program Strategies for Adolescent Smoking Cessation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fritz, Deborah J.; Wider, Lottchen Crane; Hardin, Sally B.; Horrocks, Michelle

    2008-01-01

    School nurses who work with adolescents are in an ideal position to promote smoking cessation. This opportunity is important because research suggests teens who smoke are likely to become habitual smokers. This study characterizes adolescents' patterns and levels of smoking, describes adolescents' perceptions toward smoking, and delineates quit…

  19. 21 CFR 1141.16 - Disclosures regarding cessation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... include a reference to a smoking cessation assistance resource in accordance with, and as specified in, “Cigarette Required Warnings” (incorporated by reference at § 1141.12). (b) In meeting the smoking cessation needs of an individual caller, the smoking cessation assistance resource required to be referenced...

  20. 21 CFR 1141.16 - Disclosures regarding cessation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... warning shall include a reference to a smoking cessation assistance resource in accordance with, and as... smoking cessation needs of an individual caller, the smoking cessation assistance resource required to be... harms to health associated with cigarette smoking and the health benefits of quitting smoking;...

  1. 21 CFR 1141.16 - Disclosures regarding cessation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... include a reference to a smoking cessation assistance resource in accordance with, and as specified in, “Cigarette Required Warnings” (incorporated by reference at § 1141.12). (b) In meeting the smoking cessation needs of an individual caller, the smoking cessation assistance resource required to be referenced...

  2. 43 CFR 3107.2-2 - Cessation of production.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Cessation of production. 3107.2-2 Section... or Renewal § 3107.2-2 Cessation of production. A lease which is in its extended term because of production in paying quantities shall not terminate upon cessation of production if, within 60...

  3. 43 CFR 3107.2-2 - Cessation of production.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Cessation of production. 3107.2-2 Section... or Renewal § 3107.2-2 Cessation of production. A lease which is in its extended term because of production in paying quantities shall not terminate upon cessation of production if, within 60 days...

  4. 43 CFR 3107.2-2 - Cessation of production.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Cessation of production. 3107.2-2 Section... or Renewal § 3107.2-2 Cessation of production. A lease which is in its extended term because of production in paying quantities shall not terminate upon cessation of production if, within 60 days...

  5. Characterization of ceramics materials mixed with Co3O4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guzmán, A. F.; Landínez Téllez, D. A.; Roa-Rojas, J.; Fajardo, F.

    2014-04-01

    We have performed the preparation, structural, electrical and mechanical characterizations of ceramic materials composed of kaolinite Al2(Si2O5)(OH)4 and alumina (Al2O3) mixed with different concentrations of cobalt oxide (Co3O4). Ceramic samples were prepared from a base concentration of alumina 30% and kaolinite 70%, mixed with various concentrations of cobalt oxide in steps of 4% up to a value of 20%. The samples were sintered by the standard solid-state reaction method at a temperature of 1350 °C. In all samples with cobalt was found the presence of mullite. It was determined that alumina and cristobalite decreased when the cobalt concentration was increased due to the formation of the cobalt spinel. In order to determine the crystal structure of the samples, crystallographic analysis from X-ray diffraction experiments and also the semi-quantitative phase analysis were performed. Results were compared with theoretical parameters through the PowderCell 2.4 software. By increasing the concentration of cobalt oxide was found a significant increase in the resistance of materials to friction wear and a small decrease on the mean value of the dielectric constant. Through flexion measurements is observed the increases of the elasticity modulus by about 45% for the sample with 4% of cobalt oxide when compared with the samples without cobalt.

  6. Hydrazine-mediated strongly coupled Re(CO)3 dimers.

    PubMed

    Hasheminasab, A; Rhoda, H M; Crandall, L A; Ayers, J T; Nemykin, V N; Herrick, R S; Ziegler, C J

    2015-10-21

    Dimeric metal complexes can often exhibit coupling interactions via bridging ligands. In this report, we present two Re(CO)3 dimers, where the metals are linked via a bis(pyca) hydrazine (pyca = pyridine-2-carbaldehyde imine) Schiff base ligand. For the dimeric compounds 4 and 5, we observe strong coupling across the dimer as measured by cyclic voltammetry: ∼480 mV separations between the first and the second reduction waves that correspond to comproportionation constants close to 1.5 × 10(8). Evidence for a mixed valence state upon one electron reduction was also observed by spectroelectrochemistry in which a clear inter-valence charge-transfer (IVCT) band was observed in [4]- and [5]-complexes. The electronic structures of all target compounds were probed by DFT and TDDFT computational methods. DFT calculations indicate that reduction takes place at the diimine units, and that the observed coupling is a ligand-based phenomenon, rather than one that involves metal-based orbitals.

  7. MgCaCO3 Versus CaCO3 in Peritoneal Dialysis Patients – A Cross-Over Pilot Trial

    PubMed Central

    Evsanaa, Baigalmaa; Liu, Irene; Aliazardeh, Babak; Mahdavi, Sara; Bajwa, Gursarn; Gula, Jerry; Tam, Michelle; Sze, Elena; Roscoe, Janet M.; Tam, Paul Y.; Sikaneta, Tabo

    2015-01-01

    ♦ Background: Despite adverse effects such as constipation, vascular calcification, and hypercalcemia, calcium-based salts are relatively affordable and effective phosphate binders that remain in widespread use in the dialysis population. We conducted a pilot study examining whether the use of a combined magnesium/calcium-based binder was as effective as calcium carbonate at lowering serum phosphate levels in peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients. ♦ Methods: This was a cross-over, investigator-masked pilot study in which prevalent PD patients received calcium carbonate alone (200 mg calcium per tablet) or calcium magnesium carbonate (100 mg calcium, 85 mg magnesium per tablet). Primary outcome was serum phosphate level at 3 months. Analysis was as per protocol. ♦ Results: Twenty patients were recruited, 17 completed the study. Mean starting dose was 11.35 ± 7.04 pills per day of MgCaCO3 and 9.00 ± 4.97 pills per day of CaCO3. Mean phosphate levels fell from 2.13 mmol/L to 2.01 mmol/L (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.76 – 2.30, p = 0.361) in the MgCaCO3 group, and 1.81 mmol/L (95% CI: 1.56 – 2.0, p = 0.026) in the CaCO3 alone group. Six (35%) patients taking MgCaCO3 and 9 (54%) taking CaCO3 alone achieved Kidney Disease Outcomes Quality Initiative (KDOQI) serum phosphate targets at 3 months. Diarrhea developed in 9 patients taking MgCaCO3 and 3 taking CaCO3. Serum magnesium exceeded 1.4 mmol/L in 5 patients taking MgCaCO3 while serum calcium exceeded 2.65 mmol/L in 3 patients receiving CaCO3. When compared to the initial dose, the prescribed dose at 3 months was reduced by 44% (to 6.41 tablets/day) in the MgCaCO3 group and by 8% (to 8.24 pills per day) in the CaCO3 alone group. ♦ Conclusion: Compared with CaCO3 alone, the preparation and dose of MgCaCO3 used in this pilot study was no better at lowering serum phosphate levels in PD patients, and was associated with more dose-limiting side effects. PMID:24584605

  8. Electronic cigarettes for smoking cessation.

    PubMed

    Hartmann-Boyce, Jamie; McRobbie, Hayden; Bullen, Chris; Begh, Rachna; Stead, Lindsay F; Hajek, Peter

    2016-09-14

    -Haenszel model to calculate the risk ratio (RR) with a 95% confidence interval (CI) for each study, and where appropriate we pooled data from these studies in meta-analyses. Our searches identified over 1700 records, from which we include 24 completed studies (three RCTs, two of which were eligible for our cessation meta-analysis, and 21 cohort studies). Eleven of these studies are new for this version of the review. We identified 27 ongoing studies. Two RCTs compared EC with placebo (non-nicotine) EC, with a combined sample size of 662 participants. One trial included minimal telephone support and one recruited smokers not intending to quit, and both used early EC models with low nicotine content and poor battery life. We judged the RCTs to be at low risk of bias, but under the GRADE system we rated the overall quality of the evidence for our outcomes as 'low' or 'very low', because of imprecision due to the small number of trials. A 'low' grade means that further research is very likely to have an important impact on our confidence in the estimate of effect and is likely to change the estimate. A 'very low' grade means we are very uncertain about the estimate. Participants using an EC were more likely to have abstained from smoking for at least six months compared with participants using placebo EC (RR 2.29, 95% CI 1.05 to 4.96; placebo 4% versus EC 9%; 2 studies; 662 participants. GRADE: low). The one study that compared EC to nicotine patch found no significant difference in six-month abstinence rates, but the confidence intervals do not rule out a clinically important difference (RR 1.26, 95% CI 0.68 to 2.34; 584 participants. GRADE: very low).Of the included studies, none reported serious adverse events considered related to EC use. The most frequently reported AEs were mouth and throat irritation, most commonly dissipating over time. One RCT provided data on the proportion of participants experiencing any adverse events. The proportion of participants in the study arms

  9. Smoking Cessation in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease.

    PubMed

    Tashkin, Donald P

    2015-08-01

    Smoking cessation is the most effective strategy for slowing down the progression of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and reducing mortality in the approximately 50% of patients with diagnosed COPD who continue to smoke. While behavioral interventions (including simple advice) have modest efficacy in improving smoking quit rates, the combination of counseling and pharmacotherapy is more effective than either alone. When combined with even brief counseling, nicotine replacement therapy (NRT), bupropion SR, and varenicline have all been shown to be effective in promoting smoking cessation and sustained abstinence in smokers with COPD to a degree comparable to that observed in the general smoking population. However, the recidivism rate is high after initial quitting so that at the end of 1 year, approximately 80% or more of patients are still smoking. Thus, new approaches to smoking cessation are needed. One approach is to combine different pharmacotherapies, for example, nicotine patch plus rapidly acting NRT (e.g., gum or nasal spray) and/or bupropion or even varenicline plus either NRT or bupropion, in a stepwise approach over a varying duration depending on the severity of nicotine dependence and nicotine withdrawal symptoms during the quit attempt, as proposed in the American College of Chest Physicians Tobacco Dependence Took Kit. Electronic (e)-cigarettes, which deliver vaporized nicotine without most of the noxious components in the smoke from burning tobacco cigarettes, also has potential efficacy as a smoking cessation aid, but their efficacy and safety as either substitutes for regular cigarettes or smoking cessation aids require additional study. This task is complicated because e-cigarettes are currently unregulated and hundreds of different brands are currently available.

  10. Role of acentric displacements on the crystal structure and second-harmonic generating properties of RbPbCO3F and CsPbCO3F.

    PubMed

    Tran, T Thao; Halasyamani, P Shiv; Rondinelli, James M

    2014-06-16

    Two lead fluorocarbonates, RbPbCO3F and CsPbCO3F, were synthesized and characterized. The materials were synthesized through solvothermal and conventional solid-state techniques. RbPbCO3F and CsPbCO3F were structurally characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction and exhibit three-dimensional (3D) crystal structures consisting of corner-shared PbO6F2 polyhedra. For RbPbCO3F, infrared and ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy and thermogravimetric and differential thermal analysis measurements were performed. RbPbCO3F is a new noncentrosymmetric material and crystallizes in the achiral and nonpolar space group P6m2 (crystal class 6m2). Powder second-harmonic generation (SHG) measurements on RbPbCO3F and CsPbCO3F using 1064 nm radiation revealed an SHG efficiency of approximately 250 and 300 × α-SiO2, respectively. Charge constants d33 of approximately 72 and 94 pm/V were obtained for RbPbCO3F and CsPbCO3F, respectively, through converse piezoelectric measurements. Electronic structure calculations indicate that the nonlinear optical response originates from the distorted PbO6F2 polyhedra, because of the even-odd parity mixing of the O 2p states with the nearly spherically symmetric 6s electrons of Pb(2+). The degree of inversion symmetry breaking is quantified using a mode-polarization vector analysis and is correlated with cation size mismatch, from which it is possible to deduce the acentric properties of 3D alkali-metal fluorocarbonates.

  11. Role of Acentric Displacements on the Crystal Structure and Second-Harmonic Generating Properties of RbPbCO3F and CsPbCO3F

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Two lead fluorocarbonates, RbPbCO3F and CsPbCO3F, were synthesized and characterized. The materials were synthesized through solvothermal and conventional solid-state techniques. RbPbCO3F and CsPbCO3F were structurally characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction and exhibit three-dimensional (3D) crystal structures consisting of corner-shared PbO6F2 polyhedra. For RbPbCO3F, infrared and ultraviolet–visible spectroscopy and thermogravimetric and differential thermal analysis measurements were performed. RbPbCO3F is a new noncentrosymmetric material and crystallizes in the achiral and nonpolar space group P6̅m2 (crystal class 6̅m2). Powder second-harmonic generation (SHG) measurements on RbPbCO3F and CsPbCO3F using 1064 nm radiation revealed an SHG efficiency of approximately 250 and 300 × α-SiO2, respectively. Charge constants d33 of approximately 72 and 94 pm/V were obtained for RbPbCO3F and CsPbCO3F, respectively, through converse piezoelectric measurements. Electronic structure calculations indicate that the nonlinear optical response originates from the distorted PbO6F2 polyhedra, because of the even–odd parity mixing of the O 2p states with the nearly spherically symmetric 6s electrons of Pb2+. The degree of inversion symmetry breaking is quantified using a mode-polarization vector analysis and is correlated with cation size mismatch, from which it is possible to deduce the acentric properties of 3D alkali-metal fluorocarbonates. PMID:24867361

  12. Compare the photocatalytic properties of nanocomposites with tandem n (AgBr)-n (Ag2CO3) and p (AgCl)-n (Ag2CO3) heterojunctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asadollahi, A.; Sohrabnezhad, Sh.; Ansari, R.

    2017-07-01

    In this work, Ag2CO3 nanoparticles (NPs) (as a n-type semiconductor) incorporated in mordenite zeolite (MOR) by a facile precipitation method. Silver halides, AgCl (as a p-type semiconductor) and AgBr (as a n-type semiconductor), with different weight percentage (20%, 40% and 50%) were coupled into Ag2CO3-MOR nanocomposite (NC) and producing a series of novel AgCl/Ag2CO3 (p-n heterojunction)-MOR and AgBr/Ag2CO3 (n-n heterojunction)-MOR NCs. The effects of silver halides on the Ag2CO3-MOR catalyst for the photocatalytic degradation of methyl blue (MB) under visible light irradiation have been investigated. The structure, composition and optical properties of NCs were investigated by UV-Visible diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (UV-Vis DRS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The prepared AgX/Ag2CO3-MOR NCs with the optimal content of AgX (50 wt%) indicated higher photocatalytic activity than that of the Ag2CO3-MOR and Ag2CO3. The cycle experiments on the heterojuctions NCs indicated that photocatalytic stability of AgBr/Ag2CO3-MOR NC was more than AgCl/Ag2CO3-MOR NC in all cycles. On the basis of the experimental results, a possible mechanism for the enhanced photocatalytic activity and photoinduced stability of silver compounds was proposed.

  13. Comparing an Immediate Cessation Versus Reduction Approach to Smokeless Tobacco Cessation

    PubMed Central

    Schiller, Katherine R.; Luo, Xianghua; Anderson, Amanda J.; Jensen, Joni A.; Allen, Sharon S.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Relatively few studies have investigated pharmacological or behavioral treatment of smokeless tobacco (ST) users who do not have immediate quit plans. In this study, we compared a reduction treatment approach with an immediate cessation approach in a population of ST users who reported no immediate plans to quit. Methods: Subjects randomly assigned to the immediate cessation condition set a quit date soon after enrollment and were offered 2 weeks of nicotine patch therapy to help in their cessation efforts. Subjects assigned to the ST reduction group were provided with their choice of either 4 mg nicotine lozenge or ST brand switching to help them reduce their ST use or levels of nicotine exposure, respectively. Quit date was 6 weeks after the onset of treatment. Follow-up was at 12 weeks and 26 weeks postenrollment and 26 weeks postquit. Results: Both 7-day point prevalence abstinence and prolonged abstinence rates following the quit date were significantly higher in the immediate cessation group versus the reduction group at 12 and 26 weeks (all p values ≤ .04) and for prolonged abstinence at 6 months postquit (p = .002). Significant reductions in ST use among nonquitters were observed for both groups (p < .0001) with no differences between groups. Conclusion: Our study demonstrated that immediate cessation with an established quit date resulted in greater cessation success than a gradual reduction approach among ST users who do not have an immediate quit plan but are motivated to quit. PMID:22218402

  14. Comparing an immediate cessation versus reduction approach to smokeless tobacco cessation.

    PubMed

    Schiller, Katherine R; Luo, Xianghua; Anderson, Amanda J; Jensen, Joni A; Allen, Sharon S; Hatsukami, Dorothy K

    2012-08-01

    Relatively few studies have investigated pharmacological or behavioral treatment of smokeless tobacco (ST) users who do not have immediate quit plans. In this study, we compared a reduction treatment approach with an immediate cessation approach in a population of ST users who reported no immediate plans to quit. Subjects randomly assigned to the immediate cessation condition set a quit date soon after enrollment and were offered 2 weeks of nicotine patch therapy to help in their cessation efforts. Subjects assigned to the ST reduction group were provided with their choice of either 4 mg nicotine lozenge or ST brand switching to help them reduce their ST use or levels of nicotine exposure, respectively. Quit date was 6 weeks after the onset of treatment. Follow-up was at 12 weeks and 26 weeks postenrollment and 26 weeks postquit. Both 7-day point prevalence abstinence and prolonged abstinence rates following the quit date were significantly higher in the immediate cessation group versus the reduction group at 12 and 26 weeks (all p values ≤ .04) and for prolonged abstinence at 6 months postquit (p = .002). Significant reductions in ST use among nonquitters were observed for both groups (p < .0001) with no differences between groups. Our study demonstrated that immediate cessation with an established quit date resulted in greater cessation success than a gradual reduction approach among ST users who do not have an immediate quit plan but are motivated to quit.

  15. The heat resistance of a polyurethane coating filled with modified nano-CaCO3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Bin; Li, Song-Mei; Liu, Jian-Hua; Yu, Mei

    2014-10-01

    The modification of polyurethane coating by adding surface-modified CaCO3 nanoparticles (nano-CaCO3) was investigated in this paper. To improve interfacial interaction between the nano-CaCO3 and the polyurethane (PU) matrix, a silane coupling agent (KH560) was used to modify the nano-CaCO3. The grafting of KH560 on the nano-CaCO3 surfaces was characterized by the TEM, FTIR and TGA techniques. The modification of the nano-CaCO3 surfaces with KH560 was demonstrated to improve the dispersity of nano-CaCO3. FTIR, SEM and AFM were used to characterize the polyurethane coating. The FTIR spectrum indicated that the modification of nano-CaCO3 does not influence the chemical structure of the PU matrix. The roughness and gloss of the nanocomposite coatings containing various amount of nano-CaCO3 were evaluated using a roughness tester and a brightness meter. The heat resistance of the polyurethane coating containing various amounts of nano-CaCO3 was evaluated using the TGA technique. The results revealed that nano-CaCO3 treatment with KH560 improves the nanoparticle dispersion and heat-resistance of polyurethane coating.

  16. Co3O4 nanoparticles on the surface of halloysite nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yi; Yang, Huaming

    2012-11-01

    Co3O4 nanoparticles were successfully deposited on the surface of natural halloysite nanotubes (HNTs) to produce Co3O4/HNTs composites. The structure and morphology of the samples were characterized using X-ray diffraction, field-emission scanning electron microscope, transmission electron microscope and Fourier transform infrared. The results indicated that Co3O4 nanoparticles were uniformly attached on the surface of HNTs with narrow size distribution. Co3O4/HNTs exhibited an excellent photocatalytic efficiency for degradation of methyl blue under UV light, better than Co3O4 and HNTs mixture, HNTs and pure Co3O4. The mechanism of enhanced photocatalytic activity of Co3O4/HNTs was also proposed.

  17. Impact of anthropogenic CO2 on the CaCO3 system in the oceans.

    PubMed

    Feely, Richard A; Sabine, Christopher L; Lee, Kitack; Berelson, Will; Kleypas, Joanie; Fabry, Victoria J; Millero, Frank J

    2004-07-16

    Rising atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations over the past two centuries have led to greater CO2 uptake by the oceans. This acidification process has changed the saturation state of the oceans with respect to calcium carbonate (CaCO3) particles. Here we estimate the in situ CaCO3 dissolution rates for the global oceans from total alkalinity and chlorofluorocarbon data, and we also discuss the future impacts of anthropogenic CO2 on CaCO3 shell-forming species. CaCO3 dissolution rates, ranging from 0.003 to 1.2 micromoles per kilogram per year, are observed beginning near the aragonite saturation horizon. The total water column CaCO3 dissolution rate for the global oceans is approximately 0.5 +/- 0.2 petagrams of CaCO3-C per year, which is approximately 45 to 65% of the export production of CaCO3.

  18. Influence of Co2+ in CaCO3 polymorphism.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González-López, Jorge; Fernández-González, Angeles; Jiménez, Amalia

    2014-05-01

    Cobalt is a trace element in the Earth crust but also a toxic metal. Furthermore, Co2+can accumulate in some specific areas due to both natural and anthropogenic factors and hence soils and groundwater can be contaminated. Numerous studies have demonstrated that toxic elements can be removed from aqueous solution by its incorporation in mineral structures. In particular, the uptake of divalent metallic cations in the crystal structure of calcium carbonates has been postulated as a valuable solution to resolve and / or reduce some environmental problems. Here, we have investigated the cobalt uptake during calcium carbonate precipitation at ambient conditions. It is well known that certain anions such as sulphate, chromate and selenite favour the precipitation of vaterite while other cations as Sr2+ or Mg2+, avoid the calcite crystallization favouring the aragonite precipitation. Similar scenery can be depicted for Co2+ behaviour since the precipitation of both aragonite and a low crystallinity phase from aqueous solution have been described. However, the evolution of the polymorphic transformations after the precipitation of the phases remains unknown. In the present work we have precipitated calcium carbonate at room temperature in the presence of a certain amount of Co2+. Then, the precipitated solid has been aged in the remaining aqueous solution for two months. The experiment was carried out by mixing two different aqueous solutions: a) 50 mL of CoCl2 (0.02M) and CaCl2(0.05M) and b) 50 mL of Na2CO3 (0.05M). The aging process was monitored after 5 minutes, 1, 5, 24, and 48 hours and 4, 7, 30 and 60 days by analysing both the aqueous solution and the aged solids. The evolution of the different crystalline phases in the solid was followed by X-ray Powder Diffraction, their morphology was observed by Scanning Electron Microscopy and their chemical composition was analysed by Energy-dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy. Furthermore, the aqueous solution has also been

  19. Enhancement of the visible light activity and stability of Ag2CO3 by formation of AgI/Ag2CO3 heterojunction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Changlin; Wei, Longfu; Zhou, Wanqin; Chen, Jianchai; Fan, Qizhe; Liu, Hong

    2014-11-01

    An insurmountable problem for silver-based semiconductor photocatalysts is their poor stability. Here, at room temperature, AgI with different concentrations (5%, 10%, 20% and 30%) were coupled into Ag2CO3, producing a series of novel AgI/Ag2CO3 composite photocatalysts. The effects of AgI addition on the Ag2CO3 catalyst for photocatalytic degradation of methyl orange (MO) under visible light irradiation have been investigated. Some physicochemical technologies like N2 physical adsorption/desorption, powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (UV-vis DRS) were applied to characterize these products. Results show that the photocatalytic degradation activity of AgI/Ag2CO3 photocatalyst is much higher than that of pure AgI and Ag2CO3. With the optimal content of AgI (20 wt%), the AgI/Ag2CO3 exhibits the highest photocatalytic degradation efficiency. Its first order reaction rate constant (0.54 h-1) is 20 times of that of AgI (0.026 h-1) and 3.6 times of that of Ag2CO3 (0.15 h-1). The characterizations and theory calculation show that AgI and Ag2CO3 have suitably matched band gap structures. The formation of AgI/Ag2CO3 heterojunction with intimate interface could effectively increase the separation efficiency of the e-/h+ pairs and promote the production of •OH and O2•- radicals, which brings about the fast degradation rate of the dye and an increase in photocatalytic stability.

  20. Three-dimensional {Co(3+)-Zn2+} and {Co(3+)-Cd2+} networks originated from carboxylate-rich building blocks: syntheses, structures, and heterogeneous catalysis.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Girijesh; Gupta, Rajeev

    2013-10-07

    The present work shows the utilization of Co(3+) complexes appended with either para- or meta-arylcarboxylic acid groups as the molecular building blocks for the construction of three-dimensional {Co(3+)-Zn(2+)} and {Co(3+)-Cd(2+)} heterobimetallic networks. The structural characterizations of these networks show several interesting features including well-defined pores and channels. These networks function as heterogeneous and reusable catalysts for the regio- and stereoselective ring-opening reactions of various epoxides and size-selective cyanation reactions of assorted aldehydes.

  1. Pediatricians' Confidence and Behaviors in Smoking Cessation Promotion and Knowledge of the Smoking Cessation Trust

    PubMed Central

    Hall, Katharine; Kisely, Steve; Gastanaduy, Mariella; Urrego, Fernando

    2016-01-01

    Background: Secondhand smoke exposure increases morbidity and mortality in children. Thirty-one percent of caregivers who accompany their children to the Ochsner Health Center for Children smoke, and none uses the services of the Smoking Cessation Trust (SCT), a free smoking cessation program for eligible Louisiana residents who began smoking before 1988. The objective of this study was 2-fold: first, to assess and compare pediatricians' confidence and behaviors in regard to smoking cessation promotion with caregivers, and second, to determine pediatricians' knowledge and comfort level with the SCT. Methods: Pediatricians were given a questionnaire to assess 12 parameters regarding their confidence and practice when screening, counseling, and referring caregivers to smoking cessation programs. Results: Thirty-six questionnaires were administered, of which 27 were completed (75%). Only 7.41% of respondents had formal training in smoking cessation, 18.52% had never heard of the SCT, and 92.59% do not refer to the SCT. All the pediatrician respondents stated that they were confident in their ability to screen for secondhand smoke exposure, 62.96% were confident in providing counseling, and 44.44% were confident in offering referrals. Most pediatricians very often or always screened for secondhand smoke exposure (77.78%); however, only 25.93% counseled smoking caregivers to quit, and only 11.11% provided a smoking cessation referral. Pediatricians stated that they were confident to screen, counsel, and refer caregivers; however, they were significantly less likely to report actually screening for secondhand smoke exposure (P<0.05), counseling (P<0.05), and referring caregivers (P<0.05). Conclusion: Efforts should be made to increase the rate by which pediatricians provide smoking cessation, counseling, and referrals to the SCT through education and training. PMID:27303221

  2. Microporous polyvinyl chloride: novel reactor for PVC/CaCO3 nanocomposites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiong, Chuanxi; Lu, Shengjun; Wang, Dongyan; Dong, Lijie; Jiang, David D.; Wang, Qinggang

    2005-09-01

    Microporous polyvinyl chloride (PVC) with pore size of 0.2-2 µm has been obtained by the foaming of PVC powders using a solution of 2,2'-azo-bis-iso-butyronitrile in a co-solvent of butanone and cyclohexanone. The PVC/CaCO3 hybrid powders deposited with CaCO3 nanoparticles have been synthesized using the microporous PVC as reactors of CaCO3 nanoparticles, i.e., the reaction of Ca(OH)2 with CO2 occurs inside the pore of microporous PVC. The in situ PVC/CaCO3 nanocomposites have been prepared by melt blending in situ PVC/CaCO3 hybrid powders. The images of SEM and TEM show that the in situ CaCO3 nanoparticles are uniformly dispersed in the PVC matrix and the sizes of the CaCO3 nanoparticles are less than 50 nm. TEM images and XRD patterns for the in situ CaCO3 strongly suggest that pseudo-amorphous crystals and defect-rich crystals are formed. The mechanical properties and DMA data indicate that the in situ PVC/CaCO3 nanocomposites exhibit much higher strength, toughness, modulus and glass temperature than common PVC/CaCO3 nanocomposites. This novel nanotechnology has potential applications in preparation of organic-inorganic hybrid nanocomposites.

  3. In Situ Investigations into CaCO3 Nucleation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nielsen, Michael Harold

    predictions of classical nucleation theory to this system. Low resolution microscopy techniques are further used to provide indirect evidence for the formation pathways of calcite on SAMs exhibiting different surface chemistries. The development of a platform for liquid phase transmission electron microscopy (TEM) utilizing a sealed liquid cell is described, and its utility in making novel observations of materials formation processes is demonstrated. Liquid phase TEM is further employed, using an open cell system which allows for mixing reagents, to directly observe formation pathways in the CaCO3 system.

  4. Factors associated with smoking cessation in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Tejada, Cesar Augusto Oviedo; Ewerling, Fernanda; Santos, Anderson Moreira Aristides dos; Bertoldi, Andréa Dâmaso; Menezes, Ana Maria

    2013-08-01

    Tobacco has been identified as the drug with the highest addiction rate and the leading cause of avoidable deaths. The current study thus aimed to identify the determinants of smoking cessation in a Brazilian population sample based on data from the National Household Sample Survey for 2008. The study analyzed socioeconomic, residential, and health-related data as well as individual habits. Data analysis used Poisson regression. The following factors were associated with smoking cessation: age 45 years or older, higher income, medical consultation in the previous 12 months, private health plan, physical exercise, believing that smoking is bad for one's health and that cigarette smoke is harmful to passive smokers, and Internet access in the household. Subjects with heart conditions, diabetes, and cancer were also more prone to quit smoking.

  5. Mass media for smoking cessation in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Solomon, Laura J; Bunn, Janice Y; Flynn, Brian S; Pirie, Phyllis L; Worden, John K; Ashikaga, Takamaru

    2009-08-01

    Theory-driven, mass media interventions prevent smoking among youth. This study examined effects of a media campaign on adolescent smoking cessation. Four matched pairs of media markets in four states were randomized to receive or not receive a 3-year television/radio campaign aimed at adolescent smoking cessation based on social cognitive theory. The authors enrolled 2,030 adolescent smokers into the cohort (n = 987 experimental; n = 1,043 comparison) and assessed them via annual telephone surveys for 3 years. Although the condition by time interaction was not significant, the proportion of adolescents smoking in the past month was significantly lower in the experimental than comparison condition at 3-year follow-up when adjusted for baseline smoking status. The media campaign did not impact targeted mediating variables. A media campaign based on social cognitive constructs produced a modest overall effect on smoking prevalence among adolescents, but the role of theory-based constructs is unclear.

  6. [A community program to stimulate smoking cessation].

    PubMed

    Villalbí, J R; Ballestín, M; Surós, C; de Miguel-Blondel, E; Cabello, R

    1992-01-01

    A community program to stimulate smoking cessation developed on the 1988 World No-smoking Day in the city of Barcelona (Spain) is presented. Participants in this program could make a written commitment to quit, and received support materials by mail. The results are evaluated in a sample of participants: 69% declare having quit on the specified date, and 29% do not smoke after one year.

  7. Characteristics of Thick Film CO2 Sensors Based on Nasicon Using Li2CO3-CaCO3 Auxiliary Phases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Han Ji; Shim, Han Byel; Choi, Jung Woon; Yoo, Kwang Soo; Kim, Shin Do

    2006-06-01

    Potentiometric devices were fabricated using a NASICON (Na1+xZr2SixP3-xO12) thick film and auxiliary layers. The powder of a precursor of NASICON with high purity was synthesized using the sol-gel method. Using the NASICON paste, an electrolyte was prepared on the alumina substrate through screen printing and then sintered at 1,000°C for 4 hours. In the present study, a series of Li2CO3-CaCO3 system was deposited on the Pt sensing electrode. Within a wide range of CO2 volume ratio concentration from 1,000 ppm to 10,000 ppm, the output of the sensor showed good electromotive force (EMF) response that was very close to the theoretical value. The device to which Li2CO3-CaCO3 (1:2) was attached showed good sensing properties at low temperatures.

  8. [Effectiveness of a motivational interviewing smoking cessation program on cessation change in adolescents].

    PubMed

    Ha, Young Sun; Choi, Yeon Hee

    2012-02-01

    This study examined the effectiveness of an Adolescent Motivational Interviewing Cessation program on smoking cessation change. The study was done with a nonequivalent control group pretest-posttest design. The participants were 39 high school students from G city, who were in school from September 1 to October 30, 2009. The students were assigned to the experimental group (20) and participated in the motivational interviewing cessation program or to the control group (19) who did not participate. Data analyses involved χ²-test, independent t-test, Repeated Measures ANOVA, and utilized the SPSS program. The experimental group had significantly less daily smoking, nicotine dependence and smoking temptation in comparison to the control group. The experimental group had significantly higher stage of change in comparison to the control group. The results of the study indicate that a motivational interviewing cessation program delivered to adolescents who smoke is an effective method of encouraging cessation, and can be utilized as an effective nursing intervention for adolescents who smoke.

  9. Smoking Cessation and the Cardiovascular Patient

    PubMed Central

    Prochaska, Judith J.; Benowitz, Neal L.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose of review Smoking remains the leading cause of preventable morbidity and mortality. Our review highlights research from 2013-2015 on the treatment of cigarette smoking, with a focus on heart patients and cardiovascular outcomes. Recent findings Seeking to maximize the reach and effectiveness of existing cessation medications, current tobacco control research has demonstrated the safety and efficacy of combination treatment; extended use; reduce-to-quit strategies; and personalized approaches to treatment matching. Further, cytisine has gained interest as a lower-cost strategy for addressing the global tobacco epidemic. On the harm reduction front, snus and electronic nicotine delivery systems are being widely distributed and promoted with major gaps in knowledge of the safety of long-term and dual use. Quitlines, comparable in outcome to in-person treatment, avail cessation counseling on a national scale though use rates remain relatively low. Lastly, employee reward programs are gaining attention given the high costs of tobacco use to employers; sustaining quit rates post-payment, however, has proven challenging. Summary Evidence-based cessation treatments exist. Broader dissemination, adoption, and implementation are key to addressing the tobacco epidemic. The cardiology team has a professional obligation to advance tobacco control efforts and can play an important role in achieving a smoke-free future. PMID:26196657

  10. Tobacco cessation counseling training with standardized patients.

    PubMed

    Walsh, Sarah E; Singleton, Jacqueline A; Worth, Celeste T; Krugler, Jacqueline; Moore, Regan; Wesley, Gina C; Mitchell, Charlene K

    2007-09-01

    A pilot study was conducted to assess clinician receptivity to tobacco cessation counseling training methods using standardized patients. Additionally, the study assessed changes in clinician knowledge and behavioral intentions following the training. Medical and dental residents and dental hygiene students from the University of Louisville attended a one- to two-hour lecture addressing the counseling strategies (the Five As/the Five Rs) and pharmacotherapy recommended in the U.S. Public Health Service Clinical Practice Guideline: Treating Tobacco Use and Dependence. Participants subsequently had three training encounters with standardized patients representing various stages of change including a patient ready to quit, a patient contemplating quitting, and a patient resistant to quitting. Thirty-six participants completed a preprogram survey prior to the lecture and a postprogram evaluation that included questions about their attitudes and beliefs about tobacco, their comfort level with various aspects of tobacco intervention, and eight knowledge questions. Participants demonstrated a statistically significant increase in objective knowledge about the practices recommended in the Clinical Practice Guideline following intervention. Results also indicate a significant increase in subjective measures of participant receptivity, self-reported comfort, and perceived skill with various aspects of tobacco intervention. Overall, participants were found to be very receptive to training sessions on tobacco cessation counseling with standardized patients. In light of the educational gains and positive response from participants, the use of standardized patients is a promising strategy for training on tobacco cessation counseling.

  11. Smoking cessation advice: Swiss physicians lack training.

    PubMed

    von Garnier, Christophe; Kochuparackal, Sascha; Miedinger, David; Leuppi, Jörg D; Tamm, Michael; Battegay, Edouard; Zeller, Andreas

    2008-01-01

    To assess the use and appropriateness of medical advice for smoking cessation provided by registrars in a General Medicine Outpatient Department to an unselected patient population in Switzerland. A prospective observational study in which 314 consecutive outpatients were contacted by phone within 24h after their consultation. Questions and information concerning smoking asked and/or provided by the registrar to patients were collected. Eleven registrars (mean age 34 years (range 29-40), 54% females, mean of 5 years (range 3.5-6 years) postgraduate medical training) worked in the Basel University Hospital Medical Outpatient Department during the study period from 01.01.2006 to 31.03.2006. In total 314 participants (mean 48 years, age range 16-71 years, 50% females) completed the study. Registrars queried 81% of the patients about smoking, but inquired about smoking duration only in 44% of the patients. Twenty-eight percent of the patients received information about the risks related to smoking, whereas cessation was discussed only with 10% and offered to 9% of the patients. Though most junior physicians in the survey asked about smoking, they failed to appropriately address tobacco-related health issues and offer cessation advice in the majority of cases. Extended regular training for physicians on smoking-related issues will be necessary in order to improve counselling of smokers and meet the global tobacco challenge.

  12. Smoking cessation in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    PubMed

    Tashkin, Donald P; Murray, Robert P

    2009-07-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is increasing in prevalence, and is predicted to become the third leading cause of deaths worldwide by 2020. The precise prevalence of COPD is not known, as many individuals with the disease are left undiagnosed, despite the requirement of only simple spirometry testing for disease detection. The major risk factor for the development of COPD is cigarette smoking, with 90% of deaths from COPD directly attributable to smoking. Therefore smoking cessation is the most effective means of halting or slowing the progress of this disease. This review summarizes and compares the differential characteristics of smokers with COPD vs. those without COPD in relation to their smoking behavior and quitting attempts, and discusses the various strategies that can be used to help patients quit and improve their likelihood of long-term smoking cessation. Of the various behavioral interventions available that can increase the likelihood of smoking cessation, one of the simplest and most effective strategies that physicians can use is simply to advise their patients to quit, particularly if this advice is combined with informing the patients of their "lung age". We also discuss the pharmacologic therapies used to enhance the likelihood of quitting, including nicotine replacement, bupropion SR and varenicline, along with novel nicotine vaccines, which are currently undergoing clinical trials.

  13. High-temperature heat capacity of Co3O4 spinel: thermally induced spin unpairing transition

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mocala, K.; Navrotsky, A.; Sherman, David M.

    1992-01-01

    A strong anomaly was found in the heat capacity of Co3O4 between 1000 K and the decomposition temperature. This anomaly is not related to the decomposition of Co3O4 to CoO. The measured entropy of transition, ??S=46??4 J mol-1 K-1 of Co3O4, supports the interpretation that this anomaly reflects a spin unpairing transition in octahedrally coordinated Co3+ cations. Experimental values of heat capacity, heat content and entropy of Co3O4 in the high temperature region are provided. The enthalpy of the spin unpairing transition is 53??4 kJ mol-1 of Co3O4. ?? 1992 Springer-Verlag.

  14. A facile synthesis of Co 3O 4 nanoflakes: Magnetic and catalytic properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, DongEn; Li, Feng; Chen, AiMei; Xie, Qing; Wang, MingYan; Zhang, XiaoBo; Li, ShanZhong; Gong, JunYan; Han, GuiQuan; Ying, AiLing; Tong, ZhiWei

    2011-06-01

    Co 3O 4 nanoflakes were successfully prepared using a thermal decomposition of precursor approach. The precursor nanoflakes are synthesized by a facile chemical precipitation method. Magnetic measurements reveal that the as-prepared Co 3O 4 particles exhibit weak ferromagnetic properties. In addition, the prepared Co 3O 4 nanoflakes electrode was then applied to study the electrocatalytic oxidation and reduction of hydrogen peroxide (H 2O 2). The results also demonstrate that Co 3O 4 nanoflakes have great potential in sensor and biosensor applications. The catalytic activity of Co 3O 4 nanoflakes on the thermal decomposition of ammonium perchlorate (AP) also has been studied. Results show that Co 3O 4 plays a catalytic role on the thermal decomposition of AP.

  15. Heat capacities and entropies of rhodochrosite (MnCO3) and siderite (FeCO3) between 5 and 600 K.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robie, R.A.; Haselton, H.T.; Hemingway, B.S.

    1984-01-01

    The heat capacities of rhodochrosite, (Mn0.994Fe0.005Mg0.001)CO3, and siderite, 171(Fe0.956Mn0.042Mg0.002)CO3, were measured between 5 and 550 K by combined cryogenic-adiabatic and differential scanning calorimetry. These new data were used to reanalyse the thermodynamic properties of these phases.-J.A.Z.

  16. Facile synthesis of monodisperse porous Co3O4 microspheres with superior ethanol sensing properties.

    PubMed

    Sun, Chunwen; Rajasekhara, Shreyas; Chen, Yujin; Goodenough, John B

    2011-12-28

    A solvothermal method was developed to prepare on a large scale monodisperse porous β-Co(OH)(2) microspheres consisting of nanoplatelets. Co(3)O(4) microspheres with porous platelets were obtained via subsequent thermal decomposition. These Co(3)O(4) microspheres show much higher ethanol sensitivity and selectivity at a relatively low temperature (135 °C) compared with those of commercial Co(3)O(4) nanoparticles.

  17. Uniaxial magnetic anisotropy of rhombohedral CoCO3 crystals at T = 0 K

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Men'shikov, V. V.; Rudenko, V. V.; Tugarinov, V. I.; Vorotynov, A. M.; Ovchinnikov, S. G.

    2014-03-01

    A method for calculating the contribution of exchange interaction to uniaxial anisotropy with the use of g' factors has been worked out using CoCO3 crystals as an example. The calculated contribution of dipole-dipole interactions to the anisotropy of CoCO3 is 0.93 cm-1. The sum of the contributions to the anisotropy constant of CoCO3 with the inclusion of the dipole-dipole interactions is 36.1 cm-1.

  18. Compound Method to Disperse CaCO3 Nanoparticles to Nano-Size in Water.

    PubMed

    Gu, Sui; Cai, Jihua; Wang, Jijun; Yuan, Ye; Chang, Dewu; Chikhotkin, Viktor F

    2015-12-01

    The invalidation of CaCO3 nanoparticles (nCaCO3) is often caused by the fact of agglomeration and inhomogeneous dispersion which limits its application into water-based drilling muds for low permeability reservoirs such as coalbed methane reservoir and shale gas/oil reservoir. Effective methods to disperse nCaCO3 to nano-size (≤ 100 nm) in water have seldom been reported. Here we developed a compound method containing mechanical stirring, ultrasonic treatment, the use of surfactant and stabilizer to disperse nCaCO3 in water. It comprises the steps adding 2% nCaCO3, 1% sodium dodecyl sulfonate (SDS), 2% cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB), 2% OP-10, 3% to 4% biopolymer (XC) in water successively, stirring it at a shear rate of 6000 to 8000 r/min for 15 minutes and treating it with ultrasonic at a frequency of 28 KHz for 30 to 40 minutes. The dispersed nCaCO3 was characterized with scanning electron microscope (SEM), transmission electron microscope (TEM) and particle size distribution (PSD) tests. We found that nCaCO3 could be dispersed to below 100 nm in water and the medium value of nCaCO3 was below 50 nm. This method paved the way for the utilization of nCaCO3 in drilling fluid and completion fluid for low permeability reservoirs such as coal seams and shale gas/oil formations.

  19. Local structure and magnetism of Co3 + in wurtzite Co:ZnO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henne, Bastian; Ney, Verena; Lumetzberger, Julia; Ollefs, Katharina; Wilhelm, Fabrice; Rogalev, Andrei; Ney, Andreas

    2017-02-01

    The structural and magnetic properties of 30% and 50% Co-doped ZnO have been investigated in order to determine the influence of the presence of Co3 + as a potential p -type dopant. For 30% doping, Co3 + could be stabilized in the wurtzite lattice of ZnO without phase separation by providing high oxygen partial pressures during growth. At 50% Co concentration, the crystal lattice destabilizes. X-ray absorption spectroscopy and simulations are used to substantiate the valence and local structure of Co3 +. Integral and element selective magnetometry reveals uncompensated antiferromagnetism of the Co atoms irrespective of being present as Co2 + or Co3 +.

  20. Soluble factors from IL-1β-stimulated astrocytes activate NR1a/NR2B receptors: implications for HIV-1-induced neurodegeneration.

    PubMed

    Jing, Tao; Wu, Li; Borgmann, Kathleen; Surendran, Sankar; Ghorpade, Anuja; Liu, Jianuo; Xiong, Huangui

    2010-11-12

    Astrocytes play an important role in astrocyte-neuron homeostasis. In HIV-1-infected brain, interleukin 1 beta (IL-1β) activation of astrocytes contributes to neurodegeneration. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying IL-1β-activated-astrocytes-induced neurodegeneration in HIV-1-infected brain are largely unknown. We hypothesize that secretory factors from the activated astrocytes affect N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor, a major pathway implicated in HIV-1-associated neurodegeneration. To test this hypothesis, we studied effects of IL-1β-stimulated astrocyte conditioned medium (ACM+) for its ability to activate NR1a/NR2B receptors expressed on Xenopus oocytes. Astrocytes treated with IL-1β 20ng/ml for 24h induced CXCL8, CCL2, MMP1 and MMP7. Pressure ejection of the ACM(+) produced an inward current in NR1a/NR2B-expressing oocytes. The inward current produced by ACM(+) was blocked by NMDA receptor antagonist, APV but not by non-NMDA receptor antagonist, CNQX. These results suggest that IL-1β stimulated astrocytes activate NR1a/NR2B receptors which may have implications in HIV-1-associated neurodegeneration. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Persistence and cell culturability of biocontrol strain Pseudomonas fluorescens CHA0 under plough pan conditions in soil and influence of the anaerobic regulator gene anr.

    PubMed

    Mascher, Fabio; Schnider-Keel, Ursula; Haas, Dieter; Défago, Geneviève; Moënne-Loccoz, Yvan

    2003-02-01

    Certain fluorescent pseudomonads can protect plants from soil-borne pathogens, and it is important to understand how these biocontrol agents survive in soil. The persistence of the biocontrol strain Pseudomonas fluorescens CHA0-Rif under plough pan conditions was assessed in non-sterile soil microcosms by counting total cells (immunofluorescence microscopy), intact cells (BacLight membrane permeability test), viable cells (Kogure's substrate-responsiveness test) and culturable cells (colony counts on selective plates) of the inoculant. Viable but non-culturable cells of CHA0-Rif (106 cells g-1 soil) were found in flooded microcosms amended with fermentable organic matter, in which the soil redox potential was low (plough pan conditions), in agreement with previous observations of plough pan samples from a field inoculated with CHA0-Rif. However, viable but non-culturable cells were not found in unamended flooded, amended unflooded or unamended unflooded (i.e. control) microcosms, suggesting that such cells resulted from exposure of CHA0-Rif to a combination of low redox potential and oxygen limitation in soil. CHA0-Rif is strictly aerobic. Its anaerobic regulator ANR is activated by low oxygen concentrations and it controls production of the biocontrol metabolite hydrogen cyanide under microaerophilic conditions. Under plough pan conditions, an anr-deficient mutant of CHA0-Rif and its complemented derivative displayed the same persistence pattern as CHA0-Rif, indicating that anr was not implicated in the formation of viable but non-culturable cells of this strain at the plough pan.

  2. Interventions for smoking cessation in Indigenous populations.

    PubMed

    Carson, Kristin V; Brinn, Malcolm P; Peters, Matthew; Veale, Antony; Esterman, Adrian J; Smith, Brian J

    2012-01-18

    Tobacco use in Indigenous populations (people who have inhabited a country for thousands of years) is often double that of the non-Indigenous population. A disproportionate burden of substance-related morbidity and mortality exists as a result. To evaluate the effectiveness of smoking cessation interventions in Indigenous populations and to summarise these approaches for future cessation programmes and research. The Cochrane Tobacco Addiction Group Specialised Register of Trials was searched (April 2011), with additional searches of MEDLINE (May 2011). Online clinical trial databases and publication references were also searched for potential studies. We included randomized and non-randomized controlled trials for smoking cessation interventions in Indigenous populations. Interventions could include pharmacotherapies, cognitive and behavioural therapies, alternative therapies, public policy and combination therapies. No attempts were made to re-define Indigenous status for the purpose of including a study in this review. Data pertaining to methodology, participants, interventions and outcomes were extracted by one reviewer and checked by a second, whilst methodological quality was extracted independently by two reviewers. Studies were assessed by qualitative narrative synthesis and where possible meta-analysis. The review process was examined by an Indigenous (Aboriginal) Australian for applicability, acceptability and content. Four studies met all of the eligibility criteria for inclusion within the review. Two used combination therapies consisting of a pharmacotherapy combined with cognitive and behavioural therapies, whilst the remaining two used cognitive and behavioural therapy through counselling, one via text message support and the other delivered via clinic doctors trained in smoking cessation techniques. Smoking cessation data were pooled across all studies producing a statistically and clinically significant effect in favour of the intervention (risk

  3. Competitions and incentives for smoking cessation.

    PubMed

    Cahill, Kate; Perera, Rafael

    2011-04-13

    Background Material or financial incentives may be used in an attempt to reinforce behaviour change, including smoking cessation. They have been widely used in workplace smoking cessation programmes, and to a lesser extent within community programmes. Public health initiatives in the UK are currently planning to deploy incentive schemes to change unhealthy behaviours. Quit and Win contests are the subject of a companion review. To determine whether competitions and incentives lead to higher long-term quit rates. We also set out to examine the relationship between incentives and participation rates. We searched the Cochrane Tobacco Addiction Group Specialized Register, with additional searches of MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL and PsycINFO. Search terms included incentive*, competition*, contest*, reward*, prize*, contingent payment*, deposit contract*. The most recent searches were in November 2010. We considered randomized controlled trials, allocating individuals, workplaces, groups within workplaces, or communities to experimental or control conditions. We also considered controlled studies with baseline and post-intervention measures. Data were extracted by one author (KC) and checked by the second (RP). We contacted study authors for additional data where necessary. The main outcome measure was abstinence from smoking at least six months from the start of the intervention. We used the most rigorous definition of abstinence in each trial, and biochemically validated rates where available. Where possible we performed meta-analysis using a generic inverse variance model, grouped by timed endpoints, but not pooled across the subgroups. Nineteen studies met our inclusion criteria, covering >4500 participants. Only one study, the largest in our review and covering 878 smokers, demonstrated significantly higher quit rates for the incentives group than for the control group beyond the six-month assessment. This trial referred its participants to local smoking cessation

  4. Subsolidus and melting phase relations in the system CaCO3-MgCO3-FeCO3 at 35 kbar: from experiments to predictions based on a thermodynamic model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franzolin, E.; Schmidt, M. W.; Poli, S.

    2009-12-01

    At convergent margins volatile components, most notably CO2 and H2O, stored in oceanic sediments and MORB are recycled into the mantle. Mafic protoliths become enriched in CO2 and H2O, stored in carbonates and hydrous phases, by hydrothermal alteration. As carbonates are more refractory than hydrous phases, CO2 is more likely to survive in the oceanic lithosphere beyond sub-arc depths [1,2]. Despite the main role of carbonates on cycling crustal and atmospheric CO2 into the mantle, experimental data within the system CaCO3-MgCO3-FeCO3 are scarce. To bridge this gap, piston-cylinder experiments have been performed at 35 kbar, 900-1100 °C to determine subsolidus relations, and up to 1300 °C to constrain melting relations. Pure synthetic calcite, natural magnesite and synthetic siderite have been mixed in different proportions in double Pt-C capsules, to avoid major siderite oxidation. Subsolidus experiments reveal the presence of two miscibility gaps at 900 °C: the solvus dolomite-calcite, which closes at XMgCO3 ~ 0.7, and the solvus dolomite-magnesite, which ranges to the Fe-side of the ternary. Increasing the temperature, the two miscibility gaps became narrower until complete solid solutions between CaCO3-Ca0.5Mg0.5CO3 at 1100 °C, and between CaCO3-FeCO3 at 1000 °C, are observed. The system is characterized by strong compositional asymmetry, thermodynamically described with a van Laar macroscopic formalism [3], and by R-3<=>R-3c phase transitions due to cation disordering, treated by redefining the compositional space with an independent set of end-members that describe both composition and states of ordering. The result is a solid solution model able to reproduce both the phase relations experimentally observed at 35 kbar and those experimentally determined and naturally observed at lower pressure [4-5]. Our model can be reliable extended to pressures of the breakdown of dolomite, e.g. 5-6 GPa, 600-1000 °C. Melting experiments carried out at 1250 °C along

  5. [Smoking cessation among HIV smokers: Experience of a French hospital-based smoking cessation service].

    PubMed

    Choulika, S; Le Faou, A-L

    2017-04-01

    There is a particular need among HIV-infected patients to stop smoking because of the risk of smoking-related complications and the high prevalence of cigarette smoking among them. Only a few studies have focused on this population in real-world settings. Investigate the effectiveness of a smoking cessation support for HIV-infected patients at the Georges Pompidou University hospital (HEGP) smoking cessation service during the 2011-2012 period. A retrospective study of smoking cessation medical records was performed for 39 smokers who had visited for the first time the HEGP smoking cessation service during the 2011-2012 period and declared to be infected by the HIV on their smoking cessation self-questionnaire. The study has described smokers' characteristics and follow-up to measure the abstinence rate, validated by the patient declaration, the registration of the number of days without cigarettes between each visit and a measure of expired carbon monoxide ≤ 5ppm at each visit. We examined smokers lost to follow-up and they have been considered as smokers. Maintained abstinence rates at 3 month-follow-up and at 9 months/one year were registered. The 39 HIV-infected smokers registered in the study were mainly male (30/39), were heavy smokers with a consumption mean of nearly 23 cigarettes per day. One third presented high nicotine dependence with a Fagerström test ≥ 7. A depression history was reported among one third of them. Symptoms of anxiety and depression were declared by 20% and 33% respectively among them. Thirteen percent of them received opioid replacement therapies, 41% were cannabis users (one out of four were daily users) and 10 % declared alcohol abuse. 85% of patients received nicotine replacement therapy (patch and/or oral forms) and 15% varenicline(®), along with behavioral support techniques. At 3 month-follow-up, smoking cessation was validated for 20.5% of patients and at 9 months/1 year, smoking cessation rate decreased at 13%. When

  6. Interplay of Genetic Risk Factors (CHRNA5-CHRNA3-CHRNB4) and Cessation Treatments in Smoking Cessation Success

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Li-Shiun; Baker, Timothy B.; Piper, Megan E.; Breslau, Naomi; Cannon, Dale S.; Doheny, Kimberly F.; Gogarten, Stephanie M.; Johnson, Eric O.; Saccone, Nancy L.; Wang, Jen C.; Weiss, Robert B.; Goate, Alison M.; Bierut, Laura Jean

    2012-01-01

    Objective Smoking is highly intractable and the genetic influences on cessation are unclear. Identifying the genetic factors affecting smoking cessation could elucidate the nature of tobacco dependence, enhance risk assessment, and support treatment algorithm development. This study tests whether variants in the nicotinic receptor gene cluster (CHRNA5-CHRNA3-CHRNB4) predict age of smoking cessation and relapse to smoking after a quit attempt. Method In a community-based, cross-sectional study (N=5,216) and a randomized comparative effectiveness smoking cessation trial (N=1,073), we used survival analyses and logistic regression to model relations between smoking cessation (self-reported quit age in a community study and point-prevalence abstinence at end-of-treatment in a clinical trial) and three common haplotypes in the CHRNA5-CHRNA3-CHRNB4 region defined by rs16969968 and rs680244. Results The genetic variants in the CHRNA5-CHRNA3-CHRNB4 region that predict nicotine dependence also predict a later age of smoking cessation in a community-based sample (X2=8.46, df=2, p=0.015). In the smoking cessation trial, these variants predict abstinence at end-of-treatment in individuals receiving placebo medication, but not amongst individuals receiving active medication. Genetic variants interact with treatment in affecting cessation success (X2=8.97, df=2, p=0.011). Conclusions Smokers with the high risk genetic variants have a three-fold increased likelihood of responding to pharmacologic cessation treatments, compared to smokers with the low risk genetic variants. The high-risk variants increase the risk of cessation failure, and this increased risk can be ameliorated by cessation pharmacotherapy. By identifying a high-risk genetic group with heightened response to smoking cessation pharmacotherapy, this work may support the development of personalized cessation treatments. PMID:22648373

  7. Interplay of genetic risk factors (CHRNA5-CHRNA3-CHRNB4) and cessation treatments in smoking cessation success.

    PubMed

    Chen, Li-Shiun; Baker, Timothy B; Piper, Megan E; Breslau, Naomi; Cannon, Dale S; Doheny, Kimberly F; Gogarten, Stephanie M; Johnson, Eric O; Saccone, Nancy L; Wang, Jen C; Weiss, Robert B; Goate, Alison M; Bierut, Laura Jean

    2012-07-01

    Smoking is highly intractable, and the genetic influences on cessation are unclear. Identifying the genetic factors affecting smoking cessation could elucidate the nature of tobacco dependence, enhance risk assessment, and support development of treatment algorithms. This study tested whether variants in the nicotinic receptor gene cluster CHRNA5-CHRNA3-CHRNB4 predict age at smoking cessation and relapse after an attempt to quit smoking. In a community-based, crosssectional study (N=5,216) and a randomized comparative effectiveness smoking cessation trial (N=1,073), the authors used Cox proportional hazard models and logistic regression to model the relationships of smoking cessation (self-reported quit age in the community study and point-prevalence abstinence at the end of treatment in the clinical trial) to three common haplotypes in the CHRNA5-CHRNA3-CHRNB4 region defined by rs16969968 and rs680244. The genetic variants in the CHRNA5-CHRNA3-CHRNB4 region that predict nicotine dependence also predicted a later age at smoking cessation in the community sample. In the smoking cessation trial, haplotype predicted abstinence at end of treatment in individuals receiving placebo but not among individuals receiving active medication. Haplotype interacted with treatment in affecting cessation success. Smokers with the high-risk haplotype were three times as likely to respond to pharmacologic cessation treatments as were smokers with the low-risk haplotype. The high-risk haplotype increased the risk of cessation failure, and this increased risk was ameliorated by cessation pharmacotherapy. By identifying a high-risk genetic group with heightened response to smoking cessation pharmacotherapy, this work may support the development of personalized cessation treatments.

  8. Smoking cessation readiness: are your patients ready to quit?

    PubMed

    Woody, Delinda; DeCristofaro, Claire; Carlton, Betty G

    2008-08-01

    To explore the assessment of patient readiness to receive smoking cessation interventions using the transtheoretical model (TTM) and the five stages of change; and to give the primary care provider an evidence-based toolkit to assist in evaluating for readiness and supporting the smoking cessation process. Evidence-based literature, theoretical framework, and peer-reviewed articles. Utilizing the TTM along with proper training and education of the provider and patient increases the probability that smoking cessation will occur. Combinations of pharmaceutical and nonpharmaceutical interventions are the most effective in smoking cessation. Providers can be prepared at every patient visit to address the smoking cessation needs of all patients. The toolkit provided in this article will help facilitate evaluation of readiness and support of effective, long-term smoking cessation and reduce eventual smoking-related morbidities.

  9. Hepatitis B virus in drug users in France: prevalence and vaccination history, ANRS-Coquelicot Survey 2011-2013.

    PubMed

    Brouard, C; Pillonel, J; Sogni, P; Chollet, A; Lazarus, J V; Pascal, X; Barin, F; Jauffret-Roustide, M

    2017-01-19

    People who use drugs (PWUD) are a key population for hepatitis B virus (HBV) vaccination and screening. We aimed to estimate the seroprevalence of HBs antigen (HBsAg) and self-reported HBV vaccination history in French PWUD attending harm reduction centres using data from the ANRS-Coquelicot multicentre survey conducted in 2011-2013 in 1718 PWUD. Self-fingerprick blood samples were collected on dried blood spots to detect the presence of HBsAg. HBsAg seroprevalence was estimated at 1·4% [95% confidence interval (CI) 0·8-2·5]. It varied between PWUD born in high (7·6%, 95% CI 2·7-19·1), moderate (2·2%, 95% CI 0·8-5·7) and low (0·7%, 95% CI 0·3-1·5) endemic zones. Factors independently associated with HBsAg carriage were being born in a moderate or high endemic zone or reporting precarious housing. Self-reported HBV vaccination history varied from 47·4% in high endemic zones, to 59·3% and 62·6% for moderate and low endemic zones, respectively. Our results suggest that drug use plays a small and substantial role, respectively, in HBsAg carriage in PWUD born in high/moderate and low endemic zones.

  10. The Pseudomonas aeruginosa hemA promoter is regulated by Anr, Dnr, NarL and Integration Host Factor.

    PubMed

    Krieger, R; Rompf, A; Schobert, M; Jahn, D

    2002-05-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa forms most of its heme under anaerobic denitrifying conditions. To study the regulation of the hemA gene, which codes for the first enzyme of heme biosynthesis in P. aeruginosa, a lacZ reporter gene fusion was constructed. Expression of lacZ under the control of the hemA promoter was found to be increased by 2.8-fold under anaerobic conditions in the presence of the alternative electron acceptor nitrate, relative to the level observed under aerobic growth conditions. Anaerobic fermentative growth or the presence of nitrite did not affect the lacZ expression. The genes encoding the oxygen sensor protein Anr, the redox regulator Dnr, the nitrate regulator NarL and the DNA-bending Integration Host Factor (IHF) are all required for the cooperative anaerobic induction of the hemA promoter hemAp (1). Potential binding sites for these regulatory proteins were identified by site-directed mutagenesis of the promoter fused to the reporter gene. The mode of regulation of P. aeruginosa hemA differs significantly from that described for the hemA gene of Escherichia coli K-12.

  11. Indiana family physician attitudes and practices concerning smoking cessation.

    PubMed

    Saywell, R M; Jay, S J; Lukas, P J; Casebeer, L L; Mybeck, K C; Parchman, M L; Haley, A J

    1996-01-01

    Most physicians are aware of the health benefits of smoking cessation and agree they have a responsibility to help smokers quit. Many physicians, however, do not regularly address smoking cessation with their patients. Questionnaires were sent to 2,095 family practice physicians in Indiana. Information obtained included: demographic data; office-based smoking cessation practices; counseling; and physicians' perceptions of intervention outcomes. Most physicians (86%) asked new patients if they smoked, and 23% questioned patients about their exposure to passive smoke. Younger physicians, female physicians and urban physicians were more likely to ask new patients if they smoked. A formal smoking cessation program was used by 28% of the responding physicians. Among those not using a program, 7% reported plans to implement one in the coming year, 40% were not planning to implement one, and 53% were unsure. Physician and practice characteristics were not correlated with the use of smoking cessation programs. Only 11% of physicians considered their smoking cessation counseling skills to be excellent; 27% indicated the need for improvement in skills. One-half (52%) believed their counseling efforts were effective; almost half (45%) believed that current reimbursement policies limited their involvement in smoking cessation interventions. Most respondents have not instituted smoking cessation programs in their practices. It is likely that a combination of strategies, including both undergraduate, graduate and continuing medical education programs and reform in reimbursement practices for cessation programs, will be required to achieve significant increases in long-term smoking abstinence rates.

  12. Interventions for promoting smoking cessation during pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Lumley, Judith; Chamberlain, Catherine; Dowswell, Therese; Oliver, Sandy; Oakley, Laura; Watson, Lyndsey

    2014-01-01

    Background Tobacco smoking in pregnancy remains one of the few preventable factors associated with complications in pregnancy, low birthweight, preterm birth and has serious long-term health implications for women and babies. Smoking in pregnancy is decreasing in high-income countries and increasing in low- to middle-income countries and is strongly associated with poverty, low educational attainment, poor social support and psychological illness. Objectives To assess the effects of smoking cessation interventions during pregnancy on smoking behaviour and perinatal health outcomes. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group’s Trials Register (June 2008), the Cochrane Tobacco Addiction Group’s Trials Register (June 2008), EMBASE, PsycLIT, and CINAHL (all from January 2003 to June 2008). We contacted trial authors to locate additional unpublished data. Selection criteria Randomised controlled trials where smoking cessation during pregnancy was a primary aim of the intervention. Data collection and analysis Trials were identified and data extracted by one person and checked by a second. Subgroup analysis was conducted to assess the effect of risk of trial bias, intensity of the intervention and main intervention strategy used. Main results Seventy-two trials are included. Fifty-six randomised controlled trials (over 20,000 pregnant women) and nine cluster-randomised trials (over 5000 pregnant women) provided data on smoking cessation outcomes. There was a significant reduction in smoking in late pregnancy following interventions (risk ratio (RR) 0.94, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.93 to 0.96), an absolute difference of six in 100 women who stopped smoking during pregnancy. However, there is significant heterogeneity in the combined data (I2 > 60%). In the trials with the lowest risk of bias, the interventions had less effect (RR 0.97, 95% CI 0.94 to 0.99), and lower heterogeneity (I2 = 36%). Eight trials of smoking relapse prevention

  13. Internet-based interventions for smoking cessation.

    PubMed

    Civljak, Marta; Sheikh, Aziz; Stead, Lindsay F; Car, Josip

    2010-09-08

    The Internet has become a regular part of daily life for the majority of people in many parts of the world. It now offers an additional means of effecting changes to behaviour such as smoking. To determine the effectiveness of Internet-based interventions for smoking cessation. We searched the Cochrane Tobacco Addiction Group Specialized Register, with additional searches of MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, PsycINFO, and Google Scholar. There were no restrictions placed on language of publication or publication date. The most recent search was in June 2010. We included randomized and quasi-randomized trials. Participants were people who smoked, with no exclusions based on age, gender, ethnicity, language or health status. Any type of Internet-based intervention was eligible. The comparison condition could be a no-intervention control or a different Internet site or programme. Methodological and study quality details were extracted using a standardised form. We selected smoking cessation outcomes at short term (one to three months) and long term (6 months or more) follow up, and reported study effects as a risk ratio with 95% confidence intervals. Only limited meta-analysis was performed, as the heterogeneity of the data for populations, interventions and outcomes allowed for very little pooling. Twenty trials met the inclusion criteria. There were more female than male participants. Some Internet programmes were intensive and included multiple outreach contacts with participants, whilst others relied on participants to initiate and maintain use.Ten trials compared an Internet intervention to a non-Internet based smoking cessation intervention or to a no intervention control. Six of these recruited adults, one recruited young adult university students and three recruited adolescents. Two trials of the same intensive automated intervention in populations of adult who smoked showed significantly increased cessation compared to printed self-help materials at 12 months. In one

  14. N-doped nanoporous Co3O4 nanosheets with oxygen vacancies as oxygen evolving electrocatalysts.

    PubMed

    Xu, Lei; Wang, Zhimin; Wang, Jialu; Xiao, Zhaohui; Huang, Xiaobing; Liu, Zhigang; Wang, Shuangyin

    2017-04-21

    Developing highly active electrocatalysts for the oxygen evolution reaction (OER) with a high surface area, high catalytic activity, low cost and high conductivity is a big challenge for various energy technologies. Herein, for the first time, we realized the simultaneous nitrogen doping and etching of Co3O4 nanosheets to produce N-doped nanoporous Co3O4 nanosheets with oxygen vacancies by N2 plasma. The increase in active sites in N-doped Co3O4 nanosheets and improved electronic conductivity with N doping and oxygen vacancies results in excellent electrocatalytic activity for the OER. Compared with pristine Co3O4 nanosheets, the N-doped Co3O4 nanosheets with oxygen vacancies have a much lower required potential of 1.54 V versus a reversible hydrogen electrode than the pristine Co3O4 nanosheets (1.79 V) to reach the current density of 10 mA cm(-2). The N-doped and etched Co3O4 nanosheets have a much lower Tafel slope of 59 mV dec(-1) than pristine Co3O4 nanosheets (234 mV dec(-1)). The enhanced electrocatalytic activity for the OER is caused by the increased surface area, N doping and the produced oxygen vacancies.

  15. Co3O4(100) films grown on Ag(100): Structure and chemical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arman, Mohammad A.; Merte, Lindsay R.; Lundgren, Edvin; Knudsen, Jan

    2017-03-01

    Spinel type Co3O4(100) is successfully grown on Ag(100) at ultrahigh vacuum conditions and its structure, electronic and chemical properties are compared with those of Co3O4(111) grown on Ir(100). We find that the Co3O4(100) is unreconstructed. In contrast to the defect free Co3O4(111) surface the Co3O4(100) surface contains a high concentration of defects that we assign to subsurface cation vacancies analogous to those observed for Fe3O4(100). Our photoemission and absorption spectroscopy experiments reveal a very similar electronic structure of the Co3O4(111) and Co3O4(100) surfaces. The similar electronic structure of the two surfaces is reflected in the CO adsorption properties at low temperatures, as we observe adsorption of molecular CO as well as the formation of carbonate (CO3) species on both surfaces upon CO exposure at 85 K.

  16. N-doped nanoporous Co3O4 nanosheets with oxygen vacancies as oxygen evolving electrocatalysts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Lei; Wang, Zhimin; Wang, Jialu; Xiao, Zhaohui; Huang, Xiaobing; Liu, Zhigang; Wang, Shuangyin

    2017-04-01

    Developing highly active electrocatalysts for the oxygen evolution reaction (OER) with a high surface area, high catalytic activity, low cost and high conductivity is a big challenge for various energy technologies. Herein, for the first time, we realized the simultaneous nitrogen doping and etching of Co3O4 nanosheets to produce N-doped nanoporous Co3O4 nanosheets with oxygen vacancies by N2 plasma. The increase in active sites in N-doped Co3O4 nanosheets and improved electronic conductivity with N doping and oxygen vacancies results in excellent electrocatalytic activity for the OER. Compared with pristine Co3O4 nanosheets, the N-doped Co3O4 nanosheets with oxygen vacancies have a much lower required potential of 1.54 V versus a reversible hydrogen electrode than the pristine Co3O4 nanosheets (1.79 V) to reach the current density of 10 mA cm‑2. The N-doped and etched Co3O4 nanosheets have a much lower Tafel slope of 59 mV dec‑1 than pristine Co3O4 nanosheets (234 mV dec‑1). The enhanced electrocatalytic activity for the OER is caused by the increased surface area, N doping and the produced oxygen vacancies.

  17. Long-term sustainability of microbial-induced CaCO3 precipitation in aqueous media.

    PubMed

    Gat, Daniella; Ronen, Zeev; Tsesarsky, Michael

    2017-10-01

    Microbially induced CaCO3 precipitation (MICP) via urea hydrolysis is an emerging technique for soil amelioration, building materials rehabilitation and pollutants sequestration amongst other various environmental applications. The successful application of MICP requires the sustainability of the precipitated CaCO3; to which the fate of ammonia, the main by-product of ureolysis, is potentially significante. Ammonia volatilization and biological ammonia oxidation both induce a pH decrease, which, in turn, might cause CaCO3 dissolution. To examine the potential effect of accumulated ammonia on precipitated CaCO3, we conducted a long-term MICP batch experiment, using environmental enrichment cultures of ureolytic bacteria. Here we show that CaCO3 precipitation was completed within 15-27 days, along with a rise in ammonium concentration. Following completion of ureolysis and precipitation, ammonium concentrations decreased, leading to a pH decrease. About 30 days after precipitation was completed, as much as 30% CaCO3 dissolution, was observed. A two-step model, describing urea hydrolysis followed by the removal of ammonia from the precipitation solution, predicted CaCO3 dissolution due to ammonia volatilization. We suggest that ureolytic MICP might result in ammonia volatilization, leading to significant CaCO3 dissolution. These results provide basic insights into the sustainability of ureolytic MICP and should further encourage removal of the accumulated ammonia from the treated site. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Inpatient smoking cessation therapy: truth or dare?

    PubMed

    Boehm, Gabriela; Schroeder, Yvonne; Schoberberger, Rudolf

    2015-10-01

    This study aims to answer the question to which extent even very heavy nicotine-dependent smokers can benefit from a 3-week inpatient smoking cessation program. A particular focus lies on analyzing the positive effects, which go above and beyond normally anticipated health benefits. This is a descriptive study observing 270 patients over a 1-year period consisting of recruitment, therapy, and two post-therapy follow-up visits at 6-month interval. Gender differences, changes in body weight, and factors relating to addiction and the nicotine withdrawal process are analyzed. In comparing successful participants-post-therapy nonsmokers-with less successful ones, our analysis identifies benefits and advantages an inpatient smoking cessation therapy can bring to even the heaviest smokers. At the 12-month post-therapy follow-up visit, 42.6% of participants were identified as nonsmokers. A total of 34.0% of participants took up smoking again. No data is available on the remaining participants. Nonsmokers experienced significant reduction in nicotine craving and withdrawal symptoms. In terms of body weight, increases were found in both, men and women, nonsmokers and smokers. Successful quitters fail to report of an unbearable strong desire to smoke. Such unfounded fear should be communicated. Weight gain remains an undesired side effect. Hence, it is crucial to diagnose individuals more prone to weight gain and offer coping strategies thus reducing the risk of developing obesity. Nevertheless, the outcome of the study should be an encouragement to also heavy smokers and empower them to undertake smoking cessation.

  19. Public policy to maximize tobacco cessation.

    PubMed

    McGoldrick, Daniel E; Boonn, Ann V

    2010-03-01

    Tobacco use kills more than 400,000 Americans every year. For smokers, quitting is the biggest step they can take to improve their health, but it is a difficult step. Fortunately, policy-based interventions can both encourage smokers to quit and help them succeed. Evidence shows that tobacco tax increases encourage smokers to quit-recent state and federal increases have created dramatic surges in calls to quitlines. Similarly, smokefree workplace laws not only protect workers and patrons from secondhand smoke but also encourage smokers to quit, help them succeed, and create a social environment less conducive to smoking. The impact of policy changes can be amplified by promoting quitting around the date they are implemented. Outreach to health practitioners can alert them to encourage their patients to quit. Earned and paid media can also be used to motivate smokers to quit when policy changes are put into effect. Although these policies and efforts regarding them can generate great demand for evidence-based cessation services such as counseling and medication, it is important to make these resources available for those wanting to quit. Public and private health insurance plans should provide coverage for cessation services, and states should invest tobacco tax and/or tobacco settlement dollars in smoking-cessation programs as recommended by the CDC. Finally, the Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act has given the U.S. Food and Drug Administration new authority to regulate tobacco products and marketing, and to prevent tobacco companies from deceptively marketing new products that discourage smokers from quitting and keep them addicted. 2010 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Organometallic Computational Exercise: Semiempirical Molecular Orbital Calculations on (C6H6)Cr(CO)3 and (B3N3H6Cr(CO)3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Brien, James F.; Haworth, Daniel T.

    2001-01-01

    A student exercise employing semiempirical molecular orbital calculations in the area of organometallic chemistry is presented. PM3 level calculations are applied to the ground-state structures of C6H6)Cr(CO)3 and (B3N3H6)Cr(CO)3. The calculations are generally successful in computing the known features of the ground-state structures. Comparison of the geometries computed for free and complexed C6H6 and B3N3H6 allow discussion of the reasons for the changes observed. The structures of the transition states for rotation of the rings with respect to Cr(CO)3 are also computed. These results permit calculation of the activation energies for the ring rotations. The activation energies computed at the PM3 level are 0.4 and 18.3 kcal/mol for (C6H6)Cr(CO)3 and (B3N3H6)Cr(CO)3, respectively. These results highlight the differences between the two molecules. Students are encouraged to comment on structural changes in the rings, on the phenomenon of ring rotation in these systems and others such as ferrocene, on the question of the aromaticity of the borazine ring, and on the effect of p back-bonding on the positions of the carbonyl stretching bands in the both complexes.

  1. Simplicity sells: Making smoking cessation easier.

    PubMed

    Bonniot Saucedo, Catherine; Schroeder, Steven A

    2010-03-01

    Toll-free telephone quitlines are successful alternatives to direct clinician contact. In 2004, the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services created a national quitline number, 1-800-QUIT-NOW. This enabled states without quitlines to establish them, giving free access to cessation services to every smoker in the U.S. It also created a new mechanism for national quitline marketing, employing simplified and streamlined approaches. 2010 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Acupuncture and related interventions for smoking cessation.

    PubMed

    White, A R; Rampes, H; Campbell, J L

    2006-01-25

    Acupuncture and related techniques are promoted as a treatment for smoking cessation in the belief that they may reduce nicotine withdrawal symptoms. The objectives of this review are to determine the effectiveness of acupuncture and the related interventions of acupressure, laser therapy and electrostimulation, in smoking cessation in comparison with no intervention, sham treatment, or other interventions. We searched the Cochrane Tobacco Addiction Group specialized register, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE, EMBASE, BIOSIS Previews, PsycINFO, Science and Social Sciences Citation Index, AMED and CISCOM. Date of last search January 2005. Randomized trials comparing a form of acupuncture, acupressure, laser therapy or electrostimulation with either no intervention, sham treatment or another intervention for smoking cessation. We extracted data in duplicate on the type of smokers recruited, the nature of the acupuncture and control procedures, the outcome measures, method of randomization, and completeness of follow up. We assessed abstinence from smoking at the earliest time-point (before six weeks), and at the last measurement point between six months and one year. We used the most rigorous definition of abstinence for each trial, and biochemically validated rates if available. Those lost to follow up were counted as continuing smokers. Where appropriate, we performed meta-analysis using a fixed-effect model. We identified 24 reports of studies. The only comparison for which there were sufficient studies to combine meaningfully was acupuncture compared with sham acupuncture. The fixed-effect odds ratio (OR) for the short-term effect was 1.36 (95% confidence interval 1.07 to 1.72), but the studies are heterogeneous and the result is strongly influenced by one individual positive study. The significant short-term effect was lost with the random-effects model for pooling, or by removing the outlying study that led to heterogeneity

  3. Acupuncture and related interventions for smoking cessation.

    PubMed

    White, Adrian R; Rampes, Hagen; Liu, Jian Ping; Stead, Lindsay F; Campbell, John

    2011-01-19

    Acupuncture and related techniques are promoted as a treatment for smoking cessation in the belief that they may reduce nicotine withdrawal symptoms. The objectives of this review are to determine the effectiveness of acupuncture and the related interventions of acupressure, laser therapy and electrostimulation in smoking cessation, in comparison with no intervention, sham treatment, or other interventions. We searched the Cochrane Tobacco Addiction Group specialized register, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE, EMBASE, BIOSIS Previews, PsycINFO, Science Citation Index, AMED, Acubriefs in November 2010; and four Chinese databases: Chinese Biomedical Database, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, Wanfang Data and VIP in November 2010. Randomized trials comparing a form of acupuncture, acupressure, laser therapy or electrostimulation with either no intervention, sham treatment or another intervention for smoking cessation. We extracted data in duplicate on the type of smokers recruited, the nature of the intervention and control procedures, the outcome measures, method of randomization, and completeness of follow up.We assessed abstinence from smoking at the earliest time-point (before six weeks), and at the last measurement point between six months and one year. We used the most rigorous definition of abstinence for each trial, and biochemically validated rates if available. Those lost to follow up were counted as continuing smokers. Where appropriate, we performed meta-analysis using a fixed-effect model. We included 33 reports of studies. Compared with sham acupuncture, the fixed-effect risk ratio (RR) for the short-term effect of acupuncture was 1.18 (95% confidence interval 1.03 to 1.34), and for the long-term effect was 1.05 (CI 0.82 to 1.35). The studies were not judged to be free from bias. Acupuncture was less effective than nicotine replacement therapy (NRT). There was no evidence that acupuncture is superior to

  4. Panic attacks and smoking cessation among cancer patients receiving smoking cessation treatment.

    PubMed

    Farris, Samantha G; Robinson, Jason D; Zvolensky, Michael J; Hogan, Julianna; Rabius, Vance; Cinciripini, Paul M; Karam-Hage, Maher; Blalock, Janice A

    2016-10-01

    Little is known about factors associated with smoking cessation in cancer patients. This study examined the impact of panic attacks on smoking abstinence likelihood among cancer patients receiving tobacco cessation treatment. The relationship of panic attacks to 7-day point-prevalence abstinence at mid-treatment, end of treatment, and 6-month post-end of treatment were examined among cancer patients (N=2255 patients; 50.1% female; Mage=54.9, SD=11.0) who received counseling and pharmacotherapy for smoking cessation. Panic attack history indexed by two questions from the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ). Point-prevalence abstinence was assessed via the Timeline Follow-Back. Cancer patients with a history of panic attacks, (n=493, 21.9%) relative to those without, were less likely to be abstinent at mid-treatment (OR=0.79, CI95%=0.64-0.98) and end of treatment (OR=0.72, CI95%=0.58-0.89). After adjusting for significant covariates, panic attack history remained predictive of decreased abstinence likelihood at end of treatment (OR =0.78, CI95%=0.62-0.99). Panic attacks may be related to poorer cessation outcome during smoking treatment among cancer patients, and may be usefully assessed and targeted for intervention. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Facile synthesis of SrCO3 nanostructures in methanol/water solution without additives

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Highly dispersive strontium carbonate (SrCO3) nanostructures with uniform dumbbell, ellipsoid, and rod-like morphologies were synthesized in methanol solution without any additives. These SrCO3 were characterized by X-ray diffraction, field emission scanning electron microscopy, and N2 adsorption-desorption. The results showed that the reaction temperature and the methanol/water ratio had important effects on the morphologies of SrCO3 particles. The dumbbell-like SrCO3 exhibited a Broader-Emmett-Teller surface area of 14.9 m2 g−1 and an average pore size of about 32 nm with narrow pore size distribution. The formation mechanism of the SrCO3 crystal was preliminary presented. PMID:22704526

  6. Improving smoking cessation outcomes in secondary care: Predictors of hospital staff willingness to provide smoking cessation referral.

    PubMed

    Chang, Yin-Yu; Yu, Shu-Man; Lai, Yun-Ju; Wu, Ping-Lun; Huang, Kuo-Chin; Huang, Hsien-Liang

    2016-06-01

    Since implementation of the New Smoking Cessation Policy in Taiwan, more patients are attending smoking cessation clinics. Many of these patients were referred by hospital staff. Thus, factors which influence the hospital staff's willingness to refer are important. In this study, we aim to understand the relation between smoking cessation knowledge and willingness for referral. A cross-sectional study using a questionnaire was conducted with staff of a community hospital during the year 2012-2013. Willingness to provide smoking cessation referral and relevant correlated variables including demographic data, knowledge of basic cigarette harm, and knowledge of resources and methods regarding smoking cessation were measured. A total of 848 of 1500 hospital staff returned the questionnaire: 249 physicians (29.4%), 402 nursing staff (47.4%), and 197 administration staff (23.2%). 790 (93.2%) staff members have never smoked, 19 (2.2%) had quit smoking, and 39 (4.6%) still smoke. 792 (93.4%) members had interest in receiving smoking cessation education. The mean total score (highest potential score of 6) of basic cigarette harm knowledge was 4.56 (± 1.25). The mean total score (highest potential score of 7) of resources and methods about smoking cessation was 4.79 (± 1.35). The significant variable correlated with willingness to refer was total score of resources and methods about smoking cessation. Hospital staff who knew more about resources and methods about smoking cessation were more willing to refer smoking patients to the smoking cessation service. Thus, continuing medical education for hospital staff should include resources and methods about smoking cessation to promote smoking cessation.

  7. Has Smoking Cessation Increased? An Examination of the US Adult Smoking Cessation Rate 1990 - 2014.

    PubMed

    Méndez, David; Tam, Jamie; Giovino, Gary A; Tsodikov, Alexander; Warner, Kenneth E

    2016-09-15

    We examine the trajectory of adult smoking prevalence in the US over the period 1990 - 2014 to investigate whether the smoking cessation rate has changed during this period. We employ a dynamic model of smoking prevalence, and data from the National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) and the National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH), to estimate the adult cessation rate in six-year intervals. We use weighted non-linear least squares to perform the estimation. We then employ a meta-regression model to test whether the cessation rate has increased. The annual cessation rate has increased from 2.4% in 1990 to 4.5% in 2014 according to the NHIS data, and from 3.2% in 2002 to 4.2% in 2014 according to the NSDUH data. The increasing trend is statistically significant (P-value = 1.57 × 10(-6)) and the two independent surveys produced nearly identical results, which makes it unlikely that our findings are a product of chance. Our analysis finds that the smoking cessation rate in the U.S. has almost doubled since 1990. This increase is responsible for at least two million fewer smokers in 2014. If current conditions persist, by the year 2020 the increase in cessation rates will be responsible for 3.5 million fewer smokers. Our findings can assist in predicting the future path of the smoking epidemic and determining the correct allocation of resources to eradicate it. We show that the adult smoking cessation rate has greatly increased since 1990. We demonstrate this by studying prevalence trajectories from two independent population surveys, which yielded nearly identical results. Different from other studies, we focus on permanent quit rates (net of relapses) which we estimate from a dynamic model of prevalence. Our results do not stem from self-reported quitting behavior, but from the analysis of observed prevalence and its inherent variability. Our findings can contribute to predicting the future path of the smoking epidemic and to determining the optimal allocation of

  8. Fe2O3/Co3O4 composite nanoparticle ethanol sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mirzaei, Ali; Park, Sunghoon; Sun, Gun-Joo; Kheel, Hyejoon; Lee, Chongmu; Lee, Sangmin

    2016-08-01

    In this study Fe2O3/Co3O4 nanocomposites were synthesized by using a simple hydrothermal route. The X-ray diffraction analysis results showed that the synthesized powders were pure and nanocrystalline in nature. Moreover, scanning electron microscopy revealed that Fe2O3 nanoparticles had spherical shapes while Co3O4 particles had a rod-like morphology. The ethanol sensing properties of Fe2O3/Co3O4 nanocomposites were examined and compared with those of pristine Fe2O3 nanoparticles. The gas sensing properties of Fe2O3/Co3O4 nanocomposites were shown to be superior to those of pristine Fe2O3 nanoparticles and for all concentrations of ethanol, the response of the nanocomposite sensor was shown to be higher than that of the pristine Fe2O3 nanoparticle sensor. In detail, the response of the Fe2O3/Co3O4 nanocomposite sensor to 200 ppm of ethanol at 300 °C was about 3 times higher than that of pristine sensor. Also, in general, the response and recovery times of the Fe2O3/Co3O4 nanocomposite sensor were shorter than those of the pristine one. The improved sensing characteristics of the Fe2O3/Co3O4 sensor were attributed to a combination of several effects: the formation of a potential barrier at the Fe2O3-Co3O4 interface, the enhanced modulation of the conduction channel width accompanying the adsorption and desorption of ethanol gas, the catalytic activity of Co3O4 for the oxidation of ethanol, the stronger oxygen adsorption of p-type Co3O4, and the formation of preferential adsorption sites.

  9. The SUCCESS Project: The Effect of Program Format and Incentives on Participation and Cessation in Worksite Smoking Cessation Programs

    PubMed Central

    Hennrikus, Deborah J.; Jeffery, Robert W.; Lando, Harry A.; Murray, David M.; Brelje, Kerrin; Davidann, Beth; Baxter, Judith S.; Thai, Dzung; Vessey, John; Liu, Jane

    2002-01-01

    Objectives. This study examined the effect of program format and incentives on participation and cessation in worksite smoking cessation programs. Methods. Twenty-four worksites were randomized to 6 conditions that differed in cessation program format and the use of incentives. Programs were offered for 18 months in each worksite. A total of 2402 cigarette smokers identified at baseline were surveyed 12 and 24 months later to assess participation in programs and cessation. Results. A total of 407 (16.9%) of the smoker cohort registered for programs; on the 12- and 24-month surveys, 15.4% and 19.4% of the cohort, respectively, reported that they had not smoked in the previous 7 days. Registration for programs in incentive sites was almost double that of no-incentive sites (22.4% vs 11.9%), but increased registration did not translate into significantly greater cessation rates. Program type did not affect registration or cessation rates. Conclusions. Although incentives increase rates of registration in worksite smoking cessation programs, they do not appear to increase cessation rates. Phone counseling seems to be at least as effective as group programs for promoting smoking cessation in worksites. PMID:11818305

  10. Exploiting metagenomic diversity for novel polyhydroxyalkanoate synthases: production of a terpolymer poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyhexanoate-co-3-hydroxyoctanoate) with a recombinant Pseudomonas putida strain.

    PubMed

    Cheema, Simrita; Bassas-Galia, Monica; Sarma, Priyangshu M; Lal, Banwari; Arias, Sagrario

    2012-01-01

    A metagenomic library of 2.1×10(6) clones was constructed using oil-contaminated soil from Gujarat (India). One of the fosmid clones, 40N22, encodes a polyhydroxyalkanoate synthase showing 76% identity with an Alcaligenes sp. synthase. The corresponding gene was expressed in Pseudomonas putida KT2440 ΔphaC1 which is impaired in PHA production. The gene conferred the recombinant strain PpKT-40N22 with the ability to produce copolymers with up to 21% in medium-chain-length content. Thus, 37% and 45% of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) and poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyhexanoate-co-3-hydroxyoctanoate), respectively were obtained when using sodium heptanoate and oleic acid as carbon sources. These 3-hydroxybutyrate-(3HB)-based polymers are of interest since they incorporate the properties of medium chain length polymers and thus increase the range of applications of PHAs.

  11. Smoking, cessation, and cessation counseling in patients with cancer: A population-based analysis.

    PubMed

    Ramaswamy, Apoorva T; Toll, Benjamin A; Chagpar, Anees B; Judson, Benjamin L

    2016-04-15

    Smoking is known to be carcinogenic and an important factor in the outcome of cancer treatment. However, to the authors' knowledge, smoking habits and smoking cessation counseling in patients with cancer have been poorly studied. The authors sought to analyze smoking habits among Americans diagnosed with cancer in a nationally representative dataset. The cancer supplement of the National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) in 2010 was used to obtain information regarding self-reported smoking behavior in a representative sample of the US population. Cancer history, smoking history, quitting behavior, cessation counseling, cessation approaches, and sociodemographic variables were analyzed. A total of 27,157 individuals were interviewed for the NHIS in 2010, representing 216,052,891 individuals, 7,058,135 of whom had ever smoked and 13,188,875 of whom had been told that they had cancer. Approximately 51.7% of individuals diagnosed with cancer and who were active smokers reported being counseled to quit smoking by a health professional within the previous 12 months. Cancer survivors were no more likely to quit smoking than individuals in the general population. Those diagnosed with a tobacco-related cancer were found to be no more likely to report quitting smoking than those with other types of cancers. Rates of quitting did not appear to vary based on the type of smoking cessation method used (P = .50). Patients with cancer, including those diagnosed with a tobacco-related cancer, do not appear to be more likely to quit smoking than the general population. Only approximately one-half of patients with cancer who smoke are counseled to quit. Smoking cessation in patients with cancer is an important area for intervention and investigation. © 2016 American Cancer Society.

  12. SMOKING CESSATION CLINICAL DEMONSTRATION IN RETURNING VETERANS

    PubMed Central

    Zaborowski, Daphne E.; Dedert, Eric A.; Straits-Troster, Kristy; Lee, Sherman; Wilson, Sarah M.; Calhoun, Patrick S.; Moore, Scott D.; Acheson, Shawn; Hamlett-Berry, Kim W.; Beckham, Jean C.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of this clinical demonstration project was to increase the reach of effective treatments, such as pharmacotherapy and telephone or web based support, by offering these treatments in a low-cost and convenient manner to a population of veterans. Methods Six hundred nine veteran smokers who had served in the military since September 11, 2001 were contacted by invitational letters. Veterans indicating interest in further contacts received telephone calls using standardized scripts that offered referral to the National Cancer Institute’s Smoking QuitLine, web-based counseling, and local Veteran Affairs pharmacologic treatment for smoking cessation. Results Seven percent of survey recipients participated in the clinical program. At two months follow-up, 23% of participants providing follow-up information reported maintaining smoking abstinence. This clinical demonstration project was associated with a reach of 8.6% (number of smokers who accessed the intervention/the number of targeted smokers), an efficacy of 26% i.e., number of abstinent smokers at 8 weeks/number who accessed the intervention), and an impact of 2.2% (number of abstinent smokers at 8 weeks/number of targeted smokers). Conclusions Results suggested that this project enhanced access to care and promoted short-term smoking cessation in veterans who have served since September 11. 2001. PMID:21769051

  13. Procedures for Calculating Cessation Lag | Science Inventory ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Environmental regulations aimed at reducing cancer risks usually have the effect of reducing exposure to a carcinogen at the time the regulation is inplemented. The reduction of cancer risk may occur shortly after the reduced exposure or after a consideravle period of time. The time of risk reduction associated with exposure reduction will vary by compound. Some recommended measures of the economic benefits associated with environmental regulations are sensitive to the timing of the risk reductions and cannot be effectively addressed by the conventional dose-response procedures. This paper introduces the concept and methodologies for calculating cessation lag effects, with the specific goal of answering the following questions: (1) How many cancer cases are avoided at age t after cessation (or reduction) of exposure concentrations? and (2) How long does the effect of an exposure last after exposure has terminated (or been reduced)? The proposed procedures do not require more information than what is required by the conventional dose-response procedures for which cumulative or an averaged lifetime exposure is used.

  14. Group behaviour therapy programmes for smoking cessation.

    PubMed

    Stead, Lindsay F; Carroll, Allison J; Lancaster, Tim

    2017-03-31

    Group therapy offers individuals the opportunity to learn behavioural techniques for smoking cessation, and to provide each other with mutual support. To determine the effect of group-delivered behavioural interventions in achieving long-term smoking cessation. We searched the Cochrane Tobacco Addiction Group Specialized Register, using the terms 'behavior therapy', 'cognitive therapy', 'psychotherapy' or 'group therapy', in May 2016. Randomized trials that compared group therapy with self-help, individual counselling, another intervention or no intervention (including usual care or a waiting-list control). We also considered trials that compared more than one group programme. We included those trials with a minimum of two group meetings, and follow-up of smoking status at least six months after the start of the programme. We excluded trials in which group therapy was provided to both active therapy and placebo arms of trials of pharmacotherapies, unless they had a factorial design. Two review authors extracted data in duplicate on the participants, the interventions provided to the groups and the controls, including programme length, intensity and main components, the outcome measures, method of randomization, and completeness of follow-up. The main outcome measure was abstinence from smoking after at least six months follow-up in participants smoking at baseline. We used the most rigorous definition of abstinence in each trial, and biochemically-validated rates where available. We analysed participants lost to follow-up as continuing smokers. We expressed effects as a risk ratio for cessation. Where possible, we performed meta-analysis using a fixed-effect (Mantel-Haenszel) model. We assessed the quality of evidence within each study and comparison, using the Cochrane 'Risk of bias' tool and GRADE criteria. Sixty-six trials met our inclusion criteria for one or more of the comparisons in the review. Thirteen trials compared a group programme with a self

  15. Synthesis and electrochemical properties of Co3O4 nanoparticles by hydrothermal method at different temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duan, Qiuyan; Chen, Haiyan

    2017-06-01

    In this work, Co3O4 nanoparticles were synthesized by hydrothermal method at different temperatures. The synthesized Co3O4 nanoparticles were characterized using transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectrometer (XPS) and nitrogen adsorption-desorption. The Co3O4 nanoparticles prepared at the hydrothermal temperature of 140 °C and at the annealing temperature of 350 °C have a shorter crystal spacing distance associated to the (220) crystal planes, larger BET surface area and more bivalent cobalt on the surface than these of Co3O4 nanoparticles prepared at higher hydrothermal temperature or higher annealing temperature. The supercapacitor performances of synthesized Co3O4 nanoparticles were analysed by cyclic voltammograms (CVs), Galvano static charge/discharge (GCD) and the electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) in 6 M KOH aqueous electrolyte solution. The Co3O4 nanoparticles produced at lower temperatures exhibit good pseudo capacitance behaviour. Also, owning to the low hydrothermal temperature and the annealing temperature of Co3O4 nanoparticles, they can be relatively low cost in favour of a promising candidate for electrochemical supercapacitors.

  16. In situ biosynthesis of bacterial nanocellulose-CaCO3 hybrid bionanocomposite: One-step process.

    PubMed

    Mohammadkazemi, Faranak; Faria, Marisa; Cordeiro, Nereida

    2016-08-01

    In this work, a simple and green route to the synthesis of the bacterial nanocellulose-calcium carbonate (BNC/CaCO3) hybrid bionanocomposites using one-step in situ biosynthesis was studied. The CaCO3 was incorporated in the bacterial nanocellulose structure during the cellulose biosynthesis by Gluconacetobacter xylinus PTCC 1734 bacteria. Hestrin-Schramm (HS) and Zhou (Z) culture media were used to the hybrid bionanocomposites production and the effect of ethanol addition was investigated. Attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, field emission scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, inverse gas chromatography and thermogravimetric analysis were used to characterize the samples. The experimental results demonstrated that the ethanol and culture medium play an important role in the BNC/CaCO3 hybrid bionanocomposites production, structure and properties. The BNC/CaCO3 biosynthesized in Z culture medium revealed higher O/C ratio and amphoteric surface character, which justify the highest CaCO3 content incorporation. The CaCO3 was incorporated into the cellulosic matrix decreasing the bacterial nanocellulose crystallinity. This work reveals the high potential of in situ biosynthesis of BNC/CaCO3 hybrid bionanocomposites and opens a new way to the high value-added applications of bacterial nanocellulose.

  17. Structural, morphological, optical and magnetic properties of Co3O4 nanoparticles prepared by conventional method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gopinath, S.; Sivakumar, K.; Karthikeyen, B.; Ragupathi, C.; Sundaram, R.

    2016-07-01

    Cobalt oxide (Co3O4) is one of the favorable nanoparticles (NPs) that possesses many remarkable properties so that it can be used in medicine, chemistry, environment, energy, information, industry, and so on. In this study, the crystalline Co3O4 nanoparticles (NPs) were successfully prepared by an efficient conventional method technique from an using different fuels. In the present paper, pure phase and well-dispersed Co3O4 were synthesized via the starch and aqueous ammonia solution in the stoichiometric fuel compositions. The structure and morphology of by way of organized Co3O4 nanoparticles were characterized by the structural analysis, electron microscopy studies, and optical properties studies. Magnetic properties exposed that the Co3O4 nanoparticles had ferromagnetic performance at room temperature with saturation magnetization of 71.09 emu/g. The results revealed that the changing the precursor led to great effects on the crystal size, emission peaks, and the reaction time of preparing the Co3O4 NPs. The significant feature of this manuscript is that the effects of different precursors on the structural magnetic and optical properties of Co3O4 NPs were investigated for the first time. The average particle size of samples (A and B) 23.6 and 22.2 nm, respectively.

  18. Adsorption studies of ethanol and butanol on Co3O4 nanostructures - A DFT study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagarajan, V.; Chandiramouli, R.

    2017-07-01

    The electronic properties of Co3O4 nanostructures are explored using density functional theory. The adsorption properties of ethanol and n-butanol vapors on Co3O4 nanostructures are investigated in terms of adsorption energy, Mulliken charge transfer and average energy gap variation. The band structure and density of spectrum gives the insights on the adsorption properties of ethanol and n-butanol on Co3O4 base material. The change in the energy gap and variation in the charge density is observed upon adsorption of ethanol and n-butanol on p-type Co3O4 base material. The findings show that the adsorption property of n-butanol is more favorable on Co3O4 nanostructures. The prominent adsorption sites of ethanol and n-butanol on Co3O4 nanostructures are identified in atomistic level. From the results, it is clearly evident that Co3O4 nanostructures can be efficiently used as sensing element for the detection of ethanol and n-butanol vapors in the atmosphere.

  19. Enhanced biohydrogen production from sugarcane bagasse by Clostridium thermocellum supplemented with CaCO3.

    PubMed

    Tian, Qing-Qing; Liang, Lei; Zhu, Ming-Jun

    2015-12-01

    Clostridium thermocellum ATCC 27405 was used to degrade sugarcane bagasse (SCB) directly for hydrogen production, which was significantly enhanced by supplementing medium with CaCO3. The effect of CaCO3 concentration on the hydrogen production was investigated. The hydrogen production was significantly enhanced with the CaCO3 concentration increased from 10mM to 20mM. However, with the CaCO3 concentration further increased from 20mM to 100mM, the hydrogen production didn't increase further. Under the optimal CaCO3 concentration of 20mM, the hydrogen production reached 97.83±5.19mmol/L from 2% sodium hydroxide-pretreated SCB, a 116.72% increase over the control (45.14±1.03mmol/L), and the yield of hydrogen production reached 4.89mmol H2/g SCBadded. Additionally, CaCO3 promoted the biodegradation of SCB and the growth of C. thermocellum. The stimulatory effects of CaCO3 on biohydrogen production are mainly attributed to the buffering capacity of carbonate. The study provides a novel strategy to enhance biohydrogen production from lignocellulose.

  20. Facile synthesis of Cr-decorated hexagonal Co3O4 nanosheets for ultrasensitive ethanol detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Pingping; Wang, Jiwei; Lv, Xiaoxin; Zhang, Hui; Sun, Xuhui

    2015-07-01

    Cr-decorated hexagonal Co3O4 nanosheets were synthesized by a facile hydrothermal method on a SiO2/Si substrate, followed by a simple physical deposition of Cr film and a thermal annealing treatment. The Co3O4 nanosheets possess a porous and polycrystalline structure consisting of Co3O4 nanoparticles; Cr2O3 nanoparticles are uniformly formed on the surface of the Co3O4 nanosheets after the annealing treatment. The ethanol-sensing properties of the Cr-decorated hexagonal Co3O4 nanosheets were investigated in detail, and compared to pure hexagonal Co3O4 nanosheets, they show unique sensing properties toward ethanol, including high response (5.4) even when the ethanol concentration is as low as 10 ppm, ultrafast response (1 s) and recovery (7 s) rates, and good selectivity at a 300 °C operating temperature. These properties make the Cr-decorated hexagonal Co3O4 nanosheets good candidates for ethanol detection.

  1. CaCO3-III and CaCO3-VI, high-pressure polymorphs of calcite: Possible host structures for carbon in the Earth's mantle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merlini, M.; Hanfland, M.; Crichton, W. A.

    2012-06-01

    Calcite, CaCO3, undergoes several high pressure phase transitions. We report here the crystal structure determination of the CaCO3-III and CaCO3-VI high-pressure polymorphs obtained by single-crystal synchrotron X-ray diffraction. This new technical development at synchrotron beamlines currently affords the possibility of collecting single-crystal data suitable for structure determination in-situ at non-ambient conditions, even after multiphase transitions. CaCO3-III, observed in the pressure range 2.5-15 GPa, is triclinic, and it presents two closely related structural modifications, one, CaCO3-III, with 50 atoms in the unit cell [a=6.281(1) Å, b=7.507(2) Å, c=12.516(3) Å, α=93.76(2)°, β=98.95(2)°, γ=106.49(2)°, V=555.26(20) Å3 at 2.8 GPa], the second, CaCO3-IIIb, with 20 atoms [a=6.144(3) Å, b=6.3715(14) Å, c=6.3759(15) Å, α= 93.84(2)°, β=107.34(3)°, γ=107.16(3)°, V=224.33(13) Å3 at 3.1 GPa]. Different pressure-time experimental paths can stabilise one or the other polymorph. Both structures are characterised by the presence of non-coplanar CO3 groups. The densities of CaCO3-III (2.99 g/cm3 at 2.8 GPa) and CaCO3-IIIb (2.96 g/cm3 at 3.1 GPa) are lower than aragonite, in agreement with the currently accepted view of aragonite as the thermodynamically stable Ca-carbonate phase at these pressures. The presence of different cation sites, with variable volume and coordination number (7-9), suggests however that these structures have the potential to accommodate cations with different sizes without introducing major structural strain. Indeed, this structure can be adopted by natural Ca-rich carbonates, which often exhibit compositions deviating from pure calcite. Mg-calcites are found both in nature (Frezzotti et al., 2011) and in experimental syntheses at conditions corresponding to deep subduction environments (Poli et al., 2009). At these conditions, the low pressure rhombohedral calcite structure is most unlikely to be stable, and, at the same

  2. Tobacco Use Cessation and Youth. Issue Brief. August 1999.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wojciak, Alison

    This issue brief discusses the importance of tobacco use cessation efforts for youth. Section 1 discusses the need for tobacco cessation for youth, explaining that despite increased attention to the prevention of tobacco use among youth, there has been little attention to youth who already smoke, and few programs for youth have proven successful.…

  3. 20 CFR 410.432 - Cessation of disability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cessation of disability. 410.432 Section 410..., TITLE IV-BLACK LUNG BENEFITS (1969- ) Total Disability or Death Due to Pneumoconiosis § 410.432 Cessation of disability. (a) Where it has been determined that a miner is totally disabled under § 410.412...

  4. Behavioral Treatment Approaches to Prevent Weight Gain Following Smoking Cessation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grinstead, Olga A.

    Personality and physiological, cognitive, and environmental factors have all been suggested as critical variables in smoking cessation and relapse. Weight gain and the fear of weight gain after smoking cessation may also prevent many smokers from quitting. A sample of 45 adult smokers participated in a study in which three levels of preventive…

  5. 47 CFR 25.207 - Cessation of emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Cessation of emissions. 25.207 Section 25.207 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES SATELLITE COMMUNICATIONS Technical Standards § 25.207 Cessation of emissions. Space stations shall be made capable of ceasing radio...

  6. 47 CFR 25.207 - Cessation of emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Cessation of emissions. 25.207 Section 25.207 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES SATELLITE COMMUNICATIONS Technical Standards § 25.207 Cessation of emissions. Space stations shall be made capable of ceasing radio...

  7. 47 CFR 25.207 - Cessation of emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Cessation of emissions. 25.207 Section 25.207 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES SATELLITE COMMUNICATIONS Technical Standards § 25.207 Cessation of emissions. Space stations shall be made capable of ceasing radio...

  8. 47 CFR 25.207 - Cessation of emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Cessation of emissions. 25.207 Section 25.207 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES SATELLITE COMMUNICATIONS Technical Standards § 25.207 Cessation of emissions. Space stations shall be made capable of ceasing radio...

  9. Feasibility of School-Based Smoking Cessation Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillespie, Amaya; And Others

    1995-01-01

    This study surveyed Australian adolescents about smoking cessation behavior, analyzing previous quitting experience and intentions to quit. Previous quitters and those who intended to quit were significantly more likely to consider cessation assistance options acceptable than nonquitters and nonintenders. Saving money was an important variable in…

  10. Internet and Cell Phone Based Smoking Cessation Programs among Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mehta, Purvi; Sharma, Manoj

    2010-01-01

    Smoking cessation among adolescents is a salient public health issue, as it can prevent the adoption of risky health behaviors and reduce negative impacts on health. Self-efficacy, household and social support systems, and perceived benefits are some important cessation determinants. With the popular use of the Internet and cell phone usage among…

  11. Smoking cessation medications and cigarettes in Guatemala pharmacies.

    PubMed

    Viteri, Ernesto; Barnoya, Joaquin; Hudmon, Karen Suchanek; Solorzano, Pedro J

    2012-09-01

    Guatemala, a party to the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC), is obliged to promote the wider availability of smoking cessation treatment and to restrict tobacco advertising. Pharmacies are fundamental in providing smoking cessation medications but also might increase the availability of cigarettes. To assess availability of cessation medications and cigarettes and their corresponding advertising in Guatemala pharmacies. In Guatemala City a representative sample was selected from a list of registered pharmacies classified by type (non-profit, chain, independent). In addition, all pharmacies in the neighbouring town of Antigua were included for comparison. Trained surveyors used a checklist to characterise each pharmacy with respect to availability and advertising of cessation medications and cigarettes. A total of 505 pharmacies were evaluated. Cessation medications were available in 115 (22.8%), while cigarettes were available in 29 (5.7%) pharmacies. When available, medications were advertised in 1.7% (2) and cigarettes in 72.4% (21) of pharmacies. Chain pharmacies were significantly more likely to sell cessation medications and cigarettes, and to advertise cigarettes than were non-profit and independent pharmacies. Most pharmacies in Guatemala do not stock cessation medications or cigarettes. Cigarette advertising was more prevalent than advertising for cessation medications. FCTC provisions have not been implemented in Guatemala pharmacies.

  12. Determinants of Smoking Cessation among Adolescents in South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Panday, Saadhna; Reddy, S. Priscilla; Ruiter, Robert A. C.; Bergstrom, Erik; de Vries, Hein

    2005-01-01

    Data is required on the motivational determinants of smoking cessation among a multi-ethnic sample of adolescents in South Africa. The I-Change Model was used to explore the determinants of smoking cessation among a sample of 1267 Black African, Colored and White Grade 9-11 monthly smokers and former smokers in the Southern Cape-Karoo region.…

  13. Factors Influencing Smoking Cessation in Patients with Coronary Artery Disease.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKenna, Kryss; Higgins, Helen

    1997-01-01

    Ten sociodemographic, clinical, and psychological characteristics considered predictors of difficulty with smoking cessation in patients with coronary artery disease are reviewed. The compounding effects of nicotine addiction are discussed. Consideration of these factors may result in individualized programs for smoking cessation. A brief overview…

  14. 42 CFR 124.508 - Cessation of uncompensated services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Cessation of uncompensated services. 124.508 Section 124.508 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES HEALTH... Services to Persons Unable To Pay § 124.508 Cessation of uncompensated services. (a) Facilities...

  15. 30 CFR 817.131 - Cessation of operations: Temporary.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Cessation of operations: Temporary. 817.131 Section 817.131 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PERMANENT PROGRAM PERFORMANCE STANDARDS PERMANENT PROGRAM PERFORMANCE STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND MINING ACTIVITIES § 817.131 Cessation of...

  16. 30 CFR 816.131 - Cessation of operations: Temporary.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Cessation of operations: Temporary. 816.131 Section 816.131 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PERMANENT PROGRAM PERFORMANCE STANDARDS PERMANENT PROGRAM PERFORMANCE STANDARDS-SURFACE MINING ACTIVITIES § 816.131 Cessation of...

  17. 47 CFR 25.207 - Cessation of emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cessation of emissions. 25.207 Section 25.207 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES SATELLITE COMMUNICATIONS Technical Standards § 25.207 Cessation of emissions. Space stations shall be made capable of ceasing radio...

  18. Factors Influencing Smoking Cessation in Patients with Coronary Artery Disease.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKenna, Kryss; Higgins, Helen

    1997-01-01

    Ten sociodemographic, clinical, and psychological characteristics considered predictors of difficulty with smoking cessation in patients with coronary artery disease are reviewed. The compounding effects of nicotine addiction are discussed. Consideration of these factors may result in individualized programs for smoking cessation. A brief overview…

  19. Pulmonary Langerhans' cell histiocytosis: radiologic resolution following smoking cessation.

    PubMed

    Mogulkoc, N; Veral, A; Bishop, P W; Bayindir, U; Pickering, C A; Egan, J J

    1999-05-01

    We describe two patients with histologically proven pulmonary Langerhans' cell histiocytosis in whom radiologic improvement occurred following smoking cessation. The patients had 23- and 25-pack-year smoking histories, respectively. High-resolution CT revealed multiple small nodules, located predominantly in the upper and middle lung fields. There was a close temporal relationship between smoking cessation and radiologic improvement.

  20. Integrating smoking cessation into lung cancer screening programs.

    PubMed

    Pua, Bradley B; Dou, Eda; O'Connor, Katherine; Crawford, Carolyn B

    2016-01-01

    Early detection through low-dose computed tomographic screening for lung cancer and implementation of smoking cessation can reduce mortality related to lung cancer. While studies delineating the relationship between smoking cessation strategies and lung cancer screening programs remain sparse, we aim to review available data on their importance both individually and synergistically. Strategies and obstacles for implementation are also discussed.

  1. Feasibility of School-Based Smoking Cessation Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillespie, Amaya; And Others

    1995-01-01

    This study surveyed Australian adolescents about smoking cessation behavior, analyzing previous quitting experience and intentions to quit. Previous quitters and those who intended to quit were significantly more likely to consider cessation assistance options acceptable than nonquitters and nonintenders. Saving money was an important variable in…

  2. Smoking and drinking cessation and the risk of oesophageal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Bosetti, C; Franceschi, S; Levi, F; Negri, E; Talamini, R; Vecchia, C La

    2000-01-01

    In a case–control study from Italy and Switzerland with 404 oesophageal cancer cases and 1070 hospital controls, the risk of oesophageal cancer declined with time since cessation of smoking or drinking, and was significantly reduced (odds ratio = 0.11) 10 or more years after cessation of both habits. © 2000 Cancer Research Campaign PMID:10944613

  3. 20 CFR 410.432 - Cessation of disability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Cessation of disability. 410.432 Section 410..., TITLE IV-BLACK LUNG BENEFITS (1969- ) Total Disability or Death Due to Pneumoconiosis § 410.432 Cessation of disability. (a) Where it has been determined that a miner is totally disabled under §...

  4. The Struggle to Quit: Barriers and Incentives to Smoking Cessation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moffatt, Jenny; Whip, Rosemary

    2004-01-01

    Objective: Decades of research into smoking cessation have created a plethora of knowledge yet quit rates continue to be low and relapse rates high. In order to better understand this complex behaviour, this paper examines incentives and barriers to smoking cessation for a high risk group. Methods: The successful and unsuccessful quitting…

  5. Electrical transport and thermochromic properties of polyaniline/chitosan/Co3O4 ternary nano composite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    V, Mini; Kamath, Archana; S, Raghu; Chapi, Sharanappa; H, Devendrappa

    2015-06-01

    A new Polyaniline/ chitosan/ Co3O4 (CPAESCO) ternary nanocomposite is prepared by in situ oxidation polymerization of aniline in the presence of (NH4)2S2O8, chitosan and Co3O4. The Structural, Thermal, Optical and Electrical features of Polyaniline (PANI), Polyaniline/ chitosan (CPANI) and CPAESCO were analyzed using FT-IR, TGA, UV-vis analysis and Impedance spectroscopy by varying temperature. The results show that the introduction of the Co3O4 nanoparticles into CPANI matrix enhanced its properties. Mott's parameters show 3D -VRH Type conduction in it.

  6. Policy predictors of participation in adult tobacco cessation programs.

    PubMed

    Spurlock, Amy Yoder

    2005-11-01

    This article examines the effect of tobacco cessation treatment factors and environmental, structural, and client factors on participation in tobacco cessation programs among adults in a tobacco growing state. A pooled time series cross-sectional research design was used to analyze the primary and secondary data collected at the population level (N = 140 Health Department Service Areas; HDSA). Results indicated that for every cessation program added, there would be an increase in participation of 4 adults per 10,000 smokers, and for every 1.00 dollar per capita spent on counteradvertising, there would be an increase in participation of 26 adults per 10,000 smokers. Local health departments need to initiate or increase counteradvertising, targeting younger adults and HDSAs with higher per capita tobacco production; enhance marketing efforts for cessation; and increase the number of cessation programs offered by HDSAs to as many as are feasible and affordable.

  7. Is it safe to use smoking cessation therapeutics during pregnancy?

    PubMed

    De Long, Nicole E; Barra, Nicole G; Hardy, Daniel B; Holloway, Alison C

    2014-12-01

    Worldwide, 10 to 35% of pregnant women smoke. It is clear that smoking cessation has positive impacts for both the mother and child, yet many women are still unable to quit due to the addictive properties of nicotine. There are limited data surrounding their safety and efficacy in pregnancy. This review highlights evidence from clinical studies and animal experiments regarding the effects of smoking cessation therapeutics on pregnancy, neonatal and long-term postnatal outcomes. There are insufficient data at this time to recommend the use of varenicline and/or bupropion for smoking cessation during pregnancy. In addition, the efficacy and safety of nicotine replacement therapy use for smoking cessation in pregnant women has not been clearly demonstrated. Until further studies are completed, there will continue to be considerable uncertainty regarding the use of these drugs in pregnancy despite the well-documented benefits of smoking cessation.

  8. Effect of preventive and curative interventions on hepatitis C virus transmission in Egypt (ANRS 1211): a modelling study.

    PubMed

    Breban, Romulus; Arafa, Naglaa; Leroy, Sandrine; Mostafa, Aya; Bakr, Iman; Tondeur, Laura; Abdel-Hamid, Mohamed; Doss, Wahid; Esmat, Gamal; Mohamed, Mostafa K; Fontanet, Arnaud

    2014-09-01

    than 80% efficacy. With these treatment parameters, preventive and curative interventions targeting individuals with high rates of medical injections might decrease R0 below 1 for treatment coverage lower than 5%. Targeting preventive and curative interventions to individuals with high rates of medical injections in Egypt would result in a greater reduction the spread of HCV than would untargeted allocation. Such an approach might prove beneficial in other resource-limited countries with health-care-driven epidemics. Agence Nationale de Recherche sur le SIDA et les Hépatites Virales (ANRS 1211), ANR grant Labex Integrative Biology of Emerging Infectious Diseases. Copyright © 2014 Breban et al. Open Access article distributed under the terms of CC BY-NC-ND. Published by .. All rights reserved.

  9. Microbial synthesis of a novel terpolyester P(LA-co-3HB-co-3HP) from low-cost substrates.

    PubMed

    Ren, Yilin; Meng, Dechuan; Wu, Linping; Chen, Jinchun; Wu, Qiong; Chen, Guo-Qiang

    2017-03-01

    Polylactide (PLA) is a bio-based plastic commonly synthesized by chemical catalytic reaction using lactic acid (LA) as a substrate. Here, novel LA-containing terpolyesters, namely, P[LA-co-3-hydroxybutyrate (3HB)-co-3-hydroxypropionate (3HP)], short as PLBP, were successfully synthesized for the first time by a recombinant Escherichia coli harbouring polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) synthase from Pseudomonas stutzeri (PhaC1Ps ) with 4-point mutations at E130D, S325T, S477G and Q481K, and 3-hydroxypropionyl-CoA (3HP-CoA) synthesis pathway from glycerol, 3-hydroxybutyryl-CoA (3HB-CoA) as well as lactyl-CoA (LA-CoA) pathways from glucose. Combining these pathways with the PHA synthase mutant phaC1Ps (E130D S325T S477G Q481K), the random terpolyester P(LA-co-3HB-co-3HP), or PLBP, was structurally confirmed by nuclear magnetic resonance to consist of 2 mol% LA, 90 mol% 3HB, and 8 mol% 3HP respectively. Remarkably, the PLBP terpolyester was produced from low-cost sustainable glycerol and glucose. Monomer ratios of PLBP could be regulated by ratios of glycerol to glucose. Other terpolyester thermal and mechanical properties can be manipulated by adjusting the monomer ratios. More PLBP applications are to be expected.

  10. Bioinspired crystallization of CaCO3 coatings on electrospun cellulose acetate fiber scaffolds and corresponding CaCO3 microtube networks.

    PubMed

    Liu, Lei; He, Dian; Wang, Guang-Sheng; Yu, Shu-Hong

    2011-06-07

    This article describes the mineralization behavior of CaCO(3) crystals on electrospun cellulose acetate (CA) fibers by using poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) as a crystal growth modifier and further templating synthesis of CaCO(3) microtubes. Calcite film coatings composed of nanoneedles can form on the surfaces of CA fibers while maintaining the fibrous and macroporous structures if the concentration of PAA is in a suitable range. In the presence of a suitable concentration of PAA, the acidic PAA molecules will first adsorb onto the surface of CA fibers by the interaction between the OH moieties of CA and the carboxylic groups of PAA, and then the redundant carboxylic groups of PAA can ionically bind Ca(2+) ions on the surfaces of CA fibers, resulting in the local supersaturation of Ca(2+) ions on and near the fiber surface, which can induce the nucleation of CaCO(3) on the CA fibers instead of in bulk solution. Calcite microtube networks on the macroscale can be prepared by the removal of CA fibers after the CA@CaCO(3) composite is treated with acetone. When the CA fiber scaffold is immersed in CaCl(2) solution with an extended incubation time, the first deposited calcite coatings can act as secondary substrate, leading to the formation of smaller calcite mesocrystal fibers. The present work proves that inorganic crystal growth can occur even at an organic interface without the need for commensurability between the lattices of the organic and inorganic counterparts.

  11. Multiple discriminations experienced by people living with HIV in France: results from the ANRS-Vespa2 study.

    PubMed

    Marsicano, Elise; Dray-Spira, Rosemary; Lert, France; Aubrière, Cindy; Spire, Bruno; Hamelin, Christine

    2014-01-01

    Since the advent of AIDS, discrimination has remained at the core of the experience of people living with HIV (PLHIV). PLHIV who belong to minority groups are exposed to discrimination not only on the grounds of their HIV infection but also because of rejecting attitudes towards drug users, homosexuals and black people. This article aimed to measure the frequency of discrimination and assess its correlates among PLHIV in France. We used data from a national representative survey, the ANRS-Vespa2 study, conducted in France in 2011 among 3022 male and female HIV-positive patients followed at hospitals. Respondents answered a face-to-face questionnaire documenting their health status and living conditions. Discrimination was documented during the previous two years on the grounds of HIV infection, gender, country of birth, skin colour, sexual orientation, place of residence, and substance abuse in a variety of contexts. For each context, we performed logistic regressions on discrimination, controlling for socio-epidemiological group, age, education level and employment status. Discrimination is frequently experienced by PLHIV in France (26%), particularly when applying for a job (24%), interacting with family (11%) or seeking health services (8%). Women from sub-Saharan Africa reported the highest levels of discrimination, whereas heterosexual non-African men reported the lowest. Men who have sex with men experienced levels of discrimination that fell between those of these two groups. The major perceived reason for discrimination was HIV status (13%). Nationality, skin colour and sexual orientation were cited by 5% each, whereas gender was cited by 1% of respondents. Our analyses show that discrimination is a frequent and cross-cutting experience with differences across the various contexts and among the diverse subpopulations. The intertwining of HIV-related stigma with sexism, racism and homophobia needs to be addressed to understand why discrimination against

  12. CD4 Dynamics over a 15 Year-Period among HIV Controllers Enrolled in the ANRS French Observatory

    PubMed Central

    Boufassa, Faroudy; Saez-Cirion, Asier; Lechenadec, Jérome; Zucman, David; Avettand-Fenoel, Véronique; Venet, Alain; Rouzioux, Christine; Delfraissy, Jean-François

    2011-01-01

    Background There are few large published studies of HIV controllers with long-term undetectable viral load (VL). We describe the characteristics and outcomes of 81 French HIV controllers. Methods and Results HIV controllers were defined as asymptomatic, antiretroviral-naïve persons infected ≥10 years previously, with HIV-RNA <400 copies/mL in >90% of plasma samples. All available CD4 and VL values were collected at enrolment. Mixed-effect linear models were used to analyze CD4 cell count slopes since diagnosis. HIV controllers represented 0.31% of all patients managed in French hospitals. Patients infected through intravenous drug use were overrepresented (31%) and homosexual men were underrepresented (26% of men) relative to the ANRS SEROCO cohort of subjects diagnosed during the same period. HIV controllers whose VL values were always below the detection limit of the assays were compared with those who had rare “blips” (<50% of VL values above the detection limit) or frequent blips (>50% of VL values above the detection limit). Estimated CD4 cell counts at HIV diagnosis were similar in the three groups. CD4 cell counts remained stable after HIV diagnosis in the “no blip” group, while they fell significantly in the two other groups (−0.26√CD4 and −0.28√CD4/mm3/year in the rare and frequent blip groups, respectively). No clinical, immunological or virological progression was observed in the no blip group, while 3 immunological and/or virological events and 4 cancers were observed in the blip subgroups. Conclusions Viral blips in HIV controllers are associated with a significant decline in CD4 T cells and may be associated with an increased risk of pathological events, possibly owing to chronic inflammation/immune activation. PMID:21533035

  13. Tobacco use: prevention, cessation, and control.

    PubMed

    Ranney, Leah; Melvin, Cathy; Lux, Linda; McClain, Erin; Morgan, Laura; Lohr, Kathleen N

    2006-06-01

    The RTI International-University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill Evidence-based Practice Center (RTI-UNC EPC) systematically reviewed the evidence on (a) the effectiveness of community- and population-based interventions to prevent tobacco use and to increase consumer demand for and implementation of effective cessation interventions; (b) the impacts of smokeless tobacco marketing on smoking, use of those products, and population harm; and (c) the directions for future research. We searched MEDLINE, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Applied Health (CINAHL), Cochrane libraries, Cochrane Clinical Trials Register, Psychological Abstracts, and Sociological Abstracts from January 1980 through June 10, 2005. We included English-language randomized controlled trials, other trials, and observational studies, with sample size and follow-up restrictions. We used 13 Cochrane Collaboration systematic reviews, 5 prior systematic reviews, and 2 meta-analyses as the foundation for this report. Trained reviewers abstracted detailed data from included articles into evidence tables and completed quality assessments; other senior reviewers confirmed accuracy and resolved disagreements. We identified 1,288 unique abstracts; 642 did not meet inclusion criteria, 156 overlapped with prior reviews, and 2 were not published articles. Of 488 full-text articles retrieved and reviewed, we excluded 298 for several reasons, marked 88 as background, and retained 102. Evidence (consistent with previous reviews) showed that (a) school-based prevention interventions have short-term (but not long-term) effects on adolescents; (b) multicomponent approaches, including telephone counseling, increase the number of users who attempt to quit; (c) self-help strategies alone are ineffective, but counseling and pharmacotherapy used either alone or in combination can improve success rates of quit attempts; and (d) provider training and academic detailing improve provider delivery of cessation treatments, but

  14. Simulating oceanic CaCO3 export production in the greenhouse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heinze, C.

    2004-08-01

    A model scenario for the change in global marine biogenic CaCO3 export production (CaCO3 = calcium carbonate) due to increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide partial pressure is carried out. Findings from laboratory experiments, which suggest a decrease of biocalcification at higher pCO2, are extrapolated to the world ocean by use of the biogeochemical ocean general circulation model HAMOCC. For an A1B IPCC emission scenario and constant emission rates after year 2100, the simulation predicts a global decrease of biological CaCO3 export production by about 50% in year 2250. The negative feedback due to this drop in CaCO3 export on the atmospheric CO2 concentration is small as compared to the anthropogenic CO2 emissions. This negative feedback will potentially be compensated by a shallower remineralization of organic carbon.

  15. Different radiation and metamorphic history of the Kainsaz CO 3.2 chondrules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kashkarov, L. L.; Kalinina, G. V.

    1993-01-01

    Track and thermoluminescence parameters in chondrules from the Kainsaz CO 3.2 chondrite have been studied. Obtained results elucidate their individual shock-thermal history and the early pre-accretion stage of the meteorite parent body formation.

  16. Intrinsic ferromagnetic coupling in Co3O4 quantum dots activatedby graphene hybridization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Lin; Hu, Fengchun; Duan, Hengli; Liu, Qinghua; Tan, Hao; Yan, Wensheng; Yao, Tao; Jiang, Yong; Sun, Zhihu; Wei, Shiqiang

    2016-06-01

    Activating ferromagnetic couplings of transition-metallic ions in the antiferromagnetic metal oxide semiconductors is desired for creating ferromagnetic semiconductors for spintronics applications. Here, we report intrinsic ferromagnetic coupling in a typical antiferromagnetic metal oxide Co3O4, by virtue of a hybrid structure that modifies the valence state of Co ions. The Co3O4 quantum dots exhibit ferromagnetism of 2.2 emu/g at 2 K after hybridization with reduced graphene oxide (RGO). In this hybrid structure, electron-transfer from RGO to Co3O4 occurs and Co3+ ions occupying the octahedral (Oh) positions are converted into Co2+. Then the super-exchange interactions between Co2+ ions at Td (tetrahedral) and Oh positions switch the magnetic coupling of Co2+(Td)-Co2+(Td) from antiferromagnetic to ferromagnetic. These results offer promise for tailoring the spin exchange interactions of oxide semiconductors for spintronics applications.

  17. Hydrothermal synthesis of SrCO 3:Eu 3+/Tb 3+ microneedles and their luminescence properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Jun; Liu, Xiaoming; Li, Chunxia; Quan, Zewei; Kong, Deyan; Lin, Jun

    2007-05-01

    SrCO 3:Eu 3+/Tb 3+ microneedles that grow along the a-axis were successfully prepared through a large-scale and facile hydrothermal method without any template and further annealing treatment. X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and photoluminescence (PL) spectra as well kinetic decays, were used to characterize the samples. The preferential growth along a-axis for SrCO 3:Eu 3+/Tb 3+ microneedles has been proposed through analysis of the XRD patterns of samples obtained at different hydrothermal treatment time. Under ultraviolet excitation, the SrCO 3:Eu 3+ and SrCO 3:Tb 3+ microneedle samples show a strong red and green emission corresponding to the 5D 0- 7F J ( J=1, 2, 3, 4) transitions of Eu 3+ and the 5D 4- 7F J ( J=6, 5, 4, 3) transitions of Tb 3+, respectively, which have potential applications in lighting fields.

  18. Nepheline from K2CO3/nanosized sodalite as a prospective candidate for diesel soot combustion.

    PubMed

    Kimura, Riichiro; Wakabayashi, Junji; Elangovan, S P; Ogura, Masaru; Okubo, Tatsuya

    2008-10-01

    Nepheline group materials obtained by a thermal treatment of K2CO3-supported nanosized sodalite are identified as cost-effective materials which show promising activity and durability toward diesel soot combustion.

  19. Highly Crystalline FeCO3 Microparticle Synthesis by Hydrothermal Decomposition of Fe-EDTA Complex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chirita, M.; Banica, R.; Ieta, A.; Bucur, A.; Sfiarloaga, P.; Ursu, D. H.; Grozescu, I.

    2010-08-01

    In this article, we present an experimental procedure to synthesize highly crystalline FeCO3 by hydrothermal decomposition of Fe(III)-EDTA complex, starting from Ferric Ammonium Sulfate and Na4EDTA main precursors in urea presence. The structure, morphology and composition of the powders were obtained using X-ray powder diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. The peaks were founded, indicate that the synthesized products autoclaved 22 h at 250 °C are pure FeCO3, which was well proved experimentally from EDAX further investigated. The size with appreciatively 100 μm was evaluated by SEM images. Magnetic characterization confirmed the magnetic characteristics of FeCO3. This procedure allowed the FeCO3 microparticles formation with good and stabile crystallographic characteristics.

  20. A transtheoretical review on smoking cessation.

    PubMed

    Atak, Nazli

    The objective of this review is to draw attention to smoking cessation in view of the Transtheoretical Model (TTM). A large body of literature published in the last 15 years was screened by searching the keywords of "Smoking" and "Transtheoretical Model." The Transtheoretical model consists of stages of change and is used to explain addictive behaviors such as smoking. It addresses behavioral change by taking into consideration factors such as planning and decision-making. This article examines this theory and sets forth the processes of change, according to the positive and negative evaluations and strength of the smoking habit. Although the stages of change and the transitions between these stages have not been clearly defined, it still helps in understanding the nature of some addictive behaviors, particularly smoking.

  1. Update on medicines for smoking cessation

    PubMed Central

    McDonough, Mike

    2015-01-01

    Summary Persistent cigarette smokers usually have a nicotine addiction. This addiction has a chronic relapsing and sometimes remitting course and may persist lifelong. Remission can be facilitated by the use of medication as part of a comprehensive management strategy tailored to the individual patient. Nicotine replacement therapy is a first-line drug treatment. It is available in many formulations. Varenicline is also a first-line drug treatment. It should be started before the patient stops smoking. Bupropion is a second-line therapy. It may be associated with an increased risk of seizures and drug interactions. While there is some evidence that electronic cigarettes might facilitate smoking cessation, quit rates are not yet comparable with those of the drugs approved on the Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme. PMID:26648633

  2. Pretreatment task persistence predicts smoking cessation outcome.

    PubMed

    Brandon, Thomas H; Herzog, Thaddeus A; Juliano, Laura M; Irvin, Jennifer E; Lazev, Amy B; Simmons, Vani Nath

    2003-08-01

    R. Eisenberger's (1992) learned industriousness theory states that individuals display differing degrees of persistence depending on their history of reinforcement for effortful behavior. These differences may influence the development, maintenance, and cessation of addictive behaviors. In cross-sectional studies, E. P. Quinn, T. H. Brandon, and A. L. Copeland (1996) found that cigarette smokers were less persistent than nonsmokers, and R. A. Brown, C. W. Lejuez, C. W. Kahler, and D. R. Strong (2002) found that smokers who had previously abstained for 3 months were more persistent than those who had never quit. The present study extended these findings by using a prospective design. A pretreatment measure of task persistence (mirror tracing) completed by 144 smokers predicted sustained abstinence throughout 12 months of follow-up. Moreover, persistence predicted outcome independent of other significant predictors: gender, nicotine dependence, negative affect, and self-efficacy.

  3. Diazenide and hydrazide(2-) derivatives of the [Re(CO)3]+ core.

    PubMed

    Alberto, Roger; Cowley, Andrew R; Dilworth, Jonathan R; Donnelly, Paul S; Pratt, Jennifer

    2004-09-07

    Reaction of [ReBr3(CO)3]2- with aryldiazonium salts gives the Re(iii) diazenide complexes [ReBr2(NNC6H4R-4)(CO)2]-. The attachment of a PhNHCS tethering group to pyridyl hydrazine generates a HYNIC related proligand which gives a stable chelated pyridyliumthiocarbazide(2-) derivative of the [Re(I)(CO)3]+ core.

  4. Encouraging smoking cessation among disadvantaged groups: a qualitative study of the financial aspects of cessation.

    PubMed

    Bonevski, Billie; Bryant, Jamie; Paul, Christine

    2011-07-01

    This study aimed to explore perceptions about financial aspects of smoking cessation among a group of disadvantaged welfare agency clients and their carers. Qualitative focus groups and in-depth interviews were supplemented with participant exit surveys about preferred smoking cessation strategies. Each discussion was audiotaped, transcribed and analysed using a thematic analysis. The setting was six non-government community welfare service organisations operating in New South Wales, Australia. Eleven social services offered by these organisations participated. Thirty two clients participated in six client focus groups, 35 staff participated in six staff focus groups and eight manager telephone interviews were conducted. Clients indicated that the cost of nicotine replacement therapy was a barrier to its use and that financial incentives were acceptable. Of the 16 possible strategies listed in the exit survey, the three selected as the most preferred by clients incorporated financial or non-financial assistance. By contrast, staff and managers selected financial and non-financial incentives as the least preferred and least feasible strategies. The study found high acceptance of incentives as a smoking cessation strategy among a disadvantaged group of non-government welfare service clients. The comparatively low level of desirability and feasibility from the perspective of service staff and managers suggests implementation of such an approach within the community service setting requires careful further testing. © 2010 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.

  5. Acupuncture and related interventions for smoking cessation.

    PubMed

    White, Adrian R; Rampes, Hagen; Liu, Jian Ping; Stead, Lindsay F; Campbell, John

    2014-01-23

    Acupuncture and related techniques are promoted as a treatment for smoking cessation in the belief that they may reduce nicotine withdrawal symptoms. The objectives of this review are to determine the effectiveness of acupuncture and the related interventions of acupressure, laser therapy and electrostimulation in smoking cessation, in comparison with no intervention, sham treatment, or other interventions. We searched the Cochrane Tobacco Addiction Group Specialized Register (which includes trials of smoking cessation interventions identified from the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE, EMBASE, and PsycINFO) and AMED in October 2013. We also searched four Chinese databases in September 2013: Sino-Med, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, Wanfang Data and VIP. Randomized trials comparing a form of acupuncture, acupressure, laser therapy or electrostimulation with either no intervention, sham treatment or another intervention for smoking cessation. We extracted data in duplicate on the type of smokers recruited, the nature of the intervention and control procedures, the outcome measures, method of randomization, and completeness of follow-up.We assessed abstinence from smoking at the earliest time-point (before six weeks) and at the last measurement point between six months and one year. We used the most rigorous definition of abstinence for each trial, and biochemically validated rates if available. Those lost to follow-up were counted as continuing smokers. Where appropriate, we performed meta-analysis pooling risk ratios using a fixed-effect model. We included 38 studies. Based on three studies, acupuncture was not shown to be more effective than a waiting list control for long-term abstinence, with wide confidence intervals and evidence of heterogeneity (n = 393, risk ratio [RR] 1.79, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.98 to 3.28, I² = 57%). Compared with sham acupuncture, the RR for the short-term effect of acupuncture was 1

  6. Study of antibacterial activity of Ag and Ag2CO3 nanoparticles stabilized over montmorillonite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sohrabnezhad, Sh.; Pourahmad, A.; Mehdipour Moghaddam, M. J.; Sadeghi, A.

    2015-02-01

    Silver carbonate and silver nanoparticles (NPs) over of stabilizer montmorillonite (MMT) have been synthesized in aqueous and polyol solvent, respectively. Dispersions of silver nanoparticles have been prepared by the reduction of silver nitrate over of MMT in presence and absence of Na2CO3 compound in ethylene glycol. It was observed that montmorillonite was capable of stabilizing formed Ag nanoparticles through the reduction of Ag+ ions in ethylene glycol. Na2CO3 was used as carbonate source in synthesis of Ag2CO3 NPs in water solvent and also for controlling of Ag nanoparticles size in ethylene glycol medium. The samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and ultraviolet-visible diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS). The TEM images showed that Ag NPs size in presence Na2CO3 salts was smaller than without that. The results indicated intercalation of Ag and Ag2CO3 nanoparticles into the montmorillonite clay layers. The diffuse reflectance spectra exhibited a strong surface plasmon resonance (SPR) adsorption peak in the visible region, resulting from Ag nanoparticles. The antibacterial testing results showed that the Ag2CO3-MMT nanocomposite exhibited an antibacterial activity higher than Ag-MMT sample against Escherichia coli.

  7. Effects of Calcium Source on Biochemical Properties of Microbial CaCO3 Precipitation

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Jing; Du, Yali; Jiang, Zhengwu; She, Anming

    2015-01-01

    The biochemical properties of CaCO3 precipitation induced by Sporosarcina pasteurii, an ureolytic type microorganism, were investigated. Effects of calcium source on the precipitation process were examined, since calcium source plays a key role in microbiologically induced mineralization. Regardless of the calcium source type, three distinct stages in the precipitation process were identified by Ca2+, NH4+, pH and cell density monitoring. Compared with stage 1 and 3, stage 2 was considered as the most critical part since biotic CaCO3 precipitation occurs during this stage. Kinetics studies showed that the microbial CaCO3 precipitation rate for calcium lactate was over twice of that for calcium nitrate, indicating that calcium lactate is more beneficial for the cell activity, which in turn determines urease production and CaCO3 precipitation. X-ray diffraction analysis confirmed the CaCO3 crystal as calcite, although scanning electron microscopy revealed a difference in crystal size and morphology if calcium source was different. The findings of this paper further suggest a promising application of microbiologically induced CaCO3 precipitation in remediation of surface and cracks of porous media, e.g., cement-based composites, particularly by using organic source of calcium lactate. PMID:26696978

  8. Magnetic-field-assisted synthesis of Co3O4 nanoneedles with superior electrochemical capacitance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Tao; Xie, Yan; Zhang, Guoxiong; He, Zhenni; Lu, Yisheng; Guo, Haibo; Lin, Chuan; Chen, Yigang

    2015-12-01

    Nanostructured Co3O4 films have been deposited on nickel foam in a magnetic-field-assisted hydrothermal process followed by annealing in air. The magnetic field strength is varied to study its relationship with nanostructures, morphology, and electrochemical properties of the Co3O4 electrodes. The Co3O4 films synthesized in the weak magnetic fields consist of dispersed nanoneedles, which are different from clustered nanoneedles when the magnetic field is absent. Moreover, the magnetic fields (of several millitesla) induced substantial changes in the nanostructures and electrochemical properties of the Co3O4 films. A possible formation mechanism of Co3O4 nanoneedles is proposed by comparing the morphologies and nanostructures of the films synthesized with and without the magnetic fields. Among these electrodes, the optimal one has a high specific capacitance (970.8 F g-1 at 0.5 A g-1), good power capability (847.5 F g-1 at 6.0 A g-1), and an excellent retention ratio (93.7 % over 1000 cycles). All these impressive results demonstrate that magnetic fields may be an economic and effective tool in hydrothermal synthesis of Co3O4 electrodes for high-performance supercapacitors.

  9. Radioisotope tracer studies of inorganic carbon and Ca in microbially derived CaCO3

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yates, Kimberly K.; Robbins, Lisa L.

    1999-01-01

    Microbial calcification significantly impacts the cycling and deposition of inorganic carbon. This research employs 45Ca and 14C techniques as radioisotopic tracers to examine the role of cellular cycling of Ca2+ and inorganic carbon in CaCO3 precipitation by the unicellular green alga Nannochloris atomus. Implications of the effects of these physiological aspects on CaCO3 precipitation and the effects of microbial calcification on CaCO3 δ13C ratios are discussed. Results from pulse/chase experiments indicate that intracellular Ca2+ is incorporated into extracellular CaCO3. Intracellular inorganic carbon leaks from cells within 10 to 12 s after injection of unlabelled NaHCO3, providing a source of inorganic carbon for extracellular CaCO3. Cellular expulsion of calcium plays a key role in increasing the CaCO3 saturation state at the site of calcification. The δ13C ratios of microbial carbonates may vary depending on the amount of photorespiratory CO2 incorporated.

  10. Effects of Calcium Source on Biochemical Properties of Microbial CaCO3 Precipitation.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jing; Du, Yali; Jiang, Zhengwu; She, Anming

    2015-01-01

    The biochemical properties of CaCO3 precipitation induced by Sporosarcina pasteurii, an ureolytic type microorganism, were investigated. Effects of calcium source on the precipitation process were examined, since calcium source plays a key role in microbiologically induced mineralization. Regardless of the calcium source type, three distinct stages in the precipitation process were identified by Ca(2+), NH4 (+), pH and cell density monitoring. Compared with stage 1 and 3, stage 2 was considered as the most critical part since biotic CaCO3 precipitation occurs during this stage. Kinetics studies showed that the microbial CaCO3 precipitation rate for calcium lactate was over twice of that for calcium nitrate, indicating that calcium lactate is more beneficial for the cell activity, which in turn determines urease production and CaCO3 precipitation. X-ray diffraction analysis confirmed the CaCO3 crystal as calcite, although scanning electron microscopy revealed a difference in crystal size and morphology if calcium source was different. The findings of this paper further suggest a promising application of microbiologically induced CaCO3 precipitation in remediation of surface and cracks of porous media, e.g., cement-based composites, particularly by using organic source of calcium lactate.

  11. Melting relations in the system FeCO3-MgCO3 and thermodynamic modelling of Fe-Mg carbonate melts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Nathan; Schmidt, Max W.; Poli, Stefano; Connolly, James A. D.; Franzolin, Ettore

    2016-09-01

    To constrain the thermodynamics and melting relations of the siderite-magnesite (FeCO3-MgCO3) system, 27 piston cylinder experiments were conducted at 3.5 GPa and 1170-1575 °C. Fe-rich compositions were also investigated with 13 multi-anvil experiments at 10, 13.6 and 20 GPa, 1500-1890 °C. At 3.5 GPa, the solid solution siderite-magnesite coexists with melt over a compositional range of X Mg (=Mg/(Mg + Fetot)) = 0.38-1.0, while at ≥10 GPa solid solution appears to be complete. At 3.5 GPa, the system is pseudo-binary because of the limited stability of siderite or liquid FeCO3, Fe-rich carbonates decomposing at subsolidus conditions to magnetite-magnesioferrite solid solution, graphite and CO2. Similar reactions also occur with liquid FeCO3 resulting in melt species with ferric iron components, but the decomposition of the liquid decreases in importance with pressure. At 3.5 GPa, the metastable melting temperature of pure siderite is located at 1264 °C, whereas pure magnesite melts at 1629 °C. The melting loop is non-ideal on the Fe side where the dissociation reaction resulting in Fe3+ in the melt depresses melting temperatures and causes a minimum. Over the pressure range of 3.5-20 GPa, this minimum is 20-35 °C lower than the (metastable) siderite melting temperature. By merging all present and previous experimental data, standard state (298.15 K, 1 bar) thermodynamic properties of the magnesite melt (MgCO3L) end member are calculated and the properties of (Fe,Mg)CO3 melt fit by a regular solution model with an interaction parameter of -7600 J/mol. The solution model reproduces the asymmetric melting loop and predicts the thermal minimum at 1240 °C near the siderite side at X Mg = 0.2 (3.5 GPa). The solution model is applicable to pressures reaching to the bottom of the upper mantle and allows calculation of phase relations in the FeO-MgO-O2-C system.

  12. iPhone apps for smoking cessation: a content analysis.

    PubMed

    Abroms, Lorien C; Padmanabhan, Nalini; Thaweethai, Lalida; Phillips, Todd

    2011-03-01

    With the proliferation of smartphones such as the iPhone, mobile phones are being used in novel ways to promote smoking cessation. This study set out to examine the content of the 47 iPhone applications (apps) for smoking cessation that were distributed through the online iTunes store, as of June 24, 2009. Each app was independently coded by two reviewers for its (1) approach to smoking cessation and (2) adherence to the U.S. Public Health Service's 2008 Clinical Practice Guidelines for Treating Tobacco Use and Dependence. Each app was also coded for its (3) frequency of downloads. Apps identified for smoking cessation were found to have low levels of adherence to key guidelines in the index. Few, if any, apps recommended or linked the user to proven treatments such as pharmacotherapy, counseling, and/or a quitline. iPhone apps for smoking cessation rarely adhere to established guidelines for smoking cessation. It is recommended that current apps be revised and future apps be developed around evidence-based practices for smoking cessation. Copyright © 2011 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Influence of a threonine residue in the S2 ligand binding domain in determining agonist potency and deactivation rate of recombinant NR1a/NR2D NMDA receptors.

    PubMed

    Chen, Philip E; Johnston, Alexander R; Mok, M H Selina; Schoepfer, Ralf; Wyllie, David J A

    2004-07-01

    NR1/NR2D NMDA receptors display unusually slow deactivation kinetics which may be critical for their role as extrasynaptic receptors. A threonine to alanine point mutation has been inserted at amino acid position 692 of the NR2D subunit (T692A). Recombinant NR1a/NR2D(T692A) NMDA receptors have been expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes and their pharmacological and single-channel properties examined using two-electrode voltage-clamp and patch-clamp recording techniques. Glutamate dose-response curves from NR1a/NR2D(T692A) receptor channels produced an approximately 1600-fold reduction in glutamate potency compared to wild-type NR1a/NR2D receptors. There was no change in Hill slopes or gross reduction in mean maximal currents recorded in oocytes expressing either wild-type or mutant receptors. The mutation did not affect the potency of the co-agonist glycine. The shifts in potency produced by NR2D(T692A) containing receptors when activated by other glutamate-site agonists such as aspartate or NMDA were 30- to 60-fold compared to wild-type. Single-channel conductance levels of NR1a/NR2D(T692A) mutant receptors were indistinguishable from wild-type NR2D-containing channels. Additionally NR1a/NR2D(T692A) receptors showed the transitional asymmetry that is characteristic of NR2D-containing NMDA receptors. Rapid applications of glutamate on outside-out patches containing NR1a/NR2D(T692A) receptors produced macroscopic current deactivations that were about 60-fold faster than wild-type NR1a/NR2D receptors. Our results suggest that this conserved threonine residue plays a crucial role in ligand binding to NMDA NR2 receptor subunits and supports the idea that the slow decay kinetics associated with NR1a/NR2D NMDA receptors can be explained by the slow dissociation of glutamate from this NMDA receptor subtype.

  14. Long term effects of smoking cessation in hospitalized schizophrenia patients.

    PubMed

    Miyauchi, Masatoshi; Kishida, Ikuko; Suda, Akira; Shiraishi, Yohko; Fujibayashi, Mami; Taguri, Masataka; Ishii, Chie; Ishii, Norio; Moritani, Toshio; Hirayasu, Yoshio

    2017-03-07

    The prevalence of smoking in patients with schizophrenia is higher than that in the general population and is an important medical issue. Short-term smoking cessation tends to worsen psychiatric symptoms in patients with schizophrenia but decreases sympathetic nervous system activity and improves plasma cholesterol levels in healthy people. Few studies have assessed the long-term effects of smoking cessation in patients with schizophrenia. Subjects were 70 Japanese patients with schizophrenia (38 smokers, 32 non-smokers). We compared the following clinical parameters between the two groups at baseline (before smoking cessation) and in each group separately between baseline and at three years after smoking cessation: autonomic nervous system activity, plasma cholesterol levels, body weight, drug therapy, and Global Assessment of Functioning scores. We also compared the mean changes in clinical parameters throughout this study between the groups at both time points. Autonomic nervous system activity was assessed by power spectral analysis of heart rate variability. Parasympathetic nervous system activity and the doses of antiparkinsonian drugs in smokers were significantly higher than those in non-smokers at baseline. Smoking cessation was associated with significantly decreased sympathetic nervous system activity and decreased doses of antipsychotics and antiparkinsonian drugs at three years after smoking cessation. However, there was no significant difference in the mean change in clinical factors scores, except for Global Assessment of Functioning scores, between smokers and non-smokers at three years after smoking cessation. Our results suggest that smoking reduces both autonomic nervous system activity and the effectiveness of drug therapy with antipsychotics and antiparkinsonian drugs in patients with schizophrenia, but that both factors could be ameliorated over the long term by smoking cessation. Taken together with the findings of previous studies, smoking

  15. Negative rebound in hippocampal neurogenesis following exercise cessation.

    PubMed

    Nishijima, Takeshi; Kamidozono, Yoshika; Ishiizumi, Atsushi; Amemiya, Seiichiro; Kita, Ichiro

    2017-03-01

    Physical exercise can improve brain function, but the effects of exercise cessation are largely unknown. This study examined the time-course profile of hippocampal neurogenesis following exercise cessation. Male C57BL/6 mice were randomly assigned to either a control (Con) or an exercise cessation (ExC) group. Mice in the ExC group were reared in a cage with a running wheel for 8 wk and subsequently placed in a standard cage to cease the exercise. Exercise resulted in a significant increase in the density of doublecortin (DCX)-positive immature neurons in the dentate gyrus (at week 0). Following exercise cessation, the density of DCX-positive neurons gradually decreased and was significantly lower than that in the Con group at 5 and 8 wk after cessation, indicating that exercise cessation leads to a negative rebound in hippocampal neurogenesis. Immunohistochemistry analysis suggests that the negative rebound in neurogenesis is caused by diminished cell survival, not by suppression of cell proliferation and neural maturation. Neither elevated expression of ΔFosB, a transcription factor involved in neurogenesis regulation, nor increased plasma corticosterone, were involved in the negative neurogenesis rebound. Importantly, exercise cessation suppressed ambulatory activity, and a significant correlation between change in activity and DCX-positive neuron density suggested that the decrease in activity is involved in neurogenesis impairment. Forced treadmill running following exercise cessation failed to prevent the negative neurogenesis rebound. This study indicates that cessation of exercise or a decrease in physical activity is associated with an increased risk for impaired hippocampal function, which might increase vulnerability to stress-induced mood disorders. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  16. Does culture or illness change a smoker's perspective on cessation?

    PubMed

    Poureslami, Iraj M; Shum, Jessica; Cheng, Natalie; FitzGerald, J Mark

    2014-09-01

    To explore cultural context for smoking cessation within Chinese communities in Vancouver, and identify opportunities to support development of culturally appropriate resources for cessation. Applied participatory approach involving community members, patients, and key-informants in the design and implementation of the research. Whereas many participants were motivated to quit, their perceptions of desire to do so were not supported by effective interventions and many attempts to quit were unsuccessful. Tobacco control clinics and care providers need to adopt culturally and linguistically relevant interventions to facilitate behavioral modifications and cessation in ethnic minority communities.

  17. The effects of physical activity as maintenance for smoking cessation.

    PubMed

    Russell, P O; Epstein, L H; Johnston, J J; Block, D R; Blair, E

    1988-01-01

    The effects of physical activity as a maintenance strategy for smoking cessation were evaluated. After a standard smoking cessation program, forty-two women were randomly assigned to one of three groups that received equal number of maintenance meetings: a physical activity program, smoking habit change information and contact control. Abstinence decreased from 83% at the end of treatment to 73% at 3 months, 49% at six months and 34% at 18 months. No differences were shown in cessation across groups. Group differences were shown for subjective levels of tension-anxiety, those who exercised showed increased tension anxiety levels compared to subjects in the no activity groups.

  18. Insight into the Li2CO3-K2CO3 eutectic mixture from classical molecular dynamics: Thermodynamics, structure, and dynamics.

    PubMed

    Corradini, Dario; Coudert, François-Xavier; Vuilleumier, Rodolphe

    2016-03-14

    We use molecular dynamics simulations to study the thermodynamics, structure, and dynamics of the Li2CO3-K2CO3 (62:38 mol. %) eutectic mixture. We present a new classical non-polarizable force field for this molten salt mixture, optimized using experimental and first principles molecular dynamics simulations data as reference. This simple force field allows efficient molecular simulations of phenomena at long time scales. We use this optimized force field to describe the behavior of the eutectic mixture in the 900-1100 K temperature range, at pressures between 0 and 5 GPa. After studying the equation of state in these thermodynamic conditions, we present molecular insight into the structure and dynamics of the melt. In particular, we present an analysis of the temperature and pressure dependence of the eutectic mixture's self-diffusion coefficients, viscosity, and ionic conductivity.

  19. Insight into the Li2CO3-K2CO3 eutectic mixture from classical molecular dynamics: Thermodynamics, structure, and dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corradini, Dario; Coudert, François-Xavier; Vuilleumier, Rodolphe

    2016-03-01

    We use molecular dynamics simulations to study the thermodynamics, structure, and dynamics of the Li2CO3-K2CO3 (62:38 mol. %) eutectic mixture. We present a new classical non-polarizable force field for this molten salt mixture, optimized using experimental and first principles molecular dynamics simulations data as reference. This simple force field allows efficient molecular simulations of phenomena at long time scales. We use this optimized force field to describe the behavior of the eutectic mixture in the 900-1100 K temperature range, at pressures between 0 and 5 GPa. After studying the equation of state in these thermodynamic conditions, we present molecular insight into the structure and dynamics of the melt. In particular, we present an analysis of the temperature and pressure dependence of the eutectic mixture's self-diffusion coefficients, viscosity, and ionic conductivity.

  20. Activity-composition relations in the system CaCO 3-MgCO 3 predicted from static structure energy calculations and Monte Carlo simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vinograd, Victor L.; Burton, Benjamin P.; Gale, Julian D.; Allan, Neil L.; Winkler, Björn

    2007-02-01

    Thermodynamic mixing properties and subsolidus phase relations of the rhombohedral carbonate system, (1 - x) · CaCO 3 - x · MgCO 3, were modelled in the temperature range of 623-2023 K with static structure energy calculations based on well-parameterised empirical interatomic potentials. Relaxed static structure energies of a large set of randomly varied structures in a 4 × 4 × 1 supercell of R3¯c calcite ( a = 19.952 Å, c = 17.061 Å) were calculated with the General Utility Lattice Program (GULP). These energies were cluster expanded in a basis set of 12 pair-wise effective interactions. Temperature-dependent enthalpies of mixing were calculated by the Monte Carlo method. Free energies of mixing were obtained by thermodynamic integration of the Monte Carlo results. The calculated phase diagram is in good agreement with experimental phase boundaries.

  1. Internet-based interventions for smoking cessation.

    PubMed

    Civljak, Marta; Stead, Lindsay F; Hartmann-Boyce, Jamie; Sheikh, Aziz; Car, Josip

    2013-07-10

    The Internet is now an indispensable part of daily life for the majority of people in many parts of the world. It offers an additional means of effecting changes to behaviour such as smoking. To determine the effectiveness of Internet-based interventions for smoking cessation. We searched the Cochrane Tobacco Addiction Group Specialized Register. There were no restrictions placed on language of publication or publication date. The most recent search was conducted in April 2013. We included randomized and quasi-randomized trials. Participants were people who smoked, with no exclusions based on age, gender, ethnicity, language or health status. Any type of Internet intervention was eligible. The comparison condition could be a no-intervention control, a different Internet intervention, or a non-Internet intervention. Two authors independently assessed and extracted data. Methodological and study quality details were extracted using a standardized form. We extracted smoking cessation outcomes of six months follow-up or more, reporting short-term outcomes where longer-term outcomes were not available. We reported study effects as a risk ratio (RR) with a 95% confidence interval (CI). Clinical and statistical heterogeneity limited our ability to pool studies. This updated review includes a total of 28 studies with over 45,000 participants. Some Internet programmes were intensive and included multiple outreach contacts with participants, whilst others relied on participants to initiate and maintain use.Fifteen trials compared an Internet intervention to a non-Internet-based smoking cessation intervention or to a no-intervention control. Ten of these recruited adults, one recruited young adult university students and two recruited adolescents. Seven of the trials in adults had follow-up at six months or longer and compared an Internet intervention to usual care or printed self help. In a post hoc subgroup analysis, pooled results from three trials that compared

  2. Synthesis and microwave-absorbing properties of Co3Fe7@C core-shell nanostructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Xiao Dang; Qiao, Xiao Jing; Ren, Qing Guo; Wan, Xiang; Li, Wang Chang; Sun, Zhi Gang

    2015-07-01

    Co3Fe7@C core-shell nanoparticles with high performance of microwave-absorbing properties were prepared by hydrothermal method and heat treatment. The transformation of structural, morphological and magnetic properties among the carbon-encapsulated composites, which were annealed at three different temperatures, were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM). XRD analysis indicated the phase composition of Co3Fe7/CoFe2O4, Fe3C/Co3Fe7 and pure Co3Fe7 at different annealing temperatures. TEM confirmed the Co3Fe7@graphite core-shell nanostructure with an average particle size of 180 nm. The saturation magnetization ( M s) increased monotonically with the increase in temperature, which was attributed to the crystal growth and purity of metallic core. Co3Fe7@graphite nanoparticles exhibited the hysteretic loops of soft ferromagnetic behavior with high M s of 222.85 emu g-1, weak remanent magnetization ( M r) and coercivity ( H c). For Co3Fe7@graphite nanomaterial, a reflection loss exceeding -20 dB was obtained between 2.8 and 10.2 GHz, which almost covering from S-band to X-band. The maximum reflection loss is -26.8 dB at 9 GHz with 1.8 mm thickness. The excellent microwave absorption properties result from the proper electromagnetic match in core-shell nanostructure and the strong natural ferromagnetic resonance.

  3. BaCO3 mediated modifications in structural and magnetic properties of natural nanoferrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Widanarto, W.; Jandra, M.; Ghoshal, S. K.; Effendi, M.; Cahyanto, W. T.

    2015-04-01

    Preparing M-type barium hexaferrite and improving the magnetic response of natural ferrites by incorporating barium carbonate (BaCO3) is ever-demanding. Series of barium carbonate doped ferrites with composition (100-x)Fe3O4·xBaCO3 (x=0, 10, 20, 30 wt%) are prepared through solid state reaction method and sintered gradually at temperatures of 800 and 1000 °C. Nanoparticles of natural ferrite and commercial BaCO3 are used as raw materials. Impacts of BaCO3 on structural and magnetic properties of these synthesized ferrites are inspected. The obtained ferrites are characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) at room temperature. Uniform barium hexaferrite particles in terms of both morphology and size are not achieved. The average crystallite size of BaFe12O19 is observed to be within 30-600 nm. The sintering process results phase transformation from Fe3O4 (magnetite) to α-Fe2O3 (hematite) and the formation of hexagonal barium ferrite crystals. The occurrence of barium crystal is found to enhance with the increase of BaCO3 concentrations up to 20 wt% and suddenly drop at 30 wt%. Saturation and remanent magnetization of the doped ferrites are significantly augmented up to 16.37 and 8.92 emu g-1, respectively compared to their pure counterpart. Furthermore, the coercivity field is slightly decreased as BaCO3 concentrations are increased. BaCO3 mediated improvements in the magnetic response of natural ferrites are demonstrated.

  4. Uptake of PrEP and condom and sexual risk behavior among MSM during the ANRS IPERGAY trial.

    PubMed

    Sagaon-Teyssier, Luis; Suzan-Monti, Marie; Demoulin, Baptiste; Capitant, Catherine; Lorente, Nicolas; Préau, Marie; Mora, Marion; Rojas Castro, Daniela; Chidiac, Christian; Chas, Julie; Meyer, Laurence; Molina, Jean-Michel; Spire, Bruno

    2016-01-01

    The double-blind phase of the randomized ANRS IPERGAY trial, evaluating sexual activity-based oral HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP), was conducted among high-risk men who have sex with men (MSM). Results showed an 86% (95% CI: 40-98) relative reduction in HIV incidence among participants with tenofovir disoproxil fumarate-emtricitabine vs. placebo. The present pooled analysis aimed to analyze (i) participants' adherence to the prescribed treatment and/or condom use during sexual intercourse and (ii) sexual behavior during the double-blind phase of the study. Four hundred MSM were enrolled in the trial. Every 2 months they completed online questionnaires collecting sexual behavior and PrEP adherence data regarding their most recent sexual intercourse. A total of 2232 questionnaires (M0-M24) were analyzed. Changes over time were evaluated using a mixed model accounting for multiple measures. Irrespective of sexual partner and practice type, on average, 42.6% (min: 32.1-max: 45.8%) reported PrEP use only during their most recent episode of sexual intercourse; 29% (22.9-35.6%) reported both PrEP and condom use; 11.7% (7.2-18.9%) reported condom-use only, and 16.7% (10.8-29.6%) reported no PrEP or condom use with no significant change during the study. Scheduled (i.e., correct) PrEP use was reported on average by 59.0% (47.2-68.5%) of those reporting PrEP use during their most recent sexual intercourse. Overall, 70.3% (65.3-79.4%) and 69.3% (58.3-75.4%) of participants reported, respectively, condomless anal and condomless receptive anal intercourse during their most recent sexual encounter without significant change during follow-up. Overall, on average 83.3% (min: 70.4-max: 89.2%) of participants protected themselves by PrEP intake or condom use or both during the trial, and no increase in at-risk sexual practices was observed. None of these indicators showed significant trend during the follow-up, although we found a tendency toward decrease (p = .19) of the

  5. Factors Associated with Negative Direct Sputum Examination in Asian and African HIV-Infected Patients with Tuberculosis (ANRS 1260)

    PubMed Central

    Chartier, Loïc; Leng, Chanthy; Sire, Jean-Marie; Le Minor, Odile; Saman, Manil; Bercion, Raymond; Rahalison, Lila; Fontanet, Arnaud; Germany, Yves; L'Her, Pierre; Mayaud, Charles; Vray, Muriel

    2011-01-01

    Objective To identify factors associated with negative direct sputum examination among African and Cambodian patients co-infected by Mycobacterium tuberculosis and HIV. Design Prospective multicenter study (ANRS1260) conducted in Cambodia, Senegal and Central African Republic. Methods Univariate and multivariate analyses (logistic regression) were used to identify clinical and radiological features associated with negative direct sputum examination in HIV-infected patients with positive M. tuberculosis culture on Lowenstein-Jensen medium. Results Between September 2002 and December 2005, 175 co-infected patients were hospitalized with at least one respiratory symptom and pulmonary radiographic anomaly. Acid-fast bacillus (AFB) examination was positive in sputum samples from 110 subjects (63%) and negative in 65 patients (37%). Most patients were at an advanced stage of HIV disease (92% at stage III or IV of the WHO classification) with a median CD4 cell count of 36/mm3. In this context, we found that sputum AFB negativity was more frequent in co-infected subjects with associated respiratory tract infections (OR = 2.8 [95%CI:1.1–7.0]), dyspnea (OR = 2.5 [95%CI:1.1–5.6]), and localized interstitial opacities (OR = 3.1 [95%CI:1.3–7.6]), but was less frequent with CD4≤50/mm3 (OR = 0.4 [95%CI:0.2–0.90), adenopathies (OR = 0.4 [95%CI:0.2–0.93]) and cavitation (OR = 0.1 [95%CI:0.03–0.6]). Conclusions One novel finding of this study is the association between concomitant respiratory tract infection and negative sputum AFB, particularly in Cambodia. This finding suggests that repeating AFB testing in AFB-negative patients should be conducted when broad spectrum antibiotic treatment does not lead to complete recovery from respiratory symptoms. In HIV-infected patients with a CD4 cell count below 50/mm3 without an identified cause of pneumonia, systematic AFB direct sputum examination is justified because of atypical clinical features

  6. Factors associated with negative direct sputum examination in Asian and African HIV-infected patients with tuberculosis (ANRS 1260).

    PubMed

    Chartier, Loïc; Leng, Chanthy; Sire, Jean-Marie; Le Minor, Odile; Saman, Manil; Bercion, Raymond; Rahalison, Lila; Fontanet, Arnaud; Germany, Yves; L'her, Pierre; Mayaud, Charles; Vray, Muriel

    2011-01-01

    To identify factors associated with negative direct sputum examination among African and Cambodian patients co-infected by Mycobacterium tuberculosis and HIV. Prospective multicenter study (ANRS1260) conducted in Cambodia, Senegal and Central African Republic. Univariate and multivariate analyses (logistic regression) were used to identify clinical and radiological features associated with negative direct sputum examination in HIV-infected patients with positive M. tuberculosis culture on Lowenstein-Jensen medium. Between September 2002 and December 2005, 175 co-infected patients were hospitalized with at least one respiratory symptom and pulmonary radiographic anomaly. Acid-fast bacillus (AFB) examination was positive in sputum samples from 110 subjects (63%) and negative in 65 patients (37%). Most patients were at an advanced stage of HIV disease (92% at stage III or IV of the WHO classification) with a median CD4 cell count of 36/mm³. In this context, we found that sputum AFB negativity was more frequent in co-infected subjects with associated respiratory tract infections (OR = 2.8 [95%CI:1.1-7.0]), dyspnea (OR = 2.5 [95%CI:1.1-5.6]), and localized interstitial opacities (OR = 3.1 [95%CI:1.3-7.6]), but was less frequent with CD4 ≤ 50/mm³ (OR = 0.4 [95%CI:0.2-0.90), adenopathies (OR = 0.4 [95%CI:0.2-0.93]) and cavitation (OR = 0.1 [95%CI:0.03-0.6]). One novel finding of this study is the association between concomitant respiratory tract infection and negative sputum AFB, particularly in Cambodia. This finding suggests that repeating AFB testing in AFB-negative patients should be conducted when broad spectrum antibiotic treatment does not lead to complete recovery from respiratory symptoms. In HIV-infected patients with a CD4 cell count below 50/mm3 without an identified cause of pneumonia, systematic AFB direct sputum examination is justified because of atypical clinical features (without cavitation) and high pulmonary mycobacterial

  7. Nomogram for individualized prediction of hepatocellular carcinoma occurrence in hepatitis C virus cirrhosis (ANRS CO12 CirVir).

    PubMed

    Ganne-Carrié, Nathalie; Layese, Richard; Bourcier, Valérie; Cagnot, Carole; Marcellin, Patrick; Guyader, Dominique; Pol, Stanislas; Larrey, Dominique; de Lédinghen, Victor; Ouzan, Denis; Zoulim, Fabien; Roulot, Dominique; Tran, Albert; Bronowicki, Jean-Pierre; Zarski, Jean-Pierre; Riachi, Ghassan; Calès, Paul; Péron, Jean-Marie; Alric, Laurent; Bourlière, Marc; Mathurin, Philippe; Blanc, Jean-Frédéric; Abergel, Armand; Serfaty, Lawrence; Mallat, Ariane; Grangé, Jean-Didier; Attali, Pierre; Bacq, Yannick; Wartelle, Claire; Dao, Thông; Benhamou, Yves; Pilette, Christophe; Silvain, Christine; Christidis, Christos; Capron, Dominique; Bernard-Chabert, Brigitte; Zucman, David; Di Martino, Vincent; Trinchet, Jean-Claude; Nahon, Pierre; Roudot-Thoraval, Françoise

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this work was to develop an individualized score for predicting hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in patients with hepatitis C (HCV)-compensated cirrhosis. Among 1,323 patients with HCV cirrhosis enrolled in the French prospective ANRS CO12 CirVir cohort, 720 and 360 were randomly assigned to training and validation sets, respectively. Cox's multivariate model was used to predict HCC, after which a nomogram was computed to assess individualized risk. During follow-up (median, 51.0 months), 103 and 39 patients developed HCC in the training and validation sets, respectively. Five variables were independently associated with occurrence of HCC: age > 50 years (hazard ratio [HR], 1.94; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.16; 3.25; P = 0.012); past excessive alcohol intake (HR, 1.55; 95% CI, 1.02; 2.36; P = 0.041); low platelet count (<100 Giga/mm(3) : HR, 2.70; 95% CI, 1.62; 4.51; P < 0.001; [100; 150] Giga/mm(3) : HR, 1.87; 95% CI, 1.10; 3.18; P = 0.021); gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase above the upper limit of normal (HR, 1.96; 95% CI, 1.11; 3.47; P = 0.021); and absence of a sustained virological response during follow-up (HR, 3.02; 95% CI, 1.67; 5.48; P < 0.001). An 11-point risk score was derived from the training cohort and validated in the validation set. Based on this score, the population was stratified into three groups, in which HCC development gradually increased, from 0% to 30.1% at 5 years for patients with the lowest (≤3) and highest (≥8) scores (P < 0.001). Using this score, a nomogram was built enabling individualized prediction of HCC occurrence at 1, 3, and 5 years. This HCC score can accurately predict HCC at an individual level in French patients with HCV cirrhosis. (Hepatology 2016;64:1136-1147). © 2016 by the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases.

  8. In utero exposure to zidovudine and heart anomalies in the ANRS French perinatal cohort and the nested PRIMEVA randomized trial.

    PubMed

    Sibiude, Jeanne; Le Chenadec, Jérôme; Bonnet, Damien; Tubiana, Roland; Faye, Albert; Dollfus, Catherine; Mandelbrot, Laurent; Delmas, Sandrine; Lelong, Nathalie; Khoshnood, Babak; Warszawski, Josiane; Blanche, Stéphane

    2015-07-15

    Antiretroviral (ARV) regimens during pregnancy are highly effective in preventing mother-to-child transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Congenital heart defects (CHDs) and anomalies in cardiac function have been reported in zidovudine (ZDV)-exposed uninfected children. We explored these associations in a large observational cohort and a randomized clinical trial. Since 1986, the French Perinatal Cohort prospectively enrolled all HIV-infected women in 90 centers and collected follow-up on their children through 2 years of age. All CHDs were reviewed by a specialist blinded to exposures. Additionally, in a randomized trial (PRIMEVA ANRS 135) of 2 ARV regimens during pregnancy, 1 of which was without nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors, infants had a specific follow-up including echocardiography at 1 month and 12 months. Among 12 888 children included, ZDV exposure in the first trimester was significantly associated with CHD (1.5% vs 0.7%; adjusted odds ratio, 2.2 [95% confidence interval, 1.3-3.7]; P < .001). This association was significant for ventricular septal defects (1.1% vs 0.6%; P = .001) and other CHDs (0.31% vs 0.11%; P = .02). In the randomized trial, among 50 infants, girls (but not boys) exposed in utero to ZDV/lamivudine/ritonavir-boosted lopinavir (LPV/r) had a higher left ventricular shortening fraction at 1 month (40% vs 36%; P = .008), and an increased posterior wall thickness at 1 year (5.4 mm vs 4.4 mm; P = .01) than the LPV/r group. This study confirms a specific association between in utero exposure to ZDV and CHDs, and a long-lasting postnatal myocardial remodeling in girls. A potential common mechanism, including the involvement of mitochondrial dysfunction, must be explored, and long-term consequences on cardiac function warrant specific attention. NCT00424814. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e

  9. Early changes in coagulation but not inflammatory biomarkers under intermittent ART: the randomized ANRS 106 WINDOW trial.

    PubMed

    Gallien, Sébastien; Charreau, Isabelle; Fonsart, Julien; Mourah, Samia; Kalidi, Issa; Delobel, Pierre; Marchou, Bruno; Aboulker, Jean-Pierre; Molina, Jean-Michel

    2014-01-01

    In the SMART trial, baseline plasma hsCRP, IL6 and D-dimer levels were strongly correlated to all-cause mortality. A case-control study has shown an increase of IL-6 and D-dimer levels after one month of antiretroviral therapy (ART) interruption, which was correlated to viral load. Restarting ART was associated to a decrease in D-dimer but not IL-6 or hsCRP levels. We assessed biomarkers levels up to 96 weeks in ART-experienced adults with plasma HIV RNA levels <400 c/mL randomized in the ANRS 106 WINDOW trial to intermittent ART (IT: six cycles of eight weeks of ART interruption followed by eight weeks of ART) versus continuous treatment (CT). Stored plasma for 160 participants (80 IT and 80 CT), matched by age, sex and CDC classification, were analyzed blinded for IL-6, sCD-14, hsCRP and D-dimer levels at baseline, week 8 (IT group only), week 16 and week 96. Lower levels of detection for IL-6, sCD14, hsCRP and D-Dimer were 1.5 pg/mL, 250 ng/mL, 0.03 µg/mL and 0.21 µg/mL, respectively. The primary objective was to compare changes in IL-6, hsCRP, sCD14 and D-dimer plasma levels from baseline to week 8, 16 and 96 in the IT and CT arms. Biomarkers levels were log10 transformed prior to analysis. At baseline, patients were mostly men (86%), with a median age of 40 years, a CD4+ T-cell count of 768/mm(3), have received a median of 4.7 years of ART and 85% had HIV RNA <50 c/mL. Proportion of patients with plasma HIV RNA levels<400 c/mL were 6% and 99%, 81% and 97%, 86% and 92% at weeks 8, 16 and 96 in the IT and CT arms, respectively. Plasma biomarkers levels are shown in the Table 1. Coagulation and inflammatory biomarkers levels remained stable over 96 weeks in well-suppressed HIV-infected patient on ART. Following ART interruption there was a significant increase in D-dimer but not in inflammatory biomarkers levels. This increase was reversed upon reintroduction of ART. These data suggest that ART interruption increases coagulation rather than inflammatory

  10. Feasibility of Early Infant Diagnosis of HIV in Resource-Limited Settings: The ANRS 12140-PEDIACAM Study in Cameroon

    PubMed Central

    Tejiokem, Mathurin C.; Faye, Albert; Penda, Ida C.; Guemkam, Georgette; Ateba Ndongo, Francis; Chewa, Gisèle; Rekacewicz, Claire; Rousset, Dominique; Kfutwah, Anfumbom; Boisier, Pascal; Warszawski, Josiane

    2011-01-01

    Background Early infant diagnosis (EID) of HIV is a key-point for the implementation of early HAART, associated with lower mortality in HIV-infected infants. We evaluated the EID process of HIV according to national recommendations, in urban areas of Cameroon. Methods/Findings The ANRS12140-Pediacam study is a multisite cohort in which infants born to HIV-infected mothers were included before the 8th day of life and followed. Collection of samples for HIV DNA/RNA-PCR was planned at 6 weeks together with routine vaccination. The HIV test result was expected to be available at 10 weeks. A positive or indeterminate test result was confirmed by a second test on a different sample. Systematic HAART was offered to HIV-infected infants identified. The EID process was considered complete if infants were tested and HIV results provided to mothers/family before 7 months of age. During 2007–2009, 1587 mother-infant pairs were included in three referral hospitals; most infants (n = 1423, 89.7%) were tested for HIV, at a median age of 1.5 months (IQR, 1.4–1.6). Among them, 51 (3.6%) were HIV-infected. Overall, 1331 (83.9%) completed the process by returning for the result before 7 months (median age: 2.5 months (IQR, 2.4–3.0)). Incomplete process, that is test not performed, or result of test not provided or provided late to the family, was independently associated with late HIV diagnosis during pregnancy (adjusted odds ratio (aOR) = 1.8, 95%CI: 1.1 to 2.9, p = 0.01), absence of PMTCT prophylaxis (aOR = 2.4, 95%CI: 1.4 to 4.3, p = 0.002), and emergency caesarean section (aOR = 2.5, 95%CI: 1.5 to 4.3, p = 0.001). Conclusions In urban areas of Cameroon, HIV-infected women diagnosed sufficiently early during pregnancy opt to benefit from EID whatever their socio-economic, marital or disclosure status. Reduction of non optimal diagnosis process should focus on women with late HIV diagnosis during pregnancy especially if they did not receive any

  11. Uptake of PrEP and condom and sexual risk behavior among MSM during the ANRS IPERGAY trial

    PubMed Central

    Sagaon-Teyssier, Luis; Suzan-Monti, Marie; Demoulin, Baptiste; Capitant, Catherine; Lorente, Nicolas; Préau, Marie; Mora, Marion; Rojas Castro, Daniela; Chidiac, Christian; Chas, Julie; Meyer, Laurence; Molina, Jean-Michel; Spire, Bruno; for the ANRS IPERGAY Study Group

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The double-blind phase of the randomized ANRS IPERGAY trial, evaluating sexual activity-based oral HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP), was conducted among high-risk men who have sex with men (MSM). Results showed an 86% (95% CI: 40–98) relative reduction in HIV incidence among participants with tenofovir disoproxil fumarate–emtricitabine vs. placebo. The present pooled analysis aimed to analyze (i) participants’ adherence to the prescribed treatment and/or condom use during sexual intercourse and (ii) sexual behavior during the double-blind phase of the study. Four hundred MSM were enrolled in the trial. Every 2 months they completed online questionnaires collecting sexual behavior and PrEP adherence data regarding their most recent sexual intercourse. A total of 2232 questionnaires (M0–M24) were analyzed. Changes over time were evaluated using a mixed model accounting for multiple measures. Irrespective of sexual partner and practice type, on average, 42.6% (min: 32.1–max: 45.8%) reported PrEP use only during their most recent episode of sexual intercourse; 29% (22.9–35.6%) reported both PrEP and condom use; 11.7% (7.2–18.9%) reported condom-use only, and 16.7% (10.8–29.6%) reported no PrEP or condom use with no significant change during the study. Scheduled (i.e., correct) PrEP use was reported on average by 59.0% (47.2–68.5%) of those reporting PrEP use during their most recent sexual intercourse. Overall, 70.3% (65.3–79.4%) and 69.3% (58.3–75.4%) of participants reported, respectively, condomless anal and condomless receptive anal intercourse during their most recent sexual encounter without significant change during follow-up. Overall, on average 83.3% (min: 70.4–max: 89.2%) of participants protected themselves by PrEP intake or condom use or both during the trial, and no increase in at-risk sexual practices was observed. None of these indicators showed significant trend during the follow-up, although we found a tendency

  12. How do mineral coatings affect dissolution rates? An experimental study of coupled CaCO 3 dissolution—CdCO 3 precipitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cubillas, Pablo; Köhler, Stephan; Prieto, Manuel; Causserand, Carole; Oelkers, Eric H.

    2005-12-01

    Coupled CaCO 3 dissolution-otavite (CdCO 3) precipitation experiments have been performed to 1) quantify the effect of mineral coatings on dissolution rates, and 2) to explore the possible application of this coupled process to the remediation of polluted waters. All experiments were performed at 25°C in mixed-flow reactors. Various CaCO 3 solids were used in the experiments including calcite, aragonite, and ground clam, mussel, and cockle shells. Precipitation was induced by the presence of Cd(NO 3) 2 in the inlet solution, which combined with aqueous carbonate liberated by CaCO 3 dissolution to supersaturate otavite. The precipitation of an otavite layer of less than 0.01 μm in thickness on calcite surfaces decreases its dissolution rate by close to two orders of magnitude. This decrease in calcite dissolution rates lowers aqueous carbonate concentrations in the reactor such that the mixed-flow reactor experiments attain a steady-state where the reactive fluid is approximately in equilibrium with otavite, arresting its precipitation. In contrast, otavite coatings are far less efficient in lowering aragonite, and ground clam, mussel, and cockle shell dissolution rates, which are comprised primarily of aragonite. A steady-state is only attained after the precipitation of an otavite layer of 3-10 μm thick; the steady state CaCO 3 dissolution rate is 1-2 orders of magnitude lower than that in the absence of otavite coatings. The difference in behavior is interpreted to stem from the relative crystallographic structures of the dissolving and precipitating minerals. As otavite is isostructural with respect to calcite, it precipitates by epitaxial growth directly on the calcite, efficiently slowing dissolution. In contrast, otavite's structure is appreciably different from that of aragonite. Thus, it will precipitate by random three dimensional heterogeneous nucleation, leaving some pore space at the otavite-aragonite interface. This pore space allows aragonite

  13. The hydration dependence of CaCO3 absorption lines in the Far IR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Powell, Johnny; Emery, Logan P

    2014-06-01

    The far infrared (FIR) absorption lines of CaCO3 have been measured at a range of relative humidities (RH) between 33 and 92% RH using a Bruker 66v/S spectrometer. Hydration measurements on CaCO3 have been made in the mid-infrared (MIR) by [Al-Hosney, H.A. and Grassian, V.H., 2005, Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys., 7, 1266], and astrophysically-motivated temperature-dependent FIR measurements of CaCO3 in vacuum have also been reported [Posch, T., et al., 2007, Ap. J., 668, 993]. The custom sample cell constructed for these hydrated-FIR spectra is required because the 66v/S bench is under vacuum (3 mbar) during typical measurements. Briefly, the sample cell consists of two Thalium Bromoiodide (KRS-5) windows, four O-rings, a plastic ring for separating the windows and providing a volume for the saturated atmosphere. CaCO3 was deposited on KRS-5 windows using doubly-distilled water as an intermediary. The KRS-5 window with sample and assembled sample cell were placed in a desiccator with the appropriated saturated salt solution [Washburn, E.W. (Ed.), International Critical Tables of Numerical Data, Physics Chemistry and Technology, Vol. 1, (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1926), p. 67-68] and allowed to hydrate for 23 hours. For spectroscopy the desiccator was quickly opened and the second KRS-5 window placed in the cell to seal the chamber. A spectrum was then taken of the sample at the appropriate RH. The spectra taken characterize the adsorption of water vapor and CaCO3 that might occur in circumstellar environments [Melnick, G.J., et al. 2001, Nature, 412, 160].The MIR and FIR reflectance spectra of calcite (CaCO3) have been thoroughly studied by [Hellwege, K.H., et al., 1970, Z. Physik, 232, 61]. Five Lorentzian curves were fit to our data in the range from 378-222 cm-1/SUP> and each was able to be assigned to a known mode of CaCO3. The data does not support the conclusion of a hydration effect on these modes of CaCO3, but it does suggest a possible broadening of three modes

  14. CaCO 3 dissolution in California continental margin sediments: The influence of organic matter remineralization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jahnke, Richard A.; Craven, Deborah B.; McCorkle, Daniel C.; Reimers, Clare E.

    1997-09-01

    In situ benthic flux chamber and oxygen microelectrode and shipboard porewater results have been used to quantify sea floor dissolution of CaCO 3 on the continental rise adjacent to central California, USA. The porewater distributions and benthic fluxes of O 2, NO 3-, TA, Ca 2+, δ 13C, and TIC are interpreted using a numerical simulation of organic matter remineralization and CaCO 3 dissolution in marine sediments. The processes considered in the simulation include: organic matter oxidation by O 2, NO 3, and SO 42-; CaCO 3 dissolution and precipitation; HS - and NH 4+ oxidation; and sediment mixing and sediment accumulation. Calculated benthic fluxes of O 2, NO 3-, TA, TIC, δ 13C, and Ca 2+; porewater concentrations of O 2, NO 3-, and NH 4+; and sediment distributions of organic carbon, CaCO 3, excess 210Pb, and 14C agree well with the measurements. Benthic fluxes of alkalinity and inferred CaCO 3 dissolution rates cannot be explained on the basis of dissolution driven solely by bottom water undersaturation. If the influence of metabolically-produced CO 2 is included, benthic fluxes are fully reconciled, however. This is in agreement with benthic chamber Ca 2+ and δ 13C results that independently imply substantial CaCO 3 dissolution in these sediments. The above observations are in contrast to those reported by Jahnke et al. (1994) for the west African continental rise and the western equatorial Pacific where 1-G diagenetic models predict dissolution fluxes larger than observed with benthic flux chambers. We conclude that the extent of metabolic CaCO 3 dissolution may vary regionally. Numerous factors, such as the depth of metabolic CO 2 production and CaCO 3 dissolution kinetics, are known or predicted to influence metabolic dissolution. Among the factors that should be considered in reconciling these observations are: (l) the extent to which sulfate reduction and reoxidation reactions may influence acid-base properties in surface sediments and (2) the total

  15. Effects of TiO2 and Co3O4 Nanoparticles on Circulating Angiogenic Cells

    PubMed Central

    Spigoni, Valentina; Cito, Monia; Alinovi, Rossella; Pinelli, Silvana; Passeri, Giovanni; Zavaroni, Ivana; Goldoni, Matteo; Campanini, Marco; Aliatis, Irene; Mutti, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aim Sparse evidence suggests a possible link between exposure to airborne nanoparticles (NPs) and cardiovascular (CV) risk, perhaps through mechanisms involving oxidative stress and inflammation. We assessed the effects of TiO2 and Co3O4 NPs in human circulating angiogenic cells (CACs), which take part in vascular endothelium repair/replacement. Methods CACs were isolated from healthy donors’ buffy coats after culturing lymphomonocytes on fibronectin-coated dishes in endothelial medium for 7 days. CACs were pre-incubated with increasing concentration of TiO2 and Co3O4 (from 1 to 100 μg/ml) to test the effects of NP – characterized by Transmission Electron Microscopy – on CAC viability, apoptosis (caspase 3/7 activation), function (fibronectin adhesion assay), oxidative stress and inflammatory cytokine gene expression. Results Neither oxidative stress nor cell death were associated with exposure to TiO2 NP (except at the highest concentration tested), which, however, induced a higher pro-inflammatory effect compared to Co3O4 NPs (p<0.01). Exposure to Co3O4 NPs significantly reduced cell viability (p<0.01) and increased caspase activity (p<0.01), lipid peroxidation end-products (p<0.05) and pro-inflammatory cytokine gene expression (p<0.05 or lower). Notably, CAC functional activity was impaired after exposure to both TiO2 (p<0.05 or lower) and Co3O4 (p<0.01) NPs. Conclusions In vitro exposure to TiO2 and Co3O4 NPs exerts detrimental effects on CAC viability and function, possibly mediated by accelerated apoptosis, increased oxidant stress (Co3O4 NPs only) and enhancement of inflammatory pathways (both TiO2 and Co3O4 NPs). Such adverse effects may be relevant for a potential role of exposure to TiO2 and Co3O4 NPs in enhancing CV risk in humans. PMID:25803285

  16. The ingredients of a successful snuff cessation program.

    PubMed

    Glass, R T

    1994-01-01

    From the brief outline of the details so necessary for a successful snuff cessation program, it is apparent that snuff addiction is a complex and difficult issue. In the same way that some things in clinical dentistry you prefer to do and some things you prefer to refer, so it may be for your snuff addicts. By virtue of your rapport with your patient, you may be the best to treat the patient's addiction or you may want to refer the patient to an established snuff cessation program (not a cigarette cessation program). Simply telling the snuff addict not to dip is grossly inadequate. Dentists have been very successful in stemming the tide of dental caries and periodontal disease. From the knowledge gained in these prevention programs and the fact that snuff has such an impact in the mouth, the dentist is the natural health care provider to conduct successful snuff cessation programs.

  17. The ingredients of a successful snuff cessation program.

    PubMed

    Glass, R T

    1995-07-01

    From the brief outline of the details so necessary for a successful snuff cessation program, it is apparent that snuff addiction is a complex and difficult issue. In the same way that some things in clinical dentistry you prefer to do and some things you prefer to refer, so it may be for your snuff addicts. By virtue of your rapport with your patient, you may be the best to treat the patient's addiction or you may want to refer the patient to an established snuff cessation program (not a cigarette cessation program). Simply telling the snuff addict not to dip is grossly inadequate. Dentists have been very successful in stemming the tide of dental caries and periodontal disease. From the knowledge gained in these prevention programs and the fact that snuff has such an impact in the mouth, the dentist is the natural health care provider to conduct successful snuff cessation programs.

  18. Oral health risks of tobacco use and effects of cessation.

    PubMed

    Warnakulasuriya, Saman; Dietrich, Thomas; Bornstein, Michael M; Casals Peidró, Elías; Preshaw, Philip M; Walter, Clemens; Wennström, Jan L; Bergström, Jan

    2010-02-01

    The purpose of this paper is to review the epidemiologic evidence for the effects of tobacco use and tobacco use cessation on a variety of oral diseases and conditions. Exposures considered include cigarette and bidi smoking, pipe and cigar smoking, and smokeless tobacco use. Oral diseases and disorders considered include oral cancer and precancer, periodontal disease, caries and tooth loss, gingival recession and other benign mucosal disorders as well as implant failure. Particular attention is given to the impact of tobacco use cessation on oral health outcomes. We conclude that robust epidemiologic evidence exists for adverse oral health effects of tobacco smoking and other types of tobacco use. In addition, there is compelling evidence to support significant benefits of tobacco use cessation with regard to various oral health outcomes. Substantial oral health benefits can be expected from abstention and successful smoking cessation in a variety of populations across all ages.

  19. OLD FIELD SUCCESSIONAL DYNAMICS FOLLOWING CESSATION OF CHRONIC DISTURBANCE

    EPA Science Inventory

    In grasslands dominated by warm-season grasses, community composition and successional patterns can be altered by disturbance and exotic species invasions. Our objective was to describe vegetation dynamics following cessation of a chronic disturbance (heavy grazing by cattle) in...

  20. 43 CFR 3802.4-8 - Cessation of operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) MINING CLAIMS UNDER THE GENERAL MINING LAWS Exploration and Mining, Wilderness Review Program § 3802.4-8 Cessation of operations. The operator...

  1. 30 CFR 817.132 - Cessation of operations: Permanent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... INTERIOR PERMANENT PROGRAM PERFORMANCE STANDARDS PERMANENT PROGRAM PERFORMANCE STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND MINING ACTIVITIES § 817.132 Cessation of operations: Permanent. (a) The person who conducts underground mining... equipment, structures, or other facilities not required for continued underground mining activities...

  2. 30 CFR 817.132 - Cessation of operations: Permanent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... INTERIOR PERMANENT PROGRAM PERFORMANCE STANDARDS PERMANENT PROGRAM PERFORMANCE STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND MINING ACTIVITIES § 817.132 Cessation of operations: Permanent. (a) The person who conducts underground mining... equipment, structures, or other facilities not required for continued underground mining activities...

  3. Smoking cessation: How compelling is the evidence? A review.

    PubMed

    Tønnesen, Philip

    2009-07-01

    To provide a short review of the evidence base supporting smoking cessation interventions, including behavioral therapy and pharmacological treatment options. Published meta-analysis was mainly used supplemented with a limited literature search. Effective smoking cessation consists of pharmacotherapy and behavioral support. Counseling increases abstinence rates parallel to the intensity of support. First-line pharmacological drugs for smoking cessation are nicotine replacement products (patch, gum, inhaler, nasal spray, lozenge/tablets), varenicline and bupropion SR with scientific well-documented efficacy when used for 2-3 months and mostly mild side effects. Alternative therapies such as hypnosis and acupuncture have no scientifically proven effects. With the most optimal drugs and counseling today a 1-year abstinence rate of approximately 25% can be expected in smoking cessation. On-going research is examining the potential effects of nicotine vaccination as relapse prevention.

  4. Racial and ethnic differences in predictors of smoking cessation.

    PubMed

    Daza, Patricia; Cofta-Woerpel, Ludmila; Mazas, Carlos; Fouladi, Rachel T; Cinciripini, Paul M; Gritz, Ellen R; Wetter, David W

    2006-01-01

    Racial/ethnic differences in the determinants of smoking cessation could have important treatment implications. The current study examined racial/ethnic differences in smoking cessation, prospective predictors of cessation, and whether the predictive ability of these factors differed by race/ethnicity. Participants were 709 employed adults recruited through the National Rural Electric Co-op Association or through natural gas pipeline corporations. Data were collected in 1990 and 1994. Although race/ethnicity was not predictive of abstinence, Hispanic, African American, and White smokers displayed differential on tobacco-, alcohol-, and work-related variables. These racial/ethnic differences highlight the specific factors that should be considered when providing smoking cessation treatment to specific populations. Limitations are noted.

  5. OLD FIELD SUCCESSIONAL DYNAMICS FOLLOWING CESSATION OF CHRONIC DISTURBANCE

    EPA Science Inventory

    In grasslands dominated by warm-season grasses, community composition and successional patterns can be altered by disturbance and exotic species invasions. Our objective was to describe vegetation dynamics following cessation of a chronic disturbance (heavy grazing by cattle) in...

  6. Complementary Health Approaches for Smoking Cessation: What the Science Says

    MedlinePlus

    ... Complementary Health Approaches for Smoking Cessation: What the Science Says Share: January 2014 Mindfulness Meditation Mindfulness meditation ... products and practices in the context of rigorous science, training complementary health researchers, and disseminating authoritative information ...

  7. Teaching smoking cessation to future nurses: Quebec educators' beliefs.

    PubMed

    Lepage, Mario; Dumas, Louise; Saint-Pierre, Chantal

    2015-03-01

    Smoking cessation strategies are barely discussed in nursing education programs, even though initial education shapes how future professionals practice their profession. The aim of this research is to describe the practices, attitudes, and beliefs of nursing educators of Quebec with regard to smoking cessation strategies in initial nursing education. A descriptive design was chosen along with an online questionnaire. A total of 278 educators (20.8%) participated in the survey. Although educators recognize the importance of incorporating smoking cessation strategies into their teaching practice, they allocate an average of only one hour per year to the topic. Tobacco use is addressed mostly in terms of risk factors, with little focus on how to help patients quit. The perceived obstacles are related to false beliefs and a lack of knowledge. The results of this study demonstrate the need to raise educators' awareness of the importance of incorporating smoking cessation strategies into classroom teaching.

  8. Activating lay health influencers to promote tobacco cessation.

    PubMed

    Muramoto, Myra L; Hall, John R; Nichter, Mark; Nichter, Mimi; Aickin, Mikel; Connolly, Tim; Matthews, Eva; Campbell, Jean Z; Lando, Harry A

    2014-05-01

    To evaluate the effect of tobacco cessation brief-intervention (BI) training for lay "health influencers," on knowledge, self-efficacy and the proportion of participants reporting BI delivery post-training. Randomized, community-based study comparing In-person or Web-based training, with mailed materials. In-person and Web-training groups had significant post-training cessation knowledge and self-efficacy gains. All groups increased the proportion of individuals reporting BIs at follow-up, with no significant between-group differences. Irrespective of participants' prior intervention experience, 80%-86% reported BIs within the past 90 days; 71%-79% reported >1 in the past 30. Web and In-person training significantly increase health influencer cessation knowledge and self-efficacy. With minimal prompting and materials, even persons without BI experience can be activated to encourage tobacco cessation.

  9. Activating Lay Health Influencers to Promote Tobacco Cessation

    PubMed Central

    Muramoto, Myra L.; Hall, John R.; Nichter, Mark; Nichter, Mimi; Aickin, Mikel; Connolly, Tim; Matthews, Eva; Campbell, Jean Z.; Lando, Harry A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Evaluate the effect of tobacco cessation brief-intervention (BI) training for lay “health influencers,” on knowledge, self-efficacy and the proportion of participants reporting BI delivery post-training. Methods Randomized, community-based study comparing In-person or Web-based training, with mailed materials. Results In-person and Web-training groups had significant post-training cessation knowledge and self-efficacy gains. All groups increased the proportion of individuals reporting BIs at follow-up, with no significant between-group differences. Irrespective of participants’ prior intervention experience, 80–86% reported BIs within the past 90 days; 71–79% reported ≥1 in the past 30. Conclusions Web and In-person training significantly increase health influencer cessation knowledge and self-efficacy. With minimal prompting and materials, even persons without BI experience can be activated to encourage tobacco cessation. PMID:24636035

  10. Evidence-based approach to an inpatient tobacco cessation protocol.

    PubMed

    Ginn, Mary Beth; Cox, Geoff; Heath, Janie

    2008-01-01

    Tobacco use contributes to USD53 to USD73 billion per year in healthcare expenditures and causes nearly 440,000 deaths per year. Given the strong cause-effect relationship between smoking and poor health outcomes, it is critical that smokers are identified early and advised about smoking cessation. Furthermore, the Joint Commission now mandates that tobacco cessation advice be given to patients admitted with heart failure, pneumonia, and acute myocardial infarction. As such, an interdisciplinary group at an urban academic medical center developed and implemented a tobacco cessation protocol with the goal of identifying and targeting inpatient smokers through evidence-based education and counseling. The protocol focused on admission assessment, education, and provision of standing orders for medication treatment for nicotine withdrawal and/or tobacco cessation therapy during the inpatient encounter and referral for outpatient counseling at discharge.

  11. Three-dimensional ordered mesoporous Co3O4 enhanced by Pd for oxygen evolution reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qu, Qing; Zhang, Jian-Hua; Wang, Jing; Li, Qing-Yu; Xu, Chang-Wei; Lu, Xihong

    2017-01-01

    Considerable efforts have been devoted recently to design and fabrication of high performance and low cost electrocatalysts for oxygen evolution reaction (OER). However, catalytic activity of current electrocatalysts is usually restricted by high onset potential and limited active sites. Herein, we fabricated three-dimensional (3D) highly ordered mesoporous Pd-Co3O4 composite materials as excellent electrocatalysts for OER in alkaline solution with high activity and stability. Three-dimensional highly ordered mesoporous Co3O4 material was firstly synthesized using mesoporous silica KIT-6 as hard template. Then, Pd-Co3O4 nanomaterials were prepared by a simple reduction method. The as-prepared 3D mesoporous Pd-Co3O4 catalysts have ordered mesoporous structure with a high surface area of 81.0 m2 g‑1. Three-dimensional highly ordered mesoporous structure can facilitate diffusion and penetration of electrolyte and oxygen. Moreover, the catalysts can also keep catalyst particles in a well dispersed condition with more catalytic active sites. Electrochemical measurements reveal that the 3D mesoporous Pd-Co3O4 catalysts exhibit superior performance in alkaline solution with low onset potential (0.415 V vs. SCE) and excellent long-duration cycling stability.

  12. Co3O4-Carbon Cloth free standing cathode for lithium sulfur battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Jing; Su, Dawei; Wang, Guoxiu

    2017-07-01

    Lithium-sulfur (Li-S) battery has been considered to be one of the most promising next-generation electrochemical energy-storage systems due to its high theoretical energy of 2600 Wh kg-1 with low cost. The insulating nature of both sulfur and the dissolution of polysulfides are the two primary challenges for the application of lithium sulfur batteries. Here, we developed a binder-free cathode by chemisorption of Co3O4 to carbon cloth (CC), which was used as a 3D current collector to accommodate a large amount of sulfur, multiwall carbon nanofiber (MWCNF) and carbon black (CB) hybrids within the conductive scaffold, enabling the fabrication of ultrahigh sulfur loaded electrodes. The interconnected carbon fibers established a long-range conductive matrix for an efficient electron transport, the multiple conductive pathways guarantee high sulfur utilization. More importantly, the high electrolyte absorbability of the Co3O4-CC-S current collector facilitates well-localized polysulfides within the Co3O4-CC-S, meanwhile, the polar Co3O4 could also effectively entrapped the intermediated polysulfides preventing their free diffusion to the lithium anode, guaranteeing good cycling stability. Consequently, the Co3O4-CC-S electrodes exhibit excellent electrochemical performance with sulfur loading of 4.3 mg cm-2.

  13. Synthesis and characterization of nano-sized CaCO3 in purified diet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mulyaningsih, N. N.; Tresnasari, D. R.; Ramahwati, M. R.; Juwono, A. L.; Soejoko, D. S.; Astuti, D. A.

    2017-07-01

    The growth and development of animals depend strongly on the balanced nutrition in the diet. This research aims is to characterize the weight variations of nano-sized calcium carbonate (CaCO3) in purified diet that to be fed to animal model of rat. The nano-sized CaCO3 was prepared by milling the calcium carbonate particles for 20 hours at a rotation speed of 1000 rpm and resulting particle size in a range of 2-50 nm. Nano-sized CaCO3 added to purified diet to the four formulas that were identified as normal diet (N), deficiency calcium (DC), rich in calcium (RC), and poor calcium (PC) with containing in nano-sized CaCO3 much as 0.50 %, 0.00 %, 0.75 % and 0.25 % respectively. The nutritional content of the purified diet was proximate analyzed, it resulted as followed moisture, ash, fat, protein, crude fiber. The quantities of chemical element were analyzed by atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS), it resulted iron, magnesium, potassium and calcium. The results showed that N diet (Ca: 16,914.29 ppm) were suggested for healthy rats and RC diet (Ca: 33,696.13 ppm) for conditioned osteoporosis rats. The crystalline phases of the samples that were examined by X-ray diffraction showed that crystalline phase increased with the increasing concentration of CaCO3.

  14. Biogenic polyamines capture CO2 and accelerate extracellular bacterial CaCO3 formation.

    PubMed

    Yasumoto, Ko; Yasumoto-Hirose, Mina; Yasumoto, Jun; Murata, Ryo; Sato, Shun-Ichi; Baba, Megumi; Mori-Yasumoto, Kanami; Jimbo, Mitsuru; Oshima, Yasukatsu; Kusumi, Takenori; Watabe, Shugo

    2014-08-01

    Bacteria, including cyanobacteria, as well as some fungi, are known to deposit calcium carbonate (CaCO(3)) extracellularly in calcium-containing artificial medium. Despite extensive investigation, the mechanisms involved in extracellular formation of CaCO(3) by bacteria have remained unclear. The ability of synthetic amines to remove carbon dioxide (CO(2)) from natural gas led us to examine the role of biogenic polyamines in CaCO(3) deposition by bacteria. Here, we demonstrated that biogenic polyamines such as putrescine, spermidine, and spermine were able to react with atmospheric CO(2) and the resultant carbamate anion was characterized by using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analysis. Biogenic polyamines accelerated the formation of CaCO(3), and we artificially synthesized the dumbbell-shaped calcites, which had the same form as observed with bacterial CaCO3 precipitates, under nonbacterial conditions by using polyamines. The reaction rate of calcification increased with temperature with an optimum of around 40 °C. Our observation suggests a novel scheme for CO(2) dissipation that could be a potential tool in reducing atmospheric CO(2) levels and, therefore, global warming.

  15. Characterization of Corn Starch Films Reinforced with CaCO3 Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Qingjie; Xi, Tingting; Li, Ying; Xiong, Liu

    2014-01-01

    The characterization of corn starch (CS) films impregnated with CaCO3 nanoparticles was investigated. Criteria such as morphology, crystallinity, water vapor permeability (WVP), opacity, and mechanical properties were the focus of the investigation. It was found that the CaCO3 contents had significant effects on the tensile properties of the nanocomposite films. The addition of CaCO3 nanoparticles to the CS films significantly increased tensile strength from 1.40 to 2.24 MPa, elongation from 79.21 to 118.98%, and Young’s modulus from 1.82 to 2.41 MPa. The incorporation of CaCO3 nanoparticles increased the opacity of films, lowered the degree of WVP and film solubility value compared to those of the CS films. The results of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) showed that with the increase of CaCO3 nanoparticles content in starch films, the roughness of the films increased, and pores or cavities were found on the surface of the films, while small cracks were observed in the structures of the fractured surfaces. X-ray diffraction showed that the addition of nanoparticles increased the peaks in the intensity of films. PMID:25188503

  16. Investigation of miscibility of p(3hydroxybutyrate-co-3hydroxyhexanoate) and epoxidized natural rubber blends

    SciTech Connect

    Akram, Faridah; Chan, Chin Han; Natarajan, Valliyappan David

    2015-08-28

    Poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyhexanoate [P(3HB-co-3HHx)] produced by C. necator PHB{sup −}4 harboring phaC{sub cs} from crude palm kernel oil with 21 mol% of 3-hydroxyhexanoate and epoxidized natural rubber with 25 mol% of epoxy content (ENR-25) were used to study the miscibility of the blends by attenuated total reflection-Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The polymers used were purified and the blends were prepared by solution casting method. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra confirm the purity and molecular structures of P(3HB-co-3HHx) and ENR-25. FTIR spectra for different compositions of P(3HB-co-3HHx) and ENR-25 blends show absorbance change of the absorbance bands but with no significant shifting of the absorbance bands as the P(3HB-co-3HHx) content decreases, which shows that there is no intermolecular interaction between the parent polymer blends. On top of that, there are two T{sub g}s present for the blends and both remain constant for different compositions which corresponds to the T{sub g}s of the parent polymers. This indicates that the blends are immiscible.

  17. Synthesis, characterization and ellipsometric study of ultrasonically sprayed Co3O4 films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gençyılmaz, O.; Taşköprü, T.; Atay, F.; Akyüz, İ.

    2015-10-01

    In the present study, cobalt oxide (Co3O4) films were produced using ultrasonic spray pyrolysis technique onto the glass substrate at different temperatures (200-250-300-350 °C). The effect of substrate temperature on the structural, optical, surface and electrical properties of Co3O4 films was reported. Thickness, refractive index and extinction coefficient of the films were determined by spectroscopic ellipsometry, and X-ray diffraction analyses revealed that Co3O4 films were polycrystalline fcc structure and the substrate temperature significantly improved the crystal structure of Co3O4 films. The films deposited at 350 °C substrate temperature showed the best structural quality. Transmittance, absorbance and reflectance spectra were taken by means of UV-Vis spectrophotometer, and optical band gap values were calculated using optical method. Surface images and roughness values of the films were taken by atomic force microscopy to see the effect of deposition temperature on surface properties. The resistivity of the films slightly decreases with increase in the substrate temperature from 1.08 × 104 to 1.46 × 102 Ω cm. Finally, ultrasonic spray pyrolysis technique allowed production of Co3O4 films, which are alternative metal oxide film for technological applications, at low substrate temperature.

  18. The structural, electronic and dynamic properties of the L12- type Co3Ti alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arikan, Nihat; Özduran, Mustafa

    2014-10-01

    The structural, electronic and dynamic properties of the cubic Co3Ti alloy in L12 structure have been investigated using a pseudopotential plane wave (PP-PW) method within the generalized gradient approximation proposed by Perdew-Burke-Ernzerhof (GGA-PBE). The structural properties, including the lattice constant, the bulk modulus and its pressure derivative agree reasonably with the previous results. The density of state (DOS), projected density of state (PDOS) and electronic band structure are also reported. The DOS shows that Co3Ti alloy has a metallic character since the energy bands cross the Fermi level. The density of states at Fermi level mainly comes from the Co-3d states. Phonon dispersion curves and their corresponding total densities of states were obtained using a linear response in the framework of the density functional perturbation theory. All computed phonon frequencies are no imaginer and thus, Co3Ti alloy is dynamically stable. The zone center phonon modes have been founded to be 9.307, 9.626 and 13.891 THz for Co3Ti.

  19. Investigation of miscibility of p(3hydroxybutyrate-co-3hydroxyhexanoate) and epoxidized natural rubber blends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akram, Faridah; Chan, Chin Han; Natarajan, Valliyappan David

    2015-08-01

    Poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyhexanoate [P(3HB-co-3HHx)] produced by C. necator PHB-4 harboring phaCcs from crude palm kernel oil with 21 mol% of 3-hydroxyhexanoate and epoxidized natural rubber with 25 mol% of epoxy content (ENR-25) were used to study the miscibility of the blends by attenuated total reflection-Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The polymers used were purified and the blends were prepared by solution casting method. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra confirm the purity and molecular structures of P(3HB-co-3HHx) and ENR-25. FTIR spectra for different compositions of P(3HB-co-3HHx) and ENR-25 blends show absorbance change of the absorbance bands but with no significant shifting of the absorbance bands as the P(3HB-co-3HHx) content decreases, which shows that there is no intermolecular interaction between the parent polymer blends. On top of that, there are two Tgs present for the blends and both remain constant for different compositions which corresponds to the Tgs of the parent polymers. This indicates that the blends are immiscible.

  20. Mechanical and Morphological Study of Synthesized PMMA/CaCO3 Nano composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alam Md., Azad; Arif, Sajjad; Ansari, Akhter H.

    2017-08-01

    In this study, Nano-composites have been synthesized in which PMMA is the matrix material and calcium carbonate nanoparticles as the filler by In-situ polymerization reaction. Nano-CaCO3 added during polymerization and the quantity of nano-CaCO3 varied as 0.2, 0.4 and 0.6 wt. % of monomer quantity. The Nano-composites were prepared at three distinct stirring speeds 600, 800, 1000 rpm in order to observe the property with respect to stirring speeds. XRD gram depicts that the presence of nano-CaCO3 has given crystalline nature to Nano-composites. The effects of different concentrations of nano-CaCO3 loading on PMMA morphology were studied by using scanning electron microscope (SEM). The mechanical property is increasing with the stirring speed and concentration. Relative to neat PMMA a 62% increase in impact strength were observed in PMMA based Nano-composites using 0.6 wt.% nano-CaCO3.

  1. Facile synthesis of nanocage Co3O4 for advanced lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ying; Wang, Baofeng; Xiao, Feng; Huang, Zhenguo; Wang, Yijing; Richardson, Christopher; Chen, Zhixin; Jiao, Lifang; Yuan, Huatang

    2015-12-01

    A facile two-step annealing process is applied to synthesize nanocage Co3O4, using cobalt-based metal-organic framework as precursor and template. The as-obtained nanocages are composed of numerous Co3O4 nanoparticles. N2 adsorption-desorption isotherms show that the as-obtained Co3O4 has a porous structure with a favorable surface area of 110.6 m2 g-1. Electrochemical tests show that nanocage Co3O4 is a potential candidate as anode for lithium-ion batteries. A reversible specific capacity of 810 mAh g-1 was obtained after 100 cycles at a high specific current of 500 mA g-1. The material also displays good rate capability, with a reversible capacity of 1069, 1063, 850, and 720 mAh g-1 at specific current of 100, 200, 800, and 1000 mA g-1, respectively. The good electrochemical performance of nanocage Co3O4 can be attributed to its unique hierarchical hollow structure, which is maintained during electrochemical cycling.

  2. Ultrathin Co3O4 Layers Realizing Optimized CO2 Electroreduction to Formate.

    PubMed

    Gao, Shan; Jiao, Xingchen; Sun, Zhongti; Zhang, Wenhua; Sun, Yongfu; Wang, Chengming; Hu, Qitao; Zu, Xiaolong; Yang, Fan; Yang, Shuyang; Liang, Liang; Wu, Ju; Xie, Yi

    2016-01-11

    Electroreduction of CO2 into hydrocarbons could contribute to alleviating energy crisis and global warming. However, conventional electrocatalysts usually suffer from low energetic efficiency and poor durability. Herein, atomic layers for transition-metal oxides are proposed to address these problems through offering an ultralarge fraction of active sites, high electronic conductivity, and superior structural stability. As a prototype, 1.72 and 3.51 nm thick Co3O4 layers were synthesized through a fast-heating strategy. The atomic thickness endowed Co3O4 with abundant active sites, ensuring a large CO2 adsorption amount. The increased and more dispersed charge density near Fermi level allowed for enhanced electronic conductivity. The 1.72 nm thick Co3O4 layers showed over 1.5 and 20 times higher electrocatalytic activity than 3.51 nm thick Co3O4 layers and bulk counterpart, respectively. Also, 1.72 nm thick Co3O4 layers showed formate Faradaic efficiency of over 60% in 20 h.

  3. Three-dimensional ordered mesoporous Co3O4 enhanced by Pd for oxygen evolution reaction

    PubMed Central

    Qu, Qing; Zhang, Jian-Hua; Wang, Jing; Li, Qing-Yu; Xu, Chang-Wei; Lu, Xihong

    2017-01-01

    Considerable efforts have been devoted recently to design and fabrication of high performance and low cost electrocatalysts for oxygen evolution reaction (OER). However, catalytic activity of current electrocatalysts is usually restricted by high onset potential and limited active sites. Herein, we fabricated three-dimensional (3D) highly ordered mesoporous Pd-Co3O4 composite materials as excellent electrocatalysts for OER in alkaline solution with high activity and stability. Three-dimensional highly ordered mesoporous Co3O4 material was firstly synthesized using mesoporous silica KIT-6 as hard template. Then, Pd-Co3O4 nanomaterials were prepared by a simple reduction method. The as-prepared 3D mesoporous Pd-Co3O4 catalysts have ordered mesoporous structure with a high surface area of 81.0 m2 g−1. Three-dimensional highly ordered mesoporous structure can facilitate diffusion and penetration of electrolyte and oxygen. Moreover, the catalysts can also keep catalyst particles in a well dispersed condition with more catalytic active sites. Electrochemical measurements reveal that the 3D mesoporous Pd-Co3O4 catalysts exhibit superior performance in alkaline solution with low onset potential (0.415 V vs. SCE) and excellent long-duration cycling stability. PMID:28134348

  4. Tuneable ultra high specific surface area Mg/Al-CO3 layered double hydroxides.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chunping; Wangriya, Aunchana; Buffet, Jean-Charles; O'Hare, Dermot

    2015-10-07

    We report the synthesis of tuneable ultra high specific surface area Aqueous Miscible Organic solvent-Layered Double Hydroxides (AMO-LDHs). We have investigated the effects of different solvent dispersion volumes, dispersion times and the number of re-dispersion cycles specific surface area of AMO-LDHs. In particular, the effects of acetone dispersion on two different morphology AMO-LDHs (Mg3Al-CO3 AMO-LDH flowers and Mg3Al-CO3 AMO-LDH plates) was investigated. It was found that the amount of acetone used in the dispersion step process can significantly affect the specific surface area of Mg3Al-CO3 AMO-LDH flowers while the dispersion time in acetone is critical factor to obtain high specific surface area Mg3Al-CO3 AMO-LDH plates. Optimisation of the acetone washing steps enables Mg3Al-CO3 AMO-LDH to have high specific surface area up to 365 m(2) g(-1) for LDH flowers and 263 m(2) g(-1) for LDH plates. In addition, spray drying was found to be an effective and practical drying method to increase the specific surface area by a factor of 1.75. Our findings now form the basis of an effective general strategy to obtain ultrahigh specific surface area LDHs.

  5. Smoking cessation programmes using traditional medicine in Korea.

    PubMed

    Jang, Soobin; Park, Yu Lee; Lee, Ju Ah; Kim, Kyeong Han; Lee, Eun-Kyoung; Sun, Seung-Ho; Shin, Yong-Cheol; Ko, Seong-Gyu; Park, Sunju

    2016-12-01

    There are growing interests in using various methods including traditional and complementary medicines (T&CM) for tobacco control. The study aimed to introduce how traditional Korean medicine (TKM) applied to smoking cessation programmes in Korea and to show the detail information of each programme for designing other smoke cessation programmes. Reports of the smoke cessation programmes in Korea were searched on March 10th, 2016, from the webpages of the related agencies and the databases: the Ministry of Health and Welfare, the Korea Health Foundation, the Association of Korean Medicine, PubMed, Google scholar, the RISS, the KISS, the NDSL, and the OASIS. Smoking cessation programmes, projects, or services using traditional Korean medicine (TKM) were included with no language, implementation site, and year restrictions. The three smoking cessation programmes using TKM in South Korea were the public health centre smoking cessation programme (PHC-SCP), the Ministry of Gender Equality & Family smoking cessation programme (MOGEF-SCP), and the National Health Insurance Service smoking cessation treatment project (NHIS-SCP). All programmes included ear acupuncture and counselling. Manual acupuncture was only used in the NHIS-SCP. The MOGEF-SCP and the NHIS-SCP used herbal medicines selectively. The PHC-SCP and MOGEF-SCP provided education programme and other tools such as non-smoking doll, self-writing handbook. They were run at no cost for participants. Treatment period were different for each programmes, 3 weeks, 4 weeks, 8 to 12 weeks, respectively. Treatment frequency was twice a week for PHC-SCP and MOGEF-SCP, and dependent on each clinic for NHIS-SCP. This study showed the summaries of the smoking cessation programme that used TKM. The three programmes and the detail information will be a reference for other countries that are going to apply T&CM to their smoking cessation programme. Though TKM integrated smoking cessation programmes had been contributed to

  6. Use of Smoking Cessation Interventions by Physicians in Argentina

    PubMed Central

    Schoj, Veronica; Mejia, Raul; Alderete, Mariela; Kaplan, Celia P.; Peña, Lorena; Gregorich, Steven E.; Alderete, Ethel; Pérez-Stable, Eliseo J.

    2015-01-01

    Background Physician-implemented interventions for smoking cessation are effective but infrequently used. We evaluated smoking cessation practices among physicians in Argentina. Methods A self-administered survey of physicians from six clinical systems asked about smoking cessation counselling practices, barriers to tobacco use counselling and perceived quality of training received in smoking cessation practices. Results Of 254 physicians, 52.3% were women, 11.8% were current smokers and 52% never smoked. Perceived quality of training in tobacco cessation counselling was rated as very good or good by 41.8% and as poor/very poor by 58.2%. Most physicians (90%) reported asking and recording smoking status, 89% advised patients to quit smoking but only 37% asked them to set a quit date and 44% prescribed medications. Multivariate analyses showed that Physicians’ perceived quality of their training in smoking cessation methods was associated with greater use of evidence-based cessation interventions. (OR = 6.5; 95% CI = 2.2–19.1); motivating patients to quit (OR: 7.9 CI 3.44–18.5), assisting patients to quit (OR = 9.9; 95% CI = 4.0–24.2) prescribing medications (OR = 9.6; 95% CI = 3.5–26.7), and setting up follow-up (OR = 13.0; 95% CI = 4.4–38.5). Conclusions Perceived quality of training in smoking cessation was associated with using evidence-based interventions and among physicians from Argentina. Medical training programs should enhance the quality of this curriculum. PMID:27594922

  7. Initial uptake of the Ontario Pharmacy Smoking Cessation Program

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Lindsay; Burden, Andrea M.; Liu, Yan Yun; Tadrous, Mina; Pojskic, Nedzad; Dolovich, Lisa; Calzavara, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Background: Smoking is a significant public health concern. The Ontario Pharmacy Smoking Cessation Program was launched in September 2011 to leverage community pharmacists and expand access to smoking cessation services for public drug plan beneficiaries. Methods: We examined health care utilization data in Ontario to describe public drug plan beneficiaries receiving, and pharmacies providing, smoking cessation services between September 2011 and September 2013. Patient characteristics were summarized, stratified by drug plan group: seniors (age ≥65 years) or social assistance. Trends over time were examined by plotting the number of services, unique patients and unique pharmacies by month. We then examined use of follow-up services and prescription smoking cessation medications. Results: We identified 7767 residents receiving pharmacy smoking cessation services: 28% seniors (mean age = 69.9, SD = 4.8; 53% male) and 72% social assistance (mean age = 44.4 years, SD = 11.8; 48% male). Cumulative patient enrollment increased over time with an average of 311 (SD = 61) new patients per month, and one-third (n = 1253) of pharmacies participated by the end of September 2013. Regions with the highest number of patients were Erie St. Clair (n = 1328) and Hamilton Niagara Haldimand Brant (n = 1312). Sixteen percent of all patients received another pharmacy service (e.g., MedsCheck) on the same day as smoking cessation program enrollment. Among patients with follow-up data, 56% received follow-up smoking cessation services (60% seniors, 55% social assistance) and 74% received a prescription smoking cessation medication. One-year quit status was reported for 12%, with a 29% success rate. Conclusions: Program enrollment has increased steadily since its launch, yet only a third of pharmacies participated and 56% of patients received follow-up services. PMID:26759563

  8. Internet-based interventions for smoking cessation.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Gemma M J; Dalili, Michael N; Semwal, Monika; Civljak, Marta; Sheikh, Aziz; Car, Josip

    2017-09-04

    Tobacco use is estimated to kill 7 million people a year. Nicotine is highly addictive, but surveys indicate that almost 70% of US and UK smokers would like to stop smoking. Although many smokers attempt to give up on their own, advice from a health professional increases the chances of quitting. As of 2016 there were 3.5 billion Internet users worldwide, making the Internet a potential platform to help people quit smoking. To determine the effectiveness of Internet-based interventions for smoking cessation, whether intervention effectiveness is altered by tailoring or interactive features, and if there is a difference in effectiveness between adolescents, young adults, and adults. We searched the Cochrane Tobacco Addiction Group Specialised Register, which included searches of MEDLINE, Embase and PsycINFO (through OVID). There were no restrictions placed on language, publication status or publication date. The most recent search was conducted in August 2016. We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs). Participants were people who smoked, with no exclusions based on age, gender, ethnicity, language or health status. Any type of Internet intervention was eligible. The comparison condition could be a no-intervention control, a different Internet intervention, or a non-Internet intervention. To be included, studies must have measured smoking cessation at four weeks or longer. Two review authors independently assessed and extracted data. We extracted and, where appropriate, pooled smoking cessation outcomes of six-month follow-up or more, reporting short-term outcomes narratively where longer-term outcomes were not available. We reported study effects as a risk ratio (RR) with a 95% confidence interval (CI).We grouped studies according to whether they (1) compared an Internet intervention with a non-active control arm (e.g. printed self-help guides), (2) compared an Internet intervention with an active control arm (e.g. face-to-face counselling), (3) evaluated the

  9. Association between Positivity and Smoking Cessation

    PubMed Central

    Alessandri, Guido; Milioni, Michela; Enea, Domenico; Ceccanti, Mauro; Nencini, Paolo; Caprara, Gian Vittorio

    2014-01-01

    The literature documents that personality characteristics are associated with healthy lifestyles, including smoking. Among positive traits, Positivity (POS), defined as a general disposition conducive to facing experience under a positive outlook has shown robust associations with psychological health. Thus, the present study investigated the extent to which POS is able to predict (i) relapse after quitting smoking and (ii) the desire to smoke again. All participants (481) had previously attended a Group Counselling Program (GCP) for Smoking Cessation (from 2005 through 2010). They were contacted through telephone interview. Among participants, 244 were ex-smokers (age: years 56.3 ± 10.08, 52% female) and 237 were still-smokers (age: years 55.0 ± 9.63; 63.5% female). The association of POS with “craving to smoke” levels was assessed with multivariate linear regression analysis while controlling also for important differences in personality such as conscientiousness and general self-efficacy, as well as for gender and age. Results showed that POS was significantly and negatively associated with smoking status and with craving to smoke. Among covariates (i.e., conscientiousness, generalized self-efficacy), gender was associated with smoking status and with craving to smoke. Altogether these findings corroborate the idea that POS plays a significant role in sustaining individuals' efforts to quit smoking. PMID:24967403

  10. Synthesis of 99mTc(CO)3-deoxyuridine derivatives as potential HSV1-tk gene expression imaging agents.

    PubMed

    Young Kim, Jung; Jun Oh, Seung; Sook Ryu, Jin; Choi, Seon-Joo; Ha, Hyun-Joon; Hyuk Moon, Dae

    2008-04-01

    In this study, we synthesized (99m)Tc(CO)(3)-2'-aminomethylpyridyl-2'-deoxyuridine ((99m)Tc(CO)(3)-AMPDU) and (99m)Tc(CO)(3)-aminoethylpyridyl-2'-deoxyuridine ((99m)Tc(CO)(3)-AEPDU) as potential agents for imaging the expression of the non-invasive herpes simplex virus type-1 thymidine kinase. AMPDU and AEPDU were synthesized from uridine in five chemical steps and then labeled with [(99m)Tc(CO)(3)(H(2)O)(3)](+) (370MBq/0.5 mL) at 100 degrees C for 10 min. Under optimal conditions (0.5 and 1.0mg for AMPDU and AEPDU and heating for 10 min), the labeling efficiency was 95.3+/-2.8% for AMPDU and 94.2+/-5.1% for AEPDU. To validate the chemical structure of (99m)Tc(CO)(3)-labeled compounds, we also synthesized ReBr(CO)(3)-AMPDU and ReBr(CO)(3)-AEPDU by reacting [Et(4)N][ReBr(3)(CO)(3)] and AMPDU or AEPDU in methanol at 25 degrees C for 6h. (99m)Tc(CO)(3)-AMPDU and (99m)Tc(CO)(3)-AEPDU had the same retention time on HPLC analysis as ReBr(CO)(3)-AMPDU and ReBr(CO)(3)-AEPDU. (99m)Tc(CO)(3)-AMPDU and (99m)Tc(CO)(3)-AEPDU had high radiochemical stabilities of 98.1+/-1.5% and 98.0+/-1.7% for 6h, respectively.

  11. Accuracy of self-reported smoking cessation during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Tong, Van T; Althabe, Fernando; Alemán, Alicia; Johnson, Carolyn C; Dietz, Patricia M; Berrueta, Mabel; Morello, Paola; Colomar, Mercedes; Buekens, Pierre; Sosnoff, Connie S; Farr, Sherry L; Mazzoni, Agustina; Ciganda, Alvaro; Becú, Ana; Bittar Gonzalez, Maria G; Llambi, Laura; Gibbons, Luz; Smith, Ruben A; Belizán, José M

    2015-01-01

    Evidence of bias of self-reported smoking cessation during pregnancy is reported in high-income countries but not elsewhere. We sought to evaluate self-reported smoking cessation during pregnancy using biochemical verification and to compare characteristics of women with and without biochemically confirmed cessation in Argentina and Uruguay. In a cross-sectional study from October 2011 to May 2012, women who attended one of 21 prenatal clinics and delivered at selected hospitals in Buenos Aires, Argentina and Montevideo, Uruguay, were surveyed about their smoking cessation during pregnancy. We tested saliva collected from women <12 h after delivery for cotinine to evaluate self-reported smoking cessation during pregnancy. Overall, 10.0% (44/441) of women who self-reported smoking cessation during pregnancy had biochemical evidence of continued smoking. Women who reported quitting later in pregnancy had a higher percentage of nondisclosure (17.2%) than women who reported quitting when learning of their pregnancy (6.4%).

  12. Accuracy of self-reported smoking cessation during pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    TONG, VAN T.; ALTHABE, FERNANDO; ALEMÁN, ALICIA; JOHNSON, CAROLYN C.; DIETZ, PATRICIA M.; BERRUETA, MABEL; MORELLO, PAOLA; COLOMAR, MERCEDES; BUEKENS, PIERRE; SOSNOFF, CONNIE S.; FARR, SHERRY L.; MAZZONI, AGUSTINA; CIGANDA, ALVARO; BECÚ, ANA; GONZALEZ, MARIA G. BITTAR; LLAMBI, LAURA; GIBBONS, LUZ; SMITH, RUBEN A.; BELIZÁN, JOSÉ M.

    2015-01-01

    Evidence of bias of self-reported smoking cessation during pregnancy is reported in high-income countries but not elsewhere. We sought to evaluate self-reported smoking cessation during pregnancy using biochemical verification and to compare characteristics of women with and without biochemically confirmed cessation in Argentina and Uruguay. In a cross-sectional study from October 2011 to May 2012, women who attended one of 21 prenatal clinics and delivered at selected hospitals in Buenos Aires, Argentina and Montevideo, Uruguay, were surveyed about their smoking cessation during pregnancy. We tested saliva collected from women <12 h after delivery for cotinine to evaluate self-reported smoking cessation during pregnancy. Overall, 10.0% (44/441) of women who self-reported smoking cessation during pregnancy had biochemical evidence of continued smoking. Women who reported quitting later in pregnancy had a higher percentage of nondisclosure (17.2%) than women who reported quitting when learning of their pregnancy (6.4%). PMID:25350478

  13. Vape, quit, tweet? Electronic cigarettes and smoking cessation on Twitter.

    PubMed

    van der Tempel, Jan; Noormohamed, Aliya; Schwartz, Robert; Norman, Cameron; Malas, Muhannad; Zawertailo, Laurie

    2016-03-01

    Individuals seeking information about electronic cigarettes are increasingly turning to social media networks like Twitter. We surveyed dominant Twitter communications about e-cigarettes and smoking cessation, examining message sources, themes, and attitudes. Tweets from 2014 were searched for mentions of e-cigarettes and smoking cessation. A purposive sample was subjected to mixed-methods analysis. Twitter communication about e-cigarettes increased fivefold since 2012. In a sample of 300 tweets from high-authority users, attitudes about e-cigarettes as smoking cessation aids were favorable across user types (industry, press, public figures, fake accounts, and personal users), except for public health professionals, who lacked consensus and contributed negligibly to the conversation. The most prevalent message themes were marketing, news, and first-person experiences with e-cigarettes as smoking cessation aids. We identified several industry strategies to reach Twitter users. Our findings show that Twitter users are overwhelmingly exposed to messages that favor e-cigarettes as smoking cessation aids, even when disregarding commercial activity. This underlines the need for effective public health engagement with social media to provide reliable information about e-cigarettes and smoking cessation online.

  14. Predictors of adolescent smoking cessation and smoking reduction.

    PubMed

    Haug, Severin; Schaub, Michael P; Schmid, Holger

    2014-06-01

    To investigate the processes of change, demographic, health- and smoking-related predictors of both smoking cessation and smoking reduction in adolescents. Data were drawn from a sample of 755 adolescent smokers who participated in a study testing the efficacy of a text messaging-based intervention for smoking cessation. Demographic, health- and smoking-related variables were assessed at baseline. Five processes of smoking cessation, derived from the Transtheoretical Model and the Social Cognitive Theory, as well as outcome measures were assessed at 6-month follow up. Univariate and multivariate regression analyses were conducted to identify baseline and process variables to predict smoking abstinence and smoking reduction. Male gender (OR=0.43, p<.01), lower alcohol consumption (OR=0.90, p=.05) and a lower number of cigarettes smoked per day at baseline (OR=0.87, p<.01) predicted smoking abstinence. Baseline physical activity predicted smoking reduction (OR=1.04, p=.03). None of the examined process variables significantly predicted smoking abstinence. The process variable "counter-conditioning" predicted smoking reduction (OR=1.46, p=.03). Baseline predictors of smoking cessation differ from predictors of smoking reduction. Dynamic or modifiable variables play an important role in predicting adolescent smoking cessation. Counter-conditioning might be an important element in adolescent smoking cessation interventions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. The use of bupropion SR in cigarette smoking cessation

    PubMed Central

    Wilkes, Scott

    2008-01-01

    Cigarette smoking remains the largest preventable cause of premature death in developed countries. Until recently nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) has been the only recognised form of treatment for smoking cessation. Bupropion, the first non-nicotine based drug for smoking cessation was licensed in the United States of America (US) in 1997 and in the United Kingdom (UK) in 2000 for smoking cessation in people aged 18 years and over. Bupropion exerts its effect primarily through the inhibition of dopamine reuptake into neuronal synaptic vesicles. It is also a weak noradrenalin reuptake inhibitor and has no effect on the serotonin system. Bupropion has proven efficacy for smoking cessation in a number of clinical trials, helping approximately one in five smokers to stop smoking. Up to a half of patients taking bupropion experience side effects, mainly insomnia and a dry mouth, which are closely linked to the nicotine withdrawal syndrome. Bupropion is rarely associated with seizures however care must be taken when co-prescribing with drugs that can lower seizure threshold. Also, bupropion is a potent enzyme inhibitor and can raise plasma levels of some drugs including antidepressants, antiarrhythmics and antipsychotics. Bupropion has been shown to be a safe and cost effective smoking cessation agent. Despite this, NRT remains the dominant pharmacotherapy to aid smoking cessation. PMID:18488428

  16. Ear Acupressure for Smoking Cessation: A Randomised Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Anthony L.; Di, Yuan Ming; Worsnop, Christopher; May, Brian H.; Da Costa, Cliff; Xue, Charlie C. L.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the efficacy and safety of ear acupressure (EAP) as a stand-alone intervention for smoking cessation and the feasibility of this study design. Adult smokers were randomised to receive EAP specific for smoking cessation (SSEAP) or a nonspecific EAP (NSEAP) intervention which is not typically used for smoking cessation. Participants received 8 weekly treatments and were requested to press the five pellets taped to one ear at least three times daily. Participants were followed up for three months. Primary outcome measures were a 7-day point-prevalence cessation rate confirmed by exhaled carbon monoxide and relief of nicotine withdrawal symptoms (NWS). Intention-to-treat analysis was applied. Forty-three adult smokers were randomly assigned to SSEAP (n = 20) or NSEAP (n = 23) groups. The dropout rate was high with 19 participants completing the treatments and 12 remaining at followup. One participant from the SSEAP group had confirmed cessation at week 8 and end of followup (5%), but there was no difference between groups for confirmed cessation or NWS. Adverse events were few and minor. PMID:24191168

  17. The internet and the industrial revolution in smoking cessation counselling.

    PubMed

    Etter, Jean-François

    2006-01-01

    The internet can provide wide access to online smoking cessation programmes developed by highly qualified professionals. Compared with one-to-one counselling in smoking cessation clinics or on telephone quitlines, the mass-level dissemination of automatised, individualised counselling on the internet is comparable to the industrial revolution, when skilled craftsmen working in small shops were replaced by huge plants. Hundreds of websites provide information and advice on smoking cessation, but very few of them have been evaluated scientifically. Therefore, it is not yet known whether web-based smoking cessation interventions are effective in the long term, and which of their components are most effective for subgroups of smokers. Claims for efficacy found on some popular websites have not been evaluated. The internet is being used increasingly by tobacco companies to promote their products. The overall effect of internet smoking cessation programs on smoking prevalence is unknown. Greater efforts should be expended to improve the reach and efficacy of smoking cessation websites.

  18. The role of Pakistani dentists in tobacco cessation.

    PubMed

    Mumtaz, Rubina; Khan, Ayyaz Ali; Moeen, Faisal; Noor, Nouman; Humayun, Sadaf

    2008-12-01

    To assess Pakistani dentists' ability, willingness and perceived barriers to carry out tobacco cessation activities for their patients in the dental office. The study is limited to the smoking form of tobacco use. Using a structured questionnaire for a cross sectional study, 239 full time or part time practising licensed dentists based in Islamabad and Rawalpindi were recruited by two sampling techniques; convenience and cluster sampling. Participation rate was 66.2%. Based on the characteristics, the study population is assumed representative of the average Pakistani dentist. Prevalence of smoking amongst dentists was 20.3%. Only one-third rated their knowledge and ability regarding tobacco cessation messages as good/excellent. The majority of the dentists considered tobacco cessation activity as peripheral to their profession. The main barrier to performing tobacco cessation interventions was cited as gender. Dentists exhibit a superficial approach to delivery of smoking cessation care. It is recommended that dentists be trained in delivering effective tobacco dependence intervention, using the WHO/FDI advocacy guide for oral health professionals, modified to incorporate gender oriented culturally sensitive doctor-patient interaction. Tobacco cessation clinics should also be set up in private and public sectors to augment the dentists' participation.

  19. Methodological considerations for designing a community water fluoridation cessation study.

    PubMed

    Singhal, Sonica; Farmer, Julie; McLaren, Lindsay

    2017-02-22

    High-quality, up-to-date research on community water fluoridation (CWF), and especially on the implications of CWF cessation for dental health, is limited. Although CWF cessation studies have been conducted, they are few in number; one of the major reasons is the methodological complexity of conducting such a study. This article draws on a systematic review of existing cessation studies (n=15) to explore methodological considerations of conducting CWF cessation studies in future. We review nine important methodological aspects (study design, comparison community, target population, time frame, sampling strategy, clinical indicators, assessment criteria, covariates and biomarkers) and provide recommendations for planning future CWF cessation studies that examine effects on dental caries. There is no one ideal study design to answer a research question. However, recommendations proposed regarding methodological aspects to conduct an epidemiological study to observe the effects of CWF cessation on dental caries, coupled with our identification of important methodological gaps, will be useful for researchers who are looking to optimize resources to conduct such a study with standards of rigour.

  20. Genetic variation in the dopamine pathway and smoking cessation.

    PubMed

    David, Sean P; Munafò, Marcus R

    2008-09-01

    Twin and family studies have established that genetic factors account for much of the variation in tobacco dependence. Therefore, identification of genetic variants predictive of successful smoking cessation has implications for the future prospect of personalized smoking cessation therapies. Converging data implicate the dopamine pathway as an important neural substrate for tobacco dependence. Several candidate genes within the dopamine pathway (e.g., DRD2 and COMT) have been reported to be associated with the efficacy of bupropion and nicotine replacement therapy, and others (e.g., SLC6A3 and DRD4) have been reported to be associated with smoking cessation independent of pharmacotherapy. However, few of these candidate genes are present within regions of suggestive or significant linkage or overlap with genome-wide linkage or association studies of tobacco dependence or smoking cessation. Future studies should seek to replicate genome-wide association analyses with individual-level genotyping, and use better-defined smoking cessation phenotypes. Once robust evidence for association is established, which may take several more years, further research into the likely cost-effectiveness, feasibility and acceptability of personalized medicine for smoking cessation will be necessary before it can be translated into practice.

  1. A Rural Appalachian Faith-Placed Smoking Cessation Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Schoenberg, Nancy E.; Bundy, Henry E.; Baeker Bispo, Jordan A.; Studts, Christina R.; Shelton, Brent J.; Fields, Nell

    2014-01-01

    Although health promotion programming in faith institutions is promising, most faith-based or placed health projects focus on diet, exercise, or cancer screening and many have been located in urban environments. This article addresses the notable absence of faith programming for smoking cessation among underserved rural US residents who experience tobacco-related health inequities. In this article, we describe our faith-oriented smoking cessation program in rural Appalachia, involving 590 smokers in 26 rural churches randomized to early and delayed intervention groups. We present three main themes that account for participants’ positive evaluation of the program; the program’s ability to leverage social connections; the program’s convenience orientation; and the program’s financial support for smoking cessation. We also present themes on the roles of faith and church in smoking cessation programming, including some mixed perceptions on smoking stigma and comfort in church settings; challenges in faith-placed smoking cessation recruitment; and the positive perception of such programming by church leaders. We conclude that faith-placed smoking cessation program offer great potential, although they must be administered with great sensitivity to individual and community norms. PMID:24691565

  2. Multidimensional Co3O4 nano sponge for the highly sensitive SERS applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Miao-miao; Liu, Wen-yao; Du, Jian-gong; Guo, Xu-dong; Wang, Lei; Xia, Mei-jing; Tang, Jun

    2017-01-01

    In this work, surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) substrates with Ag nanoparticles (NPs) decorated Co3O4 nanowires (NWs) grafted on the three-dimensional (3D) network architecture of Ni foam (denoted as Ag-NP@Co3O4-NW/Ni-foam) arrays are manufactured. In the experiment, the hierarchical Ag-NP@Co3O4-NW/Ni-foam arrays exhibit strong SERS activity due to the higher density of the "hot spots" created from the large quantities of neighboring Ag NPs. Using this hierarchical 3D SERS substrates, the crystal violet (a banned drug of aquaculture) with concentration down to 10-14 mol/L can be detected, which shows potential application in SERS-based rapid trace-level detection of harmful food additives.

  3. Controllable synthesis porous Ag2CO3 nanorods for efficient photocatalysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Shenghui; Bao, Jianxing; Hu, Tu; Zhang, Libo; Yang, Li; Peng, Jinhui; Jiang, Caiyi

    2015-04-01

    The novel porous Ag2CO3 nanorods were facilely synthesized via a one-pot aqueous solution reaction at room temperature. The crystalline phase and size distribution of the nanorods were determined by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), respectively. In addition, the porous feature of nanorods was confirmed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and nitrogen adsorption-desorption. The morphology and size of the Ag2CO3 crystal can be regulated via the choice of dispersing agents and adding approaches of reactants. Photocatalytic results show that the porous Ag2CO3 nanorods exhibit excellent photodegradation of rhodamine B (RhB) under visible-light irradiation, particularly the photoactivity performance and stability can be further improved in the presence of sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3). It is indicated that NaHCO3 can prevent effectively the photocorrosion and promote the probability of electron-hole separation.

  4. Controllable synthesis porous Ag2CO3 nanorods for efficient photocatalysis.

    PubMed

    Guo, Shenghui; Bao, Jianxing; Hu, Tu; Zhang, Libo; Yang, Li; Peng, Jinhui; Jiang, Caiyi

    2015-01-01

    The novel porous Ag2CO3 nanorods were facilely synthesized via a one-pot aqueous solution reaction at room temperature. The crystalline phase and size distribution of the nanorods were determined by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), respectively. In addition, the porous feature of nanorods was confirmed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and nitrogen adsorption-desorption. The morphology and size of the Ag2CO3 crystal can be regulated via the choice of dispersing agents and adding approaches of reactants. Photocatalytic results show that the porous Ag2CO3 nanorods exhibit excellent photodegradation of rhodamine B (RhB) under visible-light irradiation, particularly the photoactivity performance and stability can be further improved in the presence of sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3). It is indicated that NaHCO3 can prevent effectively the photocorrosion and promote the probability of electron-hole separation.

  5. Role of CaCO3° Neutral Pair in Calcium Carbonate Crystallization.

    PubMed

    Genovese, Damiano; Montalti, Marco; Otálora, Fermín; Gómez-Morales, Jaime; Sancho-Tomás, María; Falini, Giuseppe; García-Ruiz, Juan Manuel

    2016-08-03

    The molecular structure of the units that get incorporated into the nuclei of the crystalline phase and sustain their growth is a fundamental issue in the pathway from a supersaturated solution to the formation of crystals. Using a fluorescent dye we have recorded the variation of the pH value in time along a gel where CaCl2 and NaHCO3 counter-diffuse to crystallize CaCO3. The same pH-space-time distribution maps were also computationally obtained using a chemical speciation code (phreeqc). Using data arising from this model we investigated the space-time evolution of the activity of the single species (ions and ion pairs) involved in the crystallization process. Our combined results suggest that, whatever the pathway from solution to crystals, the neutral pair CaCO3° is a key species in the CaCO3 precipitation system.

  6. Effect of ZnO:Cs2CO3 on the performance of organic photovoltaics

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    We demonstrate a new solution-processed electron transport layer (ETL), zinc oxide doped with cesium carbonate (ZnO:Cs2CO3), for achieving organic photovoltaics (OPVs) with good operational stability at ambient air. An OPV employing the ZnO:Cs2CO3 ETL exhibits a fill factor of 62%, an open circuit voltage of 0.90 V, and a short circuit current density of −6.14 mA/cm2 along with 3.43% power conversion efficiency. The device demonstrated air stability for a period over 4 weeks. In addition, we also studied the device structure dependence on the performance of organic photovoltaics. Thus, we conclude that ZnO:Cs2CO3 ETL could be employed in a suitable architecture to achieve high-performance OPV. PMID:25045340

  7. Thermal histories of CO3 chondrites - Application of olivine diffusion modelling to parent body metamorphism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Rhian H.; Rubie, David C.

    1991-01-01

    The petrologic sequence observed in the CO3 chondrite group has been suggested to be the result of thermal metamorphism on a parent body. A model developed to examine the possibility that chondrule and matrix olivines equilibrated in situ, during parent body metamorphism is presented. The model considers Fe-Mg interdiffusion between chondrule and matrix olivines. Zoning profiles comparable to those observed in chondrule olivines from partially equilibrated members of the series are reproduced successfully. Metamorphism of CO3 chondrites on a parent body is therefore a viable model for the observed equilibration. Results indicate that peak metamorphic temperatures experienced by the CO3 chondrites were around 500 C, and that the range of peak temperatures between unequilibrated and equilibrated subtypes was relatively narrow, around 100 C.

  8. Wally's quest to understand the ocean's CaCO3 cycle.

    PubMed

    Broecker, W S

    2009-01-01

    Aspects of the production and dissolution of CaCO3 hard parts dominate the literature regarding contemporary marine chemistry and paleoceanography. During my long career I have contributed more than 200 papers related to this subject. In this prefatory article in the first volume of the Annual Review of Marine Science, I recount what I consider to be the highlights of my attempts to understand the cycle of CaCO3 in today's ocean and in oceans of the past. These studies began in the Bahamas in the early 1960s and then quickly graduated to the world ocean. Although much of my research has involved stable and radioisotopes contained in shells and coral directed toward reconstruction of the late Quaternary operation of the earth system, in this review I concentrate on carbonate chemistry and, in particular, the compensation in the deep sea for the overproduction of CaCO3 by marine organisms.

  9. Effect of ZnO:Cs2CO3 on the performance of organic photovoltaics.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyeong Pil; Yusoff, Abd Rashid Bin Mohd; Lee, Hee Jae; Lee, Seung Joo; Kim, Hyo Min; Seo, Gi Jun; Youn, Jun Ho; Jang, Jin

    2014-01-01

    We demonstrate a new solution-processed electron transport layer (ETL), zinc oxide doped with cesium carbonate (ZnO:Cs2CO3), for achieving organic photovoltaics (OPVs) with good operational stability at ambient air. An OPV employing the ZnO:Cs2CO3 ETL exhibits a fill factor of 62%, an open circuit voltage of 0.90 V, and a short circuit current density of -6.14 mA/cm(2) along with 3.43% power conversion efficiency. The device demonstrated air stability for a period over 4 weeks. In addition, we also studied the device structure dependence on the performance of organic photovoltaics. Thus, we conclude that ZnO:Cs2CO3 ETL could be employed in a suitable architecture to achieve high-performance OPV.

  10. Role of CaCO3° Neutral Pair in Calcium Carbonate Crystallization

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The molecular structure of the units that get incorporated into the nuclei of the crystalline phase and sustain their growth is a fundamental issue in the pathway from a supersaturated solution to the formation of crystals. Using a fluorescent dye we have recorded the variation of the pH value in time along a gel where CaCl2 and NaHCO3 counter-diffuse to crystallize CaCO3. The same pH–space–time distribution maps were also computationally obtained using a chemical speciation code (phreeqc). Using data arising from this model we investigated the space-time evolution of the activity of the single species (ions and ion pairs) involved in the crystallization process. Our combined results suggest that, whatever the pathway from solution to crystals, the neutral pair CaCO3° is a key species in the CaCO3 precipitation system. PMID:27512345

  11. PUA/PSS multilayer coated CaCO3 microparticles as smart drug delivery vehicles.

    PubMed

    Du, Chao; Shi, Jun; Shi, Jin; Zhang, Li; Cao, Shaokui

    2013-10-01

    Hybrid CaCO3 microparticles coated by sodium poly(styrene sulfonate) (PSS) and aliphatic poly(urethane-amine) (PUA) were developed as thermal-/pH-responsive drug delivery vehicles via LbL self-assembly technique. The DOX release from the CaCO3 microparticles was higher than 60% within 36 h, whereas the value of PUA/PSS-coated microparticles was only 20%. The results demonstrated that the PUA/PSS multilayer coating could reduce the drug release rate and significantly assuage the initial burst release of DOX. In addition, the drug release of the hybrid microparticles was found to be thermal-/pH-dual responsive. More interestingly, more than 90% of DOX was released in 36 h at pH2.1 and 55 °C owing to the combined action of the dissolution of the CaCO3 core and the shrinkage of aliphatic PUA.

  12. Mussel-inspired transformation of CaCO3 to bone minerals.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sungjin; Park, Chan Beum

    2010-09-01

    We report a mussel-inspired route to create carbonated bone hydroxyapatite from CaCO(3) vaterite microspheres. When catechol-containing dopamine, a biomimetic small molecule of mussel adhesive proteins, was incorporated during the mineralization of CaCO(3), the oxidative polymerization of dopamine stabilized the formation of spherical vaterite, the most unstable phase among CaCO(3) crystalline structures. Thus-formed vaterite microspheres were readily transformed to carbonated hydroxyapatite crystals when incubated in a simulated body fluid at human body temperature. We found that dopamine not only stabilized the vaterite phase but also influenced the level of conversion to carbonated hydroxyapatites. Considering that carbonated hydroxyapatites are highly bioresorbable, similar to natural bone and dentin, the synthesis of a mussel-inspired hybrid material showing good in vitro bone bioactivity should present a new prospect for future applications in the treatment of bone defects and bone degenerative diseases.

  13. In vitro anticancer potential of BaCO3 nanoparticles synthesized via green route.

    PubMed

    Nagajyothi, P C; Pandurangan, Muthuraman; Sreekanth, T V M; Shim, Jaesool

    2016-03-01

    Green synthesis of nanoparticles is a growing research area because of their potential applications in nanomedicine. Barium carbonate nanoparticles (BaCO3 NPs) were synthesized using an aqueous extract of Mangifera indica seed as a reducing agent. These particles were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Transmission electron microscopy (TEM), selected area electron diffraction (SAED), Energy-dispersive-X-ray (EDX) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis. HR-TEM images are confirmed that green synthesized BaCO3 NPs have spherical, triangular and uneven shapes. EDX analysis confirmed the presence of Ba, C and O. The peaks at 2θ of 19.45, 23.90, 24.29, 27.72, 33.71, 34.08, 34.60, 41.98, 42.95, 44.18, 44.85, and 46.78 corresponding to (110), (111), (021), (002), (200), (112), (130), (221), (041), (202), (132) and (113) showed that BaCO3 NPs average size was ~18.3 nm. SAED pattern confirmed that BaCO3 NPs are crystalline nature. BaCO3 NPs significantly inhibited cervical carcinoma cells, as evidenced by cytotoxicity assay. Immunofluorescence and fluorescence assays showed that BaCO3 NPs increased the expression and activity of caspase-3, an autocatalytic enzyme that promotes apoptosis. According to the results, green synthesis route has great potential for easy, rapid, inexpensive, eco-friendly and efficient development of novel multifunctional nanoparticles for the treatment of cancer. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. (12)CO (3-2) & (1-0) emission line observations of nearby starburst galaxy nuclei

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Devereux, Nicholas; Taniguchi, Yoshiaki; Sanders, D. B.; Nakai, N.; Young, J. S.

    1994-01-01

    New measurements of the (12)CO (1-0) and (12)CO (3-2) line emission are presented for the nuclei of seven nearby starburst galaxies selected from a complete sample of 21 nearby starburst galaxies for which the nuclear star formation rates are measured to be comparable to the archetype starburst galaxies M82 and NGC 253. The new observations capitalize on the coincidence between the beam size of the 45 m Nobeyama telescope at 115 GHz and that of the 15 m James Clerk Maxwell Telescope at 345 GHz to measure the value of the (12)CO (3-2)/(1-0) emission line ratio in a 15 sec (less than or equal to 2.5 kpc) diameter region centered on the nuclear starburst. In principle, the (12)CO (3-2)/(1-0) emission line ratio provides a measure of temperature and optical depth for the (12)CO gas. The error weighted mean value of the (12)CO (3-2)/(1-0) emission line ratio measured for the seven starburst galaxy nuclei is -0.64 +/- 0.06. The (12)CO (3-2)/(1-0) emission line ratio measured for the starburst galaxy nuclei is significantly higher than the average value measured for molecular gas in the disk of the Galaxy, implying warmer temperatures for the molecular gas in starburst galaxy nuclei. On the other hand, the (12)CO (3-2)/(1-0) emission line ratio measured for the starburst galaxy nuclei is not as high as would be expected if the molecular gas were hot, greater than 20 K, and optically thin, tau much less than 1. The total mass of molecular gas contained within the central 1.2-2.8 kpc diameter region of the starburst galaxy nuclei ranges from 10(exp 8) to 10(exp 9) solar mass. While substantial, the molecular gas mass represents only a small percentage, approximately 9%-16%, of the dynamical mass in the same region.

  15. Changes in CaCO3 Mineralogy Resulting from Alterations in Hot Spring Microbial Community Composition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vescogni, H. R.; Fouke, B. W.; Wilson, S. R.; Miller, P. A.; Kandianis, M. T.

    2008-12-01

    High-resolution X-ray diffraction (XRD) analyses of CaCO3 mineral deposits (travertine) have been completed on samples collected from an in situ kinetic experiment (ISKA) at Mammoth Hot Springs (MHS), Yellowstone National Park. Results indicate that the dominant mineral phase on the experimental substrate changes from aragonite to calcite when the biotic components of the system are treated via filtration and ultra-violet (UV) irradiation. This shift in CaCO3 mineralogy may provide a new class of biomarkers to identify biogenic carbonates in the geologic record. The ISKA, in which water was siphoned directly from the primary flow path of the hot springs at MHS, was used to: (1) filter (sterile 0.2 micron) spring water to reduce microbial biomass concentrations by 80%; (2) irradiate spring water with UV, inhibiting microbial metabolic and replication activity; and (3) supply unaltered spring water to serve as a natural control. XRD analysis on the CaCO3 precipitates of these experiments shows that the natural control samples are predominantly aragonite (93%), the filtration samples are predominantly calcite (95%), and the UV-irradiation samples are a mixture of both aragonite (70%) and calcite (30%), suggesting that presence of biomass favors the stability of the aragonite phase and that microbial activity selects for this less thermodynamically stable for of CaCO3. Petrographic analysis has revealed that the carbonate precipitate on the Na2CO3 experimental substrates consists of an initial layering of calcite crystals followed by nucleation and growth of the aragonite. These combined results strongly suggest that microbial biomass, through nucleation and crystallization kinetics, controls the mineralogy in advection-dominated flow regimes of terrestrial hot springs. Results from a controlled experiment using a laboratory bench-top ISKA are being collected to determine shifts in CaCO3 mineralogy under specific suites of physical, chemical and biological

  16. (12)CO (3-2) & (1-0) emission line observations of nearby starburst galaxy nuclei

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Devereux, Nicholas; Taniguchi, Yoshiaki; Sanders, D. B.; Nakai, N.; Young, J. S.

    1994-01-01

    New measurements of the (12)CO (1-0) and (12)CO (3-2) line emission are presented for the nuclei of seven nearby starburst galaxies selected from a complete sample of 21 nearby starburst galaxies for which the nuclear star formation rates are measured to be comparable to the archetype starburst galaxies M82 and NGC 253. The new observations capitalize on the coincidence between the beam size of the 45 m Nobeyama telescope at 115 GHz and that of the 15 m James Clerk Maxwell Telescope at 345 GHz to measure the value of the (12)CO (3-2)/(1-0) emission line ratio in a 15 sec (less than or equal to 2.5 kpc) diameter region centered on the nuclear starburst. In principle, the (12)CO (3-2)/(1-0) emission line ratio provides a measure of temperature and optical depth for the (12)CO gas. The error weighted mean value of the (12)CO (3-2)/(1-0) emission line ratio measured for the seven starburst galaxy nuclei is -0.64 +/- 0.06. The (12)CO (3-2)/(1-0) emission line ratio measured for the starburst galaxy nuclei is significantly higher than the average value measured for molecular gas in the disk of the Galaxy, implying warmer temperatures for the molecular gas in starburst galaxy nuclei. On the other hand, the (12)CO (3-2)/(1-0) emission line ratio measured for the starburst galaxy nuclei is not as high as would be expected if the molecular gas were hot, greater than 20 K, and optically thin, tau much less than 1. The total mass of molecular gas contained within the central 1.2-2.8 kpc diameter region of the starburst galaxy nuclei ranges from 10(exp 8) to 10(exp 9) solar mass. While substantial, the molecular gas mass represents only a small percentage, approximately 9%-16%, of the dynamical mass in the same region.

  17. Testing the cation-hydration effect on the crystallization of Ca-Mg-CO3 systems.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jie; Yan, Chao; Zhang, Fangfu; Konishi, Hiromi; Xu, Huifang; Teng, H Henry

    2013-10-29

    Dolomite and magnesite are simple anhydrous calcium and/or magnesium carbonate minerals occurring mostly at Earth surfaces. However, laboratory synthesis of neither species at ambient temperature and pressure conditions has been proven practically possible, and the lack of success was assumed to be related to the strong solvation shells of magnesium ions in aqueous media. Here, we report the synthesis of MgCO3 and MgxCa(1-x)CO3 (0 < x < 1) solid phases at ambient conditions in the absence of water. Experiments were carried out in dry organic solvent, and the results showed that, although anhydrous phases were readily precipitated in the water-free environment, the precipitates' crystallinity was highly dependent on the Mg molar percentage content in the solution. In specific, magnesian calcite dominated in low [Mg(2+)]/[Ca(2+)] solutions but gave way to exclusive formation of amorphous MgxCa(1-x)CO3 and MgCO3 in high-[Mg(2+)]/[Ca(2+)] and pure-Mg solutions. At conditions of [Mg(2+)]/[Ca(2+)] = 1, both nanocrystals of Ca-rich protodolomite and amorphous phase of Mg-rich MgxCa(1-x)CO3 were formed. These findings exposed a previously unrecognized intrinsic barrier for Mg(2+) and CO3(2-) to develop long-range orders at ambient conditions and suggested that the long-held belief of cation-hydration inhibition on dolomite and magnesite mineralization needed to be reevaluated. Our study provides significant insight into the long-standing "dolomite problem" in geochemistry and mineralogy and may promote a better understanding of the fundamental chemistry in biomineralization and mineral-carbonation processes.

  18. Photoelectron velocity-map imaging and theoretical studies of heteronuclear metal carbonyls MNi(CO)3(-) (M = Mg, Ca, Al).

    PubMed

    Xie, Hua; Zou, Jinghan; Yuan, Qinqin; Fan, Hongjun; Tang, Zichao; Jiang, Ling

    2016-03-28

    The heteronuclear metal carbonyl anions MNi(CO)3(-) (M = Mg, Ca, Al) have been investigated using photoelectron velocity-map imaging spectroscopy. Electron affinities of neutral MNi(CO)3 (M = Mg, Ca, Al) are measured from the photoelectron spectra to be 1.064 ± 0.063, 1.050 ± 0.064, and 1.541 ± 0.040 eV, respectively. The C-O stretching mode in these three clusters is observed and the vibrational frequency is determined to be 2049, 2000, and 2041 cm(-1) for MgNi(CO)3, CaNi(CO)3, and AlNi(CO)3, respectively. Density functional theory calculations are carried out to elucidate the geometric and electronic structures and to aid the experimental assignments. It has been found that three terminal carbonyls are preferentially bonded to the nickel atom in these heterobinuclear nickel carbonyls MNi(CO)3 (-1/0), resulting in the formation of the Ni(CO)3 motif. Ni remains the 18-electron configuration for MgNi(CO)3 and CaNi(CO)3 neutrals, but not for AlNi(CO)3. This is different from the homobinuclear nickel carbonyl Ni-Ni(CO)3 with the involvement of three bridging ligands. Present findings would be helpful for understanding CO adsorption on alloy surfaces.

  19. Freestanding mesoporous quasi-single-crystalline CO3O4 nanowire arrays.

    PubMed

    Li, Yanguang; Tan, Bing; Wu, Yiying

    2006-11-08

    We report a facile template-free method for the large-area growth of freestanding hollow Co3O4 nanowire arrays on a variety of substrates including transparent conducting glass, Si wafer, and copper foil, et al. These nanowires have the interesting combined properties of mesoporosity and quasi-single-crystallinity. With their high surface area and crystallinity, and their direct growth on conductive substrate, these Co3O4 nanowire arrays will have promising applications in lithium-ion batteries, chemical sensing, and field-emission and electrochromic devices. Using the prepared nanowire arrays as electrode, an electrochemical sensor for hydrogen peroxide sensing has been demonstrated.

  20. Fabrication of (Mn,Co)3O4 Surface Coatings onto Alloy Substrates

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Zhenguo; Xia, Guanguang; Li, Xiaohong S.; Singh, Prabhakar; Stevenson, Jeffry W.

    2007-04-30

    Ferritic stainless steels are promising candidates for IT-SOFC interconnect applications due to their low cost and resistance to oxidation at SOFC operating temperatures. However, several challenges remain, including long term electrical conductivity and surface stability under interconnect exposure conditions and chromia scale evaporation. One means of extending interconnect lifetime and improving performance is to apply a protective coating, such as (Mn,Co)3O4 spinel, to the cathode side of the interconnect. These coatings have proven effective in reducing scale growth kinetics and Cr volatility. This report describes several procedures developed at PNNL for fabricating (Mn,Co)3O4 spinel coatings onto ferritic stainless steels.

  1. Fabrication and properties of HDPE/CF/CaCO3/PE-g-MAH quaternary composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, X.-L.; Ming, H.; Yin, H.

    2015-07-01

    In this research, carbon fiber (CF) was taken as reinforcing filler, nano calcium carbonate (CaCO3) was taken as toughener, maleic anhydride grafted polyethylene (PE-g-MAH) was taken as compatibilizer for high density polyethylene (HDPE) modification. Through orthogonal test, the influence of different amount of ingredient CF, CaCO3 and PE-g-MAH on the mechanical properties of the HDPE composites was researched. The optimal composition of the quaternary composites with the good toughness and high strength was obtained.

  2. Engineered phage films as scaffolds for CaCO3 biomineralization.

    PubMed

    Tom, Steven; Jin, Hyo-Eon; Heo, Kwang; Lee, Seung-Wuk

    2016-08-25

    M13 bacteriophages (phage) were exploited as CaCO3 mineralization scaffolds for hard tissue engineering applications. M13 phage was first self-assembled into biomimetic fibrous scaffolds, followed by CaCO3 biomineralization via the polymer-induced liquid precursor process. The phage scaffolds successfully incorporated calcium carbonate, facilitating nucleation and growth of spherulitically textured calcite. The Young's modulus of the scaffolds increased by an order of magnitude after mineralization while also supporting the growth of mouse fibroblasts. These findings demonstrate that phage-based biomaterials are a feasible platform for creating biomineralized hard tissue constructs, in support of future studies in hard tissue engineering and biomedical applications.

  3. Evaluation of CO oxidation over Co3O4-supported NiO catalysts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sie, Min-Chun; Jeng, Pei-Di; Chen, Pin-Hsuan; Wu, Ruei-Ci; Wang, Chen-Bin

    2017-09-01

    The process of doping NiO onto Co3O4 for achieving resistance to sintering and obtaining long-term stability of catalytic activity was examined herein. A sample of cobalt oxide (Co3O4) was prepared from Co(NO3)2.6H2O via precipitation by NaOH, and then calcined at 300 and 500 °C. The Co3O4-supported NiO catalysts were prepared by deposited precipitation of Ni(NO3)2.6H2O with NaOH added in a dropwise manner into the suspended Co3O4 solution with various loading of nickel. Then, oxidation with NaOCl was employed to obtain NiO/Co3O4 catalysts (weight loading of Ni: 0.1 ˜ 5 wt%). All of the samples were characterized by using XRD, SEM/TEM, BET, TPR and TGA techniques. Catalytic activities related to CO oxidation were tested from 0 to 200 °C in a self-designed fluidized micro-reactor. The results showed that the calcination temperature and loading of nickel were important parameters in the preparation process. With the lower calcined temperature and loading of nickel below 1 wt%, all the samples showed high initial catalytic activity for CO oxidation near room temperature. The synergistic effect can induce CO oxidation between NiO and Co3O4, and probably constitute a more suitable redox property for the 0.2%Ni/Co3O4 (C3) catalyst. Furthermore, only a slight decrease of CO conversion (less than 5%) was observed after 50 h of continuous reaction under 125 °C on this catalyst. The CO conversion could still remain above 75% after 50 h, which demonstrates that the 0.2%Ni/Co3O4 (C3) sample can function as a durable CO oxidation catalyst. We confirmed that our designed catalysts, based on tiny NiO nanoparticles, can be used as a component of a toxic gas abatement system.

  4. H2CO3(s): a new candidate for CO2 capture and sequestration.

    PubMed

    Tossell, J A

    2009-04-01

    To reduce the magnitude of anthropogenic global warming it is necessary to remove CO2(g) from the effluent streams of coal-fired power plants and to sequester the CO2 either as a liquid or by reaction with other compounds. A major difficulty in achieving this goal arises from the very weak acidity of CO2(g), causing it to react only incompletely with weak bases, although this weak interaction does provide a means for "stripping" the CO2 from the acid-base complex at high temperatures. Reaction with strong bases like Na0H yields more stable complexes, but massive amounts of chemical reactants would need to be purchased and chemical products like NaHCO3 then stored. However, when gas-phase CO2 reacts with the weak base water (or when bicarbonate reacts with strong acid) the unstable product monomeric "H2CO3" can be formed. The free energy required is about 16 kcal/mol in the gas phase and about 10 kcal/mol in aqueous solution. This energy can be supplied by particle or photon excitation and is only a small fraction ofthe energy released when a mole of CH4 is converted to a mole of CO2. Although this monomeric compound is highly unstable, its oligomers are considerably more stable, due to internal H-bonding, with free energies for the larger oligomers in the gas phase which are about 4 kcal/(mol of H2CO3) lower, only about 6 kcal/mol H2CO3 higher than the gas-phase combination of CO2 and H2O at room temperature. Also, at lower temperature the entropic penalty for the oligomer is less and oligomeric H2CO3 becomes stable around the sublimation temperature of dry ice. This indicates that it may be possible to capture gas-phase CO2 directly, using only cheap and abundant H2O as a reactant, and to store the resulting (H2CO3)n as a oligomeric solid at only moderately cold temperatures. These conclusions are based on quantum computations that accurately reproduce the structures, spectra, and stabilities of H2CO3 oligomers. Methods for producing and characterizing the H2CO3

  5. Retrodiction of secular variations in deep-sea CaCO3 burial during the Cenozoic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boudreau, Bernard P.; Luo, Yiming

    2017-09-01

    Deep-sea sediments record changes in oceanic carbonate chemistry and CaCO3 sedimentation rate through temporal variations in the total burial of CaCO3 and the position of the carbonate snowline, i.e., the ocean depth at which CaCO3-free sediments are first recorded. This paper links mathematically secular changes in snowline to those in the burial rate through a set of relatively simple equations. When the available Cenozoic deep-sea burial records are employed to predict secular variations in snowline, the process fails at some time in the past, indicating that these records are not consistent with each other. The burial records are more likely the source of this problem, as they involve far more uncertainties than the snowline records. As a consequence, we introduce a method for estimating carbonate burial through the use of a canonical CaCO3-depth profile, which can respond dynamically to secular changes in carbonate sedimentation and the positions of both the snowline and the carbonate saturation horizon. The resulting synthetic CaCO3 burial record is consistent with snowline records and indicates that the burial rates offered by Davies and Worsley (1981) are generally too high, with highly questionable maxima at 25 and 47 Ma BP. Our estimates of burial are more consistent with the range advanced by Mackenzie and Morse (1992); nevertheless, our results differ from the latter with respect to timing and magnitude of the variations. Our approach allows simultaneous calculation of the mean carbonate ion concentration of the deep sea. We find that carbonate-ion levels fell through the Cenozoic and are similar to those calculated by Tyrrell and Zeebe (2004), using a different model. Secular variations in CaCO3 burial are found to be primarily driven by changes in the Ca2+-CO3 2 - ion product within the bottom-waters, with an increase in the sedimentation rate of CaCO3 of secondary importance over the Cenozoic.

  6. Determination of the CO3- bond strength via the resonant two-photon photodissociation threshold: Electronic and vibrational spectroscopy of CO3-•Arn

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bopp, Joseph C.; Diken, Eric G.; Headrick, Jeffrey M.; Roscioli, Joseph R.; Johnson, Mark A.; Midey, Anthony J.; Viggiano, A. A.

    2006-05-01

    We use a two-laser pump-probe technique coupled with messenger atom tagging to determine the bond energy of O- to CO2 in the CO3- ion, a prevalent species in the upper atmosphere. In this technique, the argon-tagged ion is first electronically excited using a visible laser, then irradiated with a tunable near-infrared beam across the CO2⋯O- dissociation threshold while O- products are monitored. This method yields a bond energy of 2.79±0.05eV, which is about 0.5eV higher than previously reported. Combining this with the well-known heats of formation of O- and CO2, 105.6 and -393.1kJ /mol, respectively [Thermodynamic Properties of Individual Substances, edited by L. V. Gurvich, I. V. Veyts, and C. B. Alcock (Hemisphere, New York, 1989), Vol. 1 and CODATA Thermodynamic Tables, edited by O. Garvin, V. B. Parker, and J. H. J. White (Hemisphere, New York, 1987)], yields the CO3- heat of formation: ΔH00=-556.7±4.8kJ /mol. The one-photon (i.e., linear) infrared and electronic spectra of CO3- are also presented and compared to those obtained previously. The one-photon electronic spectrum is nearly identical to two-photon spectra, implying that argon does not significantly perturb the ion or its symmetry. The infrared spectrum is drastically different than that obtained in an argon matrix, however, indicating that the ion is likely distorted in the matrix environment.

  7. Implementing smoking cessation guidelines for hospitalized Veterans: Cessation results from the VA-BEST trial.

    PubMed

    Vander Weg, Mark W; Holman, John E; Rahman, Hafizur; Sarrazin, Mary Vaughan; Hillis, Stephen L; Fu, Steven S; Grant, Kathleen M; Prochazka, Allan V; Adams, Susan L; Battaglia, Catherine T; Buchanan, Lynne M; Tinkelman, David; Katz, David A

    2017-06-01

    To examine the impact of a nurse-initiated tobacco cessation intervention focused on providing guideline-recommended care to hospitalized smokers. Pre-post quasi-experimental trial. General medical units of four US Department of Veterans Affairs hospitals. 898 adult Veteran smokers (503 and 395 were enrolled in the baseline and intervention periods, respectively). The intervention included academic detailing, adaptation of the computerized medical record, patient self-management support, and organizational support and feedback. The primary outcome was self-reported 7-day point prevalence abstinence at six months. Tobacco use was compared for the pre-intervention and intervention periods with multivariable logistic regression using generalized estimating equations to account for clustering at the nurse level. Predictors of abstinence at six months were investigated with best subsets regression. Seven-day point prevalence abstinence during the intervention period did not differ significantly from the pre-intervention period at either three (adjusted odds ratio (AOR) and 95% confidence interval (CI95)=0.78 [0.51-1.18]) or six months (AOR=0.92; CI95=0.62-1.37). Predictors of abstinence included baseline self-efficacy for refraining from smoking when experiencing negative affect (p=0.0004) and perceived likelihood of staying off cigarettes following discharge (p<0.0001). Tobacco use interventions in the VA inpatient setting likely require more substantial changes in clinician behavior and enhanced post-discharge follow-up to improve cessation outcomes. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  8. Roasting of La Oroya Zinc Ferrite with Na2CO3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holloway, Preston C.; Etsell, Thomas H.; Murland, Andrea L.

    2007-10-01

    The possibility of metals recovery from zinc ferrite residues using transformational roasting processes was examined by roasting zinc ferrite residue from Doe Run Peru’s La Oroya plant (Peru), containing 19.5 pct Zn, 26.6 pct Fe, 750 g/t In, and 520 g/t Ga, with Na2CO3 and leaching with 200 g/L H2SO4 solutions. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) and diagnostic leaching tests indicate that approximately 87 pct of the zinc in this residue is present as franklinite (ZnFe2O4), with the remaining zinc present as entrained ZnSO4 or unleached ZnO. Both preliminary and design of experiments (DOE) testing, using a 22 central composite design (CCD), were performed to test the effects of temperature and a Na2CO3 addition on metals extraction and on the formation of minerals during roasting, and the solubility of these minerals during leaching. Both methods of testing showed that zinc and iron extractions increased with increasing temperature and Na2CO3 additions over the range of conditions tested. Roasting at 950 °C and 80 pct Na2CO3 produced a roasted residue from which 99 pct of the Zn, 88 pct In, and 85 pct Ga could be recovered by leaching, but from which up to 81 pct Fe was also dissolved. Mineralogical analysis using XRD and scanning electron microscopy (SEM)/energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) analysis showed that, for these conditions, ZnFe2O4 decomposes in the presence of Na2CO3 to form ZnO and either α-NaFeO2 or β-NaFeO2. Some of the ZnO formed reacts with Na2CO3 and silicates in the residue to form Na2ZnSiO4 and some unreacted Na2CO3/Na2O/Na2SO4 was also identified after roasting using SEM/EDX. All these phases are dissolved in acid leaching, leaving unreacted ZnFe2O4 and precipitated PbSO4 as the only phases identified in the leach residues. These results indicate that NaFeO2 is formed preferentially to Fe2O3 during roasting and that the NaFeO2 formed during roasting is highly soluble in acidic solutions. The results were also compared with studies on the roasting of

  9. Yb-doped Gd2O2CO3: Structure, microstructure, thermal and magnetic behaviour

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Artini, Cristina; Locardi, Federico; Pani, Marcella; Nelli, Ilaria; Caglieris, Federico; Masini, Roberto; Plaisier, Jasper Rikkert; Costa, Giorgio Andrea

    2017-04-01

    Structural and microstructural features, as well as thermal and magnetic properties of Yb-doped Gd2O2CO3, were investigated with the aim to clarify the location and the oxidation state of Yb within the structure, and its role in driving the extent of the (Gd1-xYbx)2O2CO3 solid solution. Yb is found in the 3+ oxidation state and it enters the structure only at the rare earth atomic site; the solubility limit results to be located in the close vicinity of x=0.25, and thermal analyses reveal a linear decrease of the decomposition temperature with increasing the Yb amount, in agreement with literature data. The structural analysis allows to exclude long-range clusterization of Yb and Gd, since both rare earths randomly distribute over the 4f atomic position, but relying on the results of the microstructural analysis, the presence of compositional inhomogenities at the local scale cannot be excluded. Not all the structural forms are documented for the pure rare earth dioxycarbonates [1]; in particular, while form I exists for each lanthanide ion, form II is stable only for the largest ones (from La to Dy); moreover, even if II-Ho2O2CO3 (rHo3+ CN8=1.015 Å [6]) is not reported to be stable, the existence of II-Y2O2CO3 (rY3+ CN8=1.019 Å [6]) has been claimed [7]. Based on the described evidence, the stability of hexagonal Yb-doped Gd2O2CO3 is not expected along the whole compositional range. As a general remark, not all the rare earth mixed dioxycarbonates exist: (Ce, Gd)2O2CO3, for instance, could not be obtained at any composition [8]; moreover, all the structural forms can be observed only in some mixed systems, such as for example (Gd, Nd)2O2CO3, by varying temperature and tuning the composition [9]. Rare earth dioxycarbonates are studied mainly for their CO2 sensing properties [10,11], and for their emission when properly doped with a luminescent lanthanide ion [12-17]. Recently, a study of this research group [18] revealed in Gd2O2CO3:4% Yb a phenomenon of

  10. Synthesis and characterization of Co3O4 ultra-nanosheets and Co3O4 ultra-nanosheet-Ni(OH)2 as non-enzymatic electrochemical sensors for glucose detection.

    PubMed

    Mahmoudian, M R; Basirun, W J; Woi, Pei Meng; Sookhakian, M; Yousefi, Ramin; Ghadimi, H; Alias, Y

    2016-02-01

    The present study examines the synthesis of Co3O4 ultra-nanosheets (Co3O4 UNSs) and Co3O4 ultra-nanosheet-Ni(OH)2 (Co3O4 UNS-Ni(OH)2) via solvothermal process and their application as non-enzymatic electrochemical sensors for glucose detection. X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy results confirmed the Co3O4 UNS deposition on Ni(OH)2 surface. The presence of Co3O4 UNSs on Ni (OH) 2 surface improved the sensitivity of glucose detection, from the increase of glucose oxidation peak current at the Co3O4 UNS-Ni(OH)2/glassy carbon electrode (current density: 2000μA·cm(-2)), compared to the Co3O4 UNSs. These results confirmed that Ni(OH)2 on glassy carbon electrode is a sensitive material for glucose detection, moreover the Co3O4 UNSs can increase the interaction and detection of glucose due to their high surface area. The estimated limit of detection (S/N=3) and limit of quantification (S/N=10) of the linear segment (5-40μM) are 1.08μM and 3.60μM respectively. The reproducibility experiments confirmed the feasibility of Co3O4 UNS-Ni(OH)2 for the quantitative detection of certain concentration ranges of glucose.

  11. Positive Psychotherapy for Smoking Cessation: A Pilot Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Spillane, Nichea S.; Day, Anne M.; Cioe, Patricia A.; Parks, Acacia; Leventhal, Adam M.; Brown, Richard A.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Greater depressive symptoms and low positive affect (PA) are associated with poor smoking cessation outcomes. Smoking cessation approaches that incorporate a focus on PA may benefit smokers trying to quit. The purpose of this study was to conduct a pilot randomized clinical trial to compare standard smoking cessation treatment (ST) with smoking cessation treatment that targets positive affect, termed positive psychotherapy for smoking cessation (PPT-S). Method: Smokers who were seeking smoking cessation treatment were assigned by urn randomization to receive, along with 8 weeks of nicotine replacement therapy, either ST (n = 31) or PPT-S (n = 35). Seven-day point prevalence smoking abstinence was biochemically confirmed at 8, 16, and 26 weeks. Results: Compared to ST, a greater percentage of participants in PPT-S were abstinent at 8 weeks, 16 weeks, and 26 weeks, but these differences were nonsignificant. In a more statistically powerful longitudinal model, participants in PPT-S had a significantly higher odds of abstinence (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 2.75; 95% CI = 1.02, 7.42; p = .046) across follow-ups compared to those in ST. The positive effect of PPT-S was stronger for those higher in PA (OR = 6.69, 95% CI = 1.16, 38.47, p = .03). Greater use of PPT-S strategies during the initial 8 weeks of quitting was associated with a less steep decline in smoking abstinence rates over time (OR = 2.64, 95% CI = 1.06, 6.56, p =.04). Conclusion: This trial suggests substantial promise for incorporating PPT into smoking cessation treatment. PMID:25646352

  12. Predictors of Utilization of a Novel Smoking Cessation Smartphone App

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Emily Y.; Vilardaga, Roger; Heffner, Jaimee L.; Mull, Kristin E.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background: Understanding the characteristics of high and low utilizers of smartphone applications (apps) for smoking cessation would inform development of more engaging and effective apps, yet no studies to date have addressed this critical question. Informed by prior research on predictors of cessation Web site utilization, this study examines the degree to which baseline demographic factors (gender, age, and education), smoking-related factors (smoking level and friends' smoking), and psychological factors (depression and anxiety) are predictive of utilization of a smartphone app for smoking cessation called SmartQuit. Materials and Methods: Data came from 98 participants randomized to SmartQuit as part of a pilot trial from March to May 2013. We used negative binomial count regressions to examine the relationship between user characteristics and utilization of the app over an 8-week treatment period. Results: Lower education (risk ratio [RR]=0.492; p=0.021), heavier smoking (RR=0.613; p=0.033), and depression (RR=0.958; p=0.017) prospectively predicted lower app utilization. Women (RR=0.320; p=0.022), those with lower education (RR=0.491; p=0.013), and heavier smokers (RR=0.418; p=0.039) had lower utilization of app features known to predict smoking cessation. Conclusions: Many of the predictors of utilization of smoking cessation apps are the same as those of cessation Web sites. App-delivered smoking cessation treatment effectiveness could be enhanced by focusing on increasing engagement of women, those with lower education, heavy smokers, and those with current depressive symptoms. PMID:26171733

  13. Nonjudging Facet of Mindfulness Predicts Enhanced Smoking Cessation in Hispanics

    PubMed Central

    Spears, Claire Adams; Houchins, Sean C.; Stewart, Diana W.; Chen, Minxing; Correa-Fernández, Virmarie; Cano, Miguel Ángel; Heppner, Whitney L.; Vidrine, Jennifer I.; Wetter, David W.

    2015-01-01

    Although most smokers express interest in quitting, actual quit rates are low. Identifying strategies to enhance smoking cessation is critical, particularly among underserved populations including Hispanics, for whom many of the leading causes of death are related to smoking. Mindfulness (purposeful, non-judgmental attention to the present moment) has been linked to increased likelihood of cessation. Given that mindfulness is multifaceted, determining which aspects of mindfulness predict cessation could help to inform interventions. This study examined whether facets of mindfulness predict cessation in 199 Spanish-speaking smokers of Mexican heritage (63.3% male, mean age=39, 77.9% ≤ high school education) receiving smoking cessation treatment. Primary outcomes were 7-day abstinence at weeks 3 and 26 post-quit (biochemically-confirmed and determined using an intent-to-treat approach). Logistic random coefficients regression models were utilized to examine the relationship between mindfulness facets and abstinence over time. Independent variables were subscales of the Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire (Observing, Describing, Acting with Awareness, Nonjudging, Nonreactivity). The Nonjudging subscale (i.e., accepting thoughts and feelings without evaluating them) uniquely predicted better odds of abstinence up to 26 weeks post-quit. This is the first known study to examine whether specific facets of mindfulness predict smoking cessation. The ability to experience thoughts, emotions, and withdrawal symptoms without judging them may be critical in the process of quitting smoking. Results indicate potential benefits of mindfulness among smokers of Mexican heritage and suggest that smoking cessation interventions might be enhanced by central focus on the Nonjudging aspect of mindfulness. PMID:25961148

  14. Management of emergent psychiatric symptoms during smoking cessation.

    PubMed

    Aubin, Henri-Jean

    2009-02-01

    Tobacco smoking is a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease, respiratory disease and cancer and, for current smokers, smoking cessation is one of the most effective therapeutic interventions for reducing the risk of all-cause morbidity and mortality. However, smoking cessation causes nicotine withdrawal syndrome, a condition with symptoms that overlap those of major depression and anxiety disorders. The objective of this review was to examine the evidence that smoking cessation may be associated with new onset of psychiatric illness, particularly in individuals with no history of psychiatric disease, and to provide recommendations for the management of emergent psychiatric symptoms in smokers attempting cessation. Relevant articles were obtained from a MEDLINE search (articles indexed up to, and including, October 2008, with no historical date limit), and citation review of selected primary and review articles. There is evidence that smoking cessation can result in new onset of major depressive disorder, even in individuals with no history of depression. It has also been suggested that nicotine may be used as a form of self-medication for depression, and that smoking cessation can reveal a previously undiagnosed condition. There is little evidence of an association between smoking cessation and increased risk for other types of psychiatric illness. The management of emergent psychiatric symptoms in smokers attempting abstinence is discussed. The overall health benefits of quitting smoking undoubtedly outweigh any potential side-effects associated with nicotine withdrawal. However, a well-managed quit attempt must plan for the emergence of nicotine withdrawal, monitor for symptoms of depression and psychiatric disease, and manage these conditions appropriately should they present.

  15. Nonjudging facet of mindfulness predicts enhanced smoking cessation in Hispanics.

    PubMed

    Spears, Claire Adams; Houchins, Sean C; Stewart, Diana W; Chen, Minxing; Correa-Fernández, Virmarie; Cano, Miguel Ángel; Heppner, Whitney L; Vidrine, Jennifer I; Wetter, David W

    2015-12-01

    Although most smokers express interest in quitting, actual quit rates are low. Identifying strategies to enhance smoking cessation is critical, particularly among underserved populations, including Hispanics, for whom many of the leading causes of death are related to smoking. Mindfulness (purposeful, nonjudgmental attention to the present moment) has been linked to increased likelihood of cessation. Given that mindfulness is multifaceted, determining which aspects of mindfulness predict cessation could help to inform interventions. This study examined whether facets of mindfulness predict cessation in 199 Spanish-speaking smokers of Mexican heritage (63.3% male, mean age of 39 years, 77.9% with a high school education or less) receiving smoking cessation treatment. Primary outcomes were 7-day abstinence at weeks 3 and 26 postquit (biochemically confirmed and determined using an intent-to-treat approach). Logistic random coefficient regression models were utilized to examine the relationship between mindfulness facets and abstinence over time. Independent variables were subscales of the Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire (Observing, Describing, Acting With Awareness, Nonjudging, and Nonreactivity). The Nonjudging subscale (i.e., accepting thoughts and feelings without evaluating them) uniquely predicted better odds of abstinence up to 26 weeks postquit. This is the first known study to examine whether specific facets of mindfulness predict smoking cessation. The ability to experience thoughts, emotions, and withdrawal symptoms without judging them may be critical in the process of quitting smoking. Results indicate potential benefits of mindfulness among smokers of Mexican heritage and suggest that smoking cessation interventions might be enhanced by central focus on the Nonjudging aspect of mindfulness.

  16. Predictors of Utilization of a Novel Smoking Cessation Smartphone App.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Emily Y; Vilardaga, Roger; Heffner, Jaimee L; Mull, Kristin E; Bricker, Jonathan B

    2015-12-01

    Understanding the characteristics of high and low utilizers of smartphone applications (apps) for smoking cessation would inform development of more engaging and effective apps, yet no studies to date have addressed this critical question. Informed by prior research on predictors of cessation Web site utilization, this study examines the degree to which baseline demographic factors (gender, age, and education), smoking-related factors (smoking level and friends' smoking), and psychological factors (depression and anxiety) are predictive of utilization of a smartphone app for smoking cessation called SmartQuit. Data came from 98 participants randomized to SmartQuit as part of a pilot trial from March to May 2013. We used negative binomial count regressions to examine the relationship between user characteristics and utilization of the app over an 8-week treatment period. Lower education (risk ratio [RR]=0.492; p=0.021), heavier smoking (RR=0.613; p=0.033), and depression (RR=0.958; p=0.017) prospectively predicted lower app utilization. Women (RR=0.320; p=0.022), those with lower education (RR=0.491; p=0.013), and heavier smokers (RR=0.418; p=0.039) had lower utilization of app features known to predict smoking cessation. Many of the predictors of utilization of smoking cessation apps are the same as those of cessation Web sites. App-delivered smoking cessation treatment effectiveness could be enhanced by focusing on increasing engagement of women, those with lower education, heavy smokers, and those with current depressive symptoms.

  17. Efficient MnOx-Co3O4-CeO2 catalysts for formaldehyde elimination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Suhong; Li, Kelun; Huang, Fenglin; Chen, Canchang; Sun, Bo

    2017-04-01

    A series of highly efficient MnOx-Co3O4-CeO2 mixed oxides, synthesized by a sol-gel citric acid method, were applied to eliminate indoor formaldehyde (HCHO). The influence of the molar ratio of Mn/Co/Ce was investigated. The catalyst could efficiently eliminate HCHO into CO2 and H2O when the molar ratio of Mn/Co/Ce was 16/19/1. Complete HCHO conversion was achieved at a temperature as low as 100 °C. The prepared samples were characterized by N2 adsorption and desorption, XRD, H2-TPR and O2-TPD techniques to explain the improvement of catalytic activity. The results show that the introduction of MnOx into Co3O4-CeO2 could improve the high dispersion of Co3O4 and then increase the surface areas. Especially, the addition of MnOx enhanced reducibility and abundant surface active oxygen of MnOx-Co3O4-CeO2, which contributed to the excellent catalytic activity toward complete elimination of HCHO.

  18. Morphological Control of Co3O4 and Its Photocatalytic Properties

    EPA Science Inventory

    Cobaltosic oxide (Co3O4), a p-type semiconductor, belongs to the normal spinel crystal structure based on a cubic close packing array of oxide ions. The size, surface, geometry, and crystal phase of catalysts are important parameters for controlling their chemical, optical, and ...

  19. Cs2CO3-promoted one-pot synthesis of alkynylphosphonates, -phosphinates, and -phosphine oxides.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yulei; Gan, Jiepeng; Liu, Liu; Yuan, Hang; Gao, Yuxing; Liu, Yan; Zhao, Yufen

    2014-04-18

    A novel and efficient Cs2CO3-promoted phosphorylation or phosphinylation of various 1,1-dibromo-1-alkenes with readily available trialkyl phosphites, ethyl diphenylphosphinite, or diethyl phenylphosphonite has been developed under metal-free conditions, providing a practical and powerful tool for one-pot synthesis of valuable alkynylphosphonates, -phosphinates, and -phosphine oxides in good to excellent yields.

  20. Role of arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis in root mineral uptake under CaCO3 stress.

    PubMed

    Labidi, Sonia; Ben Jeddi, Fayçal; Tisserant, Benoit; Debiane, Djouher; Rezgui, Salah; Grandmougin-Ferjani, Anne; Lounès-Hadj Sahraoui, Anissa

    2012-07-01

    This study investigated the effects of increasing CaCO(3) concentrations (0, 5, 10, 20 mM) on arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) symbiosis establishment as well as on chicory root growth and mineral nutrient uptake in a monoxenic system. Although CaCO(3) treatments significantly decreased root growth and altered the symbiosis-related development steps of the AM fungus Rhizophagus irregularis (germination, germination hypha elongation, root colonization rate, extraradical hyphal development, sporulation), the fungus was able to completely fulfill its life cycle. Even when root growth decreased more drastically in mycorrhizal roots than in non-mycorrhizal ones in the presence of high CaCO(3) levels, the AM symbiosis was found to be beneficial for root mineral uptake. Significant increases in P, N, Fe, Zn and Cu concentrations were recorded in the mycorrhizal roots. Whereas acid and alkaline phosphatase enzymatic activities remained constant in mycorrhizal roots, they were affected in non-mycorrhizal roots grown in the presence of CaCO(3) when compared with the control.

  1. Porous Co3O4 hollow nanododecahedra for nonenzymatic glucose biosensor and biofuel cell.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Erhuan; Xie, Yu; Ci, Suqin; Jia, Jingchun; Wen, Zhenhai

    2016-07-15

    Cobalt oxide hollow nanododecahedra (Co3O4-HND) is synthesized by a facile thermal transformation of cobalt-based metal-organic framework (Co-MOF, ZIF-67) template. The morphology and properties of the Co3O4-HND are characterized by a set of techniques, including transmission electron microscope (TEM), powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM) and Brunner-Emmet-Teller (BET). When tested as a non-enzymatic electrocatalyst for glucose oxidation reaction, the Co3O4-HND exhibits a high activity and shows an outstanding performance for determining glucose with a wide window of 2.0μM to 6.06mM, a high sensitivity of 708.4μAmM(-1)cm(-2), a low detection limit of 0.58μM (S/N=3), and fast response time(<2s). Based on the nonenzymatic oxidation of glucose, Co3O4-HND could be served as an attractive non-enzyme and noble-metal-free electrocatalyst in glucose fuel cell (GFC) due to its excellent electrochemical properties, low cost and facile preparation.

  2. Graphene-Co3O4 nanocomposite as electrocatalyst with high performance for oxygen evolution reaction

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Yufei; Chen, Shuangqiang; Sun, Bing; Su, Dawei; Huang, Xiaodan; Liu, Hao; Yan, Yiming; Sun, Kening; Wang, Guoxiu

    2015-01-01

    Graphene-Co3O4 composite with a unique sandwich-architecture was successfully synthesized and applied as an efficient electrocatalyst for oxygen evolution reaction. Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analyses confirmed that Co3O4 nanocrystals were homogeneously distributed on both sides of graphene nanosheets. The obtained composite shows enhanced catalytic activities in both alkaline and neutral electrolytes. The onset potential towards the oxygen evolution reaction is 0.406 V (vs. Ag/AgCl) in 1 M KOH solution, and 0.858 V (vs. Ag/AgCl) in neutral phosphate buffer solution (PBS), respectively. The current density of 10 mA/cm2 has been achieved at the overpotential of 313 mV in 1 M KOH and 498 mV in PBS. The graphene-Co3O4 composite also exhibited an excellent stability in both alkaline and neutral electrolytes. In particular, no obvious current density decay was observed after 10 hours testing in alkaline solution and the morphology of the material was well maintained, which could be ascribed to the synergistic effect of combining Co3O4 and graphene. PMID:25559459

  3. Effect of CaCO3(S) nucleation modes on algae removal from alkaline water.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jin Yong; Kinney, Kerry A; Katz, Lynn E

    2016-02-29

    The role of calcite heterogeneous nucleation was studied in a particle coagulation treatment process for removing microalgae from water. Batch experiments were conducted with Scenedesmus sp. and Chlorella sp. in the presence and absence of carbonate and in the presence and absence of Mg to delineate the role of CaCO3(S) nucleation on microalgae removal. The results indicate that effective algae coagulation (e.g., up to 81 % algae removal efficiency) can be achieved via heterogeneous nucleation with CaCO3(S); however, supersaturation ratios between 120 and 200 are required to achieve at least 50% algae removal, depending on ion concentrations. Algae removal was attributed to adsorption of Ca(2+) onto the cell surface which provides nucleation sites for CaCO3(S) precipitation. Bridging of calcite particles between the algal cells led to rapid aggregation and formation of larger flocs. However, at higher supersaturation conditions, algae removal was diminished due to the dominance of homogeneous nucleation of CaCO3(S). Removal of algae in the presence of Ca(2+) and Mg(2+) required higher supersaturation values; however, the shift from heteronucleation to homonucleation with increasing supersaturation was still evident. The results suggest that water chemistry, pH, ionic strength, alkalinity and Ca(2+) concentration can be optimized for algae removal via coagulation-sedimentation.

  4. Phase Composition, Microstructure, and Sintering in the System Co-Li 2CO 3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marini, A.; Berbenni, V.; Massarotti, V.; Capsoni, D.; Antolini, E.

    1995-04-01

    Co and Li2CO3 were used as starting materials to obtain cobalt-based plaques of potential use in molten carbonate fuel cell technology. Samples were prepared by thermal treatments in the temperature range 800-1300°C. Their composition and microstructure have been investigated at room temperature by X-ray diffraction analysis (Rietveld refinement), weight change and density data, porosimetry, and scanning electron microscopy. It is shown that a highly nonstoichiometric Co3O4 forms on lithium-containing samples in the entire temperature range investigated, while a stoichiometric Co3O4 is always obtained in the absence of Li. Moreover, clear evidence has been obtained that sinterization starts at lower temperatures on lithiated samples than on pure Co ones and that it causes the formation of consistent amounts of stoichiometric CoO in both types of sample. It is argued that the increased sinterization rate shown by Li-containing samples is due to the highly defective structure of their Co3O4 phase.

  5. Hierarchically triangular prism structured Co3O4: Self-supported fabrication and photocatalytic property

    EPA Science Inventory

    The formation of ammonium cobalt (II) phosphate was utilized to synthesize unprecedented 3D structures of Co3O4, triangular prisms and trunk-like structures, via a self-supported and organics-free method. The length of a triangular side of the prepared 3D triangular prisms is ~1...

  6. Influence of eggshell matrix proteins on the precipitation of calcium carbonate (CaCO 3)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernández-Hernández, A.; Vidal, M. L.; Gómez-Morales, J.; Rodríguez-Navarro, A. B.; Labas, V.; Gautron, J.; Nys, Y.; García Ruiz, J. M.

    2008-04-01

    To understand the role of eggshell organic matrix on the biomineralization process, we have tested the influence of different purified fractions of the eggshell organic matrix on calcium carbonate (CaCO 3) precipitation. Purification was carried out after successive anion-exchange chromatography, hydrophobic interaction chromatography and gel filtration chromatography of two different prepurified eggshell extracts (A) and (B); the purified fractions (named g, h, n and r) and ( c', g', i', k') respectively were diluted to 50 μg/ml before being tested in vitro and analysed by the sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) procedure and mass spectrometry. The precipitation experiments were carried out by the method of vapour diffusion on crystallization mushrooms. Each purified fraction showed a different effect on CaCO 3 precipitation. Some of them exhibited a strong inhibitory effect on nucleation, thus suppressing the precipitation of CaCO 3 almost totally while the others did not produce any notable effect. However, all fractions favoured the precipitation of calcite over the other CaCO 3 polymorphs. Additionally, all fractions modified in a different manner the size and morphology of the precipitated calcite crystals.

  7. Hierarchically ordered mesoporous Co3O4 materials for high performance Li-ion batteries

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Shijiao; Zhao, Xiangyu; Yang, Meng; Wu, Linlin; Wen, Zhaoyin; Shen, Xiaodong

    2016-01-01

    Highly ordered mesoporous Co3O4 materials have been prepared via a nanocasting route with three-dimensional KIT-6 and two-dimensional SBA-15 ordered mesoporous silicas as templates and Co(NO3)2 · 6H2O as precursor. Through changing the hydrothermal treating temperature of the silica template, ordered mesoporous Co3O4 materials with hierarchical structures have been developed. The larger pores around 10 nm provide an efficient transport for Li ions, while the smaller pores between 3–5 nm offer large electrochemically active areas. Electrochemical impedance analysis proves that the hierarchical structure contributes to a lower charge transfer resistance in the mesoporous Co3O4 electrode than the mono-sized structure. High reversible capacities around 1141 mAh g−1 of the hierarchically mesoporous Co3O4 materials are obtained, implying their potential applications for high performance Li-ion batteries. PMID:26781265

  8. Graphene-Co3O4 nanocomposite as electrocatalyst with high performance for oxygen evolution reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Yufei; Chen, Shuangqiang; Sun, Bing; Su, Dawei; Huang, Xiaodan; Liu, Hao; Yan, Yiming; Sun, Kening; Wang, Guoxiu

    2015-01-01

    Graphene-Co3O4 composite with a unique sandwich-architecture was successfully synthesized and applied as an efficient electrocatalyst for oxygen evolution reaction. Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analyses confirmed that Co3O4 nanocrystals were homogeneously distributed on both sides of graphene nanosheets. The obtained composite shows enhanced catalytic activities in both alkaline and neutral electrolytes. The onset potential towards the oxygen evolution reaction is 0.406 V (vs. Ag/AgCl) in 1 M KOH solution, and 0.858 V (vs. Ag/AgCl) in neutral phosphate buffer solution (PBS), respectively. The current density of 10 mA/cm2 has been achieved at the overpotential of 313 mV in 1 M KOH and 498 mV in PBS. The graphene-Co3O4 composite also exhibited an excellent stability in both alkaline and neutral electrolytes. In particular, no obvious current density decay was observed after 10 hours testing in alkaline solution and the morphology of the material was well maintained, which could be ascribed to the synergistic effect of combining Co3O4 and graphene.

  9. Comparative Proteomic Analysis of Puccinellia tenuiflora Leaves under Na2CO3 Stress

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Juanjuan; Chen, Sixue; Wang, Tai; Sun, Guorong; Dai, Shaojun

    2013-01-01

    Soil salt-alkalinization is a widespread environmental stress that limits crop growth and agricultural productivity. The influence of soil alkalization caused by Na2CO3 on plants is more severe than that of soil salinization. Plants have evolved some unique mechanisms to cope with alkali stress; however, the plant alkaline-responsive signaling and molecular pathways are still unknown. In the present study, Na2CO3 responsive characteristics in leaves from 50-day-old seedlings of halophyte Puccinellia tenuiflora were investigated using physiological and proteomic approaches. Comparative proteomics revealed 43 differentially expressed proteins in P. tenuiflora leaves in response to Na2CO3 treatment for seven days. These proteins were mainly involved in photosynthesis, stress and defense, carbohydrate/energy metabolism, protein metabolism, signaling, membrane and transport. By integrating the changes of photosynthesis, ion contents, and stress-related enzyme activities, some unique Na2CO3 responsive mechanisms have been discovered in P. tenuiflora. This study provides new molecular information toward improving the alkali tolerance of cereals. PMID:23322023

  10. Modulation of the Cs2CO3-promoted catalytic amination by a crown ether.

    PubMed

    Torisawa, Y; Nishi, T; Minamikawa, J

    2000-11-06

    The catalytic addition of 18-Crown-6 in some Cs2CO3-promoted amination of triflates and bromides was beneficial to improve sluggish reaction with suppression of the unwanted side products. The protocol was useful for the preparation of chlorinated aryl piperazines from phenol derivatives.

  11. Morphological Control of Co3O4 and Its Photocatalytic Properties

    EPA Science Inventory

    Cobaltosic oxide (Co3O4), a p-type semiconductor, belongs to the normal spinel crystal structure based on a cubic close packing array of oxide ions. The size, surface, geometry, and crystal phase of catalysts are important parameters for controlling their chemical, optical, and ...

  12. Hierarchically triangular prism structured Co3O4: Self-supported fabrication and photocatalytic property

    EPA Science Inventory

    The formation of ammonium cobalt (II) phosphate was utilized to synthesize unprecedented 3D structures of Co3O4, triangular prisms and trunk-like structures, via a self-supported and organics-free method. The length of a triangular side of the prepared 3D triangular prisms is ~1...

  13. Reversible amorphization and the catalytically active state of crystalline Co3O4 during oxygen evolution

    PubMed Central

    Bergmann, Arno; Martinez-Moreno, Elias; Teschner, Detre; Chernev, Petko; Gliech, Manuel; de Araújo, Jorge Ferreira; Reier, Tobias; Dau, Holger; Strasser, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Water splitting catalysed by earth-abundant materials is pivotal for global-scale production of non-fossil fuels, yet our understanding of the active catalyst structure and reactivity is still insufficient. Here we report on the structurally reversible evolution of crystalline Co3O4 electrocatalysts during oxygen evolution reaction identified using advanced in situ X-ray techniques. At electrode potentials facilitating oxygen evolution, a sub-nanometre shell of the Co3O4 is transformed into an X-ray amorphous CoOx(OH)y which comprises di-μ-oxo-bridged Co3+/4+ ions. Unlike irreversible amorphizations, here, the formation of the catalytically-active layer is reversed by re-crystallization upon return to non-catalytic electrode conditions. The Co3O4 material thus combines the stability advantages of a controlled, stable crystalline material with high catalytic activity, thanks to the structural flexibility of its active amorphous oxides. We propose that crystalline oxides may be tailored for generating reactive amorphous surface layers at catalytic potentials, just to return to their stable crystalline state under rest conditions. PMID:26456525

  14. Cloning of the Nocardia corallina polyhydroxyalkanoate synthase gene and production of poly-(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyhexanoate) and poly-(3-hydroxyvalerate-co-3-hydroxyheptanoate).

    PubMed

    Hall, B; Baldwin, J; Rhie, H G; Dennis, D

    1998-07-01

    The polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) synthase gene (phaCNc) from Nocardia corallina was identified in a lambda library on a 6-kb BamHI fragment. A 2.8-kb XhoII subfragment was found to contain the intact PHA synthase. This 2.8-kb fragment was subjected to DNA sequencing and was found to contain the coding region for the PHA synthase and a small downstream open reading frame of unknown function. On the basis of DNA sequence, phaCNc is closest in homology to the PHA synthases (phaCPaI and phaCPaII) of Pseudomonas aeruginosa (approximately 41% identity and 55% similarity). The 2.8-kb XhoII fragment containing phaCNc was subcloned into broad host range mobilizable plasmids and transferred into Escherichia coli, Klebsiella aerogenes (both containing a plasmid bearing phaA and phaB from Ralstonia eutropha), and PHA-negative strains of R. eutropha and Pseudomonas putida. The recombinant strains were grown on various carbon sources and the resulting polymers were analyzed. In these strains, the PHA synthase from N. corallina was able to mediate the production of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyhexanoate) containing high levels of 3-hydroxyhexanoate when grown on hexanoate and larger even-chain fatty acids and poly(3-hydroxyvalerate-co-3-hydroxyheptanoate) containing high levels of 3-hydroxyheptanoate when grown on heptanoate or larger odd-chain fatty acids.

  15. Single Crystalline Co3O4 Nanocrystals Exposed with Different Crystal Planes for Li-O2 Batteries

    PubMed Central

    Su, Dawei; Dou, Shixue; Wang, Guoxiu

    2014-01-01

    Single crystalline Co3O4 nanocrystals exposed with different crystal planes were synthesised, including cubic Co3O4 nanocrystals enclosed by {100} crystal planes, pseudo octahedral Co3O4 enclosed by {100} and {110} crystal planes, Co3O4 nanosheets exposed by {110} crystal planes, hexagonal Co3O4 nanoplatelets exposed with {111} crystal planes, and Co3O4 nanolaminar exposed with {112} crystal planes. Well single crystalline features of these Co3O4 nanocrystals were confirmed by FESEM and HRTEM analyses. The electrochemical performance for Li-O2 batteries shows that Co3O4 nanocrystals can significantly reduce the discharge-charge over-potential via the effect on the oxygen evolution reaction (OER). From the comparison on their catalytic performances, we found that the essential factor to promote the oxygen evolution reactions is the surface crystal planes of Co3O4 nanocrystals, namely, crystal planes-dependent process. The correlation between different Co3O4 crystal planes and their effect on reducing charge-discharge over-potential was established: {100} < {110} < {112} < {111}. PMID:25169737

  16. Preparation of Ag2O/Ag2CO3/MWNTs composite photocatalysts for enhancement of ciprofloxacin degradation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Huiqin; Li, Jinze; Huo, Pengwei; Yan, Yongsheng; Guan, Qingfeng

    2016-03-01

    The Ag2O/Ag2CO3/multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWNTs) composite photocatalysts were prepared by calcination of the obtained precipitate. The structures and morphology of as-prepared composite photocatalysts were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS), photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The Ag2O/Ag2CO3/MWNTs composite photocatalysts exhibit higher degradation rate of ciprofloxacin (CIP) than the pure Ag2CO3, Ag2O/Ag2CO3 and Ag2CO3/MWNTs under visible light irradiation. The amount of loaded Ag2CO3 onto MWNTs and calcined time for Ag2CO3/MWNTs were systematically investigated, and the optimal amount of loaded Ag2CO3 and calcined time of Ag2CO3/MWNTs are 150 wt% and 10 min, respectively. The highest photocatalytic degradation rate of CIP could reach 76% under optimal conditions. The active species trapping experiments were also analyzed, the results show that the holes are main contributor for the degradation processes of CIP, furthermore the electrons, rad O2- and rad OH are also crucially influenced the photocatalytic degradation processes of CIP. The possible photocatalytic processes of CIP with Ag2O/Ag2CO3/MWNTs composite photocatalyst are also proposed.

  17. Enzyme-assisted growth of nacreous CaCO3/polymer hybrid nanolaminates via the formation of mineral bridges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeom, Bongjun; Char, Kookheon

    2016-06-01

    Laminated nanostructures in nacre have been adopted as models in the fabrication of strong, tough synthetic nanocomposites. However, the utilization of CaCO3 biominerals in these composites is limited by the complexity of the synthesis method for nanosized biominerals. In this study, we use the enzymatic reaction of urease to generate a nanoscale CaCO3 thin film to prepare CaCO3/polymer hybrid nanolaminates. Additional layers of CaCO3 thin film are consecutively grown over the base CaCO3 layer with the intercalation of organic layers. The morphology and crystallinity of the added CaCO3 layers depend strongly on the thickness of the organic layer coated on the underlying CaCO3 layer. When the organic layer is less than 20 nm thick, the amorphous CaCO3 layer is spontaneously transformed into crystalline calcite layer during the growth process. We also observe crystalline continuity between adjacent CaCO3 layers through interconnecting mineral bridges. The formation of these mineral bridges is crucial to the epitaxial growth of CaCO3 layers, similar to the formation of natural nacre.

  18. Au/3DOM Co3O4: highly active nanocatalysts for the oxidation of carbon monoxide and toluene.

    PubMed

    Xie, Shaohua; Dai, Hongxing; Deng, Jiguang; Liu, Yuxi; Yang, Huanggen; Jiang, Yang; Tan, Wei; Ao, Aisun; Guo, Guangsheng

    2013-11-21

    Three-dimensionally ordered macroporous Co3O4 (3DOM Co3O4) and its supported gold (xAu/3DOM Co3O4, x = 1.1-8.4 wt%) nanocatalysts were prepared using the polymethyl methacrylate-templating and bubble-assisted polyvinyl alcohol-protected reduction methods, respectively. The 3DOM Co3O4 and xAu/3DOM Co3O4 samples exhibited a surface area of 22-27 m(2) g(-1). The Au nanoparticles with a size of 2.4-3.7 nm were uniformly deposited on the macropore walls of 3DOM Co3O4. There were good correlations of oxygen adspecies concentration and low-temperature reducibility with catalytic activity of the sample for CO and toluene oxidation. Among 3DOM Co3O4 and xAu/3DOM Co3O4, the 6.5Au/3DOM Co3O4 sample performed the best, giving a T90% (the temperature required for achieving a conversion of 90%) of -35 °C at a space velocity of 20 000 mL g(-1) h(-1) for CO oxidation and 256 °C at a space velocity of 40 000 mL g(-1) h(-1) for toluene oxidation. The effect of water vapor was more significant in toluene oxidation than in CO oxidation. The apparent activation energies (26 and 74 kJ mol(-1)) over 6.5Au/3DOM Co3O4 were lower than those (34 and 113 kJ mol(-1)) over 3DOM Co3O4 for CO and toluene oxidation, respectively. It is concluded that the higher oxygen adspecies concentration, better low-temperature reducibility, and strong interaction between Au and 3DOM Co3O4 were responsible for the excellent catalytic performance of 6.5Au/3DOM Co3O4.

  19. First-principles calculation of adsorption of shale gas on CaCO3 (100) surfaces.

    PubMed

    Luo, Qiang; Pan, Yikun; Guo, Ping; Wang, Zhouhua; Wei, Na; Sun, Pengfei; Liu, Yuxiao

    2017-06-16

    To demonstrate the adsorption strength of shale gas to calcium carbonate in shale matrix, the adsorption of shale gas on CaCO3 (100) surfaces was studied using the first-principles method, which is based on the density functional theory (DFT). The structures and electronic properties of CH4, C2H6, CO2 and N2 molecules were calculated by the generalized gradient approximation (GGA), for a coverage of 1 monolayer (ML). Under the same conditions, the density of states (DOS) of CaCO3 (100) surfaces before and after the adsorption of shale gas molecules at high-symmetry adsorption sites were compared. The results showed that the adsorption energies of CH4, C2H6, CO2 and N2 on CaCO3 (100) surfaces were between 0.2683 eV and -0.7388 eV. When a CH4 molecule was adsorbed at a hollow site and its 2 hydrogen atoms were parallel to the long diagonal (H3) on the CaCO3 (100) surface, it had the most stable adsorption, and the adsorption energy was only -0.4160 eV. The change of adsorption energy of CH4 was no more than 0.0535 eV. Compared with the DOS distribution of CH4 before adsorption, it shifted to the left overall after adsorption. At the same time, the partial density of states (PDOS) curves of CaCO3 (100) surfaces before and after adsorption basically overlapped. This work showed that the adsorption effect of shale gas on calcium carbonate is very weak, and the adsorption is physisorption at the molecular level.

  20. PAA-PAMPS copolymers as an efficient tool to control CaCO3 scale formation.

    PubMed

    Dietzsch, Michael; Barz, Matthias; Schüler, Timo; Klassen, Stefanie; Schreiber, Martin; Susewind, Moritz; Loges, Niklas; Lang, Michael; Hellmann, Nadja; Fritz, Monika; Fischer, Karl; Theato, Patrick; Kühnle, Angelika; Schmidt, Manfred; Zentel, Rudolf; Tremel, Wolfgang

    2013-03-05

    Scale formation, the deposition of certain minerals such as CaCO3, MgCO3, and CaSO4·2H2O in industrial facilities and household devices, leads to reduced efficiency or severe damage. Therefore, incrustation is a major problem in everyday life. In recent years, double hydrophilic block copolymers (DHBCs) have been the focus of interest in academia with regard to their antiscaling potential. In this work, we synthesized well-defined blocklike PAA-PAMPS copolymers consisting of acrylic acid (AA) and 2-acrylamido-2-methyl-propane sulfonate (AMPS) units in a one-step reaction by RAFT polymerization. The derived copolymers had dispersities of 1.3 and below. The copolymers have then been investigated in detail regarding their impact on the different stages of the crystallization process of CaCO3. Ca(2+) complexation, the first step of a precipitation process, and polyelectrolyte stability in aqueous solution have been investigated by potentiometric measurements, isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC), and dynamic light scattering (DLS). A weak Ca(2+) induced copolymer aggregation without concomitant precipitation was observed. Nucleation, early particle growth, and colloidal stability have been monitored in situ with DLS. The copolymers retard or even completely suppress nucleation, most probably by complexation of solution aggregates. In addition, they stabilize existing CaCO3 particles in the nanometer regime. In situ AFM was used as a tool to verify the coordination of the copolymer to the calcite (104) crystal surface and to estimate its potential as a growth inhibitor in a supersaturated CaCO3 environment. All investigated copolymers instantly stopped further crystal growth. The carboxylate richest copolymer as the most promising antiscaling candidate proved its enormous potential in scale inhibition as well in an industrial-filming test (Fresenius standard method).

  1. Testing the cation-hydration effect on the crystallization of Ca–Mg–CO3 systems

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Jie; Yan, Chao; Zhang, Fangfu; Konishi, Hiromi; Teng, H. Henry

    2013-01-01

    Dolomite and magnesite are simple anhydrous calcium and/or magnesium carbonate minerals occurring mostly at Earth surfaces. However, laboratory synthesis of neither species at ambient temperature and pressure conditions has been proven practically possible, and the lack of success was assumed to be related to the strong solvation shells of magnesium ions in aqueous media. Here, we report the synthesis of MgCO3 and MgxCa(1−x)CO3 (0 < x < 1) solid phases at ambient conditions in the absence of water. Experiments were carried out in dry organic solvent, and the results showed that, although anhydrous phases were readily precipitated in the water-free environment, the precipitates’ crystallinity was highly dependent on the Mg molar percentage content in the solution. In specific, magnesian calcite dominated in low [Mg2+]/[Ca2+] solutions but gave way to exclusive formation of amorphous MgxCa(1−x)CO3 and MgCO3 in high-[Mg2+]/[Ca2+] and pure-Mg solutions. At conditions of [Mg2+]/[Ca2+] = 1, both nanocrystals of Ca-rich protodolomite and amorphous phase of Mg-rich MgxCa(1−x)CO3 were formed. These findings exposed a previously unrecognized intrinsic barrier for Mg2+ and CO32− to develop long-range orders at ambient conditions and suggested that the long-held belief of cation-hydration inhibition on dolomite and magnesite mineralization needed to be reevaluated. Our study provides significant insight into the long-standing “dolomite problem” in geochemistry and mineralogy and may promote a better understanding of the fundamental chemistry in biomineralization and mineral-carbonation processes. PMID:24127571

  2. CaCO3, its reaction and carbonate rocks: terahertz spectroscopy investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhan, Honglei; Wu, Shixiang; Zhao, Kun; Bao, Rima; Xiao, Lizhi

    2016-10-01

    Carbonate-rich rocks cover a primary part of the earth’s petroleum geology reservoir. The study of carbonate has special significance and more effective study methods are now needed. In order to improve the availability of carbonate rock detection, terahertz (THz) spectroscopy was employed to investigate relevant materials in Na2CO3  +  CaCl2  =  CaCO3  +  2NaCl, which is often used to generate CaCO3. By comparing the materials composited with different ions, it can be revealed that Ca2+, \\text{CO}32- , Na+ and Cl- have respective absorption features at different frequencies. Furthermore, by utilizing a conservation equation it can be observed that the average refractive indices of Na2CO3 as well as CaCl2 equal those of CaCO3 and NaCl in the entire range. Combining the absorption and refractive effect of the materials in the reaction can comprehensively characterize the different substances and reveal the inner interaction during the reaction. THz spectra can deduce the process of molecule rearrangement in the chemical reaction of long-term rock evolution. Besides, the absorption features of the real carbonate rock collected from the nearest town of Sinan county, Guizhou province in Yunnan-Guizhou plateau validate the peaks’ central frequencies of ions and the principal components of carbonates, which can be in agreement with the SEM-EDS analysis. This research will supply a spectral tool to identify the particles in the rock and deduce an evolution of petroleum carbonate reservoir.

  3. Using the VAHIRR Radar Algorithm to Investigate Lightning Cessation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stano, Geoffrey T.; Schultz, Elise V.; Petersen, Walter A.

    2012-01-01

    Accurately determining the threat posed by lightning is a major area for improved operational forecasts. Most efforts have focused on the initiation of lightning within a storm, with far less effort spent investigating lightning cessation. Understanding both components, initiation and cessation, are vital to improving lightning safety. Few organizations actively forecast lightning onset or cessation. One such organization is the 45th Weather Squadron (45WS) for the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) and Cape Canaveral Air Force Station (CCAFS). The 45WS has identified that charged anvil clouds remain a major threat of continued lightning and can greatly extend the window of a potential lightning strike. Furthermore, no discernable trend of total lightning activity has been observed consistently for all storms. This highlights the need for more research to find a robust method of knowing when a storm will cease producing lightning. Previous lightning cessation work has primarily focused on forecasting the cessation of cloud-to -ground lightning only. A more recent, statistical study involved total lightning (both cloud-to-ground and intracloud). Each of these previous works has helped the 45WS take steps forward in creating improved and ultimately safer lightning cessation forecasts. Each study has either relied on radar data or recommended increased use of radar data to improve cessation forecasts. The reasoning is that radar data is able to either directly or by proxy infer more about dynamical environment leading to cloud electrification and eventually lightning cessation. The authors of this project are focusing on a two ]step approach to better incorporate radar data and total lightning to improve cessation forecasts. This project will utilize the Volume Averaged Height Integrated Radar Reflectivity (VAHIRR) algorithm originally developed during the Airborne Field Mill II (ABFM II) research project. During the project, the VAHIRR product showed a trend of increasing

  4. Expression of the nir and nor genes for denitrification of Pseudomonas aeruginosa requires a novel CRP/FNR-related transcriptional regulator, DNR, in addition to ANR.

    PubMed

    Arai, H; Igarashi, Y; Kodama, T

    1995-08-28

    A gene, designated dnr, was identified in the vicinity of the structural genes for nitrite reductase (nirS) and nitric oxide reductase (norCB), and the gene for activation of the reductases (nirQ) from Pseudomonas aeruginosa. It encodes a protein of 227 amino acids homologous with the CRP/FNR-family transcriptional regulators. Promoter activities for nirS, nirQ and norCB were considerably reduced in the dnr mutant as well as in the mutant of anr, the other fnr-like regulatory gene from P. aeruginosa. This is the first finding that two CRP/FNR-related regulators are involved in denitrification in one strain.

  5. Tobacco Use Cessation and Prevention – A Review

    PubMed Central

    Doshi, Dolar; Bandari, Srikanth Reddy; Madupu, Padma Reddy; Kulkarni, Suhas

    2016-01-01

    Tobacco use is a major preventable cause of premature death and disease, currently leading to over five million deaths each year worldwide. Smoking or chewing tobacco can seriously affect general, as well as oral health. Oral health professionals play an important role in promoting tobacco free-lifestyles. They should counsel their patients not to smoke; and reinforce the anti-tobacco message and refer the patients to smoking cessation services. Dentists are in a unique position to educate and motivate patients concerning the hazards of tobacco to their oral and systemic health, and to provide intervention programs as a part of routine patient care. Tobacco cessation is necessary to reduce morbidity and mortality related to tobacco use. Strategies for tobacco cessation involves 5 A’s and 5 R’s approach, quit lines and pharmacotherapy. Additionally, tobacco cessation programs should be conducted at community, state and national levels. Various policies should be employed for better tobacco control. Governments should implement the tobacco control measures to reduce the prevalence of tobacco use and exposure to tobacco smoke. In addition, there should be availability of leaflets, brochures, continuing patient education materials regarding tobacco cessation. PMID:27437378

  6. Effects of Opium Smoking Cessation on the Nasopharyngeal Microbial Flora

    PubMed Central

    Golshiri, Ali; Mokhtaree, Mohammad Reza; Shabani, Ziba; Tabatabaee, Sayed Taghi; Rahnama, Amir; Moradi, Mohammad; Sayadi, Ahamad Reza; Faezi, Hadi

    2009-01-01

    Background: To determine the effect of opium smoking cessation on the frequency and type of microorganisms in the nasopharynx of opium smokers. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study performed in psychology and ENT department of Moradi Hospital of Rafsanjan University of Medical Sciences in 2008 (Kerman, Iran). Nasopharyngeal cultures were taken from 50 opium smokers before and 2 to 3 months after cessation of opium smoking. Potential pathogens were identified. Findings: Eight potential pathogens were isolated from nasopharyngeal cultures obtained from 43 individuals before opium smoking cessation, and 4 were recovered from 33 individuals after cessation (P < 0.0001). Streptococcus pneumonia, staphylococcus saprofiticus, streptococos α hemolytic, and staphylococcus aureus in 2nd culture were not seen. The most sensitivity to antibiotics was related to ceftriaxone (84%), ciprofloxacin (74%) and cloxacillin (72%); the most resistance was to amoxicillin (26%) and the least resistance was to chloramphenicol. Conclusion: In our study, some potential pathogens decreased or even disapeared after opium cessation. Our patients have not been advised to change their number of cigarettes. We have used methadone pill for substitution of opium. It seems that opium smoking affects nasopharyngeal flora. PMID:24494075

  7. Effects of opium smoking cessation on the nasopharyngeal microbial flora.

    PubMed

    Golshiri, Ali; Mokhtaree, Mohammad Reza; Shabani, Ziba; Tabatabaee, Sayed Taghi; Rahnama, Amir; Moradi, Mohammad; Sayadi, Ahamad Reza; Faezi, Hadi

    2009-01-01

    To determine the effect of opium smoking cessation on the frequency and type of microorganisms in the nasopharynx of opium smokers. This was a cross-sectional study performed in psychology and ENT department of Moradi Hospital of Rafsanjan University of Medical Sciences in 2008 (Kerman, Iran). Nasopharyngeal cultures were taken from 50 opium smokers before and 2 to 3 months after cessation of opium smoking. Potential pathogens were identified. Eight potential pathogens were isolated from nasopharyngeal cultures obtained from 43 individuals before opium smoking cessation, and 4 were recovered from 33 individuals after cessation (P < 0.0001). Streptococcus pneumonia, staphylococcus saprofiticus, streptococos α hemolytic, and staphylococcus aureus in 2(nd) culture were not seen. The most sensitivity to antibiotics was related to ceftriaxone (84%), ciprofloxacin (74%) and cloxacillin (72%); the most resistance was to amoxicillin (26%) and the least resistance was to chloramphenicol. In our study, some potential pathogens decreased or even disapeared after opium cessation. Our patients have not been advised to change their number of cigarettes. We have used methadone pill for substitution of opium. It seems that opium smoking affects nasopharyngeal flora.

  8. The Use of Financial Incentives in Promoting Smoking Cessation

    PubMed Central

    Sigmon, Stacey C.; Patrick, Mollie E.

    2012-01-01

    Objective Cigarette smoking is the leading cause of preventable death in the U.S. and world. Despite the availability of numerous therapies for smoking cessation, additional efficacious interventions are greatly needed. We provide a narrative review of published studies evaluating financial incentives for smoking cessation and discuss the parameters important for ensuring the efficacy of incentive interventions for smoking cessation. Methods Published studies that evaluated the impact of incentives to promote smoking cessation and included an appropriate control or comparison condition were identified and reviewed. Results Incentives are efficacious for promoting smoking abstinence across the general population of smokers as well as substance abusers, adolescents, patients with pulmonary disease, patients with serious mental illness and other challenging subgroups. To develop and implement an effective incentive treatment for smoking, special attention should be paid to biochemical verification of smoking status, incentive magnitude and the schedule of incentive delivery. Conclusion Consistent with the extensive literature showing that incentives are effective in reducing illicit drug use, a large body of evidence supports their effectiveness in reducing smoking. Continued efforts are warranted to further develop and disseminate incentive-based treatments for smoking cessation across clinical settings and populations. PMID:22525802

  9. [Alternative therapies for smoking cessation: clinical practice guidelines review].

    PubMed

    Astrid Becerra, Nelci; Alba, Luz Helena; Castillo, Juan Sebastián; Murillo, Raúl; Cañas, Alejandra; García-Herreros, Plutarco

    2012-01-01

    smoking is a chronic disease in the group of addictions and its treatment includes two components:psychosocial and pharmacological intervention. Other types of therapeutic approaches have been used as treatment options for tobacco addiction. Acupuncture, hypnosis and homeopathy are the most used nonconventional interventions. review the available evidence in regards to the use of alternative therapies for smoking cessation in the adult population from the published clinical practice guidelines (CPG). we performed an adaptation process of clinical recommendations from a systematic review of the literature specifically related to the use of alternative therapies for smoking cessation. we found 925 references, 9 were pre-screened and selected 5 CPG for adaptation.Acupuncture and related techniques do not improve abstinence rates compared to the placebo effect. There is insufficient evidence to recommend the use of hypnosis as a therapy for smoking cessation. There is no evidence that justifies the use of homeopathic medicines for the treatment of smoking. alternative therapies have not demonstrated efficacy in cessation. It is recommended to use other treatment options with proven efficacy for smoking cessation.

  10. Effects of smoking cessation on hormonal levels in men.

    PubMed

    Hruškovičová, H; Dušková, M; Simůnková, K; Hill, M; Pospíšilová, H; Rácz, B; Králíková, E; Vondra, K; Stárka, L

    2013-01-01

    Chronic smoking can cause imbalance in endocrine homeostasis and impairment of fertility in both sexes. The male reproductive system is more resilient, still the literature provides conflicting results about the influence of smoking on the steroid hormone levels. The data about smoking cessation are limited; there has not yet been a study primarily focused on changes in steroids levels. In our study, we analyzed levels of testosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate (DHEAS), cortisol and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) in male smokers and during smoking cessation. Monitored analytes were determined by RIA. The free testosterone index was calculated. Basal samples of men successful and unsuccessful in smoking cessation did not differ and monitored hormones could hardly predict success of smoking cessation. After one year without smoking, a significant BMI increase and SHBG decrease in former smokers was observed. The decrease in total testosterone was non-significant. Changes in SHBG and testosterone did not correlate with BMI, presumably due to the direct effect of smoking cessation.

  11. Effect of opium smoking cessation on the nasopharyngeal microbial flora.

    PubMed

    Golshiri, Ali; Shabani, Ziba; Mokhtaree, Mohammad R; Sayadi, Ahmad R; Faezi, Hadi

    2010-01-01

    To determine the effect of opium smoking cessation on the frequency and type of microorganisms in the nasopharynx of opium smokers. This cross-sectional study was performed in the Psychiatry, and Ear, Nose, and Throat Departments, Moradi Hospital, Rafsanjan University of Medical Sciences, Rafsanjan, Iran from June to November 2008. Nasopharyngeal cultures were taken from 50 opium smokers before, and 2-3 months after cessation of opium smoking. Potential pathogens were identified. Patients were not advised to change their number of cigarettes, and we used methadone for the substitution of opium. Eight potential pathogens were isolated from nasopharyngeal cultures obtained from 43 individuals before opium smoking cessation, and 4 were recovered from 33 individuals after cessation (p=0.03). Streptococcus pneumoniae, Staphylococcus saprophyticus, Streptococcus alpha hemolytic, and Staphylococcus aureus were not found in the second culture. The most sensitivity to antibiotics was for ceftriaxone (84%), ciprofloxacin (74%), and cloxacillin (72%), and the most resistance for amoxicillin (26%) and the least resistance for chloramphenicol. Some potential pathogens decrease or are even absent after opium cessation. Opium smoking affects the nasopharyngeal flora.

  12. Exploring a Physically Based Tool for Lightning Cessation: Preliminary Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schultz, Elsie V.; Petersen, Walter A.; Carey, Lawrence D.; Buechler, Dennis E.; Gatlin, Patrick N.

    2010-01-01

    The University of Alabama in Huntsville (UAHuntsville) and NASA s Marshall Space Flight Center are collaborating with the 45th Weather Squadron (45WS) at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station (CCAFS) to enable improved nowcasting of lightning cessation. The project centers on use of dual-polarimetric radar capabilities, and in particular, the new C-band dual-polarimetric weather radar acquired by the 45WS. Special emphasis is placed on the development of a physically based operational algorithm to predict lightning cessation. While previous studies have developed statistically based lightning cessation algorithms, we believe that dual-polarimetric radar variables offer the possibility to improve existing algorithms through the inclusion of physically meaningful trends reflecting interactions between in-cloud electric fields and microphysics. Specifically, decades of polarimetric radar research using propagation differential phase has demonstrated the presence of distinct phase and ice crystal alignment signatures in the presence of strong electric fields associated with lightning. One question yet to be addressed is: To what extent can these ice-crystal alignment signatures be used to nowcast the cessation of lightning activity in a given storm? Accordingly, data from the UAHuntsville Advanced Radar for Meteorological and Operational Research (ARMOR) along with the North Alabama Lightning Mapping Array are used in this study to investigate the radar signatures present before and after lightning cessation. A summary of preliminary results will be presented.

  13. A smoking cessation counsellor: should every hospital have one?

    PubMed

    Prathiba, B V; Tjeder, S; Phillips, C; Campbell, I A

    1998-12-01

    The study was performed in order to ascertain the sustained smoking cessation rate in hospital patients who received a structured programme of advice and support from a counsellor and to estimate the cost-effectiveness of such an intervention. Hospital in-patients out-patients were referred by their physician/surgeon to the smoking cessation counsellor who provided advice to reinforce that of the doctor and gave support by repeated follow-up sessions, weekly in the first month and thereafter at three, six and twelve months. Of 1,155 patients referred to the counsellor, 114 (13%) failed to keep the first appointment and 348 (30%) attended for advice on one occasion only. Among the latter, the self-reported sustained cessation rate at one year was 5%. In the 663 patients who participated in the programme the validated (expired air CO) 12-month, sustained cessation rate was 21%. Allowing 7.5% success rate among patients receiving a physician's advice only, the cost of each additional success achieved as a result of the programme is 851 Pounds and the cost per life year saved is between 340 Pounds and 426 Pounds. Assuming that after one year's abstinence relapse rates are relatively small, this represents a sound investment in the light of the cost of treating patients with smoking-related illnesses and compares favourably with other smoking cessation strategies and health care interventions.

  14. Tobacco Withdrawal Components and Their Relations with Cessation Success

    PubMed Central

    Piper, Megan E.; Schlam, Tanya R.; Cook, Jessica W.; Sheffer, Megan A.; Smith, Stevens S.; Loh, Wei-Yin; Bolt, Daniel M.; Kim, Su-Young; Kaye, Jesse T.; Hefner, Kathryn R.; Baker, Timothy B.

    2011-01-01

    Rationale Tobacco withdrawal is a key factor in smoking relapse, but important questions about the withdrawal phenomenon remain. Objectives This research was intended to provide information about two core components of withdrawal (negative affect and craving): 1) how various withdrawal symptom profile dimensions (e.g., mean level, volatility, extreme values) differ between negative affect and craving; and 2) how these dimensions relate to cessation outcome. Methods Adult smokers (N=1504) in a double-blind randomized placebo-controlled smoking cessation trial provided real-time withdrawal symptom data four times per day for 4 weeks (2 weeks pre-quit and 2 weeks post-quit) via palmtop computers. Cessation outcome was biochemically confirmed 8-week point-prevalence abstinence. Results Examination of craving and negative affect dimensions following a cessation attempt revealed that craving symptoms differed from negative affect symptoms, with higher means, greater variability, and a greater incidence of extreme peaks. Regression analyses revealed that abstinence was associated with lower mean levels of both craving and negative affect and fewer incidences of extreme craving peaks. In a multivariate model, the increase in mean craving and negative affect scores each uniquely predicted relapse. Conclusions Real-time reports revealed different patterns of abstinence-related negative affect and craving and that dimensions of both predict cessation outcome, suggesting that negative affect and craving dimensions each has motivational significance. This underscores the complexity of withdrawal as a determinant of relapse and the need to measure its distinct components and dimensions. PMID:21416234

  15. Effect of Medicaid coverage of tobacco-dependence treatments on smoking cessation.

    PubMed

    Liu, Feng

    2009-12-01

    Smoking cessation aids (nicotine replacement products and anti-depressant medication) have been proven to double quitting rates compared to placebo in several randomized controlled trials. But the high initial cost of cessation aids might create a financial barrier to cessation for low-income smokers. In the U.S., Medicaid provides health insurance coverage to low-income people, and in some states covers smoking cessation products. This paper uses nationally representative data of the U.S. to examine how the Medicaid coverage of cessation aids affect smoking behavior. The results indicate the Medicaid coverage of cessation products is positively associated with successful quitting among women aged 18-44.

  16. Changes in CaCO3 Burial Trump the Biological Pump

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toggweiler, J.; Dunne, J. P.

    2008-12-01

    The dramatic increases in atmospheric CO2 at the ends of ice ages are usually attributed to a one-two punch coming from the ocean. First, a weakened biological pump vents organically cycled CO2 from the deep ocean via changes in the ventilation of the deep ocean around Antarctica. The initial CO2 increase is then augmented by an enhancement of CaCO3 burial due to a process called CaCO3 compensation (after Broecker, W. S and T.-H. Peng, Global Biogeochem. Cycles, 1, 15-29, 1987). Here, we argue that the importance of the biological pump has been exaggerated. The main effect comes from circulation-induced changes in the burial of CaCO3. As shown in a recent paper by Andreas Schmittner and co-authors (Schmittner, A., E. Brook and J. Ahn, Impact of the ocean's overturning circulation on atmospheric CO2, in Ocean Circulation: Mechanisms and Impacts, Geophys. Monogr. 173, A. Schmittner, J. Chiang, and S. Hemming, eds., pp. 209-246, AGU, 2007) changes in the ventilation of the deep ocean around Antarctica gave rise to 20-30 ppm increases in atmospheric CO2 every 5,000-7,000 years during isotope stages 3 and 4 (30,000 to 70,000 years ago). None of these venting events gave rise to a compensation response. Meanwhile, Jaccard et al. (Science, 308, 1003-1006, 2005) show that all the big CO2 increases during terminations through stage 11 were accompanied by huge increases in CaCO3 burial. This suggests that the enhanced burial of CaCO3 is obligatory rather than compensatory with respect to the dramatic CO2 increases. Broecker and Peng's compensation idea is based on an assumption that the rain of CaCO3 to the sea floor is the same everywhere. More specifically, it assumes that there is no spatial correlation between the production of CaCO3 at the surface and the burial on the sea floor. We find instead that the production and burial of CaCO3 tend to be co-located in regional "hot spots" and that burial in the hot spots balances the input of Ca++ and HCO3- ions in rivers. The

  17. Facile synthesis of Co3O4 spheres and their unexpected high specific discharge capacity for Lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhengdong; Qu, Shaohua; Cheng, Yonghong; Zheng, Chenghui; Chen, Siyu; Wu, Hongjing

    2017-09-01

    We report a facile, one-pot hydrothermal synthesis of Co3O4 solid spheres and multi-shelled Co3O4 hollow spheres with a controlled number of movable internal Co3O4 shells. Moreover, the magnetic properties of the multi-shelled Co3O4 hollow spheres were first investigated by the SQUID magnetometer. Interestingly, the Co3O4 solid spheres calcined at 430 °C deliver an unexpected high specific discharge capacity of 1976 and 1129 mAh g-1 for the 17th and 100th cycle at 100 mA g-1, respectively. In addition, the Co3O4 solid spheres calcined at 430 °C also show good capacity retention (i.e., 1129 mAh g-1 after 100 cycles). The significant performance improvement offers the potential to open up an avenue for next-generation LIBs.

  18. Reducing and Uniforming the Co3 O 4 Particle Size by Sulfonated Graphenal Polymers for Electrochemical Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xin; Liu, Xubo; Zeng, Sha; Fang, Jianhui; Men, Chuanling; Zhang, Xiaohua; Li, Qingwen

    2017-03-01

    A novel two-dimensional (2D) nanomaterial, namely sulfonated graphenal polymer (SGP), is used to tune the hydrothermal growth of Co3O4 nanoparticles. SGP provides abundant nucleation sites to grow Co3O4 nanoparticles and effectively reduces the particle size and dimension. As a result, with considering the improved size uniformity of Co3O4 and the tight wrapping of SGP around Co3O4 as well, the Co3O4/SGP hybrid electrode exhibits a high specific electrochemical capacitance of 234.28 F/g at a current density of 0.2 A/g, 237% higher than that of the pure Co3O4 electrode. By using the hybrid as the anode of an all-solid-state asymmetric supercapacitor, the capacitance can be well maintained up to 93% after 5000 cycles even at 2 A/g.

  19. Hierarchical porous microspheres of the Co3O4@graphene with enhanced electrocatalytic performance for electrochemical biosensors.

    PubMed

    Yang, MinHo; Jeong, Jae-Min; Lee, Kyoung G; Kim, Do Hyun; Lee, Seok Jae; Choi, Bong Gill

    2017-03-15

    The integration of organic and inorganic building blocks into hierarchical porous architectures makes potentially desirable electrocatalytic materials in many electrochemical applications due to their combination of attractive qualities of dissimilar components and well-constructed charge transfer pathways. Herein, we demonstrate the preparation of the hierarchical porous Co3O4@graphene (Co3O4@G) microspheres by one-step hydrothermal method to achieve high electrocatalytic performance for enzyme-free biosensor applications. The obtained Co3O4@G microspheres are consisted of the interconnected networks of Co3O4 and graphene sheets, and thus provide large accessible active sites through porous structure, while graphene sheets offer continuous electron pathways for efficient electrocatalytic reaction of Co3O4. These structural merits with synergy effect of Co3O4 and graphene lead to a high performance of enzyme-free detection for glucose: high sensitivity, good selectivity, and remarkable stability.

  20. A Pilot Test of Self-Affirmations to Promote Smoking Cessation in a National Smoking Cessation Text Messaging Program.

    PubMed

    Taber, Jennifer M; Klein, William M P; Ferrer, Rebecca A; Augustson, Erik; Patrick, Heather

    2016-06-08

    Although effective smoking cessation treatments, including mHealth interventions, have been empirically validated and are widely available, smoking relapse is likely. Self-affirmation, a process through which individuals focus on their strengths and behaviors, has been shown to reduce negative effects of self-threats and to promote engagement in healthier behavior. To assess the feasibility of incorporating self-affirmations into an existing text messaging-based smoking cessation program (Smokefree TXT) and to determine whether self-affirmation led to greater engagement and higher cessation rates than the standard intervention. Data were collected from smokers (n=1261) who subscribed to a free smoking cessation program and met eligibility criteria. The intervention lasted 42 days. The original design was a 2 (Baseline affirmation: 5-item questionnaire present vs absent) × 2 (Integrated affirmation: texts present vs absent) factorial design. Only 17 eligible users completed all baseline affirmation questions and these conditions did not influence any outcomes, so we collapsed across baseline affirmation conditions in analysis. In the integrated affirmation conditions, affirmations replaced approximately 20% of texts delivering motivational content. In all, 687 users remained enrolled throughout the 42-day intervention and 81 reported smoking status at day 42. Among initiators (n=1261), self-affirmation did not significantly improve (1) intervention completion, (2) days enrolled, (3) 1-week smoking status, or (4) 6-week smoking status (all Ps>.10); and among the 687 completers, there were no significant effects of affirmation on cessation (Ps>.25). However, among the 81 responders, those who received affirmations were more likely to report cessation at 6 weeks (97.5%; 39 of 40) than those not given affirmations (78.1%; 32 of 41; χ(2)(1)=7.08, P=.008). This proof-of-concept study provides preliminary evidence that self-affirmation can be integrated into existing

  1. mHealth for Smoking Cessation Programs: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Ghorai, Koel; Akter, Shahriar; Khatun, Fatema; Ray, Pradeep

    2014-01-01

    mHealth transforms healthcare delivery around the world due to its affordability and right time availability. It has been used for delivery of various smoking cessation programs and interventions over the past decade. With the proliferation of smartphone usage around the world, many smartphone applications are being developed for curbing smoking among smokers. Various interventions like SMS, progress tracking, distractions, peer chats and others are being provided to users through smartphone applications. This paper presents a systematic review that analyses the applications of mobile phones in smoking cessations. The synthesis of the diverse concepts within the literature on smoking cessations using mobile phones provides deeper insights in the emerging mHealth landscape. PMID:25563359

  2. Cessation of Smoking and Alcohol Addiction Following Thalamic Hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Najeeb, Fatima; Silver, Brian; Khan, Muhib

    2016-11-01

    We describe a case of thalamic intracerebral hemorrhage leading to cessation of smoking. A 53-year-old female presented to the emergency department with right-sided weakness and dysarthria. Initial systolic blood pressure was 220 mm Hg. Computed tomography scan showed a left thalamic hemorrhage with associated edema and hemorrhage extending into the left lateral and third ventricle. She recovered uneventfully and was discharged to inpatient rehabilitation and eventually transitioned home. Three months later in the clinic, she reported that following the stroke, she abruptly stopped smoking without any smoking cessation aid. She reported that she had no craving for cigarettes. She also developed an aversion to drinking alcohol. Cessation of smoking following a thalamic intracerebral hemorrhage is not reported earlier. This observation suggests that the thalamus may play a role in nicotine and alcohol addiction. Further studies are needed to elucidate the possible involvement of the thalamic circuits in addiction pathways and as a potential target for modulation.

  3. An integrated approach to prenatal smoking cessation interventions.

    PubMed

    Todd, S J; LaSala, K B; Neil-Urban, S

    2001-01-01

    This article encourages the incorporation of smoking cessation activities into routine nursing care in the prenatal period. A brief background is given regarding the problem of smoking in women--especially pregnant women and adolescents. A model is suggested that integrates the Stages of Change framework with a program for planning, implementing, and evaluating smoking cessation activities in the clinical setting. The use of biochemical testing for cotinine, a biomarker of nicotine, is also explored as an evaluation tool and a method of self-report confirmation. The nurse is uniquely poised to reduce both the healthcare and economic burden of smoking during pregnancy. Because cigarette smoking is a major public health problem in the United States today, it is important for nurses to have a background in smoking assessment, cessation, and evaluation methods. It is critical for all nurses in obstetric, pediatric, hospital, and clinic settings to use this knowledge to assist vulnerable clients in achieving lifetime abstinence from cigarettes.

  4. Smart devices and a future of hybrid tobacco cessation programs.

    PubMed

    Pulverman, Rachel; Yellowlees, Peter M

    2014-03-01

    The Internet and mobile "apps" on smart devices are increasingly being seen as primary tools to combat tobacco abuse with the development of several online tobacco cessation programs. This article reviews the small and recent body of research into the functionality and effectiveness of these Web-based programs, most of which are now being designed for mobile devices rather than for fixed computers. Based on current research findings, it is apparent that successful future tobacco cessation programs will utilize a wide variety of features available through smart devices and mobile applications, but will also incorporate the capacity to easily access live healthcare professionals as necessary, either online or in-person. These hybrid models of behavioral intervention for tobacco cessation appear likely to be more successful than previous approaches, but require more evaluation than has occurred in the past.

  5. Lay Health Influencers: How They Tailor Brief Tobacco Cessation Interventions

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Nicole P.; Castañeda, Heide; Nichter, Mark; Nichter, Mimi; Wind, Steven; Carruth, Lauren; Muramoto, Myra

    2014-01-01

    Interventions tailored to individual smoker characteristics have increasingly received attention in the tobacco control literature. The majority of tailored interventions are generated by computers and administered with printed materials or Web-based programs. The purpose of this study was to examine the tailoring activities of community lay health influencers who were trained to perform face-to-face brief tobacco cessation interventions. Eighty participants of a large-scale, randomized controlled trial completed a 6-week qualitative follow-up interview. A majority of participants (86%) reported that they made adjustments in their intervention behaviors based on individual smoker characteristics, their relationship with the smoker, and/or setting. Situational contexts (i.e., location and timing) primarily played a role after targeted smokers were selected. The findings suggest that lay health influencers benefit from a training curriculum that emphasizes a motivational, person-centered approach to brief cessation interventions. Recommendations for future tobacco cessation intervention trainings are presented. PMID:21986244

  6. [Electronic Cigarettes: Lifestyle Gadget or Smoking Cessation Aid?].

    PubMed

    Schuurmans, Macé M

    2015-07-01

    Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) are vaporisers of liquids often containing nicotine. In the inhaled aerosol carcinogens, ultrafine and metal particles are detected usually in concentrations below those measured in tobacco smoke. Therefore, these products are expected to be less harmful. This has not yet been proven. The long-term safety of e-cigarettes is unknown. Short duration use leads to airway irritation and increased diastolic blood pressure. So far only two randomised controlled trials have investigated efficacy and safety of e-cigarettes for smoking cessation: No clear advantage was shown in comparison to smoking cessation medication. Due to insufficient evidence, e-cigarettes cannot be recommended for smoking cessation. Problematic are the lack of regulation and standardisation of e-cigarette products, which makes general conclusions impossible.

  7. Continuous-Time System Identification of a Smoking Cessation Intervention.

    PubMed

    Timms, Kevin P; Rivera, Daniel E; Collins, Linda M; Piper, Megan E

    2014-01-01

    Cigarette smoking is a major global public health issue and the leading cause of preventable death in the United States. Toward a goal of designing better smoking cessation treatments, system identification techniques are applied to intervention data to describe smoking cessation as a process of behavior change. System identification problems that draw from two modeling paradigms in quantitative psychology (statistical mediation and self-regulation) are considered, consisting of a series of continuous-time estimation problems. A continuous-time dynamic modeling approach is employed to describe the response of craving and smoking rates during a quit attempt, as captured in data from a smoking cessation clinical trial. The use of continuous-time models provide benefits of parsimony, ease of interpretation, and the opportunity to work with uneven or missing data.

  8. Lay health influencers: how they tailor brief tobacco cessation interventions.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Nicole P; Castañeda, Heide; Nichter, Mark; Nichter, Mimi; Wind, Steven; Carruth, Lauren; Muramoto, Myra

    2012-10-01

    Interventions tailored to individual smoker characteristics have increasingly received attention in the tobacco control literature. The majority of tailored interventions are generated by computers and administered with printed materials or web-based programs. The purpose of this study was to examine the tailoring activities of community lay health influencers who were trained to perform face-to-face brief tobacco cessation interventions. Eighty participants of a large-scale, randomized controlled trial completed a 6-week qualitative follow-up interview. A majority of participants (86%) reported that they made adjustments in their intervention behaviors based on individual smoker characteristics, their relationship with the smoker, and/or setting. Situational contexts (i.e., location and timing) primarily played a role after targeted smokers were selected. The findings suggest that lay health influencers benefit from a training curriculum that emphasizes a motivational, person-centered approach to brief cessation interventions. Recommendations for future tobacco cessation intervention trainings are presented.

  9. Knowing Quitters Predicts Smoking Cessation in a Homeless Population

    PubMed Central

    Goldade, Kathryn; Jarlais, Don Des; Everson-Rose, Susan A.; Guo, Hongfei; Thomas, Janet; Gelberg, Lillian; Joseph, Anne M.; Okuyemi, Kolawole S.

    2017-01-01

    Objectives To examine the impact of knowing quitters on cessation among homeless smokers. Methods Secondary analysis of data derived from a community-based randomized controlled trial of 430 homeless smokers. We conducted multivariable logistic regression analysis to determine whether knowing quitters impacted the likelihood of cessation (salivary cotinine ≤ 20 ng/ml) at 26-week follow-up. Results Multivariable logistic regression showed cessation was more likely for smokers who knew ≥ 5 quitters compared with those who knew no quitters (Odds Ratio = 3.79, CI = 1.17, 12.27, p = .008), adjusting for age, education, income, and time to first cigarette in morning. Conclusions Knowing former smokers was associated with increased likelihood of achieving smoking abstinence among homeless smokers. PMID:23985232

  10. First Breath prenatal smoking cessation pilot study: preliminary findings.

    PubMed

    Jehn, Lisette; Lokker, Nicole; Matitz, Debra; Christiansen, Bruce

    2003-01-01

    Despite the many dangers associated with smoking during pregnancy, it remains a salient public health problem for Wisconsin women. The First Breath pilot program was developed in an attempt to reduce rates of smoking during pregnancy among low-income women. Preliminary results suggest that the First Breath counseling-based approach is effective, with a quit rate of 43.8% among First Breath enrollees at 1 month postpartum. Women receiving First Breath cessation counseling also had higher quit rates at every measurement period versus women in a comparison group who were receiving whatever cessation care was available in their county in the absence of First Breath. The First Breath pilot study has demonstrated success in helping pregnant women quit smoking and in creating a model for integration of cessation services into prenatal health care service provision. It is through this success that First Breath is expanding beyond the pilot study stage to a statewide program in 2003.

  11. Continuous-time system identification of a smoking cessation intervention

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Timms, Kevin P.; Rivera, Daniel E.; Collins, Linda M.; Piper, Megan E.

    2014-07-01

    Cigarette smoking is a major global public health issue and the leading cause of preventable death in the United States. Toward a goal of designing better smoking cessation treatments, system identification techniques are applied to intervention data to describe smoking cessation as a process of behaviour change. System identification problems that draw from two modelling paradigms in quantitative psychology (statistical mediation and self-regulation) are considered, consisting of a series of continuous-time estimation problems. A continuous-time dynamic modelling approach is employed to describe the response of craving and smoking rates during a quit attempt, as captured in data from a smoking cessation clinical trial. The use of continuous-time models provide benefits of parsimony, ease of interpretation, and the opportunity to work with uneven or missing data.

  12. Adherence to varenicline in the COMPASS smoking cessation intervention trial.

    PubMed

    Catz, Sheryl L; Jack, Lisa M; McClure, Jennifer B; Javitz, Harold S; Deprey, Mona; Zbikowski, Susan M; McAfee, Tim; Richards, Julie; Swan, Gary E

    2011-05-01

    Patient adherence to smoking cessation medications can impact their effectiveness. It is important to understand the extent to which prescribed medications are actually taken by smokers, how this influences smoking cessation outcomes, and what factors may influence adherence. Smokers recruited from a large health plan were randomized to receive different modes of cessation counseling in combination with varenicline (Swan, G. E., McClure, J. B., Jack, L. M., Zbikowski, S. M., Javitz, H. S., Catz, S. L., et al. 2010.Behavioral counseling and varenicline treatment for smoking cessation. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 38, 482-490). One thousand one hundred and sixty-one participants were mailed a 28-day varenicline supply when they set a quit date and were able to request up to two refills from the health plan pharmacy at no cost. Pharmacy fill records were obtained and telephone surveys completed at baseline, 21 days, 12 weeks, and 6 months post target quit date. Good adherence to varenicline (≥80% of days taken) was associated with a twofold increase in 6-month quit rates compared with poor adherence (52% vs. 25%). Smokers were more likely than nonsmokers to stop varenicline early. Purposeful nonadherence was associated with smoking at 12 weeks and was predicted in multivariate analyses by age, gender, adherence self-efficacy, and initial medication side effect severity. Innovative methods for increasing adherence to smoking cessation medications are needed, particularly early in the quit process. Simple metrics of adherence such as number of days cessation medication is taken can and should be routinely incorporated in effectiveness trials and reported to advance future attempts to understand and reduce nonadherence.

  13. Adherence to Varenicline in the COMPASS Smoking Cessation Intervention Trial

    PubMed Central

    Jack, Lisa M.; McClure, Jennifer B.; Javitz, Harold S.; Deprey, Mona; Zbikowski, Susan M.; McAfee, Tim; Richards, Julie; Swan, Gary E.

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: Patient adherence to smoking cessation medications can impact their effectiveness. It is important to understand the extent to which prescribed medications are actually taken by smokers, how this influences smoking cessation outcomes, and what factors may influence adherence. Methods: Smokers recruited from a large health plan were randomized to receive different modes of cessation counseling in combination with varenicline (Swan, G. E., McClure, J. B., Jack, L. M., Zbikowski, S. M., Javitz, H. S., Catz, S. L., et al. 2010.Behavioral counseling and varenicline treatment for smoking cessation. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 38, 482–490). One thousand one hundred and sixty-one participants were mailed a 28-day varenicline supply when they set a quit date and were able to request up to two refills from the health plan pharmacy at no cost. Pharmacy fill records were obtained and telephone surveys completed at baseline, 21 days, 12 weeks, and 6 months post target quit date. Results: Good adherence to varenicline (≥80% of days taken) was associated with a twofold increase in 6-month quit rates compared with poor adherence (52% vs. 25%). Smokers were more likely than nonsmokers to stop varenicline early. Purposeful nonadherence was associated with smoking at 12 weeks and was predicted in multivariate analyses by age, gender, adherence self-efficacy, and initial medication side effect severity. Conclusions: Innovative methods for increasing adherence to smoking cessation medications are needed, particularly early in the quit process. Simple metrics of adherence such as number of days cessation medication is taken can and should be routinely incorporated in effectiveness trials and reported to advance future attempts to understand and reduce nonadherence. PMID:21350041

  14. Smoking cessation referrals in optometric practice: a canadian pilot study.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, Ryan David; Spafford, Marlee M; Schultz, Annette S H; Iley, Matthew D; Zawada, Violet

    2011-06-01

    The current pilot study sought to understand optometrists' attitudes toward addressing tobacco use within the scope of their practice, and to identify opportunities within Canada to integrate optometrists as health care partners into the national tobacco cessation network. A descriptive qualitative design was used to conduct this pilot study. Five focus groups were conducted with 29 informants, including 11 practicing community optometrists and 18 senior Doctor of Optometry students from the University of Waterloo. Rationales, barriers, and opportunities to practice patterns were identified. Optometrists and optometry students knew the association of smoking with eye diseases such as age-related macular degeneration and cataract; however, some informants selectively asked patients about smoking behavior based on patient age or visit type. Most informants indicated that they did inform their patients who smoke of their increased risk of developing certain eye diseases; however, very few informants assessed whether their patients wanted to stop smoking and no informants reported that they had ever provided a patient with explicit support for tobacco cessation. This limited role in smoking cessation support for patients due, in part, to insufficient: financial incentives, training and educational tools and materials, knowledge of community resources for cessation treatments, and time during appointments. Several opportunities were identified to better integrate optometry into tobacco control efforts such as optometrists' access to patients, patients' fear of blindness as a tool to motivate behavior changes, and practitioners' openness to change. Optometrists can be a helpful addition to a smoking cessation healthcare network that already involves more than a dozen health care professions including medicine, nursing, pharmacy, dentistry, and dental hygiene. The findings of this study will be used to develop a national survey of Canadian optometrists' practice patterns

  15. Marijuana Use and Tobacco Smoking Cessation Among Heavy Alcohol Drinkers

    PubMed Central

    Metrik, Jane; Spillane, Nichea S.; Leventhal, Adam M.; Kahler, Christopher W.

    2011-01-01

    Background Whereas problem drinking impedes smoking cessation, less is known whether marijuana use affects smoking cessation outcomes and whether smoking cessation treatment leads to changes in marijuana smoking. Methods In a randomized clinical trial that recruited 236 heavy drinkers seeking smoking cessation treatment, we examined whether current marijuana smokers (n = 57) differed from the rest of the sample in tobacco smoking and alcohol use outcomes and whether the patterns of marijuana use changed during treatment. Results Half of the marijuana users reported smoking marijuana at least weekly (an average of 42% of possible smoking days), the other half used infrequently, an average of 5% of possible days. There were no significant differences between the marijuana use groups and non-users on smoking outcomes and marijuana use did not predict smoking lapses. All participants made large reductions in weekly alcohol consumption during the trial, with weekly marijuana users reducing their drinking by 47% and at a faster rate than non-marijuana users after the 8-week follow-up. Weekly marijuana smokers also steadily decreased their marijuana use over the course of the study (at 8-, 16-, and 26-week follow-ups) by more than 24%. Conclusions These data suggest that frequent marijuana smokers may benefit from smoking cessation interventions, even when marijuana use is not explicitly discussed. These individuals do not show any more difficulty than other cigarette smokers in making efforts to reduce tobacco smoking and in fact, make meaningful changes in marijuana use and heavy drinking. Future clinical trials should examine whether smoking cessation treatment that addresses both marijuana and tobacco smoking leads to substantial reductions in marijuana use. PMID:21724341

  16. Implications of t'ai chi for smoking cessation.

    PubMed

    Gryffin, Peter A; Chen, William C

    2013-02-01

    The objective of this study was to identify underlying mechanisms affecting smoking cessation among smokers taking t'ai chi classes. Smokers from t'ai chi classes had attributed t'ai chi practice as the primary reason for quitting smoking. Two (2) students from the community college population who had taken a t'ai chi class completed an open-ended questionnaire, to identify possible variables involved in motivations for smoking cessation. An Internet search identified a third student from a university program who had posted observations of how t'ai chi affected her efforts at smoking cessation. The three written responses were evaluated for correlating comments, to identify possible theoretical aspects of why t'ai chi would impact smoking cessation. All three identified increased awareness of smoking habits due to t'ai chi as the primary reason for quitting smoking. A review of literature was conducted to clarify the role of enhanced awareness as a mediator in modifying destructive behavior and addiction. Results from an unpublished study of a t'ai chi smoking cessation program were utilized as supporting data. Two (2) primary areas of behavior modification focusing on the role of enhanced self-awareness are identified from the review of literature: Mindfulness Meditation (MM), and traditional Zen practice. Zen and MM are identified as readily adaptable to using t'ai chi as a form of moving meditation for dealing with addiction. T'ai chi, as a more dynamic form of meditation, can be an effective method for enhancing mindfulness and awareness for breaking cycles of addiction and habit. Possible effects on physical cravings were also identified. As a novel and unusual form of mind/body exercise, t'ai chi may be a particularly appealing adjunct to smoking cessation programs, particularly in light of the many ancillary health benefits of t'ai chi.

  17. Enhanced methane combustion over Co3O4 catalysts prepared by a facile precipitation method: Effect of aging time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pu, Zhiying; Zhou, Huan; Zheng, Yifan; Huang, Wanzhen; Li, Xiaonian

    2017-07-01

    A series of Co3O4 catalysts were prepared by a facile precipitation method just changing the aging time and tested for methane combustion. It was found that the activity for the reaction increased firstly and then decreased with increasing aging time in the form of a volcano curve. The Co3O4 aged for 8 h (Co3O4-8) exhibited the best catalytic performance with the specific reaction rate (Rs) of 25.91 nmol s-1 m-2 at 340 °C, which was 29.5 times than Co3O4-96 sample, although the Co3O4-8 catalyst showed the minimum BET surface area and the largest particle size. The XPS and Raman results indicated that the Co3O4-8 catalyst possessed the highest ratio of ATetrahedral/AOctahedral at the surface of the catalyst. H2-TPR and in situ XRD results also confirmed the Co3O4-8 catalyst behaved with excellent high-temperature reduction ability. In combination with the activity performance, the Co3O4-8 catalyst had the best performance of methane combustion due to abundant active tetrahedral Co2+ cationic species. The long-term stability tests demonstrated that the step of aging in the process of preparation can improve water tolerance of Co3O4 catalyst for methane combustion.

  18. Co3O4 nanorod-supported Pt with enhanced performance for catalytic HCHO oxidation at room temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Zhaoxiong; Xu, Zhihua; Cheng, Bei; Jiang, Chuanjia

    2017-05-01

    Formaldehyde (HCHO) removal from air at room (ambient) temperature by effective catalysts is of significance for improving indoor air quality, and catalysts with high efficiency and good recyclability are highly desirable. In this study, platinum (Pt) supported on nanorod-shaped Co3O4 (Pt/Co3O4) was prepared by calcination of microwave-assisted synthesized Co3O4 precursor followed by NaBH4-reduction of Pt precursor. The as-prepared Co3O4 exhibited a morphology of nanorods with lengths of 400-700 nm and diameters of approximately 40-50 nm, which were self-assembled by nanoparticles. The Pt/Co3O4 catalyst exhibited a superior catalytic performance for HCHO oxidation at room temperature compared to Pt supported on commercial Co3O4 (Pt/Co3O4-c) and Pt supported on commercial TiO2 (Pt/TiO2), which is mainly due to the high oxygen mobility resulting from its distinct nanorod morphology, strong metal-support interaction between Pt and Co3O4, and the intrinsic redox nature of the Co3O4 support. This study provides new insights into the fabrication of high-performance catalysts for indoor air purification.

  19. Smoking Cessation: Services and Applications for Mobile Devices.

    PubMed

    Kefaliakos, Antonios; Pliakos, Ioannis; Chardalias, Kostis; Charalampidou, Martha; Diomidous, Marianna

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this review is to present mobile health applications which help individuals to change their smoking habit. An online search on scientific databases and mobile application stores was conducted to collect information about m-Health and the smoking cessation. 12 papers found discussing about mobile applications and solutions for quit smoking referred to 4 different technological approaches. Based on the research results, mobile devices and their applications constitute an excellent mean that can help smokers by providing counseling and give them the necessary motivation to smoking cessation.

  20. National Survey of the Smoking Cessation Services in Italy

    PubMed Central

    Di Pucchio, Alessandra; Pizzi, Enrica; Carosi, Giordano; Mazzola, Monica; Mattioli, Donatella; Pacifici, Roberta; Pichini, Simona

    2009-01-01

    This investigation is aimed at providing information about structural and organizational characteristics of smoking cessation services (SCS) set up within the Italian National Health Service. Local health units and hospitals are the main institutions connected with SCS which are mainly located within the Department of Drug Addiction and the Department of Lung and Breath Care. SCS provide different tobacco-use cessation programs. Although pharmacotherapy is always used, a combination of therapeutic treatments is highly preferred. This study shows the importance of maintaining a national coordination among different SCS supporting their activity and encouraging the start up of additional services throughout the country. PMID:19440422

  1. Nicotine dependence and secondary effects of smoking cessation.

    PubMed

    Clavel, F; Benhamou, S; Flamant, R

    1987-12-01

    The secondary effects of smoking cessation among subjects included in a randomized trial, performed to test the efficacy of acupuncture and nicotine chewing gum vs. the control group, are reported according to nicotine dependence. After 1 month of cessation, ex-smokers had modified their nutritional intake, had gained weight, and felt more irritable compared to subjects still smoking. After 1 year, secondary effects concerned greater weight gain and irritability. The percentage of subjects who presented these secondary effects was more frequent among high-dependent than among low-dependent ex-smokers.

  2. First-principles study of Co3(Al,W) alloys using special quasirandom structures

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang, Chao

    2008-01-01

    We have developed 32-atom special quasi-random structures (SQSs) to model the substitutionally random pseudo-binary A3(B0.5C0.5) alloys in L12, D019, and D03 crystal structures, respectively. First-principles SQS calculations are performed to examine the phase stability of the recently identified L12-Co3Al0.5W0.5 compound in the Co-Al-W ternary system. By computing total energy as a function of applied strain, the single-crystal elastic constants of L12-Co3Al0.5W0.5 are also predicted and our results show excellent agreement with recent experimental measurements.

  3. Synthesis and characterization of porous CaCO3 micro/nano-particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Achour, A.; Arman, A.; Islam, M.; Zavarian, A. A.; Basim Al-Zubaidi, A.; Szade, J.

    2017-06-01

    Porous CaCO3 particles, both micro and nano sized, were synthesized in a mixture of Ca(OH)2, hyaluronic acid (HA), glycine, NaOH and NaCl solution with supercritical carbon dioxide. The particles were characterized using X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscope, Raman spectroscope (RS), X-ray photoelectron spectroscope (XPS) and scanning electron microscope techniques. All these techniques showed that the particles crystallize into only one CaCO3 structure, namely the vaterite phase. In addition, FTIR, RS and XPS indicated the presence of residual reactive species i.e. glycine, NaCl, and HA. The XRD results confirmed the presence of NaCl and γ-glycine, which is a crystalline material. Moreover, the HA seems to be mostly embedded in the bulk of the micro-particles. Such materials are promising for biomedical applications such as drug delivery.

  4. High pressure study and bonding analysis of Mg2Co3Sn10+x

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krauss, G.; Gu, Q. F.

    2008-08-01

    Intermetallic materials with large unit cells are scientifically interesting and challenging due to their structural and chemical complexity. The investigated hexagonal Mg2Co3Sn10+x crystallizes with 120 atoms per unit cell and a unit cell volume of 2655 Å 3. An in-house single-crystal high pressure study was done using a recently developed low background diamond-anvil cell. The investigated compound is structurally stable up to the highest reached pressure of 9.69 GPa. Compressibility measurements revealed the c⇒-axis to be slightly less compressible than the a⇒-axis. A chemical bonding analysis based on the analysis of the topology of the electron localization function identified Mg2Co3Sn10+x as a compound combining localized and delocalized chemical bonding in its structure. The macroscopic properties of the compound are dominated by the metallic 3D framework, which is also responsible for the anisotropic compressibility.

  5. Sonochemical fabrication of Ag2CO3 nanomaterial and influencing factors on photocatalytic properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Li; Liang, Liuying; Talifu, Dilinuer; Abulizi, Abulikemu

    2017-01-01

    Visible-light-active Ag2CO3 nanoparticles were synthesized by a simple sonochemical method (ambient temperature for only 1 h). The effects of ultrasound pulse mode, ultrasound time and pH value on the photodegradation properties of Ag2CO3 were investigated. The samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray (EDS), UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS) and nitrogen adsorption-desorption techniques. The photocatalytic activity was evaluated by degrading methylene blue (MB) under visible light irradiation (λ>420nm). According to obtained results, it was found that MB degradation (about 99.4% after 20 min of irradiation) was higher compare to conventional stirring method, which might be due to the higher specific surface areas and active sites. The method described here can be used to improve the efficiency of visible-light sources and develop an ecologically friendly, practical wastewater treatment for pollutants.

  6. Facile Hydrothermal Preparation of ZNO/CO3O4 Heterogeneous Nanostructures and its Photovoltaic Effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Fanan; Jiang, Minlin; Liu, Lianqing

    2015-07-01

    Photovoltaic technology offers great potential in the replacement of fossil fuel resources, but still suffers from high device fabrication cost. Herein, we attempted to provide a solution to these issues with heterogeneous nanostructures. Firstly, Zinc oxide (ZnO)/cobalt oxide (Co3O4) heterojunction nanowires are prepared through facile fabrication methods. By assembling Co(OH)2 nanoplates on ZnO nanowire arrays, the ZnO/Co3O4 heterogeneous nanostructures are uniformly synthesized on ITO coated glass and wafer. Current (I)-voltage (V) measurement through conductive atomic force microscope shows excellent photovoltaic effect. And, the heterojunction nanostructures shows unprecedented high open circuit voltage. Therefore, the potential application of the heterogeneous nanostructures in solar cells is demonstrated.

  7. Facet-dependent electrochemical properties of Co3O4 nanocrystals toward heavy metal ions

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Xin-Yao; Meng, Qiang-Qiang; Luo, Tao; Jia, Yong; Sun, Bai; Li, Qun-Xiang; Liu, Jin-Huai; Huang, Xing-Jiu

    2013-01-01

    We revealed an interesting facet-dependent electrochemical behavior toward heavy metal ions (HMIs) based on their adsorption behaviors. The (111) facet of Co3O4 nanoplates has better electrochemical sensing performance than that of the (001) facet of Co3O4 nanocubes. Adsorption measurements and density-functional theory (DFT) calculations reveals that adsorption of HMIs is responsible for the difference of electrochemical properties. Our combined experimental and theoretical studies provide a solid hint to explain the mechanism of electrochemical detection of HMIs using nanoscale metal oxides. Furthermore, this study not only suggests a promising new strategy for designing high performance electrochemical sensing interface through the selective synthesis of nanoscale materials exposed with different well-defined facets, but also provides a deep understanding for a more sensitive and selective electroanalysis at nanomaterials modified electrodes. PMID:24097175

  8. Influence of organic precursor on the structural and magnetic properties of Co3O4 nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lima, R. J. S.; Moura, K. O.; Pedra, P. P.; Duque, J. G. S.; Meneses, C. T.

    2012-08-01

    Antiferromagnetic Co3O4 nanoparticles were synthesized by the coprecipitation method. With the addition of the sucrose as chelating agent (sucrose) the size of the particles was reduced from 54 nm to 19 nm. The Co3O4 nanoparticles exhibit a cubic spinel structure identified for X-ray diffraction (XRD) and confirmed by Rietveld refinement. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) images exhibit a spherical-like morphology and confirm the decrease of the particle size observed by XRD. The magnetic measurements as a function of temperature using a superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) show a large surface anisotropy for samples obtained with the addition of sucrose accompanied by an exchange Bias effect indicating also the existence of a weak ferromagnetism. A decrease of the Néel temperature from the bulk (and other nanostructures-type) was observed, which can be associated with finite-size effect in the nanoparticles' shape.

  9. Fabrication of superhydrophobic surfaces via CaCO3 mineralization mediated by poly(glutamic acid)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Heng; Yao, Jinrong; Shao, Zhengzhong

    2013-03-01

    Surfaces with micrometer and nanometer sized hierarchical structures were fabricated by an one-step in situ additive controlled CaCO3 mineralization method. After chemical modification, the surfaces with various morphologies showed superhydrophobicity in different states, which could be easily adjusted by the initial supersaturation of the mineralization solution (concentration of calcium ion and poly(glutamic acid)). Generally, the "lotus state" surface which was covered by a thick layer of tetrahedron-shaped CaCO3 particles to exhibit a contact angle (CA) of 157±1° and a very low contact angle hysteresis (CAH) (roll-off angle=1°) was produced under high supersaturation. On the other hands, the petal-like surface with flower-shaped calcite spherulites was obtained in a relative low supersaturation, which showed both high CA (156±2°) and CAH (180°) in a "Cassie impregnating wetting state".

  10. North Pacific Late Miocene correlations using microfossils, stable isotopes, percent CaCO3, and magnetostratigraphy

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Keller, G.; Barron, J.A.; Burckle, L.H.

    1982-01-01

    A multidisciplinary approach to stratigraphy based on magnetostratigraphy, stable isotopes, percent CaCO3 and microfossils provides a framework for paleoclimatic and paleoceanographic reconstruction of the equatorial and North Pacific. A high-resolution biochronologic time scale has been achieved through integration of diatom, radiolaria, coccolith and planktic foraminifer datum levels with direct or indirect correlations to the paleomagnetic time scale. Over 70 datum levels have been identified between 12.5 and 5 Ma from low and middle latitudes resulting in an unprecedented time control. This high-resolution biostratigraphic control combined with stable-isotopic and percent CaCO3 analyses permits identification of regional as well as global paleoceanographic events. ?? 1982.

  11. Co3O4 nanocages with highly exposed {110} facets for high-performance lithium storage

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Dequan; Wang, Xi; Wang, Xuebin; Tian, Wei; Bando, Yoshio; Golberg, Dmitri

    2013-01-01

    Functional materials with both exposed highly reactive planes and hollow structures have attracted considerable attentions with respect to improved catalytic activity and enhanced electrochemical energy storage. Herein, we report the synthesis of unusual single-crystal Co3O4 nanocages with highly exposed {110} reactive facets via a one-step solution method. When tested as anode materials in lithium-ion batteries, these Co3O4 nanocages deliver a high reversible lithium storage capacity of 864 mAh g−1 at 0.2C over 50 cycles and exhibit an excellent rate capability. The dominantly exposed {110} planes, a high density of atomic steps in nanocages, and the large void interiors lead to the regarded superior electrochemical performance. PMID:23995848

  12. The magnetoelectirc effect on the novel multiferroic Co3TeO6

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chou, C. C.; Mukherjee, S.; Zhang, J. H.; Her, J. L.; Berger, H.; Yang, H. D.

    2012-02-01

    The magnetic, thermal, and dielectric measurements were performed on a single crystal sample Co3TeO6. Two anomalies are observed at T1 ˜ 26 K and T2 ˜ 18 K in magnetic susceptibility and specific heat measurements. Dielectric constant data show a step anomaly at 18 K, which does not display frequency-dependent behavior but a magnetoelectric effect. Furthermore, the values of the magnetoelectric coupling constantγ were calculated, which are 0.0268 and 0.0239 at 7 K and 13 K, respectively. The temperature-dependent X-ray diffraction suggests that the lattice parameters slightly deviate form linear trend as temperature down to 26 K, and then shows an anomalous variation around 18 K, where a structural distortion probably appears. All phenomena of our results indicate that Co3TeO6 is one member of multiferroic materials

  13. Preservation properties of in situ modified CaCO3-chitosan composite coatings.

    PubMed

    Sun, Tong; Hao, Wen-ting; Li, Jian-rong; Dong, Zhi-jian; Wu, Chao-ling

    2015-09-15

    To improve the dispersibility, hydrophilia constraints of primitive particle size, and reduce the economic cost, in situ modified CaCO3-chitosan composite coatings were prepared by tape-casting with different modifiers. The coating structures were characterised, and the preservation properties of the coatings were evaluated by fresh indices of Sciaenops ocellatus. The results revealed that the coatings were homogeneous and compact when the in situ modifier was sodium stearate. Besides, the amide I group of chitosan disappeared and hydrogen bonds were formed between the nano-CaCO3 and the chitosan. Meanwhile, the preservation effects to S. ocellatus of the coatings modified in situ by sodium stearate and sodium citrate were better. This was because the coatings effectively prevented oxygen and bacteria from reaching S. ocellatus, and thus inhibited the degradation of the proteins and lipids. The in situ modified method is conducive to chitosan coating properties, which will be widely used in the food preservation field.

  14. The structural, electronic, elastic and dynamic properties of Co3W in the L12 phase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arikan, Nihat

    2017-02-01

    A theoretical study is presented for the structural, electronic, elastic and phonon properties of Co3W compounds in L12 phase in the framework of density functional theory. The calculations are carried out within the PBE-GGA for the exchange correlation potential. The electronic structure and particle density of states (DOS) show that Co3W compound is metallic with sturdy hybridization near the Fermi level. The phonon dispersion curves, and the projected density of states been investigated for the first time with an ab initio method using density functional perturbation theory (DFPT). Temperature variations of specific heat capacity in the range of 0-2000 K are obtained using the quasi-harmonic model.

  15. Electric Field-Controlled Crystallizing CaCO3 Nanostructures from Solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qi, Jian Quan; Guo, Rui; Wang, Yu; Liu, Xuan Wen; Chan, Helen Lai Wah

    2016-03-01

    The role of electric field is investigated in determining the structure, morphology, and crystallographic characteristics of CaCO3 nanostructures crystallized from solution. It is found that the lattice structure and crystalline morphology of CaCO3 can be tailed by the electric field applied to the solution during its crystallization. The calcite structure with cubic-like morphology can be obtained generally without electric field, and the vaterite structure with the morphology of nanorod is formed under the high electric field. The vaterite nanorods can be piled up to the petaliform layers. Both the nanorod and the petaliform layer can have mesocrystal structures which are piled up by much fine units of the rods with the size of several nanometers. Beautiful rose-like nanoflowers can be self-arranged by the petaliform layers. These structures can have potential application as carrier for medicine to involve into metabolism of living cell.

  16. Principles of Community Organization and Partnership for Smoking Cessation in the Community Intervention Trial for Smoking Cessation (COMMIT).

    PubMed

    Thompson, B; Wallack, L; Lichtenstein, E; Pechacek, T

    1990-01-01

    The Community Intervention Trial for Smoking Cessation (COMMIT) has adopted a community approach to smoking cessation. State-of-the-art interventions that have proven efficacious for smoking cessation are delivered to smokers through community-based organizations. An innovative adaptation of community organization methods accommodated the need for a standardized protocol with the flexibility required for diverse and unique communities. The unique characteristics of the eleven intervention communities are examined with a focus on differences in size, location, availability and importance of the intervention channels, and other factors that were important for community mobilization. Initial results of the mobilization process are summarized. Although there were some differences in the structures formed and the time required to complete the initial project activities, all eleven intervention sites were mobilized around the COMMIT goals and activities.

  17. Large contribution of pteropods to shallow CaCO3 export

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buitenhuis, Erik; Le Quere, Corinne

    2017-04-01

    It's long been noted that there is an inconsistency between the shallow dissolution depth of a considerable amount of CaCO3, and the known solubility of calcite, the main form of CaCO3 that is found in sediment traps at depths (typically >2000 m). Several potential explanations have been put forward to explain this inconsistency, which includes shallow dissolution in acidic microenvironments, and the production of soluble aragonite by pteropods that is dissolved before it reaches sediment traps. Here we explore the possibility that the relative importance of the different groups of calcifying organisms might be responsible for discrepancies in the total carbonate budget. The recent publication of the MAREDAT atlas of plankton biomass distributions of 10 plankton functional types (PFTs) has provided an estimate of biomass for three calcifying PFTs: pteropods, coccolithophores and foraminifers. Here we present a synthesis of the turnover rates of those three calcifying PFTs. We incorporate these three PFTs in the PlankTOM Dynamic Green Ocean Model and use the model to test the hypothesis that the production and shallow dissolution of pteropod aragonite can reconcile the relatively large surface ocean CaCO3 production rate of 1.1 Pg C/y (Lee 2001) with the lower sinking flux of 0.6 Pg C/y at 2000 m. The model can only reproduce both the observed pteropod biomass and the data-based CaCO3 rates with substantial dissolution in under-saturated waters. We discuss the implications for understanding the impact of ocean acidification on marine ecosystems and biogeochemical fluxes.

  18. [(η(6)-Praziquantel)Cr(CO)3] derivatives with remarkable in vitro anti-schistosomal activity.

    PubMed

    Patra, Malay; Ingram, Katrin; Pierroz, Vanessa; Ferrari, Stefano; Spingler, Bernhard; Gasser, Robin B; Keiser, Jennifer; Gasser, Gilles

    2013-02-11

    The antischistosomal effect of two [(η(6)-praziquantel)Cr(CO)(3)] derivatives was investigated. The compounds (see figure: Cr purple, N blue, O red) were prepared in a one-step procedure from commercially available praziquantel. Both derivatives show a high in vitro activity against Schistosoma mansoni, a parasitic trematode, and only a minor cytotoxic effect on selected mammalian cell lines.

  19. Benthic marine calcifiers coexist with CaCO3-undersaturated seawater worldwide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lebrato, M.; Andersson, A. J.; Ries, J. B.; Aronson, R. B.; Lamare, M. D.; Koeve, W.; Oschlies, A.; Iglesias-Rodriguez, M. D.; Thatje, S.; Amsler, M.; Vos, S. C.; Jones, D. O. B.; Ruhl, H. A.; Gates, A. R.; McClintock, J. B.

    2016-07-01

    Ocean acidification and decreasing seawater saturation state with respect to calcium carbonate (CaCO3) minerals have raised concerns about the consequences to marine organisms that build CaCO3 structures. A large proportion of benthic marine calcifiers incorporate Mg2+ into their skeletons (Mg-calcite), which, in general, reduces mineral stability. The relative vulnerability of some marine calcifiers to ocean acidification appears linked to the relative solubility of their shell or skeletal mineralogy, although some organisms have sophisticated mechanisms for constructing and maintaining their CaCO3 structures causing deviation from this dependence. Nevertheless, few studies consider seawater saturation state with respect to the actual Mg-calcite mineralogy (ΩMg-x) of a species when evaluating the effect of ocean acidification on that species. Here, a global dataset of skeletal mole % MgCO3 of benthic calcifiers and in situ environmental conditions spanning a depth range of 0 m (subtidal/neritic) to 5600 m (abyssal) was assembled to calculate in situ ΩMg-x. This analysis shows that 24% of the studied benthic calcifiers currently experience seawater mineral undersaturation (ΩMg-x < 1). As a result of ongoing anthropogenic ocean acidification over the next 200 to 3000 years, the predicted decrease in seawater mineral saturation will expose approximately 57% of all studied benthic calcifying species to seawater undersaturation. These observations reveal a surprisingly high proportion of benthic marine calcifiers exposed to seawater that is undersaturated with respect to their skeletal mineralogy, underscoring the importance of using species-specific seawater mineral saturation states when investigating the impact of CO2-induced ocean acidification on benthic marine calcification.

  20. Preparation of hierarchical hollow CaCO3 particles and the application as anticancer drug carrier.

    PubMed

    Wei, Wei; Ma, Guang-Hui; Hu, Gang; Yu, Di; McLeish, Tom; Su, Zhi-Guo; Shen, Zhe-Yu

    2008-11-26

    One-pot approach to couple the crystallization of CaCO(3) nanoparticles and the in situ symmetry-breaking assembly of these crystallites into hollow spherical shells was developed under the templating effect of a soluble starch. Further functional study using HP-a as an anticancer drug carrier (DOX) demonstrated its advantages for localizing drug release by the pH value-sensitive structure and enhancing cytotoxicity by increasing cellular uptake, perinuclear accumulation, and nuclear entry.