Science.gov

Sample records for cez komplexny projekt

  1. 77 FR 34462 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request for Schedule C-EZ (Form 1040)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-11

    ... Internal Revenue Service Proposed Collection; Comment Request for Schedule C-EZ (Form 1040) AGENCY... U.S.C. 3506(c)(2)(A)). Currently, the IRS is soliciting comments concerning Schedule C-EZ (Form 1040... INFORMATION: Title: Net Profit From Business. OMB Number: 1545-1973. Form Number: Schedule C-EZ (Form...

  2. Building a continuous cooling transformation diagram of {beta}-CEZ alloy by metallography and electrical resistivity measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Angelier, C.; Bein, S.; Bechet, J.

    1997-12-01

    The phase transformations of Ti-5Al-2SN-4Zr-4Mo-2Cr-1Fe ({beta}-CEZ) have been studied during continuous cooling after {beta}-solution treatment. For this purpose, electrical resistivity measurements and metallographical examinations have been carried out, and the continuous cooling transformation (CCT) diagram of {beta}-CEZ alloy has been plotted. The different kinds of {beta}-phase decomposition schemes in {beta}-CEZ alloy during continuous cooling have been investigated in detail. Two main morphological features of the {alpha}/{beta} structure are involved, depending on the cooling rate: the basket-weave and the colony structures are observed for high and low cooling rates, respectively. For the intermediate cooling rates, the two morphologies coexist. Finally, a generalized scheme of the {beta} {yields} {beta} + {alpha} transformation sequences during continuous cooling is presented.

  3. 76 FR 78336 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request for Form 1040 and Schedules A, B, C, C-EZ, D, D-1, E, EIC, F...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-16

    ... activities reflected in the model are as follows: Recordkeeping, Tax planning, Gathering tax materials, Use..., D-1, E, EIC, F, H, J, R, and SE., Form 1040A, Form 1040EZ, Form 1040NR, Form 1040NR-EZ, Form 1040X... Schedules A, B, C, C-EZ, D, D-1, E, EIC, F, H, J, R, and SE; Form 1040A; Form 1040EZ; Form 1040NR;...

  4. Aufbau von organisationsübergreifenden Fehlermanagementprozessen im Projekt IntegraTUM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hommel, Wolfgang; Knittl, Silvia

    Das Projekt IntegraTUM wird in enger Kooperation zwischen der Technischen Universität München (TUM) und dem Leibniz-Rechenzentrum (LRZ) durchgeführt. In diesem Projekt werden Dienste gemeinsam entwickelt, die nachhaltig vom LRZ betrieben werden sollen. Die damit verbundene Rezentralisierung erfordert auch eine enge Kooperation im Falle von technischen Störungen und Fehlern im Betriebsablauf bei diesen Diensten über die Organisationsgrenzen hinweg. Unsere Aktivitäten in diesem organisationsübergreifenden Fehlermanagement werden hier beschrieben.

  5. Activities of CEZ Inc. and improvement of the environment

    SciTech Connect

    Kindl, I.V.

    1995-12-01

    All highly developed nations round the world have gradually assumed the responsibility for the quality of the environment at their respective territories by creating the preconditions (by setting forth concepts, and the legislative, economic and institutional framework as well as the educational information and resources systems) stimulating both individuals and corporate bodies to take care of the environment. Damaging the environment is punished. The approach has been successful in most of the countries. Companies and individuals have begun to recognize the correlations existing between their production and consumption activities and the environment and their direct responsibility for the environmental conditions, realizing that to remove a source of environmental damage or to minimis the damage caused by it in both necessary and more beneficial than being penalized (up to ban of operation) both economically and in broader social terms for failing to comply with the relevant laws. Since 1990 a number of the so-called {open_quotes}ecological{close_quotes} laws, formerly sorely lacking, have been enacted, such as the Environment Act, the Environmental Effects Assessment Act, and the Wastes Act, and the Clean Air Act has been fundamentally amended so that to meet again the requirements of effective protection of the atmosphere from pollutants. In the area of economic tools, the duty of the waste producer to pay for the waste produced was introduced, the fines for air pollution were raised significantly and the polluted waste water discharge fines were amended to keep pace with the devaluation of the local currency.

  6. Demokratie lernen am gymnasium: das projekt "schule als staat"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sajak, Clauß Peter

    2002-09-01

    (Learning Democracy in High School: the "School as State" Project) - The disquieting social developments in the German Federal Republic are leading to intense discussions about the possibilities of instilling values and democratic attitudes within the context of secondary education. The interdisciplinary educational project "School as State" has been running for some time in various schools in Baden-Württemberg. This article describes the goals and processes of this project and examines the didactic approaches from which it emerged.

  7. 77 FR 24561 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request for Form 1040 and Schedules A, B, C, C-EZ, D, D-1, E, EIC, F...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-24

    ...-free). The methodology distinguishes among preparation method, taxpayer activities, taxpayer type... number of filers affected: 550,000. These initiatives have a net effect of a slight decrease in time that is not shown due to rounding as well as a net effect of increasing money burden....

  8. 76 FR 20453 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request for Form 1040 and Schedules A, B, C, C-EZ, D, D-1, E, EIC, F...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-12

    ..., and All Attachments to These Forms AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS), Treasury. ACTION: Notice... 1040NR-EZ; Form 1040X; and all attachments to these forms (see the Appendix to this notice). DATES... 1040EZ; Form 1040NR; Form 1040NR-EZ, Form 1040X; and all attachments to these forms (see the Appendix...

  9. 75 FR 22179 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request for Form 1040 and Schedules A, B, C, C-EZ, D, D-1, E, EIC, F...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-27

    ... information technology; and (e) estimates of capital or start-up costs and costs of operation, maintenance... Profit From Business. 1040 SCH D Capital Gains and Losses. 1040 SCH D-1 Continuation Sheet for Schedule D... Ingreso de los Estados Unidos. 2439 Notice to Shareholder of Undistributed Long-Term Capital Gains....

  10. 76 FR 4423 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request for Form 1040 and Schedules A, B, C, C-EZ, D, D-1, E, EIC, F...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-25

    .... Individual Income Tax Declaration for an IRS e-file Return. 8582 X Passive Activity Loss Limitations. 8582 CR... medio del IRS e-file. 8880 Credit for Qualified Retirement Savings Contributions. 8881 X Credit for... time and costs required to complete and file Form 1040, Form 1040A, Form 1040EZ, their schedules,...

  11. Intrinsic magnetic properties in R (Fe1-xCox) 11Ti Z (R =Y and Ce;Z =H ,C,and N)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ke, Liqin; Johnson, Duane D.

    2016-07-01

    To guide improved properties coincident with reduction of critical materials in permanent magnets, we investigate via density functional theory (DFT) the intrinsic magnetic properties of a promising system, R (Fe1-xCox) 11Ti Z with R =Y , Ce and interstitial doping (Z =H,C,N) . The magnetization M , Curie temperature TC, and magnetocrystalline anisotropy energy K calculated in local density approximation to DFT agree well with measurements. Site-resolved contributions to K reveal that all three Fe sublattices promote uniaxial anisotropy in YFe11Ti , while competing anisotropy contributions exist in YCo11Ti . As observed in experiments on R (Fe1-xCox) 11Ti , we find a complex nonmonotonic dependence of K on Co content and show that anisotropy variations are a collective effect of MAE contributions from all sites and cannot be solely explained by preferential site occupancy. With interstitial doping, calculated TC enhancements are in the sequence of N >C >H , with volume and chemical effects contributing to the enhancement. The uniaxial anisotropy of R (Fe1-xCox) 11Ti Z generally decreases with C and N; although, for R =Ce , C doping is found to greatly enhance it for a small range of 0.7

  12. Projekt Programu Nauczania Ksztalcenia Obywatelskiego (Proposed Civic Education Curriculum for Primary and Secondary Schools).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Mershon Center.

    This document consists of three documents in a packet that make up a curriculum guide that presents objectives, content outlines, sample lessons, and background readings for the development of a primary school and a secondary school civics course in Poland. The documents are: (1) Proposed Civic Education Curriculum for Primary and Secondary…

  13. Mathematik im Kontext Bericht aus dem Projekt "Fächerkonzepte und Bildung"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vohns, Andreas

    "Mathematik - das hab ich nie verstanden". Wenn man diese Aussage im Alltag hört, dann ist damit in der Regel mehr gemeint als der bloße Hinweis auf gewisse individuelle Wissenslücken. Es geht auch (vielleicht sogar vorrangig) um eine mangelnde Vorstellung davon, worin eigentlich die Bedeutung dessen liegt, was man unter der Überschrift "Mathematik" in der Schule gelernt hat.

  14. [EUREGIO-projekt MRSA-net Twente/Münsterland. Creation of a regional network to combat MRSA].

    PubMed

    Daniels-Haardt, I; Verhoeven, F; Mellmann, A; Hendrix, M G R; Gemert-Pijnen, J E C; Friedrich, A W

    2006-11-01

    Over the last years, Germany has observed an increase in the prevalence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus (MRSA) in all S. aureus isolates from 2 % to about 25 % whereas in The Netherlands this proportion has continuously been kept below 1 % thanks to a consistent "search & destroy" policy. Both countries increasingly register so-called community-acquired (CA) MRSA which are a threat also to the healthy population without any known risk factor for MRSA carriership. The EUREGIO project "MRSA-net Twente/Münsterland" has made it its main goal to set up a German-Dutch network serving as a basis for a quality association which includes all those who are actively involved in health care provision on both sides of the border and to implement a coordinated strategy for MRSA control and prevention. The project is being carried out with the financial support of the European Union under the INTERREG-IIIA Community initiative and of the Ministry of Economics of the State of North Rhine-Westphalia. The epidemiological backbone of the MRSA-net is a genetic-based MRSA typing strategy (spa-typing) which has been developed by the Institute for Hygiene, University Hospital, Münster and which allows regional and cross-border comparability of laboratory results. The Faculty of Behavioural Sciences of the University of Twente examines MRSA hygiene protocols with regard to their acceptability and realisability with the intention of developing user-friendly, target group-oriented MRSA protocols for the EUREGIO. The health departments involved in the project play a central role in the coordination of the network partners in the municipalities. By performing their function of surveillance in accordance with Sections 23 and 36 of the Infectious Disease Control Act they provide an important contribution to enhancing MRSA control and prevention strategies. Thanks to its cross-border cooperation and exchange of knowledge and technology the EUREGIO project "MRSA-net" contributes to controlling the proliferation of MRSA in the EUREGIO and thus to removing obstacles to the free cross-border movement of patients and personnel. PMID:17199200

  15. Neues "Francais fondamental?" Das Europa-Projekt "Un niveau seuil." (A New "Francais fondamental?" The European Project "A Threshold Level").

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raasch, Albert

    1978-01-01

    The project "Threshold Level," initiated by the Council of Europe in 1976, is compared with "Francais fondamental," comparing their aims and their differences. Offered as an interim statement, the article leaves open the question of whether Francais fondamental should be replaced by the the Threshold Level. (IFS/WGA)

  16. Validation of Cefazolin as Initial Antibiotic for First Upper Urinary Tract Infection in Children

    PubMed Central

    Abe, Yoshifusa; Wakabayashi, Hitomi; Ogawa, Yasuha; Machida, Ayano; Endo, Mio; Tamai, Tetsuro; Sakurai, Shunsuke; Hibino, Satoshi; Mikawa, Takeshi; Watanabe, Yoshitaka; Ugajin, Kazuhisa; Fukuchi, Kunihiko; Itabashi, Kazuo

    2016-01-01

    To validate the policy of administering cefazolin (CEZ) as a first-line antibiotic to children who are hospitalized with their first febrile urinary tract infection (UTI), we evaluated microbial susceptibility to CEZ and the efficacy of CEZ. The 75 enrolled children with febrile UTI were initially treated with CEZ. Switching CEZ was not required in 84% of the patients. The median fever duration, prevalence of bacteremia, prevalence of UTI caused by extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Escherichia coli, and median duration of hospitalization were significantly higher in the CEZ-ineffective group. The risks of vesicoureteral reflux, indication of operation, and renal scarring are not increased, even when CEZ is ineffective as a first-line antibiotic. CEZ is effective in more than 80% of pediatric patients with their first febrile UTI, but it should be switched to appropriate antibiotics considering sepsis or the ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae pathogen, when fever does not improve within 72 hours. PMID:27335998

  17. Effect of isoniazid on the pharmacodynamics of cefazolin-induced seizures in rats.

    PubMed

    Ishiwata, Yasuyoshi; Nagata, Masashi; Yasuhara, Masato

    2005-04-01

    Both isoniazid (INH) and cefazolin (CEZ) can have serious adverse effects on the central nervous system (CNS), causing seizures. In this study, we investigated the effect of INH on the pharmacodynamics of CEZ-induced seizures in rats. Male Wistar rats pretreated with INH (150 mg/kg i.p.) or saline received an intravenous infusion of CEZ at 3.2 g/h/rat until the onset of seizures, then samples of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), blood (for serum), and brain were obtained immediately. The administration of INH was associated with a reduction in the total dose of CEZ required to produce seizures. The concentrations of CEZ in serum, brain, and CSF in INH-treated rats at the onset of seizures were significantly lower than those in control rats. In rats coadministered with pyridoxine (150 mg/kg s.c.), the concentration of CEZ in CSF at the onset of seizures was significantly higher than that in rats administered INH only. These results suggest that INH potentiates the sensitivity of the CNS to CEZ-induced seizures, and that the increased sensitivity is associated with the inhibition of vitamin B(6) metabolism by INH.

  18. Resuspension and atmospheric transport of radionuclides due to wildfires near the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant in 2015: An impact assessment.

    PubMed

    Evangeliou, N; Zibtsev, S; Myroniuk, V; Zhurba, M; Hamburger, T; Stohl, A; Balkanski, Y; Paugam, R; Mousseau, T A; Møller, A P; Kireev, S I

    2016-01-01

    In April and August 2015, two major fires in the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone (CEZ) caused concerns about the secondary radioactive contamination that might have spread over Europe. The present paper assessed, for the first time, the impact of these fires over Europe. About 10.9 TBq of (137)Cs, 1.5 TBq of (90)Sr, 7.8 GBq of (238)Pu, 6.3 GBq of (239)Pu, 9.4 GBq of (240)Pu and 29.7 GBq of (241)Am were released from both fire events corresponding to a serious event. The more labile elements escaped easier from the CEZ, whereas the larger refractory particles were removed more efficiently from the atmosphere mainly affecting the CEZ and its vicinity. During the spring 2015 fires, about 93% of the labile and 97% of the refractory particles ended in Eastern European countries. Similarly, during the summer 2015 fires, about 75% of the labile and 59% of the refractory radionuclides were exported from the CEZ with the majority depositing in Belarus and Russia. Effective doses were above 1 mSv y(-1) in the CEZ, but much lower in the rest of Europe contributing an additional dose to the Eastern European population, which is far below a dose from a medical X-ray. PMID:27184191

  19. Resuspension and atmospheric transport of radionuclides due to wildfires near the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant in 2015: An impact assessment.

    PubMed

    Evangeliou, N; Zibtsev, S; Myroniuk, V; Zhurba, M; Hamburger, T; Stohl, A; Balkanski, Y; Paugam, R; Mousseau, T A; Møller, A P; Kireev, S I

    2016-05-17

    In April and August 2015, two major fires in the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone (CEZ) caused concerns about the secondary radioactive contamination that might have spread over Europe. The present paper assessed, for the first time, the impact of these fires over Europe. About 10.9 TBq of (137)Cs, 1.5 TBq of (90)Sr, 7.8 GBq of (238)Pu, 6.3 GBq of (239)Pu, 9.4 GBq of (240)Pu and 29.7 GBq of (241)Am were released from both fire events corresponding to a serious event. The more labile elements escaped easier from the CEZ, whereas the larger refractory particles were removed more efficiently from the atmosphere mainly affecting the CEZ and its vicinity. During the spring 2015 fires, about 93% of the labile and 97% of the refractory particles ended in Eastern European countries. Similarly, during the summer 2015 fires, about 75% of the labile and 59% of the refractory radionuclides were exported from the CEZ with the majority depositing in Belarus and Russia. Effective doses were above 1 mSv y(-1) in the CEZ, but much lower in the rest of Europe contributing an additional dose to the Eastern European population, which is far below a dose from a medical X-ray.

  20. Resuspension and atmospheric transport of radionuclides due to wildfires near the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant in 2015: An impact assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evangeliou, N.; Zibtsev, S.; Myroniuk, V.; Zhurba, M.; Hamburger, T.; Stohl, A.; Balkanski, Y.; Paugam, R.; Mousseau, T. A.; Møller, A. P.; Kireev, S. I.

    2016-05-01

    In April and August 2015, two major fires in the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone (CEZ) caused concerns about the secondary radioactive contamination that might have spread over Europe. The present paper assessed, for the first time, the impact of these fires over Europe. About 10.9 TBq of 137Cs, 1.5 TBq of 90Sr, 7.8 GBq of 238Pu, 6.3 GBq of 239Pu, 9.4 GBq of 240Pu and 29.7 GBq of 241Am were released from both fire events corresponding to a serious event. The more labile elements escaped easier from the CEZ, whereas the larger refractory particles were removed more efficiently from the atmosphere mainly affecting the CEZ and its vicinity. During the spring 2015 fires, about 93% of the labile and 97% of the refractory particles ended in Eastern European countries. Similarly, during the summer 2015 fires, about 75% of the labile and 59% of the refractory radionuclides were exported from the CEZ with the majority depositing in Belarus and Russia. Effective doses were above 1 mSv y‑1 in the CEZ, but much lower in the rest of Europe contributing an additional dose to the Eastern European population, which is far below a dose from a medical X-ray.

  1. Resuspension and atmospheric transport of radionuclides due to wildfires near the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant in 2015: An impact assessment

    PubMed Central

    Evangeliou, N.; Zibtsev, S.; Myroniuk, V.; Zhurba, M.; Hamburger, T.; Stohl, A.; Balkanski, Y.; Paugam, R.; Mousseau, T. A.; Møller, A. P.; Kireev, S. I.

    2016-01-01

    In April and August 2015, two major fires in the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone (CEZ) caused concerns about the secondary radioactive contamination that might have spread over Europe. The present paper assessed, for the first time, the impact of these fires over Europe. About 10.9 TBq of 137Cs, 1.5 TBq of 90Sr, 7.8 GBq of 238Pu, 6.3 GBq of 239Pu, 9.4 GBq of 240Pu and 29.7 GBq of 241Am were released from both fire events corresponding to a serious event. The more labile elements escaped easier from the CEZ, whereas the larger refractory particles were removed more efficiently from the atmosphere mainly affecting the CEZ and its vicinity. During the spring 2015 fires, about 93% of the labile and 97% of the refractory particles ended in Eastern European countries. Similarly, during the summer 2015 fires, about 75% of the labile and 59% of the refractory radionuclides were exported from the CEZ with the majority depositing in Belarus and Russia. Effective doses were above 1 mSv y−1 in the CEZ, but much lower in the rest of Europe contributing an additional dose to the Eastern European population, which is far below a dose from a medical X-ray. PMID:27184191

  2. Ovarian Xenobiotic Biotransformation Enzymes Are Altered During Phosphoramide Mustard-Induced Ovotoxicity

    PubMed Central

    Madden, Jill A.; Keating, Aileen F.

    2014-01-01

    The anti-neoplastic prodrug, cyclophosphamide, requires biotransformation to phosphoramide mustard (PM), which partitions to volatile chloroethylaziridine (CEZ). PM and CEZ are ovotoxicants, however their ovarian biotransformation remains ill-defined. This study investigated PM and CEZ metabolism mechanisms through the utilization of cultured postnatal day 4 (PND4) Fisher 344 (F344) rat ovaries exposed to vehicle control (1% dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO)) or PM (60μM) for 2 or 4 days. Quantification of mRNA levels via an RT2 profiler PCR array and target-specific RT-PCR along with Western blotting found increased mRNA and protein levels of xenobiotic metabolism genes including microsomal epoxide hydrolase (Ephx1) and glutathione S-transferase isoform pi (Gstp). PND4 ovaries were treated with 1% DMSO, PM (60μM), cyclohexene oxide to inhibit EPHX1 (CHO; 2mM), or PM + CHO for 4 days. Lack of functional EPHX1 increased PM-induced ovotoxicity, suggesting a detoxification role for EPHX1. PND4 ovaries were also treated with 1% DMSO, PM (60μM), BSO (Glutathione (GSH) depletion; 100μM), GEE (GSH supplementation; 2.5mM), PM ± BSO, or PM ± GEE for 4 days. GSH supplementation prevented PM-induced follicle loss, whereas no impact of GSH depletion was observed. Lastly, the effect of ovarian GSH on CEZ liberation and ovotoxicity was evaluated. Both untreated and GEE-treated PND4 ovaries were plated adjacent to ovaries receiving PM + GEE or PM + BSO treatments. Less CEZ-induced ovotoxicity was observed with both GEE and BSO treatments indicating reduced CEZ liberation from PM. Collectively, this study supports ovarian biotransformation of PM, thereby influencing the ovotoxicity that ensues. PMID:25070981

  3. Optimal design of an internal monitoring program for personnel in the Chornobyl exclusion zone radwaste management industrial complex.

    PubMed

    Bondarenko, O O; Medvedev, S Yu; Novikov, O E; Andreyev, V V

    2007-01-01

    Modern state and approach regarding organisation of individual internal dose monitoring of the personnel of industrial complex for radioactive waste management at the Chornobyl exclusion zone (CEZ) is presented. Sensitivity and adequacy of the acknowledged instrumental methods is considered taking into account the features of interpretation using indirect methods in the specific working conditions of industrial complex for radioactive waste management at the CEZ. The performed analysis enables clear recommendations to be made with regard to optimum design of an internal monitoring program for personnel, including application of specific techniques.

  4. Unique Project of Single-Cutting Head Longwall Shearer Used for Thin Coal Seams Exploitation / Projekt Jednoorganowego Kombajnu ŚCIANOWEGO O Specjalnej Konstrukcji Przeznaczonego do Eksploatacji POKŁADÓW Cienkich

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bołoz, Łukasz

    2013-12-01

    Problem of thin hard coal seams exploitation, including chosen data related with their resources in Poland, has been discussed in the introduction of the present study. On the basis of actually operated machines the assumptions, which should be satisfied by the longwall shearer used for exploitation of thin hard coal seams, have been made. A project of such longwall shearer combined with band conveyor and mechanized longwall support, including description of the machine operation technology and analysis of possible day output achievement, have been presented. Polska dysponuje stosunkowo dużymi zasobami surowców energetycznych, a ciągle rosnące zapotrzebowanie na energię skłania do ich racjonalnego wykorzystywania. Jedną z możliwości takiego racjonalnego gospodarowania zasobami naturalnymi jest eksploatacja węgla kamiennego z pokładów cienkich. W związku z wybieraniem coraz cieńszych pokładów węgla, zalegających bardzo głęboko, w trudnych warunkach górniczo-geologicznych napotyka się na duże problemy związane z uzyskaniem wymaganej wydajności wydobycia przy użyciu stosowanych aktualnie metod. Przyjmuje się, ze pokłady cienkie to takie o miąższości od 1.0 m do 1.5 m i właśnie ta niewielka wysokość wyrobiska ścianowego powoduje szereg ograniczeń związanych z efektywną eksploatacją węgla. Na podstawie dostępnych danych określono, że ilości węgla kamiennego w cienkich pokładach wynosi około 600 mln Mg. Znaczna część pokładów cienkich w ostatnich latach została przeklasyfikowana na nieprzemysłowe, co pozwala stwierdzić, że rzeczywista ilość węgla w pokładach cienkich jest znacznie większa. Na podstawie analizy wad i zalet jak i danych technicznych produkowanych obecnie maszyn, określono wytyczne i założenia do nowego rozwiązania maszyny urabiającej przeznaczonej do wydobywania węgla w ścianach niskich. Kombajn do eksploatacji cienkich pokładów powinien spełniać następujące wymagania (Bołoz, 2012): • praca w systemie ścianowym, • zastosowanie frezowania jako metody skrawania, • rozdzielenie procesu frezowania od procesu ładowania, • zastosowanie pełnej automatyzacja pracy, • zastosowanie cięgnowego systemu posuwu, • możliwość rozpoczynania nowego skrawu bez konieczności zawrębiania, • gabaryty dostosowane do pracy w ścianach o wysokości od 1.0 m do 1.6 m, praca systemem dwukierunkowym. Fig. 2 przedstawia koncepcję kombajnu jednoorganowego. Kombajn ten składa się z kadłuba 2, jednego zamocowanego centralnie organu urabiającego 1 oraz dwóch rozkładanych ładowarek odkładniowych 3 i 4. Ładowarka 3 znajduje się w pozycji czynnej, natomiast ładowarka 4 w biernej. Kombajn jest ciągnięty po rynnach przenośnika 5 za pomocą łańcucha 6. Łańcuch 7 jest gałęzią bierną dla przedstawionego zwrotu prędkości. Podane, orientacyjne wymiary wynikają z analizy dotychczasowych rozwiązań kombajnów, głowic strugowych oraz założonego zakresu wysokości wyrobiska ścianowego (Krauze, 2006; Bołoz, 2012). Dla zaproponowanego rozwiązania przyjęto szereg koniecznych wielkości i przeprowadzono analizę możliwego do uzyskania wydobycia dobowego. Zestawione tabelarycznie wyniki umożliwiają określenie wydobycia dobowego możliwego do uzyskania przy określonych wartościach parametrów geometrycznych ściany, kinematycznych kombajnu oraz organizacyjnych pracy ściany. Dla założonych parametrów można stwierdzić, że minimalne wydobycie dobowe na poziomie Vd = 4032 Mg/d uzyskano dla L = 180 m, tp = 11 min, H = 1.0 m oraz T = 12 h/d. Maksymalne wydobycie dobowe na poziomie Vd = 11 612 Mg/d uzyskać można dla L = 300 m, tp = 0 min, H = 1.6 m oraz T = 18 h/d. Na wydobycie dobowe największy wpływ ma dobowy czas pracy ściany a następnie czas przekładki (Bołoz, 2012). Średnica organu dla takiego kombajnu dobierana jest do grubości pokładu. W przedmiotowym rozwiązaniu przyjęto organ o konstrukcji przestrzennej (belki nożowe zamiast płatów), aby powstający podczas frezowania urobek mógł spadać na spąg (Krauze, 2012b). Przykładowe rozwiązanie organu przestrzennego przedstawia fig. 3. Funkcję ładowania, realizowaną normalnie przez płaty, przejmują ładowarki. Rozdzielenie procesu ładowania od procesu frezowania jest jedną z najważniejszych zalet prezentowanego rozwiązania. Podczas pracy w ścianie parametry kinematyczne kombajnu mogą być zwiększane bez ryzyka wystąpienia problemów z ładowaniem na przenośnik, co obok możliwości ruchowych kombajnisty było głównym czynnikiem hamującym wzrost wydobycia. Załadunek urobku na przenośnik odbywa się za pomocą ładowarki, która po zmianie kierunku urabiania składa się, natomiast druga ustawiana jest w pozycji roboczej (Krauze, 2010). Kombajn porusza się tradycyjnie po rynnie przenośnika, jednak przy zastosowaniu cięgnowego systemu posuwu, który zrealizowany jest za pomocą napędów znajdujących się w chodnikach. Rozwiązanie takie umożliwia znaczne zmniejszenie gabarytów kombajnu dzięki usunięciu ciągników z kadłuba. Należy zaznaczyć, że w prezentowanym rozwiązaniu zakłada się zastosowanie pełnej automatyzacja pracy kombajnu i pozostałych maszyn ścianowych, co pozwala na urabianie calizny bez obecności załogi bezpośrednio w wyrobisku. Ma to duże znaczenie dla możliwości zwiększenia prędkości posuwu, szczególnie przy zakresie wysokości 1.0 m÷1.6 m. Przy wykorzystaniu znanych, z rozwiązań strugowych, systemów automatyki, sterowania i diagnostyki wprowadzenie automatyzacji procesu nie będzie stanowiło znaczącego problemu. W proponowanym rozwiązaniu kombajn ma możliwość wyjechania do chodnika na tyle, aby możliwe było zrealizowanie przekładki jak w przypadku strugów. Uzyskuje się wtedy krótki czas przekładki, który w skrajnym przypadku może zmieścić się w tzw. czasie organizacyjnym ściany. Ponadto urabianie odbywa się pełnym zabiorem na całej długości ściany co również korzystnie wpływa na wydobycie. Przekładkę realizować będą, oprócz układów przesuwnych sekcji, układy przesuwne napędów zlokalizowane w chodnikach lub ewentualnie obudowa skrzyżowań. Do sterowania położeniem kombajnu jednoorganowego, a w szczególności kierunkiem eksploatacji na wybiegu ściany (wznios, upad), zastosowane będą siłowniki korekcyjne łączące belkę układu przesuwnego sekcji z rynną przenośnika. Kopalnie jak i producenci sprzętu górniczego wykazują coraz większe zainteresowanie możliwością skutecznej eksploatacji pokładów cienki. Zaproponowany kompleks do eksploatacji cienkich pokładów wyposażony w kombajn jednoorganowy przeznaczony jest do pracy w technologii urabiania dwukierunkowego. Charakterystyczną cechą tej technologii jest brak fazy zawrębiania oraz praca na pełny zabiór na całej długości ściany. W przypadku zmiany grubości pokładu możliwa jest zmiana organu, natomiast sterowanie w kierunku wybiegu odbywać się będzie za pomocą siłowników korekcyjnych. Opracowanie technologii pracy kompleksu wyposażonego w kombajn jednoorganowy, analiza możliwego do osiągnięcia wydobycia dobowego, przy jego zastosowaniu oraz określenie wymaganych parametrów maszyn kompleksu ścianowego, a w szczególności kombajnu, potwierdza poprawność przyjętych założeń.

  5. Learning from History: The Nazi Era and the Holocaust in German Education = Lernen aus geschichte: Projekte zu Nationalsozialismus und Holocaust in schule und jugendar beit. [With CD-ROM].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brinkmann, Annette, Ed.; Ehmann, Annegret, Ed.; Milton, Sybil, Ed.; Rathenow, Hanns-Fred, Ed.; Wyrwoll, Regina, Ed.

    This project is the result of extensive research about the practical applications of "National Socialism and the Holocaust" in historical and political education in and outside schools and in educational work with young people. The multifaceted documentation, on CD-ROM, booklet and a Web site is aimed at a broad international and educational…

  6. Praxisorientierter Ansatz zur kartographischen Darstellung von Karst-Grundwasserressourcen. Erfahrungen aus dem SWISSKARST-Projekt A practical approach for mapping karst groundwater resources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malard, Arnauld; Jeannin, Pierre-Yves; Sinreich, Michael; Weber, Eric; Vouillamoz, Jonathan; Eichenberger, Urs

    2014-12-01

    In spite of their abundant water resources, in Switzerland as well as in other countries, the location and extent of karst aquifers have not yet been systematically studied and documented - mainly due to the lack of systematic and dedicated approaches for their characterization. In the framework of a project aiming at documenting the karst aquifers in Switzerland (SWISSKARST Project) the pragmatic KARSYS approach has been developed to systematically assess the main characteristics of karst aquifers and karst systems. One part of this project deals with the development of a practical method for mapping 2D hydrogeological karst systems, which is designed to address both scientific and applied issues. A series of maps based on the approach is proposed to describe the main characteristics of karst groundwater systems resulting in a synthesized map which suitably combines all relevant information.

  7. An Estimation of Profitability of Investment Projects in The Oil and Gas Industry Using Real Options Theory / Ocena Opłacalności Projektów Inwestycyjnych W Przemyśle Naftowym Z Wykorzystaniem Teorii Opcji Realnych

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kosowski, Piotr; Stopa, Jerzy

    2012-11-01

    Paper discusses issues relating to the valuation of investment efficiency in the oil and gas industry using a real options theory. The example of investment pricing using real options was depicted and it was confronted with the analysis executed with the use of traditional methods. Indicators commonly used to evaluate profitability of investment projects, based on a discounted cash flow method, have a few significant drawbacks, the most meaningful of which is staticity which means that any changes resulting from a decision process during the time of investment cannot be taken into consideration. In accordance with a methodology that is currently used, investment projects are analysed in a way that all the key decisions are made at the beginning and are irreversible. This approach assumes, that all the cash flows are specified and does not let the fact that during the time of investment there may appear new information, which could change its original form. What is also not analysed is the possibility of readjustment, due to staff managment's decisions, to the current market conditions, by expanding, speeding up/slowing down, abandoning or changing an outline of the undertaking. In result, traditional methods of investment projects valuation may lead to taking wrong decisions, e.g. giving up an owned exploitation licence or untimely liquidation of boreholes, which seem to be unprofitable. Due to all the above-mentioned there appears the necessity of finding some other methods which would let one make real and adequate estimations about investments in a petroleum industry especially when it comes to unconventional resources extraction. One of the methods which has been recently getting more and more approval in a world petroleum economics, is a real options pricing method. A real option is a right (but not an obligation) to make a decision connected with an investment in a specified time or time interval. According to the method a static model of pricing using DCF is no longer used; an investment project is divided into a series of steps and after each one there is a range of possible investment decisions, technical and organizational issues and all the others called `real options'. This lets one take many different varieties of modyfiying a strategy while pricing the project. This also makes it possible to react to the changing inner and outer situation and introducing new information while accomplishing the investment project. Owing to those, the decision process is a continuous operation, what is an actual vision of a real investment project management in the petroleum industry.

  8. Dynamic spatial patterns of leaf traits affect total respiration on the crown scale.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaolin; Zhou, Hongxuan; Han, Fengsen; Li, Yuanzheng; Hu, Dan

    2016-01-01

    Temporal and spatial variations of leaf traits caused conflicting conclusions and great estimating errors of total carbon budget on crown scales. However, there is no effective method to quantitatively describe and study heterogeneous patterns of crowns yet. In this study, dynamic spatial patterns of typical ecological factors on crown scales were investigated during two sky conditions, and CEZs (crown ecological zones) method was developed for spatial crown zoning, within which leaf traits were statistically unchanged. The influencing factors on hourly and spatial variations of leaf dark respiration (Rd) were analysed, and total crown respiration (Rt) was estimated based on patterns of CEZs. The results showed that dynamic spatial patterns of air temperature and light intensity changed significantly by CEZs in special periods and positions, but not continuously. The contributions of influencing factors on variations of Rd changed with crown depth and sky conditions, and total contributions of leaf structural and chemical traits were higher during sunny days than ecological factors, but lower during cloudy days. The estimated errors of Rt may be obviously reduced with CEZs. These results provided some references for scaling from leaves to crown, and technical foundations for expanding lab-control experiments to open field ones. PMID:27225586

  9. Dynamic spatial patterns of leaf traits affect total respiration on the crown scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiaolin; Zhou, Hongxuan; Han, Fengsen; Li, Yuanzheng; Hu, Dan

    2016-05-01

    Temporal and spatial variations of leaf traits caused conflicting conclusions and great estimating errors of total carbon budget on crown scales. However, there is no effective method to quantitatively describe and study heterogeneous patterns of crowns yet. In this study, dynamic spatial patterns of typical ecological factors on crown scales were investigated during two sky conditions, and CEZs (crown ecological zones) method was developed for spatial crown zoning, within which leaf traits were statistically unchanged. The influencing factors on hourly and spatial variations of leaf dark respiration (Rd) were analysed, and total crown respiration (Rt) was estimated based on patterns of CEZs. The results showed that dynamic spatial patterns of air temperature and light intensity changed significantly by CEZs in special periods and positions, but not continuously. The contributions of influencing factors on variations of Rd changed with crown depth and sky conditions, and total contributions of leaf structural and chemical traits were higher during sunny days than ecological factors, but lower during cloudy days. The estimated errors of Rt may be obviously reduced with CEZs. These results provided some references for scaling from leaves to crown, and technical foundations for expanding lab-control experiments to open field ones.

  10. Dynamic spatial patterns of leaf traits affect total respiration on the crown scale

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiaolin; Zhou, Hongxuan; Han, Fengsen; Li, Yuanzheng; Hu, Dan

    2016-01-01

    Temporal and spatial variations of leaf traits caused conflicting conclusions and great estimating errors of total carbon budget on crown scales. However, there is no effective method to quantitatively describe and study heterogeneous patterns of crowns yet. In this study, dynamic spatial patterns of typical ecological factors on crown scales were investigated during two sky conditions, and CEZs (crown ecological zones) method was developed for spatial crown zoning, within which leaf traits were statistically unchanged. The influencing factors on hourly and spatial variations of leaf dark respiration (Rd) were analysed, and total crown respiration (Rt) was estimated based on patterns of CEZs. The results showed that dynamic spatial patterns of air temperature and light intensity changed significantly by CEZs in special periods and positions, but not continuously. The contributions of influencing factors on variations of Rd changed with crown depth and sky conditions, and total contributions of leaf structural and chemical traits were higher during sunny days than ecological factors, but lower during cloudy days. The estimated errors of Rt may be obviously reduced with CEZs. These results provided some references for scaling from leaves to crown, and technical foundations for expanding lab-control experiments to open field ones. PMID:27225586

  11. [Microtubules in epidermal and cortical root cells of Brassica rapa during clinorotation].

    PubMed

    Kalinina, Ia M

    2006-01-01

    Using confocal microscopy the organization of tubulin cytoskeleton including endoplasmic and cortical microtubules (CMTs) has been studied in epidermal and cortical cells of the different growth zones of main root of Brassica rapa L. 6-days-old seedlings in control conditions and under clinorotation. It was shown that changes in CMTs orientation occured only in the distal elongation zone (DEZ). In the control, CMT arrays oriented transversely to the root long axis. Under clinorotation appearance of the shorter randomly organized CMTs was observed. Simultaneously, a significant decrease in the cell length in the central elongation zone (CEZ) under clinorotation was detected. It is suggested that the decline of anisotropic growth typical for CEZ cells is connected with CMTs disorientation under clinorotation.

  12. Isolation of multiple drug-resistant enteric bacteria from feces of wild Western Lowland Gorilla (Gorilla gorilla gorilla) in Gabon.

    PubMed

    Mbehang Nguema, Pierre Philippe; Okubo, Torahiko; Tsuchida, Sayaka; Fujita, Shiho; Yamagiwa, Juichi; Tamura, Yutaka; Ushida, Kazunari

    2015-05-01

    Prevalence of drug-resistant bacteria in wildlife can reveal the actual level of anthropological burden on the wildlife. In this study, we isolated two multiple drug-resistant strains, GG6-2 and GG6-1-1, from 27 fresh feces of wild western lowland gorillas in Moukalaba-Doudou National Park, Gabon. Isolates were identified as Achromobacter xylosoxidans and Providencia sp., respectively. Minimum inhibitory concentrations of the following 12 drugs-ampicillin (ABPC), cefazolin (CEZ), cefotaxime (CTX), streptomycin (SM), gentamicin (GM), kanamycin (KM), tetracycline (TC), nalidixic acid (NA), ciprofloxacin (CPFX), colistin (CL), chloramphenicol (CP) and trimethoprim (TMP)-were determined. Isolate GG6-2 was resistant to all antimicrobials tested and highly resistant to CTX, SM, TC, NA and TMP. Isolate GG6-1-1 was resistant to ABPC, CEZ, TC, CL, CP and TMP.

  13. Isolation of multiple drug-resistant enteric bacteria from feces of wild Western Lowland Gorilla (Gorilla gorilla gorilla) in Gabon

    PubMed Central

    MBEHANG NGUEMA, Pierre Philippe; OKUBO, Torahiko; TSUCHIDA, Sayaka; FUJITA, Shiho; YAMAGIWA, Juichi; TAMURA, Yutaka; USHIDA, Kazunari

    2015-01-01

    Prevalence of drug-resistant bacteria in wildlife can reveal the actual level of anthropological burden on the wildlife. In this study, we isolated two multiple drug-resistant strains, GG6-2 and GG6-1-1, from 27 fresh feces of wild western lowland gorillas in Moukalaba-Doudou National Park, Gabon. Isolates were identified as Achromobacter xylosoxidans and Providencia sp., respectively. Minimum inhibitory concentrations of the following 12 drugs—ampicillin (ABPC), cefazolin (CEZ), cefotaxime (CTX), streptomycin (SM), gentamicin (GM), kanamycin (KM), tetracycline (TC), nalidixic acid (NA), ciprofloxacin (CPFX), colistin (CL), chloramphenicol (CP) and trimethoprim (TMP)—were determined. Isolate GG6-2 was resistant to all antimicrobials tested and highly resistant to CTX, SM, TC, NA and TMP. Isolate GG6-1-1 was resistant to ABPC, CEZ, TC, CL, CP and TMP. PMID:25649412

  14. Atmospheric transport of radionuclides emitted due to wildfires near the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant in 2015

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evangeliou, Nikolaos; Zibtsev, Sergey; Myroniuk, Viktor; Zhurba, Marina; Hamburger, Thomas; Stohl, Andreas; Balkanski, Yves; Paugam, Ronan; Mousseau, Timothy A.; Møller, Anders P.; Kireev, Sergey I.

    2016-04-01

    In 2015, two major fires in the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone (CEZ) have caused concerns about the secondary radioactive contamination that might have spread over Europe. The total active burned area was estimated to be about 15,000 hectares, of which 9000 hectares burned in April and 6000 hectares in August. The present paper aims to assess, for the first time, the transport and impact of these fires over Europe. For this reason, direct observations of the prevailing deposition levels of 137Cs and 90Sr, 238Pu, 239Pu, 240Pu and 241Am in the CEZ were processed together with burned area estimates. Based on literature reports, we made the conservative assumption that 20% of the deposited labile radionuclides 137Cs and 90Sr, and 10% of the more refractory 238Pu, 239Pu, 240Pu and 241Am, were resuspended by the fires. We estimate that about 10.9 TBq of 137Cs, 1.5 TBq of 90Sr, 7.8 GBq of 238Pu, 6.3 GBq of 239Pu, 9.4 GBq of 240Pu and 29.7 GBq of 241Am were released from both fire events. These releases could be classified as of "Level 3" on the relative INES (International Nuclear Events Scale) scale, which corresponds to a serious incident, in which non-lethal deterministic effects are expected from radiation. To simulate the dispersion of the resuspended radionuclides in the atmosphere and their deposition onto the terrestrial environment, we used a Lagrangian dispersion model. Spring fires redistributed radionuclides over the northern and eastern parts of Europe, while the summer fires also affected Central and Southern Europe. The more labile elements escaped more easily from the CEZ and then reached and deposited in areas far from the source, whereas the larger refractory particles were removed more efficiently from the atmosphere and thus did mainly affect the CEZ and its vicinity. For the spring 2015 fires, we estimate that about 80% of 137Cs and 90Sr and about 69% of 238Pu, 239Pu, 240Pu and 241Am were deposited over areas outside the CEZ. 93% of the labile and 97% of

  15. Nuclear Data Sheets for A = 154

    SciTech Connect

    Reich, C.W.

    2009-10-15

    The experimental results from the various reaction and decay studies leading to nuclides in the A = 154 mass chain have been reviewed. These data are summarized and presented, together with adopted level schemes and properties, for the nuclides from Ce(Z = 58) through Hf(Z = 72). This evaluation replaces that of 1998Re22, which appeared in Nuclear Data Sheets 85, 171 (1998)

  16. Proceedings of the Chornobyl phytoremediation and biomass energy conversion workshop

    SciTech Connect

    Hartley, J.; Tokarevsky, V.

    1998-06-01

    Many concepts, systems, technical approaches, technologies, ideas, agreements, and disagreements were vigorously discussed during the course of the 2-day workshop. The workshop was successful in generating intensive discussions on the merits of the proposed concept that includes removal of radionuclides by plants and trees (phytoremediation) to clean up soil in the Chornobyl Exclusion Zone (CEZ), use of the resultant biomass (plants and trees) to generate electrical power, and incorporation of ash in concrete casks to be used as storage containers in a licensed repository for low-level waste. Twelve years after the Chornobyl Nuclear Power Plant (ChNPP) Unit 4 accident, which occurred on April 26, 1986, the primary 4radioactive contamination of concern is from radioactive cesium ({sup 137}Cs) and strontium ({sup 90}Sr). The {sup 137}Cs and {sup 90}Sr were widely distributed throughout the CEZ. The attendees from Ukraine, Russia, Belarus, Denmark and the US provided information, discussed and debated the following issues considerably: distribution and characteristics of radionuclides in CEZ; efficacy of using trees and plants to extract radioactive cesium (Cs) and strontium (Sr) from contaminated soil; selection of energy conversion systems and technologies; necessary infrastructure for biomass harvesting, handling, transportation, and energy conversion; radioactive ash and emission management; occupational health and safety concerns for the personnel involved in this work; and economics. The attendees concluded that the overall concept has technical and possibly economic merits. However, many issues (technical, economic, risk) remain to be resolved before a viable commercial-scale implementation could take place.

  17. 76 FR 58246 - Purdue University; Notice of Decision on Applications for Duty-Free Entry of Scientific Instruments

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-20

    ...: Projekt Messtechnik, Germany. Intended Use: See notice at 76 FR 52314, August 22, 2011. Comments: None... multiple samples at one time, ensuring that conditions do not vary from one experiment to the next....

  18. A Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices Survey Conducted Three Years after Halting Ivermectin Mass Treatment for Onchocerciasis in Guatemala

    PubMed Central

    Richards, Frank O.; Klein, Robert E.; de León, Oscar; Mendizábal-Cabrera, Renata; Morales, Alba Lucía; Cama, Vitaliano; Crovella, Carol G.; Díaz Espinoza, Carlos E.; Morales, Zoraida; Sauerbrey, Mauricio; Rizzo, Nidia

    2016-01-01

    Background Mass drug administration (MDA) with ivermectin for onchocerciasis was provided in Guatemala’s Central Endemic Zone (CEZ) over a 24 year period (1988–2011). Elimination of Onchocerca volvulus transmission was declared in 2015 after a three year post MDA surveillance period (2012–2014) showed no evidence of recrudescence. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP) towards onchocerciasis and ivermectin among residents in the post endemic CEZ. A major interest in this study was to determine what community residents thought about the end of the ivermectin MDA program. Methodology/Principal Findings A total of 148 interviews were conducted in November 2014 in four formerly hyperendemic communities using a standard questionnaire on smart phones. The majority (69%) of respondents knew that the MDA program had ended because the disease was no longer present in their communities, but a slight majority (53%) was personally unsure that onchocerciasis had really been eliminated. Sixty-three percent wanted to continue to receive ivermectin because of this uncertainty, or because ivermectin is effective against intestinal worms. Eighty-nine percent of respondents said that they would seek medical attention immediately if a family member had symptoms of onchocerciasis (especially the presence of a nodule), which is a finding very important for ongoing surveillance. Conclusions/Significance Many respondents wanted to continue receive ivermectin and more than half did not believe onchocerciasis had been eliminated. The ministry of health outreach services should be prepared to address ongoing concerns about onchocerciasis in the post endemic CEZ. PMID:27341104

  19. One Hundred Years After Its Discovery in Guatemala by Rodolfo Robles, Onchocerca volvulus Transmission Has Been Eliminated from the Central Endemic Zone.

    PubMed

    Richards, Frank; Rizzo, Nidia; Diaz Espinoza, Carlos Enrique; Monroy, Zoraida Morales; Crovella Valdez, Carol Guillermina; de Cabrera, Renata Mendizabal; de Leon, Oscar; Zea-Flores, Guillermo; Sauerbrey, Mauricio; Morales, Alba Lucia; Rios, Dalila; Unnasch, Thomas R; Hassan, Hassan K; Klein, Robert; Eberhard, Mark; Cupp, Ed; Domínguez, Alfredo

    2015-12-01

    We report the elimination of Onchocerca volvulus transmission from the Central Endemic Zone (CEZ) of onchocerciasis in Guatemala, the largest focus of this disease in the Americas and the first to be discovered in this hemisphere by Rodolfo Robles Valverde in 1915. Mass drug administration (MDA) with ivermectin was launched in 1988, with semiannual MDA coverage reaching at least 85% of the eligible population in > 95% of treatment rounds during the 12-year period, 2000-2011. Serial parasitological testing to monitor MDA impact in sentinel villages showed a decrease in microfilaria skin prevalence from 70% to 0%, and polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based entomological assessments of the principal vector Simulium ochraceum s.l. showed transmission interruption by 2007. These assessments, together with a 2010 serological survey in children 9-69 months of age that showed Ov16 IgG4 antibody prevalence to be < 0.1%, meeting World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines for stopping MDA, and treatment was halted after 2011. After 3 years an entomological assessment showed no evidence of vector infection or recrudescence of transmission. In 2015, 100 years after the discovery of its presence, the Ministry of Health of Guatemala declared onchocerciasis transmission as having been eliminated from the CEZ. PMID:26503275

  20. One Hundred Years After Its Discovery in Guatemala by Rodolfo Robles, Onchocerca volvulus Transmission Has Been Eliminated from the Central Endemic Zone.

    PubMed

    Richards, Frank; Rizzo, Nidia; Diaz Espinoza, Carlos Enrique; Monroy, Zoraida Morales; Crovella Valdez, Carol Guillermina; de Cabrera, Renata Mendizabal; de Leon, Oscar; Zea-Flores, Guillermo; Sauerbrey, Mauricio; Morales, Alba Lucia; Rios, Dalila; Unnasch, Thomas R; Hassan, Hassan K; Klein, Robert; Eberhard, Mark; Cupp, Ed; Domínguez, Alfredo

    2015-12-01

    We report the elimination of Onchocerca volvulus transmission from the Central Endemic Zone (CEZ) of onchocerciasis in Guatemala, the largest focus of this disease in the Americas and the first to be discovered in this hemisphere by Rodolfo Robles Valverde in 1915. Mass drug administration (MDA) with ivermectin was launched in 1988, with semiannual MDA coverage reaching at least 85% of the eligible population in > 95% of treatment rounds during the 12-year period, 2000-2011. Serial parasitological testing to monitor MDA impact in sentinel villages showed a decrease in microfilaria skin prevalence from 70% to 0%, and polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based entomological assessments of the principal vector Simulium ochraceum s.l. showed transmission interruption by 2007. These assessments, together with a 2010 serological survey in children 9-69 months of age that showed Ov16 IgG4 antibody prevalence to be < 0.1%, meeting World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines for stopping MDA, and treatment was halted after 2011. After 3 years an entomological assessment showed no evidence of vector infection or recrudescence of transmission. In 2015, 100 years after the discovery of its presence, the Ministry of Health of Guatemala declared onchocerciasis transmission as having been eliminated from the CEZ.

  1. Complex regulation of Arabidopsis AGR1/PIN2-mediated root gravitropic response and basipetal auxin transport by cantharidin-sensitive protein phosphatases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shin, Heungsop; Shin, Hwa-Soo; Guo, Zibiao; Blancaflor, Elison B.; Masson, Patrick H.; Chen, Rujin

    2005-01-01

    Polar auxin transport, mediated by two distinct plasma membrane-localized auxin influx and efflux carrier proteins/complexes, plays an important role in many plant growth and developmental processes including tropic responses to gravity and light, development of lateral roots and patterning in embryogenesis. We have previously shown that the Arabidopsis AGRAVITROPIC 1/PIN2 gene encodes an auxin efflux component regulating root gravitropism and basipetal auxin transport. However, the regulatory mechanism underlying the function of AGR1/PIN2 is largely unknown. Recently, protein phosphorylation and dephosphorylation mediated by protein kinases and phosphatases, respectively, have been implicated in regulating polar auxin transport and root gravitropism. Here, we examined the effects of chemical inhibitors of protein phosphatases on root gravitropism and basipetal auxin transport, as well as the expression pattern of AGR1/PIN2 gene and the localization of AGR1/PIN2 protein. We also examined the effects of inhibitors of vesicle trafficking and protein kinases. Our data suggest that protein phosphatases, sensitive to cantharidin and okadaic acid, are likely involved in regulating AGR1/PIN2-mediated root basipetal auxin transport and gravitropism, as well as auxin response in the root central elongation zone (CEZ). BFA-sensitive vesicle trafficking may be required for the cycling of AGR1/PIN2 between plasma membrane and the BFA compartment, but not for the AGR1/PIN2-mediated root basipetal auxin transport and auxin response in CEZ cells.

  2. Two distinct regions of response drive differential growth in Vigna root electrotropism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolverton, C.; Mullen, J. L.; Ishikawa, H.; Evans, M. L.

    2000-01-01

    Although exogenous electric fields have been reported to influence the orientation of plant root growth, reports of the ultimate direction of differential growth have been contradictory. Using a high-resolution image analysis approach, the kinetics of electrotropic curvature in Vigna mungo L. roots were investigated. It was found that curvature occurred in the same root toward both the anode and cathode. However, these two responses occurred in two different regions of the root, the central elongation zone (CEZ) and distal elongation zone (DEZ), respectively. These oppositely directed responses could be reproduced individually by a localized electric field application to the region of response. This indicates that both are true responses to the electric field, rather than one being a secondary response to an induced gravitropic stimulation. The individual responses differed in the type of differential growth giving rise to curvature. In the CEZ, curvature was driven by inhibition of elongation, whereas curvature in the DEZ was primarily due to stimulation of elongation. This stimulation of elongation is consistent with the growth response of the DEZ to other environmental stimuli.

  3. Mechanical and statistical aspects of brittle faulting: From coseismic rupture to cumulative deformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilkins, Scott Jay

    faulting that accounts for cohesive end-zones (CEZ) near the fault tips and the aspect ratio (length/height) of the rupture surface. In this model, scatter between slip and rupture aspect ratio is related to differences in CEZ lengths, and model predictions are consistent with CEZ lengths estimated from 3-D slip distributions of four major earthquakes. The observations require large values of driving stress (˜100 MPa) and small stress drops (˜1 MPa), consistent with a partial stress drop model for earthquakes.

  4. Titanium Alloys and Processing for High Speed Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brewer, William D.; Bird, R. Keith; Wallace, Terryl A.

    1996-01-01

    Commercially available titanium alloys as well as emerging titanium alloys with limited or no production experience are being considered for a variety of applications to high speed commercial aircraft structures. A number of government and industry programs are underway to improve the performance of promising alloys by chemistry and/or processing modifications and to identify appropriate alloys and processes for specific aircraft structural applications. This paper discusses some of the results on the effects of heat treatment, service temperatures from - 54 C to +177 C, and selected processing on the mechanical properties of several candidate beta and alpha-beta titanium alloys. Included are beta alloys Timetal 21S, LCB, Beta C, Beta CEZ, and Ti-10-2-3 and alpha-beta alloys Ti-62222, Ti-6242S, Timetal 550, Ti-62S, SP-700, and Corona-X. The emphasis is on properties of rolled sheet product form and on the superplastic properties and processing of the materials.

  5. The infection of questing Dermacentor reticulatus ticks with Babesia canis and Anaplasma phagocytophilum in the Chernobyl exclusion zone.

    PubMed

    Karbowiak, Grzegorz; Vichová, Bronislavá; Slivinska, Kateryna; Werszko, Joanna; Didyk, Julia; Peťko, Branislav; Stanko, Michal; Akimov, Igor

    2014-08-29

    Tick occurrence was studied in the Chernobyl exclusion zone (CEZ) during the August-October 2009-2012. Dermacentor reticulatus ticks were collected using the flagging method and then screened for infection with Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Babesia canis by a PCR method incorporating specific primers and sequence analysis. The prevalence of infection with B. canis canis and A. phagocytophilum was found to be 3.41% and 25.36%, respectively. The results present the first evidence of B. canis canis and A. phagocytophilum in questing D. reticulatus ticks from the Chernobyl exclusion zone. They also reveal the presence of tick-borne disease foci in areas with no human activity, and confirm that they can be maintained in areas after a nuclear disaster with radioactive contamination.

  6. Soil nematode assemblages as bioindicators of radiation impact in the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone.

    PubMed

    Lecomte-Pradines, C; Bonzom, J-M; Della-Vedova, C; Beaugelin-Seiller, K; Villenave, C; Gaschak, S; Coppin, F; Dubourg, N; Maksimenko, A; Adam-Guillermin, C; Garnier-Laplace, J

    2014-08-15

    In radioecology, the need to understand the long-term ecological effects of radioactive contamination has been emphasised. This requires that the health of field populations is evaluated and linked to an accurate estimate of received radiological dose. The aim of the present study was to assess the effects of current radioactive contamination on nematode assemblages at sites affected by the fallout from the Chernobyl accident. First, we estimated the total dose rates (TDRs) absorbed by nematodes, from measured current soil activity concentrations, Dose Conversion Coefficients (DCCs, calculated using EDEN software) and soil-to-biota concentration ratios (from the ERICA tool database). The impact of current TDRs on nematode assemblages was then evaluated. Nematodes were collected in spring 2011 from 18 forest sites in the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone (CEZ) with external gamma dose rates, measured using radiophotoluminescent dosimeters, varying from 0.2 to 22 μGy h(-1). These values were one order of magnitude below the TDRs. A majority of bacterial-, plant-, and fungal-feeding nematodes and very few of the disturbance sensitive families were identified. No statistically significant association was observed between TDR values and nematode total abundance or the Shannon diversity index (H'). The Nematode Channel Ratio (which defines the relative abundance of bacterial- versus fungal-feeding nematodes) decreased significantly with increasing TDR, suggesting that radioactive contamination may influence nematode assemblages either directly or indirectly by modifying their food resources. A greater Maturity Index (MI), usually characterising better soil quality, was associated with higher pH and TDR values. These results suggest that in the CEZ, nematode assemblages from the forest sites were slightly impacted by chronic exposure at a predicted TDR of 200 μGy h(-1). This may be imputable to a dominant proportion of pollutant resistant nematodes in all sites. This might

  7. Electricity industry development trends and the environmental programs in the Czech Republic

    SciTech Connect

    Karas, P.

    1995-12-01

    The process of industrialization in the Czech Republic, which is more intensive than in other parts of central Europe, has been under way since the mid-nineteenth century. Over the last 40 years, large-scale industrial activity was based on extensive use of domestic primary energy sources, especially brown-coal/lignite. The escalation of this usage inflicted heavy devastation to large portions of industrial zones and, as a result, worsened living conditions through atmospheric pollution and other environmental impacts in large regions of central Europe. The Czech electricity industry and CEZ, a.s. (the nation`s principal electricity generator, responsible for meeting eighty percent of national electricity demand, and operator of the nationwide EHV transmission system) has been challenged to cope with all environmental issues by the end of 1997, in compliance with the strict limits set by the Clean Air Act of 1991, which are comparable to standard implemented in advanced industrial countries. A review of the critical environmental issues is presented and the role of the individual and of the State is analyzed. The approach of CEZ, a.s., towards a better natural environment and its response to legal environment provisions have been incorporated into the company`s development program. It comprises decommissioning the most obsolete fossil-fuel fired power stations; rehabilitation of thermal power plants; supplementing the coal/lignite-fired units selected for future operation with FGD systems and retrofitting them with DENOX equipment; a larger share of nuclear electricity generation after the completion of the Temelin NPP (2 units of 1000MW each) and, last but not least, initiating DSM (demand-side management) programs of energy-electricity savings in the Czech Republic.

  8. Soil nematode assemblages as bioindicators of radiation impact in the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone.

    PubMed

    Lecomte-Pradines, C; Bonzom, J-M; Della-Vedova, C; Beaugelin-Seiller, K; Villenave, C; Gaschak, S; Coppin, F; Dubourg, N; Maksimenko, A; Adam-Guillermin, C; Garnier-Laplace, J

    2014-08-15

    In radioecology, the need to understand the long-term ecological effects of radioactive contamination has been emphasised. This requires that the health of field populations is evaluated and linked to an accurate estimate of received radiological dose. The aim of the present study was to assess the effects of current radioactive contamination on nematode assemblages at sites affected by the fallout from the Chernobyl accident. First, we estimated the total dose rates (TDRs) absorbed by nematodes, from measured current soil activity concentrations, Dose Conversion Coefficients (DCCs, calculated using EDEN software) and soil-to-biota concentration ratios (from the ERICA tool database). The impact of current TDRs on nematode assemblages was then evaluated. Nematodes were collected in spring 2011 from 18 forest sites in the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone (CEZ) with external gamma dose rates, measured using radiophotoluminescent dosimeters, varying from 0.2 to 22 μGy h(-1). These values were one order of magnitude below the TDRs. A majority of bacterial-, plant-, and fungal-feeding nematodes and very few of the disturbance sensitive families were identified. No statistically significant association was observed between TDR values and nematode total abundance or the Shannon diversity index (H'). The Nematode Channel Ratio (which defines the relative abundance of bacterial- versus fungal-feeding nematodes) decreased significantly with increasing TDR, suggesting that radioactive contamination may influence nematode assemblages either directly or indirectly by modifying their food resources. A greater Maturity Index (MI), usually characterising better soil quality, was associated with higher pH and TDR values. These results suggest that in the CEZ, nematode assemblages from the forest sites were slightly impacted by chronic exposure at a predicted TDR of 200 μGy h(-1). This may be imputable to a dominant proportion of pollutant resistant nematodes in all sites. This might

  9. Kosteneffiziente Honbearbeitung durch intelligente und flexible Verknüpfung von autarken Honzentren

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roth, Günther

    Die Planungsabteilungen in der Automobilindustrie werden vor immer größere Herausforderungen gestsellt. Der zur Verfügung stehende Zeitraum zu einer seriensicheren Umsetzung der entwicklungs- und produktionstechnischen Forderungen wird von Projekt zu Projekt kürzer. Aufgrund des hohen Wettbewerbsdrucks und daraus resultierenden erforderlichen Kostenoptimierungen, die schnelleren Timeto-market-und Innovationszyklen und die vermeintlich zur Kundenbindung erforderlichen, kaum mehr überschaubaren Diversifizierungen in den Modellpaletten lassen den Planungshorizont immer kürzer werden. Die zu beschaffenden Fertigungsanlagen sollen aber in den nächsten 8-12 Jahren all die Varianten produzieren können, die heute nur teilweise oder noch gar nicht bekannt sind.

  10. IntegraTUM Teilprojekt E-Mail: Rezentralisierung von E-Mail-Services

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diehn, Max; Haarer, Ado; Schreiner, Alexander; Storz, Michael

    Das Teilprojekt E-Mail hatte ursprünglich die Aufgabe einen zentralen Mailservice mit verteilter Administration der Mailadressen für die TUM aufzubauen und diesen durch Anti-Spam- und Anti-Viren-Maßnahmen zu schützen. Auf diesen Mailservice sollten sowohl die am LRZ gehosteten Maildomains als auch die vielen lokal betriebenen Mailserver - soweit von deren Betreibern gewünscht - migriert werden. Neben einigen Rückschlägen und Hindernissen kam es im Laufe des Projektes auch zu einer Änderung der Anforderungen, sodass zum Ende des Projektes statt eines reinen Mailsystems ein Doppelsystem mit "shared SMTP address space" bestehend aus einem klassischen Message-Store mit POP/IMAP-Zugriff auf Basis von Postfix + Dovecot und einem Groupware-System auf Basis von Microsoft Exchange in Produktion ging, wobei jeder Mitarbeiter und Student der TUM wählen kann, auf welchem der beiden Systeme sich seine Mailbox befindet.

  11. Is German Medical Education Research on the rise? An analysis of publications from the years 2004 to 2013.

    PubMed

    Ackel-Eisnach, Kristina; Raes, Patricia; Hönikl, Lisa; Bauer, Daniel; Wagener, Stefan; Möltner, Andreas; Jünger, Jana; Fischer, Martin R

    2015-01-01

    Zielsetzung: Ausgangspunkt des vorliegenden Artikels ist die Feststellung, dass es aus Deutschland im Vergleich zu den angloamerikanischen Ländern oder den Niederlanden vor 2004 kaum internationale Publikationen im Bereich der medizinischen Ausbildungsforschung gab. In den letzten Jahren wurde jedoch eine steigende Bedeutung der medizinischen Ausbildungsforschung im deutschen Raum deutlich. Zielsetzung dieses Beitrags ist es zu prüfen, inwieweit sich in internationalen, englischsprachigen Fachzeitschriften im Themenfeld „Medizinische Ausbildungsforschung“ seit 2004 eine solche Entwicklung durch eine gesteigerte Publikationsaktivität belegen lässt. Methodik: Im Rahmen einer Literaturauswertung und Inhaltsanalyse wurden Artikel deutscher Autoren aus den Jahren 2004 bis 2013 in sechs internationalen englischsprachigen Fachzeitschriften der medizinischen Ausbildungsforschung analysiert. Um einen Überblick über die deutschen Forschungsaktivitäten in diesem Bereich zu bekommen, wurden alle Projekt- und Originalarbeiten deutscher Erst- und Letztautoren identifiziert und einer tiefergehenden inhaltlichen Analyse unterzogen. Ergebnisse: Insgesamt wurden 10.055 Artikel untersucht. Die Auswertung zeigt, dass zwischen 2004 und 2013 179 Artikel – hiervon 145 Projekt- und Originalarbeiten – deutscher Autoren in den betrachteten Zeitschriften publiziert wurden. Es zeigen sich Schwankungen im Zeitverlauf. Bei den Projekt- und Originalarbeiten handelt sich vor allem um Querschnitt- (27,8%) und randomisierte Kontrollstudien (25,6%) zum Thema „Lehr- und Lernmethoden“ (43,6%). Schlussfolgerung: Seit 2009 zeigt sich ein deutlicher Anstieg der Publikationszahlen deutscher Ausbildungsforscher in internationalen Fachzeitschriften im Vergleich zu den Jahren 2004-2008.

  12. Evaluation of antimicrobial prophylaxis against postoperative infection after spine surgery: Limit of the first generation cephem.

    PubMed

    Iida, Yasuaki; Inoue, Yasuhiro; Hasegawa, Keiji; Tsuge, Shintaro; Yokoyama, Yuichirou; Nakamura, Kazumasa; Fukano, Ryoichi; Takamatsu, Ryo; Wada, Akihito; Takahashi, Hiroshi

    2016-03-01

    In our department, first-generation cephem (CEZ) are generally administered for 2 days as antimicrobial prophylaxis (AMP) for spinal surgery. However, the incidence of surgical site infection (SSI) has recently increased, particularly cases involving coagulase-negative Staphylococci (CNS) as an etiologic agent. The objective was to elucidate the problems with the current AMP and the risk factors of SSI through a retrospective investigation of affected cases. The subjects were patients who underwent spine surgery at our department between August 2007 and June 2013. The subjects were divided into those who developed SSI (S group) and who did not develop SSI (non-SSI (N) group), patients who developed CNS infection in the S group was subdivided as C group, and the risk factors were investigated. The significance of each factor was analyzed using cross tabulation, and multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed with 22 of the investigation factors as explanatory variables. The incidence of SSI was 2.55%, and the etiologic agent was CNS in 17 patients. Upon comparison between the S and N groups, the presence of 3 or more underlying diseases and blood loss were extracted as significant risk factors. Upon comparison between the C and N groups, emergency surgery and intra- and postoperative steroid administration were extracted as significant risk factors, in addition to the presence of 3 or more underlying diseases and blood loss. The effect of the current AMP using first generation cephem is limited, and reconsideration of the protocol may be necessary. PMID:26806151

  13. [Housing Project 'Living Independently with Intensive Support (WmI)': The View of Foundation and Staff].

    PubMed

    Bielefeld, K; Bald, K

    2014-02-01

    The Fürst Donnersmarck-Foundation (FDSt) initiated the housing projekt 'Living Independently with Intensive Support (WmI)' to show that such a concept is feasible even with persons with severe multiple handicaps. It is reported how financial, organisational and communicative problems can be solved. Overall, the housing project is not much more expensive than inpatient concepts, but a change of traditional concepts of administration was required. The new service mode presupposed a careful preparation and high motivation of the staff. Finally, existing discrepancies between traditional and modern concepts could be resolved.

  14. „Überholen ohne einzuholen“ Die Entwicklung von Technologien für übermorgen in Kernenergie und Mikroelektronik der DDR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barkleit, Gerhard

    Dem nuklearen Patt zwischen Ostblock und westlichem Staatenbündnis ist es nach weitgehend übereinstimmender Auffassung von Politik und Wissenschaft zu danken, dass der "Kalte Krieg" in der zweiten Hälfte des 20. Jahrhunderts nicht zum weltumfassenden Flächenbrand eskalierte. An der raschen Herstellung dieses Patts waren zwei Dresdner Physiker maßgeblich beteiligt, deren einer im Manhattan-Projekt in den USA gearbeitet hatte und später in England der Spionage für die Sowjetunion und des Verrats des Know-how der Atombombe überführt wurde.

  15. Erfahrungen im Aufbau des IT Service Desks der Technischen Universität München

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vellguth, Karmela

    Durch das Projekt IntegraTUM und die darin eingebettete Einrichtung eines IT Service Desks mit 1st, 2nd und 3rd Level Support gelang eine an ITIL orientierte Neuausrichtung der internen IT-Dienstleistungen. Die vormals existierende Struktur mit einer Vielzahl an Ansprechpartnern bei auftretenden IT-Problemen wurde aufgelöst. Die Nutzer haben nun eine Anlaufstelle erhalten, die sich für die Beantwortung aller Incidents in kürzester Zeit und mit qualitativ hohem Niveau zuständig fühlt.

  16. ``Rhizogenesis in vitro'' - as a model to study microgravity biological effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bulavin, Iliya

    Functioning organisms is based on the physiological and biochemical processes in different tissues and cells. Numerous spaceflight biological experiments have shown the essential changes in cell behavior of multicellular and unicellular organisms in comparison with that on Earth. In our investigations, we used the model “Rhizogenesis in vitro” to study cell differentiation in the root cap and growth zones under clinorotation. Advantage of this model is the possibility to study the influence of clinorotation at the beginning of root initiation de novo and next morphogenetic processes unlike experiments in vivo with embryonal seedling roots formed in seeds. Arabidopsis thaliana plants of wild type and scr mutant (№ 3999 by NASC database) were used. For rhizogenesis induction, rosette leaves with petioles were cut and transferred in Petri dishes on MS medium contained 1/10 of MS mineral salt, without vitamins and hormones. One half of Petri dishes were placed vertically (control), the other - on a slow horizontal clinostat (2 rpm). Anatomical investigation of A. thaliana wild type and scr mutant roots formed de novo showed that formation of root cap and growth zones (meristem, distal elongation zone (DEZ), central elongation zone (CEZ) and mature zone) under clinorotation was similar to that in control. A root cap consists of columella and peripheral cells. In the columella there are meristematic cells, statocytes (graviperceptive cells), and secretory cells. Epidermis, parenchyma, endodermis and central cylinder are distinguished in wild type roots. Unlike a wild type, a cortex of scr mutant was represented by one cell layer which had the parenchyma and endodermis characteristics. A root cap length and width were similar in control and under clinorotation. A cell number in the meristem and DEZ and a length of these growth zones did not differ in control and the experimental conditions. The ultrasructure of cap meristematic cells was typical for cells of this

  17. Determination of Preferential Flow Parameters by Means of Inverse Simulation of Tension Disc Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zumr, D.; Snehota, M.; Nemcova, R.; Cislerova, M.

    2008-12-01

    The field tension and ponded infiltration experiments were conducted to estimate the soil hydraulic properties of the soils with preferential pathways (Distric Cambisol, Sumava). Zones of preferential flow were determined through analyses of photographs taken during laboratory dye tracer infiltration experiments performed on undisturbed soil samples. Connectivity, volumetric ratio and spatial development of preferential pathways were evaluated as the necessary information for numerical simulations of flow using dual-permeability approach. The field infiltration experiment was carried out in a shallow pit for a period of one day. The upper boundary condition was controlled by the tension disk infiltrometer, the propagation of a water front was monitored by two tensiometers installed in two depths below the infiltration disk. 2D axisymetric numerical simulations were conducted to evaluate the results of the experiment. Two different approaches were used: 1. Single-domain approach based on Richards' equation. 2. Dual-permeability approach based on two interacting water flow domains (matrix and preferential domains), each governed by one Richards' equation. In the first simulation, the reference parameters derived from retention curves obtained by standard pressure extractor method were taken as properties of the soil matrix. The input hydraulic parameters were subsequently inversely optimized. In the second approach, the saturated hydraulic conductivities of the preferential flow domain were optimized to fit rapid response of the tensiometers after the start of ponded infiltration. Objective function consisted of infiltration fluxes and suction pressure head data. The parameter estimator PEST coupled with the simulation code S2D_DUAL (Vogel et al.,2000) were used. Concerning the existence of preferential flow on investigated soil, the dual-permeability model gives a better picture of the flow regime. The research has been carried out within the projects VZ03 CEZ MSM

  18. Biodegradation of paddy straw obtained from different geographic locations by means of Phlebia spp. for animal feed.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Rakesh Kumar; Arora, Daljit Singh

    2011-02-01

    Various cereal straws are used as feed by supplementing the green forage or other feed stuffs. An experiment was designed to see the effect of different geographic locations and climatological conditions on biochemical constituents, fungal degradation and in vitro digestibility of paddy straw. Paddy straw (PS) obtained from three different geographic locations of India was subjected to solid state fermentation using four white rot fungi i.e. Phlebia brevispora, P. fascicularia, P. floridensis and P. radiata. Changes in the biochemical constituents like water soluble content, hemicellulose, cellulose, lignin, total organic matter, and in vitro digestibility of paddy straw was analyzed over a period of 60 days along with lignocellulolytic enzymes i.e. laccase, xylanase and carboxymethyl cellulase. All the fungi degraded the straw samples and enhanced the in vitro digestibility. The paddy straw, obtained from north western zone (NWZ) suffered a maximum loss (228 g/kg) of lignin by P. radiata, while a maximum enhancement of in vitro digestibility from 185 to 256 g/kg was achieved by P. brevispora, which also caused minimum loss in total organic matter (98 g/kg). In PS obtained from central eastern zone (CEZ) and north eastern zone (NEZ), a maximum amount of lignin (210 and 195 g/kg, respectively) was degraded by P. floridensis and resulted into a respective enhancement of in vitro digestibility from 172 to 246 g/kg and 188 to 264 g/kg. The study demonstrates that geographic locations not only affect the biochemical constituents of paddy straw but the fungal degradation of fibers, their in vitro digestibility and lignocellulolytic enzyme activity of the fungus may also vary.

  19. Involvement of a volatile metabolite during phosphoramide mustard-induced ovotoxicity

    SciTech Connect

    Madden, Jill A.; Hoyer, Patricia B.; Devine, Patrick J.; Keating, Aileen F.

    2014-05-15

    The finite ovarian follicle reserve can be negatively impacted by exposure to chemicals including the anti-neoplastic agent, cyclophosphamide (CPA). CPA requires bioactivation to phosphoramide mustard (PM) to elicit its therapeutic effects however; in addition to being the tumor-targeting metabolite, PM is also ovotoxic. In addition, PM can break down to a cytotoxic, volatile metabolite, chloroethylaziridine (CEZ). The aim of this study was initially to characterize PM-induced ovotoxicity in growing follicles. Using PND4 Fisher 344 rats, ovaries were cultured for 4 days before being exposed once to PM (10 or 30 μM). Following eight additional days in culture, relative to control (1% DMSO), PM had no impact on primordial, small primary or large primary follicle number, but both PM concentrations induced secondary follicle depletion (P < 0.05). Interestingly, a reduction in follicle number in the control-treated ovaries was observed. Thus, the involvement of a volatile, cytotoxic PM metabolite (VC) in PM-induced ovotoxicity was explored in cultured rat ovaries, with control ovaries physically separated from PM-treated ovaries during culture. Direct PM (60 μM) exposure destroyed all stage follicles after 4 days (P < 0.05). VC from nearby wells depleted primordial follicles after 4 days (P < 0.05), temporarily reduced secondary follicle number after 2 days, and did not impact other stage follicles at any other time point. VC was determined to spontaneously liberate from PM, which could contribute to degradation of PM during storage. Taken together, this study demonstrates that PM and VC are ovotoxicants, with different follicular targets, and that the VC may be a major player during PM-induced ovotoxicity observed in cancer survivors. - Highlights: • PM depletes all stage ovarian follicles in a temporal pattern. • A volatile ovotoxic compound is liberated from PM. • The volatile metabolite depletes primordial follicles.

  20. Effects of several antibiotics on the neuromuscular junction: Part II.

    PubMed

    Yamada, S; Kuno, Y; Iwanaga, H

    1986-04-01

    The effects of various kinds of antibiotics including tetracycline (TC), chloramphenicol (CP), sodium cephalothin (CET), sodium cefazolin (CEZ), colistin sulfate (CL), colistin sodium methanesulfonate (CL-M), bacitracin (BC), gramicidin HCl (GR), rifampicin sulfate (RFP) and lincomycin (LCM), on the neuromuscular junction (NMJ) were studied by in vitro and in vivo experiments. In in vitro experiments, CL and LCM exhibited a blocking effect on the NMJ in rat phrenic nerve diaphragm preparations, and GR caused a marked increase in muscle contraction. This effect was not affected by administration of eserine or CaCl2. In in vitro experiments with frog sciatica nerve and musculus sartorius preparations, CL and GR induced the appearance of endplate potentials, suggesting blockade of the NMJ. No blocking effect of other antibiotics was observed. In in vitro experiments with the preparations from Rana catesbiana frogs, TC and LCM induced a decrease in the frequency of miniature endplate potentials. In in vivo experiments with rabbit musculus tibialis anterior preparations, CL, TC and LCM exerted a blocking effect soon after administration, but GR and RFP had a late blocking effect. CL, GR, BC and RFP were found not to compete with eserine or CaCl2 in terms of the blocking effect on the NMJ. From the fact that TC did not compete with eserine but did compete with CaCl2 and with KCl as blockers at the NMJ, this blocking effect of TC seems to be due to inhibition of release of acetylcholine (ACh). The fact that LCM competes with eserine indicates that this antibiotic has the same type of action as curare on ACh receptors of the NMJ.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:3486835

  1. Inverse Simulation of Field Infiltration Experiment Counting Preferential Flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zumr, David; Snehota, Michal; Nemcova, Renata; Dohnal, Michal; Cislerova, Milena

    2010-05-01

    research has been carried out within the projects VZ03 CEZ MSM 6840770005 and GACR 103/08/1552.

  2. Involvement of a volatile metabolite during phosphoramide mustard-induced ovotoxicity

    PubMed Central

    Madden, Jill A.; Hoyer, Patricia B.; Devine, Patrick J.; Keating, Aileen F.

    2014-01-01

    The finite ovarian follicle reserve can be negatively impacted by chemical exposures including the anti-neoplastic agent, cyclophosphamide (CPA). CPA requires bioactivation to phosphoramide mustard (PM) to elicit its therapeutic effects however; in addition to being the tumor-targeting metabolite, PM is also ovotoxic. In addition, PM can break down to a cytotoxic, volatile metabolite, chloroethylaziridine (CEZ). The aim of this study was initially to characterize PM-induced ovotoxicity in growing follicles. Using PND4 Fisher 344 rats, ovaries were cultured for 4 days before being exposed once to PM (10 or 30 μM). Following eight additional days in culture, relative to control (1% DMSO), PM had no impact on primordial, small primary or large primary follicle number, but both PM concentrations induced secondary follicle depletion (P < 0.05). Interestingly, a reduction in follicle number in the control-treated ovaries was observed. Thus, the involvement of a volatile, cytotoxic PM metabolite (VC) in PM-induced ovotoxicity was explored in cultured rat ovaries, with control ovaries physically separated from PM-treated ovaries during culture. Direct PM (60 μM) exposure destroyed all stage follicles after 4 days (P < 0.05). VC from nearby wells depleted primordial follicles after 4 days (P < 0.05), temporarily reduced secondary follicle number after 2 days, and did not impact other stage follicles at any other time point. VC was determined to spontaneously liberate from PM, which could contribute to degradation of PM during storage. Taken together, this study demonstrates that PM and VC are ovotoxicants, with different follicular targets, and that the VC may be a major player during PM-induced ovotoxicity observed in cancer survivors. PMID:24642057

  3. Plasmid vector with temperature-controlled gene expression

    SciTech Connect

    Kravchenko, V.V.; Yamshchikov, V.F.; Pletnev, A.G.

    1986-02-01

    In plasmid pBR327, a fragment 169 b.p. long including promotor p/sub 3/ of the bla gene has been deleted. The deletional derivative so obtained (pSP2) has been used to construct a recombinant plasmid bearing a fragment of phage lambda DNA with the p/sub R/ promotor and the gene of the temperature-sensitive repressor cI. It has been shown that the plasmid vector so constructed (pCE119) with promotor cR performs repressor-cI-controlled transcription of the bla gene, as a result of which induction for an hour at 42/sup 0/C leads to an almost 100-fold increase in the amount of product of the bla gene as compared with that at 32/sup 0/C. The possibility of the use of plasmid cPE119 for the expression of other genes has been demonstrated for the case of the semisynthetic ..beta..-galactosidase gene of E. coli. In this case, on induction of the cells with recombinant plasmid pCEZ12 for 3 hours at 42/sup 0/C, a 300-fold increase in the amount of active ..beta..-galactosidase, as compared with that at 32/sup 0/C, was observed. It is important to point out that under these conditions (at 42/sup 0/C), at least 99% of the cells containing the plasmid retain the phenotype lacZ/sup +/, which indicates the stability of the proposed vector system

  4. Austausch universitärer Kernsysteme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borgeest, Rolf; Pongratz, Hans

    Das Projekt IntegraTUM hatte die Schaffung einer benutzerfreundlichen nahtlosen Informations- und Kommunikationsinfrastruktur (IuK) an der Technischen Universität München (TUM) zum Ziel. Die dazu betriebene Konsolidierung und Integration von universitären Kernsystemen führte zu wiederholten Migrationen von Altsystemen auf neue Systeme. Dieser Beitrag beschreibt universitäre Systemlandschaften, nennt Kriterien für die Auswahl der zu konsolidierenden Systeme und geht speziell auf die Situation an der TUM ein. Nach einer Klassifikation von verschiedenen Arten von Systemwechseln werden notwendige Migrationsschritte anhand eines größeren Beispiels erläutert. Am Schluss diskutieren wir wichtige Erfolgsfaktoren für die erreichte Konsolidierung und Integration der Systemlandschaft.

  5. Kommunikation mit Mitarbeitern

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spychala, Anne; Fleischmann, Jürgen

    Kommunikation ist der Austausch von Nachrichten und Informationen zwischen Mitarbeitern eines Unternehmens (O'Hair et al. 1997). Dieser Austausch kann persönlich, aber z.B. auch per Telefon, E-Mail oder durch Computersysteme erfolgen. In diesem Kapitel betrachten wir die persönliche Kommunikation zwischen Vorgesetzten und Mitarbeitern. Zur persönlichen Kommunikation mit Mitarbeitern zählen sowohl formelle Gespräche mit Mitarbeitern als auch eher informelle Gespräche zwischen Tür und Angel. Die Gespräche können dabei mit einzelnen Mitarbeitern (z.B. jährliches Mitarbeitergespräch) oder mit Gruppen von Mitarbeitern (z.B. regelmäßige Projekt- oder Teambesprechungen) stattfinden.

  6. Prevalence of drug resistance and culture-positive rate among microorganisms isolated from patients with ocular infections over a 4-year period

    PubMed Central

    Shimizu, Yusuke; Toshida, Hiroshi; Honda, Rio; Matsui, Asaki; Ohta, Toshihiko; Asada, Yousuke; Murakami, Akira

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the microbial isolates from patients with ocular infections and the trend in the emergence of levofloxacin-resistant strains over the past four years from 2006 to 2009 retrospectively. Patients and methods The subjects were 242 patients with ocular infections or traumas treated in our hospital including outpatients, inpatients, and emergency room patients. Most of them needed urgent care presenting with eye complaints, traumas, or decreased vision. Clinical samples were obtained from discharges, corneal, conjunctival tissues or vitreous fluid or aqueous humor, and cultured. Items for assessment included the patient’s age, the diagnosis, the prevalence of isolated bacteria, and the results of susceptibility tests for levofloxacin (LVFX) cefamezin (CEZ), gentamicin (GM) and vancomycin. This information was obtained from the patients’ medical records. Results There were 156 male patients and 86 female patients who were aged from 2 months old to 94 years old and mean age was 56.8 ± 24.2 years. Of the 242 patients, 78 (32.2%) had positive cultures. The culture-positive rate was significantly higher in male patients than female in total (P = 0.002) and in patients with corneal perforation (P = 0.005). Corneal perforation was the highest culture-positive rate (60.0%), followed by orbital cellulitis (56.5%), blepharitis (50.0%), dacryoadenitis (45.5%), conjunctivitis (38.2%), infectious corneal ulcer (28.5%) and endophthalmitis (24.7%). LVFX-resistant strains accounted for 40 out of a total of 122 strains (32.8%), and the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was significantly higher in LVFX and GM compared with the other antibiotics. There were no vancomycin-resistant strains. Conclusion Attention should be paid to a possible future increase of strains with resistance to LVFX, as commonly prescribed ocular antibiotics bring emergence of resistant bacteria. Although no vancomycin-resistant strains were isolated this drug should be reserved as

  7. Kinetic features of gravicurvature of pea (Pisum sativum) and cress (Lepidium sativum) roots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polishchuk, O. V.

    The upper sides of roots oriented horizontally grow more rapidly than the lower sides, causing the root ultimately to grow downward; this phenomenon is known as positive gravitropism. This ability is based on implicit mechanism which is being extensively investigated. Elaborate analysis of kinetic features of gravicurvature may complement the investigation. Pea and cress roots have positive gravitropism as roots of majority of higher plants. Mainly we investigated dependence of gravicurvature angle on time of gravistimulation. Two-day-old seedlings of cress (Lepidium sativum L. cv. P896) and four-day-old pea ones (Pisum sativum L. cv. Damir-2) were placed on 1% agar medium in Petri dishes and turned on angle of gravistimulation. Then they were photographed at the same position each hour of gravistimulation. Photographs were analyzed with the help of Image Tool software program. Both pea and cress roots showed two phases of gravitropic response during gravistimulation for 6 hours when the initial angle of gravistimulation was 135 degrees. Two peaks of the rate of bending were observed. In cress roots, the first peak was much lower and the distance between the two peaks was greater than in pea roots. Curves of gravitropic bending of cress roots grown in agar had one or two inflections while in the case of roots grown on filter paper curves had no inflections. These data are in agreement with the effect of the external medium on the gravitropic curvature of rice roots reported by Staves et al. (1997). Our results may reflect the fact that at least two systems that contribute to gravicurvature may exist in roots. These systems may be ligand-receptor complexes that may be formed with different kinetics in two different regions of the root. The most probable ligand is auxin and the regions appear to be central elongation zone (CEZ) and distal elongation zone (DEZ), that were reported to be centers of tropic bending in roots. Thus, dependence of rate of root bending on

  8. [Therapeutic experience with cefadroxil syrup in acute infections, especially scarlet fever, in pediatric field (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Minamitani, M; Hachimori, K; Nakazawa, H; Tomori, N

    1981-02-01

    Clinical effects were investigated on cefadroxil powder for syrup (containing 100 mg of cefadroxil per 1 g) for acute bacterial infections (mostly scarlet fever) in the field of pediatrics, and the results were obtained as follows. Cefadroxil was applied in 100 cases of scarlet fever. Among 49 cases administered 30-39 mg/kg/day, the results were excellent in 34 cases and good in 15 cases, efficacy ratio being thus 100%. Among 38 cases administered 40-49 mg/kg/day, the results were excellent in 33 cases, and good in 5 cases, efficacy ratio being thus 100%. Out of 4 cases administered 20-29 mg/kg/day, the results were excellent in 3 cases and good in 1 case, while out of 9 cases administered 50-59 mg/kg/day, excellent in 4 cases and good in 5 cases. Among 78 cases of scarlet fever from which beta-hemolytic Streptococcus was proven from swab liquid of palatal tonsil, 67 cases received cefadroxil at a daily dose of 30-49 mg/kg, and the bacteria turned to negative the next day of administration in 72 cases, 2 days later in 6 cases. Cefadroxil was administered at a daily dose of 46 mg/kg for 7 days in 1 case of SSS syndrome of which Staphylococcus aureus was proven from skin lesion, and local bacteria turned to negative, as well as clinical effect was excellent. No pathogen was proven in 1 case of acute tonsillitis, maybe because ampicillin (ABPC) and cefazolin (CEZ) were administered before cefadroxil treatment, and yet a clinical efficacy was judged by administering cefadroxil at a daily dose of 46 mg/kg, though no clinical improvement was observed with the prior antibiotics. As to the side effects of cefadroxil in 102 cases, a slight vomiting was noticed in 6 cases, though the administration could be continued, and a slight rise of GOT or GPT was observed respectively in 3 cases and 1 case, all of which were recovered without abnormal clinical findings. Among the patients of scarlet fever, after beta-hemolytic Streptococcus became negative, reelimination or recurrence

  9. Assigning the Cerium Oxidation State for CH2CeF2 and OCeF2 Based on Multireference Wave Function Analysis.

    PubMed

    Mooßen, Oliver; Dolg, Michael

    2016-06-01

    The geometric and electronic structure of the recently experimentally studied molecules ZCeF2 (Z = CH2, O) was investigated by density functional theory (DFT) and wave function-based ab initio methods. Special attention was paid to the Ce-Z metal-ligand bonding, especially to the nature of the interaction between the Ce 4f and the Z 2p orbitals and the possible multiconfigurational character arising from it, as well as to the assignment of an oxidation state of Ce reflecting the electronic structure. Complete active space self-consistent field (CASSCF) calculations were performed, followed by orbital rotations in the active orbital space. The methylene compound CH2CeF2 has an open-shell singlet ground state, which is characterized by a two-configurational wave function in the basis of the strongly mixed natural CASSCF orbitals. The system can also be described in a very compact way by the dominant Ce 4f(1) C 2p(1) configuration, if nearly pure Ce 4f and C 2p orbitals are used. In the basis of these localized orbitals, the molecule is almost monoconfigurational and should be best described as a Ce(III) system. The singlet ground state of the oxygen OCeF2 complex is of closed-shell character when a monoconfigurational wave function with very strongly mixed Ce 4f and O 2p CASSCF natural orbitals is used for the description. The transformation to orbitals localized on the cerium and oxygen atoms leads to a multiconfigurational wave function and reveals characteristics of a mixed valent Ce(IV)/Ce(III) compound. Additionally, the interactions of the localized active orbitals were analyzed by evaluating the expectation values of the charge fluctuation operator and the local spin operator. The Ce 4f and C 2p orbital interaction of the CH2CeF2 compound is weakly covalent and resembles the interaction of the H 1s orbitals in a stretched hydrogen dimer. In contrast, the interaction of the localized active orbitals for OCeF2 shows ionic character. Calculated vibrational Ce

  10. Low temperature superplasticity of a metastable [beta]-titanium alloy. [Ti-5Al-2Sn-4Zr-4Mo-2Cr-1Fe

    SciTech Connect

    Girault, E.; Blandin, J.J.; Varloteaux; Suery, M. ); Combres, Y. )

    1993-08-15

    Superplasticity in Ti alloys has been widely investigated in the past and superplastic forming of aerospace components has thus been developed over the last two decades. The Ti alloy most studied in this framework is undoubtedly the Ti-6Al-4V (wt %) alloy, for which maximum elongations are obtained in the temperature range [880-900C]. The development of the superplastic properties has been demonstrated to be in close relation with quite similar volume fractions of the [alpha] and [beta] phases, the [beta] transus temperature for this alloy ranging from 980-1000 C. Attempts have been carried out to reduce the temperature of superplastic forming of Ti-6Al-4V by the addition of elements like Fe, Co, or Ni. Such an introduction of alloying elements indeed results in a decrease of the optimum forming temperature to values as low as 820 C. This decrease is mainly attributed to a change in the phase volume fractions according to thermodynamic equilibrium, since these alloying elements are known to promote both stabilization of the [beta]-phase and reduction of the [beta] transus. However, the variation of the [beta] volume fraction has been reported to be insufficient to explain the extent in the change of the mechanical behavior of the resulting alloy. The contribution of the diffusion of the alloying elements to the global diffusion process involved during superplastic deformation, is required. Indeed, Fe, Co and Ni are known to present diffusion coefficients in [beta]-Ti phase which are significantly larger than the tracer diffusion coefficient of Ti in [beta]-Ti. Recently, a new metastable [beta]-Ti alloy (so-called [beta]-CEZ) has been developed, which admits a [beta] transus temperature of 890 C, therefore significantly smaller than that of the Ti-6Al-4V alloy. The aim of this paper is to investigate the superplastic properties of this alloy, in order to obtain such a behavior in a particularly low temperature range, typically at temperatures lower than 800 C.

  11. Interprofessional Learning - Development and Implementation of Joint Medical Emergency Team Trainings for Medical and Nursing Students at Universitätsmedizin Greifswald.

    PubMed

    Partecke, Maud; Balzer, Claudius; Finkenzeller, Ingmar; Reppenhagen, Christiane; Hess, Ulrike; Hahnenkamp, Klaus; Meissner, Konrad

    2016-01-01

    Einleitung: Interprofessionelle Zusammenarbeit ist insbesondere im Bereich der klinischen Notfallmedizin von großer Bedeutung. Die an der Versorgung beteiligten Professionen müssen Hand und Hand zusammenarbeiten und Arbeitsabläufe gut koordiniert sein. Studierende der Humanmedizin und Auszubildende der Gesundheits- und Krankenpflege erhalten jedoch kaum Gelegenheit die interprofessionelle Zusammenarbeit in der Ausbildungsphase praktisch zu trainieren. Vor diesem Hintergrund haben die Klinik für Anästhesiologie und die Berufliche Schule an der Universitätsmedizin Greifswald ein Projekt zur „Erhöhung der Patientensicherheit durch die Integration von interprofessionellem Human-Factor-Training in die Ausbildung von Gesundheitsberufen“ initiiert. In dieser Darstellung soll der Frage nachgegangen werden, auf welche Weise ein interprofessionell ausgerichtetes Kursmodul der klinischen Notfallmedizin unter Maßgabe einer hohen Kompetenz- und Problemorientierung didaktisch gestaltet werden kann. Projektbeschreibung: Ziel des im Zeitraum von Oktober 2013 bis September 2015 durchgeführten Projektes war die didaktische Entwicklung, praktische Etablierung und Evaluation eines simulationsbasierten und interprofessionell ausgerichteten Kursmoduls im Bereich der klinischen Notfallmedizin. Zielgruppe bildeten Studierende der Humanmedizin und Auszubildende der Gesundheits- und Krankenpflege. In der didaktischen Konzeption und Durchführung wurden moderne didaktische Modelle und Methoden genutzt. Das Projekt wurde in den Phasen der Definition, Planung, praktischen Etablierung, Evaluation und Dokumentation durchgeführt. Begleitet wurde der Projektprozess von einer systematischen Qualitätsentwicklung. In der Qualitätsentwicklung, -sicherung und Evaluation kam der Leitfaden zur Qualitätszentrierten Schulentwicklung zum Einsatz. Ergebnisse: Im Zeitraum von zwei Jahren wurde ein simulationsbasiertes Kursmodul entwickelt, in den Sommersemestern 2014 und 2015 durchgef

  12. Testen komplexer digitaler Schaltungen mit Python

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reichör, S.; Hueber, G.; Hagelauer, R.; Lindorfer, M.

    2004-05-01

    Die Verifikation von digitalen Schaltungen nimmt heutzutage einen bedeutenden Stellenwert ein. In diesem Paper wird ein Weg beschrieben, der die Erstellung und Wartung von funktionalen Testbenches für digitale Designs unterstützt. Für viele Projekte übersteigt der zeitliche Aufwand für das Testen den Aufwand für die Implementierung der Schaltung. In vielen Fällen beträgt der Aufwand für das Testen bereits 70% des Entwicklungsaufwands (Bergeron, 2000). Typischerweise wird die Testbench auch in der gewählten Hardwarebeschreibungssprache (VHDL oder Verilog) implementiert. Diese Sprachen stellen jedoch nicht die beste Wahl für Verifikationsbelange dar. Gründe dafür sind darin zu suchen, dass diese Sprachen wichtige Konzepte aus den Softwaresprachen (wie z.B. Objektorientierung) nicht kennen. Weiters stehen komfortable Softwarebibliotheken (Zufallszahlengenerierung, Stringverarbeitung, etc.) den Hardwaresprachen nicht zur Verfügung. In diesem Paper wird der Einsatz der Programmiersprache Python (PythonHomepage, 2003; Beazley, 2001) für die Verifikation vorgeschlagen, um die benötigte Zeit für die Funktionalen Tests zu reduzieren.

  13. The effectiveness of individual placement and support for people with mental illness new on social benefits: a study protocol

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background In Switzerland, people with a severe mental illness and unable to work receive disability benefits (‘IV-pension’). Once they are granted these benefits, the chances to regain competitive employment are usually small. However, previous studies have shown that individual placement and support (IPS) supports a successful reintegration into competitive employment. This study focuses on the integration of newly appointed IV-pensioners, who have received an IV-pension for less than a year. Method/design The present pilot project ZHEPP (Zürcher Eingliederungs-Pilot Projekt; engl.: Zurich integration pilot project) is a randomized controlled trial (RCT). The 250 participants will be randomized to either the intervention or the control group. The intervention group receives support of a job coach according to the approach of IPS. Participants in the control group do not receive IPS support. Participation takes a total of two years for each participant. Each group is interviewed every six months (T0-T4). A two-factor analysis of variance will be conducted with the two factors group (intervention versus control group) and outcome (employment yes/no). The main criterion of the two-factor analysis will be the number of competitive employment contracts in each group. Discussion This study will focus on the impact of IPS on new IV-pensioners and aims to identify predictors for a successful integration. Furthermore, we will examine the effect of IPS on stigma variables and recovery orientation. Trial registration ISRCTN54951166 PMID:23883137

  14. [Leaking: Frequency and correlates of announcements and threats of homicidal violence reported by Berlin schools between 1996 and 2007].

    PubMed

    Leuschner, Vincenz; Bondü, Rebecca; Allroggen, Marc; Scheithauer, Herbert

    2016-01-01

    Threats and announcements of homicidal violence at schools may have massive consequences like evacuations, police searches, criminal investigations, or loss of the sense of security by students, teachers, and parents. However, there is a lack of systematic studies about that phenomenon. The present article would like to contribute to closing the research gap. It presents results about the frequency and structure of threats and announcements of homicidal violence in schools in Berlin. The study is based on an official dataset from school administration reports of violent acts in Berlin schools which has been studied within the Berlin Leaking-Projekt. The sample consists of 427 threats and announcements of homicidal violence between 1996 and 2007. The study is an exceptional analysis of the phenomenon: it presents crosscutting results about frequency and characteristics of threats and the threatening students as well as results of a longitudinal analysis about the development of threats and announcements. Results show a rate of 0,3 threats and announcements per 1 000 student and year. During the observation time span a steady increase of threats and announcements – year by year, influenced by imitation effects after school shootings – has been observed.

  15. Informationsqualität - Definitionen, Dimensionen und Begriffe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rohweder, Jan Philipp; Kasten, Gerhard; Malzahn, Dirk; Piro, Andrea; Schmid, Joachim

    Die Verbesserung und Sicherstellung der Informationsqualität wird in immer mehr Unternehmen als eigenständige Managementaufgabe von großer Wichtigkeit begriffen. IQ-Management ist ein elementarer Baustein in Systemintegrationsprojekten. Aber auch in bestehenden Prozessen mit heterogenen Datenquellen und Informationsnutzern ist eine hohe Informationsqualität die Grundvoraussetzung für funktionierende betriebliche Abläufe. Voraussetzung für ein effektives IQ-Management ist die Bewertung der Informationsqualität [Lee et al. 2006, S. 13 und S. 27]. In vielen Unternehmen ist Informationsqualität nur ein gefühlter Wert. Die meisten Anwender bringen ein gewisses Misstrauen den Daten gegenüber zum Ausdruck, dies jedoch ohne genaue Angabe der Fehlerart und -häufigkeit. Nicht selten werden kostspielige Projekte angestoßen, um die Informationsqualität zu verbessern, ohne sich vor einer IQ-Maßnahme durch eine Analyse ein genaues Bild über die tatsächlichen Probleme zu verschaffen. Nur auf der Basis einer umfassenden Bewertung der Informationsqualität können die notwendigen Ressourcenentscheidungen herbeigeführt, Ziele gesetzt und der Erfolg des IQ-Management beurteilt werden.

  16. [Leaking: Frequency and correlates of announcements and threats of homicidal violence reported by Berlin schools between 1996 and 2007].

    PubMed

    Leuschner, Vincenz; Bondü, Rebecca; Allroggen, Marc; Scheithauer, Herbert

    2016-01-01

    Threats and announcements of homicidal violence at schools may have massive consequences like evacuations, police searches, criminal investigations, or loss of the sense of security by students, teachers, and parents. However, there is a lack of systematic studies about that phenomenon. The present article would like to contribute to closing the research gap. It presents results about the frequency and structure of threats and announcements of homicidal violence in schools in Berlin. The study is based on an official dataset from school administration reports of violent acts in Berlin schools which has been studied within the Berlin Leaking-Projekt. The sample consists of 427 threats and announcements of homicidal violence between 1996 and 2007. The study is an exceptional analysis of the phenomenon: it presents crosscutting results about frequency and characteristics of threats and the threatening students as well as results of a longitudinal analysis about the development of threats and announcements. Results show a rate of 0,3 threats and announcements per 1 000 student and year. During the observation time span a steady increase of threats and announcements – year by year, influenced by imitation effects after school shootings – has been observed. PMID:27216327

  17. Multi-Objective Optimization of Transmission Lines / Elektropārvades Līnijas Daudzkriteriālā Optimizācija

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berjozkina, S.; Sauhats, A.; Neimane, V.

    2013-10-01

    Introduction of new advanced electrical connections into a transmission grid reduces the capacity of existing overhead lines (OHLs). At the same time, designing & building of new OHLs and substations involves considerable technical, environmental and economical problems. The authors propose a concept of the multi-objective optimization for selection of transmission line routes, towers (their type, placement and geometry), of conductors, insulators, dampers, earthing and lightning protection systems, span lengths, etc.. The optimization is organized in five stages. At the first and second stages a search for optimum solutions is performed along with determination of the main impacting factors. The next two stages present a two-objective optimization based on Pareto's approach. At the last stage (exemplified by a case study), the probability of the restriction removal conditions is assessed, and preventive measures are identified. The presented approach uses a real line design and is intended for minimizing the total invested capital and maximizing the net present value. In the framework of this approach 20 alternatives have been elaborated, which can successfully be applied in the cases described in the paper. Elektropārvades tīklam rodas nepieciešamība pēc jauniem elektriskajiem pieslēgumiem, kas noved pie esošo gaisvadu līniju jaudas nepietiekamības. Viens no iespējamajiem pastāvošās problēmas risinājumiem ir jaunu gaisvadu līniju un apakšstacijas būvniecība. Gaisvadu līniju projektēšana ir saistīta ar ievērojamām tehniskām, vides un ekonomiskām problēmām. Darbā aprakstīta elektropārvades līnijas optimālās trases izvēles daudzkritēriju optimizācijas koncepcija, ieskaitot balstu tipa, balstu izvietojuma koordināšu, balstu ģeometrijas, vadu tipu un parametru, izolatoru tipu, vibroslāpētāju tipu, zibensaizsardzības un zemēšanas sistēmu, kā arī laidumu garumu izvēles optimizāciju. Optimizācijas uzdevums tiek organiz

  18. Evaluating long-term effects of heroin-assisted treatment: the results of a 6-year follow-up.

    PubMed

    Güttinger, Franziska; Gschwend, Patrick; Schulte, Bernd; Rehm, Jürgen; Uchtenhagen, Ambros

    2003-04-01

    Since January 1994, heroin-assisted treatment for opiate addicts has been available in Switzerland. This is the first report of the long-term effects of this form of treatment. The report examines subjects who entered a study involving medical prescription of opiates (Projekt zur ärztlichen Verschreibung von Betäubungsmitteln; PROVE) in Switzerland between January 1994 and March 1995 (n = 366). Opiates were dispensed in eight treatment centres. A follow-up was conducted 6 years after treatment entry. Two groups were assessed: clients who have continuously been on heroin-assisted treatment since entry into the PROVE study or who re-entered this treatment, and ex-clients who had discontinued heroin-assisted treatment at the time of follow-up. Two kinds of comparisons were conducted. Firstly, conditions at treatment entry were compared to 6-year follow-up outcomes, and secondly, outcomes were compared between clients still on heroin-assisted treatment and those who had been discharged. It was found that 46% of the clients still alive were on heroin-assisted treatment at the time of follow-up. A comparison of the present living conditions showed very little difference between those in treatment and those who had terminated treatment. Compared to the situation at entry, the results of the follow-up showed a significant decrease in the use of illegal substances, illegal income and most other variables concerning social conditions, but they also showed an increase in unemployment and reliance on social benefits. Heroin-assisted treatment is thus efficacious in the long-term course of treatment and is still effective after termination of treatment with respect to living conditions and use of illicit substances.

  19. Communication in Health Professions: A European consensus on inter- and multi-professional learning objectives in German.

    PubMed

    Bachmann, Cadja; Kiessling, Claudia; Härtl, Anja; Haak, Rainer

    2016-01-01

    Hintergrund und Zielsetzung: Kommunikation rückt in den Gesundheitsberufen zunehmend in den Blickpunkt. Die Vermittlung kommunikativer Kompetenzen sollte bereits im Studium bzw. in der Ausbildung beginnen.Ziel des Projekts war, einen englischsprachigen Ausbildungszielkatalog für die Kommunikation in den Gesundheitsberufen, das „Health Professions Core Communication Curriculum (HPCCC)“, ins Deutsche zu übersetzen und einer breiten deutschsprachigen Öffentlichkeit zugänglich zu machen. Der Katalog umfasst 61 Ausbildungsziele und wurde von 121 internationalen Kommunikationsexperten konsentiert. Ein europäischer Bezugsrahmen für die inter- und multiprofessionelle Curriculumentwicklung „Kommunikation in den Gesundheitsberufen“ im deutschsprachigen Raum sollte hergestellt werden.Methode: Die deutschsprachige Version des HPCCC wurde von sechs Personen entwickelt und in mehreren Revisionsschleifen konsentiert. Beispielhaft wurden Ausbildungsziele mit geeigneten didaktischen Methoden und Prüfungsinstrumenten aus der Materialiensammlung des teaching committee of the European Association for Communication Health Care (tEACH) versehen. Ergebnisse: Die Ausbildungsziele des HPCCC liegen nun in deutscher Version vor und können für die Curriculumsplanung und -entwicklung in den einzelnen deutschsprachigen Gesundheitsberufen aber auch berufsübergreifend genutzt werden. Anwendungsbeispiele für didaktische Methoden und Prüfungsinstrumente werden aufgelistet und zeigen konkrete Umsetzungsmöglichkeiten auf.Fazit: Die deutschsprachige Version des HPCCC, die Ausbildungsziele für die Kommunikation in den Gesundheitsberufen aufzeigt, kann einen wichtigen Beitrag zur inter- und multiprofessionellen Curriculumentwicklung in den Gesundheitsberufen im deutschen Sprachraum leisten. Beispiele für didaktische Methoden und Prüfungen aus der Materialiensammlung der tEACH ergänzen das curriculare Konzept und sollen Anregungen für die praktische Umsetzung der

  20. Measurement of specific medical school stress: translation of the "Perceived Medical School Stress Instrument" to the German language.

    PubMed

    Kötter, Thomas; Voltmer, Edgar

    2013-01-01

    Zielsetzung: Medizinstudierende sind spezifischen Stressoren ausgesetzt. Als Folge der Stressbelastung kommt es bei Medizinstudierenden im Vergleich zu gleichaltrigen Berufstätigen häufiger zu Ängsten, Depressionen und Burn-out. Vitaliano et al. haben bereits 1984 ein 13 Items umfassendes Instrument zur Messung der spezifischen Stressbelastung von Medizinstudierenden, das „Perceived Medical School Stress Instrument“ (PMSS), vorgestellt. Es wurde seitdem im englischsprachigen Bereich breit eingesetzt und validiert. Bislang liegt jedoch keine deutschsprachige Version des Instrumentes vor. Ziel des Projektes war die Übersetzung des PMSS in die deutsche Sprache, um es im Rahmen von Studien im deutschsprachigen Raum einzusetzen.Methodik: Die englischsprachigen Items des PMSS wurden von drei Untersuchern in die deutsche Sprache übersetzt. Die Versionen wurden synoptisch gegenübergestellt und auf dieser Basis wurde für jedes Item eine deutschsprachige Version formuliert. Diese Versionen wurden von Muttersprachlerinnen in die englische Sprache zurückübersetzt. Auf der Basis dieser Rückübersetzungen, eines kognitiven Debriefings an 19 deutschen Medizinstudierenden und einer testtheoretischen Evaluation an 169 deutschen Medizinstudierenden wurden dann die endgültigen deutschsprachigen Formulierungen festgelegt. Ergebnisse: Das PMSS konnte ohne größere Schwierigkeiten in die deutsche Sprache übersetzt werden. Sowohl zwischen den Übersetzungen in die deutsche Sprache als auch zwischen beiden Rückübersetzungen waren die Übereinstimmungen groß. Bei Diskrepanzen erfolgte die Einigung schnell und unkompliziert. Der Einsatz der deutschsprachigen Version erbrachte einen guten Wert für die Reliabilität (Cronbachs Alpha 0,81).Schlussfolgerung: Es steht nun auch für deutschsprachigen Raum ein spezifisches Instrument zur Messung der Stressbelastung von Medizinstudierenden zur Verfügung.

  1. Implementation of "social and communicative competencies" in medical education. The importance of curriculum, organisational and human resource development.

    PubMed

    Pruskil, Susanne; Deis, Nicole; Druener, Susanne; Kiessling, Claudia; Philipp, Swetlana; Rockenbauch, Katrin

    2015-01-01

    Zielsetzung: Ziel dieser Arbeit ist es, Lehrenden und Curriculumsplanern die Bedeutung der Curriculums- (CE), Personal- (PE) und Organisationsentwicklung (OE), bereits in der Planungsphase eines Projekts aufzuzeigen. Diese können dann gezielt genutzt werden um Veränderungsprozesse bei der Einführung und Etablierung von Curricula im Bereich kommunikativer und sozialer Kompetenzen im Medizinstudium erfolgreich zu beeinflussen und zu steuern.Vorgehen und Ergebnisse: Im Rahmen eines mehrstufigen Entwicklungsprozesses, in dem insbesondere zwei interfakultäre Workshops des GMA-Ausschusses „Kommunikative und soziale Kompetenzen“ im Zentrum standen, wurde aufbauend auf die verfügbare Literatur und den Erfahrungen von Kommunikationsexperten eine Empfehlung zur CE im Bereich „Kommunikativer und sozialer Kompetenzen“ erarbeitet. Die „Undeloher-Empfehlung“ (siehe Anhang ) beinhaltet eine Zusammenstellung von Empfehlungen und Leitfragen, die sich an den verschiedenen Phasen der CE orientiert. Zusätzlich wurden allgemeine Herangehensweisen und Empfehlungen der Organisations- und Personalorganisation integriert, die sich im Prozess der CE als besonders relevant herausstellten. Damit beinhaltet die „Undeloher-Empfehlung“ für jede einzelne Phase der Curriculumsentwicklung eine Orientierung, was in bezug auf das Curriculum, die Organisation und das Personal für eine erfolgreiche Implementierung von longitudinalen Curricula zu beachten ist. Neben theoretischen Modellen fließen insbesondere der langjährige Diskussionsprozess und die persönlichen Erfahrungen einer Vielzahl von Curriculumsplanern und Lehrenden ein. Fazit: Die „Undeloher-Empfehlung“ kann die Vorbereitung und Begleitung von Implementierungsprozessen von Curricula im Bereich kommunikative und soziale Kompetenzen unterstützen. Ihre Anwendung wurde im Rahmen der Workshops auf konkrete Beispiele überprüft und wurde von den beteiligten Lehrenden und Curriculumsplanern als sehr hilfreich

  2. Hands-on - general medicine - circuit-training in the auditorium--a practical equivalent to a lecture.

    PubMed

    Blank, Wolfgang A; Blankenfeld, Hannes; Beck, Anton J; Frangoulis, Anna-Maria; Vorderwülbecke, Florian; Fleischmann, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    Einleitung: Klassische universitäre Lehrformate sind nur bedingt geeignet, den Aufgabenbereich und die spezifische Arbeitsweise der Allgemeinmedizin praktisch zu vermitteln. Supervisierte Kleingruppen bieten sich als effektive Alternativen an, um den Umgang mit Patienten im Niedrigprävalenzbereich zu erlernen. Projektbeschreibung: Eine Frontalvorlesung wurde in eine interaktive Seminarvorlesung für 280 Studierende umgewandelt. Impulsreferate bereiteten auf rotierende Zirkelstationen vor. Mittels aktivierender didaktischer Methoden vermittelten 28 Kleingruppen in und um den Hörsaal herum Wissen, Fertigkeiten und Ärztliche Haltung unter Supervision erfahrener Lehrärzte. An sechs Terminen á 3,5 Stunden wurden Arbeitsweise, häufige Erkrankungen, hausärztliche Prävention und Betreuung älterer Menschen thematisiert.Ergebnisse: Inhaltliche Entwicklung und strukturelle Umsetzung des innovativen Projektes waren erfolgreich umsetzbar. Weit über 90% der 274 Studierenden bewerteten das Engagement der Dozenten, die anschauliche Vermittlung der Inhalte, die positive Lernatmosphäre sowie den Praxisbezug positiv. 92% akzeptierten die räumlich beengten Verhältnisse in Anbetracht der Vorteile der aktivierenden Kleingruppenarbeit. Diskussion: Ein didaktisch und inhaltlich neues Lehr- und Lernkonzept vermittelte erfolgreich die spezifische hausärztliche Patientenbetreuung. Kreative Raumkonzepte schafften Ressourcen für praktische Kleingruppenarbeit. Allgemeinmedizinische Behandlungssituationen in Kleingruppen zu bearbeiten und umgehend reflektieren zu können, wurde überwiegend positiv bewertet. Schlussfolgerung: Aufgabenbereich und spezifische Arbeitsweise in der Allgemeinmedizin können durch kreative Nutzung der beengten räumlichen Rahmenbedingungen auch in großen Gruppen erfolgreich vermittelt werden. In rotierenden Kleingruppen wenden Studierende ihr Wissen und ihre Fertigkeiten unter Anleitung praktisch an. Bezüglich des individuellen Kompetenzzuwachses sind

  3. EDITORIAL: Invited papers from ISAMMA 2010 (Sendai, Japan, 12-16 July 2010) Invited papers from ISAMMA 2010 (Sendai, Japan, 12-16 July 2010)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takahashi, M.; Saito, H.

    2011-02-01

    Yanagihara, Yuta Toyoda and Eiji Kita Monte Carlo simulations of the magnetocaloric effect in magnetic Ni-Mn-X (X = Ga, In) Heusler alloys V D Buchelnikov, V V Sokolovskiy, S V Taskaev, V V Khovaylo, A A Aliev, L N Khanov, A B Batdalov, P Entel, H Miki and T Takagi Changes in electronic states and magnetic free energy in La1-zCez(FexSi1-x)13 magnetic refrigerants A Fujita, S Fujieda and K Fukamichi Garnet composite films with Au particles fabricated by repetitive formation for enhancement of Faraday effect H Uchida, Y Mizutani, Y Nakai, A A Fedyanin and M Inoue Control of magnetic domain wall displacement using spin current in small in-plane magnetic field in Permalloy nanowires Yoshihiko Togawa, Takashi Kimura, Ken Harada, Akira Tonomura and Yoshichika Otani Magnetic-field tunable transmittance in a ferrofluid-filled silicon nitride photonic crystal slab H M Lee, L Horng and J C Wu Evaluation of a miniature magnetostrictive actuator using Galfenol under tensile stress Toshiyuki Ueno, Hidemitsu Miura and Sotoshi Yamada Sub-nm resolution depth profiling of the magnetic structure of thin films by the depth-resolved x-ray magnetic circular dichroism technique K Amemiya and M Sakamaki

  4. Microstructure and porosity of Opalinus Clay at the Mont Terri rock laboratory (Switzerland)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Houben, M. E.; Laurich, B.; Desbois, G.; Urai, J. L.

    2012-04-01

    each individual mineral phase. For example, pores in the clay matrix are distributed following a power law exponent of 2.3 regardless of the facies or cross-section. As a first qualitative result, pore morphology and microfabric varies towards faults, ranging from undisturbed to anastomosing fracture network in damage zones to even brecciated structures in fault cores containing various vein generations. [1] Bossart, P. & Thury, M. (2007) Research in the Mont Terri Rock laboratory: Quo vadis?, physics and chemistry of the Earth, 32, 19-31. [2] Desbois G., Urai J.L. and Kukla P.A. (2009) Morphology of the pore space in claystones - evidence from BIB/FIB ion beam sectioning and cryo-SEM observations. E-Earth, 4 :15-22. [3] NAGRA (2002) Technischer Bericht 02-03, Projekt Opalinuston: Synthese der geowissenschaftlichen Untersuchungsergebnisse, Dezember 2002.

  5. Finding the right doctoral thesis - an innovative research fair for medical students.

    PubMed

    Steffen, Julius; Grabbert, Markus; Pander, Tanja; Gradel, Maximilian; Köhler, Lisa-Maria; Fischer, Martin R; von der Borch, Philip; Dimitriadis, Konstantinos

    2015-01-01

    Einleitung: Die Forschung in der Medizin, wie sie auch im Rahmen des CanMEDS Modell beschrieben wird, genießt einen hohen Stellenwert. Viele Medizinstudierende in Deutschland beginnen schon während des Studiums mit der Arbeit an einem Promotionsprojekt. Eine große Anzahl dieser Projekte wird allerdings oft unvollendet abgebrochen, wodurch unnötig Ressourcen verschwendet werden. Ein Hauptgrund hierfür ist ein Mangel an Informationen über studentische Forschungsprojekte. Projektbeschreibung: Um diesem Mangel entgegenzuwirken, haben wir an der LMU München die jährlich stattfindende Veranstaltung DoktaMed ins Leben gerufen. Die Kombination von medizinischem Fachkongress und Forschungsmesse mit Vorträgen, Poster-Präsentationen und Workshops sowie einer großen Ausstellung der verschiedenen Arbeitsgruppen und Institute der LMU zieht jedes Jahr mehr als 500 Besucher an. Organisiert wird die DoktaMed als Peer-to-Peer-Veranstaltung von einem Team aus etwa 40 Studierenden.Ergebnisse: Eine Bedarfsanalyse vor der Einführung der DoktaMed identifizierte ein Informationsdefizit als eine wichtige Ursache für die hohe Rate abgebrochener Doktorarbeiten. In den jährlichen Evaluationen durch die Besucher der DoktaMed wird die Veranstaltung durchschnittlich mit der Note 2,1 auf einer sechsstufigen Likert-Skala bewertet (n=558, SD=1,06, 1=sehr gut, 6=sehr schlecht). Die Studierenden empfinden ihren Besuch auf der DoktaMed als sinnvoll investierte Zeit und fühlen sich anschließend besser zum Thema Doktorarbeit informiert. Diskussion: Insgesamt sind die Studierenden mit der Veranstaltung zufrieden und fühlen sich besser auf die Doktorarbeitssuche vorbereitet. Dennoch besuchen viele Studierende die Messe aus unterschiedlichen Gründen nicht. Eine Möglichkeit zur weiteren Verbesserung besteht darin, zusätzlich zu den experimentellen Arbeiten, auf die sich die DoktaMed momentan konzentriert, ein breiteres Angebot an klinischen Projekten zu pr

  6. Floodplain restoration on the upper Danube by re-establishing back water dynamics: first results of the hydro-geomorphological monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischer, Peter; Hilger, Ludwig; Cyffka, Bernd

    2013-04-01

    . These complex interrelations take place at different spatial and time scales, from short term response during individual floods to long term response of the seasonal flow conditions. The investigation show that a better understanding of the interplay of hydrological and geomorphological components within the floodplain is needed for further restoration projekts. At the end recommendations shall be given in order to control discharge and floodings which will be important for a sustainable development of sensitive riparian ecosystems.

  7. 4D Near Real-Time Environmental Monitoring Using Highly Temporal LiDAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Höfle, Bernhard; Canli, Ekrem; Schmitz, Evelyn; Crommelinck, Sophie; Hoffmeister, Dirk; Glade, Thomas

    2016-04-01

    The last decade has witnessed extensive applications of 3D environmental monitoring with the LiDAR technology, also referred to as laser scanning. Although several automatic methods were developed to extract environmental parameters from LiDAR point clouds, only little research has focused on highly multitemporal near real-time LiDAR (4D-LiDAR) for environmental monitoring. Large potential of applying 4D-LiDAR is given for landscape objects with high and varying rates of change (e.g. plant growth) and also for phenomena with sudden unpredictable changes (e.g. geomorphological processes). In this presentation we will report on the most recent findings of the research projects 4DEMON (http://uni-heidelberg.de/4demon) and NoeSLIDE (https://geomorph.univie.ac.at/forschung/projekte/aktuell/noeslide/). The method development in both projects is based on two real-world use cases: i) Surface parameter derivation of agricultural crops (e.g. crop height) and ii) change detection of landslides. Both projects exploit the "full history" contained in the LiDAR point cloud time series. One crucial initial step of 4D-LiDAR analysis is the co-registration over time, 3D-georeferencing and time-dependent quality assessment of the LiDAR point cloud time series. Due to the high amount of datasets (e.g. one full LiDAR scan per day), the procedure needs to be performed fully automatically. Furthermore, the online near real-time 4D monitoring system requires to set triggers that can detect removal or moving of tie reflectors (used for co-registration) or the scanner itself. This guarantees long-term data acquisition with high quality. We will present results from a georeferencing experiment for 4D-LiDAR monitoring, which performs benchmarking of co-registration, 3D-georeferencing and also fully automatic detection of events (e.g. removal/moving of reflectors or scanner). Secondly, we will show our empirical findings of an ongoing permanent LiDAR observation of a landslide (Gresten

  8. The Problem of Form in Objects under Redevelopment (On the Basis of Bytom Market Square Redevelopment Design) / Problem Formy W Obiektach Przebudowywanych (Na Przykładzie Projektu Realizacyjnego Przebudowy Bytomskiego Rynku)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maryńczuk, Paweł

    2015-03-01

    The author believes that if a designer has performed many design or research works entailing solutions to various problems, it is recommendable to consider and become aware of previously used methods whose application might have been unwitting or instinctive. The outcome of such reflection can be worth describing and recording in order to formulate a set of guidelines useful in the future. Such methods, being intuitive in nature, are often tied to the designer's subconsciousness, thus are rarely expressed in a clear manner. By using own methods a designer can prove that space should be composed in a given way in order to address specific needs and defined objectives. All this is aimed at preventing accidental formation of space. An example of reasoning serving the aforementioned purpose can be found in a method referred to as CQC or Composition Quality Control, the application of which facilitates intentional shaping of an architectural piece of work. Autor uważa uważa, że jeśli projektant ma za sobą wiele prac projektowych lub też prac badawczych, które połączone były z rozwiązywaniem różnych problemów, to warto zastanowić się i uświadomić sobie sposoby, które dotychczas - może nieświadomie lub odruchowo - były stosowane. Wynik refleksji warto opisać i zapisać po to, żeby ująć go w układ wskazań na przyszłość. Metody te, mając charakter intuicyjny, często związane są z podświadomością projektanta, w związku z tym rzadko można spotkać je jako wyrażone w sposób wyraźny. Stosując metody własne można dowieść, że przestrzeń winna być komponowana tak, a nie inaczej dla określonych potrzeb i wytyczonych celów tak, aby jej forma nie była przypadkowa. Przykładem takiego rozumowania jest przyjeta metoda KJK, której zastosowanie pomaga w swiadomym kształtowaniu dzieła architektonicznego.

  9. Hydrogeochemical signatures of catchment evolution - the role of calcium and sulphate release in the constructed Hühnerwasser ("Chicken Creek") catchment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pohle, Ina; Hu, Yuzhu; Schaaf, Wolfgang; Gerwin, Werner; Hinz, Christoph

    2016-04-01

    The constructed Hühnerwasser ("Chicken Creek") catchment is an ecohydrological system in an initial state of development. The catchment with an area of 6 ha was built up from quaternary sediments in the post-mining landscape of Lusatia in Eastern Germany and serves as a critical zone observatory for detecting ecosystem transition. The soil substrate is characterized as sands to loamy sands with low carbonate contents but significant amounts of gypsum in the sediments of the catchment. The catchment undergoes a strong transition from an abiotic system in the initial years to a system with growing influence of biota. Concerning the hydrology, a regime shift from surface runoff to groundwater flow dominated processes is significant. It is of interest, whether the catchment transition is also reflected by hydrogeochemical indicators. We assume gypsum dissolution as dominant process at the catchment scale. In order to investigate the hydrogeochemical evolution of the catchment we analysed electric conductivity, calcium and sulphate concentrations and pH-values of biweekly composite samples from 2007-2013 of the atmospheric deposition, of runoff and soil water. The two observation points in the flowing water represent surface runoff and groundwater discharge respectively. Soil water has been analysed at four soil pits in three depths. The monitoring data were provided by the Research Platform Chicken Creek (https://www.tu-cottbus.de/projekte/en/oekosysteme/startseite.html). From the macroscopic data analysis we found an exponential decay of the electric conductivity, calcium and sulphate concentrations in the flowing waters and some of the soil pits. In the flowing water, the decrease slope of the electric conductivity and the calcium and sulphate concentrations is almost identical. The calcium / sulphate molar ratio as an indicator of gypsum dissolution is almost equal to one up to 2010, afterwards more calcium than sulphate is released. The pH-values in the flowing

  10. Hydraulic and thermal soil Parameter combined with TEM data at quaternary coastal regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grabowski, Ima; Kirsch, Reinhard; Scheer, Wolfgang

    2014-05-01

    Geosciences Union Burval Working Group (2006) Groundwater Resources in buried valleys- a challenge for Geosciences. - Leibniz-Institut für Angewandte Geophysik, Hannover Scheer W, König B, Steinmann F (2012): Die Grundwasserverhältnisse von Föhr. - In: Der Untergrund von Föhr: Geologie, Grundwasser und Erdwärme - Ergebnisse des INTERREG-Projektes CLIWAT. - Landesamt für Landwirtschaft, Umwelt und ländliche Räume Schleswig-Holstein, Flintbek

  11. Mapping physical properties of Swiss forest soils by robust external-drift kriging from legacy soil data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papritz, Andreas; Ramirez Lopez, Leo; Baltensweiler, Andri; Walthert, Lorenz

    2015-04-01

    Climate change scenario predict for Switzerland increasing summer temperature and decreasing precipitation. In coming decades forests will therefore likely experience more often drought. However, it is not clear to what extent these changes will occur and where in Switzerland they will be most pronounced. Soil-Vegetation-Atmosphere-Transfer (SVAT) models allow to explore likely changes in the water regime of forest under changing climate. Such process models require information of soil physical properties that largely control water storage in forest soils. Spatial information on physical properties of forest soils is currently lacking in Switzerland. Therefore one objective of the project "Soils and water regime of Swiss forests and forest sites under present and future climate BOWA-CH" (http://www.wsl.ch/fe/boden/projekte/bowa_ch/index_EN) was to predict basic physical properties of forest soils at high spatial resolution for the whole Swiss territory. Based on legacy data of about 2000 forest soil profiles, we mapped particle size composition, volumetric content of rock fragments, soil organic carbon (SOC) content and soil density for fixed-depth soil layers (0-10, 10-30, 30-60, ..., 120-150 cm) by robust external drift kriging (Nussbaum et al., 2014). Comprehensive, digitally available information on climate, topography, vegetation and geology were used as covariates for statistical modelling. Preliminary sets of covariates were chosen by LASSO, and the selection was refined by cross-validating the model for the external drift. External validation with 20 % of the data revealed that clay and sand content, soil density and SOC could be predicted with acceptable precision. Predictions of rock fragment content and silt content were less precise, and the developed model failed to spatially predict soil depth. This is unfortunate because soil depth and rock fragment content largely control water storage in soils. Nussbaum, M., Papritz, A., Baltensweiler, A

  12. Geochemical Methods of Inference the Thermoregulatory Strategies in Middle Triassic Marine Reptiles - A Pilot Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Surmik, Dawid; Pelc, Andrzej

    2012-01-01

    ło jedną z adaptacji umożliwiających mezozoicznym gadom morskim ekspansję na otwarte morza? Na pytanie w jaki sposób ewoluowała homojotermia u gadów morskich spróbuje odpowiedzieć projekt badawczy pt. "Gady morskie i lądowe na tle środowiska triasu środkowego południowej Polski", realizowany na Uniwersytecie Śląskim.

  13. Potentials of mathematical modeling and use of GIS in catchment management and the benefits for the Water Framework Directive fulfilling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dostal, T.; Krasa, J.

    2009-04-01

    quality management. The above mentioned calculations and mathematical simulations are still assumed mostly being a domain of science and it is not accepted that many analysis and models were already finished to the level of practical routine applicability. Another important problem is missing relation and cooperation between environmental field (where for instance Water Framework Directive is also assumed to be included) and economical and social fields. The regulative and limits are set up in the area of agriculture on one hand, to reach economic goals in food production, but on the other hand, side effects of those measures to water quality protection are not assumed and vice-versa, watershed management measures are mostly not assessed from point of view of the effects on a desired economic field. Already (Van Rompaey et al., 2000) examined the effect of conversion of arable land into peace (conversion mostly to grassland) in agreement with European agricultural policy of food overproduction prevention, on sediment transport into water reservoirs. Based on mathematical simulations and survey between farmers he approved that unimportant increasing of proportion of converted land in certain regions can significantly influence sediment transport and water quality in given catchment. Proposed presentation tends to invoke support of international and interdepartmental cooperation in given fields and to present various possibilities of application of mathematical modeling and GIS assisted analyses on the level of practical and routine applicability for watershed management in various scales. Acknowledgement: This paper has been worked out based on the results reached with support of the project "MSMT CR VZ CEZ MSM 6840770002 - Revitalization of water systems of the landscape and urban sites, significantly affected by anthropogenic changes". References • Dostal T., Krasa J., Vaska J., Vrana K., 2001. The map of soil erosion risk and sediment transport in the Czech Republic

  14. Modeling of 3d Space-time Surface of Potential Fields and Hydrogeologic Modeling of Nuclear Waste Disposal Sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shestopalov, V.; Bondarenko, Y.; Zayonts, I.; Rudenko, Y.

    Introduction After the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (CNPP) disaster (04.26.1986) a huge amount (over 2000 sq. km) of nuclear wastes appeared within so-called "Cher- nobyl Exclusion Zone" (CEZ). At present there are not enough storage facilities in the Ukraine for safe disposal of nuclear wastes and hazardous chemical wastes. The urgent problem now is safe isolation of these dangerous wastes. According to the developed state program of radioactive waste management, the construction of a na- tional storage facility of nuclear wastes is planned. It is also possible to create regional storage facilities for hazardous chemical wastes. The region of our exploration cov- ers the eastern part of the Korosten Plutone and its slope, reaching the CNPP. 3D Space-Time Surface Imaging of Geophysical Fields. There are only three direct meth- ods of stress field reconstruction in present practice, namely the field investigations based on the large-scale fracturing tests, petrotectonic and optical polarization meth- ods. Unfortunately, all these methods are extremely laborious and need the regular field tests, which is difficult to conduct in the areas of anisotropic rock outcrops. A compilation of magnetic and gravity data covering the CNPP area was carried out as a prelude to an interpretation study. More than thirty map products were generated from magnetic, gravity and geodesy data to prepare the 3D Space-Time Surface Images (3D STSI). Multi-layer topography and geophysic surfaces included: total magnetic intensity, isostatically-corrected Bouguer gravity, aspect and slope, first and second derivatives, vertical and horizontal curvature, histogram characteristics and space cor- relation coefficients between the gradient fields. Many maps shows the first and sec- ond derivatives of the potential fields, with the results of lineament (edge) structure detection superimposed. The lineament or edges of the potential fields are located from maximal gradient in many directions

  15. FORS am Very Large Telescope der Europäischen Südsternwarte

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1998-09-01

    Erstes wissenschaftliches Beobachtungsinstrument liefert eindrucksvolle Bilder Entsprechend dem straffen Zeitplan wird das ESO Very Large Teleskop Projekt (VLT-Projekt) auf dem Cerro Paranal in Nord-Chile verwirklicht: die volle Betriebsbereitschaft des ersten der vier 8,2m-Einzelteleskope wird Anfang des nächsten Jahres erreicht sein. Am 15. September 1998 wurde ein weiterer wichtiger Meilenstein erfolgreich, rechtzeitig und innerhalb des Kostenplans erreicht. Nur wenige Tage nach seiner Montage am ersten 8,2m-Einzelteleskop des VLT (UT1) konnte FORS1 ( FO cal R educer and S pectrograph) als erstes einer Gruppe leistungsfähiger und komplexer wissenschaftlicher Instrumente seine Beobachtungstätigkeit beginnen. Von Anfang an konnte es eine Reihe exzellenter astronomischer Bilder aufnehmen. Dieses bedeutende Ereignis eröffnet eine Fülle neuer Möglichkeiten für die europäische Astronomie. FORS - ein Höhepunkt an Komplexität FORS1 und das zukünftige Zwillingsinstrument (FORS2) sind das Ergebnis einer der eingehendsten und fortschrittlichsten technologischen Studien, die je für ein Instrument der bodengebundenen Astronomie durchgeführt wurden. Dieses einzigartige Instrument ist nun im Cassegrain-Fokus installiert und verschwindet beinahe, trotz seiner Dimensionen von 3 x 1.5m (Gewicht 2.3t), unterhalb des riesigen 53 m 2 großen Zerodurspiegels. Um die große Spiegelfläche und die hervorragende Bildqualität von UT1 optimal auszunützen, wurde FORS speziell so konstruiert, daß es die lichtschwächsten und entferntesten Objekte im Weltall untersuchen kann. Bald wird dieses komplexe VLT-Instrument den europäischen Astronomen erlauben, die derzeitigen Beobachtungshorizonte entscheidend zu erweitern. Die beiden FORS-Instrumente sind Vielzweck-Beobachtungsinstrumente, die in mehreren unterschiedlichen Beobachtungsarten eingesetzt werden können. Beispielsweise können Bilder mit zwei verschiedenen Abbildungsmaßstäben (Vergrößerungen) sowie Spektren mit

  16. Simulating the physician as healthcare manager: An innovative course to train for the manager role.

    PubMed

    Gradel, Maximilian; Moder, Stefan; Nicolai, Leo; Pander, Tanja; Hoppe, Boj; Pinilla, Severin; Von der Borch, Philip; Fischer, Martin R; Dimitriadis, Konstantinos

    2016-01-01

    Einleitung: Medizinstudierende erlangen durch ihre Ausbildung ein umfassendes medizinisches Fachwissen. Allerdings erfordert der Arztberuf zusätzliche Fähigkeiten wie Ressourcenallokation, Wirtschaftlichkeit, Konzeption, Organisation und Prozessmanagement im Gesundheitssystem. Auf die Rolle des Arztes als Manager werden die Studierenden nicht ausreichend vorbereitet. Deshalb entwickelten wir den Kurs MeCuM-SiGma, welcher Medizinstudierenden die Grundlagen von Gesundheitspolitik und -management vermittelt. In diesem Projektbericht stellen wir das didaktische Konzept und erste Ergebnisse der Evaluation des Lehrprojekts vor. Projektbeschreibung: Der seit 2010 bestehende, einsemestrige Kurs vermittelt Medizinstudierenden neben den oben bereits erwähnten Kenntnissen grundlegende Managementkompetenzen. Das immer im Wintersemester stattfindende, freiwillige Lehrprojekt wird ehrenamtlich von Ärzten und Mitarbeitern des Mentoring-Büros (MeCuM-Mentor) der medizinischen Fakultät der LMU München koordiniert sowie organisiert und steht allen Medizinstudierenden der beiden medizinischen Fakultäten in München zur Teilnahme offen. In der ersten Phase dieses Zusatzangebots lernen die Studierenden in fallbasierten, problem-orientierten Tutorials unter Anleitung von geschulten Tutoren und in Expertenvorträgen u.a. die Grundlagen des politischen Systems und des Gesundheitssystems in Deutschland kennen. In der zweiten Phase nehmen die Teilnehmer die Rollen der Mitglieder des Vorstandes sowie des Aufsichtsrates des Klinikums der Universität München ein und bearbeiten in Teamarbeit im Rahmen einer Simulation ein bereits bestehendes Projekt des Klinikums. Begleitet wird diese Phase von Workshops zu den prozeduralen Lernzielen (u.a. zu Teamarbeit, Projektmanagement und Verhandlungsstrategien), die in Kooperation mit inner- und außeruniversitären Kooperationspartnern durchgeführt werden. In enger Zusammenarbeit mit dem Vorstand des Klinikums wird von den Kursverantwortlichen

  17. Combined magnetotelluric and petrologic constrains for the nature of the magma storage system beneath the Ciomadul volcano (SE Carpathians)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novák, A.; Harangi, Sz.; Kiss, B.; Szarka, L.; Molnár, Cs.

    2012-04-01

    deeper and wide extensive conductive anomaly (15-30 km). Its lateral distribution and depth changes can be indicate any melting process in the volcano. The shallower anomaly can be correlated with altered and clayey volcanic materials or groundwater storage. The deeper low resistive layers can be connected to the melt storage or magma volumes which were not emptied during the last eruption. This depth range is consistent with our petrological investigation suggesting a dacitic magma reservoir at 6-14 km depth, whereas another, basaltic magma storage zone could be at the lower crustal depth (25-30 km) This research on the Ciomadul volcano belongs partly to the scientific project supported by the OTKA (Hungarian National Research Fund) No. K68587. This projekt was supported by the János Bolyai Scholarship of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences.

  18. A methodology for investigating interdependencies between measured throughfall, meteorological variables and canopy structure on a small catchment.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maurer, Thomas; Gustavos Trujillo Siliézar, Carlos; Oeser, Anne; Pohle, Ina; Hinz, Christoph

    2016-04-01

    from two on-site weather stations (wind direction, wind speed, air temperature, air humidity, insolation, soil temperature, precipitation) were provided by the 'Research Platform Chicken Creek' (https://www.tu-cottbus.de/projekte/en/oekosysteme/startseite.html). Data were combined and multivariate statistical analysis (PCA, cluster analysis, regression trees) were conducted using the R-software to i) obtain statistical indices describing the relevant characteristics of the data and ii) to identify the determining factors for throughfall intensity. The methodology is currently tested and results will be presented. Preliminary evaluation of the image analysis approach showed only marginal, systematic deviation of results for the different software tools applied, which makes the developed workflow a viable tool for canopy characterization. Results from this study will have a broad spectrum of possible applications, for instance the development / calibration of rainfall interception models, the incorporation into eco-hydrological models, or to test the fault tolerance of wireless rainfall sensor networks.

  19. Evaluation of Blasting Patterns Using Operational Research Models / Ocena Planów Prac Strzałowych W Oparciu O Metody Badań Operacyjnych

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monjezi, Masoud; Farzaneh, Farhad; Asadi, Ahmad

    2013-09-01

    Blasting is one of the most important operations, which has a great technical and economical effect on the mining projects. Criteria such as fragmentation (operation ultimate objective) and ground vibration, flyrock, airblast, etc. (operation side effects) should be considered in the assessment of blasting operation. A suitable pattern should be able to provide both reasonable (required) fragmentation and blasting side effects. In order to evaluate blasting performance, operational research models such as multi attribute decision making technique (MADM) can be applied. Technique for order preference by similarity to an ideal solution (TOPSIS), a branch of MADM, is a strong method for pattern ranking. The other quantitative method which is applied in the evaluation of systems' efficiency is data envelopment analysis (DEA) model. In this paper, an attempt has been made to develop a new hybrid MADM model for selecting the most appropriate blasting pattern in Chadormalu iron mine, Iran. In this regard, DEA method was utilized to select the efficient blast patterns thereafter TOPSIS was used to recognize the most suitable pattern amongst the selected patterns by DEA method. It was concluded that the patterns J, G and B are the most appropriate patterns for blasting operations in the Chadormalu iron mine. Prace strzałowe to jedne z kluczowych operacji w znacznym stopniu determinujące efektywność ekonomiczną wielu projektów górniczych. W planowaniu prac strzałowych uwzględnić należy podstawowe kryteria, takie jak rozdrobnienie skał (ostateczny cel operacji), wibracje podłoża, występowanie rozrzutu skał, i podmuchów powietrza (efekty uboczne). Odpowiedni harmonogram prac zapewnić powinien zarówno odpowiedni poziom rozdrobnienia (wymiary brył) jak i ograniczenie skutków ubocznych prac. Dla oceny skuteczności prac strzałowych zastosować można modele badań operacyjnych, np. modele oparte o wielokryterialną technikę decyzyjną MADM, a technika

  20. Learning effects of active involvement of secondary school students in scientific research within the Sparkling Science project "FlussAu:WOW!"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poppe, Michaela; Zitek, Andreas; Scheikl, Sigrid; Heidenreich, Andrea; Kurz, Roman; Schrittwieser, Martin; Muhar, Susanne

    2014-05-01

    Due to immense technological and economic developments, human activities producing greenhouse gases, destructing ecosystems, changing landscapes and societies are influencing the world to such a degree, that the environment and human well-being are significantly affected. This results in a need to educate citizens towards a scientific understanding of complex socio-environmental systems. The OECD programme for international student assessment (PISA - http://www.pisa.oecd.org) investigated in detail the science competencies of 15-year-old students in 2006. The report documented that teenagers in OECD countries are mostly well aware of environmental issues but often know little about their causes or options to tackle these challenges in the future. For the integration of science with school learning and involving young people actively into scientific research Sparkling Science projects are funded by the Federal Ministry of Science and Research in Austria. Within the Sparkling Science Project "FlussAu:WOW!" (http://www.sparklingscience.at/de/projekte/574-flussau-wow-/) scientists work together with 15 to 18-year-old students of two Austrian High Schools over two years to assess the functions and processes in near natural and anthropogenically changed river floodplains. Within the first year of collaboration students, teachers and scientists elaborated on abiotic, biotic and spatial indicators for assessing and evaluating the ecological functionality of riverine systems. After a theoretical introduction students formulated research questions, hypotheses and planned and conducted field work in two different floodplain areas in Lower Austria. From the second year on, students are going to develop qualitative models on processes in river floodplain systems by means of the learning software "DynaLearn". The "DynaLearn" software is an engaging, interactive, hierarchically structured learning environment that was developed within the EU-FP7 project "DynaLearn" (http

  1. The Use of 3D Graphic Modelling in Geoarchaeological Investigations (Bykowszczyzna Archaeological Site near Kock, E Poland)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Łojek, Jacek

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this paper was to use the ArcView 3.2 application for spatial modelling of the exploration forms (pits) in the Bykowszczyzna 8 archaeological site. The 3D digital documentation at a specific scale makes possible easy archiving, presentation, and simple spatial analyses of the examined objects. The ArcView 3.2 programme and its extensions (Spatial Analyst and 3D Analyst), commonly used as analytical tools in geomorphology, were inventively used for inventory-making in the archaeological site. Traditional field sketches were only a base, which enables entering data into the programme, and don't documentation material in itself as it used to be. The method of data visual ization proposed by the author gives new possibilities for using the GIS platform software. W artykule zaprezentowano projekt wykorzystania aplikacji ArcView 3.2 w modelowaniu obrazu form eksploracyjnych na stanowisku archeologicznym Bykowszczyzna 8. Stanowisko zostało objęte programem ratowniczych badań archeologicznych w związku z budową obwodnicy miasta Kocka na trasie krajowej nr 19 relacji Siemiatycze-Lublin-Nisko. Zasadniczy etap prac archeologicznych na stanowisku Bykowszczyzna 8 obejmował pozyskanie oraz inwentaryzację materiału zabytkowego wypełniającego formy. W wyniku wybrania tego materiału, w obszarze stanowiska pozostają charakterystyczne jamy gospodarcze, które stanowią negatywowy obraz wypełnienia formy. Kształt jam jest dokumentowany w postaci szkiców oraz fotografii. Dokumentacja ta stanowi punkt wyjścia procesu digitalizacji (materiał źródłowy). Treścią artykułu jest sporządzenie cyfrowej dokumentacji zawierającej plany stanowiska w kilku poziomach szczegółowości (dla pasa, pola oraz pojedynczych form) oraz wygenerowanie modeli w standardzie 3D. Dokumentacja taka umożliwia łatwą archiwizację oraz czytelną prezentację wybranych obiektów. Możliwe jest również wykonanie analiz przestrzennych. Funkcje programu ArcView 3.2. oraz

  2. SOLIDFELIX: a transportable 3D static volume display

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langhans, Knut; Kreft, Alexander; Wörden, Henrik Tom

    2009-02-01

    Flat 2D screens cannot display complex 3D structures without the usage of different slices of the 3D model. Volumetric displays like the "FELIX 3D-Displays" can solve the problem. They provide space-filling images and are characterized by "multi-viewer" and "all-round view" capabilities without requiring cumbersome goggles. In the past many scientists tried to develop similar 3D displays. Our paper includes an overview from 1912 up to today. During several years of investigations on swept volume displays within the "FELIX 3D-Projekt" we learned about some significant disadvantages of rotating screens, for example hidden zones. For this reason the FELIX-Team started investigations also in the area of static volume displays. Within three years of research on our 3D static volume display at a normal high school in Germany we were able to achieve considerable results despite minor funding resources within this non-commercial group. Core element of our setup is the display volume which consists of a cubic transparent material (crystal, glass, or polymers doped with special ions, mainly from the rare earth group or other fluorescent materials). We focused our investigations on one frequency, two step upconversion (OFTS-UC) and two frequency, two step upconversion (TFTSUC) with IR-Lasers as excitation source. Our main interest was both to find an appropriate material and an appropriate doping for the display volume. Early experiments were carried out with CaF2 and YLiF4 crystals doped with 0.5 mol% Er3+-ions which were excited in order to create a volumetric pixel (voxel). In addition to that the crystals are limited to a very small size which is the reason why we later investigated on heavy metal fluoride glasses which are easier to produce in large sizes. Currently we are using a ZBLAN glass belonging to the mentioned group and making it possible to increase both the display volume and the brightness of the images significantly. Although, our display is currently

  3. Dynamic modelling and humus balances as tools for estimating and upscaling soil carbon stock changes in temperate cropland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oberholzer, Hans-Rudolf; Holenstein, Hildegard; Mayer, Jochen; Leifeld, Jens

    2010-05-01

    Humusbilanzierung im ökologischen Landbau. Abschlussbericht zum Projekt 03OE084, http://forschung.oekolandbau.de unter der BÖL-Bericht-ID 16447,184 pp. Fliessbach A, Oberholzer H.-R., Gunst L., Mäder P., 2007. Soil organic matter and biological soil quality indicators after 21 years of organic and conventional farming. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment 118, 273-284. Leifeld J., Reiser R., Oberholzer H.-R., 2009. Consequences of conventional vs. organic farming on soil carbon: Results from a 27-year field experiment. Agronomy Journal 101, 1204-1218. Neyroud J.-A., 1997. La part du sol dans la production intégrée 1. Gestion de la matière organique et bilan humique. Revue suisse d'agriculture, 29, 45-51. VDLUFA, 2004. VDLUFA-Standpunkt: Humusbilanzierung - Methode zur Beurteilung und Bemessung der Humusversorgung von Ackerland. Verband Deutscher Landwirtschaftlicher Untersuchungs- und Forschungsanstalten, Selbstverlag.

  4. Towards more accurate wind and solar power prediction by improving NWP model physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steiner, Andrea; Köhler, Carmen; von Schumann, Jonas; Ritter, Bodo

    2014-05-01

    nighttime to well mixed conditions during the day presents a big challenge to NWP models. Fast decrease and successive increase in hub-height wind speed after sunrise, and the formation of nocturnal low level jets will be discussed. For PV, the life cycle of low stratus clouds and fog is crucial. Capturing these processes correctly depends on the accurate simulation of diffusion or vertical momentum transport and the interaction with other atmospheric and soil processes within the numerical weather model. Results from Single Column Model simulations and 3d case studies will be presented. Emphasis is placed on wind forecasts; however, some references to highlights concerning the PV-developments will also be given. *) ORKA: Optimierung von Ensembleprognosen regenerativer Einspeisung für den Kürzestfristbereich am Anwendungsbeispiel der Netzsicherheitsrechnungen **) EWeLiNE: Erstellung innovativer Wetter- und Leistungsprognosemodelle für die Netzintegration wetterabhängiger Energieträger, www.projekt-eweline.de

  5. Particles in a karstic spring, Swabian Alb: Physicochemical and hydraulic effects during a snow melt event.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schiperski, Ferry; Zirlewagen, Johannes; Hillebrand, Olav; Scheytt, Traugott; Licha, Tobias

    2013-04-01

    The studied karst spring 'Gallusquelle' is located on the Swabian Alb in Southwest Germany. The catchment area of the 'Gallusquelle' measures about 45 km². An average annual discharge of 0.5 m³/s serves drinking water to about 40,000 people via a waterworks. The study is part of the research project 'AGRO' (www.projekt-agro.de). The main objective of the project 'AGRO' is to develop a tool for the process-based risk management of micropollutants and pathogens in rural karst aquifers on catchment scale. As particle related transport could play an important role for micropollutants and pathogens, the characterization of particles in the spring water is one focus of this work. Furthermore we will attempt to correlate physicochemical parameters with the characteristics of particles in the spring water in order to enhance the knowledge of the transport mechanisms within the karst aquifer. For the measurement of the particle concentration and the particle size distribution the CIS 1 (GALAI) was used. The system works in a range of 0.5 to 150 µm with a resolution of at least 0.5 µm. The measurement is based on time-of-transition method using a laser beam. The turbidity was measured with an ULTRATURB PLUS (DR.LANGE) and a Fluorometer (GGUN-FL30, ALBILLIA), both working with scattering light method. To verify these measurements we used a portable turbidimeter (2100P IS PORTABLE TURBIDIMETER, HACH) working with the ratio of the signals from the scattered and the transmitted light. Temperature and electrical conductivity where also measured with the GGUN-FL30, whereby the electrical conductivity was verified with a portable multimeter (HQ 40D, HACH). Discharge, pH, water hardness, anion- and cation concentration, total organic carbon (TOC) and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) were also determined. To characterize the particles, the spring water was filtered onsite and the filter cake was analyzed in the laboratory. For SEM (scanning electron microscopy) including EDAX

  6. a New Generation Mining Head with Disc Tool of Complex Trajectory / GŁOWICA URABIAJĄCA Nowej Generacji Z NARZĘDZIAMI Dyskowymi O ZŁOŻONEJ Trajektorii

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gospodarczyk, Piotr; Kotwica, Krzysztof; Stopka, Grzegorz

    2013-12-01

    łowych warunkach pracy, ulegają przyspieszonemu zużyciu. Wpływa to na prędkość i koszty drążenia tych wyrobisk. W artykule przedstawiono opracowane w Katedrze MGPiT AGH Kraków nowe i innowacyjne rozwiązanie głowicy urabiającej, z narzędziami dyskowymi niesymetrycznymi o złożonej trajektorii, jako alternatywę dla standardowych organów frezujących. Opisano zalety zastosowanej metody urabiania z wykorzystaniem tzw. tylnego podcinaniaoraz zasadę budowy i pracy zaproponowanego rozwiązania przedmiotowej głowicy. Dla opracowania konstrukcji prototypowego egzemplarza tej głowicy koniecznym było określenie, na podstawie badań laboratoryjnych, założeń i wytycznych. Przedstawiono konstrukcję opracowanego specjalnego stanowiska laboratoryjnego do badania narzędzi dyskowych o złożonej trajektorii, założoną metodykę badawczą, przebieg badań oraz uzyskane wyniki. Analiza tych wyników umożliwiła określenie wyżej wymienionych założeń i wytycznych dla konstrukcji głowicy prototypowej. Na ich podstawie opracowano, we współpracy z Zakładami REMAG S.A. w Katowicach, projekt techniczny nowego rozwiązania głowicy, dostosowanej do zabudowy na ramieniu średniego kombajnu chodnikowego KR 150. Wykonany egzemplarz głowicy został poddany próbom na stanowisku badawczym na poligonie Zakładów REMAG i uzyskał pozytywne wyniki badań wstępnych.

  7. Use and future of wiki systems in veterinary education?--A survey of lecturers in German-speaking countries.

    PubMed

    Kolski, Darius; Heuwieser, Wolfgang; Arlt, Sebastian

    2015-01-01

    .Schlussfolgerung: Die Ergebnisse zeigen, dass viele Dozierende bereit sind, veterinärmedizinische Wiki-Systeme zu verwenden und dass sie diese für die Lehre als nützlich und geeignet betrachten. Nach der Meinung der Mehrheit der Dozierenden kann die Erstellung von Materialien durch die Studierenden zu einem größeren Lernerfolg führen. Derzeit werden Strategien entwickelt, um die Implementierung von Wiki-Systemen in der tierärztlichen Ausbildung und ein Begutachtungs-System durch Dozierende zu unterstützen. In einem weiteren Projekt soll der tatsächliche Lernerfolg durch die aktive Nutzung von Wiki-Systemen durch Studierende ausgewertet werden.

  8. Mineral Dilution and Shallow Groundwater Dynamics as Motor to Drive Fluid Migration in the Deep Crystalline Crust - Interpretation of Hydraulic Investigations From the 9,101 m Super Deep German Continental Drillhole -

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kessels, W.; Graesle, W.

    2002-12-01

    . 633-635. KESSELS, W. and KšCK, J (1995): Hydraulic Communication in the Crystalline Rock Between the two Boreholes of the Continental Deep Drilling Programme in Germany, Int. J. Rock Mech. Min. Sci. & Geomech. Abstr., 32, S. 37-47. M™LLER, P., WEISE, S., ALTHAUS, E., BACH, W., BEHR, H. J., BORCHARDT, R, BRŽUER, K., DRESCHER, J., ERZINGER, J., FABER, E., HORN, E., HUENGES, E., KŽMPF, W., KESSELS, W., KIRSTEN, T., LANDWEHR, D., LODEMANN, M., MACHON, L., PEKDEGER, A., PIELOW, H.-U., REUTEL, C., SIMON, K., WALTER, J., WEINLICH, F. H., ZIMMER, M. (1997): Paleo- and Recent Fluids in the Upper Continental Crust - Results from the German Continental Deep Drilling Projekt (KTB), Journal of Geophysical Resarch, 102, B8, S 18223 - 18254. HUENGES, E., ENGESER, B., ERZINGER, J., KESSELS, W., KšCK, J. (1997): The Permeable Crust: Geohydraulic Properties Down to 9000 m Depth - Results from the German Continental Deep Drilling Project (KTB), Journal of Geophysical Resarch, 102, B8, S 18 255 -18 265.

  9. Analysis of geodetic and legal documentation in the process of expropriation for roads. Krakow case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trembecka, Anna

    2013-06-01

    Amendment to the Act on special rules of preparation and implementation of investment in public roads resulted in an accelerated mode of acquisition of land for the development of roads. The decision to authorize the execution of road investment issued on its basis has several effects, i.e. determines the location of a road, approves surveying division, approves construction design and also results in acquisition of a real property by virtue of law by the State Treasury or local government unit, among others. The conducted study revealed that over 3 years, in this mode, the city of Krakow has acquired 31 hectares of land intended for the implementation of road investments. Compensation is determined in separate proceedings based on an appraisal study estimating property value, often at a distant time after the loss of land by the owner. One reason for the lengthy compensation proceedings is challenging the proposed amount of compensation, unregulated legal status of the property as well as imprecise legislation. It is important to properly develop geodetic and legal documentation which accompanies the application for issuance of the decision and is also used in compensation proceedings. Zmiana ustawy o szczególnych zasadach przygotowywania i realizacji inwestycji w zakresie dróg publicznych spowodowała przyspieszony tryb pozyskiwania gruntów przeznaczonych pod budowę dróg. Wydawana na jej podstawie decyzja o zezwoleniu na realizację inwestycji drogowej wywołuje szereg skutków, tj. m.in. ustala lokalizację drogi, zatwierdza podziały geodezyjne, zatwierdza projekt budowlany a także powoduje nabycie nieruchomości z mocy prawa, przez Skarb Państwa lub jednostki samorządu terytorialnego. Przeprowadzone badania wykazały iż w powyższym trybie miasto Kraków nabyło w okresie 3 lat ponad 31 ha gruntów przeznaczonych na realizację inwestycji drogowych. Odszkodowanie ustalane jest w drodze odrębnego postępowania w oparciu o operat szacunkowy okre

  10. One-day point prevalence of emerging bacterial pathogens in a nationwide sample of 62 German hospitals in 2012 and comparison with the results of the one-day point prevalence of 2010.

    PubMed

    Wegner, Christian; Hübner, Nils-Olaf; Gleich, Sabine; Thalmaier, Ulrike; Krüger, Colin M; Kramer, Axel

    2013-01-01

    Hintergrund: Die Resistenzentwicklung gegen Antibiotika ist eine weltweit bedrohliche Situation. Zur Bekämpfung von multiresistenten Erregern (MRE) wurden in allen deutschen Bundesländern infektiologische Netzwerke der Leistungserbringer aufgebaut. Das HICARE-Netzwerk, ein vom Bundesministerium für Bildung und Forschung gefördertes Projekt, hat 2010 in Zusammenarbeit mit der Deutschen Gesellschaft für Krankenhaushygiene Ergebnisse einer auf freiwilliger Basis durchgeführten multizentrischen Punktprävalenzerhebung veröffentlicht. Mit der vorliegenden Studie sollten die Ergebnisse 2012 reevaluiert werden.Methode: Die Erhebung wurde auf freiwilliger Basis anonymisiert als Punktprävalenz im Mai 2012 unter Zugrundelegung von Routinedaten der mikrobiologischen Diagnostik der Krankenhäuser durchgeführt. Wie in der vorangegangenen Erhebung von 2010 wurde zwischen Krankenhäusern der Maximal-, Schwerpunkt- und Regelversorgung unterschieden, und es wurden nur Daten von Intensivpflegeeinheiten sowie internistischen und chirurgischen Abteilungen erhoben. Die 2010 zugrunde gelegte Methode wurde in einigen Punkten korrigiert und um weitere MREs ergänzt. Eingeschlossen wurden Methicillin-resistente Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) (insgesamt und unterschieden in Hospital-acquired (HA), Community-acquired (CA) and Lifestock-associated (LA) MRSA), Vancomycin resistente Staphylococcus aureus (VRSA/GRSA), Vancomycin resistente Enterococcus faecalis resp. Enterococcus faecium (VR-E. faecalis resp. VR-E. faecium), Extended-Spectrum-Beta-Lactamase bildende (ESBL) E. coli (ESBL-EC) und Klebsiella pneumoniae (ESBL-KP), multiresistente Acinetobacter spp. (MAB), multiresistente Pseudomonas spp. (MRP), Carbapenemase-bildende Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) und Clostridium difficile (CD) Infektionen einschließlich schwerer, intensivpflichtiger Verlaufsformen. Ergänzend wurden die Screeningstrategie, die Ausstattung mit Hygienefachpersonal und mögliche Confounder erfasst.Ergebnisse: Von 1

  11. Renovation of Shaft Mining Building No. 2 in Kłodawa Salt Mine/ Renowacja Budynku Nadszybia Nr 2 Na Terenie Kopalni Soli "Kłodawa" S.A.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Błaszczyński, Tomasz; Wielentejczyk, Przemysław

    2015-06-01

    The paper presents the renovation process of the shaft mining building No. 2 situated in the Kłodawa Salt Mine. A technical state of the facility required immediate reinforcement of structural elements, which was confirmed by expertise carried out by the authors. A lack of repairs could be the cause of building damage. The progress of corrosion in some steel profiles of columns or floors was very advanced. The state of the building was rapidly worsening due to the very high salinity of the indoor environment, moisture (building not insulated) and vibrating engines of machinery operating on different floors felt throughout the facility. After carrying out the technical expertise, working plans and specifications, and relevant numerical analysis, the modernization process was realized by the reinforcement or rebuilding of structural elements. Referat przedstawia sposób remontu i naprawy konstrukcji nośnej i obudowy budynku nadszybia nr 2 na terenie Kopalni Soli "Kłodawa". Elementy konstrukcyjne budynku wymagały natychmiastowego wzmocnienia, co potwierdziła ekspertyza wykonana przez autorów. Zaniechanie prac remontowych groziło awarią budowlaną pomimo przeprowadzonej wcześniej w 2002 r. naprawy. Postęp korozji w niektórych profilach stalowych słupów czy stropów był bardzo zaawansowany. Stan obiektu pogarszał się szybko ze względu na bardzo duże zasolenie środowiska, wilgoć (budynek nieocieplony) oraz pracujące na poszczególnych poziomach maszyny wytwarzające duże drgania wyczuwalne w każdym miejscu obiektu. Wykonano ekspertyzę i projekt wykonawczy przed przystąpieniem do prac renowacyjnych. Przeprowadzono stosowną analizę numeryczną budynku uwzględniając w obliczeniach osłabione korozją elementy pomniejszając odpowiednio w modelu ich parametry wytrzymałościowe. Na tej podstawie zaproponowano stosowne wzmocnienia. Zastosowano technologie wzmocnień stosując wymianę profili stalowych, wspawywanie dodatkowych profili lub blach

  12. Study of Ground Response Curve (GRC) Based on a Damage Model / Badanie Krzywej Odpowiedzi Gruntu (Grc) W Oparciu O Model Pękania Skał

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molladavoodi, H.

    2013-09-01

    Analysis of stresses and displacements around underground openings is necessary in a wide variety of civil, petroleum and mining engineering problems. In addition, an excavation damaged zone (EDZ) is generally formed around underground openings as a result of high stress magnitudes even in the absence of blasting effects. The rock materials surrounding the underground excavations typically demonstrate nonlinear and irreversible mechanical response in particular under high in situ stress states. The dominant cause of irreversible deformations in brittle rocks is damage process. One of the most widely used methods in tunnel design is the convergence-confinement method (CCM) for its practical application. The elastic-plastic models are usually used in the convergence-confinement method as a constitutive model for rock behavior. The plastic models used to simulate the rock behavior, do not consider the important issues such as stiffness degradation and softening. Therefore, the use of damage constitutive models in the convergence-confinement method is essential in the design process of rock structures. In this paper, the basic concepts of continuum damage mechanics are outlined. Then a numerical stepwise procedure for a circular tunnel under hydrostatic stress field, with consideration of a damage model for rock mass has been implemented. The ground response curve and radius of excavation damage zone were calculated based on an isotropic damage model. The convergence-confinement method based on damage model can consider the effects of post-peak rock behavior on the ground response curve and excavation damage zone. The analysis of results show the important effect of brittleness parameter on the tunnel wall convergence, ground response curve and excavation damage radius. Analiza naprężeń i przemieszczeń powstałych wokół otworu podziemnego wymagana jest przy szerokiej gamie projektów z zakresu budownictwa lądowego, inżynierii górniczej oraz naftowej. Ponadto

  13. Biorefinery Technologies for Biomass Conversion Into Chemicals and Fuels Towards Zero Emissions (Review) / Nulles Emisiju Princips Biomasas Konversijas Tehnoloģijās Aizstājot Fosilos Resursus (Pārskata Raksts)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gravitis, J.; Abolins, J.

    2013-10-01

    ģijām, bet ražošanas sistēmu projektēšanai - biomasas konversijas tehnoloģiju klasterizācijā. Aplūkojot virkni konkrētu tehnoloģisko risinājumu, TSA - biomasas autohidrolīzi tvaika sprādzienā tai skaitā, iztirzātas ar biomasas konversiju, izmantošanu un augstas pievienotās vērtības produktiem - ķīmiskiem savienojumiem un degvielām, saistītās ekololoģiskās un energoefektivitātes problēmas. Uzsverot biomasas TSA pirmapstrādes universālo nozīmi dažādo tehnoloģisko kompleksu struktūrā, aplūkota TSA ietekme uz vidi, demonstrējot eMerģijas (enerģētiskās atmiņas) pieeju un "ilgtspējas" indeksu izmantošanu. Lai gan pie sasniegtā tehnoloģiskās attīstības līmeņa un patreizējiem fosilo enerģijas nesēju patēriņa tempiem nav iespējams tos pilnībā aizstāt ar bioenerģiju, bioenerģijas sektora tehnoloģiju pilnveidošana ir svarīga arī bioresursu racionālas izmantošanas un citos aspektos. Latvijas enerģētiskās neatkarības kontekstā būtiska nozīme ir tradicionālo bioenerģijas resursu izmantošanas efektivitātes celšanai un inovatīvo bioenerģijas tehnoloģiju valstiskam atbalstam.u nulles

  14. Track structure based modelling of light ion radiation effects on nuclear and mitochondrial DNA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmitt, Elke; Ottolenghi, Andrea; Dingfelder, Michael; Friedland, Werner; Kundrat, Pavel; Baiocco, Giorgio

    2016-07-01

    double-strand breaks", Mutat. Res. 793, 30-40 [4] Friedland, Schmitt, Kundrat (2015): "Modelling Proton bunches focussed to submicrometre scales: Low-LET Radiation damage in high-LET-like spatial structure", Radiat. Prot. Dosim. 166, 34-37 [5] Schmitt, Friedland, Kundrat, Dingfelder, Ottolenghi (2015): "Cross section scaling for track structure simulations of low-energy ions in liquid water", Radiat. Prot. Dosim. 166, 15-18} Supported by the European Atomic Energy Community's Seventh Framework Programme (FP7/2007-2011) under grant agreement no 249689 "DoReMi" and the German Federal Ministry on Education and Research (KVSF-Projekt "LET-Verbund").

  15. The effects of training in time-limited dynamic psychotherapy: changes in therapeutic outcome.

    PubMed

    Bein, E; Anderson, T; Strupp, H; Henry, W; Schacht, T; Binder, J; Butler, S

    2000-02-01

    The present study explored the effects on therapeutic outcomes of training therapists in brief manualized therapy. As part of the Vanderbilt II project, each of 16 therapists (8 psychiatrists and 8 clinical psychologists) treated 2 moderately disturbed adult patients using his or her customary short-term treatment methods; they then received a year of training in a manualized form of brief dynamic therapy, Time-Limited Dynamic Psychotherapy (TLDP); finally, they administered TLDP to 2 additional patients. It was hypothesized that training would result in improved outcomes generally and that differentially greater improvement would be seen in patients commonly considered less suitable for brief dynamic therapy. Outcome data obtained at termination failed to support either hypothesis. Measurements of interpersonal dependency obtained at a one-year follow-up were consistent with the first hypothesis, but the follow-up data were inconsistent with the second. A systematic review of the 32 posttraining cases suggested that the majority of the therapists had not achieved basic competence at TLDP. Die hier beschriebene Studie untersucht die Wirkungen eines Trainings in manualisierter Kurzzeitherapie auf das Therapierergebnis. Als Teil des Vanderbilt II Projektes behandelten jeweils 16 Therapeuten (8 Psychiater und 8 klinische Psychologen) zwei mittelgradig beeinrächtigte erwachsene Patienten mit den ihnen vertrauten Kurzzeitbehandlungsmethoden. Danach wurden sie über ein Jahr in einer manualisierten Form psychodynamischer Kurzzeittherapie ausgebildet und wandten diese Therapie auf zwei weitere Patienten an. Es wurde angenommen, dass die Ausbildung in besseren Ergebnisdaten, die bei Ende der Therapie erhoben wurden, konnten diese Hypothese nicht bestätigen. Maße für die interpersonale Abhängigkeit zu einem Einjahreskatamnesezeitpunkt waren mit der ersten Hypothese konform, aber inkonsistent mit der zweiten. Eine systematische Untersuchung der 32 nach der Ausbildung

  16. Cuttings Transport with Foam in Highly Inclined Wells at Simulated Downhole Conditions / Transport urobku wiertniczego przy użyciu piany w silnie nachylonych otworach w symulowanych warunkach w otworze

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Jiafu; Ozbayoglu, Evren; Miska, Stefan Z.; Yu, Mengjiao; Takach, Nicholas

    2013-06-01

    of this paper will help designers with the choice of optimal drilling fluid for drilling horizontal wells in unconventional (shale) gas/oil reservoirs. Równolegle ze stale rosnącym zapotrzebowaniem na prowadzenia prac udostępniających w złożach niekonwencjonalnych notuje się wzrost świadomości społecznej odnośnie zagadnień ochrony środowiska. Piana jako alternatywa dla tradycyjnej płuczki wiertniczej nabiera coraz większego znaczenia w górnictwie otworowym. Wiercenie przy użyciu piany pomogą ograniczać zniszczenia formacji geologicznych, redukuje zużycie wody, pozwala na zminimalizowanie oporów ruchu i momentów obrotowych silników. Ponadto, koszty piany są niższe a jej oddziaływanie na środowisko naturalne jest mniej znaczne niż w przypadku typowych płuczek opartych na olejach syntetycznych używanych w trakcie udostępniania trudnych w eksploatacji złóż, np. gazu łupkowego. Wiercenia odcinków poziomych lub prawie poziomych są już szeroko stosowane a zapotrzebowanie na takie odcinki wrasta, ważnym jest właściwe rozpoznanie problemów związanych z transportem urobku wiertniczego i czyszczeniem otworu w trakcie prowadzenia prac wiertniczych na tych odcinkach przy użyciu piany. Zespól badaczy z uniwersytetu w Tulsa zaangażowanych w projekt badawczy w dziedzinie wiertnictwa (TUDRP) przeprowadził serię eksperymentów mających na celu zbadanie wpływu zmiany kąta nachylenia otworu z 90 na 70 stopni na przebieg transportu urobku wiertniczego z wykorzystanie piany w warunkach podwyższonego ciśnienia i podwyższonych temperatur. Badania eksperymentalne i teoretyczne obejmowały także analizę pozostałych parametrów procesu: jakość piany, natężenie przepływu piany, stężenie polimerów, prędkość obrotowa przewodu wiertniczego. Nie stwierdzono znacznych różnic w stężeniu zwiercin ani utraty ciśnienia wskutek tarcia w trakcie zmiany kąta nachylenia z 90 na 70 stopni. Ponadto, dodatkowy wzrost prędkości ruchu

  17. Biorefinery Technologies for Biomass Conversion Into Chemicals and Fuels Towards Zero Emissions (Review) / Nulles Emisiju Princips Biomasas Konversijas Tehnoloģijās Aizstājot Fosilos Resursus (Pārskata Raksts)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gravitis, J.; Abolins, J.

    2013-10-01

    ģijām, bet ražošanas sistēmu projektēšanai - biomasas konversijas tehnoloģiju klasterizācijā. Aplūkojot virkni konkrētu tehnoloģisko risinājumu, TSA - biomasas autohidrolīzi tvaika sprādzienā tai skaitā, iztirzātas ar biomasas konversiju, izmantošanu un augstas pievienotās vērtības produktiem - ķīmiskiem savienojumiem un degvielām, saistītās ekololoģiskās un energoefektivitātes problēmas. Uzsverot biomasas TSA pirmapstrādes universālo nozīmi dažādo tehnoloģisko kompleksu struktūrā, aplūkota TSA ietekme uz vidi, demonstrējot eMerģijas (enerģētiskās atmiņas) pieeju un „ilgtspējas" indeksu izmantošanu. Lai gan pie sasniegtā tehnoloģiskās attīstības līmeņa un patreizējiem fosilo enerģijas nesēju patēriņa tempiem nav iespējams tos pilnībā aizstāt ar bioenerģiju, bioenerģijas sektora tehnoloģiju pilnveidošana ir svarīga arī bioresursu racionālas izmantošanas un citos aspektos. Latvijas enerģētiskās neatkarības kontekstā būtiska nozīme ir tradicionālo bioenerģijas resursu izmantošanas efektivitātes celšanai un inovatīvo bioenerģijas tehnoloģiju valstiskam atbalstam.u nulles

  18. Systematic analysis of natural hazards along infrastructure networks using a GIS-tool for risk assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baruffini, Mirko

    2010-05-01

    GIS-based system can be for effective and efficient disaster response management. In the coming years our GIS application will be a data base containing all information needed for the evaluation of risk sites along the Gotthard line. Our GIS application can help the technical management to decide about protection measures because of, in addition to the visualisation, tools for spatial data analysis will be available. REFERENCES Bründl M. (Ed.) 2009 : Risikokonzept für Naturgefahren - Leitfaden. Nationale Plattform für Naturgefahren PLANAT, Bern. 416 S. BUWAL 1999: Risikoanalyse bei gravitativen Naturgefahren - Methode, Fallbeispiele und Daten (Risk analyses for gravitational natural hazards). Bundesamt für Umwelt, Wald und Landschaft (BUWAL). Umwelt-Materialen Nr. 107, 1-244. Loat, R. & Zimmermann, M. 2004: La gestion des risques en Suisse (Risk Management in Switzerland). In: Veyret, Y., Garry, G., Meschinet de Richemont, N. & Armand Colin (eds) 2002: Colloque Arche de la Défense 22-24 octobre 2002, dans Risques naturels et aménagement en Europe, 108-120. Maggi R. et al, 2009: Evaluation of the optimal resilience for vulnerable infrastructure networks. An interdisciplinary pilot study on the transalpine transportation corridors, NRP 54 "Sustainable Development of the Built Environment", Projekt Nr. 405 440, Final Scientific Report, Lugano

  19. Evaluation of clinical trials by Ethics Committees in Germany--results and a comparison of two surveys performed among members of the German Association of Research-Based Pharmaceutical Companies (vfa).

    PubMed

    Russ, Hagen; Busta, Susanne; Jost, Bertfried; Bethke, Thomas D

    2015-01-01

    Ziel: Das Ziel dieses Projektes war es, die Qualität und Quantität der Erstantragstellung auf zustimmende Bewertung einer klinischen Prüfung gemäß § 7 der deutschen GCP-Verordnung (GCP-V), die Qualität des Bewertungsverfahrens bei den Ethik-Kommissionen (EKs) in Deutschland sowie das Muster der Einwände seitens der EKs in ihren mit Gründen versehenen Bewertungen (Bescheide) zu evaluieren. Um etwaige Veränderungen über die Zeit zu identifizieren, wurden außerdem die Ergebnisse dieser Umfrage, mit den Ergebnissen einer in 2008 durchgeführten Umfrage verglichen.Methoden: Auf der Grundlage von Bescheiden der für den Leiter der klinischen Prüfung jeweils zuständigen (federführenden) EK in 2011, wurde eine schriftliche Umfrage bei Mitgliedsunternehmen des Verbandes Forschender Arzneimittelhersteller e.V. (vfa) in 2012 durchgeführt. Die erhaltenen Antworten zu dem Fragebogen wurden deskriptiv ausgewertet. Da der in 2011 erhaltene Datensatz mit dem Datensatz in 2007 strukturell identisch war, wurden beide Umfragen miteinander verglichen.Ergebnisse: Von den 24 Unternehmen, die im vfa-Unterausschuss Klinische Forschung/Qualitätssicherung vertreten sind, nahmen 75% (18) an der Umfrage teil. Der Auswertung dieser Umfrage liegen insgesamt 251 Antragsverfahren dieser 18 Unternehmen bei 43 EKs zugrunde. Diese stellen rund 21% der 1.214 bei den Bundesoberbehörden (BfArM und PEI) 2011 gestellten Anträge auf Genehmigung kommerzieller und nicht-kommerzieller klinischer Prüfungen der Phasen I–IV dar.Im Vergleich zu 2007 wurden 2011 eine geringere Zahl von Anträgen (n=251 in 2011 vs. n=288 in 2007) bei einer geringfügig größeren Zahl an EKs (43 in 2011 vs. 40 in 2007) gestellt. Die Anzahl der Einwände stieg um 21% von 1.299 (2007) auf 1.574 (2011) und damit im Durchschnitt von 4,5 (2007) auf 6,3 (2011) Einwände pro Antrag. Insgesamt gesehen zeigt die Analyse der formalen und inhaltlichen Einwände ein Muster auf, das der vorangegangenen Umfrage sehr

  20. 3D-Spektrofotometrie extragalaktischer Emissionslinienobjekte

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmoll, Jürgen

    2002-01-01

    Beobachtungen mit dem MPFS-Instrument am russischen 6m - Teleskop in Selentschuk/Kaukasus sowie mit INTEGRAL/WYFFOS am englischen William-Herschel-Teleskop auf La Palma gewonnen. Ein überraschendes Ergebnis war, daß eins der beiden Objekte falsch klassifiziert wurde. Sowohl die meßbare räumliche Ausdehnung des Objektes als auch das spektrale Erscheinungsbild schlossen die Identität mit einem planetarischen Nebel aus. Mit hoher Wahrscheinlichkeit handelt es sich um einen Supernovaüberrest, zumal im Rahmen der Fehler an gleicher Stelle eine vom Röntgensatelliten ROSAT detektierte Röntgenquelle liegt. Die in diesem Projekt verwendeten Integral-Field-Instrumente wiesen zwei verschiedene Bauweisen auf, die sich miteinander vergleichen ließen. Ein Hauptkritikpunkt der verwendeten Instrumente war ihre geringe Lichtausbeute. Die gesammelten Erfahrung fanden Eingang in das Konzept des derzeit in Potsdam in der Fertigung befindlichen 3D-Instruments PMAS (Potsdamer Multi - Apertur - Spektrophotometer), welcher zunächst für das 3.5m-Teleskop des Calar - Alto - Observatoriums in Südspanien vorgesehen ist. Um die Effizienz dieses Instrumentes zu verbessern, wurde in dieser Arbeit die Kopplung der zum Bildrasterung verwendeten Optik zu den Lichtleitfasern im Labor untersucht. Die Untersuchungen zur Maximierung von Lichtausbeute und Stabilität zeigen, daß sich die Effizienz durch Auswahl einer geeigneten Koppelmethode um etwa 20 Prozent steigern lässt. Popular scientific abstract: Currently there are two different approaches in the observational optical astronomy: On the first hand objects are imaged with cameras, on the other hand spectra are produced. The integral-field-technique is a relatively new way to combine both branches. The object image in the telecopes focus is sampled spatially and each spatial bin assigned to a spectrograph. Hence the object is not only sampled spatially but the spectral component is achieved as a third dimension, so the name 3D-Method. The result

  1. Cuttings Transport with Foam in Highly Inclined Wells at Simulated Downhole Conditions / Transport urobku wiertniczego przy użyciu piany w silnie nachylonych otworach w symulowanych warunkach w otworze

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Jiafu; Ozbayoglu, Evren; Miska, Stefan Z.; Yu, Mengjiao; Takach, Nicholas

    2013-06-01

    of this paper will help designers with the choice of optimal drilling fluid for drilling horizontal wells in unconventional (shale) gas/oil reservoirs. Równolegle ze stale rosnącym zapotrzebowaniem na prowadzenia prac udostępniających w złożach niekonwencjonalnych notuje się wzrost świadomości społecznej odnośnie zagadnień ochrony środowiska. Piana jako alternatywa dla tradycyjnej płuczki wiertniczej nabiera coraz większego znaczenia w górnictwie otworowym. Wiercenie przy użyciu piany pomogą ograniczać zniszczenia formacji geologicznych, redukuje zużycie wody, pozwala na zminimalizowanie oporów ruchu i momentów obrotowych silników. Ponadto, koszty piany są niższe a jej oddziaływanie na środowisko naturalne jest mniej znaczne niż w przypadku typowych płuczek opartych na olejach syntetycznych używanych w trakcie udostępniania trudnych w eksploatacji złóż, np. gazu łupkowego. Wiercenia odcinków poziomych lub prawie poziomych są już szeroko stosowane a zapotrzebowanie na takie odcinki wrasta, ważnym jest właściwe rozpoznanie problemów związanych z transportem urobku wiertniczego i czyszczeniem otworu w trakcie prowadzenia prac wiertniczych na tych odcinkach przy użyciu piany. Zespól badaczy z uniwersytetu w Tulsa zaangażowanych w projekt badawczy w dziedzinie wiertnictwa (TUDRP) przeprowadził serię eksperymentów mających na celu zbadanie wpływu zmiany kąta nachylenia otworu z 90 na 70 stopni na przebieg transportu urobku wiertniczego z wykorzystanie piany w warunkach podwyższonego ciśnienia i podwyższonych temperatur. Badania eksperymentalne i teoretyczne obejmowały także analizę pozostałych parametrów procesu: jakość piany, natężenie przepływu piany, stężenie polimerów, prędkość obrotowa przewodu wiertniczego. Nie stwierdzono znacznych różnic w stężeniu zwiercin ani utraty ciśnienia wskutek tarcia w trakcie zmiany kąta nachylenia z 90 na 70 stopni. Ponadto, dodatkowy wzrost prędkości ruchu

  2. Analytical Method of Designing and Selecting Take-Up Systems for Mining Belt Conveyors / Analityczna Metoda Projektowania i Doboru UKŁADÓW Napinania Dla GÓRNICZYCH PRZENOŚNIKÓW TAŚMOWYCH

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kulinowski, Piotr

    2013-12-01

    ężystości taśmy uwzględnianego w obliczeniach drogi napinania jest korygowana na podstawie zależności przedstawionej w niniejszym artykule. Zastępczy moduł sprężystości taśmy powinien być uwzględniony w algorytmie obliczania długości skokuwózka napinającego, szczególnie dla przenośników, których złożony profil trasy może przyczynić się do lokalnego zmniejszenia sił w taśmie. W kolejnej części artykułu przedstawiono metodę konstruowania charakterystyk statycznych urządzeń napinających taśmę (Jabłoński, 1988), które wykorzystano do opisu stosowanych układów napinania taśmy. Spośród stosowanych urządzeń napinających przedstawiono rozwiązania ze stałym położeniem bębna napinającego podczas pracy przenośnika - tzw. sztywne urządzenia napinające oraz ze zmiennym położeniem bębna napinającego w czasie pracy przenośnika - grawitacyjne, hydrauliczne, automatyczne i nadążne. Na diagramach opisujących charakterystykę napinania, poza wymaganą wartością siły w taśmie zbiegającej z bębna napędowego, przedstawiono spodziewany przebieg jej zmiany w funkcji momentu napędowego, charakterystyczny dla danego typu urządzenia napinającego taśmę (Kulinowski, 2012). Podsumowanie artykułu stanowi przedstawienie propozycji wykorzystania charakterystyk statycznych urządzeń napinających do oceny pracy ciernego, bębnowego układu napędowego przenośnika taśmowego. Przedstawiona w artykule metoda obliczeniowa została weryfikowana poprzez badania przemysłowe i realizacje wielu złożonych projektów przenośników taśmowych uzupełnionych analizą wyników badań symulacyjnych dynamiki pracy modeli urządzeń napinających taśmę (Kulinowski, 2012).

  3. Stabile Expression von Sulfotransferasen - allein oder in Kombination mit Cytochrom P450 - in Zelllinien für Mutagenitätsuntersuchungen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pabel, Ulrike

    2003-10-01

    Aromatische Amine und Amide (aAA) sind aufgrund ihrer starken Verbreitung in der menschlichen Umwelt und ihres kanzerogenen Potenzials von groer toxikologischer Bedeutung. Die Kanzerogenität der aAA wird durch die Mutagenität hochreaktiver Stoffwechselprodukte vermittelt, die in zwei sequenziellen katalytischen Reaktionen entstehen. Die erste ist meistens eine N-Hydroxylierung, die oft durch Cytochrom P450 1A2 (CYP1A2) katalysiert wird. Daran schliet sich eine O-Konjugation durch Sulfotransferasen (SULT) oder N-Acetyltransferasen (NAT) an. Die Bioaktivierung ist ein kritischer Parameter für die Übertragbarkeit von Ergebnissen aus Tiermodellen auf den Menschen. Rekombinante in vitro Systeme, die fremdstoffmetabolisierende Enzyme verschiedener Spezies exprimieren, ermöglichen die vergleichende Untersuchung der Bioaktivierung im Menschen und in Versuchstieren. Ziel des Projektes war die Aufklärung der Bioaktivierung der aAA durch humane Enzyme. Im Vordergrund stand die Untersuchung der Rolle humaner SULT in diesem Prozess. Es wurden rekombinante in vitro Systeme, konstruiert, die CYP1A2 und SULT des Menschen koexprimieren. SULT-cDNAs wurden in den Säugerzell Expressionsvektor pMPSV kloniert und in Standardindikatorzellen für Mutagenitätsuntersuchungen (V79 Zellen aus dem Chinesischen Hamster) transfiziert. Das Expressionsniveau von CYP1A2 und SULT wurde mittels Immunblotanalyse und radiometrischen Aktivitätsmessungen charakterisiert. In den rekombinanten Zellen wurden vier aAA als Modellsubstanzen (2-Acetylaminofluoren, 2-Aminoanthracen, 3′-Methyl-4-dimethylaminoazobenzol, 2,4-Diaminotoluol) auf ihre Mutagenität am hprt-Locus hin untersucht.Die aAA waren in Zellen, die keine rekombinanten Enzyme oder lediglich CYP1A2 exprimierten, nicht mutagen. In Zellen, die CYP1A2 und SULT der Subfamilie 1A koexprimierten, erzeugten sie bereits in geringen Konzentrationen klare mutagene Effekte (0,3 µM für 2-Acetylaminofluoren und 3′-Methyl-4

  4. Geotechnical Aspects of Revitalisation of Post-Mining Areas - An Example of the Adaptation of Katowice Hard Coal Mine for the New Silesian Museum / Geotechniczne aspekty rewitalizacji terenów pogórniczych - przykład adaptacji KWK "KATOWICE" na nowe muzeum śląskie

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cała, Marek; Ostręga, Anna

    2013-06-01

    celu: - wzmocnienie posadowienia zabytkowych obiektów i przeniesienie obciążeń na grunt poniżej dna wykopu; - umożliwienie wykonania wewnętrznego poziomu -1 poprzez pogłębienie części budynku maszynowni (MS-8) o jeden poziom; - zabezpieczenie geotechniczne ścian wykopu w rejonie historycznych budynków, - zapewnienie bezpieczeństwa pracy przez okres realizacji podziemnych części Nowego Muzeum Śląskiego jak również funkcjonowania obiektu po zakończeniu procesu rewitalizacji - konstrukcje oporowe przy budynku magazynu odzieży MS-15 i wieży wyciągowej MS-79 będą pełniły rolę docelowych ścian segmentów podziemnych. W artykule zwrócono uwagę na zróżnicowaną budowę geologiczną w rejonie inwestycji, różne obciążenie naziomu, a przede wszystkim na niepewność podłoża i masywu ze względu na wcześniej prowadzone roboty górnicze. Prowadzona przez 176 lat podziemna eksploatacja złóż węgla kamiennego spowodowała osłabienie masywu poprzez m.in. występowanie wkładek węgla kamiennego i stref uskokowych oraz prawdopodobnie starych zrobów. W zależności od rodzaju obiektu będącego przedmiotem zabezpieczenia, jak również konieczności dostosowania technologii zabezpieczenia do zastanych warunków zastosowano kilka rodzajów konstrukcji takich jak palisady czy też bariery mikropalowe stabilizowane kotwiami lub gwoździami. Z uwagi na charakter prac zabezpieczających, dokładność rozpoznania geologiczno-inżynierskiego oraz skalę zadania, projekt zabezpieczeń geotechnicznych miał charakter aktywny. Oznacza to, że rozwiązanie projektowe dostosowywano na bieżąco do faktycznie napotkanych warunków geologicznych. Ponadto podczas realizacji wszystkich prac zabezpieczających wykonywany był monitoring geotechniczny. Ze względu na zabytkowy charakter obiektów sąsiadujących z wykopem konieczny był również monitoring ich konstrukcji. Przedsięwzięcie realizowane jest przy wparciu Europejskiego Funduszu Rozwoju

  5. The Change of Structural and Thermal Properties of Rocks Exposed to High Temperatures in the Vicinity of Designed Geo-Reactor / Zmiany właściwości strukturalnych i cieplnych skał poddanych wysokim temperaturom w rejonie projektowanego georeaktora

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Małkowski, Piotr; Niedbalski, Zbigniew; Hydzik-Wiśniewska, Joanna

    2013-06-01

    Among the main directions of works on energy acquisition, there is the development and application of the technology of underground gasification of coal deposits (UCG). During the process of deposit burning and oxidation, there is also impact of temperatures exceeding 1000°C on rocks surrounding the deposit. As a result of subjecting carboniferous rocks to high temperatures for a prolonged period of time, their structure will change, which in turn will result in the change of their physical properties. Due to the project of underground coal gasification, as performed in Poland, laboratory tests are currently under way to a broad extent, including physical properties of carboniferous rocks subjected to high temperatures. The article presents results of laboratory tests of rocks surrounding the designed geo-reactor: changes to bulk density, specific density and porosity due to high temperature, and confronts the above results with the results of tests of thermal conductivity, specific heat and heat diffusivity (temperature conductivity) of the rocks. The mineralogical investigations were presented too. Jednym z głównych kierunków prac nad pozyskiwaniem energii jest opracowanie i zastosowanie technologii podziemnej gazyfikacji pokładów węgla. W czasie procesu spalania i utleniania pokładu dochodzi również do oddziaływania temperatur przekraczających 1000°C na skały otaczające pokład. W wyniku poddania skał karbońskich wysokim temperaturom przez dłuższy okres czasu będzie dochodzić do zmian ich struktury, co z kolei spowoduje zmiany ich właściwości fizycznych. Ze względu na realizowany w Polsce projekt podziemnego zgazowania węgla prowadzone są obecnie badania laboratoryjne w szerokim zakresie, m.in. właściwości fizycznych skał karbońskich poddanych wysokim temperaturom. W artykule przedstawiono wyniki badań laboratoryjnych skał otaczających projektowany georeaktor: zmian gęstości objętościowej, gęstości właściwej i porowato