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Sample records for cfr rrna methyltransferase

  1. The Cfr rRNA Methyltransferase Confers Resistance to Phenicols, Lincosamides, Oxazolidinones, Pleuromutilins, and Streptogramin A Antibiotics

    PubMed Central

    Long, Katherine S.; Poehlsgaard, Jacob; Kehrenberg, Corinna; Schwarz, Stefan; Vester, Birte

    2006-01-01

    A novel multidrug resistance phenotype mediated by the Cfr rRNA methyltransferase is observed in Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. The cfr gene has previously been identified as a phenicol and lincosamide resistance gene on plasmids isolated from Staphylococcus spp. of animal origin and recently shown to encode a methyltransferase that modifies 23S rRNA at A2503. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing shows that S. aureus and E. coli strains expressing the cfr gene exhibit elevated MICs to a number of chemically unrelated drugs. The phenotype is named PhLOPSA for resistance to the following drug classes: Phenicols, Lincosamides, Oxazolidinones, Pleuromutilins, and Streptogramin A antibiotics. Each of these five drug classes contains important antimicrobial agents that are currently used in human and/or veterinary medicine. We find that binding of the PhLOPSA drugs, which bind to overlapping sites at the peptidyl transferase center that abut nucleotide A2503, is perturbed upon Cfr-mediated methylation. Decreased drug binding to Cfr-methylated ribosomes has been confirmed by footprinting analysis. No other rRNA methyltransferase is known to confer resistance to five chemically distinct classes of antimicrobials. In addition, the findings described in this study represent the first report of a gene conferring transferable resistance to pleuromutilins and oxazolidinones. PMID:16801432

  2. Cysteine Methylation Controls Radical Generation in the Cfr Radical AdoMet rRNA Methyltransferase

    PubMed Central

    Challand, Martin R.; Salvadori, Enrico; Driesener, Rebecca C.; Kay, Christopher W. M.; Roach, Peter L.; Spencer, James

    2013-01-01

    The ‘radical S-adenosyl-L-methionine (AdoMet)’ enzyme Cfr methylates adenosine 2503 of the 23S rRNA in the peptidyltransferase centre (P-site) of the bacterial ribosome. This modification protects host bacteria, notably methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), from numerous antibiotics, including agents (e.g. linezolid, retapamulin) that were developed to treat such organisms. Cfr contains a single [4Fe-4S] cluster that binds two separate molecules of AdoMet during the reaction cycle. These are used sequentially to first methylate a cysteine residue, Cys338; and subsequently generate an oxidative radical intermediate that facilitates methyl transfer to the unreactive C8 (and/or C2) carbon centres of adenosine 2503. How the Cfr active site, with its single [4Fe-4S] cluster, catalyses these two distinct activities that each utilise AdoMet as a substrate remains to be established. Here, we use absorbance and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy to investigate the interactions of AdoMet with the [4Fe-4S] clusters of wild-type Cfr and a Cys338 Ala mutant, which is unable to accept a methyl group. Cfr binds AdoMet with high (∼ 10 µM) affinity notwithstanding the absence of the RNA cosubstrate. In wild-type Cfr, where Cys338 is methylated, AdoMet binding leads to rapid oxidation of the [4Fe-4S] cluster and production of 5'-deoxyadenosine (DOA). In contrast, while Cys338 Ala Cfr binds AdoMet with equivalent affinity, oxidation of the [4Fe-4S] cluster is not observed. Our results indicate that the presence of a methyl group on Cfr Cys338 is a key determinant of the activity of the enzyme towards AdoMet, thus enabling a single active site to support two distinct modes of AdoMet cleavage. PMID:23861844

  3. Insights into the structure, function and evolution of the radical-SAM 23S rRNA methyltransferase Cfr that confers antibiotic resistance in bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Kaminska, Katarzyna H.; Purta, Elzbieta; Hansen, Lykke H.; Bujnicki, Janusz M.; Vester, Birte; Long, Katherine S.

    2010-01-01

    The Cfr methyltransferase confers combined resistance to five classes of antibiotics that bind to the peptidyl tranferase center of bacterial ribosomes by catalyzing methylation of the C-8 position of 23S rRNA nucleotide A2503. The same nucleotide is targeted by the housekeeping methyltransferase RlmN that methylates the C-2 position. Database searches with the Cfr sequence have revealed a large group of closely related sequences from all domains of life that contain the conserved CX3CX2C motif characteristic of radical S-adenosyl-l-methionine (SAM) enzymes. Phylogenetic analysis of the Cfr/RlmN family suggests that the RlmN subfamily is likely the ancestral form, whereas the Cfr subfamily arose via duplication and horizontal gene transfer. A structural model of Cfr has been calculated and used as a guide for alanine mutagenesis studies that corroborate the model-based predictions of a 4Fe–4S cluster, a SAM molecule coordinated to the iron–sulfur cluster (SAM1) and a SAM molecule that is the putative methyl group donor (SAM2). All mutations at predicted functional sites affect Cfr activity significantly as assayed by antibiotic susceptibility testing and primer extension analysis. The investigation has identified essential amino acids and Cfr variants with altered reaction mechanisms and represents a first step towards understanding the structural basis of Cfr activity. PMID:20007606

  4. Detecting 16S rRNA Methyltransferases in Enterobacteriaceae by Use of Arbekacin

    PubMed Central

    Chahine, Sarah; Okafor, Darius; Ong, Ana C.; Maybank, Rosslyn; Kwak, Yoon I.; Wilson, Kerry; Zapor, Michael; Lesho, Emil; Hinkle, Mary

    2015-01-01

    16S rRNA methyltransferases confer resistance to most aminoglycosides, but discriminating their activity from that of aminoglycoside-modifying enzymes (AMEs) is challenging using phenotypic methods. We demonstrate that arbekacin, an aminoglycoside refractory to most AMEs, can rapidly detect 16S methyltransferase activity in Enterobacteriaceae with high specificity using the standard disk susceptibility test. PMID:26537447

  5. Histone methyltransferases regulating rRNA gene dose and dosage control in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Pontvianne, Frédéric; Blevins, Todd; Chandrasekhara, Chinmayi; Feng, Wei; Stroud, Hume; Jacobsen, Steven E.; Michaels, Scott D.; Pikaard, Craig S.

    2012-01-01

    Eukaryotes have hundreds of nearly identical 45S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes, each encoding the 18S, 5.8S, and 25S catalytic rRNAs. Because cellular demands for ribosomes and protein synthesis vary during development, the number of active rRNA genes is subject to dosage control. In genetic hybrids, one manifestation of dosage control is nucleolar dominance, an epigenetic phenomenon in which the rRNA genes of one progenitor are repressed. For instance, in Arabidopsis suecica, the allotetraploid hybrid of Arabidopsis thaliana and Arabidopsis arenosa, the A. thaliana-derived rRNA genes are selectively silenced. An analogous phenomenon occurs in nonhybrid A. thaliana, in which specific classes of rRNA gene variants are inactivated. An RNA-mediated knockdown screen identified SUVR4 {SUPPRESSOR OF VARIEGATION 3-9 [SU(VAR)3-9]-RELATED 4} as a histone H3 Lys 9 (H3K9) methyltransferase required for nucleolar dominance in A. suecica. H3K9 methyltransferases are also required for variant-specific silencing in A. thaliana, but SUVH5 [SU(VAR)3-9 HOMOLOG 5] and SUVH6, rather than SUVR4, are the key activities in this genomic context. Mutations disrupting the H3K27 methyltransferases ATXR5 or ATXR6 affect which rRNA gene variants are expressed or silenced, and in atxr5 atxr6 double mutants, dominance relationships among variants are reversed relative to wild type. Interestingly, these changes in gene expression are accompanied by changes in the relative abundance of the rRNA gene variants at the DNA level, including overreplication of the normally silenced class and decreased abundance of the normally dominant class. Collectively, our results indicate that histone methylation can affect both the doses of different variants and their differential silencing through the choice mechanisms that achieve dosage control. PMID:22549957

  6. Methyltransferase Erm(37) slips on rRNA to confer atypical resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Madsen, Christian Toft; Jakobsen, Lene; Buriánková, Karolina; Doucet-Populaire, Florence; Pernodet, Jean-Luc; Douthwaite, Stephen

    2005-11-25

    Members of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex possess a resistance determinant, erm(37) (also termed ermMT), which is a truncated homologue of the erm genes found in a diverse range of drug-producing and pathogenic bacteria. All erm genes examined thus far encode N(6)-monomethyltransferases or N(6),N(6)-dimethyltransferases that show absolute specificity for nucleotide A2058 in 23 S rRNA. Monomethylation at A2058 confers resistance to a subset of the macrolide, lincosamide, and streptogramin B (MLS(B)) group of antibiotics and no resistance to the latest macrolide derivatives, the ketolides. Dimethylation at A2058 confers high resistance to all MLS(B) and ketolide drugs. The erm(37) phenotype fits into neither category. We show here by tandem mass spectrometry that Erm(37) initially adds a single methyl group to its primary target at A2058 but then proceeds to attach additional methyl groups to the neighboring nucleotides A2057 and A2059. Other methyltransferases, Erm(E) and Erm(O), maintain their specificity for A2058 on mycobacterial rRNA. Erm(E) and Erm(O) have a full-length C-terminal domain, which appears to be important for stabilizing the methyltransferases at their rRNA target, and this domain is truncated in Erm(37). The lax interaction of the M. tuberculosis Erm(37) with its rRNA produces a unique methylation pattern and confers resistance to the ketolide telithromycin.

  7. Properties of small rRNA methyltransferase RsmD: Mutational and kinetic study

    PubMed Central

    Sergeeva, Olga V.; Prokhorova, Irina V.; Ordabaev, Yerdos; Tsvetkov, Philipp O.; Sergiev, Petr V.; Bogdanov, Alexey A.; Makarov, Alexander A.; Dontsova, Olga A.

    2012-01-01

    Ribosomal RNA modification is accomplished by a variety of enzymes acting on all stages of ribosome assembly. Among rRNA methyltransferases of Escherichia coli, RsmD deserves special attention. Despite its minimalistic domain architecture, it is able to recognize a single target nucleotide G966 of the 16S rRNA. RsmD acts late in the assembly process and is able to modify a completely assembled 30S subunit. Here, we show that it possesses superior binding properties toward the unmodified 30S subunit but is unable to bind a 30S subunit modified at G966. RsmD is unusual in its ability to withstand multiple amino acid substitutions of the active site. Such efficiency of RsmD may be useful to complete the modification of a 30S subunit ahead of the 30S subunit’s involvement in translation. PMID:22535590

  8. Functional Specialization of Domains Tandemly Duplicated Witin 16S rRNA Methyltransferase RsmC

    SciTech Connect

    Sunita,S.; Purta, E.; Durawa, M.; Tkaczuk, K.; Swaathi, J.; Bujnicki, J.; Sivaraman, J.

    2007-01-01

    RNA methyltransferases (MTases) are important players in the biogenesis and regulation of the ribosome, the cellular machine for protein synthesis. RsmC is a MTase that catalyzes the transfer of a methyl group from S-adenosyl-L-methionine (SAM) to G1207 of 16S rRNA. Mutations of G1207 have dominant lethal phenotypes in Escherichia coli, underscoring the significance of this modified nucleotide for ribosome function. Here we report the crystal structure of E. coli RsmC refined to 2.1 Angstroms resolution, which reveals two homologous domains tandemly duplicated within a single polypeptide. We characterized the function of the individual domains and identified key residues involved in binding of rRNA and SAM, and in catalysis. We also discovered that one of the domains is important for the folding of the other. Domain duplication and subfunctionalization by complementary degeneration of redundant functions (in particular substrate binding versus catalysis) has been reported for many enzymes, including those involved in RNA metabolism. Thus, RsmC can be regarded as a model system for functional streamlining of domains accompanied by the development of dependencies concerning folding and stability.

  9. Multi-site-specific 16S rRNA Methyltransferase RsmF from Thermus thermophilus

    SciTech Connect

    Demirci, H.; Larsen, L; Hansen, T; Rasmussen, A; Cadambi, A; Gregory, S; Kirpekar, F; Jogl, G

    2010-01-01

    Cells devote a significant effort toward the production of multiple modified nucleotides in rRNAs, which fine tune the ribosome function. Here, we report that two methyltransferases, RsmB and RsmF, are responsible for all four 5-methylcytidine (m{sup 5}C) modifications in 16S rRNA of Thermus thermophilus. Like Escherichia coli RsmB, T. thermophilus RsmB produces m{sup 5}C967. In contrast to E. coli RsmF, which introduces a single m{sup 5}C1407 modification, T. thermophilus RsmF modifies three positions, generating m{sup 5}C1400 and m{sup 5}C1404 in addition to m{sup 5}C1407. These three residues are clustered near the decoding site of the ribosome, but are situated in distinct structural contexts, suggesting a requirement for flexibility in the RsmF active site that is absent from the E. coli enzyme. Two of these residues, C1400 and C1404, are sufficiently buried in the mature ribosome structure so as to require extensive unfolding of the rRNA to be accessible to RsmF. In vitro, T. thermophilus RsmF methylates C1400, C1404, and C1407 in a 30S subunit substrate, but only C1400 and C1404 when naked 16S rRNA is the substrate. The multispecificity of T. thermophilus RsmF is potentially explained by three crystal structures of the enzyme in a complex with cofactor S-adenosyl-methionine at up to 1.3 {angstrom} resolution. In addition to confirming the overall structural similarity to E. coli RsmF, these structures also reveal that key segments in the active site are likely to be dynamic in solution, thereby expanding substrate recognition by T. thermophilus RsmF.

  10. 16S rRNA methyltransferase KsgA contributes to oxidative stress resistance and virulence in Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    Kyuma, Tatsuhiko; Kizaki, Hayato; Ryuno, Hiroki; Sekimizu, Kazuhisa; Kaito, Chikara

    2015-12-01

    We previously reported that the rRNA methyltransferases RsmI and RsmH, which are responsible for cytidine dimethylation at position 1402 of 16S rRNA in the decoding center of the ribosome, contribute to Staphylococcus aureus virulence. Here we evaluated other 16S rRNA methyltransferases, including KsgA (RsmA), RsmB/F, RsmC, RsmD, RsmE, and RsmG. Knockout of KsgA, which methylates two adjacent adenosines at positions 1518 and 1519 of 16S rRNA in the intersubunit bridge of the ribosome, attenuated the S. aureus killing ability against silkworms. The ksgA knockout strain was sensitive to oxidative stress and had a lower survival rate in murine macrophages than the parent strain. The ksgA knockout strain exhibited decreased translational fidelity in oxidative stress conditions. Administration of N-acetyl-l-cysteine, a free-radical scavenger, restored the killing ability of the ksgA knockout strain against silkworms. These findings suggest that the methyl-modifications of 16S rRNA by KsgA contribute to maintain ribosome function under oxidative conditions and thus to S. aureus virulence. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. and Société Française de Biochimie et Biologie Moléculaire (SFBBM). All rights reserved.

  11. RmtC and RmtF 16S rRNA Methyltransferase in NDM-1-Producing Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Mohibur; Prasad, Kashi Nath; Pathak, Ashutosh; Pati, Binod Kumar; Singh, Avinash; Ovejero, Cristina M; Ahmad, Saheem; Gonzalez-Zorn, Bruno

    2015-11-01

    We investigated 16S rRNA methyltransferases in 38 blaNDM-1-positive Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates and found RmtC in 3 isolates, 1 of which also harbored RmtF. The isolates were clonally unrelated; rmtC and rmtF genes were located on a chromosome with the blaNDM-1 gene. Strategies are needed to limit the spread of such isolates.

  12. The human 18S rRNA base methyltransferases DIMT1L and WBSCR22-TRMT112 but not rRNA modification are required for ribosome biogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Zorbas, Christiane; Nicolas, Emilien; Wacheul, Ludivine; Huvelle, Emmeline; Heurgué-Hamard, Valérie; Lafontaine, Denis L. J.

    2015-01-01

    At the heart of the ribosome lie rRNAs, whose catalytic function in translation is subtly modulated by posttranscriptional modifications. In the small ribosomal subunit of budding yeast, on the 18S rRNA, two adjacent adenosines (A1781/A1782) are N6-dimethylated by Dim1 near the decoding site, and one guanosine (G1575) is N7-methylated by Bud23-Trm112 at a ridge between the P- and E-site tRNAs. Here we establish human DIMT1L and WBSCR22-TRMT112 as the functional homologues of yeast Dim1 and Bud23-Trm112. We report that these enzymes are required for distinct pre-rRNA processing reactions leading to synthesis of 18S rRNA, and we demonstrate that in human cells, as in budding yeast, ribosome biogenesis requires the presence of the modification enzyme rather than its RNA-modifying catalytic activity. We conclude that a quality control mechanism has been conserved from yeast to human by which binding of a methyltransferase to nascent pre-rRNAs is a prerequisite to processing, so that all cleaved RNAs are committed to faithful modification. We further report that 18S rRNA dimethylation is nuclear in human cells, in contrast to yeast, where it is cytoplasmic. Yeast and human ribosome biogenesis thus have both conserved and distinctive features. PMID:25851604

  13. Mitochondrial 16S rRNA Is Methylated by tRNA Methyltransferase TRMT61B in All Vertebrates

    PubMed Central

    Bar-Yaacov, Dan; Frumkin, Idan; Yashiro, Yuka; Schlesinger, Orr; Bieri, Philipp; Greber, Basil; Ban, Nenad; Zarivach, Raz; Alfonta, Lital; Pilpel, Yitzhak; Suzuki, Tsutomu; Mishmar, Dan

    2016-01-01

    The mitochondrial ribosome, which translates all mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA)-encoded proteins, should be tightly regulated pre- and post-transcriptionally. Recently, we found RNA-DNA differences (RDDs) at human mitochondrial 16S (large) rRNA position 947 that were indicative of post-transcriptional modification. Here, we show that these 16S rRNA RDDs result from a 1-methyladenosine (m1A) modification introduced by TRMT61B, thus being the first vertebrate methyltransferase that modifies both tRNA and rRNAs. m1A947 is conserved in humans and all vertebrates having adenine at the corresponding mtDNA position (90% of vertebrates). However, this mtDNA base is a thymine in 10% of the vertebrates and a guanine in the 23S rRNA of 95% of bacteria, suggesting alternative evolutionary solutions. m1A, uridine, or guanine may stabilize the local structure of mitochondrial and bacterial ribosomes. Experimental assessment of genome-edited Escherichia coli showed that unmodified adenine caused impaired protein synthesis and growth. Our findings revealed a conserved mechanism of rRNA modification that has been selected instead of DNA mutations to enable proper mitochondrial ribosome function. PMID:27631568

  14. Aminoglycoside resistance 16S rRNA methyltransferases block endogenous methylation, affect translation efficiency and fitness of the host

    PubMed Central

    Lioy, Virginia S.; Goussard, Sylvie; Guerineau, Vincent; Yoon, Eun-Jeong; Courvalin, Patrice; Galimand, Marc; Grillot-Courvalin, Catherine

    2014-01-01

    In Gram-negative bacteria, acquired 16S rRNA methyltransferases ArmA and NpmA confer high-level resistance to all clinically useful aminoglycosides by modifying, respectively, G1405 and A1408 in the A-site. These enzymes must coexist with several endogenous methyltransferases that are essential for fine-tuning of the decoding center, such as RsmH and RsmI in Escherichia coli, which methylate C1402 and RsmF C1407. The resistance methyltransferases have a contrasting distribution—ArmA has spread worldwide, whereas a single clinical isolate producing NpmA has been reported. The rate of dissemination of resistance depends on the fitness cost associated with its expression. We have compared ArmA and NpmA in isogenic Escherichia coli harboring the corresponding structural genes and their inactive point mutants cloned under the control of their native constitutive promoter in the stable plasmid pGB2. Growth rate determination and competition experiments showed that ArmA had a fitness cost due to methylation of G1405, whereas NpmA conferred only a slight disadvantage to the host due to production of the enzyme. MALDI MS indicated that ArmA impeded one of the methylations at C1402 by RsmI, and not at C1407 as previously proposed, whereas NpmA blocked the activity of RsmF at C1407. A dual luciferase assay showed that methylation at G1405 and A1408 and lack of methylation at C1407 affect translation accuracy. These results indicate that resistance methyltransferases impair endogenous methylation with different consequences on cell fitness. PMID:24398977

  15. The human 18S rRNA base methyltransferases DIMT1L and WBSCR22-TRMT112 but not rRNA modification are required for ribosome biogenesis.

    PubMed

    Zorbas, Christiane; Nicolas, Emilien; Wacheul, Ludivine; Huvelle, Emmeline; Heurgué-Hamard, Valérie; Lafontaine, Denis L J

    2015-06-01

    At the heart of the ribosome lie rRNAs, whose catalytic function in translation is subtly modulated by posttranscriptional modifications. In the small ribosomal subunit of budding yeast, on the 18S rRNA, two adjacent adenosines (A1781/A1782) are N(6)-dimethylated by Dim1 near the decoding site, and one guanosine (G1575) is N(7)-methylated by Bud23-Trm112 at a ridge between the P- and E-site tRNAs. Here we establish human DIMT1L and WBSCR22-TRMT112 as the functional homologues of yeast Dim1 and Bud23-Trm112. We report that these enzymes are required for distinct pre-rRNA processing reactions leading to synthesis of 18S rRNA, and we demonstrate that in human cells, as in budding yeast, ribosome biogenesis requires the presence of the modification enzyme rather than its RNA-modifying catalytic activity. We conclude that a quality control mechanism has been conserved from yeast to human by which binding of a methyltransferase to nascent pre-rRNAs is a prerequisite to processing, so that all cleaved RNAs are committed to faithful modification. We further report that 18S rRNA dimethylation is nuclear in human cells, in contrast to yeast, where it is cytoplasmic. Yeast and human ribosome biogenesis thus have both conserved and distinctive features. © 2015 Zorbas, Nicolas et al. This article is distributed by The American Society for Cell Biology under license from the author(s). Two months after publication it is available to the public under an Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike 3.0 Unported Creative Commons License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0).

  16. Structural and Functional Studies of the Thermus Thermophilus 16S rRNA Methyltransferase RsmG

    SciTech Connect

    Gregory, S.; Demirci, H; Belardinelli, R; Monshupanee, T; Gualerzi, C; Dahlberg, A; Jogl, G

    2009-01-01

    The RsmG methyltransferase is responsible for N7 methylation of G527 of 16S rRNA in bacteria. Here, we report the identification of the Thermus thermophilus rsmG gene, the isolation of rsmG mutants, and the solution of RsmG X-ray crystal structures at up to 1.5 A resolution. Like their counterparts in other species, T. thermophilus rsmG mutants are weakly resistant to the aminoglycoside antibiotic streptomycin. Growth competition experiments indicate a physiological cost to loss of RsmG activity, consistent with the conservation of the modification site in the decoding region of the ribosome. In contrast to Escherichia coli RsmG, which has been reported to recognize only intact 30S subunits, T. thermophilus RsmG shows no in vitro methylation activity against native 30S subunits, only low activity with 30S subunits at low magnesium concentration, and maximum activity with deproteinized 16S rRNA. Cofactor-bound crystal structures of RsmG reveal a positively charged surface area remote from the active site that binds an adenosine monophosphate molecule. We conclude that an early assembly intermediate is the most likely candidate for the biological substrate of RsmG.

  17. Methylation of 23S rRNA Nucleotide G748 by RlmAII Methyltransferase Renders Streptococcus pneumoniae Telithromycin Susceptible

    PubMed Central

    Sato, Yoshiharu; Shoji, Tatsuma; Yamamoto, Tomoko

    2013-01-01

    Several posttranscriptional modifications of bacterial rRNAs are important in determining antibiotic resistance or sensitivity. In all Gram-positive bacteria, dimethylation of nucleotide A2058, located in domain V of 23S rRNA, by the dimethyltransferase Erm(B) results in low susceptibility and resistance to telithromycin (TEL). However, this is insufficient to produce high-level resistance to TEL in Streptococcus pneumoniae. Inactivation of the methyltransferase RlmAII, which methylates the N-1 position of nucleotide G748, located in hairpin 35 of domain II of 23S rRNA, results in increased resistance to TEL in erm(B)-carrying S. pneumoniae. Sixteen TEL-resistant mutants (MICs, 16 to 32 μg/ml) were obtained from a clinically isolated S. pneumoniae strain showing low TEL susceptibility (MIC, 2 μg/ml), with mutation resulting in constitutive dimethylation of A2058 because of nucleotide differences in the regulatory region of erm(B) mRNA. Primer extension analysis showed that the degree of methylation at G748 in all TEL-resistant mutants was significantly reduced by a mutation in the gene encoding RlmAII to create a stop codon or change an amino acid residue. Furthermore, RNA footprinting with dimethyl sulfate and a molecular modeling study suggested that methylation of G748 may contribute to the stable interaction of TEL with domain II of 23S rRNA, even after dimethylation of A2058 by Erm(B). This novel finding shows that methylation of G748 by RlmAII renders S. pneumoniae TEL susceptible. PMID:23716046

  18. Identification of a novel methyltransferase, Bmt2, responsible for the N-1-methyl-adenosine base modification of 25S rRNA in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Sunny; Watzinger, Peter; Kötter, Peter; Entian, Karl-Dieter

    2013-05-01

    The 25S rRNA of yeast contains several base modifications in the functionally important regions. The enzymes responsible for most of these base modifications remained unknown. Recently, we identified Rrp8 as a methyltransferase involved in m(1)A645 modification of 25S rRNA. Here, we discovered a previously uncharacterized gene YBR141C to be responsible for second m(1)A2142 modification of helix 65 of 25S rRNA. The gene was identified by reversed phase-HPLC screening of all deletion mutants of putative RNA methyltransferase and was confirmed by gene complementation and phenotypic characterization. Because of the function of its encoded protein, YBR141C was named BMT2 (base methyltransferase of 25S RNA). Helix 65 belongs to domain IV, which accounts for most of the intersubunit surface of the large subunit. The 3D structure prediction of Bmt2 supported it to be an Ado Met methyltransferase belonging to Rossmann fold superfamily. In addition, we demonstrated that the substitution of G180R in the S-adenosyl-L-methionine-binding motif drastically reduces the catalytic function of the protein in vivo. Furthermore, we analysed the significance of m(1)A2142 modification in ribosome synthesis and translation. Intriguingly, the loss of m(1)A2142 modification confers anisomycin and peroxide sensitivity to the cells. Our results underline the importance of RNA modifications in cellular physiology.

  19. The last rRNA methyltransferase of E. coli revealed: The yhiR gene encodes adenine-N6 methyltransferase specific for modification of A2030 of 23S ribosomal RNA

    PubMed Central

    Golovina, Anna Y.; Dzama, Margarita M.; Osterman, Ilya A.; Sergiev, Petr V.; Serebryakova, Marina V.; Bogdanov, Alexey A.; Dontsova, Olga A.

    2012-01-01

    The ribosomal RNA (rRNA) of Escherichia coli contains 24 methylated residues. A set of 22 methyltransferases responsible for modification of 23 residues has been described previously. Herein we report the identification of the yhiR gene as encoding the enzyme that modifies the 23S rRNA nucleotide A2030, the last methylated rRNA nucleotide whose modification enzyme was not known. YhiR prefers protein-free 23S rRNA to ribonucleoprotein particles containing only part of the 50S subunit proteins and does not methylate the assembled 50S subunit. We suggest renaming the yhiR gene to rlmJ according to the rRNA methyltransferase nomenclature. The phenotype of yhiR knockout gene is very mild under various growth conditions and at the stationary phase, except for a small growth advantage at anaerobic conditions. Only minor changes in the total E. coli proteome could be observed in a cell devoid of the 23S rRNA nucleotide A2030 methylation. PMID:22847818

  20. Structural Basis for the Methylation of G1405 in 16S rRNA by Aminoglycoside Resistance Methyltransferase Sgm from an Antibiotic Producer: a Diversity of Active Sites in m7G Methyltransferases

    SciTech Connect

    Husain, N.; Tkaczuk, K; Tulsidas, S; Kaminska, K; Cubrilo, S; Maravic -Vlahovicek, G; Bujnicki, J; Sivaraman, J

    2010-01-01

    Sgm (Sisomicin-gentamicin methyltransferase) from antibiotic-producing bacterium Micromonospora zionensis is an enzyme that confers resistance to aminoglycosides like gentamicin and sisomicin by specifically methylating G1405 in bacterial 16S rRNA. Sgm belongs to the aminoglycoside resistance methyltransferase (Arm) family of enzymes that have been recently found to spread by horizontal gene transfer among disease-causing bacteria. Structural characterization of Arm enzymes is the key to understand their mechanism of action and to develop inhibitors that would block their activity. Here we report the structure of Sgm in complex with cofactors S-adenosylmethionine (AdoMet) and S-adenosylhomocysteine (AdoHcy) at 2.0 and 2.1 {angstrom} resolution, respectively, and results of mutagenesis and rRNA footprinting, and protein-substrate docking. We propose the mechanism of methylation of G1405 by Sgm and compare it with other m{sup 7}G methyltransferases, revealing a surprising diversity of active sites and binding modes for the same basic reaction of RNA modification. This analysis can serve as a stepping stone towards developing drugs that would specifically block the activity of Arm methyltransferases and thereby re-sensitize pathogenic bacteria to aminoglycoside antibiotics.

  1. Structural Insights into the Methylation of C1402 in 16S rRNA by Methyltransferase RsmI

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Guangfeng; Wang, Li; Wang, Jian; Gao, Zengqiang; Dong, Yuhui; Zhang, Linbo; Gong, Yong

    2016-01-01

    RsmI and RsmH are conserved S-Adenosylmethionine (AdoMet)-dependent methyltransferases (MTases) that are responsible for the 2′-O-methylation and N4-methylation of C1402 in bacterial 16S rRNA, respectively. Methylation of m4Cm1402 plays a role in fine-tuning the shape and functions of the P-site to increase the decoding fidelity, and was recently found to contribute to the virulence of Staphylococcus aureus in host animals. Here we report the 2.20-Å crystal structure of homodimeric RsmI from Escherichia coli in complex with the cofactor AdoMet. RsmI consists of an N-terminal putative RNA-binding domain (NTD) and a C-terminal catalytic domain (CTD) with a Rossmann-like fold, and belongs to the class III MTase family. AdoMet is specifically bound into a negatively charged deep pocket formed by both domains by making extensive contacts. Structure-based mutagenesis and isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) assays revealed Asp100 and Ala124 are vital for AdoMet-binding. Although the overall fold of RsmI shows remarkable similarities to the characterized MTases involved in vitamin B12 biosynthesis, it exhibits a distinct charge distribution especially around the AdoMet-binding pocket because of different substrate specificity. The docking model of RsmI-AdoMet-RNA ternary complex suggested a possible base-flipping mechanism of the substrate RNA that has been observed in several known RNA MTases. Our structural and biochemical studies provide novel insights into the catalytic mechanism of C1402 methylation in 16S rRNA. PMID:27711192

  2. Immunological evaluation of an rsmD-like rRNA methyltransferase from Wolbachia endosymbiont of Brugia malayi.

    PubMed

    Rana, Ajay Kumar; Kushwaha, Susheela; Singh, Prashant Kumar; Misra-Bhattacharya, Shailja

    2016-02-01

    Wolbachia is a wonderful anti-filarial target with many of its enzymes and surface proteins (WSPs) representing potential drug targets and vaccine candidates. Here we report on the immunologic response of a drug target, rsmD-like rRNA methyltransferase from Wolbachia endosymbiont of Brugia malayi. The recombinant protein generated both humoral and cell-mediated response in BALB/c mice but compromised its immunity. The humoral response was transient and endured barely for six months in mice with or without B. Malayi challenge. In splenocytes of mice, the key humoral immunity mediating cytokine IL4 was lowered (IL4↓) while IFNγ, the major cytokine mediating cellular immunity was decreased along with upregulation of IL10 cytokine (IFNγ↓, IL10↑). The finding here indicates that the enzyme has low immunogenicity and triggers lowering of cytokine level in BALB/c mice. Interestingly the overall immune profile can be summed up with equivalent response generated by WSP or whole Wolbachia.

  3. Clinical and Microbiological Aspects of Linezolid Resistance Mediated by the cfr Gene Encoding a 23S rRNA Methyltransferase▿

    PubMed Central

    Arias, Cesar A.; Vallejo, Martha; Reyes, Jinnethe; Panesso, Diana; Moreno, Jaime; Castañeda, Elizabeth; Villegas, Maria V.; Murray, Barbara E.; Quinn, John P.

    2008-01-01

    The cfr (chloramphenicol-florfenicol resistance) gene encodes a 23S rRNA methyltransferase that confers resistance to linezolid. Detection of linezolid resistance was evaluated in the first cfr-carrying human hospital isolate of linezolid and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (designated MRSA CM-05) by dilution and diffusion methods (including Etest). The presence of cfr was investigated in isolates of staphylococci colonizing the patient's household contacts and clinical isolates recovered from patients in the same unit where MRSA CM-05 was isolated. Additionally, 68 chloramphenicol-resistant Colombian MRSA isolates recovered from hospitals between 2001 and 2004 were screened for the presence of the cfr gene. In addition to erm(B), the erm(A) gene was also detected in CM-05. The isolate belonged to sequence type 5 and carried staphylococcal chromosomal cassette mec type I. We were unable to detect the cfr gene in any of the human staphylococci screened (either clinical or colonizing isolates). Agar and broth dilution methods detected linezolid resistance in CM-05. However, the Etest and disk diffusion methods failed to detect resistance after 24 h of incubation. Oxazolidinone resistance mediated by the cfr gene is rare, and acquisition by a human isolate appears to be a recent event in Colombia. The detection of cfr-mediated linezolid resistance might be compromised by the use of the disk diffusion or Etest method. PMID:18174304

  4. RlmCD-mediated U747 methylation promotes efficient G748 methylation by methyltransferase RlmAII in 23S rRNA in Streptococcus pneumoniae; interplay between two rRNA methylations responsible for telithromycin susceptibility

    PubMed Central

    Shoji, Tatsuma; Takaya, Akiko; Sato, Yoshiharu; Kimura, Satoshi; Suzuki, Tsutomu; Yamamoto, Tomoko

    2015-01-01

    Adenine at position 752 in a loop of helix 35 from positions 745 to 752 in domain II of 23S rRNA is involved in binding to the ribosome of telithromycin (TEL), a member of ketolides. Methylation of guanine at position 748 by the intrinsic methyltransferase RlmAII enhances binding of telithromycin (TEL) to A752 in Streptococcus pneumoniae. We have found that another intrinsic methylation of the adjacent uridine at position 747 enhances G748 methylation by RlmAII, rendering TEL susceptibility. U747 and another nucleotide, U1939, were methylated by the dual-specific methyltransferase RlmCD encoded by SP_1029 in S. pneumoniae. Inactivation of RlmCD reduced N1-methylated level of G748 by RlmAII in vivo, leading to TEL resistance when the nucleotide A2058, located in domain V of 23S rRNA, was dimethylated by the dimethyltransferase Erm(B). In vitro methylation of rRNA showed that RlmAII activity was significantly enhanced by RlmCD-mediated pre-methylation of 23S rRNA. These results suggest that RlmCD-mediated U747 methylation promotes efficient G748 methylation by RlmAII, thereby facilitating TEL binding to the ribosome. PMID:26365244

  5. Structural Rearrangements in the Active Site of the Thermus thermophilus 16S rRNA Methyltransferase KsgA in a Binary Complex with 5'-Methylthioadenosine

    SciTech Connect

    Demirci, H.; Belardinelli, R; Seri, E; Gregory, S; Gualerzi, C; Dahlberg, A; Jogl, G

    2009-01-01

    Posttranscriptional modification of ribosomal RNA (rRNA) occurs in all kingdoms of life. The S-adenosyl-l-methionine-dependent methyltransferase KsgA introduces the most highly conserved rRNA modification, the dimethylation of A1518 and A1519 of 16S rRNA. Loss of this dimethylation confers resistance to the antibiotic kasugamycin. Here, we report biochemical studies and high-resolution crystal structures of KsgA from Thermus thermophilus. Methylation of 30S ribosomal subunits by T. thermophilus KsgA is more efficient at low concentrations of magnesium ions, suggesting that partially unfolded RNA is the preferred substrate. The overall structure is similar to that of other methyltransferases but contains an additional ?-helix in a novel N-terminal extension. Comparison of the apoenzyme with complex structures with 5?-methylthioadenosine or adenosine bound in the cofactor-binding site reveals novel features when compared with related enzymes. Several mobile loop regions that restrict access to the cofactor-binding site are observed. In addition, the orientation of residues in the substrate-binding site indicates that conformational changes are required for binding two adjacent residues of the substrate rRNA.

  6. Intrinsic resistance to aminoglycosides in Enterococcus faecium is conferred by the 16S rRNA m5C1404-specific methyltransferase EfmM.

    PubMed

    Galimand, Marc; Schmitt, Emmanuelle; Panvert, Michel; Desmolaize, Benoît; Douthwaite, Stephen; Mechulam, Yves; Courvalin, Patrice

    2011-02-01

    Aminoglycosides are ribosome-targeting antibiotics and a major drug group of choice in the treatment of serious enterococcal infections. Here we show that aminoglycoside resistance in Enterococcus faecium strain CIP 54-32 is conferred by the chromosomal gene efmM, encoding the E. faecium methyltransferase, as well as by the previously characterized aac(6')-Ii that encodes a 6'-N-aminoglycoside acetyltransferase. Inactivation of efmM in E. faecium increases susceptibility to the aminoglycosides kanamycin and tobramycin, and, conversely, expression of a recombinant version of efmM in Escherichia coli confers resistance to these drugs. The EfmM protein shows significant sequence similarity to E. coli RsmF (previously called YebU), which is a 5-methylcytidine (m⁵C) methyltransferase modifying 16S rRNA nucleotide C1407. The target for EfmM is shown by mass spectrometry to be a neighboring 16S rRNA nucleotide at C1404. EfmM uses the methyl group donor S-adenosyl-L-methionine to catalyze formation of m⁵C1404 on the 30S ribosomal subunit, whereas naked 16S rRNA and the 70S ribosome are not substrates. Addition of the 5-methyl to C1404 sterically hinders aminoglycoside binding. Crystallographic structure determination of EfmM at 2.28 Å resolution reveals an N-terminal domain connected to a central methyltransferase domain that is linked by a flexible lysine-rich region to two C-terminal subdomains. Mutagenesis of the methyltransferase domain established that two cysteines at specific tertiary locations are required for catalysis. The tertiary structure of EfmM is highly similar to that of RsmF, consistent with m⁵C formation at adjacent sites on the 30S subunit, while distinctive structural features account for the enzymes' respective specificities for nucleotides C1404 and C1407.

  7. Structure of 23S rRNA hairpin 35 and its interaction with the tylosin-resistance methyltransferase RlmAII

    PubMed Central

    Lebars, Isabelle; Yoshizawa, Satoko; Stenholm, Anne R.; Guittet, Eric; Douthwaite, Stephen; Fourmy, Dominique

    2003-01-01

    The bacterial rRNA methyltransferase RlmAII (formerly TlrB) contributes to resistance against tylosin-like 16-membered ring macrolide antibiotics. RlmAII was originally discovered in the tylosin-producer Streptomyces fradiae, and members of this subclass of methyltransferases have subsequently been found in other Gram-positive bacteria, including Streptococcus pneumoniae. In all cases, RlmAII methylates 23S rRNA at nucleotide G748, which is situated in a stem–loop (hairpin 35) at the macrolide binding site of the ribosome. The conformation of hairpin 35 recognized by RlmAII is shown here by NMR spectroscopy to resemble the anticodon loop of tRNA. The loop folds independently of the rest of the 23S rRNA, and is stabilized by a non-canonical G–A pair and a U-turn motif, rendering G748 accessible. Binding of S.pneumoniae RlmAII induces changes in NMR signals at specific nucleotides that are involved in the methyltransferase–RNA interaction. The conformation of hairpin 35 that interacts with RlmAII is radically different from the structure this hairpin adopts within the 50S subunit. This indicates that the hairpin undergoes major structural rearrangement upon interaction with ribosomal proteins during 50S assembly. PMID:12514124

  8. Crystal Structure of the Thermus thermophilus 16 S rRNA Methyltransferase RsmC in Complex with Cofactor and Substrate Guanosine

    SciTech Connect

    Demirci, H.; Gregory, S; Dahlberg, A; Jogl, G

    2008-01-01

    Post-transcriptional modification is a ubiquitous feature of ribosomal RNA in all kingdoms of life. Modified nucleotides are generally clustered in functionally important regions of the ribosome, but the functional contribution to protein synthesis is not well understood. Here we describe high resolution crystal structures for the N{sup 2}-guanine methyltransferase RsmC that modifies residue G1207 in 16 S rRNA near the decoding site of the 30 S ribosomal subunit. RsmC is a class I S-adenosyl-l-methionine-dependent methyltransferase composed of two methyltransferase domains. However, only one S-adenosyl-l-methionine molecule and one substrate molecule, guanosine, bind in the ternary complex. The N-terminal domain does not bind any cofactor. Two structures with bound S-adenosyl-l-methionine and S-adenosyl-l-homocysteine confirm that the cofactor binding mode is highly similar to other class I methyltransferases. Secondary structure elements of the N-terminal domain contribute to cofactor-binding interactions and restrict access to the cofactor-binding site. The orientation of guanosine in the active site reveals that G1207 has to disengage from its Watson-Crick base pairing interaction with C1051 in the 16 S rRNA and flip out into the active site prior to its modification. Inspection of the 30 S crystal structure indicates that access to G1207 by RsmC is incompatible with the native subunit structure, consistent with previous suggestions that this enzyme recognizes a subunit assembly intermediate.

  9. An ATP-Binding Cassette Transporter and Two rRNA Methyltransferases Are Involved in Resistance to Avilamycin in the Producer Organism Streptomyces viridochromogenes Tü57

    PubMed Central

    Weitnauer, Gabriele; Gaisser, Sibylle; Trefzer, Axel; Stockert, Sigrid; Westrich, Lucy; Quiros, Luis M.; Mendez, Carmen; Salas, Jose A.; Bechthold, Andreas

    2001-01-01

    Three different resistance factors from the avilamycin biosynthetic gene cluster of Streptomyces viridochromogenes Tü57, which confer avilamycin resistance when expressed in Streptomyces lividans TK66, were isolated. Analysis of the deduced amino acid sequences showed that AviABC1 is similar to a large family of ATP-binding transporter proteins and that AviABC2 resembles hydrophobic transmembrane proteins known to act jointly with the ATP-binding proteins. The deduced amino acid sequence of aviRb showed similarity to those of other rRNA methyltransferases, and AviRa did not resemble any protein in the databases. Independent expression in S. lividans TK66 of aviABC1 plus aviABC2, aviRa, or aviRb conferred different levels of resistance to avilamycin: 5, 10, or 250 μg/ml, respectively. When either aviRa plus aviRb or aviRa plus aviRb plus aviABC1 plus aviABC2 was coexpressed in S. lividans TK66, avilamycin resistance levels reached more than 250 μg/ml. Avilamycin A inhibited poly(U)-directed polyphenylalanine synthesis in an in vitro system using ribosomes of S. lividans TK66(pUWL201) (GWO), S. lividans TK66(pUWL201-Ra) (GWRa), or S. lividans TK66(pUWL201-Rb) (GWRb), whereas ribosomes of S. lividans TK66 containing pUWL201-Ra+Rb (GWRaRb) were highly resistant. aviRa and aviRb were expressed in Escherichia coli, and both enzymes were purified as fusion proteins to near homogeneity. Both enzymes showed rRNA methyltransferase activity using a mixture of 16S and 23S rRNAs from E. coli as the substrate. Coincubation experiments revealed that the enzymes methylate different positions of rRNA. PMID:11181344

  10. 23S rRNA domain V, a fragment that can be specifically methylated in vitro by the ErmSF (TlrA) methyltransferase.

    PubMed Central

    Kovalic, D; Giannattasio, R B; Jin, H J; Weisblum, B

    1994-01-01

    The DNA sequence that encodes 23S rRNA domain V of Bacillus subtilis, nucleotides 2036 to 2672 (C. J. Green, G. C. Stewart, M. A. Hollis, B. S. Vold, and K. F. Bott, Gene 37:261-266, 1985), was cloned and used as a template from which to transcribe defined domain V RNA in vitro. The RNA transcripts served as a substrate in vitro for specific methylation of B. subtilis adenine 2085 (adenine 2058 in Escherichia coli 23S rRNA) by the ErmSF methyltransferase, an enzyme that confers resistance to the macrolide-lincosamide-streptogramin B group of antibiotics on Streptomyces fradiae NRRL 2702, the host from which it was cloned. Thus, neither RNA sequences belonging to domains other than V nor the association of 23S rRNA with ribosomal proteins is needed for the specific methylation of adenine that confers resistance to the macrolide-lincosamide-streptogramin B group of antibiotics. Images PMID:7961463

  11. Combined Effect of the Cfr Methyltransferase and Ribosomal Protein L3 Mutations on Resistance to Ribosome-Targeting Antibiotics.

    PubMed

    Pakula, Kevin K; Hansen, Lykke H; Vester, Birte

    2017-09-01

    Several groups of antibiotics inhibit bacterial growth by binding to bacterial ribosomes. Mutations in ribosomal protein L3 have been associated with resistance to linezolid and tiamulin, which both bind at the peptidyl transferase center in the ribosome. Resistance to these and other antibiotics also occurs through methylation of 23S rRNA at position A2503 by the methyltransferase Cfr. The mutations in L3 and the cfr gene have been found together in clinical isolates, raising the question of whether they have a combined effect on antibiotic resistance or growth. We transformed a plasmid-borne cfr gene into a uL3-depleted Escherichia coli strain containing either wild-type L3 or L3 with one of seven mutations, G147R, Q148F, N149S, N149D, N149R, Q150L, or T151P, expressed from plasmid-carried rplC genes. The L3 mutations are well tolerated, with small to moderate growth rate decreases. The presence of Cfr has a very minor influence on the growth rate. The resistance of the transformants to linezolid, tiamulin, florfenicol, and Synercid (a combination of quinupristin and dalfopristin [Q-D]) was measured by MIC assays. The resistance from Cfr was, in all cases, stronger than the effects of the L3 mutations, but various effects were obtained with the combinations of Cfr and L3 mutations ranging from a synergistic to an antagonistic effect. Linezolid and tiamulin susceptibility varied greatly among the L3 mutations, while no significant effects on florfenicol and Q-D susceptibility were seen. This study underscores the complex interplay between various resistance mechanisms and cross-resistance, even from antibiotics with overlapping binding sites. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  12. Complete Sequences of Multidrug Resistance Plasmids Bearing rmtD1 and rmtD2 16S rRNA Methyltransferase Genes

    PubMed Central

    Bueno, Maria Fernanda C.; Francisco, Gabriela R.; de Oliveira Garcia, Doroti

    2016-01-01

    Complete nucleotide sequences were determined for two plasmids bearing rmtD group 16S rRNA methyltransferase genes. pKp64/11 was 78 kb in size, belonged to the IncL/M group, and harbored blaTEM-1b, sul1, qacEΔ1, dfrA22, and rmtD1 across two multidrug resistance regions (MRRs). pKp368/10 was 170 kb in size, belonged to the IncA/C group, and harbored acrB, sul1, qacEΔ1, ant(3″)-Ia, aac(6′)-Ib, cat, rmtD2, and blaCTX-M-8 across three MRRs. The rmtD-containing regions shared a conserved motif, suggesting a common origin for the two rmtD alleles. PMID:26729503

  13. Expansion of the aminoglycoside-resistance 16S rRNA (m(1)A1408) methyltransferase family: expression and functional characterization of four hypothetical enzymes of diverse bacterial origin.

    PubMed

    Witek, Marta A; Conn, Graeme L

    2014-09-01

    The global dissemination, potential activity in diverse species and broad resistance spectrum conferred by the aminoglycoside-resistance ribosomal RNA methyltransferases make them a significant potential new threat to the efficacy of aminoglycoside antibiotics in the treatment of serious bacterial infections. The N1 methylation of adenosine 1408 (m(1)A1408) confers resistance to structurally diverse aminoglycosides, including kanamycin, neomycin and apramycin. The limited analyses to date of the enzymes responsible have identified common features but also potential differences in their molecular details of action. Therefore, with the goal of expanding the known 16S rRNA (m(1)A1408) methyltransferase family as a platform for developing a more complete mechanistic understanding, we report here the cloning, expression and functional analyses of four hypothetical aminoglycoside-resistance rRNA methyltransferases from recent genome sequences of diverse bacterial species. Each of the genes produced a soluble, folded protein with a secondary structure, as determined from circular dichroism (CD) spectra, consistent with enzymes for which high-resolution structures are available. For each enzyme, antibiotic minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) assays revealed a resistance spectrum characteristic of the known 16S rRNA (m(1)A1408) methyltransferases and the modified nucleotide was confirmed by reverse transcription as A1408. In common with other family members, higher binding affinity for the methylation reaction by-product S-adenosylhomocysteine (SAH) than the cosubstrate S-adenosyl-L-methionine (SAM) was observed for three methyltransferases, while one unexpectedly showed no measurable affinity for SAH. Collectively, these results confirm that each hypothetical enzyme is a functional 16S rRNA (m(1)A1408) methyltransferase but also point to further potential mechanistic variation within this enzyme family.

  14. Crystal structure of RlmM, the 2′O-ribose methyltransferase for C2498 of Escherichia coli 23S rRNA

    PubMed Central

    Punekar, Avinash S.; Shepherd, Tyson R.; Liljeruhm, Josefine; Forster, Anthony C.; Selmer, Maria

    2012-01-01

    RlmM (YgdE) catalyzes the S-adenosyl methionine (AdoMet)-dependent 2′O methylation of C2498 in 23S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) of Escherichia coli. Previous experiments have shown that RlmM is active on 23S rRNA from an RlmM knockout strain but not on mature 50S subunits from the same strain. Here, we demonstrate RlmM methyltransferase (MTase) activity on in vitro transcribed 23S rRNA and its domain V. We have solved crystal structures of E. coli RlmM at 1.9 Å resolution and of an RlmM–AdoMet complex at 2.6 Å resolution. RlmM consists of an N-terminal THUMP domain and a C-terminal catalytic Rossmann-like fold MTase domain in a novel arrangement. The catalytic domain of RlmM is closely related to YiiB, TlyA and fibrillarins, with the second K of the catalytic tetrad KDKE shifted by two residues at the C-terminal end of a beta strand compared with most 2′O MTases. The AdoMet-binding site is open and shallow, suggesting that RNA substrate binding may be required to form a conformation needed for catalysis. A continuous surface of conserved positive charge indicates that RlmM uses one side of the two domains and the inter-domain linker to recognize its RNA substrate. PMID:22923526

  15. Resistance to ketolide antibiotics by coordinated expression of rRNA methyltransferases in a bacterial producer of natural ketolides

    PubMed Central

    Almutairi, Mashal M.; Park, Sung Ryeol; Rose, Simon; Hansen, Douglas A.; Vázquez-Laslop, Nora; Douthwaite, Stephen; Sherman, David H.; Mankin, Alexander S.

    2015-01-01

    Ketolides are promising new antimicrobials effective against a broad range of Gram-positive pathogens, in part because of the low propensity of these drugs to trigger the expression of resistance genes. A natural ketolide pikromycin and a related compound methymycin are produced by Streptomyces venezuelae strain ATCC 15439. The producer avoids the inhibitory effects of its own antibiotics by expressing two paralogous rRNA methylase genes pikR1 and pikR2 with seemingly redundant functions. We show here that the PikR1 and PikR2 enzymes mono- and dimethylate, respectively, the N6 amino group in 23S rRNA nucleotide A2058. PikR1 monomethylase is constitutively expressed; it confers low resistance at low fitness cost and is required for ketolide-induced activation of pikR2 to attain high-level resistance. The regulatory mechanism controlling pikR2 expression has been evolutionary optimized for preferential activation by ketolide antibiotics. The resistance genes and the induction mechanism remain fully functional when transferred to heterologous bacterial hosts. The anticipated wide use of ketolide antibiotics could promote horizontal transfer of these highly efficient resistance genes to pathogens. Taken together, these findings emphasized the need for surveillance of pikR1/pikR2-based bacterial resistance and the preemptive development of drugs that can remain effective against the ketolide-specific resistance mechanism. PMID:26438831

  16. Resistance to ketolide antibiotics by coordinated expression of rRNA methyltransferases in a bacterial producer of natural ketolides.

    PubMed

    Almutairi, Mashal M; Park, Sung Ryeol; Rose, Simon; Hansen, Douglas A; Vázquez-Laslop, Nora; Douthwaite, Stephen; Sherman, David H; Mankin, Alexander S

    2015-10-20

    Ketolides are promising new antimicrobials effective against a broad range of Gram-positive pathogens, in part because of the low propensity of these drugs to trigger the expression of resistance genes. A natural ketolide pikromycin and a related compound methymycin are produced by Streptomyces venezuelae strain ATCC 15439. The producer avoids the inhibitory effects of its own antibiotics by expressing two paralogous rRNA methylase genes pikR1 and pikR2 with seemingly redundant functions. We show here that the PikR1 and PikR2 enzymes mono- and dimethylate, respectively, the N6 amino group in 23S rRNA nucleotide A2058. PikR1 monomethylase is constitutively expressed; it confers low resistance at low fitness cost and is required for ketolide-induced activation of pikR2 to attain high-level resistance. The regulatory mechanism controlling pikR2 expression has been evolutionary optimized for preferential activation by ketolide antibiotics. The resistance genes and the induction mechanism remain fully functional when transferred to heterologous bacterial hosts. The anticipated wide use of ketolide antibiotics could promote horizontal transfer of these highly efficient resistance genes to pathogens. Taken together, these findings emphasized the need for surveillance of pikR1/pikR2-based bacterial resistance and the preemptive development of drugs that can remain effective against the ketolide-specific resistance mechanism.

  17. The rRNA methyltransferase Bud23 shows functional interaction with components of the SSU processome and RNase MRP

    PubMed Central

    Sardana, Richa; White, Joshua P.; Johnson, Arlen W.

    2013-01-01

    Bud23 is responsible for the conserved methylation of G1575 of 18S rRNA, in the P-site of the small subunit of the ribosome. bud23Δ mutants have severely reduced small subunit levels and show a general failure in cleavage at site A2 during rRNA processing. Site A2 is the primary cleavage site for separating the precursors of 18S and 25S rRNAs. Here, we have taken a genetic approach to identify the functional environment of BUD23. We found mutations in UTP2 and UTP14, encoding components of the SSU processome, as spontaneous suppressors of a bud23Δ mutant. The suppressors improved growth and subunit balance and restored cleavage at site A2. In a directed screen of 50 ribosomal trans-acting factors, we identified strong positive and negative genetic interactions with components of the SSU processome and strong negative interactions with components of RNase MRP. RNase MRP is responsible for cleavage at site A3 in pre-rRNA, an alternative cleavage site for separating the precursor rRNAs. The strong negative genetic interaction between RNase MRP mutants and bud23Δ is likely due to the combined defects in cleavage at A2 and A3. Our results suggest that Bud23 plays a role at the time of A2 cleavage, earlier than previously thought. The genetic interaction with the SSU processome suggests that Bud23 could be involved in triggering disassembly of the SSU processome, or of particular subcomplexes of the processome. PMID:23604635

  18. The rRNA methyltransferase Bud23 shows functional interaction with components of the SSU processome and RNase MRP.

    PubMed

    Sardana, Richa; White, Joshua P; Johnson, Arlen W

    2013-06-01

    Bud23 is responsible for the conserved methylation of G1575 of 18S rRNA, in the P-site of the small subunit of the ribosome. bud23Δ mutants have severely reduced small subunit levels and show a general failure in cleavage at site A2 during rRNA processing. Site A2 is the primary cleavage site for separating the precursors of 18S and 25S rRNAs. Here, we have taken a genetic approach to identify the functional environment of BUD23. We found mutations in UTP2 and UTP14, encoding components of the SSU processome, as spontaneous suppressors of a bud23Δ mutant. The suppressors improved growth and subunit balance and restored cleavage at site A2. In a directed screen of 50 ribosomal trans-acting factors, we identified strong positive and negative genetic interactions with components of the SSU processome and strong negative interactions with components of RNase MRP. RNase MRP is responsible for cleavage at site A3 in pre-rRNA, an alternative cleavage site for separating the precursor rRNAs. The strong negative genetic interaction between RNase MRP mutants and bud23Δ is likely due to the combined defects in cleavage at A2 and A3. Our results suggest that Bud23 plays a role at the time of A2 cleavage, earlier than previously thought. The genetic interaction with the SSU processome suggests that Bud23 could be involved in triggering disassembly of the SSU processome, or of particular subcomplexes of the processome.

  19. Structure-Activity Relationships of Diverse Oxazolidinones for Linezolid-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Strains Possessing the cfr Methyltransferase Gene or Ribosomal Mutations▿

    PubMed Central

    Locke, Jeffrey B.; Finn, John; Hilgers, Mark; Morales, Gracia; Rahawi, Shahad; G. C., Kedar; Picazo, Juan José; Im, Weonbin; Shaw, Karen Joy; Stein, Jeffrey L.

    2010-01-01

    Staphylococcal resistance to linezolid (LZD) is mediated through ribosomal mutations (23S rRNA or ribosomal proteins L3 and L4) or through methylation of 23S rRNA by the horizontally transferred Cfr methyltransferase. To investigate the structural basis for oxazolidinone activity against LZD-resistant (LZDr) strains, we compared structurally diverse, clinically relevant oxazolidinones, including LZD, radezolid (RX-1741), TR-700 (torezolid), and a set of TR-700 analogs (including novel CD-rings and various A-ring C-5 substituents), against a panel of laboratory-derived and clinical LZDr Staphylococcus aureus strains possessing a variety of resistance mechanisms. Potency against all strains was correlated with optimization of C- and D-rings, which interact with more highly conserved regions of the peptidyl transferase center binding site. Activity against cfr strains was retained with either hydroxymethyl or 1,2,3-triazole C-5 groups but was reduced by 2- to 8-fold in compounds with acetamide substituents. LZD, which possesses a C-5 acetamide group and lacks a D-ring substituent, demonstrated the lowest potency against all strains tested, particularly against cfr strains. These data reveal key features contributing to oxazolidinone activity and highlight structural tradeoffs between potency against susceptible strains and potency against strains with various resistance mechanisms. PMID:20837751

  20. Structure-activity relationships of diverse oxazolidinones for linezolid-resistant Staphylococcus aureus strains possessing the cfr methyltransferase gene or ribosomal mutations.

    PubMed

    Locke, Jeffrey B; Finn, John; Hilgers, Mark; Morales, Gracia; Rahawi, Shahad; G C, Kedar; Picazo, Juan José; Im, Weonbin; Shaw, Karen Joy; Stein, Jeffrey L

    2010-12-01

    Staphylococcal resistance to linezolid (LZD) is mediated through ribosomal mutations (23S rRNA or ribosomal proteins L3 and L4) or through methylation of 23S rRNA by the horizontally transferred Cfr methyltransferase. To investigate the structural basis for oxazolidinone activity against LZD-resistant (LZD(r)) strains, we compared structurally diverse, clinically relevant oxazolidinones, including LZD, radezolid (RX-1741), TR-700 (torezolid), and a set of TR-700 analogs (including novel CD-rings and various A-ring C-5 substituents), against a panel of laboratory-derived and clinical LZD(r) Staphylococcus aureus strains possessing a variety of resistance mechanisms. Potency against all strains was correlated with optimization of C- and D-rings, which interact with more highly conserved regions of the peptidyl transferase center binding site. Activity against cfr strains was retained with either hydroxymethyl or 1,2,3-triazole C-5 groups but was reduced by 2- to 8-fold in compounds with acetamide substituents. LZD, which possesses a C-5 acetamide group and lacks a D-ring substituent, demonstrated the lowest potency against all strains tested, particularly against cfr strains. These data reveal key features contributing to oxazolidinone activity and highlight structural tradeoffs between potency against susceptible strains and potency against strains with various resistance mechanisms.

  1. Coproduction of 16S rRNA Methyltransferase RmtD or RmtG with KPC-2 and CTX-M Group Extended-Spectrum β-Lactamases in Klebsiella pneumoniae

    PubMed Central

    Bueno, Maria Fernanda C.; Francisco, Gabriela R.; O'Hara, Jessica A.; de Oliveira Garcia, Doroti

    2013-01-01

    Eight Klebsiella pneumoniae clinical strains with high-level aminoglycoside resistance were collected from eight hospitals in São Paulo State, Brazil, in 2010 and 2011. Three of them produced an RmtD group 16S rRNA methyltransferase, RmtD1 or RmtD2. Five strains were found to produce a novel 16S rRNA methyltransferase, designated RmtG, which shared 57 to 58% amino acid identity with RmtD1 and RmtD2. Seven strains coproduced KPC-2 with or without various CTX-M group extended-spectrum β-lactamases, while the remaining strain coproduced CTX-M-2. PMID:23459483

  2. Characterization of the Staphylococcus aureus rRNA methyltransferase encoded by orfX, the gene containing the staphylococcal chromosome Cassette mec (SCCmec) insertion site.

    PubMed

    Boundy, Sam; Safo, Martin K; Wang, Lei; Musayev, Faik N; O'Farrell, Heather C; Rife, Jason P; Archer, Gordon L

    2013-01-04

    The gene orfX is conserved among all staphylococci, and its complete sequence is maintained upon insertion of the staphylococcal chromosome cassette mec (SCCmec) genomic island, containing the gene encoding resistance to β-lactam antibiotics (mecA), into its C terminus. The function of OrfX has not been determined. We show that OrfX was constitutively produced during growth, that orfX could be inactivated without altering bacterial growth, and that insertion of SCCmec did not alter gene expression. We solved the crystal structure of OrfX at 1.7 Å and found that it belongs to the S-adenosyl-L-methionine (AdoMet)-dependent α/β-knot superfamily of SPOUT methyltransferases (MTases), with a high structural homology to YbeA, the gene product of the Escherichia coli 70 S ribosomal MTase RlmH. MTase activity was confirmed by demonstrating the OrfX-dependent methylation of the Staphylococcus aureus 70 S ribosome. When OrfX was crystallized in the presence of its AdoMet substrate, we found that each monomer of the homodimeric structure bound AdoMet in its active site. Solution studies using isothermal titration calorimetry confirmed that each monomer bound AdoMet but with different binding affinities (K(d) = 52 ± 0.4 and 606 ± 2 μm). In addition, the structure shows that the AdoMet-binding pocket, formed by a deep trefoil knot, contains a bound phosphate molecule, which is the likely nucleotide methylation site. This study represents the first characterization of a staphylococcal ribosomal MTase and provides the first crystal structure of a member of the α/β-knot superfamily of SPOUT MTases in the RlmH or COG1576 family with bound AdoMet.

  3. Biochemical Evidence for a Nuclear Modifier Allele (A10S) in TRMU (Methylaminomethyl-2-thiouridylate-methyltransferase) Related to Mitochondrial tRNA Modification in the Phenotypic Manifestation of Deafness-associated 12S rRNA Mutation.

    PubMed

    Meng, Feilong; Cang, Xiaohui; Peng, Yanyan; Li, Ronghua; Zhang, Zhengyue; Li, Fushan; Fan, Qingqing; Guan, Anna S; Fischel-Ghosian, Nathan; Zhao, Xiaoli; Guan, Min-Xin

    2017-02-17

    Nuclear modifier gene(s) was proposed to modulate the phenotypic expression of mitochondrial DNA mutation(s). Our previous investigations revealed that a nuclear modifier allele (A10S) in TRMU (methylaminomethyl-2-thiouridylate-methyltransferase) related to tRNA modification interacts with 12S rRNA 1555A→G mutation to cause deafness. The A10S mutation resided at a highly conserved residue of the N-terminal sequence. It was hypothesized that the A10S mutation altered the structure and function of TRMU, thereby causing mitochondrial dysfunction. Using molecular dynamics simulations, we showed that the A10S mutation introduced the Ser(10) dynamic electrostatic interaction with the Lys(106) residue of helix 4 within the catalytic domain of TRMU. The Western blotting analysis displayed the reduced levels of TRMU in mutant cells carrying the A10S mutation. The thermal shift assay revealed the Tm value of mutant TRMU protein, lower than that of the wild-type counterpart. The A10S mutation caused marked decreases in 2-thiouridine modification of U34 of tRNA(Lys), tRNA(Glu) and tRNA(Gln) However, the A10S mutation mildly increased the aminoacylated efficiency of tRNAs. The altered 2-thiouridine modification worsened the impairment of mitochondrial translation associated with the m.1555A→G mutation. The defective translation resulted in the reduced activities of mitochondrial respiration chains. The respiratory deficiency caused the reduction of mitochondrial ATP production and elevated the production of reactive oxidative species. As a result, mutated TRMU worsened mitochondrial dysfunctions associated with m.1555A→G mutation, exceeding the threshold for expressing a deafness phenotype. Our findings provided new insights into the pathophysiology of maternally inherited deafness that was manifested by interaction between mtDNA mutation and nuclear modifier gene. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  4. Low fitness cost of the multidrug resistance gene cfr.

    PubMed

    LaMarre, Jacqueline M; Locke, Jeffrey B; Shaw, Karen J; Mankin, Alexander S

    2011-08-01

    The recently described rRNA methyltransferase Cfr that methylates the conserved 23S rRNA residue A2503, located in a functionally critical region of the ribosome, confers resistance to an array of ribosomal antibiotics, including linezolid. A number of reports of linezolid-resistant cfr-positive clinical strains indicate the possible rapid spread of this resistance mechanism. Since the rate of dissemination and the efficiency of maintenance of a resistance gene depend on the fitness cost associated with its acquisition, we investigated the fitness cost of cfr expression in a laboratory Staphylococcus aureus strain. We found that acquisition of the cfr gene does not produce any appreciable reduction in the cell growth rate. Only in a cogrowth competition experiment was some loss of fitness observed because Cfr-expressing cells slowly lose to the cfr-negative control strain. Interestingly, cells expressing wild-type and catalytically inactive Cfr had very similar growth characteristics, indicating that the slight fitness cost associated with cfr acquisition stems from expression of the Cfr polypeptide rather than from the modification of the conserved rRNA residue. In some clinical isolates, cfr is coexpressed with the erm gene, which encodes a methyltransferase targeting another 23S rRNA residue, A2058. Dimethylation of A2058 by Erm notably increases the fitness cost associated with the Cfr-mediated methylation of A2503. The generally low fitness cost of cfr acquisition observed in our experiments with the laboratory S. aureus strain offers a microbiological explanation for the apparent spread of the cfr gene among pathogens.

  5. Human TRMU encoding the mitochondrial 5-methylaminomethyl-2-thiouridylate-methyltransferase is a putative nuclear modifier gene for the phenotypic expression of the deafness-associated 12S rRNA mutations

    SciTech Connect

    Yan Qingfeng; Bykhovskaya, Yelena; Li Ronghua; Mengesha, Emebet; Shohat, Mordechai; Estivill, Xavier; Fischel-Ghodsian, Nathan; Guan Minxin . E-mail: min-xin.guan@chmcc.org

    2006-04-21

    Nuclear modifier genes have been proposed to modulate the phenotypic manifestation of human mitochondrial 12S rRNA A1491G mutation associated with deafness in many families world-wide. Here we identified and characterized the putative nuclear modifier gene TRMU encoding a highly conserved mitochondrial protein related to tRNA modification. A 1937 bp TRMU cDNA has been isolated and the genomic organization of TRMU has been elucidated. The human TRMU gene containing 11 exons encodes a 421 residue protein with a strong homology to the TRMU-like proteins of bacteria and other homologs. TRMU is ubiquitously expressed in various tissues, but abundantly in tissues with high metabolic rates including heart, liver, kidney, and brain. Immunofluorescence analysis of human 143B cells expressing TRMU-GFP fusion protein demonstrated that the human Trmu localizes and functions in mitochondrion. Furthermore, we show that in families with the deafness-associated 12S rRNA A1491G mutation there is highly suggestive linkage and linkage disequilibrium between microsatellite markers adjacent to TRMU and the presence of deafness. These observations suggest that human TRMU may modulate the phenotypic manifestation of the deafness-associated mitochondrial 12S rRNA mutations.

  6. High Prevalence of blaNDM-1 Carbapenemase-Encoding Gene and 16S rRNA armA Methyltransferase Gene among Acinetobacter baumannii Clinical Isolates in Egypt

    PubMed Central

    El-Sayed-Ahmed, Mohamed Abd El-Gawad; Amin, Magdy Ali; Tawakol, Wael Mustafa; Loucif, Lotfi; Bakour, Sofiane

    2015-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to decipher the molecular mechanism of resistance to carbapenems and aminoglycosides in a large series of 150 Acinetobacter baumannii clinical isolates collected from July 2012 to September 2013 in Egypt. We report for the first time the emergence of blaNDM-1 and the cooccurrence of 16S rRNA methylase armA with blaNDM-1 and blaOXA-23 in Egyptian hospitals. Multilocus sequence typing identified 27 distinct sequence types, 11 of which were novel. PMID:25801566

  7. High prevalence of bla(NDM-1) carbapenemase-encoding gene and 16S rRNA armA methyltransferase gene among Acinetobacter baumannii clinical Isolates in Egypt.

    PubMed

    El-Sayed-Ahmed, Mohamed Abd El-Gawad; Amin, Magdy Ali; Tawakol, Wael Mustafa; Loucif, Lotfi; Bakour, Sofiane; Rolain, Jean-Marc

    2015-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to decipher the molecular mechanism of resistance to carbapenems and aminoglycosides in a large series of 150 Acinetobacter baumannii clinical isolates collected from July 2012 to September 2013 in Egypt. We report for the first time the emergence of bla(NDM-1) and the cooccurrence of 16S rRNA methylase armA with bla(NDM-1) and bla(OXA-23) in Egyptian hospitals. Multilocus sequence typing identified 27 distinct sequence types, 11 of which were novel.

  8. Identification of pseudouridine methyltransferase in Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Ero, Rya; Peil, Lauri; Liiv, Aivar; Remme, Jaanus

    2008-01-01

    In ribosomal RNA, modified nucleosides are found in functionally important regions, but their function is obscure. Stem–loop 69 of Escherichia coli 23S rRNA contains three modified nucleosides: pseudouridines at positions 1911 and 1917, and N3 methyl-pseudouridine (m3Ψ) at position 1915. The gene for pseudouridine methyltransferase was previously not known. We identified E. coli protein YbeA as the methyltransferase methylating Ψ1915 in 23S rRNA. The E. coli ybeA gene deletion strain lacks the N3 methylation at position 1915 of 23S rRNA as revealed by primer extension and nucleoside analysis by HPLC. Methylation at position 1915 is restored in the ybeA deletion strain when recombinant YbeA protein is expressed from a plasmid. In addition, we show that purified YbeA protein is able to methylate pseudouridine in vitro using 70S ribosomes but not 50S subunits from the ybeA deletion strain as substrate. Pseudouridine is the preferred substrate as revealed by the inability of YbeA to methylate uridine at position 1915. This shows that YbeA is acting at the final stage during ribosome assembly, probably during translation initiation. Hereby, we propose to rename the YbeA protein to RlmH according to uniform nomenclature of RNA methyltransferases. RlmH belongs to the SPOUT superfamily of methyltransferases. RlmH was found to be well conserved in bacteria, and the gene is present in plant and in several archaeal genomes. RlmH is the first pseudouridine specific methyltransferase identified so far and is likely to be the only one existing in bacteria, as m3Ψ1915 is the only methylated pseudouridine in bacteria described to date. PMID:18755836

  9. Identification of pseudouridine methyltransferase in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Ero, Rya; Peil, Lauri; Liiv, Aivar; Remme, Jaanus

    2008-10-01

    In ribosomal RNA, modified nucleosides are found in functionally important regions, but their function is obscure. Stem-loop 69 of Escherichia coli 23S rRNA contains three modified nucleosides: pseudouridines at positions 1911 and 1917, and N3 methyl-pseudouridine (m(3)Psi) at position 1915. The gene for pseudouridine methyltransferase was previously not known. We identified E. coli protein YbeA as the methyltransferase methylating Psi1915 in 23S rRNA. The E. coli ybeA gene deletion strain lacks the N3 methylation at position 1915 of 23S rRNA as revealed by primer extension and nucleoside analysis by HPLC. Methylation at position 1915 is restored in the ybeA deletion strain when recombinant YbeA protein is expressed from a plasmid. In addition, we show that purified YbeA protein is able to methylate pseudouridine in vitro using 70S ribosomes but not 50S subunits from the ybeA deletion strain as substrate. Pseudouridine is the preferred substrate as revealed by the inability of YbeA to methylate uridine at position 1915. This shows that YbeA is acting at the final stage during ribosome assembly, probably during translation initiation. Hereby, we propose to rename the YbeA protein to RlmH according to uniform nomenclature of RNA methyltransferases. RlmH belongs to the SPOUT superfamily of methyltransferases. RlmH was found to be well conserved in bacteria, and the gene is present in plant and in several archaeal genomes. RlmH is the first pseudouridine specific methyltransferase identified so far and is likely to be the only one existing in bacteria, as m(3)Psi1915 is the only methylated pseudouridine in bacteria described to date.

  10. The Cj0588 protein is a Campylobacter jejuni RNA methyltransferase.

    PubMed

    Sałamaszyńska-Guz, Agnieszka; Taciak, Bartłomiej; Kwiatek, Agnieszka; Klimuszko, Danuta

    2014-06-06

    TlyA proteins belong to 2'-O-methyltransferases. Methylation is a common posttranscriptional RNA modification. The Campylobacter jejuni Cj0588 protein belongs to the TlyA(I) protein family and is a rRNA methyltransferase. Methylation of ribosomal RNA catalyzed by Cj0588 appears to have an impact on the biology of the cell. Presence of the cj0588 gene in bacteria appears to be important for ribosome stability and virulence properties. Absence of the Cj0588 protein causes accumulation of the 50S ribosomal subunits, reduction in the amount of functional 70S ribosomes and confers increase resistance to capreomycin.

  11. Synthesis of Lysine Methyltransferase Inhibitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Tao; Hui, Chunngai

    2015-07-01

    Lysine methyltransferase which catalyze methylation of histone and nonhistone proteins, play a crucial role in diverse biological processes and has emerged as a promising target for the development of various human diseases, including cancer, inflammation, and psychiatric disorders. However, inhibiting Lysine methyltransferases selectively has presented many challenges to medicinal chemists. During the past decade, lysine methyltransferase inhibitors covering many different structural classes have been designed and developed. In this review, we describe the development of selective, small-molecule inhibitors of lysine methyltransferases with an emphasis on their discovery and chemical synthesis. We highlight the current state of lysine methyltransferase inhibitors and discuss future directions and opportunities for lysine methyltransferase inhibitor discovery.

  12. The Order Bacillales Hosts Functional Homologs of the Worrisome cfr Antibiotic Resistance Gene

    PubMed Central

    Hansen, Lykke H.; Planellas, Mercè H.; Long, Katherine S.

    2012-01-01

    The cfr gene encodes the Cfr methyltransferase that methylates a single adenine in the peptidyl transferase region of bacterial ribosomes. The methylation provides resistance to several classes of antibiotics that include drugs of clinical and veterinary importance. This paper describes a first step toward elucidating natural residences of the worrisome cfr gene and functionally similar genes. Three cfr-like genes from the order Bacillales were identified from BLAST searches and cloned into plasmids under the control of an inducible promoter. Expression of the genes was induced in Escherichia coli, and MICs for selected antibiotics indicate that the cfr-like genes confer resistance to PhLOPSa (phenicol, lincosamide, oxazolidinone, pleuromutilin, and streptogramin A) antibiotics in the same way as the cfr gene. In addition, modification at A2503 on 23S rRNA was confirmed by primer extension. Finally, expression of the Cfr-like proteins was verified by SDS gel electrophoresis of whole-cell extracts. The work shows that cfr-like genes exist in the environment and that Bacillales are natural residences of cfr-like genes. PMID:22547628

  13. The order Bacillales hosts functional homologs of the worrisome cfr antibiotic resistance gene.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Lykke H; Planellas, Mercè H; Long, Katherine S; Vester, Birte

    2012-07-01

    The cfr gene encodes the Cfr methyltransferase that methylates a single adenine in the peptidyl transferase region of bacterial ribosomes. The methylation provides resistance to several classes of antibiotics that include drugs of clinical and veterinary importance. This paper describes a first step toward elucidating natural residences of the worrisome cfr gene and functionally similar genes. Three cfr-like genes from the order Bacillales were identified from BLAST searches and cloned into plasmids under the control of an inducible promoter. Expression of the genes was induced in Escherichia coli, and MICs for selected antibiotics indicate that the cfr-like genes confer resistance to PhLOPSa (phenicol, lincosamide, oxazolidinone, pleuromutilin, and streptogramin A) antibiotics in the same way as the cfr gene. In addition, modification at A2503 on 23S rRNA was confirmed by primer extension. Finally, expression of the Cfr-like proteins was verified by SDS gel electrophoresis of whole-cell extracts. The work shows that cfr-like genes exist in the environment and that Bacillales are natural residences of cfr-like genes.

  14. Genetic Environment and Stability of cfr in Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus CM05

    PubMed Central

    Locke, Jeffrey B.; Rahawi, Shahad; LaMarre, Jacqueline; Mankin, Alexander S.

    2012-01-01

    The Cfr methyltransferase confers resistance to many 50S ribosomal subunit-targeted antibiotics, including linezolid (LZD), via methylation of the 23S rRNA base A2503 in the peptidyl transferase center. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus strain CM05 is the first clinical isolate documented to carry cfr. While cfr is typically plasmid borne, in CM05 it is located on the chromosome and is coexpressed with ermB as part of the mlr operon. Here we evaluated the chromosomal locus, association with mobile genetic elements, and stability of the cfr insertion region in CM05. The cfr-containing mlr operon is located within a 15.5-kb plasmid-like insertion into 23S rRNA allele 4. The region surrounding the cfr gene has a high degree of sequence similarity to the broad-host-range toxin/antitoxin multidrug resistance plasmid pSM19035, including a second ermB gene downstream of the mlr locus and istAS-istBS. Analysis of several individual CM05 colonies revealed two distinct populations for which LZD MICs were either 8 or 2 μg/ml. In the LZDs colonies (designated CM05Δ), a recombination event involving the two ermB genes had occurred, resulting in the deletion of cfr and the 3′ flanking region (cfr-istAS-istBS-ermB). The fitness advantage of CM05Δ over CM05 (though not likely due to the cfr deletion itself) results in the predominance of CM05Δ in the absence of selective pressure. Minicircles resulting from the ermB recombination event and the novel association of cfr with the pSM19035 plasmid system support the potential for the continued dissemination of cfr. PMID:22024827

  15. Genetic environment and stability of cfr in methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus CM05.

    PubMed

    Locke, Jeffrey B; Rahawi, Shahad; Lamarre, Jacqueline; Mankin, Alexander S; Shaw, Karen Joy

    2012-01-01

    The Cfr methyltransferase confers resistance to many 50S ribosomal subunit-targeted antibiotics, including linezolid (LZD), via methylation of the 23S rRNA base A2503 in the peptidyl transferase center. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus strain CM05 is the first clinical isolate documented to carry cfr. While cfr is typically plasmid borne, in CM05 it is located on the chromosome and is coexpressed with ermB as part of the mlr operon. Here we evaluated the chromosomal locus, association with mobile genetic elements, and stability of the cfr insertion region in CM05. The cfr-containing mlr operon is located within a 15.5-kb plasmid-like insertion into 23S rRNA allele 4. The region surrounding the cfr gene has a high degree of sequence similarity to the broad-host-range toxin/antitoxin multidrug resistance plasmid pSM19035, including a second ermB gene downstream of the mlr locus and istAS-istBS. Analysis of several individual CM05 colonies revealed two distinct populations for which LZD MICs were either 8 or 2 μg/ml. In the LZD(s) colonies (designated CM05Δ), a recombination event involving the two ermB genes had occurred, resulting in the deletion of cfr and the 3' flanking region (cfr-istAS-istBS-ermB). The fitness advantage of CM05Δ over CM05 (though not likely due to the cfr deletion itself) results in the predominance of CM05Δ in the absence of selective pressure. Minicircles resulting from the ermB recombination event and the novel association of cfr with the pSM19035 plasmid system support the potential for the continued dissemination of cfr.

  16. RlmN and Cfr are Radical SAM Enzymes Involved in Methylation of Ribosomal RNA

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Feng; LaMarre, Jacqueline M.; Röhrich, Rene; Wiesner, Jochen; Jomaa, Hassan; Mankin, Alexander S.; Fujimori, Danica Galonić

    2010-01-01

    Posttranscriptional modifications of ribosomal RNA (rRNA) nucleotides are a common mechanism of modulating the ribosome’s function and conferring bacterial resistance to ribosome-targeting antibiotics. One such modification is methylation of an adenosine nucleotide within the peptidyl transferase center of the ribosome mediated by the indigenous methyltransferase RlmN and its evolutionary-related resistance enzyme Cfr. These methyltransferases catalyze methyl transfer to aromatic carbon atoms of the adenosine within a complex 23S rRNA substrate to form the 2,8-dimethylated product. RlmN and Cfr are members of the Radical SAM superfamily, and contain the characteristic cysteine rich CX3CX2C motif. We demonstrate that both enzymes are capable of accommodating the requisite [4Fe-4S] cluster. S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) is both the methyl donor and the source of a 5′-deoxyadenosyl radical, which activates the substrate for methylation. Detailed analyses of the rRNA requirements show that the enzymes can utilize protein-free 23S rRNA as a substrate, but not the fully-assembled large ribosomal subunit, suggesting that the methylations take place during the assembly of the ribosome. The key recognition elements in the 23S rRNA are helices 90–92 and the adjacent single stranded RNA that encompasses A2503. To our knowledge, this study represents the first in vitro description of a methyl transfer catalyzed by a member of Radical SAM superfamily, and it expands the catalytic repertoire of this diverse enzyme class. Furthermore, by providing information on both the timing of methylation and its substrate requirements, our findings have important implications for the functional consequences of Cfr-mediated modification of rRNA in acquisition of antibiotic resistance. PMID:20184321

  17. Synthesis of lysine methyltransferase inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Hui, Chunngai; Ye, Tao

    2015-01-01

    Lysine methyltransferase which catalyze methylation of histone and non-histone proteins, play a crucial role in diverse biological processes and has emerged as a promising target for the development of various human diseases, including cancer, inflammation, and psychiatric disorders. However, inhibiting lysine methyltransferases selectively has presented many challenges to medicinal chemists. During the past decade, lysine methyltransferase inhibitors covering many different structural classes have been designed and developed. In this review, we describe the development of selective, small-molecule inhibitors of lysine methyltransferases with an emphasis on their discovery and chemical synthesis. We highlight the current state of lysine methyltransferase inhibitors and discuss future directions and opportunities for lysine methyltransferase inhibitor discovery. PMID:26258118

  18. Regulation of Arabidopsis thaliana 5S rRNA Genes.

    PubMed

    Vaillant, Isabelle; Tutois, Sylvie; Cuvillier, Claudine; Schubert, Ingo; Tourmente, Sylvette

    2007-05-01

    The Arabidopsis thaliana genome comprises around 1,000 copies of 5S rRNA genes encoding both major and minor 5S rRNAs. In mature wild-type leaves, the minor 5S rRNA genes are silent. Using different mutants of DNA methyltransferases (met1, cmt3 and met1 cmt3), components of the RNAi pathway (ago4) or post-translational histone modifier (hda6/sil1), we show that the corresponding proteins are needed to maintain proper methylation patterns at heterochromatic 5S rDNA repeats. Using reverse transcription-PCR and cytological analyses, we report that a decrease of 5S rDNA methylation at CG or CNG sites in these mutants leads to the release of 5S rRNA gene silencing which occurred without detectable changes of the 5S rDNA chromatin structure. In spite of severely reduced DNA methylation, the met1 cmt3 double mutant revealed no increase in minor 5S rRNA transcripts. Furthermore, the release of silencing of minor 5S rDNAs can be achieved without increased formation of euchromatic loops by 5S rDNA, and is independent from the global heterochromatin content. Additionally, fluorescence in situ hybridization with centromeric 180 bp repeats confirmed that these highly repetitive sequences, in spite of their elevated transcriptional activity in the DNA methyltransferase mutants (met1, cmt3 and met1 cmt3), remain within chromocenters of the mutant nuclei.

  19. Recent advances in methyltransferase biocatalysis.

    PubMed

    Bennett, Matthew R; Shepherd, Sarah A; Cronin, Victoria A; Micklefield, Jason

    2017-04-01

    S-adenosyl-L-methionine-dependent methyltransferses are ubiquitous in nature, methylating a vast range of small molecule metabolites, as well as biopolymers. This review covers the recent advances in the development of methyltransferase enzymes for synthetic applications, focusing on the methyltransferase catalyzed transformations with S-adenosyl methionine analogs, as well as non-native substrates. We discuss how metabolic engineering approaches have been used to enhance S-adenosyl methionine production in vivo. Enzymatic approaches that enable the more efficient generation of S-adenosyl methionine analogs, including more stable analogs, will also be described; this has expanded the biocatalytic repertoire of methyltransferases from methylation to a broader range of alkylation reactions. The review also examines how the selectivity of the methyltransferase enzymes can be improved through structure guided mutagenesis approaches. Finally, we will discuss how methyltransferases can be deployed in multi-enzyme cascade reactions and suggest future challenges and avenues for further investigation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Linezolid-resistant Staphylococcus aureus strain 1128105, the first known clinical isolate possessing the cfr multidrug resistance gene.

    PubMed

    Locke, Jeffrey B; Zuill, Douglas E; Scharn, Caitlyn R; Deane, Jennifer; Sahm, Daniel F; Denys, Gerald A; Goering, Richard V; Shaw, Karen J

    2014-11-01

    The Cfr methyltransferase confers resistance to six classes of drugs which target the peptidyl transferase center of the 50S ribosomal subunit, including some oxazolidinones, such as linezolid (LZD). The mobile cfr gene was identified in European veterinary isolates from the late 1990s, although the earliest report of a clinical cfr-positive strain was the 2005 Colombian methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) isolate CM05. Here, through retrospective analysis of LZD(r) clinical strains from a U.S. surveillance program, we identified a cfr-positive MRSA isolate, 1128105, from January 2005, predating CM05 by 5 months. Molecular typing of 1128105 revealed a unique pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) profile most similar to that of USA100, spa type t002, and multilocus sequence type 5 (ST5). In addition to cfr, LZD resistance in 1128105 is partially attributed to the presence of a single copy of the 23S rRNA gene mutation T2500A. Transformation of the ∼37-kb conjugative p1128105 cfr-bearing plasmid from 1128105 into S. aureus ATCC 29213 background strains was successful in recapitulating the Cfr antibiogram, as well as resistance to aminoglycosides and trimethoprim. A 7-kb cfr-containing region of p1128105 possessed sequence nearly identical to that found in the Chinese veterinary Proteus vulgaris isolate PV-01 and in U.S. clinical S. aureus isolate 1900, although the presence of IS431-like sequences is unique to p1128105. The cfr gene environment in this early clinical cfr-positive isolate has now been identified in Gram-positive and Gram-negative strains of clinical and veterinary origin and has been associated with multiple mobile elements, highlighting the versatility of this multidrug resistance gene and its potential for further dissemination.

  1. Selective Inhibitors of Protein Methyltransferases

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Mounting evidence suggests that protein methyltransferases (PMTs), which catalyze methylation of histone and nonhistone proteins, play a crucial role in diverse biological processes and human diseases. In particular, PMTs have been recognized as major players in regulating gene expression and chromatin state. PMTs are divided into two categories: protein lysine methyltransferases (PKMTs) and protein arginine methyltransferases (PRMTs). There has been a steadily growing interest in these enzymes as potential therapeutic targets and therefore discovery of PMT inhibitors has also been pursued increasingly over the past decade. Here, we present a perspective on selective, small-molecule inhibitors of PMTs with an emphasis on their discovery, characterization, and applicability as chemical tools for deciphering the target PMTs’ physiological functions and involvement in human diseases. We highlight the current state of PMT inhibitors and discuss future directions and opportunities for PMT inhibitor discovery. PMID:25406853

  2. The crystal structure of a novel SAM-dependent methyltransferase PH1915 from Pyrococcus horikoshii.

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, W.; Xu, X.; Pavlova, M.; Edwards, A.; Joachimiak, A.; Savchenko, A.; Christendat, D.; Biosciences Division; Univ. of Toronto; Univ. Health Network

    2005-01-01

    The S-adenosyl-L-methionine (SAM)-dependent methyltransferases represent a diverse and biologically important class of enzymes. These enzymes utilize the ubiquitous methyl donor SAM as a cofactor to methylate proteins, small molecules, lipids, and nucleic acids. Here we present the crystal structure of PH1915 from Pyrococcus horikoshii OT3, a predicted SAM-dependent methyltransferase. This protein belongs to the Cluster of Orthologous Group 1092, and the presented crystal structure is the first representative structure of this protein family. Based on sequence and 3D structure analysis, we have made valuable functional insights that will facilitate further studies for characterizing this group of proteins. Specifically, we propose that PH1915 and its orthologs are rRNA- or tRNA-specific methyltransferases.

  3. Fitness cost and interference of Arm/Rmt aminoglycoside resistance with the RsmF housekeeping methyltransferases.

    PubMed

    Gutierrez, Belen; Escudero, Jose A; San Millan, Alvaro; Hidalgo, Laura; Carrilero, Laura; Ovejero, Cristina M; Santos-Lopez, Alfonso; Thomas-Lopez, Daniel; Gonzalez-Zorn, Bruno

    2012-05-01

    Arm/Rmt methyltransferases have emerged recently in pathogenic bacteria as enzymes that confer high-level resistance to 4,6-disubstituted aminoglycosides through methylation of the G1405 residue in the 16S rRNA (like ArmA and RmtA to -E). In prokaryotes, nucleotide methylations are the most common type of rRNA modification, and they are introduced posttranscriptionally by a variety of site-specific housekeeping enzymes to optimize ribosomal function. Here we show that while the aminoglycoside resistance methyltransferase RmtC methylates G1405, it impedes methylation of the housekeeping methyltransferase RsmF at position C1407, a nucleotide that, like G1405, forms part of the aminoglycoside binding pocket of the 16S rRNA. To understand the origin and consequences of this phenomenon, we constructed a series of in-frame knockout and knock-in mutants of Escherichia coli, corresponding to the genotypes rsmF(+), ΔrsmF, rsmF(+) rmtC(+), and ΔrsmF rmtC(+). When analyzed for the antimicrobial resistance pattern, the ΔrsmF bacteria had a decreased susceptibility to aminoglycosides, including 4,6- and 4,5-deoxystreptamine aminoglycosides, showing that the housekeeping methylation at C1407 is involved in intrinsic aminoglycoside susceptibility in E. coli. Competition experiments between the isogenic E. coli strains showed that, contrary to expectation, acquisition of rmtC does not entail a fitness cost for the bacterium. Finally, matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization (MALDI) mass spectrometry allowed us to determine that RmtC methylates the G1405 residue not only in presence but also in the absence of aminoglycoside antibiotics. Thus, the coupling between housekeeping and acquired methyltransferases subverts the methylation architecture of the 16S rRNA but elicits Arm/Rmt methyltransferases to be selected and retained, posing an important threat to the usefulness of aminoglycosides worldwide.

  4. Fitness Cost and Interference of Arm/Rmt Aminoglycoside Resistance with the RsmF Housekeeping Methyltransferases

    PubMed Central

    Gutierrez, Belen; Escudero, Jose A.; San Millan, Alvaro; Hidalgo, Laura; Carrilero, Laura; Ovejero, Cristina M.; Santos-Lopez, Alfonso; Thomas-Lopez, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    Arm/Rmt methyltransferases have emerged recently in pathogenic bacteria as enzymes that confer high-level resistance to 4,6-disubstituted aminoglycosides through methylation of the G1405 residue in the 16S rRNA (like ArmA and RmtA to -E). In prokaryotes, nucleotide methylations are the most common type of rRNA modification, and they are introduced posttranscriptionally by a variety of site-specific housekeeping enzymes to optimize ribosomal function. Here we show that while the aminoglycoside resistance methyltransferase RmtC methylates G1405, it impedes methylation of the housekeeping methyltransferase RsmF at position C1407, a nucleotide that, like G1405, forms part of the aminoglycoside binding pocket of the 16S rRNA. To understand the origin and consequences of this phenomenon, we constructed a series of in-frame knockout and knock-in mutants of Escherichia coli, corresponding to the genotypes rsmF+, ΔrsmF, rsmF+ rmtC+, and ΔrsmF rmtC+. When analyzed for the antimicrobial resistance pattern, the ΔrsmF bacteria had a decreased susceptibility to aminoglycosides, including 4,6- and 4,5-deoxystreptamine aminoglycosides, showing that the housekeeping methylation at C1407 is involved in intrinsic aminoglycoside susceptibility in E. coli. Competition experiments between the isogenic E. coli strains showed that, contrary to expectation, acquisition of rmtC does not entail a fitness cost for the bacterium. Finally, matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization (MALDI) mass spectrometry allowed us to determine that RmtC methylates the G1405 residue not only in presence but also in the absence of aminoglycoside antibiotics. Thus, the coupling between housekeeping and acquired methyltransferases subverts the methylation architecture of the 16S rRNA but elicits Arm/Rmt methyltransferases to be selected and retained, posing an important threat to the usefulness of aminoglycosides worldwide. PMID:22330907

  5. 'View From A Bridge': A New Perspective on Eukaryotic rRNA Base Modification.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Sunny; Lafontaine, Denis L J

    2015-10-01

    Eukaryotic rRNA are modified frequently, although the diversity of modifications is low: in yeast rRNA, there are only 12 different types out of a possible natural repertoire exceeding 112. All nine rRNA base methyltransferases (MTases) and one acetyltransferase have recently been identified in budding yeast, and several instances of crosstalk between rRNA, tRNA, and mRNA modifications are emerging. Although the machinery has largely been identified, the functions of most rRNA modifications remain to be established. Remarkably, a eukaryote-specific bridge, comprising a single ribosomal protein (RP) from the large subunit (LSU), contacts four rRNA base modifications across the ribosomal subunit interface, potentially probing for their presence. We hypothesize in this article that long-range allosteric communication involving rRNA modifications is taking place between the two subunits during translation or, perhaps, the late stages of ribosome assembly. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Enzymology of Mammalian DNA Methyltransferases.

    PubMed

    Jurkowska, Renata Z; Jeltsch, Albert

    2016-01-01

    DNA methylation is currently one of the hottest topics in basic and biomedical research. Despite tremendous progress in understanding the structures and biochemical properties of the mammalian DNA nucleotide methyltransferases (DNMTs), principles of their regulation in cells have only begun to be uncovered. In mammals, DNA methylation is introduced by the DNMT1, DNMT3A, and DNMT3B enzymes, which are all large multi-domain proteins. These enzymes contain a catalytic C-terminal domain with a characteristic cytosine-C5 methyltransferase fold and an N-terminal part with different domains that interacts with other proteins and chromatin and is involved in targeting and regulation of the DNMTs. The subnuclear localization of the DNMT enzymes plays an important role in their biological function: DNMT1 is localized to replicating DNA via interaction with PCNA and UHRF1. DNMT3 enzymes bind to heterochromatin via protein multimerization and are targeted to chromatin by their ADD and PWWP domains. Recently, a novel regulatory mechanism has been discovered in DNMTs, as latest structural and functional data demonstrated that the catalytic activities of all three enzymes are under tight allosteric control of their N-terminal domains having autoinhibitory functions. This mechanism provides numerous possibilities for the precise regulation of the methyltransferases via controlling the binding and release of autoinhibitory domains by protein factors, noncoding RNAs, or by posttranslational modifications of the DNMTs. In this chapter, we summarize key enzymatic properties of DNMTs, including their specificity and processivity, and afterward we focus on the regulation of their activity and targeting via allosteric processes, protein interactors, and posttranslational modifications.

  7. DNA Labeling Using DNA Methyltransferases.

    PubMed

    Tomkuvienė, Miglė; Kriukienė, Edita; Klimašauskas, Saulius

    2016-01-01

    DNA methyltransferases (MTases) uniquely combine the ability to recognize and covalently modify specific target sequences in DNA using the ubiquitous cofactor S-adenosyl-L-methionine (AdoMet). Although DNA methylation plays important roles in biological signaling, the transferred methyl group is a poor reporter and is highly inert to further biocompatible derivatization. To unlock the biotechnological power of these enzymes, two major types of cofactor AdoMet analogs were developed that permit targeted MTase-directed attachment of larger moieties containing functional or reporter groups onto DNA. One such approach (named sequence-specific methyltransferase-induced labeling, SMILing) uses reactive aziridine or N-mustard mimics of the cofactor AdoMet, which render targeted coupling of a whole cofactor molecule to the target DNA. The second approach (methyltransferase-directed transfer of activated groups, mTAG) uses AdoMet analogs with a sulfonium-bound extended side chain replacing the methyl group, which permits MTase-directed covalent transfer of the activated side chain alone. As the enlarged cofactors are not always compatible with the active sites of native MTases, steric engineering of the active site has been employed to optimize their alkyltransferase activity. In addition to the described cofactor analogs, recently discovered atypical reactions of DNA cytosine-5 MTases involving non-cofactor-like compounds can also be exploited for targeted derivatization and labeling of DNA. Altogether, these approaches offer new powerful tools for sequence-specific covalent DNA labeling, which not only pave the way to developing a variety of useful techniques in DNA research, diagnostics, and nanotechnologies but have already proven practical utility for optical DNA mapping and epigenome studies.

  8. Trm112 is required for Bud23-mediated methylation of the 18S rRNA at position G1575.

    PubMed

    Figaro, Sabine; Wacheul, Ludivine; Schillewaert, Stéphanie; Graille, Marc; Huvelle, Emmeline; Mongeard, Rémi; Zorbas, Christiane; Lafontaine, Denis L J; Heurgué-Hamard, Valérie

    2012-06-01

    Posttranscriptional and posttranslational modification of macromolecules is known to fine-tune their functions. Trm112 is unique, acting as an activator of both tRNA and protein methyltransferases. Here we report that in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Trm112 is required for efficient ribosome synthesis and progression through mitosis. Trm112 copurifies with pre-rRNAs and with multiple ribosome synthesis trans-acting factors, including the 18S rRNA methyltransferase Bud23. Consistent with the known mechanisms of activation of methyltransferases by Trm112, we found that Trm112 interacts directly with Bud23 in vitro and that it is required for its stability in vivo. Consequently, trm112Δ cells are deficient for Bud23-mediated 18S rRNA methylation at position G1575 and for small ribosome subunit formation. Bud23 failure to bind nascent preribosomes activates a nucleolar surveillance pathway involving the TRAMP complexes, leading to preribosome degradation. Trm112 is thus active in rRNA, tRNA, and translation factor modification, ideally placing it at the interface between ribosome synthesis and function.

  9. Trm112 Is Required for Bud23-Mediated Methylation of the 18S rRNA at Position G1575

    PubMed Central

    Figaro, Sabine; Wacheul, Ludivine; Schillewaert, Stéphanie; Graille, Marc; Huvelle, Emmeline; Mongeard, Rémi; Zorbas, Christiane

    2012-01-01

    Posttranscriptional and posttranslational modification of macromolecules is known to fine-tune their functions. Trm112 is unique, acting as an activator of both tRNA and protein methyltransferases. Here we report that in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Trm112 is required for efficient ribosome synthesis and progression through mitosis. Trm112 copurifies with pre-rRNAs and with multiple ribosome synthesis trans-acting factors, including the 18S rRNA methyltransferase Bud23. Consistent with the known mechanisms of activation of methyltransferases by Trm112, we found that Trm112 interacts directly with Bud23 in vitro and that it is required for its stability in vivo. Consequently, trm112Δ cells are deficient for Bud23-mediated 18S rRNA methylation at position G1575 and for small ribosome subunit formation. Bud23 failure to bind nascent preribosomes activates a nucleolar surveillance pathway involving the TRAMP complexes, leading to preribosome degradation. Trm112 is thus active in rRNA, tRNA, and translation factor modification, ideally placing it at the interface between ribosome synthesis and function. PMID:22493060

  10. Small molecule regulators of protein arginine methyltransferases.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Donghang; Yadav, Neelu; King, Randall W; Swanson, Maurice S; Weinstein, Edward J; Bedford, Mark T

    2004-06-04

    Here we report the identification of small molecules that specifically inhibit protein arginine N-methyltransferase (PRMT) activity. PRMTs are a family of proteins that either monomethylate or dimethylate the guanidino nitrogen atoms of arginine side chains. This common post-translational modification is implicated in protein trafficking, signal transduction, and transcriptional regulation. Most methyltransferases use the methyl donor, S-adenosyl-L-methionine (AdoMet), as a cofactor. Current methyltransferase inhibitors display limited specificity, indiscriminately targeting all enzymes that use AdoMet. In this screen we have identified a primary compound, AMI-1, that specifically inhibits arginine, but not lysine, methyltransferase activity in vitro and does not compete for the AdoMet binding site. Furthermore, AMI-1 prevents in vivo arginine methylation of cellular proteins and can modulate nuclear receptor-regulated transcription from estrogen and androgen response elements, thus operating as a brake on certain hormone actions.

  11. Fidelity Index Determination of DNA Methyltransferases

    PubMed Central

    Borgaro, Janine G.; Benner, Nicole; Zhu, Zhenyu

    2013-01-01

    DNA methylation is the most frequent form of epigenetic modification in the cell, which involves gene regulation in eukaryotes and protection against restriction enzymes in prokaryotes. Even though many methyltransferases exclusively modify their cognate sites, there have been reports of those that exhibit promiscuity. Previous experimental approaches used to characterize these methyltransferases do not provide the exact concentration at which off-target methylation occurs. Here, we present the first reported fidelity index (FI) for a number of DNA methyltransferases. We define the FI as the ratio of the highest amount of methyltransferase that exhibits no star activity (off-target effects) to the lowest amount that exhibits complete modification of the cognate site. Of the methyltransferases assayed, M.MspI and M.AluI exhibited the highest fidelity of ≥250 and ≥500, respectively, and do not show star activity even at very high concentrations. In contrast, M.HaeIII, M.EcoKDam and M.BamHI have the lowest fidelity of 4, 4 and 2, respectively, and exhibit star activity at concentrations close to complete methylation of the cognate site. The fidelity indexes provide vital information on the usage of methyltransferases and are especially important in applications where site specific methylation is required. PMID:23671703

  12. Caffeine synthase and related methyltransferases in plants.

    PubMed

    Misako, Kato; Kouichi, Mizuno

    2004-05-01

    Caffeine (1,3,7-trimethylxanthine) is a purine alkaloid present in high concentrations in tea and coffee and it is also found in a number of beverages such as coca cola. It is necessary to elucidate the caffeine biosynthetic pathway and to clone the genes related to the production of caffeine not only to determine the metabolism of the purine alkaloid but also to control the content of caffeine in tea and coffee. The available data support the operation of a xanthosine-->7-methylxanthosine-->7-methylxanthine-->theobromine-->caffeine pathway as the major route to caffeine. Since the caffeine biosynthetic pathway contains three S-adenosyl-L-methionine (SAM) dependent methylation steps, N-methyltransferases play important roles. This review focuses on the enzymes and genes involved in the methylation of purine ring. Caffeine synthase, the SAM-dependent methyltransferase involved in the last two steps of caffeine biosynthesis, was originally purified from young tea leaves (Camellia sinensis). The isolated cDNA, termed TCS1, consists of 1,483 base pairs and encodes a protein of 369 amino acids. Subsequently, the homologous genes that encode caffeine biosynthetic enzymes from coffee (Coffea arabica) were isolated. The recombinant proteins are classified into the three types on the basis of their substrate specificity i.e. 7-methylxanthosine synthase, theobromine synthase and caffeine synthase. The predicted amino acid sequences of caffeine biosynthetic enzymes derived from C. arabica exhibit more than 80% homology with those of the clones and but show only 40% homology with TCS1 derived from C. sinensis. In addition, they share 40% homology with the amino acid sequences of salicylic carboxyl methyltransferase, benzoic acid carboxyl methyltransferase and jasmonic acid carboxyl methyltransferase which belong to a family of motif B' methyltransferases which are novel plant methyltransferases with motif B' instead of motif B as the conserved region.

  13. Interethnic difference in thiopurine methyltransferase activity.

    PubMed

    Klemetsdal, B; Tollefsen, E; Loennechen, T; Johnsen, K; Utsi, E; Gisholt, K; Wist, E; Aarbakke, J

    1992-01-01

    A number of metabolic pathways are subject to both genetic polymorphism and interethnic differences. A catabolic pathway of 6-mercaptopurine, red blood cell (RBC) thiopurine methyltransferase (TPMT) activity showed genetic polymorphism in Caucasians, but variation according to ethnicity has not been studied. We investigated if red blood cell thiopurine methyltransferase was subject to interethnic variation in a Saami (Lappish; n = 36) and a Caucasian population (n = 50). The Saami population sample had 29% higher thiopurine methyltransferase activity, 17.0 +/- 3.3 U/ml red blood cell compared with the Caucasian population sample, 13.1 +/- 2.9 U/ml red blood cell (p much less than 0.001). Probit plots and frequency distribution histograms supported bimodality consistent with genetic polymorphism in both study populations. Differences in chronic diseases, drug consumption, age, or gender could not explain the interethnic difference in red blood cell thiopurine methyltransferase activity. The higher red blood cell thiopurine methyltransferase activity in the Saami population group indicates that these subjects may require higher dosages of thiopurine drugs than Caucasians.

  14. Methyltransferase-Glo: a universal, bioluminescent and homogenous assay for monitoring all classes of methyltransferases.

    PubMed

    Hsiao, Kevin; Zegzouti, Hicham; Goueli, Said A

    2016-03-01

    To develop a homogenous, nonradioactive, antibody-free and universal assay for diverse families of methyltransferases and monitor the activity of these enzymes in a high-throughput format. The assay conditions are optimized for monitoring the enzymatic activity of a broad range of methyltransferases regardless of the chemical structure or nature of the enzyme substrate in a low- and high-throughput-formatted protocols. The assay detects S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine, the universal reaction products of all methyltransferases. We demonstrate the utility of using this protocol to determine the activity of DNA, protein methyltransferases and also to determine kinetic parameters of several inhibitors using purified enzymes. The assay is sensitive (20-30 nM of S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine) and robust. The methyltransferase Glo is nonradioactive, antibody-free and homogenous, universal assay to determine enzyme activity of diverse families of methyltransferases. The assay is formatted to meet the requirements of high-throughput screening in drug discovery programs searching for modulators of methyltransferases.

  15. Base methylations in the double-stranded RNA by a fused methyltransferase bearing unwinding activity

    PubMed Central

    Kimura, Satoshi; Ikeuchi, Yoshiho; Kitahara, Kei; Sakaguchi, Yuriko; Suzuki, Takeo; Suzuki, Tsutomu

    2012-01-01

    Modifications of rRNAs are clustered in functional regions of the ribosome. In Helix 74 of Escherichia coli 23S rRNA, guanosines at positions 2069 and 2445 are modified to 7-methylguanosine(m7G) and N2-methylguanosine(m2G), respectively. We searched for the gene responsible for m7G2069 formation, and identified rlmL, which encodes the methyltransferase for m2G2445, as responsible for the biogenesis of m7G2069. In vitro methylation of rRNA revealed that rlmL encodes a fused methyltransferase responsible for forming both m7G2069 and m2G2445. We renamed the gene rlmKL. The N-terminal RlmL activity for m2G2445 formation was significantly enhanced by the C-terminal RlmK. Moreover, RlmKL had an unwinding activity of Helix 74, facilitating cooperative methylations of m7G2069 and m2G2445 during biogenesis of 50S subunit. In fact, we observed that RlmKL was involved in the efficient assembly of 50S subunit in a mutant strain lacking an RNA helicase deaD. PMID:22210896

  16. Chemical Probes of Histone Lysine Methyltransferases

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Growing evidence suggests that histone methyltransferases (HMTs, also known as protein methyltransferases (PMTs)) play an important role in diverse biological processes and human diseases by regulating gene expression and the chromatin state. Therefore, HMTs have been increasingly recognized by the biomedical community as a class of potential therapeutic targets. High quality chemical probes of HMTs, as tools for deciphering their physiological functions and roles in human diseases and testing therapeutic hypotheses, are critical for advancing this promising field. In this review, we focus on the discovery, characterization, and biological applications of chemical probes for HMTs. PMID:25423077

  17. Chemical probes of histone lysine methyltransferases.

    PubMed

    Kaniskan, H Ümit; Jin, Jian

    2015-01-16

    Growing evidence suggests that histone methyltransferases (HMTs, also known as protein methyltransferases (PMTs)) play an important role in diverse biological processes and human diseases by regulating gene expression and the chromatin state. Therefore, HMTs have been increasingly recognized by the biomedical community as a class of potential therapeutic targets. High quality chemical probes of HMTs, as tools for deciphering their physiological functions and roles in human diseases and testing therapeutic hypotheses, are critical for advancing this promising field. In this review, we focus on the discovery, characterization, and biological applications of chemical probes for HMTs.

  18. A cytochrome c methyltransferase from Crithidia oncopelti.

    PubMed Central

    Valentine, J; Pettigrew, G W

    1982-01-01

    The mitochondrial cytochrome c-557 of Crithidia oncopelti contains two lysine residues and an N-terminal proline residue that are methylated in vivo by the methyl group of methionine. The purified cytochrome can act as a methyl acceptor for a methyltransferase activity in the cell extract that uses S-adenosylmethionine as methyl donor. Crithidia cytochrome c-557 is by far the best substrate for this methyltransferase of those tested, in spite of the fact that methylation sites are already almost fully occupied. The radioactive uptake of [14C]methyl groups from S-adenosylmethionine occurred only at a lysine residue (-8) and the N-terminal proline residue. This methyltransferase appears to differ from that of Neurospora and yeast [Durban, Nochumson, Kim, Paik & Chan (1978) J. Biol. Chem. 253, 1427-1435; DiMaria, Polastro, DeLange, Kim & Paik (1979) J. Biol. Chem. 254, 4645-4652] in that lysine-72 of horse cytochrome c is a poor acceptor. Also, the Crithidia methyltransferase appears to be stable to carry lysine methylation much further to completion than do the enzymes from yeast and Neurospora, which produce very low degrees of methylation in native cytochromes c. PMID:6282265

  19. RmtC introduces G1405 methylation in 16S rRNA and confers high-level aminoglycoside resistance on Gram-positive microorganisms.

    PubMed

    Wachino, Jun-Ichi; Shibayama, Keigo; Kimura, Kouji; Yamane, Kunikazu; Suzuki, Satowa; Arakawa, Yoshichika

    2010-10-01

    Seven plasmid-mediated 16S rRNA methyltransferases (MTases), RmtA, RmtB, RmtC, RmtD, RmtE, ArmA, and NpmA, conferring aminoglycoside resistance have so far been found in Gram-negative pathogenic microorganisms. In the present study, by performing an RNase protection assay, primer extension, and HPLC, we confirmed that RmtC indeed methylates at the N7 position of nucleotide G1405 in 16S rRNA as found in ArmA and RmtB. RmtC has an MTase activity specific for the bacterial 30S ribosomal subunit consisting of 16S rRNA and several ribosomal proteins, but not for the naked 16S rRNA, as seen in ArmA, RmtB, and NpmA. All seven 16S rRNA MTases have been found exclusively in Gram-negative bacilli to date, and no plasmid-mediated 16S rRNA MTase has been reported in Gram-positive pathogenic microorganisms. Thus, we checked whether or not the RmtC could function in Gram-positive bacilli, and found that RmtC could indeed confer high-level resistance to gentamicin and kanamycin in Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus. 16S rRNA MTases seemed to be functional to some extent in any bacterial species, regardless of the provenance of the 16S rRNA MTase gene responsible for aminoglycoside resistance.

  20. Chicken rRNA Gene Cluster Structure.

    PubMed

    Dyomin, Alexander G; Koshel, Elena I; Kiselev, Artem M; Saifitdinova, Alsu F; Galkina, Svetlana A; Fukagawa, Tatsuo; Kostareva, Anna A; Gaginskaya, Elena R

    2016-01-01

    Ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes, whose activity results in nucleolus formation, constitute an extremely important part of genome. Despite the extensive exploration into avian genomes, no complete description of avian rRNA gene primary structure has been offered so far. We publish a complete chicken rRNA gene cluster sequence here, including 5'ETS (1836 bp), 18S rRNA gene (1823 bp), ITS1 (2530 bp), 5.8S rRNA gene (157 bp), ITS2 (733 bp), 28S rRNA gene (4441 bp) and 3'ETS (343 bp). The rRNA gene cluster sequence of 11863 bp was assembled from raw reads and deposited to GenBank under KT445934 accession number. The assembly was validated through in situ fluorescent hybridization analysis on chicken metaphase chromosomes using computed and synthesized specific probes, as well as through the reference assembly against de novo assembled rRNA gene cluster sequence using sequenced fragments of BAC-clone containing chicken NOR (nucleolus organizer region). The results have confirmed the chicken rRNA gene cluster validity.

  1. Chicken rRNA Gene Cluster Structure

    PubMed Central

    Dyomin, Alexander G.; Koshel, Elena I.; Kiselev, Artem M.; Saifitdinova, Alsu F.; Galkina, Svetlana A.; Fukagawa, Tatsuo; Kostareva, Anna A.

    2016-01-01

    Ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes, whose activity results in nucleolus formation, constitute an extremely important part of genome. Despite the extensive exploration into avian genomes, no complete description of avian rRNA gene primary structure has been offered so far. We publish a complete chicken rRNA gene cluster sequence here, including 5’ETS (1836 bp), 18S rRNA gene (1823 bp), ITS1 (2530 bp), 5.8S rRNA gene (157 bp), ITS2 (733 bp), 28S rRNA gene (4441 bp) and 3’ETS (343 bp). The rRNA gene cluster sequence of 11863 bp was assembled from raw reads and deposited to GenBank under KT445934 accession number. The assembly was validated through in situ fluorescent hybridization analysis on chicken metaphase chromosomes using computed and synthesized specific probes, as well as through the reference assembly against de novo assembled rRNA gene cluster sequence using sequenced fragments of BAC-clone containing chicken NOR (nucleolus organizer region). The results have confirmed the chicken rRNA gene cluster validity. PMID:27299357

  2. 5S rRNA and ribosome.

    PubMed

    Gongadze, G M

    2011-12-01

    5S rRNA is an integral component of the ribosome of all living organisms. It is known that the ribosome without 5S rRNA is functionally inactive. However, the question about the specific role of this RNA in functioning of the translation apparatus is still open. This review presents a brief history of the discovery of 5S rRNA and studies of its origin and localization in the ribosome. The previously expressed hypotheses about the role of this RNA in the functioning of the ribosome are discussed considering the unique location of 5S rRNA in the ribosome and its intermolecular contacts. Based on analysis of the current data on ribosome structure and its functional complexes, the role of 5S rRNA as an intermediary between ribosome functional domains is discussed.

  3. COBALAMIN- AND COBAMIDE-DEPENDENT METHYLTRANSFERASES

    PubMed Central

    Matthews, Rowena G.; Koutmos, Markos; Datta, Supratim

    2008-01-01

    Methyltransferases that employ cobalamin cofactors, or their analogues the cobamides, as intermediates in catalysis of methyl transfer play vital roles in energy generation in anaerobic unicellular organisms. In a broader range of organisms they are involved in the conversion of homocysteine to methionine. Although the individual methyl transfer reactions catalyzed are simple SN2 displacements, the required change in coordination at the cobalt of the cobalamin or cobamide cofactors and the lability of the reduced Co+1 intermediates introduces the necessity for complex conformational changes during the catalytic cycle. Recent spectroscopic and structural studies on several of these methyltransferases have helped to reveal the strategies by which these conformational changes are facilitated and controlled. PMID:19059104

  4. Flaviviral methyltransferase/RNA interaction: structural basis for enzyme inhibition.

    PubMed

    Milani, Mario; Mastrangelo, Eloise; Bollati, Michela; Selisko, Barbara; Decroly, Etienne; Bouvet, Mickaël; Canard, Bruno; Bolognesi, Martino

    2009-07-01

    Flaviviruses are the causative agents of severe diseases such as Dengue or Yellow fever. The replicative machinery used by the virus is based on few enzymes including a methyltransferase, located in the N-terminal domain of the NS5 protein. Flaviviral methyltransferases are involved in the last two steps of the mRNA capping process, transferring a methyl group from S-adenosyl-L-methionine onto the N7 position of the cap guanine (guanine-N7 methyltransferase) and the ribose 2'O position of the first nucleotide following the cap guanine (nucleoside-2'O methyltransferase). The RNA capping process is crucial for mRNA stability, protein synthesis and virus replication. Such an essential function makes methyltransferases attractive targets for the design of antiviral drugs. In this context, starting from the crystal structure of Wesselsbron flavivirus methyltransferase, we elaborated a mechanistic model describing protein/RNA interaction during N7 methyl transfer. Next we used an in silico docking procedure to identify commercially available compounds that would display high affinity for the methyltransferase active site. The best candidates selected were tested in vitro to assay their effective inhibition on 2'O and N7 methyltransferase activities on Wesselsbron and Dengue virus (Dv) methyltransferases. The results of such combined computational and experimental screening approach led to the identification of a high-potency inhibitor.

  5. DNA methyltransferases as targets for cancer therapy.

    PubMed

    Ghoshal, Kalpana; Bai, Shoumei

    2007-06-01

    Methylation of DNA at 5-position of cytosine, catalyzed by DNA methyltransferases, is the predominant epigenetic modification in mammals. Aberrations in methylation play a causal role in a variety of diseases, including cancer. Recent studies have established that like mutation, methylation-mediated gene silencing often leads to tumorigenesis. Paradoxically, genome-wide DNA hypomethylation may also play a causal role in carcinogenesis by inducing chromosomal instability and spurious gene expression. Since methylation does not alter DNA base sequence, much attention has been focused recently on developing small molecule inhibitors of DNA methyltransferases that can potentially be used as anticancer agents. Vidaza (5-azacytidine), marketed by Pharmion (Boulder, CO, USA), was the first DNA methyltransferase inhibitor approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for chemotherapy against myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS), a heterogeneous bone marrow disorder. Recently MGI Pharma Inc. (Bloomington, MN, USA) got FDA approval to market Dacogen (5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine, or decitabine) for treating MDS patients. These drugs were used earlier against certain anemias to induce expression of fetal globin genes. Interest in clinical trials of these drugs as anticancer agents has been renewed only recently because of reversal of methylation-mediated silencing of critical genes in cancer. Clinical trials have shown that both drugs have therapeutic potential against leukemia such as MDS, acute myeloid leukemia, chronic myelogenous leukemia and chronic myelomonocytic leukemia. In contrast, their effectiveness with solid tumors appears to be less promising, which challenges researchers to develop inhibitors with more efficacy and less toxicity. The major hindrance of their usage as anticancer agents is their instability in vivo as well as the toxicity secondary to their excessive incorporation into DNA, which causes cell cycle arrest. Gene expression profiling in cancer cells

  6. The aminoglycoside resistance methyltransferases from the ArmA/Rmt family operate late in the 30S ribosomal biogenesis pathway.

    PubMed

    Zarubica, Tamara; Baker, Matthew R; Wright, H Tonie; Rife, Jason P

    2011-02-01

    Bacterial resistance to 4,6-type aminoglycoside antibiotics, which target the ribosome, has been traced to the ArmA/RmtA family of rRNA methyltransferases. These plasmid-encoded enzymes transfer a methyl group from S-adenosyl-L-methionine to N7 of the buried G1405 in the aminoglycoside binding site of 16S rRNA of the 30S ribosomal subunit. ArmA methylates mature 30S subunits but not 16S rRNA, 50S, or 70S ribosomal subunits or isolated Helix 44 of the 30S subunit. To more fully characterize this family of enzymes, we have investigated the substrate requirements of ArmA and to a lesser extent its ortholog RmtA. We determined the Mg+² dependence of ArmA activity toward the 30S ribosomal subunits and found that the enzyme recognizes both low Mg+² (translationally inactive) and high Mg+² (translationally active) forms of this substrate. We tested the effects of LiCl pretreatment of the 30S subunits, initiation factor 3 (IF3), and gentamicin/kasugamycin resistance methyltransferase (KsgA) on ArmA activity and determined whether in vivo derived pre-30S ribosomal subunits are ArmA methylation substrates. ArmA failed to methylate the 30S subunits generated from LiCl washes above 0.75 M, despite the apparent retention of ribosomal proteins and a fully mature 16S rRNA. From our experiments, we conclude that ArmA is most active toward the 30S ribosomal subunits that are at or very near full maturity, but that it can also recognize more than one form of the 30S subunit.

  7. Binding Induced RNA Conformational Changes Control Substrate Recognition and Catalysis by the Thiostrepton Resistance Methyltransferase (Tsr)*

    PubMed Central

    Kuiper, Emily G.; Conn, Graeme L.

    2014-01-01

    Ribosomal RNA (rRNA) post-transcriptional modifications are essential for ribosome maturation, translational fidelity, and are one mechanism used by both antibiotic-producing and pathogenic bacteria to resist the effects of antibiotics that target the ribosome. The thiostrepton producer Streptomyces azureus prevents self-intoxication by expressing the thiostrepton-resistance methyltransferase (Tsr), which methylates the 2′-hydroxyl of 23 S rRNA nucleotide adenosine 1067 within the thiostrepton binding site. Tsr is a homodimer with each protomer containing an L30e-like amino-terminal domain (NTD) and a SPOUT methyltransferase family catalytic carboxyl-terminal domain (CTD). We show that both enzyme domains are required for high affinity RNA substrate binding. The Tsr-CTD has intrinsic, weak RNA affinity that is necessary to direct the specific high-affinity Tsr-RNA interaction via NTDs, which have no detectable RNA affinity in isolation. RNA structure probing experiments identify the Tsr footprint on the RNA and structural changes in the substrate, induced specifically upon NTD binding, which are necessary for catalysis by the CTD. Additionally, we identify a key amino acid in each domain responsible for CTD-RNA binding and the observed NTD-dependent RNA structural changes. These studies allow us to develop a model for Tsr-RNA interaction in which the coordinated substrate recognition of each Tsr structural domain is an obligatory pre-catalytic recognition event. Our findings underscore the complexity of substrate recognition by RNA modification enzymes and the potential for direct involvement of the RNA substrate in controlling the process of its modification. PMID:25086036

  8. Overexpression of the mitochondrial methyltransferase TFB1M in the mouse does not impact mitoribosomal methylation status or hearing.

    PubMed

    Lee, Seungmin; Rose, Simon; Metodiev, Metodi D; Becker, Lore; Vernaleken, Alexandra; Klopstock, Thomas; Gailus-Durner, Valerie; Fuchs, Helmut; Hrabě De Angelis, Martin; Douthwaite, Stephen; Larsson, Nils-Göran

    2015-12-20

    Mitochondrial dysfunction is a well-established cause of sensorineural deafness, but the pathophysiological events are poorly understood. Non-syndromic deafness and predisposition to aminoglycoside-induced deafness can be caused by specific mutations in the 12S rRNA gene of mtDNA and are thus maternally inherited traits. The pathophysiology induced by mtDNA mutations has traditionally been attributed to deficient oxidative phosphorylation, which causes energy crisis with functional impairment of multiple cellular processes. In contrast, it was recently reported that signaling induced by 'hypermethylation' of two conserved adenosines of 12S rRNA in the mitoribosome is of key pathophysiological importance in sensorineural deafness. In support for this concept, it was reported that overexpression of the essential mitochondrial methyltransferase TFB1M in the mouse was sufficient to induce mitoribosomal hypermethylation and deafness. At variance with this model, we show here that 12S rRNA is near fully methylated in vivo in the mouse and thus cannot be further methylated to any significant extent. Furthermore, bacterial artificial chromosome transgenic mice overexpressing TFB1M have no increase of 12S rRNA methylation levels and hear normally. We thus conclude that therapies directed against mitoribosomal methylation are unlikely to be beneficial to patients with sensorineural hearing loss or other types of mitochondrial disease. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press.

  9. Overexpression of the mitochondrial methyltransferase TFB1M in the mouse does not impact mitoribosomal methylation status or hearing

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Seungmin; Rose, Simon; Metodiev, Metodi D.; Becker, Lore; Vernaleken, Alexandra; Klopstock, Thomas; Gailus-Durner, Valerie; Fuchs, Helmut; Hrabě De Angelis, Martin; Douthwaite, Stephen; Larsson, Nils-Göran

    2015-01-01

    Mitochondrial dysfunction is a well-established cause of sensorineural deafness, but the pathophysiological events are poorly understood. Non-syndromic deafness and predisposition to aminoglycoside-induced deafness can be caused by specific mutations in the 12S rRNA gene of mtDNA and are thus maternally inherited traits. The pathophysiology induced by mtDNA mutations has traditionally been attributed to deficient oxidative phosphorylation, which causes energy crisis with functional impairment of multiple cellular processes. In contrast, it was recently reported that signaling induced by ‘hypermethylation’ of two conserved adenosines of 12S rRNA in the mitoribosome is of key pathophysiological importance in sensorineural deafness. In support for this concept, it was reported that overexpression of the essential mitochondrial methyltransferase TFB1M in the mouse was sufficient to induce mitoribosomal hypermethylation and deafness. At variance with this model, we show here that 12S rRNA is near fully methylated in vivo in the mouse and thus cannot be further methylated to any significant extent. Furthermore, bacterial artificial chromosome transgenic mice overexpressing TFB1M have no increase of 12S rRNA methylation levels and hear normally. We thus conclude that therapies directed against mitoribosomal methylation are unlikely to be beneficial to patients with sensorineural hearing loss or other types of mitochondrial disease. PMID:26464487

  10. Improving cancer immunotherapy with DNA methyltransferase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Saleh, Mohammad H; Wang, Lei; Goldberg, Michael S

    2016-07-01

    Immunotherapy confers durable clinical benefit to melanoma, lung, and kidney cancer patients. Challengingly, most other solid tumors, including ovarian carcinoma, are not particularly responsive to immunotherapy, so combination with a complementary therapy may be beneficial. Recent findings suggest that epigenetic modifying drugs can prime antitumor immunity by increasing expression of tumor-associated antigens, chemokines, and activating ligands by cancer cells as well as cytokines by immune cells. This review, drawing from both preclinical and clinical data, describes some of the mechanisms of action that enable DNA methyltransferase inhibitors to facilitate the establishment of antitumor immunity.

  11. In vivo specificity of EcoRI DNA methyltransferase.

    PubMed Central

    Smith, D W; Crowder, S W; Reich, N O

    1992-01-01

    The EcoRI adenine DNA methyltransferase forms part of a bacterial restriction/modification system; the methyltransferase modifies the second adenine within the canonical site GAATTC, thereby preventing the EcoRI endonuclease from cleaving this site. We show that five noncanonical EcoRI sites (TAATTC, CAATTC, GTATTC, GGATTC and GAGTTC) are not methylated in vivo under conditions when the canonical site is methylated. Only when the methyltransferase is overexpressed is partial in vivo methylation of the five sites detected. Our results suggest that the methyltransferase does not protect host DNA against potential endonuclease-mediated cleavage at noncanonical sites. Our related in vitro analysis of the methyltransferase reveals a low level of sequence-discrimination. We propose that the high in vivo specificity may be due to the active removal of methylated sequences by DNA repair enzymes (J. Bacteriology (1987), 169 3243-3250). Images PMID:1461739

  12. Arabidopsis MET1 cytosine methyltransferase mutants.

    PubMed Central

    Kankel, Mark W; Ramsey, Douglas E; Stokes, Trevor L; Flowers, Susan K; Haag, Jeremy R; Jeddeloh, Jeffrey A; Riddle, Nicole C; Verbsky, Michelle L; Richards, Eric J

    2003-01-01

    We describe the isolation and characterization of two missense mutations in the cytosine-DNA-methyltransferase gene, MET1, from the flowering plant Arabidopsis thaliana. Both missense mutations, which affect the catalytic domain of the protein, led to a global reduction of cytosine methylation throughout the genome. Surprisingly, the met1-2 allele, with the weaker DNA hypomethylation phenotype, alters a well-conserved residue in methyltransferase signature motif I. The stronger met1-1 allele caused late flowering and a heterochronic delay in the juvenile-to-adult rosette leaf transition. The distribution of late-flowering phenotypes in a mapping population segregating met1-1 indicates that the flowering-time phenotype is caused by the accumulation of inherited defects at loci unlinked to the met1 mutation. The delay in flowering time is due in part to the formation and inheritance of hypomethylated fwa epialleles, but inherited defects at other loci are likely to contribute as well. Centromeric repeat arrays hypomethylated in met1-1 mutants are partially remethylated when introduced into a wild-type background, in contrast to genomic sequences hypomethylated in ddm1 mutants. ddm1 met1 double mutants were constructed to further our understanding of the mechanism of DDM1 action and the interaction between two major genetic loci affecting global cytosine methylation levels in Arabidopsis. PMID:12663548

  13. Arabidopsis protein arginine methyltransferase 3 is required for ribosome biogenesis by affecting precursor ribosomal RNA processing

    PubMed Central

    Hang, Runlai; Liu, Chunyan; Ahmad, Ayaz; Zhang, Yong; Lu, Falong; Cao, Xiaofeng

    2014-01-01

    Ribosome biogenesis is a fundamental and tightly regulated cellular process, including synthesis, processing, and assembly of rRNAs with ribosomal proteins. Protein arginine methyltransferases (PRMTs) have been implicated in many important biological processes, such as ribosome biogenesis. Two alternative precursor rRNA (pre-rRNA) processing pathways coexist in yeast and mammals; however, how PRMT affects ribosome biogenesis remains largely unknown. Here we show that Arabidopsis PRMT3 (AtPRMT3) is required for ribosome biogenesis by affecting pre-rRNA processing. Disruption of AtPRMT3 results in pleiotropic developmental defects, imbalanced polyribosome profiles, and aberrant pre-rRNA processing. We further identify an alternative pre-rRNA processing pathway in Arabidopsis and demonstrate that AtPRMT3 is required for the balance of these two pathways to promote normal growth and development. Our work uncovers a previously unidentified function of PRMT in posttranscriptional regulation of rRNA, revealing an extra layer of complexity in the regulation of ribosome biogenesis. PMID:25352672

  14. Evolution of novel O-methyltransferases from the Vanilla planifolia caffeic acid O-methyltransferase.

    PubMed

    Li, Huaijun Michael; Rotter, David; Hartman, Thomas G; Pak, Fulya E; Havkin-Frenkel, Daphna; Belanger, Faith C

    2006-06-01

    The biosynthesis of many plant secondary compounds involves the methylation of one or more hydroxyl groups, catalyzed by O-methyltransferases (OMTs). Here, we report the characterization of two OMTs, Van OMT-2 and Van OMT-3, from the orchid Vanilla planifolia Andrews. These enzymes catalyze the methylation of a single outer hydroxyl group in substrates possessing a 1,2,3-trihydroxybenzene moiety, such as methyl gallate and myricetin. This is a substrate requirement not previously reported for any OMTs. Based on sequence analysis these enzymes are most similar to caffeic acid O-methyltransferases (COMTs), but they have negligible activity with typical COMT substrates. Seven of 12 conserved substrate-binding residues in COMTs are altered in Van OMT-2 and Van OMT-3. Phylogenetic analysis of the sequences suggests that Van OMT-2 and Van OMT-3 evolved from the V. planifolia COMT. These V. planifolia OMTs are new instances of COMT-like enzymes with novel substrate preferences.

  15. A nonpyrrolysine member of the widely distributed trimethylamine methyltransferase family is a glycine betaine methyltransferase

    DOE PAGES

    Ticak, Tomislav; Kountz, D. J.; Girosky, K. E.; ...

    2014-10-13

    COG5598 comprises a large number of proteins related to MttB, the trimethylamine:corrinoid methyltransferase. MttB has a genetically encoded pyrrolysine residue proposed essential for catalysis. MttB is the only known trimethylamine methyltransferase, yet the great majority of members of COG5598 lack pyrrolysine, leaving the activity of these proteins an open question. Here, we describe the function of one of the nonpyrrolysine members of this large protein family. Three nonpyrrolysine MttB homologs are encoded in Desulfitobacterium hafniense, a Gram-positive strict anaerobe present in both the environment and human intestine. D. hafniense was found capable of growth on glycine betaine with electron acceptorsmore » such as nitrate or fumarate, producing dimethylglycine and CO2 as products. Examination of the genome revealed genes for tetrahydrofolate-linked oxidation of a methyl group originating from a methylated corrinoid protein, but no obvious means to carry out corrinoid methylation with glycine betaine. DSY3156, encoding one of the nonpyrrolysine MttB homologs, was up-regulated during growth on glycine betaine. The recombinant DSY3156 protein converts glycine betaine and cob(I)alamin to dimethylglycine and methylcobalamin. To our knowledge, DSY3156 is the first glycine betaine:corrinoid methyltransferase described, and a designation of MtgB is proposed. Additionally, DSY3157, an adjacently encoded protein, was shown to be a methylcobalamin:tetrahydrofolate methyltransferase and is designated MtgA. Homologs of MtgB are widely distributed, especially in marine bacterioplankton and nitrogen-fixing plant symbionts. Lastly, they are also found in multiple members of the human microbiome, and may play a beneficial role in trimethylamine homeostasis, which in recent years has been directly tied to human cardiovascular health.« less

  16. A nonpyrrolysine member of the widely distributed trimethylamine methyltransferase family is a glycine betaine methyltransferase

    SciTech Connect

    Ticak, Tomislav; Kountz, D. J.; Girosky, K. E.; Krzycki, J. A.; Ferguson, D. J.

    2014-10-13

    COG5598 comprises a large number of proteins related to MttB, the trimethylamine:corrinoid methyltransferase. MttB has a genetically encoded pyrrolysine residue proposed essential for catalysis. MttB is the only known trimethylamine methyltransferase, yet the great majority of members of COG5598 lack pyrrolysine, leaving the activity of these proteins an open question. Here, we describe the function of one of the nonpyrrolysine members of this large protein family. Three nonpyrrolysine MttB homologs are encoded in Desulfitobacterium hafniense, a Gram-positive strict anaerobe present in both the environment and human intestine. D. hafniense was found capable of growth on glycine betaine with electron acceptors such as nitrate or fumarate, producing dimethylglycine and CO2 as products. Examination of the genome revealed genes for tetrahydrofolate-linked oxidation of a methyl group originating from a methylated corrinoid protein, but no obvious means to carry out corrinoid methylation with glycine betaine. DSY3156, encoding one of the nonpyrrolysine MttB homologs, was up-regulated during growth on glycine betaine. The recombinant DSY3156 protein converts glycine betaine and cob(I)alamin to dimethylglycine and methylcobalamin. To our knowledge, DSY3156 is the first glycine betaine:corrinoid methyltransferase described, and a designation of MtgB is proposed. Additionally, DSY3157, an adjacently encoded protein, was shown to be a methylcobalamin:tetrahydrofolate methyltransferase and is designated MtgA. Homologs of MtgB are widely distributed, especially in marine bacterioplankton and nitrogen-fixing plant symbionts. Lastly, they are also found in multiple members of the human microbiome, and may play a beneficial role in trimethylamine homeostasis, which in recent years has been directly tied to human cardiovascular health.

  17. A nonpyrrolysine member of the widely distributed trimethylamine methyltransferase family is a glycine betaine methyltransferase.

    PubMed

    Ticak, Tomislav; Kountz, Duncan J; Girosky, Kimberly E; Krzycki, Joseph A; Ferguson, Donald J

    2014-10-28

    COG5598 comprises a large number of proteins related to MttB, the trimethylamine:corrinoid methyltransferase. MttB has a genetically encoded pyrrolysine residue proposed essential for catalysis. MttB is the only known trimethylamine methyltransferase, yet the great majority of members of COG5598 lack pyrrolysine, leaving the activity of these proteins an open question. Here, we describe the function of one of the nonpyrrolysine members of this large protein family. Three nonpyrrolysine MttB homologs are encoded in Desulfitobacterium hafniense, a Gram-positive strict anaerobe present in both the environment and human intestine. D. hafniense was found capable of growth on glycine betaine with electron acceptors such as nitrate or fumarate, producing dimethylglycine and CO2 as products. Examination of the genome revealed genes for tetrahydrofolate-linked oxidation of a methyl group originating from a methylated corrinoid protein, but no obvious means to carry out corrinoid methylation with glycine betaine. DSY3156, encoding one of the nonpyrrolysine MttB homologs, was up-regulated during growth on glycine betaine. The recombinant DSY3156 protein converts glycine betaine and cob(I)alamin to dimethylglycine and methylcobalamin. To our knowledge, DSY3156 is the first glycine betaine:corrinoid methyltransferase described, and a designation of MtgB is proposed. In addition, DSY3157, an adjacently encoded protein, was shown to be a methylcobalamin:tetrahydrofolate methyltransferase and is designated MtgA. Homologs of MtgB are widely distributed, especially in marine bacterioplankton and nitrogen-fixing plant symbionts. They are also found in multiple members of the human microbiome, and may play a beneficial role in trimethylamine homeostasis, which in recent years has been directly tied to human cardiovascular health.

  18. Epigenetic drug discovery: targeting DNA methyltransferases.

    PubMed

    Foulks, Jason M; Parnell, K Mark; Nix, Rebecca N; Chau, Suzanna; Swierczek, Krzysztof; Saunders, Michael; Wright, Kevin; Hendrickson, Thomas F; Ho, Koc-Kan; McCullar, Michael V; Kanner, Steven B

    2012-01-01

    Epigenetic modification of DNA leads to changes in gene expression. DNA methyltransferases (DNMTs) comprise a family of nuclear enzymes that catalyze the methylation of CpG dinucleotides, resulting in an epigenetic methylome distinguished between normal cells and those in disease states such as cancer. Disrupting gene expression patterns through promoter methylation has been implicated in many malignancies and supports DNMTs as attractive therapeutic targets. This review focuses on the rationale of targeting DNMTs in cancer, the historical approach to DNMT inhibition, and current marketed hypomethylating therapeutics azacytidine and decitabine. In addition, we address novel DNMT inhibitory agents emerging in development, including CP-4200 and SGI-110, analogs of azacytidine and decitabine, respectively; the oligonucleotides MG98 and miR29a; and a number of reversible inhibitors, some of which appear to be selective against particular DNMT isoforms. Finally, we discuss future opportunities and challenges for next-generation therapeutics.

  19. Interactions within the mammalian DNA methyltransferase family

    PubMed Central

    Margot, Jean B; Ehrenhofer-Murray, Ann E; Leonhardt, Heinrich

    2003-01-01

    Background In mammals, epigenetic information is established and maintained via the postreplicative methylation of cytosine residues by the DNA methyltransferases Dnmt1, Dnmt3a and Dnmt3b. Dnmt1 is required for maintenance methylation whereas Dnmt3a and Dnmt3b are responsible for de novo methylation. Contrary to Dnmt3a or Dnmt3b, the isolated C-terminal region of Dnmt1 is catalytically inactive, despite the presence of the sequence motifs typical of active DNA methyltransferases. Deletion analysis has revealed that a large part of the N-terminal domain is required for enzymatic activity. Results The role played by the N-terminal domain in this regulation has been investigated using the yeast two-hybrid system. We show here the presence of an intra-molecular interaction in Dnmt1 but not in Dnmt3a or Dnmt3b. This interaction was confirmed by immunoprecipitation and was localized by deletion mapping. Furthermore, a systematic analysis of interactions among the Dnmt family members has revealed that DNMT3L interacts with the C-terminal domain of Dnmt3a and Dnmt3b. Conclusions The lack of methylating ability of the isolated C-terminal domain of Dnmt1 could be explained in part by a physical interaction between N- and C-terminal domains that apparently is required for activation of the catalytic domain. Our deletion analysis suggests that the tertiary structure of Dnmt1 is important in this process rather than a particular sequence motif. Furthermore, the interaction between DNMT3L and the C-terminal domains of Dnmt3a and Dnmt3b suggests a mechanism whereby the enzymatically inactive DNMT3L brings about the methylation of its substrate by recruiting an active methylase. PMID:12777184

  20. Monomethylioarsenicals are substratres for human arsenic (+3 oxidation state) methyltransferase

    EPA Science Inventory

    Monomethylthioarsenicals are substrates for human arsenic (+3 oxida1tion state) methyltransferase Methylated thioarsenicals are structural analogs of methylated oxyarsenic in which one or more oxygen atom bound t...

  1. Monolignol 4-O-methyltransferases and uses thereof

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Chang-Jun; Bhuiya, Mohammad-Wadud; Zhang, Kewei

    2014-11-18

    Modified (iso)eugenol 4-O-methyltransferase enzymes having novel capacity for methylation of monolignols and reduction of lignin polymerization in plant cell wall are disclosed. Sequences encoding the modified enzymes are disclosed.

  2. Monomethylioarsenicals are substratres for human arsenic (+3 oxidation state) methyltransferase

    EPA Science Inventory

    Monomethylthioarsenicals are substrates for human arsenic (+3 oxida1tion state) methyltransferase Methylated thioarsenicals are structural analogs of methylated oxyarsenic in which one or more oxygen atom bound t...

  3. Sequence motifs characteristic of DNA[cytosine-N4]methyltransferases: similarity to adenine and cytosine-C5 DNA-methylases.

    PubMed Central

    Klimasauskas, S; Timinskas, A; Menkevicius, S; Butkienè, D; Butkus, V; Janulaitis, A

    1989-01-01

    The sequences coding for DNA[cytosine-N4]methyltransferases MvaI (from Micrococcus varians RFL19) and Cfr9I (from Citrobacter freundii RFL9) have been determined. The predicted methylases are proteins of 454 and 300 amino acids, respectively. Primary structure comparison of M.Cfr9I and another m4C-forming methylase, M.Pvu II, revealed extended regions of homology. The sequence comparison of the three DNA[cytosine-N4]-methylases using originally developed software revealed two conserved patterns, DPF-GSGT and TSPPY, which were found similar also to those of adenine and DNA[cytosine-C5]-methylases. These data provided a basis for global alignment and classification of DNA-methylase sequences. Structural considerations led us to suggest that the first region could be the binding site of AdoMet, while the second is thought to be directly involved in the modification of the exocyclic amino group. PMID:2690010

  4. Biosynthesis of caffeine underlying the diversity of motif B' methyltransferase.

    PubMed

    Nakayama, Fumiyo; Mizuno, Kouichi; Kato, Misako

    2015-05-01

    Caffeine (1,3,7-trimethylxanthine) and theobromine (3,7-dimethylxanthine) are well-known purine alkaloids in Camellia, Coffea, Cola, Paullinia, Ilex, and Theobroma spp. The caffeine biosynthetic pathway depends on the substrate specificity of N-methyltransferases, which are members of the motif B' methyl-transferase family. The caffeine biosynthetic pathways in purine alkaloid-containing plants might have evolved in parallel with one another, consistent with different catalytic properties of the enzymes involved in these pathways.

  5. Hypomethylation and hypermethylation of the tandem repetitive 5S rRNA genes in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Vaillant, Isabelle; Tutois, Sylvie; Jasencakova, Zuzana; Douet, Julien; Schubert, Ingo; Tourmente, Sylvette

    2008-04-01

    5S ribosomal DNA (5S rDNA) is organized in tandem repeats on chromosomes 3, 4 and 5 in Arabidopsis thaliana. One part of the 5S rDNA is located within the heterochromatic chromocenters, and the other fraction forms loops with euchromatic features that emanate from the chromocenters. We investigated whether the A. thaliana heterochromatin, and particularly the 5S rDNA, is modified when changing the culture conditions (cultivation in growth chamber versus greenhouse). Nuclei from challenged tissues displayed larger total, as well as 5S rDNA, heterochromatic fractions, and the DNA methyltransferase mutants met1 and cmt3 had different impacts in Arabidopsis. The enlarged fraction of heterochromatic 5S rDNA was observed, together with the reversal of the silencing of some 5S rRNA genes known as minor genes. We observed hypermethylation at CATG sites, and a concomitant DNA hypomethylation at CG/CXG sites in 5S rDNA. Our results show that the asymmetrical hypermethylation is correlated with the ageing of the plants, whereas hypomethylation results from the growth chamber/culture conditions. In spite of severely reduced DNA methylation, the met1 mutant revealed no increase in minor 5S rRNA transcripts in these conditions. The increasing proportion of cytosines in asymmetrical contexts during transition from the euchromatic to the heterochromatic state in the 5S rDNA array suggests that 5S rDNA units are differently affected by the (hypo and hyper)methylation patterns along the 5S rDNA locus. This might explain the different behaviour of 5S rDNA subpopulations inside a 5S array in terms of chromatin compaction and expression, i.e. some 5S rRNA genes would become derepressed, whereas others would join the heterochromatic fraction.

  6. Functional characterization of a rice de novo DNA methyltransferase, OsDRM2, expressed in Escherichia coli and yeast

    SciTech Connect

    Pang, Jinsong; Dong, Mingyue; Li, Ning; Zhao, Yanli; Liu, Bao

    2013-03-01

    Highlights: ► A rice de novo DNA methyltransferase OsDRM2 was cloned. ► In vitro methylation activity of OsDRM2 was characterized with Escherichia coli. ► Assays of OsDRM2 in vivo methylation were done with Saccharomyces cerevisiae. ► OsDRM2 methylation activity is not preferential to any type of cytosine context. ► The activity of OsDRM2 is independent of RdDM pathway. - Abstract: DNA methylation of cytosine nucleotides is an important epigenetic modification that occurs in most eukaryotic organisms and is established and maintained by various DNA methyltransferases together with their co-factors. There are two major categories of DNA methyltransferases: de novo and maintenance. Here, we report the isolation and functional characterization of a de novo methyltransferase, named OsDRM2, from rice (Oryza sativa L.). The full-length coding region of OsDRM2 was cloned and transformed into Escherichia coli and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Both of these organisms expressed the OsDRM2 protein, which exhibited stochastic de novo methylation activity in vitro at CG, CHG, and CHH di- and tri-nucleotide patterns. Two lines of evidence demonstrated the de novo activity of OsDRM2: (1) a 5′-CCGG-3′ containing DNA fragment that had been pre-treated with OsDRM2 protein expressed in E. coli was protected from digestion by the CG-methylation-sensitive isoschizomer HpaII; (2) methylation-sensitive amplified polymorphism (MSAP) analysis of S. cerevisiae genomic DNA from transformants that had been introduced with OsDRM2 revealed CG and CHG methylation levels of 3.92–9.12%, and 2.88–6.93%, respectively, whereas the mock control S. cerevisiae DNA did not exhibit cytosine methylation. These results were further supported by bisulfite sequencing of the 18S rRNA and EAF5 genes of the transformed S. cerevisiae, which exhibited different DNA methylation patterns, which were observed in the genomic DNA. Our findings establish that OsDRM2 is an active de novo DNA

  7. Eukaryotic 5S rRNA biogenesis.

    PubMed

    Ciganda, Martin; Williams, Noreen

    2011-01-01

    The ribosome is a large complex containing both protein and RNA which must be assembled in a precise manner to allow proper functioning in the critical role of protein synthesis. 5S rRNA is the smallest of the RNA components of the ribosome, and although it has been studied for decades, we still do not have a clear understanding of its function within the complex ribosome machine. It is the only RNA species that binds ribosomal proteins prior to its assembly into the ribosome. Its transport into the nucleolus requires this interaction. Here we present an overview of some of the key findings concerning the structure and function of 5S rRNA and how its association with specific proteins impacts its localization and function. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Eukaryotic 5S rRNA biogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Ciganda, Martin; Williams, Noreen

    2012-01-01

    The ribosome is a large complex containing both protein and RNA which must be assembled in a precise manner to allow proper functioning in the critical role of protein synthesis. 5S rRNA is the smallest of the RNA components of the ribosome, and although it has been studied for decades, we still do not have a clear understanding of its function within the complex ribosome machine. It is the only RNA species that binds ribosomal proteins prior to its assembly into the ribosome. Its transport into the nucleolus requires this interaction. Here we present an overview of some of the key findings concerning the structure and function of 5S rRNA and how its association with specific proteins impacts its localization and function. PMID:21957041

  9. Structural Analysis of Glycine Sarcosine N-methyltransferase from Methanohalophilus portucalensis Reveals Mechanistic Insights into the Regulation of Methyltransferase Activity

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Yi-Ru; Lin, Te-Sheng; Lai, Shu-Jung; Liu, Mu-Sen; Lai, Mei-Chin; Chan, Nei-Li

    2016-01-01

    Methyltransferases play crucial roles in many cellular processes, and various regulatory mechanisms have evolved to control their activities. For methyltransferases involved in biosynthetic pathways, regulation via feedback inhibition is a commonly employed strategy to prevent excessive accumulation of the pathways’ end products. To date, no biosynthetic methyltransferases have been characterized by X-ray crystallography in complex with their corresponding end product. Here, we report the crystal structures of the glycine sarcosine N-methyltransferase from the halophilic archaeon Methanohalophilus portucalensis (MpGSMT), which represents the first structural elucidation of the GSMT methyltransferase family. As the first enzyme in the biosynthetic pathway of the osmoprotectant betaine, MpGSMT catalyzes N-methylation of glycine and sarcosine, and its activity is feedback-inhibited by the end product betaine. A structural analysis revealed that, despite the simultaneous presence of both substrate (sarcosine) and cofactor (S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine; SAH), the enzyme was likely crystallized in an inactive conformation, as additional structural changes are required to complete the active site assembly. Consistent with this interpretation, the bound SAH can be replaced by the methyl donor S-adenosyl-L-methionine without triggering the methylation reaction. Furthermore, the observed conformational state was found to harbor a betaine-binding site, suggesting that betaine may inhibit MpGSMT activity by trapping the enzyme in an inactive form. This work implicates a structural basis by which feedback inhibition of biosynthetic methyltransferases may be achieved. PMID:27934872

  10. Variable rRNA gene copies in extreme halobacteria

    SciTech Connect

    Sanz, J.L.; Marin, I.; Ramirez, L.; Amils, R. ); Abad, J.P.; Smith, C.L. )

    1988-08-25

    Using PFG electrophoresis techniques, the authors have examined the organization of rRNA gene in halobacterium species. The results show that the organization of rRNA genes among closely related halobacteria is quite heterogeneous. This contrasts with the high degree of conservation of rRNA sequence. The possible mechanism of such rRNA gene amplification and its evolutionary implications are discussed.

  11. Isolation of DNA methyltransferase from plants

    SciTech Connect

    Ehrlich, K.; Malbroue, C.

    1987-05-01

    DNA methyltransferases (DMT) were isolated from nuclei of cauliflower, soybean, and pea by extraction with 0.35 M NaCl. Assays were performed on hemimethylated Micrococcus luteus DNA or on M. luteus DNA to test for maintenance or de novo methylase activity, respectively. Fully methylated DNA was used as a substrate to determine background levels of methylation. Based on these tests, yields of maintenance DMT activity in the crude extract from pea hypocotyl, soybean hypocotyl, and cauliflower inflorescence were 2.8, 0.9, and 1.6 units per g wet tissue (one unit equals 1 pmol of methyl from (/sup 3/H)AdoMet incorporated into acid precipitable material per h at 30/sup 0/). Two peaks of DMT activity were detected in the soybean nuclear extract following phosphocellulose chromatography. One eluted at 0.4 M and the other at 0.8 M KCl. With both fractions maintenance activity was approximately 2 times that of the de novo activity. Using gel filtration the DMT eluted at 220,000 Daltons. The optimal pH for activity was between 6.5 and 7.0, and the optimal temperature was 30/sup 0/.

  12. DNA methyltransferase immunohistochemical expression in odontogenic tumours.

    PubMed

    Guimarães, Douglas Magno; Antunes, Daniella Moraes; Duarte, Carina Magalhães Esteves; Ferro, Leonardo Borges; Nunes, Fabio Daumas

    2015-01-01

    Odontogenic tumours are a heterogeneous group of lesions formed from tissues that give rise to the tooth. DNA methylation, a covalent addition of a methyl group to the 5-carbon position of a cytosine nucleotide, is considered an important regulator of gene expression. The addition of the methyl radical is catalysed by DNA methyltransferases (DNMTs). Although some epigenetic studies have been conducted in odontogenic tumours, a study with the three types of DNMTs in several different members of this group is missing. This study analyses the expression of DNMTs in odontogenic tumours. Formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded tissue samples of 20 ameloblastomas, 10 calcifying cystic odontogenic tumours, 10 calcifying epithelial tumours, 10 adenomatoid odontogenic tumours, 10 keratocystic odontogenic tumours, five ameloblastic fibromas, two ameloblastic fibro-odontomas, four central odontogenic fibromas, seven peripheral odontogenic fibromas and 10 odontogenic myxomas were included. Immunohistochemical expression of DNMT1, 3A and 3B was assessed using a semi-quantitative analysis, and also a correlation with p21, p27 and E-cadherin immunoexpression was made. DNMT1, 3A and 3B were expressed in the nucleus and/or cytoplasm of all odontogenic tumours. DNMT1 expression was directly correlated with p27 expression in ameloblastomas. The high expression of DNMTs in odontogenic tumour cells suggests methylation as an important mechanism for this group of tumours. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. DNA Methyltransferase Activity Assays: Advances and Challenges.

    PubMed

    Poh, Wan Jun; Wee, Cayden Pang Pee; Gao, Zhiqiang

    2016-01-01

    DNA methyltransferases (MTases), a family of enzymes that catalyse the methylation of DNA, have a profound effect on gene regulation. A large body of evidence has indicated that DNA MTase is potentially a predictive biomarker closely associated with genetic disorders and genetic diseases like cancer. Given the attention bestowed onto DNA MTases in molecular biology and medicine, highly sensitive detection of DNA MTase activity is essential in determining gene regulation, epigenetic modification, clinical diagnosis and therapeutics. Conventional techniques such as isotope labelling are effective, but they often require laborious sample preparation, isotope labelling, sophisticated equipment and large amounts of DNA, rendering them unsuitable for uses at point-of-care. Simple, portable, highly sensitive and low-cost assays are urgently needed for DNA MTase activity screening. In most recent technological advances, many alternative DNA MTase activity assays such as fluorescent, electrochemical, colorimetric and chemiluminescent assays have been proposed. In addition, many of them are coupled with nanomaterials and/or enzymes to significantly enhance their sensitivity. Herein we review the progress in the development of DNA MTase activity assays with an emphasis on assay mechanism and performance with some discussion on challenges and perspectives. It is hoped that this article will provide a broad coverage of DNA MTase activity assays and their latest developments and open new perspectives toward the development of DNA MTase activity assays with much improved performance for uses in molecular biology and clinical practice.

  14. DNA Methyltransferase Activity Assays: Advances and Challenges

    PubMed Central

    Poh, Wan Jun; Wee, Cayden Pang Pee; Gao, Zhiqiang

    2016-01-01

    DNA methyltransferases (MTases), a family of enzymes that catalyse the methylation of DNA, have a profound effect on gene regulation. A large body of evidence has indicated that DNA MTase is potentially a predictive biomarker closely associated with genetic disorders and genetic diseases like cancer. Given the attention bestowed onto DNA MTases in molecular biology and medicine, highly sensitive detection of DNA MTase activity is essential in determining gene regulation, epigenetic modification, clinical diagnosis and therapeutics. Conventional techniques such as isotope labelling are effective, but they often require laborious sample preparation, isotope labelling, sophisticated equipment and large amounts of DNA, rendering them unsuitable for uses at point-of-care. Simple, portable, highly sensitive and low-cost assays are urgently needed for DNA MTase activity screening. In most recent technological advances, many alternative DNA MTase activity assays such as fluorescent, electrochemical, colorimetric and chemiluminescent assays have been proposed. In addition, many of them are coupled with nanomaterials and/or enzymes to significantly enhance their sensitivity. Herein we review the progress in the development of DNA MTase activity assays with an emphasis on assay mechanism and performance with some discussion on challenges and perspectives. It is hoped that this article will provide a broad coverage of DNA MTase activity assays and their latest developments and open new perspectives toward the development of DNA MTase activity assays with much improved performance for uses in molecular biology and clinical practice. PMID:26909112

  15. Small Molecule Inhibitors of Protein Arginine Methyltransferases

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Hao; Qian, Kun; Ho, Meng-Chiao; Zheng, Y. George

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Arginine methylation is an abundant posttranslational modification occurring in mammalian cells and catalyzed by protein arginine methyltransferases (PRMTs). Misregulation and aberrant expression of PRMTs are associated with various disease states, notably cancer. PRMTs are prominent therapeutic targets in drug discovery. Areas covered The authors provide an updated review of the research on the development of chemical modulators for PRMTs. Great efforts are seen in screening and designing potent and selective PRMT inhibitors, and a number of micromolar and submicromolar inhibitors have been obtained for key PRMT enzymes such as PRMT1, CARM1, and PRMT5. The authors provide a focus on their chemical structures, mechanism of action, and pharmacological activities. Pros and cons of each type of inhibitors are also discussed. Expert opinion Several key challenging issues exist in PRMT inhibitor discovery. Structural mechanisms of many PRMT inhibitors remain unclear. There lacks consistency in potency data due to divergence of assay methods and conditions. Physiologically relevant cellular assays are warranted. Substantial engagements are needed to investigate pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics of the new PRMT inhibitors in pertinent disease models. Discovery and evaluation of potent, isoform-selective, cell-permeable and in vivo-active PRMT modulators will continue to be an active arena of research in years ahead. PMID:26789238

  16. Purification and properties of thioether methyltransferase

    SciTech Connect

    Mozier, N.M.

    1988-01-01

    A method to assay activity was developed which measures acceptance of methyl groups from (methyl-{sup 3}H)-S-adenosylmethionine by dimethyl selenide. The product, ({sup 3}H)trimethylselenonium ion, is separated by HPLC and quantitated by scintillation counting. Thioether methyltransferase from mouse liver and lung resides primarily in the cytosol. In terms of specific activity the enzyme is most active in the lung and liver. Purification from lung cytosol requires a three-step process of DEAE and gel filtration column chromatographies followed by chromatofocusing. SDS-Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis shows a single homogeneous band with a molecular mass of 28,000 daltons. Vmax and Km values for dimethyl selenide as a substrate are 15. 7 pmol/min and 0.44 {mu}M, respectively. Our studies have also shown that this purified enzyme is capable of methylating a wide range of compounds. To further test the enzyme's role in detoxification, in vivo studies were performed by injecting mice with substrate and (methyl-{sup 3}H)methionine and analyzing tissue extracts and urine for (methyl-{sup 3}H)sulfonium.

  17. Characterization of Streptomyces venezuelae ATCC 10595 rRNA gene clusters and cloning of rrnA.

    PubMed Central

    La Farina, M; Stira, S; Mancuso, R; Grisanti, C

    1996-01-01

    Streptomyces venezuelae ATCC 10595 harbors seven rRNA gene clusters which can be distinguished by BglII digestion. The three rRNA genes present in each set are closely linked with the general structure 16S-23S-5S. We cloned rrnA and sequenced the 16S-23S spacer region and the region downstream of the 5S rRNA gene. No tRNA gene was found in these regions. PMID:8631730

  18. Involvement of methyltransferase-activating protein and methyltransferase 2 isoenzyme II in methylamine:coenzyme M methyltransferase reactions in Methanosarcina barkeri Fusaro.

    PubMed Central

    Wassenaar, R W; Daas, P J; Geerts, W J; Keltjens, J T; van der Drift, C

    1996-01-01

    The enzyme systems involved in the methyl group transfer from methanol and from tri- and dimethylamine to 2-mercaptoethanesulfonic acid (coenzyme M) were resolved from cell extracts of Methanosarcina barkeri Fusaro grown on methanol and trimethylamine, respectively. Resolution was accomplished by ammonium sulfate fractionation, anion-exchange chromatography, and fast protein liquid chromatography. The methyl group transfer reactions from tri- and dimethylamine, as well as the monomethylamine:coenzyme M methyltransferase reaction, were strictly dependent on catalytic amounts of ATP and on a protein present in the 65% ammonium sulfate supernatant. The latter could be replaced by methyltransferase-activating protein isolated from methanol-grown cells of the organism. In addition, the tri- and dimethylamine:coenzyme M methyltransferase reactions required the presence of a methylcobalamin:coenzyme M methyltransferase (MT2), which is different from the analogous enzyme from methanol-grown M. barkeri. In this work, it is shown that the various methylamine:coenzyme M methyltransfer steps proceed in a fashion which is mechanistically similar to the methanol:coenzyme M methyl transfer, yet with the participation of specific corrinoid enzymes and a specific MT2 isoenzyme. PMID:8955317

  19. DNA Methyltransferases Inhibitors from Natural Sources.

    PubMed

    Zwergel, Clemens; Valente, Sergio; Mai, Antonello

    2016-01-01

    DNA methyltransferases (DNMTs) catalyze the methylation at cytosine-C5 mainly in a CpG dinucleotide context. Although DNA methylation is essential for fundamental processes like embryonic development or differentiation, aberrant expression and/or activities of DNMTs are involved in several pathologies, from neurodegeneration to cancer. DNMTs inhibition can arrest tumor growth, cells invasiveness and induce differentiation, whereas their increased expression is shown in numerous cancer types. Moreover, hypermethylated promoters of tumor suppressor genes lead to their silencing. Hence, the use of specific inhibitors of DNMT might reactivate those genes and stop or even reverse the aberrant cell processes. To date, the only approved DNMTs inhibitors for therapy belong to the nucleoside-based family of drugs, but they display relevant side effects as well as high chemical instability. Thus, there is a keen interest actually exists to develop novel, potent and safe inhibitors possessing a nonnucleoside structure. Increasing literature evidence is highlighting that natural sources could help the researchers to achieve this goal. Indeed, several polyphenols, flavonoids, antraquinones, and others are described able to inhibit DNMTs activity and/or expression, thus decreasing the methylation/silencing of different genes involved in tumorigenesis. These events can lead to re-expression of such genes and to cell death in diverse cancer cell lines. Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (1) and laccaic acid A (11) resulted the most effective DNMT1 inhibitors with submicromolar IC50 values, acting as competitive inhibitors. Compound 1 and 11 both displayed gene demethylation and re-activation in several cancers. However, all of the natural compounds described in this review showed important results, from gene reactivation to cell growth inhibition. Moreover, some of them displayed interesting activity even in rodent cancer models and very recently entered clinical trials.

  20. Multiple lysine methylation of PCAF by Set9 methyltransferase

    SciTech Connect

    Masatsugu, Toshihiro; Yamamoto, Ken

    2009-03-27

    The molecular functions of several non-histone proteins are regulated through lysine modification by histone methyltransferases. The p300/CBP-associated factor (PCAF) is an acetyltransferase that has been implicated in many cellular processes. Here, we report that PCAF is a novel substrate of Set9 methyltransferase. In vitro mapping experiments revealed six lysine residues could be methylated by Set9. A comparison of amino acid sequences of target sites revealed the novel consensus motif which differs from previously identified Set9-consensus sequence. Further methyltransferase assays focusing on the six lysine residues showed that K78 and K89 are preferentially methylated in full-length PCAF in vitro. Using specific antibodies recognizing mono-methylated K89, in vivo PCAF methylation and its nuclear localization were demonstrated. Our data may lead to a new insight into PCAF functions and provide additional information to identify unknown targets of Set9.

  1. Increased 5S rRNA oxidation in Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Ding, Qunxing; Zhu, Haiyan; Zhang, Bing; Soriano, Augusto; Burns, Roxanne; Markesbery, William R

    2012-01-01

    It is widely accepted that oxidative stress is involved in neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's disease (AD). Ribosomal RNA (rRNA) is one of the most abundant molecules in most cells and is affected by oxidative stress in the human brain. Previous data have indicated that total rRNA levels were decreased in the brains of subjects with AD and mild cognitive impairment concomitant with an increase in rRNA oxidation. In addition, level of 5S rRNA, one of the essential components of the ribosome complex, was significantly lower in the inferior parietal lobule (IP) brain area of subjects with AD compared with control subjects. To further evaluate the alteration of 5S rRNA in neurodegenerative human brains, multiple brain regions from both AD and age-matched control subjects were used in this study, including IP, superior and middle temporal gyro, temporal pole, and cerebellum. Different molecular pools including 5S rRNA integrated into ribosome complexes, free 5S rRNA, cytoplasmic 5S rRNA, and nuclear 5S rRNA were studied. Free 5S rRNA levels were significantly decreased in the temporal pole region of AD subjects and the oxidation of ribosome-integrated and free 5S rRNA was significantly increased in multiple brain regions in AD subjects compared with controls. Moreover, a greater amount of oxidized 5S rRNA was detected in the cytoplasm and nucleus of AD subjects compared with controls. These results suggest that the increased oxidation of 5S rRNA, especially the oxidation of free 5S rRNA, may be involved in the neurodegeneration observed in AD.

  2. Dietary Flavones as Dual Inhibitors of DNA Methyltransferases and Histone Methyltransferases

    PubMed Central

    Kanwal, Rajnee; Datt, Manish; Liu, Xiaoqi; Gupta, Sanjay

    2016-01-01

    Methylation of DNA and histone proteins are mutually involved in the epigenetic regulation of gene expression mediated by DNA methyltransferases (DNMTs) and histone methyltransferases (HMTs). DNMTs methylate cytosine residues within gene promoters, whereas HMTs catalyze the transfer of methyl groups to lysine and arginine residues of histone proteins, thus causing chromatin condensation and transcriptional repression, which play an important role in the pathogenesis of cancer. The potential reversibility of epigenetic alterations has encouraged the development of dual pharmacologic inhibitors of DNA and histone methylation as anticancer therapeutics. Dietary flavones can affect epigenetic modifications that accumulate over time and have shown anticancer properties, which are undefined. Through DNA binding and in silico protein-ligand docking studies with plant flavones viz. Apigenin, Chrysin and Luteolin, the effect of flavones on DNA and histone methylation was assessed. Spectroscopic analysis of flavones with calf-thymus DNA revealed intercalation as the dominant binding mode, with specific binding to a GC-rich sequence in the DNA duplex. A virtual screening approach using a model of the catalytic site of DNMT and EZH2 demonstrated that plant flavones are tethered at both ends inside the catalytic pocket of DNMT and EZH2 by means of hydrogen bonding. Epigenetic studies performed with flavones exhibited a decrease in DNMT enzyme activity and a reversal of the hypermethylation of cytosine bases in the DNA and prevented cytosine methylation in the GC-rich promoter sequence incubated with the M.SssI enzyme. Furthermore, a marked decrease in HMT activity and a decrease in EZH2 protein expression and trimethylation of H3K27 were noted in histones isolated from cancer cells treated with plant flavones. Our results suggest that dietary flavones can alter DNMT and HMT activities and the methylation of DNA and histone proteins that regulate epigenetic modifications, thus

  3. Yorkie promotes transcription by recruiting a Histone methyltransferase complex

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Hyangyee; Slattery, Matthew; Ma, Lijia; White, Kevin P.; Mann, Richard S.

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Hippo signaling limits organ growth by inhibiting the transcriptional coactivator Yorkie. Despite the key role of Yorkie in both normal and oncogenic growth, the mechanism by which it activates transcription has not been defined. We report that Yorkie binding to chromatin correlates with histone H3K4 methylation, and is sufficient to locally increase it. We show that Yorkie can recruit a histone methyltransferase complex, through binding between WW domains of Yorkie and PPxY sequence motifs of NcoA6, a subunit of the Trithorax-related (Trr) methyltransferase complex. Cell culture and in vivo assays establish that this recruitment of NcoA6 contributes to Yorkie’s ability to activate transcription. Mammalian NcoA6, a subunit of Trr-homologous methyltransferase complexes, can similarly interact with Yorkie’s mammalian homologue YAP. Our results implicate direct recruitment of a histone methyltransferase complex as central to transcriptional activation by Yorkie, linking the control of cell proliferation by Hippo signaling to chromatin modification. PMID:25017066

  4. A second DNA methyltransferase repair enzyme in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed Central

    Rebeck, G W; Coons, S; Carroll, P; Samson, L

    1988-01-01

    The Escherichia coli ada-alkB operon encodes a 39-kDa protein (Ada) that is a DNA-repair methyltransferase and a 27-kDa protein (AlkB) of unknown function. By DNA blot hybridization analysis we show that the alkylation-sensitive E. coli mutant BS23 [Sedgwick, B. & Lindahl, T. (1982) J. Mol. Biol. 154, 169-175] is a deletion mutant lacking the entire ada-alkB operon. Despite the absence of the ada gene and its product, the cells contain detectable levels of a DNA-repair methyltransferase activity. We conclude that the methyltransferase in BS23 cells is the product of a gene other than ada. A similar activity was detected in extracts of an ada-10::Tn10 insertion mutant of E. coli AB1157. This DNA methyltransferase has a molecular mass of about 19 kDa and transfers the methyl groups from O6-methylguanine and O4-methylthymine in DNA, but not those from methyl phosphotriester lesions. This enzyme was not induced by low doses of alkylating agent and is expressed at low levels in ada+ and a number of ada- E. coli strains. Images PMID:3283737

  5. IDENTIFYING CRITICAL CYSTEINE RESIDUES IN ARSENIC (+3 OXIDATION STATE) METHYLTRANSFERASE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Arsenic (+3 oxidation state) methyltransferase (AS3MT) catalyzes methylation of inorganic arsenic to mono, di, and trimethylated arsenicals. Orthologous AS3MT genes in genomes ranging from simple echinoderm to human predict a protein with five conserved cysteine (C) residues. In ...

  6. IDENTIFYING CRITICAL CYSTEINE RESIDUES IN ARSENIC (+3 OXIDATION STATE) METHYLTRANSFERASE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Arsenic (+3 oxidation state) methyltransferase (AS3MT) catalyzes methylation of inorganic arsenic to mono, di, and trimethylated arsenicals. Orthologous AS3MT genes in genomes ranging from simple echinoderm to human predict a protein with five conserved cysteine (C) residues. In ...

  7. Convergent Mechanistic Features between the Structurally Diverse N- and O-Methyltransferases: Glycine N-Methyltransferase and Catechol O-Methyltransferase.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jianyu; Klinman, Judith P

    2016-07-27

    Although an enormous and still growing number of biologically diverse methyltransferases have been reported and identified, a comprehensive understanding of the enzymatic methyl transfer mechanism is still lacking. Glycine N-methyltransferase (GNMT), a member of the family that acts on small metabolites as the substrate, catalyzes methyl transfer from S-adenosyl-l-methionine (AdoMet) to glycine to form S-adenosyl-l-homocysteine and sarcosine. We report primary carbon ((12)C/(14)C) and secondary ((1)H3/(3)H3) kinetic isotope effects at the transferred methyl group, together with (1)H3/(3)H3 binding isotope effects for wild-type GNMT and a series of Tyr21 mutants. The data implicate a compaction effect in the methyl transfer step that is conferred by the protein structure. Furthermore, a remarkable similarity of properties is observed between GNMT and catechol O-methyltransferase, despite significant differences between these enzymes with regard to their active site structures and catalyzed reactions. We attribute these results to a catalytically relevant reduction in the methyl donor-acceptor distance that is dependent on a tyrosine side chain positioned behind the methyl-bearing sulfur of AdoMet.

  8. Gateway role for rRNA precursors in ribosome assembly.

    PubMed

    Gutgsell, Nancy S; Jain, Chaitanya

    2012-12-01

    In Escherichia coli, rRNAs are initially transcribed with precursor sequences, which are subsequently removed through processing reactions. To investigate the role of precursor sequences, we analyzed ribosome assembly in strains containing mutations in the processing RNases. We observed that defects in 23S rRNA processing resulted in an accumulation of ribosomal subunits and caused a significant delay in ribosome assembly. These observations suggest that precursor residues in 23S rRNA control ribosome assembly and could be serving a regulatory role to couple ribosome assembly to rRNA processing. The possible mechanisms through which rRNA processing and ribosome assembly could be linked are discussed.

  9. Structure and Function of Flavivirus NS5 Methyltransferase

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou,Y.; Ray, D.; Zhao, Y.; Dong, H.; Ren, S.; Li, Z.; Guo, Y.; Bernard, K.; Shi, P.; Li, H.

    2007-01-01

    The plus-strand RNA genome of flavivirus contains a 5' terminal cap 1 structure (m{sup 7}GpppAmG). The flaviviruses encode one methyltransferase, located at the N-terminal portion of the NS5 protein, to catalyze both guanine N-7 and ribose 2'-OH methylations during viral cap formation. Representative flavivirus methyltransferases from dengue, yellow fever, and West Nile virus (WNV) sequentially generate GpppA {yields} m{sup 7}GpppA {yields} m{sup 7}GpppAm. The 2'-O methylation can be uncoupled from the N-7 methylation, since m{sup 7}GpppA-RNA can be readily methylated to m{sup 7}GpppAm-RNA. Despite exhibiting two distinct methylation activities, the crystal structure of WNV methyltransferase at 2.8 {angstrom} resolution showed a single binding site for S-adenosyl-L-methionine (SAM), the methyl donor. Therefore, substrate GpppA-RNA should be repositioned to accept the N-7 and 2'-O methyl groups from SAM during the sequential reactions. Electrostatic analysis of the WNV methyltransferase structure showed that, adjacent to the SAM-binding pocket, is a highly positively charged surface that could serve as an RNA binding site during cap methylations. Biochemical and mutagenesis analyses show that the N-7 and 2'-O cap methylations require distinct buffer conditions and different side chains within the K{sub 61}-D{sub 146}-K{sub 182}-E{sub 218} motif, suggesting that the two reactions use different mechanisms. In the context of complete virus, defects in both methylations are lethal to WNV; however, viruses defective solely in 2'-O methylation are attenuated and can protect mice from later wild-type WNV challenge. The results demonstrate that the N-7 methylation activity is essential for the WNV life cycle and, thus, methyltransferase represents a novel target for flavivirus therapy.

  10. Engineering Monolignol 4-O-Methyltransferases to Modulate Lignin Biosynthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Bhuiya, M.W.; Liu, C.

    2010-01-01

    Lignin is a complex polymer derived from the oxidative coupling of three classical monolignols. Lignin precursors are methylated exclusively at the meta-positions (i.e. 3/5-OH) of their phenyl rings by native O-methyltransferases, and are precluded from substitution of the para-hydroxyl (4-OH) position. Ostensibly, the para-hydroxyls of phenolics are critically important for oxidative coupling of phenoxy radicals to form polymers. Therefore, creating a 4-O-methyltransferase to substitute the para-hydroxyl of monolignols might well interfere with the synthesis of lignin. The phylogeny of plant phenolic O-methyltransferases points to the existence of a batch of evolutionarily 'plastic' amino acid residues. Following one amino acid at a time path of directed evolution, and using the strategy of structure-based iterative site-saturation mutagenesis, we created a novel monolignol 4-O-methyltransferase from the enzyme responsible for methylating phenylpropenes. We show that two plastic residues in the active site of the parental enzyme are vital in dominating substrate discrimination. Mutations at either one of these separate the evolutionarily tightly linked properties of substrate specificity and regioselective methylation of native O-methyltransferase, thereby conferring the ability for para-methylation of the lignin monomeric precursors, primarily monolignols. Beneficial mutations at both sites have an additive effect. By further optimizing enzyme activity, we generated a triple mutant variant that may structurally constitute a novel phenolic substrate binding pocket, leading to its high binding affinity and catalytic efficiency on monolignols. The 4-O-methoxylation of monolignol efficiently impairs oxidative radical coupling in vitro, highlighting the potential for applying this novel enzyme in managing lignin polymerization in planta.

  11. Pseudomonas aeruginosa EftM Is a Thermoregulated Methyltransferase*

    PubMed Central

    Owings, Joshua P.; Kuiper, Emily G.; Prezioso, Samantha M.; Meisner, Jeffrey; Varga, John J.; Zelinskaya, Natalia; Dammer, Eric B.; Duong, Duc M.; Seyfried, Nicholas T.; Albertí, Sebastián; Conn, Graeme L.; Goldberg, Joanna B.

    2016-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a Gram-negative opportunistic pathogen that trimethylates elongation factor-thermo-unstable (EF-Tu) on lysine 5. Lysine 5 methylation occurs in a temperature-dependent manner and is generally only seen when P. aeruginosa is grown at temperatures close to ambient (25 °C) but not at higher temperatures (37 °C). We have previously identified the gene, eftM (for EF-Tu-modifying enzyme), responsible for this modification and shown its activity to be associated with increased bacterial adhesion to and invasion of respiratory epithelial cells. Bioinformatic analyses predicted EftM to be a Class I S-adenosyl-l-methionine (SAM)-dependent methyltransferase. An in vitro methyltransferase assay was employed to show that, in the presence of SAM, EftM directly trimethylates EF-Tu. A natural variant of EftM, with a glycine to arginine substitution at position 50 in the predicted SAM-binding domain, lacks both SAM binding and enzyme activity. Mass spectrometry analysis of the in vitro methyltransferase reaction products revealed that EftM exclusively methylates at lysine 5 of EF-Tu in a distributive manner. Consistent with the in vivo temperature dependence of methylation of EF-Tu, preincubation of EftM at 37 °C abolished methyltransferase activity, whereas this activity was retained when EftM was preincubated at 25 °C. Irreversible protein unfolding at 37 °C was observed, and we propose that this instability is the molecular basis for the temperature dependence of EftM activity. Collectively, our results show that EftM is a thermolabile, SAM-dependent methyltransferase that directly trimethylates lysine 5 of EF-Tu in P. aeruginosa. PMID:26677219

  12. Single methylation of 23S rRNA triggers late steps of 50S ribosomal subunit assembly.

    PubMed

    Arai, Taiga; Ishiguro, Kensuke; Kimura, Satoshi; Sakaguchi, Yuriko; Suzuki, Takeo; Suzuki, Tsutomu

    2015-08-25

    Ribosome biogenesis requires multiple assembly factors. In Escherichia coli, deletion of RlmE, the methyltransferase responsible for the 2'-O-methyluridine modification at position 2552 (Um2552) in helix 92 of the 23S rRNA, results in slow growth and accumulation of the 45S particle. We demonstrate that the 45S particle that accumulates in ΔrlmE is a genuine precursor that can be assembled into the 50S subunit. Indeed, 50S formation from the 45S precursor could be promoted by RlmE-mediated Um2552 formation in vitro. Ribosomal protein L36 (encoded by rpmJ) was completely absent from the 45S precursor in ΔrlmE, and we observed a strong genetic interaction between rlmE and rpmJ. Structural probing of 23S rRNA and high-salt stripping of 45S components revealed that RlmE-mediated methylation promotes interdomain interactions via the association between helices 92 and 71, stabilized by the single 2'-O-methylation of Um2552, in concert with the incorporation of L36, triggering late steps of 50S subunit assembly.

  13. Single methylation of 23S rRNA triggers late steps of 50S ribosomal subunit assembly

    PubMed Central

    Arai, Taiga; Ishiguro, Kensuke; Kimura, Satoshi; Sakaguchi, Yuriko; Suzuki, Takeo; Suzuki, Tsutomu

    2015-01-01

    Ribosome biogenesis requires multiple assembly factors. In Escherichia coli, deletion of RlmE, the methyltransferase responsible for the 2′-O-methyluridine modification at position 2552 (Um2552) in helix 92 of the 23S rRNA, results in slow growth and accumulation of the 45S particle. We demonstrate that the 45S particle that accumulates in ΔrlmE is a genuine precursor that can be assembled into the 50S subunit. Indeed, 50S formation from the 45S precursor could be promoted by RlmE-mediated Um2552 formation in vitro. Ribosomal protein L36 (encoded by rpmJ) was completely absent from the 45S precursor in ΔrlmE, and we observed a strong genetic interaction between rlmE and rpmJ. Structural probing of 23S rRNA and high-salt stripping of 45S components revealed that RlmE-mediated methylation promotes interdomain interactions via the association between helices 92 and 71, stabilized by the single 2′-O-methylation of Um2552, in concert with the incorporation of L36, triggering late steps of 50S subunit assembly. PMID:26261349

  14. WBSCR22/Merm1 is required for late nuclear pre-ribosomal RNA processing and mediates N7-methylation of G1639 in human 18S rRNA.

    PubMed

    Haag, Sara; Kretschmer, Jens; Bohnsack, Markus T

    2015-02-01

    Ribosomal (r)RNAs are extensively modified during ribosome synthesis and their modification is required for the fidelity and efficiency of translation. Besides numerous small nucleolar RNA-guided 2'-O methylations and pseudouridinylations, a number of individual RNA methyltransferases are involved in rRNA modification. WBSCR22/Merm1, which is affected in Williams-Beuren syndrome and has been implicated in tumorigenesis and metastasis formation, was recently shown to be involved in ribosome synthesis, but its molecular functions have remained elusive. Here we show that depletion of WBSCR22 leads to nuclear accumulation of 3'-extended 18SE pre-rRNA intermediates resulting in impaired 18S rRNA maturation. We map the 3' ends of the 18SE pre-rRNA intermediates accumulating after depletion of WBSCR22 and in control cells using 3'-RACE and deep sequencing. Furthermore, we demonstrate that WBSCR22 is required for N(7)-methylation of G1639 in human 18S rRNA in vivo. Interestingly, the catalytic activity of WBSCR22 is not required for 18S pre-rRNA processing, suggesting that the key role of WBSCR22 in 40S subunit biogenesis is independent of its function as an RNA methyltransferase. © 2015 Haag et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press for the RNA Society.

  15. WBSCR22/Merm1 is required for late nuclear pre-ribosomal RNA processing and mediates N7-methylation of G1639 in human 18S rRNA

    PubMed Central

    Haag, Sara; Kretschmer, Jens

    2015-01-01

    Ribosomal (r)RNAs are extensively modified during ribosome synthesis and their modification is required for the fidelity and efficiency of translation. Besides numerous small nucleolar RNA-guided 2′-O methylations and pseudouridinylations, a number of individual RNA methyltransferases are involved in rRNA modification. WBSCR22/Merm1, which is affected in Williams–Beuren syndrome and has been implicated in tumorigenesis and metastasis formation, was recently shown to be involved in ribosome synthesis, but its molecular functions have remained elusive. Here we show that depletion of WBSCR22 leads to nuclear accumulation of 3′-extended 18SE pre-rRNA intermediates resulting in impaired 18S rRNA maturation. We map the 3′ ends of the 18SE pre-rRNA intermediates accumulating after depletion of WBSCR22 and in control cells using 3′-RACE and deep sequencing. Furthermore, we demonstrate that WBSCR22 is required for N7-methylation of G1639 in human 18S rRNA in vivo. Interestingly, the catalytic activity of WBSCR22 is not required for 18S pre-rRNA processing, suggesting that the key role of WBSCR22 in 40S subunit biogenesis is independent of its function as an RNA methyltransferase. PMID:25525153

  16. The Bowen-Conradi syndrome protein Nep1 (Emg1) has a dual role in eukaryotic ribosome biogenesis, as an essential assembly factor and in the methylation of Ψ1191 in yeast 18S rRNA.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Britta; Wurm, Jan Philip; Kötter, Peter; Leisegang, Matthias S; Schilling, Valeska; Buchhaupt, Markus; Held, Martin; Bahr, Ute; Karas, Michael; Heckel, Alexander; Bohnsack, Markus T; Wöhnert, Jens; Entian, Karl-Dieter

    2011-03-01

    The Nep1 (Emg1) SPOUT-class methyltransferase is an essential ribosome assembly factor and the human Bowen-Conradi syndrome (BCS) is caused by a specific Nep1(D86G) mutation. We recently showed in vitro that Methanocaldococcus jannaschii Nep1 is a sequence-specific pseudouridine-N1-methyltransferase. Here, we show that in yeast the in vivo target site for Nep1-catalyzed methylation is located within loop 35 of the 18S rRNA that contains the unique hypermodification of U1191 to 1-methyl-3-(3-amino-3-carboxypropyl)-pseudouri-dine (m1acp3Ψ). Specific (14)C-methionine labelling of 18S rRNA in yeast mutants showed that Nep1 is not required for acp-modification but suggested a function in Ψ1191 methylation. ESI MS analysis of acp-modified Ψ-nucleosides in a Δnep1-mutant showed that Nep1 catalyzes the Ψ1191 methylation in vivo. Remarkably, the restored growth of a nep1-1(ts) mutant upon addition of S-adenosylmethionine was even observed after preventing U1191 methylation in a Δsnr35 mutant. This strongly suggests a dual Nep1 function, as Ψ1191-methyltransferase and ribosome assembly factor. Interestingly, the Nep1 methyltransferase activity is not affected upon introduction of the BCS mutation. Instead, the mutated protein shows enhanced dimerization propensity and increased affinity for its RNA-target in vitro. Furthermore, the BCS mutation prevents nucleolar accumulation of Nep1, which could be the reason for reduced growth in yeast and the Bowen-Conradi syndrome.

  17. Molecular identification of carnosine N-methyltransferase as chicken histamine N-methyltransferase-like protein (hnmt-like).

    PubMed

    Drozak, Jakub; Chrobok, Lukasz; Poleszak, Olga; Jagielski, Adam K; Derlacz, Rafal

    2013-01-01

    Anserine (beta-alanyl-N(Pi)-methyl-L-histidine), a naturally occurring derivative of carnosine (beta-alanyl-L-histidine), is an abundant constituent of skeletal muscles and brain of many vertebrates. Although it has long been proposed to serve as a proton buffer, radicals scavenger and transglycating agent, its physiological function remains obscure. The formation of anserine is catalyzed by carnosine N-methyltransferase which exhibits unknown molecular identity. In the present investigation, we have purified carnosine N-methyltransferase from chicken pectoral muscle about 640-fold until three major polypeptides of about 23, 26 and 37 kDa coeluting with the enzyme were identified in the preparation. Mass spectrometry analysis of these polypeptides resulted in an identification of histamine N-methyltransferase-like (HNMT-like) protein as the only meaningful candidate. Analysis of GenBank database records indicated that the hnmt-like gene might be a paralogue of histamine N-methyltransferase gene, while comparison of their protein sequences suggested that HNMT-like protein might have acquired a new activity. Chicken HNMT-like protein was expressed in COS-7 cells, purified to homogeneity, and shown to catalyze the formation of anserine as confirmed by both chromatographic and mass spectrometry analysis. Both specificity and kinetic studies carried out on the native and recombinant enzyme were in agreement with published data. Particularly, several compounds structurally related to carnosine, including histamine and L-histidine, were tested as potential substrates for the enzyme, and carnosine was the only methyl group acceptor. The identification of the gene encoding carnosine N-methyltransferase might be beneficial for estimation of the biological functions of anserine.

  18. Molecular Identification of Carnosine N-Methyltransferase as Chicken Histamine N-Methyltransferase-Like Protein (HNMT-Like)

    PubMed Central

    Drozak, Jakub; Chrobok, Lukasz; Poleszak, Olga; Jagielski, Adam K.; Derlacz, Rafal

    2013-01-01

    Anserine (beta-alanyl-N(Pi)-methyl-L-histidine), a naturally occurring derivative of carnosine (beta-alanyl-L-histidine), is an abundant constituent of skeletal muscles and brain of many vertebrates. Although it has long been proposed to serve as a proton buffer, radicals scavenger and transglycating agent, its physiological function remains obscure. The formation of anserine is catalyzed by carnosine N-methyltransferase which exhibits unknown molecular identity. In the present investigation, we have purified carnosine N-methyltransferase from chicken pectoral muscle about 640-fold until three major polypeptides of about 23, 26 and 37 kDa coeluting with the enzyme were identified in the preparation. Mass spectrometry analysis of these polypeptides resulted in an identification of histamine N-methyltransferase-like (HNMT-like) protein as the only meaningful candidate. Analysis of GenBank database records indicated that the hnmt-like gene might be a paralogue of histamine N-methyltransferase gene, while comparison of their protein sequences suggested that HNMT-like protein might have acquired a new activity. Chicken HNMT-like protein was expressed in COS-7 cells, purified to homogeneity, and shown to catalyze the formation of anserine as confirmed by both chromatographic and mass spectrometry analysis. Both specificity and kinetic studies carried out on the native and recombinant enzyme were in agreement with published data. Particularly, several compounds structurally related to carnosine, including histamine and L-histidine, were tested as potential substrates for the enzyme, and carnosine was the only methyl group acceptor. The identification of the gene encoding carnosine N-methyltransferase might be beneficial for estimation of the biological functions of anserine. PMID:23705015

  19. rRNA transcription rate in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed Central

    Gotta, S L; Miller, O L; French, S L

    1991-01-01

    The rate of in vivo transcription elongation for Escherichia coli rRNA operons was determined by electron microscopy following addition of rifampin to log-phase cultures. Direct observation of RNA polymerase positions along rRNA operons 30, 40, and 70 s after inhibition of transcription initiation yielded a transcription elongation rate of 42 nucleotides per s. Images FIG. 1 PMID:1717439

  20. Zika Virus Methyltransferase: Structure and Functions for Drug Design Perspectives.

    PubMed

    Coutard, Bruno; Barral, Karine; Lichière, Julie; Selisko, Barbara; Martin, Baptiste; Aouadi, Wahiba; Lombardia, Miguel Ortiz; Debart, Françoise; Vasseur, Jean-Jacques; Guillemot, Jean Claude; Canard, Bruno; Decroly, Etienne

    2017-03-01

    The Flavivirus Zika virus (ZIKV) is the causal agent of neurological disorders like microcephaly in newborns or Guillain-Barre syndrome. Its NS5 protein embeds a methyltransferase (MTase) domain involved in the formation of the viral mRNA cap. We investigated the structural and functional properties of the ZIKV MTase. We show that the ZIKV MTase can methylate RNA cap structures at the N-7 position of the cap, and at the 2'-O position on the ribose of the first nucleotide, yielding a cap-1 structure. In addition, the ZIKV MTase methylates the ribose 2'-O position of internal adenosines of RNA substrates. The crystal structure of the ZIKV MTase determined at a 2.01-Å resolution reveals a crystallographic homodimer. One chain is bound to the methyl donor (S-adenosyl-l-methionine [SAM]) and shows a high structural similarity to the dengue virus (DENV) MTase. The second chain lacks SAM and displays conformational changes in the αX α-helix contributing to the SAM and RNA binding. These conformational modifications reveal a possible molecular mechanism of the enzymatic turnover involving a conserved Ser/Arg motif. In the second chain, the SAM binding site accommodates a sulfate close to a glycerol that could serve as a basis for structure-based drug design. In addition, compounds known to inhibit the DENV MTase show similar inhibition potency on the ZIKV MTase. Altogether these results contribute to a better understanding of the ZIKV MTase, a central player in viral replication and host innate immune response, and lay the basis for the development of potential antiviral drugs.IMPORTANCE The Zika virus (ZIKV) is associated with microcephaly in newborns, and other neurological disorders such as Guillain-Barre syndrome. It is urgent to develop antiviral strategies inhibiting the viral replication. The ZIKV NS5 embeds a methyltransferase involved in the viral mRNA capping process, which is essential for viral replication and control of virus detection by innate immune

  1. Zika Virus Methyltransferase: Structure and Functions for Drug Design Perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Coutard, Bruno; Barral, Karine; Lichière, Julie; Selisko, Barbara; Martin, Baptiste; Aouadi, Wahiba; Lombardia, Miguel Ortiz; Debart, Françoise; Vasseur, Jean-Jacques; Guillemot, Jean Claude; Canard, Bruno

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The Flavivirus Zika virus (ZIKV) is the causal agent of neurological disorders like microcephaly in newborns or Guillain-Barre syndrome. Its NS5 protein embeds a methyltransferase (MTase) domain involved in the formation of the viral mRNA cap. We investigated the structural and functional properties of the ZIKV MTase. We show that the ZIKV MTase can methylate RNA cap structures at the N-7 position of the cap, and at the 2′-O position on the ribose of the first nucleotide, yielding a cap-1 structure. In addition, the ZIKV MTase methylates the ribose 2′-O position of internal adenosines of RNA substrates. The crystal structure of the ZIKV MTase determined at a 2.01-Å resolution reveals a crystallographic homodimer. One chain is bound to the methyl donor (S-adenosyl-l-methionine [SAM]) and shows a high structural similarity to the dengue virus (DENV) MTase. The second chain lacks SAM and displays conformational changes in the αX α-helix contributing to the SAM and RNA binding. These conformational modifications reveal a possible molecular mechanism of the enzymatic turnover involving a conserved Ser/Arg motif. In the second chain, the SAM binding site accommodates a sulfate close to a glycerol that could serve as a basis for structure-based drug design. In addition, compounds known to inhibit the DENV MTase show similar inhibition potency on the ZIKV MTase. Altogether these results contribute to a better understanding of the ZIKV MTase, a central player in viral replication and host innate immune response, and lay the basis for the development of potential antiviral drugs. IMPORTANCE The Zika virus (ZIKV) is associated with microcephaly in newborns, and other neurological disorders such as Guillain-Barre syndrome. It is urgent to develop antiviral strategies inhibiting the viral replication. The ZIKV NS5 embeds a methyltransferase involved in the viral mRNA capping process, which is essential for viral replication and control of virus detection by

  2. Downregulation of rRNA transcription triggers cell differentiation.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Yuki; Kuroda, Takao; Kishimoto, Hiroyuki; Wang, Changshan; Iwama, Atsushi; Kimura, Keiji

    2014-01-01

    Responding to various stimuli is indispensable for the maintenance of homeostasis. The downregulation of ribosomal RNA (rRNA) transcription is one of the mechanisms involved in the response to stimuli by various cellular processes, such as cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. Cell differentiation is caused by intra- and extracellular stimuli and is associated with the downregulation of rRNA transcription as well as reduced cell growth. The downregulation of rRNA transcription during differentiation is considered to contribute to reduced cell growth. However, the downregulation of rRNA transcription can induce various cellular processes; therefore, it may positively regulate cell differentiation. To test this possibility, we specifically downregulated rRNA transcription using actinomycin D or a siRNA for Pol I-specific transcription factor IA (TIF-IA) in HL-60 and THP-1 cells, both of which have differentiation potential. The inhibition of rRNA transcription induced cell differentiation in both cell lines, which was demonstrated by the expression of the common differentiation marker CD11b. Furthermore, TIF-IA knockdown in an ex vivo culture of mouse hematopoietic stem cells increased the percentage of myeloid cells and reduced the percentage of immature cells. We also evaluated whether differentiation was induced via the inhibition of cell cycle progression because rRNA transcription is tightly coupled to cell growth. We found that cell cycle arrest without affecting rRNA transcription did not induce differentiation. To the best of our knowledge, our results demonstrate the first time that the downregulation of rRNA levels could be a trigger for the induction of differentiation in mammalian cells. Furthermore, this phenomenon was not simply a reflection of cell cycle arrest. Our results provide a novel insight into the relationship between rRNA transcription and cell differentiation.

  3. Halomethane:Bisulfide/Halide Ion Methyltransferase, an Unusual Corrinoid Enzyme of Environmental Significance Isolated from an Aerobic Methylotroph Using Chloromethane as the Sole Carbon Source

    PubMed Central

    Coulter, Catherine; Hamilton, John T. G.; McRoberts, W. Colin; Kulakov, Leonid; Larkin, Michael J.; Harper, David B.

    1999-01-01

    A novel dehalogenating/transhalogenating enzyme, halomethane:bisulfide/halide ion methyltransferase, has been isolated from the facultatively methylotrophic bacterium strain CC495, which uses chloromethane (CH3Cl) as the sole carbon source. Purification of the enzyme to homogeneity was achieved in high yield by anion-exchange chromatography and gel filtration. The methyltransferase was composed of a 67-kDa protein with a corrinoid-bound cobalt atom. The purified enzyme was inactive but was activated by preincubation with 5 mM dithiothreitol and 0.5 mM CH3Cl; then it catalyzed methyl transfer from CH3Cl, CH3Br, or CH3I to the following acceptor ions (in order of decreasing efficacy): I−, HS−, Cl−, Br−, NO2−, CN−, and SCN−. Spectral analysis indicated that cobalt in the native enzyme existed as cob(II)alamin, which upon activation was reduced to the cob(I)alamin state and then was oxidized to methyl cob(III)alamin. During catalysis, the enzyme shuttles between the methyl cob(III)alamin and cob(I)alamin states, being alternately demethylated by the acceptor ion and remethylated by halomethane. Mechanistically the methyltransferase shows features in common with cobalamin-dependent methionine synthase from Escherichia coli. However, the failure of specific inhibitors of methionine synthase such as propyl iodide, N2O, and Hg2+ to affect the methyltransferase suggests significant differences. During CH3Cl degradation by strain CC495, the physiological acceptor ion for the enzyme is probably HS−, a hypothesis supported by the detection in cell extracts of methanethiol oxidase and formaldehyde dehydrogenase activities which provide a metabolic route to formate. 16S rRNA sequence analysis indicated that strain CC495 clusters with Rhizobium spp. in the alpha subdivision of the Proteobacteria and is closely related to strain IMB-1, a recently isolated CH3Br-degrading bacterium (T. L. Connell Hancock, A. M. Costello, M. E. Lidstrom, and R. S. Oremland, Appl

  4. Accessing Protein Methyltransferase and Demethylase Enzymology Using Microfluidic Capillary Electrophoresis

    PubMed Central

    Wigle, Tim J.; Provencher, Laurel M.; Norris, Jacqueline L.; Jin, Jian; Brown, Peter J.; Frye, Stephen V.; Janzen, William P.

    2010-01-01

    Summary The discovery of small molecules targeting the > 80 enzymes that add (methyltransferases) or remove (demethylases) methyl marks from lysine and arginine residues, most notably present in histone tails, may yield unprecedented chemotherapeutic agents and facilitate regenerative medicine. To better enable chemical exploration of these proteins, we have developed a novel and highly quantitative microfluidic capillary electrophoresis assay to enable full mechanistic studies of these enzymes and the kinetics of their inhibition. This technology separates small biomolecules, i.e., peptides, based on their charge-to-mass ratio. Methylation, however, does not alter the charge of peptide substrates. To overcome this limitation, we have employed a methylation-sensitive endoproteinase strategy to separate methylated from unmethylated peptides. The assay was validated on a lysine methyltransferase (G9a) and a lysine demethylase (LSD1) and was employed to investigate the inhibition of G9a by small molecules. PMID:20659682

  5. Protein Methyltransferases: A Distinct, Diverse, and Dynamic Family of Enzymes.

    PubMed

    Boriack-Sjodin, P Ann; Swinger, Kerren K

    2016-03-22

    Methyltransferase proteins make up a superfamily of enzymes that add one or more methyl groups to substrates that include protein, DNA, RNA, and small molecules. The subset of proteins that act upon arginine and lysine side chains are characterized as epigenetic targets because of their activity on histone molecules and their ability to affect transcriptional regulation. However, it is now clear that these enzymes target other protein substrates, as well, greatly expanding their potential impact on normal and disease biology. Protein methyltransferases are well-characterized structurally. In addition to revealing the overall architecture of the subfamilies of enzymes, structures of complexes with substrates and ligands have permitted detailed analysis of biochemical mechanism, substrate recognition, and design of potent and selective inhibitors. This review focuses on how knowledge gained from structural studies has impacted the understanding of this large class of epigenetic enzymes.

  6. DNA methyltransferase-1 inhibitors as epigenetic therapy for cancer.

    PubMed

    Singh, Varinder; Sharma, Prince; Capalash, Neena

    2013-05-01

    DNA methylation is an epigenetic modification involved in gene expression regulation. In cancer, the DNA methylation pattern becomes aberrant, causing an array of tumor suppressor genes to undergo promoter hypermethylation and become transcriptionally silent. Reexpression of methylation silenced tumor suppressor genes by inhibiting the DNA methyltransferases (DNMT1, DNMT3A, and DNMT3B) has emerged as an effective strategy against cancer. The expression of DNA methyltransferase 1 (DNMT1) being high in S-phase of cell cycle makes it a specific target for methylation inhibition in rapidly dividing cells as in cancer. This review discusses nucleoside analogues (azacytidine, decitabine, zebularine, SGI-110, CP-4200), non-nucleoside ihibitors both synthetic (hydralazine, RG108, procaine, procainamide, IM25, disulfiram) and natural compounds (curcumin, genistein, EGCG, resveratrol, equol, parthenolide) which act through different mechanisms to inhibit DNMTs. The issues of bioavailability, toxicity, side effects, hypomethylation resistance and combinatorial therapies have also been highlighted.

  7. Cobalamin-dependent and cobamide-dependent methyltransferases.

    PubMed

    Matthews, Rowena G; Koutmos, Markos; Datta, Supratim

    2008-12-01

    Methyltransferases that employ cobalamin cofactors, or their analogs the cobamides, as intermediates in catalysis of methyl transfer play vital roles in energy generation in anaerobic unicellular organisms. In a broader range of organisms they are involved in the conversion of homocysteine to methionine. Although the individual methyl transfer reactions catalyzed are simple S(N)2 displacements, the required change in coordination at the cobalt of the cobalamin or cobamide cofactors and the lability of the reduced Co(+1) intermediates introduces the necessity for complex conformational changes during the catalytic cycle. Recent spectroscopic and structural studies on several of these methyltransferases have helped to reveal the strategies by which these conformational changes are facilitated and controlled.

  8. rmtD2, a New Allele of a 16S rRNA Methylase Gene, Has Been Present in Enterobacteriaceae Isolates from Argentina for More than a Decade ▿

    PubMed Central

    Tijet, Nathalie; Andres, Patricia; Chung, Catherine; Lucero, Celeste; Low, Donald E.; Galas, Marcelo; Corso, Alejandra; Petroni, Alejandro; Melano, Roberto G.

    2011-01-01

    The first allele of a 16S rRNA methyltransferase gene, rmtD2, conferring very high resistance to all clinically available aminoglycosides, was detected in 7/1,064 enterobacteria collected in 2007. rmtD2 was located on a conjugative plasmid in a Tn2670-like element inside a structure similar to that of rmtD1 but probably having an independent assembly. rmtD2 has been found since 1996 to 1998 mainly in Enterobacter and Citrobacter isolates, suggesting a possible reservoir in these genera. This presumption deserves monitoring by continuous surveillance. PMID:21078935

  9. rmtD2, a new allele of a 16S rRNA methylase gene, has been present in Enterobacteriaceae isolates from Argentina for more than a decade.

    PubMed

    Tijet, Nathalie; Andres, Patricia; Chung, Catherine; Lucero, Celeste; Low, Donald E; Galas, Marcelo; Corso, Alejandra; Petroni, Alejandro; Melano, Roberto G

    2011-02-01

    The first allele of a 16S rRNA methyltransferase gene, rmtD2, conferring very high resistance to all clinically available aminoglycosides, was detected in 7/1,064 enterobacteria collected in 2007. rmtD2 was located on a conjugative plasmid in a Tn2670-like element inside a structure similar to that of rmtD1 but probably having an independent assembly. rmtD2 has been found since 1996 to 1998 mainly in Enterobacter and Citrobacter isolates, suggesting a possible reservoir in these genera. This presumption deserves monitoring by continuous surveillance.

  10. [Bioinformatics analysis and expressed level of histone methyltransferase genes in Lonicera japonica].

    PubMed

    Qi, Lin-jie; Yuan, Yuan; Huang, Lu-qi; Long, Ping; Zha, Liang-ping; Wang, Yao-long

    2015-06-01

    Twenty-three histone methyltransferase genes were obtained from transcriptome dataset of Lonicera japonica. The nucleotide and proteins characteristics, subcellular localization, senior structural domains and conservative forecasting were analyzed. The result of phylogenetic tree showed that 23 histone methyltransferases were mainly divided into two groups: lysine methyltransferase and arginine methyltransferases. The result of gene expression showed that 23 histone methyltransferases showed preference in terms of interspecies and organs. They were more expressed in buds of L. japonica than in L. japonica var. chinensis and lower in leaves of L. japonica than in L. japonica var. chinensis. Eight genes were specific expressed in flower. These results provided basis for further understanding the function of histone methyltransferase and epigenetic regulation of active ingredients of L. japonica.

  11. Plant isoflavone and isoflavanone O-methyltransferase genes

    DOEpatents

    Broeckling, Bettina E.; Liu, Chang-Jun; Dixon, Richard A.

    2014-08-19

    The invention provides enzymes that encode O-methyltransferases (OMTs) from Medicago truncatula that allow modification to plant (iso)flavonoid biosynthetic pathways. In certain aspects of the invention, the genes encoding these enzymes are provided. The invention therefore allows the modification of plants for isoflavonoid content. Transgenic plants comprising such enzymes are also provided, as well as methods for improving disease resistance in plants. Methods for producing food and nutraceuticals, and the resulting compositions, are also provided.

  12. Hepatitis viruses exploitation of host DNA methyltransferases functions.

    PubMed

    Pazienza, Valerio; Panebianco, Concetta; Andriulli, Angelo

    2016-08-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV) and Delta (HDV) infections are a global health burden. With different routes of infection and biology, HBV, HCV and HDV are capable to induce liver cirrhosis and cancer by impinging on epigenetic mechanisms altering host cell's pathways. In the present manuscript, we reviewed the published studies taking into account the relationship between the hepatitis viruses and the DNA methyltransferases proteins.

  13. Structural basis of Zika virus methyltransferase inhibition by sinefungin.

    PubMed

    Hercik, Kamil; Brynda, Jiri; Nencka, Radim; Boura, Evzen

    2017-03-29

    Zika virus is considered a major global threat to human kind. Here, we present a crystal structure of one of its essential enzymes, the methyltransferase, with the inhibitor sinefungin. This structure, together with previously solved structures with bound substrates, will provide the information needed for rational inhibitor design. Based on the structural data we suggest the modification of the adenine moiety of sinefungin to increase selectivity and to covalently link it to a GTP analogue, to increase the affinity of the synthesized compounds.

  14. An Arabidopsis thaliana methyltransferase Capable of Methylating Farnesoic Acid

    SciTech Connect

    Yang,Y.; Yuan, J.; Ross, J.; Noel, J.; Pichersky, E.

    2006-01-01

    We previously reported the identification of a new family of plant methyltransferases (MTs), named the SABATH family, that use S-adenosyl-l-methionine (SAM) to methylate a carboxyl moiety or a nitrogen-containing functional group on a diverse array of plant compounds. The Arabidopsis genome alone contains 24 distinct SABATH genes. To identify the catalytic specificities of members of this protein family in Arabidopsis, we screened recombinantly expressed and purified enzymes with a large number of potential substrates. Here, we report that the Arabidopsis thaliana gene At3g44860 encodes a protein with high catalytic specificity towards farnesoic acid (FA). Under steady-state conditions, this farnesoic acid carboxyl methyltransferase (FAMT) exhibits K{sub M} values of 41 and 71 {mu}M for FA and SAM, respectively. A three-dimensional model of FAMT constructed based upon similarity to the experimentally determined structure of Clarkia breweri salicylic acid methyltransferase (SAMT) suggests a reasonable model for FA recognition in the FAMT active site. In plants, the mRNA levels of At3g44860 increase in response to the exogenous addition of several compounds previously shown to induce plant defense responses at the transcriptional level. Although methyl farnesoate (MeFA) has not yet been detected in Arabidopsis, the presence of a FA-specific carboxyl methyltransferase in Arabidopsis capable of producing MeFA, an insect juvenile hormone made by some plants as a presumed defense against insect herbivory, suggests that MeFA or chemically similar compounds are likely to serve as new specialized metabolites in Arabidopsis.

  15. Retinoic acid inhibits histone methyltransferase Whsc1 during palatogenesis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shiying; Higashihori, Norihisa; Yahiro, Kohei; Moriyama, Keiji

    2015-03-13

    Cleft lip with or without palate (CL/P) is a common congenital anomaly in humans and is thought to be caused by genetic and environmental factors. However, the epigenetic mechanisms underlying orofacial clefts are not fully understood. Here, we investigate how the overdose of retinoic acid (RA), which can induce cleft palate in mice and humans, regulates histone methyltransferase, Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome candidate 1 (WHSC1) during palatal development in mice. We treated mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) with 1 μM all-trans RA and discovered that the global level of H3K36me3 was downregulated and that expression of the H3K36 methyltransferase gene, Whsc1, was reduced. The expression level of WHSC1 in embryonic palatal shelves was reduced during palatogenesis, following maternal administration of 100 mg/kg body weight of RA by gastric intubation. Furthermore, the expression of WHSC1 in palatal shelves was observed in epithelial and mesenchymal cells at all stages, suggesting an important role for palatal development. Our results suggest that the pathogenesis of cleft palate observed after excessive RA exposure is likely to be associated with a reduction in the histone methyltransferase, WHSC1. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Structural characterization of the mitomycin 7-O-methyltransferase

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, Shanteri; Chang, Aram; Goff, Randal D.; Bingman, Craig A.; Grüschow, Sabine; Sherman, David H.; Phillips, Jr., George N.; Thorson, Jon S.

    2014-10-02

    Mitomycins are quinone-containing antibiotics, widely used as antitumor drugs in chemotherapy. Mitomycin-7-O-methyltransferase (MmcR), a key tailoring enzyme involved in the biosynthesis of mitomycin in Streptomyces lavendulae, catalyzes the 7-O-methylation of both C9{beta}- and C9{alpha}-configured 7-hydroxymitomycins. We have determined the crystal structures of the MmcR-S-adenosylhomocysteine (SAH) binary complex and MmcR-SAH-mitomycin A (MMA) ternary complex at resolutions of 1.9 and 2.3 {angstrom}, respectively. The study revealed MmcR to adopt a common S-adenosyl-L-methionine-dependent O-methyltransferase fold and the presence of a structurally conserved active site general acid-base pair is consistent with a proton-assisted methyltransfer common to most methyltransferases. Given the importance of C7 alkylation to modulate mitomycin redox potential, this study may also present a template toward the future engineering of catalysts to generate uniquely bioactive mitomycins.

  17. The Schizosaccharomyces pombe cho1+ gene encodes a phospholipid methyltransferase.

    PubMed Central

    Kanipes, M I; Hill, J E; Henry, S A

    1998-01-01

    The isolation of mutants of Schizosaccharomyces pombe defective in the synthesis of phosphatidylcholine via the methylation of phosphatidylethanolamine is reported. These mutants are choline auxotrophs and fall into two unlinked complementation groups, cho1 and cho2. We also report the analysis of the cho1+ gene, the first structural gene encoding a phospholipid biosynthetic enzyme from S. pombe to be cloned and characterized. The cho1+ gene disruption mutant (cho1Delta) is viable if choline is supplied and resembles the cho1 mutants isolated after mutagenesis. Sequence analysis of the cho1+ gene indicates that it encodes a protein closely related to phospholipid methyltransferases from Saccharomyces cerevisiae and rat. Phospholipid methyltransferases encoded by a rat liver cDNA and the S. cerevisiae OPI3 gene are both able to complement the choline auxotrophy of the S. pombe cho1 mutants. These results suggest that both the structure and function of the phospholipid N-methyltransferases are broadly conserved among eukaryotic organisms. PMID:9755189

  18. Dual function of C/D box small nucleolar RNAs in rRNA modification and alternative pre-mRNA splicing.

    PubMed

    Falaleeva, Marina; Pages, Amadis; Matuszek, Zaneta; Hidmi, Sana; Agranat-Tamir, Lily; Korotkov, Konstantin; Nevo, Yuval; Eyras, Eduardo; Sperling, Ruth; Stamm, Stefan

    2016-03-22

    C/D box small nucleolar RNAs (SNORDs) are small noncoding RNAs, and their best-understood function is to target the methyltransferase fibrillarin to rRNA (for example, SNORD27 performs 2'-O-methylation of A27 in 18S rRNA). Unexpectedly, we found a subset of SNORDs, including SNORD27, in soluble nuclear extract made under native conditions, where fibrillarin was not detected, indicating that a fraction of the SNORD27 RNA likely forms a protein complex different from canonical snoRNAs found in the insoluble nuclear fraction. As part of this previously unidentified complex,SNORD27 regulates the alternative splicing of the transcription factor E2F7p re-mRNA through direct RNA-RNA interaction without methylating the RNA, likely by competing with U1 small nuclear ribonucleoprotein (snRNP). Furthermore, knockdown of SNORD27 activates previously "silent" exons in several other genes through base complementarity across the entire SNORD27 sequence, not just the antisense boxes. Thus, some SNORDs likely function in both rRNA and pre-mRNA processing, which increases the repertoire of splicing regulators and links both processes.

  19. Isolation and identification by sequence homology of a putative cytosine methyltransferase from Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed Central

    Finnegan, E J; Dennis, E S

    1993-01-01

    A plant cytosine methyltransferase cDNA was isolated using degenerate oligonucleotides, based on homology between prokaryote and mouse methyltransferases, and PCR to amplify a short fragment of a methyltransferase gene. A fragment of the predicted size was amplified from genomic DNA from Arabidopsis thaliana. Overlapping cDNA clones, some with homology to the PCR amplified fragment, were identified and sequenced. The assembled nucleic acid sequence is 4720 bp and encodes a protein of 1534 amino acids which has significant homology to prokaryote and mammalian cytosine methyltransferases. Like mammalian methylases, this enzyme has a C terminal methyltransferase domain linked to a second larger domain. The Arabidopsis methylase has eight of the ten conserved sequence motifs found in prokaryote cytosine-5 methyltransferases and shows 50% homology to the murine enzyme in the methyltransferase domain. The amino terminal domain is only 24% homologous to the murine enzyme and lacks the zinc binding region that has been found in methyltransferases from both mouse and man. In contrast to mouse where a single methyltransferase gene has been identified, a small multigene family with homology to the region amplified in PCR has been identified in Arabidopsis thaliana. Images PMID:8389441

  20. Functional analysis of BamHI DNA cytosine-N4 methyltransferase.

    PubMed

    Lindstrom, William M; Malygin, Ernst G; Ovechkina, Lidiya G; Zinoviev, Victor V; Reich, Norbert O

    2003-01-24

    We show that the kinetic mechanism of the DNA (cytosine-N(4)-)-methyltransferase M.BamHI, which modifies the underlined cytosine (GGATCC), differs from cytosine C(5) methyltransferases, and is similar to that observed with adenine N(6) methyltransferases. This suggests that the obligate order of ternary complex assembly and disassembly depends on the type of methylation reaction. In contrast, the single-turnover rate of catalysis for M.BamHI (0.10s(-1)) is closer to the DNA (cytosine-C(5)-)-methyltransferases (0.14s(-1)) than the DNA (adenine-N(6)-)-methyltransferases (>200s(-1)). The nucleotide flipping transition dominates the single-turnover constant for adenine N(6) methyltransferases, and, since the disruption of the guanine-cytosine base-pair is essential for both types of cytosine DNA methyltransferases, this transition may be a common, rate-limiting step for methylation for these two enzyme subclasses. The similar overall rate of catalysis by M.BamHI and other DNA methyltransferases is consistent with a common rate-limiting catalytic step of product dissociation. Our analyses of M.BamHI provide functional insights into the relationship between the three different classes of DNA methyltransferases that complement both prior structural and evolutionary insights.

  1. The Expression of Antibiotic Resistance Methyltransferase Correlates with mRNA Stability Independently of Ribosome Stalling

    PubMed Central

    Dzyubak, Ekaterina

    2016-01-01

    Members of the Erm methyltransferase family modify 23S rRNA of the bacterial ribosome and render cross-resistance to macrolides and multiple distantly related antibiotics. Previous studies have shown that the expression of erm is activated when a macrolide-bound ribosome stalls the translation of the leader peptide preceding the cotranscribed erm. Ribosome stalling is thought to destabilize the inhibitory stem-loop mRNA structure and exposes the erm Shine-Dalgarno (SD) sequence for translational initiation. Paradoxically, mutations that abolish ribosome stalling are routinely found in hyper-resistant clinical isolates; however, the significance of the stalling-dead leader sequence is largely unknown. Here, we show that nonsense mutations in the Staphylococcus aureus ErmB leader peptide (ErmBL) lead to high basal and induced expression of downstream ErmB in the absence or presence of macrolide concomitantly with elevated ribosome methylation and resistance. The overexpression of ErmB is associated with the reduced turnover of the ermBL-ermB transcript, and the macrolide appears to mitigate mRNA cleavage at a site immediately downstream of the ermBL SD sequence. The stabilizing effect of antibiotics on mRNA is not limited to ermBL-ermB; cationic antibiotics representing a ribosome-stalling inducer and a noninducer increase the half-life of specific transcripts. These data unveil a new layer of ermB regulation and imply that ErmBL translation or ribosome stalling serves as a “tuner” to suppress aberrant production of ErmB because methylated ribosome may impose a fitness cost on the bacterium as a result of misregulated translation. PMID:27645242

  2. Reconstructing 16S rRNA genes in metagenomic data.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Cheng; Lei, Jikai; Cole, James; Sun, Yanni

    2015-06-15

    Metagenomic data, which contains sequenced DNA reads of uncultured microbial species from environmental samples, provide a unique opportunity to thoroughly analyze microbial species that have never been identified before. Reconstructing 16S ribosomal RNA, a phylogenetic marker gene, is usually required to analyze the composition of the metagenomic data. However, massive volume of dataset, high sequence similarity between related species, skewed microbial abundance and lack of reference genes make 16S rRNA reconstruction difficult. Generic de novo assembly tools are not optimized for assembling 16S rRNA genes. In this work, we introduce a targeted rRNA assembly tool, REAGO (REconstruct 16S ribosomal RNA Genes from metagenOmic data). It addresses the above challenges by combining secondary structure-aware homology search, zproperties of rRNA genes and de novo assembly. Our experimental results show that our tool can correctly recover more rRNA genes than several popular generic metagenomic assembly tools and specially designed rRNA construction tools. The source code of REAGO is freely available at https://github.com/chengyuan/reago. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press.

  3. Transferable Resistance to Aminoglycosides by Methylation of G1405 in 16S rRNA and to Hydrophilic Fluoroquinolones by QepA-Mediated Efflux in Escherichia coli▿

    PubMed Central

    Périchon, Bruno; Courvalin, Patrice; Galimand, Marc

    2007-01-01

    Plasmid pIP1206 was detected in Escherichia coli strain 1540 during the screening of clinical isolates of Enterobacteriaceae for high-level resistance to aminoglycosides. The sequence of this IncFI conjugative plasmid of ca. 100 kb was partially determined. pIP1206 carried the rmtB gene for a ribosome methyltransferase that was shown to modify the N7 position of nucleotide G1405, located in the A site of 16S rRNA. It also contained the qepA (quinolone efflux pump) gene that encodes a 14-transmembrane-segment putative efflux pump belonging to the major facilitator superfamily of proton-dependent transporters. Disruption of membrane proton potential by the efflux pump inhibitor carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone in a transconjugant harboring the qepA gene resulted in elevation of norfloxacin accumulation. The transporter conferred resistance to the hydrophilic quinolones norfloxacin and ciprofloxacin. PMID:17470656

  4. Structural Biology of Human H3K9 Methyltransferases

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, H.; Min, J; Lunin, V; Antoshenko, T; Dombrovsk, L; Zeng, H; Allali-Hassani, A; Campagna-Slater, V; Vedadi, M; et. al.

    2010-01-01

    SET domain methyltransferases deposit methyl marks on specific histone tail lysine residues and play a major role in epigenetic regulation of gene transcription. We solved the structures of the catalytic domains of GLP, G9a, Suv39H2 and PRDM2, four of the eight known human H3K9 methyltransferases in their apo conformation or in complex with the methyl donating cofactor, and peptide substrates. We analyzed the structural determinants for methylation state specificity, and designed a G9a mutant able to tri-methylate H3K9. We show that the I-SET domain acts as a rigid docking platform, while induced-fit of the Post-SET domain is necessary to achieve a catalytically competent conformation. We also propose a model where long-range electrostatics bring enzyme and histone substrate together, while the presence of an arginine upstream of the target lysine is critical for binding and specificity. Post-translational modifications of histone proteins regulate chromatin compaction, mediate epigenetic regulation of transcription, and control cellular differentiation in health and disease. Methylation of histone tails is one of the fundamental events of epigenetic signaling. Tri-methylation of lysine 9 of histone 3 (H3K9) mediates chromatin recruitment of HP1, heterochromatin condensation and gene silencing. Similarly, methylation of H3K27 and H4K20 are associated with a repressed state of chromatin, whereas expressed genes are methylated at H3K4, H3K36 and H3K79. Histone methyltransferases are divided into protein arginine methyltransferases (PRMTs) and histone lysine methyltransferases (HKMTs). HKMTs catalyze the transfer of a methyl group from the co-factor S-adenosyl-L-methionine (SAM) to a substrate lysine and, with the exception of DOT1L, are all organized around a canonical SET domain. The structures of a number of HKMTs have been reported, including ternary complexes of human orthologs with co-factor and substrate peptides (SETD7-H3K4, SETD8-H4K20 and MLL1-H3K4), as well

  5. Benzo(A)pyrene induced glycine N-methyltransferase messenger rna expression in Fundulus heteroclitus embryos

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Glycine N-methyltransferase (GNMT) is a mediator in the methionine and folate cycles, and is responsible for the transfer of a methyl group from S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) to glycine forming S-adenosylhomocysteine (SAH) and sarcosine. All the known DNA methyltransferases use SAM as a methyl donor th...

  6. Protein arginine N-methyltransferase 1 promotes the proliferation and metastasis of hepatocellular carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Gou, Qing; He, ShuJiao; Zhou, ZeJian

    2017-02-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma is the most common subtype of liver cancer. Protein arginine N-methyltransferase 1 was shown to be upregulated in various cancers. However, the role of protein arginine N-methyltransferase 1 in hepatocellular carcinoma progression remains incompletely understood. We investigated the clinical and functional significance of protein arginine N-methyltransferase 1 in a series of clinical hepatocellular carcinoma samples and a panel of hepatocellular carcinoma cell lines. We performed suppression analysis of protein arginine N-methyltransferase 1 using small interfering RNA to determine the biological roles of protein arginine N-methyltransferase 1 in hepatocellular carcinoma. In addition, the expression of epithelial-mesenchymal transition indicators was verified by western blotting in hepatocellular carcinoma cell lines after small interfering RNA treatment. Protein arginine N-methyltransferase 1 expression was found to be significantly upregulated in hepatocellular carcinoma cell lines and clinical tissues. Moreover, downregulation of protein arginine N-methyltransferase 1 in hepatocellular carcinoma cells by small interfering RNA could inhibit cell proliferation, migration, and invasion in vitro. These results indicate that protein arginine N-methyltransferase 1 may contribute to hepatocellular carcinoma progression and serves as a promising target for the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma patients.

  7. Multimethylation of Rickettsia OmpB Catalyzed by Lysine Methyltransferases*

    PubMed Central

    Abeykoon, Amila; Wang, Guanghui; Chao, Chien-Chung; Chock, P. Boon; Gucek, Marjan; Ching, Wei-Mei; Yang, David C. H.

    2014-01-01

    Methylation of rickettsial OmpB (outer membrane protein B) has been implicated in bacterial virulence. Rickettsial methyltransferases RP789 and RP027-028 are the first biochemically characterized methyltransferases to catalyze methylation of outer membrane protein (OMP). Methylation in OMP remains poorly understood. Using semiquantitative integrated liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectroscopy, we characterize methylation of (i) recombinantly expressed fragments of Rickettsia typhi OmpB exposed in vitro to trimethyltransferases of Rickettsia prowazekii RP027-028 and of R. typhi RT0101 and to monomethyltransferases of R. prowazekii RP789 and of R. typhi RT0776, and (ii) native OmpBs purified from R. typhi and R. prowazekii strains Breinl, RP22, and Madrid E. We found that in vitro trimethylation occurs at relatively specific locations in OmpB with consensus motifs, KX(G/A/V/I)N and KT(I/L/F), whereas monomethylation is pervasive throughout OmpB. Native OmpB from virulent R. typhi contains mono- and trimethyllysines at locations well correlated with methylation in recombinant OmpB catalyzed by methyltransferases in vitro. Native OmpBs from highly virulent R. prowazekii strains Breinl and RP22 contain multiple clusters of trimethyllysine in contrast to a single cluster in OmpB from mildly virulent R. typhi. Furthermore, OmpB from the avirulent strain Madrid E contains mostly monomethyllysine and no trimethyllysine. The native OmpB from Madrid E was minimally trimethylated by RT0101 or RP027-028, consistent with a processive mechanism of trimethylation. This study provides the first in-depth characterization of methylation of an OMP at the molecular level and may lead to uncovering the link between OmpB methylation and rickettsial virulence. PMID:24497633

  8. A SABATH Methyltransferase from the moss Physcomitrella patens catalyzes

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, Nan; Ferrer, Jean-Luc; Moon, Hong S; Kapteyn, Jeremy; Zhuang, Xiaofeng; Hasebe, Mitsuyasu; Stewart, Neal C.; Gang, David R.; Chen, Feng

    2012-01-01

    Known SABATH methyltransferases, all of which were identified from seed plants, catalyze methylation of either the carboxyl group of a variety of low molecular weight metabolites or the nitrogen moiety of precursors of caffeine. In this study, the SABATH family from the bryophyte Physcomitrella patens was identified and characterized. Four SABATH-like sequences (PpSABATH1, PpSABATH2, PpSABATH3, and PpSABATH4) were identified from the P. patens genome. Only PpSABATH1 and PpSABATH2 showed expression in the leafy gametophyte of P. patens. Full-length cDNAs of PpSABATH1 and PpSABATH2 were cloned and expressed in soluble form in Escherichia coli. Recombinant PpSABATH1 and PpSABATH2 were tested for methyltransferase activity with a total of 75 compounds. While showing no activity with carboxylic acids or nitrogen-containing compounds, PpSABATH1 displayed methyltransferase activity with a number of thiols. PpSABATH2 did not show activity with any of the compounds tested. Among the thiols analyzed, PpSABATH1 showed the highest level of activity with thiobenzoic acid with an apparent Km value of 95.5 lM, which is comparable to those of known SABATHs. Using thiobenzoic acid as substrate, GC MS analysis indicated that the methylation catalyzed by PpSABATH1 is on the sulfur atom. The mechanism for S-methylation of thiols catalyzed by PpSABATH1 was partially revealed by homology-based structural modeling. The expression of PpSABATH1 was induced by the treatment of thiobenzoic acid. Further transgenic studies showed that tobacco plants overexpressing PpSABATH1 exhibited enhanced tolerance to thiobenzoic acid, suggesting that PpSABATH1 have a role in the detoxification of xenobiotic thiols.

  9. Functional Identification of Triterpene Methyltransferases from Botryococcus braunii Race B*

    PubMed Central

    Niehaus, Tom D.; Kinison, Scott; Okada, Shigeru; Yeo, Yun-soo; Bell, Stephen A.; Cui, Ping; Devarenne, Timothy P.; Chappell, Joe

    2012-01-01

    Botryococcus braunii race B is a colony-forming, green algae that accumulates triterpene oils in excess of 30% of its dry weight. The composition of the triterpene oils is dominated by dimethylated to tetramethylated forms of botryococcene and squalene. Although unusual mechanisms for the biosynthesis of botryococcene and squalene were recently described, the enzyme(s) responsible for decorating these triterpene scaffolds with methyl substituents were unknown. A transcriptome of B. braunii was screened computationally assuming that the triterpene methyltransferases (TMTs) might resemble the S-adenosyl methionine-dependent enzymes described for methylating the side chain of sterols. Six sterol methyltransferase-like genes were isolated and functionally characterized. Three of these genes when co-expressed in yeast with complementary squalene synthase or botryococcene synthase expression cassettes resulted in the accumulation of mono- and dimethylated forms of both triterpene scaffolds. Surprisingly, TMT-1 and TMT-2 exhibited preference for squalene as the methyl acceptor substrate, whereas TMT-3 showed a striking preference for botryococcene as its methyl acceptor substrate. These in vivo preferences were confirmed with in vitro assays utilizing microsomal preparations from yeast overexpressing the respective genes, which encode for membrane-associated enzymes. Structural examination of the in vivo yeast generated mono- and dimethylated products by NMR identified terminal carbons, C-3 and C-22/C-20, as the atomic acceptor sites for the methyl additions to squalene and botryococcene, respectively. These sites are identical to those previously reported for the triterpenes extracted from the algae. The availability of closely related triterpene methyltransferases exhibiting distinct substrate selectivity and successive catalytic activities provides important tools for investigating the molecular mechanisms responsible for the specificities exhibited by these unique

  10. Do cholinephosphotransferase and phosphatidylethanolamine methyltransferase synthesize different species of phosphatidylcholine

    SciTech Connect

    Shin, S.H.; Moore, T.S.

    1986-04-01

    Two pathways exist for phosphatidylcholine (PC) synthesis in castor bean endosperm. The major pathway utilizes the reaction; (CDPcholine + diacylglycerol ..-->.. PC + CMP) while the other is through (PE + 3 S-Adenosylmethioninie ..-->.. PC + 3 homocysteine). The reason for two pathways is not clear. In an effort to determine if they produce two different products, radioactive precursors (SAM and CDPcholine) were administered to isolated endoplasmic reticulum from the castor bean endosperm. The products were extracted, chromatographed on TLC, and the PC classes separated by argentation chromatography. The radioactivity was determined by a RTLC Scanner. By these methods, it has been determined that there are differences between the PC products of the methyltransferase and the cholinephosphotransferase.

  11. Purification and characterization of DNA methyltransferases from Neisseria gonorrhoeae.

    PubMed Central

    Piekarowicz, A; Yuan, R; Stein, D C

    1988-01-01

    Three DNA methyltransferases, M.NgoAI, and M.NgoBI and M.NgoBII, free of any nuclease activities were isolated from Neisseria gonorrhoeae strains WR220 and MUG116 respectively. M.NgoAI recognizes the sequence 5' GGCC 3' and methylates the first 5' cytosine on both strands. M.NgoBI and M.NgoBII recognize 5' TCACC 3' and 5' GTAN5CTC 3' respectively. M.NgoBII methylates cytosine on only one strand to produce 5' GTAN5mCTC 3'. Images PMID:3135534

  12. DNA Methyltransferase Accessibility Protocol for Individual Templates by Deep Sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Darst, Russell P.; Nabilsi, Nancy H.; Pardo, Carolina E.; Riva, Alberto; Kladde, Michael P.

    2013-01-01

    A single-molecule probe of chromatin structure can uncover dynamic chromatin states and rare epigenetic variants of biological importance that bulk measures of chromatin structure miss. In bisulfite genomic sequencing, each sequenced clone records the methylation status of multiple sites on an individual molecule of DNA. An exogenous DNA methyltransferase can thus be used to image nucleosomes and other protein–DNA complexes. In this chapter, we describe the adaptation of this technique, termed Methylation Accessibility Protocol for individual templates, to modern high-throughput sequencing, which both simplifies the workflow and extends its utility. PMID:22929770

  13. The Trimethylamine Methyltransferase Gene and Multiple Dimethylamine Methyltransferase Genes of Methanosarcina barkeri Contain In-Frame and Read-Through Amber Codons†

    PubMed Central

    Paul, Ligi; Ferguson, Donald J.; Krzycki, Joseph A.

    2000-01-01

    Three different methyltransferases initiate methanogenesis from trimethylamine (TMA), dimethylamine (DMA) or monomethylamine (MMA) by methylating different cognate corrinoid proteins that are subsequently used to methylate coenzyme M (CoM). Here, genes encoding the DMA and TMA methyltransferases are characterized for the first time. A single copy of mttB, the TMA methyltransferase gene, was cotranscribed with a copy of the DMA methyltransferase gene, mtbB1. However, two other nearly identical copies of mtbB1, designated mtbB2 and mtbB3, were also found in the genome. A 6.8-kb transcript was detected with probes to mttB and mtbB1, as well as to mtbC and mttC, encoding the cognate corrinoid proteins for DMA:CoM and TMA:CoM methyl transfer, respectively, and with probes to mttP, encoding a putative membrane protein which might function as a methylamine permease. These results indicate that these genes, found on the chromosome in the order mtbC, mttB, mttC, mttP, and mtbB1, form a single transcriptional unit. A transcriptional start site was detected 303 or 304 bp upstream of the translational start of mtbC. The MMA, DMA, and TMA methyltransferases are not homologs; however, like the MMA methyltransferase gene, the genes encoding the DMA and TMA methyltransferases each contain a single in-frame amber codon. Each of the three DMA methyltransferase gene copies from Methanosarcina barkeri contained an amber codon at the same position, followed by a downstream UAA or UGA codon. The C-terminal residues of DMA methyltransferase purified from TMA-grown cells matched the residues predicted for the gene products of mtbB1, mtbB2, or mtbB3 if termination occurred at the UAA or UGA codon rather than the in-frame amber codon. The mttB gene from Methanosarcina thermophila contained a UAG codon at the same position as the M. barkeri mttB gene. The UAG codon is also present in mttB transcripts. Thus, the genes encoding the three types of methyltransferases that initiate methanogenesis

  14. Catalytic site remodelling of the DOT1L methyltransferase by selective inhibitors

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, Wenyu; Chory, Emma J.; Wernimont, Amy K.; Tempel, Wolfram; Scopton, Alex; Federation, Alexander; Marineau, Jason J.; Qi, Jun; Barsyte-Lovejoy, Dalia; Yi, Joanna; Marcellus, Richard; Iacob, Roxana E.; Engen, John R.; Griffin, Carly; Aman, Ahmed; Wienholds, Erno; Li, Fengling; Pineda, Javier; Estiu, Guillermina; Shatseva, Tatiana; Hajian, Taraneh; Al-awar, Rima; Dick, John E.; Vedadi, Masoud; Brown, Peter J.; Arrowsmith, Cheryl H.; Bradner, James E.; Schapira, Matthieu

    2012-12-18

    Selective inhibition of protein methyltransferases is a promising new approach to drug discovery. An attractive strategy towards this goal is the development of compounds that selectively inhibit binding of the cofactor, S-adenosylmethionine, within specific protein methyltransferases. Here we report the three-dimensional structure of the protein methyltransferase DOT1L bound toEPZ004777, the first S-adenosylmethionine-competitive inhibitor of a protein methyltransferase with in vivo efficacy. This structure and those of four new analogues reveal remodelling of the catalytic site. EPZ004777 and a brominated analogue, SGC0946, inhibit DOT1L in vitro and selectively kill mixed lineage leukaemia cells, in which DOT1L is aberrantly localized via interaction with an oncogenic MLL fusion protein. These data provide important new insight into mechanisms of cell-active S-adenosylmethionine-competitive protein methyltransferase inhibitors, and establish a foundation for the further development of drug-like inhibitors of DOT1L for cancer therapy.

  15. Expression of exogenous DNA methyltransferases: application in molecular and cell biology.

    PubMed

    Dyachenko, O V; Tarlachkov, S V; Marinitch, D V; Shevchuk, T V; Buryanov, Y I

    2014-02-01

    DNA methyltransferases might be used as powerful tools for studies in molecular and cell biology due to their ability to recognize and modify nitrogen bases in specific sequences of the genome. Methylation of the eukaryotic genome using exogenous DNA methyltransferases appears to be a promising approach for studies on chromatin structure. Currently, the development of new methods for targeted methylation of specific genetic loci using DNA methyltransferases fused with DNA-binding proteins is especially interesting. In the present review, expression of exogenous DNA methyltransferase for purposes of in vivo analysis of the functional chromatin structure along with investigation of the functional role of DNA methylation in cell processes are discussed, as well as future prospects for application of DNA methyltransferases in epigenetic therapy and in plant selection.

  16. Complete Genome Sequence of ER2796, a DNA Methyltransferase-Deficient Strain of Escherichia coli K-12

    PubMed Central

    Anton, Brian P.; Mongodin, Emmanuel F.; Agrawal, Sonia; Fomenkov, Alexey; Byrd, Devon R.; Roberts, Richard J.; Raleigh, Elisabeth A.

    2015-01-01

    We report the complete sequence of ER2796, a laboratory strain of Escherichia coli K-12 that is completely defective in DNA methylation. Because of its lack of any native methylation, it is extremely useful as a host into which heterologous DNA methyltransferase genes can be cloned and the recognition sequences of their products deduced by Pacific Biosciences Single-Molecule Real Time (SMRT) sequencing. The genome was itself sequenced from a long-insert library using the SMRT platform, resulting in a single closed contig devoid of methylated bases. Comparison with K-12 MG1655, the first E. coli K-12 strain to be sequenced, shows an essentially co-linear relationship with no major rearrangements despite many generations of laboratory manipulation. The comparison revealed a total of 41 insertions and deletions, and 228 single base pair substitutions. In addition, the long-read approach facilitated the surprising discovery of four gene conversion events, three involving rRNA operons and one between two cryptic prophages. Such events thus contribute both to genomic homogenization and to bacteriophage diversification. As one of relatively few laboratory strains of E. coli to be sequenced, the genome also reveals the sequence changes underlying a number of classical mutant alleles including those affecting the various native DNA methylation systems. PMID:26010885

  17. Detection of a cfr(B) Variant in German Enterococcus faecium Clinical Isolates and the Impact on Linezolid Resistance in Enterococcus spp.

    PubMed Central

    Fleige, Carola; Klare, Ingo; Fiedler, Stefan; Mischnik, Alexander; Mutters, Nico T.; Dingle, Kate E.; Werner, Guido

    2016-01-01

    The National Reference Centre for Staphylococci and Enterococci in Germany has received an increasing number of clinical linezolid-resistant E. faecium isolates in recent years. Five isolates harbored a cfr(B) variant gene locus the product of which is capable of conferring linezolid resistance. The cfr(B)-like methyltransferase gene was also detected in Clostridium difficile. Antimicrobial susceptibility was determined for cfr(B)-positive and linezolid-resistant E. faecium isolates and two isogenic C. difficile strains. All strains were subjected to whole genome sequencing and analyzed with respect to mutations in the 23S rDNA, rplC, rplD and rplV genes and integration sites of the cfr(B) variant locus. To evaluate methyltransferase function, the cfr(B) variant of Enterococcus and Clostridium was expressed in both E. coli and Enterococcus spp. Ribosomal target site mutations were detected in E. faecium strains but absent in clostridia. Sequencing revealed 99.9% identity between cfr(B) of Enterococcus and cfr of Clostridium. The methyltransferase gene is encoded by transposon Tn6218 which was present in C. difficile Ox3196, truncated in some E. faecium and absent in C. difficile Ox3206. The latter finding explains the lack of linezolid and chloramphenicol resistance in C. difficile Ox3206 and demonstrates for the first time a direct correlation of elevated linezolid MICs in C. difficile upon cfr acquisition. Tn6218 insertion sites revealed novel target loci for integration, both within the bacterial chromosome and as an integral part of plasmids. Importantly, the very first plasmid-association of a cfr(B) variant was observed. Although we failed to measure cfr(B)-mediated resistance in transformed laboratory strains the occurrence of the multidrug resistance gene cfr on putatively highly mobile and/or extrachromosomal DNA in clinical isolates is worrisome with respect to dissemination of antibiotic resistances. PMID:27893790

  18. Lipid substrate specificity of phosphatidylethanolamine N-methyltransferase of Tetrahymena

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, J.D.

    1986-05-01

    The ciliate protozoan Tetrahymena thermophila forms about 60% of its phosphatidylcholine by methylation of phosphatidylethanolamine with S-adenosylmethionine using the enzyme phosphatidylethanolamine N-methyltransferase. Analogues of ethanolamine or of ethanolamine phosphate are incorporated into the phospholipids of Tetrahymena when cells are cultured in their presence. These compounds, 3-amino-1-propanol, 2-aminoethylphosphonate, 3-aminopropylphosphonate and N,N-dimethylaminoethylphosphonate replace from 50 to 75% of the ethanolamine phosphate in phosphatidylethanolamine. However, analysis of the phospholipids of lipid-altered Tetrahymena showed that none of the phosphatidylethanolamine analogues had been converted to the corresponding phosphatidylcholine analogue. No incorration of (/sup 14/C-CH/sub 3/)methionine into the phosphatidylcholine analogues could be demonstrated in vivo, nor was label from (/sup 3/H-CH/sub 3/)S-adenosylmethionine incorporated in virto. Thus, only phosphatidylethanolamine and its monomethyl and dimethyl derivatives have been found to be substrates for the phosphatidylethanoiamine N-methyltransferase. The enzyme therefore requires a phospholipid substrate containing an ester linkage between the alkylamine and phosphorus, with the amino group required to be ..beta.. to the alcohol.

  19. Plasmodium falciparum phosphoethanolamine methyltransferase is essential for malaria transmission

    PubMed Central

    Bobenchik, April M.; Witola, William H.; Augagneur, Yoann; Nic Lochlainn, Laura; Garg, Aprajita; Pachikara, Niseema; Choi, Jae-Yeon; Zhao, Yang O.; Usmani-Brown, Sahar; Lee, Albert; Adjalley, Sophie H.; Samanta, Swapna; Fidock, David A.; Voelker, Dennis R.; Fikrig, Erol; Ben Mamoun, Choukri

    2013-01-01

    Efficient transmission of Plasmodium species between humans and Anopheles mosquitoes is a major contributor to the global burden of malaria. Gametocytogenesis, the process by which parasites switch from asexual replication within human erythrocytes to produce male and female gametocytes, is a critical step in malaria transmission and Plasmodium genetic diversity. Nothing is known about the pathways that regulate gametocytogenesis and only few of the current drugs that inhibit asexual replication are also capable of inhibiting gametocyte development and blocking malaria transmission. Here we provide genetic and pharmacological evidence indicating that the pathway for synthesis of phosphatidylcholine in Plasmodium falciparum membranes from host serine is essential for parasite gametocytogenesis and malaria transmission. Parasites lacking the phosphoethanolamine N-methyltransferase enzyme, which catalyzes the limiting step in this pathway, are severely altered in gametocyte development, are incapable of producing mature-stage gametocytes, and are not transmitted to mosquitoes. Chemical screening identified 11 inhibitors of phosphoethanolamine N-methyltransferase that block parasite intraerythrocytic asexual replication and gametocyte differentiation in the low micromolar range. Kinetic studies in vitro as well as functional complementation assays and lipid metabolic analyses in vivo on the most promising inhibitor NSC-158011 further demonstrated the specificity of inhibition. These studies set the stage for further optimization of NSC-158011 for development of a class of dual activity antimalarials to block both intraerythrocytic asexual replication and gametocytogenesis. PMID:24145416

  20. Epigenetic Regulation of Autophagy by the Methyltransferase G9a

    PubMed Central

    Artal-Martinez de Narvajas, Amaia; Gomez, Timothy S.; Zhang, Jin-San; Mann, Alexander O.; Taoda, Yoshiyuki; Gorman, Jacquelyn A.; Herreros-Villanueva, Marta; Gress, Thomas M.; Ellenrieder, Volker; Bujanda, Luis; Kim, Do-Hyung; Kozikowski, Alan P.

    2013-01-01

    Macroautophagy is an evolutionarily conserved cellular process involved in the clearance of proteins and organelles. Although the cytoplasmic machinery that orchestrates autophagy induction during starvation, hypoxia, or receptor stimulation has been widely studied, the key epigenetic events that initiate and maintain the autophagy process remain unknown. Here we show that the methyltransferase G9a coordinates the transcriptional activation of key regulators of autophagosome formation by remodeling the chromatin landscape. Pharmacological inhibition or RNA interference (RNAi)-mediated suppression of G9a induces LC3B expression and lipidation that is dependent on RNA synthesis, protein translation, and the methyltransferase activity of G9a. Under normal conditions, G9a associates with the LC3B, WIPI1, and DOR gene promoters, epigenetically repressing them. However, G9a and G9a-repressive histone marks are removed during starvation and receptor-stimulated activation of naive T cells, two physiological inducers of macroautophagy. Moreover, we show that the c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) pathway is involved in the regulation of autophagy gene expression during naive-T-cell activation. Together, these findings reveal that G9a directly represses genes known to participate in the autophagic process and that inhibition of G9a-mediated epigenetic repression represents an important regulatory mechanism during autophagy. PMID:23918802

  1. Molecular basis for substrate recognition by lysine methyltransferases and demethylases.

    PubMed

    Del Rizzo, Paul A; Trievel, Raymond C

    2014-12-01

    Lysine methylation has emerged as a prominent covalent modification in histones and non-histone proteins. This modification has been implicated in numerous genomic processes, including heterochromatinization, cell cycle progression, DNA damage response, DNA replication, genome stability, and epigenetic gene regulation that underpins developmental programs defining cell identity and fate. The site and degree of lysine methylation is dynamically modulated through the enzymatic activities of protein lysine methyltransferases (KMTs) and protein lysine demethylases (KDMs). These enzymes display distinct substrate specificities that in part define their biological functions. This review explores recent progress in elucidating the molecular basis of these specificities, highlighting structural and functional studies of the methyltransferases SUV4-20H1 (KMT5B), SUV4-20H2 (KMT5C), and ATXR5, and the demethylases UTX (KDM6A), JMJD3 (KDM6B), and JMJD2D (KDM4D). We conclude by examining these findings in the context of related KMTs and KDMs and by exploring unresolved questions regarding the specificities and functions of these enzymes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. In Vitro Assay to Measure Phosphatidylethanolamine Methyltransferase Activity

    PubMed Central

    Zufferey, Rachel

    2016-01-01

    Phosphatidylethanolamine methyltransferases are biosynthetic enzymes that catalyze the transfer of one or more methyl group(s) from S-adenosyl-L-methionine onto phosphatidylethanolamine, monomethyl-phosphatidylethanolamine, or dimethyl-phosphatidylethanolamine to give either monomethyl-phosphatidylethanolamine, dimethyl-phosphatidylethanolamine or phosphatidylcholine. These enzymes are ubiquitous in animal cells, fungi, and are also found in approximately 10% of bacteria. They fulfill various important functions in cell physiology beyond their direct role in lipid metabolism such as in insulin resistance, diabetes, atherosclerosis, cell growth, or virulence. The present manuscript reports on a simple cell-free enzymatic assay that measures the transfer of tritiated methyl group(s) from S-[Methyl-3H]adenosyl-L-methionine onto phosphatidylethanolamine using whole cell extracts as an enzyme source. The resulting methylated forms of phosphatidylethanolamine are hydrophobic and thus, can be separated from water soluble S-[Methyl-3H]adenosyl-L-methionine by organic extraction. This assay can potentially be applied to any other cell types and used to test inhibitors/drugs specific to a phosphatidylethanolamine methyltransferase of interest without the need to purify the enzyme. PMID:26780155

  3. Putrescine N-methyltransferase--the start for alkaloids.

    PubMed

    Biastoff, Stefan; Brandt, Wolfgang; Dräger, Birgit

    2009-01-01

    Putrescine N-methyltransferase (PMT) catalyses S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) dependent methylation of the diamine putrescine. The product N-methylputrescine is the first specific metabolite on the route to nicotine, tropane, and nortropane alkaloids. PMT cDNA sequences were cloned from tobacco species and other Solanaceae, also from nortropane-forming Convolvulaceae and enzyme proteins were synthesised in Escherichia coli. PMT activity was measured by HPLC separation of polyamine derivatives and by an enzyme-coupled colorimetric assay using S-adenosylhomocysteine. PMT cDNA sequences resemble those of plant spermidine synthases (putrescine aminopropyltransferases) and display little similarity to other plant methyltransferases. PMT is likely to have evolved from the ubiquitous enzyme spermidine synthase. PMT and spermidine synthase proteins share the same overall protein structure; they bind the same substrate putrescine and similar co-substrates, SAM and decarboxylated S-adenosylmethionine. The active sites of both proteins, however, were shaped differentially in the course of evolution. Phylogenetic analysis of both enzyme groups from plants revealed a deep bifurcation and confirmed an early descent of PMT from spermidine synthase in the course of angiosperm development.

  4. Diamidine Compounds for Selective Inhibition of Protein Arginine Methyltransferase 1

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Protein arginine methylation is a posttranslational modification critical for a variety of biological processes. Misregulation of protein arginine methyltransferases (PRMTs) has been linked to many pathological conditions. Most current PRMT inhibitors display limited specificity and selectivity, indiscriminately targeting many methyltransferase enzymes that use S-adenosyl-l-methionine as a cofactor. Here we report diamidine compounds for specific inhibition of PRMT1, the primary type I enzyme. Docking, molecular dynamics, and MM/PBSA analysis together with biochemical assays were conducted to understand the binding modes of these inhibitors and the molecular basis of selective inhibition for PRMT1. Our data suggest that 2,5-bis(4-amidinophenyl)furan (1, furamidine, DB75), one leading inhibitor, targets the enzyme active site and is primarily competitive with the substrate and noncompetitive toward the cofactor. Furthermore, cellular studies revealed that 1 is cell membrane permeable and effectively inhibits intracellular PRMT1 activity and blocks cell proliferation in leukemia cell lines with different genetic lesions. PMID:24564570

  5. Imprint of Ancient Evolution on rRNA Folding.

    PubMed

    Lanier, Kathryn A; Athavale, Shreyas S; Petrov, Anton S; Wartell, Roger; Williams, Loren Dean

    2016-08-23

    In a model describing the origin and evolution of the translation system, ribosomal RNA (rRNA) grew in size by accretion [Petrov, A. S., et al. (2015) History of the Ribosome and the Origin of Translation. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 112, 15396-15401]. Large rRNAs were built up by iterative incorporation and encasement of small folded RNAs, in analogy with addition of new LEGOs onto the surface of a preexisting LEGO assembly. In this model, rRNA robustness in folding arises from inherited autonomy of local folding. We propose that rRNAs can be decomposed at various granularities, retaining folding mechanism and folding competence. To test these predictions, we disassembled Domain III of the large ribosomal subunit (LSU). We determined whether local rRNA structure, stability, and folding pathways are autonomous. Thermal melting, chemical footprinting, and circular dichroism were used to infer rules that govern folding of rRNA. We deconstructed Domain III of the LSU rRNA by mapping out its complex multistep melting pathway. We studied Domain III and two equal-size "sub-Domains" of Domain III. The combined results are consistent with a model in which melting transitions of Domain III are conserved upon cleavage into sub-Domains. Each of the eight melting transitions of Domain III corresponds in Tm and ΔH with a transition observed in one of the two isolated sub-Domains. The results support a model in which structure, stability, and folding mechanisms are dominated by local interactions and are unaffected by separation of the sub-Domains. Domain III rRNA is distinct from RNAs that form long-range cooperative interaction networks at early stages of folding or that do not fold reversibly.

  6. Control of rRNA transcription in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed Central

    Condon, C; Squires, C; Squires, C L

    1995-01-01

    The control of rRNA synthesis in response to both extra- and intracellular signals has been a subject of interest to microbial physiologists for nearly four decades, beginning with the observations that Salmonella typhimurium cells grown on rich medium are larger and contain more RNA than those grown on poor medium. This was followed shortly by the discovery of the stringent response in Escherichia coli, which has continued to be the organism of choice for the study of rRNA synthesis. In this review, we summarize four general areas of E. coli rRNA transcription control: stringent control, growth rate regulation, upstream activation, and anti-termination. We also cite similar mechanisms in other bacteria and eukaryotes. The separation of growth rate-dependent control of rRNA synthesis from stringent control continues to be a subject of controversy. One model holds that the nucleotide ppGpp is the key effector for both mechanisms, while another school holds that it is unlikely that ppGpp or any other single effector is solely responsible for growth rate-dependent control. Recent studies on activation of rRNA synthesis by cis-acting upstream sequences has led to the discovery of a new class of promoters that make contact with RNA polymerase at a third position, called the UP element, in addition to the well-known -10 and -35 regions. Lastly, clues as to the role of antitermination in rRNA operons have begun to appear. Transcription complexes modified at the antiterminator site appear to elongate faster and are resistant to the inhibitory effects of ppGpp during the stringent response. PMID:8531889

  7. Downregulation of Caffeic Acid 3-O-Methyltransferase and Caffeoyl CoA 3-O-Methyltransferase in Transgenic Alfalfa

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Dianjing; Chen, Fang; Inoue, Kentaro; Blount, Jack W.; Dixon, Richard A.

    2001-01-01

    Transgenic alfalfa plants were generated harboring caffeic acid 3-O-methyltransferase (COMT) and caffeoyl CoA 3-O-methyltransferase (CCOMT) cDNA sequences under control of the bean phenylalanine ammonia-lyase PAL2 promoter. Strong downregulation of COMT resulted in decreased lignin content, a reduction in total guaiacyl (G) lignin units, a near total loss of syringyl (S) units in monomeric and dimeric lignin degradation products, and appearance of low levels of 5-hydroxy guaiacyl units and a novel dimer. No soluble monolignol precursors accumulated. In contrast, strong downregulation of CCOMT led to reduced lignin levels, a reduction in G units without reduction in S units, and increases in β-5 linked dimers of G units. Accumulation of soluble caffeic acid β-d-glucoside occurred only in CCOMT downregulated plants. The results suggest that CCOMT does not significantly contribute to the 3-O-methylation step in S lignin biosynthesis in alfalfa and that there is redundancy with respect to the 3-O-methylation reaction of G lignin biosynthesis. COMT is unlikely to catalyze the in vivo methylation of caffeic acid during lignin biosynthesis. PMID:11158530

  8. Lessons from an evolving rRNA: 16S and 23S rRNA structures from a comparative perspective.

    PubMed Central

    Gutell, R R; Larsen, N; Woese, C R

    1994-01-01

    The 16S and 23S rRNA higher-order structures inferred from comparative analysis are now quite refined. The models presented here differ from their immediate predecessors only in minor detail. Thus, it is safe to assert that all of the standard secondary-structure elements in (prokaryotic) rRNAs have been identified, with approximately 90% of the individual base pairs in each molecule having independent comparative support, and that at least some of the tertiary interactions have been revealed. It is interesting to compare the rRNAs in this respect with tRNA, whose higher-order structure is known in detail from its crystal structure (36) (Table 2). It can be seen that rRNAs have as great a fraction of their sequence in established secondary-structure elements as does tRNA. However, the fact that the former show a much lower fraction of identified tertiary interactions and a greater fraction of unpaired nucleotides than the latter implies that many of the rRNA tertiary interactions remain to be located. (Alternatively, the ribosome might involve protein-rRNA rather than intramolecular rRNA interactions to stabilize three-dimensional structure.) Experimental studies on rRNA are consistent to a first approximation with the structures proposed here, confirming the basic assumption of comparative analysis, i.e., that bases whose compositions strictly covary are physically interacting. In the exhaustive study of Moazed et al. (45) on protection of the bases in the small-subunit rRNA against chemical modification, the vast majority of bases inferred to pair by covariation are found to be protected from chemical modification, both in isolated small-subunit rRNA and in the 30S subunit. The majority of the tertiary interactions are reflected in the chemical protection data as well (45). On the other hand, many of the bases not shown as paired in Fig. 1 are accessible to chemical attack (45). However, in this case a sizeable fraction of them are also protected against chemical

  9. Lessons from an evolving rRNA: 16S and 23S rRNA structures from a comparative perspective

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gutell, R. R.; Larsen, N.; Woese, C. R.

    1994-01-01

    The 16S and 23S rRNA higher-order structures inferred from comparative analysis are now quite refined. The models presented here differ from their immediate predecessors only in minor detail. Thus, it is safe to assert that all of the standard secondary-structure elements in (prokaryotic) rRNAs have been identified, with approximately 90% of the individual base pairs in each molecule having independent comparative support, and that at least some of the tertiary interactions have been revealed. It is interesting to compare the rRNAs in this respect with tRNA, whose higher-order structure is known in detail from its crystal structure (36) (Table 2). It can be seen that rRNAs have as great a fraction of their sequence in established secondary-structure elements as does tRNA. However, the fact that the former show a much lower fraction of identified tertiary interactions and a greater fraction of unpaired nucleotides than the latter implies that many of the rRNA tertiary interactions remain to be located. (Alternatively, the ribosome might involve protein-rRNA rather than intramolecular rRNA interactions to stabilize three-dimensional structure.) Experimental studies on rRNA are consistent to a first approximation with the structures proposed here, confirming the basic assumption of comparative analysis, i.e., that bases whose compositions strictly covary are physically interacting. In the exhaustive study of Moazed et al. (45) on protection of the bases in the small-subunit rRNA against chemical modification, the vast majority of bases inferred to pair by covariation are found to be protected from chemical modification, both in isolated small-subunit rRNA and in the 30S subunit. The majority of the tertiary interactions are reflected in the chemical protection data as well (45). On the other hand, many of the bases not shown as paired in Fig. 1 are accessible to chemical attack (45). However, in this case a sizeable fraction of them are also protected against chemical

  10. Lessons from an evolving rRNA: 16S and 23S rRNA structures from a comparative perspective.

    PubMed

    Gutell, R R; Larsen, N; Woese, C R

    1994-03-01

    The 16S and 23S rRNA higher-order structures inferred from comparative analysis are now quite refined. The models presented here differ from their immediate predecessors only in minor detail. Thus, it is safe to assert that all of the standard secondary-structure elements in (prokaryotic) rRNAs have been identified, with approximately 90% of the individual base pairs in each molecule having independent comparative support, and that at least some of the tertiary interactions have been revealed. It is interesting to compare the rRNAs in this respect with tRNA, whose higher-order structure is known in detail from its crystal structure (36) (Table 2). It can be seen that rRNAs have as great a fraction of their sequence in established secondary-structure elements as does tRNA. However, the fact that the former show a much lower fraction of identified tertiary interactions and a greater fraction of unpaired nucleotides than the latter implies that many of the rRNA tertiary interactions remain to be located. (Alternatively, the ribosome might involve protein-rRNA rather than intramolecular rRNA interactions to stabilize three-dimensional structure.) Experimental studies on rRNA are consistent to a first approximation with the structures proposed here, confirming the basic assumption of comparative analysis, i.e., that bases whose compositions strictly covary are physically interacting. In the exhaustive study of Moazed et al. (45) on protection of the bases in the small-subunit rRNA against chemical modification, the vast majority of bases inferred to pair by covariation are found to be protected from chemical modification, both in isolated small-subunit rRNA and in the 30S subunit. The majority of the tertiary interactions are reflected in the chemical protection data as well (45). On the other hand, many of the bases not shown as paired in Fig. 1 are accessible to chemical attack (45). However, in this case a sizeable fraction of them are also protected against chemical

  11. Lessons from an evolving rRNA: 16S and 23S rRNA structures from a comparative perspective

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gutell, R. R.; Larsen, N.; Woese, C. R.

    1994-01-01

    The 16S and 23S rRNA higher-order structures inferred from comparative analysis are now quite refined. The models presented here differ from their immediate predecessors only in minor detail. Thus, it is safe to assert that all of the standard secondary-structure elements in (prokaryotic) rRNAs have been identified, with approximately 90% of the individual base pairs in each molecule having independent comparative support, and that at least some of the tertiary interactions have been revealed. It is interesting to compare the rRNAs in this respect with tRNA, whose higher-order structure is known in detail from its crystal structure (36) (Table 2). It can be seen that rRNAs have as great a fraction of their sequence in established secondary-structure elements as does tRNA. However, the fact that the former show a much lower fraction of identified tertiary interactions and a greater fraction of unpaired nucleotides than the latter implies that many of the rRNA tertiary interactions remain to be located. (Alternatively, the ribosome might involve protein-rRNA rather than intramolecular rRNA interactions to stabilize three-dimensional structure.) Experimental studies on rRNA are consistent to a first approximation with the structures proposed here, confirming the basic assumption of comparative analysis, i.e., that bases whose compositions strictly covary are physically interacting. In the exhaustive study of Moazed et al. (45) on protection of the bases in the small-subunit rRNA against chemical modification, the vast majority of bases inferred to pair by covariation are found to be protected from chemical modification, both in isolated small-subunit rRNA and in the 30S subunit. The majority of the tertiary interactions are reflected in the chemical protection data as well (45). On the other hand, many of the bases not shown as paired in Fig. 1 are accessible to chemical attack (45). However, in this case a sizeable fraction of them are also protected against chemical

  12. Histone lysine methyltransferases as anti-cancer targets for drug discovery

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Qing; Wang, Ming-wei

    2016-01-01

    Post-translational epigenetic modification of histones is controlled by a number of histone-modifying enzymes. Such modification regulates the accessibility of DNA and the subsequent expression or silencing of a gene. Human histone methyltransferases (HMTs)constitute a large family that includes histone lysine methyltransferases (HKMTs) and histone/protein arginine methyltransferases (PRMTs). There is increasing evidence showing a correlation between HKMTs and cancer pathogenesis. Here, we present an overview of representative HKMTs, including their biological and biochemical properties as well as the profiles of small molecule inhibitors for a comprehensive understanding of HKMTs in drug discovery. PMID:27397541

  13. Ribosome biogenesis factor Tsr3 is the aminocarboxypropyl transferase responsible for 18S rRNA hypermodification in yeast and humans.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Britta; Wurm, Jan Philip; Sharma, Sunny; Immer, Carina; Pogoryelov, Denys; Kötter, Peter; Lafontaine, Denis L J; Wöhnert, Jens; Entian, Karl-Dieter

    2016-05-19

    The chemically most complex modification in eukaryotic rRNA is the conserved hypermodified nucleotide N1-methyl-N3-aminocarboxypropyl-pseudouridine (m(1)acp(3)Ψ) located next to the P-site tRNA on the small subunit 18S rRNA. While S-adenosylmethionine was identified as the source of the aminocarboxypropyl (acp) group more than 40 years ago the enzyme catalyzing the acp transfer remained elusive. Here we identify the cytoplasmic ribosome biogenesis protein Tsr3 as the responsible enzyme in yeast and human cells. In functionally impaired Tsr3-mutants, a reduced level of acp modification directly correlates with increased 20S pre-rRNA accumulation. The crystal structure of archaeal Tsr3 homologs revealed the same fold as in SPOUT-class RNA-methyltransferases but a distinct SAM binding mode. This unique SAM binding mode explains why Tsr3 transfers the acp and not the methyl group of SAM to its substrate. Structurally, Tsr3 therefore represents a novel class of acp transferase enzymes. © The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  14. Modified nucleotides m(2)G966/m(5)C967 of Escherichia coli 16S rRNA are required for attenuation of tryptophan operon.

    PubMed

    Prokhorova, Irina V; Osterman, Ilya A; Burakovsky, Dmitry E; Serebryakova, Marina V; Galyamina, Maria A; Pobeguts, Olga V; Altukhov, Ilya; Kovalchuk, Sergey; Alexeev, Dmitry G; Govorun, Vadim M; Bogdanov, Alexey A; Sergiev, Petr V; Dontsova, Olga A

    2013-11-18

    Ribosomes contain a number of modifications in rRNA, the function of which is unclear. Here we show--using proteomic analysis and dual fluorescence reporter in vivo assays--that m(2)G966 and m(5)C967 in 16S rRNA of Escherichia coli ribosomes are necessary for correct attenuation of tryptophan (trp) operon. Expression of trp operon is upregulated in the strain where RsmD and RsmB methyltransferases were deleted, which results in the lack of m(2)G966 and m(5)C967 modifications. The upregulation requires the trpL attenuator, but is independent of the promotor of trp operon, ribosome binding site of the trpE gene, which follows trp attenuator and even Trp codons in the trpL sequence. Suboptimal translation initiation efficiency in the rsmB/rsmD knockout strain is likely to cause a delay in translation relative to transcription which causes misregulation of attenuation control of trp operon.

  15. Modified nucleotides m2G966/m5C967 of Escherichia coli 16S rRNA are required for attenuation of tryptophan operon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prokhorova, Irina V.; Osterman, Ilya A.; Burakovsky, Dmitry E.; Serebryakova, Marina V.; Galyamina, Maria A.; Pobeguts, Olga V.; Altukhov, Ilya; Kovalchuk, Sergey; Alexeev, Dmitry G.; Govorun, Vadim M.; Bogdanov, Alexey A.; Sergiev, Petr V.; Dontsova, Olga A.

    2013-11-01

    Ribosomes contain a number of modifications in rRNA, the function of which is unclear. Here we show - using proteomic analysis and dual fluorescence reporter in vivo assays - that m2G966 and m5C967 in 16S rRNA of Escherichia coli ribosomes are necessary for correct attenuation of tryptophan (trp) operon. Expression of trp operon is upregulated in the strain where RsmD and RsmB methyltransferases were deleted, which results in the lack of m2G966 and m5C967 modifications. The upregulation requires the trpL attenuator, but is independent of the promotor of trp operon, ribosome binding site of the trpE gene, which follows trp attenuator and even Trp codons in the trpL sequence. Suboptimal translation initiation efficiency in the rsmB/rsmD knockout strain is likely to cause a delay in translation relative to transcription which causes misregulation of attenuation control of trp operon.

  16. Ribosome biogenesis factor Tsr3 is the aminocarboxypropyl transferase responsible for 18S rRNA hypermodification in yeast and humans

    PubMed Central

    Meyer, Britta; Wurm, Jan Philip; Sharma, Sunny; Immer, Carina; Pogoryelov, Denys; Kötter, Peter; Lafontaine, Denis L. J.; Wöhnert, Jens; Entian, Karl-Dieter

    2016-01-01

    The chemically most complex modification in eukaryotic rRNA is the conserved hypermodified nucleotide N1-methyl-N3-aminocarboxypropyl-pseudouridine (m1acp3Ψ) located next to the P-site tRNA on the small subunit 18S rRNA. While S-adenosylmethionine was identified as the source of the aminocarboxypropyl (acp) group more than 40 years ago the enzyme catalyzing the acp transfer remained elusive. Here we identify the cytoplasmic ribosome biogenesis protein Tsr3 as the responsible enzyme in yeast and human cells. In functionally impaired Tsr3-mutants, a reduced level of acp modification directly correlates with increased 20S pre-rRNA accumulation. The crystal structure of archaeal Tsr3 homologs revealed the same fold as in SPOUT-class RNA-methyltransferases but a distinct SAM binding mode. This unique SAM binding mode explains why Tsr3 transfers the acp and not the methyl group of SAM to its substrate. Structurally, Tsr3 therefore represents a novel class of acp transferase enzymes. PMID:27084949

  17. Current Chemical Biology Approaches to Interrogate Protein Methyltransferases

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Minkui

    2012-01-01

    Protein methyltransferases (PMTs) play various physiological and pathological roles through methylating histone and nonhistone targets. However, most PMTs including more than 60 human PMTs remain to be fully characterized. The current approaches to elucidate the functions of PMTs have been diversified by many emerging chemical biology technologies. This review focuses on progress in these aspects and is organized into four discussion modules (assays, substrates, cofactors and inhibitors) that are important to elucidate biological functions of PMTs. These modules are expected to provide general guidance and present emerging methods for researchers to select and combine suitable PMT-activity assays, well-defined substrates, novel SAM surrogates and PMT inhibitors to interrogate PMTs. PMID:22220966

  18. Development of fluorescent methods for DNA methyltransferase assay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yueying; Zou, Xiaoran; Ma, Fei; Tang, Bo; Zhang, Chun-yang

    2017-03-01

    DNA methylation modified by DNA methyltransferase (MTase) plays an important role in regulating gene transcription, cell growth and proliferation. The aberrant DNA MTase activity may lead to a variety of human diseases including cancers. Therefore, accurate and sensitive detection of DNA MTase activity is crucial to biomedical research, clinical diagnostics and therapy. However, conventional DNA MTase assays often suffer from labor-intensive operations and time-consuming procedures. Alternatively, fluorescent methods have significant advantages of simplicity and high sensitivity, and have been widely applied for DNA MTase assay. In this review, we summarize the recent advances in the development of fluorescent methods for DNA MTase assay. These emerging methods include amplification-free and the amplification-assisted assays. Moreover, we discuss the challenges and future directions of this area.

  19. Transcriptional regulation by the Set7 lysine methyltransferase

    PubMed Central

    Keating, Samuel; El-Osta, Assam

    2013-01-01

    Posttranslational histone modifications define chromatin structure and function. In recent years, a number of studies have characterized many of the enzymatic activities and diverse regulatory components required for monomethylation of histone H3 lysine 4 (H3K4me1) and the expression of specific genes. The challenge now is to understand how this specific chemical modification is written and the Set7 methyltransferase has emerged as a key regulatory enzyme mediating methylation of lysine residues of histone and non-histone proteins. In this review, we comprehensively explore the regulatory proteins modified by Set7 and highlight mechanisms of specific co-recruitment of the enzyme to activating promoters. With a focus on signaling and transcriptional control in disease we discuss recent experimental data emphasizing specific components of diverse regulatory complexes that mediate chromatin modification and reinterpretation of Set7-mediated gene expression. PMID:23478572

  20. Characterization of phosphoethanolamine-N-methyltransferases in green algae.

    PubMed

    Hirashima, Takashi; Toyoshima, Masakazu; Moriyama, Takashi; Nakamura, Yuki; Sato, Naoki

    2017-06-17

    Phosphatidylcholine (PtdCho) is a common and abundant phospholipid in most eukaryotic organisms. Although it has been known that the model green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii lacks PtdCho, we recently detected PtdCho in four Chlamydomonas species. Homology search of draft genomic sequences of the four PtdCho-containing algae suggested existence of phosphoethanolamine-N-methyltransferase (PEAMT) in C. applanata and C. asymmetrica, which is the key enzyme in PtdCho biosynthesis in land plants. Here we analyzed the putative genes encoding PEAMT in C. applanata and C. asymmetrica, named CapPEAMT and CasPEAMT, respectively. In vitro assays with recombinant CapPEAMT and CasPEAMT indicated that they have the methylation activity for phosphoethanolamine, but not the methylation activity for phosphomonomethylethanolamine, in contrast with land plant PEAMTs, that possess the three successive methylation activities. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Cell and molecular biology of DNA methyltransferase 1.

    PubMed

    Mohan, K Naga; Chaillet, J Richard

    2013-01-01

    The DNA cytosine methyltransferase 1 (DNMT1) is a ubiquitous nuclear enzyme that catalyzes the well-established reaction of placing methyl groups on the unmethylated cytosines in methyl-CpG:CpG base pairs in the hemimethylated DNA formed by methylated parent and unmethylated daughter strands. This activity regenerates fully methylated methyl-CpG:methyl-CpG pairs. Despite the straightforward nature of its catalytic activity, detailed biochemical, genetic, and developmental studies revealed intricate details of the central regulatory role of DNMT1 in governing the epigenetic makeup of the nuclear genome. DNMT1 mediates demethylation and also participates in seemingly wide cellular functions unrelated to maintenance DNA methylation. This review brings together mechanistic details of maintenance methylation by DNMT1, its regulation at transcriptional and posttranscriptional levels, and the seemingly unexpected functions of DNMT1 in the context of DNA methylation which is central to epigenetic changes that occur during development and the process of cell differentiation.

  2. Transcriptional regulation by the Set7 lysine methyltransferase.

    PubMed

    Keating, Samuel T; El-Osta, Assam

    2013-04-01

    Posttranslational histone modifications define chromatin structure and function. In recent years, a number of studies have characterized many of the enzymatic activities and diverse regulatory components required for monomethylation of histone H3 lysine 4 (H3K4me1) and the expression of specific genes. The challenge now is to understand how this specific chemical modification is written and the Set7 methyltransferase has emerged as a key regulatory enzyme mediating methylation of lysine residues of histone and non-histone proteins. In this review, we comprehensively explore the regulatory proteins modified by Set7 and highlight mechanisms of specific co-recruitment of the enzyme to activating promoters. With a focus on signaling and transcriptional control in disease we discuss recent experimental data emphasizing specific components of diverse regulatory complexes that mediate chromatin modification and reinterpretation of Set7-mediated gene expression.

  3. Low catechol-O-methyltransferase activity in a Saami population.

    PubMed

    Klemetsdal, B; Straume, B; Giverhaug, T; Aarbakke, J

    1994-01-01

    Catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) catalyzes the O-methylation of catechol hormones, neurotransmitters and certain drugs. It is subject to genetic polymorphism and ethnic differences. High red blood cell (RBC) COMT activity has been correlated with a poor response to levodopa treatment in Parkinson's disease. RBC COMT was determined in a Norwegian population (n = 213) of whom 115 were Saami (Laaps). The Saami had 16.5% lower RBC COMT activity compared to a non-Saami population sample from the northern part of Norway (n = 50), 13.9 vs. 16.4 units/ml RBC (U) (P = 0.04). This is the first report of any population with lower RBC COMT activity than a Caucasian population. A wide range of RBC COMT activities was found in the entire population examined (1.3-38.3 U).

  4. Emergence of methicillin-resistant coagulase-negative staphylococci resistant to linezolid with rRNA gene C2190T and G2603T mutations.

    PubMed

    Cidral, Thiago André; Carvalho, Maria Cícera; Figueiredo, Agnes Marie Sá; de Melo, Maria Celeste Nunes

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this article were to determinate the mechanism of linezolid resistance in coagulase-negative methicillin-resistant staphylococci from hospitals in the northeast of Brazil. We identified the isolates using VITEK(®) 2 and MALDI-TOF. Susceptibility to antibiotics was measured by the disk-diffusion method and by Etest(®) . Extraction of the whole genome DNA was performed, followed by screening of all the strains for the presence of mecA and cfr genes. The domain V region of 23S rRNA gene was sequenced and then aligned with a linezolid-susceptible reference strain. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) macro-restriction analysis was performed. Three linezolid-resistant Staphylococcus hominis and two linezolid-resistant Staphylococcus epidermidis strains were analyzed. The isolates showed two point mutations in the V region of the 23S rRNA gene (C2190T and G2603T). We did not detect the cfr gene in any isolate by PCR. The S. hominis showed the same pulsotype, while the S. epidermidis did not present any genetic relation to each other. In conclusion, this study revealed three S. hominis and two S. epidermidis strains with resistance to linezolid due to a double mutation (C2190T and G2603T) in the domain V of the 23S rRNA gene. For the first time, the mutation of C2190T in S. epidermidis is described. This study also revealed the clonal spread of a S. hominis pulsotype between three public hospitals in the city of Natal, Brazil. These findings highlight the importance of continued vigilance of linezolid resistance in staphylococci.

  5. Trypanosoma brucei prenylated-protein carboxyl methyltransferase prefers farnesylated substrates.

    PubMed Central

    Buckner, Frederick S; Kateete, David P; Lubega, George W; Van Voorhis, Wesley C; Yokoyama, Kohei

    2002-01-01

    Carboxyl methylation of the C-terminal prenylated cysteine, which occurs in most farnesylated and geranylgeranylated proteins, is a reversible step and is implicated in the regulation of membrane binding and cellular functions of prenylated proteins such as GTPases. The gene coding for prenylated-protein carboxyl methyltransferase (PPMT) of the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma brucei has been cloned and expressed in the baculovirus/Sf9 cell system. The protein of 245 amino acids has 24-28% sequence identity to the orthologues from other species including human and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Methyltransferase activity was detected in the membrane fraction from Sf9 cells infected with the recombinant baculovirus using N -acetyl- S -farnesylcysteine (AFC) and S -adenosyl[ methyl -(3)H]methionine ([(3)H]AdoMet) as substrates. Recombinant T. brucei PPMT prefers AFC to N -acetyl- S -geranylgeranylcysteine (AGGC) by 10-50-fold based on the V (max)/ K (m) values. Native PPMT activity detected in the membrane fraction from T. brucei procyclics displays similar substrate specificity ( approximately 40-fold preference for AFC over AGGC). In contrast, mouse liver PPMT utilizes both AFC and AGGC as substrates with similar catalytic efficiencies. Several cellular proteins of the T. brucei bloodstream form were shown to be carboxyl methylated in a cell-free system. Incorporation of [(3)H]methyl group from [(3)H]AdoMet into most of the proteins was significantly inhibited by AFC but not AGGC at 20 microM, suggesting that T. brucei PPMT acts on farnesylated proteins in the cell. Cells of the T. brucei bloodstream form show higher sensitivity to AFC and AGGC (EC(50)=70-80 microM) compared with mouse 3T3 cells (EC(50)>150 microM). PMID:12141948

  6. An Escherichia coli strain with all chromosomal rRNA operons inactivated: complete exchange of rRNA genes between bacteria.

    PubMed

    Asai, T; Zaporojets, D; Squires, C; Squires, C L

    1999-03-02

    Current global phylogenies are built predominantly on rRNA sequences. However, an experimental system for studying the evolution of rRNA is not readily available, mainly because the rRNA genes are highly repeated in most experimental organisms. We have constructed an Escherichia coli strain in which all seven chromosomal rRNA operons are inactivated by deletions spanning the 16S and 23S coding regions. A single E. coli rRNA operon carried by a multicopy plasmid supplies 16S and 23S rRNA to the cell. By using this strain we have succeeded in creating microorganisms that contain only a foreign rRNA operon derived from either Salmonella typhimurium or Proteus vulgaris, microorganisms that have diverged from E. coli about 120-350 million years ago. We also were able to replace the E. coli rRNA operon with an E. coli/yeast hybrid one in which the GTPase center of E. coli 23S rRNA had been substituted by the corresponding domain from Saccharomyces cerevisiae. These results suggest that, contrary to common belief, coevolution of rRNA with many other components in the translational machinery may not completely preclude the horizontal transfer of rRNA genes.

  7. *Arsenic (+3 oxidation state) methyltransferase and the methylation of arsenicals in the invertebrate chordate ciona intestinalis

    EPA Science Inventory

    Biotransformation of inorganic arsenic (iAs) involves methylation catalyzed by arsenic (+3 oxidation state) methyltransferase (As3mt) , yielding mono-, di-, and trimethylated arsenicals. A comparative genomic approach focused on Ciona intestinaJis, an invertebrate chordate, was u...

  8. Arsenic (+3 oxidation state) methyltransferase and the methylation of arsenicals in the invertebrate chordate Ciona intestinalis

    EPA Science Inventory

    Biotransformation of inorganic arsenic (iAs) involves methylation catalyzed by arsenic (+3 oxidation state) methyltransferase (As3mt), yielding mono- , di- , and trimethylated arsenicals. To investigate the evolution of molecular mechanisms that mediate arsenic biotransformation,...

  9. Arsenic (+3 oxidation state) methyltransferase and the methylation of arsenicals in the invertebrate chordate Ciona intestinalis

    EPA Science Inventory

    The biotransformation of inorganic arsenic (iAs) involves methylation by an arsenic (+3 oxidation state) methyltransferase (AS3MT), yielding methyl arsenic (MA), dimethyl arsenic (DMA), and trimethylarsenic (TMA). To identify molecular mechanisms that coordinate arsenic biotra...

  10. *Arsenic (+3 oxidation state) methyltransferase and the methylation of arsenicals in the invertebrate chordate ciona intestinalis

    EPA Science Inventory

    Biotransformation of inorganic arsenic (iAs) involves methylation catalyzed by arsenic (+3 oxidation state) methyltransferase (As3mt) , yielding mono-, di-, and trimethylated arsenicals. A comparative genomic approach focused on Ciona intestinaJis, an invertebrate chordate, was u...

  11. Drosophila arginine methyltransferase 1 (DART1) is an ecdysone receptor co-repressor

    SciTech Connect

    Kimura, Shuhei; Sawatsubashi, Shun; Ito, Saya; Kouzmenko, Alexander; Suzuki, Eriko; Zhao, Yue; Yamagata, Kaoru; Tanabe, Masahiko; Ueda, Takashi; Fujiyama, Sari; Murata, Takuya; Matsukawa, Hiroyuki; Takeyama, Ken-ichi; Yaegashi, Nobuo

    2008-07-11

    Histone arginine methylation is an epigenetic marker that regulates gene expression by defining the chromatin state. Arginine methyltransferases, therefore, serve as transcriptional co-regulators. However, unlike other transcriptional co-regulators, the physiological roles of arginine methyltransferases are poorly understood. Drosophila arginine methyltransferase 1 (DART1), the mammalian PRMT1 homologue, methylates the arginine residue of histone H4 (H4R3me2). Disruption of DART1 in Drosophila by imprecise P-element excision resulted in low viability during metamorphosis in the pupal stages. In the pupal stage, an ecdysone hormone signal is critical for developmental progression. DART1 interacted with the nuclear ecdysone receptor (EcR) in a ligand-dependent manner, and co-repressed EcR in intact flies. These findings suggest that DART1, a histone arginine methyltransferase, is a co-repressor of EcR that is indispensable for normal pupal development in the intact fly.

  12. Molecular basis for the regulation of the H3K4 methyltransferase activity of PRDM9.

    PubMed

    Wu, Hong; Mathioudakis, Nikolas; Diagouraga, Boubou; Dong, Aiping; Dombrovski, Ludmila; Baudat, Frédéric; Cusack, Stephen; de Massy, Bernard; Kadlec, Jan

    2013-10-17

    PRDM9, a histone lysine methyltransferase, is a key determinant of the localization of meiotic recombination hot spots in humans and mice and the only vertebrate protein known to be involved in hybrid sterility. Here, we report the crystal structure of the PRDM9 methyltransferase domain in complex with a histone H3 peptide dimethylated on lysine 4 (H3K4me2) and S-adenosylhomocysteine (AdoHcy), which provides insights into the methyltransferase activity of PRDM proteins. We show that the genuine substrate of PRDM9 is histone H3 lysine 4 (H3K4) and that the enzyme possesses mono-, di-, and trimethylation activities. We also determined the crystal structure of PRDM9 in its autoinhibited state, which revealed a rearrangement of the substrate and cofactor binding sites by a concerted action of the pre-SET and post-SET domains, providing important insights into the regulatory mechanisms of histone lysine methyltransferase activity.

  13. Arsenic (+3 oxidation state) methyltransferase and the methylation of arsenicals in the invertebrate chordate Ciona intestinalis

    EPA Science Inventory

    The biotransformation of inorganic arsenic (iAs) involves methylation by an arsenic (+3 oxidation state) methyltransferase (AS3MT), yielding methyl arsenic (MA), dimethyl arsenic (DMA), and trimethylarsenic (TMA). To identify molecular mechanisms that coordinate arsenic biotra...

  14. Arsenic (+3 oxidation state) methyltransferase and the methylation of arsenicals in the invertebrate chordate Ciona intestinalis

    EPA Science Inventory

    Biotransformation of inorganic arsenic (iAs) involves methylation catalyzed by arsenic (+3 oxidation state) methyltransferase (As3mt), yielding mono- , di- , and trimethylated arsenicals. To investigate the evolution of molecular mechanisms that mediate arsenic biotransformation,...

  15. Widespread occurrence of bacterial thiol methyltransferases and the biogenic emission of methylated sulfur gases.

    PubMed Central

    Drotar, A; Burton, G A; Tavernier, J E; Fall, R

    1987-01-01

    A majority of heterotrophic bacteria isolated from soil, water, sediment, vegetation, and marine algae cultures methylated sulfide, producing methanethiol. This was demonstrated with intact cells by measuring the emission of methanethiol with a sulfur-selective chemiluminescence detector, and in cell extracts by detection of sulfide-dependent thiol methyltransferase activity. Extracts of two Pseudomonas isolates were fractionated by gel-filtration and ion-exchange chromatography, and with sulfide as the substrate a single peak of thiol methyltransferase activity was seen in each case. Extracts of several bacterial strains also contained thiol methyltransferase activity with organic thiols as substrates. Thus, S-adenosylmethionine-dependent thiol methyltransferase activities are widespread in bacteria and may contribute to biogenic emissions of methylated sulfur gases and to the production of methyl thioethers. PMID:3662509

  16. Widespread occurrence of bacterial thiol methyltransferases and the biogenic emission of methylated sulfur gases

    SciTech Connect

    Drotar, A.; Burton, G.A. Jr.; Tavernier, J.E.; Fall, R.

    1987-07-01

    A majority of heterotrophic bacteria isolated from soil, water, sediment, vegetation, and marine algae cultures methylated sulfide, producing methanethiol. This was demonstrated (i) with intact cells by measuring the emission of methanethiol with a sulfur-selective chemiluminescence detector, and (ii) in cell extracts by detection of sulfide-dependent thiol methyltransferase activity. Extracts of two Pseudomonas isolates were fractionated by gel-filtration and ion-exchange chromatography, and with sulfide as the substrate a single peak of thiol methyltransferase activity was seen in each case. Extracts of several bacterial strains also contained thiol methyltransferase activity with organic thiols as substrates. Thus, S-adenosylmethionine-dependent thiol methyltransferase activities are widespread in bacteria and may contribute to biogenic emissions of methylated sulfur gases and to the production of methyl thioethers.

  17. The 5S rRNA and the rRNA intergenic spacer of the two varieties of Cryptococcus neoformans.

    PubMed

    Fan, M; Chen, L C; Ragan, M A; Gutell, R R; Warner, J R; Currie, B P; Casadevall, A

    1995-01-01

    The intergenic spacers (IGS) separating the 23S-like and 16S-like rDNAs of the two varieties of the human pathogenic fungus Cryptococcus neoformans were amplified, cloned and sequenced. The C. neoformans var. neoformans IGS was 2421 nt with 5S rRNA at positions 1228-1345 3' of the 23S-like rRNA. The C. neoformans var. gattii IGS was 2480 nt with 5S rRNA at positions 1268-1385 3' of the 23S-like rRNA. For both varieties the 5S rDNA genes were in the same orientation as the 16S-5.8-23S genes and encode a 118 nt molecule of identical sequence. Phylogenetic comparison of C. neoformans 5S rDNA with that of other fungi placed this fungus in close relationship with other basidiomycetes including Tremella mesenterica, Bullera alba, and Cryptococcus laurentii. A secondary structure model for the deduced 5S rRNA was constructed by comparative sequence analysis. Polymerase chain reaction-amplified IGS of 12 C. neoformans var. neoformans strains revealed extensive size variation ranging from 100 to 300 nt. Size variation between strains in the length of the IGS may be useful for distinguishing strains. Structurally, the IGS were characterized by the presence of occasional short direct GC-rich 19-nt repeats. Overall IGS sequence identity between the C. neoformans varieties was only 78.5%, in sharp contrast to the identical or nearly identical sequences for the rDNA genes, and suggests rapid evolution for IGS sequences.

  18. Functional Role of Methylation of G518 of the 16S rRNA 530 Loop by GidB in Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Sharon Y.; Javid, Babak; Addepalli, Balasubrahmanyam; Piszczek, Grzegorz; Strader, Michael Brad; Limbach, Patrick A.

    2013-01-01

    Posttranscriptional modifications of bacterial rRNA serve a variety of purposes, from stabilizing ribosome structure to preserving its functional integrity. Here, we investigated the functional role of one rRNA modification in particular—the methylation of guanosine at position 518 (G518) of the 16S rRNA in Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Based on previously reported evidence that G518 is located 5 Å; from proline 44 of ribosomal protein S12, which interacts directly with the mRNA wobble position of the codon:anticodon helix at the A site during translation, we speculated that methylation of G518 affects protein translation. We transformed reporter constructs designed to probe the effect of functional lesions at one of the three codon positions on translational fidelity into the wild-type strain, H37Rv, and into a ΔgidB mutant, which lacks the methyltransferase (GidB) that methylates G518. We show that mistranslation occurs less in the ΔgidB mutant only in the construct bearing a lesion in the wobble position compared to H37Rv. Thus, the methylation of G518 allows mistranslation to occur at some level in order for translation to proceed smoothly and efficiently. We also explored the role of methylation at G518 in altering the susceptibility of M. tuberculosis to streptomycin (SM). Using high-performance liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS), we confirmed that G518 is not methylated in the ΔgidB mutant. Furthermore, isothermal titration calorimetry experiments performed on 70S ribosomes purified from wild-type and ΔgidB mutant strains showed that methylation significantly enhances SM binding. These results provide a mechanistic explanation for the low-level, SM-resistant phenotype observed in M. tuberculosis strains that contain a gidB mutation. PMID:24100503

  19. Functional role of methylation of G518 of the 16S rRNA 530 loop by GidB in Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Wong, Sharon Y; Javid, Babak; Addepalli, Balasubrahmanyam; Piszczek, Grzegorz; Strader, Michael Brad; Limbach, Patrick A; Barry, Clifton E

    2013-12-01

    Posttranscriptional modifications of bacterial rRNA serve a variety of purposes, from stabilizing ribosome structure to preserving its functional integrity. Here, we investigated the functional role of one rRNA modification in particular-the methylation of guanosine at position 518 (G518) of the 16S rRNA in Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Based on previously reported evidence that G518 is located 5 Å; from proline 44 of ribosomal protein S12, which interacts directly with the mRNA wobble position of the codon:anticodon helix at the A site during translation, we speculated that methylation of G518 affects protein translation. We transformed reporter constructs designed to probe the effect of functional lesions at one of the three codon positions on translational fidelity into the wild-type strain, H37Rv, and into a ΔgidB mutant, which lacks the methyltransferase (GidB) that methylates G518. We show that mistranslation occurs less in the ΔgidB mutant only in the construct bearing a lesion in the wobble position compared to H37Rv. Thus, the methylation of G518 allows mistranslation to occur at some level in order for translation to proceed smoothly and efficiently. We also explored the role of methylation at G518 in altering the susceptibility of M. tuberculosis to streptomycin (SM). Using high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS), we confirmed that G518 is not methylated in the ΔgidB mutant. Furthermore, isothermal titration calorimetry experiments performed on 70S ribosomes purified from wild-type and ΔgidB mutant strains showed that methylation significantly enhances SM binding. These results provide a mechanistic explanation for the low-level, SM-resistant phenotype observed in M. tuberculosis strains that contain a gidB mutation.

  20. Molecular and Enzymatic Profiles of Mammalian DNA Methyltransferases: Structures and Targets for Drugs

    PubMed Central

    Xu, F.; Mao, C.; Ding, Y.; Rui, C.; Wu, L.; Shi, A.; Zhang, H.; Zhang, L.; Xu, Z.

    2010-01-01

    DNA methylation is an epigenetic event involved in a variety array of processes that may be the foundation of genetic phenomena and diseases. DNA methyltransferase is a key enzyme for cytosine methylation in DNA, and can be divided into two functional families (Dnmt1 and Dnmt3) in mammals. All mammalian DNA methyltransferases are encoded by their own single gene, and consisted of catalytic and regulatory regions (except Dnmt2). Via interactions between functional domains in the regulatory or catalytic regions and other adaptors or cofactors, DNA methyltransferases can be localized at selective areas (specific DNA/nucleotide sequence) and linked to specific chromosome status (euchromatin/heterochromatin, various histone modification status). With assistance from UHRF1 and Dnmt3L or other factors in Dnmt1 and Dnmt3a/Dnmt3b, mammalian DNA methyltransferases can be recruited, and then specifically bind to hemimethylated and unmethylated double-stranded DNA sequence to maintain and de novo setup patterns for DNA methylation. Complicated enzymatic steps catalyzed by DNA methyltransferases include methyl group transferred from cofactor Ado-Met to C5 position of the flipped-out cytosine in targeted DNA duplex. In the light of the fact that different DNA methyltransferases are divergent in both structures and functions, and use unique reprogrammed or distorted routines in development of diseases, design of new drugs targeting specific mammalian DNA methyltransferases or their adaptors in the control of key steps in either maintenance or de novo DNA methylation processes will contribute to individually treating diseases related to DNA methyltransferases. PMID:20939822

  1. DNA methylation at the CfrBI site is involved in expression control in the CfrBI restriction–modification system

    PubMed Central

    Beletskaya, Irina V.; Zakharova, Marina V.; Shlyapnikov, Michael G.; Semenova, Lidiya M.; Solonin, Alexander S.

    2000-01-01

    We have previously found that genes of the CfrBI restriction–modification (R-M) system from Citrobacter freundii are oriented divergently and that their promoter regions overlap. The overlapping promoters suggest regulation of gene expression at the transcriptional level. In this study the transcription regulation of CfrBI R-M genes was analyzed in vivo and in vitro in Escherichia coli. It was shown that in the presence of CfrBI methyltransferase (M·CfrBI), cell galactokinase activity decreases 10-fold when the galactokinase gene (galK) is under the control of the cfrBIM promoter and increases 20-fold when galK is under the control of the cfrBIR promoter. The CfrBI site, proven to be unique for the entire CfrBI R-M gene sequence, is located in the –35 cfrBIM promoter region and is in close vicinity of the –10 cfrBIR promoter region. A comparison of the cfrBIM and the cfrBIR promoter activities in the in vitro transcription system using methylated and unmethylated DNA fragments as templates demonstrated that the efficiency of CfrBI R-M gene transcription is regulated by enzymatic modification at the N-4-position of cytosine bases of the CfrBI site by M·CfrBI. From the results of the in vivo and in vitro experiments we suggest a new model of gene expression regulation in type II R-M systems. PMID:11000275

  2. DNA methylation at the CfrBI site is involved in expression control in the CfrBI restriction-modification system.

    PubMed

    Beletskaya, I V; Zakharova, M V; Shlyapnikov, M G; Semenova, L M; Solonin, A S

    2000-10-01

    We have previously found that genes of the CFR:BI restriction-modification (R-M) system from Citrobacter freundii are oriented divergently and that their promoter regions overlap. The overlapping promoters suggest regulation of gene expression at the transcriptional level. In this study the transcription regulation of CFR:BI R-M genes was analyzed in vivo and in vitro in Escherichia coli. It was shown that in the presence of CFR:BI methyltransferase (M.CFR:BI), cell galactokinase activity decreases 10-fold when the galactokinase gene (galK) is under the control of the cfrBIM promoter and increases 20-fold when galK is under the control of the cfrBIR promoter. The CFR:BI site, proven to be unique for the entire CFR:BI R-M gene sequence, is located in the -35 cfrBIM promoter region and is in close vicinity of the -10 cfrBIR promoter region. A comparison of the cfrBIM and the cfrBIR promoter activities in the in vitro transcription system using methylated and unmethylated DNA fragments as templates demonstrated that the efficiency of CFR:BI R-M gene transcription is regulated by enzymatic modification at the N-4-position of cytosine bases of the CFR:BI site by M.CFR:BI. From the results of the in vivo and in vitro experiments we suggest a new model of gene expression regulation in type II R-M systems.

  3. Structural and functional insight into an unexpectedly selective N-methyltransferase involved in plantazolicin biosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jaeheon; Hao, Yue; Blair, Patricia M.; Melby, Joel O.; Agarwal, Vinayak; Burkhart, Brandon J.; Nair, Satish K.; Mitchell, Douglas A.

    2013-01-01

    Plantazolicin (PZN), a polyheterocyclic, Nα,Nα-dimethylarginine–containing antibiotic, harbors remarkably specific bactericidal activity toward strains of Bacillus anthracis, the causative agent of anthrax. Previous studies demonstrated that genetic deletion of the S-adenosyl-l-methionine–dependent methyltransferase from the PZN biosynthetic gene cluster results in the formation of desmethylPZN, which is devoid of antibiotic activity. Here we describe the in vitro reconstitution, mutational analysis, and X-ray crystallographic structure of the PZN methyltransferase. Unlike all other known small molecule methyltransferases, which act upon diverse substrates in vitro, the PZN methyltransferase is uncharacteristically limited in substrate scope and functions only on desmethylPZN and close derivatives. The crystal structures of two related PZN methyltransferases, solved to 1.75 Å (Bacillus amyloliquefaciens) and 2.0 Å (Bacillus pumilus), reveal a deep, narrow cavity, putatively functioning as the binding site for desmethylPZN. The narrowness of this cavity provides a framework for understanding the molecular basis of the extreme substrate selectivity. Analysis of a panel of point mutations to the methyltransferase from B. amyloliquefaciens allowed the identification of residues of structural and catalytic importance. These findings further our understanding of one set of orthologous enzymes involved in thiazole/oxazole-modified microcin biosynthesis, a rapidly growing sector of natural products research. PMID:23878226

  4. Ribosomal protein methyltransferases in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae: Roles in ribosome biogenesis and translation.

    PubMed

    Al-Hadid, Qais; White, Jonelle; Clarke, Steven

    2016-02-12

    A significant percentage of the methyltransferasome in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and higher eukaryotes is devoted to methylation of the translational machinery. Methylation of the RNA components of the translational machinery has been studied extensively and is important for structure stability, ribosome biogenesis, and translational fidelity. However, the functional effects of ribosomal protein methylation by their cognate methyltransferases are still largely unknown. Previous work has shown that the ribosomal protein Rpl3 methyltransferase, histidine protein methyltransferase 1 (Hpm1), is important for ribosome biogenesis and translation elongation fidelity. In this study, yeast strains deficient in each of the ten ribosomal protein methyltransferases in S. cerevisiae were examined for potential defects in ribosome biogenesis and translation. Like Hpm1-deficient cells, loss of four of the nine other ribosomal protein methyltransferases resulted in defects in ribosomal subunit synthesis. All of the mutant strains exhibited resistance to the ribosome inhibitors anisomycin and/or cycloheximide in plate assays, but not in liquid culture. Translational fidelity assays measuring stop codon readthrough, amino acid misincorporation, and programmed -1 ribosomal frameshifting, revealed that eight of the ten enzymes are important for translation elongation fidelity and the remaining two are necessary for translation termination efficiency. Altogether, these results demonstrate that ribosomal protein methyltransferases in S. cerevisiae play important roles in ribosome biogenesis and translation.

  5. Crystal structure of dengue virus methyltransferase without S-adenosyl-L-methionine.

    PubMed

    Noble, Christian G; Li, Shi-Hua; Dong, Hongping; Chew, Sock Hui; Shi, Pei-Yong

    2014-11-01

    Flavivirus methyltransferase is a genetically-validated antiviral target. Crystal structures of almost all available flavivirus methyltransferases contain S-adenosyl-L-methionine (SAM), the methyl donor molecule that co-purifies with the enzymes. This raises a possibility that SAM is an integral structural component required for the folding of dengue virus (DENV) methyltransferase. Here we exclude this possibility by solving the crystal structure of DENV methyltransferase without SAM. The SAM ligand was removed from the enzyme through a urea-mediated denaturation-and-renaturation protocol. The crystal structure of the SAM-depleted enzyme exhibits a vacant SAM-binding pocket, with a conformation identical to that of the SAM-enzyme co-crystal structure. Functionally, equivalent enzymatic activities (N-7 methylation, 2'-O methylation, and GMP-enzyme complex formation) were detected for the SAM-depleted and SAM-containing recombinant proteins. These results clearly indicate that the SAM molecule is not an essential component for the correct folding of DENV methyltransferase. Furthermore, the results imply a potential antiviral approach to search for inhibitors that can bind to the SAM-binding pocket and compete against SAM binding. To demonstrate this potential, we have soaked crystals of DENV methyltransferase without a bound SAM with the natural product Sinefungin and show that preformed crystals are capable of binding ligands in this pocket.

  6. Presence of DNA methyltransferase activity and CpC methylation in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Panikar, Chitra S; Rajpathak, Shriram N; Abhyankar, Varada; Deshmukh, Saniya; Deobagkar, Deepti D

    2015-12-01

    Drosophila melanogaster lacks DNMT1/DNMT3 based methylation machinery. Despite recent reports confirming the presence of low DNA methylation in Drosophila; little is known about the methyltransferase. Therefore, in this study, we have aimed to investigate the possible functioning of DNA methyltransferase in Drosophila. The 14 K oligo microarray slide was incubated with native cell extract from adult Drosophila to check the presence of the methyltransferase activity. After incubation under appropriate conditions, the methylated oligo sequences were identified by the binding of anti 5-methylcytosine monoclonal antibody. The antibody bound to the methylated oligos was detected using Cy3 labeled secondary antibody. Methylation sensitive restriction enzyme mediated PCR was used to assess the methylation at a few selected loci identified on the array. It could be seen that a few of the total oligos got methylated under the assay conditions. Analysis of methylated oligo sequences provides evidence for the presence of de novo methyltransferase activity and allows identification of its sequence specificity in adult Drosophila. With the help of methylation sensitive enzymes we could detect presence of CpC methylation in the selected genomic regions. This study reports presence of an active DNA methyltransferase in adult Drosophila, which exhibits sequence specificity confirmed by presence of asymmetric methylation at corresponding sites in the genomic DNA. It also provides an innovative approach to investigate methylation specificity of a native methyltransferase.

  7. Intraspecific 16S rRNA gene diversity among clinical isolates of Neisseria species.

    PubMed

    Mechergui, Arij; Achour, Wafa; Hassen, Assia Ben

    2014-05-01

    In the present work, nearly the entire 16S rRNA gene sequences of 46 clinical samples of Neisseria spp. were determined, and the aligned sequences were analyzed to investigate the diversity of 16S rRNA genes in each commensal Neisseria species. Two 16S rRNA types were identified in two Neisseria sicca strains, three 16S rRNA types in five Neisseria macacae strains, fourteen 16S rRNA types in twenty Neisseria flavescens isolates, and fourteen 16S rRNA types in nineteen Neisseria mucosa isolates. The number of nucleotides that were different between 16S rRNA sequences within specie ranged from 1 to 15. We found high intraspecific sequence variation in 16S rRNA genes of Neisseria spp. strains. © 2013 APMIS. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. DNA adenine methyltransferase influences the virulence of Aeromonas hydrophila.

    PubMed

    Erova, Tatiana E; Pillai, Lakshmi; Fadl, Amin A; Sha, Jian; Wang, Shaofei; Galindo, Cristi L; Chopra, Ashok K

    2006-01-01

    Among the various virulence factors produced by Aeromonas hydrophila, a type II secretion system (T2SS)-secreted cytotoxic enterotoxin (Act) and the T3SS are crucial in the pathogenesis of Aeromonas-associated infections. Our laboratory molecularly characterized both Act and the T3SS from a diarrheal isolate, SSU of A. hydrophila, and defined the role of some regulatory genes in modulating the biological effects of Act. In this study, we cloned, sequenced, and expressed the DNA adenine methyltransferase gene of A. hydrophila SSU (dam(AhSSU)) in a T7 promoter-based vector system using Escherichia coli ER2566 as a host strain, which could alter the virulence potential of A. hydrophila. Recombinant Dam, designated as M.AhySSUDam, was produced as a histidine-tagged fusion protein and purified from an E. coli cell lysate using nickel affinity chromatography. The purified Dam had methyltransferase activity, based on its ability to transfer a methyl group from S-adenosyl-l-methionine to N(6)-methyladenine-free lambda DNA and to protect methylated lambda DNA from digestion with DpnII but not against the DpnI restriction enzyme. The dam gene was essential for the viability of the bacterium, and overproduction of Dam in A. hydrophila SSU, using an arabinose-inducible, P(BAD) promoter-based system, reduced the virulence of this pathogen. Specifically, overproduction of M.AhySSUDam decreased the motility of the bacterium by 58%. Likewise, the T3SS-associated cytotoxicity, as measured by the release of lactate dehydrogenase enzyme in murine macrophages infected with the Dam-overproducing strain, was diminished by 55% compared to that of a control A. hydrophila SSU strain harboring the pBAD vector alone. On the contrary, cytotoxic and hemolytic activities associated with Act as well as the protease activity in the culture supernatant of a Dam-overproducing strain were increased by 10-, 3-, and 2.4-fold, respectively, compared to those of the control A. hydrophila SSU strain. The

  9. DNA Adenine Methyltransferase Influences the Virulence of Aeromonas hydrophila

    PubMed Central

    Erova, Tatiana E.; Pillai, Lakshmi; Fadl, Amin A.; Sha, Jian; Wang, Shaofei; Galindo, Cristi L.; Chopra, Ashok K.

    2006-01-01

    Among the various virulence factors produced by Aeromonas hydrophila, a type II secretion system (T2SS)-secreted cytotoxic enterotoxin (Act) and the T3SS are crucial in the pathogenesis of Aeromonas-associated infections. Our laboratory molecularly characterized both Act and the T3SS from a diarrheal isolate, SSU of A. hydrophila, and defined the role of some regulatory genes in modulating the biological effects of Act. In this study, we cloned, sequenced, and expressed the DNA adenine methyltransferase gene of A. hydrophila SSU (damAhSSU) in a T7 promoter-based vector system using Escherichia coli ER2566 as a host strain, which could alter the virulence potential of A. hydrophila. Recombinant Dam, designated as M.AhySSUDam, was produced as a histidine-tagged fusion protein and purified from an E. coli cell lysate using nickel affinity chromatography. The purified Dam had methyltransferase activity, based on its ability to transfer a methyl group from S-adenosyl-l-methionine to N6-methyladenine-free lambda DNA and to protect methylated lambda DNA from digestion with DpnII but not against the DpnI restriction enzyme. The dam gene was essential for the viability of the bacterium, and overproduction of Dam in A. hydrophila SSU, using an arabinose-inducible, PBAD promoter-based system, reduced the virulence of this pathogen. Specifically, overproduction of M.AhySSUDam decreased the motility of the bacterium by 58%. Likewise, the T3SS-associated cytotoxicity, as measured by the release of lactate dehydrogenase enzyme in murine macrophages infected with the Dam-overproducing strain, was diminished by 55% compared to that of a control A. hydrophila SSU strain harboring the pBAD vector alone. On the contrary, cytotoxic and hemolytic activities associated with Act as well as the protease activity in the culture supernatant of a Dam-overproducing strain were increased by 10-, 3-, and 2.4-fold, respectively, compared to those of the control A. hydrophila SSU strain. The Dam

  10. Leuconostoc pseudomesenteroides WCFur3 partial 16S rRNA gene

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This study used a partial 535 base pair 16S rRNA gene sequence to identify a bacterial isolate. Fatty acid profiles are consistent with the 16S rRNA gene sequence identification of this bacterium. The isolate was obtained from a compost bin in Fort Collins, Colorado, USA. The 16S rRNA gene sequen...

  11. Fragmentary 5S rRNA gene in the human mitochondrial genome

    SciTech Connect

    Nierlich, D.P.

    1982-02-01

    The human mitochondrial genoma contains a 23-nucleodtide sequence that is homologous to a part of the 5S rRNA's of bacteria. This homology, the structure of the likely transcript, and the location of the sequence relative to the mitochondrial rRNA genes suggest that the sequence represents a fragmentary 5S rRNA gene.

  12. Rubisco small and large subunit N-methyltransferases. Bi- and mono-functional methyltransferases that methylate the small and large subunits of Rubisco.

    PubMed

    Ying, Z; Mulligan, R M; Janney, N; Houtz, R L

    1999-12-17

    Ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco)is methylated at the alpha-amino group of the N-terminal methionine of the processed form of the small subunit (SS), and at the epsilon-amino group of lysine-14 of the large subunit (LS) in some species. The Rubisco LS methyltransferase (LSMT) gene has been cloned and expressed from pea and specifically methylates lysine-14 of the LS of Rubisco. We determine here that both pea and tobacco Rubisco LSMT also exhibit (alpha)N-methyltransferase activity toward the SS of Rubisco, suggesting that a single gene product can produce a bifunctional protein methyltransferase capable of catalyzing both (alpha)N-methylation of the SS and (epsilon)N-methylation of the LS. A homologue of the Rubisco LSMT gene (rbcMT-S) has also been identified in spinach that is closely related to Rubisco LSMT sequences from pea and tobacco. Two mRNAs are produced from rbcMT-S, and both long and short forms of the spinach cDNAs were expressed in Escherichia coli cells and shown to catalyze methylation of the alpha-amino group of the N-terminal methionine of the SS of Rubisco. Thus, the absence of lysine-14 methylation in species like spinach is apparently a consequence of a monofunctional protein methyltransferase incapable of methylating Lys-14, with activity limited to methylation of the SS.

  13. Developmental Expression and Substrate Specificities of Alfalfa Caffeic Acid 3-O-Methyltransferase and Caffeoyl Coenzyme A 3-O-Methyltransferase in Relation to Lignification1

    PubMed Central

    Inoue, Kentaro; Sewalt, Vincent J.H.; Murray Ballance, G.; Ni, Weiting; Stürzer, Cornelia; Dixon, Richard A.

    1998-01-01

    The biosynthesis of monolignols can potentially occur via two parallel pathways involving free acids or their coenzyme A (CoA) esters. Caffeic acid 3-O-methyltransferase (COMT) and caffeoyl CoA 3-O-methyltransferase (CCOMT) catalyze functionally identical reactions in these two pathways, resulting in the formation of mono- or dimethoxylated lignin precursors. The activities of the two enzymes increase from the first to the sixth internode in stems of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.), preceding the deposition of lignin. Alfalfa CCOMT is highly similar at the amino acid sequence level to the CCOMT from parsley, although it contains a six-amino acid insertion near the N terminus. Transcripts encoding both COMT and CCOMT are primarily localized to vascular tissue in alfalfa stems. Alfalfa CCOMT expressed in Escherichia coli catalyzes O-methylation of caffeoyl and 5-hydroxyferuloyl CoA, with preference for caffeoyl CoA. It has low activity against the free acids. COMT expressed in E. coli is active against both caffeic and 5-hydroxyferulic acids, with preference for the latter compound. Surprisingly, very little extractable O-methyltransferase activity versus 5-hydroxyferuloyl CoA is present in alfalfa stem internodes, in which relative O-methyltransferase activity against 5-hy-droxyferulic acid increases with increasing maturity, correlating with increased lignin methoxyl content. PMID:9662519

  14. Substrate Specificity of Human Protein Arginine Methyltransferase 7 (PRMT7)

    PubMed Central

    Feng, You; Hadjikyriacou, Andrea; Clarke, Steven G.

    2014-01-01

    Protein arginine methyltransferase 7 (PRMT7) methylates arginine residues on various protein substrates and is involved in DNA transcription, RNA splicing, DNA repair, cell differentiation, and metastasis. The substrate sequences it recognizes in vivo and the enzymatic mechanism behind it, however, remain to be explored. Here we characterize methylation catalyzed by a bacterially expressed GST-tagged human PRMT7 fusion protein with a broad range of peptide and protein substrates. After confirming its type III activity generating only ω-NG-monomethylarginine and its distinct substrate specificity for RXR motifs surrounded by basic residues, we performed site-directed mutagenesis studies on this enzyme, revealing that two acidic residues within the double E loop, Asp-147 and Glu-149, modulate the substrate preference. Furthermore, altering a single acidic residue, Glu-478, on the C-terminal domain to glutamine nearly abolished the activity of the enzyme. Additionally, we demonstrate that PRMT7 has unusual temperature dependence and salt tolerance. These results provide a biochemical foundation to understanding the broad biological functions of PRMT7 in health and disease. PMID:25294873

  15. Hypnotizability and Catechol-O-Methyltransferase (COMT) polymorphysms in Italians

    PubMed Central

    Presciuttini, Silvano; Gialluisi, Alessandro; Barbuti, Serena; Curcio, Michele; Scatena, Fabrizio; Carli, Giancarlo; Santarcangelo, Enrica L.

    2014-01-01

    Higher brain dopamine content depending on lower activity of Catechol-O-Methyltransferase (COMT) in subjects with high hypnotizability scores (highs) has been considered responsible for their attentional characteristics. However, the results of the previous genetic studies on association between hypnotizability and the COMT single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs4680 (Val158Met) were inconsistent. Here, we used a selective genotyping approach to re-evaluate the association between hypnotizability and COMT in the context of a two-SNP haplotype analysis, considering not only the Val158Met polymorphism, but also the closely located rs4818 SNP. An Italian sample of 53 highs, 49 low hypnotizable subjects (lows), and 57 controls, were genotyped for a segment of 805 bp of the COMT gene, including Val158Met and the closely located rs4818 SNP. Our selective genotyping approach had 97.1% power to detect the previously reported strongest association at the significance level of 5%. We found no evidence of association at the SNP, haplotype, and diplotype levels. Thus, our results challenge the dopamine-based theory of hypnosis and indirectly support recent neuropsychological and neurophysiological findings reporting the lack of any association between hypnotizability and focused attention abilities. PMID:24431998

  16. Mapping the conformational space accessible to catechol-O-methyltransferase

    PubMed Central

    Ehler, Andreas; Benz, Jörg; Schlatter, Daniel; Rudolph, Markus G.

    2014-01-01

    Methylation catalysed by catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) is the main pathway of catechol neurotransmitter deactivation in the prefrontal cortex. Low levels of this class of neurotransmitters are held to be causative of diseases such as schizophrenia, depression and Parkinson’s disease. Inhibition of COMT may increase neurotransmitter levels, thus offering a route for treatment. Structure-based drug design hitherto seems to be based on the closed enzyme conformation. Here, a set of apo, semi-holo, holo and Michaelis form crystal structures are described that define the conformational space available to COMT and that include likely intermediates along the catalytic pathway. Domain swaps and sizeable loop movements around the active site testify to the flexibility of this enzyme, rendering COMT a difficult drug target. The low affinity of the co-substrate S-adenosylmethionine and the large conformational changes involved during catalysis highlight significant energetic investment to achieve the closed conformation. Since each conformation of COMT is a bona fide target for inhibitors, other states than the closed conformation may be promising to address. Crystallographic data for an alternative avenue of COMT inhibition, i.e. locking of the apo state by an inhibitor, are presented. The set of COMT structures may prove to be useful for the development of novel classes of inhibitors. PMID:25084335

  17. Kinetic mechanism of protein N-terminal methyltransferase 1.

    PubMed

    Richardson, Stacie L; Mao, Yunfei; Zhang, Gang; Hanjra, Pahul; Peterson, Darrell L; Huang, Rong

    2015-05-01

    The protein N-terminal methyltransferase 1 (NTMT1) catalyzes the transfer of the methyl group from the S-adenosyl-l-methionine to the protein α-amine, resulting in formation of S-adenosyl-l-homocysteine and α-N-methylated proteins. NTMT1 is an interesting potential anticancer target because it is overexpressed in gastrointestinal cancers and plays an important role in cell mitosis. To gain insight into the biochemical mechanism of NTMT1, we have characterized the kinetic mechanism of recombinant NTMT1 using a fluorescence assay and mass spectrometry. The results of initial velocity, product, and dead-end inhibition studies indicate that methylation by NTMT1 proceeds via a random sequential Bi Bi mechanism. In addition, our processivity studies demonstrate that NTMT1 proceeds via a distributive mechanism for multiple methylations. Together, our studies provide new knowledge about the kinetic mechanism of NTMT1 and lay the foundation for the development of mechanism-based inhibitors. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  18. DNA methyltransferase inhibitor CDA-II inhibits myogenic differentiation

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Zirong; Jin, Guorong; Lin, Shuibin; Lin, Xiumei; Gu, Yumei; Zhu, Yujuan; Hu, Chengbin; Zhang, Qingjiong; Wu, Lizi; Shen, Huangxuan

    2012-06-08

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer CDA-II inhibits myogenic differentiation in a dose-dependent manner. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer CDA-II repressed expression of muscle transcription factors and structural proteins. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer CDA-II inhibited proliferation and migration of C2C12 myoblasts. -- Abstract: CDA-II (cell differentiation agent II), isolated from healthy human urine, is a DNA methyltransferase inhibitor. Previous studies indicated that CDA-II played important roles in the regulation of cell growth and certain differentiation processes. However, it has not been determined whether CDA-II affects skeletal myogenesis. In this study, we investigated effects of CDA-II treatment on skeletal muscle progenitor cell differentiation, migration and proliferation. We found that CDA-II blocked differentiation of murine myoblasts C2C12 in a dose-dependent manner. CDA-II repressed expression of muscle transcription factors, such as Myogenin and Mef2c, and structural proteins, such as myosin heavy chain (Myh3), light chain (Mylpf) and MCK. Moreover, CDA-II inhibited C1C12 cell migration and proliferation. Thus, our data provide the first evidence that CDA-II inhibits growth and differentiation of muscle progenitor cells, suggesting that the use of CDA-II might affect skeletal muscle functions.

  19. DNA Electrochemistry Shows DNMT1 Methyltransferase Hyperactivity in Colorectal Tumors.

    PubMed

    Furst, Ariel L; Barton, Jacqueline K

    2015-07-23

    DNMT1, the most abundant human methyltransferase, is responsible for translating the correct methylation pattern during DNA replication, and aberrant methylation by DNMT1 has been linked to tumorigenesis. We have developed a sensitive signal-on electrochemical assay for the measurement of DNMT1 activity in crude tissue lysates. We have further analyzed ten tumor sets and have found a direct correlation between DNMT1 hyperactivity and tumorous tissue. In the majority of samples analyzed, the tumorous tissue has significantly higher DNMT1 activity than the healthy adjacent tissue. No such correlation is observed in measurements of DNMT1 expression by qPCR, DNMT1 protein abundance by western blotting, or DNMT1 activity using a radiometric DNA labeling assay. DNMT1 hyperactivity can result from both protein overexpression and enzyme hyperactivity. DNMT1 activity measured electrochemically provides a direct measure of activity in cell lysates and, as a result, provides a sensitive and early indication of cancerous transformation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Characterization of DNA methyltransferase and demethylase genes in Fragaria vesca.

    PubMed

    Gu, Tingting; Ren, Shuai; Wang, Yuanhua; Han, Yuhui; Li, Yi

    2016-06-01

    DNA methylation is an epigenetic modification essential for gene regulations in plants, but understanding on how it is involved in fruit development, especially in non-climacteric fleshy fruit, is limited. The diploid woodland strawberry (Fragaria vesca) is an important model for non-climacteric fruit crops. In this study, we identified DNA methyltransferase genes and demethylase genes in Fragaria vesca and other angiosperm species. In accordance with previous studies, our phylogenetic analyses of those DNA methylation modifiers support the clustering of those genes into several classes. Our data indicate that whole-genome duplications and tandem duplications contributed to the expansion of those DNA methylation modifiers in angiosperms. We have further demonstrated that some DNA methylase and demethylase genes reach their highest expression levels in strawberry fleshy fruits when turning from white to red, suggesting that DNA methylation might undergo a dramatic change at the onset of fleshy fruit-ripening process. In addition, we have observed that expression of some DNA demethylase genes increases in response to various abiotic stresses including heat, cold, drought and salinity. Collectively, our study indicates a regulatory role of DNA methylation in the turning stage of non-climacteric fleshy fruit and responses to environment stimuli, and would facilitate functional studies of DNA methylation in the growth and development of non-climacteric fruits.

  1. Methyltransferase and demethylase profiling studies during brown adipocyte differentiation.

    PubMed

    Son, Min Jeong; Kim, Won Kon; Oh, Kyoung-Jin; Park, Anna; Lee, Da Som; Han, Baek Soo; Lee, Sang Chul; Bae, Kwang-Hee

    2016-07-01

    Although brown adipose tissue is important with regard to energy balance, the molecular mechanism of brown adipocyte differentiation has not been extensively studied. Specifically, regulation factors at the level of protein modification are largely unknown. In this study, we examine the changes in the expression level of enzymes which are involved in protein lysine methylation during brown adipocyte differentiation. Several enzymes, in this case SUV420H2, PRDM9, MLL3 and JHDM1D, were found to be up-regulated. On the other hand, Set7/9 was significantly down-regulated. In the case of SUV420H2, the expression level increased sharply during brown adipocyte differentiation, whereas the expression of SUV420H2 was marginally enhanced during the white adipocyte differentiation. The knock-down of SUV420H2 caused the suppression of brown adipocyte differentiation, as compared to a scrambled control. These results suggest that SUV420H2, a methyltransferase, is involved in brown adipocyte differentiation, and that the methylation of protein lysine is important in brown adipocyte differentiation. [BMB Reports 2016; 49(7): 388-393].

  2. Methyltransferase and demethylase profiling studies during brown adipocyte differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Son, Min Jeong; Kim, Won Kon; Oh, Kyoung-Jin; Park, Anna; Lee, Da Som; Han, Baek Soo; Lee, Sang Chul; Bae, Kwang-Hee

    2016-01-01

    Although brown adipose tissue is important with regard to energy balance, the molecular mechanism of brown adipocyte differentiation has not been extensively studied. Specifically, regulation factors at the level of protein modification are largely unknown. In this study, we examine the changes in the expression level of enzymes which are involved in protein lysine methylation during brown adipocyte differentiation. Several enzymes, in this case SUV420H2, PRDM9, MLL3 and JHDM1D, were found to be up-regulated. On the other hand, Set7/9 was significantly down-regulated. In the case of SUV420H2, the expression level increased sharply during brown adipocyte differentiation, whereas the expression of SUV420H2 was marginally enhanced during the white adipocyte differentiation. The knock-down of SUV420H2 caused the suppression of brown adipocyte differentiation, as compared to a scrambled control. These results suggest that SUV420H2, a methyltransferase, is involved in brown adipocyte differentiation, and that the methylation of protein lysine is important in brown adipocyte differentiation. [BMB Reports 2016; 49(7): 388-393] PMID:27157542

  3. Kinetic Mechanism of Protein N-terminal Methyltransferase 1*

    PubMed Central

    Richardson, Stacie L.; Mao, Yunfei; Zhang, Gang; Hanjra, Pahul; Peterson, Darrell L.; Huang, Rong

    2015-01-01

    The protein N-terminal methyltransferase 1 (NTMT1) catalyzes the transfer of the methyl group from the S-adenosyl-l-methionine to the protein α-amine, resulting in formation of S-adenosyl-l-homocysteine and α-N-methylated proteins. NTMT1 is an interesting potential anticancer target because it is overexpressed in gastrointestinal cancers and plays an important role in cell mitosis. To gain insight into the biochemical mechanism of NTMT1, we have characterized the kinetic mechanism of recombinant NTMT1 using a fluorescence assay and mass spectrometry. The results of initial velocity, product, and dead-end inhibition studies indicate that methylation by NTMT1 proceeds via a random sequential Bi Bi mechanism. In addition, our processivity studies demonstrate that NTMT1 proceeds via a distributive mechanism for multiple methylations. Together, our studies provide new knowledge about the kinetic mechanism of NTMT1 and lay the foundation for the development of mechanism-based inhibitors. PMID:25771539

  4. Euchromatin histone methyltransferase 1 regulates cortical neuronal network development

    PubMed Central

    Bart Martens, Marijn; Frega, Monica; Classen, Jessica; Epping, Lisa; Bijvank, Elske; Benevento, Marco; van Bokhoven, Hans; Tiesinga, Paul; Schubert, Dirk; Nadif Kasri, Nael

    2016-01-01

    Heterozygous mutations or deletions in the human Euchromatin histone methyltransferase 1 (EHMT1) gene cause Kleefstra syndrome, a neurodevelopmental disorder that is characterized by autistic-like features and severe intellectual disability (ID). Neurodevelopmental disorders including ID and autism may be related to deficits in activity-dependent wiring of brain circuits during development. Although Kleefstra syndrome has been associated with dendritic and synaptic defects in mice and Drosophila, little is known about the role of EHMT1 in the development of cortical neuronal networks. Here we used micro-electrode arrays and whole-cell patch-clamp recordings to investigate the impact of EHMT1 deficiency at the network and single cell level. We show that EHMT1 deficiency impaired neural network activity during the transition from uncorrelated background action potential firing to synchronized network bursting. Spontaneous bursting and excitatory synaptic currents were transiently reduced, whereas miniature excitatory postsynaptic currents were not affected. Finally, we show that loss of function of EHMT1 ultimately resulted in less regular network bursting patterns later in development. These data suggest that the developmental impairments observed in EHMT1-deficient networks may result in a temporal misalignment between activity-dependent developmental processes thereby contributing to the pathophysiology of Kleefstra syndrome. PMID:27767173

  5. Inhibition of DNA Methyltransferases Blocks Mutant Huntingtin-Induced Neurotoxicity

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Yanchun; Daito, Takuji; Sasaki, Yo; Chung, Yong Hee; Xing, Xiaoyun; Pondugula, Santhi; Swamidass, S. Joshua; Wang, Ting; Kim, Albert H.; Yano, Hiroko

    2016-01-01

    Although epigenetic abnormalities have been described in Huntington’s disease (HD), the causal epigenetic mechanisms driving neurodegeneration in HD cortex and striatum remain undefined. Using an epigenetic pathway-targeted drug screen, we report that inhibitors of DNA methyltransferases (DNMTs), decitabine and FdCyd, block mutant huntingtin (Htt)-induced toxicity in primary cortical and striatal neurons. In addition, knockdown of DNMT3A or DNMT1 protected neurons against mutant Htt-induced toxicity, together demonstrating a requirement for DNMTs in mutant Htt-triggered neuronal death and suggesting a neurodegenerative mechanism based on DNA methylation-mediated transcriptional repression. Inhibition of DNMTs in HD model primary cortical or striatal neurons restored the expression of several key genes, including Bdnf, an important neurotrophic factor implicated in HD. Accordingly, the Bdnf promoter exhibited aberrant cytosine methylation in mutant Htt-expressing cortical neurons. In vivo, pharmacological inhibition of DNMTs in HD mouse brains restored the mRNA levels of key striatal genes known to be downregulated in HD. Thus, disturbances in DNA methylation play a critical role in mutant Htt-induced neuronal dysfunction and death, raising the possibility that epigenetic strategies targeting abnormal DNA methylation may have therapeutic utility in HD. PMID:27516062

  6. Sterol methyltransferase 1 controls the level of cholesterol in plants.

    PubMed

    Diener, A C; Li, H; Zhou, W; Whoriskey, W J; Nes, W D; Fink, G R

    2000-06-01

    The side chain in plant sterols can have either a methyl or ethyl addition at carbon 24 that is absent in cholesterol. The ethyl addition is the product of two sequential methyl additions. Arabidopsis contains three genes-sterol methyltransferase 1 (SMT1), SMT2, and SMT3-homologous to yeast ERG6, which is known to encode an S-adenosylmethionine-dependent C-24 SMT that catalyzes a single methyl addition. The SMT1 polypeptide is the most similar of these Arabidopsis homologs to yeast Erg6p. Moreover, expression of Arabidopsis SMT1 in erg6 restores SMT activity to the yeast mutant. The smt1 plants have pleiotropic defects: poor growth and fertility, sensitivity of the root to calcium, and a loss of proper embryo morphogenesis. smt1 has an altered sterol content: it accumulates cholesterol and has less C-24 alkylated sterols content. Escherichia coli extracts, obtained from a strain expressing the Arabidopsis SMT1 protein, can perform both the methyl and ethyl additions to appropriate sterol substrates, although with different kinetics. The fact that smt1 null mutants still produce alkylated sterols and that SMT1 can catalyze both alkylation steps shows that there is considerable overlap in the substrate specificity of enzymes in sterol biosynthesis. The availability of the SMT1 gene and mutant should permit the manipulation of phytosterol composition, which will help elucidate the role of sterols in animal nutrition.

  7. STEROL METHYLTRANSFERASE 1 Controls the Level of Cholesterol in Plants

    PubMed Central

    Diener, Andrew C.; Li, Haoxia; Zhou, Wen-xu; Whoriskey, Wendy J.; Nes, W. David; Fink, Gerald R.

    2000-01-01

    The side chain in plant sterols can have either a methyl or ethyl addition at carbon 24 that is absent in cholesterol. The ethyl addition is the product of two sequential methyl additions. Arabidopsis contains three genes—sterol methyltransferase 1 (SMT1), SMT2, and SMT3—homologous to yeast ERG6, which is known to encode an S-adenosylmethionine–dependent C-24 SMT that catalyzes a single methyl addition. The SMT1 polypeptide is the most similar of these Arabidopsis homologs to yeast Erg6p. Moreover, expression of Arabidopsis SMT1 in erg6 restores SMT activity to the yeast mutant. The smt1 plants have pleiotropic defects: poor growth and fertility, sensitivity of the root to calcium, and a loss of proper embryo morphogenesis. smt1 has an altered sterol content: it accumulates cholesterol and has less C-24 alkylated sterols content. Escherichia coli extracts, obtained from a strain expressing the Arabidopsis SMT1 protein, can perform both the methyl and ethyl additions to appropriate sterol substrates, although with different kinetics. The fact that smt1 null mutants still produce alkylated sterols and that SMT1 can catalyze both alkylation steps shows that there is considerable overlap in the substrate specificity of enzymes in sterol biosynthesis. The availability of the SMT1 gene and mutant should permit the manipulation of phytosterol composition, which will help elucidate the role of sterols in animal nutrition. PMID:10852933

  8. Isoprenyl carboxyl methyltransferase inhibitors: a brief review including recent patents.

    PubMed

    Yang, Woo Seok; Yeo, Seung-Gu; Yang, Sungjae; Kim, Kyung-Hee; Yoo, Byong Chul; Cho, Jae Youl

    2017-06-19

    Among the enzymes involved in the post-translational modification of Ras, isoprenyl carboxyl methyltransferase (ICMT) has been explored by a number of researchers as a significant enzyme controlling the activation of Ras. Indeed, inhibition of ICMT exhibited promising anti-cancer activity against various cancer cell lines. This paper reviews patents and research articles published between 2009 and 2016 that reported inhibitors of ICMT as potential chemotherapeutic agents targeting Ras-induced growth factor signaling. Since ICMT inhibitors can modulate Ras signaling pathway, it might be possible to develop a new class of anti-cancer drugs targeting Ras-related cancers. Researchers have discovered indole-based small-molecular ICMT inhibitors through high-throughput screening. Researchers at Duke University identified a prototypical inhibitor, cysmethynil. At Singapore University, Ramanujulu and his colleagues patented more potent compounds by optimizing cysmethynil. In addition, Rodriguez and Stevenson at Universidad Complutense De Madrid and Cancer Therapeutics CRC PTY Ltd., respectively, have developed inhibitors based on formulas other than the indole base. However, further optimization of chemicals targeted to functional groups is needed to improve the characteristics of ICMT inhibitors related to their application as drugs, such as solubility, effectiveness, and safety, to facilitate clinical use.

  9. Erythrocyte thiopurine methyltransferase activity in a Korean population.

    PubMed

    Jang, I J; Shin, S G; Lee, K H; Yim, D S; Lee, M S; Koo, H H; Kim, H K; Sohn, D R

    1996-11-01

    Thiopurine methyltransferase (TPMT) is the enzyme responsible for the S-methylation of thiopurine drugs. The enzyme, present in human red blood cells (RBC), is known to exhibit genetic polymorphism and interethnic differences in its activity have been demonstrated. We have studied the role of TPMT polymorphism in Koreans and compared enzyme activity between this and other ethnic groups. In a population of 360 unrelated healthy Korean subjects TPMT activity showed a large interindividual variation ranging from 3.2 to 22.9 nmol ml-1 packed RBC h-1 with a median value of 12.0 and mode of 11.0 nmol ml-1 packed RBC h-1. The enzyme activity was higher in male subjects than that in female (median values; 12.2 vs 11.2, 95% confidence interval of the difference; -2.1, 4.0 nmol ml-1 packed RBC h-1). All subjects had detectable TPMT activity, but contrary to previous reports in other ethnic groups, this was distributed unimodally. The median RBC TPMT activity was very similar to values found in Caucasian populations, higher than in Floridian blacks and lower than that of a Norwegian Saami population.

  10. Association between catechol-O-methyltransferase and phobic anxiety.

    PubMed

    McGrath, Monica; Kawachi, Ichiro; Ascherio, Alberto; Colditz, Graham A; Hunter, David J; De Vivo, Immaculata

    2004-09-01

    The authors assessed the association between the catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) Val158Met polymorphism and scores on the phobic anxiety scale of the Crown-Crisp Experimental Index. A total of 1,234 women completed the Crown-Crisp Experimental Index phobic anxiety scale and were genotyped for the COMT polymorphism. The authors used unconditional logistic regression to compute odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) to evaluate the association between the COMT genotype and phobic anxiety. The mean scores for the three genotypes were statistically significantly different. Compared to the COMT Met/Met genotype, the age-adjusted odds ratio for scoring >/=6 compared to scoring 0 or 1 were 1.15 (95% CI=0.71-1.85) and 1.99 (95% CI=1.17-3.40) for the COMT Val/Met and COMT Val/Val genotypes, respectively; a significant gene dosage effect was observed. Our results suggest that the functional COMT polymorphism is associated with the development of phobic anxiety.

  11. Specificity analysis of protein lysine methyltransferases using SPOT peptide arrays.

    PubMed

    Kudithipudi, Srikanth; Kusevic, Denis; Weirich, Sara; Jeltsch, Albert

    2014-11-29

    Lysine methylation is an emerging post-translation modification and it has been identified on several histone and non-histone proteins, where it plays crucial roles in cell development and many diseases. Approximately 5,000 lysine methylation sites were identified on different proteins, which are set by few dozens of protein lysine methyltransferases. This suggests that each PKMT methylates multiple proteins, however till now only one or two substrates have been identified for several of these enzymes. To approach this problem, we have introduced peptide array based substrate specificity analyses of PKMTs. Peptide arrays are powerful tools to characterize the specificity of PKMTs because methylation of several substrates with different sequences can be tested on one array. We synthesized peptide arrays on cellulose membrane using an Intavis SPOT synthesizer and analyzed the specificity of various PKMTs. Based on the results, for several of these enzymes, novel substrates could be identified. For example, for NSD1 by employing peptide arrays, we showed that it methylates K44 of H4 instead of the reported H4K20 and in addition H1.5K168 is the highly preferred substrate over the previously known H3K36. Hence, peptide arrays are powerful tools to biochemically characterize the PKMTs.

  12. Specificity Analysis of Protein Lysine Methyltransferases Using SPOT Peptide Arrays

    PubMed Central

    Kudithipudi, Srikanth; Kusevic, Denis; Weirich, Sara; Jeltsch, Albert

    2014-01-01

    Lysine methylation is an emerging post-translation modification and it has been identified on several histone and non-histone proteins, where it plays crucial roles in cell development and many diseases. Approximately 5,000 lysine methylation sites were identified on different proteins, which are set by few dozens of protein lysine methyltransferases. This suggests that each PKMT methylates multiple proteins, however till now only one or two substrates have been identified for several of these enzymes. To approach this problem, we have introduced peptide array based substrate specificity analyses of PKMTs. Peptide arrays are powerful tools to characterize the specificity of PKMTs because methylation of several substrates with different sequences can be tested on one array. We synthesized peptide arrays on cellulose membrane using an Intavis SPOT synthesizer and analyzed the specificity of various PKMTs. Based on the results, for several of these enzymes, novel substrates could be identified. For example, for NSD1 by employing peptide arrays, we showed that it methylates K44 of H4 instead of the reported H4K20 and in addition H1.5K168 is the highly preferred substrate over the previously known H3K36. Hence, peptide arrays are powerful tools to biochemically characterize the PKMTs. PMID:25489813

  13. Germinal center dysregulation by histone methyltransferase EZH2 promotes lymphomagenesis

    PubMed Central

    Caganova, Marieta; Carrisi, Chiara; Varano, Gabriele; Mainoldi, Federica; Zanardi, Federica; Germain, Pierre-Luc; George, Laura; Alberghini, Federica; Ferrarini, Luca; Talukder, Asoke K.; Ponzoni, Maurilio; Testa, Giuseppe; Nojima, Takuya; Doglioni, Claudio; Kitamura, Daisuke; Toellner, Kai-M.; Su, I-hsin; Casola, Stefano

    2013-01-01

    Protection against deadly pathogens requires the production of high-affinity antibodies by B cells, which are generated in germinal centers (GCs). Alteration of the GC developmental program is common in many B cell malignancies. Identification of regulators of the GC response is crucial to develop targeted therapies for GC B cell dysfunctions, including lymphomas. The histone H3 lysine 27 methyltransferase enhancer of zeste homolog 2 (EZH2) is highly expressed in GC B cells and is often constitutively activated in GC-derived non-Hodgkin lymphomas (NHLs). The function of EZH2 in GC B cells remains largely unknown. Herein, we show that Ezh2 inactivation in mouse GC B cells caused profound impairment of GC responses, memory B cell formation, and humoral immunity. EZH2 protected GC B cells against activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) mutagenesis, facilitated cell cycle progression, and silenced plasma cell determinant and tumor suppressor B-lymphocyte–induced maturation protein 1 (BLIMP1). EZH2 inhibition in NHL cells induced BLIMP1, which impaired tumor growth. In conclusion, EZH2 sustains AID function and prevents terminal differentiation of GC B cells, which allows antibody diversification and affinity maturation. Dysregulation of the GC reaction by constitutively active EZH2 facilitates lymphomagenesis and identifies EZH2 as a possible therapeutic target in NHL and other GC-derived B cell diseases. PMID:24200695

  14. Cloning of the BssHII restriction-modification system in Escherichia coli : BssHII methyltransferase contains circularly permuted cytosine-5 methyltransferase motifs.

    PubMed Central

    Xu, S; Xiao, J; Posfai, J; Maunus, R; Benner, J

    1997-01-01

    BssHII restriction endonuclease cleaves 5'-GCGCGC-3' on double-stranded DNA between the first and second bases to generate a four base 5'overhang. BssHII restriction endonuclease was purified from the native Bacillus stearothermophilus H3 cells and its N-terminal amino acid sequence was determined. Degenerate PCR primers were used to amplify the first 20 codons of the BssHII restriction endonuclease gene. The BssHII restriction endonuclease gene (bssHIIR) and the cognate BssHII methyltransferase gene (bssHIIM) were cloned in Escherichia coli by amplification of Bacillus stearothermophilus genomic DNA using PCR and inverse PCR. BssHII methyltransferase (M.BssHII) contains all 10 conserved cytosine-5 methyltransferase motifs, but motifs IX and X precede motifs I-VIII. Thus, the conserved motifs of M. BssHII are circularly permuted relative to the motif organizations of other cytosine-5 methyltransferases. M.BssHII and the non-cognate multi-specific phiBssHII methyltransferase, M.phiBss HII [Schumann,J. et al . (1995) Gene, 157, 103-104] share 34% identity in amino acid sequences from motifs I-VIII, and 40% identity in motifs IX-X. A conserved arginine is located upstream of a TV dipeptide in the N-terminus of M.BssHII that may be responsible for the recognition of the guanine 5' of the target cytosine. The BssHII restriction endonuclease gene was expressed in E.coli via a T7 expression vector. PMID:9321648

  15. Catechol-O-methyltransferase gene polymorphism and vulvar pain in women with vulvodynia.

    PubMed

    Patanwala, Insiyyah Y; Lamvu, Georgine; Ledger, William J; Witzeman, Kathryn; Marvel, Richard; Rapkin, Andrea; Bongiovanni, Ann Marie; Feranec, Jessica; Witkin, Steven S

    2017-04-01

    The underlying causes of vulvar pain in women with vulvodynia remain poorly understood. Catechol-O-methyltransferase, an enzyme that metabolizes catecholamines, is a neuromodulator that is involved with perception and sensitivity to pain. The catechol-O-methyltransferase gene is polymorphic, and a single nucleotide polymorphism is associated with low activity and heightened pain sensitivity. The variant allele that encodes this polymorphism commonly is called the "L allele" because of its low enzyme activity as opposed to the normal H (high activity) allele. The methionine-containing catechol-O-methyltransferase protein coded by the L allele results in elevated catecholamine levels, reduced inactivation of the dopaminergic and adrenergic systems, and increased sensitivity to pain. This polymorphism not only may decrease the pain threshold in response to acute pain but also may facilitate the development of chronic pain. Therefore, the objective of our study was to assess whether a variation in the catechol-O-methyltransferase genotype is involved in increased pain sensitivity in women with vulvodynia. We conducted a prospective cohort study. Buccal swabs were collected from 167 white women with vulvodynia and 107 control subjects; the DNA was tested for a single nucleotide polymorphism at position 158 (rs4680) in the catechol-O-methyltransferase gene. Women with vulvodynia had a marginally increased, yet not significant, prevalence of the catechol-O-methyltransferase genotype that is associated with high activity of the coded protein: 32.9% in the women with vulvodynia, as opposed to 21.5% in the control subjects (odds ratio, 1.80; 95% confidence interval, 1.02-3.15). Subgrouping the cases based on pain frequency revealed that the elevated occurrence of this catechol-O-methyltransferase genotype was present in 40.6% of the subset of women who experienced pain only with sexual intercourse vs only 21.5% of control subjects (odds ratio, 2.50; 95% confidence interval

  16. Phylogenetic analysis of oryx species using partial sequences of mitochondrial rRNA genes.

    PubMed

    Khan, H A; Arif, I A; Al Farhan, A H; Al Homaidan, A A

    2008-10-28

    We conducted a comparative evaluation of 12S rRNA and 16S rRNA genes of the mitochondrial genome for molecular differentiation among three oryx species (Oryx leucoryx, Oryx dammah and Oryx gazella) with respect to two closely related outgroups, addax and roan. Our findings showed the failure of 12S rRNA gene to differentiate between the genus Oryx and addax, whereas a 342-bp partial sequence of 16S rRNA accurately grouped all five taxa studied, suggesting the utility of 16S rRNA segment for molecular phylogeny of oryx at the genus and possibly species levels.

  17. Determining Fungi rRNA Copy Number by PCR

    PubMed Central

    Black, Jonathan; Dean, Timothy; Byfield, Grace; Foarde, Karin; Menetrez, Marc

    2013-01-01

    The goal of this project is to improve the quantification of indoor fungal pollutants via the specific application of quantitative PCR (qPCR). Improvement will be made in the controls used in current qPCR applications. This work focuses on the use of two separate controls within a standard qPCR reaction. The first control developed was the internal standard control gene, benA. This gene encodes for β-tubulin and was selected based on its single-copy nature. The second control developed was the standard control plasmid, which contained a fragment of the ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene and produced a specific PCR product. The results confirm the multicopy nature of the rRNA region in several filamentous fungi and show that we can quantify fungi of unknown genome size over a range of spore extractions by inclusion of these two standard controls. Advances in qPCR have led to extremely sensitive and quantitative methods for single-copy genes; however, it has not been well established that the rRNA can be used to quantitate fungal contamination. We report on the use of qPCR, combined with two controls, to identify and quantify indoor fungal contaminants with a greater degree of confidence than has been achieved previously. Advances in indoor environmental health have demonstrated that contamination of the built environment by the filamentous fungi has adverse impacts on the health of building occupants. This study meets the need for more accurate and reliable methods for fungal identification and quantitation in the indoor environment. PMID:23543828

  18. A feedback regulatory loop between methyltransferase PRMT1 and orphan receptor TR3

    PubMed Central

    Lei, Na-zi; Zhang, Xiao-yan; Chen, Hang-zi; Wang, Yuan; Zhan, Yan-yan; Zheng, Zhong-hui; Shen, Yue-mao; Wu, Qiao

    2009-01-01

    PRMT1, an arginine methyltransferase, plays an important role in numerous cellular processes. In this study, we demonstrate a feedback regulatory loop between PRMT1 and the orphan receptor TR3. Unlike another orphan receptor HNF4, TR3 is not methylated by PRMT1 although they physically interact with each other. By delaying the TR3 protein degradation, PRMT1 binding leads to the elevation of TR3 cellular protein level, thereby enhances the DNA binding and transactivation activity of TR3 in a non-methyltransferase manner. Another coactivator SRC-2 acts synergistically with PRMT1 to regulate TR3 functions. In turn, TR3 binding to the catalytic domain of PRMT1 causes an inhibition of the PRMT1 methyltransferase activity. This repression results in the functional changes in some of PRMT1 substrates, including STAT3 and Sam68. The negative regulation of PRMT1 by TR3 was further confirmed in both TR3-knockdown cells and TR3-knockout mice with the use of an agonist for TR3. Taken together, our study not only identifies a regulatory role of PRMT1, independent on methyltransferase activity, in TR3 transactivation, but also characterizes a novel function of TR3 in the repression of PRMT1 methyltransferase activity. PMID:19095693

  19. Weaver Syndrome‐Associated EZH2 Protein Variants Show Impaired Histone Methyltransferase Function In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Yap, Damian B.; Lewis, M.E. Suzanne; Chijiwa, Chieko; Ramos‐Arroyo, Maria A.; Tkachenko, Natália; Milano, Valentina; Fradin, Mélanie; McKinnon, Margaret L.; Townsend, Katelin N.; Xu, Jieqing; Van Allen, M.I.; Ross, Colin J.D.; Dobyns, William B.; Weaver, David D.; Gibson, William T.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Weaver syndrome (WS) is a rare congenital disorder characterized by generalized overgrowth, macrocephaly, specific facial features, accelerated bone age, intellectual disability, and susceptibility to cancers. De novo mutations in the enhancer of zeste homolog 2 (EZH2) have been shown to cause WS. EZH2 is a histone methyltransferase that acts as the catalytic agent of the polycomb‐repressive complex 2 (PRC2) to maintain gene repression via methylation of lysine 27 on histone H3 (H3K27). Functional studies investigating histone methyltransferase activity of mutant EZH2 from various cancers have been reported, whereas WS‐associated mutations remain poorly characterized. To investigate the role of EZH2 in WS, we performed functional studies using artificially assembled PRC2 complexes containing mutagenized human EZH2 that reflected the codon changes predicted from patients with WS. We found that WS‐associated amino acid alterations reduce the histone methyltransferase function of EZH2 in this in vitro assay. Our results support the hypothesis that WS is caused by constitutional mutations in EZH2 that alter the histone methyltransferase function of PRC2. However, histone methyltransferase activities of different EZH2 variants do not appear to correlate directly with the phenotypic variability between WS patients and individuals with a common c.553G>C (p.Asp185His) polymorphism in EZH2. PMID:26694085

  20. Enhancement of O6-methylguanine-DNA-methyltransferase activity induced by various treatments in mammalian cells

    SciTech Connect

    Lefebvre, P.; Laval, F.

    1986-11-01

    The O6-methylguanine-DNA-methyltransferase (methyltransferase) activity was determined in a rat hepatoma cell line after treatment with ultraviolet or gamma-irradiation, heat treatment, or incubation with cis-diamminedichloroplatinum(II),2-methyl-9-hydroxyellipticinium, or bleomycin. The assay measured the removal of O6-methylguanine from 3H-alkylated DNA by cellular extracts. The results show that 48 h after the various treatments, the methyltransferase activity is increased by 2- to 5-fold. This increase is due to de novo specific protein synthesis. It is not related to a modification of the cell cycle parameters, as a similar enhancement is observed in plateau-phase cells treated with ionizing radiations or cis-dichlorodiammineplatinum(II). The increase of the methyltransferase activity measured using an alkylated substrate represents an actual increase of the active molecules in the cells, as the mutation frequency is much lower in cells treated with N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine 48 h after an irradiation (3 Gy) than in nonirradiated cells. This induction of the methyltransferase was not observed in Chinese hamster ovary cells after gamma-irradiation, and therefore it does not seem to occur in cells which have a low constitutive level of O6-methylguanine repair.

  1. Neural crest specification and migration independently require NSD3-related lysine methyltransferase activity

    PubMed Central

    Jacques-Fricke, Bridget T.; Gammill, Laura S.

    2014-01-01

    Neural crest precursors express genes that cause them to become migratory, multipotent cells, distinguishing them from adjacent stationary neural progenitors in the neurepithelium. Histone methylation spatiotemporally regulates neural crest gene expression; however, the protein methyltransferases active in neural crest precursors are unknown. Moreover, the regulation of methylation during the dynamic process of neural crest migration is unclear. Here we show that the lysine methyltransferase NSD3 is abundantly and specifically expressed in premigratory and migratory neural crest cells. NSD3 expression commences before up-regulation of neural crest genes, and NSD3 is necessary for expression of the neural plate border gene Msx1, as well as the key neural crest transcription factors Sox10, Snail2, Sox9, and FoxD3, but not gene expression generally. Nevertheless, only Sox10 histone H3 lysine 36 dimethylation requires NSD3, revealing unexpected complexity in NSD3-dependent neural crest gene regulation. In addition, by temporally limiting expression of a dominant negative to migratory stages, we identify a novel, direct requirement for NSD3-related methyltransferase activity in neural crest migration. These results identify NSD3 as the first protein methyltransferase essential for neural crest gene expression during specification and show that NSD3-related methyltransferase activity independently regulates migration. PMID:25318671

  2. Conservation and Functional Importance of Carbon-Oxygen Hydrogen Bonding in AdoMet-Dependent Methyltransferases

    SciTech Connect

    Horowitz, Scott; Dirk, Lynnette M.A.; Yesselman, Joseph D.; Nimtz, Jennifer S.; Adhikari, Upendra; Mehl, Ryan A.; Scheiner, Steve; Houtz, Robert L.; Al-Hashimi, Hashim M.; Trievel, Raymond C.

    2013-09-06

    S-Adenosylmethionine (AdoMet)-based methylation is integral to metabolism and signaling. AdoMet-dependent methyltransferases belong to multiple distinct classes and share a catalytic mechanism that arose through convergent evolution; however, fundamental determinants underlying this shared methyl transfer mechanism remain undefined. A survey of high-resolution crystal structures reveals that unconventional carbon–oxygen (CH···O) hydrogen bonds coordinate the AdoMet methyl group in different methyltransferases irrespective of their class, active site structure, or cofactor binding conformation. Corroborating these observations, quantum chemistry calculations demonstrate that these charged interactions formed by the AdoMet sulfonium cation are stronger than typical CH···O hydrogen bonds. Biochemical and structural studies using a model lysine methyltransferase and an active site mutant that abolishes CH···O hydrogen bonding to AdoMet illustrate that these interactions are important for high-affinity AdoMet binding and transition-state stabilization. Further, crystallographic and NMR dynamics experiments of the wild-type enzyme demonstrate that the CH···O hydrogen bonds constrain the motion of the AdoMet methyl group, potentially facilitating its alignment during catalysis. Collectively, the experimental findings with the model methyltransferase and structural survey imply that methyl CH···O hydrogen bonding represents a convergent evolutionary feature of AdoMet-dependent methyltransferases, mediating a universal mechanism for methyl transfer.

  3. Properties of human O/sup 6/-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase

    SciTech Connect

    Bhattacharyya, D.; Boulden, A.M.; Foote, R.S.; Mitra, S.

    1987-05-01

    The premutagenic base, O/sup 6/-methylguanine, is repaired in the DNA of both bacterial and mammalian cells by stoichiometric transfer of the methyl group to a protein cysteine residue. The human O/sup 6/-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase has been extensively purified from placenta and partially characterized with respect to reaction kinetics, pH and temperature dependencies, and the effects of salt, metal ions, and DNA concentration. The methyl-transfer reaction has apparent second-order kinetics and an energy of activation, calculated from temperature-dependence studies, of approximately 18 kcal. The reaction rate is optimal at a pH of about 8.5. Chromatofocusing experiments indicate a pI of 6.2 for the methyltransferase. Like the E. coli and rodent methyltransferases, the human protein has no cofactor requirements. The reaction is significantly inhibited by physiological concentrations of NaCl. Both single- and double-stranded DNA also inhibit the reaction, presumably by nonspecific binding of the protein. Changes in the human methyltransferase due to its reaction with O/sup 6/-methylguanine were examined by chromatofocusing and binding to DNA-cellulose. The results were compared with those obtained in parallel experiments using purified methyltransferase from E. coli.

  4. Characterising the Canine Oral Microbiome by Direct Sequencing of Reverse-Transcribed rRNA Molecules.

    PubMed

    McDonald, James E; Larsen, Niels; Pennington, Andrea; Connolly, John; Wallis, Corrin; Rooks, David J; Hall, Neil; McCarthy, Alan J; Allison, Heather E

    2016-01-01

    PCR amplification and sequencing of phylogenetic markers, primarily Small Sub-Unit ribosomal RNA (SSU rRNA) genes, has been the paradigm for defining the taxonomic composition of microbiomes. However, 'universal' SSU rRNA gene PCR primer sets are likely to miss much of the diversity therein. We sequenced a library comprising purified and reverse-transcribed SSU rRNA (RT-SSU rRNA) molecules from the canine oral microbiome and compared it to a general bacterial 16S rRNA gene PCR amplicon library generated from the same biological sample. In addition, we have developed BIONmeta, a novel, open-source, computer package for the processing and taxonomic classification of the randomly fragmented RT-SSU rRNA reads produced. Direct RT-SSU rRNA sequencing revealed that 16S rRNA molecules belonging to the bacterial phyla Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes, Proteobacteria and Spirochaetes, were most abundant in the canine oral microbiome (92.5% of total bacterial SSU rRNA). The direct rRNA sequencing approach detected greater taxonomic diversity (1 additional phylum, 2 classes, 1 order, 10 families and 61 genera) when compared with general bacterial 16S rRNA amplicons from the same sample, simultaneously provided SSU rRNA gene inventories of Bacteria, Archaea and Eukarya, and detected significant numbers of sequences not recognised by 'universal' primer sets. Proteobacteria and Spirochaetes were found to be under-represented by PCR-based analysis of the microbiome, and this was due to primer mismatches and taxon-specific variations in amplification efficiency, validated by qPCR analysis of 16S rRNA amplicons from a mock community. This demonstrated the veracity of direct RT-SSU rRNA sequencing for molecular microbial ecology.

  5. Characterising the Canine Oral Microbiome by Direct Sequencing of Reverse-Transcribed rRNA Molecules

    PubMed Central

    McDonald, James E.; Larsen, Niels; Pennington, Andrea; Connolly, John; Wallis, Corrin; Rooks, David J.; Hall, Neil; McCarthy, Alan J.; Allison, Heather E.

    2016-01-01

    PCR amplification and sequencing of phylogenetic markers, primarily Small Sub-Unit ribosomal RNA (SSU rRNA) genes, has been the paradigm for defining the taxonomic composition of microbiomes. However, ‘universal’ SSU rRNA gene PCR primer sets are likely to miss much of the diversity therein. We sequenced a library comprising purified and reverse-transcribed SSU rRNA (RT-SSU rRNA) molecules from the canine oral microbiome and compared it to a general bacterial 16S rRNA gene PCR amplicon library generated from the same biological sample. In addition, we have developed BIONmeta, a novel, open-source, computer package for the processing and taxonomic classification of the randomly fragmented RT-SSU rRNA reads produced. Direct RT-SSU rRNA sequencing revealed that 16S rRNA molecules belonging to the bacterial phyla Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes, Proteobacteria and Spirochaetes, were most abundant in the canine oral microbiome (92.5% of total bacterial SSU rRNA). The direct rRNA sequencing approach detected greater taxonomic diversity (1 additional phylum, 2 classes, 1 order, 10 families and 61 genera) when compared with general bacterial 16S rRNA amplicons from the same sample, simultaneously provided SSU rRNA gene inventories of Bacteria, Archaea and Eukarya, and detected significant numbers of sequences not recognised by ‘universal’ primer sets. Proteobacteria and Spirochaetes were found to be under-represented by PCR-based analysis of the microbiome, and this was due to primer mismatches and taxon-specific variations in amplification efficiency, validated by qPCR analysis of 16S rRNA amplicons from a mock community. This demonstrated the veracity of direct RT-SSU rRNA sequencing for molecular microbial ecology. PMID:27276347

  6. Structural Basis of Substrate Recognition in Thiopurine S-Methyltransferase

    SciTech Connect

    Peng, Yi; Feng, Qiping; Wilk, Dennis; Adjei, Araba A.; Salavaggione, Oreste E.; Weinshilboum, Richard M.; Yee, Vivien C.

    2008-09-23

    Thiopurine S-methyltransferase (TPMT) modulates the cytotoxic effects of thiopurine prodrugs such as 6-mercaptopurine by methylating them in a reaction using S-adenosyl-l-methionine as the donor. Patients with TPMT variant allozymes exhibit diminished levels of protein and/or enzyme activity and are at risk for thiopurine drug-induced toxicity. We have determined two crystal structures of murine TPMT, as a binary complex with the product S-adenosyl-l-homocysteine and as a ternary complex with S-adenosyl-l-homocysteine and the substrate 6-mercaptopurine, to 1.8 and 2.0 {angstrom} resolution, respectively. Comparison of the structures reveals that an active site loop becomes ordered upon 6-mercaptopurine binding. The positions of the two ligands are consistent with the expected S{sub N}2 reaction mechanism. Arg147 and Arg221, the only polar amino acids near 6-mercaptopurine, are highlighted as possible participants in substrate deprotonation. To probe whether these residues are important for catalysis, point mutants were prepared in the human enzyme. Substitution of Arg152 (Arg147 in murine TPMT) with glutamic acid decreases V{sub max} and increases K{sub m} for 6-mercaptopurine but not K{sub m} for S-adenosyl-l-methionine. Substitution at this position with alanine or histidine and similar substitutions of Arg226 (Arg221 in murine TPMT) result in no effect on enzyme activity. The double mutant Arg152Ala/Arg226Ala exhibits a decreased V{sub max} and increased K{sub m} for 6-mercaptopurine. These observations suggest that either Arg152 or Arg226 may participate in some fashion in the TPMT reaction, with one residue compensating when the other is altered, and that Arg152 may interact with substrate more directly than Arg226, consistent with observations in the murine TPMT crystal structure.

  7. Thiopurine S-methyltransferase (TPMT) genetic polymorphisms in Mexican newborns.

    PubMed

    González-Del Angel, A; Bermúdez-López, C; Alcántara-Ortigoza, M A; Vela-Amieva, M; Castillo-Cruz, R A; Martínez, V; Torres-Espíndola, L

    2009-12-01

    Thiopurine S-methyltransferase (TPMT) is involved in the toxicity and therapeutic efficacy of thiopurine drugs, and its gene exhibits genetic polymorphisms that differ across diverse populations. Four TPMT polymorphisms (TPMT*2, *3A, *3B and *3C) account for 80-95% of alleles that cause reduced enzyme activity. To date, only a single study in the Mexican population involving 108 individuals has been performed, but the regional and ethnic origin of this population was not described. Accordingly, information about the TPMT polymorphism in the Mexican population is limited. To determine the TPMT allele and genotype frequencies in a sample of newborns from Mexico City. Three hundred and sixty DNA samples from unrelated, anonymous individuals were obtained from dried blood spots collected on filter paper as part of the Newborn Screening National Program. Allele-specific polymerase chain reaction for the TPMT*2 allele and PCR restriction fragment length polymorphism for TPMT*3A, TPMT*3B, TPMT*3C alleles were used to determine the respective allelic and genotypic frequencies. Of 720 TPMT alleles analysed, 49 (6.81%) were deficiency alleles. The most common deficiency allele was TPMT*3A (5.69%), followed by TPMT*3C (0.56%), TPMT*3B (0.28%) and TPMT*2 (0.28%). Fourty-five newborns were heterozygous for one mutant allele (12.5%) and two showed a genotype with two deficiency alleles (0.56%). Despite its unique ethnic composition, our Mexican population exhibited variant allele frequencies that were similar to some Caucasian populations. Our data suggest that approximately 1 in 180 persons born in Mexico City might have low or undetectable TPMT enzyme activity, a frequency that, overall, is somewhat higher than that reported for Caucasian populations generally (1 in 300).

  8. Catechol-O-methyltransferase association with hemoglobin A1c

    PubMed Central

    Hall, Kathryn T.; Jablonski, Kathleen A.; Chen, Ling; Harden, Maegan; Tolkin, Benjamin R.; Kaptchuk, Ted J.; Bray, George A.; Ridker, Paul M.; Florez, Jose C.; Chasman, Daniel I.

    2016-01-01

    Aims Catecholamines have metabolic effects on blood pressure, insulin sensitivity and blood glucose. Genetic variation in catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT), an enzyme that degrades catecholamines, is associated with cardiometabolic risk factors and incident cardiovascular disease (CVD). Here we examined COMT effects on glycemic function and type 2 diabetes. Methods We tested whether COMT polymorphisms were associated with baseline HbA1c in the Women’s Genome Health Study (WGHS), and Meta-Analyses of Glucose and Insulin-related traits Consortium (MAGIC), and with susceptibility to type 2 diabetes in WGHS, DIAbetes Genetics Replication And Meta-analysis consortium (DIAGRAM), and the Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP). Given evidence that COMT modifies some drug responses, we examined association with type 2 diabetes and randomized metformin and aspirin treatment. Results COMT rs4680 high-activity G-allele was associated with lower HbA1c in WGHS (β = −0.032% [0.012], p = 0.008) and borderline significant in MAGIC (β = −0.006% [0.003], p = 0.07). Combined COMT per val allele effects on type 2 diabetes were significant (OR = 0.98 [0.96–0.998], p = 0.03) in fixed-effects analyses across WGHS, DIAGRAM, and DPP. Similar results were obtained for 2 other COMT SNPs rs4818 and rs4633. In the DPP, the rs4680 val allele was borderline associated with lower diabetes incidence among participants randomized to metformin (HR = 0.81 [0.65–1.00], p = 0.05). Conclusions COMT rs4680 high-activity G-allele was associated with lower HbA1c and modest protection from type 2 diabetes. The directionality of COMT associations was concordant with those previously observed for cardiometabolic risk factors and CVD. PMID:27282867

  9. Clustered Genes Encoding the Methyltransferases of Methanogenesis from Monomethylamine

    PubMed Central

    Burke, Stephen A.; Lo, Sam L.; Krzycki, Joseph A.

    1998-01-01

    Coenzyme M (CoM) is methylated during methanogenesis from monomethyamine in a reaction catalyzed by three proteins. Using monomethylamine, a 52-kDa polypeptide termed monomethylamine methyltransferase (MMAMT) methylates the corrinoid cofactor bound to a second polypeptide, monomethylamine corrinoid protein (MMCP). Methylated MMCP then serves as a substrate for MT2-A, which methylates CoM. The genes for these proteins are clustered on 6.8 kb of DNA in Methanosarcina barkeri MS. The gene encoding MMCP (mtmC) is located directly upstream of the gene encoding MMAMT (mtmB). The gene encoding MT2-A (mtbA) was found 1.1 kb upstream of mtmC, but no obvious open reading frame was found in the intergenic region between mtbA and mtmC. A single monocistronic transcript was found for mtbA that initiated 76 bp from the translational start. Separate transcripts of 2.4 and 4.7 kb were detected, both of which carried mtmCB. The larger transcript also encoded mtmP, which is homologous to the APC family of cationic amine permeases and may therefore encode a methylamine permease. A single transcriptional start site was found 447 bp upstream of the translational start of mtmC. MtmC possesses the corrinoid binding motif found in corrinoid proteins involved in dimethylsulfide- and methanol-dependent methanogenesis, as well as in methionine synthase. The open reading frame of mtmB was interrupted by a single in-frame, midframe, UAG codon which was also found in mtmB from M. barkeri NIH. A mechanism that circumvents UAG-directed termination of translation must operate during expression of mtmB in this methanogen. PMID:9642198

  10. A High Throughput Scintillation Proximity Imaging Assay for Protein Methyltransferases

    PubMed Central

    Ibáñez, Glorymar; Shum, David; Blum, Gil; Bhinder, Bhavneet; Radu, Constantin; Antczak, Christophe; Luo, Minkui; Djaballah, Hakim

    2013-01-01

    Protein methyltransferases (PMTs) orchestrate epigenetic modifications through post-translational methylation of various protein substrates including histones. Since dysregulation of this process is widely implicated in many cancers, it is of pertinent interest to screen inhibitors of PMTs, as they offer novel target-based opportunities to discover small molecules with potential chemotherapeutic use. We have thus developed an enzymatic screening strategy, which can be adapted to scintillation proximity imaging assay (SPIA) format, to identify these inhibitors. We took advantage of S-adenosyl-L-[3H-methyl]-methionine availability and monitored the enzymatically catalyzed [3H]-methyl addition on lysine residues of biotinylated peptide substrates. The radiolabeled peptides were subsequently captured by streptavidin coated SPA imaging PS beads. We applied this strategy to four PMTs: SET7/9, SET8, SETD2, and EuHMTase1, and optimized assay conditions to achieve Z′ values ranging from 0.48 to 0.91. The robust performance of this SPIA for the four PMTs was validated in a pilot screen of approximately 7,000 compounds. We identified 80 cumulative hits across the four targets. NF279, a suramin analogue found to specifically inhibit SET7/9 and SETD2 with IC50 values of 1.9 and 1.1 μM, respectively. Another identified compound, Merbromin, a topical antiseptic, was classified as a pan-active inhibitor of the four PMTs. These findings demonstrate that our proposed SPIA strategy is generic for multiple PMTs and can be successfully implemented to identify novel and specific inhibitors of PMTs. The specific PMT inhibitors may constitute a new class of anti-proliferative agents for potential therapeutic use. PMID:22256970

  11. DNA Methyltransferases: A Novel Target for Prevention and Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Subramaniam, Dharmalingam; Thombre, Ravi; Dhar, Animesh; Anant, Shrikant

    2013-01-01

    Cancer is the second leading cause of death in US. Despite the emergence of new, targeted agents, and the use of various therapeutic combinations, none of the available treatment options are curative in patients with advanced cancer. Epigenetic alterations are increasingly recognized as valuable targets for the development of cancer therapies. DNA methylation at the 5-position of cytosine, catalyzed by DNA methyltransferases (DNMTs), is the predominant epigenetic modification in mammals. DNMT1, the major enzyme responsible for maintenance of the DNA methylation pattern is located at the replication fork and methylates newly biosynthesized DNA. DNMT2 or TRDMT1, the smallest mammalian DNMT is believed to participate in the recognition of DNA damage, DNA recombination, and mutation repair. It is composed solely of the C-terminal domain, and does not possess the regulatory N-terminal region. The levels of DNMTs, especially those of DNMT3B, DNMT3A, and DNMT3L, are often increased in various cancer tissues and cell lines, which may partially account for the hypermethylation of promoter CpG-rich regions of tumor suppressor genes in a variety of malignancies. Moreover, it has been shown to function in self-renewal and maintenance of colon cancer stem cells and need to be studied in several cancers. Inhibition of DNMTs has demonstrated reduction in tumor formation in part through the increased expression of tumor suppressor genes. Hence, DNMTs can potentially be used as anti-cancer targets. Dietary phytochemicals also inhibit DNMTs and cancer stem cells; this represents a promising approach for the prevention and treatment of many cancers. PMID:24822169

  12. Clustered genes encoding the methyltransferases of methanogenesis from monomethylamine.

    PubMed

    Burke, S A; Lo, S L; Krzycki, J A

    1998-07-01

    Coenzyme M (CoM) is methylated during methanogenesis from monomethyamine in a reaction catalyzed by three proteins. Using monomethylamine, a 52-kDa polypeptide termed monomethylamine methyltransferase (MMAMT) methylates the corrinoid cofactor bound to a second polypeptide, monomethylamine corrinoid protein (MMCP). Methylated MMCP then serves as a substrate for MT2-A, which methylates CoM. The genes for these proteins are clustered on 6.8 kb of DNA in Methanosarcina barkeri MS. The gene encoding MMCP (mtmC) is located directly upstream of the gene encoding MMAMT (mtmB). The gene encoding MT2-A (mtbA) was found 1.1 kb upstream of mtmC, but no obvious open reading frame was found in the intergenic region between mtbA and mtmC. A single monocistronic transcript was found for mtbA that initiated 76 bp from the translational start. Separate transcripts of 2.4 and 4.7 kb were detected, both of which carried mtmCB. The larger transcript also encoded mtmP, which is homologous to the APC family of cationic amine permeases and may therefore encode a methylamine permease. A single transcriptional start site was found 447 bp upstream of the translational start of mtmC. MtmC possesses the corrinoid binding motif found in corrinoid proteins involved in dimethylsulfide- and methanol-dependent methanogenesis, as well as in methionine synthase. The open reading frame of mtmB was interrupted by a single in-frame, midframe, UAG codon which was also found in mtmB from M. barkeri NIH. A mechanism that circumvents UAG-directed termination of translation must operate during expression of mtmB in this methanogen.

  13. Thiopurine methyltransferase polymorphisms in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Linga, Vijay Gandhi; Patchva, Dorra Babu; Mallavarapu, Krishna Mohan; Tulasi, Venkata; Kalpathi, Krishnamani Iyer; Pillai, Ashok; Gundeti, Sadashivudu; Rajappa, Senthil J; Digumarti, Raghunadharao

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is the most common malignancy in children. 6-mercaptopurine (6-MP) and methotrexate are backbone drugs for maintenance phase of treatment. Purine Analogs 6-MP/6-thioguanine/azathiopurine are metabolized to its inactive form by the enzyme thiopurine methyltransferase (TPMT). Ninety percent of the population harbor wild type on both alleles (TPMT wild/wild), 10% are heterozygous, that is, one allele is mutant (TPMT wild/mutant) and 0.3% are homozygous, that is, both allele are mutant (TPMT mutant/mutant). In heterozygous and homozygous variant, activity of enzyme is low, leading to a higher incidence of toxicity (myelosuppression). Aim: The primary objective was to access the polymorphism of the enzyme, TPMT, in Children with ALL. Secondary objective was to correlate TPMT genotype with 6-MP toxicities. Materials and Methods: Seventy-two children with newly diagnosed ALL during first maintenance phase were serially enrolled after obtaining consent. Five ml of peripheral blood was drawn and DNA extracted. TPMT 2 polymorphisms were performed using Allele specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and TPMT 3B and 3C are performed by PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism. Results: Sixty-nine children of 72 (95.8%) were wild for TPMT polymorphism and 3 (4.2%) were heterozygous for TPMT. Among the heterozygous variant one each (33.3%) were heterozygous for 2A, 3A, 3C. Febrile neutropenia was the most common toxicity in both wild and heterozygous group. Conclusion: The frequency of TPMT polymorphisms in children with ALL is 4.2%. Heterozygous variant is this study are one each (33%) of 2A, 3A, 3C. PMID:25538405

  14. Thiopurine methyltransferase polymorphisms in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Linga, Vijay Gandhi; Patchva, Dorra Babu; Mallavarapu, Krishna Mohan; Tulasi, Venkata; Kalpathi, Krishnamani Iyer; Pillai, Ashok; Gundeti, Sadashivudu; Rajappa, Senthil J; Digumarti, Raghunadharao

    2014-10-01

    Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is the most common malignancy in children. 6-mercaptopurine (6-MP) and methotrexate are backbone drugs for maintenance phase of treatment. Purine Analogs 6-MP/6-thioguanine/azathiopurine are metabolized to its inactive form by the enzyme thiopurine methyltransferase (TPMT). Ninety percent of the population harbor wild type on both alleles (TPMT wild/wild), 10% are heterozygous, that is, one allele is mutant (TPMT wild/mutant) and 0.3% are homozygous, that is, both allele are mutant (TPMT mutant/mutant). In heterozygous and homozygous variant, activity of enzyme is low, leading to a higher incidence of toxicity (myelosuppression). The primary objective was to access the polymorphism of the enzyme, TPMT, in Children with ALL. Secondary objective was to correlate TPMT genotype with 6-MP toxicities. Seventy-two children with newly diagnosed ALL during first maintenance phase were serially enrolled after obtaining consent. Five ml of peripheral blood was drawn and DNA extracted. TPMT 2 polymorphisms were performed using Allele specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and TPMT 3B and 3C are performed by PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism. Sixty-nine children of 72 (95.8%) were wild for TPMT polymorphism and 3 (4.2%) were heterozygous for TPMT. Among the heterozygous variant one each (33.3%) were heterozygous for 2A, 3A, 3C. Febrile neutropenia was the most common toxicity in both wild and heterozygous group. The frequency of TPMT polymorphisms in children with ALL is 4.2%. Heterozygous variant is this study are one each (33%) of 2A, 3A, 3C.

  15. Catechol-O-methyltransferase, dopamine, and sleep-wake regulation.

    PubMed

    Dauvilliers, Yves; Tafti, Mehdi; Landolt, Hans Peter

    2015-08-01

    Sleep and sleep disorders are complex and highly variable phenotypes regulated by many genes and environment. The catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) gene is an interesting candidate, being one of the major mammalian enzymes involved in the catabolism of catecholamines. The activity of COMT enzyme is genetically polymorphic due to a guanine-to-adenine transition at codon 158, resulting in a valine (Val) to methionine (Met) substitution. Individuals homozygous for the Val allele show higher COMT activity, and lower dopaminergic signaling in prefrontal cortex (PFC) than subjects homozygous for the Met allele. Since COMT has a crucial role in metabolising dopamine, it was suggested that the common functional polymorphism in the COMT gene impacts on cognitive function related to PFC, sleep-wake regulation, and potentially on sleep pathologies. The COMT Val158Met polymorphism may predict inter-individual differences in brain electroencephalography (EEG) alpha oscillations and recovery processes resulting from partial sleep loss in healthy individuals. The Val158Met polymorphism also exerts a sexual dimorphism and has a strong effect on objective daytime sleepiness in patients with narcolepsy-cataplexy. Since the COMT enzyme inactivates catecholamines, it was hypothesized that the response to stimulant drugs differs between COMT genotypes. Modafinil maintained executive functioning performance and vigilant attention throughout sleep deprivation in subjects with Val/Val genotype, but less in those with Met/Met genotype. Also, homozygous Met/Met patients with narcolepsy responded to lower doses of modafinil compared to Val/Val carriers. We review here the critical role of the common functional COMT gene polymorphism, COMT enzyme activity, and the prefrontal dopamine levels in the regulation of sleep and wakefulness in normal subjects, in narcolepsy and other sleep-related disorders, and its impact on the response to psychostimulants. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All

  16. Visualising molecular juggling within a B12-dependent methyltransferase complex

    PubMed Central

    Kung, Yan; Ando, Nozomi; Doukov, Tzanko I.; Blasiak, Leah C.; Bender, Güneş; Seravalli, Javier; Ragsdale, Stephen W.; Drennan, Catherine L.

    2012-01-01

    Derivatives of vitamin B12 are used in methyl group transfer in biological processes as diverse as methionine synthesis in humans and CO2 fixation in acetogenic bacteria1–3. This seemingly straightforward reaction requires large, multimodular enzyme complexes that adopt multiple conformations to alternately activate, protect, and perform catalysis on the reactive B12 cofactor. Crystal structures determined thus far have provided structural information for only fragments of these complexes4–12, inspiring speculation regarding the overall protein assembly and conformational movements inherent to activity. Here we present X-ray crystal structures of a complete ~220 kDa complex that contains all enzymes responsible for B12-dependent methyltransfer, namely the corrinoid iron-sulfur protein (CFeSP) and its methyltransferase (MeTr) from the model acetogen Moorella thermoacetica. These structures provide the first three-dimensional depiction of all protein modules required for the activation, protection, and catalytic steps of B12-dependent methyltransfer. In addition, the structures capture B12 at multiple locations between its “resting” and catalytic positions, allowing visualisation of the dramatic protein rearrangements that enable methyltransfer and identification of the trajectory for B12 movement within the large enzyme scaffold. The structures are also presented alongside in crystallo UV-vis spectroscopic data, which confirm enzymatic activity within crystals and demonstrate the largest known conformational movements of proteins in a crystalline state. Taken together, this work provides a model for the molecular juggling that accompanies turnover and helps explain why such an elaborate protein framework is required for such a simple, yet biologically essential reaction. PMID:22419154

  17. Reaction mechanism of guanidinoacetate methyltransferase, concerted or step-wise

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xiaodong; Bruice, Thomas C.

    2006-01-01

    We describe a quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics investigation of the guanidinoacetate methyltransferase catalyzed reaction, which shows that proton transfer from guanidinoacetate (GAA) to Asp-134 and methyl transfer from S-adenosyl-l-methionine (AdoMet) to GAA are concerted. By self-consistent-charge density functional tight binding/molecular mechanics, the bond lengths in the concerted mechanism's transition state are 1.26 Å for both the OD1 (Asp-134)–HE (GAA) and HE (GAA)–NE (GAA) bonds, and 2.47 and 2.03 Å for the S8 (AdoMet)–C9 (AdoMet) and C9 (AdoMet)–NE (GAA) bonds, respectively. The potential-energy barrier (ΔE‡) determined by single-point B3LYP/6–31+G*//MM is 18.9 kcal/mol. The contributions of the entropy (−TΔS‡) and zero-point energy corrections Δ(ZPE)‡ by normal mode analysis are 2.3 kcal/mol and −1.7 kcal/mol, respectively. Thus, the activation enthalpy of this concerted mechanism is predicted to be ΔH‡ = ΔE‡ + Δ(ZPE)‡ = 17.2 kcal/mol. The calculated free-energy barrier for the concerted mechanism is ΔG‡ = 19.5 kcal/mol, which is in excellent agreement with the value of 19.0 kcal/mol calculated from the experimental rate constant (3.8 ± 0.2·min−1). PMID:17053070

  18. Higher-order structure of rRNA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gutell, R. R.; Woese, C. R.

    1986-01-01

    A comparative search for phylogenetically covarying basepair replacements within potential helices has been the only reliable method to determine the correct secondary structure of the 3 rRNAs, 5S, 16S, and 23S. The analysis of 16S from a wide phylogenetic spectrum, that includes various branches of the eubacteria, archaebacteria, eucaryotes, in addition to the mitochondria and chloroplast, is beginning to reveal the constraints on the secondary structures of these rRNAs. Based on the success of this analysis, and the assumption that higher order structure will also be phylogenetically conserved, a comparative search was initiated for positions that show co-variation not involved in secondary structure helices. From a list of potential higher order interactions within 16S rRNA, two higher-order interactions are presented. The first of these interactions involves positions 570 and 866. Based on the extent of phylogenetic covariation between these positions while maintaining Watson-Crick pairing, this higher-order interaction is considered proven. The other interaction involves a minimum of six positions between the 1400 and 1500 regions of the 16S rRNA. Although these patterns of covariation are not as striking as the 570/866 interaction, the fact that they all exist in an anti-parallel fashion and that experimental methods previously implicated these two regions of the molecule in tRNA function suggests that these interactions be given serious consideration.

  19. Higher-order structure of rRNA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gutell, R. R.; Woese, C. R.

    1986-01-01

    A comparative search for phylogenetically covarying basepair replacements within potential helices has been the only reliable method to determine the correct secondary structure of the 3 rRNAs, 5S, 16S, and 23S. The analysis of 16S from a wide phylogenetic spectrum, that includes various branches of the eubacteria, archaebacteria, eucaryotes, in addition to the mitochondria and chloroplast, is beginning to reveal the constraints on the secondary structures of these rRNAs. Based on the success of this analysis, and the assumption that higher order structure will also be phylogenetically conserved, a comparative search was initiated for positions that show co-variation not involved in secondary structure helices. From a list of potential higher order interactions within 16S rRNA, two higher-order interactions are presented. The first of these interactions involves positions 570 and 866. Based on the extent of phylogenetic covariation between these positions while maintaining Watson-Crick pairing, this higher-order interaction is considered proven. The other interaction involves a minimum of six positions between the 1400 and 1500 regions of the 16S rRNA. Although these patterns of covariation are not as striking as the 570/866 interaction, the fact that they all exist in an anti-parallel fashion and that experimental methods previously implicated these two regions of the molecule in tRNA function suggests that these interactions be given serious consideration.

  20. The rRNA evolution and procaryotic phylogeny

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fox, G. E.

    1986-01-01

    Studies of ribosomal RNA primary structure allow reconstruction of phylogenetic trees for prokaryotic organisms. Such studies reveal major dichotomy among the bacteria that separates them into eubacteria and archaebacteria. Both groupings are further segmented into several major divisions. The results obtained from 5S rRNA sequences are essentially the same as those obtained with the 16S rRNA data. In the case of Gram negative bacteria the ribosomal RNA sequencing results can also be directly compared with hybridization studies and cytochrome c sequencing studies. There is again excellent agreement among the several methods. It seems likely then that the overall picture of microbial phylogeny that is emerging from the RNA sequence studies is a good approximation of the true history of these organisms. The RNA data allow examination of the evolutionary process in a semi-quantitative way. The secondary structures of these RNAs are largely established. As a result it is possible to recognize examples of local structural evolution. Evolutionary pathways accounting for these events can be proposed and their probability can be assessed.

  1. The rRNA evolution and procaryotic phylogeny

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fox, G. E.

    1986-01-01

    Studies of ribosomal RNA primary structure allow reconstruction of phylogenetic trees for prokaryotic organisms. Such studies reveal major dichotomy among the bacteria that separates them into eubacteria and archaebacteria. Both groupings are further segmented into several major divisions. The results obtained from 5S rRNA sequences are essentially the same as those obtained with the 16S rRNA data. In the case of Gram negative bacteria the ribosomal RNA sequencing results can also be directly compared with hybridization studies and cytochrome c sequencing studies. There is again excellent agreement among the several methods. It seems likely then that the overall picture of microbial phylogeny that is emerging from the RNA sequence studies is a good approximation of the true history of these organisms. The RNA data allow examination of the evolutionary process in a semi-quantitative way. The secondary structures of these RNAs are largely established. As a result it is possible to recognize examples of local structural evolution. Evolutionary pathways accounting for these events can be proposed and their probability can be assessed.

  2. The emerging role of lysine methyltransferase SETD8 in human diseases.

    PubMed

    Milite, Ciro; Feoli, Alessandra; Viviano, Monica; Rescigno, Donatella; Cianciulli, Agostino; Balzano, Amodio Luca; Mai, Antonello; Castellano, Sabrina; Sbardella, Gianluca

    SETD8/SET8/Pr-SET7/KMT5A is the only known lysine methyltransferase (KMT) that monomethylates lysine 20 of histone H4 (H4K20) in vivo. Lysine residues of non-histone proteins including proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) and p53 are also monomethylated. As a consequence, the methyltransferase activity of the enzyme is implicated in many essential cellular processes including DNA replication, DNA damage response, transcription modulation, and cell cycle regulation. This review aims to provide an overview of the roles of SETD8 in physiological and pathological pathways and to discuss the progress made to date in inhibiting the activity of SETD8 by small molecules, with an emphasis on their discovery, selectivity over other methyltransferases and cellular activity.

  3. Structural insights into substrate selectivity of ribosomal RNA methyltransferase RlmCD.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Yiyang; Li, Fudong; Wu, Jihui; Shi, Yunyu; Gong, Qingguo

    2017-01-01

    RlmCD has recently been identified as the S-adenosyl methionine (SAM)-dependent methyltransferase responsible for the formation of m5U at U747 and U1939 of 23S ribosomal RNA in Streptococcus pneumoniae. In this research, we determine the high-resolution crystal structures of apo-form RlmCD and its complex with SAH. Using an in-vitro methyltransferase assay, we reveal the crucial residues for its catalytic functions. Furthermore, structural comparison between RlmCD and its structural homologue RumA, which only catalyzes the m5U1939 in Escherichia coli, implicates that a unique long linker in the central domain of RlmCD is the key factor in determining its substrate selectivity. Its significance in the enzyme activity of RlmCD is further confirmed by in-vitro methyltransferase assay.

  4. An engineered split M.HhaI-zinc finger fusion lacks the intended methyltransferase specificity

    SciTech Connect

    Meister, Glenna E.; Chandrasegaran, Srinivasan; Ostermeier, Marc

    2008-12-05

    The ability to site-specifically methylate DNA in vivo would have wide applicability to the study of basic biomedical problems as well as enable studies on the potential of site-specific DNA methylation as a therapeutic strategy for the treatment of diseases. Natural DNA methyltransferases lack the specificity required for these applications. Nomura and Barbas [W. Nomura, C.F. Barbas 3rd, In vivo site-specific DNA methylation with a designed sequence-enabled DNA methylase, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 129 (2007) 8676-8677] have reported that an engineered DNA methyltransferase comprised of fragments of M.HhaI methyltransferase and zinc finger proteins has very high specificity for the chosen target site. Our analysis of this engineered enzyme shows that the fusion protein methylates target and non-target sites with similar efficiency.

  5. Activation and inactivation of methanol: 2-mercaptoethanesulfonic acid methyltransferase from Methanosarcina barkeri.

    PubMed Central

    van der Meijden, P; Heythuysen, H J; Sliepenbeek, H T; Houwen, F P; van der Drift, C; Vogels, G D

    1983-01-01

    Methanol is converted to methane by crude extracts of Methanosarcina barkeri. The first reaction involved in this process, is catalyzed by methanol:2-mercaptoethanesulfonic acid methyltransferase (EC 2.1.1.-). The methyltransferase has an optimum at pH 6.5 and is not inhibited by 2-bromoethanesulfonic acid. Pyridoxal-5'-phosphate acts as an inhibitor (Ki = 0.30 mM). The methyltransferase was tested in the presence of 2-bromoethanesulfonic acid, which inhibits the conversion of 2-(methylthio)ethanesulfonic acid to methane. The reaction is subject to activation and inactivation. Inactivation is brought about by the presence of oxygen, flavin mononucleotide, flavin adenine dinucleotide, and 2-(methylthio)ethanesulfonic acid, the product of the reaction. Activation of the system requires the presence of ATP and Mg2+ and of hydrogen. Hydrogen can be replaced by enzymatic systems, such as pyruvate dehydrogenase, which deliver free hydrogen. PMID:6294063

  6. Virtual screening and biological characterization of novel histone arginine methyltransferase PRMT1 inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Heinke, Ralf; Spannhoff, Astrid; Meier, Rene; Trojer, Patrick; Bauer, Ingo; Jung, Manfred; Sippl, Wolfgang

    2009-01-01

    Lysine and arginine methyltransferases participate in the posttranslational modification of histones and regulate key cellular functions. Protein arginine methyltransferase 1 (PRMT1) has been identified as an essential component of mixed lineage leukemia (MLL) oncogenic complexes, revealing its potential as a novel therapeutic target in human cancer. The first potent arginine methyltransferase inhibitors were recently discovered by random- and target-based screening approaches. Herein we report virtual and biological screening for novel inhibitors of PRMT1. Structure-based virtual screening (VS) of the Chembridge database composed of 328 000 molecules was performed with a combination of ligand- and target-based in silico approaches. Nine inhibitors were identified from the top-scored docking solutions; these were experimentally tested using human PRMT1 and an antibody-based assay with a time-resolved fluorescence readout. Among several aromatic amines, an aliphatic amine and an amide were also found to be active in the micromolar range.

  7. Defective antitermination of rRNA transcription and derepression of rRNA and tRNA synthesis in the nusB5 mutant of Escherichia coli.

    PubMed Central

    Sharrock, R A; Gourse, R L; Nomura, M

    1985-01-01

    The nusB5 mutant of Escherichia coli was originally selected for reduced ability to support the antitermination of transcription that is mediated by the gene N product of bacteriophage lambda. By analyzing pulse-labeled RNA with an RNA.DNA filter hybridization technique, we have shown that, in the nusB5 mutant, the ratio of promoter-proximal rRNA transcripts to promoter-distal transcripts is increased at least by a factor of 1.6; that is, in the absence of the functional nusB gene product, premature transcription termination takes place within rRNA operons. These results demonstrate that rRNA transcription in E. coli utilizes an antitermination mechanism that has at least one factor in common with the phage lambda system, the nusB gene product. We have also observed that the transcription initiation frequency at rRNA promoters is increased in the nusB5 strain and that this strain accumulates 30S and 50S ribosomal subunits at approximately the same rate as the parent. Thus, it appears that E. coli compensates for premature termination of rRNA transcription by derepressing rRNA operon expression. The increase in rRNA promoter activity in the nusB5 mutant is accompanied by a parallel derepression of synthesis of tRNAs that are not encoded by rRNA operons. These results are consistent with a model for negative feedback regulation of rRNA and tRNA synthesis by products of rRNA operons. PMID:3161080

  8. UPF0586 Protein C9orf41 Homolog Is Anserine-producing Methyltransferase*

    PubMed Central

    Drozak, Jakub; Piecuch, Maria; Poleszak, Olga; Kozlowski, Piotr; Chrobok, Lukasz; Baelde, Hans J.; de Heer, Emile

    2015-01-01

    Anserine (β-alanyl-N(Pi)-methyl-l-histidine), a methylated derivative of carnosine (β-alanyl-l-histidine), is an abundant constituent of vertebrate skeletal muscles. Although it has been suggested to serve as a proton buffer and radical scavenger, its physiological function remains mysterious. The formation of anserine is catalyzed by carnosine N-methyltransferase, recently identified in chicken as histamine N-methyltransferase-like (HNMT-like) protein. Although the HNMT-like gene is absent in mammalian genomes, the activity of carnosine N-methyltransferase was reported in most mammalian species. In the present investigation, we purified carnosine N-methyltransferase from rat muscles about 2600-fold. Three polypeptides of ∼45, 50, and 70 kDa coeluting with the enzyme activity were identified in the preparation. Mass spectrometry analysis of these polypeptides resulted in the identification of UPF0586 protein C9orf41 homolog as the only meaningful candidate. Rat UPF0586 and its yeast, chicken, and human orthologs were expressed in COS-7 cells and purified to homogeneity. Although all recombinant proteins catalyzed the formation of anserine, as confirmed by chromatographic and mass spectrometry analysis, rat UPF0586 was more active on carnosine than other orthologs. Confocal microscopy of HeLa cells expressing recombinant UPF5086 proteins revealed their presence in both cytosol and nucleus. Carnosine and Gly-His were the best substrates for all UPF0586 orthologs studied, although the enzymes also methylated other l-histidine-containing di- and tripeptides. Finally, cotransfection of COS-7 cells with rat or human UPF0586 and carnosine synthase transformed the cells into efficient anserine producers. We conclude that UPF0586 is mammalian carnosine N-methyltransferase and hypothesize that it may also serve as a peptide or protein methyltransferase in eukaryotes. PMID:26001783

  9. Purification of Arsenic (+3 Oxidation State) Methyltransferase from Rat Liver Cytosol

    PubMed Central

    Drobna, Zuzana; Styblo, Miroslav; Thomas, David J.

    2015-01-01

    Demonstrating the enzymatic basis of arsenic methylation is critical to further studies of the pathway for the conversion of inorganic arsenic into a variety of methylated metabolites. This protocol describes a procedure for the purification of an arsenic methyltransferase from rat liver cytosol. Purification of this enzyme and subsequent cloning of its gene has permitted studies of enzyme structure and function and has lead to the identification of orthologous genes in genomes of organisms ranging in complexity from sea urchins to humans. These proteins are referred to as arsenic (+3 oxidation state) methyltransferases. PMID:20949431

  10. Crystal structures of the methyltransferase and helicase from the ZIKA 1947 MR766 Uganda strain.

    PubMed

    Bukrejewska, Malgorzata; Derewenda, Urszula; Radwanska, Malwina; Engel, Daniel A; Derewenda, Zygmunt S

    2017-09-01

    Two nonstructural proteins encoded by Zika virus strain MR766 RNA, a methyltransferase and a helicase, were crystallized and their structures were solved and refined at 2.10 and 2.01 Å resolution, respectively. The NS5 methyltransferase contains a bound S-adenosyl-L-methionine (SAM) co-substrate. The NS3 helicase is in the apo form. Comparison with published crystal structures of the helicase in the apo, nucleotide-bound and single-stranded RNA (ssRNA)-bound states suggests that binding of ssRNA to the helicase may occur through conformational selection rather than induced fit.

  11. The Regulation of rRNA Gene Transcription during Directed Differentiation of Human Embryonic Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Zhong; Zhao, Rui; Giles, Keith E.

    2016-01-01

    It has become increasingly clear that proper cellular control of pluripotency and differentiation is related to the regulation of rRNA synthesis. To further our understanding of the role that the regulation of rRNA synthesis has in pluripotency we monitored rRNA synthesis during the directed differentiation of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs). We discovered that the rRNA synthesis rate is reduced ~50% within 6 hours of ACTIVIN A treatment. This precedes reductions in expression of specific stem cell markers and increases in expression of specific germ layer markers. The reduction in rRNA synthesis is concomitant with dissociation of the Pol I transcription factor, UBTF, from the rRNA gene promoter and precedes any increase to heterochromatin throughout the rRNA gene. To directly investigate the role of rRNA synthesis in pluripotency, hESCs were treated with the Pol I inhibitor, CX-5461. The direct reduction of rRNA synthesis by CX-5461 induces the expression of markers for all three germ layers, reduces the expression of pluripotency markers, and is overall similar to the ACTIVIN A induced changes. This work indicates that the dissociation of UBTF from the rRNA gene, and corresponding reduction in transcription, represent early regulatory events during the directed differentiation of pluripotent stem cells. PMID:27299313

  12. The Regulation of rRNA Gene Transcription during Directed Differentiation of Human Embryonic Stem Cells.

    PubMed

    Woolnough, Jessica L; Atwood, Blake L; Liu, Zhong; Zhao, Rui; Giles, Keith E

    2016-01-01

    It has become increasingly clear that proper cellular control of pluripotency and differentiation is related to the regulation of rRNA synthesis. To further our understanding of the role that the regulation of rRNA synthesis has in pluripotency we monitored rRNA synthesis during the directed differentiation of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs). We discovered that the rRNA synthesis rate is reduced ~50% within 6 hours of ACTIVIN A treatment. This precedes reductions in expression of specific stem cell markers and increases in expression of specific germ layer markers. The reduction in rRNA synthesis is concomitant with dissociation of the Pol I transcription factor, UBTF, from the rRNA gene promoter and precedes any increase to heterochromatin throughout the rRNA gene. To directly investigate the role of rRNA synthesis in pluripotency, hESCs were treated with the Pol I inhibitor, CX-5461. The direct reduction of rRNA synthesis by CX-5461 induces the expression of markers for all three germ layers, reduces the expression of pluripotency markers, and is overall similar to the ACTIVIN A induced changes. This work indicates that the dissociation of UBTF from the rRNA gene, and corresponding reduction in transcription, represent early regulatory events during the directed differentiation of pluripotent stem cells.

  13. The Era GTPase recognizes the GAUCACCUCC sequence and binds helix 45 near the 3′ end of 16S rRNA

    PubMed Central

    Tu, Chao; Zhou, Xiaomei; Tarasov, Sergey G.; Tropea, Joseph E.; Austin, Brian P.; Waugh, David S.; Court, Donald L.; Ji, Xinhua

    2011-01-01

    Era, composed of a GTPase domain and a K homology domain, is essential for bacterial cell viability. It is required for the maturation of 16S rRNA and assembly of the 30S ribosomal subunit. We showed previously that the protein recognizes nine nucleotides () near the 3′ end of 16S rRNA, and that this recognition stimulates GTP-hydrolyzing activity of Era. In all three kingdoms of life, the sequence and helix 45 (h45) (nucleotides 1506–1529) are highly conserved. It has been shown that the to double mutation severely affects the viability of bacteria. However, whether Era interacts with G1530 and/or h45 and whether such interactions (if any) contribute to the stimulation of Era’s GTPase activity were not known. Here, we report two RNA structures that contain nucleotides 1506–1542 (RNA301), one in complex with Era and GDPNP (GNP), a nonhydrolysable GTP-analogue, and the other in complex with Era, GNP, and the KsgA methyltransferase. The structures show that Era recognizes 10 nucleotides, including G1530, and that Era also binds h45. Moreover, GTPase assay experiments show that G1530 does not stimulate Era’s GTPase activity. Rather, A1531 and A1534 are most important for stimulation and h45 further contributes to the stimulation. Although G1530 does not contribute to the intrinsic GTPase activity of Era, its interaction with Era is important for binding and is essential for the protein to function, leading to the discovery of a new cold-sensitive phenotype of Era. PMID:21646538

  14. Structural and functional studies of Bud23-Trm112 reveal 18S rRNA N7-G1575 methylation occurs on late 40S precursor ribosomes.

    PubMed

    Létoquart, Juliette; Huvelle, Emmeline; Wacheul, Ludivine; Bourgeois, Gabrielle; Zorbas, Christiane; Graille, Marc; Heurgué-Hamard, Valérie; Lafontaine, Denis L J

    2014-12-23

    The eukaryotic small ribosomal subunit carries only four ribosomal (r) RNA methylated bases, all close to important functional sites. N(7)-methylguanosine (m(7)G) introduced at position 1575 on 18S rRNA by Bud23-Trm112 is at a ridge forming a steric block between P- and E-site tRNAs. Here we report atomic resolution structures of Bud23-Trm112 in the apo and S-adenosyl-L-methionine (SAM)-bound forms. Bud23 and Trm112 interact through formation of a β-zipper involving main-chain atoms, burying an important hydrophobic surface and stabilizing the complex. The structures revealed that the coactivator Trm112 undergoes an induced fit to accommodate its methyltransferase (MTase) partner. We report important structural similarity between the active sites of Bud23 and Coffea canephora xanthosine MTase, leading us to propose and validate experimentally a model for G1575 coordination. We identify Bud23 residues important for Bud23-Trm112 complex formation and recruitment to pre-ribosomes. We report that though Bud23-Trm112 binds precursor ribosomes at an early nucleolar stage, m(7)G methylation occurs at a late step of small subunit biogenesis, implying specifically delayed catalytic activation. Finally, we show that Bud23-Trm112 interacts directly with the box C/D snoRNA U3-associated DEAH RNA helicase Dhr1 supposedly involved in central pseudoknot formation; this suggests that Bud23-Trm112 might also contribute to controlling formation of this irreversible and dramatic structural reorganization essential to overall folding of small subunit rRNA. Our study contributes important new elements to our understanding of key molecular aspects of human ribosomopathy syndromes associated with WBSCR22 (human Bud23) malfunction.

  15. The Era GTPase recognizes the GAUCACCUCC sequence and binds helix 45 near the 3; end of 16S rRNA

    SciTech Connect

    Tu, Chao; Zhou, Xiaomei; Tarasov, Sergey G.; Tropea, Joseph E.; Austin, Brian P.; Waugh, David S.; Court, Donald L.; Ji, Xinhua

    2012-03-26

    Era, composed of a GTPase domain and a K homology domain, is essential for bacterial cell viability. It is required for the maturation of 16S rRNA and assembly of the 30S ribosomal subunit. We showed previously that the protein recognizes nine nucleotides (1531{sup AUCACCUCC}1539) near the 3{prime} end of 16S rRNA, and that this recognition stimulates GTP-hydrolyzing activity of Era. In all three kingdoms of life, the 1530{sup GAUCA}1534 sequence and helix 45 (h45) (nucleotides 1506-1529) are highly conserved. It has been shown that the 1530{sup GA}1531 to 1530{sup AG}1531 double mutation severely affects the viability of bacteria. However, whether Era interacts with G1530 and/or h45 and whether such interactions (if any) contribute to the stimulation of Era's GTPase activity were not known. Here, we report two RNA structures that contain nucleotides 1506-1542 (RNA301), one in complex with Era and GDPNP (GNP), a nonhydrolysable GTP-analogue, and the other in complex with Era, GNP, and the KsgA methyltransferase. The structures show that Era recognizes 10 nucleotides, including G1530, and that Era also binds h45. Moreover, GTPase assay experiments show that G1530 does not stimulate Era's GTPase activity. Rather, A1531 and A1534 are most important for stimulation and h45 further contributes to the stimulation. Although G1530 does not contribute to the intrinsic GTPase activity of Era, its interaction with Era is important for binding and is essential for the protein to function, leading to the discovery of a new cold-sensitive phenotype of Era.

  16. Properly Substituted Analogues of BIX-01294 Lose Inhibition of G9a Histone Methyltransferase and Gain Selective Anti-DNA Methyltransferase 3A Activity

    PubMed Central

    Rotili, Dante; Tarantino, Domenico; Marrocco, Biagina; Gros, Christina; Masson, Véronique; Poughon, Valérie; Ausseil, Fréderic; Chang, Yanqi; Labella, Donatella; Cosconati, Sandro; Di Maro, Salvatore; Novellino, Ettore; Schnekenburger, Michael; Grandjenette, Cindy; Bouvy, Celine; Diederich, Marc; Cheng, Xiaodong; Arimondo, Paola B.; Mai, Antonello

    2014-01-01

    Chemical manipulations performed on the histone H3 lysine 9 methyltransferases (G9a/GLP) inhibitor BIX-01294 afforded novel desmethoxyquinazolines able to inhibit the DNA methyltransferase DNMT3A at low micromolar levels without any significant inhibition of DNMT1 and G9a. In KG-1 cells such compounds, when tested at sub-toxic doses, induced the luciferase re-expression in a stable construct controlled by a cytomegalovirus (CMV) promoter silenced by methylation (CMV-luc assay). Finally, in human lymphoma U-937 and RAJI cells, the N-(1-benzylpiperidin-4-yl)-2-(4-phenylpiperazin-1-yl)quinazolin-4-amine induced the highest proliferation arrest and cell death induction starting from 10 µM, in agreement with its DNMT3A inhibitory potency. PMID:24810902

  17. Radiometric assay for phenylethanolamine N-methyltransferase and catechol O-methyltransferase in a single tissue sample: application to rat hypothalamic nuclei, pineal gland, and heart

    SciTech Connect

    Culman, J.; Torda, T.; Weise, V.K.

    1987-08-01

    A simple and highly sensitive method for simultaneous assay of phenylethanolamine N-methyltransferase (PNMT) and catechol O-methyltransferase (COMT) is described. These enzymes are determined in a single tissue homogenate using S-(methyl-/sup 3/H) adenosyl-L-methionine as methyl donor and sequentially incubating with the substrates phenylethanolamine and epinephrine. The radioactive products of the enzymatic reactions, N-methylphenylethanolamine and metanephrine, are extracted and then separated by thin-layer chromatography. The identity of the reaction products has been established chromatographically and the conditions for both enzymatic reactions in the assay procedure have been defined. Measurement of PNMT activity in the rat pineal gland or in minute fragments of other tissues (e.g., brain nuclei) has not been possible using previously described methods. Activities of PNMT and COMT in the rat pineal gland, various hypothalamic nuclei, and the auricular and ventricular myocardia are herein reported.

  18. Analysis of rRNA processing and translation in mammalian cells using a synthetic 18S rRNA expression system.

    PubMed

    Burman, Luke G; Mauro, Vincent P

    2012-09-01

    Analysis of processing, assembly, and function of higher eukaryotic ribosomal RNA (rRNA) has been hindered by the lack of an expression system that enables rRNA to be modified and then examined functionally. Given the potential usefulness of such a system, we have developed one for mammalian 18S rRNA. We inserted a sequence tag into expansion segment 3 of mouse 18S rRNA to monitor expression and cleavage by hybridization. Mutations were identified that confer resistance to pactamycin, allowing functional analysis of 40S ribosomal subunits containing synthetic 18S rRNAs by selectively blocking translation from endogenous (pactamycin-sensitive) subunits. rRNA constructs were suitably expressed in transfected cells, shown to process correctly, incorporate into ≈ 15% of 40S subunits, and function normally based on various criteria. After rigorous analysis, the system was used to investigate the importance of sequences that flank 18S rRNA in precursor transcripts. Although deletion analysis supported the requirement of binding sites for the U3 snoRNA, it showed that a large segment of the 5' external transcribed spacer and the entire first internal transcribed spacer, both of which flank 18S rRNA, are not required. The success of this approach opens the possibility of functional analyses of ribosomes, with applications in basic research and synthetic biology.

  19. Analysis of rRNA processing and translation in mammalian cells using a synthetic 18S rRNA expression system

    PubMed Central

    Burman, Luke G.; Mauro, Vincent P.

    2012-01-01

    Analysis of processing, assembly, and function of higher eukaryotic ribosomal RNA (rRNA) has been hindered by the lack of an expression system that enables rRNA to be modified and then examined functionally. Given the potential usefulness of such a system, we have developed one for mammalian 18S rRNA. We inserted a sequence tag into expansion segment 3 of mouse 18S rRNA to monitor expression and cleavage by hybridization. Mutations were identified that confer resistance to pactamycin, allowing functional analysis of 40S ribosomal subunits containing synthetic 18S rRNAs by selectively blocking translation from endogenous (pactamycin-sensitive) subunits. rRNA constructs were suitably expressed in transfected cells, shown to process correctly, incorporate into ≈15% of 40S subunits, and function normally based on various criteria. After rigorous analysis, the system was used to investigate the importance of sequences that flank 18S rRNA in precursor transcripts. Although deletion analysis supported the requirement of binding sites for the U3 snoRNA, it showed that a large segment of the 5′ external transcribed spacer and the entire first internal transcribed spacer, both of which flank 18S rRNA, are not required. The success of this approach opens the possibility of functional analyses of ribosomes, with applications in basic research and synthetic biology. PMID:22718970

  20. Structural and evolutionary bioinformatics of the SPOUT superfamily of methyltransferases

    PubMed Central

    Tkaczuk, Karolina L; Dunin-Horkawicz, Stanislaw; Purta, Elzbieta; Bujnicki, Janusz M

    2007-01-01

    Background SPOUT methyltransferases (MTases) are a large class of S-adenosyl-L-methionine-dependent enzymes that exhibit an unusual alpha/beta fold with a very deep topological knot. In 2001, when no crystal structures were available for any of these proteins, Anantharaman, Koonin, and Aravind identified homology between SpoU and TrmD MTases and defined the SPOUT superfamily. Since then, multiple crystal structures of knotted MTases have been solved and numerous new homologous sequences appeared in the databases. However, no comprehensive comparative analysis of these proteins has been carried out to classify them based on structural and evolutionary criteria and to guide functional predictions. Results We carried out extensive searches of databases of protein structures and sequences to collect all members of previously identified SPOUT MTases, and to identify previously unknown homologs. Based on sequence clustering, characterization of domain architecture, structure predictions and sequence/structure comparisons, we re-defined families within the SPOUT superfamily and predicted putative active sites and biochemical functions for the so far uncharacterized members. We have also delineated the common core of SPOUT MTases and inferred a multiple sequence alignment for the conserved knot region, from which we calculated the phylogenetic tree of the superfamily. We have also studied phylogenetic distribution of different families, and used this information to infer the evolutionary history of the SPOUT superfamily. Conclusion We present the first phylogenetic tree of the SPOUT superfamily since it was defined, together with a new scheme for its classification, and discussion about conservation of sequence and structure in different families, and their functional implications. We identified four protein families as new members of the SPOUT superfamily. Three of these families are functionally uncharacterized (COG1772, COG1901, and COG4080), and one (COG1756

  1. Transformation of tetrahymena thermophila with hypermethylated rRNA genes

    SciTech Connect

    Karrer, K.M.; Yao, M.C.

    1988-04-01

    The extrachromosomal rRNA genes (rDNA) of Tetrahymena thermophila contain 0.4% N/sup 6/-methyladenine. C3 strain rDNA was isolated, hypermethylated in vitro, and microinjected into B strain host cells. Clonal cell lines were established, and transformants were selected on the basis of resistance to paromomycin, conferred by the injected rDNA. The effects of methylation by three enzymes which methylate the sequence 5'-NAT-3'', the dam, EcoRI, and ClaI methylases, were tested. Hypermethylation of the injected rDNA had no effect on transformation efficiency relative to mock-methylated controls. The injected C3 strain rDNA efficiently replaced host rDNA as the major constituent of the population of rDNA molecules. Hypermethylation of the injected DNA was not maintained through 20 to 25 cell generations.

  2. Species identification through mitochondrial rRNA genetic analysis

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Li; Tan, Zongqing; Wang, Daren; Xue, Ling; Guan, Min-xin; Huang, Taosheng; Li, Ronghua

    2014-01-01

    Inter-species and intraspecific variations in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) were observed in a bioinformatics analysis of the mitochondrial genomic sequences of 11 animal species. Some highly conserved regions were identified in the mitochondrial 12S and 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes of these species. To test whether these sequences are universally conserved, primers were designed to target the conserved regions of these two genes and were used to amplify DNA from 21 animal tissues, including two of unknown origin. By sequencing these PCR amplicons and aligning the sequences to a database of non-redundant nucleotide sequences, it was confirmed that these amplicons aligned specifically to mtDNA sequences from the expected species of origin. This molecular technique, when combined with bioinformatics, provides a reliable method for the taxonomic classification of animal tissues. PMID:24522485

  3. Phylogenetic analysis based on 28S rRNA of Babesia spp. in ruminants in China.

    PubMed

    Gou, Huitian; Guan, Guiquan; Ma, Miling; Liu, Aihong; Liu, Zhijie; Ren, Qiaoyun; Li, Youquan; Yang, Jifei; Chen, Ze; Yin, Hong; Luo, Jianxun

    2013-04-01

    Molecular phylogenetic analyses are mainly based on the small ribosomal RNA subunit (18S rRNA), internal transcribed spacer regions, and other molecular markers. We compared the phylogenetic relationships of Babesia spp. using large subunit ribosomal RNA, i.e., 28S rRNA, and the united 28S + 18S rRNA sequence fragments from 11 isolates of Babesia spp. collected in China. Due to sequence length and variability, the 28S rRNA gene contained more information than the 18S rRNA gene and could be used to elucidate the phlyogenetic relationships of B. motasi, B. major, and B. bovis. Thus, 28S rRNA is another candidate marker that can be used for the phylogenetic analysis of Babesia spp. However, the united fragment (28S + 18S) analysis provided better supported phylogenetic relationships than single genes for Babesia spp. in China.

  4. Putative promoter region of rRNA operon from archaebacterium Halobacterium halobium.

    PubMed Central

    Mankin, A S; Teterina, N L; Rubtsov, P M; Baratova, L A; Kagramanova, V K

    1984-01-01

    The 100 bp sequence from the beginning of the 16S rRNA gene of archaebacterium Halobacterium halobium and the adjacent 800 bp upstream sequence were determined. Four long (80 bp) direct repeats were found in the region preceeding the structural gene of the 16S rRNA. These repeats are proposed to constitute the promoter region of the rRNA operon of H. halobium. PMID:6089119

  5. Resistance to the macrolide antibiotic tylosin is conferred by single methylations at 23S rRNA nucleotides G748 and A2058 acting in synergy

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Mingfu; Douthwaite, Stephen

    2002-01-01

    The macrolide antibiotic tylosin has been used extensively in veterinary medicine and exerts potent antimicrobial activity against Gram-positive bacteria. Tylosin-synthesizing strains of the Gram-positive bacterium Streptomyces fradiae protect themselves from their own product by differential expression of four resistance determinants, tlrA, tlrB, tlrC, and tlrD. The tlrB and tlrD genes encode methyltransferases that add single methyl groups at 23S rRNA nucleotides G748 and A2058, respectively. Here we show that methylation by neither TlrB nor TlrD is sufficient on its own to give tylosin resistance, and resistance is conferred by the G748 and A2058 methylations acting together in synergy. This synergistic mechanism of resistance is specific for the macrolides tylosin and mycinamycin that possess sugars extending from the 5- and 14-positions of the macrolactone ring and is not observed for macrolides, such as carbomycin, spiramycin, and erythromycin, that have different constellations of sugars. The manner in which the G748 and A2058 methylations coincide with the glycosylation patterns of tylosin and mycinamycin reflects unambiguously how these macrolides fit into their binding site within the bacterial 50S ribosomal subunit. PMID:12417742

  6. Resistance to the macrolide antibiotic tylosin is conferred by single methylations at 23S rRNA nucleotides G748 and A2058 acting in synergy.

    PubMed

    Liu, Mingfu; Douthwaite, Stephen

    2002-11-12

    The macrolide antibiotic tylosin has been used extensively in veterinary medicine and exerts potent antimicrobial activity against Gram-positive bacteria. Tylosin-synthesizing strains of the Gram-positive bacterium Streptomyces fradiae protect themselves from their own product by differential expression of four resistance determinants, tlrA, tlrB, tlrC, and tlrD. The tlrB and tlrD genes encode methyltransferases that add single methyl groups at 23S rRNA nucleotides G748 and A2058, respectively. Here we show that methylation by neither TlrB nor TlrD is sufficient on its own to give tylosin resistance, and resistance is conferred by the G748 and A2058 methylations acting together in synergy. This synergistic mechanism of resistance is specific for the macrolides tylosin and mycinamycin that possess sugars extending from the 5- and 14-positions of the macrolactone ring and is not observed for macrolides, such as carbomycin, spiramycin, and erythromycin, that have different constellations of sugars. The manner in which the G748 and A2058 methylations coincide with the glycosylation patterns of tylosin and mycinamycin reflects unambiguously how these macrolides fit into their binding site within the bacterial 50S ribosomal subunit.

  7. RmtA, a putative arginine methyltransferase, regulates secondary metabolism and development in Aspergillus flavus

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Aspergillus flavus is found colonizing numerous oil seed crops such as corn, peanuts, sorghum, treenuts and cotton worldwide, contaminating them with aflatoxin and other harmful potent toxins. In the phylogenetically related model fungus Aspergillus nidulans, the methyltransferase, RmtA, has been de...

  8. A Continuous, Quantitative Fluorescent Assay for Plant Caffeic acid O-Methyltransferases

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Plant caffeic acid O-methyltransferases (COMTs) use s-adenosylmethionine (ado-met), as a methyl donor to transmethylate their preferred (phenolic) substrates in-vivo, and will generally utilize a range of phenolic compounds in-vitro. Collazo et al. (2005; Analytical Biochemistry 342: 86-92) have pu...

  9. SABATH Methyltransferases from White Spruce (Picea glauca [Moench] Voss): Gene Cloning, Functional Characterization and Structural Analysis

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Known members of the plant SABATH family of methyltransferases have important biological functions by methylating hormones, signaling molecules and other metabolites. While all previously characterized SABATH genes were isolated from angiosperms, in this article, we report on the isolation and funct...

  10. Association of Catechol-O-Methyltransferase (COMT) Polymorphism and Academic Achievement in a Chinese Cohort

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yeh, Ting-Kuang; Chang, Chun-Yen; Hu, Chung-Yi; Yeh, Ting-Chi; Lin, Ming-Yeh

    2009-01-01

    Catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) is a methylation enzyme that catalyzes the degradation pathway and inactivation of dopamine. It is accepted widely as being involved in the modulation of dopaminergic physiology and prefrontal cortex (PFC) function. The COMT Val158Met polymorphism is associated with variation in COMT activity. COMT 158Met allele…

  11. CLONING, EXPRESSION, AND MUTATIONAL ANALYSIS OF RAT S-ADENOSYL-1-METHIONINE: ARSENIC (III) METHYLTRANSFERASE

    EPA Science Inventory

    CLONING, EXPRESSION, AND MUTATIONAL ANALYSIS OF RAT
    S-ADENOSYL-L-METHIONINE: ARSENIC(III) METHYLTRANSFERASE

    Stephen B. Waters, Ph.D., Miroslav Styblo, Ph.D., Melinda A. Beck, Ph.D., University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill; David J. Thomas, Ph.D., U.S. Environmental...

  12. CLONING, EXPRESSION, AND CHARACTERIZATION OF RAT S-ADENOSYL-L-METHIONINE: ARSENIC (III) METHYLTRANSFERASE (CYT19)

    EPA Science Inventory

    CLONING, EXPRESSION, AND CHARACTERIZATION OF RAT S-ADENOSYL-L-METHIONINE: ARSENIC(III) METHYLTRANSFERASE (cyt19)

    Stephen B. Waters1 , Felicia Walton1 , Miroslav Styblo1 , Karen Herbin-Davis2, and David J. Thomas2 1 School of Medicine, University of North Carolina at Chape...

  13. Guanidinoacetate Methyltransferase (GAMT) Deficiency: Late Onset of Movement Disorder and Preserved Expressive Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Rourke, Declan J.; Ryan, Stephanie; Salomons, Gajja; Jakobs, Cornelis; Monavari, Ahmad; King, Mary D.

    2009-01-01

    Guanidinoacetate methyltransferase (GAMT) deficiency is a disorder of creatine biosynthesis, characterized by early-onset learning disability and epilepsy in most affected children. Severe expressive language delay is a constant feature even in the mildest clinical phenotypes. We report the clinical, biochemical, imaging, and treatment data of two…

  14. A new type of protein lysine methyltransferase trimethylates Lys-79 of elongation factor 1A.

    PubMed

    Dzialo, Maria C; Travaglini, Kyle J; Shen, Sean; Loo, Joseph A; Clarke, Steven G

    2014-12-12

    The elongation factors of Saccharomyces cerevisiae are extensively methylated, containing a total of ten methyllysine residues. Elongation factor methyltransferases (Efm1, Efm2, Efm3, and Efm4) catalyze at least four of these modifications. Here we report the identification of a new type of protein lysine methyltransferase, Efm5 (Ygr001c), which was initially classified as N6-adenine DNA methyltransferase-like. Efm5 is required for trimethylation of Lys-79 on EF1A. We directly show the loss of this modification in efm5Δ strains by both mass spectrometry and amino acid analysis. Close homologs of Efm5 are found in vertebrates, invertebrates, and plants, although some fungal species apparently lack this enzyme. This suggests possible unique functions of this modification in S. cerevisiae and higher eukaryotes. The misannotation of Efm5 was due to the presence of a DPPF sequence in post-Motif II, typically associated with DNA methylation. Further analysis of this motif and others like it demonstrates a potential consensus sequence for N-methyltransferases. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Accidental Amplification and Inactivation of a Methyltransferase Gene Eliminates Cytosine Methylation in Mycosphaerella Graminicola

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A de novo search for repetitive elements in the genome sequence of the wheat pathogen Mycosphaerella graminicola identified a family of repeats containing a DNA methyltransferase sequence (MgDNMT), which is a homologue of the Neurospora crassa Dim-2 gene. A total of 28 MgDNMT sequences was identifie...

  16. Functional characterization of cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase and caffeic acid O-methyltransferase in Brachypodium distachyon.

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Lignin is a significant recalcitrant in the conversion of plant biomass to bioethanol. Cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase (CAD) and caffeic acid O-methyltransferase (COMT) catalyze key steps in the pathway of lignin monomer biosynthesis. Brown midrib mutants in Zea mays and Sorghum bicolor with impaired...

  17. A NOVEL S-ADENOSYL-L-METHIONINE: ARSENIC (III) METHYLTRANSFERASE FROM RAT LIVER CYTOSOL

    EPA Science Inventory

    A Novel S-Adenosyl-L-methionine: Arsenic(III) Methyltransferase from Rat Liver Cytosol
    Shan Lin, Qing Shi, F. Brent Nix, Miroslav Styblo, Melinda A. Beck, Karen M. Herbin-Davis, Larry L. Hall, Josef B. Simeonsson, and David J. Thomas
    S-adenosyl-L-methionine (AdoMet): ar...

  18. Guanidinoacetate Methyltransferase (GAMT) Deficiency: Late Onset of Movement Disorder and Preserved Expressive Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Rourke, Declan J.; Ryan, Stephanie; Salomons, Gajja; Jakobs, Cornelis; Monavari, Ahmad; King, Mary D.

    2009-01-01

    Guanidinoacetate methyltransferase (GAMT) deficiency is a disorder of creatine biosynthesis, characterized by early-onset learning disability and epilepsy in most affected children. Severe expressive language delay is a constant feature even in the mildest clinical phenotypes. We report the clinical, biochemical, imaging, and treatment data of two…

  19. Purification and characterization of dimethylamine:5-hydroxybenzimidazolyl-cobamide methyltransferase from Methanosarcina barkeri Fusaro.

    PubMed

    Wassenaar, R W; Keltjens, J T; van der Drift, C; Vogels, G D

    1998-05-01

    Dimethylamine:5-hydroxybenzimidazolylcobamide methyltransferase (DMA-MT) was purified from cells of Methanosarcina barkeri Fusaro grown on trimethylamine. In the presence of methylcobalamine:coenzyme M methyltransferase isoenzyme II [MT2(II)] the enzyme quite specifically catalyzed the stoichiometric conversion of dimethylamine (apparent Km = 0.45 mM) and 2-mercaptoethane-sulfonate (coenzyme M) to monomethylamine and methyl-coenzyme M. Monomethylamine was a competitive inhibitor of the reaction (Ki = 4.5 mM). The apparent molecular mass of DMA-MT was 100 kDa and the enzyme was found to be a dimer, composed of identical 50-kDa subunits. A corrinoid content of 0.9 +/- 0.1 mol B12/mol holoenzyme was calculated from HPLC analysis. The as-isolated methyltransferase was inactive, but it could be reductively reactivated. Activation required the presence of methyltransferase-activating protein, ATP and dimethylamine. Incubation with these compounds resulted in the methylation of the corrinoid prosthetic group.

  20. Association of Catechol-O-Methyltransferase (COMT) Polymorphism and Academic Achievement in a Chinese Cohort

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yeh, Ting-Kuang; Chang, Chun-Yen; Hu, Chung-Yi; Yeh, Ting-Chi; Lin, Ming-Yeh

    2009-01-01

    Catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) is a methylation enzyme that catalyzes the degradation pathway and inactivation of dopamine. It is accepted widely as being involved in the modulation of dopaminergic physiology and prefrontal cortex (PFC) function. The COMT Val158Met polymorphism is associated with variation in COMT activity. COMT 158Met allele…

  1. DNA methyltransferase DNMT3A associates with viral proteins and impacts HSV-1 infection.

    PubMed

    Rowles, Daniell L; Tsai, Yuan-Chin; Greco, Todd M; Lin, Aaron E; Li, Minghao; Yeh, Justin; Cristea, Ileana M

    2015-06-01

    Viral infections can alter the cellular epigenetic landscape, through modulation of either DNA methylation profiles or chromatin remodeling enzymes and histone modifications. These changes can act to promote viral replication or host defense. Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) is a prominent human pathogen, which relies on interactions with host factors for efficient replication and spread. Nevertheless, the knowledge regarding its modulation of epigenetic factors remains limited. Here, we used fluorescently-labeled viruses in conjunction with immunoaffinity purification and MS to study virus-virus and virus-host protein interactions during HSV-1 infection in primary human fibroblasts. We identified interactions among viral capsid and tegument proteins, detecting phosphorylation of the capsid protein VP26 at sites within its UL37-binding domain, and an acetylation within the major capsid protein VP5. Interestingly, we found a nuclear association between viral capsid proteins and the de novo DNA methyltransferase DNA (cytosine-5)-methyltransferase 3A (DNMT3A), which we confirmed by reciprocal isolations and microscopy. We show that drug-induced inhibition of DNA methyltransferase activity, as well as siRNA- and shRNA-mediated DNMT3A knockdowns trigger reductions in virus titers. Altogether, our results highlight a functional association of viral proteins with the mammalian DNA methyltransferase machinery, pointing to DNMT3A as a host factor required for effective HSV-1 infection.

  2. Catechol-O-methyltransferase: a method for autoradiographic visualization of isozymes in cellogel

    SciTech Connect

    Brahe, C.; Crosti, N.; Meera Khan, P.; Serra, A.

    1984-02-01

    An electrophoretic procedure for separating the molecular forms of catechol-O-methyltransferase in cellulose acetate gel is described; the zones of enzyme activity were revealed by autoradiography. The electrophoretic patterns of the enzyme in several tissues and cell lines derived from four different species are presented.

  3. Overexpression of a soybean salicylic acid methyltransferase gene confers resistance to soybean cyst nematode

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Salicylic acid plays a critical role in activating plant defence responses after pathogen attack. Salicylic acid methyltransferase (SAMT) modulates the level of salicylic acid by converting salicylic acid to methyl salicylate. Here, we report that a SAMT gene from soybean (GmSAMT1) plays a role in s...

  4. A NOVEL S-ADENOSYL-L-METHIONINE: ARSENIC (III) METHYLTRANSFERASE FROM RAT LIVER CYTOSOL

    EPA Science Inventory

    A Novel S-Adenosyl-L-methionine: Arsenic(III) Methyltransferase from Rat Liver Cytosol
    Shan Lin, Qing Shi, F. Brent Nix, Miroslav Styblo, Melinda A. Beck, Karen M. Herbin-Davis, Larry L. Hall, Josef B. Simeonsson, and David J. Thomas
    S-adenosyl-L-methionine (AdoMet): ar...

  5. CHARACTERIZATION OF HUMAN URINARY BLADDER CELL LINE UROTSA TRANSDUCED WITH RAT ASLLL-METHYLTRANSFERASE

    EPA Science Inventory


    In humans, the biomethylation of arsenic (As) is catalyzed by an As(III)-methyltransferase (Cyt19) and yields pentavalent and trivalent methylated arsenicals. Cyt19 activity and expression levels vary among tissues. For example, Cyt19 mRNA is not detected in UROtsa cells, a h...

  6. CLONING, EXPRESSION, AND MUTATIONAL ANALYSIS OF RAT S-ADENOSYL-1-METHIONINE: ARSENIC (III) METHYLTRANSFERASE

    EPA Science Inventory

    CLONING, EXPRESSION, AND MUTATIONAL ANALYSIS OF RAT
    S-ADENOSYL-L-METHIONINE: ARSENIC(III) METHYLTRANSFERASE

    Stephen B. Waters, Ph.D., Miroslav Styblo, Ph.D., Melinda A. Beck, Ph.D., University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill; David J. Thomas, Ph.D., U.S. Environmental...

  7. CLONING, EXPRESSION, AND CHARACTERIZATION OF RAT S-ADENOSYL-L-METHIONINE: ARSENIC (III) METHYLTRANSFERASE (CYT19)

    EPA Science Inventory

    CLONING, EXPRESSION, AND CHARACTERIZATION OF RAT S-ADENOSYL-L-METHIONINE: ARSENIC(III) METHYLTRANSFERASE (cyt19)

    Stephen B. Waters1 , Felicia Walton1 , Miroslav Styblo1 , Karen Herbin-Davis2, and David J. Thomas2 1 School of Medicine, University of North Carolina at Chape...

  8. Recognition of RNA cap in the Wesselsbron virus NS5 methyltransferase domain: implications for RNA-capping mechanisms in Flavivirus.

    PubMed

    Bollati, Michela; Milani, Mario; Mastrangelo, Eloise; Ricagno, Stefano; Tedeschi, Gabriella; Nonnis, Simona; Decroly, Etienne; Selisko, Barbara; de Lamballerie, Xavier; Coutard, Bruno; Canard, Bruno; Bolognesi, Martino

    2009-01-09

    The mRNA-capping process starts with the conversion of a 5'-triphosphate end into a 5'-diphosphate by an RNA triphosphatase, followed by the addition of a guanosine monophosphate unit in a 5'-5' phosphodiester bond by a guanylyltransferase. Methyltransferases are involved in the third step of the process, transferring a methyl group from S-adenosyl-l-methionine to N7-guanine (cap 0) and to the ribose 2'OH group (cap 1) of the first RNA nucleotide; capping is essential for mRNA stability and proper replication. In the genus Flavivirus, N7-methyltransferase and 2'O-methyltransferase activities have been recently associated with the N-terminal domain of the viral NS5 protein. In order to further characterize the series of enzymatic reactions that support capping, we analyzed the crystal structures of Wesselsbron virus methyltransferase in complex with the S-adenosyl-l-methionine cofactor, S-adenosyl-l-homocysteine (the product of the methylation reaction), Sinefungin (a molecular analogue of the enzyme cofactor), and three different cap analogues (GpppG, (N7Me)GpppG, and (N7Me)GpppA). The structural results, together with those on other flaviviral methyltransferases, show that the capped RNA analogues all bind to an RNA high-affinity binding site. However, lack of specific interactions between the enzyme and the first nucleotide of the RNA chain suggests the requirement of a minimal number of nucleotides following the cap to strengthen protein/RNA interaction. Our data also show that, following incubation with guanosine triphosphate, Wesselsbron virus methyltransferase displays a guanosine monophosphate molecule covalently bound to residue Lys28, hinting at possible implications for the transfer of a guanine group to ppRNA. The structures of the Wesselsbron virus methyltransferase complexes obtained are discussed in the context of a model for N7-methyltransferase and 2'O-methyltransferase activities.

  9. Direct photolabeling of the EcoRII methyltransferase with S-adenosyl-L-methionine

    SciTech Connect

    Som, S.; Friedman, S. )

    1990-03-15

    Ultraviolet irradiation of EcoRII methyltransferase in the presence of its substrate, S-adenosyl-L-methionine (AdoMet), results in the formation of a stable enzyme-substrate adduct. This adduct can be demonstrated by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis after irradiation of the enzyme in the presence of either (methyl-3H)AdoMet or (35S)AdoMet. The extent of photolabeling is low. Under optimal conditions, 4.5 pmol of (3H)AdoMet is incorporated into 100 pmol of enzyme. Use of the 8-azido derivative of AdoMet as the photolabeling substrate increases the incorporation by approximately 2-fold. However, this adduct, unlike the one formed with AdoMet, is not stable when treated with thiol reagents or precipitated with trichloroacetic acid. A catalytically active conformation of the enzyme is needed for AdoMet photolabeling. Heat-inactivated enzyme or proteins for which AdoMet is not a substrate or cofactor do not undergo adduct formation. Two other methyltransferases, MspI and dam methylases are also shown to form adducts with AdoMet upon UV irradiation. The binding constant of the EcoRII methyltransferase for AdoMet determined with the photolabeling reaction is 11 microM, which is similar to the binding constant of 9 microM previously reported. The AdoMet analogs S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine (Ki = 0.83 microM) and sinefungin (Ki = 4.3 microM) are effective inhibitors of photolabeling, whereas S-adenosyl-D-homocysteine (Ki = 46 microM) is a poor inhibitor. These experiments indicate that AdoMet becomes covalently bound at the AdoMet-binding site on the enzyme molecule. The EcoRII methyltransferase-AdoMet adduct is very stable and could be used to identify the AdoMet-binding site on DNA methyltransferases.

  10. New enzymes from environmental cassette arrays: Functional attributes of a phosphotransferase and an RNA-methyltransferase

    PubMed Central

    Nield, Blair S.; Willows, Robert D.; Torda, Andrew E.; Gillings, Michael R.; Holmes, Andrew J.; Nevalainen, K.M. Helena; Stokes, H.W.; Mabbutt, Bridget C.

    2004-01-01

    By targeting gene cassettes by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) directly from environmentally derived DNA, we are able to amplify entire open reading frames (ORFs) independently of prior sequence knowledge. Approximately 10% of the mobile genes recovered by these means can be attributed to known protein families. Here we describe the characterization of two ORFs which show moderate homology to known proteins: (1) an aminoglycoside phosphotransferase displaying 25% sequence identity with APH(7″) from Streptomyces hygroscopicus, and (2) an RNA methyltransferase sharing 25%–28% identity with a group of recently defined bacterial RNA methyltransferases distinct from the SpoU enzyme family. Our novel genes were expressed as recombinant products and assayed for appropriate enzyme activity. The aminoglycoside phosphotransferase displayed ATPase activity, consistent with the presence of characteristic Mg2+-binding residues. Unlike related APH(4) or APH(7″) enzymes, however, this activity was not enhanced by hygromycin B or kanamycin, suggesting the normal substrate to be a different aminoglycoside. The RNA methyltransferase contains sequence motifs of the RNA methyltransferase superfamily, and our recombinant version showed methyltransferase activity with RNA. Our data confirm that gene cassettes present in the environment encode folded enzymes with novel sequence variation and demonstrable catalytic activity. Our PCR approach (cassette PCR) may be used to identify a diverse range of ORFs from any environmental sample, as well as to directly access the gene pool found in mobile gene cassettes commonly associated with integrons. This gene pool can be accessed from both cultured and uncultured microbial samples as a source of new enzymes and proteins. PMID:15152095

  11. Stalling of DNA methyltransferase in chromosome stability and chromosome remodelling (Review).

    PubMed

    Smith, S S

    1998-01-01

    As a consequence of their mechanism of action, DNA (cytosine-5) methyltransferases from both prokaryotes and eukaryotes necessarily recognize mispaired bases in unusual DNA structures as catalytic transition-state analogs. A review of the available data suggests that the enzymes are designed to stall at these sites because they are unable to release substrates or products that are fixed in a conformation resembling the transition state. The enzymes can operate by a two-step process in which they first methylate extrahelical cytosines satisfying their recognition requirements and subsequently stall at the site of methylation. On RNA and DNA RNA hybrids they may operate by a similar one-step process in which they stall at transition-state analogs without methylating cytosine moieties. These natural capacities suggest that the enzymes may physically participate in stable nucleoprotein assemblies formed as components of normal chromatin structure or as intermediates in the repair of unusual structures. The methyltransferases, themselves, may physically participate in chromosome remodelling as part of a mechanism of inactivation or imprinting by stabilizing RNA DNA hybrids or RNA RNA secondary structure involving cis-acting untranslated RNAs like the product of the Xist gene. Methyl-transferase may physically participate in the repair of certain unusual structures by serving as a nucleation point. The affinity for secondary structure in nucleic acids may account for the spreading of DNA methylation patterns. Titration of host methyltransferase by RNA DNA hybrids and RNA secondary structure formed during retroviral replication in certain tumorigenic retroviruses, like MMTV, may account for global hypomethylation observed in retrovirally transformed cells. In a similar fashion, titration of methyltransferase by secondary structures associated with chromosome instability may account for global hypomethylation observed in association with local hypermethylation in

  12. Multiple Histone Lysine Methyltransferases Are Required for the Establishment and Maintenance of HIV-1 Latency

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Kien; Das, Biswajit; Dobrowolski, Curtis

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT We showed previously that the histone lysine methyltransferase (HKMT) H3K27me3 (EZH2) is the catalytic subunit of Polycomb repressive complex 2 (PRC2) and is required for the maintenance of HIV-1 latency in Jurkat T cells. Here we show, by using chromatin immunoprecipitation experiments, that both PRC2 and euchromatic histone-lysine N-methyltransferase 2 (EHMT2), the G9a H3K9me2-3 methyltransferase, are highly enriched at the proviral 5′ long terminal repeat (LTR) and rapidly displaced upon proviral reactivation. Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat(s) (CRISPR)-mediated knockout of EZH2 caused depletion of both EZH2 and EHMT2, but CRISPR-mediated knockout of EHMT2 was selective for EHMT2, consistent with the failure of EHMT2 knockouts to induce latent proviruses in this system. Either (i) knockout of methyltransferase by short hairpin RNA in Jurkat T cells prior to HIV-1 infection or (ii) inhibition of the enzymes with drugs significantly reduced the levels of the resulting silenced viruses, demonstrating that both enzymes are required to establish latency. To our surprise, inhibition of EZH2 (by GSK-343 or EPZ-6438) or inhibition of EHMT2 (by UNC-0638) in the Th17 primary cell model of HIV latency or resting memory T cells isolated from HIV-1-infected patients receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy, was sufficient to induce the reactivation of latent proviruses. The methyltransferase inhibitors showed synergy with interleukin-15 and suberanilohydroxamic acid. We conclude that both PRC2 and EHMT2 are required for the establishment and maintenance of HIV-1 proviral silencing in primary cells. Furthermore, EZH2 inhibitors such as GSK-343 and EPZ-6438 and the EHMT2 inhibitor UNC-0638 are strong candidates for use as latency-reversing agents in clinical studies. PMID:28246360

  13. Genomic survey, gene expression analysis and structural modeling suggest diverse roles of DNA methyltransferases in legumes.

    PubMed

    Garg, Rohini; Kumari, Romika; Tiwari, Sneha; Goyal, Shweta

    2014-01-01

    DNA methylation plays a crucial role in development through inheritable gene silencing. Plants possess three types of DNA methyltransferases (MTases), namely Methyltransferase (MET), Chromomethylase (CMT) and Domains Rearranged Methyltransferase (DRM), which maintain methylation at CG, CHG and CHH sites. DNA MTases have not been studied in legumes so far. Here, we report the identification and analysis of putative DNA MTases in five legumes, including chickpea, soybean, pigeonpea, Medicago and Lotus. MTases in legumes could be classified in known MET, CMT, DRM and DNA nucleotide methyltransferases (DNMT2) subfamilies based on their domain organization. First three MTases represent DNA MTases, whereas DNMT2 represents a transfer RNA (tRNA) MTase. Structural comparison of all the MTases in plants with known MTases in mammalian and plant systems have been reported to assign structural features in context of biological functions of these proteins. The structure analysis clearly specified regions crucial for protein-protein interactions and regions important for nucleosome binding in various domains of CMT and MET proteins. In addition, structural model of DRM suggested that circular permutation of motifs does not have any effect on overall structure of DNA methyltransferase domain. These results provide valuable insights into role of various domains in molecular recognition and should facilitate mechanistic understanding of their function in mediating specific methylation patterns. Further, the comprehensive gene expression analyses of MTases in legumes provided evidence of their role in various developmental processes throughout the plant life cycle and response to various abiotic stresses. Overall, our study will be very helpful in establishing the specific functions of DNA MTases in legumes.

  14. Floral Benzenoid Carboxyl Methyltransferases: From in Vitro to in Planta Function

    SciTech Connect

    Effmert,U.; Saschenbrecker, S.; Ross, J.; Negre, F.; Fraser, C.; Noel, J.; Dudareva, N.; Piechulla, B.

    2005-01-01

    Benzenoid carboxyl methyltransferases synthesize methyl esters (e.g., methyl benzoate and methyl salicylate), which are constituents of aromas and scents of many plant species and play important roles in plant communication with the surrounding environment. Within the past five years, eleven such carboxyl methyltransferases were isolated and most of them were comprehensively investigated at the biochemical, molecular and structural level. Two types of enzymes can be distinguished according to their substrate preferences: the SAMT-type enzymes isolated from Clarkia breweri, Stephanotis floribunda, Antirrhinum majus, Hoya carnosa, and Petunia hybrida, which have a higher catalytic efficiency and preference for salicylic acid, while BAMT-type enzymes from A. majus, Arabidopsis thaliana, Arabidopsis lyrata, and Nicotiana suaveolens prefer benzoic acid. The elucidation of C. breweri SAMT's three-dimensional structure allowed a detailed modelling of the active sites of the carboxyl methyltransferases and revealed that the SAM binding pocket is highly conserved among these enzymes while the methyl acceptor binding site exhibits some variability, allowing a classification into SAMT-type and BAMT-type enzymes. The analysis of expression patterns coupled with biochemical characterization showed that these carboxyl methyltransferases are involved either in floral scent biosynthesis or in plant defense responses. While the latter can be induced by biotic or abiotic stress, the genes responsible for floral scent synthesis exhibit developmental and rhythmic expression pattern. The nature of the product and efficiency of its formation in plants depend on the availability of substrates, the catalytic efficiency of the enzyme toward benzoic acid and/or salicylic acid, and the transcriptional, translational, and post-translational regulation at the enzyme level. The biochemical properties of benzenoid carboxyl methyltransferases suggest that the genes involved in plant defenses

  15. Glycine N-methyltransferase tumor susceptibility gene in the benzo(a)pyrene-detoxification pathway.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shih-Yin; Lin, Jane-Ru Vivan; Darbha, Ramalakshmi; Lin, Pinpin; Liu, Tsung-Yun; Chen, Yi-Ming Arthur

    2004-05-15

    Glycine N-methyltransferase (GNMT) affects genetic stability by (a) regulating the ratio of S-adenosylmethionine to S-adenosylhomocystine and (b) binding to folate. Based on the identification of GNMT as a 4 S polyaromatic hydrocarbon-binding protein, we used liver cancer cell lines that expressed GNMT either transiently or stably in cDNA transfections to analyze the role of GNMT in the benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) detoxification pathway. Results from an indirect immunofluorescent antibody assay showed that GNMT was expressed in cell cytoplasm before BaP treatment and translocated to cell nuclei after BaP treatment. Compared with cells transfected with the vector plasmid, the number of BaP-7,8-diol 9,10-epoxide-DNA adducts that formed in GNMT-expressing cells was significantly reduced. Furthermore, the dose-dependent inhibition of BaP-7,8-diol 9,10-epoxide-DNA adduct formation by GNMT was observed in HepG2 cells infected with different multiplicities of infection of recombinant adenoviruses carrying GNMT cDNA. According to an aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase enzyme activity assay, GNMT inhibited BaP-induced cytochrome P450 1A1 enzyme activity. Automated BaP docking using a Lamarckian genetic algorithm with GNMT X-ray crystallography revealed a BaP preference for the S-adenosylmethionine-binding domain of the dimeric form of GNMT, a novel finding of a cellular defense against potentially damaging exposures. In addition to GNMT, results from docking experiments showed that BaP binds readily with other DNA methyltransferases, including HhaI, HaeIII, PvuII methyltransferases and human DNA methyltransferase 2. We therefore hypothesized that BaP-DNA methyltransferase and BaP-GNMT interactions may contribute to carcinogenesis.

  16. Floral benzenoid carboxyl methyltransferases: From in vitro to in planta function

    PubMed Central

    Effmert, Uta; Saschenbrecker, Sandra; Ross, Jeannine; Negre, Florence; Fraser, Chris M.; Noel, Joseph P.; Dudareva, Natalia; Piechulla, Birgit

    2010-01-01

    Benzenoid carboxyl methyltransferases synthesize methyl esters (e.g., methyl benzoate and methyl salicylate), which are constituents of aromas and scents of many plant species and play important roles in plant communication with the surrounding environment. Within the past five years, eleven such carboxyl methyltransferases were isolated and most of them were comprehensively investigated at the biochemical, molecular and structural level. Two types of enzymes can be distinguished according to their substrate preferences: the SAMT-type enzymes isolated from Clarkia breweri, Stephanotis floribunda, Antirrhinum majus, Hoya carnosa, and Petunia hybrida, which have a higher catalytic efficiency and preference for salicylic acid, while BAMT-type enzymes from A. majus, Arabidopsis thaliana, Arabidopsis lyrata, and Nicotiana suaveolens prefer benzoic acid. The elucidation of C. breweri SAMT’s three-dimensional structure allowed a detailed modelling of the active sites of the carboxyl methyltransferases and revealed that the SAM binding pocket is highly conserved among these enzymes while the methyl acceptor binding site exhibits some variability, allowing a classification into SAMT-type and BAMT-type enzymes. The analysis of expression patterns coupled with biochemical characterization showed that these carboxyl methyltransferases are involved either in floral scent biosynthesis or in plant defense responses. While the latter can be induced by biotic or abiotic stress, the genes responsible for floral scent synthesis exhibit developmental and rhythmic expression pattern. The nature of the product and efficiency of its formation in planta depend on the availability of substrates, the catalytic efficiency of the enzyme toward benzoic acid and/or salicylic acid, and the transcriptional, translational, and post-translational regulation at the enzyme level. The biochemical properties of benzenoid carboxyl methyltransferases suggest that the genes involved in plant defenses

  17. Insights into the phylogenetic positions of photosynthetic bacteria obtained from 5S rRNA and 16S rRNA sequence data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fox, G. E.

    1985-01-01

    Comparisons of complete 16S ribosomal ribonucleic acid (rRNA) sequences established that the secondary structure of these molecules is highly conserved. Earlier work with 5S rRNA secondary structure revealed that when structural conservation exists the alignment of sequences is straightforward. The constancy of structure implies minimal functional change. Under these conditions a uniform evolutionary rate can be expected so that conditions are favorable for phylogenetic tree construction.

  18. Detection of a New cfr-Like Gene, cfr(B), in Enterococcus faecium Isolates Recovered from Human Specimens in the United States as Part of the SENTRY Antimicrobial Surveillance Program

    PubMed Central

    Deshpande, Lalitagauri M.; Ashcraft, Deborah S.; Kahn, Heather P.; Pankey, George; Jones, Ronald N.; Farrell, David J.

    2015-01-01

    Two linezolid-resistant Enterococcus faecium isolates (MICs, 8 μg/ml) from unique patients of a medical center in New Orleans were included in this study. Isolates were initially investigated for the presence of mutations in the V domain of 23S rRNA genes and L3, L4, and L22 ribosomal proteins, as well as cfr. Isolates were subjected to pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (just one band difference), and one representative strain was submitted to whole-genome sequencing. Gene location was also determined by hybridization, and cfr genes were cloned and expressed in a Staphylococcus aureus background. The two isolates had one out of six 23S rRNA alleles mutated (G2576T), had wild-type L3, L4, and L22 sequences, and were positive for a cfr-like gene. The sequence of the protein encoded by the cfr-like gene was most similar (99.7%) to that found in Peptoclostridium difficile, which shared only 74.9% amino acid identity with the proteins encoded by genes previously identified in staphylococci and non-faecium enterococci and was, therefore, denominated Cfr(B). When expressed in S. aureus, the protein conferred a resistance profile similar to that of Cfr. Two copies of cfr(B) were chromosomally located and embedded in a Tn6218 similar to the cfr-carrying transposon described in P. difficile. This study reports the first detection of cfr genes in E. faecium clinical isolates in the United States and characterization of a new cfr variant, cfr(B). cfr(B) has been observed in mobile genetic elements in E. faecium and P. difficile, suggesting potential for dissemination. However, further analysis is necessary to access the resistance levels conferred by cfr(B) when expressed in enterococci. PMID:26248384

  19. Protein Arginine Methyltransferase 5 as a Driver of Lymphomagenesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Porsha Latrice

    Over the past decade, it has become clear that oncogenesis is a process driven by a wide variety of triggers including gene mutations, gene amplifications, inflammation, and immune deficiency. The growing pool of data collected from whole genome and epigenome studies of both solid and blood cancers has pointed toward dysregulation of chromatin remodelers as a unique class of cancer drivers. Next generation sequencing studies of lymphomas have identified a wide array of somatic mutations affecting enzymes that regulate epigenetic control of gene expression. Lymphoma is a type of cancer that originates in secondary lymphoid organs and manifests as an outgrowth of transformed lymphocytes, or white blood cells (WBCs) in the blood. The majority of lymphoma cases can be grouped into the Non-Hodgkins lymphoma (NHL) subset and mainly occurs in B-cells. B-cell NHL is a heterogeneous set of cancers that would benefit from new therapies to improve patient progression-free survival. Cancers such as NHL typically present with a combination of genetic and epigenetic aberrations that contribute to the malignancy program. The epigenetic modifier protein arginine methyltransferase 5 (PRMT5) is required for B-cell transformation following Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection, and is overexpressed in various subsets of B-cell NHL. Based on these data we hypothesized that PRMT5 is a major driver of B-cell lymphomagenesis. To explore the role of PRMT5 in the development and progression of B-cell NHL we created a small molecule inhibitors targeted to PRMT5. Using the NHL subset mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) as a model we tested the efficacy of the drug. We discovered that PRMT5 was overexpressed in MCL primary samples and cell lines as compared to normal resting B cells. Furthermore, use of the small molecule inhibitor decreased the proliferation and viability in these cells without affecting the normal B-cells. Additionally, use of inhibitors caused G2/M cell cycle and decreased the

  20. Low Fitness Cost of the Multidrug Resistance Gene cfr▿

    PubMed Central

    LaMarre, Jacqueline M.; Locke, Jeffrey B.; Shaw, Karen J.; Mankin, Alexander S.

    2011-01-01

    The recently described rRNA methyltransferase Cfr that methylates the conserved 23S rRNA residue A2503, located in a functionally critical region of the ribosome, confers resistance to an array of ribosomal antibiotics, including linezolid. A number of reports of linezolid-resistant cfr-positive clinical strains indicate the possible rapid spread of this resistance mechanism. Since the rate of dissemination and the efficiency of maintenance of a resistance gene depend on the fitness cost associated with its acquisition, we investigated the fitness cost of cfr expression in a laboratory Staphylococcus aureus strain. We found that acquisition of the cfr gene does not produce any appreciable reduction in the cell growth rate. Only in a cogrowth competition experiment was some loss of fitness observed because Cfr-expressing cells slowly lose to the cfr-negative control strain. Interestingly, cells expressing wild-type and catalytically inactive Cfr had very similar growth characteristics, indicating that the slight fitness cost associated with cfr acquisition stems from expression of the Cfr polypeptide rather than from the modification of the conserved rRNA residue. In some clinical isolates, cfr is coexpressed with the erm gene, which encodes a methyltransferase targeting another 23S rRNA residue, A2058. Dimethylation of A2058 by Erm notably increases the fitness cost associated with the Cfr-mediated methylation of A2503. The generally low fitness cost of cfr acquisition observed in our experiments with the laboratory S. aureus strain offers a microbiological explanation for the apparent spread of the cfr gene among pathogens. PMID:21646483

  1. Diversity of 23S rRNA genes within individual prokaryotic genomes.

    PubMed

    Pei, Anna; Nossa, Carlos W; Chokshi, Pooja; Blaser, Martin J; Yang, Liying; Rosmarin, David M; Pei, Zhiheng

    2009-01-01

    The concept of ribosomal constraints on rRNA genes is deduced primarily based on the comparison of consensus rRNA sequences between closely related species, but recent advances in whole-genome sequencing allow evaluation of this concept within organisms with multiple rRNA operons. Using the 23S rRNA gene as an example, we analyzed the diversity among individual rRNA genes within a genome. Of 184 prokaryotic species containing multiple 23S rRNA genes, diversity was observed in 113 (61.4%) genomes (mean 0.40%, range 0.01%-4.04%). Significant (1.17%-4.04%) intragenomic variation was found in 8 species. In 5 of the 8 species, the diversity in the primary structure had only minimal effect on the secondary structure (stem versus loop transition). In the remaining 3 species, the diversity significantly altered local secondary structure, but the alteration appears minimized through complex rearrangement. Intervening sequences (IVS), ranging between 9 and 1471 nt in size, were found in 7 species. IVS in Deinococcus radiodurans and Nostoc sp. encode transposases. T. tengcongensis was the only species in which intragenomic diversity >3% was observed among 4 paralogous 23S rRNA genes. These findings indicate tight ribosomal constraints on individual 23S rRNA genes within a genome. Although classification using primary 23S rRNA sequences could be erroneous, significant diversity among paralogous 23S rRNA genes was observed only once in the 184 species analyzed, indicating little overall impact on the mainstream of 23S rRNA gene-based prokaryotic taxonomy.

  2. Characteristic archaebacterial 16S rRNA oligonucleotides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McGill, T. J.; Jurka, J.; Sobieski, J. M.; Pickett, M. H.; Woese, C. R.; Fox, G. E.

    1986-01-01

    A method of analyzing 16S rRNA catalog data has been developed in which groupings at various taxonomic levels can be characterized in terms of specific "signature" oligonucleotides. This approach provides an alternative means for evaluating higher order branching possibilities and can be used to assess the phylogenetic position of isolates that are poorly placed by the usual clustering procedures. This signature approach has been applied to forty archaebacterial catalogs and every oligonucleotide with significant signature value has been identified. Sets of specific oligonucleotides were identified for every major group on a dendrogram produced by cluster analysis procedures. Signatures that would establish between group relationships were also sought and found. In the case of the Methanobacteriaceae the clustering methods suggest a specific relationship to the Methanococcaceae. This inclusion is in fact supported by six strong signature oligonucleotides. However there are also significant numbers of signature oligonucleotides supporting a specific relationship of the Methanobacteriaceae to either the Halobacteriaceae or the Methanomicrobiaceae. Thus the placement of the Methanobacteriaceae is less certain than the usual dendrograms imply. The signature approach also was used to assess the phylogenetic position of Thermoplasma acidophilum which is found to be more closely related to the methanogen/halophile Division than to the sulfur dependent Division of the archaebacteria. This does not imply however that Thermoplasma acidophilum is properly regarded as being in the methanogen/halophile Division.

  3. Characteristic archaebacterial 16S rRNA oligonucleotides.

    PubMed

    McGill, T J; Jurka, J; Sobieski, J M; Pickett, M H; Woese, C R; Fox, G E

    1986-01-01

    A method of analyzing 16S rRNA catalog data has been developed in which groupings at various taxonomic levels can be characterized in terms of specific "signature" oligonucleotides. This approach provides an alternative means for evaluating higher order branching possibilities and can be used to assess the phylogenetic position of isolates that are poorly placed by the usual clustering procedures. This signature approach has been applied to forty archaebacterial catalogs and every oligonucleotide with significant signature value has been identified. Sets of specific oligonucleotides were identified for every major group on a dendrogram produced by cluster analysis procedures. Signatures that would establish between group relationships were also sought and found. In the case of the Methanobacteriaceae the clustering methods suggest a specific relationship to the Methanococcaceae. This inclusion is in fact supported by six strong signature oligonucleotides. However there are also significant numbers of signature oligonucleotides supporting a specific relationship of the Methanobacteriaceae to either the Halobacteriaceae or the Methanomicrobiaceae. Thus the placement of the Methanobacteriaceae is less certain than the usual dendrograms imply. The signature approach also was used to assess the phylogenetic position of Thermoplasma acidophilum which is found to be more closely related to the methanogen/halophile Division than to the sulfur dependent Division of the archaebacteria. This does not imply however that Thermoplasma acidophilum is properly regarded as being in the methanogen/halophile Division.

  4. Hepatic rRNA transcription regulates high-fat-diet-induced obesity.

    PubMed

    Oie, Shohei; Matsuzaki, Kazuya; Yokoyama, Wataru; Tokunaga, Shinji; Waku, Tsuyoshi; Han, Song-Iee; Iwasaki, Naoya; Mikogai, Aya; Yasuzawa-Tanaka, Kayoko; Kishimoto, Hiroyuki; Hiyoshi, Hiromi; Nakajima, Yuka; Araki, Toshiyuki; Kimura, Keiji; Yanagisawa, Junn; Murayama, Akiko

    2014-05-08

    Ribosome biosynthesis is a major intracellular energy-consuming process. We previously identified a nucleolar factor, nucleomethylin (NML), which regulates intracellular energy consumption by limiting rRNA transcription. Here, we show that, in livers of obese mice, the recruitment of NML to rRNA gene loci is increased to repress rRNA transcription. To clarify the relationship between obesity and rRNA transcription, we generated NML-null (NML-KO) mice. NML-KO mice show elevated rRNA level, reduced ATP concentration, and reduced lipid accumulation in the liver. Furthermore, in high-fat-diet (HFD)-fed NML-KO mice, hepatic rRNA levels are not decreased. Both weight gain and fat accumulation in HFD-fed NML-KO mice are significantly lower than those in HFD-fed wild-type mice. These findings indicate that rRNA transcriptional activation promotes hepatic energy consumption, which alters hepatic lipid metabolism. Namely, hepatic rRNA transcriptional repression by HFD feeding is essential for energy storage. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Evaluating rRNA as an indicator of microbial activity in environmental communities: limitations and uses

    PubMed Central

    Blazewicz, Steven J; Barnard, Romain L; Daly, Rebecca A; Firestone, Mary K

    2013-01-01

    Microbes exist in a range of metabolic states (for example, dormant, active and growing) and analysis of ribosomal RNA (rRNA) is frequently employed to identify the ‘active' fraction of microbes in environmental samples. While rRNA analyses are no longer commonly used to quantify a population's growth rate in mixed communities, due to rRNA concentration not scaling linearly with growth rate uniformly across taxa, rRNA analyses are still frequently used toward the more conservative goal of identifying populations that are currently active in a mixed community. Yet, evidence indicates that the general use of rRNA as a reliable indicator of metabolic state in microbial assemblages has serious limitations. This report highlights the complex and often contradictory relationships between rRNA, growth and activity. Potential mechanisms for confounding rRNA patterns are discussed, including differences in life histories, life strategies and non-growth activities. Ways in which rRNA data can be used for useful characterization of microbial assemblages are presented, along with questions to be addressed in future studies. PMID:23823491

  6. Structural and functional analysis of 5S rRNA in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Kiparisov, Sergey; Petrov, Alexey; Meskauskas, Arturas; Sergiev, Petr V; Dontsova, Olga A; Dinman, Jonathan D

    2005-10-01

    5S rRNA extends from the central protuberance of the large ribosomal subunit, through the A-site finger, and down to the GTPase-associated center. Here, we present a structure-function analysis of seven 5S rRNA alleles which are sufficient for viability in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae when expressed in the absence of wild-type 5S rRNAs, and extend this analysis using a large bank of mutant alleles that show semi-dominant phenotypes in the presence of wild-type 5S rRNA. This analysis supports the hypothesis that 5S rRNA serves to link together several different functional centers of the ribosome. Data are also presented which suggest that in eukaryotic genomes selection has favored the maintenance of multiple alleles of 5S rRNA, and that these may provide cells with a mechanism to post-transcriptionally regulate gene expression.

  7. rRNA maturation as a "quality" control step in ribosomal subunit assembly in Dictyostelium discoideum.

    PubMed

    Mangiarotti, G; Chiaberge, S; Bulfone, S

    1997-10-31

    In Dictyostelium discoideum, newly assembled ribosomal subunits enter polyribosomes while they still contain immature rRNA. rRNA maturation requires the engagement of the subunits in protein synthesis and leads to stabilization of their structure. Maturation of pre-17 S rRNA occurs only after the newly formed 40 S ribosomal particle has entered an 80 S ribosome and participated at least in the formation of one peptide bond or in one translocation event; maturation of pre-26 S rRNA requires the presence on the 80 S particle of a peptidyl-tRNA containing at least 6 amino acids. Newly assembled particles that cannot fulfill these requirements for structural reasons are disassembled into free immature rRNA and ribosomal proteins.

  8. Mouse arsenic (+3 oxidation state) methyltransferase genotype affects metabolism and tissue dosimetry of arsenicals after arsenite administration in drinking water

    EPA Science Inventory

    Arsenic (+3 oxidation state) methyltransferase (As3mt) catalyzes methylation of inorganic arsenic producing a number of methylated arsenic metabolites. Although methylation has been commonly considered a pathway for detoxification of arsenic, some highly reactive methylated ars...

  9. Functional characterization of KanP, a methyltransferase from the kanamycin biosynthetic gene cluster of Streptomyces kanamyceticus.

    PubMed

    Nepal, Keshav Kumar; Yoo, Jin Cheol; Sohng, Jae Kyung

    2010-09-20

    KanP, a putative methyltransferase, is located in the kanamycin biosynthetic gene cluster of Streptomyces kanamyceticus ATCC12853. Amino acid sequence analysis of KanP revealed the presence of S-adenosyl-L-methionine binding motifs, which are present in other O-methyltransferases. The kanP gene was expressed in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3) to generate the E. coli KANP recombinant strain. The conversion of external quercetin to methylated quercetin in the culture extract of E. coli KANP proved the function of kanP as S-adenosyl-L-methionine-dependent methyltransferase. This is the first report concerning the identification of an O-methyltransferase gene from the kanamycin gene cluster. The resistant activity assay and RT-PCR analysis demonstrated the leeway for obtaining methylated kanamycin derivatives from the wild-type strain of kanamycin producer.

  10. Mouse arsenic (+3 oxidation state) methyltransferase genotype affects metabolism and tissue dosimetry of arsenicals after arsenite administration in drinking water

    EPA Science Inventory

    Arsenic (+3 oxidation state) methyltransferase (As3mt) catalyzes methylation of inorganic arsenic producing a number of methylated arsenic metabolites. Although methylation has been commonly considered a pathway for detoxification of arsenic, some highly reactive methylated ars...

  11. Effects of Inactivating Ras-Converting Enzyme or Isoprenylcysteine Carboxyl Methyltransferases in the Pathogenesis of Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-02-01

    Enzyme or Isoprenylcysteine Carboxyl Methyltransferase in the Pathogenesis of Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Ruibao Ren...Methyltransferase in the Pathogenesis of Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-06-1-0238 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d...commonly activated in human cancers , are critical mediators of BCR-ABL in leukemogenesis. Ras-converting enzyme (Rce1) and isoprenylcysteine carboxyl

  12. RamA, a protein required for reductive activation of corrinoid-dependent methylamine methyltransferase reactions in methanogenic archaea.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, Tsuneo; Soares, Jitesh A; Lienard, Tanja; Gottschalk, Gerhard; Krzycki, Joseph A

    2009-01-23

    Archaeal methane formation from methylamines is initiated by distinct methyltransferases with specificity for monomethylamine, dimethylamine, or trimethylamine. Each methylamine methyltransferase methylates a cognate corrinoid protein, which is subsequently demethylated by a second methyltransferase to form methyl-coenzyme M, the direct methane precursor. Methylation of the corrinoid protein requires reduction of the central cobalt to the highly reducing and nucleophilic Co(I) state. RamA, a 60-kDa monomeric iron-sulfur protein, was isolated from Methanosarcina barkeri and is required for in vitro ATP-dependent reductive activation of methylamine:CoM methyl transfer from all three methylamines. In the absence of the methyltransferases, highly purified RamA was shown to mediate the ATP-dependent reductive activation of Co(II) corrinoid to the Co(I) state for the monomethylamine corrinoid protein, MtmC. The ramA gene is located near a cluster of genes required for monomethylamine methyltransferase activity, including MtbA, the methylamine-specific CoM methylase and the pyl operon required for co-translational insertion of pyrrolysine into the active site of methylamine methyltransferases. RamA possesses a C-terminal ferredoxin-like domain capable of binding two tetranuclear iron-sulfur proteins. Mutliple ramA homologs were identified in genomes of methanogenic Archaea, often encoded near methyltrophic methyltransferase genes. RamA homologs are also encoded in a diverse selection of bacterial genomes, often located near genes for corrinoid-dependent methyltransferases. These results suggest that RamA mediates reductive activation of corrinoid proteins and that it is the first functional archetype of COG3894, a family of redox proteins of unknown function.

  13. Herbivore-Induced SABATH Methyltransferases of Maize That Methylate Anthranilic Acid Using S-Adenosyl-l-Methionine1[W

    PubMed Central

    Köllner, Tobias G.; Lenk, Claudia; Zhao, Nan; Seidl-Adams, Irmgard; Gershenzon, Jonathan; Chen, Feng; Degenhardt, Jörg

    2010-01-01

    Volatile methyl esters are common constituents of plant volatiles with important functions in plant defense. To study the biosynthesis of these compounds, especially methyl anthranilate and methyl salicylate, we identified a group of methyltransferases that are members of the SABATH enzyme family in maize (Zea mays). In vitro biochemical characterization after bacterial expression revealed three S-adenosyl-l-methionine-dependent methyltransferases with high specificity for anthranilic acid as a substrate. Of these three proteins, Anthranilic Acid Methyltransferase1 (AAMT1) appears to be responsible for most of the S-adenosyl-l-methionine-dependent methyltransferase activity and methyl anthranilate formation observed in maize after herbivore damage. The enzymes may also be involved in the formation of low amounts of methyl salicylate, which are emitted from herbivore-damaged maize. Homology-based structural modeling combined with site-directed mutagenesis identified two amino acid residues, designated tyrosine-246 and glutamine-167 in AAMT1, which are responsible for the high specificity of AAMTs toward anthranilic acid. These residues are conserved in each of the three main clades of the SABATH family, indicating that the carboxyl methyltransferases are functionally separated by these clades. In maize, this gene family has diversified especially toward benzenoid carboxyl methyltransferases that accept anthranilic acid and benzoic acid. PMID:20519632

  14. Resurrection of an ancestral 5S rRNA.

    PubMed

    Lu, Qing; Fox, George E

    2011-07-22

    In addition to providing phylogenetic relationships, tree making procedures such as parsimony and maximum likelihood can make specific predictions of actual historical sequences. Resurrection of such sequences can be used to understand early events in evolution. In the case of RNA, the nature of parsimony is such that when applied to multiple RNA sequences it typically predicts ancestral sequences that satisfy the base pairing constraints associated with secondary structure. The case for such sequences being actual ancestors is greatly improved, if they can be shown to be biologically functional. A unique common ancestral sequence of 28 Vibrio 5S ribosomal RNA sequences predicted by parsimony was resurrected and found to be functional in the context of the E. coli cellular environment. The functionality of various point variants and intermediates that were constructed as part of the resurrection were examined in detail. When separately introduced the changes at single stranded positions and individual double variants at base-paired positions were also viable. An additional double variant was examined at a different base-paired position and it was also valid. The results show that at least in the case of the 5S rRNAs considered here, ancestors predicted by parsimony are likely to be realistic when the prediction is not overly influenced by single outliers. It is especially noteworthy that the phenotype of the predicted ancestors could be anticipated as a cumulative consequence of the phenotypes of the individual variants that comprised them. Thus, point mutation data is potentially useful in evaluating the reasonableness of ancestral sequences predicted by parsimony or other methods. The results also suggest that in the absence of significant tertiary structure constraints double variants that preserve pairing in stem regions will typically be accepted. Overall, the results suggest that it will be feasible to resurrect additional meaningful 5S rRNA ancestors as well

  15. Partial methylation at Am100 in 18S rRNA of baker's yeast reveals ribosome heterogeneity on the level of eukaryotic rRNA modification.

    PubMed

    Buchhaupt, Markus; Sharma, Sunny; Kellner, Stefanie; Oswald, Stefanie; Paetzold, Melanie; Peifer, Christian; Watzinger, Peter; Schrader, Jens; Helm, Mark; Entian, Karl-Dieter

    2014-01-01

    Ribosome heterogeneity is of increasing biological significance and several examples have been described for multicellular and single cells organisms. In here we show for the first time a variation in ribose methylation within the 18S rRNA of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Using RNA-cleaving DNAzymes, we could specifically demonstrate that a significant amount of S. cerevisiae ribosomes are not methylated at 2'-O-ribose of A100 residue in the 18S rRNA. Furthermore, using LC-UV-MS/MS of a respective 18S rRNA fragment, we could not only corroborate the partial methylation at A100, but could also quantify the methylated versus non-methylated A100 residue. Here, we exhibit that only 68% of A100 in the 18S rRNA of S.cerevisiae are methylated at 2'-O ribose sugar. Polysomes also contain a similar heterogeneity for methylated Am100, which shows that 40S ribosome subunits with and without Am100 participate in translation. Introduction of a multicopy plasmid containing the corresponding methylation guide snoRNA gene SNR51 led to an increased A100 methylation, suggesting the cellular snR51 level to limit the extent of this modification. Partial rRNA modification demonstrates a new level of ribosome heterogeneity in eukaryotic cells that might have substantial impact on regulation and fine-tuning of the translation process.

  16. Partial Methylation at Am100 in 18S rRNA of Baker's Yeast Reveals Ribosome Heterogeneity on the Level of Eukaryotic rRNA Modification

    PubMed Central

    Kellner, Stefanie; Oswald, Stefanie; Paetzold, Melanie; Peifer, Christian; Watzinger, Peter; Schrader, Jens; Helm, Mark; Entian, Karl-Dieter

    2014-01-01

    Ribosome heterogeneity is of increasing biological significance and several examples have been described for multicellular and single cells organisms. In here we show for the first time a variation in ribose methylation within the 18S rRNA of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Using RNA-cleaving DNAzymes, we could specifically demonstrate that a significant amount of S. cerevisiae ribosomes are not methylated at 2′-O-ribose of A100 residue in the 18S rRNA. Furthermore, using LC-UV-MS/MS of a respective 18S rRNA fragment, we could not only corroborate the partial methylation at A100, but could also quantify the methylated versus non-methylated A100 residue. Here, we exhibit that only 68% of A100 in the 18S rRNA of S.cerevisiae are methylated at 2′-O ribose sugar. Polysomes also contain a similar heterogeneity for methylated Am100, which shows that 40S ribosome subunits with and without Am100 participate in translation. Introduction of a multicopy plasmid containing the corresponding methylation guide snoRNA gene SNR51 led to an increased A100 methylation, suggesting the cellular snR51 level to limit the extent of this modification. Partial rRNA modification demonstrates a new level of ribosome heterogeneity in eukaryotic cells that might have substantial impact on regulation and fine-tuning of the translation process. PMID:24586927

  17. Dicistronic tRNA-5S rRNA genes in Yarrowia lipolytica: an alternative TFIIIA-independent way for expression of 5S rRNA genes.

    PubMed

    Acker, Joël; Ozanne, Christophe; Kachouri-Lafond, Rym; Gaillardin, Claude; Neuvéglise, Cécile; Marck, Christian

    2008-10-01

    In eukaryotes, genes transcribed by RNA polymerase III (Pol III) carry their own internal promoters and as such, are transcribed as individual units. Indeed, a very few cases of dicistronic Pol III genes are yet known. In contrast to other hemiascomycetes, 5S rRNA genes of Yarrowia lipolytica are not embedded into the tandemly repeated rDNA units, but appear scattered throughout the genome. We report here an unprecedented genomic organization: 48 over the 108 copies of the 5S rRNA genes are located 3' of tRNA genes. We show that these peculiar tRNA-5S rRNA dicistronic genes are expressed in vitro and in vivo as Pol III transcriptional fusions without the need of the 5S rRNA gene-specific factor TFIIIA, the deletion of which displays a viable phenotype. We also report the existence of a novel putative non-coding Pol III RNA of unknown function about 70 nucleotide-long (RUF70), the 13 genes of which are devoid of internal Pol III promoters and located 3' of the 13 copies of the tDNA-Trp (CCA). All genes embedded in the various dicistronic genes, fused 5S rRNA genes, RUF70 genes and their leader tRNA genes appear to be efficiently transcribed and their products correctly processed in vivo.

  18. Dicistronic tRNA–5S rRNA genes in Yarrowia lipolytica: an alternative TFIIIA-independent way for expression of 5S rRNA genes

    PubMed Central

    Acker, Joël; Ozanne, Christophe; Kachouri-Lafond, Rym; Gaillardin, Claude; Neuvéglise, Cécile; Marck, Christian

    2008-01-01

    In eukaryotes, genes transcribed by RNA polymerase III (Pol III) carry their own internal promoters and as such, are transcribed as individual units. Indeed, a very few cases of dicistronic Pol III genes are yet known. In contrast to other hemiascomycetes, 5S rRNA genes of Yarrowia lipolytica are not embedded into the tandemly repeated rDNA units, but appear scattered throughout the genome. We report here an unprecedented genomic organization: 48 over the 108 copies of the 5S rRNA genes are located 3′ of tRNA genes. We show that these peculiar tRNA–5S rRNA dicistronic genes are expressed in vitro and in vivo as Pol III transcriptional fusions without the need of the 5S rRNA gene-specific factor TFIIIA, the deletion of which displays a viable phenotype. We also report the existence of a novel putative non-coding Pol III RNA of unknown function about 70 nucleotide-long (RUF70), the 13 genes of which are devoid of internal Pol III promoters and located 3′ of the 13 copies of the tDNA-Trp (CCA). All genes embedded in the various dicistronic genes, fused 5S rRNA genes, RUF70 genes and their leader tRNA genes appear to be efficiently transcribed and their products correctly processed in vivo. PMID:18790808

  19. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction studies of a catechol-O-methyltransferase/inhibitor complex

    SciTech Connect

    Rodrigues, M. L.; Bonifácio, M. J.; Soares-da-Silva, P.; Carrondo, M. A.; Archer, M.

    2005-01-01

    Catechol-O-methyltransferase has been co-crystallized with a novel inhibitor, which has potential therapeutic application in the Parkinson’s disease therapy. Inhibitors of the enzyme catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) are used as co-adjuvants in the therapy of Parkinson’s disease. A recombinant form of the soluble cytosolic COMT from rat has been co-crystallized with a new potent inhibitor, BIA 8-176 [(3,4-dihydroxy-2-nitrophenyl)phenylmethanone], by the vapour-diffusion method using PEG 6K as precipitant. Crystals diffract to 1.6 Å resolution on a synchrotron-radiation source and belong to the monoclinic space group P2{sub 1}, with unit-cell parameters a = 52.77, b = 79.63, c = 61.54 Å, β = 91.14°.

  20. Preparation, Biochemical Analysis, and Structure Determination of SET Domain Histone Methyltransferases.

    PubMed

    Bergamin, E; Couture, J F

    2016-01-01

    In eukaryotes, several lysine residues on histone proteins are methylated. This posttranslational modification is linked to a myriad of nuclear-based transactions such as epigenetic inheritance of heterochromatin, regulation of gene expression, DNA damage repair, and DNA replication. The majority of the enzymes responsible for writing these marks onto chromatin belong to the SET domain family of histone lysine methyltransferases. Although they often share important structural features, including a conserved catalytic domain, SET domain enzymes use different mechanisms to achieve substrate recognition, mono-, di-, or trimethylate lysine residues and some require other proteins to achieve maximal methyltransferase activity. In this chapter, we summarize our efforts to purify, crystallize, and enzymatically characterize SET domain enzymes with a specific focus on the histone H3K27 monomethyltransferase ATXR5. © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Super-resolution optical DNA Mapping via DNA methyltransferase-directed click chemistry

    PubMed Central

    Vranken, Charlotte; Deen, Jochem; Dirix, Lieve; Stakenborg, Tim; Dehaen, Wim; Leen, Volker; Hofkens, Johan; Neely, Robert K.

    2014-01-01

    We demonstrate an approach to optical DNA mapping, which enables near single-molecule characterization of whole bacteriophage genomes. Our approach uses a DNA methyltransferase enzyme to target labelling to specific sites and copper-catalysed azide-alkyne cycloaddition to couple a fluorophore to the DNA. We achieve a labelling efficiency of ∼70% with an average labelling density approaching one site every 500 bp. Such labelling density bridges the gap between the output of a typical DNA sequencing experiment and the long-range information derived from traditional optical DNA mapping. We lay the foundations for a wider-scale adoption of DNA mapping by screening 11 methyltransferases for their ability to direct sequence-specific DNA transalkylation; the first step of the DNA labelling process and by optimizing reaction conditions for fluorophore coupling via a click reaction. Three of 11 enzymes transalkylate DNA with the cofactor we tested (a readily prepared s-adenosyl-l-methionine analogue). PMID:24452797

  2. Super-resolution optical DNA Mapping via DNA methyltransferase-directed click chemistry.

    PubMed

    Vranken, Charlotte; Deen, Jochem; Dirix, Lieve; Stakenborg, Tim; Dehaen, Wim; Leen, Volker; Hofkens, Johan; Neely, Robert K

    2014-04-01

    We demonstrate an approach to optical DNA mapping, which enables near single-molecule characterization of whole bacteriophage genomes. Our approach uses a DNA methyltransferase enzyme to target labelling to specific sites and copper-catalysed azide-alkyne cycloaddition to couple a fluorophore to the DNA. We achieve a labelling efficiency of ∼70% with an average labelling density approaching one site every 500 bp. Such labelling density bridges the gap between the output of a typical DNA sequencing experiment and the long-range information derived from traditional optical DNA mapping. We lay the foundations for a wider-scale adoption of DNA mapping by screening 11 methyltransferases for their ability to direct sequence-specific DNA transalkylation; the first step of the DNA labelling process and by optimizing reaction conditions for fluorophore coupling via a click reaction. Three of 11 enzymes transalkylate DNA with the cofactor we tested (a readily prepared s-adenosyl-l-methionine analogue).

  3. A cell cycle-regulated bacterial DNA methyltransferase is essential for viability.

    PubMed Central

    Stephens, C; Reisenauer, A; Wright, R; Shapiro, L

    1996-01-01

    The CcrM adenine DNA methyltransferase, which specifically modifies GANTC sequences, is necessary for viability in Caulobacter crescentus. To our knowledge, this is the first example of an essential prokaryotic DNA methyltransferase that is not part of a DNA restriction/modification system. Homologs of CcrM are widespread in the alpha subdivision of the Proteobacteria, suggesting that methylation at GANTC sites may have important functions in other members of this diverse group as well. Temporal control of DNA methylation state has an important role in Caulobacter development, and we show that this organism utilizes an unusual mechanism for control of remethylation of newly replicated DNA. CcrM is synthesized de novo late in the cell cycle, coincident with full methylation of the chromosome, and is then subjected to proteolysis prior to cell division. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3 PMID:8577742

  4. Domain Organization and Active Site Architecture of a Polyketide Synthase C-methyltransferase.

    PubMed

    Skiba, Meredith A; Sikkema, Andrew P; Fiers, William D; Gerwick, William H; Sherman, David H; Aldrich, Courtney C; Smith, Janet L

    2016-12-16

    Polyketide metabolites produced by modular type I polyketide synthases (PKS) acquire their chemical diversity through the variety of catalytic domains within modules of the pathway. Methyltransferases are among the least characterized of the catalytic domains common to PKS systems. We determined the domain boundaries and characterized the activity of a PKS C-methyltransferase (C-MT) from the curacin A biosynthetic pathway. The C-MT catalyzes S-adenosylmethionine-dependent methyl transfer to the α-position of β-ketoacyl substrates linked to acyl carrier protein (ACP) or a small-molecule analog but does not act on β-hydroxyacyl substrates or malonyl-ACP. Key catalytic residues conserved in both bacterial and fungal PKS C-MTs were identified in a 2 Å crystal structure and validated biochemically. Analysis of the structure and the sequences bordering the C-MT provides insight into the positioning of this domain within complete PKS modules.

  5. A Tetrahydrofolate-Dependent Methyltransferase Catalyzing the Demethylation of Dicamba in Sphingomonas sp. Strain Ndbn-20

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Li; Yu, Lin-Lu; Zhang, Jun-Jie; Xie, Xiang-Ting; Tao, Qing; Yan, Xin; Hong, Qing; Qiu, Ji-Guo

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Sphingomonas sp. strain Ndbn-20 degrades and utilizes the herbicide dicamba as its sole carbon and energy source. In the present study, a tetrahydrofolate (THF)-dependent dicamba methyltransferase gene, dmt, was cloned from the strain, and three other genes, metF, dhc, and purU, which are involved in THF metabolism, were found to be located downstream of dmt. A transcriptional study revealed that the four genes constituted one transcriptional unit that was constitutively transcribed. Lysates of cells grown with glucose or dicamba exhibited almost the same activities, which further suggested that the dmt gene is constitutively expressed in the strain. Dmt shared 46% and 45% identities with the methyltransferases DesA and LigM from Sphingomonas paucimobilis SYK-6, respectively. The purified Dmt catalyzed the transfer of methyl from dicamba to THF to form the herbicidally inactive metabolite 3,6-dichlorosalicylic acid (DCSA) and 5-methyl-THF. The activity of Dmt was inhibited by 5-methyl-THF but not by DCSA. The introduction of a codon-optimized dmt gene into Arabidopsis thaliana enhanced resistance against dicamba. In conclusion, this study identified a THF-dependent dicamba methyltransferase, Dmt, with potential applications for the genetic engineering of dicamba-resistant crops. IMPORTANCE Dicamba is a very important herbicide that is widely used to control more than 200 types of broadleaf weeds and is a suitable target herbicide for the engineering of herbicide-resistant transgenic crops. A study of the mechanism of dicamba metabolism by soil microorganisms will benefit studies of its dissipation, transformation, and migration in the environment. This study identified a THF-dependent methyltransferase, Dmt, capable of catalyzing dicamba demethylation in Sphingomonas sp. Ndbn-20, and a preliminary study of its enzymatic characteristics was performed. Introduction of a codon-optimized dmt gene into Arabidopsis thaliana enhanced resistance against dicamba

  6. Do damaged proteins accumulate in Caenorhabditis elegans L-isoaspartate methyltransferase (pcm-1) deletion mutants?

    PubMed

    Niewmierzycka, A; Clarke, S

    1999-04-15

    The protein l-isoaspartate (d-aspartate) O-methyltransferase (E.C. 2. 1.1.77) can initiate the conversion of isomerized and racemized aspartyl residues to their normal l-aspartyl forms and has therefore been hypothesized to function as a repair enzyme, responsible for helping to limit the accumulation of damaged proteins in aging organisms. In this study, the effect of a disruption in the pcm-1 gene encoding the l-isoaspartyl methyltransferase was investigated in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. It was found that damaged proteins recognized by this enzyme accumulated to significant levels during long-term incubation of both pcm-1+ and pcm-1- nematodes in a specialized larval stage called the dauer. The l-isoaspartyl methyltransferase-deficient mutants accumulated about twice the level of damaged proteins as the control nematodes during dauer aging. The mutants also accumulated higher levels of damage when both strains were incubated at 30 degrees C for up to 3 days. However, when nonviable nematodes were removed in a Percoll separation, similar levels of damage were measured between the two strains following both dauer aging and 30 degrees C incubation. Both strains were able to effectively eliminate damaged proteins recognized by the methyltransferase after recovery from dauer. Characterization of the methyl-accepting polypeptide substrates which accumulate in aged dauers revealed that although substrates of all molecular weights are present, the majority of substrates are peptides not precipitated by acetone. These results suggest that protein degradation, rather than repair, may be the major mechanism by which C. elegans eliminates damaged proteins containing l-isoaspartyl residues. Copyright 1999 Academic Press.

  7. A glutamate/aspartate switch controls product specificity in a protein arginine methyltransferase

    PubMed Central

    Debler, Erik W.; Jain, Kanishk; Warmack, Rebeccah A.; Feng, You; Clarke, Steven G.; Blobel, Günter; Stavropoulos, Pete

    2016-01-01

    Trypanosoma brucei PRMT7 (TbPRMT7) is a protein arginine methyltransferase (PRMT) that strictly monomethylates various substrates, thus classifying it as a type III PRMT. However, the molecular basis of its unique product specificity has remained elusive. Here, we present the structure of TbPRMT7 in complex with its cofactor product S-adenosyl-l-homocysteine (AdoHcy) at 2.8 Å resolution and identify a glutamate residue critical for its monomethylation behavior. TbPRMT7 comprises the conserved methyltransferase and β-barrel domains, an N-terminal extension, and a dimerization arm. The active site at the interface of the N-terminal extension, methyltransferase, and β-barrel domains is stabilized by the dimerization arm of the neighboring protomer, providing a structural basis for dimerization as a prerequisite for catalytic activity. Mutagenesis of active-site residues highlights the importance of Glu181, the second of the two invariant glutamate residues of the double E loop that coordinate the target arginine in substrate peptides/proteins and that increase its nucleophilicity. Strikingly, mutation of Glu181 to aspartate converts TbPRMT7 into a type I PRMT, producing asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA). Isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) using a histone H4 peptide showed that the Glu181Asp mutant has markedly increased affinity for monomethylated peptide with respect to the WT, suggesting that the enlarged active site can favorably accommodate monomethylated peptide and provide sufficient space for ADMA formation. In conclusion, these findings yield valuable insights into the product specificity and the catalytic mechanism of protein arginine methyltransferases and have important implications for the rational (re)design of PRMTs. PMID:26858449

  8. A glutamate/aspartate switch controls product specificity in a protein arginine methyltransferase

    SciTech Connect

    Debler, Erik W.; Jain, Kanishk; Warmack, Rebeccah A.; Feng, You; Clarke, Steven G.; Blobel, Günter; Stavropoulos, Pete

    2016-02-08

    Trypanosoma brucei PRMT7 (TbPRMT7) is a protein arginine methyltransferase (PRMT) that strictly monomethylates various substrates, thus classifying it as a type III PRMT. However, the molecular basis of its unique product specificity has remained elusive. Here, we present the structure of TbPRMT7 in complex with its cofactor product S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine (AdoHcy) at 2.8 Å resolution and identify a glutamate residue critical for its monomethylation behavior. TbPRMT7 comprises the conserved methyltransferase and β-barrel domains, an N-terminal extension, and a dimerization arm. The active site at the interface of the N-terminal extension, methyltransferase, and β-barrel domains is stabilized by the dimerization arm of the neighboring protomer, providing a structural basis for dimerization as a prerequisite for catalytic activity. Mutagenesis of active-site residues highlights the importance of Glu181, the second of the two invariant glutamate residues of the double E loop that coordinate the target arginine in substrate peptides/proteins and that increase its nucleophilicity. Strikingly, mutation of Glu181 to aspartate converts TbPRMT7 into a type I PRMT, producing asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA). Isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) using a histone H4 peptide showed that the Glu181Asp mutant has markedly increased affinity for monomethylated peptide with respect to the WT, suggesting that the enlarged active site can favorably accommodate monomethylated peptide and provide sufficient space for ADMA formation. In conclusion, these findings yield valuable insights into the product specificity and the catalytic mechanism of protein arginine methyltransferases and have important implications for the rational (re)design of PRMTs.

  9. Effect of site-specific modification on restriction endonucleases and DNA modification methyltransferases.

    PubMed Central

    McClelland, M; Nelson, M; Raschke, E

    1994-01-01

    Restriction endonucleases have site-specific interactions with DNA that can often be inhibited by site-specific DNA methylation and other site-specific DNA modifications. However, such inhibition cannot generally be predicted. The empirically acquired data on these effects are tabulated for over 320 restriction endonucleases. In addition, a table of known site-specific DNA modification methyltransferases and their specificities is presented along with EMBL database accession numbers for cloned genes. PMID:7937074

  10. Purification and characterization of calmodulin (lysine 115) N-methyltransferase from Paramecium tetraurelia.

    PubMed

    Pech, L L; Nelson, D L

    1994-03-02

    Calmodulin (lysine 115) N-methyltransferase was purified from the cytosolic fraction of Paramecium tetraurelia by sequential dialysis, cellulose phosphate chromatography, Reactive Red 120 agarose chromatography, and calmodulin-Sepharose affinity chromatography. The enzyme was purified 6800-fold with a 15% yield. SDS-PAGE analysis of the purified enzyme invariably revealed a major protein of 37 kDa that was reproducibly obtained and minor proteins of 35 and 28 kDa that were sometimes obtained in variable yields. The enzyme formed a mixture of mono-, di-, and trimethyllysine residues at lysine 115 of calmodulin in vitro, had a Km for the methyl donor, S-adenosyl methionine (AdoMet), of about 1 microM and a pH optimum of about 7.5. The purified enzyme had an absolute requirement for the reductant DTT for activity, whereas the enzyme in crude fractions did not. The enzyme is a monomer with an estimated molecular mass of 33 kDa. Ca2+, Mg2+, Mn2+, and Ni2+ stimulated calmodulin N-methyltransferase activity but Zn2+ did not. Calmodulin N-methyltransferase was inhibited by its reaction product S-adenosyl homocysteine (SAH), but not by sinefungin and tubercidin. The calmodulin antagonists calmidazolium and mellitin were inhibitory but W7 was not. The enzyme was not stimulated by Triton X-100 nor by NaCl. Only calmodulins with an unmethylated lysine at residue 115, including cam2 calmodulin, were substrates. Histones and calcium-binding proteins from Paramecium other than calmodulin did not act as substrates for the purified calmodulin N-methyltransferase and no other substrates in the cytosolic fraction were observed.

  11. Characterization of selenocysteine methyltransferases from Astragalus species with contrasting selenium accumulation capacity.

    PubMed

    Sors, Thomas G; Martin, Catherine P; Salt, David E

    2009-07-01

    A group of selenium (Se)-hyperaccumulating species belonging to the genus Astragalus are known for their capacity to accumulate up to 0.6% of their foliar dry weight as Se, with most of this Se being in the form of Se-methylselenocysteine (MeSeCys). Here, we report the isolation and molecular characterization of the gene that encodes a putative selenocysteine methyltransferase (SMT) enzyme from the non-accumulator Astragalus drummondii and biochemically compare it with an authentic SMT enzyme from the Se-hyperaccumulator Astragalus bisulcatus, a related species that lives within the same native habitat. The non-accumulator enzyme (AdSMT) shows a high degree of homology with the accumulator enzyme (AbSMT) but lacks the selenocysteine methyltransferase activity in vitro, explaining why little or no detectable levels of MeSeCys accumulation are observed in the non-accumulator plant. The insertion of mutations on the coding region of the non-accumulator AdSMT enzyme to better resemble enzymes that originate from Se accumulator species results in increased selenocysteine methyltransferase activity, but these mutations were not sufficient to fully gain the activity observed in the AbSMT accumulator enzyme. We demonstrate that SMT is localized predominantly within the chloroplast in Astragalus, the principal site of Se assimilation in plants. By using a site-directed mutagenesis approach, we show that an Ala to Thr amino acid mutation at the predicted active site of AbSMT results in a new enzymatic capacity to methylate homocysteine. The mutated AbSMT enzyme exhibited a sixfold higher capacity to methylate selenocysteine, thereby establishing the evolutionary relationship of SMT and homocysteine methyltransferase enzymes in plants.

  12. rRNA promoter activity in the fast-growing bacterium Vibrio natriegens.

    PubMed

    Aiyar, Sarah E; Gaal, Tamas; Gourse, Richard L

    2002-03-01

    The bacterium Vibrio natriegens can double with a generation time of less than 10 min (R. G. Eagon, J. Bacteriol. 83:736-737, 1962), a growth rate that requires an extremely high rate of protein synthesis. We show here that V. natriegens' high potential for protein synthesis results from an increase in ribosome numbers with increasing growth rate, as has been found for other bacteria. We show that V. natriegens contains a large number of rRNA operons, and its rRNA promoters are extremely strong. The V. natriegens rRNA core promoters are at least as active in vitro as Escherichia coli rRNA core promoters with either E. coli RNA polymerase (RNAP) or V. natriegens RNAP, and they are activated by UP elements, as in E. coli. In addition, the E. coli transcription factor Fis activated V. natriegens rrn P1 promoters in vitro. We conclude that the high capacity for ribosome synthesis in V. natriegens results from a high capacity for rRNA transcription, and the high capacity for rRNA transcription results, at least in part, from the same factors that contribute most to high rates of rRNA transcription in E. coli, i.e., high gene dose and strong activation by UP elements and Fis.

  13. Trans-splicing and RNA editing of LSU rRNA in Diplonema mitochondria

    PubMed Central

    Valach, Matus; Moreira, Sandrine; Kiethega, Georgette N.; Burger, Gertraud

    2014-01-01

    Mitochondrial ribosomal RNAs (rRNAs) often display reduced size and deviant secondary structure, and sometimes are fragmented, as are their corresponding genes. Here we report a mitochondrial large subunit rRNA (mt-LSU rRNA) with unprecedented features. In the protist Diplonema, the rnl gene is split into two pieces (modules 1 and 2, 534- and 352-nt long) that are encoded by distinct mitochondrial chromosomes, yet the rRNA is continuous. To reconstruct the post-transcriptional maturation pathway of this rRNA, we have catalogued transcript intermediates by deep RNA sequencing and RT-PCR. Gene modules are transcribed separately. Subsequently, transcripts are end-processed, the module-1 transcript is polyuridylated and the module-2 transcript is polyadenylated. The two modules are joined via trans-splicing that retains at the junction ∼26 uridines, resulting in an extent of insertion RNA editing not observed before in any system. The A-tail of trans-spliced molecules is shorter than that of mono-module 2, and completely absent from mitoribosome-associated mt-LSU rRNA. We also characterize putative antisense transcripts. Antisense-mono-modules corroborate bi-directional transcription of chromosomes. Antisense-mt-LSU rRNA, if functional, has the potential of guiding concomitantly trans-splicing and editing of this rRNA. Together, these findings open a window on the investigation of complex regulatory networks that orchestrate multiple and biochemically diverse post-transcriptional events. PMID:24259427

  14. Direct Detection of 16S rRNA in Soil Extracts by Using Oligonucleotide Microarrays

    PubMed Central

    Small, Jack; Call, Douglas R.; Brockman, Fred J.; Straub, Timothy M.; Chandler, Darrell P.

    2001-01-01

    We report on the development and validation of a simple microarray method for the direct detection of intact 16S rRNA from unpurified soil extracts. Total RNAs from Geobacter chapellei and Desulfovibrio desulfuricans were hybridized to an oligonucleotide array consisting of universal and species-specific 16S rRNA probes. PCR-amplified products from Geobacter and Desulfovibrio were easily and specifically detected under a range of hybridization times, temperatures, and buffers. However, reproducible, specific hybridization and detection of intact rRNA could be accomplished only by using a chaperone-detector probe strategy. With this knowledge, assay conditions were developed for rRNA detection using a 2-h hybridization time at room temperature. Hybridization specificity and signal intensity were enhanced using fragmented RNA. Formamide was required in the hybridization buffer in order to achieve species-specific detection of intact rRNA. With the chaperone detection strategy, we were able to specifically hybridize and detect G. chapellei 16S rRNA directly from a total-RNA soil extract, without further purification or removal of soluble soil constituents. The detection sensitivity for G. chapellei 16S rRNA in soil extracts was at least 0.5 μg of total RNA, representing approximately 7.5 × 106 Geobacter cell equivalents of RNA. These results suggest that it is now possible to apply microarray technology to the direct detection of microorganisms in environmental samples, without using PCR. PMID:11571176

  15. rRNA regulation during growth and under stringent conditions in Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    Kästle, Benjamin; Geiger, Tobias; Gratani, Fabio Lino; Reisinger, Rudolf; Goerke, Christiane; Borisova, Marina; Mayer, Christoph; Wolz, Christiane

    2015-11-01

    The control of rRNA synthesis and, thereby, translation is vital for adapting to changing environmental conditions. The decrease of rRNA is a common feature of the stringent response, which is elicited by the rapid synthesis of (p)ppGpp. Here we analysed the properties and regulation of one representative rRNA operon of Staphylococcus aureus under stringent conditions and during growth. The promoters, P1 and P2, are severely downregulated at low intracellular guanosine triphosphate (GTP) concentrations either imposed by stringent conditions or in a guanine auxotroph guaBA mutant. In a (p)ppGpp(0) strain, the GTP level increased under stringent conditions, and rRNA transcription was upregulated. The correlation of the intracellular GTP levels and rRNA promoter activity could be linked to GTP nucleotides in the initiation region of both promoters at positions between +1 and +4. This indicates that not only transcriptional initiation, but also the first steps of elongation, requires high concentrations of free nucleotides. However, the severe downregulation of rRNA in post-exponential growth phase is independent of (p)ppGpp, the composition of the initiation region and the intracellular nucleotide pool. In summary, rRNA transcription in S. aureus is only partially and presumably indirectly controlled by (p)ppGpp. © 2015 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Identification of Protein Arginine Methyltransferase 5 as a Regulator for Encystation of Acanthamoeba

    PubMed Central

    Moon, Eun-Kyung; Hong, Yeonchul; Chung, Dong-Il; Goo, Youn-Kyoung; Kong, Hyun-Hee

    2016-01-01

    Encystation is an essential process for Acanthamoeba survival under nutrient-limiting conditions and exposure to drugs. The expression of several genes has been observed to increase or decrease during encystation. Epigenetic processes involved in regulation of gene expression have been shown to play a role in several pathogenic parasites. In the present study, we identified the protein arginine methyltransferase 5 (PRMT5), a known epigenetic regulator, in Acanthamoeba castellanii. PRMT5 of A. castellanii (AcPRMT5) contained domains found in S-adenosylmethionine-dependent methyltransferases and in PRMT5 arginine-N-methyltransferase. Expression levels of AcPRMT5 were increased during encystation of A. castellanii. The EGFP-PRMT5 fusion protein was mainly localized in the nucleus of trophozoites. A. castellanii transfected with siRNA designed against AcPRMT5 failed to form mature cysts. The findings of this study lead to a better understanding of epigenetic mechanisms behind the regulation of encystation in cyst-forming pathogenic protozoa. PMID:27180570

  17. Insights into Methyltransferase Specificity and Bioactivity of Derivatives of the Antibiotic Plantazolicin

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Abhishek; Mitchell, Douglas A.; Nair, Satish K.

    2015-01-01

    Peptide antibiotics represent a class of conformationally-constrained natural products of growing pharmaceutical interest. Plantazolicin (PZN) is a linear, polyheterocyclic natural product with highly selective and potent activity against the anthrax-causing bacterium, Bacillus anthracis. The bioactivity of PZN is contingent on dimethylation of its N-terminal Arg residue by an S-adenosylmethionine-dependent methyltransferase. Here, we explore the substrate tolerances of two homologous PZN methyltransferases by carrying out kinetic analyses of the enzymes against a synthetic panel of truncated PZN analogs containing the N-terminal Arg residue. X-ray cocrystal structures of the PZN methyltransferases with each of these heterocycle-containing substrates provide a rationale for understanding the strict substrate specificity of these enzymes. Kinetic studies of structure-guided, site-specific variants allowed for the assignment of residues governing catalysis and substrate scope. Microbiological testing further revealed that upon dimethylation of the N-terminal Arg, a pentaheterocyclized PZN analog retained potent anti-B. anthracis activity, nearly equal to that of full-length PZN. These studies may be useful in the biosynthetic engineering of natural product analogs with different bioactivity profiles, as demonstrated by our identification of a truncated plantazolicin derivative that is active against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). PMID:25635336

  18. Engineering the DNA cytosine-5 methyltransferase reaction for sequence-specific labeling of DNA

    PubMed Central

    Lukinavičius, Gražvydas; Lapinaitė, Audronė; Urbanavičiūtė, Giedrė; Gerasimaitė, Rūta; Klimašauskas, Saulius

    2012-01-01

    DNA methyltransferases catalyse the transfer of a methyl group from the ubiquitous cofactor S-adenosyl-L-methionine (AdoMet) onto specific target sites on DNA and play important roles in organisms from bacteria to humans. AdoMet analogs with extended propargylic side chains have been chemically produced for methyltransferase-directed transfer of activated groups (mTAG) onto DNA, although the efficiency of reactions with synthetic analogs remained low. We performed steric engineering of the cofactor pocket in a model DNA cytosine-5 methyltransferase (C5-MTase), M.HhaI, by systematic replacement of three non-essential positions, located in two conserved sequence motifs and in a variable region, with smaller residues. We found that double and triple replacements lead to a substantial improvement of the transalkylation activity, which manifests itself in a mild increase of cofactor binding affinity and a larger increase of the rate of alkyl transfer. These effects are accompanied with reduction of both the stability of the product DNA–M.HhaI–AdoHcy complex and the rate of methylation, permitting competitive mTAG labeling in the presence of AdoMet. Analogous replacements of two conserved residues in M.HpaII and M2.Eco31I also resulted in improved transalkylation activity attesting a general applicability of the homology-guided engineering to the C5-MTase family and expanding the repertoire of sequence-specific tools for covalent in vitro and ex vivo labeling of DNA. PMID:23042683

  19. Structural basis for Sfm1 functioning as a protein arginine methyltransferase

    PubMed Central

    Lv, Fengjuan; Zhang, Tianlong; Zhou, Zhen; Gao, Shuaixin; Wong, Catherine CL; Zhou, Jin-Qiu; Ding, Jianping

    2015-01-01

    SPOUT proteins constitute one class of methyltransferases, which so far are found to exert activity mainly towards RNAs. Previously, yeast Sfm1 was predicted to contain a SPOUT domain but can methylate ribosomal protein S3. Here we report the crystal structure of Sfm1, which comprises of a typical SPOUT domain and a small C-terminal domain. The active site is similar to that of protein arginine methyltransferases but different from that of RNA methyltransferases. In addition, Sfm1 exhibits a negatively charged surface surrounding the active site unsuitable for RNA binding. Our biochemical data show that Sfm1 exists as a monomer and has high activity towards ribosomal protein S3 but no activity towards RNA. It can specifically catalyze the methylation of Arg146 of S3 and the C-terminal domain is critical for substrate binding and activity. These results together provide the structural basis for Sfm1 functioning as a PRMT for ribosomal protein S3. PMID:27462434

  20. Structural insights into mechanisms of the small RNA methyltransferase HEN1

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Ying; Ji, Lijuan; Huang, Qichen; Vassylyev, Dmitry G.; Chen, Xuemei; Ma, Jin-Biao

    2010-02-22

    RNA silencing is a conserved regulatory mechanism in fungi, plants and animals that regulates gene expression and defence against viruses and transgenes. Small silencing RNAs of {approx}20-30 nucleotides and their associated effector proteins, the Argonaute family proteins, are the central components in RNA silencing. A subset of small RNAs, such as microRNAs and small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) in plants, Piwi-interacting RNAs in animals and siRNAs in Drosophila, requires an additional crucial step for their maturation; that is, 2'-O-methylation on the 3' terminal nucleotide. A conserved S-adenosyl-L-methionine-dependent RNA methyltransferase, HUA ENHANCER 1 (HEN1), and its homologues are responsible for this specific modification. Here we report the 3.1 {angstrom} crystal structure of full-length HEN1 from Arabidopsis in complex with a 22-nucleotide small RNA duplex and cofactor product S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine. Highly cooperative recognition of the small RNA substrate by multiple RNA binding domains and the methyltransferase domain in HEN1 measures the length of the RNA duplex and determines the substrate specificity. Metal ion coordination by both 2' and 3' hydroxyls on the 3'-terminal nucleotide and four invariant residues in the active site of the methyltransferase domain suggests a novel Mg{sup 2+}-dependent 2'-O-methylation mechanism.

  1. Insights into Methyltransferase Specificity and Bioactivity of Derivatives of the Antibiotic Plantazolicin

    SciTech Connect

    Hao, Yue; Blair, Patricia M.; Sharma, Abhishek; Mitchell, Douglas A.; Nair, Satish K.

    2015-01-30

    Peptide antibiotics represent a class of conformationally-constrained natural products of growing pharmaceutical interest. Plantazolicin (PZN) is a linear, polyheterocyclic natural product with highly selective and potent activity against the anthrax-causing bacterium, Bacillus anthracis. The bioactivity of PZN is contingent on dimethylation of its N-terminal Arg residue by an S-adenosylmethionine-dependent methyltransferase. Here in this paper, we explore the substrate tolerances of two homologous PZN methyltransferases by carrying out kinetic analyses of the enzymes against a synthetic panel of truncated PZN analogs containing the N-terminal Arg residue. X-ray cocrystal structures of the PZN methyltransferases with each of these heterocycle-containing substrates provide a rationale for understanding the strict substrate specificity of these enzymes. Kinetic studies of structure-guided, site-specific variants allowed for the assignment of residues governing catalysis and substrate scope. Microbiological testing further revealed that upon dimethylation of the N-terminal Arg, a pentaheterocyclized PZN analog retained potent anti-B. anthracis activity, nearly equal to that of full-length PZN. These studies may be useful in the biosynthetic engineering of natural product analogs with different bioactivity profiles, as demonstrated by our identification of a truncated plantazolicin derivative that is active against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA).

  2. Insights into Methyltransferase Specificity and Bioactivity of Derivatives of the Antibiotic Plantazolicin

    DOE PAGES

    Hao, Yue; Blair, Patricia M.; Sharma, Abhishek; ...

    2015-01-30

    Peptide antibiotics represent a class of conformationally-constrained natural products of growing pharmaceutical interest. Plantazolicin (PZN) is a linear, polyheterocyclic natural product with highly selective and potent activity against the anthrax-causing bacterium, Bacillus anthracis. The bioactivity of PZN is contingent on dimethylation of its N-terminal Arg residue by an S-adenosylmethionine-dependent methyltransferase. Here in this paper, we explore the substrate tolerances of two homologous PZN methyltransferases by carrying out kinetic analyses of the enzymes against a synthetic panel of truncated PZN analogs containing the N-terminal Arg residue. X-ray cocrystal structures of the PZN methyltransferases with each of these heterocycle-containing substrates provide amore » rationale for understanding the strict substrate specificity of these enzymes. Kinetic studies of structure-guided, site-specific variants allowed for the assignment of residues governing catalysis and substrate scope. Microbiological testing further revealed that upon dimethylation of the N-terminal Arg, a pentaheterocyclized PZN analog retained potent anti-B. anthracis activity, nearly equal to that of full-length PZN. These studies may be useful in the biosynthetic engineering of natural product analogs with different bioactivity profiles, as demonstrated by our identification of a truncated plantazolicin derivative that is active against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA).« less

  3. Independent Recruitment of an O-Methyltransferase for Syringyl Lignin Biosynthesis in Selaginella moellendorffii[W

    PubMed Central

    Weng, Jing-Ke; Akiyama, Takuya; Ralph, John; Chapple, Clint

    2011-01-01

    Syringyl lignin, an important component of the secondary cell wall, has traditionally been considered to be a hallmark of angiosperms because ferns and gymnosperms in general lack lignin of this type. Interestingly, syringyl lignin was also detected in Selaginella, a genus that represents an extant lineage of the most basal of the vascular plants, the lycophytes. In angiosperms, syringyl lignin biosynthesis requires the activity of ferulate 5-hydroxylase (F5H), a cytochrome P450-dependent monooxygenase, and caffeic acid/5-hydroxyferulic acid O-methyltransferase (COMT). Together, these two enzymes divert metabolic flux from the biosynthesis of guaiacyl lignin, a lignin type common to all vascular plants, toward syringyl lignin. Selaginella has independently evolved an alternative lignin biosynthetic pathway in which syringyl subunits are directly derived from the precursors of p-hydroxyphenyl lignin, through the action of a dual specificity phenylpropanoid meta-hydroxylase, Sm F5H. Here, we report the characterization of an O-methyltransferase from Selaginella moellendorffii, COMT, the coding sequence of which is clustered together with F5H at the adjacent genomic locus. COMT is a bifunctional phenylpropanoid O-methyltransferase that can methylate phenylpropanoid meta-hydroxyls at both the 3- and 5-position and function in concert with F5H in syringyl lignin biosynthesis in S. moellendorffii. Phylogenetic analysis reveals that Sm COMT, like F5H, evolved independently from its angiosperm counterparts. PMID:21742988

  4. MtrA of the sodium ion pumping methyltransferase binds cobalamin in a unique mode

    PubMed Central

    Wagner, Tristan; Ermler, Ulrich; Shima, Seigo

    2016-01-01

    In the three domains of life, vitamin B12 (cobalamin) is primarily used in methyltransferase and isomerase reactions. The methyltransferase complex MtrA–H of methanogenic archaea has a key function in energy conservation by catalysing the methyl transfer from methyl-tetrahydromethanopterin to coenzyme M and its coupling with sodium-ion translocation. The cobalamin-binding subunit MtrA is not homologous to any known B12-binding proteins and is proposed as the motor of the sodium-ion pump. Here, we present crystal structures of the soluble domain of the membrane-associated MtrA from Methanocaldococcus jannaschii and the cytoplasmic MtrA homologue/cobalamin complex from Methanothermus fervidus. The MtrA fold corresponds to the Rossmann-type α/β fold, which is also found in many cobalamin-containing proteins. Surprisingly, the cobalamin-binding site of MtrA differed greatly from all the other cobalamin-binding sites. Nevertheless, the hydrogen-bond linkage at the lower axial-ligand site of cobalt was equivalently constructed to that found in other methyltransferases and mutases. A distinct polypeptide segment fixed through the hydrogen-bond linkage in the relaxed Co(III) state might be involved in propagating the energy released upon corrinoid demethylation to the sodium-translocation site by a conformational change. PMID:27324530

  5. Methylated nucleosides in tRNA and tRNA methyltransferases

    PubMed Central

    Hori, Hiroyuki

    2014-01-01

    To date, more than 90 modified nucleosides have been found in tRNA and the biosynthetic pathways of the majority of tRNA modifications include a methylation step(s). Recent studies of the biosynthetic pathways have demonstrated that the availability of methyl group donors for the methylation in tRNA is important for correct and efficient protein synthesis. In this review, I focus on the methylated nucleosides and tRNA methyltransferases. The primary functions of tRNA methylations are linked to the different steps of protein synthesis, such as the stabilization of tRNA structure, reinforcement of the codon-anticodon interaction, regulation of wobble base pairing, and prevention of frameshift errors. However, beyond these basic functions, recent studies have demonstrated that tRNA methylations are also involved in the RNA quality control system and regulation of tRNA localization in the cell. In a thermophilic eubacterium, tRNA modifications and the modification enzymes form a network that responses to temperature changes. Furthermore, several modifications are involved in genetic diseases, infections, and the immune response. Moreover, structural, biochemical, and bioinformatics studies of tRNA methyltransferases have been clarifying the details of tRNA methyltransferases and have enabled these enzymes to be classified. In the final section, the evolution of modification enzymes is discussed. PMID:24904644

  6. A novel methyltransferase from the intracellular pathogen Plasmodiophora brassicae methylates salicylic acid.

    PubMed

    Ludwig-Müller, Jutta; Jülke, Sabine; Geiß, Kathleen; Richter, Franziska; Mithöfer, Axel; Šola, Ivana; Rusak, Gordana; Keenan, Sandi; Bulman, Simon

    2015-05-01

    The obligate biotrophic pathogen Plasmodiophora brassicae causes clubroot disease in Arabidopsis thaliana, which is characterized by large root galls. Salicylic acid (SA) production is a defence response in plants, and its methyl ester is involved in systemic signalling. Plasmodiophora brassicae seems to suppress plant defence reactions, but information on how this is achieved is scarce. Here, we profile the changes in SA metabolism during Arabidopsis clubroot disease. The accumulation of SA and the emission of methylated SA (methyl salicylate, MeSA) were observed in P. brassicae-infected Arabidopsis 28 days after inoculation. There is evidence that MeSA is transported from infected roots to the upper plant. Analysis of the mutant Atbsmt1, deficient in the methylation of SA, indicated that the Arabidopsis SA methyltransferase was not responsible for alterations in clubroot symptoms. We found that P. brassicae possesses a methyltransferase (PbBSMT) with homology to plant methyltransferases. The PbBSMT gene is maximally transcribed when SA production is highest. By heterologous expression and enzymatic analyses, we showed that PbBSMT can methylate SA, benzoic and anthranilic acids.

  7. Genomic profiling of DNA methyltransferases reveals a role for DNMT3B in genic methylation.

    PubMed

    Baubec, Tuncay; Colombo, Daniele F; Wirbelauer, Christiane; Schmidt, Juliane; Burger, Lukas; Krebs, Arnaud R; Akalin, Altuna; Schübeler, Dirk

    2015-04-09

    DNA methylation is an epigenetic modification associated with transcriptional repression of promoters and is essential for mammalian development. Establishment of DNA methylation is mediated by the de novo DNA methyltransferases DNMT3A and DNMT3B, whereas DNMT1 ensures maintenance of methylation through replication. Absence of these enzymes is lethal, and somatic mutations in these genes have been associated with several human diseases. How genomic DNA methylation patterns are regulated remains poorly understood, as the mechanisms that guide recruitment and activity of DNMTs in vivo are largely unknown. To gain insights into this matter we determined genomic binding and site-specific activity of the mammalian de novo DNA methyltransferases DNMT3A and DNMT3B. We show that both enzymes localize to methylated, CpG-dense regions in mouse stem cells, yet are excluded from active promoters and enhancers. By specifically measuring sites of de novo methylation, we observe that enzymatic activity reflects binding. De novo methylation increases with CpG density, yet is excluded from nucleosomes. Notably, we observed selective binding of DNMT3B to the bodies of transcribed genes, which leads to their preferential methylation. This targeting to transcribed sequences requires SETD2-mediated methylation of lysine 36 on histone H3 and a functional PWWP domain of DNMT3B. Together these findings reveal how sequence and chromatin cues guide de novo methyltransferase activity to ensure methylome integrity.

  8. Regulation of expression and activity of DNA (cytosine-5) methyltransferases in mammalian cells.

    PubMed

    Kinney, Shannon R Morey; Pradhan, Sriharsa

    2011-01-01

    Three active DNA (cytosine-5) methyltransferases (DNMTs) have been identified in mammalian cells, Dnmt1, Dnmt3a, and Dnmt3b. DNMT1 is primarily a maintenance methyltransferase, as it prefers to methylate hemimethylated DNA during DNA replication and in vitro. DNMT3A and DNMT3B are de novo methyltransferases and show similar activity on unmethylated and hemimethylated DNA. DNMT3L, which lacks the catalytic domain, binds to DNMT3A and DNMT3B variants and facilitates their chromatin targeting, presumably for de novo methylation. There are several mechanisms by which mammalian cells regulate DNMT levels, including varied transcriptional activation of the respective genes and posttranslational modifications of the enzymes that can affect catalytic activity, targeting, and enzyme degradation. In addition, binding of miRNAs or RNA-binding proteins can also alter the expression of DNMTs. These regulatory processes can be disrupted in disease or by environmental factors, resulting in altered DNMT expression and aberrant DNA methylation patterns.

  9. An essential role for DNA methyltransferase DNMT3B in cancer cell survival.

    PubMed

    Beaulieu, Normand; Morin, Steves; Chute, Ian C; Robert, Marie-France; Nguyen, Hannah; MacLeod, A Robert

    2002-08-02

    Abnormal methylation and associated silencing of tumor suppressor genes is a common feature of many types of cancers. The observation of persistent methylation in human cancer cells lacking the maintenance methyltransferase DNMT1 suggests the involvement of other DNA methyltransferases in gene silencing in cancer. To test this hypothesis, we have evaluated methylation and gene expression in cancer cells specifically depleted of DNMT3A or DNMT3B, de novo methyltransferases that are expressed in adult tissues. Here we have shown that depletion of DNMT3B, but not DNMT3A, induced apoptosis of human cancer cells but not normal cells. DNMT3B depletion reactivated methylation-silenced gene expression but did not induce global or juxtacentromeric satellite demethylation as did specific depletion of DNMT1. Furthermore, the effect of DNMT3B depletion was rescued by exogenous expression of either of the splice variants DNMT3B2 or DNMT3B3 but not DNMT1. These results indicate that DNMT3B has significant site selectivity that is distinct from DNMT1, regulates aberrant gene silencing, and is essential for cancer cell survival.

  10. Independent recruitment of an O-methyltransferase for syringyl lignin biosynthesis in Selaginella moellendorffii.

    PubMed

    Weng, Jing-Ke; Akiyama, Takuya; Ralph, John; Chapple, Clint

    2011-07-01

    Syringyl lignin, an important component of the secondary cell wall, has traditionally been considered to be a hallmark of angiosperms because ferns and gymnosperms in general lack lignin of this type. Interestingly, syringyl lignin was also detected in Selaginella, a genus that represents an extant lineage of the most basal of the vascular plants, the lycophytes. In angiosperms, syringyl lignin biosynthesis requires the activity of ferulate 5-hydroxylase (F5H), a cytochrome P450-dependent monooxygenase, and caffeic acid/5-hydroxyferulic acid O-methyltransferase (COMT). Together, these two enzymes divert metabolic flux from the biosynthesis of guaiacyl lignin, a lignin type common to all vascular plants, toward syringyl lignin. Selaginella has independently evolved an alternative lignin biosynthetic pathway in which syringyl subunits are directly derived from the precursors of p-hydroxyphenyl lignin, through the action of a dual specificity phenylpropanoid meta-hydroxylase, Sm F5H. Here, we report the characterization of an O-methyltransferase from Selaginella moellendorffii, COMT, the coding sequence of which is clustered together with F5H at the adjacent genomic locus. COMT is a bifunctional phenylpropanoid O-methyltransferase that can methylate phenylpropanoid meta-hydroxyls at both the 3- and 5-position and function in concert with F5H in syringyl lignin biosynthesis in S. moellendorffii. Phylogenetic analysis reveals that Sm COMT, like F5H, evolved independently from its angiosperm counterparts.

  11. Cooperativity between DNA Methyltransferases in the Maintenance Methylation of Repetitive Elements

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Gangning; Chan, Matilda F.; Tomigahara, Yoshitaka; Tsai, Yvonne C.; Gonzales, Felicidad A.; Li, En; Laird, Peter W.; Jones, Peter A.

    2002-01-01

    We used mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells with systematic gene knockouts for DNA methyltransferases to delineate the roles of DNA methyltransferase 1 (Dnmt1) and Dnmt3a and -3b in maintaining methylation patterns in the mouse genome. Dnmt1 alone was able to maintain methylation of most CpG-poor regions analyzed. In contrast, both Dnmt1 and Dnmt3a and/or Dnmt3b were required for methylation of a select class of sequences which included abundant murine LINE-1 promoters. We used a novel hemimethylation assay to show that even in wild-type cells these sequences contain high levels of hemimethylated DNA, suggestive of poor maintenance methylation. We showed that Dnmt3a and/or -3b could restore methylation of these sequences to pretreatment levels following transient exposure of cells to 5-aza-CdR, whereas Dnmt1 by itself could not. We conclude that ongoing de novo methylation by Dnmt3a and/or Dnmt3b compensates for inefficient maintenance methylation by Dnmt1 of these endogenous repetitive sequences. Our results reveal a previously unrecognized degree of cooperativity among mammalian DNA methyltransferases in ES cells. PMID:11756544

  12. Phosphoethanolamine methyltransferases in phosphocholine biosynthesis: functions and potential for antiparasite therapy.

    PubMed Central

    Bobenchik, April M.; Augagneur, Yoann; Hao, Bing; Hoch, Jeffrey C.; Ben Mamoun, Choukri

    2011-01-01

    S-adenosyl-L-methionine-dependent methyltransferases represent a diverse group of enzymes that catalyze the transfer of a methyl group from a methyl donor S-adenosyl-L-methionine to nitrogen, oxygen, sulfur or carbon atoms of a large number of biologically active large and small molecules. These modifications play a major role in the regulation of various biological functions such as gene expression, signaling, nuclear division and metabolism. The three-step S-adenosyl-L-methionione-dependent methylation of phosphoethanolamine to form phosphocholine catalyzed by phosphoethanolamine N-methyltransferases has emerged as an important biochemical step in the synthesis of the major phospholipid, phosphatidylcholine, in some eukaryotes. Phosphoethanolamine N-methyltransferases have been identified in nematodes, plants, African clawed frogs, zebrafish, the Florida lancelet, proteobacteria and human malaria parasites. Data accumulated thus far suggest an important role for these enzymes in growth and development. This review summarizes published studies on the biochemical and genetic characterization of these enzymes, and discusses their evolution and their suitability as targets for the development of therapies against parasitic infections, as well as in bioengineering for the development of nutritional and stress-resistant plants. PMID:21303393

  13. Identification of a novel family of putative methyltransferases that interact with human and Drosophila presenilins.

    PubMed

    Zhang, S X; Guo, Y; Boulianne, G L

    2001-12-12

    Mutations in the presenilin genes have been shown to cause the majority of cases of early-onset familial Alzheimer's disease (AD). In addition to their role in AD, presenilins are also known to function during development by interacting with the Notch pathway. To determine if presenilins have additional functions during development and AD we have used a yeast two-hybrid approach to search for proteins that can bind to presenilins. Here, we show the identification and characterization of a novel putative methyltransferase (Metl) that interacts with the loop region of Drosophila presenilin as well as human presenilin-1 and presenilin-2, suggesting that this interaction is evolutionarily conserved and functionally important. Metl appears to be a member of a conserved family of methyltransferases that share homology with, but are distinct from, the UbiE family of methyltransferases involved in ubiquinone and menaquinone biosynthesis. In Drosophila, the metl gene gives rise to two major isoforms by alternative splicing that are broadly expressed throughout development and found in the central nervous system in an overlapping pattern with Drosophila presenilin. Finally, we show that two independent dominant adult phenotypes produced by overexpression of presenilin can be enhanced by overexpression of metl in the same tissue. Taken together, these results suggest that presenilin and Metl functionally and genetically interact during development.

  14. PRMT11: a new Arabidopsis MBD7 protein partner with arginine methyltransferase activity.

    PubMed

    Scebba, Francesca; De Bastiani, Morena; Bernacchia, Giovanni; Andreucci, Andrea; Galli, Alvaro; Pitto, Letizia

    2007-10-01

    Plant methyl-DNA-binding proteins (MBDs), discovered by sequence homology to their animal counterparts, have not been well characterized at the physiological and functional levels. In order better to characterize the Arabidopsis AtMBD7 protein, unique in bearing three MBD domains, we used a yeast two-hybrid system to identify its partners. One of the interacting proteins we cloned is the Arabidopsis arginine methyltransferase 11 (AtPRMT11). Glutathione S-transferase pull-down and co-immunoprecipitation assays confirmed that the two proteins interact with each other and can be co-isolated. Using GFP fluorescence, we show that both AtMBD7 and AtPRMT11 are present in the nucleus. Further analyses revealed that AtPRMT11 acts as an arginine methyltransferase active on both histones and proteins of cellular extracts. The analysis of a T-DNA mutant line lacking AtPRMT11 mRNA revealed reduced levels of proteins with asymmetrically dimethylated arginines, suggesting that AtPRMT11, which is highly similar to mammalian PRMT1, is indeed a type I arginine methyltransferase. Further, AtMBD7 is a substrate for AtPRMT11, which post-translationally modifies the portion of the protein-containing C-terminal methylated DNA-binding domain. These results suggest the existence of a link between DNA methylation and arginine methylation.

  15. Preliminary characterization of (nucleoside-2′-O-)-methyltransferase crystals from Meaban and Yokose flaviviruses

    SciTech Connect

    Mastrangelo, Eloise; Bollati, Michela; Milani, Mario; Lamballeire, Xavier de; Brisbare, Nadege; Dalle, Karen; Lantez, Violaine; Egloff, Marie-Pierre; Coutard, Bruno; Canard, Bruno; Gould, Ernest; Forrester, Naomi; Bolognesi, Martino

    2006-08-01

    Two methyltransferases from flaviviruses (Meaban and Yokose viruses) have been overexpressed and crystallized. Diffraction data and characterization of the two crystal forms are presented, together with a preliminary molecular-replacement solution for both enzymes. Viral methyltranferases (MTase) are involved in the third step of the mRNA-capping process, transferring a methyl group from S-adenosyl-l-methionine (SAM) to the capped mRNA. MTases are classified into two groups: (guanine-N7)-methyltransferases (N7MTases), which add a methyl group onto the N7 atom of guanine, and (nucleoside-2′-O-)-methyltransferases (2′OMTases), which add a methyl group to a ribose hydroxyl. The MTases of two flaviviruses, Meaban and Yokose viruses, have been overexpressed, purified and crystallized in complex with SAM. Characterization of the crystals together with details of preliminary X-ray diffraction data collection (at 2.8 and 2.7 Å resolution, respectively) are reported here. The sequence homology relative to Dengue virus 2′OMTase and the structural conservation of specific residues in the putative active sites suggest that both enzymes belong to the 2′OMTase subgroup.

  16. An enzyme-coupled continuous spectrophotometric assay for magnesium protoporphyrin IX methyltransferases.

    PubMed

    McLean, Samantha; Hunter, C Neil

    2009-11-15

    The second committed step in chlorophyll biosynthesis is the transfer of a methyl group from S-adenosyl-L-methionine (SAM) to magnesium protoporphyrin IX (MgP) forming MgP monomethylester (MgPME). This reaction is catalyzed by the enzyme MgP methyltransferase (ChlM). Previous investigation of this enzyme has involved the use of time-consuming techniques requiring separation of products from substrates. More recent methyltransferase studies use coupling enzymes to monitor changes in absorption/fluorescence for the measurement of activity. However, due to the spectral properties of porphyrins, many of these assays are unsuitable for analysis of the catalytic properties of ChlM. Here we report the successful development of a coupled, continuous spectrophotometric assay to measure the activity of ChlM. The product of the methyltransferase reaction, S-adenosyl-l-homocysteine (SAH), is converted into adenine and then hypoxanthine by the recombinant coupling enzymes SAH nucleosidase and adenine deaminase, respectively. The appearance of hypoxanthine results in a decrease in absorbance at 265nm. The utility of this assay was shown by the characterization of ChlM from the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803. Kinetic parameters obtained support data acquired using the discontinuous HPLC-based assay and provide further evidence for the stimulation of ChlM by the H subunit of magnesium chelatase (ChlH).

  17. Mechanism of activation of methyltransferases involved in translation by the Trm112 ‘hub’ protein

    PubMed Central

    Liger, Dominique; Mora, Liliana; Lazar, Noureddine; Figaro, Sabine; Henri, Julien; Scrima, Nathalie; Buckingham, Richard H.; van Tilbeurgh, Herman; Heurgué-Hamard, Valérie; Graille, Marc

    2011-01-01

    Methylation is a common modification encountered in DNA, RNA and proteins. It plays a central role in gene expression, protein function and mRNA translation. Prokaryotic and eukaryotic class I translation termination factors are methylated on the glutamine of the essential and universally conserved GGQ motif, in line with an important cellular role. In eukaryotes, this modification is performed by the Mtq2-Trm112 holoenzyme. Trm112 activates not only the Mtq2 catalytic subunit but also two other tRNA methyltransferases (Trm9 and Trm11). To understand the molecular mechanisms underlying methyltransferase activation by Trm112, we have determined the 3D structure of the Mtq2-Trm112 complex and mapped its active site. Using site-directed mutagenesis and in vivo functional experiments, we show that this structure can also serve as a model for the Trm9-Trm112 complex, supporting our hypothesis that Trm112 uses a common strategy to activate these three methyltransferases. PMID:21478168

  18. Identification of a Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 DNA Methyltransferase, Its Targets, and Physiological Roles

    PubMed Central

    Doberenz, Sebastian; Eckweiler, Denitsa; Reichert, Olga; Jensen, Vanessa; Bunk, Boyke; Spröer, Cathrin; Kordes, Adrian; Frangipani, Emanuela; Luong, Khai; Korlach, Jonas; Heeb, Stephan; Overmann, Jörg; Kaever, Volkhard

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT DNA methylation is widespread among prokaryotes, and most DNA methylation reactions are catalyzed by adenine DNA methyltransferases, which are part of restriction-modification (R-M) systems. R-M systems are known for their role in the defense against foreign DNA; however, DNA methyltransferases also play functional roles in gene regulation. In this study, we used single-molecule real-time (SMRT) sequencing to uncover the genome-wide DNA methylation pattern in the opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1. We identified a conserved sequence motif targeted by an adenine methyltransferase of a type I R-M system and quantified the presence of N6-methyladenine using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Changes in the PAO1 methylation status were dependent on growth conditions and affected P. aeruginosa pathogenicity in a Galleria mellonella infection model. Furthermore, we found that methylated motifs in promoter regions led to shifts in sense and antisense gene expression, emphasizing the role of enzymatic DNA methylation as an epigenetic control of phenotypic traits in P. aeruginosa. Since the DNA methylation enzymes are not encoded in the core genome, our findings illustrate how the acquisition of accessory genes can shape the global P. aeruginosa transcriptome and thus may facilitate adaptation to new and challenging habitats. PMID:28223461

  19. The tRNA recognition mechanism of the minimalist SPOUT methyltransferase, TrmL

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Ru-Juan; Zhou, Mi; Fang, Zhi-Peng; Wang, Meng; Zhou, Xiao-Long; Wang, En-Duo

    2013-01-01

    Unlike other transfer RNAs (tRNA)-modifying enzymes from the SPOUT methyltransferase superfamily, the tRNA (Um34/Cm34) methyltransferase TrmL lacks the usual extension domain for tRNA binding and consists only of a SPOUT domain. Both the catalytic and tRNA recognition mechanisms of this enzyme remain elusive. By using tRNAs purified from an Escherichia coli strain with the TrmL gene deleted, we found that TrmL can independently catalyze the methyl transfer from S-adenosyl-L-methionine to and isoacceptors without the involvement of other tRNA-binding proteins. We have solved the crystal structures of TrmL in apo form and in complex with S-adenosyl-homocysteine and identified the cofactor binding site and a possible active site. Methyltransferase activity and tRNA-binding affinity of TrmL mutants were measured to identify residues important for tRNA binding of TrmL. Our results suggest that TrmL functions as a homodimer by using the conserved C-terminal half of the SPOUT domain for catalysis, whereas residues from the less-conserved N-terminal half of the other subunit participate in tRNA recognition. PMID:23804755

  20. Evolutionary dynamics of rRNA gene clusters in cichlid fish

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Among multigene families, ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes are the most frequently studied and have been explored as cytogenetic markers to study the evolutionary history of karyotypes among animals and plants. In this report, we applied cytogenetic and genomic methods to investigate the organization of rRNA genes among cichlid fishes. Cichlids are a group of fishes that are of increasing scientific interest due to their rapid and convergent adaptive radiation, which has led to extensive ecological diversity. Results The present paper reports the cytogenetic mapping of the 5S rRNA genes from 18 South American, 22 African and one Asian species and the 18S rRNA genes from 3 African species. The data obtained were comparatively analyzed with previously published information related to the mapping of rRNA genes in cichlids. The number of 5S rRNA clusters per diploid genome ranged from 2 to 15, with the most common pattern being the presence of 2 chromosomes bearing a 5S rDNA cluster. Regarding 18S rDNA mapping, the number of sites ranged from 2 to 6, with the most common pattern being the presence of 2 sites per diploid genome. Furthermore, searching the Oreochromis niloticus genome database led to the identification of a total of 59 copies of 5S rRNA and 38 copies of 18S rRNA genes that were distributed in several genomic scaffolds. The rRNA genes were frequently flanked by transposable elements (TEs) and spread throughout the genome, complementing the FISH analysis that detect only clustered copies of rRNA genes. Conclusions The organization of rRNA gene clusters seems to reflect their intense and particular evolutionary pathway and not the evolutionary history of the associated taxa. The possible role of TEs as one source of rRNA gene movement, that could generates the spreading of ribosomal clusters/copies, is discussed. The present paper reinforces the notion that the integration of cytogenetic data and genomic analysis provides a more complete picture for

  1. Structural insights into the role of rRNA modifications in protein synthesis and ribosome assembly.

    PubMed

    Polikanov, Yury S; Melnikov, Sergey V; Söll, Dieter; Steitz, Thomas A

    2015-04-01

    We report crystal structures of the Thermus thermophilus ribosome at 2.3- to 2.5-Å resolution, which have enabled modeling of rRNA modifications. The structures reveal contacts of modified nucleotides with mRNA and tRNAs or protein pY, and contacts within the ribosome interior stabilizing the functional fold of rRNA. Our work provides a resource to explore the roles of rRNA modifications and yields a more comprehensive atomic model of a bacterial ribosome.

  2. Chromatin endogenous cleavage and psoralen crosslinking assays to analyze rRNA gene chromatin in vivo.

    PubMed

    Griesenbeck, Joachim; Wittner, Manuel; Charton, Romain; Conconi, Antonio

    2012-01-01

    In eukaryotes, multiple copies of ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes co-exist in two different chromatin states: actively transcribed (nucleosome depleted) chromatin, and nontranscribed (nucleosomal) chromatin. The presence of two rRNA gene populations compromises the interpretation of analyses obtained by the standard biochemical methods that are used to study chromatin structure (e.g., nuclease digestion and chromatin immunoprecipitation). Here, we provide a protocol to investigate the specific association of proteins with the two rRNA gene chromatin populations in vivo, using Saccharomyces cerevisiae as a model eukaryote.

  3. Use of 16S rRNA, 23S rRNA, and gyrB gene sequence analysis to determine phylogenetic relationships of Bacillus cereus group.

    SciTech Connect

    Bayvkin, S. G.; Lysov, Y. P.; Zakhariev, V.; Kelly, J. J.; Jackman, J.; Stahl, D. A.; Cherni, A.; Engelhardt Inst. of Molecular Biology; Loyola Univ.; Johns Hopkins Univ.; Univ. of Washington

    2004-08-01

    In order to determine if variations in rRNA sequence could be used for discrimination of the members of the Bacillus cereus group, we analyzed 183 16S rRNA and 74 23S rRNA sequences for all species in the B. cereus group. We also analyzed 30 gyrB sequences for B. cereus group strains with published 16S rRNA sequences. Our findings indicated that the three most common species of the B. cereus group, B. cereus, Bacillus thuringiensis, and Bacillus mycoides, were each heterogeneous in all three gene sequences, while all analyzed strains of Bacillus anthracis were found to be homogeneous. Based on analysis of 16S and 23S rRNA sequence variations, the microorganisms within the B. cereus group were divided into seven subgroups, Anthracis, Cereus A and B, Thuringiensis A and B, and Mycoides A and B, and these seven subgroups were further organized into two distinct clusters. This classification of the B. cereus group conflicts with current taxonomic groupings, which are based on phenotypic traits. The presence of B. cereus strains in six of the seven subgroups and the presence of B. thuringiensis strains in three of the subgroups do not support the proposed unification of B. cereus and B. thuringiensis into one species. Analysis of the available phenotypic data for the strains included in this study revealed phenotypic traits that may be characteristic of several of the subgroups. Finally, our results demonstrated that rRNA and gyrB sequences may be used for discriminating B. anthracis from other microorganisms in the B. cereus group.

  4. Use of 16S rRNA, 23S rRNA, and gyrB Gene Sequence Analysis To Determine Phylogenetic Relationships of Bacillus cereus Group Microorganisms

    PubMed Central

    Bavykin, Sergei G.; Lysov, Yuri P.; Zakhariev, Vladimir; Kelly, John J.; Jackman, Joany; Stahl, David A.; Cherni, Alexey

    2004-01-01

    In order to determine if variations in rRNA sequence could be used for discrimination of the members of the Bacillus cereus group, we analyzed 183 16S rRNA and 74 23S rRNA sequences for all species in the B. cereus group. We also analyzed 30 gyrB sequences for B. cereus group strains with published 16S rRNA sequences. Our findings indicated that the three most common species of the B. cereus group, B. cereus, Bacillus thuringiensis, and Bacillus mycoides, were each heterogeneous in all three gene sequences, while all analyzed strains of Bacillus anthracis were found to be homogeneous. Based on analysis of 16S and 23S rRNA sequence variations, the microorganisms within the B. cereus group were divided into seven subgroups, Anthracis, Cereus A and B, Thuringiensis A and B, and Mycoides A and B, and these seven subgroups were further organized into two distinct clusters. This classification of the B. cereus group conflicts with current taxonomic groupings, which are based on phenotypic traits. The presence of B. cereus strains in six of the seven subgroups and the presence of B. thuringiensis strains in three of the subgroups do not support the proposed unification of B. cereus and B. thuringiensis into one species. Analysis of the available phenotypic data for the strains included in this study revealed phenotypic traits that may be characteristic of several of the subgroups. Finally, our results demonstrated that rRNA and gyrB sequences may be used for discriminating B. anthracis from other microorganisms in the B. cereus group. PMID:15297521

  5. Mapping of Post-translational Modifications of Transition Proteins, TP1 and TP2, and Identification of Protein Arginine Methyltransferase 4 and Lysine Methyltransferase 7 as Methyltransferase for TP2*

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Nikhil; Madapura, M. Pradeepa; Bhat, U. Anayat; Rao, M. R. Satyanarayana

    2015-01-01

    In a unique global chromatin remodeling process during mammalian spermiogenesis, 90% of the nucleosomal histones are replaced by testis-specific transition proteins, TP1, TP2, and TP4. These proteins are further substituted by sperm-specific protamines, P1 and P2, to form a highly condensed sperm chromatin. In spermatozoa, a small proportion of chromatin, which ranges from 1 to 10% in mammals, retains the nucleosomal architecture and is implicated to play a role in transgenerational inheritance. However, there is still no mechanistic understanding of the interaction of chromatin machinery with histones and transition proteins, which facilitate this selective histone replacement from chromatin. Here, we report the identification of 16 and 19 novel post-translational modifications on rat endogenous transition proteins, TP1 and TP2, respectively, by mass spectrometry. By in vitro assays and mutational analysis, we demonstrate that protein arginine methyltransferase PRMT4 (CARM1) methylates TP2 at Arg71, Arg75, and Arg92 residues, and lysine methyltransferase KMT7 (Set9) methylates TP2 at Lys88 and Lys91 residues. Further studies with modification-specific antibodies that recognize TP2K88me1 and TP2R92me1 modifications showed that they appear in elongating to condensing spermatids and predominantly associated with the chromatin-bound TP2. This work establishes the repertoire of post-translational modifications that occur on TP1 and TP2, which may play a significant role in various chromatin-templated events during spermiogenesis and in the establishment of the sperm epigenome. PMID:25818198

  6. The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae YDL112w ORF encodes the putative 2'-O-ribose methyltransferase catalyzing the formation of Gm18 in tRNAs.

    PubMed

    Cavaillé, J; Chetouani, F; Bachellerie, J P

    1999-01-01

    The protein sequences of three known RNA 2'-O-ribose methylases were used as probes for detecting putative homologs through iterative searches of genomic databases. We have identified 45 new positive Open Reading Frames (ORFs), mostly in prokaryotic genomes. Five complete eukaryotic ORFs were also detected, among which was a single ORF (YDL112w) in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae genome. After genetic depletion of YDL112w, we observed a specific defect in tRNA ribose methylation, with the complete disappearance of Gm18 in all tRNAs that naturally contain this modification, whereas other tRNA ribose methylations and the complex pattern of rRNA ribose methylations were not affected. The tRNA G18 methylation defect was suppressed by transformation of the disrupted strain with a plasmid allowing expression of YDL112wp. The formation of Gm18 on an in vitro transcript of a yeast tRNASer naturally containing this methylation, which was efficiently catalyzed by cell-free extracts from the wild-type yeast strain, did not occur with extracts from the disrupted strain. The protein encoded by the YDL112w ORF, termed Trm3 (tRNA methylation), is therefore likely to be the tRNA (Gm18) ribose methylase. In in vitro assays, its activity is strongly dependent on tRNA architecture. Trm3p, the first putative tRNA ribose methylase identified in an eukaryotic organism, is considerably larger than its Escherichia coli functional homolog spoU (1,436 amino acids vs. 229 amino acids), or any known or putative prokaryotic RNA ribose methyltransferase. Homologs found in human (TRP-185 protein), Caenorhabditis elegans and Arabidopsis thaliana also exhibit a very long N-terminal extension not related to any protein sequence in databases.

  7. Development of a dual-internal-reference technique to improve accuracy when determining bacterial 16S rRNA:16S rRNA gene ratio with application to Escherichia coli liquid and aerosol samples.

    PubMed

    Zhen, Huajun; Krumins, Valdis; Fennell, Donna E; Mainelis, Gediminas

    2015-10-01

    Accurate enumeration of rRNA content in microbial cells, e.g. by using the 16S rRNA:16S rRNA gene ratio, is critical to properly understand its relationship to microbial activities. However, few studies have considered possible methodological artifacts that may contribute to the variability of rRNA analysis results. In this study, a technique utilizing genomic DNA and 16S rRNA from an exogenous species (Pseudomonas fluorescens) as dual internal references was developed to improve accuracy when determining the 16S rRNA:16S rRNA gene ratio of a target organism, Escherichia coli. This technique was able to adequately control the variability in sample processing and analysis procedures due to nucleic acid (DNA and RNA) losses, inefficient reverse transcription of RNA, and inefficient PCR amplification. The measured 16S rRNA:16S rRNA gene ratio of E. coli increased by 2-3 fold when E. coli 16S rRNA gene and 16S rRNA quantities were normalized to the sample-specific fractional recoveries of reference (P. fluorescens) 16S rRNA gene and 16S rRNA, respectively. In addition, the intra-sample variation of this ratio, represented by coefficients of variation from replicate samples, decreased significantly after normalization. This technique was applied to investigate the temporal variation of 16S rRNA:16S rRNA gene ratio of E. coli during its non-steady-state growth in a complex liquid medium, and to E. coli aerosols when exposed to particle-free air after their collection on a filter. The 16S rRNA:16S rRNA gene ratio of E. coli increased significantly during its early exponential phase of growth; when E. coli aerosols were exposed to extended filtration stress after sample collection, the ratio also increased. In contrast, no significant temporal trend in E. coli 16S rRNA:16S rRNA gene ratio was observed when the determined ratios were not normalized based on the recoveries of dual references. The developed technique could be widely applied in studies of relationship between

  8. Investigation of molluscan phylogeny on the basis of 18S rRNA sequences.

    PubMed

    Winnepenninckx, B; Backeljau, T; De Wachter, R

    1996-12-01

    The 18S rRNA sequences of 12 molluscs, representing the extant classes Gastropoda, Bivalvia, Polyplacophora, Scaphopoda, and Caudofoveata, were determined and compared with selected known 18S rRNA sequences of Metazoa, including other Mollusca. These data do not provide support for a close relationship between Platyhelminthes (Turbellaria) and Mollusca, but rather suggest that the latter group belongs to a clade of eutrochozoan coelomates. The 18S rRNA data fail to recover molluscan, bivalve, or gastropod monophyly. However, the branching pattern of the eutrochozoan phyla and classes is unstable, probably due to the explosive Cambrian radiation during which these groups arose. Similarly, the 18S rRNA data do not provide a reliable signal for the molluscan interclass relationships. Nevertheless, we obtained strong preliminary support for phylogenetic inferences at more restricted taxonomic levels, such as the monophyly of Polyplacophora, Caenogastropoda, Euthyneura, Heterodonta, and Arcoida.

  9. An Archaea 5S rRNA analog is stably expressed in Escherichia coli

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yang, Y.; Fox, G. E.

    1996-01-01

    Mini-genes for 5S-like rRNA were constructed. These genes had a sequence which largely resembles that of the naturally occurring 5S rRNA of a bacterium, Halococcus morrhuae, which phylogenetically belongs to the Archaea. Plasmids carrying the mini-genes were transformed into Escherichia coli (Ec). Ribosomal incorporation was not a prerequisite for stable accumulation of the RNA product. However, only those constructs with a well-base-paired helix I accumulated RNA product. This result strongly implies that this aspect of the structure is likely to be an important condition for stabilizing 5S rRNA-like products. The results are consistent with our current understanding of 5S rRNA processing in Ec. When used in conjunction with rRNA probe technology, the resulting chimeric RNA may be useful as a monitoring tool for genetically engineered microorganisms or naturally occurring organisms that are released into the environment.

  10. Diversity of 5S rRNA genes within individual prokaryotic genomes

    PubMed Central

    Pei, Anna; Li, Hongru; Oberdorf, William E; Alekseyenko, Alexander V.; Parsons, Tamasha; Yang, Liying; Gerz, Erika A.; Lee, Peng; Xiang, Charlie; Nossa, Carlos W.; Pei, Zhiheng

    2012-01-01

    We examined intragenomic variation of paralogous 5S rRNA genes to evaluate the concept of ribosomal constraints. In a dataset containing 1168 genomes from 779 unique species, 96 species exhibited >3% diversity. Twenty seven species with >10% diversity contained a total of 421 mismatches between all pairs of the most dissimilar copies of 5S rRNA genes. The large majority (401 of 421) the diversified positions were conserved at the secondary structure level. The high diversity was associated with partial rRNA operon, split operon, or spacer length-related divergence. In total, these findings indicated that there were tight ribosomal constraints on paralogous 5S rRNA genes in a genome despite of the high degree of diversity at the primary structure level. There is supplementary material. PMID:22765222

  11. Diversity of 5S rRNA genes within individual prokaryotic genomes.

    PubMed

    Pei, Anna; Li, Hongru; Oberdorf, William E; Alekseyenko, Alexander V; Parsons, Tamasha; Yang, Liying; Gerz, Erika A; Lee, Peng; Xiang, Charlie; Nossa, Carlos W; Pei, Zhiheng

    2012-10-01

    We examined intragenomic variation of paralogous 5S rRNA genes to evaluate the concept of ribosomal constraints. In a dataset containing 1161 genomes from 779 unique species, 96 species exhibited > 3% diversity. Twenty-seven species with > 10% diversity contained a total of 421 mismatches between all pairs of the most dissimilar copies of 5S rRNA genes. The large majority (401 of 421) of the diversified positions were conserved at the secondary structure level. The high diversity was associated with partial rRNA operon, split operon, or spacer length-related divergence. In total, these findings indicated that there are tight ribosomal constraints on paralogous 5S rRNA genes in a genome despite of the high degree of diversity at the primary structure level. © 2012 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Dinoflagellate 17S rRNA sequence inferred from the gene sequence: Evolutionary implications

    PubMed Central

    Herzog, Michel; Maroteaux, Luc

    1986-01-01

    We present the complete sequence of the nuclear-encoded small-ribosomal-subunit RNA inferred from the cloned gene sequence of the dinoflagellate Prorocentrum micans. The dinoflagellate 17S rRNA sequence of 1798 nucleotides is contained in a family of 200 tandemly repeated genes per haploid genome. A tentative model of the secondary structure of P. micans 17S rRNA is presented. This sequence is compared with the small-ribosomal-subunit rRNA of Xenopus laevis (Animalia), Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Fungi), Zea mays (Planta), Dictyostelium discoideum (Protoctista), and Halobacterium volcanii (Monera). Although the secondary structure of the dinoflagellate 17S rRNA presents most of the eukaryotic characteristics, it contains sufficient archaeobacterial-like structural features to reinforce the view that dinoflagellates branch off very early from the eukaryotic lineage. PMID:16578795

  13. Dinoflagellate 17S rRNA sequence inferred from the gene sequence: Evolutionary implications.

    PubMed

    Herzog, M; Maroteaux, L

    1986-11-01

    We present the complete sequence of the nuclear-encoded small-ribosomal-subunit RNA inferred from the cloned gene sequence of the dinoflagellate Prorocentrum micans. The dinoflagellate 17S rRNA sequence of 1798 nucleotides is contained in a family of 200 tandemly repeated genes per haploid genome. A tentative model of the secondary structure of P. micans 17S rRNA is presented. This sequence is compared with the small-ribosomal-subunit rRNA of Xenopus laevis (Animalia), Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Fungi), Zea mays (Planta), Dictyostelium discoideum (Protoctista), and Halobacterium volcanii (Monera). Although the secondary structure of the dinoflagellate 17S rRNA presents most of the eukaryotic characteristics, it contains sufficient archaeobacterial-like structural features to reinforce the view that dinoflagellates branch off very early from the eukaryotic lineage.

  14. Processing pathway of Escherichia coli 16S precursor rRNA.

    PubMed Central

    Srivastava, A K; Schlessinger, D

    1989-01-01

    Immediate precursors of 16S rRNA are processed by endonucleolytic cleavage at both 5' and 3' mature termini, with the concomitant release of precursor fragments which are further metabolized by both exo- and endonucleases. In wild-type cells rapid cleavages by RNase III in precursor-specific sequences precede the subsequent formation of the mature ends; mature termini can, however, be formed directly from pre-16S rRNA with no intermediate species. The direct maturation is most evident in a strain deficient in RNase III, and the results in whole cells are consistent with results from maturation reactions in vitro. Thus, maturation does not require cleavages within the double-stranded stems that enclose mature rRNA sequences in the pre-16S rRNA. Images PMID:2646597

  15. An Archaea 5S rRNA analog is stably expressed in Escherichia coli

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yang, Y.; Fox, G. E.

    1996-01-01

    Mini-genes for 5S-like rRNA were constructed. These genes had a sequence which largely resembles that of the naturally occurring 5S rRNA of a bacterium, Halococcus morrhuae, which phylogenetically belongs to the Archaea. Plasmids carrying the mini-genes were transformed into Escherichia coli (Ec). Ribosomal incorporation was not a prerequisite for stable accumulation of the RNA product. However, only those constructs with a well-base-paired helix I accumulated RNA product. This result strongly implies that this aspect of the structure is likely to be an important condition for stabilizing 5S rRNA-like products. The results are consistent with our current understanding of 5S rRNA processing in Ec. When used in conjunction with rRNA probe technology, the resulting chimeric RNA may be useful as a monitoring tool for genetically engineered microorganisms or naturally occurring organisms that are released into the environment.

  16. Arabidopsis chloroplast mini-ribonuclease III participates in rRNA maturation and intron recycling.

    PubMed

    Hotto, Amber M; Castandet, Benoît; Gilet, Laetitia; Higdon, Andrea; Condon, Ciarán; Stern, David B

    2015-03-01

    RNase III proteins recognize double-stranded RNA structures and catalyze endoribonucleolytic cleavages that often regulate gene expression. Here, we characterize the functions of RNC3 and RNC4, two Arabidopsis thaliana chloroplast Mini-RNase III-like enzymes sharing 75% amino acid sequence identity. Whereas rnc3 and rnc4 null mutants have no visible phenotype, rnc3/rnc4 (rnc3/4) double mutants are slightly smaller and chlorotic compared with the wild type. In Bacillus subtilis, the RNase Mini-III is integral to 23S rRNA maturation. In Arabidopsis, we observed imprecise maturation of 23S rRNA in the rnc3/4 double mutant, suggesting that exoribonucleases generated staggered ends in the absence of specific Mini-III-catalyzed cleavages. A similar phenotype was found at the 3' end of the 16S rRNA, and the primary 4.5S rRNA transcript contained 3' extensions, suggesting that Mini-III catalyzes several processing events of the polycistronic rRNA precursor. The rnc3/4 mutant showed overaccumulation of a noncoding RNA complementary to the 4.5S-5S rRNA intergenic region, and its presence correlated with that of the extended 4.5S rRNA precursor. Finally, we found rnc3/4-specific intron degradation intermediates that are probable substrates for Mini-III and show that B. subtilis Mini-III is also involved in intron regulation. Overall, this study extends our knowledge of the key role of Mini-III in intron and noncoding RNA regulation and provides important insight into plastid rRNA maturation.

  17. Detection of Babesia microti parasites by highly sensitive 18S rRNA reverse transcription PCR.

    PubMed

    Hanron, Amelia E; Billman, Zachary P; Seilie, Annette M; Chang, Ming; Murphy, Sean C

    2017-03-01

    Babesia are increasingly appreciated as a cause of transfusion-transmitted infection. Sensitive methods are needed to screen blood products. We report herein that B. microti 18S rRNA is over 1,000-fold more abundant than its coding genes, making reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR) much more sensitive than PCR. Babesia 18S rRNA may be useful for screening the blood supply. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Arabidopsis Chloroplast Mini-Ribonuclease III Participates in rRNA Maturation and Intron Recycling

    PubMed Central

    Hotto, Amber M.; Castandet, Benoît; Gilet, Laetitia; Higdon, Andrea; Condon, Ciarán; Stern, David B.

    2015-01-01

    RNase III proteins recognize double-stranded RNA structures and catalyze endoribonucleolytic cleavages that often regulate gene expression. Here, we characterize the functions of RNC3 and RNC4, two Arabidopsis thaliana chloroplast Mini-RNase III-like enzymes sharing 75% amino acid sequence identity. Whereas rnc3 and rnc4 null mutants have no visible phenotype, rnc3/rnc4 (rnc3/4) double mutants are slightly smaller and chlorotic compared with the wild type. In Bacillus subtilis, the RNase Mini-III is integral to 23S rRNA maturation. In Arabidopsis, we observed imprecise maturation of 23S rRNA in the rnc3/4 double mutant, suggesting that exoribonucleases generated staggered ends in the absence of specific Mini-III-catalyzed cleavages. A similar phenotype was found at the 3′ end of the 16S rRNA, and the primary 4.5S rRNA transcript contained 3′ extensions, suggesting that Mini-III catalyzes several processing events of the polycistronic rRNA precursor. The rnc3/4 mutant showed overaccumulation of a noncoding RNA complementary to the 4.5S-5S rRNA intergenic region, and its presence correlated with that of the extended 4.5S rRNA precursor. Finally, we found rnc3/4-specific intron degradation intermediates that are probable substrates for Mini-III and show that B. subtilis Mini-III is also involved in intron regulation. Overall, this study extends our knowledge of the key role of Mini-III in intron and noncoding RNA regulation and provides important insight into plastid rRNA maturation. PMID:25724636

  19. Dynamics and rRNA transcriptional activity of lactococci and lactobacilli during Cheddar cheese ripening.

    PubMed

    Desfossés-Foucault, Émilie; LaPointe, Gisèle; Roy, Denis

    2013-08-16

    Cheddar cheese is a complex ecosystem where both the bacterial population and the cheese making process contribute to flavor and texture development. The aim of this study was to use molecular methods to evaluate the impact of milk heat treatment and ripening temperature on starter lactococci and non-starter lactic acid bacteria (NSLAB) throughout ripening of Cheddar cheese. Eight Cheddar cheese batches were manufactured (four with thermized and four with pasteurized milk) and ripened at 4, 7 and 12°C to analyze the bacterial composition and rRNA transcriptional activity reflecting the ability of lactococci and lactobacilli to synthesize proteins. Abundance and rRNA transcription of lactococci and lactobacilli were quantified after DNA and RNA extraction by using quantitative PCR (qPCR) and reverse transcription-quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) targeting the 16S rRNA gene, respectively. Results showed that lactococci remained dominant throughout ripening, although 16S rRNA genome and cDNA copies/g of cheese decreased by four and two log copy numbers, respectively. Abundance and rRNA transcription of Lactobacillus paracasei, Lactobacillus buchneri/parabuchneri, Lactobacillus rhamnosus, Lactobacillus brevis, and Lactobacillus coryniformis as well as total lactobacilli were also estimated using specific 16S rRNA primers. L. paracasei and L. buchneri/parabuchneri concomitantly grew in cheese made from thermized milk at 7 and 12°C, although L. paracasei displayed the most rRNA transcription among Lactobacillus species. This work showed that rRNA transcriptional activity of lactococci decreased throughout ripening and supports the usefulness of RNA analysis to assess which bacterial species have the ability to synthesize proteins during ripening, and could thereby contribute to cheese quality. © 2013.

  20. Mutations in the mitochondrial 12S rRNA gene in elderly Chinese people.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yuhua; Zhao, Jiandong; Feng, Bo; Su, Yu; Kang, Dongyang; Yuan, Huijun; Zhai, Suoqiang; Dai, Pu

    2015-01-01

    Our data indicate that the mitochondrial 12S rRNA gene, and particularly the A827G mutation, may be associated with susceptibility to age-related hearing loss. Hearing loss associated with aging is common among elderly persons. In all genetic backgrounds, mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) mutations may be one of the most important factors contributing to aging and age-related hearing loss. The mitochondrial 12S rRNA is a hot spot for deafness-associated mutations in Chinese populations. The purpose of the present study was to elucidate the relationship of 12S rRNA gene polymorphisms and age-related hearing loss. The 12S rRNA gene polymorphisms were detected by direct sequencing. Statistical analyses were performed to assess the associations between age-related hearing loss and 12S rRNA gene variants. We report here a systematic mutational screening of the mitochondrial 12S rRNA gene in 662 elderly subjects from the general population with various hearing threshold levels (211 controls and 451 age-related hearing loss subjects). Mutational screening of the mitochondrial 12S rRNA gene identified 55 nucleotide changes, including 4 mutations localized at highly conserved sites and 51 known variants. Of the known deafness-associated mutations in the mitochondrial 12S rRNA gene, the incidence of the A1555G mutation was 0.15%, A827G was 4.38%, T1095C was 0.45%, and T1005C was 3.78%. The incidence of the other known variants was 0.15-99.85%. We found statistically significant differences in the proportions of subjects with the A827G mutation among the various age-related hearing loss groups and normal controls.

  1. Complete nucleotide sequence of the 23S rRNA gene of the Cyanobacterium, Anacystis nidulans.

    PubMed Central

    Douglas, S E; Doolittle, W F

    1984-01-01

    The nucleotide sequence of the Anacystis nidulans 23S rRNA gene, including the 5'- and 3'-flanking regions has been determined. The gene is 2876 nucleotides long and shows higher primary sequence homology to the 23S rRNAs of plastids (84.5%) than to that of E. coli (79%). The predicted rRNA transcript also shares many secondary structural features with those of plastids, reinforcing the endosymbiont hypothesis for the origin of these organelles. PMID:6326060

  2. Prevalence of Mitochondrial 12S rRNA Mutations Associated with Aminoglycoside Ototoxicity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guan, Min-Xin

    2005-01-01

    The mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) 12S rRNA is a hot spot for mutations associated with both aminoglycoside-induced and nonsyndromic hearing loss. Of those, the homoplasmic A1555G and C1494T mutations at a highly conserved decoding region of the 12S rRNA have been associated with hearing loss. These two mutations account for a significant number of…

  3. Intragenomic heterogeneity of 16S rRNA genes causes overestimation of prokaryotic diversity.

    PubMed

    Sun, Dong-Lei; Jiang, Xuan; Wu, Qinglong L; Zhou, Ning-Yi

    2013-10-01

    Ever since Carl Woese introduced the use of 16S rRNA genes for determining the phylogenetic relationships of prokaryotes, this method has been regarded as the "gold standard" in both microbial phylogeny and ecology studies. However, intragenomic heterogeneity within 16S rRNA genes has been reported in many investigations and is believed to bias the estimation of prokaryotic diversity. In the current study, 2,013 completely sequenced genomes of bacteria and archaea were analyzed and intragenomic heterogeneity was found in 952 genomes (585 species), with 87.5% of the divergence detected being below the 1% level. In particular, some extremophiles (thermophiles and halophiles) were found to harbor highly divergent 16S rRNA genes. Overestimation caused by 16S rRNA gene intragenomic heterogeneity was evaluated at different levels using the full-length and partial 16S rRNA genes usually chosen as targets for pyrosequencing. The result indicates that, at the unique level, full-length 16S rRNA genes can produce an overestimation of as much as 123.7%, while at the 3% level, an overestimation of 12.9% for the V6 region may be introduced. Further analysis showed that intragenomic heterogeneity tends to concentrate in specific positions, with the V1 and V6 regions suffering the most intragenomic heterogeneity and the V4 and V5 regions suffering the least intragenomic heterogeneity in bacteria. This is the most up-to-date overview of the diversity of 16S rRNA genes within prokaryotic genomes. It not only provides general guidance on how much overestimation can be introduced when applying 16S rRNA gene-based methods, due to its intragenomic heterogeneity, but also recommends that, for bacteria, this overestimation be minimized using primers targeting the V4 and V5 regions.

  4. Prevalence of Mitochondrial 12S rRNA Mutations Associated with Aminoglycoside Ototoxicity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guan, Min-Xin

    2005-01-01

    The mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) 12S rRNA is a hot spot for mutations associated with both aminoglycoside-induced and nonsyndromic hearing loss. Of those, the homoplasmic A1555G and C1494T mutations at a highly conserved decoding region of the 12S rRNA have been associated with hearing loss. These two mutations account for a significant number of…

  5. A Census of rRNA Genes and Linked Genomic Sequences within a Soil Metagenomic Library

    PubMed Central

    Liles, Mark R.; Manske, Brian F.; Bintrim, Scott B.; Handelsman, Jo; Goodman, Robert M.

    2003-01-01

    We have analyzed the diversity of microbial genomes represented in a library of metagenomic DNA from soil. A total of 24,400 bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) clones were screened for 16S rRNA genes. The sequences obtained from BAC clones were compared with a collection generated by direct PCR amplification and cloning of 16S rRNA genes from the same soil. The results indicated that the BAC library had substantially lower representation of bacteria among the Bacillus, α-Proteobacteria, and CFB groups; greater representation among the β- and γ-Proteobacteria, and OP10 divisions; and no rRNA genes from the domains Eukaryota and Archaea. In addition to rRNA genes recovered from the bacterial divisions Proteobacteria, Verrucomicrobia, Firmicutes, Cytophagales, and OP11, we identified many rRNA genes from the BAC library affiliated with the bacterial division Acidobacterium; all of these sequences were affiliated with subdivisions that lack cultured representatives. The complete sequence of one BAC clone derived from a member of the Acidobacterium division revealed a complete rRNA operon and 20 other open reading frames, including predicted gene products involved in cell division, cell cycling, folic acid biosynthesis, substrate metabolism, amino acid uptake, DNA repair, and transcriptional regulation. This study is the first step in using genomics to reveal the physiology of as-yet-uncultured members of the Acidobacterium division. PMID:12732537

  6. rRNA Pseudogenes in Filamentous Ascomycetes as Revealed by Genome Data

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yi; Yang, Rui-Heng; Jiang, Lan; Hu, Xiao-Di; Wu, Zu-Jian; Yao, Yi-Jian

    2017-01-01

    The nuclear ribosomal DNA (rDNA) is considered as a paradigm of concerted evolution. Components of the rDNA tandem repeats (45S) are widely used in phylogenetic studies of different organisms and the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region was recently selected as a fungal DNA bar code. However, rRNA pseudogenes, as one kind of escape from concerted evolution, were reported in a wide range of organisms, especially in plants and animals. Moreover, large numbers of 5S rRNA pseudogenes were identified in several filamentous ascomycetes. To study whether rDNA evolves in a strict concerted manner and test whether rRNA pseudogenes exist in more species of ascomycetes, intragenomic rDNA polymorphisms were analyzed using whole genome sequences. Divergent rDNA paralogs were found to coexist within a single genome in seven filamentous ascomycetes examined. A great number of paralogs were identified as pseudogenes according to the mutation and secondary structure analyses. Phylogenetic analyses of the three rRNA coding regions of the 45S rDNA repeats, i.e., 18S, 5.8S, and 28S, revealed an interspecies clustering pattern of those different rDNA paralogs. The identified rRNA pseudogenic sequences were validated using specific primers designed. Mutation analyses revealed that the repeat-induced point (RIP) mutation was probably responsible for the formation of those rRNA pseudogenes. PMID:28637809

  7. An RNA conformational switch regulates pre-18S rRNA cleavage.

    PubMed

    Lamanna, Allison C; Karbstein, Katrin

    2011-01-07

    To produce mature ribosomal RNAs (rRNAs), polycistronic rRNA transcripts are cleaved in an ordered series of events. We have uncovered the molecular basis for the ordering of two essential cleavage steps at the 3'-end of 18S rRNA. Using in vitro and in vivo structure probing, RNA binding and cleavage experiments, and yeast genetics, we demonstrate that a conserved RNA sequence in the spacer region between the 18S and 5.8S rRNAs base-pairs with the decoding site of 18S rRNA in early assembly intermediates. Nucleolar cleavage at site A(2) excises this sequence element, leading to a conformational switch in pre-18S rRNA, by which the ribosomal decoding site is formed. This conformational switch positions the nuclease Nob1 for cytoplasmic cleavage at the 3'-end of 18S rRNA and is required for the final maturation step of 18S rRNA in vivo and in vitro. More generally, our data show that the intrinsic ability of RNA to form stable structural switches is exploited to order and regulate RNA-dependent biological processes. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. An RNA Conformational Switch Regulates Pre-18S rRNA Cleavage

    PubMed Central

    Lamanna, Allison C.; Karbstein, Katrin

    2010-01-01

    To produce mature ribosomal RNAs (rRNAs), polycistronic rRNA transcripts are cleaved in an ordered series of events. We have uncovered the molecular basis for the ordering of two essential cleavage steps at the 3′-end of 18S rRNA. Using in vitro and in vivo structure probing, RNA binding and cleavage experiments, and yeast genetics, we demonstrate that a conserved RNA sequence in the spacer region between the 18S and 5.8S rRNAs base pairs with the decoding site of 18S rRNA in early assembly intermediates. Nucleolar cleavage at site A2 excises this sequence element, leading to a conformational switch in pre-18S rRNA by which the ribosomal decoding site is formed. This conformational switch positions the nuclease Nob1 for cytoplasmic cleavage at the 3′-end of 18S rRNA and is required for the final maturation step of 18S rRNA in vivo and in vitro. More generally, our data show that the intrinsic ability of RNA to form stable structural switches is exploited to order and regulate RNA-dependent biological processes. PMID:20934433

  9. Differential assembly of 16S rRNA domains during 30S subunit formation.

    PubMed

    Xu, Zhili; Culver, Gloria M

    2010-10-01

    Rapid and accurate assembly of the ribosomal subunits, which are responsible for protein synthesis, is required to sustain cell growth. Our best understanding of the interaction of 30S ribosomal subunit components (16S ribosomal RNA [rRNA] and 20 ribosomal proteins [r-proteins]) comes from in vitro work using Escherichia coli ribosomal components. However, detailed information regarding the essential elements involved in the assembly of 30S subunits still remains elusive. Here, we defined a set of rRNA nucleotides that are critical for the assembly of the small ribosomal subunit in E. coli. Using an RNA modification interference approach, we identified 54 nucleotides in 16S rRNA whose modification prevents the formation of a functional small ribosomal subunit. The majority of these nucleotides are located in the head and interdomain junction of the 30S subunit, suggesting that these regions are critical for small subunit assembly. In vivo analysis of specific identified sites, using engineered mutations in 16S rRNA, revealed defective protein synthesis capability, aberrant polysome profiles, and abnormal 16S rRNA processing, indicating the importance of these residues in vivo. These studies reveal that specific segments of 16S rRNA are more critical for small subunit assembly than others, and suggest a hierarchy of importance.

  10. Low abundant spacer 5S rRNA transcripts are frequently polyadenylated in Nicotiana.

    PubMed

    Fulnecek, Jaroslav; Kovarik, Ales

    2007-11-01

    In plants, 5S rRNA genes (5S rDNA) encoding 120-nt structural RNA molecules of ribosomes are organized in tandem arrays comprising thousands of units. Failure to correctly terminate transcription would generate longer inaccurately processed transcripts interfering with ribosome biogenesis. Hence multiple termination signals occur immediately after the 5S rRNA coding sequence. To obtain information about the efficiency of termination of 5S rDNA transcription in plants we analyzed 5S rRNA pools in three Nicotiana species, N. sylvestris, N. tomentosiformis and N. tabacum. In addition to highly abundant 120-nt 5S rRNA transcripts, we also detected RNA species composed of a genic region and variable lengths of intergenic sequences. These genic-intergenic RNA molecules occur at a frequency severalfold lower than the mature 120-nt transcripts, and are posttranscriptionally modified by polyadenylation at their 3' end in contrast to 120-nt transcripts. An absence of 5S small RNAs (smRNA) argue against a dominant role for the smRNA biosynthesis pathway in the degradation of aberrant 5S rRNA in Nicotiana. This work is the first description of polyadenylated 5S rRNA species in higher eukaryotes originating from a read-through transcription into the intergenic spacer. We propose that polyadenylation may function in a "quality control" pathway ensuring that only correctly processed molecules enter the ribosome biogenesis.

  11. rRNA Pseudogenes in Filamentous Ascomycetes as Revealed by Genome Data.

    PubMed

    Li, Yi; Yang, Rui-Heng; Jiang, Lan; Hu, Xiao-Di; Wu, Zu-Jian; Yao, Yi-Jian

    2017-08-07

    The nuclear ribosomal DNA (rDNA) is considered as a paradigm of concerted evolution. Components of the rDNA tandem repeats (45S) are widely used in phylogenetic studies of different organisms and the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region was recently selected as a fungal DNA bar code. However, rRNA pseudogenes, as one kind of escape from concerted evolution, were reported in a wide range of organisms, especially in plants and animals. Moreover, large numbers of 5S rRNA pseudogenes were identified in several filamentous ascomycetes. To study whether rDNA evolves in a strict concerted manner and test whether rRNA pseudogenes exist in more species of ascomycetes, intragenomic rDNA polymorphisms were analyzed using whole genome sequences. Divergent rDNA paralogs were found to coexist within a single genome in seven filamentous ascomycetes examined. A great number of paralogs were identified as pseudogenes according to the mutation and secondary structure analyses. Phylogenetic analyses of the three rRNA coding regions of the 45S rDNA repeats, i.e., 18S, 5.8S, and 28S, revealed an interspecies clustering pattern of those different rDNA paralogs. The identified rRNA pseudogenic sequences were validated using specific primers designed. Mutation analyses revealed that the repeat-induced point (RIP) mutation was probably responsible for the formation of those rRNA pseudogenes. Copyright © 2017 Li et al.

  12. Eukaryote-specific rRNA expansion segments function in ribosome biogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Ramesh, Madhumitha; Woolford, John L.

    2016-01-01

    The secondary structure of ribosomal RNA (rRNA) is largely conserved across all kingdoms of life. However, eukaryotes have evolved extra blocks of rRNA sequences, relative to those of prokaryotes, called expansion segments (ES). A thorough characterization of the potential roles of ES remains to be done, possibly because of limitations in the availability of robust systems to study rRNA mutants. We sought to systematically investigate the potential functions, if any, of the ES in 25S rRNA of Saccharomyces cerevisiae by deletion mutagenesis. We deleted 14 of the 16 different eukaryote-specific ES in yeast 25S rRNA individually and assayed their phenotypes. Our results show that all but two of the ES tested are necessary for optimal growth and are required for production of 25S rRNA, suggesting that ES play roles in ribosome biogenesis. Further, we classified expansion segments into groups that participate in early nucleolar, middle, and late nucleoplasmic steps of ribosome biogenesis, by assaying their pre-rRNA processing phenotypes. This study is the first of its kind to systematically identify the functions of eukaryote-specific expansion segments by showing that they play roles in specific steps of ribosome biogenesis. The catalog of phenotypes we identified, combined with previous investigations of the roles ribosomal proteins in large subunit biogenesis, leads us to infer that assembling ribosomes are composed of distinct RNA and protein structural neighborhood clusters that participate in specific steps of ribosome biogenesis. PMID:27317789

  13. Accurate taxonomy assignments from 16S rRNA sequences produced by highly parallel pyrosequencers

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Zongzhi; DeSantis, Todd Z.; Andersen, Gary L.; Knight, Rob

    2008-01-01

    The recent introduction of massively parallel pyrosequencers allows rapid, inexpensive analysis of microbial community composition using 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) sequences. However, a major challenge is to design a workflow so that taxonomic information can be accurately and rapidly assigned to each read, so that the composition of each community can be linked back to likely ecological roles played by members of each species, genus, family or phylum. Here, we use three large 16S rRNA datasets to test whether taxonomic information based on the full-length sequences can be recaptured by short reads that simulate the pyrosequencer outputs. We find that different taxonomic assignment methods vary radically in their ability to recapture the taxonomic information in full-length 16S rRNA sequences: most methods are sensitive to the region of the 16S rRNA gene that is targeted for sequencing, but many combinations of methods and rRNA regions produce consistent and accurate results. To process large datasets of partial 16S rRNA sequences obtained from surveys of various microbial communities, including those from human body habitats, we recommend the use of Greengenes or RDP classifier with fragments of at least 250 bases, starting from one of the primers R357, R534, R798, F343 or F517. PMID:18723574

  14. Sequence homologies between eukaryotic 5.8S rRNA and the 5' end of prokaryotic 23S rRNa: evidences for a common evolutionary origin.

    PubMed Central

    Jacq, B

    1981-01-01

    The question of the evolutionary origin of eukaryotic 5.8S rRNA was re-examined after the recent publication of the E. coli 23S rRNA sequence (26,40). A region of the 23S RNA located at its 5' end was found to be approximately 50% homologous to four different eukaryotic 5.8S rRNAs. A computer comparison analysis indicates that no other region of the E. coli ribosomal transcription unit (greater than 5 000 nucleotides in length) shares a comparable homology with 5.8S rRNA. Homology between the 5' end of e. coli 23S and four different eukaryotic 5.8S rRNAs falls within the same range as that between E. coli 5S RNA from the same four eukaryotic species. All these data strongly suggest that the 5' end of prokaryotic 23S rRNA and eukaryotic 5.8S RNA have a common evolutionary origin. Secondary structure models are proposed for the 5' region of E. coli 23S RNA. Images PMID:7024907

  15. Fewer fluctuations, higher maximum concentration and better motor response of levodopa with catechol-O-methyltransferase inhibition.

    PubMed

    Muhlack, Siegfried; Herrmann, Lennard; Salmen, Stephan; Müller, Thomas

    2014-11-01

    Catechol-O-methyltransferase inhibitor addition to levodopa/carbidopa formulations improves motor symptoms and reduces levodopa fluctuations in patients with Parkinson's disease. Objectives were to investigate the effects of entacapone and tolcapone on plasma behaviour of levodopa, its metabolite 3-O-methyldopa and on motor impairment. 22 patients orally received levodopa/carbidopa first, then levodopa/carbidopa/entacapone and finally levodopa/carbidopa plus tolcapone within a 4.5 h interval twice. Maximum concentration, time to maximum level and bioavailability of levodopa did not differ between all conditions each with 200 mg levodopa application as a whole. Catechol-O-methyltransferase inhibition caused less fluctuations and higher baseline levels of levodopa after the first intake and less 3-O-methyldopa appearance. The maximum levodopa concentrations were higher after the second levodopa intake, particularly with catechol-O-methyltransferase inhibition. The motor response to levodopa was better with catechol-O-methyltransferase inhibition than without, tolcapone was superior to entacapone. More continuous levodopa brain delivery and lower 3-O-methyldopa bioavailability caused a better motor response during catechol-O-methyltransferase inhibition.

  16. Fine-tuning the stimulation of MLL1 methyltransferase activity by a histone H3-based peptide mimetic

    SciTech Connect

    Avdic, Vanja; Zhang, Pamela; Lanouette, Sylvain; Voronova, Anastassia; Skerjanc, Ilona; Couture, Jean-Francois

    2011-08-24

    The SET1 family of methyltransferases carries out the bulk of histone H3 Lys-4 methylation in vivo. One of the common features of this family is the regulation of their methyltransferase activity by a tripartite complex composed of WDR5, RbBP5, and Ash2L. To selectively probe the role of the SET1 family of methyltransferases, we have developed a library of histone H3 peptide mimetics and report herein the characterization of an N{alpha} acetylated form of histone H3 peptide (N{alpha}H3). Binding and inhibition studies reveal that the addition of an acetyl moiety to the N terminus of histone H3 significantly enhances its binding to WDR5 and prevents the stimulation of MLL1 methyltransferase activity by the WDR5-RbBP5-Ash2L complex. The crystal structure of N{alpha}H3 in complex with WDR5 reveals that a high-affinity hydrophobic pocket accommodates the binding of the acetyl moiety. These results provide the structural basis to control WDR5-RbBP5-Ash2L-MLL1 activity and a tool to manipulate stem cell differentiation programs.-Avdic, V., Zhang, P., Lanouette, S., Voronova, A., Skerjanc, I., Couture, J.-F. Fine-tuning the stimulation of MLL1 methyltransferase activity by a histone H3-based peptide mimetic.

  17. Fragmentation of 23S rRNA in Strains of Proteus and Providencia Results from Intervening Sequences in the rrn (rRNA) Genes

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Wayne L.; Pabbaraju, Kanti; Sanderson, Kenneth E.

    2000-01-01

    Intervening sequences (IVSs) were originally identified in the rrl genes for 23S rRNA (rrl genes, for large ribosomal subunit, part of rrn operon encoding rRNA) of Salmonella enterica serovars Typhimurium LT2 and Arizonae. These sequences are transcribed but later removed during RNase III processing of the rRNA, resulting in fragmentation of the 23S species; IVSs are uncommon, but have been reported in at least 10 bacterial genera. Through PCR amplification of IVS-containing regions of the rrl genes we showed that most Proteus and Providencia strains contain IVSs similar to those of serovar Typhimurium in distribution and location in rrl genes. By extraction and Northern blotting of rRNA, we also found that these IVSs result in rRNA fragmentation. We report the first finding of two very different sizes of IVS (113 bp and 183 to 187 bp) in different rrl genes in the same strain, in helix 25 of Proteus and Providencia spp.; IVSs from helix 45 are 113 to 123 bp in size. Analysis of IVS sequence and postulated secondary structure reveals striking similarities of Proteus and Providencia IVSs to those of serovar Typhimurium, with the stems of the smaller IVSs from helix 25 being similar to those of Salmonella helix 25 IVSs and with both the stem and the central loop domain of helix 45 IVSs being similar. Thus, IVSs of related sequences are widely distributed throughout the Enterobacteriaceae, in Salmonella, Yersinia, Proteus, and Providencia spp., but we did not find them in Escherichia coli, Citrobacter, Enterobacter, Klebsiella, or Morganella spp.; the sporadic distribution of IVSs of related sequence indicates that lateral genetic transfer has occurred. PMID:10648538

  18. Novel approach to quantitative detection of specific rRNA in a microbial community, using catalytic DNA.

    PubMed

    Suenaga, Hikaru; Liu, Rui; Shiramasa, Yuko; Kanagawa, Takahiro

    2005-08-01

    We developed a novel method for the quantitative detection of the 16S rRNA of a specific bacterial species in the microbial community by using deoxyribozyme (DNAzyme), which possesses the catalytic function to cleave RNA in a sequence-specific manner. A mixture of heterogeneous 16S rRNA containing the target 16S rRNA was incubated with a species-specific DNAzyme. The cleaved target 16S rRNA was separated from the intact 16S rRNA by electrophoresis, and then their amounts were compared for the quantitative detection of target 16S rRNA. This method was used to determine the abundance of the 16S rRNA of a filamentous bacterium, Sphaerotilus natans, in activated sludge, which is a microbial mixture used in wastewater treatment systems. The result indicated that this DNAzyme-based approach would be applicable to actual microbial communities.

  19. RNase L-Independent Specific 28S rRNA Cleavage in Murine Coronavirus-Infected Cells

    PubMed Central

    Banerjee, Sangeeta; An, Sungwhan; Zhou, Aimin; Silverman, Robert H.; Makino, Shinji

    2000-01-01

    We characterized a novel 28S rRNA cleavage in cells infected with the murine coronavirus mouse hepatitis virus (MHV). The 28S rRNA cleavage occurred as early as 4 h postinfection (p.i.) in MHV-infected DBT cells, with the appearance of subsequent cleavage products and a decrease in the amount of intact 28S rRNA with increasing times of infection; almost all of the intact 28S rRNA disappeared by 24 h p.i. In contrast, no specific 18S rRNA cleavage was detected in infected cells. MHV-induced 28S rRNA cleavage was detected in all MHV-susceptible cell lines and all MHV strains tested. MHV replication was required for the 28S rRNA cleavage, and mature cytoplasmic 28S rRNA underwent cleavage. In certain combination of cells and viruses, pretreatment of virus-infected cells with interferon activates a cellular endoribonuclease, RNase L, that causes rRNA degradation. No interferon was detected in the inoculum used for MHV infection. Addition of anti-interferon antibody to MHV-infected cells did not inhibit 28S rRNA cleavage. Furthermore, 28S rRNA cleavage occurred in an MHV-infected mouse embryonic fibroblast cell line derived from RNase L knockout mice. Thus, MHV-induced 28S rRNA cleavage was independent of the activation of RNase L. MHV-induced 28S rRNA cleavage was also different from apoptosis-related rRNA degradation, which usually occurs concomitantly with DNA fragmentation. In MHV-infected 17Cl-1 cells, 28S rRNA cleavage preceded DNA fragmentation by at least 18 h. Blockage of apoptosis in MHV-infected 17Cl-1 cells by treatment with a caspase inhibitor did not block 28S rRNA cleavage. Furthermore, MHV-induced 28S rRNA cleavage occurred in MHV-infected DBT cells that do not show apoptotic signs, including activation of caspase-3 and DNA fragmentation. Thus, MHV-induced 28S rRNA cleavage appeared to differ from any rRNA degradation mechanism described previously. PMID:10982321

  20. Utility of 16S rRNA PCR performed on clinical specimens in patient management.

    PubMed

    Akram, A; Maley, M; Gosbell, I; Nguyen, T; Chavada, R

    2017-04-01

    Broad-range 16S rRNA PCR can be used for the detection and identification of bacteria from clinical specimens in patients for whom there is a high suspicion of infection and cultures are negative. The aims of this study were (1) to compare 16S rRNA PCR results with microbiological culture results, (2) to assess the utility of 16S rRNA PCR with regard to antimicrobial therapy, and (3) to compare the yield of 16S rRNA PCR for different types of clinical specimen and to perform a cost analysis of the test. A retrospective study was performed on different clinical specimens which had 16S performed over 3 years (2012-2015). Standard microbiological cultures were performed on appropriate media, as per the laboratory protocol. Patient clinical and microbiological data were obtained from the electronic medical records and laboratory information system, respectively. 16S rRNA PCR was performed in a reference laboratory using a validated method for amplification and sequencing. The outcomes assessed were the performance of 16S rRNA PCR, change of antimicrobials (rationalization, cessation, or addition), and duration of therapy. Concordance of 16S rRNA PCR with bacterial cultures was also determined for tissue specimens. Thirty-two patients were included in the study, for whom an equal number of specimens (n=32) were sent for 16S rRNA PCR. 16S rRNA PCR could identify an organism in 10 of 32 cases (31.2%), of which seven were culture-positive and three were culture-negative. The sensitivity was 58% (confidence interval (CI) 28.59-83.5%) and specificity was 85% (CI 61.13-96%), with a positive predictive value of 70% (CI 35.3-91.9%) and negative predictive value of 77.2% (CI 54.17-91.3%). Antimicrobial therapy was rationalized after 16S rRNA PCR results in five patients (15.6%) and was ceased in four based on negative results (12.5%). Overall the 16S rRNA PCR result had an impact on antimicrobial therapy in 28% of patients (9/32). The highest concordance of 16S rRNA PCR with

  1. Multiple Histone Lysine Methyltransferases Are Required for the Establishment and Maintenance of HIV-1 Latency.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Kien; Das, Biswajit; Dobrowolski, Curtis; Karn, Jonathan

    2017-02-28

    We showed previously that the histone lysine methyltransferase (HKMT) H3K27me3 (EZH2) is the catalytic subunit of Polycomb repressive complex 2 (PRC2) and is required for the maintenance of HIV-1 latency in Jurkat T cells. Here we show, by using chromatin immunoprecipitation experiments, that both PRC2 and euchromatic histone-lysine N-methyltransferase 2 (EHMT2), the G9a H3K9me2-3 methyltransferase, are highly enriched at the proviral 5' long terminal repeat (LTR) and rapidly displaced upon proviral reactivation. Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat(s) (CRISPR)-mediated knockout of EZH2 caused depletion of both EZH2 and EHMT2, but CRISPR-mediated knockout of EHMT2 was selective for EHMT2, consistent with the failure of EHMT2 knockouts to induce latent proviruses in this system. Either (i) knockout of methyltransferase by short hairpin RNA in Jurkat T cells prior to HIV-1 infection or (ii) inhibition of the enzymes with drugs significantly reduced the levels of the resulting silenced viruses, demonstrating that both enzymes are required to establish latency. To our surprise, inhibition of EZH2 (by GSK-343 or EPZ-6438) or inhibition of EHMT2 (by UNC-0638) in the Th17 primary cell model of HIV latency or resting memory T cells isolated from HIV-1-infected patients receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy, was sufficient to induce the reactivation of latent proviruses. The methyltransferase inhibitors showed synergy with interleukin-15 and suberanilohydroxamic acid. We conclude that both PRC2 and EHMT2 are required for the establishment and maintenance of HIV-1 proviral silencing in primary cells. Furthermore, EZH2 inhibitors such as GSK-343 and EPZ-6438 and the EHMT2 inhibitor UNC-0638 are strong candidates for use as latency-reversing agents in clinical studies.IMPORTANCE Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) reduces the circulating virus to undetectable levels. Although patients adhering to the HAART regimen have minimal viremia, HIV

  2. Uncultivated microbial eukaryotic diversity: a method to link ssu rRNA gene sequences with morphology.

    PubMed

    Hirst, Marissa B; Kita, Kelley N; Dawson, Scott C

    2011-01-01

    Protists have traditionally been identified by cultivation and classified taxonomically based on their cellular morphologies and behavior. In the past decade, however, many novel protist taxa have been identified using cultivation independent ssu rRNA sequence surveys. New rRNA "phylotypes" from uncultivated eukaryotes have no connection to the wealth of prior morphological descriptions of protists. To link phylogenetically informative sequences with taxonomically informative morphological descriptions, we demonstrate several methods for combining whole cell rRNA-targeted fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) with cytoskeletal or organellar immunostaining. Either eukaryote or ciliate-specific ssu rRNA probes were combined with an anti-α-tubulin antibody or phalloidin, a common actin stain, to define cytoskeletal features of uncultivated protists in several environmental samples. The eukaryote ssu rRNA probe was also combined with Mitotracker® or a hydrogenosomal-specific anti-Hsp70 antibody to localize mitochondria and hydrogenosomes, respectively, in uncultivated protists from different environments. Using rRNA probes in combination with immunostaining, we linked ssu rRNA phylotypes with microtubule structure to describe flagellate and ciliate morphology in three diverse environments, and linked Naegleria spp. to their amoeboid morphology using actin staining in hay infusion samples. We also linked uncultivated ciliates to morphologically similar Colpoda-like ciliates using tubulin immunostaining with a ciliate-specific rRNA probe. Combining rRNA-targeted FISH with cytoskeletal immunostaining or stains targeting specific organelles provides a fast, efficient, high throughput method for linking genetic sequences with morphological features in uncultivated protists. When linked to phylotype, morphological descriptions of protists can both complement and vet the increasing number of sequences from uncultivated protists, including those of novel lineages

  3. Yersinia spp. Identification Using Copy Diversity in the Chromosomal 16S rRNA Gene Sequence.

    PubMed

    Hao, Huijing; Liang, Junrong; Duan, Ran; Chen, Yuhuang; Liu, Chang; Xiao, Yuchun; Li, Xu; Su, Mingming; Jing, Huaiqi; Wang, Xin

    2016-01-01

    API 20E strip test, the standard for Enterobacteriaceae identification, is not sufficient to discriminate some Yersinia species for some unstable biochemical reactions and the same biochemical profile presented in some species, e.g. Yersinia ferderiksenii and Yersinia intermedia, which need a variety of molecular biology methods as auxiliaries for identification. The 16S rRNA gene is considered a valuable tool for assigning bacterial strains to species. However, the resolution of the 16S rRNA gene may be insufficient for discrimination because of the high similarity of sequences between some species and heterogeneity within copies at the intra-genomic level. In this study, for each strain we randomly selected five 16S rRNA gene clones from 768 Yersinia strains, and collected 3,840 sequences of the 16S rRNA gene from 10 species, which were divided into 439 patterns. The similarity among the five clones of 16S rRNA gene is over 99% for most strains. Identical sequences were found in strains of different species. A phylogenetic tree was constructed using the five 16S rRNA gene sequences for each strain where the phylogenetic classifications are consistent with biochemical tests; and species that are difficult to identify by biochemical phenotype can be differentiated. Most Yersinia strains form distinct groups within each species. However Yersinia kristensenii, a heterogeneous species, clusters with some Yersinia enterocolitica and Yersinia ferderiksenii/intermedia strains, while not affecting the overall efficiency of this species classification. In conclusion, through analysis derived from integrated information from multiple 16S rRNA gene sequences, the discrimination ability of Yersinia species is improved using our method.

  4. Diversity of 16S rRNA Genes within Individual Prokaryotic Genomes▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Pei, Anna Y.; Oberdorf, William E.; Nossa, Carlos W.; Agarwal, Ankush; Chokshi, Pooja; Gerz, Erika A.; Jin, Zhida; Lee, Peng; Yang, Liying; Poles, Michael; Brown, Stuart M.; Sotero, Steven; DeSantis, Todd; Brodie, Eoin; Nelson, Karen; Pei, Zhiheng

    2010-01-01

    Analysis of intragenomic variation of 16S rRNA genes is a unique approach to examining the concept of ribosomal constraints on rRNA genes; the degree of variation is an important parameter to consider for estimation of the diversity of a complex microbiome in the recently initiated Human Microbiome Project (http://nihroadmap.nih.gov/hmp). The current GenBank database has a collection of 883 prokaryotic genomes representing 568 unique species, of which 425 species contained 2 to 15 copies of 16S rRNA genes per genome (2.22 ± 0.81). Sequence diversity among the 16S rRNA genes in a genome was found in 235 species (from 0.06% to 20.38%; 0.55% ± 1.46%). Compared with the 16S rRNA-based threshold for operational definition of species (1 to 1.3% diversity), the diversity was borderline (between 1% and 1.3%) in 10 species and >1.3% in 14 species. The diversified 16S rRNA genes in Haloarcula marismortui (diversity, 5.63%) and Thermoanaerobacter tengcongensis (6.70%) were highly conserved at the 2° structure level, while the diversified gene in B. afzelii (20.38%) appears to be a pseudogene. The diversified genes in the remaining 21 species were also conserved, except for a truncated 16S rRNA gene in “Candidatus Protochlamydia amoebophila.” Thus, this survey of intragenomic diversity of 16S rRNA genes provides strong evidence supporting the theory of ribosomal constraint. Taxonomic classification using the 16S rRNA-based operational threshold could misclassify a number of species into more than one species, leading to an overestimation of the diversity of a complex microbiome. This phenomenon is especially seen in 7 bacterial species associated with the human microbiome or diseases. PMID:20418441

  5. Diversity of 16S rRNA genes within individual prokaryotic genomes.

    PubMed

    Pei, Anna Y; Oberdorf, William E; Nossa, Carlos W; Agarwal, Ankush; Chokshi, Pooja; Gerz, Erika A; Jin, Zhida; Lee, Peng; Yang, Liying; Poles, Michael; Brown, Stuart M; Sotero, Steven; Desantis, Todd; Brodie, Eoin; Nelson, Karen; Pei, Zhiheng

    2010-06-01

    Analysis of intragenomic variation of 16S rRNA genes is a unique approach to examining the concept of ribosomal constraints on rRNA genes; the degree of variation is an important parameter to consider for estimation of the diversity of a complex microbiome in the recently initiated Human Microbiome Project (http://nihroadmap.nih.gov/hmp). The current GenBank database has a collection of 883 prokaryotic genomes representing 568 unique species, of which 425 species contained 2 to 15 copies of 16S rRNA genes per genome (2.22 +/- 0.81). Sequence diversity among the 16S rRNA genes in a genome was found in 235 species (from 0.06% to 20.38%; 0.55% +/- 1.46%). Compared with the 16S rRNA-based threshold for operational definition of species (1 to 1.3% diversity), the diversity was borderline (between 1% and 1.3%) in 10 species and >1.3% in 14 species. The diversified 16S rRNA genes in Haloarcula marismortui (diversity, 5.63%) and Thermoanaerobacter tengcongensis (6.70%) were highly conserved at the 2 degrees structure level, while the diversified gene in B. afzelii (20.38%) appears to be a pseudogene. The diversified genes in the remaining 21 species were also conserved, except for a truncated 16S rRNA gene in "Candidatus Protochlamydia amoebophila." Thus, this survey of intragenomic diversity of 16S rRNA genes provides strong evidence supporting the theory of ribosomal constraint. Taxonomic classification using the 16S rRNA-based operational threshold could misclassify a number of species into more than one species, leading to an overestimation of the diversity of a complex microbiome. This phenomenon is especially seen in 7 bacterial species associated with the human microbiome or diseases.

  6. Specific potassium ion interactions facilitate homocysteine binding to betaine-homocysteine S-methyltransferase.

    PubMed

    Mládková, Jana; Hladílková, Jana; Diamond, Carrie E; Tryon, Katherine; Yamada, Kazuhiro; Garrow, Timothy A; Jungwirth, Pavel; Koutmos, Markos; Jiráček, Jiří

    2014-10-01

    Betaine-homocysteine S-methyltransferase (BHMT) is a zinc-dependent methyltransferase that uses betaine as the methyl donor for the remethylation of homocysteine to form methionine. This reaction supports S-adenosylmethionine biosynthesis, which is required for hundreds of methylation reactions in humans. Herein we report that BHMT is activated by potassium ions with an apparent K(M) for K⁺ of about 100 µM. The presence of potassium ions lowers the apparent K(M) of the enzyme for homocysteine, but it does not affect the apparent K(M) for betaine or the apparent k(cat) for either substrate. We employed molecular dynamics (MD) simulations to theoretically predict and protein crystallography to experimentally localize the binding site(s) for potassium ion(s). Simulations predicted that K⁺ ion would interact with residues Asp26 and/or Glu159. Our crystal structure of BHMT bound to homocysteine confirms these sites of interaction and reveals further contacts between K⁺ ion and BHMT residues Gly27, Gln72, Gln247, and Gly298. The potassium binding residues in BHMT partially overlap with the previously identified DGG (Asp26-Gly27-Gly28) fingerprint in the Pfam 02574 group of methyltransferases. Subsequent biochemical characterization of several site-specific BHMT mutants confirmed the results obtained by the MD simulations and crystallographic data. Together, the data herein indicate that the role of potassium ions in BHMT is structural and that potassium ion facilitates the specific binding of homocysteine to the active site of the enzyme.

  7. Kinetic isotope effects reveal early transition state of protein lysine methyltransferase SET8

    PubMed Central

    Linscott, Joshua A.; Kapilashrami, Kanishk; Wang, Zhen; Senevirathne, Chamara; Bothwell, Ian R.; Blum, Gil; Luo, Minkui

    2016-01-01

    Protein lysine methyltransferases (PKMTs) catalyze the methylation of protein substrates, and their dysregulation has been linked to many diseases, including cancer. Accumulated evidence suggests that the reaction path of PKMT-catalyzed methylation consists of the formation of a cofactor(cosubstrate)–PKMT–substrate complex, lysine deprotonation through dynamic water channels, and a nucleophilic substitution (SN2) transition state for transmethylation. However, the molecular characters of the proposed process remain to be elucidated experimentally. Here we developed a matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS) method and corresponding mathematic matrix to determine precisely the ratios of isotopically methylated peptides. This approach may be generally applicable for examining the kinetic isotope effects (KIEs) of posttranslational modifying enzymes. Protein lysine methyltransferase SET8 is the sole PKMT to monomethylate histone 4 lysine 20 (H4K20) and its function has been implicated in normal cell cycle progression and cancer metastasis. We therefore implemented the MS-based method to measure KIEs and binding isotope effects (BIEs) of the cofactor S-adenosyl-l-methionine (SAM) for SET8-catalyzed H4K20 monomethylation. A primary intrinsic 13C KIE of 1.04, an inverse intrinsic α-secondary CD3 KIE of 0.90, and a small but statistically significant inverse CD3 BIE of 0.96, in combination with computational modeling, revealed that SET8-catalyzed methylation proceeds through an early, asymmetrical SN2 transition state with the C-N and C-S distances of 2.35–2.40 Å and 2.00–2.05 Å, respectively. This transition state is further supported by the KIEs, BIEs, and steady-state kinetics with the SAM analog Se-adenosyl-l-selenomethionine (SeAM) as a cofactor surrogate. The distinct transition states between protein methyltransferases present the opportunity to design selective transition-state analog inhibitors. PMID

  8. Molecular Evolution of the Substrate Specificity of Chloroplastic Aldolases/Rubisco Lysine Methyltransferases in Plants.

    PubMed

    Ma, Sheng; Martin-Laffon, Jacqueline; Mininno, Morgane; Gigarel, Océane; Brugière, Sabine; Bastien, Olivier; Tardif, Marianne; Ravanel, Stéphane; Alban, Claude

    2016-04-04

    Rubisco and fructose-1,6-bisphosphate aldolases (FBAs) are involved in CO2 fixation in chloroplasts. Both enzymes are trimethylated at a specific lysine residue by the chloroplastic protein methyltransferase LSMT. Genes coding LSMT are present in all plant genomes but the methylation status of the substrates varies in a species-specific manner. For example, chloroplastic FBAs are naturally trimethylated in both Pisum sativum and Arabidopsis thaliana, whereas the Rubisco large subunit is trimethylated only in the former species. The in vivo methylation status of aldolases and Rubisco matches the catalytic properties of AtLSMT and PsLSMT, which are able to trimethylate FBAs or FBAs and Rubisco, respectively. Here, we created chimera and site-directed mutants of monofunctional AtLSMT and bifunctional PsLSMT to identify the molecular determinants responsible for substrate specificity. Our results indicate that the His-Ala/Pro-Trp triad located in the central part of LSMT enzymes is the key motif to confer the capacity to trimethylate Rubisco. Two of the critical residues are located on a surface loop outside the methyltransferase catalytic site. We observed a strict correlation between the presence of the triad motif and the in vivo methylation status of Rubisco. The distribution of the motif into a phylogenetic tree further suggests that the ancestral function of LSMT was FBA trimethylation. In a recent event during higher plant evolution, this function evolved in ancestors of Fabaceae, Cucurbitaceae, and Rosaceae to include Rubisco as an additional substrate to the archetypal enzyme. Our study provides insight into mechanisms by which SET-domain protein methyltransferases evolve new substrate specificity. Copyright © 2016 The Author. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Biochemical and molecular characterization of the homocysteine S-methyltransferase from broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica).

    PubMed

    Lyi, Sangbom M; Zhou, Xin; Kochian, Leon V; Li, Li

    2007-04-01

    Plants are known for their unique ability to synthesize methionine from S-methylmethionine (SMM) and homocysteine using the enzyme SMM: homocysteine S-methyltransferase (HMT) in the SMM cycle. Two cDNAs exhibiting HMT activity were cloned from broccoli and functionally expressed in E. coli. One cDNA, that encodes an enzyme with high substrate specificity for homocysteine, was designated as BoHMT1. The other cDNA was the BoSMT gene that we previously characterized and encodes a selenocysteine methyltransferase (Lyi, S.M., Heller, L.I., Rutzke, M., Welch, R.M., Kochian, L.V., Li, L., 2005. Molecular and biochemical characterization of the selenocysteine Se-methyltransferase gene and Se-methylselenocysteine synthesis in broccoli. Plant Physiol. 138, 409-420). Both exist as single gene sequences in the broccoli genome. While BoSMT expression was extremely low or undetectable in broccoli plants unless the plants were exposed to selenium, the BoHMT1 mRNA accumulated in most tissues of the plant except older leaves. In contrast to BoSMT whose expression was dramatically upregulated by treating plants with selenate, the transcript levels of BoHMT1 were not markedly affected in plants exposed to selenium. BoHMT1 expression responded significantly to changes in plant sulfur status. However, its expression was not dramatically affected in plants treated with methionine, SMM, homocysteine, or the heavy metal, cadmium. The differences in the substrate specificity and gene expression in response to changes in plant sulfur and selenium status between BoHMT1 and BoSMT suggest that the enzymes encoded by these two genes play distinct roles in sulfur and selenium metabolism in broccoli.

  10. Mechanism of human methyl-directed DNA methyltransferase and the fidelity of cytosine methylation.

    PubMed Central

    Smith, S S; Kaplan, B E; Sowers, L C; Newman, E M

    1992-01-01

    The properties of the methyl-directed DNA (cytosine-5-)-methyltransferase (EC 2.1.1.37) suggest that it is the enzyme that maintains patterns of methylation in the human genome. Proposals for the enzyme's mechanism of action suggest that 5-methyldeoxycytidine is produced from deoxycytidine via a dihydrocytosine intermediate. We have used an oligodeoxynucleotide containing 5-fluorodeoxycytidine as a suicide substrate to capture the enzyme and the dihydrocytosine intermediate. Gel retardation experiments demonstrate the formation of the expected covalent complex between duplex DNA containing 5-fluorodeoxycytidine and the human enzyme. Formation of the complex was dependent upon the presence of the methyl donor S-adenosylmethionine, suggesting that it comprises an enzyme-linked 5-substituted dihydrocytosine moiety in DNA. Dihydrocytosine derivatives are extremely labile toward hydrolytic deamination in aqueous solution. Because C-to-T transition mutations are especially prevalent at CG sites in human DNA, we have used high-performance liquid chromatography to search for thymidine that might be generated by hydrolysis during the methyl transfer reaction. Despite the potential for deamination inherent in the formation of the intermediate, the methyltransferase did not produce detectable amounts of thymidine. The data suggest that the ability of the human methyltransferase to preserve genetic information when copying a methylation pattern (i.e., its fidelity) is comparable to the ability of a mammalian DNA polymerase to preserve genetic information when copying a DNA sequence. Thus the high frequency of C-to-T transitions at CG sites in human DNA does not appear to be due to the normal enzymatic maintenance of methylation patterns. Images PMID:1584813

  11. Cell cycle-dependent degradation of the methyltransferase SETD3 attenuates cell proliferation and liver tumorigenesis.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Xiaoqing; Hao, Yuan; Shu, Wenjie; Zhao, Mengjie; Zhao, Chen; Wu, Yuan; Peng, Xiaodan; Yao, Pinfang; Xiao, Daibiao; Qing, Guoliang; Pan, Zhengying; Yin, Lei; Hu, Desheng; Du, Hai-Ning

    2017-06-02

    Histone modifications, including lysine methylation, are epigenetic marks that influence many biological pathways. Accordingly, many methyltransferases have critical roles in various biological processes, and their dysregulation is often associated with cancer. However, the biological functions and regulation of many methyltransferases are unclear. Here, we report that a human homolog of the methyltransferase SET (SU(var), enhancer of zeste, and trithorax) domain containing 3 (SETD3) is cell cycle-regulated; SETD3 protein levels peaked in S phase and were lowest in M phase. We found that the β-isoform of the tumor suppressor F-box and WD repeat domain containing 7 (FBXW7β) specifically mediates SETD3 degradation. Aligning the SETD3 sequence with those of well known FBXW7 substrates, we identified six potential non-canonical Cdc4 phosphodegrons (CPDs), and one of them, CPD1, is primarily phosphorylated by the kinase glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK3β), which is required for FBXW7β-mediated recognition and degradation. Moreover, depletion or inhibition of GSK3β or FBXW7β resulted in elevated SETD3 levels. Mutations of the phosphorylated residues in CPD1 of SETD3 abolished the interaction between FBXW7β and SETD3 and prevented SETD3 degradation. Our data further indicated that SETD3 levels positively correlated with cell proliferation of liver cancer cells and liver tumorigenesis in a xenograft mouse model, and that overexpression of FBXW7β counteracts the SETD3's tumorigenic role. We also show that SETD3 levels correlate with cancer malignancy, indicated by SETD3 levels that the 54 liver tumors are 2-fold higher than those in the relevant adjacent tissues. Collectively, these data elucidated that a GSK3β-FBXW7β-dependent mechanism controls SETD3 protein levels during the cell cycle and attenuates its oncogenic role in liver tumorigenesis. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  12. NRMT is an alpha-N-methyltransferase that methylates RCC1 and retinoblastoma protein.

    PubMed

    Tooley, Christine E Schaner; Petkowski, Janusz J; Muratore-Schroeder, Tara L; Balsbaugh, Jeremy L; Shabanowitz, Jeffrey; Sabat, Michal; Minor, Wladek; Hunt, Donald F; Macara, Ian G

    2010-08-26

    The post-translational methylation of alpha-amino groups was first discovered over 30 years ago on the bacterial ribosomal proteins L16 and L33 (refs 1, 2), but almost nothing is known about the function or enzymology of this modification. Several other bacterial and eukaryotic proteins have since been shown to be alpha-N-methylated. However, the Ran guanine nucleotide-exchange factor, RCC1, is the only protein for which any biological function of alpha-N-methylation has been identified. Methylation-defective mutants of RCC1 have reduced affinity for DNA and cause mitotic defects, but further characterization of this modification has been hindered by ignorance of the responsible methyltransferase. All fungal and animal N-terminally methylated proteins contain a unique N-terminal motif, Met-(Ala/Pro/Ser)-Pro-Lys, indicating that they may be targets of the same, unknown enzyme. The initiating Met is cleaved, and the exposed alpha-amino group is mono-, di- or trimethylated. Here we report the discovery of the first alpha-N-methyltransferase, which we named N-terminal RCC1 methyltransferase (NRMT). Substrate docking and mutational analysis of RCC1 defined the NRMT recognition sequence and enabled the identification of numerous new methylation targets, including SET (also known as TAF-I or PHAPII) and the retinoblastoma protein, RB. Knockdown of NRMT recapitulates the multi-spindle phenotype seen with methylation-defective RCC1 mutants, demonstrating the importance of alpha-N-methylation for normal bipolar spindle formation and chromosome segregation.

  13. A Potent, Selective and Cell-active Inhibitor of Human Type I Protein Arginine Methyltransferases

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Hong; Senisterra, Guillermo; Li, Fengling; Butler, Kyle V.; Kaniskan, H. Ümit; Speed, Brandon A.; dela Seña, Carlo; Dong, Aiping; Zeng, Hong; Schapira, Matthieu; Brown, Peter J.; Arrowsmith, Cheryl H.; Barsyte-Lovejoy, Dalia; Liu, Jing; Vedadi, Masoud; Jin, Jian

    2015-01-01

    Protein arginine methyltransferases (PRMTs) play a crucial role in a variety of biological processes. Overexpression of PRMTs has been implicated in various human diseases including cancer. Consequently, selective small-molecule inhibitors of PRMTs have been pursued by both academia and pharmaceutical industry as chemical tools for testing biological and therapeutic hypotheses. PRMTs are divided into three categories: type I PRMTs which catalyze mono- and asymmetric dimethylation of arginine residues, type II PRMTs which catalyze mono- and symmetric dimethylation of arginine residues, and type III PRMT which catalyzes only monomethylation of arginine residues. Here, we report the discovery of a potent, selective and cell-active inhibitor of human type I PRMTs, MS023, and characterization of this inhibitor in a battery of biochemical, biophysical and cellular assays. MS023 displayed high potency for type I PRMTs including PRMT1, 3, 4, 6 and 8, but was completely inactive against type II and type III PRMTs, protein lysine methyltransferases and DNA methyltransferases. A crystal structure of PRMT6 in complex with MS023 revealed that MS023 binds the substrate binding site. MS023 potently decreased cellular levels of histone arginine asymmetric dimethylation. It also reduced global levels of arginine asymmetric dimethylation and concurrently increased levels of arginine monomethylation and symmetric dimethylation in cells. We also developed MS094, a close analog of MS023, which was inactive in biochemical and cellular assays, as a negative control for chemical biology studies. MS023 and MS094 are useful chemical tools for investigating the role of type I PRMTs in health and disease. PMID:26598975

  14. Identification of inhibitors of Plasmodium falciparum phosphoethanolamine methyltransferase using an enzyme-coupled transmethylation assay

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The phosphoethanolamine methyltransferase, PfPMT, of the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum, a member of a newly identified family of phosphoethanolamine methyltransferases (PMT) found solely in some protozoa, nematodes, frogs, and plants, is involved in the synthesis of the major membrane phospholipid, phosphatidylcholine. PMT enzymes catalyze a three-step S-adenosylmethionine-dependent methylation of the nitrogen atom of phosphoethanolamine to form phosphocholine. In P. falciparum, this activity is a limiting step in the pathway of synthesis of phosphatidylcholine from serine and plays an important role in the development, replication and survival of the parasite within human red blood cells. Results We have employed an enzyme-coupled methylation assay to screen for potential inhibitors of PfPMT. In addition to hexadecyltrimethylammonium, previously known to inhibit PfPMT, two compounds dodecyltrimethylammonium and amodiaquine were also found to inhibit PfPMT activity in vitro. Interestingly, PfPMT activity was not inhibited by the amodiaquine analog, chloroquine, or other aminoquinolines, amino alcohols, or histamine methyltransferase inhibitors. Using yeast as a surrogate system we found that unlike wild-type cells, yeast mutants that rely on PfPMT for survival were sensitive to amodiaquine, and their phosphatidylcholine biosynthesis was inhibited by this compound. Furthermore NMR titration studies to characterize the interaction between amoidaquine and PfPMT demonstrated a specific and concentration dependent binding of the compound to the enzyme. Conclusion The identification of amodiaquine as an inhibitor of PfPMT in vitro and in yeast, and the biophysical evidence for the specific interaction of the compound with the enzyme will set the stage for the development of analogs of this drug that specifically inhibit this enzyme and possibly other PMTs. PMID:20085640

  15. Betaine Homocysteine Methyltransferase Is Active in the Mouse Blastocyst and Promotes Inner Cell Mass Development*

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Martin B.; Kooistra, Megan; Zhang, Baohua; Slow, Sandy; Fortier, Amanda L.; Garrow, Timothy A.; Lever, Michael; Trasler, Jacquetta M.; Baltz, Jay M.

    2012-01-01

    Methyltransferases are an important group of enzymes with diverse roles that include epigenetic gene regulation. The universal donor of methyl groups for methyltransferases is S-adenosylmethionine (AdoMet), which in most cells is synthesized using methyl groups carried by a derivative of folic acid. Another mechanism for AdoMet synthesis uses betaine as the methyl donor via the enzyme betaine-homocysteine methyltransferase (BHMT, EC 2.1.1.5), but it has been considered to be significant only in liver. Here, we show that mouse preimplantation embryos contain endogenous betaine; Bhmt mRNA is first expressed at the morula stage; BHMT is abundant at the blastocyst stage but not other preimplantation stages, and BHMT activity is similarly detectable in blastocyst homogenates but not those of two-cell or morula stage embryos. Knockdown of BHMT protein levels and reduction of enzyme activity using Bhmt-specific antisense morpholinos or a selective BHMT inhibitor resulted in decreased development of embryos to the blastocyst stage in vitro and a reduction in inner cell mass cell number in blastocysts. The detrimental effects of BHMT knockdown were fully rescued by the immediate methyl-carrying product of BHMT, methionine. A physiological role for betaine and BHMT in blastocyst viability was further indicated by increased fetal resorption following embryo transfer of BHMT knockdown blastocysts versus control. Thus, mouse blastocysts are unusual in being able to generate AdoMet not only by the ubiquitous folate-dependent mechanism but also from betaine metabolized by BHMT, likely a significant pool of methyl groups in blastocysts. PMID:22847001

  16. Endogenous reductants support the catalytic function of recombinant rat cyt19, an arsenic methyltransferase.

    PubMed

    Waters, Stephen B; Devesa, Vicenta; Del Razo, Luz Maria; Styblo, Miroslav; Thomas, David J

    2004-03-01

    The postulated scheme for the metabolism of inorganic As involves alternating steps of oxidative methylation and of reduction of As from the pentavalent to the trivalent oxidation state, producing methylated compounds containing AsIII that are highly reactive and toxic. S-Adenosyl-L-methionine:AsIII methyltransferase purified from rat liver catalyzes production of methyl and dimethyl arsenicals from inorganic As. This protein is encoded by the cyt19 gene orthologous with cyt19 genes in mouse and human. The reductants dithiothreitol or tris(2-carboxylethyl)phosphine support catalysis by recombinant rat cyt19 (rrcyt19). Coupled systems containing an endogenous reductant (thioredoxin/thioredoxin reductase/NADPH, glutaredoxin/glutathione/glutathione reductase/NADPH, or lipoic acid/thioredoxin reductase/NADPH) support inorganic As methylation by rrcyt19. Although glutathione alone does not support rrcyt19's catalytic function, its addition to reaction mixtures containing other reductants increases the rate of As methylation. Aurothioglucose, an inhibitor of thioredoxin reductase, reduces the rate of As methylation by rrcyt19 in thioredoxin-supported reactions. Addition of guinea pig liver cytosol, a poor source of endogenous As methyltransferase activity, to reaction mixtures containing rrcyt19 shows that endogenous reductants in cytosol support the enzyme's activity. Methylated compounds containing either AsIII or AsV are detected in reaction mixtures containing rrcyt19, suggesting that cycling of As between oxidation states is a component of the pathway producing methylated arsenicals. This enzyme may use endogenous reductants to reduce pentavalent arsenicals to trivalency as a prerequisite for utilization as substrates for methylation reactions. Thus, cyt19 appears to possess both AsIII methyltransferase and AsV reductase activities.

  17. Loss of Protein Arginine Methyltransferase 8 Alters Synapse Composition and Function, Resulting in Behavioral Defects.

    PubMed

    Penney, Jay; Seo, Jinsoo; Kritskiy, Oleg; Elmsaouri, Sara; Gao, Fan; Pao, Ping-Chieh; Su, Susan C; Tsai, Li-Huei

    2017-09-06

    Diverse molecular mechanisms regulate synaptic composition and function in the mammalian nervous system. The multifunctional protein arginine methyltransferase 8 (PRMT8) possesses both methyltransferase and phospholipase activities. Here we examine the role of this neuron-specific protein in hippocampal plasticity and cognitive function. PRMT8 protein localizes to synaptic sites, and conditional whole-brain Prmt8 deletion results in altered levels of multiple synaptic proteins in the hippocampus, using both male and female mice. Interestingly, these altered protein levels are due to post-transcriptional mechanisms as the corresponding mRNA levels are unaffected. Strikingly, electrophysiological recordings from hippocampal slices of mice lacking PRMT8 reveal multiple defects in excitatory synaptic function and plasticity. Furthermore, behavioral analyses show that PRMT8 conditional knock-out mice exhibit impaired hippocampal-dependent fear learning. Together, these findings establish PRMT8 as an important component of the molecular machinery required for hippocampal neuronal function.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Numerous molecular processes are critically required for normal brain function. Here we use mice lacking protein arginine methyltransferase 8 (PRMT8) in the brain to examine how loss of this protein affects the structure and function of neurons in the hippocampus. We find that PRMT8 localizes to the sites of communication between neurons. Hippocampal neurons from mice lacking PRMT8 have no detectable structural differences compared with controls; however, multiple aspects of their function are altered. Consistently, we find that mice lacking PRMT8 also exhibit reduced hippocampus-dependent memory. Together, our findings establish important roles for PRMT8 in regulating neuron function and cognition in the mammalian brain. Copyright © 2017 the authors 0270-6474/17/378655-12$15.00/0.

  18. Cytosine-to-uracil deamination by SssI DNA methyltransferase.

    PubMed

    Stier, Ildikó; Kiss, Antal

    2013-01-01

    The prokaryotic DNA(cytosine-5)methyltransferase M.SssI shares the specificity of eukaryotic DNA methyltransferases (CG) and is an important model and experimental tool in the study of eukaryotic DNA methylation. Previously, M.SssI was shown to be able to catalyze deamination of the target cytosine to uracil if the methyl donor S-adenosyl-methionine (SAM) was missing from the reaction. To test whether this side-activity of the enzyme can be used to distinguish between unmethylated and C5-methylated cytosines in CG dinucleotides, we re-investigated, using a sensitive genetic reversion assay, the cytosine deaminase activity of M.SssI. Confirming previous results we showed that M.SssI can deaminate cytosine to uracil in a slow reaction in the absence of SAM and that the rate of this reaction can be increased by the SAM analogue 5'-amino-5'-deoxyadenosine. We could not detect M.SssI-catalyzed deamination of C5-methylcytosine ((m5)C). We found conditions where the rate of M.SssI mediated C-to-U deamination was at least 100-fold higher than the rate of (m5)C-to-T conversion. Although this difference in reactivities suggests that the enzyme could be used to identify C5-methylated cytosines in the epigenetically important CG dinucleotides, the rate of M.SssI mediated cytosine deamination is too low to become an enzymatic alternative to the bisulfite reaction. Amino acid replacements in the presumed SAM binding pocket of M.SssI (F17S and G19D) resulted in greatly reduced methyltransferase activity. The G19D variant showed cytosine deaminase activity in E. coli, at physiological SAM concentrations. Interestingly, the C-to-U deaminase activity was also detectable in an E. coli ung (+) host proficient in uracil excision repair.

  19. DMSP: tetrahydrofolate methyltransferase from the marine sulfate-reducing bacterium strain WN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jansen, M.; Hansen, T. A.

    2000-08-01

    Dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP), an important compatible solute of many marine algae, can be metabolised by bacteria via cleavage to dimethylsulfide and acrylate or via an initial demethylation. This is the first report on the purification of an enzyme that specifically catalyses the demethylation of DMSP. The enzyme was isolated from the sulfate-reducing bacterium strain WN, which grows on DMSP and demethylates it to methylthiopropionate. DMSP:tetrahydrofolate (THF) methyltransferase from strain WN was purified 76-fold [to a specific activity of 40.5 μmol min -1 (mg protein) -1]. SDS polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis showed two bands of approximately 10 and 35 kDa; in particular the 35 kDa polypeptide became significantly enriched during the purification. Storage of the purified fraction at -20°C under nitrogen resulted in a 99% loss of activity in two days. The activity could be partially restored by addition of 200 μM cyanocobalamin, hydroxocobalamin or coenzyme B 12. ATP did not have any positive effect on activity. Reduction of the assay mixture by titanium(III)nitrilotriacetic acid slightly stimulated the activity. Gel filtration chromatography revealed a native molecular mass between 45 and 60 kDa for the DMSP:THF methyltransferase. The enzyme was most active at 35°C and pH 7.8. Glycine betaine, which can be considered an N-containing structural analogue of DMSP, did not serve as a methyl donor for DMSP:THF methyltransferase. Various sulfur-containing DMSP-analogues were tested but only methylethylsulfoniopropionate served as methyl donor. None of these compounds inhibited methyl transfer from DMSP to THF. Strain WN did not grow on any of the sulfur-containing DMSP-analogues.

  20. Arabidopsis DNA methyltransferase AtDNMT2 associates with histone deacetylase AtHD2s activity

    SciTech Connect

    Song, Yuan; Wu, Keqiang; Dhaubhadel, Sangeeta; An, Lizhe; Tian, Lining

    2010-05-28

    DNA methyltransferase2 (DNMT2) is always deemed to be enigmatic, because it contains highly conserved DNA methyltransferase motifs but lacks the DNA methylation catalytic capability. Here we show that Arabidopsis DNA methyltransferase2 (AtDNMT2) is localized in nucleus and associates with histone deacetylation. Bimolecular fluorescence complementation and pull-down assays show AtDNMT2 interacts with type-2 histone deacetylases (AtHD2s), a unique type of histone deacetylase family in plants. Through analyzing the expression of AtDNMT2: ss-glucuronidase (GUS) fusion protein, we demonstrate that AtDNMT2 has the ability to repress gene expression at transcription level. Meanwhile, the expression of AtDNMT2 gene is altered in athd2c mutant plants. We propose that AtDNMT2 possibly involves in the activity of histone deacetylation and plant epigenetic regulatory network.

  1. A liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry-based generic detection method for biochemical assay and hit discovery of histone methyltransferases.

    PubMed

    Li, Shu; Gu, X Justin; Hao, Qin; Fan, Hong; Li, Ling; Zhou, Shaolian; Zhao, Kehao; Chan, Ho Man; Wang, Y Karen

    2013-12-15

    Epigenetic modifications of the genome, such as DNA methylation and posttranslational modifications of histone proteins, contribute to gene regulation. Growing evidence suggests that histone methyltransferases are associated with the development of various human diseases, including cancer, and are promising drug targets. High-quality generic assays will facilitate drug discovery efforts in this area. In this article, we present a liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS)-based S-adenosyl homocysteine (SAH) detection assay for histone methyltransferases (HMTs) and its applications in HMT drug discovery, including analyzing the activity of newly produced enzymes, developing and optimizing assays, performing focused compound library screens and orthogonal assays for hit confirmations, selectivity profiling against a panel of HMTs, and studying mode of action of select hits. This LC/MS-based generic assay has become a critical platform for our methyltransferase drug discovery efforts.

  2. Glycine N-Methyltransferase and Regulation of S-Adenosylmethionine Levels*

    PubMed Central

    Luka, Zigmund; Mudd, S. Harvey; Wagner, Conrad

    2009-01-01

    Methylation is a major biological process. It has been shown to be important in formation of compounds such as phosphatidylcholine, creatine, and many others and also participates in epigenetic effects through methylation of histones and DNA. The donor of methyl groups for almost all cellular methylation reactions is S-adenosylmethionine. It seems that the level of S-adenosylmethionine must be regulated in response to developmental stages and metabolic changes, and the enzyme glycine N-methyltransferase has been shown to play a major role in such regulation in mammals. This minireview will focus on the latest discoveries in the elucidation of the mechanism of that regulation. PMID:19483083

  3. Synthesis and optimization of N-heterocyclic pyridinones as catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Zhijian; Harrison, Scott T; Schubert, Jeffrey W; Sanders, John M; Polsky-Fisher, Stacey; Zhang, Nanyan Rena; McLoughlin, Debra; Gibson, Christopher R; Robinson, Ronald G; Sachs, Nancy A; Kandebo, Monika; Yao, Lihang; Smith, Sean M; Hutson, Pete H; Wolkenberg, Scott E; Barrow, James C

    2016-06-15

    A series of N-heterocyclic pyridinone catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) inhibitors were synthesized. Physicochemical properties, including ligand lipophilic efficiency (LLE) and clogP, were used to guide compound design and attempt to improve inhibitor pharmacokinetics. Incorporation of heterocyclic central rings provided improvements in physicochemical parameters but did not significantly reduce in vitro or in vivo clearance. Nevertheless, compound 11 was identified as a potent inhibitor with sufficient in vivo exposure to significantly affect the dopamine metabolites homovanillic acid (HVA) and dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC), and indicate central COMT inhibition.

  4. Regioselectivity of catechol O-methyltransferase confers enhancement of catalytic activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsao, Douglas; Liu, Shubin; Dokholyan, Nikolay V.

    2011-04-01

    Catechol O-methyltransferase (COMT) metabolizes catechol moieties by methylating a single hydroxyl group at the meta- or para- hydroxyl position. Hydrophobic amino acids near the active site of COMT influence the regioselectivity of this reaction. Our sequence analysis highlights their importance by showing that these residues are highly conserved throughout evolution. Reaction barriers calculated in the gas phase reveal a lower barrier during methylation at the meta- position, suggesting that the observed meta-regioselectivity of COMT can be attributed to the substrate itself, and that COMT has evolved residues to orient the substrate in a manner that increases the rate of catalysis.

  5. Synthesis and Evaluation of Heterocyclic Catechol Mimics as Inhibitors of Catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT)

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    3-Hydroxy-4-pyridinones and 5-hydroxy-4-pyrimidinones were identified as inhibitors of catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) in a high-throughput screen. These heterocyclic catechol mimics exhibit potent inhibition of the enzyme and an improved toxicity profile versus the marketed nitrocatechol inhibitors tolcapone and entacapone. Optimization of the series was aided by X-ray cocrystal structures of the novel inhibitors in complex with COMT and cofactors SAM and Mg2+. The crystal structures suggest a mechanism of inhibition for these heterocyclic inhibitors distinct from previously disclosed COMT inhibitors. PMID:25815153

  6. Expressional characterization of mRNA (guanine-7) methyltransferase (rnmt) during early development of Xenopus laevis.

    PubMed

    Lokapally, Ashwin; Metikala, Sanjeeva; Hollemann, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Methylation of the guanosine cap structure at the 5' end of mRNA is essential for efficient translation of all eukaryotic cellular mRNAs, gene expression and cell viability and promotes transcription, splicing, polyadenylation and nuclear export of mRNA. In the current study, we present the spatial expression pattern of the Xenopus laevis rnmt homologue. A high percentage of protein sequence similarity, especially within the methyltransferase domain, as well as an increased expression in the cells of the transcriptionally active stages, suggests a conserved RNA cap methylation function. Spatial expression analysis identified expression domains in the brain, the retina, the lens, the otic vesicles and the branchial arches.

  7. Aryl Pyrazoles as Potent Inhibitors of Arginine Methyltransferases: Identification of the First PRMT6 Tool Compound

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    A novel aryl pyrazole series of arginine methyltransferase inhibitors has been identified. Synthesis of analogues within this series yielded the first potent, selective, small molecule PRMT6 inhibitor tool compound, EPZ020411. PRMT6 overexpression has been reported in several cancer types suggesting that inhibition of PRMT6 activity may have therapeutic utility. Identification of EPZ020411 provides the field with the first small molecule tool compound for target validation studies. EPZ020411 shows good bioavailability following subcutaneous dosing in rats making it a suitable tool for in vivo studies. PMID:26101569

  8. Aryl Pyrazoles as Potent Inhibitors of Arginine Methyltransferases: Identification of the First PRMT6 Tool Compound.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Lorna H; Drew, Allison E; Ribich, Scott A; Rioux, Nathalie; Swinger, Kerren K; Jacques, Suzanne L; Lingaraj, Trupti; Boriack-Sjodin, P Ann; Waters, Nigel J; Wigle, Tim J; Moradei, Oscar; Jin, Lei; Riera, Tom; Porter-Scott, Margaret; Moyer, Mikel P; Smith, Jesse J; Chesworth, Richard; Copeland, Robert A

    2015-06-11

    A novel aryl pyrazole series of arginine methyltransferase inhibitors has been identified. Synthesis of analogues within this series yielded the first potent, selective, small molecule PRMT6 inhibitor tool compound, EPZ020411. PRMT6 overexpression has been reported in several cancer types suggesting that inhibition of PRMT6 activity may have therapeutic utility. Identification of EPZ020411 provides the field with the first small molecule tool compound for target validation studies. EPZ020411 shows good bioavailability following subcutaneous dosing in rats making it a suitable tool for in vivo studies.

  9. The 'de novo' DNA methyltransferase Dnmt3b compensates the Dnmt1-deficient intestinal epithelium.

    PubMed

    Elliott, Ellen N; Sheaffer, Karyn L; Kaestner, Klaus H

    2016-01-25

    Dnmt1 is critical for immediate postnatal intestinal development, but is not required for the survival of the adult intestinal epithelium, the only rapidly dividing somatic tissue for which this has been shown. Acute Dnmt1 deletion elicits dramatic hypomethylation and genomic instability. Recovery of DNA methylation state and intestinal health is dependent on the de novo methyltransferase Dnmt3b. Ablation of both Dnmt1 and Dnmt3b in the intestinal epithelium is lethal, while deletion of either Dnmt1 or Dnmt3b has no effect on survival. These results demonstrate that Dnmt1 and Dnmt3b cooperate to maintain DNA methylation and genomic integrity in the intestinal epithelium.

  10. Protein lysine methyltransferase G9a acts on non-histone targets

    PubMed Central

    Rathert, Philipp; Dhayalan, Arunkumar; Murakami, Marie; Zhang, Xing; Tamas, Raluca; Jurkowska, Renata; Komatsu, Yasuhiko; Shinkai, Yoichi; Cheng, Xiaodong; Jeltsch, Albert

    2009-01-01

    By methylation of peptide arrays, we determined the specificity profile of the protein methyltransferase G9a. We show that it mostly recognizes an Arg-Lys sequence and that its activity is inhibited by methylation of the arginine residue. Using the specificity profile, we identified new non-histone protein targets of G9a, including CDYL1, WIZ, ACINUS and G9a (automethylation), as well as peptides derived from CSB. We demonstrate potential downstream signaling pathways for methylation of non-histone proteins. PMID:18438403

  11. Keeping them all together: β-propeller domains in histone methyltransferase complexes.

    PubMed

    Bergamin, Elisa; Blais, Alexandre; Couture, Jean-François

    2014-10-09

    Histone methyltransferases (HKMTs) residing in multi-subunit protein complexes frequently require the presence of β-propeller proteins to achieve their biological functions. Recent biochemical studies have highlighted the functional diversity of these scaffolding proteins in maintaining the integrity of the complexes, allosterically regulating HKMT enzymatic activity and acting as "histone tethering devices" to facilitate the interaction between HKMTs and their substrates. Structural studies have revealed that, while β-propeller domain proteins share structural similarity, they employ divergent mechanisms to achieve their functions. This review focuses on the progress made in the last decade to identify the biochemical determinants underlying the functions of these important proteins.

  12. Effects of a Novel Arginine Methyltransferase Inhibitor on T Helper Cell Cytokine Production

    PubMed Central

    Bonham, Kevin; Hemmers, Saskia; Lim, Yeon-Hee; Hill, Dawn M.; Finn, M.G.; Mowen, Kerri A.

    2010-01-01

    The protein arginine methyltransferase (PRMT) family of enzymes catalyzes the transfer of methyl groups from S-adenosylmethionine to the guanidino nitrogen atom of peptidylarginine to form monomethylarginine or dimethylarginine. We created several less polar analogues of the specific PRMT inhibitor AMI-1, and one such compound was found to have improved PRMT inhibitory activity over the parent molecule. The newly identified PRMT inhibitor modulated T helper cell function and thus may serve as a lead for further inhibitors useful for immune-mediated disease treatment. PMID:20345902

  13. Discovery of A-893, A New Cell-Active Benzoxazinone Inhibitor of Lysine Methyltransferase SMYD2

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    A lack of useful small molecule tools has precluded thorough interrogation of the biological function of SMYD2, a lysine methyltransferase with known tumor-suppressor substrates. Systematic exploration of the structure–activity relationships of a previously known benzoxazinone compound led to the synthesis of A-893, a potent and selective SMYD2 inhibitor (IC50: 2.8 nM). A cocrystal structure reveals the origin of enhanced potency, and effective suppression of p53K370 methylation is observed in a lung carcinoma (A549) cell line. PMID:26101576

  14. Crystal structure of phosphoethanolamine methyltransferase from Plasmodium falciparum in complex with amodiaquine

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Soon Goo; Alpert, Tara D.; Jez, Joseph M.

    2012-07-17

    Phosphoethanolamine N-methyltransferase (PMT) is essential for phospholipid biogenesis in the malarial parasite Plasmodium falciparum. PfPMT catalyzes the triple methylation of phosphoethanolamine to produce phosphocholine, which is then used for phosphatidylcholine synthesis. Here we describe the 2.0 {angstrom} resolution X-ray crystal structure of PfPMT in complex with amodiaquine. To better characterize inhibition of PfPMT by amodiaquine, we determined the IC{sub 50} values of a series of aminoquinolines using a direct radiochemical assay. Both structural and functional analyses provide a possible approach for the development of new small molecule inhibitors of PfPMT.

  15. Queen pheromones modulate DNA methyltransferase activity in bee and ant workers

    PubMed Central

    Holman, Luke; Trontti, Kalevi; Helanterä, Heikki

    2016-01-01

    DNA methylation is emerging as an important regulator of polyphenism in the social insects. Research has concentrated on differences in methylation between queens and workers, though we hypothesized that methylation is involved in mediating other flexible phenotypes, including pheromone-dependent changes in worker behaviour and physiology. Here, we find that exposure to queen pheromone affects the expression of two DNA methyltransferase genes in Apis mellifera honeybees and in two species of Lasius ants, but not in Bombus terrestris bumblebees. These results suggest that queen pheromones influence the worker methylome, pointing to a novel proximate mechanism for these key social signals. PMID:26814223

  16. Queen pheromones modulate DNA methyltransferase activity in bee and ant workers.

    PubMed

    Holman, Luke; Trontti, Kalevi; Helanterä, Heikki

    2016-01-01

    DNA methylation is emerging as an important regulator of polyphenism in the social insects. Research has concentrated on differences in methylation between queens and workers, though we hypothesized that methylation is involved in mediating other flexible phenotypes, including pheromone-dependent changes in worker behaviour and physiology. Here, we find that exposure to queen pheromone affects the expression of two DNA methyltransferase genes in Apis mellifera honeybees and in two species of Lasius ants, but not in Bombus terrestris bumblebees. These results suggest that queen pheromones influence the worker methylome, pointing to a novel proximate mechanism for these key social signals. © 2016 The Author(s).

  17. Enhancer of zeste homologue 2 plays an important role in neuroblastoma cell survival independent of its histone methyltransferase activity.

    PubMed

    Bate-Eya, Laurel T; Gierman, Hinco J; Ebus, Marli E; Koster, Jan; Caron, Huib N; Versteeg, Rogier; Dolman, M Emmy M; Molenaar, Jan J

    2017-04-01

    Neuroblastoma is predominantly characterised by chromosomal rearrangements. Next to V-Myc Avian Myelocytomatosis Viral Oncogene Neuroblastoma Derived Homolog (MYCN) amplification, chromosome 7 and 17q gains are frequently observed. We identified a neuroblastoma patient with a regional 7q36 gain, encompassing the enhancer of zeste homologue 2 (EZH2) gene. EZH2 is the histone methyltransferase of lysine 27 of histone H3 (H3K27me3) that forms the catalytic subunit of the polycomb repressive complex 2. H3K27me3 is commonly associated with the silencing of genes involved in cellular processes such as cell cycle regulation, cellular differentiation and cancer. High EZH2 expression correlated with poor prognosis and overall survival independent of MYCN amplification status. Unexpectedly, treatment of 3 EZH2-high expressing neuroblastoma cell lines (IMR32, CHP134 and NMB), with EZH2-specific inhibitors (GSK126 and EPZ6438) resulted in only a slight G1 arrest, despite maximum histone methyltransferase activity inhibition. Furthermore, colony formation in cell lines treated with the inhibitors was reduced only at concentrations much higher than necessary for complete inhibition of EZH2 histone methyltransferase activity. Knockdown of the complete protein with three independent shRNAs resulted in a strong apoptotic response and decreased cyclin D1 levels. This apoptotic response could be rescued by overexpressing EZH2ΔSET, a truncated form of wild-type EZH2 lacking the SET transactivation domain necessary for histone methyltransferase activity. Our findings suggest that high EZH2 expression, at least in neuroblastoma, has a survival function independent of its methyltransferase activity. This important finding highlights the need for studies on EZH2 beyond its methyltransferase function and the requirement for compounds that will target EZH2 as a complete protein.

  18. Structure and organization of rRNA operons in the region of the replication origin of the Bacillus subtilis chromosome.

    PubMed Central

    Ogasawara, N; Moriya, S; Yoshikawa, H

    1983-01-01

    Structure and organization of two complete ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene sets, rrnO and rrnA, were determined for the first time in Bacillus subtilis. They are located at the region of the replication origin of the chromosome. Each set constitutes a single operon of: two tandem promoters - leader sequence - 16S rRNA gene - Ile-tRNA gene - Ala-tRNA gene - 23S rRNA gene - 5S rRNA gene - termination signal. The first promoter (P1) of rrnO differs from that of rrnA in sequence and function. P1 of rrnO was used very little for transcription either in vivo or in vitro while P1 was predominantly used in rrnA. A putative transcript of the entire operon was determined and constructed into a secondary structure. Analysis of in vivo transcripts by S1 mapping revealed primary processing sites at the loop and stem structure of 16S rRNA in rrnO and rrnA. A unique sequence in the leader region of rrnO can be formed into a highly complexed secondary structure and affects processing of mature 16S rRNA. The sequences of the two spacer tRNA genes are highly conserved between B. subtilis and Escherichia coli. Images PMID:6312418

  19. Gene arrangement and sequence of the 5S rRNA in Filobasidiella neoformans (Cryptococcus neoformans) as a phylogenetic indicator.

    PubMed

    Kwon-Chung, K J; Chang, Y C

    1994-04-01

    We cloned the 5S rRNA gene and determined its organization in the four genes encoding rRNAs in a ribosomal DNA repeat unit of Filobasidiella neoformans, the teleomorph of Cryptococcus neoformans. The 5S rRNA gene contained 118 nucleotides and was located 1 kb upstream from the 18S rRNA gene within the 8.6-kb fragment of the ribosomal DNA repeat unit. The sequence of the 5S rRNA gene from F. neoformans was more similar to the sequence of the 5S rRNA gene from Tremella mesenterica than to the sequences of the 5S rRNA genes from Filobasidium species. The arrangement of the rRNA genes in F. neoformans closely resembles the arrangement of the rRNA genes in mushrooms such as Schizophyllum commune, Agaricus bisporus, and Coprinus cinereus in that the 5S rRNA-coding region not only is located within the repeat unit that encodes the other rRNAs but also is transcribed in the same direction as the other rRNA genes. This is the first description of the arrangement of rRNA genes in a species belonging to the Heterobasidiomycetes.

  20. Structural characterization of CalO1: a putative orsellinic acid methyltransferase in the calicheamicin-biosynthetic pathway

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, Aram; Singh, Shanteri; Bingman, Craig A.; Thorson, Jon S.; Phillips, Jr, George N.

    2011-11-07

    The X-ray structure determination at 2.4 {angstrom} resolution of the putative orsellinic acid C3 O-methyltransferase (CalO1) involved in calicheamicin biosynthesis is reported. Comparison of CalO1 with a homology model of the functionally related calicheamicin orsellinic acid C2 O-methyltransferase (CalO6) implicates several residues that are likely to contribute to the regiospecificity of alkylation. Consistent with the proposed requirement of an acyl-carrier-protein-bound substrate, this structural study also reveals structural determinants within CalO1 that are anticipated to accommodate an association with an acyl carrier protein.