Hygrothermal stability of laminated CFRP composite mirrors
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pryor, Mark K.
2000-07-01
This paper is intended to address accuracy issues associated with hygrothermal stability of ultra-lightweight composite mirror structures. Hygrothermal stability of a mirror is ultimately defined as its optical performance when subjected to temperature or moisture variations. Stability is dictated by a combination of material behavior and geometric configuration. Ideally, an isotropic material could be used that is lightweight, has high stiffness, and has no response to temperature or moisture variances. This type of material would therefore be independent of geometry. Quasi-isotropic laminated CFRP composite materials offer most of these characteristics, but are transversely isotropic with near zero hygrothermal response in the plane of the laminate and a relatively high response through the thickness. Typically, mirrors made from laminated material consist of a thin curved shell supported by an array of ribs. Interference problems arise at the rib/shell interface resulting in a `print-through' effect by the ribs. Also, adhesive used to bond the ribs to the shell pull the shell causing additional `print-through'. Additional sources of instabilities result from material variances, processing, and assembly. These multiple sources of instabilities superimpose onto each other resulting in the structures overall hygrothermal stability.
One-sided ultrasonic inspection to detect flaws in CFRP composite solid laminates
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Im, Kwang-Hee; Zhang, Guilina; Hsu, David K.; Barnard, Dan; Kim, Sun-Kyu; Yang, Yong-Jun; Hwang, Woo-Chae; Yang, In-Young; Park, Je-Woong
2012-04-01
The importance of Carbon Fiber reinforced plastics (CFRP) has been generally recognized, and the CFRP composite laminates are widely used. When ultrasonic inspection is applied on actual aircraft components, the part geometry often lacks flat and parallel faces and the benefit of a backwall echo maybe unavailable. So, it is very necessary to detect flaws and defects in the CFRP composite solid laminates due to the flaws of CFRP composite laminates affecting the properties of the laminate. Firstly, we used miniature potted angle beam transducers (designed for generating mode-converted shear waves or Rayleigh waves in steel) on solid laminates of composites. A pair of such transducers was mounted in a holder in a nose-to-nose fashion to be used as a scanning probe on composites. Secondly, a method was utilized to determine the porosity content of a composite lay-up by processing micrograph images of the laminate. The results from the image processing method are compared with existing data. C-scan images of CFRP samples, which were based on the impacted samples were then produced by combining the pitch-catch probe with a portable manual scanner known as the Generic Scanner ("GenScan"). The signal amplitude of pitch-catch C-scan images was also correlated to the volume percent of porosity in carbon composite laminates. Finally, a simulation was performed with the numerical Wave-2000 Code for predicting the ultrasonic wave in the sample.
One-Sided Measurement Approach on Ultrasonic Beam Path Analysis in CFRP Composite Laminates
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Im, K. H.; Hsu, D. K.; Kim, H. J.; Song, S. J.; Dayal, V.; Barnard, D.; Park, J. W.; Lee, K. S.; Yang, Y. J.; Yang, I. Y.
2008-02-01
Composite materials are attractive for a wide range of applications because of high performance engineering structures. In particular, the importance of carbon-fiber reinforced plastics (CFRP) has been generally recognized in both space and civil aircraft industries; so, CFRP composite laminates are widely used. It is very important to detect defects in composite laminates because they cause the mechanical properties (stiffness, strength) of the laminate to be reduced. As well known for ultrasonic technique for evaluating the defect of CFRP composite laminates, a pitch-catch technique was found to be more practical than normal incidence backwall echo of longitudinal wave to arbitrary flaws in the composite, including fiber orientation, low level porosity, ply waviness, and cracks. The measurement depth using Rayleigh probes can be increased by increasing the separation distance of the transmitting and receiving probes. Also, with the aid of the automatic scanner, the one-sided pitch-catch probe was used to produce C-scan images for mapping out the images with beam profiles. Especially pitch-catch beam path was nondestructively characterized for the specimens when measuring a peak-to-peak amplitude and time-of-flight in order to build the beam profile modeling in the unidirectional CFRP composite laminates. Also, the pitch-catch simulation was performed to predict the beam profile trend of wave propagation in the unidirectional CF/Epoxy composite laminates. Therefore, it is found that the experimentally Rayleigh wave variation of pitch-catch ultrasonic signal was consistent with simulated results and one-side ultrasonic measurement might be very useful to detect the defects in CFRP composites.
Influence of terahertz waves on the fiber direction of CFRP composite laminates
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Im, Kwang-Hee; Hsu, David K.; Chiou, Chien-Ping; Barnard, Daniel J.; Yang, In-Young; Park, Je-Woong
2013-01-01
The importance of Carbon-fiber reinforced plastics (CFRP) are widely utilized due to more high performance in engineering structures. It was well known that a nondestructive technique would be very beneficial. A new terahertz radiation has been recognized for their importance in technological applications. Recently, T-ray (terahertz ray) advances of technology and instrumentation has provided a probing field on the electromagnetic spectrum. The THz-TDS can be considered as a useful tool using general non-conducting materials; however it is quite limited to conducting materials. In order to solve various material properties, the index of refraction (n) and the absorption coefficient (α) are derived in reflective and transmission configuration using the terahertz time domain spectroscopy. However, the T-ray is limited in order to penetrate a conducting material to some degree. Here, the T-ray would not go through easily the CFRP composite laminates since carbon fibers are electrically conducting while the epoxy matrix is not. So, investigation of terahertz time domain spectroscopy (THz TDS) was made and reflection and transmission configurations were studied for a 48-ply thermoplastic PPS (poly-phenylene sulfide)-based CFRP solid laminate. It is found that the electrical conductivity of CFRP composites depends on the direction of unidirectional fibers. Also, the T-ray could penetrate a CFRP composite laminate a few ply based on the E-filed (Electrical field) of carbon fibers. The terahertz scanning images were made at the angles ranged from 0° to 180° with respect to the nominal fiber axis. So, the images were mapped out based on the electrical field (E-field) direction in the CFRP solid laminates. Also, using two-dimensional spatial Fourier transform, interface C-scan images were transformed into quantitatively angular distribution plots to show the fiber orientation information therein and to predict the orientation of the ply.
Study on flaw detectability of NDT induction thermography technique for laminated CFRP composites
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kien Bui, Huu; Wasselynck, Guillaume; Trichet, Didier; Berthiau, Gérard
2016-01-01
Using a 3D finite elements simulation tool, a study on the flaw detection capacity of the non destructive testing (NDT) induction thermography (IT) technique for laminated carbon fiber reinforced polymers (CFRP) composites is presented. Delamination and fiber rupture flaw occurring at the elementary-ply scale are considered. In order to reduce the impact of measurement noise on the flaw detectability, several signal processing techniques are proposed. Contribution to the topical issue "Numelec 2015 - Elected submissions", edited by Adel Razek
Detection of Fiber Layer-Up Lamination Order of CFRP Composite Using Thermal-Wave Radar Imaging
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Fei; Liu, Junyan; Liu, Yang; Wang, Yang; Gong, Jinlong
2016-09-01
In this paper, thermal-wave radar imaging (TWRI) is used as a nondestructive inspection method to evaluate carbon-fiber-reinforced-polymer (CFRP) composite. An inverse methodology that combines TWRI with numerical optimization technique is proposed to determine the fiber layer-up lamination sequences of anisotropic CFRP composite. A 7-layer CFRP laminate [0°/45°/90°/0°]_{{s}} is heated by a chirp-modulated Gaussian laser beam, and then finite element method (FEM) is employed to calculate the temperature field of CFRP laminates. The phase based on lock-in correlation between reference chirp signal and the thermal-wave signal is performed to obtain the phase image of TWRI, and the least square method is applied to reconstruct the cost function that minimizes the square of the difference between the phase of TWRI inspection and numerical calculation. A hybrid algorithm that combines the simulation annealing with Nelder-Mead simplex research method is employed to solve the reconstructed cost function and find the global optimal solution of the layer-up sequences of CFRP composite. The result shows the feasibility of estimating the fiber layer-up lamination sequences of CFRP composite with optimal discrete and constraint conditions.
Damage in woven CFRP laminates under impact loading
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ullah, H.; Harland, A. R.; Silberschmidt, V. V.
2012-08-01
Carbon fibre-reinforced polymer (CFRP) composites used in sports products can be exposed to different in-service conditions such as large dynamic bending deformations caused by impact loading. Composite materials subjected to such loads demonstrate various damage modes such as matrix cracking, delamination and, ultimately, fabric fracture. Damage evolution affects both in-service properties and performance of CFRP that can deteriorate with time. These failure modes need adequate means of analysis and investigation, the major approaches being experimental characterisation and numerical simulations. This research deals with a deformation behaviour and damage in composite laminates due to dynamic bending. Experimental tests are carried out to characterise the behaviour of a woven CFRP material under large-deflection dynamic bending in impact tests carried out to obtain the force-time and absorbed energy profiles for CFRP laminates. Damage in the impacted laminates is analysed using optical microscopy. Numerical simulations are performed to study the deformation behaviour and damage in CFRP for cases of large-deflection bending based on three-dimensional finite-element models implemented in the commercial code Abaqus/Explicit. Multiple layers of bilinear cohesive-zone elements are employed to model the initiation and progression of inter-ply delamination observed in the microscopy studies. The obtained results of simulations show good agreement with experimental data.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Cheng-Dong; Qiu, Kun-Xian; Chen, Ming; Cai, Xiao-Jiang
2015-03-01
Carbon Fiber Reinforced Plastic (CFRP) composite laminates are widely used in aerospace and aircraft structural components due to their superior properties. However, they are regarded as difficult-to-cut materials because of bad surface quality and low productivity. Drilling is the most common hole making process for CFRP composite laminates and drilling induced delamination damage usually occurs severely at the exit side of drilling holes, which strongly deteriorate holes quality. In this work, the candle stick drill and multi-facet drill are employed to evaluate the machinability of drilling T700/LT-03A CFRP composite laminates in terms of thrust force, delamination, holes diameter and holes surface roughness. S/N ratio is used to characterize the thrust force while an ellipse-shaped delamination model is established to quantitatively analyze the delamination. The best combination of drilling parameters are determined by full consideration of S/N ratios of thrust force and the delamination. The results indicate that candle stick drill will induce the unexpected ellipse-shaped delamination even at its best drilling parameters of spindle speed of 10,000 rpm and feed rate of 0.004 mm/tooth. However, the multi-facet drill cutting at the relative lower feed rate of 0.004 mm/tooth and lower spindle speed of 6000 rpm can effectively prevent the delamination. Comprehensively, holes quality obtained by multi-facet drill is much more superior to those obtained by candle stick drill.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Voet, E.; Luyckx, G.; De Waele, W.; Degrieck, J.
2010-10-01
Embedded optical fibre sensors are considered in numerous applications for structural health monitoring purposes. Since the optical fibre and the host material in which it is embedded have different material properties, the strain in both materials will not be equal when external load is applied. Therefore, the strain transfer from the host material to the embedded sensor (optical fibre) was studied in more detail in the first part of the paper. This second part presents an experimental evaluation of the response of uni-axial fibre Bragg grating sensors embedded in small cross-ply composite laminates subjected to out-of-plane transverse loading. This loading case induces high birefringence effects in the core of the optical fibre. Using the numerically determined strain transfer coefficients (Luyckx et al 2010 Smart. Mater. Struct. 19 105017) together with multi-axial strain formulations, the authors were able to measure with reasonable accuracy the total strain field inside a carbon fibre reinforced plastic specimen.
Damage in woven CFRP laminates subjected to low velocity impacts
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ullah, H.; Abdel-Wahab, A. A.; Harland, A. R.; Silberschmidt, V. V.
2012-08-01
Carbon fabric-reinforced polymer (CFRP) composites used in sports products can be exposed to different in-service conditions such as large dynamic bending deformations caused by impact loading. Composite materials subjected to such loads demonstrate various damage modes such as matrix cracking, delamination and, ultimately, fabric fracture. Damage evolution in these materials affects both their in-service properties and performance that can deteriorate with time. These processes need adequate means of analysis and investigation, the major approaches being experimental characterisation and non-destructive examination of internal damage in composite laminates. This research deals with a deformation behaviour and damage in woven composite laminates due to low-velocity dynamic out-of-plane bending. Experimental tests are carried out to characterise the behaviour of such laminates under large-deflection dynamic bending in un-notched specimens in Izod tests using a Resil Impactor. A series of low-velocity impact tests is carried out at various levels of impact energy to assess the energy absorbed and force-time response of CFRP laminates. X-ray micro computed tomography (micro-CT) is used to investigate material damage modes in the impacted specimens. X-ray tomographs revealed that through-thickness matrix cracking, inter-ply delamination and intra-ply delamination, such as tow debonding and fabric fracture, were the prominent damage modes.
Analysis of nonlinear deformations and damage in CFRP textile laminates
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ullah, H.; Harland, A. R.; Lucas, T.; Price, D.; Silberschmidt, V. V.
2011-07-01
Carbon fibre-reinforced polymer (CFRP) textile composites are widely used in aerospace, automotive and construction components and structures thanks to their relatively low production costs, higher delamination and impact strength. They can also be used in various products in sports industry. These products are usually exposed to different in-service conditions such as large bending deformation and multiple impacts. Composite materials usually demonstrate multiple modes of damage and fracture due to their heterogeneity and microstructure, in contrast to more traditional homogeneous structural materials like metals and alloys. Damage evolution affects both their in-service properties and performance that can deteriorate with time. These damage modes need adequate means of analysis and investigation, the major approaches being experimental characterisation, numerical simulations and microtomography analysis. This research deals with a deformation behaviour and damage in composite laminates linked to their quasi-static bending. Experimental tests are carried out to characterise the behaviour of woven CFRP material under large-deflection bending. Two-dimensional finite element (FE) models are implemented in the commercial code Abaqus/Explicit to study the deformation behaviour and damage in woven CFRP laminates. Multiple layers of bilinear cohesive-zone elements are employed to model the onset and progression of inter-ply delamination process. X-ray Micro-Computed Tomography (MicroCT) analysis is carried out to investigate internal damage mechanisms such as cracking and delaminations. The obtained results of simulations are in agreement with experimental data and MicroCT scans.
Homogenized Creep Behavior of CFRP Laminates at High Temperature
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fukuta, Y.; Matsuda, T.; Kawai, M.
In this study, creep behavior of a CFRP laminate subjected to a constant stress is analyzed based on the time-dependent homogenization theory developed by the present authors. The laminate is a unidirectional carbon fiber/epoxy laminate T800H/#3631 manufactured by Toray Industries, Inc. Two kinds of creep analyses are performed. First, 45° off-axis creep deformation of the laminate at high temperature (100°C) is analyzed with three kinds of creep stress levels, respectively. It is shown that the present theory accurately predicts macroscopic creep behavior of the unidirectional CFRP laminate observed in experiments. Then, high temperature creep deformations at a constant creep stress are simulated with seven kinds of off-axis angles, i.e., θ = 0°, 10°, 30°, 45°, 60°, 75°, 90°. It is shown that the laminate has marked in-plane anisotropy with respect to the creep behavior.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jang, Byung-Koog; Koo, Ja-Ho; Toyama, Nobuyuki; Akimune, Yoshio; Kishi, Teruo
2001-08-01
TiNi/CFRP composites were fabricated by hot-pressing in the temperature range of 130-180 degree(s)C, by controlling the applied pressure. The TiNi wires were embedded as an 1mm interval into the center of CFRP layers and CFRP host materials were stacked as 0, 30, 60 and 90 degrees configuration on tensile direction, respectively. The stress-strain curve and tensile strength of composites strongly depends on stacking direction of carbon fibers. The tensile strength of TiNi/CFRP composites with stacking direction of 0 and 90 degrees configuration are about 1.2GPa and 50MPa, respectively. The microstructural properties of TiNi/CFRP composites were observed by SEM. Pore and/or voids were found to congregate near the embedded TiNi wire and they increased in proportion to stacking direction of carbon fibers. Larger pores and interfacial crack were also observed at interface between TiNi wires and epoxy resin. Furthermore, the fracture behavior was studied by an AE technique during tensile test, to analyze the fracture process. The effects of surface treatment of TiNi wire by acid etching to improve the interfacial bonding strength between TiNi wire and epoxy matrix are also investigated. The average interfacial bonding strength of the TiNi wire embedded in CFRP matrix was evaluated by pull out test. It was confirmed that surface treatment of TiNi wire by acid etching improved the interfacial bonding strength. Acid etching by HF+HNO3 mixed solution significantly increased the interfacial bonding strength. The damage recovery effect of SMA in specimen was successfully confirmed by heating above 70 degree(s)C.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yashiro, Shigeki; Takatsubo, Junji; Toyama, Nobuyuki; Okabe, Tomonaga; Takeda, Nobuo
This study investigated damage detection in holed CFRP laminates by using a newly developed technique for visualizing ultrasonic waves. This technique provided a moving diagram of propagating waves with non-contact scanning by a pulsed laser. Its measurement scheme overcame the difficulties of sensitivity in conventional methods and enabled us to observe ultrasonic waves on CFRP laminates. We observed two types of ultrasonic waves propagating on the CFRP laminate in the measured snapshots. These waves were identified as the S0 and the A0 Lamb modes by the dispersion curves, confirming the validity of the visualization technique for composite laminates. Furthermore, ply cracks and delamination, as well as the damage during manufacturing, were observed near the hole in the loaded specimens, and we successfully visualized the Lamb waves scattered by the delamination. The region of wave scattering agreed with the damage observed by soft X-ray radiography. These inspection results demonstrated the usefulness of the visualization technique in inspecting composite laminates.
Cryogenic Behavior of Cracks in Satin Woven CFRP Laminates under Tensile Loading
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Watanabe, Shinya; Shindo, Yasuhide; Takeda, Tomo; Narita, Fumio; Sanada, Kazuaki
The objective of this research is to investigate the crack behavior in five harness satin woven carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) composite laminates with temperature-dependent material properties under tension at cryogenic temperatures. A situation of generalized plane strain is considered, and cracks are assumed to have occurred in the transverse fiber bundles. Also, both cases where the tips of the cracks are located in the fiber bundles or at the interfaces between two fiber bundles are treated, and a finite element technique utilizing special singular elements is used to obtain the stress intensity factors at the tips of the transverse cracks in two-layer woven CFRP laminates. The numerical results are then discussed in detail.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Okabe, Tomonaga; Yashiro, Shigeki
This study proposes the cohesive zone model (CZM) for predicting fatigue damage growth in notched carbon-fiber-reinforced composite plastic (CFRP) cross-ply laminates. In this model, damage growth in the fracture process of cohesive elements due to cyclic loading is represented by the conventional damage mechanics model. We preliminarily investigated whether this model can appropriately express fatigue damage growth for a circular crack embedded in isotropic solid material. This investigation demonstrated that this model could reproduce the results with the well-established fracture mechanics model plus the Paris' law by tuning adjustable parameters. We then numerically investigated the damage process in notched CFRP cross-ply laminates under tensile cyclic loading and compared the predicted damage patterns with those in experiments reported by Spearing et al. (Compos. Sci. Technol. 1992). The predicted damage patterns agreed with the experiment results, which exhibited the extension of multiple types of damage (e.g., splits, transverse cracks and delaminations) near the notches.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kumagai, S.; Shindo, Y.
2004-06-01
The cryogenic fracture behavior of carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) woven laminates was studied. Experiments and a finite element analysis were conducted on single edge notched CFRP woven laminates subjected to in-plane loading. Damage processes were identified by acoustic emission measurement and digital microscopy.
Aluminium/lithium alloy-CFRP hybrid laminate: Fabrication and properties
Freischmidt, G.; Coutts, R.S.P.; Janardhana, M.N.
1993-12-31
Hybrid composite laminates of aluminum and aluminum/lithium alloy sheeting with unidirectional carbon fiber/epoxy plies have been fabricated to produce sheet materials of high strength, low density and reduced fatigue crack growth rate. In an arrangement of one layer of unidirectional carbon fiber reinforced plastic (CFRP) and 2 sheets of 2090-T3 aluminum alloy was used to give a material with a density of 2.20g/cm{sup 3}. Tensile test results gave an ultimate strength of 803MPa, a modulus of 75.7GPa and a 2% offset yield strength of 497MPa. Preliminary fatigue crack growth rate determinations on single edge notch (SEN) specimens show a marked reduction compared to monolithic 2090-T3. Other hybrid laminates using 2024-T3 alloy have also been made and tested. These laminates show reduced tensile properties, however, they appear to have lower fatigue crack growth rates than when using 2090T3 in hybrid form. The fabrication of hybrid laminates included the use of unsupported adhesive film to bond the precured unidirectional carbon fiber composite plies to the aluminum sheeting. This has left a distinct interphase region between the alloy and CFRP which is thought to improve properties through an effective load transfer.
Hybrid composite laminate structures
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chamis, C. C.; Lark, R. F. (Inventor)
1977-01-01
An invention which relates to laminate structures and specifically to essentially anisotropic fiber composite laminates is described. Metal foils are selectively disposed within the laminate to produce increased resistance to high velocity impact, fracture, surface erosion, and other stresses within the laminate.
Delaminations of barely visible impact damage in CFRP laminates
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kumar, Prashant; Rai, Badri
CFRP laminates were impacted by projectiles of low masses, accelerated in an air gun, to have barely visible impact damage (BVID) to simulate damage to aircraft by runway debris. The delamination damage on individual interfaces was revealed by the destructive method of thin strips. In sub-BVID and BVID specimens, the damage was confined mostly to the front 30 percent of the laminate thickness. Delamination areas in the BVID specimens were found to be considerable - the largest dimension exceeding 12 mm on several interfaces. Nucleation of delamination damage was observed in interfaces adjacent to the mid plane in BVID specimens. At higher impact energies, about 110 to 150 percent more, the delamination damage was observed on almost all the interfaces with no sign of spalling at the rear surfaces. In comparison with a lightweight projectile of aluminum (4.4 g), a higher density steel projectile ( 11.8 g) caused more delamination damage for the same impact energy and an identical geometry of projectiles.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zeng, Chunmei; Yu, Xia; Guo, Peiji
2014-08-01
A regularization stiffness coefficient method was verified further to optimize lay-up sequences of quasi-isotropic laminates for carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) composite mirrors. Firstly, the deformation due to gravity of 1G and temperature difference of 20-100°C and the modal were analyzed by finite element method (FEM). Secondly, the influence of angle error of ply stacking on quasi-isotropic of bending stiffness was evaluated. Finally, an active support system of 49 actuators in circular arrangement is designed for a 500mm CFRP mirror, and its goal is to deform the spherical CFRP mirror to a parabolic. Therefore, the response functions of the actuators were gotten, and the surface form errors and stresses were calculated and analyzed. The results show that the CFRP mirrors designed by the method have a better symmetrical bending deformation under gravity and thermal load and a higher fundamental frequency, and the larger n the better symmetry (for π/n quasi-isotropic laminates); the method reduces the sensitivity to misalignment of ply orientation for symmetric bending, and the mirror's maximum von Mises stress and maximum shear stress are less compared to those laminates not optimized in lay-up sequence.
Numerical Prediction of Fatigue Damage Progress in Holed CFRP Laminates Using Cohesive Elements
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yashiro, Shigeki; Okabe, Tomonaga
This study presents a numerical simulation to predict damage progress in notched composite laminates under cyclic loading by using a cohesive zone model. A damage-mechanics concept was introduced directly into the fracture process in the cohesive elements in order to express crack growth by cyclic loading. This approach then conformed to the established damage mechanics and facilitated understanding the procedure and reducing computation costs. We numerically investigated the damage progress in holed CFRP cross-ply laminates under tensile cyclic loading and compared the predicted damage patterns with experiment results. The predicted damage patterns agreed with the experiment results that exhibited the extension of multiple types of damage (splits, transverse cracks, and delamination) near the hole. A numerical study indicated that the change in the distribution of in-plane shear stress due to delamination induced the extension of splits and transverse cracks near the hole.
Development of damage suppression system using embedded SMA foil in CFRP laminates
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ogisu, Toshimichi; Nomura, Masato; Ando, Norio; Takaki, Junji; Kobayashi, Masakazu; Okabe, Tomonaga; Takeda, Nobuo
2001-07-01
Some recent studies have suggested possible applications of Shape Memory Alloy (SMA) for a smart health monitoring and suppression of damage growth. The authors have been conducting research and development studies on applications of embedded SMA foil actuators in CFRP laminates as the basic research for next generation aircrafts. First the effective surface treatment for improvement of bonding properties between SMA and CFRP was studied. It was certified that the anodic oxide treatment by 10% NaOH solution was the most effective treatment from the results of peel resistance test and shear strength test. Then, CFRP laminates with embedded SMA foils were successfully fabricated using this effective surface treatment. The damage behavior of quasi-isotropic CFRP laminates with embedded SMA foils was characterized in both quasi-static load-unload and fatigue tests. The relationship between crack density and applied strain was obtained. The recovery stress generated by embedded SMA foils could increase the onset strain of transverse cracking by 0.2%. The onset strain of delmination in CFRP laminates was also increased accordingly. The shear-lag analysis was also conducted to predict the damage evolution in CFRP laminates with embedded SMA foils. The adhesive layers on both sides of SMA foils were treated as shear elements. The theoretical analysis successfully predicted the experimental results.
Damage assessment in CFRP laminates exposed to impact fatigue loading
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tsigkourakos, George; Silberschmidt, Vadim V.; Ashcroft, I. A.
2011-07-01
Demand for advanced engineering composites in the aerospace industry is increasing continuously. Lately, carbon fibre reinforced polymers (CFRPs) became one of the most important structural materials in the industry due to a combination of characteristics such as: excellent stiffness, high strength-to-weight ratio, and ease of manufacture according to application. In service, aerospace composite components and structures are exposed to various transient loads, some of which can propagate in them as cyclic impacts. A typical example is an effect of the wind gusts during flight. This type of loading is known as impact fatigue (IF); it is a repetition of low-energy impacts. Such loads can cause various types of damage in composites: fibre breaking, transverse matrix cracking, de-bonding between fibres and matrix and delamination resulting in reduction of residual stiffness and loss of functionality. Furthermore, this damage is often sub-surface, which reinforces the need for more regular inspection. The effects of IF are of major importance due its detrimental effect on the structural integrity of components that can be generated after relatively few impacts at low force levels compared to those in a standard fatigue regime. This study utilises an innovative testing system with the capability of subjecting specimens to a series of repetitive impacts. The primary subject of this paper is to assess the damaging effect of IF on the behaviour of drilled CFRP specimens, exposed to such loading. A detailed damage analysis is implemented utilising an X-ray micro computed tomography system. The main findings suggested that at early stages of life damage is governed by o degree splits along the length of the specimens resulting in a 20% reduction of stiffness. The final failure damage scenario indicated that transverse crasks in the 90 degree plies are the main reason for complete delamination which can be translated to a 50% stiffness reduction.
Honeycomb-laminate composite structure
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Gilwee, W. J., Jr.; Parker, J. A. (Inventor)
1977-01-01
A honeycomb-laminate composite structure was comprised of: (1) a cellular core of a polyquinoxaline foam in a honeycomb structure, and (2) a layer of a noncombustible fibrous material impregnated with a polyimide resin laminated on the cellular core. A process for producing the honeycomb-laminate composite structure and articles containing the honeycomb-laminate composite structure is described.
Fatigue damage development of various CFRP-laminates
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Schulte, K.; Baron, CH.
1988-01-01
The chronic strength and fatigue behavior of a woven carbon-fiber reinforced laminate in a balanced eight-shaft satin weave style was compared to nonwoven laminates with an equivalent cross-ply layup. Half the fibers were arranged in the direction of the load and the other half perpendicular to it. Two types of nonwoven laminates consisting of continuous fibers and aligned discontinuous fibers, both produced from carbon fiber prepregs, were studied. The cross-ply laminate with continuous fiber showed the best characteristics with regard to both static strength and fatigue. The similarities and differences in damage mechanisms in the laminates are described.
NDE and SHM Simulation for CFRP Composites
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Leckey, Cara A. C.; Parker, F. Raymond
2014-01-01
Ultrasound-based nondestructive evaluation (NDE) is a common technique for damage detection in composite materials. There is a need for advanced NDE that goes beyond damage detection to damage quantification and characterization in order to enable data driven prognostics. The damage types that exist in carbon fiber-reinforced polymer (CFRP) composites include microcracking and delaminations, and can be initiated and grown via impact forces (due to ground vehicles, tool drops, bird strikes, etc), fatigue, and extreme environmental changes. X-ray microfocus computed tomography data, among other methods, have shown that these damage types often result in voids/discontinuities of a complex volumetric shape. The specific damage geometry and location within ply layers affect damage growth. Realistic threedimensional NDE and structural health monitoring (SHM) simulations can aid in the development and optimization of damage quantification and characterization techniques. This paper is an overview of ongoing work towards realistic NDE and SHM simulation tools for composites, and also discusses NASA's need for such simulation tools in aeronautics and spaceflight. The paper describes the development and implementation of a custom ultrasound simulation tool that is used to model ultrasonic wave interaction with realistic 3-dimensional damage in CFRP composites. The custom code uses elastodynamic finite integration technique and is parallelized to run efficiently on computing cluster or multicore machines.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Woizeschke, P.; Vollertsen, F.
2015-09-01
The structural properties of lightweight constructions can be adapted to specific local requirements using multi-material designs. Aluminum alloys and carbon fiber-reinforced plastics (CFRP) are materials of great interest requiring suitable joining techniques in order to transfer the advantages of combining the materials to structural benefits. Thus, the research group "Schwarz-Silber" investigates novel concepts to enable frontal aluminum-CFRP joints using transition structures. In the foil concept titanium foils are used as transition elements. Specimens have been produced using three-layer titanium laminates. In tensile tests, three failure locations have been observed: (1) Al-Ti seam, (2) Ti-CFRP hybrid laminate, and (3) CFRP laminate. In this paper, the fracture mechanisms of these failure modes are investigated by analyzing metallographic micrographs and fracture surfaces as well as by correlating load-displacement curves to video imaging of tensile tests. The results show that the cracking of the CFRP layers can be traced back to an assembly error. The laminate character of the titanium part tends to reduce the Al-Ti seam strength. However, two sub-joint tests demonstrate that the Al-Ti seam can endure loads up to 9.5 kN. The ductile failure behavior of the Ti-CFRP hybrid laminates is caused by plastic deformations of the titanium laminate liners.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yokozeki, Tomohiro; Aoki, Yuichiro; Ogasawara, Toshio
It has been recognized that damage resistance and strength properties of CFRP laminates can be improved by using thin-ply prepregs. This study investigates the damage behaviors and compressive strength of CFRP laminates using thin-ply and standard prepregs subjected to out-of-plane impact loadings. CFRP laminates used for the evaluation are prepared using the standard prepregs, thin-ply prepregs, and combinations of the both. Weight-drop impact test and post-impact compression test of quasi-isotropic laminates are performed. It is shown that the damage behaviors are different between the thin-ply and the standard laminates, and the compression-after-impact strength is improved by using thin-ply prepregs. Effects of the use of thin-ply prepregs and the layout of thin-ply layers on the damage behaviors and compression-after-impact properties are discussed based on the experimental results.
A Numerical Simulation Approach for Reliability Evaluation of CFRP Composite
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, D. S.-C.; Jenab, K.
2013-02-01
Due to the superior mechanical properties of carbon fiber reinforced plastic (CFRP) materials, they are vastly used in industries such as aircraft manufacturers. The aircraft manufacturers are switching metal to composite structures while studying reliability (R-value) of CFRP. In this study, a numerical simulation method to determine the reliability of Multiaxial Warp Knitted (MWK) textiles used to make CFRP composites is proposed. This method analyzes the distribution of carbon fiber angle misalignments, from a chosen 0° direction, caused by the sewing process of the textile, and finds the R-value, a value between 0 and 1. The application of this method is demonstrated by an illustrative example.
Symmetric Composite Laminate Stress Analysis
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wang, T.; Smolinski, K. F.; Gellin, S.
1985-01-01
It is demonstrated that COSMIC/NASTRAN may be used to analyze plate and shell structures made of symmetric composite laminates. Although general composite laminates cannot be analyzed using NASTRAN, the theoretical development presented herein indicates that the integrated constitutive laws of a symmetric composite laminate resemble those of a homogeneous anisotropic plate, which can be analyzed using NASTRAN. A detailed analysis procedure is presented, as well as an illustrative example.
a Region of Interest Computed Tomography Technique for Inspection of CFRP Laminates
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Woods, S.; Amos, M.; Cooper, I.; Withers, P.
2011-06-01
Region of Interest (ROI) Computed Tomography (CT) is a radiographic inspection technique that inspects only part of a sample. However, ROI images normally suffer from reconstruction artefacts that can affect the inspection by obscuring defects. This paper describes the development of two data completion methods which minimise the reconstruction artefacts, allowing the technique to be applied without compromising defect detection. The techniques were developed for specific application to inspection of Carbon Fibre Reinforced Plastic (CFRP) laminate panels. The results presented include both fan-beam and cone-beam system geometries.
Terahertz radiation study on FRP composite solid laminates
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Im, Kwang-Hee; Hsu, David K.; Chiou, Chien-Ping; Barnard, Daniel J.; Yang, In-Young; Park, Je-Woong
2012-05-01
Investigation of terahertz time domain spectroscopy (THz TDS) was made and reflection and transmission configurations were studied as a nondestructive evaluation technique. Here carbon fiber-reinforced plastics (CFRP) derived their excellent mechanical strength, stiffness and electrical conductivity from carbon fibers. Especially, the electrical conductivity of CFRP composites depends on the direction of unidirectional fibers since carbon fibers are electrically conducting while the epoxy matrix is not. The THz TDS can be considered as a useful tool using general non-conducting materials; however it is quite limited to conducting materials. In order to solve various material properties, the index of refraction (n) is derived by using the terahertz time domain spectroscopy. Also, for a 48-ply thermoplastic PPS(poly-phenylene sulfide)-based CFRP solid laminate, the terahertz scanning images were made at the angles ranged from 0° to 180° with respect to the nominal fiber axis. So, the images were mapped out based on the electrical field (E-field) direction in the CFRP solid laminates.
Study on three dimensional transient thermal stress analysis for laminated composite materials
Matsumoto, Kin`ya; Zako, Masaru
1995-11-01
Transient heat conduction and thermal stress analysis of laminated composite materials are very important because they are hated during manufacturing process. Anisotropy of thermal conductivity has to be considered for heat conduction analysis of composite materials such as FRP. Assuming that heat conducts uniformly in normal direction in thin structures, laminated plates can be modeled as single layers with the equivalent heat conductivities. With this assumption, FEM three dimensional transient heat conduction and thermal stress analysis programs for laminated composite materials are developed. As numerical examples, the heat conduction and thermal stresses of laminated CFRP structure are investigated.
TEA CO2 laser machining of CFRP composite
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Salama, A.; Li, L.; Mativenga, P.; Whitehead, D.
2016-05-01
Carbon fibre-reinforced polymer (CFRP) composites have found wide applications in the aerospace, marine, sports and automotive industries owing to their lightweight and acceptable mechanical properties compared to the commonly used metallic materials. Machining of CFRP composites using lasers can be challenging due to inhomogeneity in the material properties and structures, which can lead to thermal damages during laser processing. In the previous studies, Nd:YAG, diode-pumped solid-state, CO2 (continuous wave), disc and fibre lasers were used in cutting CFRP composites and the control of damages such as the size of heat-affected zones (HAZs) remains a challenge. In this paper, a short-pulsed (8 μs) transversely excited atmospheric pressure CO2 laser was used, for the first time, to machine CFRP composites. The laser has high peak powers (up to 250 kW) and excellent absorption by both the carbon fibre and the epoxy binder. Design of experiment and statistical modelling, based on response surface methodology, was used to understand the interactions between the process parameters such as laser fluence, repetition rate and cutting speed and their effects on the cut quality characteristics including size of HAZ, machining depth and material removal rate (MRR). Based on this study, process parameter optimization was carried out to minimize the HAZ and maximize the MRR. A discussion is given on the potential applications and comparisons to other lasers in machining CFRP.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pham, Dinh Chi; Sun, Xiushan
2012-09-01
This work presents experimental and computational studies on progressive failure analysis of notched cross-ply carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) composite. The carbon/epoxy composite laminated with [90/0]s layup is tested using double-notched specimens loaded in tension. The load-displacement curve, failure load and damage patterns of all tested specimens are discussed. In addition, a numerical analysis approach based on material property degradation method (MPDM) and cohesive elements (CE) is illustrated to capture complex failure mechanisms and damage progression as observed in the tested specimens. The MPDM is used to model the in-plane failure of 90° plies and 0° plies while the cohesive elements are used to account for the delamination at the [90/0] interfaces. Different progressive failure models employing fracture mechanics, continuum mechanics and micromechanics of failure are presented based on the MPDM-CE approach. The failure analyses by these progressive models are performed and their predictions are compared with the experimental results of notched [90/0]s CFRP composite. Reasonably good agreement between experimental results and simulation results is obtained and it is shown that the MPDM-CE approach can effectively predict the progressive failure of double-notched [90/0]s composite laminate.
Ultrasonic monitoring of asymmetric carbon fibre reinforced aluminum laminates
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhao, Junqing; Yang, Fan; Wang, Rongguo
2013-08-01
Asymmetric carbon fibre reinforced aluminum alloy laminates was manufactured for the purpose with repeat tensile test, which will be applied in composite pressure vessel. Ultrasonic C scan and A scan approach are used to evaluate the damage of the asymmetric CFRP-Al (carbon fibre reinforced aluminum alloy) laminates. Nondestructive detection is carried out for the CFRP-Al laminates before and after tensile test. Comparison results and pulse echo analysis show that when subjected to repeat tensile test with 70% elastic limit strain load of the CFRP laminates, the interface debonding between CFRP and Al will not occur but the delamination within CFRP laminates becomes the main damage of the asymmetric CFRP-Al laminates. This investigation indicated that combined ultrasonic C scan and A scan is available for damage evaluation of fibre metal laminates.
An experimental study of permeability within an out-of-autoclave vacuum-bag-only CFRP laminate
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wallace, Landon F.
The out-of-autoclave vacuum-bag-only (OOA-VBO) manufacturing process is a process that eliminates an autoclave when manufacturing aerospace quality carbon fiber reinforced plastics (CFRP). OOA-VBO pre-impregnated resin tow systems rely on air channel networks that guide unwanted voids out of the laminate. The air path networks can be characterized by measuring the permeability of a pre-cured laminate. Permeability results were successfully obtained for a laminate with a compaction similar to that found in a typical vacuum bagging setup. A study was done to find the relationship between compaction of the laminate and permeability. Permeability was measured as the laminate cured, using a constant temperature ramp rate. An experimental nodal analysis was performed to find the permeability at the midpoint of the in-plane direction.
Acoustic damage detection in laser-cut CFRP composite materials
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nishino, Michiteru; Harada, Yoshihisa; Suzuki, Takayuki; Niino, Hiroyuki
2012-03-01
Carbon fiber reinforced plastics (CFRP) composite material, which is expected to reduce the weight of automotive, airplane and etc., was cut by laser irradiation with a pulsed-CO2 laser (TRUMPF TFL5000; P=800W, 20kHz, τ=8μs, λ=10.6μm, V=1m/min) and single-mode fiber lasers (IPG YLR-300-SM; P=300W, λ=1.07μm, V=1m/min)(IPG YLR- 2000-SM; P=2kW, λ=1.07μm, V=7m/min). To detect thermal damage at the laser cutting of CFRP materials consisting of thermoset resin matrix and PAN or PITCH-based carbon fiber, the cut quality was observed by X-ray CT. The effect of laser cutting process on the mechanical strength for CFRP tested at the tensile test. Acoustic emission (AE) monitoring, high-speed camera and scanning electron microscopy were used for the failure process analysis. AE signals and fractographic features characteristic of each laser-cut CFRP were identified.
Applicability Study of Composite Laminates to the Cryogenic Propellant Tanks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Aoki, T.; Ishikawa, T.
2002-01-01
Extensive application of light weight composite materials is one of the major technical challenges for drastic reduction of structural weight of the planned reusable launch vehicles (RLV) and space planes. Cryogenic propellant tanks are the dominating structural components of the vehicle structure and thus the application of carbon fiber reinforced plastics (CFRP) to these components is one of the most promising but challenging technologies for achieving the aimed goal of weight reduction. Research effort has been made to scrutinize the cryogenic mechanical performance of currently available candidates of CFRP material systems suitable for use under cryogenic conditions. Seven different types of material systems of CFRP are chosen and are experimentally and analytically evaluated to discuss their applicability to the liquid propellant tanks and to provide basic information for material selections. Static tensile tests were conducted with quasi-isotropic laminates to acquire static strengths, both under cryogenic and room temperatures. The development of matrix cracks and free-edge delaminations were also experimentally investigated and were compared with the numerical calculations. Interlaminar fracture toughness at cryogenic temperature was also evaluated to investigate the damage susceptibility of the materials. The decrease in matrix crack onset stresses observed in the laminate performance experiments suggested that the propellant leakage may be a key issue when applying CFRP to the propellant tanks, as well as the durability concern. Thus the propellant leakage under matrix crack accumulation was simulated by the gas helium leakage tests. Leakage model was also developed and successfully applied to the prediction of the propellant leakage. Preliminary results of adhesive joint tests under cryogenic conditions will also be referred to.
Rotary ultrasonic machining of CFRP composites: a study on power consumption.
Cong, W L; Pei, Z J; Deines, T W; Srivastava, Anil; Riley, L; Treadwell, C
2012-12-01
Carbon fiber reinforced plastic (CFRP) composites are very difficult to machine. A large number of holes need to be drilled in CFRP for many applications. Therefore, it is important to develop cost-effective drilling processes. CFRP has been drilled by rotary ultrasonic machining (RUM) successfully. The literature has reports about the effects of input variables on output variables (including cutting force, torque, surface roughness, tool wear, and workpiece delamination) in RUM of CFRP. However, there are no reports on power consumption in RUM of CFRP. This paper reports the first study on power consumption in RUM of CFRP. It reports an experimental investigation on effects of input variables (ultrasonic power, tool rotation speed, feedrate, and type of CFRP) on power consumption of each component (including ultrasonic power supply, spindle motor, coolant pump, and air compressor) and the entire RUM system. PMID:22986155
Microstress prediction in composite laminate
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hutapea, Parsaoran
2000-10-01
The objective of this research is to develop a macroscopic theory, which can provide the connection between macromechanics and micromechanics in characterizing the micro-stress of composite laminates near edges and holes. The micropolar theory, a class of higher-order elasticity theory, of composite laminate mechanics is implemented in a well-known Pipes-Pagano free edge boundary problem. The micropolar homogenization method to determine the micropolar anisotropic effective elastic moduli is presented. A displacement-based finite element method based on micropolar theory in anisotropic solids is developed in analyzing composite laminates. The effects of fiber volume fraction and cell size on the normal stress along the artificial interface of the composite laminate are also investigated. The stress response based on micropolar theory is compared with those deduced from the micromechanics and classical elasticity theory. Special attention of the investigation focuses on the stress fields near the free edge where the high macrostress gradient occurs. The normal stresses along the artificial interface and especially, the microstress along the fiber/matrix interface on the critical cell near the free edge where the high macrostress gradient detected are the focus of this investigation. These microstresses are expected to dominate the failure initiation process in composite laminate. The implementation of micropolar analysis on the prediction of microstress of the critical cell near the free edge is found to be in very good agreement with "exact" microstress solutions. It is demonstrated that the micropolar theory is able to capture the microstress correctly from the homogenized solutions.
Mechanical Characterization of CFRP Woven Laminates between Room Temperature and 4K
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kumagai, Susumu; Shindo, Yasuhide; Horiguchi, Katsumi; Takeda, Tomo
In order to evaluate the mechanical properties of T800H/3633 CFRP woven laminates for cryogenic tankage in RLV, tensile and in-plane shear tests were performed at room temperature, liquid nitrogen temperature (77K) and liquid helium temperature (4K). The tensile tests were conducted in accordance with ASTM D 3039 and JIS K 7073. Tensile strength and modulus were evaluated for both the warp and fill directions. A problem was encountered with obtaining acceptable failure of the specimens. We could not achieve failure in the test section. This problem was avoided by using dogbone shaped specimens. A two-dimensional finite element analysis was also used to study the stress distributions within the specimens and to interpret the experimental measurements. The in-plane shear modulus and shear strength were measured by tensile tests on the ±45° specimens (ASTM D 3518 and JIS K 7079). The effects of temperature on the stress-strain responses in tension and in-plane shear are examined. Fracture topography of specimens is also investigated and interpreted.
Basic mechanics of laminated composite plates
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Nettles, Alan T.
1994-01-01
The mechanics of laminated composite materials is presented in a clear manner with only essential derivations included. The constitutive equations in all of their forms are developed and then summarized in a separate section. The effects of hygrothermal effects are included. The prediction of the engineering constants for a laminate are derived. Strength of laminated composites is not covered.
THERMAL-MECHANICAL RESPONSE OF CRACKED SATIN WEAVE CFRP COMPOSITES AT CRYOGENIC TEMPERATURES
Watanabe, S.; Shindo, Y.; Narita, F.; Takeda, T.
2008-03-03
This paper examines the thermal-mechanical response of satin weave carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) laminates with internal and/or edge cracks subjected to uniaxial tension load at cryogenic temperatures. Cracks are considered to occur in the transverse fiber bundles and extend through the entire thickness of the fiber bundles. Two-dimentional generalized plane strain finite element models are developed to study the effects of residual thermal stresses and cracks on the mechanical behavior of CFRP woven laminates. A detailed examination of the Young's modulus and stress distributions near the crack tip is carried out which provides insight into material behavior at cryogenic temperatures.
Thermal-Mechanical Response of Cracked Satin Weave CFRP Composites at Cryogenic Temperatures
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Watanabe, S.; Shindo, Y.; Narita, F.; Takeda, T.
2008-03-01
This paper examines the thermal-mechanical response of satin weave carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) laminates with internal and/or edge cracks subjected to uniaxial tension load at cryogenic temperatures. Cracks are considered to occur in the transverse fiber bundles and extend through the entire thickness of the fiber bundles. Two-dimentional generalized plane strain finite element models are developed to study the effects of residual thermal stresses and cracks on the mechanical behavior of CFRP woven laminates. A detailed examination of the Young's modulus and stress distributions near the crack tip is carried out which provides insight into material behavior at cryogenic temperatures.
Guided Wave Propagation Study on Laminated Composites by Frequency-Wavenumber Technique
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Tian, Zhenhua; Yu, Lingyu; Leckey, Cara A. C.
2014-01-01
Toward the goal of delamination detection and quantification in laminated composites, this paper examines guided wave propagation and wave interaction with delamination damage in laminated carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) composites using frequency-wavenumber (f-kappa) analysis. Three-dimensional elastodynamic finite integration technique (EFIT) is used to acquire simulated time-space wavefields for a CFRP composite. The time-space wavefields show trapped waves in the delamination region. To unveil the wave propagation physics, the time-space wavefields are further analyzed by using two-dimensional (2D) Fourier transforms (FT). In the analysis results, new f-k components are observed when the incident guided waves interact with the delamination damage. These new f-kappa components in the simulations are experimentally verified through data obtained from scanning laser Doppler vibrometer (SLDV) tests. By filtering the new f-kappa components, delamination damage is detected and quantified.
Impact damage in composite laminates
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Grady, Joseph E.
1988-01-01
Damage tolerance requirements have become an important consideration in the design and fabrication of composite structural components for modern aircraft. The ability of a component to contain a flaw of a given size without serious loss of its structural integrity is of prime concern. Composite laminates are particularly susceptible to damage caused by transverse impact loading. The ongoing program described is aimed at developing experimental and analytical methods that can be used to assess damage tolerance capabilities in composite structures subjected to impulsive loading. Some significant results of this work and the methodology used to obtain them are outlined.
Symmetries in laminated composite plates
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Noor, A. K.
1976-01-01
The different types of symmetry exhibited by laminated anisotropic fibrous composite plates are identified and contrasted with the symmetries of isotropic and homogeneous orthotropic plates. The effects of variations in the fiber orientation and the stacking sequence of the layers on the symmetries exhibited by composite plates are discussed. Both the linear and geometrically nonlinear responses of the plates are considered. A simple procedure is presented for exploiting the symmetries in the finite element analysis. Examples are given of square, skew and polygonal plates where use of symmetry concepts can significantly reduce the scope and cost of analysis.
Study on detecting CFRP composites using pulsed infrared thermography
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Huo, Yan; Li, Hui-Juan; Zhao, Yue-Jin; Zhang, Cun-Lin
2011-08-01
Composite sandwich structure has been widely used in aerospace due to its lightweight, high stiffness and strength. The quality of the structure is crucial to durability and structural integrity of the rehabilitated the structure, Delaminations, debonding and water ingressing to honeycomb are typical defects in the structure. Defects in the structure will influence the quality of product. Pulse thermography has been an effective NDE method in recent ten years. The technique uses pulse to excite the specimen, because the presence of subsurface defects reduce the diffusion rate, then temperature difference between defect area and sound area will be measured by an infrared camera. Subsurface defects become visible with time delays, it is a non-contact, quickly inspection method. Pulsed infrared thermography has been widely used in aerospace and mechanical manufacture industry because it can offer non-contact, quickly and visual examinations of defects. It is a meaningful research topic to study on quantitative testing with the structure rapidly and non-destructively. Sandwich composites with aluminum facesheet and aluminum honeycomb cores are chosen as study objectives. Some back-drilled holes with different sizes and depths in the specimen are used to simulate delaminations between plies in the strcuture .The paper presents a method for defining the boundaries, quantitatively estimating the sizes of the flaws in the CFRP using pulsed infrared thermography. Processing captured data using splinefitting, measuring the size of the defects by calculating the pixels numbers that exceed the detection threshold and computing areas of defects by binary image. Compared with the designed sizes and areas having defects, the results show that the method offers more than 90% accuracies with reference to the sizes of artificial flaws embedded in the CFRP sheet. The experimental results demonstrate the feasibility of using detection threshold to inspect the CFRP sheet. The curve of
Damage of hybrid composite laminates
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Haery, Haleh A.; Kim, Ho Sung
2013-08-01
Hybrid laminates consisting of woven glass fabric/epoxy composite plies and woven carbon fabric/epoxy composite plies are studied for fatigue damage and residual strength. A theoretical framework based on the systems approach is proposed as a guide to deal with the complexity involving uncertainties and a large number of variables in the hybrid composite system. A relative damage sensitivity factor expression was developed for quantitative comparisons between non-hybrid and hybrid composites. Hypotheses derived from the theoretical framework were tested and verified. The first hypothesis was that the difference between two different sets of properties produces shear stress in interface between carbon fibre reinforced plastics (CRP) and glass fibre reinforced plastics (GRP), and eventually become a source for CRP/GRP interfacial delamination or longitudinal cracking. The second hypothesis was that inter-fibre bundle delamination occurs more severely to CRP sub-system than GRP sub-system.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Okabe, Yoji; Fujibayashi, Keiji; Shimazaki, Mamoru; Soejima, Hideki; Ogisu, Toshimichi
2010-11-01
A new ultrasonic propagation system has been constructed using macrofiber composite (MFC) actuators and fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensors. The MFCs and FBGs can be integrated into composite laminates because of their small size and high fracture strain. The developed system can send and receive broadband Lamb waves. In this research, this system was used to detect delamination damage in composite laminates. First, the multiple modes of Lamb waves in a carbon-fiber-reinforced plastic (CFRP) quasi-isotropic laminate were identified by transmitting and receiving the symmetric and antisymmetric modes separately. Then, the mode conversions at both tips of a delamination were investigated through an experiment and a two-dimensional finite element analysis (FEA). A new delamination detection method was proposed on the basis of the mode conversions, and experiments were carried out on laminates with an artificial delamination. When antisymmetric modes were excited, the frequency dispersion of the received A1 mode changed, depending on the delamination length owing to the mode conversion between the A1 mode and the S0 mode. This phenomenon was confirmed through the FEA and these results prove that this new method is effective in detecting a delamination in CFRP laminates.
Comparison of experimental and analytical results for free vibration of laminated composite plates
Maryuama, Koichi; Narita, Yoshihiro; Ichinomiya, Osamu
1995-11-01
Fibrous composite materials are being increasingly employed in high performance structures, including pressured vessel and piping applications. These materials are usually used in the form of laminated flat or curved plates, and the understanding of natural frequencies and the corresponding mode shapes is essential to a reliable structural design. Although many references have been published on analytical study of laminated composite plates, a limited number of experimental studies have appeared for dealing with vibration characteristics of the plates. This paper presents both experimental and analytical results for the problems. In the experiment, the holographic interferometry is used to measure the resonant frequencies and corresponding mode shapes of six-layered CFRP (carbon fiber reinforced plastic) composite plates. The material constants of a lamina are calculated from fiber and matrix material constants by using some different composite rules. With the calculated constants, the natural frequencies of the laminated CFRP plates are theoretically determined by the Ritz method. From the comparison of two sets of the results, the effect of choosing different composite rules is discussed in the vibration study of laminated composite plates.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
WenQin, Han; Ying, Luo; AiJun, Gu; Yuan, Fuh-Gwo
2016-04-01
Discrimination of acoustic emission (AE) signals related to different damage modes is of great importance in carbon fiber-reinforced plastic (CFRP) composite materials. To gain a deeper understanding of the initiation, growth and evolution of the different types of damage, four types of specimens for different lay-ups and orientations and three types of specimens for interlaminar toughness tests are subjected to tensile test along with acoustic emission monitoring. AE signals have been collected and post-processed, the statistical results show that the peak frequency of AE signal can distinguish various damage modes effectively. After a AE signal were decomposed by Empirical Mode Decomposition (EMD) method, it may separate and extract all damage modes included in this AE signal apart from damage mode corresponding to the peak frequency. Hilbert-Huang Transform (HHT) of AE signals can clearly illustrate the frequency distribution of Intrinsic Mode Functions (IMF) components in time-scale in different damage stages, and can calculate accurate instantaneous frequency for damage modes recognition to help understanding the damage process.
Prediction of Damage Extension in CFRP Quasi-Isotropic Laminated Plates under Low-Velocity Impact
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zemba, Yutaka; Hu, Ning; Hara, Eiichi; Fukunaga, Hisao
In this paper, to understand the mechanism of delamination propagation in low-velocity impact problems, a weight-drop test is performed for quasi-isotropic composite plates of 32 plies. Due to the high computational cost, up to date, there have been almost no computational effects for simulating the damage propagations in quasi-isotropic composite laminates of 32 plies. This low-velocity impact problem is further numerically modeled and the damage propagation is simulated. A stress-based criterion is adopted for modeling various in-plane damages, such as transverse matrix cracking. A bi-linear cohesive interface model is employed for interface damages, such as delaminations. Moreover, to remove the numerical instability in simulations when using the traditional cohesive model, we propose a new technique, i.e., adaptive cohesive model. The effectiveness of this cohesive model is investigated using a DCB example. Then, it is applied to the low-velocity impact problem of quasi-isotropic composite laminates of 32 plies. The validity of the proposed numerical methodology is verified by comparing the numerical results with the experimental results.
Indentation law for composite laminates
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Yang, S. H.
1981-01-01
Static indentation tests are described for glass/epoxy and graphite/epoxy composite laminates with steel balls as the indentor. Beam specimens clamped at various spans were used for the tests. Loading, unloading, and reloading data were obtained and fitted into power laws. Results show that: (1) contact behavior is not appreciably affected by the span; (2) loading and reloading curves seem to follow the 1.5 power law; and (3) unloading curves are described quite well by a 2.5 power law. In addition, values were determined for the critical indentation, alpha sub cr which can be used to predict permanent indentations in unloading. Since alpha sub cr only depends on composite material properties, only the loading and an unloading curve are needed to establish the complete loading-unloading-reloading behavior.
Effects of Temperature on Mode II Fracture Toughness of Multidirectional CFRP Laminates
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kim, Hyoung Soo; Wang, Wen Xue; Takao, Yoshihiro; Ben, Goichi
End notched flexure (ENF) tests were performed to investigate the effects of temperature and fiber orientation on Mode II interlaminar fracture behavior, GIIC (GII at the crack initiation), of carbon fiber-reinforced epoxy composites, T800H/#3631. The values of GIIC for three kinds of laminates, [012//012], [22.5/-22.5/08/-22.5/22.5//-22.5/22.5/08/22.5/-22.5] and [45/-45/08/-45/45//-45/45/08/45/-45], with a pre-cracked interface, that is // in each laminate, were obtained at three temperatures, i.e. -100°C, 25°C and 150°C. It is shown that GIIC is obviously affected by the temperature and fiber orientation. The scanning electron microscope (SEM) observation was also carried out to investigate the fracture surface. SEM analysis suggested that the decreased Mode II interlaminar fracture toughness for all kinds of specimens at high temperature could be attributed to temperature-induced matrix property change or fiber-matrix interfacial weakening.
Nonlinear finite element analysis of mechanical characteristics on CFRP composite pressure vessels
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Dong-xia; Liang, Li; Li, Ming
2010-06-01
CFRP(Carbon Fibre Reinforced Plastic) composite pressure vessel was calculated using finite element program of ANSYS for their mechanical characteristics in this paper. The elastic-plastic model and elements of Solid95 were selected for aluminium alloys of gas cylinder. Also liner-elastic model and layer elements of Shell99 were adopted for carbon fibre/epoxy resin. The stress state of CFRP composite pressure vessel was calculated under different internal pressures include pre-stressing pressures, working pressures, test hydraulic pressures, minimum destructive pressures etcetera to determine the size of gas cylinder and layer parameter of carbon fibre. The mechanical characteristics CFRP composite vessel could were using to design and test of gas cylinder. Numerical results showed that finite element model and calculating method were efficient for study of CFRP gas cylinder and useful for engineering design.
Poly-m-aramid nanofiber mats: Production for application as structural modifiers in CFRP laminates
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mazzocchetti, Laura; D'Angelo, Emanuele; Benelli, Tiziana; Belcari, Juri; Brugo, Tommaso Maria; Zucchelli, Andrea; Giorgini, Loris
2016-05-01
Poly(m-phenylene isophtalamide) electrospun nanofibrous membranes were produced to be used as structural reinforcements for carbon fiber reinforced composites production. In order for the polymer to be electrospun, it needs however to be fully solubilized, so the addition of some salts is required to help disrupt the tight macromolecular packing based on intra- and inter-molecular hydrogen bonding. Such salts may also contribute to the electrospinnability of the overall solution, since the provide it with a higher conductivity, whatever the solvent might be. The salt haobwever stays in the final nanofibrous mat. The membranes containing the salt are also observed to be highly hygroscopic, with a water content up to 26%, in the presence of 20%wt LiCl in the nanofibrous mat. When those membranes were interleaved among prepregs to produce a laminates, the obtained composite displayed thermal properties comparable to those of a reference nanofiber-free composite, though the former showed also easier delamination. Hence the removal of the hygroscopic salt was performed, that lead to thinner membranes, whose water content matched that of the pristine polymer. The washing step induced a thinning of the layers and of the fibers diameters, though no fiber shrinking nor membrane macroscopic damages were observed. These preliminary encouraging results thus pave the way to a deeper study of the optimized condition for producing convenient poly(m-phenylene isophtalamide) electrospun nanofibrous membranes to be used for carbon fiber reinforced composites structural modification.
Shear response and design of RC beams strengthened using CFRP laminates
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Singh, Shamsher B.
2013-12-01
The present investigation addresses the shear strengthening of deficient reinforced concrete (RC) beams using carbon fiber-reinforced polymer (CFRP) sheets. The effect of the pattern and orientation of the strengthening fabric on the shear capacity of the strengthened beams were examined. Three beams with various lay-ups of strengthening fabric, 45°, 0°/90°, and 0°/90°/45° were examined, in addition to an unstrengthened control beam. Principal and shear strains were measured at different locations at the critical sections of the strengthened beams corresponding to each applied shear force. Experimental results showing the advantage of beam strengthened using the various lay-ups of CFRP sheets are discussed. It is concluded that Beam-45°, Beam-0°/90°, and Beam-0°/90°/45° show about 25%, 19%, and 40% increases in shear-load carrying capacity in comparison to the control beam, respectively. Also, there exists a critical value of shear force up to which there is no appreciable shear strain in the CFRP sheets/beam. This shear force marks the ultimate shear resistance of the control beam. However, the strengthened beams exhibited significant strength and stiffness even beyond the critical value of the shear force. A design example for shear strengthening shows that the design equations available in the literature underestimate the actual shear strength of the beams.
Simulation of Lightning-Induced Delamination in Un-protected CFRP Laminates
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Naghipour, P.; Pineda, E. J.; Arnold, S. M.
2016-08-01
Lightning is a major cause of damage in laminated composite aerospace structures during flight. The most significant failure mode induced by lightning is delamination, which might extend well beyond the visible damage zone, and requires sophisticated techniques and equipment to detect. Therefore, it is crucial to develop a numerical tool capable of predicting the damage zone induced from a lightning strike to minimize costly repair acreage and supplement extremely expensive lightning experiments. Herein, a detailed numerical study consisting of a multidirectional composite with user-defined, temperature-dependent, interlaminar elements subjected to a lightning strike is designed, and delamination/damage expansion is studied under specified conditions. It is observed both the size and shape of the delamination zone are strongly dependent on the assumed temperature-dependent fracture toughness; the primary parameter controlling lightning-induced delamination propagation. An accurate estimation of the fracture toughness profile is crucial in order to have a reliable prediction of the delamination zone and avoid sub-critical structural failures.
Simulation of Lightning-Induced Delamination in Un-protected CFRP Laminates
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Naghipour, P.; Pineda, E. J.; Arnold, S. M.
2016-02-01
Lightning is a major cause of damage in laminated composite aerospace structures during flight. The most significant failure mode induced by lightning is delamination, which might extend well beyond the visible damage zone, and requires sophisticated techniques and equipment to detect. Therefore, it is crucial to develop a numerical tool capable of predicting the damage zone induced from a lightning strike to minimize costly repair acreage and supplement extremely expensive lightning experiments. Herein, a detailed numerical study consisting of a multidirectional composite with user-defined, temperature-dependent, interlaminar elements subjected to a lightning strike is designed, and delamination/damage expansion is studied under specified conditions. It is observed both the size and shape of the delamination zone are strongly dependent on the assumed temperature-dependent fracture toughness; the primary parameter controlling lightning-induced delamination propagation. An accurate estimation of the fracture toughness profile is crucial in order to have a reliable prediction of the delamination zone and avoid sub-critical structural failures.
Direct Composite Laminate Veneers: Three Case Reports
Korkut, Bora; Yanıkoğlu, Funda; Günday, Mahir
2013-01-01
Re-establishing a patient’s lost dental esthetic appearance is one of the most important topics for contemporary dentistry. New treatment materials and methods have been coming on the scene, day by day, in order to achieve such an aim. Most dentists prefer more conservative and aesthetic approaches, such as direct and indirect laminate veneer restorations, instead of full-ceramic crowns for anteriors where aesthetics is really important. Laminate veneers are restorations which are envisioned to correct existing abnormalities, esthetic deficiencies and discolo-rations. Laminate veneer restorations may be processed in two different ways: direct or indirect. Direct laminate veneers have no need to be prepared in the laboratory and are based on the principle of application of a composite material directly to the prepared tooth surface in the dental clinic. Indirect laminate veneers may be produced from composite materials or ceramics, which are cemented to the tooth with an adhesive resin. In this case report, direct composite laminate veneer technique used for three patients with esthetic problems related to fractures, discolorations and an old prolapsed restoration, is described and six-month follow-ups are discussed. As a conclusion, direct laminate veneer restorations may be a treatment option for patients with the esthetic problems of anterior teeth in cases similar to those reported here. PMID:23875090
Method for fabricating laminated uranium composites
Chapman, L.R.
1983-08-03
The present invention is directed to a process for fabricating laminated composites of uranium or uranium alloys and at least one other metal or alloy. The laminated composites are fabricated by forming a casting of the molten uranium with the other metal or alloy which is selectively positioned in the casting and then hot-rolling the casting into a laminated plate in or around which the casting components are metallurgically bonded to one another to form the composite. The process of the present invention provides strong metallurgical bonds between the laminate components primarily since the bond disrupting surface oxides on the uranium or uranium alloy float to the surface of the casting to effectively remove the oxides from the bonding surfaces of the components.
Flexural Upgrading of Steel-Concrete Composite Girders Using Externally Bonded CFRP Reinforcement
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kabir, Mohammad Z.; Eshaghian, M.
2010-04-01
This study focuses on the flexural performance of composite steel-concrete beam girders retrofitted with CFRP. The current work is a numerical study of the load carrying capacity of a section which is strengthened by externally bonding of CFRP to the tension flange. At the primarily stage of the work, the model is verified by published experimental data. The three dimensional interactive failure Tsai-Wu criteria was implemented to retrofitted composite girder in order to identify the failure mode. Then a detailed parametric study is carried out to investigate the effects of geometry parameters and material characteristics on flexural performance of a composite section.
Buckling of Cracked Laminated Composite Cylindrical Shells Subjected to Combined Loading
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Allahbakhsh, Hamidreza; Shariati, Mahmoud
2013-10-01
A series of finite element analysis on the cracked composite cylindrical shells under combined loading is carried out to study the effect of loading condition, crack size and orientation on the buckling behavior of laminated composite cylindrical shells. The interaction buckling curves of cracked laminated composite cylinders subject to different combinations of axial compression, bending, internal pressure and external pressure are obtained, using the finite element method. Results show that the internal pressure increases the critical buckling load of the CFRP cylindrical shells and bending and external pressure decrease it. Numerical analysis show that axial crack has the most detrimental effect on the buckling load of a cylindrical shell and results show that for lower values of the axial compressive load and higher values of the external pressure, the buckling is usually in the global mode and for higher values of axial compressive load and lower levels of external pressure the buckling mode is mostly in the local mode.
Free edge effects in laminated composites
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Herakovich, C. T.
1989-01-01
The fundamental mechanics of free-edge effects in laminated fiber-reinforced composites is examined, reviewing the results of recent experimental and analytical investigations. The derivation of the governing equations for the basic problem is outlined, including the equilibrium and mismatch conditions and the elasticity formulation, and experimental data on axial displacement and shear strain in angle-ply laminates are summarized. Numerical predictions of free-edge deformation and interlaminar and through-thickness stress distributions are presented for cross-ply, angle-ply, and quasi-isotropic laminates, and the mechanisms of edge damage and failure in angle-ply laminates are briefly characterized. Extensive diagrams, drawings, graphs, and photographs are provided.
Composite Laminate With Coefficient of Thermal Expansion Matching D263 Glass
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Robinson, David; Rodini, Benjamin
2012-01-01
The International X-ray Observatory project seeks to make an X-ray telescope assembly with 14,000 flexible glass segments. The glass used is commercially available SCHOTT D263 glass. Thermal expansion causes the mirror to distort out of alignment. A housing material is needed that has a matching coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) so that when temperatures change in the X-ray mirror assembly, the glass and housing pieces expand equally, thus reducing or eliminating distortion. Desirable characteristics of this material include a high stiffness/weight ratio, and low density. Some metal alloys show promise in matching the CTE of D263 glass, but their density is high compared to aluminum, and their stiffness/weight ratio is not favorable. A laminate made from carbon fiber reinforced plastic (CFRP) should provide more favorable characteristics, but there has not been any made with the CTE matching D263 Glass. It is common to create CFRP laminates of various CTEs by stacking layers of prepreg material at various angles. However, the CTE of D263 glass is 6.3 ppm/ C at 20 C, which is quite high, and actually unachievable solely with carbon fiber and resin. A composite laminate has been developed that has a coefficient of thermal expansion identical to that of SCHOTT D263 glass. The laminate is made of a combination of T300 carbon fiber, Eglass, and RS3C resin. The laminate has 50% uni-T300 plies and 50% uni-E-glass plies, with each fiber-layer type laid up in a quasi-isotropic laminate for a total of 16 plies. The fiber volume (percent of fiber compared to the resin) controls the CTE to a great extent. Tests have confirmed that a fiber volume around 48% gives a CTE of 6.3 ppm/ C. This is a fairly simple composite laminate, following well established industry procedures. The unique feature of this laminate is a somewhat unusual combination of carbon fiber with E-glass (fiberglass). The advantage is that the resulting CTE comes out to 6.3 ppm/ C at 20 C, which matches D
Detection of CFRP Composite Manufacturing Defects Using a Guided Wave Approach
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hudson, Tyler B.; Hou, Tan-Hung; Grimsley, Brian W.; Yuan, Fuh-Gwo
2015-01-01
NASA Langley Research Center is investigating a guided-wave based defect detection technique for as-fabricated carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) composites. This technique will be extended to perform in-process cure monitoring, defect detection and size determination, and ultimately a closed-loop process control to maximize composite part quality and consistency. The overall objective of this work is to determine the capability and limitations of the proposed defect detection technique, as well as the number and types of sensors needed to identify the size, type, and location of the predominant types of manufacturing defects associated with laminate layup and cure. This includes, porosity, gaps, overlaps, through-the-thickness fiber waviness, and in-plane fiber waviness. The present study focuses on detection of the porosity formed from variations in the matrix curing process, and on local overlaps intentionally introduced during layup of the prepreg. By terminating the cycle prematurely, three 24-ply unidirectional composite panels were manufactured such that each subsequent panel had a higher final degree of cure, and lower level of porosity. It was demonstrated that the group velocity, normal to the fiber direction, of a guided wave mode increased by 5.52 percent from the first panel to the second panel and 1.26 percent from the second panel to the third panel. Therefore, group velocity was utilized as a metric for degree of cure and porosity measurements. A fully non-contact guided wave hybrid system composed of an air-coupled transducer and a laser Doppler vibrometer (LDV) was used for the detection and size determination of an overlap By transforming the plate response from the time-space domain to the frequency-wavenumber domain, the total wavefield was then separated into the incident and backscatter waves. The overlap region was accurately imaged by using a zero-lag cross-correlation (ZLCC) imaging condition, implying the incident and backscattered
Finite element analysis when orthogonal cutting of hybrid composite CFRP/Ti
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xu, Jinyang; El Mansori, Mohamed
2015-07-01
Hybrid composite, especially CFRP/Ti stack, is usually considered as an innovative structural configuration for manufacturing the key load-bearing components in modern aerospace industry. This paper originally proposed an FE model to simulate the total chip formation process dominated the hybrid cutting operation. The hybrid composite model was established based on three physical constituents, i.e., Ti constituent, interface and CFRP constituent. Different constitutive models and damage criteria were introduced to replicate the interrelated cutting behaviour of the stack material. The CFRP/Ti interface was modelled as a third phase through the concept of cohesive zone (CZ). Particular attention was made on the comparative studies of the influence of different cutting-sequence strategies on the machining responses induced in hybrid stack cutting. The numerical results emphasized the pivotal role of cutting-sequence strategy on the various machining induced responses including cutting-force generation, machined surface quality and induced interface damage.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yamaguchi, Keisuke; Ueda, Takao; Nanasawa, Akira
As a new rehabilitation technique for recovery both of loading ability and durability of concrete structures deteriorated by chloride attack, desalination (electrochemical chloride removal technique from concrete) using CFRP composite electrode bonding to concrete has been developed. In this study, basic application was tried using small RC specimens, and also application to the large-scale RC beams deteriorated by the chloride attack through the long-term exposure in the outdoors was investigated. As the result of bending test of treated specimens, the decrease of strengthening effect with the electrochemical treatment was observed in the case of small specimens using low absorption rate resin for bonding, on the other hand, in the case of large-scale RC beam using 20% absorption rate resin for bonding CFRP composite electrode, enough strengthening effect was obtained by the bending failure of RC beam with the fracture of CFRP board.
Composite laminate free edge reinforcement concepts
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Howard, W. E.; Gossard, T., Jr.; Jones, R. M.
1985-01-01
The presence of a free edge in a laminated composite structure can result in delamination of the composite under certain loading conditions. Linear finite element analysis predicts large or even singular interlaminar stresses near the free edge. Edge reinforcements which will reduce these interlaminar stresses, prevent or delay the onset of delaminations, and thereby increase the strength and life of the structure were studied. Finite element models are used to analyze reinforced laminates which were subsequently fabricated and loaded to failure in order to verify the analysis results.
Guided Wave and Damage Detection in Composite Laminates Using Different Fiber Optic Sensors
Li, Fucai; Murayama, Hideaki; Kageyama, Kazuro; Shirai, Takehiro
2009-01-01
Guided wave detection using different fiber optic sensors and their applications in damage detection for composite laminates were systematically investigated and compared in this paper. Two types of fiber optic sensors, namely fiber Bragg gratings (FBG) and Doppler effect-based fiber optic (FOD) sensors, were addressed and guided wave detection systems were constructed for both types. Guided waves generated by a piezoelectric transducer were propagated through a quasi-isotropic carbon fiber reinforced plastic (CFRP) laminate and acquired by these fiber optic sensors. Characteristics of these fiber optic sensors in ultrasonic guided wave detection were systematically compared. Results demonstrated that both the FBG and FOD sensors can be applied in guided wave and damage detection for the CFRP laminates. The signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of guided wave signal captured by an FOD sensor is relatively high in comparison with that of the FBG sensor because of their different physical principles in ultrasonic detection. Further, the FOD sensor is sensitive to the damage-induced fundamental shear horizontal (SH0) guided wave that, however, cannot be detected by using the FBG sensor, because the FOD sensor is omnidirectional in ultrasound detection and, in contrast, the FBG sensor is severely direction dependent. PMID:22412347
On thermal edge effects in composite laminates
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Herakovich, C. T.
1976-01-01
Results are presented for a finite-element investigation of the combined influence of edge effects due to mechanical and thermal mismatch in composite laminates with free edges. Laminates of unidirectional boron/epoxy symmetrically bonded to sheets of aluminum and titanium were studied. It is shown that interlaminar thermal stresses may be more significant than the interlaminar stresses due to loading only. In addition, the stresses due to thermal mismatch may be of the same sign as those due to Poisson's mismatch or they may be of opposite sign depending upon material properties, stacking sequence, and direction of loading. The paper concludes with a brief discussion of thermal stresses in all-composite laminates.
Lamination residual stresses in fiber composites
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Daniel, I. M.; Liber, T.
1975-01-01
An experimental investigation was conducted to determine the magnitude of lamination residual stresses in angle-ply composites and to evaluate their effects on composite structural integrity. The materials investigated were boron/epoxy, boron/polyimide, graphite/low modulus epoxy, graphite/high modulus epoxy, graphite/polyimide and s-glass/epoxy. These materials were fully characterized. Static properties of laminates were also determined. Experimental techniques using embedded strain gages were developed and used to measure residual strains during curing. The extent of relaxation of lamination residual stresses was investigated. It was concluded that the degree of such relaxation is low. The behavior of angle-ply laminates subjected to thermal cycling, tensile load cycling, and combined thermal cycling with tensile load was investigated. In most cases these cycling programs did not have any measurable influence on residual strength and stiffness of the laminates. In the tensile load cycling tests, the graphite/polyimide shows the highest endurance with 10 million cycle runouts at loads up to 90 percent of the static strength.
Reliability analysis of continuous fiber composite laminates
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Thomas, David J.; Wetherhold, Robert C.
1991-01-01
This paper describes two methods, the maximum distortion energy (MDE) and the principle of independent action (PIA), developed for the analysis of the reliability of a single continuous composite lamina. It is shown that, for the typical laminated plate structure, the individual lamina reliabilities can be combined in order to produce the upper and the lower bounds of reliability for the laminate, similar in nature to the bounds on properties produced from variational elastic methods. These limits were derived for both the interactive and the model failure considerations. Analytical expressions were also derived for the sensitivity of the reliability limits with respect to changes in the Weibull parameters and in loading conditions.
Preliminary evaluation of hybrid titanium composite laminates
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Miller, J. L.; Progar, D. J.; Johnson, W. S.; St.clair, T. L.
1994-01-01
In this study, the mechanical response of hybrid titanium composite laminates (HTCL) was evaluated at room and elevated temperatures. Also, the use of an elastic-plastic laminate analysis program for predicting the tensile response from constituent properties was verified. The improvement in mechanical properties achieved by the laminates was assessed by comparing the results of static strength and constant amplitude fatigue tests to those for monolithic titanium sheet. Two HTCL were fabricated with different fiber volume fractions, resin layer thicknesses, and resins. One panel was thicker and was more poorly bonded in comparison to other. Consequently, the former had a lower tensile strength, while fewer cracks grew in this panel and at a slower rate. Both panels showed an improvement in fatigue life of almost two orders of magnitude. The model predictions were also in good agreement with the experimental results for both HTCL panels.
Yelve, Nitesh P; Mitra, Mira; Mujumdar, P M; Ramadas, C
2016-08-01
A new hybrid method based upon nonlinear Lamb wave response in time and frequency domains is introduced to locate a delamination in composite laminates. In Lamb wave based nonlinear method, the presence of damage is shown by the appearance of higher harmonics in the Lamb wave response. The proposed method not only uses this spectral information but also the corresponding temporal response data, for locating the delamination. Thus, the method is termed as a hybrid method. The paper includes formulation of the method and its application to locate a Barely Visible Impact Damage (BVID) induced delamination in a Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymer (CFRP) laminate. The method gives the damage location fairly well. It is a baseline free method, as it does not need data from the pristine specimen. PMID:27115575
Modeling Composite Laminate Crushing for Crash Analysis
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Fleming, David C.; Jones, Lisa (Technical Monitor)
2002-01-01
Crash modeling of composite structures remains limited in application and has not been effectively demonstrated as a predictive tool. While the global response of composite structures may be well modeled, when composite structures act as energy-absorbing members through direct laminate crushing the modeling accuracy is greatly reduced. The most efficient composite energy absorbing structures, in terms of energy absorbed per unit mass, are those that absorb energy through a complex progressive crushing response in which fiber and matrix fractures on a small scale dominate the behavior. Such failure modes simultaneously include delamination of plies, failure of the matrix to produce fiber bundles, and subsequent failure of fiber bundles either in bending or in shear. In addition, the response may include the significant action of friction, both internally (between delaminated plies or fiber bundles) or externally (between the laminate and the crushing surface). A figure shows the crushing damage observed in a fiberglass composite tube specimen, illustrating the complexity of the response. To achieve a finite element model of such complex behavior is an extremely challenging problem. A practical crushing model based on detailed modeling of the physical mechanisms of crushing behavior is not expected in the foreseeable future. The present research describes attempts to model composite crushing behavior using a novel hybrid modeling procedure. Experimental testing is done is support of the modeling efforts, and a test specimen is developed to provide data for validating laminate crushing models.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Luyckx, G.; Voet, E.; Lammens, N.; De Waele, W.; Degrieck, J.
2011-05-01
Embedded optical fibre sensors are considered in numerous applications for structural health monitoring purposes. Since the optical fibre and the host material in which it is embedded, have different material properties, strain in both materials will not be equal when external load is applied. In this paper, an experimental evaluation of the response of uni-axial fibre Bragg grating sensors embedded in small cross-ply composite laminates subjected to out-of-plane transverse loading is discussed.
Progressive delamination in polymer matrix composite laminates: A new approach
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chamis, C. C.; Murthy, P. L. N.; Minnetyan, L.
1992-01-01
A new approach independent of stress intensity factors and fracture toughness parameters has been developed and is described for the computational simulation of progressive delamination in polymer matrix composite laminates. The damage stages are quantified based on physics via composite mechanics while the degradation of the laminate behavior is quantified via the finite element method. The approach accounts for all types of composite behavior, laminate configuration, load conditions, and delamination processes starting from damage initiation, to unstable propagation, and to laminate fracture. Results of laminate fracture in composite beams, panels, plates, and shells are presented to demonstrate the effectiveness and versatility of this new approach.
Reliability analysis of continuous fiber composite laminates
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Thomas, David J.; Wetherhold, Robert C.
1990-01-01
A composite lamina may be viewed as a homogeneous solid whose directional strengths are random variables. Calculation of the lamina reliability under a multi-axial stress state can be approached by either assuming that the strengths act separately (modal or independent action), or that they interact through a quadratic interaction criterion. The independent action reliability may be calculated in closed form, while interactive criteria require simulations; there is currently insufficient data to make a final determination of preference between them. Using independent action for illustration purposes, the lamina reliability may be plotted in either stress space or in a non-dimensional representation. For the typical laminated plate structure, the individual lamina reliabilities may be combined in order to produce formal upper and lower bounds of reliability for the laminate, similar in nature to the bounds on properties produced from variational elastic methods. These bounds are illustrated for a (0/plus or minus 15)sub s Graphite/Epoxy (GR/EP) laminate. And addition, simple physically plausible phenomenological rules are proposed for redistribution of load after a lamina has failed. These rules are illustrated by application to (0/plus or minus 15)sub s and (90/plus or minus 45/0)sub s GR/EP laminates and results are compared with respect to the proposed bounds.
Compression failure of composite laminates
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Pipes, R. B.
1983-01-01
This presentation attempts to characterize the compressive behavior of Hercules AS-1/3501-6 graphite-epoxy composite. The effect of varying specimen geometry on test results is examined. The transition region is determined between buckling and compressive failure. Failure modes are defined and analytical models to describe these modes are presented.
Thermal stresses in thick laminated composite shells
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Yuan, F. G.
1993-01-01
The paper provides an analytical formulation to investigate the thermomechanical behavior of thick composite shells subjected to a temperature distribution which varies arbitrarily in the radial direction. For illustrative purposes, shells under uniform temperature change are presented. It is found that thermal twist would occur even for symmetric laminated shells. Under uniform temperature rise, results for off-axis graphite/epoxy shells show that extensional-shear coupling can cause tensile radial stress throughout the shell and tensile hoop stress in the inner region. Laminated graphite/epoxy shells can exhibit negative effective thermal expansion coefficients in the longitudinal and transverse directions. Finally, the stacking sequence has a strong influence on the thermal stress distributions.
High-power picosecond laser drilling/machining of carbon fibre-reinforced polymer (CFRP) composites
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Salama, A.; Li, L.; Mativenga, P.; Sabli, A.
2016-02-01
The large differences in physical and thermal properties of the carbon fibre-reinforced polymer (CFRP) composite constituents make laser machining of this material challenging. An extended heat-affected zone (HAZ) often occurs. The availability of ultrashort laser pulse sources such as picosecond lasers makes it possible to improve the laser machining quality of these materials. This paper reports an investigation on the drilling and machining of CFRP composites using a state-of-the-art 400 W picosecond laser system. Small HAZs (<25 µm) were obtained on the entry side of 6-mm-diameter hole drilled on sample of 6 mm thickness, whereas no HAZ was seen below the top surface on the cut surfaces. Multiple ring material removal strategy was used. Furthermore, the effect of laser processing parameters such as laser power, scanning speed and repetition rate on HAZ sizes and ablation depth was investigated.
TECHNICAL NOTE: Fuzzy control of vibration of a smart CFRP laminated beam
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Takawa, Takeshi; Fukuda, Takehito; Nakashima, Koichiro
2000-04-01
In the present study, the fuzzy control of vibration is investigated for a hybrid smart composite beam actuated by piezoceramics and electro-rheological fluids (ERFs) actuators. A carbon fiber reinforced plastics cantilevered beam containing ERF with bonded piezoceramics is vibrated under forced sinusoidal external excitation. A fuzzy model of the controlled element containing two actuators is formed because the application of a linear control theory to the vibration control is difficult due to intense nonlinearity in the ERF actuator. The parameters of the fuzzy model are identified by using a hybrid neuro-fuzzy system. The fuzzy controller for vibration suppression of the composite beam designed is based on the fuzzy model by using modern control theory. The effect of the vibration control system with a fuzzy controller is verified by simulation and experiment.
Bending analysis of laminated composite box beams
Tripathy, A.K.; Patel, H.J.; Pang, S.S. . Dept. of Mechanical Engineering)
1994-01-01
Box beams are widely used in weight reduction structures such as aircraft wings. The use of composite box beams further reduces the weight factor for such structures with the same deflection and stress as that of isotropic box beams. The difference in the behavior of composite box beam with different fiber orientation, number of plies, and number of stringers also provides a wide range of designing parameters to achieve the required performance for a given problem. A bending analysis has been carried out for the study of deflections and stresses for box beams of different material (isotropic and laminated composites), size, and number of stringers subjected to different kinds of loading conditions. A finite element model has been developed based on the strain energy principle, and the results are compared with an available commercial code COSMOS/M.'' Experiments using aluminum and scotchply composite laminates were conducted to verify the results. An optimal design for size and number of stiffeners for a given loading condition has been achieved. Investigations have also been carried out to find the effect of transverse shear on the span-wise normal stress.
Sound transmission into a laminated composite cylindrical shell
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Koval, L. R.
1980-01-01
In the context of the transmission of airborne noise into an aircraft fuselage, a mathematical model is presented for the transmission of an oblique plane sound wave into a laminated composite circular cylindrical shell. Numerical results are obtained for geometry typical of a narrow-bodied jet transport. Results indicate that from the viewpoint of noise attenuation on laminated composite shell does not appear to offer any significant advantage over an aluminum shell. However, the transmission loss of a laminated composite shell is sensitive to the orientation of the fibers and this suggests the possibility of using a laminated composite shell to tailor the noise attenuation characteristics to meet a specific need.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Matsubayashi, H.; Mukai, Y.; Arai, T.; Shin, J. K.; Ochiai, S.; Okuda, H.; Osamura, K.; Otto, A.; Malozemoff, A.
2009-10-01
It has been reported that, when the (Bi,Pb) 2Sr 2Ca 2Cu 3O x (hereafter noted as BSCCO)/Ag/Ag-alloy tape is laminated with stainless steel, the tensile strain tolerance of critical current is much improved. In this study, using the non-laminated and laminated BSCCO composite tapes fabricated at American Superconductor Corporation, the influences of lamination on the critical current and its distribution under bending strain were studied. The analysis of the measured variation of average critical current with bending strain based on the damage evolution model revealed that the laminated stainless steel acts to suppress the fracture of the BSCCO filaments. The experimentally observed high critical current retention of the laminated tape up to high bending strain was accounted for by the suppression of fracture of BSCCO filaments stated above and enhancement of the compressive residual strain in the filaments. The distributions of local critical current in non-laminated and laminated composite tape were described well by the three-parameter Weibull distribution function within the bending strain lower than 1.1%. The coefficient of variation of distribution of critical current of the laminated tape was similar to that of the non-laminated one under the same strain distribution in the core.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jumahat, Aidah; Soutis, Constantinos; Hodzic, Alma
2011-02-01
The in-plane shear and compressive properties of unidirectional (UD) HTS40/977-2 carbon fibre-toughened resin (CF/TR) laminates are investigated. Scanning Electron microscopy (SEM) and optical microscopy are used to reveal the failure mechanisms developed during compression. It is found that damage initiates by fibre microbuckling (a fibre instability failure mode) which then is followed by yielding of the matrix to form a fibre kink band zone that leads to final fracture. Analytical models are briefly reviewed and a graphical method, based on the shear response of the composite system, is described in order to estimate the UD compressive strength. Predictions for the HTS40/977-2 system are compared to experimental measurements and to data of five other unidirectional carbon fibre reinforced polymer (CFRP) composites that are currently used in aerospace and other structural applications. It is shown that the estimated values are in a good agreement with the measured results.
Micromechanics of composite laminate compression failures
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Guynn, E. Gail; Bradley, Walter L.
1988-01-01
The purpose of this annual progress report is to summarize the work effort and results accomplished from July 1987 through July 1988 on NASA Research Grant NAG1-659 entitled Micromechanics of Composite Laminate Compressive Failure. The report contains: (1) the objective of the proposed research, (2) the summary of accomplishments, (3) a more extensive review of compression literature, (4) the planned material (and corresponding properties) received to date, (5) the results for three possible specimen geometries, experimental procedures planned, and current status of the experiments, and (6) the work planned for the next contract year.
Strength of composite laminates under biaxial loads
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hinton, M. J.; Soden, P. D.; Kaddour, A. S.
1996-05-01
Five well known failure criteria and one simple progressive model have been used in conjunction with laminate theory, which allows for nonlinear lamina shear behaviour, to predict the initial and final failure strengths of filament wound composite tubes. The predictions have been compared with experimental leakage and fracture stresses for ±75°, ±55° and ±45° filament wound GRP tubes subjected to a wide range of biaxial stress systems including biaxial compression. In some cases the fracture strengths were a factor of 10 higher than the initial failure predictions. The simple progressive failure theory predictions gave the best agreement with the experimental results.
CFRP composite mirrors for space telescopes and their micro-dimensional stability
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Utsunomiya, Shin; Kamiya, Tomohiro; Shimizu, Ryuzo
2010-07-01
Ultra-lightweight and high-accuracy CFRP (carbon fiber reinforced plastics) mirrors for space telescopes were fabricated to demonstrate their feasibility for light wavelength applications. The CTE (coefficient of thermal expansion) of the all- CFRP sandwich panels was tailored to be smaller than 1×10-7/K. The surface accuracy of mirrors of 150 mm in diameter was 1.8 um RMS as fabricated and the surface smoothness was improved to 20 nm RMS by using a replica technique. Moisture expansion was considered the largest in un-predictable surface preciseness errors. The moisture expansion affected not only homologous shape change but also out-of-plane distortion especially in unsymmetrical compositions. Dimensional stability due to the moisture expansion was compared with a structural mathematical model.
Nonlinear laminate analysis for metal matrix fiber composites
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chamis, C. C.; Sinclair, J. H.
1981-01-01
A nonlinear laminate analysis is described for predicting the mechanical behavior (stress-strain relationships) of angle-ply laminates in which the matrix is strained nonlinearly by both the residual stress and the mechanical load and in which additional nonlinearities are induced due to progressive fiber fractures and ply relative rotations. The nonlinear laminate analysis is based on linear composite mechanics and a piece-wise linear laminate analysis to handle the nonlinear responses. Results obtained by using this nonlinear analysis on boron-fiber/aluminum-matrix angle-ply laminates agree well with experimental data. The results shown illustrate the in situ ply stress-strain behavior and synergistic strength enhancement.
Nonlinear laminate analysis for metal matrix fiber composites
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chamis, C. C.; Sinclair, J. H.
1981-01-01
A nonlinear laminate analysis is described for predicting the mechanical behavior (stress-strain relationships) of angleplied laminates in which the matrix is strained nonlinearly by both the residual stress and the mechanical load and in which additional nonlinearities are induced due to progressive fiber fractures and ply relative rotations. The nonlinear laminate analysis (NLA) is based on linear composite mechanics and a piece wise linear laminate analysis to handle the nonlinear responses. Results obtained by using this nonlinear analysis on boron fiber/aluminum matrix angleplied laminates agree well with experimental data. The results shown illustrate the in situ ply stress-strain behavior and synergistic strength enhancement.
Edge effects in angle-ply composite laminates
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hsu, P. W.; Herakovich, C. T.
1977-01-01
This paper presents the results of a zeroth-order solution for edge effects in angle-ply composite laminates obtained using perturbation techniques and a limiting free body approach. The general solution for edge effects in laminates of arbitrary angle ply is applied to the special case of a (+ or - 45)s graphite/epoxy laminate. Interlaminar stress distributions are obtained as a function of the laminate thickness-to-width ratio and compared to finite difference results. The solution predicts stable, continuous stress distributions, determines finite maximum tensile interlaminar normal stress and provides mathematical evidence for singular interlaminar shear stresses in (+ or - 45) graphite/epoxy laminates.
Cured shape prediction of the bistable hybrid composite laminate
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dai, Fu-hong; Zhang, Bo-ming; Du, Shan-yi
2009-07-01
A bistable unsymmetric hybrid composite laminate with quite high stiffness and large shape change is presented. Rayleigh-Ritz method is used to predict the cured shape and the predited results agree well with the experimentals. The critical loads switching between different shapes are tested. It shows that the critical load for hybrid composite laminates increases greatly (up to 10 times) compared with the pure fiber reinforced polymer matrix composite laminates. The influence of different geometric and material properites on the bistable shape is discussed. It reveals that the present hybrid bistable laminate is more designable and miscellaneous.
Residual stress and crack propagation in laminated composites
Yttergren, R.M.F.; Zeng, K.; Rowcliffe, D.J.
1994-12-31
Residual stress distributions in several laminated ceramic composites were measured by an indentation technique. The material included alumina-zirconia laminated composites, containing strong interfaces, and alumina-porcelain laminated composites with both weak and strong interfaces. The residual stress in these material originates from the mismatch of the thermal properties, differences in elastic properties, and different shrinkage of the laminates during sintering. An experimental technique is presented which gives a direct view of the residual stress state in the materials. Values of residual tensile stress are presented as a function of position relative to the interface in each material.
The Effects of Debonding on the Low-Velocity Impact Response of Steel-CFRP Fibre Metal Laminates
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pärnänen, T.; Vänttinen, A.; Kanerva, M.; Jokinen, J.; Saarela, O.
2016-06-01
The effect of metal-composite debonding on low-velocity impact response, i.e. on contact force-central deflection response, deformation profiles and strains on the free surfaces was studied. We focused on type 2/1 fibre metal laminate specimens made of stainless steel and carbon fibre epoxy layers, and tested them with drop-weight impact and quasi-static indentation loadings. Local strains were measured with strain gauges and full-field strains with a 3-D digital image correlation method. In addition, finite element simulations were performed and the effects of debonding were studied by exploiting cohesive elements. Our results showed that debonding, either the initial debonding or that formed during the loading, lowers the slope of the contact force-central deflection curve during the force increase. The debonding formation during the rebound phase was shown to amplify the rebound of the impact side, i.e. to lower the ultimate post-impact deflection. The free surface strains were studied on the laminate's lower surface at the area outside the debond damage. In terms of in-plane strains, debonding formation during impact and indentation, as well as the initial debonding, lowered the peripheral strain and resulted in a positive change in the radial strain.
Permeability After Impact Testing of Composite Laminates
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Nettles, Alan T.
2003-01-01
Since composite laminates are beginning to be identified for use in reusable launch vehicle propulsion systems, an understanding of their permeance is needed. A foreign object impact event can cause a localized area of permeability (leakage) in a polymer matrix composite and it is the aim of this study to assess a method of quantifying permeability-after-impact results. A simple test apparatus is presented and variables that could affect the measured values of permeability-after-impact were assessed. Once it was determined that valid numbers were being measured, a fiber/resin system was impacted at various impact levels and the resulting permeability measured, first with a leak check solution (qualitative) then using the new apparatus (quantitative). The results showed that as the impact level increased, so did the measured leakage. As the pressure to the specimen was increased, the leak rate was seen to increase in a non-linear fashion for almost all of the specimens tested.
Permeability After Impact Testing of Composite Laminates
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Nettles, A.T.; Munafo, Paul (Technical Monitor)
2002-01-01
Since composite laminates are beginning to be identified for use in reusable launch vehicle propulsion systems, an understanding of their permeance is needed. A foreign object impact event can cause a localized area of permeability (leakage) in a polymer matrix composite and it is the aim of this study to assess a method of quantifying permeability-after-impact results. A simple test apparatus is presented and variables that could affect the measured values of permeability-after-impact were assessed. Once it was determined that valid numbers were being measured, a fiber/resin system was impacted at various impact levels and the resulting permeability measured, first with a leak check solution (qualitative) then using the new apparatus (quantitative). The results showed that as the impact level increased, so did the measured leakage. As the pressure to the specimen was increased, the leak rate was seen to increase in a non-linear fashion for almost all of the specimens tested.
Micromechanics of composite laminate compression failure
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Guynn, E. Gail; Bradley, Walter L.
1986-01-01
The Dugdale analysis for metals loaded in tension was adapted to model the failure of notched composite laminates loaded in compression. Compression testing details, MTS alignment verification, and equipment needs were resolved. Thus far, only 2 ductile material systems, HST7 and F155, were selected for study. A Wild M8 Zoom Stereomicroscope and necessary attachments for video taping and 35 mm pictures were purchased. Currently, this compression test system is fully operational. A specimen is loaded in compression, and load vs shear-crippling zone size is monitored and recorded. Data from initial compression tests indicate that the Dugdale model does not accurately predict the load vs damage zone size relationship of notched composite specimens loaded in compression.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Amano, Masataro; Okabe, Yoji; Takeda, Nobuo
A Ti-Ni shape memory alloy (SMA) foil and a small-diameter fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensor were embedded simultaneously into a CFRP cross-ply laminate. When the specimen was heated, the recovery compressive force was generated from the embedded SMA foil, which homogenized the non-uniform strain distribution caused by cracks in the 90° ply. Then, the tensile stress in the 90° ply was relaxed and the occurrence of new transverse cracks was suppressed. This effect was evaluated with the embedded FBG sensor. When the specimen was heated, the deformed reflection spectrum of the FBG returned to its original shape, which suggested that Ti-Ni SMA foil was effective to suppress the damage. However, relaxation of thermal residual tensile stress in the 90° ply was also effective. The result of the 3D FEA suggested that the suppression of damage occurrence and growth was mainly caused by the relaxation of thermal residual tensile stress.
Fabrication of Multi-Ply Birefringent Fibrous Composite Laminates
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Daniel, I.; Niiro, T.
1984-01-01
Fabrication method produces unidirectional, multi-ply, transparent birefringent fibrous composite laminates for use in macromechanical stress analysis conducted by means of anisotropic photoelasticity. New laminates glass-fiber-reinforced plastics for which matrix and fibers have same index of refraction. Method utilized in structural applications of composites.
Effect of Impact Damage and Open Hole on Compressive Strength of Hybrid Composite Laminates
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hiel, Clement; Brinson, H. F.
1993-01-01
Impact damage tolerance is a frequently listed design requirement for composites hardware. The effect of impact damage and open hole size on laminate compressive strength was studied on sandwich beam specimens which combine CFRP-GFRP hybrid skins and a syntactic foam core. Three test specimen configurations have been investigated for this study. The first two were sandwich beams which were loaded in pure bending (by four point flexure). One series had a skin damaged by impact, and the second series had a circular hole machined through one of the skins. The reduction of compressive strength with increasing damage (hole) size was compared. Additionally a third series of uniaxially loaded open hole compression coupons were tested to generate baseline data for comparison with both series of sandwich beams.
Vibration suppression of composite laminated plate with nonlinear energy sink
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Ye-Wei; Zhang, Hao; Hou, Shuai; Xu, Ke-Fan; Chen, Li-Qun
2016-06-01
The composite laminated plate is widely used in supersonic aircraft. So, there are many researches about the vibration suppression of composite laminated plate. In this paper, nonlinear energy sink (NES) as an effective method to suppress vibration is studied. The coupled partial differential governing equations of the composite laminated plate with the nonlinear energy sink (NES) are established by using the Hamilton principle. The fourth-order Galerkin discrete method is used to truncate the partial differential equations, which are solved by numerical integration method. Meanwhile study about the precise effectiveness of the nonlinear energy sink (NES) by discussing the different installation location of the nonlinear energy sink (NES) at the same speed. The results indicate that the nonlinear energy sink (NES) can significantly suppress the severe vibration of the composite laminated plate with speed wind loadings in to protect the composite laminated plate from excessive vibration.
Hygrothermally stable laminated composites with optimal coupling
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Haynes, Robert Andrew
This work begins by establishing the necessary and sufficient conditions for hygrothermal stability of composite laminates. An investigation is performed into the range of coupling achievable from within all hygrothermally stable families. The minimum number of plies required to create an asymmetric hygrothermally stable stacking sequence is found to be five. Next, a rigorous and general approach for determining designs corresponding to optimal levels of coupling is established through the use of a constrained optimization procedure. Couplings investigated include extension-twist, bend-twist, extension-bend, shear-twist, and anticlastic. For extension-twist and bend-twist coupling, specimens from five- through ten-ply laminates are manufactured and tested to demonstrate hygrothermal stability and achievable levels of coupling. Nonlinear models and finite element analysis are developed, and predictions are verified through comparison with test results. Sensitivity analyses are performed to demonstrate the robustness of the hygrothermal stability and couplings to deviations in ply angle, typical of manufacturing tolerances. Comparisons are made with current state-of-the-art suboptimal layups, and significant increases in coupling over previously known levels are demonstrated.
Micromechanical Modeling of Impact Damage Mechanisms in Unidirectional Composite Laminates
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Meng, Qinghua; Wang, Zhenqing
2016-05-01
Composite laminates are susceptible to the transverse impact loads resulting in significant damage such as matrix cracking, fiber breakage and delamination. In this paper, a micromechanical model is developed to predict the impact damage of composite laminates based on microstructure and various failure models of laminates. The fiber and matrix are represented by the isotropic and elastic-plastic solid, and their impact failure behaviors are modeled based on shear damage model. The delaminaton failure is modeling by the interface element controlled by cohesive damage model. Impact damage mechanisms of laminate are analyzed by using the micromechanical model proposed. In addition, the effects of impact energy and laminated type on impact damage behavior of laminates are investigated. Due to the damage of the surrounding matrix near the impact point caused by the fiber deformation, the surface damage area of laminate is larger than the area of impact projectile. The shape of the damage area is roughly rectangle or elliptical with the major axis extending parallel to the fiber direction in the surface layer of laminate. The alternating laminated type with two fiber directions is more propitious to improve the impact resistance of laminates.
Reliability analysis of ceramic matrix composite laminates
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Thomas, David J.; Wetherhold, Robert C.
1991-01-01
At a macroscopic level, a composite lamina may be considered as a homogeneous orthotropic solid whose directional strengths are random variables. Incorporation of these random variable strengths into failure models, either interactive or non-interactive, allows for the evaluation of the lamina reliability under a given stress state. Using a non-interactive criterion for demonstration purposes, laminate reliabilities are calculated assuming previously established load sharing rules for the redistribution of load as the failure of laminae occur. The matrix cracking predicted by ACK theory is modeled to allow a loss of stiffness in the fiber direction. The subsequent failure in the fiber direction is controlled by a modified bundle theory. Results using this modified bundle model are compared with previous models which did not permit separate consideration of matrix cracking, as well as to results obtained from experimental data.
Analysis of "Kiss" Bonds Between Composite Laminates
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Poveromo, Scott L.; Earthman, James C.
2014-06-01
One of the leading challenges to designing lightweight, cost-effective bonded structures is to detect low shear strength "kiss" bonds where no other defects such as voids and cracks exist. To develop a nondestructive testing method that is sensitive to kiss bonds, standards need to be fabricated with known strength values. In the current work, we attempt to create kiss bonds in between carbon fiber composite laminates that have been bonded with epoxy film adhesive and epoxy paste adhesive. Based on ultrasonic testing, when creating true kiss bonds using film adhesives, a complete disbond could not be avoided because of thermally induced stresses during the high-temperature cure. However, further work demonstrated that kiss bonds can be formed using room-temperature curable epoxy paste adhesives by creating an amine blush on the epoxy surface or applying a release agent on the bonding surfaces.
Tension fatigue analysis and life prediction for composite laminates
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
O'Brien, T. K.; Rigamonti, M.; Zanotti, C.
1989-01-01
A methodology is presented for the tension fatigue analysis and life prediction of composite laminates subjected to tension fatigue loading. The methodology incorporates both the generic fracture mechanics characterization of delamination and the assessment of the infuence of damage on laminate fatigue life. Tension fatigue tests were conducted on quasi-isotropic and orthotropic glass epoxy, graphite epoxy, and glass/graphite epoxy hybrid laminates, demonstrating good agreement between measured and predicted lives.
The Displacement Perspective During Ultimate Failure of Composite Laminates
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pal, P.; Bhar, A.
2013-04-01
This paper deals with the studies on the state of displacement of symmetric and anti-symmetric angle-ply and cross-ply laminated composite plates during its ultimate failure, subjected to transverse static load. First-order shear deformation theory (FSDT) is employed in conjunction with the finite element approach using eight-noded quadratic isoparametric element. The free vibration analyses of isotropic and laminated composite plates are carried out to ensure the overall validity of the present finite element formulation. The mid surface of the laminate is considered as the reference plane. The principal material directions in different laminae are oriented to produce a laminated structural element capable of resisting loads in several directions. The stiffness of a composite laminate is obtained from the properties of the constituent laminae. The affected stiffness of the failed lamina is discarded completely after the failure of weakest ply. The rigidity matrix of the laminate with remaining laminae is re-established. The re-evaluation process continues until the laminate fails completely. To investigate the displacement behaviour of laminates during the ultimate failure, parametric studies are carried out for different cases by varying the stacking sequences, fiber orientations, layer thicknesses, aspect ratios and the number of layers in the laminate. The comparison of results in terms of non-dimensional natural frequencies and ply-by-ply failure analyses obtained from the present investigation are made with those available in the reported literature.
In-plane velocity measurement for CFRP modulus
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bossi, Richard; Tat, Hong; Gordon, Trey; Stewart, Alan; Lin, John; Djordjevic, Boro
2012-05-01
Carbon Fiber Reinforced Plastic (CFRP) laminate composites are often tailored to provide stiffness in particular directions to optimize performance. The standard ultrasonic inspection however uses a cross ply measurement of acoustic attenuation to assess the consolidation quality of the CFRP. While this is useful for porosity, delamination or inclusion detection, it does not address a primary interest in the use of CFRP. A more appropriate measure of the quality of the laminate would be the determination of the in-plane characteristics to evaluate the desired directional stiffness of the product. This paper describes an in-plane ultrasound method using insertion and receiving sensors spaced known distances apart on the surface of the CFRP structure and in a desired directional orientation for evaluation. The time and distance of the transmission of the head wave from the insertion to the sensing allows a velocity calculation. This method is demonstrated using laser generated ultrasound and a pin receiver. Measurement of the in-plane acoustic head wave velocity has been found to correlate to the CFRP material modulus from mechanical tests.
Extrinsic fracture mechanisms in two laminated metal composites
Lesuer, D.; Syn, C.; Riddle, R.; Sherby, O.
1994-11-29
The crack growth behavior and fracture toughness of two laminated metal composites (6090/SiC/25p laminated with 5182 and ultrahigh-carbon steel laminated with brass) have been studied in both ``crack arrester`` and ``crack divider`` orientations. The mechanisms of crack growth were analyzed and extrinsic toughening mechanisms were found to contribute significantly to the toughness. The influence of laminate architecture (layer thickness and component volume function), component material properties and residual stress on these mechanisms and the resulting crack growth resistance are discussed.
Stress concentration factors around a circular hole in laminated composites
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ueng, C. E. S.
1976-01-01
Stress concentration factors around a circular hole in a composite laminate are determined. The specific case investigated is a four layer (-45/45/45/-45 degs) graphite epoxy laminate. The factors are determined experimentally by means of electrical resistance strain gages, and analytically by using a hybrid finite element analysis.
Accurate stress resultants equations for laminated composite deep thick shells
Qatu, M.S.
1995-11-01
This paper derives accurate equations for the normal and shear force as well as bending and twisting moment resultants for laminated composite deep, thick shells. The stress resultant equations for laminated composite thick shells are shown to be different from those of plates. This is due to the fact the stresses over the thickness of the shell have to be integrated on a trapezoidal-like shell element to obtain the stress resultants. Numerical results are obtained and showed that accurate stress resultants are needed for laminated composite deep thick shells, especially if the curvature is not spherical.
Damage growth in composite laminates with interleaves
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Goree, James G.
1987-01-01
The influence of placing interleaves between fiber reinforced plies in multilayered composite laminates is investigated. The geometry of the composite is idealized as two dimensional, isotropic, linearly elastic media made of a damaged layer bonded between two half planes and separated by thin interleaves of low extensional and shear moduli. The damage in the layer is taken in the form of a symmetric crack perpendicular to the interface and may extend up to the interface. The case of an H-shaped crack in the form of a broken layer with delamination along the interface is also analyzed. The interleaves are modeled as distributed shear and tension springs. Fourier integral transform techniques are used to develop solutions in terms of singular integral equations. An asymptotic analysis of the integral equations based on Muskhelishvili's techniques reveals logarithmically singular axial stresses in the half plane at the crack tips for the broken layer. For the H shaped crack, similar singularities are found to exist in the axial stresses at the interface crack tips in the layer and the half plane. The solution of the equations is found numerically for the stresses and displacements by using the Hadamard's concept of direct differentiation of Cauchy integrals as well as Gaussian integration techniques.
Near-threshold fatigue crack growth in aluminum composite laminates
Hoffman, P.B.; Gibeling, J.C.
1995-03-15
One promising method for improving the mechanical properties of particulate MMCs is to laminate the brittle composite with a more ductile component. A system currently being developed at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is a multilayer laminate consisting of alternating layers of AA6090/SiC/25p and more ductile AA5182. In order to further examine the effects of lamination on fatigue crack propagation mechanics and mechanisms, the fatigue crack growth behavior of the aluminum composite laminate developed at LLNL was examined. The laminate and the AA6090/SiC/25p component were studied in the T6 heat treatment condition for subsequent comparison. Fatigue crack surfaces were examined using scanning electron microscopy for further insight into crack growth mechanisms.
Fracture behavior of thick, laminated graphite/epoxy composites
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Harris, C. E.; Morris, D. H.
1984-01-01
The effect of laminate thickness on the fracture behavior of laminated graphite epoxy (T300/5208) composites was studied. The predominantly experimental research program included the study of the 0/+ or - 45/90 sub ns and 0/90 sub ns laminates with thickness of 8, 32, 64, 96 and 120 plies and the 0/+ or - 45 sub ns laminate with thickness of 6, 30, 60, 90 and 120 plies. The research concentrated on the measurement of fracture toughness utilizing the center-cracked tension, compact tension and three point bend specimen configurations. The development of subcritical damage at the crack tip was studied nondestructively using enhanced X-ray radiography and destructively using the laminate deply technique. The test results showed fracture toughness to be a function of laminate thickness. The fracture toughness of the 0 + or - 45/90 sub ns and 0/90 sub ns laminates decreased with increasing thickness and asymptotically approached lower bound values of 30 ksi square root of in. (1043 MPa square root of mm and 25 ksi square root of in (869 MPa square root of mm respectively. In contrast to the other two laminates, the fracture toughness of the 0/+ or - 45 sub ns laminate increased sharply with increasing thickness but reached an upper plateau value of 40 ksi square root of in (1390 MPa square root of mm) at 30 plies. Fracture toughness was independent of crack size for both thin and thick laminates for all three laminate types except for the 0/90 sub 2s laminate which spilt extensively. The center cracked tension, three point bend and compact tension specimens gave comparable results.
Notched strength of composite laminates: Predictions and experiments - A review
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Awerbuch, J.; Madhukar, M. S.
1985-01-01
A self-contained review of several semiempirical fracture models for predicting notched strength of composite laminates is presented, based on notched strength data on 70 different laminate configurations of graphite/epoxy, boron/aluminum, and graphite/polyimide. Emphasis is placed on experimental results concerning such failure factors as delamination, splitting, and size of damage zone. Moreover, the fracture model parameters are correlated with the notch sensitivity of composite laminates, and the applicability of the correlations in describing the material notch sensitivity is evaluated. The predictions provided by the different models were found to be identical for all practical purposes.
Laminated metals composites fracture and ballistic impact behavior
Lesuer, D.R.; Syn, C.K.; Sherby, O.D.; Wadsworth, J.
1998-01-20
Recent advances in the fracture and ballistic impact response of laminated metal composites (LMCs) are reviewed. The laminate structure can provide significant improvements to these properties relative to the component materials. Typical fracture and ballistic impact properties in LMCs are illustrated for systems containing Al alloys and Al matrix composites. The unique mechanisms operating in a layered structure that contribute to fracture or ballistic impact resistance are discussed. The influence of laminate architecture, component material properties and interface strength on mechanisms and properties are briefly reviewed for these Al-based LMCs.
Progressive Fracture of Laminated Composite Stiffened Plate
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Gotsis, Pascalis K.; Chamis, Christos C.; David, Kostantinos; Abdi, Frank
2007-01-01
Laminated fiber-reinforced composite stiffened plate with [0/90/plus or minus 45]s plies made of S-Glass/epoxy are evaluated via computational simulation to study damage and fracture progression. The loads are pressure and temperature which varies from 21 to 65.5 C (case I) and from 143.3 to 21 C (case II). An integrated computer code is used for the simulation of the damage progression. Results show that damage initiation begins at low load level, with matrix cracking at the 0 deg. (bottom and top) plies, fiber fracture at the bottom (0 deg.) ply and interply delamination at the top (0 deg. ) ply. Increasing the applied pressure, the damage growth is expended resulting in fracture through the thickness of the structure. At this stage, 90 percent of the plies damage at applied pressure 15.306 MPa for the case I and 15.036 MPa for the case II. After this stage the cracks propagate rapidly and the structure collapses.
Support Assembly for Composite Laminate Materials During Roll Press Processing
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Catella, Luke A.
2011-01-01
A composite laminate material is supported during the roll press processing thereof by an assembly having: first and second perforated films disposed adjacent to first and second opposing surfaces of a mixture of uncured resin and fibers defining the composite laminate material, a gas permeable encasement surrounding the mixture and the first and second films, a gas impervious envelope sealed about the gas permeable encasement, and first and second rigid plates clamped about the gas impervious envelope.
The strength of laminated composite materials under repeated impact loading
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rotem, Assa
1988-01-01
When low velocity and energy impact is exerted on a laminated composite material, in a perpendicular direction to the plane of the laminate, invisible damage may develop. It is shown analytically and experimentally that the invisible damage occurs during the first stage of contact between the impactor and the laminate and is a result of the contact stresses. However, the residual flexural strength changes only slightly, because it depends mainly on the outer layers, and these remain undamaged. Repeated impact intensifies the damage inside the laminate and causes larger bending under equivalent impact load. Finally, when the damage is most severe, even though it is still invisible, the laminate fails because of bending on the tension side. If the repeated impact is halted before final fracture occurs the residual strength and modulus would decrease by a certain amount.
Matrix cracking in laminated composites under monotonic and cyclic loadings
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Allen, David H.; Lee, Jong-Won
1991-01-01
An analytical model based on the internal state variable (ISV) concept and the strain energy method is proposed for characterizing the monotonic and cyclic response of laminated composites containing matrix cracks. A modified constitution is formulated for angle-ply laminates under general in-plane mechanical loading and constant temperature change. A monotonic matrix cracking criterion is developed for predicting the crack density in cross-ply laminates as a function of the applied laminate axial stress. An initial formulation for a cyclic matrix cracking criterion for cross-ply laminates is also discussed. For the monotonic loading case, a number of experimental data and well-known models are compared with the present study for validating the practical applicability of the ISV approach.
Progressive Failure Analysis Methodology for Laminated Composite Structures
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Sleight, David W.
1999-01-01
A progressive failure analysis method has been developed for predicting the failure of laminated composite structures under geometrically nonlinear deformations. The progressive failure analysis uses C(exp 1) shell elements based on classical lamination theory to calculate the in-plane stresses. Several failure criteria, including the maximum strain criterion, Hashin's criterion, and Christensen's criterion, are used to predict the failure mechanisms and several options are available to degrade the material properties after failures. The progressive failure analysis method is implemented in the COMET finite element analysis code and can predict the damage and response of laminated composite structures from initial loading to final failure. The different failure criteria and material degradation methods are compared and assessed by performing analyses of several laminated composite structures. Results from the progressive failure method indicate good correlation with the existing test data except in structural applications where interlaminar stresses are important which may cause failure mechanisms such as debonding or delaminations.
Computational Modeling of Micro-Crack Induced Attenuation in CFRP Composites
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Roberts, R. A.; Leckey, C. A. C.
2012-01-01
A computational study is performed to determine the contribution to ultrasound attenuation in carbon fiber reinforced polymer composite laminates of linear elastic scattering by matrix micro-cracking. Multiple scattering approximations are benchmarked against exact computational approaches. Results support linear scattering as the source of observed increased attenuation in the presence of micro-cracking.
Computational modeling of micro-crack induced attenuation in CFRP composites
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Roberts, R. A.; Leckey, C. A. C.
2013-01-01
A computational study is performed to determine the contribution to ultrasound attenuation in carbon fiber reinforced polymer composite laminates of linear elastic scattering by matrix micro-cracking. Multiple scattering approximations are benchmarked against exact computational approaches. Results support linear scattering as the source of observed increased attenuation in the presence of micro-cracking.
Adhesive Wear Performance of CFRP Multilayered Polyester Composites Under Dry/wet Contact Conditions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Danaelan, D.; Yousif, B. F.
The tribo-performance of a new engineering composite material based on coconut fibers was investigated. In this work, coconut fibers reinforced polyester (CFRP) composites were developed. The tribo-experiments were conducted by using pin-on-disc machine under dry and wet sliding contact condition against smooth stainless steel counterface. Worn surfaces were observed using optical microscope. Friction coefficient and specific wear rate were presented as a function of sliding distance (0-0.6 km) at different sliding velocities (0.1-0.28 m/s). The effect of applied load and sliding velocity was evaluated. The results showed that all test parameters have significant influence on friction and wear characteristics of the composites. Moreover, friction coefficient increased as the normal load and speed increased, the values were about 0.7-0.9 under dry contact condition. Meanwhile, under wet contact condition, there was a great reduction in the friction coefficient, i.e. the values were about 0.1-0.2. Furthermore, the specific wear rates were found to be around 2-4 (10-3) mm3/Nm under dry contact condition and highly reduced under wet condition. In other words, the presence of water as cleaner and polisher assisted to enhance the adhesive wear performance of CFRP by about 10%. The images from optical microscope showed evidence of adhesive wear mode with transition to abrasive wear mode at higher sliding velocities due to third body abrasion. On the other hand, optical images for wet condition showed less adhesive wear and smooth surfaces.
Testing and simulation of composite laminates under impact loading
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dang, Xinglai
Owing to their high stiffness-to-weight and high strength-to-weight ratios, fiber-reinforced polymer-matrix composite laminates are excellent materials for high-performance structures. However, their properties in the thickness direction are very poor as they are weakly bonded by polymeric matrices through laminate interfaces. Accordingly, when a composite laminate is subjected to impact loading, high interlaminar stresses along with the low interlaminar strengths could easily result in interlaminar damage such as delamination. This thesis investigated the response of composite laminates under low-velocity impact and presented numerical techniques for impact simulation. To begin with, instrumented drop-weight impacts ranging from subperforation to perforation levels were introduced to composite laminates having various dimensions and thicknesses. Damaged composite laminates were then subjected to compression-after-impact tests for evaluations of residual properties. Experimental results revealed that perforation was an important damage milestone since impact parameters such as peak force, contact duration, maximum deflection and energy absorption, and residual properties such as compressive stiffness, strength and energy absorption all reached critical levels as perforation took place. It was also found that thickness played a more important role than in-plane dimensions in perforation process. In order to understand more about the relationship between laminate thickness and perforation resistance and to present an economical method to improve perforation resistance, thick laminated composite plates and their assembled counterparts were investigated and compared. An energy profile correlating the impact energy and absorbed energy at all energy levels for each type of composite plates investigated was established and found to be able to address the relationship between energy and damage. Experimental results concluded that increasing thickness was more efficient
Tunable characteristics of bending resonance frequency in magnetoelectric laminated composites
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Lei; Li, Ping; Wen, Yu-Mei; Zhu, Yong
2013-07-01
As the magnetoelectric (ME) effect in piezoelectric/magnetostrictive laminated composites is mediated by mechanical deformation, the ME effect is significantly enhanced in the vicinity of resonance frequency. The bending resonance frequency (fr) of bilayered Terfenol-D/PZT (MP) laminated composites is studied, and our analysis predicts that (i) the bending resonance frequency of an MP laminated composite can be tuned by an applied dc magnetic bias (Hdc) due to the ΔE effect; (ii) the bending resonance frequency of the MP laminated composite can be controlled by incorporating FeCuNbSiB layers with different thicknesses. The experimental results show that with Hdc increasing from 0 Oe (1 Oe=79.5775 A/m) to 700 Oe, the bending resonance frequency can be shifted in a range of 32.68 kHz <= fr <= 33.96 kHz. In addition, with the thickness of the FeCuNbSiB layer increasing from 0 μm to 90 μm, the bending resonance frequency of the MP laminated composite gradually increases from 33.66 kHz to 39.18 kHz. This study offers a method of adjusting the strength of dc magnetic bias or the thicknesses of the FeCuNbSiB layer to tune the bending resonance frequency for ME composite, which plays a guiding role in the ME composite design for real applications.
Vibration analysis of rotating thin laminated composite shell of revolution
Suzuki, K.; Shikanai, G.; Takayama, K.
1995-11-01
An exact solution procedure is presented for solving free vibrations of a rotating thin laminated composite shell of revolution having meridionally constant curvature. Based on the classical lamination theory, equations of motion and boundary conditions are obtained from the stationally conditions of the Lagrangian. The equations of motion are solved exactly by using a power series expansion for symmetrically laminated, cross-ply shells. Frequencies and mode shapes of the shells having both ends clamped and both ends freely supported are presented showing their variations with rotating angular velocity, number of laminae and other parameters.
Axisymmetric vibrations of laminated composite conical shells with varying thickness
Shikanai, G.; Suzuki, K.; Kojima, M.
1995-11-01
An exact solution procedure is presented for solving axisymmetric free vibrations of laminated composite conical shells with varying thickness. Based on the classical lamination theory neglecting shear deformation and rotary inertia, equations of motion and boundary conditions are obtained from the stationary conditions of the Lagrangian. The equations of motion are solved exactly by using a power series expansion for symmetrically laminated, cross-ply conical shells. Numerical studies are made for conical shells having both ends clamped to show the effects of the number of laminae, stacking sequences and other parameters upon the frequencies.
An approximate solution for interlaminar stresses in composite laminates
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rose, Cheryl A.; Herakovich, Carl T.
1993-01-01
An efficient approximate solution for interlaminar stresses in finite width, symmetric and unsymmetric laminated composites subjected to axial and/or bending loads is presented. The solution is based upon statically admissible stress fields which take into consideration local property mismatch effects and global equilibrium requirements. Unknown constants in the assumed stress states are determined through minimization of the laminate complementary energy. Typical results are presented for through-thickness and interlaminar stress distributions for angle-ply and cross-ply laminates subjected to axial loading. It is shown that the present formulation represents an improved, efficient approximate solution for interlaminar stresses.
Interlaminar stresses in composite laminates: A perturbation analysis
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hsu, P. W.; Herakovich, C. T.
1976-01-01
A general method of solution for an elastic balanced symmetric composite laminate subject to a uniaxial extension was developed based upon a perturbation analysis of a limiting free body containing an interfacial plane. The solution satisfies more physical requirements and boundary conditions than previous investigations, and predicts smooth continuous interlaminar stresses with no instabilities. It determines the finite maximum intensity for the interlaminar normal stress in all laminates, provides mathematical evidences for the singular stresses in angle-ply laminates, suggests the need for the experimental determination of an important problem parameter, and introduces a viable means for solving related problems of practical interest.
Prediction of microcracking in composite laminates under thermomechanical loading
Maddocks, J.R.; Mcmanus, H.L.
1995-01-01
Composite laminates used in space structures are exposed to both thermal and mechanical loads. Cracks in the matrix form, changing the laminate thermoelastic properties. An analytical methodology is developed to predict microcrack density in a general laminate exposed to an arbitrary thermomechanical load history. The analysis uses a shear lag stress solution in conjunction with an energy-based cracking criterion. Experimental investigation was used to verify the analysis. Correlation between analysis and experiment is generally excellent. The analysis does not capture machining-induced cracking, or observed delayed crack initiation in a few ply groups, but these errors do not prevent the model from being a useful preliminary design tool.
Nonlinear analysis of laminated fibrous composites. Ph.D. Thesis
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Renieri, G. D.; Herakovich, C. T.
1976-01-01
A computerized analysis of the nonlinear behavior of fibrous composite laminates including axial loading, thermal loading, temperature dependent properties, and edge effects is presented. Ramberg-Osgood approximations are used to represent lamina stress-strain behavior and percent retention curves are employed to model the variation of properties with temperature. Balanced, symmetric laminates comprised of either boron/epoxy, graphite/epoxy, or borsic-aluminum are analyzed using a quasi-three-dimensional finite element analysis. Results are presented for the interlaminar stress distributions in cross-ply, angle-ply, and more complex laminates. Nonlinear stress-strain curves for a variety of composite laminates in tension and compression are obtained and compared to other existing theories and experimental results.
Optimal Synthesis of Hot Composite Laminates with Interphase Layers
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rabzak, Christopher; Saravanos, Dimitris A.; Chamis, Christos C.
1993-01-01
A method for the optimal grading of a single interphase layer in metal matrix composite laminates for the minimization of residual stresses is described. The capability to simultaneously tailor some fabrication parameters is also incorporated. Applications for unidirectional, cross-ply and quasi-isotropic Graphite/Copper laminates are investigated to assess the potential of interphase layer in reducing matrix residual stresses in various laminate configurations. Simultaneous optimization of interphase and fabrication characteristics appears to be more effective in decreasing residual stresses. The results also indicate that the interphase layer is more effective in lowering residual stresses in unidirectional composites and selectively within individual plies of a laminate. Embedded interphase layers in all the plies did not produce a significant global reduction in residual stresses.
Fatigue of notched fiber composite laminates. Part 1: Analytical model
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mclaughlin, P. V., Jr.; Kulkarni, S. V.; Huang, S. N.; Rosen, B. W.
1975-01-01
A description is given of a semi-empirical, deterministic analysis for prediction and correlation of fatigue crack growth, residual strength, and fatigue lifetime for fiber composite laminates containing notches (holes). The failure model used for the analysis is based upon composite heterogeneous behavior and experimentally observed failure modes under both static and fatigue loading. The analysis is consistent with the wearout philosophy. Axial cracking and transverse cracking failure modes are treated together in the analysis. Cracking off-axis is handled by making a modification to the axial cracking analysis. The analysis predicts notched laminate failure from unidirectional material fatique properties using constant strain laminate analysis techniques. For multidirectional laminates, it is necessary to know lamina fatique behavior under axial normal stress, transverse normal stress and axial shear stress. Examples of the analysis method are given.
Howard M. Matt
2007-02-15
To monitor in-flight damage and reduce life-cycle costs associated with CFRP composite aircraft, an autonomous built-in structural health monitoring (SHM) system is preferred over conventional maintenance routines and schedules. This thesis investigates the use of ultrasonic guided waves and piezoelectric transducers for the identification and localization of damage/defects occurring within critical components of CFRP composite aircraft wings, mainly the wing skin-to-spar joints. The guided wave approach for structural diagnostics was demonstrated by the dual application of active and passive monitoring techniques. For active interrogation, the guided wave propagation problem was initially studied numerically by a semi-analytical finite element method, which accounts for viscoelastic damping, in order to identify ideal mode-frequency combinations sensitive to damage occurring within CFRP bonded joints. Active guided wave tests across three representative wing skin-to-spar joints at ambient temperature were then conducted using attached Macro Fiber Composite (MFC) transducers. Results from these experiments demonstrate the importance of intelligent feature extraction for improving the sensitivity to damage. To address the widely neglected effects of temperature on guided wave base damage identification, analytical and experimental analyses were performed to characterize the influence of temperature on guided wave signal features. In addition, statistically-robust detection of simulated damage in a CFRP bonded joint was successfully achieved under changing temperature conditions through a dimensionally-low, multivariate statistical outlier analysis. The response of piezoceramic patches and MFC transducers to ultrasonic Rayleigh and Lamb wave fields was analytically derived and experimentally validated. This theory is useful for designing sensors which possess optimal sensitivity toward a given mode-frequency combination or for predicting the frequency dependent
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Matt, Howard M.
2006-07-01
To monitor in-flight damage and reduce life-cycle costs associated with CFRP composite aircraft, an autonomous built-in structural health monitoring (SHM) system is preferred over conventional maintenance routines and schedules. This thesis investigates the use of ultrasonic guided waves and piezoelectric transducers for the identification and localization of damage/defects occurring within critical components of CFRP composite aircraft wings, mainly the wing skin-to-spar joints. The guided wave approach for structural diagnostics was demonstrated by the dual application of active and passive monitoring techniques. For active interrogation, the guided wave propagation problem was initially studied numerically by a semi-analytical finite element method, which accounts for viscoelastic damping, in order to identify ideal mode-frequency combinations sensitive to damage occurring within CFRP bonded joints. Active guided wave tests across three representative wing skin-to-spar joints at ambient temperature were then conducted using attached Macro Fiber Composite (MFC) transducers. Results from these experiments demonstrate the importance of intelligent feature extraction for improving sensitivity to damage. To address the widely neglected effects of temperature on guided wave base damage identification, analytical and experimental analyses were performed to characterize the influence of temperature on guided wave signal features. In addition, statistically-robust detection of simulated damage in a CFRP bonded joint was successfully achieved under changing temperature conditions through a dimensionally-low, multivariate statistical outlier analysis. The response of piezoceramic patches and MFC transducers to ultrasonic Rayleigh and Lamb wave fields was analytically derived and experimentally validated. This theory is useful for designing sensors which possess optimal sensitivity toward a given mode-frequency combination or for predicting the frequency dependent
Damage Tolerance of Composite Laminates from an Empirical Perspective
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Nettles, Alan T.
2009-01-01
Damage tolerance consists of analysis and experimentation working together. Impact damage is usually of most concern for laminated composites. Once impacted, the residual compression strength is usually of most interest. Other properties may be of more interest than compression (application dependent). A damage tolerance program is application specific (not everyone is building aircraft). The "Building Block Approach" is suggested for damage tolerance. Advantage can be taken of the excellent fatigue resistance of damaged laminates to save time and costs.
Nonlinear effects on composite laminate thermal expansion
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hashin, Z.; Rosen, B. W.; Pipes, R. B.
1979-01-01
Analyses of Graphite/Polyimide laminates shown that the thermomechanical strains cannot be separated into mechanical strain and free thermal expansion strain. Elastic properties and thermal expansion coefficients of unidirectional Graphite/Polyimide specimens were measured as a function of temperature to provide inputs for the analysis. The + or - 45 degrees symmetric Graphite/Polyimide laminates were tested to obtain free thermal expansion coefficients and thermal expansion coefficients under various uniaxial loads. The experimental results demonstrated the effects predicted by the analysis, namely dependence of thermal expansion coefficients on load, and anisotropy of thermal expansion under load. The significance of time dependence on thermal expansion was demonstrated by comparison of measured laminate free expansion coefficients with and without 15 day delay at intermediate temperature.
Higher order finite element analysis of thick composite laminates
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Goering, J.; Kim, H. J.
1992-01-01
A higher order, sub-parametric, laminated, 3D solid finite element was used for the analysis of very thick laminated composite plates. The geometry of this element is defined by four nodes in the X-Y plane which define a prism of material through the thickness of the laminate. There are twenty-four degrees of freedom at each node; translations at the upper and lower surfaces of the laminate in each of the three coordinate directions, and the derivatives of these translations with respect to each coordinate. This choice of degrees of freedom leads to displacement and strain compatibility at the corners. Stacking sequence effects are accounted for by explicitly integrating the strain energy density through the thickness of the element. The laminated solid element was combined with a gap-contact element to analyze thick laminated composite lugs loaded through flexible pins. The resulting model accounts for pin bending effects that produce non-uniform bearing stresses through the thickness of the lug. A thick composite lug experimental test program was performed, and provided data that was used to validate the analytical model. Two lug geometries and three stacking sequences were tested.
A higher order theory of laminated composite cylindrical shells
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Krishna Murthy, A. V.; Reddy, T. S. R.
1986-01-01
A new higher order theory has been proposed for the analysis of composite cylindrical shells. The formulation allows for arbitrary variation of inplane displacements. Governing equations are presented in the form of a hierarchy of sets of partial differential equations. Each set describes the shell behavior to a certain degree of approximation. The natural frequencies of simply-supported isotropic and laminated shells and stresses in a ring loaded composite shell have been determined to various orders of approximation and compared with three dimensional solutions. These numerical studies indicate the improvements achievable in estimating the natural frequencies and the interlaminar shear stresses in laminated composite cylinders.
Three dimensional inelastic finite element analysis of laminated composites
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Griffin, O. H., Jr.; Kamat, M. P.
1980-01-01
Formulations of the inelastic response of laminated composites to thermal and mechanical loading are used as the basis for development of the computer NALCOM (Nonlinear Analysis of Laminated Composites) computer program which uses a fully three dimensional isoparametric finite element with 24 nodes and 72 degrees of freedom. An incremental solution is performed with nonlinearities introduced as pseudoloads computed for initial strains. Equilibrium iteration may be performed at every step. Elastic and elastic-plastic response of boron/epoxy and graphite/epoxy graphite/epoxy and problems of curing 0/90 sub s Gr/Ep laminates with and without circular holes are analyzed. Mechanical loading of + or - 45sub s Gr/Ep laminates is modeled and symmetry conditions which exist in angle-ply laminates are discussed. Results are compared to experiments and other analytical models when possible. All models are seen to agree reasonably well with experimetnal results for off-axis tensile coupons. The laminate analyses show the three dimensional effects which are present near holes and free corners.
Modelling of thick composites using a layerwise laminate theory
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Robbins, D. H., Jr.; Reddy, J. N.
1993-01-01
The layerwise laminate theory of Reddy (1987) is used to develop a layerwise, two-dimensional, displacement-based, finite element model of laminated composite plates that assumes a piecewise continuous distribution of the tranverse strains through the laminate thickness. The resulting layerwise finite element model is capable of computing interlaminar stresses and other localized effects with the same level of accuracy as a conventional 3D finite element model. Although the total number of degrees of freedom are comparable in both models, the layerwise model maintains a 2D-type data structure that provides several advantages over a conventional 3D finite element model, e.g. simplified input data, ease of mesh alteration, and faster element stiffness matrix formulation. Two sample problems are provided to illustrate the accuracy of the present model in computing interlaminar stresses for laminates in bending and extension.
Crush testing, characterizing, and modeling the crashworthiness of composite laminates
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Garner, David Michael, Jr.
Research in the field of crashworthiness of composite materials is presented. A new crush test method was produced to characterize the crush behavior of composite laminates. In addition, a model of the crush behavior and a method for rank ordering the energy absorption capability of various laminates were developed. The new crush test method was used for evaluating the crush behavior of flat carbon/epoxy composite specimens at quasi-static and dynamic rates. The University of Utah crush test fixture was designed to support the flat specimen against catastrophic buckling. A gap, where the specimen is unsupported, allowed unhindered crushing of the specimen. In addition, the specimen's failure modes could be clearly observed during crush testing. Extensive crush testing was conducted wherein the crush force and displacement data were collected to calculate the energy absorption, and high speed video was captured during dynamic testing. Crush tests were also performed over a range of fixture gap heights. The basic failure modes were buckling, crack growth, and fracture. Gap height variations resulted in poorly, properly, and overly constrained specimens. In addition, guidelines for designing a composite laminate for crashworthiness were developed. Modeling of the crush behavior consisted of the delamination and fracture of a single ply or group of like plies during crushing. Delamination crack extension was modeled using the mode I energy release rate, G lc, where an elastica approach was used to obtain the strain energy. Variations in Glc were briefly explored with double cantilever beam tests wherein crack extension occurred along a multidirectional ply interface. The model correctly predicted the failure modes for most of the test cases, and offered insight into how the input parameters affect the model. The ranking method related coefficients of the laminate and sublaminate stiffness matrices, the ply locations within the laminate, and the laminate thickness. The
Mechanisms of compressive failure in woven composites and stitched laminates
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Cox, B. N.; Dadkhah, M. S.; Inman, R. V.; Morris, W. L.; Schroeder, S.
1992-01-01
Stitched laminates and angle interlock woven composites have been studied in uniaxial, in-plane, monotonic compression. Failure mechanisms have been found to depend strongly on both the reinforcement architecture and the degree of constraint imposed by the loading grips. Stitched laminates show higher compressive strength, but are brittle, possessing no load bearing capacity beyond the strain for peak load. Post-mortem inspection shows a localized shear band of buckled and broken fibers, which is evidently the product of an unstably propagating kink band. Similar shear bands are found in the woven composites if the constraint of lateral displacements is weak; but, under strong constraint, damage is not localized but distributed throughout the gauge section. While the woven composites tested are weaker than the stitched laminates, they continue to bear significant loads to compressive strains of approx. 15 percent, even when most damage is confined to a shear band.
Laminate composites with enhanced pyroelectric effects for energy harvesting
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chang, H. H. S.; Huang, Z.
2010-06-01
A pyroelectric coefficient enhanced 2-2 connectivity laminate composites' energy harvesting credentials have been assessed. The use of the electrothermal coupling factor for laminate composites (kLam2) for such an assessment has been appraised while the experimental samples are evaluated to show a significant improvement in their performance via pyroelectric coefficient enhancement, demonstrative of their great potential in energy harvesting applications. A lead zirconate titanate and stainless steel laminate composite with an 88% pyroelectric coefficient enhancement is shown to increase its maximum power density, efficiency, and electrothermal coupling factor by 254%, while other material pairings have also been evaluated to exhibit great promise in this application owing to a large pyroelectric coefficient enhancement accompanied by a reduction in total thermal mass.
Investigating Delamination Migration in Composite Tape Laminates
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ratcliffe, James G.; DeCarvalho, Nelson V.
2014-01-01
A modification to a recently developed test specimen designed to investigate migration of a delamination between neighboring ply interfaces in tape laminates is presented. The specimen is a cross-ply laminated beam consisting of 40 plies with a polytetrafluoroethylene insert spanning part way along its length. The insert is located between a lower 0-degree ply (specimen length direction) and a stack of four 90-degree plies (specimen width direction). The modification involved a stacking sequence that promotes stable delamination growth prior to migration, and included a relocation of the insert from the specimen midplane to the interface between plies 14 and 15. Specimens were clamped at both ends onto a rigid baseplate and loaded on their upper surface via a piano hinge assembly, resulting in a predominantly flexural loading condition. Tests were conducted with the load-application point positioned at various locations along a specimen's span. This position affected the sequence of damage events during a test.
Nondimensional impact models for composite laminates
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Sankar, B. V.; Nguyen, P. T.; Ku, C.
1990-01-01
The equations governing the problem of low-velocity impact of a simply supported rectangular laminated plate are nondimensionalized such that the problem is defined in terms of five dimensionless parameters. A parametric study using the Graeco-Latin Factorial Plan is performed. Semi-empirical formulas for maximum impact force, impact duration, and maximum back surface strains are obtained. It is found that some of the simple impact models provide the bounds for the case of impact on a finite extent plate.
Distributed dynamic load on composite laminates
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Langella, A.; Lopresto, V.; Caprino, G.
2016-05-01
An experimental activity conducted in order to assess the impact behavior at room and low temperature of carbon fibre in vinylester resin laminates used in the shipbuilding industry, was reported. The conditions which reproduce the impact of a hull at low temperature with a solid body suspended in the water was reproduced. A test equipment was designed and realized to reproduce the real material behaviour in water to obtain a load distribution on the entire surface of the specimen. The results were obtained impacting the laminates placed between the cilyndrical steel impactor and a bag containing water. A falling weight machine, equipped with an instrumented steel impactor and a thermal chamber, was adopted for the experimental tests. The impact behaviour in hostile environments was compared to the behaviour at room temperature and the data obtained under distributed load conditions were compared with the results from concentrated loads: a completely different behaviour was observed between the two different loading conditions in terms of load-displacement curve. The effect of the impact on the laminates has been related with the delaminations, evaluated by ultrasonic scanning, and the indentation.
Laminated structures and methods and compositions for producing same
Fumei, Giancarlo J.; Karabedian, James A.
1977-04-05
Methods for bonding two substrates, one of which is polymeric, which comprise coating the surface of at least one substrate with an adhesive composition comprising a major component which is an adhesive for the first substrate and a minor disperse phase which is a solution of a polymer in a solvent for the polymeric substrate and contacting the coated surface of the one substrate with the surface of the other substrate, together with adhesive compositions useful for joining such substrates, laminates so formed, and articles comprised of such laminates.
Current Distribution Characteristics of CFRP Panels
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yamamoto, Kazuo
CFRP (Carbon Fiber Reinforced Plastic) is widely used in the structures of aircrafts, automobiles, wing turbines, and rockets because of its qualities of high mechanical strength, low weight, fatigue resistance, and dimensional stability. However, these structures are often at risk of being struck by lightning. When lightning strikes such structures and lightning current flows through the CFRP, it may be structurally damaged because of the impact of the lightning strike or ignitions between layers. If there are electronic systems near the CFRP, they may break down or malfunction because of the resulting electromagnetic disturbance. In fact, the generation mechanisms of these breakdowns and malfunctions depend on the current distribution in the CFRP. Hence, it is critical to clarify the current distribution in various kinds of CFRPs. In this study, two kinds of CFRP panels—one composed of quasi-isotropic lamination layers and the other composed of 0°/90° lamination layers of unidirectional CFRP prepregs—are used to investigate the dependence of current distribution on the nature of the lamination layers. The current distribution measurements and simulations for CFRP panels are compared with those for a same-sized aluminum plate. The knowledge of these current distribution characteristics would be very useful for designing the CFRP structures of aircrafts, automobiles, wing turbines, rockets, etc. in the future.
Self-sensing and self-actuating CFRP structure using partially flexible composites
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kumagai, Keisuke; Todoroki, A.; Matsuzaki, Ryosuke
2008-03-01
For Unmanned aerial vehicles, a morphing wing is desired to improve the maneuverability and reduce the total weight of structures. Our research group has developed a foldable composite structure for a morphing wing skin plate by using Carbon Fiber Reinforced Plastics (CFRP). The material system is called Partially Flexible Composites (PFC). In the present paper, PFC is introduced and a self-sensing system of the PFC is investigated. Since carbon fibers have electrical conductivity, damages of the PFC can be detected by monitoring electrical resistance changes of the PFC. This method is called Electrical Resistance Changes Method. An electrical resistance model of the PFC is built and a relationship of ratio of fiber fractures and electrical resistance changes is obtained. Then, to investigate the performance of the PFC, cyclic-bending tests are conducted. Damages of the PFC caused by cyclic-bending are detected by using ERCM. As a result, the PFC with more than 10mm-long flexible part has almost no damage; the stiffness of the structure remains unchanged. After that, a McKibben pneumatic artificial muscles actuator is made and it is founded that this can be applied to the PFC as an actuator. This actuator consists of a silicon rubber and a carbon fiber that are the same as the material of flexible part of the PFC. This enables us to make actuator-integrated composite structures. In the present study, the applicability of the McKibben pneumatic artificial muscles actuator is investigated.
Bending Boundary Layers in Laminated-Composite Circular Cylindrical Shells
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Nemeth, Michael P.; Smeltzer, Stanley S., III
2000-01-01
An analytical, parametric study of the attenuation of bending boundary layers or edge effects in balanced and unbalanced, symmetrically and unsymmetrically laminated thin cylindrical shells is presented for nine contemporary material systems. The analysis is based on the linear Sanders-Koiter shell equations and specializations to the Love-Kirchhoff shell equations and Donnell's equations are included. Two nondimensional parameters are identified that characterize and quantify the effects of laminate orthotropy and laminate anisotropy on the bending boundary-layer decay length in a very general and encompassing manner. A substantial number of structural design technology results are presented for a wide range of laminated-composite cylinders. For all the laminate constructions considered, the results show that the differences between results that were obtained with the Sanders-Koiter shell equations, the Love-Kirchhoff shell equations, and Donnell's equations are negligible. The results also show that the effect of anisotropy in the form of coupling between pure bending and twisting has a negligible effect on the size of the bending boundary-layer decay length of the balanced, symmetrically laminated cylinders considered. Moreover, the results show that coupling between the various types of shell anisotropies has a negligible effect on the calculation of the bending boundary-layer decay length in most cases. The results also show that in some cases neglecting the shell anisotropy results in underestimating the bending boundary-layer decay length and in other cases it results in an overestimation.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lin, L.; Ding, S. S.; Chen, J.; Liang, X. Y.; Li, X. M.
2012-05-01
A 2D random void model (RVM) is proposed to describe voids morphology in Carbon Fiber Reinforced Plastic (CFRP) composite materials and used to investigate Ultrasonic Scattering Attenuation Coefficient (USAC). Void morphology simulations from RVM present good matches to micrographic observations. The fluctuations of USAC due to the randomness of void morphology and their dependence on the frequency have been discussed, which are significantly helpful to clarify ultrasonic scattering attenuation mechanism from voids in nature.
Fatigue Damage in CFRP Woven Fabric Composites through Dynamic Modulus Measurements
Chiaki Miyasaka; K. L. Telschow
2004-07-01
Advanced fiber reinforced composite materials offer substantial advantages over metallic materials for the structural applications subjected to fatigue loading. With the increasing use of these composites, it is required to understand their mechanical response to cyclic loading (1)-(4). Our major concern in this work is to macroscopically evaluate the damage development in composites during fatigue loading. For this purpose, we examine what effect the fatigue damage may have on the material properties and how they can be related mathematically to each other. In general, as the damage initiates in composite materials and grows during cyclic loading, material properties such as modulus, residual strength and strain would vary and, in many cases, they may be significantly reduced because of the progressive accumulation of cracks. Therefore, the damage can be characterized by the change in material properties, which is expected to be available for non-destructive evaluation of the fatigue damage development in composites. Here, the tension-tension fatigue tests are firstly conducted on the plain woven fabric carbon fiber composites for different loading levels. In the fatigue tests, the dynamic elastic moduli are measured on real-time, which will decrease with an increasing number of cycles due to the degradation of stiffness. Then, the damage function presenting the damage development during fatigue loading is determined from the dynamic elastic moduli thus obtained, from which the damage function is formulated in terms of a number of cycles and an applied loading level. Finally, the damage function is shown to be applied for predicting the remaining lifetime of the CFRP composites subjected to two-stress level fatigue loading.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Park, Yurim; Shrestha, Pratik; Kwon, Hyunseok; Kim, Jin-Hyuk; Kwon, Heejung; Kim, Chun-Gon
2016-04-01
Applications of composite materials in aerospace structures is increasing due to the outstanding properties, however, monitoring such composite structures exposed to harsh environments is still a posing issue. Low Earth orbit space structures are exposed to property degradation and damage from high-degree vacuum, ultraviolet radiation, thermal cycling, and atomic oxygen attack which are detrimental to composite materials. In this study, FBG sensors for embedding in CFRP composite plates in different thickness locations to provide health and damage monitoring of the material exposed to such environments regarding the overall health of the material with a focus on the exposed surface are explored in comparison to conventional FBG sensors.
Damage prediction in cross-plied curved composite laminates
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Martin, Roderick H.; Jackson, Wade C.
1991-01-01
Analytical and experimental work is detailed which is required to predict delamination onset and growth in a curved cross plied composite laminate subjected to static and fatigue loads. The composite used was AS4/3501/6, graphite/epoxy. Analytically, a closed form stress analysis and 2-D and 3-D finite element analyses were conducted to determine the stress distribution in an undamaged curved laminate. The finite element analysis was also used to determine values of strain energy release rate at a delamination emanating from a matrix crack in a 90 deg ply. Experimentally, transverse tensile strength and fatigue life were determined from flat 90 deg coupons. The interlaminar tensile strength and fatigue life were determined from double cantilevered beam specimens. Cross plied curved laminates were tested statically and in fatigue to give a comparison to the analytical predictions. A comparison of the fracture mechanics life prediction technique and the strength based prediction technique is given.
Finite element analysis of laminated composite paraboloid of revolution shells
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dey, A.; Bandyopadhyay, J. N.; Sinha, P. K.
1992-07-01
A generalized formulation for the doubly curved laminated composite shell is attempted using eight-noded curved quadratic isoparametric finite elements with all three radii of curvature. The formulation is also applied to the isotropic material as a special case. In the present investigation, only the paraboloid of revolution is taken up for computing the deflections and stress resultants. Various parametric studies are carried out and the current results for both isotropic and laminated composite shells are compared with those available in the published literature. The shape functions are obtained from interpolation polynomial and the element stiffness matrices are formed on the basis of macromechanical analysis of laminates using the principle of minimum potential energy.
Predicting viscoelastic response and delayed failures in general laminated composites
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Dillard, D. A.; Morris, D. H.; Brinson, H. F.
1982-01-01
Although graphite fibers behave in an essentially elastic manner, the polymeric matrix of graphite/epoxy composites is a viscoelastic material which exhibits creep and delayed failures. The creep process is quite slow at room temperature, but may be accelerated by higher temperatures, moisture absorption, and other factors. Techniques are being studied to predict long-term behavior of general laminates based on short-term observations of the unidirectional material at elevated temperatures. A preliminary numerical procedure based on lamination theory is developed for predicting creep and delayed failures in laminated composites. A modification of the Findley nonlinear power law is used to model the constitutive behavior of a lamina. An adaptation of the Tsai-Hill failure criterion is used to predict the time-dependent strength of a lamina. Predicted creep and delayed failure results are compared with typical experimental data.
Compression and compression fatigue testing of composite laminates
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Porter, T. R.
1982-01-01
The effects of moisture and temperature on the fatigue and fracture response of composite laminates under compression loads were investigated. The structural laminates studied were an intermediate stiffness graphite-epoxy composite (a typical angle ply laimna liminate had a typical fan blade laminate). Full and half penetration slits and impact delaminations were the defects examined. Results are presented which show the effects of moisture on the fracture and fatigue strength at room temperature, 394 K (250 F), and 422 K (300 F). Static tests results show the effects of defect size and type on the compression-fracture strength under moisture and thermal environments. The cyclic tests results compare the fatigue lives and residual compression strength under compression only and under tension-compression fatigue loading.
Low velocity impact of inclined CSM composite laminates
Arnold, W.S.; Madjidi, S.; Marshall, I.H.; Robb, M.D.
1993-12-31
The damage tolerance of composite laminates subject to low velocity impact is an important aspect of current design philosophies required to ensure the integrity of primary load bearing structures. To the authors knowledge, no work published in the open literature has addressed the damage tolerance of composites subject to impacts at non-perpendicular inclinations, which in practical situations is the most common form of impact. This paper describes an experimental study, devised to assess the influence of inclined impact on the residual strength characteristics of CSM laminates. Preliminary experimental results and comparisons with previous work on flat plate impact tests are presented. The influence of the degree of inclination and impact energy are correlated with the laminates damage area and residual tensile properties.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Williams, Kevin Vaughan
Rapid growth in use of composite materials in structural applications drives the need for a more detailed understanding of damage tolerant and damage resistant design. Current analytical techniques provide sufficient understanding and predictive capabilities for application in preliminary design, but current numerical models applicable to composites are few and far between and their development into well tested, rigorous material models is currently one of the most challenging fields in composite materials. The present work focuses on the development, implementation, and verification of a plane-stress continuum damage mechanics based model for composite materials. A physical treatment of damage growth based on the extensive body of experimental literature on the subject is combined with the mathematical rigour of a continuum damage mechanics description to form the foundation of the model. The model has been implemented in the LS-DYNA3D commercial finite element hydrocode and the results of the application of the model are shown to be physically meaningful and accurate. Furthermore it is demonstrated that the material characterization parameters can be extracted from the results of standard test methodologies for which a large body of published data already exists for many materials. Two case studies are undertaken to verify the model by comparison with measured experimental data. The first series of analyses demonstrate the ability of the model to predict the extent and growth of damage in T800/3900-2 carbon fibre reinforced polymer (CFRP) plates subjected to normal impacts over a range of impact energy levels. The predicted force-time and force-displacement response of the panels compare well with experimental measurements. The damage growth and stiffness reduction properties of the T800/3900-2 CFRP are derived using published data from a variety of sources without the need for parametric studies. To further demonstrate the physical nature of the model, a IM6
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Goldberg, Robert K.; Hopkins, Dale A.
1993-01-01
The boundary element method is utilized to analyze the effects of fiber/matrix interfaces on the micromechanical behavior of laminated composites as well as the elastic behavior of woven composites. Effective composite properties are computed for laminated SiC/RBSN and SiC/Ti-15-3 composites, as well as a woven SiC/SiC composite. The properties calculated using the computerized tool BEST-CMS match the experimental results well.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Harris, Charles E.; Morris, Don H.
1987-01-01
The fracture behavior of T300/5208 CFRP laminate panels with 12 different combinations of ply orientation and stacking sequence is investigated experimentally, using optical microscopy, SEM, and X-ray radiography to characterize the notch-tip damage zones and fracture surfaces of center-cracked tension specimens subjected to tensile loading at constant crosshead displacement rate 20 micron/s. The results are presented graphically and analyzed in detail. Significant differences in notched strength are found for different ply fiber orientations and stacking sequences; the laminates with few major delaminations had a greater percentage of fracture due to broken fibers and also higher notched strength.
Probabilistic Simulation of Stress Concentration in Composite Laminates
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chamis, C. C.; Murthy, P. L. N.; Liaw, D. G.
1994-01-01
A computational methodology is described to probabilistically simulate the stress concentration factors (SCF's) in composite laminates. This new approach consists of coupling probabilistic composite mechanics with probabilistic finite element structural analysis. The composite mechanics is used to probabilistically describe all the uncertainties inherent in composite material properties, whereas the finite element is used to probabilistically describe the uncertainties associated with methods to experimentally evaluate SCF's, such as loads, geometry, and supports. The effectiveness of the methodology is demonstrated by using is to simulate the SCF's in three different composite laminates. Simulated results match experimental data for probability density and for cumulative distribution functions. The sensitivity factors indicate that the SCF's are influenced by local stiffness variables, by load eccentricities, and by initial stress fields.
Process-induced viscoelastic stress in composite laminates
Stango, R.J.
1985-01-01
In recent years, considerable interest has developed in evaluating the stress response of composite laminates which is associated with cooling the material system from the cure temperature to room temperature. This research examines the fundamental nature of time-dependent residual-thermal stresses in composite laminates which are caused by the extreme temperature reduction encountered during the fabrication process. Viscoelastic stress in finite-width, symmetric composite laminates is examined on the basis of a formulation that employs an incremental hereditary integral approach in conjunction with a quasi-three dimensional finite element analysis. A consistent methodology is developed and employed for the characterization of lamina material properties. Special attention is given to the time-dependent stress response at ply-interface locations near the free-edge. In addition, the influence of cooling path on stress history is examined. Recently published material property data for graphite-epoxy lamina is employed in the analysis. Results of the investigation generally indicate that nominal differences between the thermoelastic and viscoelastic solutions are obtained. Slight changes of the final stress state are observed to result when different cooling paths are selected for the temperature history. The methodology employed is demonstrated to result in an accurate, efficient, and consistent approach for the viscoelastic analysis of advanced composite laminates.
Interface fracture and composite deformation of model laminates
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fox, Matthew R.
Model laminates were studied to improve the understanding of composite mechanical behavior. NiAl/Mo and NiAl/Cr model laminates, with a series of interfaces, were bonded at 1100°C. Reaction layers were present in all laminates, varying in thickness with bonding conditions. Interface fracture strengths and resistances were determined under primarily mode II loading conditions using a novel technique, the asymmetrically-loaded shear (ALS) test, in which one layer of the laminate was loaded in compression, producing a stable interface crack. The NiAl/Mo interface was also fractured in four-point bending. A small amount of plasticity was found to play a role in crack initiation. During steady-state mode II interface fracture of NiAl/Mo model laminates, large-scale slip was observed near the crack tip in the NiAl adjacent to the interface. After testing, the local slope and curvature of the interface were characterized at intervals along the interface and at slip locations to qualitatively describe local stresses present at and just ahead of the crack tip. The greatest percentage of slip occurred where closing forces on the crack tip were below the maximum value and were decreasing with crack growth. A mechanism for crack propagation is presented describing the role of large-scale slip in crack propagation. The mechanical response of structural laminates in 3-D stress states, as would be present in a polycrystalline aggregate composed of lamellar grains, are lacking. In order to understand the response of laminates composed of hard and soft phases, Pb/Zn laminates were prepared and tested in compression with varying lamellar orientation relative to the loading axis. A model describing the mechanical response in a general state assuming elastic-perfectly plastic isotropic layers was developed. For the 90° laminate, a different approach was applied, using the friction hill concepts used in forging analyses. With increasing ratios of cross-sectional radius to layer
Multiscale modeling of damage in multidirectional composite laminates
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Singh, Chandra Veer
The problem of damage accumulation in laminated composite materials has received much attention due to their widespread application in the aerospace, automotive, civil, and sports industries. In the aerospace industry, composites are used to make light weight and efficient structural components. In the Boeing 787, for example, more than 50% of the structure is made of composite materials. Although there have been significant developments in analyzing cross-ply laminates, none of the present approaches provides reasonable predictions for multidirectional laminates in which intralaminar cracks may form in multiple orientations. Nevertheless, the prediction of damage accumulation and its effect on structural performance is a very difficult problem due to complexity of the cracking processes. This study presents a synergistic damage mechanics (SDM) methodology to analyze damage behavior in multidirectional composite laminates with intralaminar cracks in plies of multiple orientations. SDM combines the strengths of micro-damage mechanics (MDM) and continuum damage mechanics (CDM) in predicting the stiffness degradation due to these cracks. The micromechanics is performed on a representative unit cell using a three-dimensional finite element analysis to calculate the crack opening displacement accounting for the influence of the surrounding plies, the so-called constraint effect. This information is then incorporated in the CDM formulation dealing with laminates containing cracks in different ply orientations through a 'constraint parameter'. Following CDM, a separate damage mode is defined for each type of crack and the expressions for engineering moduli of the damaged laminate are then derived in terms of crack density and the constraint parameter. The SDM methodology is implemented for [0 m/+/- thetan/0 m/2]s laminates containing cracks in +/-theta plies. It is then extended to [0m /+/- thetan/90 r]s and [0m/90 r/+/- thetan] s laminates with cracks additionally in the
Postbuckling analysis of composite laminated cylindrical panels under axial compression
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kweon, J. H.; Hong, C. S.
1993-08-01
The nonlinear finite element method is used to analyze the postbuckling behavior of composite laminated cylindrical panels with various stacking sequences under compression. The analysis is based on the updated Lagrangian formulation, an eight-node degenerated shell element, and an improved load-increment method based on the arc-length scheme. Results reveal that the postbuckling loads carrying capacities of laminated cylindrical panels under compression are largely dependent on the bending stiffness component. Not only the buckling loads but also the postbuckling load-carrying capacities should be considered in designing the structure.
Impact resistance of composite laminated sandwich plates
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kim, Chun-Gon; Jun, Eui-Jin
1992-01-01
Investigated are the effects of face layup sequence and core density of a sandwich plate on the impact delamination area of the laminated facesheet. The sandwich plate is made of graphite/epoxy faces and Nomex honeycomb core. The size and shape of delamination due to impact at each interply location have been measured by the room temperature deply technique. The shape of the interply delamination under impact is, in general, found to be two-lobed. The shape exhibits very peculiar regularity under various experimental conditions. The quantitative measurement of delamination size has shown that the face layup with small relative orientation between adjacent plies and high density core are desirable in sandwich plates to reduce the impact delamination.
Design of composite laminates for optimum frequency response
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kayikci, Rengin; Sonmez, Fazil O.
2012-04-01
In this study, natural frequency response of symmetrically laminated composite plates was optimized. An analytical model accounting for bending-twisting effects was used to determine the laminate natural frequency. Two different problems, fundamental frequency maximization and frequency separation maximization, were considered. Fiber orientation angles were chosen as design variables. Because of the existence of numerous local optimums, a global search algorithm, a variant of simulated annealing, was utilized to find the optimal designs. Results were obtained for different plate aspect ratios. Effects of the number of design variables and the range of values they may take on the optimal frequency were investigated. Problems in which fiber angles showed uncertainty were considered. Optimal frequency response of laminates subjected to static loads was also investigated.
Evaluation of laminated composite structures using ultrasonic attenuation measurement
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shen, Peitao; Houghton, J. R.
The existence of delamination and porosity in laminated composite structures will degrade the strength of the structures. The detection of delamination can be easily obtained using ultrasonic C-scan or A-scan methods. But, the detection of porosity in laminated structures has been a difficult task for years, especially in production condition. This paper will analytically evaluate the current techniques used in industry, and develop accurate attenuation measurement methods for the evaluation of porosity. The test samples, which are used in the laminated structures of the German airbus by Textron Aerostructures, Inc, will be tested using ultrasonic C-scan and grid-based A-scan methods. The digitized waveforms are stored and analyzed using different attenuation measurement algorithms. The volume of porosity is calculated using digital imaging analysis. Finally, the correlation between ultrasonic attenuation and the volume fraction of porosity are calculated and analyzed.
Fracture behavior of unidirectional boron/aluminum composite laminates
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Jones, F. W.; Goree, J. G.
1983-01-01
An experimental investigation of the fracture behavior of unidirectional boron/aluminum composite laminates was conducted in order to verify the results of mathematical models. These models predict the fiber stresses and displacements and the amount of damage growth in a center-notched lamina as a function of the applied remote stress and the matrix and fiber material properties. A brittle lacquer coating was used to detect the yielding in the matrix while X-ray techniques were used to determine the number of broken fibers in the laminate. The notched strengths and the amounts of damage found in the specimens agreed well with those predicted by the models. It was shown that for thin laminates the amount of damage and the fiber displacements do not depend strongly on the number of plies for a given notch width.
Bending Boundary Layers in Laminated-Composite Circular Cylindrical Shells
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Nemeth, Michael P.; Smeltzer, Stanley S., III
2000-01-01
A study of the attenuation of bending boundary layers in balanced and unbalanced, symmetrically and unsymmetrically laminated cylindrical shells is presented for nine contemporary material systems. The analysis is based on the linear Sanders-Koiter shell equations and specializations to the Love-Kirchhoff shell equations and Donnell's equations are included. Two nondimensional parameters are identified that characterize the effects of laminate orthotropy and anisotropy on the bending boundary-layer decay length in a very general manner. A substantial number of structural design technology results are presented for a wide range of laminated-composite cylinders. For all laminates considered, the results show that the differences between results obtained with the Sanders-Koiter shell equations, the Love-Kirchhoff shell equations, and Donnell's equations are negligible. The results also show that the effect of anisotropy in the form of coupling between pure bending and twisting has a negligible effect on the size of the bending boundary-layer decay length of the balanced, symmetrically laminated cylinders considered. Moreover, the results show that coupling between the various types of shell anisotropies has a negligible effect on the calculation of the bending boundary-layer decay length in most cases. The results also show that, in some cases, neglecting the shell anisotropy results in underestimating the bending boundary-layer decay length and, in other cases, results in an overestimation.
Tension fatigue analysis and life prediction for composite laminates
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Obrien, T. K.; Rigamonti, M.; Zanotti, C.
1988-01-01
A tension fatigue life prediction methodology for composite laminates is presented. Tension fatigue tests were conducted on quasi-isotropic and orthotropic glass epoxy, graphite epoxy, and glass/graphite epoxy hybrid laminates. Edge delamination onset data were used to generate plots of strain energy release rate as a function of cycles to delamination onset. These plots were then used along with strain energy release rate analyses of delaminations initiating at matrix cracks to predict local delamination onset. Stiffness loss was measured experimentally to account for the accumulation of matrix cracks and for delamination growth. Fatigue failure was predicted by comparing the increase in global strain resulting from stiffness loss to the decrease in laminate failure strain resulting from delaminations forming at matrix cracks through the laminate thickness. Good agreement between measured and predicted lives indicated that the through-thickness damage accumulation model can accurately describe fatigue failure for laminates where the delamination onset behavior in fatigue is well characterized, and stiffness loss can be monitored in real time to account for damage growth.
A Shear Deformable Shell Element for Laminated Composites
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chao, W. C.; Reddy, J. N.
1984-01-01
A three-dimensional element based on the total Lagrangian description of the motion of a layered anisotropic composite medium is developed, validated, and used to analyze layered composite shells. The element contains the following features: geometric nonlinearity, dynamic (transient) behavior, and arbitrary lamination scheme and lamina properties. Numerical results of nonlinear bending, natural vibration, and transient response are presented to illustrate the capabilities of the element.
Laminated thermoplastic composite material from recycled high density polyethylene
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Liu, Ping; Waskom, Tommy L.
1994-01-01
The design of a materials-science, educational experiment is presented. The student should understand the fundamentals of polymer processing and mechanical property testing of materials. The ability to use American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) standards is also necessary for designing material test specimens and testing procedures. The objectives of the experiment are (1) to understand the concept of laminated composite materials, processing, testing, and quality assurance of thermoplastic composites and (2) to observe an application example of recycled plastics.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tsutsui, Hiroaki; Kawamata, Akio; Kimoto, Junichi; Isoe, Akira; Hirose, Yasuo; Sanda, Tomio; Takeda, Nobuo
2003-08-01
It is well known that barely visible damage is often induced in composite structures subjected to out-of plane impact, and the mechanical properties of the composites decrease markedly. In this study, some element technologies for the detection of the damage are explained. Those are (1) the technologies for the arrangement of embedded small-diameter optical fibers which have no serious effect on the mechanical properties of composites, (2) the technologies for the egress of the optical fibers using "the embedded connector for smart structures" which can be trimmed without care about the optical fibers, (3) the technologies for the damage detection system that has the functions for data acquisition and analysis, the evaluation of the initiation and the position of damage, and the visualization of damage information. The impact test using the composite airframe demonstrator is conducted. The sensors embedded in the upper panel of the stiffened cylindrical composite structure with 1.5 m in diameter and 3 m in length, are FBG sensors for strain measurement and the optical fibers for optical loss measurement. The detection of damage in the composite structures using a developed damage detection system is demonstrated.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Takeda, N.; Okabe, Y.; Kuwahara, J.; Kojima, S.
2005-05-01
The authors are constructing a damage detection system using ultrasonic waves. In this system, a piezo-ceramic actuator generates Lamb waves in a CFRP laminate. After the waves propagate in the laminate, transmitted waves are received by a fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensor attached on the laminate using a newly developed high-speed optical wavelength interrogation system. At first, the optimal gauge length of the FBG to detect ultrasonic waves was investigated through theoretical simulations and experiments. Then, the directional sensitivity of the FBG to ultrasonic waves was evaluated experimentally. On the basis of the above results, the 1mm FBG sensors were applied to the detection of Lamb waves propagated in carbon fiber reinforced plastic (CFRP) cross-ply laminates. The piezo-actuator was put on the laminate about 50mm away from the FBG sensor glued on the laminate, and three-cycle sine waves of 300kHz were excited repeatedly. The waveforms obtained by the FBG showed that S0 and A0 modes could be detected appropriately. Then, artificial delamination was made in the laminate by removing of a Teflon sheet embedded in the 0/90 interface after the manufacturing. When the Lamb waves passed through the delamination, the amplitude decreased and a new wave mode appeared. These phenomena could be well simulated using a finite element method. Furthermore, since the amplitude and the velocity of the new mode increased with an increase in the delamination length, this system has a potential to evaluate the interlaminar delamination length quantitatively.
Developments in impact damage modeling for laminated composite structures
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Dost, Ernest F.; Avery, William B.; Swanson, Gary D.; Lin, Kuen Y.
1991-01-01
Damage tolerance is the most critical technical issue for composite fuselage structures studied in the Advanced Technology Composite Aircraft Structures (ATCAS) program. The objective here is to understand both the impact damage resistance and residual strength of the laminated composite fuselage structure. An understanding of the different damage mechanisms which occur during an impact event will support the selection of materials and structural configurations used in different fuselage quadrants and guide the development of analysis tools for predicting the residual strength of impacted laminates. Prediction of the damage state along with the knowledge of post-impact response to applied loads will allow for engineered stacking sequencies and structural configurations; intelligent decisions on repair requirements will also result.
Contact law and impact responses of laminated composites
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Sun, C. T.; Yang, S. H.
1980-01-01
Static identation tests were performed to determine the law of contact between a steel ball and glass/epoxy and graphite/epoxy laminated composites. For both composites the power law with an index of 1.5 was found to be adequate for the loading curve. Substantial permanent deformations were noted after the unloading. A high order beam finite element was used to compute the dynamic contact force and response of the laminated composite subjected to the impact of an elastic sphere. This program can be used with either the classical Hertzian contact law or the measured contact law. A simple method is introduced for estimating the contact force and contact duration in elastic impacts.
Methods of making metallic glass foil laminate composites
Vianco, Paul T.; Fisher, Robert W.; Hosking, Floyd M.; Zanner, Frank J.
1996-01-01
A process for the fabrication of a rapidly solidified foil laminate composite. An amorphous metallic glass foil is flux treated and coated with solder. Before solidification of the solder the foil is collected on a take-up spool which forms the composite into a solid annular configuration. The resulting composite exhibits high strength, resiliency and favorable magnetic and electrical properties associated with amorphous materials. The composite also exhibits bonding strength between the foil layers which significantly exceeds the bulk strength of the solder alone.
Methods of making metallic glass foil laminate composites
Vianco, P.T.; Fisher, R.W.; Hosking, F.M.; Zanner, F.J.
1996-08-20
A process for the fabrication of a rapidly solidified foil laminate composite. An amorphous metallic glass foil is flux treated and coated with solder. Before solidification of the solder the foil is collected on a take-up spool which forms the composite into a solid annular configuration. The resulting composite exhibits high strength, resiliency and favorable magnetic and electrical properties associated with amorphous materials. The composite also exhibits bonding strength between the foil layers which significantly exceeds the bulk strength of the solder alone. 6 figs.
Buckling of laminated composite cylinders - A review
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Tennyson, R. C.
1975-01-01
A brief review of the available static buckling theory for both geometrically 'perfect' and 'imperfect' anisotropic composite circular cylinders is presented for various loading configurations. For comparison purposes, relevant experimental data are discussed, including recent combined loading test results and recommendations are made concerning the design of composite cylinders.
3D Guided Wave Motion Analysis on Laminated Composites
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Tian, Zhenhua; Leckey, Cara; Yu, Lingyu
2013-01-01
Ultrasonic guided waves have proved useful for structural health monitoring (SHM) and nondestructive evaluation (NDE) due to their ability to propagate long distances with less energy loss compared to bulk waves and due to their sensitivity to small defects in the structure. Analysis of actively transmitted ultrasonic signals has long been used to detect and assess damage. However, there remain many challenging tasks for guided wave based SHM due to the complexity involved with propagating guided waves, especially in the case of composite materials. The multimodal nature of the ultrasonic guided waves complicates the related damage analysis. This paper presents results from parallel 3D elastodynamic finite integration technique (EFIT) simulations used to acquire 3D wave motion in the subject laminated carbon fiber reinforced polymer composites. The acquired 3D wave motion is then analyzed by frequency-wavenumber analysis to study the wave propagation and interaction in the composite laminate. The frequency-wavenumber analysis enables the study of individual modes and visualization of mode conversion. Delamination damage has been incorporated into the EFIT model to generate "damaged" data. The potential for damage detection in laminated composites is discussed in the end.
Design of sintered, tough, oxide laminate and fibrous monolithic composites
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kim, Dong-Kyu
Tough, oxide, laminated and fibrous monolithic composites were fabricated by using tape casting and co-extrusion technique, respectively. Mullite (3Al 2O3·2SiO2), alumina (Al2O 3), 50 vol% alumina · 50 vol% YAG (yttrium aluminum garnet, Y 3Al5O12) in situ composite, 50 vol% alumina · 50 vol% mullite in situ composite, zirconia (ZrO 2), and nickel aluminate (NiAl2O4) were used as matrix materials. Aluminum phosphate (AlPO4), alumina platelets, and 50 vol% alumina · 50 vol% leucite (KAlSi2O6) were chosen as high temperature applicable interphase materials. ICP (Inductively coupled plasma) data indicated no extensive decomposition of AlPO4 heat treated at 1600 and 1800°C. The AlPO4 worked as a stable, porous, weak, crack deflecting interphase material with three point bending strength of 1.5 MPa and 61% of theoretical density after heat treatment at 1600°C for 10h. The 50 vol% alumina · 50 vol% YAG in situ composite had a bending strength of 361 MPa after sintering at the condition of 1700°C/5h. A : B (C) : D (E) bimodal designs were proposed to increase the toughness of the laminated composites. 1 : 5 (6) : 12 (1) bimodal laminated composite had a bending strength and a work of fracture of 142 MPa and 0.51 KJ/m2, respectively. Fibrous monolithic composites with different interphase thickness and interphase composition were fabricated. 2-, 3- and mixed-layer fibrous monolithic composites were made.
Permeability of Impacted Coated Composite Laminates
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Johnson, W. S.; Findley, Benjamin
2002-01-01
Composite materials are being considered for use on future generations of Reusable Launch Vehicles (RLVs) for both fuel tanks and fuel feedlines. Through the use of composite materials NASA can reduce the overall weight of the vehicle dramatically. This weight savings can then be translated into an increase in the weight of payload sent into orbit, reducing the cost per pound of payload. It is estimated that by switching to composite materials for fuel tanks the weight of the tanks can be reduced by 40 percent, which translates to a total vehicle weight savings of 14 percent. In this research, carbon/epoxy composites were studied for fuel feedline applications. There are concerns about using composite materials for feedlines and fuel tanks because these materials are extremely vulnerable to impact in the form of inadvertent bumping or dropped tools both during installation and maintenance. Additionally, it has been found that some of the sample feedlines constructed have had leaks, and thus there may be a need to seal preexisting leaks in the composite prior to usage.
Geometrically nonlinear bending analysis of laminated composite plate
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dash, Padmanav; Singh, B. N.
2010-10-01
In this work, a transverse bending of shear deformable laminated composite plates in Green-Lagrange sense accounting for the transverse shear and large rotations are presented. Governing equations are developed in the framework of higher order shear deformation theory. All higher order terms arising from nonlinear strain-displacement relations are included in the formulation. The present plate theory satisfies zero transverse shear strains conditions at the top and bottom surfaces of the plate in von-Karman sense. A C0 isoparametric finite element is developed for the present nonlinear model. Numerical results for the laminated composite plates of orthotropic materials with different system parameters and boundary conditions are found out. The results are also compared with those available in the literature. Some new results with different parameters are also presented.
Evaluation of micro-damage accumulation in holed plain-woven CFRP composite under fatigue loading
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ying, Jia; Nishikawa, Masaaki; Hojo, Masaki
2014-03-01
Fluorescence method was used to detect the micro-damage caused by fatigue in a plain-woven carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP). Fluorescence measurement is a method which estimates micro-damage by measuring fluorescent intensity change inside materials. The principle is, larger micro-damage means larger plastic strain, thus more space in that damaged spot which allows more fluorescent dyes coming in the material. By detecting fluorescent intensity in CFRP layer by layer using confocal laser microscopy, micro-damage can be estimated. Results show that there's a good relationship between micro-damage and fluorescent intensity gradient.
Delamination failure in a unidirectional curved composite laminate
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Martin, Roderick H.
1992-01-01
Delamination failure in a unidirectional curved composite laminate was investigated. The curved laminate failed unstably by delaminations developing around the curved region of the laminate at different depths through the thickness until virtually all bending stiffness was lost. Delamination was assumed to initiate at the location of the highest radial stress in the curved region. A closed form curved beam elasticity solution and a 2D finite element analysis (FEA) were conducted to determine this location. The variation in the strain energy release rate, G, with delamination growth was then determined using the FEA. A strength-based failure criteria adequately predicted the interlaminar tension failure which caused initial delamination onset. Using the G analysis the delamination was predicted to extend into the arm and leg of the laminate, predominantly in mode I. As the initial delamination grew around the curved region, the maximum radial stress in the newly formed inner sublaminate increased to a level sufficient to cause a new delamination to initiate in the sublaminate with no increase in applied load. This failure progression was observed experimentally.
Delamination failure in a unidirectional curved composite laminate
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Martin, Roderick H.
1990-01-01
Delamination failure in a unidirectional curved composite laminate was investigated. The curved laminate failed unstably by delaminations developing around the curved region of the laminate at different depths through the thickness until virtually all bending stiffness was lost. Delamination was assumed to initiate at the location of the highest radial stress in the curved region. A closed form curved beam elasticity solution and a 2-D finite element analysis (FEA) were conducted to determine this location. The variation in the strain energy release rate, G, with delamination growth was then determined using the FEA. A strength-based failure criteria adequately predicted the interlaminar tension failure which caused initial delamination onset. Using the G analysis the delamination was predicted to extend into the arm and leg of the laminate, predominantly in mode I. As the initial delamination grew arould the curved region, the maximum radial stress in the newly formed inner sublaminate increased to a level sufficient to cause a new delamination to initiate in the sublaminate with no increase in applied load. This failure progression was observed experimentally.
A life prediction model for laminated composite structural components
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Allen, David H.
1990-01-01
A life prediction methodology for laminated continuous fiber composites subjected to fatigue loading conditions was developed. A summary is presented of research completed. A phenomenological damage evolution law was formulated for matrix cracking which is independent of stacking sequence. Mechanistic and physical support was developed for the phenomenological evolution law proposed above. The damage evolution law proposed above was implemented to a finite element computer program. And preliminary predictions were obtained for a structural component undergoing fatigue loading induced damage.
Nonlinear probabilistic finite element models of laminated composite shells
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Engelstad, S. P.; Reddy, J. N.
1993-01-01
A probabilistic finite element analysis procedure for laminated composite shells has been developed. A total Lagrangian finite element formulation, employing a degenerated 3-D laminated composite shell with the full Green-Lagrange strains and first-order shear deformable kinematics, forms the modeling foundation. The first-order second-moment technique for probabilistic finite element analysis of random fields is employed and results are presented in the form of mean and variance of the structural response. The effects of material nonlinearity are included through the use of a rate-independent anisotropic plasticity formulation with the macroscopic point of view. Both ply-level and micromechanics-level random variables can be selected, the latter by means of the Aboudi micromechanics model. A number of sample problems are solved to verify the accuracy of the procedures developed and to quantify the variability of certain material type/structure combinations. Experimental data is compared in many cases, and the Monte Carlo simulation method is used to check the probabilistic results. In general, the procedure is quite effective in modeling the mean and variance response of the linear and nonlinear behavior of laminated composite shells.
A single fracture toughness parameter for fibrous composite laminates
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Poe, C. C., Jr.
1981-01-01
A general fracture toughness parameter Qc was previously derived and verified to be a material constant, independent of layup, for centrally cracked boron aluminum composite specimens. The specimens were made with various proportions of 0 and + or - 45 degree plies. A limited amount of data indicated that the ratio Qc/epsilon tuf' where epsilon tuf is the ultimate tensile strain of the fibers, might be a constant for all composite laminates, regardless of material and layup. In that case, a single value of Qc/epsilon tuf could be used to predict the fracture toughness of all fibrous composite laminates from only the elastic constants and epsilon tuf. Values of Qc/epsilon tuf were calculated for centrally cracked specimens made from graphite/polyimide, graphite/epoxy, E glass/epoxy, boron/epoxy, and S glass graphite/epoxy materials with numerous layups. Within ordinary scatter, the data indicate that Qc/epsilon tuf is a constant for all laminates that did not split extensively at the crack tips or have other deviate failure modes.
Resin infusion of layered metal/composite hybrid and resulting metal/composite hybrid laminate
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Cano, Roberto J. (Inventor); Grimsley, Brian W. (Inventor); Weiser, Erik S. (Inventor); Jensen, Brian J. (Inventor)
2009-01-01
A method of fabricating a metal/composite hybrid laminate is provided. One or more layered arrangements are stacked on a solid base to form a layered structure. Each layered arrangement is defined by a fibrous material and a perforated metal sheet. A resin in its liquid state is introduced along a portion of the layered structure while a differential pressure is applied across the laminate structure until the resin permeates the fibrous material of each layered arrangement and fills perforations in each perforated metal sheet. The resin is cured thereby yielding a metal/composite hybrid laminate.
An experimental investigation on the three-point bending behavior of composite laminate
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
A, Azzam; W, Li
2014-08-01
The response of composite laminate structure to three-point bending load was investigated by subjecting two types of stacking sequences of composite laminate structure by using electronic universal tester (Type: WDW-20) machine. Optical microscope was selected in order to characterize bending damage, delamination, and damage shapes in composite laminate structures. The results showed that the [0/90/-45/45]2s exhibits a brittle behavior, while other laminates exhibit a progressive failure mode consisting of fiber failure, debonding (splitting), and delamination. The [45/45/90/0]2s laminate has a highly nonlinear load- displacement curve due to compressive yielding.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ishii, Yosuke; Biwa, Shiro
The transmission characteristics of ultrasonic wave impinging obliquely on composite laminates are analyzed. Incorporating the influence of thin resin-rich regions between adjacent plies by spring-type interfaces, the amplitude transmission coefficient of a unidirectional composite laminate immersed in water is calculated by the stiffness-matrix method. Using Floquet's theorem, the dispersion relation for the infinitely laminated structure is also calculated. Comparison between two results reveals that the frequency band-gaps in the dispersion relation agree well with the low-transmission frequency ranges of the finite laminated case. Comparing with the experimental transmission coefficients for an 11-ply carbon-epoxy composite laminate, the theoretical results are verified.
Mechanics of damping for fiber composite laminates including hygro-thermal effects
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Saravanos, D. A.; Chamis, Christos C.
1989-01-01
An integrated mechanics theory was developed for the modeling of composite damping from the micromechanics to the laminate level. Simplified, design oriented equations based on hysteretic damping are presented for on-axis plies, off-axis plies, and laminates including the effect of temperature, moisture, and interply hysteretic damping. The temperature rise within vibrating composite laminates resulting from strain energy dissipation is also modeled, and their coupled hygro-thermo-mechanical response is predicted. The method correlates well with reported damping measurements. Application examples illustrate the effect of various ply, laminate, and hygro-thermal parameters on the overall damping performance of composite laminates.
Mechanics of damping for fiber composite laminates including hygro-thermal effects
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Saravanos, D. A.; Chamis, C. C.
1989-01-01
An integrated mechanics theory has been developed for the modeling of composite damping from the micromechanics to the laminate level. Simplified, design oriented equations based on hysteretic damping are presented for on-axis plies, off-axis plies, and laminates including the effect of temperature, moisture, and interply hysteretic damping. The temperature rise within vibrating composite laminates resulting from strain energy dissipation is also modeled, and their coupled hygro-thermo-mechanical response is predicted. The method correlates well with reported damping measurements. Application examples illustrate the effect of various ply, laminate, and hygro-thermal parameters on the overall damping performance of composite laminates.
Ballistic damage in hybrid composite laminates
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Phadnis, Vaibhav A.; Pandya, Kedar S.; Naik, Niranjan K.; Roy, Anish; Silberschmidt, Vadim V.
2015-07-01
Ballistic damage of hybrid woven-fabric composites made of plain-weave E-glass- fabric/epoxy and 8H satin-weave T300 carbon-fabric/epoxy is studied using a combination of experimental tests, microstructural studies and finite-element (FE) analysis. Ballistic tests were conducted with a single-stage gas gun. Fibre damage and delamination were observed to be dominating failure modes. A ply-level FE model was developed, with a fabric-reinforced ply modelled as a homogeneous orthotropic material with capacity to sustain progressive stiffness degradation due to fibre/matrix cracking, fibre breaking and plastic deformation under shear loading. Simulated damage patterns on the front and back faces of fabric-reinforced composite plates provided an insight into their damage mechanisms under ballistic loading.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
HARRAS, B.; BENAMAR, R.; WHITE, R. G.
2002-04-01
The geometrically non-linear free vibration of thin composite laminated plates is investigated by using a theoretical model based on Hamilton's principle and spectral analysis previously applied to obtain the non-linear mode shapes and resonance frequencies of thin straight structures, such as beams, plates and shells (Benamar et al. 1991Journal of Sound and Vibration149 , 179-195; 1993, 164, 295-316; 1990 Proceedings of the Fourth International Conference on Recent Advances in Structural Dynamics, Southampton; Moussaoui et al. 2000 Journal of Sound and Vibration232, 917-943 [1-4]). The von Kármán non-linear strain-displacement relationships have been employed. In the formulation, the transverse displacement W of the plate mid-plane has been taken into account and the in-plane displacements U and V have been neglected in the non-linear strain energy expressions. This assumption, quite often made in the literature has been adopted in reference [2] and (El Kadiri et al. 1999 Journal of Sound and Vibration228, 333-358 [5]), in the isotropic case and has been mentioned here because the results obtained have been found to be in very good agreement with those based on the hierarchical finite element method (HFEM). In a previous study, it was assumed, based on the analogy with the isotropic case, that the fundamental carbon fibre reinforced plastic (CFRP) plate non-linear mode shape could be well estimated, by using nine plate functions, obtained as products of clamped-clamped beam functions in the x and y directions, symmetric in both the length U001and width directions [3]. In the present work, a convergence study has been performed and has shown that, although such an assumption may yield a good estimate for the non-linear resonance frequency, 18 plate functions should be taken into account instead of nine in the first non-linear mode shape and associated bending stress patterns calculations. This allows the anisotropy induced by the fibre orientations to be taken
Design for inadvertent damage in composite laminates
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Singhal, Surendra N.; Chamis, Christos C.
1992-01-01
Simplified predictive methods and models to computationally simulate durability and damage in polymer matrix composite materials/structures are described. The models include (1) progressive fracture, (2) progressively damaged structural behavior, (3) progressive fracture in aggressive environments, (4) stress concentrations, and (5) impact resistance. Several examples are included to illustrate applications of the models and to identify significant parameters and sensitivities. Comparisons with limited experimental data are made.
Asymmetry in ferroelectric polymer laminate composites
Newman, B.A.; Scheinbeim, J.I.; Su, Ji
1996-10-01
Studies of the ferroelectric and piezoelectric properties of composite bilaminates of poly(vinylidene fluoride) and nylon 11 films have shown that the properties of the bilaminates cannot be understood solely in terms of the properties of the individual components. Further, the properties of films which are polarized with the positive voltage on the nylon 11 side are different from those having the positive voltage on the poly(vinylidene fluoride) side. This asymmetry is interpreted as resulting from a region of space charge trapped at the interface between the two layers.
Thermoviscoelastic characterization and predictions of Kevlar/epoxy composite laminates
Gramoll, K.C.
1988-01-01
This study consisted of two main parts, the thermoviscoelastic characterization of Kevlar 49/Fiberite 7714A epoxy composite lamina and the development of a numerical procedure to predict the viscoelastic response of any general laminate constructed from the same material. The four orthotropic material properties, S{sub 11}, S{sub 12}, S{sub 22}, and S{sub 66}, were characterized by 20-minute static creep tests on unidirectional ((0){sub s}, (10){sub s}, and (90){sub 16}) lamina specimens. A new numerical procedure to predict long-term laminate properties from lamina properties (obtained experimentally) was developed. Numerical instabilities and time constraints associated with viscoelastic numerical techniques were discussed and solved. The numerical procedure was incorporated into a user-friendly microcomputer program called Viscoelastic Composite Analysis Program (VCAP), which is available for IBM PC type computers. The program was designed for ease of use and includes graphics, menus, help messages, etc. The final phase of the study involved testing actual laminates constructed from the characterized material, Kevlar/epoxy, at various temperature and load levels for 4 to 5 weeks.
Analysis of delamination growth in compressively loaded composite laminates
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tratt, Matthew D.
The present analytical and empirical study of composite structure delamination has attempted to predict the threshold stress for the initiation of delamination growth in compressively loaded composite laminates. The strain-energy release-rate distributions around circular delaminations are computed via MSC/NASTRAN analysis in conjunction with a virtual crack-opening technique. Static compression tests were conducted on specimens of graphite fiber-reinforced epoxy having circular delaminations of various sizes. Computed delamination growth threshold-stress prediction results were at substantial variance with the test data, but confirmed trends and gave qualitative insight into quasi-static delamination growth.
Environmental effects on long term behavior of composite laminates
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Singhal, S. N.; Chamis, C. C.
1992-01-01
Model equations are presented for approximate methods simulating the long-term behavior of composite materials and structures in hot/humid service environments. These equations allow laminate property upgradings with time, and can account for the effects of service environments on creep response. These methodologies are illustrated for various individual and coupled temperature/moisture, longitudinal/transverse, and composite material type cases. Creep deformation is noted to rise dramatically for cases of matrix-borne, but not of fiber-borne, loading in hot, humid environments; the coupled influence of temperature and moisture is greater than a mere combination of their individual influences.
Analysis of shear test method for composite laminates
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bergner, H. W., Jr.; Davis, J. G., Jr.; Herakovich, C. T.
1977-01-01
An elastic plane stress finite element analysis of the stress distributions in four flat test specimens for in-plane shear response of composite materials subjected to mechanical or thermal loads is presented. The shear test specimens investigated include: slotted coupon, cross beam, losipescu, and rail shear. Results are presented in the form of normalized shear contour plots for all three in-plane stess components. It is shown that the cross beam, losipescu, and rail shear specimens have stress distributions which are more than adequate for determining linear shear behavior of composite materials. Laminate properties, core effects, and fixture configurations are among the factors which were found to influence the stress distributions.
Iosipescu shear properties of graphite fabric/epoxy composite laminates
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Walrath, D. E.; Adams, D. F.
1985-01-01
The Iosipescu shear test method is used to measure the in-plane and interlaminar shear properties of four T300 graphite fabric/934 epoxy composite materials. Different weave geometries tested include an Oxford weave, a 5-harness satin weave, an 8-harness satin weave, and a plain weave with auxiliary warp yarns. Both orthogonal and quasi-isotropic layup laminates were tested. In-plane and interlaminar shear properties are obtained for laminates of all four fabric types. Overall, little difference in shear properties attributable to the fabric weave pattern is observed. The auxiliary warp material is significantly weaker and less stiff in interlaminar shear parallel to its fill direction. A conventional strain gage extensometer is modified to measure shear strains for use with the Iosipescu shear test. While preliminary results are encouraging, several design iterations failed to produce a reliable shear transducer prototype. Strain gages are still the most reliable shear strain transducers for use with this test method.
Design of multiple-ply laminated composite tapered beams
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rodriguez, P.
1993-01-01
A study of a special case of symmetric laminated composite cantilever beams is presented. The approach models beams that are tapered both in depth and width and investigates the effect of the ply layup angle and the ply taper on bending and interlaminar shearing stresses. For the determination of stresses and deflections, the beam stiffness matrices are expressed as linear functions of the beam length. Using classical lamination theory (CLT) the stiffness matrices are determined and assembled at strategic locations along the length of the beam. They are then inverted and necessary stiffness parameters are obtained numerically and extracted for determination of design information at each location chosen. Several ply layup configurations are investigated, and design considerations are presented based on the findings. Finally, recommendations for the design of these beams are presented, and a means for anticipating the location of highest stresses is offered.
On the enhancement of impact damage tolerance of composite laminates
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Nettles, A. T.; Lance, D. G.
1993-01-01
This paper examines the use of a thin layer of Ultra High Molecular Weight Polyethylene (UHMWPE) on the outer surface of carbon/epoxy composite materials as a method of improving impact resistance and damage tolerance through hybridization. Flat 16-ply laminates as well as honeycomb sandwich structures with eight-ply facesheets were tested in this study. Instrumented drop-weight impact testing was used to inflict damage upon the specimens. Evaluation of damage resistance included instrumented impact data, visual examination, C-scanning and compression after impact (CAI) testing. The results show that only one lamina of UHMWPE did not improve the damage tolerance (strength retention) of the 16-ply flat laminate specimens or the honeycomb sandwich beams, however, a modest gain in impact resistance (detectable damage) was found for the honeycomb sandwich specimens that contained an outer layer of UHMWPE.
Failure analysis of composite laminates including biaxial compression
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Tennyson, R. C.; Elliott, W. G.
1983-01-01
This report describes a continued effort on the development and application of the tensor polynomial failure criterion for composite laminate analysis. In particular, emphasis is given to the design, construction and testing of a cross-beam laminate configuration to obtain "pure' biaxial compression failure. The purpose of this test case was to provide to permit "closure' of the cubic form of the failure surface in the 1-2 compression-compression quadrant. This resulted in a revised set of interaction strength parameters and the construction of a failure surface which can be used with confidence for strength predictions, assuming a plane stress state exists. Furthermore, the problem of complex conjugate roots which can occur in some failure regions is addressed and an "engineering' interpretation is provided. Results are presented illustrating this behavior and the methodology for overcoming this problem is discussed.
Microcracking in composite laminates under thermal and mechanical loading. Thesis
Maddocks, J.R.
1995-05-01
Composites used in space structures are exposed to both extremes in temperature and applied mechanical loads. Cracks in the matrix form, changing the laminate thermoelastic properties. The goal of the present investigation is to develop a predictive methodology to quantify microcracking in general composite laminates under both thermal and mechanical loading. This objective is successfully met through a combination of analytical modeling and experimental investigation. In the analysis, the stress and displacement distributions in the vicinity of a crack are determined using a shear lag model. These are incorporated into an energy based cracking criterion to determine the favorability of crack formation. A progressive damage algorithm allows the inclusion of material softening effects and temperature-dependent material properties. The analysis is implemented by a computer code which gives predicted crack density and degraded laminate properties as functions of any thermomechanical load history. Extensive experimentation provides verification of the analysis. AS4/3501-6 graphite/epoxy laminates are manufactured with three different layups to investigate ply thickness and orientation effects. Thermal specimens are cooled to progressively lower temperatures down to {minus}184 C. After conditioning the specimens to each temperature, cracks are counted on their edges using optical microscopy and in their interiors by sanding to incremental depths. Tensile coupons are loaded monotonically to progressively higher loads until failure. Cracks are counted on the coupon edges after each loading. A data fit to all available results provides input parameters for the analysis and shows them to be material properties, independent of geometry and loading. Correlation between experiment and analysis is generally very good under both thermal and mechanical loading, showing the methodology to be a powerful, unified tool.
Probabilistic assessment of failure in adhesively bonded composite laminates
Minnetyan, L.; Chamis, C.C.
1997-07-01
Damage initiation and progressive fracture of adhesively bonded graphite/epoxy composites is investigated under tensile loading. A computer code is utilized for the simulation of composite structural damage and fracture. Structural response is assessed probabilistically during degradation. The effects of design variable uncertainties on structural damage progression are quantified. The Fast Probability Integrator is used to assess the response scatter in the composite structure at damage initiation. Sensitivity of the damage response to design variables is computed. Methods are general purpose in nature and are applicable to all types of laminated composite structures and joints, starting from damage initiation to unstable damage propagation and collapse. Results indicate that composite constituent and adhesive properties have a significant effect on structural durability. Damage initiation/progression does not necessarily begin in the adhesive bond. Design implications with regard to damage tolerance of adhesively bonded joints are examined.
Shear Characteristics of Hybrid Composites with Non-Woven Carbon Tissue
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lee, Seung-Hwan; Noguchi, Hiroshi
Mechanical shear characteristics of hybrid composites with non-woven carbon tissue (NWCT) are investigated under uni-axial static tensile loadings. In-plane characteristics were studied on [±45]3S angle-ply CFRP laminates and [+45/-45/+45/-45/+45/-45]S angle-ply hybrid laminates. Here, the symbol “/” means that the NWCT is located at an interface between CFRP layers. A new estimation method was proposed for the stiffness of hybrid composites. Chord shear modulus and 0.2%-offset shear strength of hybrid laminates were compared with those of CFRP laminates. Results estimated with the new method were compared with results of experiments and an ordinary rule of mixtures, and then the validity was confirmed. The hybrid angle-ply laminate seems to be effective to improve the shear characteristics. The damage and failure mechanisms of the hybrid composites were discussed through observation results with an optical microscope.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kundalwal, S. I.; Kumar, R. Suresh; Ray, M. C.
2013-10-01
This paper deals with the investigation of active constrained layer damping (ACLD) of smart laminated continuous fuzzy fiber reinforced composite (FFRC) shells. The distinct constructional feature of a novel FFRC is that the uniformly spaced short carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are radially grown on the circumferential surfaces of the continuous carbon fiber reinforcements. The constraining layer of the ACLD treatment is considered to be made of vertically/obliquely reinforced 1-3 piezoelectric composite materials. A finite element (FE) model is developed for the laminated FFRC shells integrated with the two patches of the ACLD treatment to investigate the damping characteristics of the laminated FFRC shells. The effect of variation of the orientation angle of the piezoelectric fibers on the damping characteristics of the laminated FFRC shells has been studied when the piezoelectric fibers are coplanar with either of the two mutually orthogonal vertical planes of the piezoelectric composite layer. It is revealed that radial growth of CNTs on the circumferential surfaces of the carbon fibers enhances the attenuation of the amplitude of vibrations and the natural frequencies of the laminated FFRC shells over those of laminated base composite shells without CNTs.
On Poisson's ratio for metal matrix composite laminates. [aluminum boron composites
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Herakovich, C. T.; Shuart, M. J.
1978-01-01
The definition of Poisson's ratio for nonlinear behavior of metal matrix composite laminates is discussed and experimental results for tensile and compressive loading of five different boron-aluminum laminates are presented. It is shown that there may be considerable difference in the value of Poisson's ratio as defined by a total strain or an incremental strain definition. It is argued that the incremental definition is more appropriate for nonlinear material behavior. Results from a (0) laminate indicate that the incremental definition provides a precursor to failure which is not evident if the total strain definition is used.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Nettles, Alan T.
1994-01-01
Delaminations in laminated composite materials can degrade the compressive strength of these materials. Delaminations can form as a result of impact damage or processing flaws. In order to better understand the effects of these delaminations on the compressive behavior of laminated composite plates, programs have been conducted to assess the criticality of prescribed delaminations of known size, shape, and location on the compression strength of laminated composites. A review of these programs is presented along with highlights of pertinent findings from each.
Analysis of progressive damage in fibrous composite laminates
Kaveh-Ahangar, A.
1990-01-01
A model of a cracked laminate which consisted of three layers of fibrous composite materials where the middle layer is a 90 degree ply and contains an infinite row of equally spaced transverse cracks and the outer layers have arbitrary fiber orientations was proposed to study the progressive transverse cracking phenomena in multi-layered laminates. It was assumed that a microcrack which resembles a slit crack exists in the ply undergoing cracking. The constructed admissible stress field in the tiplet at dilute crack density was utilized to calculate the energy release rate of the microcrack. The thickness of the ply undergoing cracking, fiber orientation, and thickness of its adjacent plies were included in the analysis. Then, linear elastic fracture mechanics was used to predict the strength of a typical ply. The residual thermal stresses were also included in the analysis. The classical laminated plate theory was used to calculate the complementary energy of the cracked triplet in terms of its unknown effective thermoelastic properties and those of its damaged middle layer. The complementary energy of the triplet was also calculated in terms of the local properties of each layer of the triplet, from the constructed admissible stress fields. After calculating the thermoelastic properties of the damaged triplet, the thermoelastic properties of the damaged middle layer of the triplet were extracted from the relations between them which was obtained through the classical laminated plate theory. The energy release rate of a microcrack in the ligament between two existing cracks was calculated based on the constructed admissible stress fields. The effect of the crack density in the ply undergoing progressive cracking, the location of the microcrack, and fiber orientation of the adjacent plies were included in the analysis.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kumar, Deepak; Roy, Rene; Kweon, Jin-Hwe; Choi, Jin-ho
2016-06-01
Sub-laminate damage in the form of matrix cracking and delamination was simulated by using interface cohesive elements in the finite element (FE) software ABAQUS. Interface cohesive elements were inserted parallel to the fiber orientation in the transverse ply with equal spacing (matrix cracking) and between the interfaces (delamination). Matrix cracking initiation in the cohesive elements was based on stress traction separation laws and propagated under mixed-mode loading. We expanded the work of Shi et al. (Appl. Compos. Mater. 21, 57-70 2014) to include delamination and simulated additional [45/-45/0/90]s and [02/90n]s { n = 1,2,3} CFRP laminates and a [0/903]s GFRP laminate. Delamination damage was quantified numerically in terms of damage dissipative energy. We observed that transverse matrix cracks can propagate to the ply interface and initiate delamination. We also observed for [0/90n/0] laminates that as the number of 90° ply increases past n = 2, the crack density decreases. The predicted crack density evolution compared well with experimental results and the equivalent constraint model (ECM) theory. Empirical relationships were established between crack density and applied stress by linear curve fitting. The reduction of laminate elastic modulus due to cracking was also computed numerically and it is in accordance with reported experimental measurements.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kumar, Deepak; Roy, Rene; Kweon, Jin-Hwe; Choi, Jin-ho
2015-10-01
Sub-laminate damage in the form of matrix cracking and delamination was simulated by using interface cohesive elements in the finite element (FE) software ABAQUS. Interface cohesive elements were inserted parallel to the fiber orientation in the transverse ply with equal spacing (matrix cracking) and between the interfaces (delamination). Matrix cracking initiation in the cohesive elements was based on stress traction separation laws and propagated under mixed-mode loading. We expanded the work of Shi et al. (Appl. Compos. Mater. 21, 57-70 2014) to include delamination and simulated additional [45/-45/0/90]s and [02/90n]s {n = 1,2,3} CFRP laminates and a [0/903]s GFRP laminate. Delamination damage was quantified numerically in terms of damage dissipative energy. We observed that transverse matrix cracks can propagate to the ply interface and initiate delamination. We also observed for [0/90n/0] laminates that as the number of 90° ply increases past n = 2, the crack density decreases. The predicted crack density evolution compared well with experimental results and the equivalent constraint model (ECM) theory. Empirical relationships were established between crack density and applied stress by linear curve fitting. The reduction of laminate elastic modulus due to cracking was also computed numerically and it is in accordance with reported experimental measurements.
Finite element analysis of drilling in carbon fiber reinforced polymer composites
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Phadnis, V. A.; Roy, A.; Silberschmidt, V. V.
2012-08-01
Carbon fiber reinforced polymer composite (CFRP) laminates are attractive for many applications in the aerospace industry especially as aircraft structural components due to their superior properties. Usually drilling is an important final machining process for components made of composite laminates. In drilling of CFRP, it is an imperative task to determine the maximum critical thrust forces that trigger inter-laminar and intra-laminar damage modes owing to highly anisotropic fibrous media; and negotiate integrity of composite structures. In this paper, a 3D finite element (FE) model of drilling in CFRP composite laminate is developed, which accurately takes into account the dynamic characteristics involved in the process along with the accurate geometrical considerations. A user defined material model is developed to account for accurate though thickness response of composite laminates. The average critical thrust forces and torques obtained using FE analysis, for a set of machining parameters are found to be in good agreement with the experimental results from literature.
An orthotropic laminate composite containing a layer with a crack
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Arin, K.
1974-01-01
A laminate composite containing an orthotropic layer with a crack situated normal to the interfaces, and bonded to two orthotropic half-planes of dissimilar materials was considered. The solutions for two different classes of orthotropic materials are presented. In each case, the problem was first reduced to a system of dual integral equations, then to a singular integral equation which was subsequently solved numerically for the stress intensity factors at the tip of the crack. The effect of the material properties on the stress intensity factor was investigated. The generalized plane stress and the plane strain were treated simultaneously.
Low velocity impact analysis of composite laminated plates
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zheng, Daihua
2007-12-01
In the past few decades polymer composites have been utilized more in structures where high strength and light weight are major concerns, e.g., aircraft, high-speed boats and sports supplies. It is well known that they are susceptible to damage resulting from lateral impact by foreign objects, such as dropped tools, hail and debris thrown up from the runway. The impact response of the structures depends not only on the material properties but also on the dynamic behavior of the impacted structure. Although commercial software is capable of analyzing such impact processes, it often requires extensive expertise and rigorous training for design and analysis. Analytical models are useful as they allow parametric studies and provide a foundation for validating the numerical results from large-scale commercial software. Therefore, it is necessary to develop analytical or semi-analytical models to better understand the behaviors of composite structures under impact and their associated failure process. In this study, several analytical models are proposed in order to analyze the impact response of composite laminated plates. Based on Meyer's Power Law, a semi-analytical model is obtained for small mass impact response of infinite composite laminates by the method of asymptotic expansion. The original nonlinear second-order ordinary differential equation is transformed into two linear ordinary differential equations. This is achieved by neglecting high-order terms in the asymptotic expansion. As a result, the semi-analytical solution of the overall impact response can be applied to contact laws with varying coefficients. Then an analytical model accounting for permanent deformation based on an elasto-plastic contact law is proposed to obtain the closed-form solutions of the wave-controlled impact responses of composite laminates. The analytical model is also used to predict the threshold velocity for delamination onset by combining with an existing quasi
Magnetoelectric laminate composite based tachometer for harsh environment applications
Myers, Robert; Islam, Rashed Adnan; Karmarkar, Makarand; Priya, Shashank
2007-09-17
This study reports the design, fabrication, and characterization of a tachometer utilizing magnetoelectric (ME) laminate composites with sandwich structure consisting of Pb(Zr,Ti)O{sub 3} (PZT) and Galfenol. High temperature characterization of Galfenol shows that it can sustain the magnetic property over 500 deg. C. The Curie temperature of PZT compositions was in the range of 325-340 deg. C. The magnitude of the ME coefficient was found to scale with the dimensionless ratio (d g/S), where d is the piezoelectric strain constant, g is the piezoelectric voltage constant, and S is the elastic compliance. The tachometer design is based on the principle that when ME composite is exposed to oscillating magnetic field, it generates voltage with the same frequency.
Analysis and experiments for composite laminates with holes and subjected to 4-point bending
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Shuart, M. J.; Prasad, C. B.
1990-01-01
Analytical and experimental results are presented for composite laminates with a hole and subjected to four-point bending. A finite-plate analysis is used to predict moment and strain distributions for six-layer quasi-isotropic laminates and transverse-ply laminates. Experimental data are compared with the analytical results. Experimental and analytical strain results show good agreement for the quasi-isotropic laminates. Failure of the two types of composite laminates is described, and failure strain results are presented as a function of normalized hole diameter. The failure results suggest that the initial failure mechanism for laminates subjected to four-point bending are similar to the initial failure mechanisms for corresponding laminates subjected to uniaxial inplane loadings.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lee, Seung-Joon; Lee, Joon-Hyun; Byun, Joon-Hyung
The objective of this research is to develop non-contact and real time inspection technique based on laser generated ultrasound for evaluating near-surface delamination in Carbon/Epoxy composite fabricated from automated fiber placement system. In this study, A hybrid laser generation/air-coupled detection ultrasonic system for detection and visualization of delamination in composite plates with simulated delamination of the area of 20 mm × 20 mm between the first and the second layer. Optical fiberized Nd:YAG pulse laser (532 nm, 32 mJ) with linear slit array is used to generate ultrasonic guided wave in unidirectional CFRP specimen (24 plies, 2.85 mm thickness). The characteristic of time domain waveform and frequency spectrum of guided wave is discussed. Two- dimensional images are obtained from these characteristics. The convergence of received signal using the pitch-catch and the scattering-reflection technique is discussed.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Saravanos, Dimitris A.
1996-01-01
Mechanics for the analysis of laminated composite shells with piezoelectric actuators and sensors are presented. A new mixed-field laminate theory for piezoelectric shells is formulated in curvilinear coordinates which combines single-layer assumptions for the displacements and a layerwise representation for the electric potential. The resultant coupled governing equations for curvilinear piezoelectric laminates are described. Structural mechanics are subsequently developed and an 8-node finite-element is formulated for the static and dynamic analysis of adaptive composite structures of general laminations containing piezoelectric layers. Evaluations of the method and comparisons with reported results are presented for laminated piezoelectric-composite plates, a closed cylindrical shell with a continuous piezoceramic layer and a laminated composite semi-circular cantilever shell with discrete cylindrical piezoelectric actuators and/or sensors.
Study of delamination in fiber reinforced composite laminates
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mathews, Mary Jacob
The primary goal of this work was to characterize the fracture toughness of laminated composite materials using a combination of experiments and analyses. This goal was achieved by several contributions that improved the state-of-the-art of numerical analysis techniques for evaluating crack propagation in composite structures. It is shown that currently available finite element techniques do not provide accurate results when nonuniform elements are used to model the structure in the vicinity of the cracks. A new method is proposed in this dissertation to more accurately predict the material toughness in such circumstances. Delamination in composites is often complicated by mixed-mode fractures. Both interlaminar tensile and shear stresses can be present at the delamination front under mixed mode conditions. Although finite element analysis is widely used to calculate energy release rates (ERR), the individual mode I and mode II ERR do not converge when the delamination is at a bimaterial interface. This problem was solved by enclosing the delamination in a homogeneous layer that removes the difficulties associated with the interface cracks. The effect of the additional resin layer is minimized by evaluating the fracture toughness at the limit as the thickness of the interface layer goes to zero. Interlaminar fracture toughness of AS4/3501-6 (carbon/epoxy) composite laminates was measured using single mode and mixed mode bending tests. The results show that the critical mode I ERR for delamination decrease monotonically with increasing mode II loading. Failure loci are developed in this dissertation using the test data and new parameters are established for different failure criteria. An acoustic emission study was performed with the toughness characterization tests. The results indicate that passive emissions can be used as a nondestructive evaluation tool to predict the onset of delamination and other fractures in composites. The final contribution of this
Choi, I.
1989-01-01
The effects of weld metal microsegregation, as altered by post-weld heat treatments, on both low and high temperatures tensile properties were investigated on Monel alloy 400. Flat, all weld metal, tensile specimens were machined from single pass GTA welds and were heat treated in vacuum in the range of 600 C to 1000 C to produce samples with different composition gradients. Short-time tensile tests were run at room temperature and elevated temperature. Long-time constant load creep tests were performed at 500 C. The room temperature mechanical properties of the as-welded specimen and heat treated specimens were similar and thus unaffected by variations in composition gradients. In contrast, at high temperatures the steady state creep rates decreased, rupture strains increased, and rupture lives decreases with increases in heat treatment temperature, that is, with decreases in the amplitudes of composition gradients. The deformation behavior of solidified dendritic structure was modeled based on results obtained on laminate composites of nickel and copper. The laminates, prepared by roll bonding, were annealed to produce controlled composition gradients with dimensions equivalent to those observed in the weld metal. The steady state creep rates of laminate composites decreased with increases in heat treatment time, that is, with decreases in the amplitudes of composition gradients. To rationalize the creep properties of each component in laminate composites, nickel-copper solid solutions having systematic compositional variations were prepared and tested under the same conditions as the laminate composites. The creep rates of nickel-copper solid solutions showed a minimum with nickel composition.
Prediction of the long-term creep compliance of general composite laminates
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Tuttle, M. E.; Brinson, H. F.
1986-01-01
An accelerated viscoelastic characterization procedure for use with polymer-based composite materials is presented which employs short term test data obtained using unidirectional specimens to predict the long term viscoelastic behavior of general composite laminates. This procedure is here illustrated using the Schapery (1966, 1969) nonlinear theory as the required viscoelastic constitutive model, as well as classical lamination theory for the lamination scheme. The technique is applied to T300/5208 graphite/epoxy.
Experimental Verification of Computational Models for Laminated Composites
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Harris, Charles E.; Coats, Timothy W.; Glaessgen, Edward H.
1999-01-01
The objective of the research reported herein is to develop a progressive damage methodology capable of predicting the residual strength of continuous fiber-reinforced, laminated, polymer matrix composites with through-penetration damage. The fracture behavior of center-notch tension panels with thin crack-like slits was studied. Since fibers are the major load-carrying constituent in polymer matrix composites, predicting the residual strength of a laminate requires a criterion for fiber fracture. The effects on fiber strain due to other damage mechanisms such as matrix cracking and delaminations must also be modeled. Therefore, the research herein examines the damage mechanisms involved in translaminate fracture and identifies the toughening mechanisms responsible for damage growth resistance in brittle epoxy matrix systems. The mechanics of matrix cracking and fiber fracture are discussed as is the mathematical framework for the progressive damage model developed by the authors. The progressive damage analysis algorithms have been implemented into a general purpose finite element code developed by NASA, the Computational Structural Mechanics Testbed (COMET). Damage growth is numerically simulated and the analytical residual strength predictions are compared to experimental results for a variety of notched panel configurations and materials systems.
A unifying strain criterion for fracture of fibrous composite laminates
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Poe, C. C., Jr.
1983-01-01
Fibrous composite materials, such as graphite/epoxy, are light, stiff, and strong. They have great potential for reducing weight in aircraft structures. However, for a realization of this potential, designers will have to know the fracture toughness of composite laminates in order to design damage tolerant structures. In connection with the development of an economical testing procedure, there is a great need for a single fracture toughness parameter which can be used to predict the stress-intensity factor (K(Q)) for all laminates of interest to the designer. Poe and Sova (1980) have derived a general fracture toughness parameter (Qc), which is a material constant. It defines the critical level of strains in the principal load-carryng plies. The present investigation is concerned with the calculation of values for the ratio of Qc and the ultimate tensile strain of the fibers. The obtained data indicate that this ratio is reasonably constant for layups which fail largely by self-similar crack extension.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tanaka, Nobuhira; Okabe, Yoji; Takeda, Nobuo
2003-12-01
For accurate strain measurement by fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensors, it is necessary to compensate the influence of temperature change. In this study two devices using FBG sensors have been developed for temperature-compensated strain measurement. They are named 'hybrid sensor' and 'laminate sensor', respectively. The former consists of two different materials connected in series: carbon fiber reinforced plastic (CFRP) and glass fiber reinforced plastic. Each material contains an FBG sensor with a different Bragg wavelength, and both ends of the device are glued to a structure. Using the difference of their Young's moduli and coefficients of thermal expansion, both strain and temperature can be measured. The latter sensor is a laminate of two 90° plies of CFRP and an epoxy plate, and an FBG sensor is embedded in the epoxy plate. When the temperature changes, the cross section of the optical fiber is deformed by the thermal residual stress. The deformation of the fiber causes the birefringence and widens the reflection spectrum. Since the temperature can be calculated from the spectrum width, which changes in proportion to the temperature, the accuracy of the strain measurement is improved. The usefulness of these sensors was experimentally confirmed.
Temperature-compensated strain measurement using FBG sensors embedded in composite laminates
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tanaka, Nobuhira; Okabe, Yoji; Takeda, Nobuo
2002-07-01
For accurate strain measurement by fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensors, it is necessary to compensate the influence of temperature change. In this study two devices using FBG sensors have been developed for temperature-compensated strain measurement. They are named hybrid sensor and laminate sensor, respectively. The former consists of two different materials connected in series: carbon fiber reinforced plastic (CFRP) and glass fiber reinforced plastic (GFRP). Each material contains an FBG sensor with a different Bragg wavelength, and both ends of the device are glue to a structure. Using the difference of their Young's moduli and coefficients of thermal expansion (CTEs), both strain and temperature can be measured. The latter sensor is a laminate of two 90 degree(s) plies of CFRP and an epoxy plate, and an FBG sensor is embedded in the epoxy plate. When the temperature changes, the cross section of the optical fiber is deformed by the thermal residual stress. The deformation of the fiber causes the birefringence and widens the reflection spectrum. Since the temperature can be calculated from the spectrum width, which changes in proportion to the temperature, the accuracy of the strain measurement is improved. The usefulness of these sensors were experimentally confirmed.
Ancient and Modern Laminated Composites - From the Great Pyramid of Gizeh to Y2K
Wadsworth, J.; Lesuer, D.R.
2000-03-14
Laminated metal composites have been cited in antiquity; for example, a steel laminate that may date as far back as 2750 B.C., was found in the Great Pyramid in Gizeh in 1837. A laminated shield containing bronze, tin, and gold layers, is described in detail by Homer. Well-known examples of steel laminates, such as an Adze blade, dating to 400 B.C. can be found in the literature. The Japanese sword is a laminated composite at several different levels and Merovingian blades were composed of laminated steels. Other examples are also available, including composites from China, Thailand, Indonesia, Germany, Britain, Belgium, France, and Persia. The concept of lamination to provide improved properties has also found expression in modern materials. Of particular interest is the development of laminates including high carbon and low carbon layers. These materials have unusual properties that are of engineering interest; they are similar to ancient welded Damascus steels. The manufacture of collectable knives, labeled ''welded Damascus'', has also been a focus of contemporary knifemakers. Additionally, in the Former Soviet Union, laminated composite designs have been used in engineering applications. Each of the above areas will be briefly reviewed, and some of the metallurgical principles will be described that underlie improvement in properties by lamination. Where appropriate, links are made between these property improvements and those that may have been present in ancient artifacts.
Microcracking in composite laminates under thermal and mechanical loading. Thesis
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Maddocks, Jason R.
1995-01-01
Composites used in space structures are exposed to both extremes in temperature and applied mechanical loads. Cracks in the matrix form, changing the laminate thermoelastic properties. The goal of the present investigation is to develop a predictive methodology to quantify microcracking in general composite laminates under both thermal and mechanical loading. This objective is successfully met through a combination of analytical modeling and experimental investigation. In the analysis, the stress and displacement distributions in the vicinity of a crack are determined using a shear lag model. These are incorporated into an energy based cracking criterion to determine the favorability of crack formation. A progressive damage algorithm allows the inclusion of material softening effects and temperature-dependent material properties. The analysis is implemented by a computer code which gives predicted crack density and degraded laminate properties as functions of any thermomechanical load history. Extensive experimentation provides verification of the analysis. AS4/3501-6 graphite/epoxy laminates are manufactured with three different layups to investigate ply thickness and orientation effects. Thermal specimens are cooled to progressively lower temperatures down to -184 C. After conditioning the specimens to each temperature, cracks are counted on their edges using optical microscopy and in their interiors by sanding to incremental depths. Tensile coupons are loaded monotonically to progressively higher loads until failure. Cracks are counted on the coupon edges after each loading. A data fit to all available results provides input parameters for the analysis and shows them to be material properties, independent of geometry and loading. Correlation between experiment and analysis is generally very good under both thermal and mechanical loading, showing the methodology to be a powerful, unified tool. Delayed crack initiation observed in a few cases is attributed to a
Suppression of interlaminar damage in carbon/epoxy laminates by use of interleaf layers
Tanimoto, Toshio . Dept. of Materials Science Ceramic Technology)
1994-10-15
Carbon fiber reinforced plastics (CFRP) have been widely used as a structural material. In general, fiber orientation angle of each lamina in these laminates is variously chosen in order to taylor a material which meets the particular requirement for the material properties in arbitrary direction of laminate. Quasi-isotropic lamination, in which the laminate consisted of laminae with fiber orientation of 0[degree], +45[degree], [minus]45[degree] and 90[degree] to loading axis, is most commonly employed in the actual application. However, quasi-isotropic carbon/epoxy laminates are known to develop the interlaminar stress concentrations near the free edge region. These laminates have a strong tendency to delaminate near the edges when subjected to axial in-plane loading. Such a free edge delamination under loading in the plane of the laminate is a unique problem to laminated composites. This paper summarizes the author's investigation which was performed to reduce the free edge interlaminar stresses in the laminate by incorporating interleaf films between plies and thus to improve the mechanical properties of these materials. In their previous work, the authors have shown that these laminates exhibit a high vibration damping capability. Loss factor values for these CFRP/interleaf laminates which were measured in cantilever beam tests, are 5 to 50 times as large as that for conventional CFRP. In this paper, discussion will be provided on the mechanical properties of the interleaved quasi-isotropic carbon/epoxy laminate, [0/[+-]45/90][sub s], with a special emphasis on the optimum design of interply locations to incorporate the interleaf films for the particular requirement such as static strength, elastic modulus, fatigue resistance and so on.
Raman stress sensor for localized stress measurements in composite laminates
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Arjyal, Bish; Galiotis, Costas
1995-09-01
A new stress/strain sensor for localized measurements in polymer based composites, has been developed and tested. The stress/strain dependent property is the frequency of the atomic vibrations of reinforcing fibers which can be proved with laser Raman spectroscopy. Measurements can be conducted in reinforcing fibers near the surface of laminates. For measurements in the bulk of composites, the exciting laser light has to be transported to the reinforcing fibers via an embedded fiber optic cable. The backscattered light is transmitted through the same fiber optic and is sent to the Raman spectrometer for analysis. The effect of the direction of the fiber optic cable with respect to the axis of the reinforcing fibers is examined. Finally, the relationships between the local fiber stress or strain obtained from the Raman sensor and the far field stress or strain measured conventionally, are established.
Esthetic Rehabilitation of Anterior Teeth with Laminates Composite Veneers
Riva, Giancarlo
2014-01-01
No- or minimal-preparation veneers associated with enamel preservation offer predictable results in esthetic dentistry; indirect additive anterior composite restorations represent a quick, minimally invasive, inexpensive, and repairable option for a smile enhancement treatment plan. Current laboratory techniques associated with a strict clinical protocol satisfy patients' restorative and esthetic needs. The case report presented describes minimal invasive treatment of four upper incisors with laminate nanohybrid resin composite veneers. A step-by-step protocol is proposed for diagnostic evaluation, mock-up fabrication and trial, teeth preparation and impression, and adhesive cementation. The resolution of initial esthetic issues, patient satisfaction, and nice integration of indirect restorations confirmed the success of this anterior dentition rehabilitation. PMID:25013730
Linear versus nonlinear theories for laminated composite plates and shells
Qatu, M.S.
1995-11-01
Linear and nonlinear shear-deformation theories for laminated composite plates and shells are discussed in this paper. The emphasis here is on the range of validity for each class of theories. The finite element method is used to determine the maximum stresses for a wide range of statically loaded plate and shell panels with various thickness ratios. This paper concludes that for the vast majority of composite materials and for moderately thick plates and shells, stresses normally reach the maximum allowable stress before nonlinear terms can become important. This has been demonstrated by showing that for the limiting case of shear deformation theories (in which the minimum span length (or radius) to thickness ratio is 20), the material usually fails before the maximum deflection reaches the magnitude of the thickness (where nonlinear terms start to become significant).
Zigzag-shaped piezoelectric based high performance magnetoelectric laminate composite
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cho, Kyung-Hoon; Yan, Yongke; Folgar, Christian; Priya, Shashank
2014-06-01
We demonstrate a 33-mode piezoelectric structure with zigzag shape for high sensitivity magnetoelectric laminates. In contrast to the 33-mode macro fiber composite (MFC), this zigzag shape piezoelectric layer excludes epoxy bonding layer between the electrode and piezoelectric materials, thereby, significantly improving the polarization degree, electromechanical coupling, and the stability of loss characteristics. The polarization degree was monitored from the change in phase angle near resonance, and the loss stability was determined from the changes in dielectric loss and rate of capacitance variation defined by (C - Cf)/Cf, where C is capacitance at a given frequency and Cf is capacitance at 100 Hz. Magnetoelectric composite with zigzag patterned piezoelectric layer was found to exhibit giant magnetoelectric response both in low frequency off-resonance region (6.75 V cm-1 Oe-1 at 1 kHz) and at anti-resonance frequency (357 V cm-1 Oe-1).
Fatigue Life Methodology for Tapered Composite Flexbeam Laminates
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Murri, Gretchen B.; OBrien, T. Kevin; Rousseau, Carl Q.
1997-01-01
The viability of a method for determining the fatigue life of composite rotor hub flexbeam laminates using delamination fatigue characterization data and a geometric non-linear finite element (FE) analysis was studied. Combined tension and bending loading was applied to non-linear tapered flexbeam laminates with internal ply drops. These laminates, consisting of coupon specimens cut from a full-size S2/E7T1 glass-epoxy flexbeam were tested in a hydraulic load frame under combined axial-tension and transverse cyclic bending. The magnitude of the axial load remained constant and the direction of the load rotated with the specimen as the cyclic bending load was applied. The first delamination damage observed in the specimens occurred at the area around the tip of the outermost ply-drop group. Subsequently, unstable delamination occurred by complete delamination along the length of the specimen. Continued cycling resulted in multiple delaminations. A 2D finite element model of the flexbeam was developed and a geometrically non-linear analysis was performed. The global responses of the model and test specimens agreed very well in terms of the transverse displacement. The FE model was used to calculate strain energy release rates (G) for delaminations initiating at the tip of the outer ply-drop area and growing toward the thick or thin regions of the flexbeam, as was observed in the specimens. The delamination growth toward the thick region was primarily mode 2, whereas delamination growth toward the thin region was almost completely mode 1. Material characterization data from cyclic double-cantilevered beam tests was used with the peak calculated G values to generate a curve predicting fatigue failure by unstable delamination as a function of the number of loading cycles. The calculated fatigue lives compared well with the test data.
Fatigue Life Methodology for Tapered Composite Flexbeam Laminates
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Murri, Gretchen B.; O''Brien, T. Kevin; Rousseau, Carl Q.
1997-01-01
The viability of a method for determining the fatigue life of composite rotor hub flexbeam laminates using delamination fatigue characterization data and a geometric non-linear finite element (FE) analysis was studied. Combined tension and bending loading was applied to nonlinear tapered flexbeam laminates with internal ply drops. These laminates, consisting of coupon specimens cut from a full-size S2/E7T1 glass-epoxy flexbeam were tested in a hydraulic load frame under combined axial-tension and transverse cyclic bending loads. The magnitude of the axial load remained constant and the direction of the load rotated with the specimen as the cyclic bending load was applied. The first delamination damage observed in the specimens occurred at the area around the tip of the outermost ply-drop group. Subsequently, unstable delamination occurred by complete delamination along the length of the specimen. Continued cycling resulted in multiple delaminations. A 2D finite element model of the flexbeam was developed and a geometrically non-linear analysis was performed. The global responses of the model and test specimens agreed very well in terms of the transverse flexbeam tip-displacement and flapping angle. The FE model was used to calculate strain energy release rates (G) for delaminations initiating at the tip of the outer ply-drop area and growing toward the thick or thin regions of the flexbeam, as was observed in the specimens. The delamination growth toward the thick region was primarily mode 2, whereas delamination growth toward the thin region was almost completely mode 1. Material characterization data from cyclic double-cantilevered beam tests was used with the peak calculated G values to generate a curve predicting fatigue failure by unstable delamination as a function of the number of loading cycles. The calculated fatigue lives compared well with the test data.
Quantitative Percussion Diagnostics For Evaluating Bond Integrity Between Composite Laminates
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Poveromo, Scott Leonard
Conventional nondestructive testing (NDT) techniques used to detect defects in composites are not able to determine intact bond integrity within a composite structure and are costly to use on large and complex shaped surfaces. To overcome current NDT limitations, a new technology was utilized based on quantitative percussion diagnostics (QPD) to better quantify bond quality in fiber reinforced composite materials. Experimental results indicate that this technology is capable of detecting 'kiss' bonds (very low adhesive shear strength), caused by the application of release agents on the bonding surfaces, between flat composite laminates bonded together with epoxy adhesive. Specifically, the local value of the loss coefficient determined from quantitative percussion testing was found to be significantly greater for a release coated panel compared to that for a well bonded sample. Also, the local value of the probe force or force returned to the probe after impact was observed to be lower for the release coated panels. The increase in loss coefficient and decrease in probe force are thought to be due to greater internal friction during the percussion event for poorly bonded specimens. NDT standards were also fabricated by varying the cure parameters of an epoxy film adhesive. Results from QPD for the variable cure NDT standards and lap shear strength measurements taken of mechanical test specimens were compared and analyzed. Finally, experimental results have been compared to a finite element analysis to understand the visco-elastic behavior of the laminates during percussion testing. This comparison shows how a lower quality bond leads to a reduction in the percussion force by biasing strain in the percussion tested side of the panel.
Interlaminar tension strength of graphite/epoxy composite laminates
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Shivakumar, Kunigal N.; Allen, Harold G.; Avva, Vishnu S.
1994-01-01
An L-shaped curved beam specimen and a tension loading fixture were proposed to measure the interlaminar tension strength of laminated and textile composites. The specimen size was 2 X 2 in. (51 X 51 mm). The use of a standard tension test machine and the introduction of load nearly at the specimen midthickness were the advantages of the proposed specimen. Modified Lekhnitskii and beam theory equations for calculating interlaminar stresses of an L-beam were verified by finite element analysis. The beam theory equation is simple and accurate for mean radius to thickness ratios greater than 1.5. The modified Lekhnitskii equations can be used for detailed stress field calculation. AS4/3501-6 graphite/epoxy unidirectional specimens with thicknesses of 16, 24, and 32 piles were fabricated and tested. The delamination initiation site agreed with the calculated maximum interlaminar tension stress location for all three thicknesses. Average interlaminar tension strengths of 16-, 24-, and 32-ply laminates were 47.6, 40.9, and 23.4 MPa, respectively.
Cost-reduction method for delamination monitoring using electrical resistance changes of CFRP beam
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Todoroki, A.; Ueda, M.
2004-02-01
Delamination is a significant defect of laminated composites. The present study employs an electrical resistance change method in an attempt to identify internal delaminations experimentally. The method adopts reinforcing carbon fibers as sensors. In our previous paper, an actual delamination crack in a Carbon Fiber Reinforced Plastics (CFRP) laminate was experimentally identified with artificial neural networks (ANN) or response surfaces created from a large number of experiments. The experimental results were used for learning of the ANN or regression of the response surfaces. For the actual application of the method, it is indispensable to reduce the number of experiments to suppress the total experimental cost. In the present study, therefore, FEM analyses are employed to make sets of data for learning of the ANN. First, electrical conductivity of the CFRP laminate is identified by means of the least estimation error method. After that, the results of FEM analyses are used for learning of the ANN. The method is applied to actual delamination monitoring of CFRP beams. As a result, the method successfully monitored the delamination location and size only with ten experiments.
A New Approach to Fibrous Composite Laminate Strength Prediction
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hart-Smith, L. J.
1990-01-01
A method of predicting the strength of cross-plied fibrous composite laminates is based on expressing the classical maximum-shear-stress failure criterion for ductile metals in terms of strains. Starting with such a formulation for classical isotropic materials, the derivation is extended to orthotropic materials having a longitudinal axis of symmetry, to represent the fibers in a unidirectional composite lamina. The only modification needed to represent those same fibers with properties normalized to the lamina rather than fiber is a change in axial modulus. A mirror image is added to the strain-based lamina failure criterion for fiber-dominated failures to reflect the cutoffs due to the presence of orthogonal fibers. It is found that the combined failure envelope is now identical with the well-known maximum-strain failure model in the tension-tension and compression-compression quadrants but is truncated in the shear quadrants. The successive application of this simple failure model for fibers in the 0/90 degree and +/- 45 degree orientations, in turn, is shown to be the necessary and sufficient characterization of the fiber-dominated failures of laminates made from fibers having the same tensile and compressive strengths. When one such strength is greater than the other, the failure envelope is appropriately truncated for the lesser direct strain. The shear-failure cutoffs are now based on the higher axial strain to failure since they occur at lower strains than and are usually not affected by such mechanisms as microbuckling. Premature matrix failures can also be covered by appropriately truncating the fiber failure envelope. Matrix failures are excluded from consideration for conventional fiber/polymer composites but the additional features needed for a more rigorous analysis of exotic materials are covered. The new failure envelope is compared with published biaxial test data. The theory is developed for unnotched laminates but is easily shrunk to incorporate
Laminate behavior for SiC fiber-reinforced reaction-bonded silicon nitride matrix composites
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bhatt, Ramakrishna T.; Phillips, Ronald E.
1990-01-01
The room temperature mechanical properties of SiC fiber reinforced reaction-bonded silicon nitride matrix composite laminates (SiC/RBSN) have been measured. The laminates contained approx 30 volume fraction of aligned 142-micron diameter SiC fiber in a porous RBSN matrix. Three types of laminate studied were unidirectional: (1) (0) sub 8, (2) (10) sub 8, and (3) (45) sub 8, and (90) sub 8; cross plied laminates (0 sub 2/90 sub 2); and angle plied laminates: (+45 sub 2/-45 sub 2). Each laminate contained eight fiber plies. Results of the unidirectionally reinforced composites tested at various angles to the reinforcement direction indicate large anisotropy in in-plane properties. In addition, strength properties of these composites along the fiber direction were independent of specimen gage length and were unaffected by notches normal to the fiber direction. Splitting parallel to the fiber at the notch tip appears to be the dominant crack blunting mechanism responsible for notch insensitive behavior of these composites. In-plane properties of the composites can be improved by 2-D laminate construction. Mechanical property results for (0 sub 2/90 sub 2) sub s and (+45/-45 sub 2) sub s laminates showed that their matrix failure strains were similar to that for (0) sub 8 laminates, but their primary elastic moduli, matrix cracking strengths, and ultimate composite strengths were lower. The elastic properties of unidirectional, cross-ply, and angle-ply composites can be predicted from modified constitutive equations and laminate theory. Further improvements in laminate properties may be achieved by reducing the matrix porosity and by optimizing the bond strength between the SiC fiber and RBSN matrix.
Laminate behavior for SiC fiber-reinforced reaction-bonded silicon nitride matrix composites
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rhatt, R. T.; Phillips, R. E.
1988-01-01
The room temperature mechanical properties of SiC fiber reinforced reaction-bonded silicon nitride matrix composite laminates (SiC/RBSN) have been measured. The laminates contained approx 30 volume fraction of aligned 142-micron diameter SiC fiber in a porous RBSN matrix. Three types of laminate studied were unidirectional: (1) (0) sub 8, (2) (10) sub 8, and (3) (45) sub 8, and (90) sub 8; cross plied laminates (0 sub 2/90 sub 2); and angle plied laminates: (+45 sub 2/-45 sub 2). Each laminate contained eight fiber plies. Results of the unidirectionally reinforced composites tested at various angles to the reinforcement direction indicate large anisotropy in in-plane properties. In addition, strength properties of these composites along the fiber direction were independent of specimen gage length and were unaffected by notches normal to the fiber direction. Splitting parallel to the fiber at the notch tip appears to be the dominant crack blunting mechanism responsible for notch insensitive behavior of these composites. In-plane properties of the composites can be improved by 2-D laminate construction. Mechanical property results for (0 sub 2/90 sub 2)sub s and (+45/-45 sub 2) sub s laminates showed that their matrix failure strains were similar to that for (0) sub 8 laminates, but their primary elastic moduli, matrix cracking strengths, and ultimate composite strengths were lower. The elastic properties of unidirectional, cross-ply, and angle-ply composites can be predicted from modified constitutive equations and laminate theory. Further improvements in laminate properties may be achieved by reducing the matrix porosity and by optimizing the bond strength between the SiC fiber and RBSN matrix.
Improving Impact Endangered CFRP Structures by Metal-Hybridisation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Stefaniak, D.; Kolesnikov, B.; Kappel, E.; Huhne, C.
2012-07-01
In CFRP primary spacecraft structures the fraction of fibres aligned in load direction is limited due to the material’s notch and impact sensitivity. As a result, stiffness and strength per unit weight of the laminate on a given direction are lower than the corresponding values for a unidirectional composite. The present investigations show that the on-axis residual strength after impact can be increased significantly by interleaving thin steel foils in the UD-laminate. Grit-blasting, as a common pre-treatment process for stainless steel surfaces, is not feasible for thin foils due to the increased risk of damaging the metallic substrate. Therefore, different pickling processes are investigated as a non-mechanical alternative pre-treatment. Thus, superior adhesion properties are achieved compared to mechanical pre-treatments.
Influence of residual stresses on the tensile strength of composite-metal sandwich laminates
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Herakovich, C. T.; Wong, D. M.
1977-01-01
The tensile strength of boron-epoxy/aluminum sandwich laminates is discussed relative to the residual thermal stresses generated by curing and bonding at elevated temperatures. It is shown that the sandwich laminates investigated exhibit three dinstinct modes of failure, depending upon the fiber orientation of the composite. Sandwich laminates with moderate to high percentage of 0-deg fibers exhibit early failures initiated by edge effect; laminates with moderate to high percentage of 90-deg fibers fail according to a first-ply failure criterion; laminates with moderate to high percentages of plus or minus 45 deg plies fail at strains equal to or greater than the failure strain of the corresponding all-composite laminate.
On the role of CFRP reinforcement for wood beams stiffness
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ianasi, A. C.
2015-11-01
In recent years, carbon fiber composites have been increasingly used in different ways in reinforcing structural elements. Specifically, the use of composite materials as a reinforcement for wood beams under bending loads requires paying attention to several aspects of the problem such as the number of the composite layers applied on the wood beams. Study consolidation of composites revealed that they are made by bonding fibrous material impregnated with resin on the surface of various elements, to restore or increase the load carrying capacity (bending, cutting, compression or torque) without significant damage of their rigidity. Fibers used in building applications can be fiberglass, aramid or carbon. Items that can be strengthened are concrete, brick, wood, steel and stone, and in terms of structural beams, walls, columns and floors. This paper describes an experimental study which was designed to evaluate the effect of composite material on the stiffness of the wood beams. It proposes a summary of the fundamental principles of analysis of composite materials and the design and use. The type of reinforcement used on the beams is the carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) sheet and plates and also an epoxy resin for bonding all the elements. Structural epoxy resins remain the primary choice of adhesive to form the bond to fiber-reinforced plastics and are the generally accepted adhesives in bonded CFRP-wood connections. The advantages of using epoxy resin in comparison to common wood-laminating adhesives are their gap-filling qualities and the low clamping pressures that are required to form the bond between carbon fiber plates or sheets and the wood beams. Mechanical tests performed on the reinforced wood beams showed that CFRP materials may produce flexural displacement and lifting increases of the beams. Observations of the experimental load-displacement relationships showed that bending strength increased for wood beams reinforced with CFRP composite plates
Synthesis and characterization of laminated Si/SiC composites
Naga, Salma M.; Kenawy, Sayed H.; Awaad, Mohamed; Abd El-Wahab, Hamada S.; Greil, Peter; Abadir, Magdi F.
2012-01-01
Laminated Si/SiC ceramics were synthesized from porous preforms of biogenous carbon impregnated with Si slurry at a temperature of 1500 °C for 2 h. Due to the capillarity infiltration with Si, both intrinsic micro- and macrostructure in the carbon preform were retained within the final ceramics. The SEM micrographs indicate that the final material exhibits a distinguished laminar structure with successive Si/SiC layers. The produced composites show weight gain of ≈5% after heat treatment in air at 1300 °C for 50 h. The produced bodies could be used as high temperature gas filters as indicated from the permeability results. PMID:25685404
Vibration testing of impact-damaged composite laminates
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Grady, Joseph E.; Meyn, Erwin H.
1989-01-01
A new test is described that can be used to measure changes in the vibration properties of impact damaged composite materials. Impact-induced delamination was observed to significantly affect natural frequencies of vibration and damping properties in cross-ply graphite/epoxy laminates. Natural frequencies are shown to drop by as much as half of their original value, and modal damping ratios can increase by a factor of up to eight when large amounts of damage are present. A simple finite element model of the damaged impact specimens was used to predict the effect of delamination on certain vibration properties. A comparison of the finite element calculations with the experimental measurements suggests that delamination was the dominant mechanism of flexural stiffness loss resulting from the transverse impact.
Fatigue damage mechanisms in boron-aluminium composite laminates
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Dvorak, G. J.; Johnson, W. S.
1980-01-01
The relationship between fatigue and shakedown in metal matrix composites is investigated theoretically and experimentally for unidirectional and laminated 6061 Al-B materials. It is shown that no fatigue damage takes place if the applied stress range is such that the material remains elastic, or shakes down, i.e., resumes elastic cyclic straining after a small number of plastic strain cycles. Fatigue damage occurs only in specimens subjected to stress ranges which cause sustained cyclic plastic straining in the aluminum matrix. If the applied stress range is smaller than that required for fatigue failure, after about 10 to the 6th cycles a saturation damage state is reached which remains essentially unchanged with increasing number of cycles.
On the strain energy of laminated composite plates
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Atilgan, Ali R.; Hodges, Dewey H.
1991-01-01
The present effort to obtain the asymptotically correct form of the strain energy in inhomogeneous laminated composite plates proceeds from the geometrically nonlinear elastic theory-based three-dimensional strain energy by decomposing the nonlinear three-dimensional problem into a linear, through-the-thickness analysis and a nonlinear, two-dimensional analysis analyzing plate formation. Attention is given to the case in which each lamina exhibits material symmetry about its middle surface, deriving closed-form analytical expressions for the plate elastic constants and the displacement and strain distributions through the plate's thickness. Despite the simplicity of the plate strain energy's form, there are no restrictions on the magnitudes of displacement and rotation measures.
The interaction of Rayleigh waves with delaminations in composite laminates.
Chakrapani, Sunil Kishore; Dayal, Vinay
2014-05-01
In the present work, the interaction of Rayleigh waves with a delamination in a fiber reinforced composite plate was analyzed. Rayleigh waves, upon interacting with delamination mode, convert into Lamb waves in the delamination zone. These guided Lamb modes have the capability to mode convert back into Rayleigh modes when they interact with the edge of the delamination. A unidirectional glass/epoxy laminate with a delamination of known size was fabricated and tested using air-coupled ultrasonics. Finite element models were developed to understand the mode conversions occurring at various sections of the delamination. Particle displacements along with numerical and experimental velocities were considered to identify each mode. Conclusions were drawn based on the velocity analysis. PMID:24815248
Static aeroelastic behavior of an adaptive laminated piezoelectric composite wing
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Weisshaar, T. A.; Ehlers, S. M.
1990-01-01
The effect of using an adaptive material to modify the static aeroelastic behavior of a uniform wing is examined. The wing structure is idealized as a laminated sandwich structure with piezoelectric layers in the upper and lower skins. A feedback system that senses the wing root loads applies a constant electric field to the piezoelectric actuator. Modification of pure torsional deformaton behavior and pure bending deformation are investigated, as is the case of an anisotropic composite swept wing. The use of piezoelectric actuators to create an adaptive structure is found to alter static aeroelastic behavior in that the proper choice of the feedback gain can increase or decrease the aeroelastic divergence speed. This concept also may be used to actively change the lift effectiveness of a wing. The ability to modify static aeroelastic behavior is limited by physical limitations of the piezoelectric material and the manner in which it is integrated into the parent structure.
Factors Influencing Progressive Failure Analysis Predictions for Laminated Composite Structure
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Knight, Norman F., Jr.
2008-01-01
Progressive failure material modeling methods used for structural analysis including failure initiation and material degradation are presented. Different failure initiation criteria and material degradation models are described that define progressive failure formulations. These progressive failure formulations are implemented in a user-defined material model for use with a nonlinear finite element analysis tool. The failure initiation criteria include the maximum stress criteria, maximum strain criteria, the Tsai-Wu failure polynomial, and the Hashin criteria. The material degradation model is based on the ply-discounting approach where the local material constitutive coefficients are degraded. Applications and extensions of the progressive failure analysis material model address two-dimensional plate and shell finite elements and three-dimensional solid finite elements. Implementation details are described in the present paper. Parametric studies for laminated composite structures are discussed to illustrate the features of the progressive failure modeling methods that have been implemented and to demonstrate their influence on progressive failure analysis predictions.
The nonlinear viscoelastic response of resin matrix composite laminates
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hiel, C.; Cardon, A. H.; Brinson, H. F.
1984-01-01
Possible treatments of the nonlinear viscoelastic behavior of materials are reviewed. A thermodynamic based approach, developed by Schapery, is discussed and used to interpret the nonlinear viscoelastic response of a graphite epoxy laminate, T300/934. Test data to verify the analysis for Fiberite 934 neat resin as well as transverse and shear properties of the unidirectional T300/934 composited are presented. Long time creep characteristics as a function of stress level and temperature are generated. Favorable comparisons between the traditional, graphical, and the current analytical approaches are shown. A free energy based rupture criterion is proposed as a way to estimate the life that remains in a structure at any time.
Prediction of residual tensile strength of transversely impacted composite laminates
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lal, K. M.
1982-01-01
The response to low velocity impact of graphite-epoxy T300/5208 composite laminates is discussed. Steel balls of 3/8 inch, 5/8 inch, and 1 inch diameter were the projectiles. Impact energy was limited to 1.2 joules. Impacted specimens were ultrasonically C scanned to determine the impact damaged region. The threshold value of impact energy for impact damage was found to be approximately 0.3 joules. A model was developed to predict the tensile residual strength of impact damaged specimens from fracture mechanics concepts. Impacted specimens were tested in tension to provide a fracture data base. The experimental results agreed well with the predictions from fracture mechanics. In this study, the maximum impact velocity used to simulate the low velocity transverse impact from common objects like tool drops was 10 m/s.
An Enriched Shell Element for Delamination Simulation in Composite Laminates
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
McElroy, Mark
2015-01-01
A formulation is presented for an enriched shell finite element capable of delamination simulation in composite laminates. The element uses an adaptive splitting approach for damage characterization that allows for straightforward low-fidelity model creation and a numerically efficient solution. The Floating Node Method is used in conjunction with the Virtual Crack Closure Technique to predict delamination growth and represent it discretely at an arbitrary ply interface. The enriched element is verified for Mode I delamination simulation using numerical benchmark data. After determining important mesh configuration guidelines for the vicinity of the delamination front in the model, a good correlation was found between the enriched shell element model results and the benchmark data set.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Shuart, M. J.; Williams, J. G.
1984-01-01
The response and failure of a + or - 45s class laminate was studied by transparent fiberglass epoxy composite birefringent material. The birefringency property allows the laminate stress distribution to be observed during the test and also after the test if permanent residual stresses occur. The location of initial laminate failure and of the subsequent failure propagation are observed through its transparency characteristics. Experimental results are presented.
Fatigue Damage Mechanisms in Advanced Hybrid Titanium Composite Laminates
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Johnson, W. Steven; Rhymer, Donald W.; St.Clair, Terry L. (Technical Monitor)
2000-01-01
Hybrid Titanium Composite Laminates (HTCL) are a type of hybrid composite laminate with promise for high-speed aerospace applications, specifically designed for improved damage tolerance and strength at high-temperature (350 F, 177 C). However, in previous testing, HTCL demonstrated a propensity to excessive delamination at the titanium/PMC interface following titanium cracking. An advanced HTCL has been constructed with an emphasis on strengthening this interface, combining a PETI-5/IM7 PMC with Ti-15-3 foils prepared with an alkaline-perborate surface treatment. This paper discusses how the fatigue capabilities of the "advanced" HTCL compare to the first generation HTCL which was not modified for interface optimization, in both tension-tension (R = 0.1) and tension-compression (R=-0.2). The advanced HTCL under did not demonstrate a significant improvement in fatigue life, in either tension-tension or tension-compression loading. However, the advanced HTCL proved much more damage tolerant. The R = 0.1 tests revealed the advanced HTCL to increase the fatigue life following initial titanium ply damage up to 10X that of the initial HTCL at certain stress levels. The damage progression following the initial ply damage demonstrated the effect of the strengthened PMC/titanium interface. Acetate film replication of the advanced HTCL edges showed a propensity for some fibers in the adjacent PMC layers to fail at the point of titanium crack formation, suppressing delamination at the Ti/PMC interface. The inspection of failure surfaces validated these findings, revealing PMC fibers bonded to the majority of the titanium surfaces. Tension compression fatigue (R = -0.2) demonstrated the same trends in cycles between initial damage and failure, damage progression, and failure surfaces. Moreover, in possessing a higher resistance to delamination, the advanced HTCL did not exhibit buckling following initial titanium ply cracking under compression unlike the initial HTCL.
Experimental Design on Laminated Veneer Lumber Fiber Composite: Surface Enhancement
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Meekum, U.; Mingmongkol, Y.
2010-06-01
Thick laminate veneer lumber(LVL) fibre reinforced composites were constructed from the alternated perpendicularly arrayed of peeled rubber woods. Glass woven was laid in between the layers. Native golden teak veneers were used as faces. In house formulae epoxy was employed as wood adhesive. The hand lay-up laminate was cured at 150° C for 45 mins. The cut specimen was post cured at 80° C for at least 5 hours. The 2k factorial design of experimental(DOE) was used to verify the parameters. Three parameters by mean of silane content in epoxy formulation(A), smoke treatment of rubber wood surface(B) and anti-termite application(C) on the wood surface were analysed. Both low and high levels were further subcategorised into 2 sub-levels. Flexural properties were the main respond obtained. ANOVA analysis of the Pareto chart was engaged. The main effect plot was also testified. The results showed that the interaction between silane quantity and termite treatment is negative effect at high level(AC+). Vice versa, the interaction between silane and smoke treatment was positive significant effect at high level(AB+). According to this research work, the optimal setting to improve the surface adhesion and hence flexural properties enhancement were high level of silane quantity, 15% by weight, high level of smoked wood layers, 8 out of 14 layers, and low anti termite applied wood. The further testes also revealed that the LVL composite had superior properties that the solid woods but slightly inferior in flexibility. The screw withdrawn strength of LVL showed the higher figure than solid wood. It is also better resistance to moisture and termite attack than the rubber wood.
Process induced stresses in laminated polymer composites. Final report
1996-10-01
Crystallization behavior and internal stresses in thermoplastic composites were studied in this work. The crystallization behavior of PP/GF (polypropylene/glass fiber), PET/CF (polyethylene terephthalate/carbon fiber) and TPI (thermoplastic polyimide) was characterized under isothermal and dynamic conditions. The effect of annealing and exposure to high temperatures on the crystallizability and glass transition of model TPI systems was also investigated. The loss of crystallizability was observed after exposure to high temperature. The Process Simulated Laminate (PSL) technique was used to evaluate crystallinity gradients and residual stresses. Crystallinity gradients were obtained in PEKK/LDF{trademark} while in PET/CF overall reduction in crystallinity was observed when PSLs were processed at high cooling rates. The magnitude of residual stresses generated in PET/CF was smaller as compared to PEKK/LDF{trademark}. Reduction of residual stresses with aging at different times was shown for PET/CF. The results show that the PSL technique can be used to quantify the level of residual stresses in polymeric composites and can serve as an analytical tool to compare processing characteristics of different materials. Effects of orientation and process cooling rates on the strain response in PP/GF samples were studied. In addition, thermoset matrix composite technologies were explored for electric power industry. Therefore, internal stress measurement in thick composites, PSL method, and the resin film infusion process (RFIP) were investigated. The internal stresses were successfully measured on a vast array of composites which are currently used in aircraft applications. The thermoplastic composites-based measurement technique was found to be expandable to the thermoset composites. Resin film infusion process was utilized with a variety of reinforcements and matrix systems, followed by investigation of void content.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lesar, Douglas E.
1992-01-01
The performance of the NASTRAN CQUAD4 membrane and plate element in the analysis of undamped natural vibration modes of thin fiber reinforced composite plates was evaluated. The element provides natural frequency estimates that are comparable in accuracy to alternative formulations, and, in most cases, deviate by less than 10 percent from experimentally measured frequencies. The predictions lie within roughly equal accuracy bounds for the two material types treated (GFRP and CFRP), and for the ply layups considered (unidirectional, cross-ply, and angle-ply). Effective elastic lamina moduli had to be adjusted for fiber volume fraction to attain this level of frequency. The lumped mass option provides more accurate frequencies than the consistent mass option. This evaluation concerned only plates with L/t ratios on the order of 100 to 150. Since the CQUAD4 utilizes first-order corrections for transverse laminate shear stiffness, the element should provide useful frequency estimates for plate-like structures with lower L/t. For plates with L/t below 20, consideration should be given to idealizing with 3-D solid elements. Based on the observation that natural frequencies and mode shapes are predicted with acceptable engineering accuracy, it is concluded that CQUAD4 should be a useful and accurate element for transient shock and steady state vibration analysis of naval ship
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rodriguez-Cobo, L.; Marques, A. T.; Lopez-Higuera, J. M.; Santos, J. L.; Frazão, O.
2013-05-01
Several easy-to-manufacture designs based on a pair of Fiber Bragg Gratings structure embedded in Carbon Fiber Reinforced Plastic (CFRP) have been explored. These smart composites can be used for strain and temperature discrimination. A Finite Elements Analysis and Matlab software were used to study the mechanical responses and its optical behaviors. The results exhibited different sensitivity and using a matrix method it is possible to compensate the thermal drift in a real application keeping a simple manufacture process.
The in situ transverse lamina strength of composite laminates
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Flaggs, D. L.
1983-01-01
The objective of the work reported in this presentation is to determine the in situ transverse strength of a lamina within a composite laminate. From a fracture mechanics standpoint, in situ strength may be viewed as constrained cracking that has been shown to be a function of both lamina thickness and the stiffness of adjacent plies that serve to constrain the cracking process. From an engineering point of view, however, constrained cracking can be perceived as an apparent increase in lamina strength. With the growing need to design more highly loaded composite structures, the concept of in situ strength may prove to be a viable means of increasing the design allowables of current and future composite material systems. A simplified one dimensional analytical model is presented that is used to predict the strain at onset of transverse cracking. While it is accurate only for the most constrained cases, the model is important in that the predicted failure strain is seen to be a function of a lamina's thickness d and of the extensional stiffness bE theta of the adjacent laminae that constrain crack propagation in the 90 deg laminae.
Study on fabrication of smart FRP-OFBG composite laminates and their sensing properties
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Yanlei; Zhou, Zhi; Ou, Jinping
2007-01-01
Fiber reinforced polymer (FRP) has gained much attention in civil engineering due to its high strength-to-weight and stiffness-to-weight ratios, corrosion resistance and good fatigue resistance. Optical Fiber Bragg Grating (OFBG) is now widely accepted as smart sensor due to its advantages of electric-magnetic resistance, small size, distributed sensing, durability, and so on. Combined the FRP with OFBG, new kind of smart FRP-OFBG composite laminates was developed. Fabrication method of the smart composite laminates was introduced in this paper. The study presented the basic principle of OFBG sensors. Then the strain and temperature sensing properties of the proposed smart FRP-OFBG composite laminates were experimentally studied on material test system and under hot water, respectively. The experimental results indicate the strain sensing properties of the smart FRP-OFBG composite laminates are nearly the same as that of bare OFBG, however, the temperature sensing abilities of the smart FRP-OFBG composite laminates are improved and the sensitivity coefficient is nearly 3.2 times as much as that of bare OFBG. The strain and temperature sensing precisions of the smart FRP-OFBG composite laminates are 1 μ\\Vegr and 0.03 °C, respectively. The smart FRYOFBG composite laminates are very proper for application in civil engineering.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bowles, David E.; Griffin, O. H., Jr.
1991-01-01
A micromechanics analysis is used to study the effects of constituent properties on thermally induced stresses in continuous fiber reinforced composites. A finite element formulation is described, and results are presented for unidirectional carbon/epoxy laminates. It is shown that significant stresses develop in composites exposed to thermal excursions typical of spacecraft operating environments and that the fiber thermoelastic properties have a minimal effect on the magnitude of these stresses. The finite element micromechanics analysis is then extended to the study of multidirectional laminates using a simple global/local formulation. Damage initiation predictions are compared with experimental data, and factors controlling the initiation of damage are identified. Ways of improving the durability of composites are discussed.
Bowles, D.E.; Griffin, O.H. Jr. Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg )
1991-09-01
A micromechanics analysis is used to study the effects of constituent properties on thermally induced stresses in continuous fiber reinforced composites. A finite element formulation is described, and results are presented for unidirectional carbon/epoxy laminates. It is shown that significant stresses develop in composites exposed to thermal excursions typical of spacecraft operating environments and that the fiber thermoelastic properties have a minimal effect on the magnitude of these stresses. The finite element micromechanics analysis is then extended to the study of multidirectional laminates using a simple global/local formulation. Damage initiation predictions are compared with experimental data, and factors controlling the initiation of damage are identified. Ways of improving the durability of composites are discussed. 31 refs.
Interlaminar stress singularities at a straight free edge in composite laminates
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Raju, I. S.; Crews, J. H., Jr.
1981-01-01
A quasi-three-dimensional finite-element analysis was used to analyze the edge-stress problem in four-ply, composite laminates. The seven laminates that were considered belong to the laminate family where the outer ply angle is between 0 and 90 deg. Systematic convergence studies were made to explore the existence of stress singularities near the free edge. The present analysis appears to confirm the existence of stress singularities at the intersection of the interface and the free edge. The power of the stress singularity was the same for all seven laminates considered.
Effects of changes in composite lamina properties on laminate coefficient of thermal expansion
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Tompkins, Stephen S.; Funk, Joan G.
1992-01-01
An analytical study of the effects of changes in composite lamina properties on the laminate coefficient of thermal expansion, CTE, has been made. Low modulus graphite/epoxy (T300/934) and high modulus graphite/epoxy (P75/934, P100/934, P120/934), graphite/aluminum (P100/Al), and graphite/glass (HMS/Gl) composite materials were considered in quasi-isotropic and near-zero CTE laminate configurations. The effects of changes in lamina properties on the laminate CTE strongly depend upon the type of composite material as well as the laminate configuration. A 10 percent change in the lamina transverse CTE resulted in changes as large as 0.22 ppm/C in the laminate CTE of a quasi-isotropic Gr/934 laminates. No significant differences were observed in the sensitivities of the laminate CTEs of the P100/934 and P120/934 composite materials due to identical changes in lamina properties. Large changes in laminate CTE can also result from measured temperature and radiation effects on lamina properties.
Analysis of delamination in fiber composite laminates out-of-plane under bending
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wang, S. S.; Yuan, F. G.
1990-01-01
Delamination in the form of cracking or separation between plies in an advanced fiber composite laminate is a problem of major concern. Both advanced analytical methods and advanced computational analyses are conducted to: (1) develop an asymptotic solution for a composite laminate subject to out-of-plane bending; (2) construct advanced singular finite elements in conjunction with the development of nonsingular elements for this bending problem; and (3) evaluate the delamination failure mechanics parameters and the subsequent modes of fracture. A parametric study was also conducted to evaluate the influences of various lamination parameters on the delaminated composites.
Development of a realistic stress analysis for fatigue analysis of notched composite laminates
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Humphreys, E. A.; Rosen, B. W.
1979-01-01
A finite element stress analysis which consists of a membrane and interlaminar shear spring analysis was developed. This approach was utilized in order to model physically realistic failure mechanisms while maintaining a high degree of computational economy. The accuracy of the stress analysis predictions is verified through comparisons with other solutions to the composite laminate edge effect problem. The stress analysis model was incorporated into an existing fatigue analysis methodology and the entire procedure computerized. A fatigue analysis is performed upon a square laminated composite plate with a circular central hole. A complete description and users guide for the computer code FLAC (Fatigue of Laminated Composites) is included as an appendix.
Buckling characteristic of multi-laminated composite elliptical cylindrical shells
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kassegne, Samuel Kinde; Chun, Kyoung-Sik
2015-03-01
Fiber-reinforced composite materials continue to experience increased adoption in aerospace, marine, automobile, and civil structures due to their high specific strength, high stiffness, and light weight. This increased use has been accompanied by applications involving non-traditional configurations such as compression members with elliptical cross-sections. To model such shapes, we develop and report an improved generalized shell element called 4EAS-FS through a combination of enhanced assumed strain and the substitute shear strain fields. A flat shell element has been developed by combining a membrane element with drilling degree-of-freedom and a plate bending element. We use the element developed to determine specifically buckling loads and mode shapes of composite laminates with elliptical cross-section including transverse shear deformations. The combined influence of shell geometry and elliptical cross-sectional parameters, fiber angle, and lay-up on the buckling loads of an elliptical cylinder is examined. It is hoped that the critical buckling loads and mode shapes presented here will serve as a benchmark for future investigations.
The experimental behavior of spinning pretwisted laminated composite plates
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kosmatka, John B.; Lapid, Alex J.
1993-01-01
The purpose of the research is to gain an understanding of the material and geometric couplings present in advanced composite turbo-propellers. Twelve pre-twisted laminated composite plates are tested. Three different ply lay-ups (2 symmetric and 1 asymmetric) and four different geometries (flat and 30x pre-twist about the mid-chord, quarter-chord, and leading edge) distinguish each plate from one another. Four rotating and non-rotating tests are employed to isolate the material and geometric couplings of an advanced turbo propeller. The first series of tests consist of non-rotating static displacement, strain, and vibrations. These tests examine the effects of ply lay-up and geometry. The second series of tests consist of rotating displacement, strain, and vibrations with various pitch and sweep settings. These tests utilize the Dynamic Spin Rig Facility at the NASA Lewis Research Center. The rig allows the spin testing of the plates in a near vacuum environment. The tests examine how the material and plate geometry interact with the pitch and sweep geometry of an advanced turbo-propeller.
Nonlinear instability and reliability analysis of composite laminated beams
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fereidooni, Alireza
The wide range of high performance engineering applications of composite laminated structures demands a proper understanding of their dynamics performance. Due to the complexity and nonlinear behaviour of such structures, developing a mathematical model to determine the dynamic instability boundaries is indispensable and challenging. The aim of this research is to investigate the dynamic behaviour of shear deformable composite laminated beams subjected to varying time conservative and nonconservative loads. The dynamic instability behaviour of non-conservative and conservative system are dissimilar. In case of conservative loading, the instability region intersects the loading axis, but in case of non-conservative loads the region will be increased with loading increases. The extended Hamilton's principle and the first order shear deformation theory are employed in this investigation to establish the integral form of the equation of motion of the beam. A five node beam model is presented to descritize the integral form of the governing equations. The model has the capability to capture the dynamic effects of the transverse shear stress, warping, and bending-twisting, bending-stretching, and stretching-twisting couplings. Also, the geometric and loading nonlinearities are included in the equation of system. The beam model incorporates, in a full form, the non-classical effects of warping on stability and dynamic response of symmetrical and unsymmetrical composite beams. In case of nonlinear elasticity, the resonance curves are bent toward the increasing exciting frequencies. The response of the stable beam is pure periodic and follow the loading frequency. When the beam is asymptotically stable the response of the beam is aperiodic and does not follow the loading frequency. In unstable state of the beam response frequency increases with time and is higher than the loading frequency, also the amplitude of the beam will increases, end to beam failure. The amplitude of
Bagis, Bora; Aydoğan, Elif; Bagis, Yildirim H.
2008-01-01
This clinical report describes a direct composite laminate veneer restoration of the maxillary anterior teeth in one chair time to produce a better esthetic appearance in a patient with diastemata and missing laterals. PMID:19088889
Superplasticity in an ultrahigh carbon steel-aluminum bronze laminated composite
Tsai, H.C.; Higashi, K.; Sherby, O.D.
1993-12-31
Metal laminated composites based on ultrahigh carbon steel (UHCS) and aluminum bronze can be readily prepared by solid state bonding procedures at relatively low temperatures (670 to 700{degree}C). This is attributed to the fine grain size present in each component. No apparent interdiffusion occurs between the UHCS and aluminum bronze layers either during the solid state bonding steps or during superplastic flow below the transformation temperature of UHCS (770{degree}C). Interdiffusion does occur between the UHCS and aluminum bronze layers when the laminated composite is heated above 770{degree}C as a result of the dissolution of the iron carbides to form austenite. It is shown that a high strain-rate-sensitivity exponent (m = 0.5) can be achieved in the UHCS/bronze laminated composite at elevated temperatures (750 to 850{degree}C) and at low strain rates. High elongations are observed in the laminated composite under these conditions, with a maximum elongation of 650% noted at 750{degree}C. The UHCS/bronze laminated composite shows different mechanical characteristics from a UHCS/brass laminated composite. Brass readily cracks at elevated temperature and prevents the achievement of high elongations in a UHCS/brass composite even when the strain-rate-sensitivity is high. The aluminum bronze is fine-grained and does not form cracks during elevated temperature deformation.
A study of the interlaminar stress continuity theories for composite laminates
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lee, Chun-Ying
In this study, two stress continuity theories are presented. The first one, named interlaminar stress continuity theory (ISCT), accounts for the variation of transverse displacement through the laminate thickness. The continuity of interlaminar shear stresses and normal stress across the laminate interfaces and traction conditions on laminate surfaces are satisfied exactly. The second, interlaminar shear stress continuity (ISSCT), simplifies ISCT by assuming constant transverse displacement through the thickness. Thus, only the continuity of interlaminar shear stresses and shear traction conditions on laminate surfaces are enforced. The merit of these stress continuity theories is the direct calculation of interlaminar stresses from constitutive equations instead of equilibrium equations. The numerical examples for composite laminates with aspect ratio higher than five in cylindrical bending and bidirectional bending using both theories show excellent accuracy compared with elasticity solutions. ISCT provides significant improvement over ISSCT for composite analysis only when the aspect ratio is lower than five. The comparison among other displacement-based laminate theories and present theories is also performed. The further applications of ISSCT in composite analysis, e.g., vibration, buckling, nonlinear bending, nonlinear vibration, and free-edge stresses are studied. The associated numerical examples show the feasibility and potential of using this new theory in the study of composite laminates.
BILAM: a composite laminate failure-analysis code using bilinear stress-strain approximations
McLaughlin, P.V. Jr.; Dasgupta, A.; Chun, Y.W.
1980-10-01
The BILAM code which uses constant strain laminate analysis to generate in-plane load/deformation or stress/strain history of composite laminates to the point of laminate failure is described. The program uses bilinear stress-strain curves to model layer stress-strain behavior. Composite laminates are used for flywheels. The use of this computer code will help to develop data on the behavior of fiber composite materials which can be used by flywheel designers. In this program the stress-strain curves are modelled by assuming linear response in axial tension while using bilinear approximations (2 linear segments) for stress-strain response to axial compressive, transverse tensile, transverse compressive and axial shear loadings. It should be noted that the program attempts to empirically simulate the effects of the phenomena which cause nonlinear stress-strain behavior, instead of mathematically modelling the micromechanics involved. This code, therefore, performs a bilinear laminate analysis, and, in conjunction with several user-defined failure interaction criteria, is designed to provide sequential information on all layer failures up to and including the first fiber failure. The modus operandi is described. Code BILAM can be used to: predict the load-deformation/stress-strain behavior of a composite laminate subjected to a given combination of in-plane loads, and make analytical predictions of laminate strength.
Evaluation of a Progressive Failure Analysis Methodology for Laminated Composite Structures
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Sleight, David W.; Knight, Norman F., Jr.; Wang, John T.
1997-01-01
A progressive failure analysis methodology has been developed for predicting the nonlinear response and failure of laminated composite structures. The progressive failure analysis uses C plate and shell elements based on classical lamination theory to calculate the in-plane stresses. Several failure criteria, including the maximum strain criterion, Hashin's criterion, and Christensen's criterion, are used to predict the failure mechanisms. The progressive failure analysis model is implemented into a general purpose finite element code and can predict the damage and response of laminated composite structures from initial loading to final failure.
Refined Zigzag Theory for Laminated Composite and Sandwich Plates
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Tessler, Alexander; DiSciuva, Marco; Gherlone, Marco
2009-01-01
A refined zigzag theory is presented for laminated-composite and sandwich plates that includes the kinematics of first-order shear deformation theory as its baseline. The theory is variationally consistent and is derived from the virtual work principle. Novel piecewise-linear zigzag functions that provide a more realistic representation of the deformation states of transverse-shear-flexible plates than other similar theories are used. The formulation does not enforce full continuity of the transverse shear stresses across the plate s thickness, yet is robust. Transverse-shear correction factors are not required to yield accurate results. The theory is devoid of the shortcomings inherent in the previous zigzag theories including shear-force inconsistency and difficulties in simulating clamped boundary conditions, which have greatly limited the accuracy of these theories. This new theory requires only C(sup 0)-continuous kinematic approximations and is perfectly suited for developing computationally efficient finite elements. The theory should be useful for obtaining relatively efficient, accurate estimates of structural response needed to design high-performance load-bearing aerospace structures.
Determination of damping properties in laminated composites via numerical simulation
Surana, K.S.; Ahmadi, A.R.
1997-07-01
This paper presents a numerical simulation procedure based on finite element method which could be utilized for establishing the damping characteristic of laminated composite material. Viscoelastic fluids such as upper convected Maxwell fluid and White Metzner fluids are used as sample problems to illustrate the procedure and its usefulness. For many viscoelastic materials, the damping characteristics are incorporated through what is known as loss factor while simulating dynamic response of structures containing such materials. The loss factor is directly related to the dissipative mechanism in the equations describing the behavior can be accurately obtained. In this paper the authors utilize p-version Least Squares Finite Element Method (LSFEM) to numerically solve the equations and then calculate loss factor in the post processing phase of the computations. The governing differential equations and the constitutive laws describing the material behavior are recast into a system of first order differential equations using auxiliary variables (often the stresses). Both the dependent and the auxiliary variables are interpolated over an element using unequal order C{sup 0} interpolations (element approximation). When the element approximation is substituted into the first order differential equations the authors obtain element error or residual equations. In LSFEM they minimize the integrated sum of squares of these errors over the whole discretization. They utilize Newton`s method with line search to obtain a solution iteratively.
Transverse cracking and stiffness reduction in composite laminates
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Yuan, F. G.; Selek, M. C.
1993-01-01
A study of transverse cracking mechanism in composite laminates is presented using a singular hybrid finite element model. The model provides the global structural response as well as the precise local crack-tip stress fields. An elasticity basis for the problem is established by employing Lekhnitskii's complex variable potentials and method of eigenfunction expansion. Stress singularities associated with the transverse crack are obtained by decomposing the deformation into the symmetric and antisymmetric modes and proper boundary conditions. A singular hybrid element is thereby formulated based on the variational principle of a modified hybrid functional to incorporate local crack singularities. Axial stiffness reduction due to transverse cracking is studied. The results are shown to be in very good agreement with the existing experimental data. Comparison with simple shear lag analysis is also given. The effects of stress intensity factors and strain energy density on the increase of crack density are analyzed. The results reveal that the parameters approach definite limits when crack densities are saturated, an evidence of the existence of characteristic damage state.
The compact tension, C(T), specimen in laminated composite testing
Minnetyan, L.; Chamis, C.C.
1997-12-31
Use of the compact tension, C(T), specimens in laminated composites testing is investigated by considering two examples. A new computational methodology that scales up constituent material properties, stress, and strain limits to the structure level is used to evaluate damage propagation stages as well as the structural fracture load. Damage initiation, growth, accumulation, progressive fracture, and ultimate fracture modes are identified. Specific dependences of C(T) specimen test characteristics on laminate configuration and composite constituent properties are quantified.
Analysis of thermal stresses in composite laminates by assumed stress hybrid multilayer element
Wang Liangzhong; Wang Cheng )
1993-03-01
Based on Hellinger-Reissner principle, a hybrid multilayer element is presented in this article. This element can be used for analyzing thermoelastic stresses in composite laminates induced by nonuniform temperature distribution. The thermal loads are derived from the functional directly in the element model. Numerical results show that this multilayer element model is suitable for thermal stress analysis of laminated composite structures. 9 refs.
Characterization of delamination onset and growth in a composite laminate
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Obrien, T. K.
1981-01-01
The onset and growth of delaminations in unnotched (+ or - 30/+ or - 30/90/90 bar) sub S graphite epoxy laminates is described quantitatively. These laminates, designed to delaminate at the edges under tensile loads, were tested and analyzed. Delamination growth and stiffness loss were monitored nondestructively. Laminate stiffness decreased linearly with delamination size. The strain energy release rate, G, associated with delamination growth, was calculated from two analyses. A critical G for delamination onset was determined, and then was used to predict the onset of delaminations in (+45 sub n/-45 sub n/o sub n/90 sub n) sub s (n=1,2,3) laminates. A delamination resistance curve (R curve) was developed to characterize the observed stable delamination growth under quasi static loading. A power law correlation between G and delamination growth rates in fatigue was established.
A tension-mode fracture model for bolted joints in laminated composites
Schulz, K.C.; Packman, P.F.; Eisenmann, J.R.
1995-06-01
A failure prediction model for bolted joints in generally orthotropic laminated composite plates that fail in the tension mode under bearing loading conditions has been developed. The plate is analyzed as a bulk orthotropic plate whose material properties are determined through the application of classical lamination theory to facilitate practical application of the model. Ply-by-ply laminated analysis is not required. Fracture mechanics concepts are applied to a pseudo-flaw which is related to the physical cracking of the laminate at the joint. The maximum circumferential stress concept is extended to orthotropic materials where both the fracture toughness and stress intensity vary with orientation. Excellent correlation between experimental tests conducted on single-bolt joints for two laminate layups and analytical prediction was found.
Compression strength failure mechanisms in unidirectional composite laminates containing a hole
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Johnson, Eric R.
1993-01-01
Experiments on graphite-epoxy laminated plates containing unloaded small holes show that these laminates are notch insensitive. That is, the uniaxial strength of these laminates with small holes exceeds the strength predicted by a point stress criterion using the stress concentration factor for the in-plane stress field. Laminates containing large holes exhibit notch sensitive behavior and consequently their strength is reasonably well predicted by the stress concentration effect. This hole size effect is manifested both in tension and in compression. Apparently, some mechanism must cause in-plane stress relief for laminates containing small holes. The purpose of this research was to study the influence of geometric nonlinearity on the micromechanical response of a filamentary composite material in the presence of a strain gradient caused by a discontinuity such as a hole. A mathematical model was developed at the micromechanical level to investigate this geometrically nonlinear effect.
Development of embedded sensor models in composite laminates for structural health monitoring
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kim, Heung S.; Ghoshal, Anindya; Chattopadhyay, Aditi; Prosser, William H.
2003-08-01
A new improved nonlinear transient generalized layerwise theory for modeling embedded discrete and continuous sensor(s) outputs in laminated composite plates with acoustic emission from cracks and embedded delaminations is developed. The computational modeling involves development of a finite element scheme using an improved layerwise laminate theory for a composite laminate plate with embedded discrete and continuous sensors and embedded discrete delaminations. The simulated cases studied included cantilever plates with embedded sensors and embedded delamination under low frequency vibration and square plates with discrete embedded sensors and continuous embedded sensor architecture and embedded discrete delaminations under high frequency acoustic emission. The effect on sensor outputs due to scattering of the acoustic emission due to the presence of delamination is also investigated. It is expected that this analytical model would be a useful tool for numerical simulation of composite laminated structures with embedded delaminations and embedded sensor architecture, particularly since experimental investigation could often be prohibitive to simulate different conditions.
A Higher-Order Bending Theory for Laminated Composite and Sandwich Beams
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Cook, Geoffrey M.
1997-01-01
A higher-order bending theory is derived for laminated composite and sandwich beams. This is accomplished by assuming a special form for the axial and transverse displacement expansions. An independent expansion is also assumed for the transverse normal stress. Appropriate shear correction factors based on energy considerations are used to adjust the shear stiffness. A set of transverse normal correction factors is introduced, leading to significant improvements in the transverse normal strain and stress for laminated composite and sandwich beams. A closed-form solution to the cylindrical elasticity solutions for a wide range of beam aspect ratios and commonly used material systems. Accurate shear stresses for a wide range of laminates, including the challenging unsymmetric composite and sandwich laminates, are obtained using an original corrected integration scheme. For application of the theory to a wider range of problems, guidelines for finite element approximations are presented.
A variational approach to three-dimensional elasticity solutions of laminated composite plates
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Savoia, M.; Reddy, J. N.
1992-01-01
The displacements in a laminated composite are represented as products of two sets of unknown functions, one of which is only a function of the thickness coordinate and the other is a function of the in-plane coordinates (i.e., separation of variables approach), and the minimization of the total potential energy is reduced to a sequence of iterative linear problems. Analytical solutions are developed for cross-ply and angle-ply laminated composite rectangular plates. The solution for simply-supported cross-ply plates under sinusoidal transverse load reduces to that of Pagano. Numerical results for stresses and is placements for antisymmetric angle-ply laminates are presented. The three-dimensional elasticity solutions developed are important because they can be used to study the behavior of composite laminates, in addition to serving as reference for approximate solutions by numerical methods and two-dimensional theories.
A variational approach to three-dimensional elasticity solutions of laminated composite plates
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Savoia, M.; Reddy, J. N.
1992-06-01
The displacements in a laminated composite are represented as products of two sets of unknown functions, one of which is only a function of the thickness coordinate and the other is a function of the in-plane coordinates (i.e., separation of variables approach), and the minimization of the total potential energy is reduced to a sequence of iterative linear problems. Analytical solutions are developed for cross-ply and angle-ply laminated composite rectangular plates. The solution for simply-supported cross-ply plates under sinusoidal transverse load reduces to that of Pagano. Numerical results for stresses and is placements for antisymmetric angle-ply laminates are presented. The three-dimensional elasticity solutions developed are important because they can be used to study the behavior of composite laminates, in addition to serving as reference for approximate solutions by numerical methods and two-dimensional theories.
Fracture analysis of local delaminations in laminated composites
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Sriram, P.; Armanios, Erian A.
1988-01-01
A shear deformation model was developed to analyze local delaminations growing from transverse cracks in 90 degree plies located around the mid plane of symmetric laminates. The predictions of the model agree reasonably with experimental data from T300/934 graphite epoxy laminates. The predicted behavior is such that, in combination with an edge delamination model, the critical loads can be predicted accurately in the range of n from .5 to 8.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Todoroki, Akira; Ueda, Masahito
2006-08-01
Delamination is a significant defect of laminated composites. The present study employs an electrical resistance change method in an attempt to identify internal delaminations experimentally. The method adopts reinforcing carbon fibers as sensors. In our previous paper, an actual delamination crack in a carbon fiber reinforced plastic (CFRP) laminate was experimentally identified with artificial neural networks (ANNs) or response surfaces created from a large number of experiments. The experimental results were used for the learning of the ANN or for regressions of the response surfaces. For the actual application of the method, it is necessary to minimize the number of experiments in order to keep the cost of the experiments to a minimum. In the present study, therefore, finite-element method (FEM) analyses are employed to make sets of data for the learning of the ANN. First, the electrical conductivity of the CFRP laminate is identified by means of the least estimation error method. After that, the results of the FEM analyses are used for the learning of the ANN. The method is applied to the actual delamination monitoring of CFRP beams. As a result, the method successfully monitored the delamination location and size using only ten experiments.
Compression response of thick layer composite laminates with through-the-thickness reinforcement
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Farley, Gary L.; Smith, Barry T.; Maiden, Janice
1992-01-01
Compression and compression-after-impact (CAI) tests were conducted on seven different AS4-3501-6 (0/90) 0.64-cm thick composite laminates. Four of the seven laminates had through-the-thickness (TTT) reinforcement fibers. Two TTT reinforcement methods, stitching and integral weaving, and two reinforcement fibers, Kevlar and carbon, were used. The remaining three laminates were made without TTT reinforcements and were tested to establish a baseline for comparison with the laminates having TTT reinforcement. Six of the seven laminates consisted of nine thick layers whereas the seventh material was composed of 46 thin plies. The use of thick-layer material has the potential for reducing structural part cost because of the reduced part count (layers of material). The compression strengths of the TTT reinforced laminates were approximately one half those of the materials without TTT reinforcements. However, the CAI strengths of the TTT reinforced materials were approximately twice those of materials without TTT reinforcements. The improvement in CAI strength is due to an increase in interlaminar strength produced by the TTT reinforcement. Stitched laminates had slightly higher compression and CAI strengths than the integrally woven laminates.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Sobel, Larry; Buttitta, Claudio; Suarez, James
1993-01-01
Probabilistic predictions based on the Integrated Probabilistic Assessment of Composite Structures (IPACS) code are presented for the material and structural response of unnotched and notched, 1M6/3501-6 Gr/Ep laminates. Comparisons of predicted and measured modulus and strength distributions are given for unnotched unidirectional, cross-ply, and quasi-isotropic laminates. The predicted modulus distributions were found to correlate well with the test results for all three unnotched laminates. Correlations of strength distributions for the unnotched laminates are judged good for the unidirectional laminate and fair for the cross-ply laminate, whereas the strength correlation for the quasi-isotropic laminate is deficient because IPACS did not yet have a progressive failure capability. The paper also presents probabilistic and structural reliability analysis predictions for the strain concentration factor (SCF) for an open-hole, quasi-isotropic laminate subjected to longitudinal tension. A special procedure was developed to adapt IPACS for the structural reliability analysis. The reliability results show the importance of identifying the most significant random variables upon which the SCF depends, and of having accurate scatter values for these variables.
Zhamu, Aruna; Shi, Jinjun; Guo, Jiusheng; Jang, Bor Z
2014-05-20
An electrically conductive laminate composition for fuel cell flow field plate or bipolar plate applications. The laminate composition comprises at least a thin metal sheet having two opposed exterior surfaces and a first exfoliated graphite composite sheet bonded to the first of the two exterior surfaces of the metal sheet wherein the exfoliated graphite composite sheet comprises: (a) expanded or exfoliated graphite and (b) a binder or matrix material to bond the expanded graphite for forming a cohered sheet, wherein the binder or matrix material is between 3% and 60% by weight based on the total weight of the first exfoliated graphite composite sheet. Preferably, the first exfoliated graphite composite sheet further comprises particles of non-expandable graphite or carbon in the amount of between 3% and 60% by weight based on the total weight of the non-expandable particles and the expanded graphite. Further preferably, the laminate comprises a second exfoliated graphite composite sheet bonded to the second surface of the metal sheet to form a three-layer laminate. Surface flow channels and other desired geometric features can be built onto the exterior surfaces of the laminate to form a flow field plate or bipolar plate. The resulting laminate has an exceptionally high thickness-direction conductivity and excellent resistance to gas permeation.
A novel damage index for fatigue damage detection in a laminated composites using Lamb waves
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Seki, Daigo
A well-established structural health monitoring (SHM) technique, the Lamb wave based approach, is used for fatigue damage identification in a laminated composite. A novel damage index, 'normalized correlation moment' (NCM) which is composed of the nth moment of the cross correlation of the baseline and comparison waves, was used as damage index for monitoring damage in composites and compared with the signal difference coefficient (SDC) which is one of the most commonly used damage indices. Composite specimens were fabricated by the hand layup method by followed by compression. Piezo electric disks mounted on composite specimens were used as actuators and sensors. Three point bending fatigue tests were carried out on an intact composite laminate and a delaminated composite laminate with [06/904/06] orientation. Finite element analysis was performed to test the validity of SDC and NCM for fatigue damage.
Fracture behavior of unidirectional boron/aluminum composite laminates
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Goree, J. G.; Jones, W. F.
1983-01-01
An experiment was conducted to verify the results of mathematical models which predict the stresses and displacements of fibers and the amount of damage growth in a center-notched lamina as a function of the applied remote stress and the matrix and fiber material properties. A brittle lacquer coating was used to detect the yielding in the matrix while X-ray techniques were used to determine the number of broken fibers in the laminate. The notched strengths and the amounts of damage found in the specimens agree well with those predicted by the mathematical model. It is shown that the amount of damage and the crack opening displacement does not depend strongly on the number of plies in the laminate for a given notch width. By heat-treating certain laminates to increase the yield stress of the alumina matrix, the effect of different matrix properties on the fracture behavior was investigated. The stronger matrix is shown to weaken the notched laminate by decreasing the amount of matrix damage, thereby making the laminate more notch sensitive.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Goldberg, Robert K.
2000-01-01
A research program is in progress to develop strain rate dependent deformation and failure models for the analysis of polymer matrix composites subject to impact loads. Previously, strain rate dependent inelastic constitutive equations developed to model the polymer matrix were implemented into a mechanics of materials based micromechanics method. In the current work, the computation of the effective inelastic strain in the micromechanics model was modified to fully incorporate the Poisson effect. The micromechanics equations were also combined with classical laminate theory to enable the analysis of symmetric multilayered laminates subject to in-plane loading. A quasi-incremental trapezoidal integration method was implemented to integrate the constitutive equations within the laminate theory. Verification studies were conducted using an AS4/PEEK composite using a variety of laminate configurations and strain rates. The predicted results compared well with experimentally obtained values.
Reliability of the finite element method for calculating free edge stresses in composite laminates
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Whitcomb, J. D.; Raju, I. S.; Goree, J. G.
1982-01-01
The interlaminar normal stress distributions along the interface between the +45 deg and -45 deg plies of a graphite/epoxy laminate, obtained by various investigators, were found to disagree in both magnitude and sign. The reliability of the displacement-formulated finite element method in analyzing the edge-stress problem of a composite laminate is investigated. The history of the edge-stress problem is reviewed, and two well-known elasticity problems, one involving a stress discontinuity and one a singularity, are analyzed. The finite element analysis in these problems yields accurate stress distributions everywhere except in two elements closest to the stress discontinuity or singularity. Stress distributions for a + or -45 deg ply laminate near the singularity were similar to those of the two elasticity problems, demonstrating the methods, accuracy for calculating interlaminar stresses in composite laminates. The disagreement between the numerical methods was attributed to the unsymmetric stress tensor at singularity.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Allen, David H.; Groves, Scott E.; Harris, Charles E.
1988-01-01
The present cumulative damage model for the prediction of stiffness loss in graphite/epoxy laminates applies a thermomechanical constitutive theory for elastic composites with distributed damage. The model proceeds from a continuum mechanics and thermodynamics approach in which the distributed damage is characterized by a set of second-order tensor-valued internal state variables. A set of damage-dependent laminated plate equations is obtained; this is developed by modifying classical Kirchhoff plate theory.
Transient thermal stress analysis of a laminated composite beam
Tanigawa, Y.; Murakami, H.; Ootao, Y. California Univ., La Jolla Osaka Prefectural Industrial Technology Research Institute )
1989-01-01
This paper considers a transient thermal stress analysis of a laminated beam made of different materials in multilayers. To simplify the problem, the heat conduction problem is treated as a one-dimensional case in the direction of thickness; then, the transient temperature solution is evaluated using the Laplace transform method. For the thermoelastic fields, thermal stress distributions are obtained using the elementary beam theory and Airy's thermal stress function method. As an example, numerical calculations are carried out for a laminated beam made of five layers, and the numerical results are examined.
Effect of angle-ply orientation on compression strength of composite laminates
DeTeresa, S J; Hoppel, C P
1999-03-01
An experimental program was initiated to investigate the effect of angle-ply orientations on the compressive strength (X{sub 1C}) of 0{degree} plies in fiber reinforced composite laminates. Graphite fiber-reinforced epoxy test coupons with the generic architecture [0{sub 2}/{+-}{theta}] (where {theta} varied between 0{degree} and 90{degree}) and for the quasi-isotropic architecture were evaluated. The effective compressive strength of the 0{degree} plies varied considerably. The results were related to the Poisson's ratios of the laminates with high Poisson's ratios leading to high transverse tensile strains in the test coupons and lower than expected strengths. Specimens with the [O{sub 2}/{+-}30] architecture had both the highest Poisson's ratio and the lowest calculated ply-level compression strength for the 0{degree} plies. This work has implications in the selection of composite failure criterion for compression performance, design of test coupons for acceptance testing, and the selection of laminate architectures for optimum combinations of compressive and shear behavior. Two commonly used composite failure criteria, the maximum stress and the Tsai-Wu, predict significantly different laminate strengths depending on the Poisson's ratio of the laminate. This implies that the biaxial stress state in the laminate needs to be carefully considered before backing out unidirectional properties.
Deflection of cross-ply composite laminates induced by piezoelectric actuators.
Her, Shiuh-Chuan; Lin, Chi-Sheng
2010-01-01
The coupling effects between the mechanical and electric properties of piezoelectric materials have drawn significant attention for their potential applications as sensors and actuators. In this investigation, two piezoelectric actuators are symmetrically surface bonded on a cross-ply composite laminate. Electric voltages with the same amplitude and opposite sign are applied to the two symmetric piezoelectric actuators, resulting in the bending effect on the laminated plate. The bending moment is derived by using the classical laminate theory and piezoelectricity. The analytical solution of the flexural displacement of the simply supported composite plate subjected to the bending moment is solved by using the plate theory. The analytical solution is compared with the finite element solution to show the validation of present approach. The effects of the size and location of the piezoelectric actuators on the response of the composite laminate are presented through a parametric study. A simple model incorporating the classical laminate theory and plate theory is presented to predict the deformed shape of the simply supported laminate plate. PMID:22315564
Deflection of Cross-Ply Composite Laminates Induced by Piezoelectric Actuators
Her, Shiuh-Chuan; Lin, Chi-Sheng
2010-01-01
The coupling effects between the mechanical and electric properties of piezoelectric materials have drawn significant attention for their potential applications as sensors and actuators. In this investigation, two piezoelectric actuators are symmetrically surface bonded on a cross-ply composite laminate. Electric voltages with the same amplitude and opposite sign are applied to the two symmetric piezoelectric actuators, resulting in the bending effect on the laminated plate. The bending moment is derived by using the classical laminate theory and piezoelectricity. The analytical solution of the flexural displacement of the simply supported composite plate subjected to the bending moment is solved by using the plate theory. The analytical solution is compared with the finite element solution to show the validation of present approach. The effects of the size and location of the piezoelectric actuators on the response of the composite laminate are presented through a parametric study. A simple model incorporating the classical laminate theory and plate theory is presented to predict the deformed shape of the simply supported laminate plate. PMID:22315564
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Tompkins, S. S.; Funk, J. G.
1992-01-01
An analytical study of the sensitivity of the laminate coefficient of thermal expansion, CTE, to changes in lamina elastic properties has been made. High modulus graphite/epoxy (P75/934, P100/934, P120/934), graphite/aluminum (P100/Al), and graphite/glass (HMS/Gl) composite materials were considered in quasi-isotropic, low thermal stress, and 'near-zero' thermal expansion laminate configurations. The effects of a positive or negative 10 percent change in lamina properties on laminate CTE is strongly dependent upon both the composite material and the laminate configuration. A 10 percent change in all of the lamina properties had very little effect on the laminate CTE of the HMS/Gl composite laminates investigated. The sensitivity and direction of change in the laminate CTE of Gr/934 depended very strongly on the fiber properties. A 10 percent change in the lamina transverse CTE resulted in changes as large as 0.216 ppm/C in the laminate CTE of a quasi-isotropic Gr/934 laminate. No significant difference was observed in the sensitivity of the laminate CTE of the P100/934 and P120/934 composite materials due to changes in lamina properties. Large changes in laminate CTE can result from measured temperature and radiation effects on lamina properties.
Reinforcement of composite laminate free edges with U-shaped caps
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Howard, W. E.; Gossard, T., Jr.; Jones, R. M.
1986-01-01
Generalized plane strain finite element analysis is used to predict reduction of interlaminar normal stresses when a U-shaped cap is bonded to the edge of a laminate. Three-dimensional composite material failure criteria are used in a progressive laminate failure analysis to predict failure loads of laminates with different edge cap designs. In an experimental program, symmetric 11-layer graphite-epoxy laminates with a one-layer cap of Kevlar-epoxy cloth are shown to be 130 to 140 percent stronger than uncapped laminates under static tensile and tension-tension fatigue loading. In addition, the coefficient of variation of the static tensile failure load decreases from 24 to 8 percent when edge caps are added. The predicted failure load calculated with the finite element results is 10 percent lower than the actual failure load. For both capped and uncapped laminates, actual failure loads are much lower than those predicted using classical lamination theory stresses and a two-dimensional failure criterion. Possible applications of the free edge reinforcement concept are described, and future research is suggested.
High Strain Rate Characterization of Laminate Composites Using Direct-Tension Split Hopkinson Bar
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Akkala, S.; Hommeida, A.; Brar, N. S.
1999-06-01
Data on high strain rate response of laminate composites is required to numerically simulate penetration/perforation events. Tension specimens of laminate composites can only be fabricated in dog-bone shape and, therefore, a direct tension Hopkinson bar configuration is more appropriate for acquiring high strain data. Launching a 6.35-mm wall thickness aluminum tube around 25.4 diameter aluminum incident bar produces the tension pulse in the incident bar. Ends of the composite specimens in the dog-bone configuration are placed in specially designed grips, which are screwed in the incident and transmitter bars. The configuration allows testing of specimens with threaded ends. Stress-strain data on 6061-T6 aluminum and titanium 6-4 at a strain rate of 10^3/s agree with the published data. High strain rate data on laminate composite specimens reinforced with graphite and glass fibers will be presented.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Sun, C. T.; Yoon, K. J.
1990-01-01
A one-parameter plasticity model was shown to adequately describe the orthotropic plastic deformation of AS4/PEEK (APC-2) unidirectional thermoplastic composite. This model was verified further for unidirectional and laminated composite panels with and without a hole. The nonlinear stress-strain relations were measured and compared with those predicted by the finite element analysis using the one-parameter elastic-plastic constitutive model. The results show that the one-parameter orthotropic plasticity model is suitable for the analysis of elastic-plastic deformation of AS4/PEEK composite laminates.
Elasticity solutions for a class of composite laminate problems with stress singularities
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wang, S. S.
1983-01-01
A study on the fundamental mechanics of fiber-reinforced composite laminates with stress singularities is presented. Based on the theory of anisotropic elasticity and Lekhnitskii's complex-variable stress potentials, a system of coupled governing partial differential equations are established. An eigenfunction expansion method is introduced to determine the orders of stress singularities in composite laminates with various geometric configurations and material systems. Complete elasticity solutions are obtained for this class of singular composite laminate mechanics problems. Homogeneous solutions in eigenfunction series and particular solutions in polynomials are presented for several cases of interest. Three examples are given to illustrate the method of approach and the basic nature of the singular laminate elasticity solutions. The first problem is the well-known laminate free-edge stress problem, which has a rather weak stress singularity. The second problem is the important composite delamination problem, which has a strong crack-tip stress singularity. The third problem is the commonly encountered bonded composite joints, which has a complex solution structure with moderate orders of stress singularities.
Ishii, Yosuke; Biwa, Shiro
2015-11-01
The transmission characteristics of ultrasonic waves at oblique incidence to composite laminates are analyzed theoretically by the stiffness matrix method. The analysis takes into account the presence of thin resin-rich regions between adjacent plies as spring-type interfaces with normal and shear stiffnesses. The amplitude transmission coefficient of longitudinal wave through a unidirectional laminate immersed in water is shown to be significantly influenced by the frequency, the interlayer interfacial stiffnesses, and the incident angle. Using Floquet's theorem, the dispersion relation of the infinitely extended laminate structure is calculated and compared to the transmission coefficient of laminates of finite thickness. This reveals that the ranges of frequency and interfacial stiffnesses where the Floquet waves lie in the band-gaps agree well with those where the transmission coefficient of the finite layered structure is relatively small, indicating that the band-gaps appear even in the laminate with a finite number of plies. The amplitude transmission coefficient for an 11-ply carbon-epoxy unidirectional composite laminate is experimentally obtained for various frequencies and incident angles. The low-transmission zones observed in the experimental results, which are due to the critical angle of the quasi-longitudinal wave and the Bragg reflection, are shown to be favorably compared with the theory. PMID:26627756
Creep-rupture of polymer-matrix composites. [graphite-epoxy laminates
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Brinson, H. F.; Griffith, W. I.; Morris, D. H.
1980-01-01
An accelerated characterization method for resin matrix composites is reviewed. Methods for determining modulus and strength master curves are given. Creep rupture analytical models are discussed as applied to polymers and polymer matrix composites. Comparisons between creep rupture experiments and analytical models are presented. The time dependent creep rupture process in graphite epoxy laminates is examined as a function of temperature and stress level.
Prediction of Composite Laminate Strength Properties Using a Refined Zigzag Plate Element
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Barut, Atila; Madenci, Erdogan; Tessler, Alexander
2013-01-01
This study presents an approach that uses the refined zigzag element, RZE(exp2,2) in conjunction with progressive failure criteria to predict the ultimate strength of composite laminates based on only ply-level strength properties. The methodology involves four major steps: (1) Determination of accurate stress and strain fields under complex loading conditions using RZE(exp2,2)-based finite element analysis, (2) Determination of failure locations and failure modes using the commonly accepted Hashin's failure criteria, (3) Recursive degradation of the material stiffness, and (4) Non-linear incremental finite element analysis to obtain stress redistribution until global failure. The validity of this approach is established by considering the published test data and predictions for (1) strength of laminates under various off-axis loading, (2) strength of laminates with a hole under compression, and (3) strength of laminates with a hole under tension.
Maeda, Takenori
1995-11-01
This paper presents an experimental method for the determination of the bending and torsional rigidities of advanced fiber composite laminates with the aid of laser holographic interferometry. The proposed method consists of a four-point bending test and a resonance test. The bending rigidity ratio (D{sub 12}/D{sub 22}) can be determined from the fringe patterns of the four-point bending test. The bending rigidities (D{sub 11} and D{sub 22}) and the torsional rigidity (D{sub 66}) are calculated from the natural frequencies of cantilever plates of the resonance test. The test specimens are carbon/epoxy cross-ply laminates. The adequacy of the experimental method is confirmed by comparing the measured rigidities with the theoretical values obtained from classical lamination theory (CLT) by using the measured tensile properties. The results show that the present method can be used to evaluate the rigidities of orthotropic laminates with reasonably good accuracy.
Influence of ply waviness on the stiffness and strength reduction on composite laminates
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bogetti, Travis A.; Gillespie, John W., Jr.; Lamontia, Mark A.
1992-10-01
An analytic model based on 2D laminated plate theory is used to conduct parametric studies for AS4 Graphite/PEKK and S2 Glass/PEKK composite laminates with varying degrees of ply waviness. The model is capable of predicting the elastic properties and thermal expansion coefficients of (90/0/90) laminates containing (0) plies; ply stresses for prescribed mechanical and thermal load cases; and strength reduction associated with ply waviness and residual stress. Results reveal that stiffness and strength reduction are significant in the (0) ply direction only. Mechanisms of stiffness reduction are attributed to the out-of-plane rotation of the wavy plies. It is shown that material anisotropy also affects property reduction, with AS4 Graphite/PEKK much more sensitive to ply waviness than S2 Glass/PEKK laminates. Ply waviness induces significant interlaminar shear stress within the (0) layer.
A mechanics framework for a progressive failure methodology for laminated composites
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Harris, Charles E.; Allen, David H.; Lo, David C.
1989-01-01
A laminate strength and life prediction methodology has been postulated for laminated composites which accounts for the progressive development of microstructural damage to structural failure. A damage dependent constitutive model predicts the stress redistribution in an average sense that accompanies damage development in laminates. Each mode of microstructural damage is represented by a second-order tensor valued internal state variable which is a strain like quantity. The mechanics framework together with the global-local strategy for predicting laminate strength and life is presented in the paper. The kinematic effects of damage are represented by effective engineering moduli in the global analysis and the results of the global analysis provide the boundary conditions for the local ply level stress analysis. Damage evolution laws are based on experimental results.
Moghaddam, Maryam Kahali; Breede, Arne; Brauner, Christian; Lang, Walter
2015-01-01
The production of large and complex parts using fiber composite materials is costly due to the frequent formation of voids, porosity and waste products. By embedding different types of sensors and monitoring the process in real time, the amount of wastage can be significantly reduced. This work focuses on developing a knowledge-based method to improve and ensure complete impregnation of the fibers before initiation of the resin cure. Piezoresistive and capacitive pressure sensors were embedded in fiber composite laminates to measure the real-time the pressure values inside the laminate. A change of pressure indicates resin infusion. The sensors were placed in the laminate and the resin was infused by vacuum. The embedded piezoresistive pressure sensors were able to track the vacuum pressure in the fiber composite laminate setup, as well as the arrival of the resin at the sensor. The pressure increase due to closing the resin inlet was also measured. In contrast, the capacitive type of sensor was found to be inappropriate for measuring these quantities. The following study demonstrates real-time monitoring of pressure changes inside the fiber composite laminate, which validate the use of Darcy's law in porous media to control the resin flow during infusion. PMID:25825973
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yin, J. J.; Li, S. L.; Yao, X. L.; Chang, F.; Li, L. K.; Zhang, X. H.
2016-04-01
In order to analyze the lightning strike ablation damage characteristic of composite laminate with fastener, based on the energy-balance relationship in lightning strike, mathematical analysis model of ablation damage of composite laminate with fastener was constructed. According to the model, an effective three dimensional thermal-electrical coupling analysis finite element model of composite laminate with fastener suffered from lightning current was established based on ABAQUS, and lightning strike ablation damage characteristic was analyzed. Analytical results reveal that lightning current could conduct through the thickness direction of the laminate due to the existence of metallic fastener, and then distribute to all layers, finally conducted in-the-plane of each layer, conductive ability of different layup orientations depend on potential distribution and in-the-plane electrical conductivity along potential gradient declining direction; different potential boundaries correspond to different potential distribution in each layer, and result in conductive ability of different layup orientations was changed, then caused different lightning strike ablation damage distribution. According to the investigation in this paper, we can recognize the lightning strike ablation damage characteristic of composite laminate with fastener qualitatively.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yin, J. J.; Li, S. L.; Yao, X. L.; Chang, F.; Li, L. K.; Zhang, X. H.
2016-08-01
In order to analyze the lightning strike ablation damage characteristic of composite laminate with fastener, based on the energy-balance relationship in lightning strike, mathematical analysis model of ablation damage of composite laminate with fastener was constructed. According to the model, an effective three dimensional thermal-electrical coupling analysis finite element model of composite laminate with fastener suffered from lightning current was established based on ABAQUS, and lightning strike ablation damage characteristic was analyzed. Analytical results reveal that lightning current could conduct through the thickness direction of the laminate due to the existence of metallic fastener, and then distribute to all layers, finally conducted in-the-plane of each layer, conductive ability of different layup orientations depend on potential distribution and in-the-plane electrical conductivity along potential gradient declining direction; different potential boundaries correspond to different potential distribution in each layer, and result in conductive ability of different layup orientations was changed, then caused different lightning strike ablation damage distribution. According to the investigation in this paper, we can recognize the lightning strike ablation damage characteristic of composite laminate with fastener qualitatively.
Kahali Moghaddam, Maryam; Breede, Arne; Brauner, Christian; Lang, Walter
2015-01-01
The production of large and complex parts using fiber composite materials is costly due to the frequent formation of voids, porosity and waste products. By embedding different types of sensors and monitoring the process in real time, the amount of wastage can be significantly reduced. This work focuses on developing a knowledge-based method to improve and ensure complete impregnation of the fibers before initiation of the resin cure. Piezoresistive and capacitive pressure sensors were embedded in fiber composite laminates to measure the real-time the pressure values inside the laminate. A change of pressure indicates resin infusion. The sensors were placed in the laminate and the resin was infused by vacuum. The embedded piezoresistive pressure sensors were able to track the vacuum pressure in the fiber composite laminate setup, as well as the arrival of the resin at the sensor. The pressure increase due to closing the resin inlet was also measured. In contrast, the capacitive type of sensor was found to be inappropriate for measuring these quantities. The following study demonstrates real-time monitoring of pressure changes inside the fiber composite laminate, which validate the use of Darcy’s law in porous media to control the resin flow during infusion. PMID:25825973
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sayyad, Atteshamuddin Shamshuddin; Shinde, Bharati Machhindra; Ghugal, Yuwaraj Marotrao
2014-11-01
This study presents the thermoelastic analysis of laminated composite plates subjected to sinusoidal thermal load linearly varying across the thickness. Analytical solutions for thermal displacements and stresses are investigated by using a unified plate theory which includes different functions in terms of thickness coordinate to represent the effect of shear deformation. The theory presented is variationally consistent, does not require shear correction factor, and gives rise to transverse shear stress variation such that the transverse shear stresses vary parabolically across the thickness satisfying shear stress free surface conditions. Governing equations of equilibrium and associated boundary conditions of the theory are obtained using the principle of virtual work. The Navier solution for simply supported laminated composite plates has been developed. Numerical results are presented to demonstrate the thermal response of the laminated composite plates.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Falahatgar, S. R.; Salehi, Manouchehr
2011-12-01
Nonlinear bending analysis of polymeric laminated composite plate is examined considering material nonlinearity for viscoelastic matrix material through a Micro-macro approach. The micromechanical Simplified Unit Cell Method (SUCM) in three-dimensional closed-form solution is used for the overall behavior of the unidirectional composite in any combination of loading conditions. The elastic fibers are transversely isotropic where Schapery single integral equation in multiaxial stress state describes the matrix material by recursive-iterative formulation. The finite difference Dynamic Relaxation (DR) method is utilized to study the bending behavior of Mindlin annular sector plate including geometric nonlinearity under uniform lateral pressure with clamped and hinged edge constraints. The unsymmetrical laminated plate deflection is predicted for different thicknesses and also various pressures in different time steps and they are compared with elastic finite element results. As a main objective, the deflection results of viscoelastic laminated sector plate are obtained for various fiber volume fractions in the composite system.
Analytical method for analyzing c-channel stiffener made of laminate composite
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kumton, Tattchapong
Composite materials play the important role in the aviation industry. Conventional materials such as aluminum were replaced by composite material on the main structures. The objective of this study focuses on development of analytical method to analyze the laminated composite structure with C-channel cross-section. A lamination theory base closed-form solution was developed to analysis ply stresses on the C-channel cross-section. The developed method contains the effects of coupling due to unsymmetrical of both laminate and structural configuration levels. The present method also included the expression of the sectional properties such as centroid, axial and bending stiffnesses of cross-section. The results obtain from analytical method showed an excellent agreement with finite element results.
A new merit function for evaluating the flaw tolerance of composite laminates
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mikulas, Martin M., Jr.; Sumpter, Rod
1995-01-01
Advanced composite materials are providing notable savings in numerous aerospace and non-aerospace applications by virtue of their uniquely high strength-to-density ratio and high stiffness-to-density ratio. However, their full potential for high performance has yet to be achieved because of the low tolerance of the 'brittle' material to impact, holes, flaws, and localized discontinuities due to relatively low toughness. In the present paper a new and simple merit function is proposed for maximizing the strength performance of flawed composite laminate for different design requirement. This new merit function takes into account the flaw tolerance of a composite laminated as well as its stiffness. After development of the new merit function, an example is presented of its application to a practical laminate family.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Moncada, Albert M.; Chattopadhyay, Aditi; Bednarcyk, Brett A.; Arnold, Steven M.
2008-01-01
Predicting failure in a composite can be done with ply level mechanisms and/or micro level mechanisms. This paper uses the Generalized Method of Cells and High-Fidelity Generalized Method of Cells micromechanics theories, coupled with classical lamination theory, as implemented within NASA's Micromechanics Analysis Code with Generalized Method of Cells. The code is able to implement different failure theories on the level of both the fiber and the matrix constituents within a laminate. A comparison is made among maximum stress, maximum strain, Tsai-Hill, and Tsai-Wu failure theories. To verify the failure theories the Worldwide Failure Exercise (WWFE) experiments have been used. The WWFE is a comprehensive study that covers a wide range of polymer matrix composite laminates. The numerical results indicate good correlation with the experimental results for most of the composite layups, but also point to the need for more accurate resin damage progression models.
Dynamic analysis of tapered laminated composite magnetorheological elastomer (MRE) sandwich plates
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Babu, V. Ramesh; Vasudevan, R.
2016-03-01
In the present study, the dynamic performance of the sandwich plate with magneto rheological elastomer (MRE) as the core layer and tapered laminated composite plates as the face layers is investigated. Various MRE tapered laminated composite sandwich plate models are formulated by dropping-off the plies longitudinally in top and bottom composite layers to yield tapered plates as the face layers and uniform MRE layer as the core layer. The governing equations of motion of tapered composite MRE sandwich plates are derived using classical laminated plate theory and solved numerically. Further, silicon based MRE is being fabricated and tested to obtain the shear and loss moduli using MR rheometer. The efficacy of the finite element formulation is validated by carrying out experiments on the various prototypes of tapered composite silicon based MRE sandwich plates and comparing the results in terms of natural frequencies obtained at various magnetic fields with those obtained numerically and with available literature. Also, the effects of magnetic field, taper angle of the top and bottom layers, aspect ratio, ply orientations and various end conditions on the various dynamic properties of tapered laminated composite MRE sandwich plate are investigated. Further, the transverse vibration responses of three different tapered composite MRE based sandwich plates under harmonic force excitation are analyzed at various magnetic fields.
Behaviour study of thick laminated composites: Experimentation and finite element analyses
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Duchaine, Francois
In today's industries, it is common practice to utilize composite materials in very large and thick structures like bridge decks, high pressure vessels, wind turbine blades and aircraft parts to mention a few. Composite materials are highly favoured due to their physical characteristics: low weight, low cost, adaptable mechanical properties, high specific strength and stiffness. The use of composite materials for large structures has however raised several concerns in the prediction of the behaviour of thick laminated composite parts. A lack of knowledge and experience in the use of composite materials during the design, sizing and manufacturing of thick composite parts can lead to catastrophic events. In this thesis, it was supposed that the elastic material properties may vary with the laminate thickness. In order to measure the influence of the thickness on nine orthotropic elastic material properties (E1, E2, E3, nu12, nu 13, nu23, G12, G13 and G23), three categories of thickness have been defined using a comparison between the classical lamination theory (CLT), different beam theories and a numerical 3D solid finite element analysis (FEA) model. The defined categories are: thin laminates for thicknesses below 6 mm (0.236"), moderately thick laminates for thicknesses up to 16 mm (0.630") and thick laminates for thicknesses above 16 mm (0.630"). For three different thicknesses (thin -- 1.5 mm, moderately thick -- 10 mm and thick -- 20 mm), the influence of the thickness on the orthotropic elastic material properties of unidirectional (UD) fibreglass/epoxy laminates has been measured. A torsion test on rectangular bar is also proposed to measure the influence of the thickness on G13 and G23. The nine elastic material properties, in function of the thickness, have been used in CLT and 3D solid FEA model in order to predict the axial Young's modulus and Poisson's ratios of cross-ply and quasi-isotropic laminates. Experimental results have also been obtained for
Analysis of composite laminates with a generalized zigzag theory
Liu, D.; Li, X.
1994-12-31
This study presents a generalized expression for laminate theories, namely a generalized zigzag theory. It unifies shear deformation theories, layerwise theories, and zigzag theories. To begin with, two layer-dependent variables are assumed for each in-plane displacement components. The layer-dependent variables can be converted into layer-independent variables through the enforcement of continuity conditions for both interlaminar displacements and interlaminar shear stresses. The total number of degrees-of-freedom of the theory then becomes layer-number independent and the computational efficiency is thus guaranteed. Since the properties of individual layers are considered in the analysis, the generalized zigzag theory gives excellent in-plane displacements and stresses in the cases examined by Pagano. Satisfactory transverse shear stresses can also be obtained directly from the constitutive equations. Although the interlaminar normal stresses are not forced to be continuous on the laminate interfaces, the discrepancy seems to be very insignificant.
Interlaminar stresses and fracture behavior in thickness-tapered composite laminates
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
He, Kan
Design and manufacture of a variable thickness composite laminate such as a helicopter yoke involves tapering the laminate by dropping individual plies at discrete internal locations, in order to tailor the stiffness of the laminate. The ply drop in the laminate creates large interlaminar stresses and initiates delamination. Therefore, there is a necessity to investigate the fundamental failure mechanisms and controlling parameters that account for the delamination mode of failure in tapered laminates. In this thesis, a numerical and experimental study on interlaminar stresses and delamination in tapered laminates is presented, including a critical and comprehensive review on earlier works on this type of structure. Numerical analyses performed involved development of partial hybrid stress finite elements needed to enhance computational efficiency, and development of a physical concept-based modified shear-lag model that is based on the essential assumptions that both plies and resin layers are treated as carriers of tensile stress and also to act as stress-transfer media. Experimental analysis was attempted to assess the accuracy of the numerical predictions. For this purpose, tapered NCT-301 Graphite/Epoxy specimens were manufactured using a ply in-fill technique for the cured consolidation and tested under quasi-static uniaxial tension. To perform strength and delamination analyses of the tapered laminate, the laminate was modeled as a generalized plane deformation problem, where all the variables involved in the model are independent of the coordinate system. Also quasi-three dimensional partial hybrid finite elements were used to quantify the analysis. In addition to the plies, the inter-ply resin at the critical ply interface was also modeled in order to have direct and realistic interlaminar responses. Stress-based criteria that have proved to be effective in determination of critical location and load of delamination onset were utilized in this study to
Finite element analysis of vibration and damping of laminated composites
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rikards, Rolands
Simple finite elements are used to form a special laminated beam and plate superelements excluding all degrees of freedom in the nodes of the middle layer, and the finite element analysis of this structure is performed. To estimate damping of structures, modal loss factors are calculated, using two methods: the 'exact' method of complex eigenvalues and the approximate energy method. It was found that both methods give satisfactory results. However, the energy method needs less computer time than the exact method.
Fatigue delamination onset prediction in tapered composite laminates
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Murri, Gretchen Bostaph; Salpekar, Satish A.; Obrien, T. Kevin
1989-01-01
Tapered (0 deg) laminates of S2/CE9000 and S2/SP250 glass/epoxies, and IM6/1827I graphite/epoxy were tested in cyclic tension. The specimens usually showed some initial stable delaminations in the tapered region, but these did not affect the stiffness of the specimens, and loading was continued until the specimens either delaminated unstably, or reached 10(exp 6) to 2 x 10(exp 7) million cycles with no unstable delamination. The final unstable delamination originated at the junction of the thin and tapered regions. A finite-element model was developed for the tapered laminate with and without the initial stable delaminations observed in the tests. The analysis showed that for both cases the most likely place for an opening (Mode 1) delamination to originate is at the junction of the taper and thin regions. For each material type, the models were used to calculate the strain energy release rate, G, associated with delaminations originating at that junction and growing either into the thin region or tapered region. For the materials tested, cyclic G(sub Imax) values from DCB tests were used with the maximum strain energy release rates calculated from the finite-element analysis to predict the onset of unstable delamination at the junction as a function of fatigue cycles. The predictions were compared to experimental values of maximum cyclic load as a function of cycles to unstable delamination from fatigue tests in tapered laminates. For the IM6/1827I and S2/SP250 laminates, the predictions agreed very well with the test data. Predicted values for the S2/CE9000 were conservative compared to the test data.
Fracture analysis of internally delaminated unsymmetric laminated composite plates
Palmer, D.W.; Armanios, E.A.; Hooke, D.A.
1997-12-31
A sub laminate analysis is used to develop an analytical solution that determines the effect of mid plane internal delamination on unsymmetric elastically tailored laminated plates. A displacement field that recognizes transverse shear deformation is proposed, and an elasticity boundary value problem is developed. A force-deformation relationship for the delaminated plate is derived. A change in total strain energy release rate and extension-twist coupling with crack length is calculated. The distribution of interlaminar shear and peel stresses on the interface containing the delamination is determined. The analysis is applied to a class of hydrothermally stable unsymmetric laminates under uniform extension. Results show that extension-twist coupling decays monotonically and total strain energy release rate increases monotonically, respectively, with delamination width. Interlaminar shear and peel stress are shown to be of larger magnitude at the free edge than at the delamination tip. The variation of extension-twist coupling with delamination width was verified experimentally. Test results indicate that for the cases under consideration, Teflon FEP film is inadequate for the simulation of internal delamination.
Static and fatigue interlaminar tensile characterization of laminated composites
Koudela, K.L.; Strait, L.H.; Caiazzo, A.A.; Gipple, K.L.
1997-12-31
Spool and curved-beam specimens were evaluated to determine the viability of using either one or both of these configurations to characterize the static and fatigue interlaminar tensile behavior of carbon/epoxy laminates. Unidirectional curved-beam and quasi-isotropic spool specimens were fabricated, nondestructively inspected, and statically tested to failure. Tension-tension fatigue tests were conducted at 10 Hz and an R-ratio ({sigma}{sub min}/{sigma}{sub max}) equal to 0.1 for each specimen configuration. The interlaminar tensile strength of the spool specimen was 12% larger than the strength obtained using curved-beam specimens. In addition, data scatter associated with spool specimens was significantly less than the scatter associated with curved-beam specimens. The difference in data scatter was attributed to the influence of the fabrication process on the quality of the laminates tested. The fatigue limit at 0{sup 7} cycles for both specimen types was shown to be at least 40% of the average interlaminar tensile strength. Based on the results of this study, it was concluded that either the spool or the curved-beam specimens can be used to characterize the interlaminar tensile static and fatigue behavior of carbon/epoxy laminates. However, to obtain the most representative results, the test specimen configuration should be selected so that the specimen fabrication process closely simulates the actual component fabrication process.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Riddick, J. C.; Gates, T. S.; Frankland, S.-J. V.
2005-01-01
A multi-scale method to predict the stiffness and stability properties of carbon nanotube-reinforced laminates has been developed. This method is used in the prediction of the buckling behavior of laminated carbon nanotube-polyethylene composites formed by stacking layers of carbon nanotube-reinforced polymer with the nanotube alignment axes of each layer oriented in different directions. Linking of intrinsic, nanoscale-material definitions to finite scale-structural properties is achieved via a hierarchical approach in which the elastic properties of the reinforced layers are predicted by an equivalent continuum modeling technique. Solutions for infinitely long symmetrically laminated nanotube-reinforced laminates with simply-supported or clamped edges subjected to axial compression and shear loadings are presented. The study focuses on the influence of nanotube volume fraction, length, orientation, and functionalization on finite-scale laminate response. Results indicate that for the selected laminate configurations considered in this study, angle-ply laminates composed of aligned, non-functionalized carbon nanotube-reinforced lamina exhibit the greatest buckling resistance with 1% nanotube volume fraction of 450 nm uniformly-distributed carbon nanotubes. In addition, hybrid laminates were considered by varying either the volume fraction or nanotube length through-the-thickness of a quasi-isotropic laminate. The ratio of buckling load-to-nanotube weight percent for the hybrid laminates considered indicate the potential for increasing the buckling efficiency of nanotube-reinforced laminates by optimizing nanotube size and proportion with respect to laminate configuration.
Detection of acoustic emission from composite laminates using PVF2 transducers
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Stiffler, R.; Henneke, E. G., II; Herakovich, C. T.
1983-01-01
Polyvinylidene fluoride (PVF2), a semicrystalline polymer exhibiting piezoelectricity, is presently used as a sensing transducer in acoustic emission (AE) monitoring of several different composite laminate materials in order to obtain both quasi-static and fatigue loading results. AE signals obtained from PVF2 transducers are compared with those obtained by standard AE sensors. It is noted that PVF2 transducers may, through the application of spectral signal analysis, be able to distinguish between two distinct failure modes which have been observed in two composite laminates of the same material, but employing different lamina stacking sequences.
The role of crack morphology on the failure behavior of laminated composites
Biner, S.B.
1997-07-01
In this study, the failure of the ductile layers from collinear and delaminating cracks that occur in laminated composite systems was studied using a constitutive relationship that accounts for strength degradation resulting from the nucleation and growth of voids. The results indicate that in laminated composites, void nucleation and growth ahead of the cracks occur at a much faster rate due to evolution of much higher stress values at the interface region. For delaminating crack cases, the fracture behavior is strongly influenced by the delamination length. The resistance of the ductile layers to crack extension can be significantly reduced by short delamination lengths.
An interlaminar shear stress continuity theory for both thin and thick composite laminates
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lu, Xianqiang; Liu, Dahsin
1992-09-01
The interlaminar shear stress plays a very important role in the damage of composite laminates. With higher interlaminar shear stress, delamination can easily occur on the composite interface. In order to calculate the interlaminar shear stress, a laminate theory, which accounts for both the interlaminar shear stress continuity and the transverse shear deformation, was presented in this study. Verification of the theory was performed by comparing the present theory with Pagano's elasticity analysis. It was found that the present theory was able to give excellent results for both stresses and displacements. More importantly, the interlaminar shear stress can be presented directly from the constitutive equations instead of being recovered from the equilibrium equations.
Microcracking in Composite Laminates: Simulation of Crack-Induced Ultrasound Attenuation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Leckey, C. A. C.; Rogge, M. D.; Parker, F. R.
2012-01-01
Microcracking in composite laminates is a known precursor to the growth of inter-ply delaminations and larger scale damage. Microcracking can lead to the attenuation of ultrasonic waves due to the crack-induced scattering. 3D elastodynamic finite integration technique (EFIT) has been implemented to explore the scattering of ultrasonic waves due to microcracks in anisotropic composite laminates. X-ray microfocus computed tomography data was directly input into the EFIT simulation for these purposes. The validated anisotropic 3D EFIT code is shown to be a useful tool for exploring the complex multiple-scattering which arises from extensive microcracking.
A {3,2}-Order Bending Theory for Laminated Composite and Sandwich Beams
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Cook, Geoffrey M.; Tessler, Alexander
1998-01-01
A higher-order bending theory is derived for laminated composite and sandwich beams thus extending the recent {1,2}-order theory to include third-order axial effect without introducing additional kinematic variables. The present theory is of order {3,2} and includes both transverse shear and transverse normal deformations. A closed-form solution to the cylindrical bending problem is derived and compared with the corresponding exact elasticity solution. The numerical comparisons are focused on the most challenging material systems and beam aspect ratios which include moderate-to-thick unsymmetric composite and sandwich laminates. Advantages and limitations of the theory are discussed.
A spectral element for laminated composite beams: theory and application to pyroshock analysis
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ruotolo, R.
2004-02-01
In this article a spectral element for anisotropic, laminated composite beams is developed. Firstly, the axial-bending coupled equations of motion are derived under the assumptions of the First order Shear Deformation Theory, then the spectral element matrix is formulated. The proposed spectral element is validated by comparing, with corresponding results from the scientific literature, natural frequencies of a number of both orthotropic and anisotropic laminated composite beams and the dynamic response of an anisotropic cantilever beam to high frequency transients. Finally, the application of the proposed element to the evaluation of the dynamic response to a simulated pyroshock of an idealized satellite structure made of sandwich beams is shown.
Simulation Based Investigation of Hidden Delamination Damage Detection in CFRP Composites
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Leckey, Cara A. C.; Parker, F. Raymond
2013-01-01
Guided wave (GW) based damage detection methods have shown promise in structural health monitoring (SHM) and hybrid SHM-nondestructive evaluation (NDE) techniques. Much previous GW work in the aerospace field has been primarily focused on metallic materials, with a growing focus on composite materials. The work presented in this paper demonstrates how realistic three-dimensional (3D) GW simulations can aid in the development of GW based damage characterization techniques for aerospace composites. 3D elastodynamic finite integration technique is implemented to model GW interaction with realistic delamination damage. A local wavenumber technique is applied to simulation data in order to investigate the detectability of hidden delamination damage to enable accurate characterization of damage extent.
Roach, Dennis Patrick; Rackow, Kirk A.
2004-06-01
The FAA's Airworthiness Assurance NDI Validation Center, in conjunction with the Commercial Aircraft Composite Repair Committee, developed a set of composite reference standards to be used in NDT equipment calibration for accomplishment of damage assessment and post-repair inspection of all commercial aircraft composites. In this program, a series of NDI tests on a matrix of composite aircraft structures and prototype reference standards were completed in order to minimize the number of standards needed to carry out composite inspections on aircraft. Two tasks, related to composite laminates and non-metallic composite honeycomb configurations, were addressed. A suite of 64 honeycomb panels, representing the bounding conditions of honeycomb construction on aircraft, was inspected using a wide array of NDI techniques. An analysis of the resulting data determined the variables that play a key role in setting up NDT equipment. This has resulted in a set of minimum honeycomb NDI reference standards that include these key variables. A sequence of subsequent tests determined that this minimum honeycomb reference standard set is able to fully support inspections over the full range of honeycomb construction scenarios found on commercial aircraft. In the solid composite laminate arena, G11 Phenolic was identified as a good generic solid laminate reference standard material. Testing determined matches in key velocity and acoustic impedance properties, as well as, low attenuation relative to carbon laminates. Furthermore, comparisons of resonance testing response curves from the G11 Phenolic NDI reference standard was very similar to the resonance response curves measured on the existing carbon and fiberglass laminates. NDI data shows that this material should work for both pulse-echo (velocity-based) and resonance (acoustic impedance-based) inspections.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Shuart, M. J.
1985-01-01
The short-wavelength buckling (or the microbuckling) and the interlaminar and inplane shear failures of multi-directional composite laminates loaded in uniaxial compression are investigated. A laminate model is presented that idealizes each lamina. The fibers in the lamina are modeled as a plate, and the matrix in the lamina is modeled as an elastic foundation. The out-of-plane w displacement for each plate is expressed as a trigonometric series in the half-wavelength of the mode shape for laminate short-wavelength buckling. Nonlinear strain-displacement relations are used. The model is applied to symmetric laminates having linear material behavior. The laminates are loaded in uniform end shortening and are simply supported. A linear analysis is used to determine the laminate stress, strain, and mode shape when short-wavelength buckling occurs. The equations for the laminate compressive stress at short-wavelength buckling are dominated by matrix contributions.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Deng, Yan; Chen, Xiuhua; Wang, Hai
2015-12-01
This paper investigates the elastic and failure behavior of textile composite laminates by using an analytical multi-scale correlating approach. The analyses are performed under the four scale levels, i.e. the laminate scale, representative unit cell (RUC) scale, tow architecture scale and fiber/matrix scale levels. The correlation between different scales is derived based on the continuum mechanics and homogenization method from which the stress and strain fields in multiple scales can be obtained concurrently. Effective modulus and ultimate failure strengths of different textile composite (plain weave, twill weave and satin weave) laminates are predicted solely from the corresponding constituent properties, braid geometrical parameters and lay-up. The damage and failure mechanisms at the constituent level are also determined by the micromechanical failure criteria. All the predicted results compare favorably with available experimental data. Parametric studies are also performed to examine the effect of various mechanical and geometrical parameters on the resulting mechanical properties.
Effects of Temperature on Acoustically-Induced Strains and Damage Propagation in CFRP Plates.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Galea, Stephen C. P.
Available from UMI in association with The British Library. The effect of temperature on the material elastic properties, acoustically-induced strains, damage initiation, damage propagation and residual thermal strains of composite materials has been investigated. An experimental rig, using the free-free beam technique, was built to attain accurate measurements of Young's modulus and loss factor of CFRP beams in the temperature range -40^circC to 150^circC. These results were then compared with measurements taken from a commercially available Dynamic Mechanical Thermal Analyser. Using the finite element method a study was undertaken to determine the effect of temperature on the free vibration of clamped (but no in-plane constraints) CFRP plates of various layups. Predictions of natural frequencies of two CFRP plates were then compared with experimentally determined values. CFRP plates subjected to broadband acoustic excitation (20-600 Hz) of OSPL up to 160 dB showed no significant changes in the strain response with increasing temperature. Also predictions of RMS strains using the simple single mode formulae agreed reasonably well with measured values for most OSPL and temperatures studied. A flexural fatigue apparatus, using a half-sine -clamped cantilevered arrangement, was modified to allow flexural cyclic loading, when placed in an environmental chamber or oven, of CFRP coupons at various temperatures (-40^circC to 120^circC). Wet and dry XAS/914C coupons of layup (0, +/- 45,0) _{rm s} were subjected to cyclic surface strain reversals at temperatures -40^circC, 20^circC and 120^ circC. Flexural fatigue results showed a considerable decrease in flexural fatigue resistance as temperatures were increased to 120^circ C. An optical microscopic analysis showed damage in CFRP appears to be in the form of translaminar cracking and delamination. Also an SEM analysis showed an increased propensity of fibre/matrix debonding under adverse conditions. A finite element
Effect of High Temperature on the Tensile Behavior of CFRP and Cementitious Composites
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Toutanji, Houssam A.
1999-01-01
Concrete and other composite manufacturing processes are continuing to evolve and become more and more suited for use in non-Earth settings such as the Moon and Mars. The fact that structures built in lunar environments would experience a range of effects from temperature extremes to bombardment by micrometeorites and that all the materials for concrete production exist on the Moon means that concrete appears to be the most feasible building material. it can provide adequate shelter from the harshness of the lunar environment and at the same time be a cost effective building material. With a return to the Moon planned by NASA to occur after the turn of the century, it will be necessary to include concrete manufacturing as one of the experiments to be conducted in one of the coming missions. Concrete's many possible uses and possibilities for manufacturing make it ideal for lunar construction. The objectives of this research are summarized as follows: i) study the possibility of concrete production on the Moon or other planets, ii) study the effect of high temperature on the tensile behavior of concrete, and iii) study the effect of high temperature on the tensile behavior of carbon fiber reinforced with inorganic polymer composites. Literature review indicates that production of concrete on the Moon or other planets is feasible using the indigenous materials. Results of this study has shown that both the tensile strength and static elastic modulus of concrete decreased with a rise in temperature from 200 to 500 C. The addition of silica fume to concrete showed higher resistance to high temperatures. Carbon fiber reinforced inorganic polymer (CFRIP) composites seemed to perform well up to 300 C. However, a significant reduction in strength was observed of about 40% at 400 C and up to 80% when the specimens were exposed to 700 C.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Librescu, Liviu
1990-01-01
Within this research project, the following topics were studied: (1) foundation of the refined theory of flat cross-ply laminated composite flat and curved panels as well as their static and dynamic response analysis; (2) foundation of a geometrically-nonlinear shear-deformable theory of composite laminated flat panels including the effect of initial geometric imperfections and its application in the postbuckling analysis; (3) the study of the dynamic response of shear deformable elastic laminated composite panels to deterministic time-dependent external excitations as the sonic boom and explosive blast type-loadings; (4) the study of the dynamic response of shear deformable elastic laminated composite panels to random excitation as e.g. the one produced by a jet noise or by any time-dependent external excitation whose characteristics are expressed in a statistical sense; and (5) the dynamic stability of fiber-reinforced composite flat panels whose materials (due to e.g. an ambient high temperature field) exhibit a time-dependent physical behavior.
Low-speed impact damage in filament-wound CFRP composite pressure vessels
Matemilola, S.A.; Stronge, W.J.
1997-11-01
Quasi-static and impact tests were conducted on filament-wound carbon fiber composite pressure vessels to study factors that affect burst pressure. Observed damage included fiber microbuckling, matrix cracking, and delamination. Fiber microbuckling of the outer surface layer near the impact point was the main factor that reduced the burst pressure of the vessels. This type of damage was visually detectable on the surface. For similar levels of missile kinetic energy, the impact damage to filament-wound composite pressure vessels depends on size and shape of the colliding body in the contact area. Burst pressure for a damaged vessel decreases with the ratio of axial length of damaged fibers 1, to vessel wall thickness h, up to a ratio l/h = 3; beyond this length of damaged section the burst pressure was independent of length of damage. Strain measurements near the region of loading showed that damage related to fiber microbuckling is sensitive to strain rate. At locations where impact damage was predominantly due to fiber microbuckling, the failure strain was about six times the strain for microbuckling during quasi-static loading.
Effect of Electrospun Nanofibers on the Short Beam Strength of Laminated Fiberglass Composite
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shinde, Dattaji K.
High specific modulus and strength are the most desirable properties for the material used in structural applications. Composite materials exhibit these properties and over the last decade, their usage has increased significantly, particularly in automotive, defense, and aerospace applications. The major cause of failures in composite laminates is due to delaminations. Delamination in composite laminates can occur due to fatigue, low velocity impact and other loadings modes. Conventional methods like "through-the-thickness stitching" or "Z-Pinning" have limitations for improving flexural and interlaminar properties in woven composites due to the fact that while improving interlaminar properties, the presence of stitches or Z pins affects in-plane properties. This study investigates the flexural behavior of fiberglass composites interleaved with non-woven Tetra Ethyl Orthosilicate (TEOS) electrsopsun nanofibers (ENFs). TEOS ENFs were manufactured using an electrospinning technique and then sintered. Nanoengineered beams were fabricated by interleaving TEOS ENFs between the laminated fiberglass composites to improve the flexural properties. TEOS ENFs, resin film, and failed fiberglass laminated composites with and without nanofibers were characterized using SEM Imaging and ASTM standard testing methods. A hybrid composite was made by interleaving a non-woven sheet of TEOS ENFs between the fiberglass laminates with additional epoxy resin film and fabricated using the out of autoclave vacuum bagging method. Four commonly used stacking sequences of fiberglass laminates with and without nanofibers were used to study the progressive failure and deformation mechanics under flexural loadings. The experimental study has shown significant improvements in short beam strength and strain energy absorption in the nanoengineered laminated fiberglass composites before complete failure. The modes were investigated by performing detailed fractographic examination of failed specimens
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Choi, Sukjoo; Sankar, Bhavani; Ebaugh, Newton C.
2005-01-01
A micromechanics method is developed to investigate microcrack propagation in a liquid hydrogen composite tank at cryogenic temperature. The unit cell is modeled using square and hexagonal shapes depends on fiber and matrix layout from microscopic images of composite laminates. Periodic boundary conditions are applied to the unit cell. The temperature dependent properties are taken into account in the analysis. The laminate properties estimated by the micromechanics method are compared with empirical solutions using constituent properties. The micro stresses in the fiber and matrix phases based on boundary conditions in laminate level are calculated to predict the formation of microcracks in the matrix. The method is applied to an actual liquid hydrogen storage system. The analysis predicts micro stresses in the matrix phase are large enough to cause microcracks in the composite. Stress singularity of a transverse crack normal to a ply-interface is investigated to predict the fracture behavior at cryogenic conditions using analytical and finite element analysis. When a transverse crack touches a ply-interface of a composite layer with same fiber orientation, the stress singularity is equal to 1/2. When the transverse crack propagates to a stiffer layer normal to the ply-direction, the singularity becomes less than 1/2 and vice versa. Finite element analysis is performed to predict the fracture toughness of a laminated beam subjected to fracture loads measured by four-point bending tests at room and cryogenic temperatures. As results, the fracture load at cryogenic temperature is significantly lower than that at room temperature. However, when thermal stresses are taken into consideration, for both cases of room and cryogenic temperatures, the difference of the fracture toughness becomes insignificant. The result indicates fracture toughness is a characteristic property, which is independent to temperature changes. The experimental analysis is performed to
Scaling of low-velocity impact for symmetric composite laminates
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Sankar, Bhavani V.
1992-01-01
The equations governing the problem of low-velocity impact of a simply supported rectangular midplane-symmetric laminated plate are nondimensionalized such that the problem is defined in terms of five dimensionless parameters. A parametric study using the Graeco-Latin Factorial Plan is performed. Semi-empirical formulas for maximum impact force, impact duration, and maximum back surface strains are obtained. It is found that some of the simple impact models provide the bounds for the case of impact on a finite extent plate. A one parameter model is derived for impacts of short duration.
A higher-order theory for geometrically nonlinear analysis of composite laminates
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Reddy, J. N.; Liu, C. F.
1987-01-01
A third-order shear deformation theory of laminated composite plates and shells is developed, the Navier solutions are derived, and its finite element models are developed. The theory allows parabolic description of the transverse shear stresses, and therefore the shear correction factors of the usual shear deformation theory are not required in the present theory. The theory also accounts for the von Karman nonlinear strains. Closed-form solutions of the theory for rectangular cross-ply and angle-ply plates and cross-ply shells are developed. The finite element model is based on independent approximations of the displacements and bending moments (i.e., mixed finite element model), and therefore, only C sup o -approximation is required. The finite element model is used to analyze cross-ply and angle-ply laminated plates and shells for bending and natural vibration. Many of the numerical results presented here should serve as references for future investigations. Three major conclusions resulted from the research: First, for thick laminates, shear deformation theories predict deflections, stresses and vibration frequencies significantly different from those predicted by classical theories. Second, even for thin laminates, shear deformation effects are significant in dynamic and geometrically nonlinear analyses. Third, the present third-order theory is more accurate compared to the classical and firt-order theories in predicting static and dynamic response of laminated plates and shells made of high-modulus composite materials.
Cu/single-walled carbon nanotube laminate composites fabricated by cold rolling and annealing
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Yan-Hui; Housten, William; Zhao, Yimin; Qiu Zhu, Yan
2007-05-01
The remarkable mechanical, electrical and thermal properties of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) have attracted extensive research interest as structural and functional materials. In particular, SWCNTs have been used to reinforce polymers and ceramic composites and great progress has been made. For metal matrix composites, the limitation of the conventional manufacturing process and the difficulty in dispersing nanotubes within metal matrices hinder the development of metal matrix composites. In this paper, we demonstrate a successful fabrication of Cu/SWCNT laminate composites by combined techniques of cold rolling and annealing, using 19 layers of large-area SWCNT films sandwiched between 20 layers of Cu thin foils. The tensile strength and Young's modulus of the resultant laminate composites are 361 MPa and 132 GPa, respectively, exhibiting an improvement over the comparative pure Cu foils processed under identical conditions. These results suggest that good interfacial adhesions between nanotubes and the Cu matrix have been achieved after the rolling-annealing-rolling processes.
Wang, S.S.; Srinivasan, S.; Su, K.B.; Dunham, M.G.
1994-12-31
Recent advances in fiber-composites manufacturing and structural efficiency requirements have led to the consideration of large isogrid-stiffened fiber-composite laminate shells for various aeronautical and space structural applications. Very little information, if any, on buckling and postbuckling of these grid-stiffened shells is currently available in the literature. In this paper, a combined analytical and experimental study is reported on the buckling and postbuckling behavior of these filament-wound fiber-composite laminate shells constructed with continuous-filament isogrid stiffeners made of the same composite material system. Solutions from linear bifurcation and geometric nonlinear postbuckling analyses have been obtained for stiffened composite shells, monocoque shells and isogrid stiffeners. Experiments have been conducted in parallel to the analyses, and buckling loads and postbuckling deformation characteristics have been studied for these structures.
Structural properties of laminated Douglas fir/epoxy composite material
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Spera, David A.; Esgar, Jack B.; Gougeon, Meade; Zuteck, Michael D.
1990-01-01
This publication contains a compilation of static and fatigue strength data for laminated-wood material made from Douglas fir and epoxy. Results of tests conducted by several organizations are correlated to provide insight into the effects of variables such as moisture, size, lamina-to-lamina joint design, wood veneer grade, and the ratio of cyclic stress to steady stress during fatigue testing. These test data were originally obtained during development of wood rotor blades for large-scale wind turbines of the horizontal-axis (propeller) configuration. Most of the strength property data in this compilation are not found in the published literature. Test sections ranged from round cylinders 2.25 in. in diameter to rectangular slabs 6 by 24 in. in cross section and approximately 30 ft. long. All specimens were made from Douglas fir veneers 0.10 in. thick, bonded together with the WEST epoxy system developed for fabrication and repair of wood boats. Loading was usually parallel to the grain. Size effects (reduction in strength with increase in test volume) are observed in some of the test data, and a simple mathematical model is presented that includes the probability of failure. General characteristics of the wood/epoxy laminate are discussed, including features that make it useful for a wide variety of applications.
Structural properties of laminated Douglas fir/epoxy composite material
Spera, D.A. . Lewis Research Center); Esgar, J.B. ); Gougeon, M.; Zuteck, M.D. )
1990-05-01
This publication contains a compilation of static and fatigue and strength data for laminated-wood material made from Douglas fir and epoxy. Results of tests conducted by several organizations are correlated to provide insight into the effects of variables such as moisture, size, lamina-to-lamina joint design, wood veneer grade, and the ratio of cyclic stress to steady stress during fatigue testing. These test data were originally obtained during development of wood rotor blades for large-scale wind turbines of the horizontal-axis (propeller) configuration. Most of the strength property data in this compilation are not found in the published literature. Test sections ranged from round cylinders 2.25 in. in diameter to rectangular slabs 6 in. by 24 in. in cross section and approximately 30 ft long. All specimens were made from Douglas fir veneers 0.10 in. thick, bonded together with the WEST epoxy system developed for fabrication and repair of wood boats. Loading was usually parallel to the grain. Size effects (reduction in strength with increase in test volume) are observed in some of the test data, and a simple mathematical model is presented that includes the probability of failure. General characteristics of the wood/epoxy laminate are discussed, including features that make it useful for a wide variety of applications. 9 refs.
Lamination residual stresses in hybrid composites, part 1
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Daniel, I. M.; Liber, T.
1976-01-01
An experimental investigation was conducted to study lamination residual stresses for various material and loading parameters. The effects of hybridization on residual stresses and residual properties after thermal cycling under load were determined in angle-ply graphite/Kevlar/epoxy and graphite/S-glass/epoxy laminates. Residual strains in the graphite plies are not appreciably affected by the type and number of hybridizing plies. Computed residual stresses at room temperature in the S-glass plies reach values up to seventy-five percent of the transverse strength of the material. Computed residual stresses in the graphite plies exceed the static strength by approximately ten percent. In the case of Kevlar plies, computed residual stresses far exceed the static strength indicating possible early failure of these plies. Static testing of the hybrids above indicates that failure is governed by the ultimate strain of the graphite plies. In thermally cycled hybrids, in general, residual moduli were somewhat lower and residual strengths were higher than initial values.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Howard, W. E.; Gossard, Terry, Jr.; Jones, Robert M.
1989-01-01
The present generalized plane-strain FEM analysis for the prediction of interlaminar normal stress reduction when a U-shaped cap is bonded to the edge of a composite laminate gives attention to the highly variable transverse stresses near the free edge, cap length and thickness, and a gap under the cap due to the manufacturing process. The load-transfer mechanism between cap and laminate is found to be strain-compatibility, rather than shear lag. In the second part of this work, the three-dimensional composite material failure criteria are used in a progressive laminate failure analysis to predict failure loads of laminates with different edge-cap designs; symmetric 11-layer graphite-epoxy laminates with a one-layer cap of kevlar-epoxy are shown to carry 130-140 percent greater loading than uncapped laminates, under static tensile and tension-tension fatigue loading.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shmorgun, V.; Gurevich, L.; Bogdanov, A.; Trunov, M.
2016-02-01
In this study the impact of isothermal annealing on the phase transformation rate in laminated Ni/Ni2Al3 composite was investigated. The method of nickel-aluminide coatings of the required chemical composition fabrication was proposed.
Modeling of failure and response to laminated composites subjected to in-plane loads
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Shahid, Iqbal; Chang, Fu-Kuo
1993-01-01
An analytical model was developed for predicting the response of laminated composites with or without a cutout and subjected to in-plane tensile and shear loads. Material damage resulting from the loads in terms of matrix cracking, fiber-matrix shearing, and fiber breakage was considered in the model. Delamination, an out-of-plane failure mode, was excluded from the model.
Interlaminar stress singularities at a straight free edge in composite laminates
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Raju, I. S.; Crews, J. H., Jr.
1980-01-01
A quasi three dimensional finite element analysis was used to analyze the edge stress problem in four-ply, composite laminates. Convergence studies were made to explore the existence of stress singularities near the free edge. The existence of stress singularities at the intersection of the interface and the free edge is confirmed.
Scattering of the fundamental anti-symmetric Lamb wave at delaminations in composite laminates.
Ng, Ching-Tai; Veidt, Martin
2011-03-01
An analysis of the scattering characteristics of the fundamental anti-symmetric (A(0)) Lamb wave at a delamination in a quasi-isotropic composite laminate is presented. Analytical solutions for this problem do not exist due to the anisotropic nature and multilayer characteristics of composite laminates. This study uses a three-dimensional finite element (FE) method and experimental measurements to provide physical insight into the scattering phenomena. Good agreement is found between simulations and experimental measurements. The results show that the A(0) Lamb wave scattering at a delamination in composite laminates is much more complicated than the scattering at a defect in isotropic plates. Scatter amplitudes and scatter directivity distributions depend on the delamination size to wavelength ratio and the through-thickness location of the delamination damage. The study also investigates the feasibility of the common experimental practice of simulating delamination damage by bonding masses to the surface of composite laminates for guided wave damage detection and characterization methodologies verifications. The results suggest that care is required to use bonded masses to simulate delamination damage for verifying and optimizing damage characterization techniques. In summary, the results of the investigation help to further advance the use of the A(0) Lamb wave for damage detection and characterization. PMID:21428492
Impact damage and burst of filament-wound CFRP composite pressure vessel
Matemilola, S.A.; Stronge, W.J.
1996-12-31
Quasi-static and impact tests were conducted on filament-wound carbon fiber composite pressure vessels to study factors that affect burst pressure. Observed damage include fiber microbuckling, matrix cracking, and delamination. For vessels that were not pressurized during test, both the matrix cracking and fiber breakage were restricted to the outer layer, whereas in the case of an internally pressurized vessel struck by a wedge nose shaped impactor these cracks extended into the second layer. Fiber microbuckling of the outer surface layer near the impact point was the main factor that degraded the burst pressure of the vessels. This type of damage was visually detectable on the surface. For an unpressurized vessel it appeared as a pair of cracks radiating from the periphery of contact region. On the other hand, for a pressurized vessel circumferential microbuckling developed within the contact region. The burst pressure for a damaged vessel decreased as the ratio of axial length of the buckled fibers l, to vessel thickness h, increased, up to a ratio {ell}/h {approx} 3, beyond which the burst pressure became constant. Strain measurements near the region of loading showed that fiber microbuckling occurred, the failure strain value at a strain rate of 104 s{sup {minus}1} was about six times the microbuckling strain for quasi-static loading.
Damage behavior analysis of smart composites with embedded pre-strained SMA foils
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ogisu, Toshimichi; Shimanuki, Masakazu; Kiyoshima, Satoshi; Takaki, Junji; Taketa, Ichiro; Takeda, Nobuo
2006-02-01
This paper presents the results of experimental and analytical studies with respect to the damage onset/growth suppression behavior using quasi-isotropic CFRP laminates with embedded pre-strained SMA foils under quasi-static uniaxial tension load. In our previous studies, we conducted some preliminary quasi-static load-unload tests using CFRP laminates with embedded pre-strained SMA foils (smart composites). The results confirmed that these smart composites had excellent effects on damage onset/growth suppression, in comparison with the conventional CFRP laminates. In this study, systematic load-unload tests are conducted for quasi-isotropic laminates, with and without SMA foils and adhesive layers. Following this, a detailed observation of the damage onset/growth suppression behavior is conducted. This observation verified that the microcracks, which originated at the -45/90 interface, generally grow into transverse cracks in a 90° ply of the quasi-isotropic CFRP laminates ([45/0/-45/90]s). It has also been experimentally confirmed that the damage onset/growth suppression effects of smart composites are obtained by the suppression of crack opening displacement. Furthermore, the stress and strain distributions of all the composite systems with microcracks are calculated by FEM analysis at room temperature (RT) and at 80 °C for conventional composites ([45/0/-45/90]s) and smart composites ([45/0/-45/90/Ad/SMA/Ad/90/-45/0/45]), respectively. From the results of the FEM analysis, the strain energy release rate is calculated using the 'crack closure method' for the evaluation of the damage onset/growth suppression effect. It is confirmed that the damage onset/growth suppression effects of the CFRP laminates with embedded pre-strained SMA foils are obtained by the suppression of crack opening displacement in 90° layers, which is generated by the suppression of the strain energy release rate for smart composites by the recovery stress of SMA.
Boundary-layer effects in composite laminates: Free-edge stress singularities, part 6
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wanag, S. S.; Choi, I.
1981-01-01
A rigorous mathematical model was obtained for the boundary-layer free-edge stress singularity in angleplied and crossplied fiber composite laminates. The solution was obtained using a method consisting of complex-variable stress function potentials and eigenfunction expansions. The required order of the boundary-layer stress singularity is determined by solving the transcendental characteristic equation obtained from the homogeneous solution of the partial differential equations. Numerical results obtained show that the boundary-layer stress singularity depends only upon material elastic constants and fiber orientation of the adjacent plies. For angleplied and crossplied laminates the order of the singularity is weak in general.
A continuum damage model of fatigue-induced damage in laminated composites
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Harris, Charles E.; Allen, David H.
1988-01-01
A model is presented which predicts the stress-strain behavior of continuous fiber reinforced laminated composites in the presence of microstructural damage. The model is based on the concept of continuum damage mechanics and uses internal state variables to characterize the various damage modes. The associated internal state variable growth laws are mathematical models of the loading history induced development of microstructural damage. The model is demonstrated by using it to predict the response of damaged AS-4/3502 graphite/epoxy laminate panels.
The effect of cyclic loading on the stiffness degradation of angle-ply composite laminates
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Jones, D. L.; Whitworth, H. A.
1984-01-01
An experimental investigation has been conducted to determine the effect of cyclic loading on the stiffness degradation of composite laminates. Specimens were tested in tension-tension fatigue at a frequency of 10 Hz and a stress ratio of 0.1, over a wide range of stress levels. The laminate employed for this investigation was made of graphite/epoxy in an angle-ply (+ or - 35)2s orientation. During this investigation both static and dynamic stiffness reduction data were recorded during constant amplitude fatigue testing, and the results are presented in tabular and graphical form.
Conditions for Symmetries in the Buckle Patterns of Laminated-Composite Plates
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Nemeth, Michael P.
2012-01-01
Conditions for the existence of certain symmetries to exist in the buckle patterns of symmetrically laminated composite plates are presented. The plates considered have a general planform with cutouts, variable thickness and stiffnesses, and general support and loading conditions. The symmetry analysis is based on enforcing invariance of the corresponding eigenvalue problem for a group of coordinate transformations associated with buckle patterns commonly exhibited by symmetrically laminated plates. The buckle-pattern symmetries examined include a central point of inversion symmetry, one plane of reflective symmetry, and two planes of reflective symmetry.
Simulating Initial and Progressive Failure of Open-Hole Composite Laminates under Tension
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Guo, Zhangxin; Zhu, Hao; Li, Yongcun; Han, Xiaoping; Wang, Zhihua
2016-06-01
A finite element (FE) model is developed for the progressive failure analysis of fiber reinforced polymer laminates. The failure criterion for fiber and matrix failure is implemented in the FE code Abaqus using user-defined material subroutine UMAT. The gradual degradation of the material properties is controlled by the individual fracture energies of fiber and matrix. The failure and damage in composite laminates containing a central hole subjected to uniaxial tension are simulated. The numerical results show that the damage model can be used to accurately predicte the progressive failure behaviour both qualitatively and quantitatively.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Burns, S. W.; Mathison, S.; Herakovich, C. T.
1986-01-01
ANISAP is a 3-D finite element FORTRAN 77 computer code for linear elastic, small strain, analysis of laminated composites with arbitrary geometry including free edges and holes. Individual layers may be isotropic or transversely isotropic in material principal coordinates; individual layers may be rotated off-axis about a global z-axis. The laminate may be a hybrid. Three different isoparametric elements, variable order of gaussian integration, calculation of stresses at element boundaries, and loading by either nodal displacement of forces are included in the program capability. Post processing capability includes failure analysis using the tensor polynominal failure criterion.
Delamination, durability, and damage tolerance of laminated composite materials
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Obrien, T. Kevin
1993-01-01
Durability and damage tolerance may have different connotations to people from different industries and with different backgrounds. Damage tolerance always refers to a safety of flight issue where the structure must be able to sustain design limit loads in the presence of damage and return to base safely. Durability, on the other hand, is an economic issue where the structure must be able to survive a certain life under load before the initiation of observable damage. Delamination is typically the observable damage mechanism that is of concern for durability, and the growth and accumulation of delaminations through the laminate thickness is often the sequence of events that leads to failure and the loss of structural integrity.
Free edge strain concentrations in real composite laminates: Experimental-theoretical correlation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Herakovich, C. T.; Post, D.; Buczek, M. B.; Czarnek, R.
1984-01-01
The magnitude of the maximum shear strain at the free edge of axially loaded theta (2)/-theta(2)(s) and (+ or - theta(2) (s) composite laminates was investigated experimentally and numerically to ascertain the actual value of strain concentration in resin matrix laminates and to determine the accuracy of finite element results. Experimental results using moire interferometry show large, but finite, shear strain concentrations at the free edge of graphite-epoxy and graphite-polyimide laminates. Comparison of the experimental results with those obtained using several different finite element representations showed that a four node isoparametric finite element provided the best and most trouble free numerical results. The results indicate that the ratio of maxium shear strain at the free edge to applied axial strain varies with fiber orientation and does not exceed nine for the most critical angle which is 15 deg.
A new look at numerical analyses of free-edge stresses in composite laminates
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Raju, I. S.; Whitcomb, J. D.; Goree, J. G.
1980-01-01
The edge stress problem for a + or - 45 deg graphite/epoxy laminate was examined. The reliability of the displacement formulated finite element method in analyzing the edge stress problem was investigated. Analyses of two well known elasticity problems, one involving a stress discontinuity and one a singularity, showed that the finite element analysis yields accurate stress distributions everywhere except in two elements closest to the stress discontinuity of singularity. Stress distributions for a + or - 45 deg laminate showed the same behavior near the singularity found in the well known problems with exact solutions. The displacement formulated finite element method appears to be a highly accurate technique for calculating interlaminar stress in composite laminates. The disagreement among the numerical methods was attributed to the unsymmetric stress tensor at the singularity.
Performance of integrated active fiber composites in fiber reinforced epoxy laminates
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Melnykowycz, M.; Kornmann, X.; Huber, C.; Barbezat, M.; Brunner, A. J.
2006-02-01
Active fiber composite (AFC) composed of lead zirconate titanate (PZT) fibers with interdigitated electrodes (IDEs) has been integrated into orthotropic glass fiber reinforced plastic (GFRP) laminates to characterize the performance of AFC as a smart material component in laminated materials. Monotonic cyclic tensile loading was performed on integrated specimens at different strain levels. The AFC output was monitored to determine the effect of applied strain level on the AFC performance. It was found that the AFC sensitivity degraded beyond strains of 0.20% and approached a minimum at 0.50% strain. The degradation in the AFC performance appears to be attributed to the dominating effect of PZT fiber fragmentation during testing, as opposed to depolarization. Acoustic emission (AE) monitoring was used to detect damage in laminates during testing and was correlated with crack evidence from microscopy observations during testing to characterize damage evolution in response to strain levels.
An approximate solution for interlaminar stresses in laminated composites: Applied mechanics program
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rose, Cheryl A.; Herakovich, Carl T.
1992-01-01
An approximate solution for interlaminar stresses in finite width, laminated composites subjected to uniform extensional, and bending loads is presented. The solution is based upon the principle of minimum complementary energy and an assumed, statically admissible stress state, derived by considering local material mismatch effects and global equilibrium requirements. The stresses in each layer are approximated by polynomial functions of the thickness coordinate, multiplied by combinations of exponential functions of the in-plane coordinate, expressed in terms of fourteen unknown decay parameters. Imposing the stationary condition of the laminate complementary energy with respect to the unknown variables yields a system of fourteen non-linear algebraic equations for the parameters. Newton's method is implemented to solve this system. Once the parameters are known, the stresses can be easily determined at any point in the laminate. Results are presented for through-thickness and interlaminar stress distributions for angle-ply, cross-ply (symmetric and unsymmetric laminates), and quasi-isotropic laminates subjected to uniform extension and bending. It is shown that the solution compares well with existing finite element solutions and represents an improved approximate solution for interlaminar stresses, primarily at interfaces where global equilibrium is satisfied by the in-plane stresses, but large local mismatch in properties requires the presence of interlaminar stresses.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Choi, Sukjoo
A micromechanics method is developed to investigate microcrack propagation in a liquid hydrogen composite tank at cryogenic temperature. The unit cell is modeled using square and hexagonal shapes depends on fiber and matrix layout from microscopic images of composite laminates. Periodic boundary conditions are applied to the unit cell. The temperature dependent properties are taken into account in the analysis. The laminate properties estimated by the micromechanics method are compared with empirical solutions using constituent properties. The micro stresses in the fiber and matrix phases based on boundary conditions in laminate level are calculated to predict the formation of microcracks in the matrix. The method is applied to an actual liquid hydrogen storage system. The analysis predicts micro stresses in the matrix phase are large enough to cause microcracks in the composite. Stress singularity of a transverse crack normal to a ply-interface is investigated to predict the fracture behavior at cryogenic conditions using analytical and finite element analysis. When a transverse crack touches a ply-interface of a composite layer with same fiber orientation, the stress singularity is equal to ½. When the transverse crack propagates to a stiffer layer normal to a ply-direction, the singularity becomes less than ½ and vice versa. Finite element analysis is performed to evaluate fracture toughness of a laminated beam subjected to the fracture load measured by the fracture experiment at room and cryogenic temperatures. As results, the fracture load at cryogenic temperature is significantly lower than that at room temperature. However, when thermal stresses are taken into consideration, for both cases of room and cryogenic temperatures, the variation of fracture toughness becomes insignificant. The result indicates fracture toughness is a characteristic property which is independent to temperature changes. The experimental analysis is performed to investigate the
A simple higher order shear deformation theory for mechanical behavior of laminated composite plates
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Adim, Belkacem; Daouadji, Tahar Hassaine; Rabahi, Aberezak
2016-06-01
In the present study, the static, buckling, and free vibration of laminated composite plates is examined using a refined shear deformation theory and developed for a bending analysis of orthotropic laminated composite plates. These models take into account the parabolic distribution of transverse shear stresses and satisfy the condition of zero shear stresses on the top and bottom surfaces of the plates. The most interesting feature of this theory is that it allows for parabolic distributions of transverse shear stresses across the plate thickness and satisfies the conditions of zero shear stresses at the top and bottom surfaces of the plate without using shear correction factors. The number of independent unknowns in the present theory is four, as against five in other shear deformation theories. In the analysis, the equation of motion for simply supported thick laminated rectangular plates is obtained through the use of Hamilton's principle. The accuracy of the analysis presented is demonstrated by comparing the results with solutions derived from other higher order models and with data found in the literature. It can be concluded that the proposed theory is accurate and simple in solving the static, the buckling, and free vibration behaviors of laminated composite plates.
A simple higher order shear deformation theory for mechanical behavior of laminated composite plates
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Adim, Belkacem; Daouadji, Tahar Hassaine; Rabahi, Aberezak
2016-05-01
In the present study, the static, buckling, and free vibration of laminated composite plates is examined using a refined shear deformation theory and developed for a bending analysis of orthotropic laminated composite plates. These models take into account the parabolic distribution of transverse shear stresses and satisfy the condition of zero shear stresses on the top and bottom surfaces of the plates. The most interesting feature of this theory is that it allows for parabolic distributions of transverse shear stresses across the plate thickness and satisfies the conditions of zero shear stresses at the top and bottom surfaces of the plate without using shear correction factors. The number of independent unknowns in the present theory is four, as against five in other shear deformation theories. In the analysis, the equation of motion for simply supported thick laminated rectangular plates is obtained through the use of Hamilton's principle. The accuracy of the analysis presented is demonstrated by comparing the results with solutions derived from other higher order models and with data found in the literature. It can be concluded that the proposed theory is accurate and simple in solving the static, the buckling, and free vibration behaviors of laminated composite plates.
A theoretical basis for the acousto-ultrasonic evaluation of composite laminates
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kiernan, M. T.; Duke, J. C., Jr.
1989-01-01
The application of the acousto-ultrasonic (AU) technique to composite laminates involves imparting a mechanical excitation to the surface of a composite plate to create a mechanical disturbance within the material. At the same time, a transducer is used at another location on the same or another surface of the material to sense vibrations (ultrasonic waves) caused by the disturbance. Experimental results are presented and related to concepts of through-thickness-transverse resonance and plate wave theory.
Li, Weibin; Xu, Chunguang; Cho, Younho
2016-01-01
Laminate composites which are widely used in the aeronautical industry, are usually subjected to frequency variation of environmental temperature and excessive humidity in the in-service environment. The thermal fatigue and moisture absorption in composites may induce material degradation. There is a demand to investigate the coupling damages mechanism and characterize the degradation evolution of composite laminates for the particular application. In this paper, the degradation evolution in unidirectional carbon/epoxy composite laminates subjected to thermal fatigue and moisture absorption is characterized by Lamb waves. The decrease rate of Lamb wave velocity is used to track the degradation evolution in the specimens. The results show that there are two stages for the progressive degradation of composites under the coupling effect of thermal cyclic loading and moisture diffusion. The present work provides an alternative to monitoring the degradation evolution of in-service aircraft composite Laminates. PMID:26907283
Li, Weibin; Xu, Chunguang; Cho, Younho
2016-01-01
Laminate composites which are widely used in the aeronautical industry, are usually subjected to frequency variation of environmental temperature and excessive humidity in the in-service environment. The thermal fatigue and moisture absorption in composites may induce material degradation. There is a demand to investigate the coupling damages mechanism and characterize the degradation evolution of composite laminates for the particular application. In this paper, the degradation evolution in unidirectional carbon/epoxy composite laminates subjected to thermal fatigue and moisture absorption is characterized by Lamb waves. The decrease rate of Lamb wave velocity is used to track the degradation evolution in the specimens. The results show that there are two stages for the progressive degradation of composites under the coupling effect of thermal cyclic loading and moisture diffusion. The present work provides an alternative to monitoring the degradation evolution of in-service aircraft composite Laminates. PMID:26907283
Torque Limit for Bolted Joint for Composites. Part A; TTTC Properties of Laminated Composites
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Zhao, Yi
2003-01-01
The existing design code for torque limit of bolted joints for composites at Marshall Space Flight Center is MSFC-STD-486B, which was originally developed in 1960s for metallic materials. The theoretical basis for this code was a simplified mechanics analysis, which takes into account only the bolt, nut and washers, but not the structural members to be connected. The assumption was that metallic materials would not fail due to the bearing stress at the contact area between washer and the mechanical member. This is true for metallic materials; but for composite materials the results could be completely different. Unlike most metallic materials, laminated composite materials have superior mechanical properties (such as modulus and strength) in the in-plane direction, but not in the out-of-plane, or through-the-thickness (TTT) direction. During the torquing, TTT properties (particularly compressive modulus and compressive strength) play a dominant role in composite failure. Because of this concern, structural design engineers at Marshall are currently using a compromised empirical approach: using 50% of the torque value for composite members. Companies like Boeing is using a similar approach. An initial study was conducted last summer on this topic to develop theoretical model(s) that takes into consideration of composite members. Two simplified models were developed based on stress failure criterion and strain failure criterion, respective. However, these models could not be used to predict the torque limit because of the unavailability of material data, specifically, through-the-thickness compression (TTTC) modulus and strength. Therefore, the task for this summer is to experimentally determine the TTTC properties. Due to the time limitation, only one material has been tested: IM7/8552 with [0 degrees,plus or minus 45 degrees, 90 degree ] configuration. This report focuses the test results and their significance, while the experimentation will be described in a
Dorrell, L.; Roach, D.
1999-03-04
The rapidly increasing use of composites on commercial airplanes coupled with the potential for economic savings associated with their use in aircraft structures means that the demand for composite materials technology will continue to increase. Inspecting these composite structures is a critical element in assuring their continued airworthiness. The FAA's Airworthiness Assurance NDI Validation Center, in conjunction with the Commercial Aircraft Composite Repair Committee (CACRC), is developing a set of composite reference standards to be used in NDT equipment calibration for accomplishment of damage assessment and post-repair inspection of all commercial aircraft composites. In this program, a series of NDI tests on a matrix of composite aircraft structures and prototype reference standards were completed in order to minimize the number of standards needed to carry out composite inspections on aircraft. Two tasks, related to composite laminates and non-metallic composite honeycomb configurations, were addressed. A suite of 64 honeycomb panels, representing the bounding conditions of honeycomb construction on aircraft, were inspected using a wide array of NDI techniques. An analysis of the resulting data determined the variables that play a key role in setting up NDT equipment. This has resulted in a prototype set of minimum honeycomb reference standards that include these key variables. A sequence of subsequent tests determined that this minimum honeycomb reference standard set is able to fully support inspections over the fill range of honeycomb construction scenarios. Current tasks are aimed at optimizing the methods used to engineer realistic flaws into the specimens. In the solid composite laminate arena, we have identified what appears to be an excellent candidate, G11 Phenolic, as a generic solid laminate reference standard material. Testing to date has determined matches in key velocity and acoustic impedance properties, as well as, low attenuation relative
Structural Design and Analysis of a Light-Weight Laminated Composite Heat Sink for Spaceflight PWBs
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Fan, Mark S.; Niemeyer, W. Lee
1997-01-01
In order to reduce the overall weight in spaceborne electronic systems, a conventional metallic heat sink typically used for double-sided printed wiring boards was suggested to be replaced by light-weight and high-strength laminated composite materials. Through technology validation assurance (TVA) approach, it has been successfully demonstrated that using laminated composite heat sink can not only reduce the weight of the heat sink by nearly 50%, but also significantly lower the internal thermally-induced stresses that are largely responsible for potential delamination under cyclic temperature variations. With composite heat sink, both thermal and dynamic performance of the double-sided printed wiring board (PWB) exceeds that of its counterpart with metallic heat sink. Also included in this work is the original contribution to the understanding of creep behavior of the worst-case leadless chip carrier (LCC) surface mount solder joint. This was identified as the interconnection most susceptible to thermal fatigue damage in the PWB assembly.
Damage evolution and mechanical response of cross-ply ceramic composite laminates
Weitsman, Y.; Yu, N.; Zhu, H.
1995-12-31
A mechanistic model for the damage evolution and mechanical response of cross-ply ceramic composite laminates under monotonically increasing uniaxial tension is presented. The model accounts for a variety of damage mechanisms evolving in cross-ply ceramic composite laminates, such as fiber-bridged matrix cracks in 0{degrees}-plies, transversely oriented matrix cracks in 90{degrees}-plies, and slips at 0{degrees}/90{degrees} ply interfaces as well as at the fiber/matrix interfaces. Energy criteria are developed to determine the creation and progression of matrix cracks and slip zones. The model predicts that the crack density in 0{degrees}-plies becomes higher than that within the 90{degrees}-plies as the applied load is incrementally increased, which agrees with the experimental observation. It is also shown that the model provides a reasonable prediction for the nonlinear stress-strain behavior of crossply SiC/CAS ceramic composites.
Laminated composite of magnetic alloy powder and ceramic powder and process for making same
Moorhead, A.J.; Kim, H.
1999-08-10
A laminated composite structure of alternating metal powder layers, and layers formed of an inorganic bonding media powder, and a method for manufacturing same are disclosed. The method includes the steps of assembling in a cavity alternating layers of a metal powder and an inorganic bonding media of a ceramic, glass, and glass-ceramic. Heat, with or without pressure, is applied to the alternating layers until the particles of the metal powder are sintered together and bonded into the laminated composite structure by the layers of sintered inorganic bonding media to form a strong composite structure. The method finds particular application in the manufacture of high performance magnets wherein the metal powder is a magnetic alloy powder. 9 figs.
Laminated composite of magnetic alloy powder and ceramic powder and process for making same
Moorhead, Arthur J.; Kim, Hyoun-Ee
1999-01-01
A laminated composite structure of alternating metal powder layers, and layers formed of an inorganic bonding media powder, and a method for manufacturing same are discosed. The method includes the steps of assembling in a cavity alternating layers of a metal powder and an inorganic bonding media of a ceramic, glass, and glass-ceramic. Heat, with or without pressure, is applied to the alternating layers until the particles of the metal powder are sintered together and bonded into the laminated composite structure by the layers of sintered inorganic bonding media to form a strong composite structure. The method finds particular application in the manufacture of high performance magnets wherein the metal powder is a magnetic alloy powder.
CFRP sandwiched facesheets inspected by pulsed thermography
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Huijuan; Huo, Yan; Cai, Liangxu; Huang, Zhenhua
2010-10-01
Carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) has been always used in aerospace, Sandwiched structures composed by a honeycomb core between two multi-layer CFRP facesheets are very common on aerospace parts. As to the application of the CFRP sandwiched facesheets is extended, The demand for quality control of CFRP sandwiched composites is increasing, Infrared thermography is one of several non-destructive testing techniques which can be used for defect detection in aircraft materials such as carbon-fibre-reinforced composites. Infrared thermography can be potentially useful, as it is quick, real time, non-contact and can examine over a relatively large area in one inspection procedure. The technique is based on heating the sample surface with different heat sources and monitoring the surface temperature of the sample with an IR camera, any abnormal behavior of the surface temperature distribution indicates the subsurface defect. This kind of structure is normally affected by anomalies such as delaminations, disbonding, water ingressing to the core. in this paper, several different kinds of defects which are of various size and depth below the test surface are planted in the CFRP composites, the Teflon inserts between the plies in the facesheet represents the delaminations, the Teflon inserts between the inner facesheet and adhensive or between adhensive and core are simulated disbonding in the composites, they are all tested by pulsed thermography, meanwhile, these samples are also inspected by ultrasonic testing, compare with each characteristic and the results got by these two different methods, it shows that pulsed thermography is an effective nondestructive technique for inspecting CFRP composites.
A procedure for utilization of a damage-dependent constitutive model for laminated composites
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lo, David C.; Allen, David H.; Harris, Charles E.
1992-01-01
Described here is the procedure for utilizing a damage constitutive model to predict progressive damage growth in laminated composites. In this model, the effects of the internal damage are represented by strain-like second order tensorial damage variables and enter the analysis through damage dependent ply level and laminate level constitutive equations. The growth of matrix cracks due to fatigue loading is predicted by an experimentally based damage evolutionary relationship. This model is incorporated into a computer code called FLAMSTR. This code is capable of predicting the constitutive response and matrix crack damage accumulation in fatigue loaded laminated composites. The structure and usage of FLAMSTR are presented along with sample input and output files to assist the code user. As an example problem, an analysis of crossply laminates subjected to two stage fatigue loading was conducted and the resulting damage accumulation and stress redistribution were examined to determine the effect of variations in fatigue load amplitude applied during the first stage of the load history. It was found that the model predicts a significant loading history effect on damage evolution.
Kam, Chee Zhou; Kueh, Ahmad Beng Hong
2013-01-01
A laminated composite plate element with an interface description is developed using the finite element approach to investigate the bending performance of two-layer cross-ply laminated composite plates in presence of a diagonally perturbed localized interfacial degeneration between laminae. The stiffness of the laminate is expressed through the assembly of the stiffnesses of lamina sub-elements and interface element, the latter of which is formulated adopting the well-defined virtually zero-thickness concept. To account for the extent of both shear and axial weak bonding, a degeneration ratio is introduced in the interface formulation. The model has the advantage of simulating a localized weak bonding at arbitrary locations, with various degeneration areas and intensities, under the influence of numerous boundary conditions since the interfacial description is expressed discretely. Numerical results show that the bending behavior of laminate is significantly affected by the aforementioned parameters, the greatest effect of which is experienced by those with a localized total interface degeneration, representing the case of local delamination. PMID:24319360
Kueh, Ahmad Beng Hong
2013-01-01
A laminated composite plate element with an interface description is developed using the finite element approach to investigate the bending performance of two-layer cross-ply laminated composite plates in presence of a diagonally perturbed localized interfacial degeneration between laminae. The stiffness of the laminate is expressed through the assembly of the stiffnesses of lamina sub-elements and interface element, the latter of which is formulated adopting the well-defined virtually zero-thickness concept. To account for the extent of both shear and axial weak bonding, a degeneration ratio is introduced in the interface formulation. The model has the advantage of simulating a localized weak bonding at arbitrary locations, with various degeneration areas and intensities, under the influence of numerous boundary conditions since the interfacial description is expressed discretely. Numerical results show that the bending behavior of laminate is significantly affected by the aforementioned parameters, the greatest effect of which is experienced by those with a localized total interface degeneration, representing the case of local delamination. PMID:24319360
Convergence of strain energy release rate components for edge-delaminated composite laminates
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Raju, I. S.; Crews, J. H., Jr.; Aminpour, M. A.
1987-01-01
Strain energy release rates for edge delaminated composite laminates were obtained using quasi 3 dimensional finite element analysis. The problem of edge delamination at the -35/90 interfaces of an 8-ply composite laminate subjected to uniform axial strain was studied. The individual components of the strain energy release rates did not show convergence as the delamination tip elements were made smaller. In contrast, the total strain energy release rate converged and remained unchanged as the delamination tip elements were made smaller and agreed with that calculated using a classical laminated plate theory. The studies of the near field solutions for a delamination at an interface between two dissimilar isotropic or orthotropic plates showed that the imaginary part of the singularity is the cause of the nonconvergent behavior of the individual components. To evaluate the accuracy of the results, an 8-ply laminate with the delamination modeled in a thin resin layer, that exists between the -35 and 90 plies, was analyzed. Because the delamination exists in a homogeneous isotropic material, the oscillatory component of the singularity vanishes.
Real-time integrity monitoring of composite laminates with magnetostrictive sensory layer
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kumar, Anand; Bhattacharya, Bishakh
2008-12-01
Fundamental research and development in smart materials and structures have shown great potential for enhancing the functionality, serviceability and increased life span of civil and mechanical infrastructure systems. Researchers from diverse disciplines have been drawn into vigorous efforts to develop smart and intelligent structures that can monitor their own conditions, detect impending failure, control damage and adapt to changing environments. Smart structures are generally created through synthesis by combining sensing, processing and actuating elements integrated with conventional structural materials. The conventional non-destructive evaluation techniques are not very effective in monitoring the structural integrity of composite structures due to their micro-mechanical complexities. With the commercial availability of the magnetostrictive (MS) material Terfenol-D in particulate form, it is now feasible to develop particulate sensors to detect damage with minimum effect on structural integrity. In present investigation, the electromagnetic response in the MS layer at the onset of delamination in one of the weakest ply of the composite laminate has been analyzed. For the numerical analysis symmetric and asymmetric carbon epoxy laminates with one of its layers embedded with Terfenol-D particles have been taken. Terfenol-D layer experiences a change in stress due to onset of delamination causing a change in its magnetic state, which can be sensed as induced open circuit voltage in the sensing coil enclosing the laminate beam. The effect of material properties, lamination schemes and placement of MS layer on the sensing capabilities has been analyzed.
Strength and fatigue life evaluation of composite laminate with embedded sensors
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rathod, Vivek T.; Hiremath, S. R.; Roy Mahapatra, D.
2014-04-01
Prognosis regarding durability of composite structures using various Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) techniques is an important and challenging topic of research. Ultrasonic SHM systems with embedded transducers have potential application here due to their instant monitoring capability, compact packaging potential toward unobtrusiveness and noninvasiveness as compared to non-contact ultrasonic and eddy current techniques which require disassembly of the structure. However, embedded sensors pose a risk to the structure by acting as a flaw thereby reducing life. The present paper focuses on the determination of strength and fatigue life of the composite laminate with embedded film sensors like CNT nanocomposite, PVDF thin films and piezoceramic films. First, the techniques of embedding these sensors in composite laminates is described followed by the determination of static strength and fatigue life at coupon level testing in Universal Testing Machine (UTM). Failure mechanisms of the composite laminate with embedded sensors are studied for static and dynamic loading cases. The coupons are monitored for loading and failure using the embedded sensors. A comparison of the performance of these three types of embedded sensors is made to study their suitability in various applications. These three types of embedded sensors cover a wide variety of applications, and prove to be viable in embedded sensor based SHM of composite structures.
Short beam shear tests of polymeric laminates and unidirectional composites
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Stinchcomb, W. W.; Henneke, E. G.
1980-01-01
The application of advanced composite materials in aerospace, ground transportation, and sporting industries are discussed. Failure theories for the design and mechanical behavior of composite materials are emphasized. Methods for detecting specific types of flaws are outlined. The effect of detected flaws on mechanical properties such as stiffness, strength, fatigue lifetime, or residual strength is described.
Boundary layer thermal stresses in angle-ply composite laminates, part 1. [graphite-epoxy composites
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wang, S. S.; Choi, I.
1981-01-01
Thermal boundary-layer stresses (near free edges) and displacements were determined by a an eigenfunction expansion technique and the establishment of an appropriate particular solution. Current solutions in the region away from the singular domain (free edge) are found to be excellent agreement with existing approximate numerical results. As the edge is approached, the singular term controls the near field behavior of the boundary layer. Results are presented for cases of various angle-ply graphite/epoxy laminates with (theta/-theta/theta/theta) configurations. These results show high interlaminar (through-the-thickness) stresses. Thermal boundary-layer thicknesses of different composite systems are determined by examining the strain energy density distribution in composites. It is shown that the boundary-layer thickness depends on the degree of anisotropy of each individual lamina, thermomechanical properties of each ply, and the relative thickness of adjacent layers. The interlaminar thermal stresses are compressive with increasing temperature. The corresponding residual stresses are tensile and may enhance interply delaminations.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shang, Shen; Yun, Gun Jin; Qiao, Pizhong
2010-05-01
In this paper, a new model-based delamination detection methodology is presented for laminated composite plates and its performance is studied both numerically and experimentally. This methodology consists of two main parts: (1) modal analysis of an undamaged baseline finite element (FE) model and experimental modal testing of panels with delamination damage at single or multiple locations and (2) a sensitivity based subset selection technique for single or multiple delamination damage localizations. As an identification model, a higher-order finite element model is combined with a rational micromechanics-based CDM model which defines the delamination damage parameter as a ratio of delaminated area to entire area. The subset selection technique based on sensitivity of the dynamic residual force has been known to be capable of detecting multiple damage locations. However, there has been no experimental study specifically for the applications in laminated composite structures. To implement the methodology, a sensitivity matrix for the laminated composite plate model has been derived. Applications of the proposed methodology to an E-glass/epoxy symmetric composite panel composed of 16 plies [CSM/UM1208/3 layers of C1800]s = [CSM/0/(90/0)3]s with delamination damage are demonstrated both numerically and experimentally. A non-contact scanning laser vibrometer (SLV), a lead zirconate titanate (PZT) actuator and a polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) sensor are used to conduct experimental modal testing. From the experimental example, capabilities of the proposed methodology for damage identification are successfully demonstrated for a 2D laminated composite panel. Furthermore, various damage scenarios are considered to show its performance and detailed results are discussed for future improvements.
Simulated and Experimental Damping Properties of a SMA/Fiber Glass Laminated Composite
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Arnaboldi, S.; Bassani, P.; Biffi, C. A.; Tuissi, A.; Carnevale, M.; Lecis, N.; Loconte, A.; Previtali, B.
2011-07-01
In this article, an advanced laminated composite is developed, combining the high damping properties of shape memory alloy (SMA) with mechanical properties and light weight of a glass-fiber reinforced polymer. The composite is formed by stacking a glass-fiber reinforced epoxy core between two thin patterned strips of SMA alloy, and two further layers of fiber-glass reinforced epoxy. The bars of the laminated composite were assembled and cured in autoclave. The patterning was designed to enhance the interface adhesion between matrix and SMA inserts and optimally exploit the damping capacity of the SMA thin ribbons. The patterned ribbons of the SMA alloy were cut by means of a pulsed fiber laser source. Damping properties at different amplitudes on full scale samples were investigated at room temperature with a universal testing machine through dynamic tension tests, while temperature dependence was investigated by dynamic mechanical analyses (DMA) on smaller samples. Experimental results were used in conjunction with FEM analysis to optimize the geometry of the inserts. Experimental decay tests on the laminated composite have been carried out to identify the adimensional damping value related to their first flexural mode.
Ye, L.; Afaghi-Khatibi, A.; Mai, Y.W.
1997-12-31
The main objective of this study was to evaluate the residual strength of fiber reinforced metal laminates (FRMLs) and polymer matrix composite laminates (PMCLs) with a circular hole or sharp notch using an effective crack growth model (ECGM). Damage is assumed to initiate when the local normal stress at the hole edge/notch tip reaches the tensile strength or yield strength of the composite and metal layers, respectively. The damage in the constituent materials was modelled by fictitious cracks with cohesive stress acting on the crack surfaces, and the damage growth was simulated by extension of the fictitious cracks step by step and reduction of the cohesive stress with crack opening. The apparent fracture energy of composite layers and fracture toughness of metal layers were used to define the relationships between the tensile/yield strength and the critical crack opening. Based on the global equilibrium, an iterative technique was developed to evaluate the applied load required to produce the damage growth. The residual strength of notched composite laminates was defined by instability of the applied load and damage growth. The effect of hole/notch size on the residual strength was studied and the stress redistribution with damage growth was discussed. The residual strength simulated from ECGM correlated well with experimental data in the open literature.
Thermal shock behavior of alumina/MoSi2 plasma sprayed laminated composites
Castro, R. G.; Petrovic, J. J.; Vaidya, R. U.; Mendoza, D.
2001-01-01
Alumina (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) is very susceptible to thermal shock, which leads to strength degradation. By reinforcing Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} with molybdenum disilicide (MoSi{sub 2}) layers, the tolerance to damage caused by thermal shock can be improved. The thermal shock resistance of plasma sprayed Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/MoSi{sub 2} laminated composites were investigated. Three laminate microstructures having different layer thickness were fabricated by atmospheric plasma spraying while maintaining a 50/50-volume fraction. Quenching experiments done on 4-point bend bars showed a gradual decrease in the strength as the change in temperature ({Delta}T) increased. Thermal shock resistant parameters (R{prime} and R-quadruple prime) provided a representative numerical value of the thermal shock resistance for the laminated composites. The corresponding material properties for the different microstructures were determined experimentally in order to calculate the R{prime} and R quadruple prime values. The intermediate layered composite showed the highest R-quadruple prime va1ue at 1061 {micro}m, while the thin layered composite had the highest R{prime} value at 474 W/m.
Micromechanics of compression failures in open hole composite laminates
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Guynn, E. Gail; Bradley, Walter L.
1987-01-01
The high strength-to-weight ratio of composite materials is ideally suited for aerospace applications where they already are used in commercial and military aircraft secondary structures and will soon be used for heavily loaded primary structures. One area impeding the widespread application of composites is their inherent weakness in compressive strength when compared to the tensile properties of the same material. Furthermore, these airframe designs typically contain many bolted or riveted joints, as well as electrical and hydraulic control lines. These applications produce areas of stress concentration, and thus, further complicate the compression failure problem. Open hole compression failures which represent a typical failure mode for composite materials are addressed.
Deng, S.; Weitsman, Y.J.
2000-03-01
This report presents experimental and analytical results of investigations on the mechanical response of stitched T300 mat/urethane 420 IMR composite laminates with three different lay-up configurations. Tensile tests and short-term creep and recovery tests were conducted on the laminate coupons at various orientations. The X-ray photographic technique was adopted to detect the internal damage due to external loading history. The tensile data of laminates with antisymmetric and symmetric lay-ups indicated that lay- up sequences of cross-ply laminates do not have much influence on their tensile properties. However, misalignments within the stitch-bonded plies disturb the symmetry of intended quasi-isotropic laminates and thereby cause the mechanical properties to exhibit a certain amount of angular dependence. Classic lamination theory was found to be able to provide a very good prediction of tensile properties for the stitched laminates within linear range. Creep and recovery response of laminate coupons is greatly dependent on loading angles and load levels. The internal damage of laminate coupons is also directly related to loading angles and load levels as well as loading history.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lee, S.-W. Ricky; Li, H. L.
1998-06-01
A new actuation principle is introduced in this paper to drive a rotary motor by an anisotropic piezoelectric composite laminate. The driving element is a three layer laminated beam with piezoceramics sandwiched between two anti-symmetric composite laminae. By taking advantage of material anisotropy, torsional motion can be induced from in-plane strain actuation. With this structural coupling, a rotary motor can be implemented. In addition to analytical formulation and conceptual design, a prototype has been fabricated. Actual motion was observed in the laboratory to verify the proposed actuation principle. The prototype was characterized for rotating speed, torque, power output, efficiency and stability. The performance of this new piezoelectric motor is discussed in detail.
Low pressure process for continuous fiber reinforced polyamic acid resin matrix composite laminates
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Druyun, Darleen A. (Inventor); Hou, Tan-Hung (Inventor); Kidder, Paul W. (Inventor); Reddy, Rakasi M. (Inventor); Baucom, Robert M. (Inventor)
1994-01-01
A low pressure processor was developed for preparing a well-consolidated polyimide composite laminate. Prepreg plies were formed from unidirectional fibers and a polyamic acid resin solution. Molding stops were placed at the sides of a matched metal die mold. The prepreg plies were cut shorter than the length of the mold in the in-plane lateral direction and were stacked between the molding stops to a height which was higher than the molding stops. The plies were then compressed to the height of the stops and heated to allow the volatiles to escape and to start the imidization reaction. After removing the stops from the mold, the heat was increased and 0 - 500 psi was applied to complete the imidization reaction. The heat and pressure were further increased to form a consolidated polyimide composite laminate.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Muzakkar, M. Z.; Ahmad, S.; Yarmo, M. A.; Jalar, A.; Bijarimi, M.
2013-04-01
In this work, we studied the effect of surface treatment on the aluminium surface and a coupling agent to improve adhesion between aluminium with organic polymer. Thermoplastic natural rubber (TPNR) matrix was prepared by melt blending of natural rubber (NR), liquid natural rubber (LNR) compatibilizer, linear low density polyethylene (LLDPE) and polyethylene grafted maleic anhydride (PE-g-MAH). The PEgMAH concentration used was varied from 0% - 25%. In addition, the aluminium surface was pre-treated with 3-glycidoxy propyl trimethoxy silane (3-GPS) to enhance the mechanical properties of laminated composite. It was found that the shear strength of single lap joint Al-TPNR laminated composite showing an increasing trend as a function of PE-g-MAH contents for the 3-GPS surface treated aluminium. Moreover, the scanning electron microscope (SEM) revealed that the strength improvement was associated with the chemical state of the compound involved.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hou, H.-C.; Kirby, B. J.; Gao, K. Z.; Lai, C.-H.
2013-04-01
We have studied the N-dependent switching behavior of composite magnets, comprised of a hard CoPtCr-SiO2 (CPCS) film and a laminated soft [Pt/CPCS]N multilayer. First order reversal curve magnetometry provides evidence of interfacial domain wall (iDW) assisted reversal for N ≥ 5. The magnetic depth profiles determined from polarized neutron reflectometry (PNR) explicitly demonstrate that the composite magnets are more rigidly coupled for N = 3 than for N = 7, and suggest that for N = 7 reversal occurs via formation of iDW. By fitting the PNR profile into the energy surface calculations, we can further deduce the vertical coupling strength in the laminated soft layer.
Damping measurements of laminated composite materials and aluminum using the hysteresis loop method
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Abramovich, H.; Govich, D.; Grunwald, A.
2015-10-01
The damping characteristics of composite laminates made of Hexply 8552 AGP 280-5H (fabric), used for structural elements in aeronautical vehicles, have been investigated in depth using the hysteresis loop method and compared to the results for aluminum specimens (2024 T351). It was found that the loss factor, η, obtained by the hysteresis loop method is linearly dependent only on the applied excitation frequency and is independent of the preloading and the stress amplitudes. For the test specimens used in the present tests series, it was found that the damping of the aluminum specimens is higher than the composite ones for longitudinal direction damping, while for bending vibrations the laminates exhibited higher damping values.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Johnston, Patrick H.; Appleget, Chelsea D.; Odarczenko, Michael T.
2012-01-01
Delaminations and transverse matrix cracks often appear concurrently in composite laminates. Normal-incidence ultrasound is excellent at detecting delaminations, but is not optimum for matrix cracks. Non-normal incidence, or polar backscattering, has been shown to optimally detect matrix cracks oriented perpendicular to the ultrasonic plane of incidence. In this work, a series of six composite laminates containing slots were loaded in tension to achieve various levels of delamination and ply cracking. Ultrasonic backscattering was measured over a range of incident polar and azimuthal angles, in order to characterize the relative degree of damage of the two types. Sweptpolar- angle measurements were taken with a curved phased array, as a step toward an array-based approach to simultaneous measurement of combined flaws.
Characterization of E-glass/polyester woven fabric composite laminates and tubes
Guess, T.R.; Reedy, E.D. Jr.; Stavig, M.E.
1995-12-01
This report describes an experimental study that supported the LDRD program ``A General Approach for Analyzing Composite Structures``. The LDRD was a tightly coupled analytical / experimental effort to develop models for predicting post-yield progressive failure in E-glass fabric/polyester composites subjected to a variety of loading conditions. Elastic properties, fracture toughness parameters, and failure responses were measured on flat laminates, rings and tubes to support the development and validation of material and structural models. Test procedures and results are presented for laminates tested in tension, compression, flexure, short beam shear, double cantilever beam Mode I fracture toughness, and end notched flexure Mode II fracture toughness. Structural responses, including failure, of rings loaded in diametral compression and tubes tested in axial compression, are also documented.
Delamination growth behavior of a fabric reinforced laminated composite under Mode I fatigue
Atodaria, D.R.; Putatunda, S.K.; Mallick, P.K.
1999-07-01
The purpose of this study is to investigate the delamination growth behavior of a glass fabric reinforced laminated composite under Mode I fatigue loading and to examine the applicability of a new fatigue crack growth rate model to this material. In this study, double cantilever beam specimens were subjected to tension-tension cyclic loads with three different load ratios and the delamination growth rate was measured using the compliance method. The delamination growth rate was related to the strain energy release rate during fatigue cycling by a power law equation that takes into account not only the effect of the strain energy release rate range, but also the effect of delamination growth at various stages of loading using a weight average strain energy release rate. It was observed that this new model can represent the delamination growth rate of the fabric reinforced laminated composite at three different load ratios in a single unifying curve.
Thermally-induced interlaminar crack-tip singularities in laminated anisotropic composites
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Choi, Hyung J.; Thangjitham, S.
1993-04-01
Thermally-induced stress singularities of an interlaminar crack in a fiber-reinforced composite laminate under a state of generalized plane deformation are examined within the framework of steady-state anisotropic thermoelasticity. The crack is assumed to be embedded within a matrix-rich interlaminar region of the composite. The Fourier integral transform technique and the flexibility/stiffness matrix method are introduced to formulate the current mixed boundary value problem. As a result, two sets of simultaneous Cauchy-type singular integral equations of the first kind are derived for the heat conduction and thermoelasticity. Within the context of linear elastic fracture mechanics, the mixed-mode thermal stress intensity factors are defined in terms of the solutions of the corresponding integral equations. Numerical results are presented, addressing the effects of laminate stacking sequence, crack 1ocation, and crack surface partial insulation on the values of thermal stress intensity factors.
The propagation of coupled Lamb waves in multilayered arbitrary anisotropic composite laminates
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cunfu, He; Hongye, Liu; Zenghua, Liu; Bin, Wu
2013-12-01
Based on linear three-dimensional elasticity theory, the wave equations of coupled Lamb waves in multilayered arbitrary anisotropic composite laminates are derived using a Legendre orthogonal polynomial approach. The elastodynamic solution for the propagation of coupled Lamb waves in composite plates is also presented to determine the characteristics of coupled Lamb waves. To verify the applicability and validity of the method, two cases of bi-layered plates formed with isotropic components and anisotropic components, respectively, are primarily manipulated for comparison with earlier known results. Next, the dispersion curves, displacements and stress distributions of Lamb waves in multilayered anisotropic laminates are calculated. The effects of coupling and fiber orientation on the characteristics of the Lamb waves are illustrated. The potential usefulness of the fundamental modes of the coupled Lamb waves is discussed in detail.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Benamar, R.; White, R. G.; Bennouna, M. M. K.
It is shown that the theoretical model presented by Benamar et al. for nonlinear vibration of thin flat structures can be extended to laminated plates, allowing the calculation of the amplitude-dependent fundamental mode shape and the corresponding natural frequencies. The high dependence of the contribution coefficients and the natural frequency of displacement amplitude, demonstrated here for a CFRP plate, shows how the assumption of linearity can be inaccurate for laminated plates. The higher nonlinearity obtained for composite plates both theoretically and experimentally appears to be a consequence of higher in-plane stiffnesses, inducing a higher contribution of the axial strain energy to the total strain energy at large displacement amplitudes.
A study of fracture phenomena in fiber composite laminates. Ph.D. Thesis
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Konish, H. J., Jr.
1973-01-01
The extension of linear elastic fracture mechanics from ostensibly homogeneous isotropic metallic alloys to heterogeneous anisotropic advanced fiber composites is considered. It is analytically demonstrated that the effects of material anisotropy do not alter the principal characteristics exhibited by a crack in an isotropic material. The heterogeneity of fiber composites is experimentally shown to have a negligible effect on the behavior of a sufficiently long crack. A method is proposed for predicting the fracture strengths of a large class of composite laminates; the values predicted by this method show good agreement with limited experimental data. The limits imposed by material heterogeneity are briefly discussed, and areas for further study are recommended.
Rate of energy release and crack initiation directions for laminated composites
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dutta, Debasish
2016-04-01
Controlling the mechanical behavior of composite materials and structures under monotonic and dynamic loads for damage is a vast and complex area of research. The modeling of the physical phenomena of different characteristic behavior of a composite material during deformation plays an important role in the structural design. Our study aims to analyze numerically the energy release rate G of a composite laminated plate glass/epoxy cross [+α, α] in the presence of a crack between two circular notches in effect several parameters such as fiber orientation α, the orientation of the crack orientation β, γ considered two circular notches and the effects of several parameters.
Method for alleviating thermal stress damage in laminates. [metal matrix composites
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hoffman, C. A.; Weeton, J. W.; Orth, N. W. (Inventor)
1980-01-01
A method is provided for alleviating the stress damage in metallic matrix composites, such as laminated sheet or foil composites. Discontinuities are positively introduced into the interface between the layers so as to reduce the thermal stress produced by unequal expansion of the materials making up the composite. Although a number of discrete elements could be used to form one of the layers and thus carry out this purpose, the discontinuities are preferably produced by simply drilling holes in the metallic matrix layer or by forming grooves in a grid pattern in this layer.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Starbuck, J. Michael; Guerdal, Zafer; Pindera, Marek-Jerzy; Poe, Clarence C.
1990-01-01
Damage states in laminated composites were studied by considering the model problem of a laminated beam subjected to three-point bending. A combination of experimental and theoretical research techniques was used to correlate the experimental results with the analytical stress distributions. The analytical solution procedure was based on the stress formulation approach of the mathematical theory of elasticity. The solution procedure is capable of calculating the ply-level stresses and beam displacements for any laminated beam of finite length using the generalized plane deformation or plane stress state assumption. Prior to conducting the experimental phase, the results from preliminary analyses were examined. Significant effects in the ply-level stress distributions were seen depending on the fiber orientation, aspect ratio, and whether or not a grouped or interspersed stacking sequence was used. The experimental investigation was conducted to determine the different damage modes in laminated three-point bend specimens. The test matrix consisted of three-point bend specimens of 0 deg unidirectional, cross-ply, and quasi-isotropic stacking sequences. The dependence of the damage initiation loads and ultimate failure loads were studied, and their relation to damage susceptibility and damage tolerance of the mean configuration was discussed. Damage modes were identified by visual inspection of the damaged specimens using an optical microscope. The four fundamental damage mechanisms identified were delaminations, matrix cracking, fiber breakage, and crushing. The correlation study between the experimental results and the analytical results were performed for the midspan deflection, indentation, damage modes, and damage susceptibility.
Energy harvesting device based on a metallic glass/PVDF magnetoelectric laminated composite
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lasheras, A.; Gutiérrez, J.; Reis, S.; Sousa, D.; Silva, M.; Martins, P.; Lanceros-Mendez, S.; Barandiarán, J. M.; Shishkin, D. A.; Potapov, A. P.
2015-06-01
A flexible, low-cost energy-harvesting device based on the magnetoelectric (ME) effect was designed using Fe64Co17Si7B12 as amorphous magnetostrictive ribbons and polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) as the piezoelectric element. A 3 cm-long sandwich-type laminated composite was fabricated by gluing the ribbons to the PVDF with an epoxy resin. A voltage multiplier circuit was designed to produce enough voltage to charge a battery. The power output and power density obtained were 6.4 μW and 1.5 mW cm-3, respectively, at optimum load resistance and measured at the magnetomechanical resonance of the laminate. The effect of the length of the ME laminate on power output was also studied: the power output exhibited decays proportionally with the length of the ME laminate. Nevertheless, good performance was obtained for a 0.5 cm-long device working at 337 KHz within the low radio frequency (LRF) range.
Photo-induced bending in a light-activated polymer laminated composite.
Mu, Xiaoming; Sowan, Nancy; Tumbic, Julia A; Bowman, Christopher N; Mather, Patrick T; Qi, H Jerry
2015-04-01
Light activated polymers (LAPs) have attracted increasing attention since these materials change their shape and/or behavior in response to light exposure, which serves as an instant, remote and precisely controllable stimulus that enables non-contact control of the material shape and behavior through simple variation in light intensity, wavelength and spatially controlled exposure. These features distinguish LAPs from other active polymers triggered by other stimuli such as heat, electrical field or humidity. Previous examples have resulted in demonstrations in applications such as surface patterning, photo-induced shape memory behavior, and photo-origami. However, in many of these applications, an undesirable limitation has been the requirement to apply and maintain an external load during light irradiation. In this paper, a laminated structure is introduced to provide a pre-programmed stress field, which is then used for photo-induced deformation. This laminated structure is fabricated by bonding a stretched elastomer (NOA65) sheet between two LAP layers. Releasing the elastomer causes contraction and introduces a compressive stress in the LAPs, which are relaxed optically to trigger the desired deformation. A theoretical model is developed to quantitatively examine the laminated composite system, allowing exploration of the design space and optimum design of the laminate. PMID:25690905
Efficient finite element modeling of laminated composite plates based on higher-order theory
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Tessler, Alexander; Saether, Erik
1990-01-01
A simple and efficient three-node plate bending element for the analysis of composite laminates is developed from a variational principle. The deformations due to transverse shear and transverse normal effects are accounted for, allowing accurate predictions in the range of thin to thick plates. The methodology incorporates C(exp 0) and C(exp 1) continuous displacement approximations and yields accurate ply-by-ply predictions of all displacement, strain, and stress variables.
Porosity Measurement in Laminated Composites by Thermography and FEA
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chu, Tsuchin Philip; Russell, Samuel S.; Walker, James L.; Munafo, Paul M. (Technical Monitor)
2001-01-01
This paper presents the correlation between the through-thickness thermal diffusivity and the porosity of composites. Finite element analysis (FEA) was used to determine the transient thermal response of composites that were subjected to laser heating. A series of finite element models were built and thermal responses for isotropic and orthographic materials with various thermal diffusivities subjected to different heating conditions were investigated. Experiments were conducted to verify the models and to estimate the unknown parameters such as the amount of heat flux. The analysis and experimental results show good correlation between thermal diffusivity and porosity in the composite materials. They also show that both laser and flash heating can be used effectively to obtain thermal diffusivity. The current infrared thermography system is developed for use with flash heating. The laser heating models and the FEA results can provide useful tools to develop practical thermal diffusivity measurement scheme using laser heat.
Nondestructive inspection in adhesive-bonded joint CFRP using pulsed phase thermography
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shin, P. H.; Webb, S. C.; Peters, K. J.
2013-05-01
Many forms of damages in fiber reinforcement polymer (FRP) composites are difficult to detect because they occurs in subsurface layers of the composites. One challenging need for inspection capabilities is in adhesively bonded joints between composite components, a common location of premature failure in aerospace structures. This paper investigates pulsed phase thermography (PPT) imaging of fatigue damage in these adhesively bonded joints. Simulated defects were created to calibrate parameters for fatigue loading conditions, PPT imaging parameters, and a damage sizing algorithm for carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) single lap joints. Afterwards, lap joint specimens were fabricated with varying quality of manufacturing. PPT imaging of the pristine specimens revealed defects such as air bubbles, adhesive thickness variations, and weak bonding surface between the laminate and adhesive. Next, fatigue testing was performed and acquired PPT imaging data identified fatigue induced damage prior to final failure cycles. After failure of each sample, those images were confirmed by visual inspections of failure surface.
Delamination onset in polymeric composite laminates under thermal and mechanical loads
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Martin, Roderick H.
1991-01-01
A fracture mechanics damage methodology to predict edge delamination is described. The methodology accounts for residual thermal stresses, cyclic thermal stresses, and cyclic mechanical stresses. The modeling is based on the classical lamination theory and a sublaminate theory. The prediction methodology determines the strain energy release rate, G, at the edge of a laminate and compares it with the fatigue and fracture toughness of the composite. To verify the methodology, isothermal static tests at 23, 125, and 175 C and tension-tension fatigue tests at 23 and 175 C were conducted on laminates. The material system used was a carbon/bismaleimide, IM7/5260. Two quasi-isotropic layups were used. Also, 24 ply unidirectional double cantilever beam specimens were tested to determine the fatigue and fracture toughness of the composite at different temperatures. Raising the temperature had the effect of increasing the value of G at the edge for these layups and also to lower the fatigue and fracture toughness of the composite. The static stress to edge delamination was not affected by temperature but the number of cycles to edge delamination decreased.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, D. H.; Zhang, X.; Sze, K. Y.; Liu, Y.
2016-07-01
In this paper, the extended layerwise method (XLWM), which was developed for laminated composite beams with multiple delaminations and transverse cracks (Li et al. in Int J Numer Methods Eng 101:407-434, 2015), is extended to laminated composite plates. The strong and weak discontinuous functions along the thickness direction are adopted to simulate multiple delaminations and interlaminar interfaces, respectively, whilst transverse cracks are modeled by the extended finite element method (XFEM). The interaction integral method and maximum circumferential tensile criterion are used to calculate the stress intensity factor (SIF) and crack growth angle, respectively. The XLWM for laminated composite plates can accurately predicts the displacement and stress fields near the crack tips and delamination fronts. The thickness distribution of SIF and thus the crack growth angles in different layers can be obtained. These information cannot be predicted by using other existing shell elements enriched by XFEM. Several numerical examples are studied to demonstrate the capabilities of the XLWM in static response analyses, SIF calculations and crack growth predictions.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Amabili, M.; Farhadi, S.
2009-02-01
In the present study, (i) the classical Von Kárman theory, (ii) the first-order shear deformation theory and (iii) the higher-order (third-order) shear deformation theory are compared for studying the nonlinear forced vibrations of isotropic and laminate composite rectangular plates. In particular, the harmonic response in the frequency neighborhood of the fundamental mode of rectangular plates is investigated and the response curves computed by using the three different theories are compared. The boundary conditions of the plates are simply supported with immovable edges. Geometric imperfections are taken into account. Calculations for isotropic and laminated composite plates are presented and results are discussed. For isotropic plates, the frequency-response curves for large-amplitude vibrations obtained by using the three theories are almost coincident. For laminated composite plates, differences arise for relatively thick plates (ratio between the thickness and the edge equal to 0.1), while for thin plates (ratio between the thickness and the edge equal to 0.01), no difference is obtained. For all cases, the first-order shear deformation (with shear correction factor √{3}/2) and the higher-order shear deformation theories give practically coincident results and differences are observed with respect to the classical Von Kárman theory.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hulcher, A. B.; Tiwari, S. N.; Marchello, J. M.; Johnston, Norman J. (Technical Monitor)
2001-01-01
Experiments were carried out at the NASA Langley Research Center automated Fiber placement facility to determine an optimal process for the fabrication of composite materials having polymer film interleaves. A series of experiments was conducted to determine an optimal process for the composite prior to investigation of a process to fabricate laminates with polymer films. The results of the composite tests indicated that a well-consolidated, void-free laminate could be attained. Preliminary interleaf processing trials were then conducted to establish some broad guidelines for film processing. The primary finding of these initial studies was that a two-stage process was necessary in order to process these materials adequately. A screening experiment was then performed to determine the relative influence of the process variables on the quality of the film interface as determined by the wedge peel test method. Parameters that were found to be of minor influence on specimen quality were subsequently held at fixed values enabling a more rapid determination of an optimal process. Optimization studies were then performed by varying the remaining parameters at three film melt processing rates. The resulting peel data were fitted with quadratic response surfaces. Additional specimens were fabricated at levels of high peel strength as predicted by the regression models in an attempt to gage the accuracy of the predicted response and to assess the repeatability of the process. The overall results indicate that quality laminates having film interleaves can be successfully and repeatably fabricated by automated fiber placement.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Axinte, Andrei; Taranu, Nicolae; Bejan, Liliana
2016-05-01
A polymer fabric reinforced composite is a high performance material, which combines strength of the fibres with the flexibility and ductility of the matrix. For a better drapeability, the tows of fibres are interleaved, resulting the woven fabric, used as reinforcement. The complex geometric shape of the fabric is of paramount importance in establishing the deformability of the textile reinforced composite laminates. In this paper, an approach based on Classical Lamination Theory (CLT), combined with Finite Element Methods (FEM), using Failure Analysis and Internal Load Redistribution, is utilised, in order to compare the behaviour of the material under specific loads. The main goal is to analyse the deformability of certain types of textile reinforced composite laminates, using carbon fibre satin as reinforcement and epoxy resin as matrix. This is accomplished by studying the variation of the in-plane strains, given the fluctuation of several geometric parameters, namely the width of the reinforcing tow, the gap between two consecutive tows, the angle of laminae in a multi-layered configuration and the tows fibre volume fraction.
Multimode model based defect characterization in composites
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Roberts, R.; Holland, S.; Gregory, E.
2016-02-01
A newly-initiated research program for model-based defect characterization in CFRP composites is summarized. The work utilizes computational models of the interaction of NDE probing energy fields (ultrasound and thermography), to determine 1) the measured signal dependence on material and defect properties (forward problem), and 2) an assessment of performance-critical defect properties from analysis of measured NDE signals (inverse problem). Work is reported on model implementation for inspection of CFRP laminates containing delamination and porosity. Forward predictions of measurement response are presented, as well as examples of model-based inversion of measured data for the estimation of defect parameters.
Investigations on Buckling Behaviour of Laminated Curved Composite Stiffened Panels
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kumar, N. Jeevan; Babu, P. Ramesh; Pandu, Ratnakar
2014-04-01
In Industrial applications structural efficiency is primary concern, this brings about the need of strong and lightweight materials. Due to their high specific strength, fibre reinforced polymers find wide application in these areas. Panels made of composite materials are widely used in aerospace structures, automobile, civil, marine and biomedical industries because of their good mechanical properties, impact resistance, excellent damage tolerance and also low fabrication cost. In this Paper, buckling and post-buckling analysis was performed on composite stiffened panel to obtain the critical load and modes of failures, with different parameters like ply-orientation, different composite materials, and stiffeners and by changing the number of stiffeners was derived. To analyze the post buckling behaviour of composite stiffened panels the nonlinear finite element analysis is employed and substantial investigations are undertaken using finite element (FE) model. Effect of critical parameters on buckling behaviour is studied and parametric studies were conducted with analytical tool to understand the structural behaviour in the post buckling range.
Strengthening Bridges with Prestressed CFRP Strips
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Siwowski, Tomasz; Żółtowski, Piotr
2012-06-01
Limitation of bridge's carrying bearing capacity due to aging and deterioration is a common problem faced by road administration and drivers. Rehabilitation of bridges including strengthening may be applied in order to maintain or upgrade existing bridge parameters. The case studies of strengthening of two small bridges with high modulus prestressed CFRP strips have been presented in the paper. The first one - reinforced concrete slab bridge - and the other - composite steel-concrete girder bridge - have been successfully upgraded with quite new technology. In both cases the additional CFRP reinforcement let increasing of bridge carrying capacity from 15 till 40 metric tons. The CFRP strip prestressing system named Neoxe Prestressing System (NPS), developed by multi-disciplinary team and tested at full scale in Rzeszow University of Technology, has been also described in the paper.
Damage accumulation in closed cross-section, laminated, composite structures
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bucinell, Ronald B.
1996-01-01
The need for safe, lightweight, less expensive, and more reliable launch vehicle components is being driven by the competitiveness of the commercial launch market. The United States has lost 2/3 of the commercial lunch market to Europe. As low cost Russian and Chinese vehicles become available, the US market share could be reduced even further. This international climate is driving the Single Stage To Orbit (SSTO) program at NASA. The goal of the SSTO program is to radically reduce the cost of safe, routine transportation to and from space with a totally reusable launch vehicle designed for low-cost aircraft-like operations. Achieving this goal will require more efficient uses of materials. Composite materials can provide this program with the material and structural efficiencies needed to stay competitive in the international launch market place. In satellite systems the high specific properties, design flexibility, improved corrosion and wear resistance, increased fatigue life, and low coefficient of thermal expansion that are characteristic of composite materials can all be used to improve the overall satellite performance. Some of the satellites that may be able to take advantage of these performance characteristics are the Tethered Satellite Systems (TOSCIFER, AIRSEDS, TSS2, SEDS1, and SEDS2), AXAF, GRO, and the next generation Hubble Space Telescope. These materials can also be utilized in projects at the NASAIMSFC Space Optics Technology and System Center of Excellence. The successful implementation of composite materials requires accurate performance characterization. Materials characterization data for composite materials is typically generated using flat coupons of finite width. At the free edge of these coupons the stress state is exacerbated by the presence of stiffness and geometric discontinuities. The exacerbated stress state has been shown to dominate the damage accumulation in these materials and to have a profound affect on the material constants
Dispersion of guided waves in composite laminates and sandwich panels
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schaal, Christoph; Mal, Ajit
2015-03-01
In composite structures, damages are often invisible from the surface and can grow to reach a critical size, potentially causing catastrophic failure of the entire structure. Thus safe operation of these structures requires careful monitoring of the initiation and growth of such defects. Ultrasonic methods using guided waves offer a reliable and cost-effective method for structural health monitoring in advanced structures. Guided waves allow for long monitoring ranges and are very sensitive to defects within their propagation path. In this work, the relevant properties of guided Lamb waves for damage detection in composite structures are investigated. An efficient numerical approach is used to determine their dispersion characteristics, and these results are compared to those from laboratory experiments. The experiments are based on a pitch-catch method, in which a pair of movable transducers is placed on one surface of the structure to induce and detect guided Lamb waves. The specific cases considered include an aluminum plate and an aluminum honeycomb sandwich panel with woven composite face sheets. In addition, a disbond of the interface between one of the face sheets and the honeycomb core of the sandwich panel is also considered, and the dispersion characteristics of the two resultant waveguides are determined. Good agreement between numerical and experimental dispersion results is found, and suggestions on the applicability of the pitch-catch system for structural health monitoring are made.
Ultrasonic tracking of ply drops in composite laminates
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Smith, Robert A.; Nelson, Luke J.; Mienczakowski, Martin J.; Wilcox, Paul D.
2016-02-01
As the shapes of composite components become more adventurous, tracking internal locations of ply drops and detecting any tape gaps or overlaps will be crucial to assure conformance to design. The true potential of ultrasound has yet to be exploited for this objective due to the apparent complexity of the ultrasonic response and the assumption that interference between signals from plies is random, confusing and of little use. As a result, most ultrasonic inspection of composites targets defects that either attenuate or reflect ultrasound, regarding ply reflections as undesirable `noise'. The work presented here extends the ply-orientation mapping of the last two decades by introducing a systematic approach to optimizing the ultrasonic response from the plies, minimizing interference between plies and demonstrating that accurate maps of plies through ply-drop regions can be produced. The key to this method is understanding the ultrasonic analytic signal and how it interacts with plies and the resin-rich layers between them. In certain circumstances of frequency and bandwidth, the instantaneous phase locks onto the resin-rich layers and the instantaneous amplitude indicates the validity of this condition. Analytical modelling is used to explain the interaction between ultrasound and composite plies in various ply-drop scenarios, with reference to experimental results. Optimization of ultrasonic data acquisition is also discussed and demonstrated experimentally.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hasanyan, D.; Wang, Y.; Gao, J.; Li, M.; Shen, Y.; Li, J.; Viehland, D.
2012-09-01
The harmonic magneto-electro-elastic vibration of a thin laminated composite was considered. A theoretical model, including shear lag and vibration effects was developed for predicting the magneto-electric (ME) effect in a laminate composite consisting of magnetostrictive and piezoelectric layers. To avoid bending, we assumed that the composite was geometrically symmetric. For finite length symmetrically fabricated laminates, we derived the dynamic strain-stress field and ME coefficients, including shear lag and vibration effects for several boundary conditions. Parametric studies are presented to evaluate the influences of material properties and geometries on the strain distribution and the ME coefficient. Analytical expressions indicate that the shear lag and the vibration frequency strongly influence the strain distribution in the laminates and these effects strongly influence the ME coefficients.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Choudhury, Pannalal; Das, Subhankar; Halder, Sudipta; Pandey, Krishna Murari
2015-12-01
Finite element analyses of laminated composites were done in the present study with respect to suppression of free edge delamination by an innovative technique. Wrap-around configuration was considered to determine its effectiveness over the wrapper-less laminated configuration on laminated composites. Nodal stresses were generated ahead of the crack tip through finite element analysis. This was used for determining interlaminar normal stress and inter laminar shear stress distributions at the critical interface. Later virtual crack closure technique was used to estimate the strain energy release rate components for several sizes of virtual crack extensions through a single finite element analysis. Computational analysis predicts Mode-I delamination as dominant mode of failure. This mode of delamination was significantly suppressed with wrap-around configuration on laminated composites.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Prasad, C. B.; Shuart, M. J.; Bains, N. J.; Rouse, M.
1993-01-01
Composite structures are used for a wide variety of aerospace applications. Practical structures contain cutouts and these structures are subjected to in-plane and out-of-plane loading conditions. Structurally efficient designs for composite structures require a thorough understanding of the effects of cutouts on the response of composite plates subjected to inplane or out-of-plane loadings. Most investigations of the behavior of composite plates with cutouts have considered in-plane loadings only. Out-of-plane loadings suchas bending or twisting have received very limited attention. The response of homogeneous plates (e.g., isotropic or orthotropic plates) subjected to bending or twisting moments has been studied analytically. These analyses are for infinite plates and neglect finite-plate effects. Recently, analytical and experimental studies were conducted to determine the effects of cutouts on the response of laminated composite plates subjected to bending moments. No analytical or experimental results are currently available for the effects of cutouts on the response of composite laminates subjected to twisting moments.
Thermal and ultrasonic evaluation of porosity in composite laminates
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Johnston, Patrick H.; Winfree, William P.; Long, Edward R., Jr.; Kullerd, Susan M.; Nathan, N.; Partos, Richard D.
1992-01-01
The effects of porosity on damage incurred by low-velocity impact are investigated. Specimens of graphite/epoxy composite were fabricated with various volume fractions of voids. The void fraction was independently determined using optical examination and acid resin digestion methods. Thermal diffusivity and ultrasonic attenuation were measured, and these results were related to the void volume fraction. The relationship between diffusivity and fiber volume fraction was also considered. The slope of the ultrasonic attenuation coefficient was found to increase linearly with void content, and the diffusivity decreased linearly with void volume fraction, after compensation for an approximately linear dependence on the fiber volume fraction.
Huang, C.-Y.; Trask, R. S.; Bond, I. P.
2010-01-01
A study of the influence of embedded circular hollow vascules on structural performance of a fibre-reinforced polymer (FRP) composite laminate is presented. Incorporating such vascules will lead to multi-functional composites by bestowing functions such as self-healing and active thermal management. However, the presence of off-axis vascules leads to localized disruption to the fibre architecture, i.e. resin-rich pockets, which are regarded as internal defects and may cause stress concentrations within the structure. Engineering approaches for creating these simple vascule geometries in conventional FRP laminates are proposed and demonstrated. This study includes development of a manufacturing method for forming vascules, microscopic characterization of their effect on the laminate, finite element (FE) analysis of crack initiation and failure under load, and validation of the FE results via mechanical testing observed using high-speed photography. The failure behaviour predicted by FE modelling is in good agreement with experimental results. The reduction in compressive strength owing to the embedding of circular vascules ranges from 13 to 70 per cent, which correlates with vascule dimension. PMID:20150337
Study of free edge effect on sub-laminar scale for thermoplastic composite laminates
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shen, Min; Lu, Huanbao; Tong, Jingwei; Su, Yishi; Li, Hongqi; Lv, Yongmin
2008-11-01
The interlaminar deformation on the free edge surface in thermoplastic composite AS4/PEEK laminates under bending loading are studied by means of digital image correlation method (DICM) using a white-light industrial microscopic. During the test, any artificial stochastic spray is not applied to the specimen surface. In laminar scale, the interlaminare displacements of [0/90]3s laminate are measured. In sub-laminar scale, the tested area includes a limited number of fibers; the fiber is elastic with actual diameter about 7μm, and PEEK matrix has elastic-plastic behavior. The local mesoscopic fields of interlaminar displacement near the areas of fiber-matrix interface are obtained by DICM. The distributions of in-plane elastic-plastic stresses near the interlaminar interface between different layers are indirectly obtained using the coupling the results of DICM with finite element method. Based on above DICM experiments, the influences of random fiber distribution and the PEEK matrix ductility in sub-laminar scale on the ineterlaminar mesomechanical behavior are investigated. The experimental results in the present work are important for multi-scale theory and numerical analysis of interlaminar deformation and stresses in these composite laminates.
Meshless Analysis of Laminated Composite and Sandwich Plates Subjected to Various Types of Loads
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Singh, Jeeoot; Singh, Sandeep; Shukla, K. K.
2014-03-01
The bending analysis of laminated composite and sandwich plates using different radial basis functions and higher-order shear deformation theory is presented. This meshfree technique is insensitive to spatial dimension and considers only a cloud of nodes (centers) for the spatial discretization of both the problem domain and the boundary. Numerical results for simply supported isotropic, symmetric cross-ply composite and sandwich plate are presented. The results are compared with other available results. It is observed that convergence of the polynomial function is faster as compared to other radial basis functions, whereas Gaussian function takes the least solution time. The effect of various types of loadings on sandwich plate is presented.
Fatigue damage simulation of a laminated composite plate with a central hole
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lessard, Larry B.; Liu, Bangyan
A FEM technique is here used in conjunction with a modulus-degradation model to simulate the progression of damage in a laminated composite plate, which has a central hole and is subjected to tension-tension fatigue loading, as a function of load level and number of load cycles. Analytical models are developed to predict the residual elastic moduli changes that are due to both matrix cracking and delamination. The scheme as a whole is sufficiently general for application to numerous additional problems involving fatigue-loaded composites with stress concentrations.
Prediction of impact force and duration during low velocity impact on circular composite laminates
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Shivakumar, K. N.; Elber, W.; Illg, W.
1983-01-01
Two simple and improved models--energy-balance and spring-mass--were developed to calculate impact force and duration during low velocity impact of circular composite plates. Both models include the contact deformation of the plate and the impactor as well as bending, transverse shear, and membrane deformations of the plate. The plate was transversely isotropic graphite/epoxy composite laminate and the impactor was a steel sphere. Calculated impact forces from the two analyses agreed with each other. The analyses were verified by comparing the results with reported test data.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Monicke, A.; Katajisto, H.; Leroy, M.; Petermann, N.; Kere, P.; Perillo, M.
2012-07-01
For many years, layered composites have proven essential for the successful design of high-performance space structures, such as launchers or satellites. A generic cylindrical composite structure for a launcher application was optimized with respect to objectives and constraints typical for space applications. The studies included the structural stability, laminate load response and failure analyses. Several types of cylinders (with and without stiffeners) were considered and optimized using different lay-up parameterizations. Results for the best designs are presented and discussed. The simulation tools, ESAComp [1] and modeFRONTIER [2], employed in the optimization loop are elucidated and their value for the optimization process is explained.
Post Buckling Progressive Failure Analysis of Composite Laminated Stiffened Panels
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Anyfantis, Konstantinos N.; Tsouvalis, Nicholas G.
2012-06-01
The present work deals with the numerical prediction of the post buckling progressive and final failure response of stiffened composite panels based on structural nonlinear finite element methods. For this purpose, a progressive failure model (PFM) is developed and applied to predict the behaviour of an experimentally tested blade-stiffened panel found in the literature. Failure initiation and propagation is calculated, owing to the accumulation of the intralaminar failure modes induced in fibre reinforced composite materials. Hashin failure criteria have been employed in order to address the fiber and matrix failure modes in compression and tension. On the other hand, the Tsai-Wu failure criterion has been utilized for addressing shear failure. Failure detection is followed with the introduction of corresponding material degradation rules depending on the individual failure mechanisms. Failure initiation and failure propagation as well as the post buckling ultimate attained load have been numerically evaluated. Final failure behaviour of the simulated stiffened panel is due to sudden global failure, as concluded from comparisons between numerical and experimental results being in good agreement.
Buckling and Failure of Compression-Loaded Composite Laminated Shells With Cutouts
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hilburger, Mark W.
2007-01-01
Results from a numerical and experimental study that illustrate the effects of laminate orthotropy on the buckling and failure response of compression-loaded composite cylindrical shells with a cutout are presented. The effects of orthotropy on the overall response of compression-loaded shells is described. In general, preliminary numerical results appear to accurately predict the buckling and failure characteristics of the shell considered herein. In particular, some of the shells exhibit stable post-local-buckling behavior accompanied by interlaminar material failures near the free edges of the cutout. In contrast another shell with a different laminate stacking sequence appears to exhibit catastrophic interlaminar material failure at the onset of local buckling near the cutout and this behavior correlates well with corresponding experimental results.
A fracture mechanics analysis of impact damage in a thick composite laminate
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Poe, C. C., Jr.
1985-01-01
Graphite/epoxy filament-wound cases (FWC) for the solid rocket motors of the space shuttle are being made by NASA. The FWC cases are wound with AS4W graphite fiber impregnated with an epoxy resin and are about 1.4 inches or more thick. Graphite-epoxy composite laminates, unlike metals, can be damaged easily by low velocity impacts of objects like dropped tools. The residual tension strength of the FWC laminate, after impact, is being studied at Langley Research Center. The conditions that give minimum visual evidence of damage are being emphasized. A fracture mechanics analysis was developed to predict the residual strength, after impact, using radiographs to measure the size of the damage and an equivalent surface crack to represent the damage.
A refined analysis of composite laminates. [theory of statics and dynamics
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Srinivas, S.
1973-01-01
The purpose of this paper is to develop a sufficiently accurate analysis, which is much simpler than exact three-dimensional analysis, for statics and dynamics of composite laminates. The governing differential equations and boundary conditions are derived by following a variational approach. The displacements are assumed piecewise linear across the thickness and the effects of transverse shear deformations and rotary inertia are included. A procedure for obtaining the general solution of the above governing differential equations in the form of hyperbolic-trigonometric series is given. The accuracy of the present theory is assessed by obtaining results for free vibrations and flexure of simply supported rectangular laminates and comparing them with results from exact three-dimensional analysis.
A model for predicting damage induced fatigue life of laminated composite structural components
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Allen, David H.; Lo, David C.; Georgiou, Ioannis T.; Harris, Charles E.
1990-01-01
This paper presents a model for predicting the life of laminated composite structural components subjected to fatigue induced microstructural damage. The model uses the concept of continuum damage mechanics, wherein the effects of microcracks are incorporated into a damage dependent lamination theory instead of treating each crack as an internal boundary. Internal variables are formulated to account for the effects of both matrix cracks and internal delaminations. Evolution laws for determining the damage variables as functions of ply stresses are proposed, and comparisons of predicted damage evolution are made to experiment. In addition, predicted stiffness losses, as well as ply stresses are shown as functions of damage state for a variety of stacking sequences.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lal, Achchhe; Palekar Shailesh, P.
2016-01-01
The second order statistics of mixed mode stress intensity factors (MSIF) of single edge V-notched angle ply laminated composite plate subjected to uniaxial tensile load with uncertinity in the system properties using displacement correlation method (DCM) is evaluated. The random system properties such as material properties, crack opening and crack length are modelled as combined uncorrelated and correlated random system variables. A C0 finite element method (FEM) based on higher order shear deformation plate theory (HSDT) is used for basic formulation. The Taylor series based first order perturbation technique (FOPT), second order perturbation technique (SOPT) are used and direct Monte Carlo simulation (MCS) is performed to evaluate the statistics (mean and coefficient of variance) of the mixed mode SIFs. The present work signifies the accurate analysis of frature behaviour by influence of different random variables and fibre orientations on the fracture behaviour in angle ply laminates.
Progressive Fracture of Laminated Fiber-Reinforced Composite Stiffened Plate Under Pressure
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Gotsis, Pascalis K.; Abdi, Frank; Chamis, Christos C.; Tsouros, Konstantinos
2007-01-01
S-Glass/epoxy laminated fiber-reinforced composite stiffened plate structure with laminate configuration (0/90)5 was simulated to investigate damage and fracture progression, under uniform pressure. For comparison reasons a simple plate was examined, in addition with the stiffened plate. An integrated computer code was used for the simulation. The damage initiation began with matrix failure in tension, continuous with damage and/or fracture progression as a result of additional matrix failure and fiber fracture and followed by additional interply delamination. Fracture through the thickness began when the damage accumulation was 90%. After that stage, the cracks propagate rapidly and the structures collapse. The collapse load for the simple plate is 21.57 MPa (3120 psi) and for the stiffened plate 25.24 MPa (3660 psi).
Modeling the effective elastic behavior of a transversely cracked laminated composite
Thomas, D.J.; Wetherhold, R.C.
1998-01-01
The solution for the stress state present in the vicinity of transverse matrix cracks within a composite laminate is typically obtained by assuming a regular crack spacing geometry for the problem and applying a shear-lag analysis. In order to explore the validity of this underlying assumption, the probability density function for the location of the next transverse matrix crack within a crack bounded region is examined. The regular crack spacing assumption is shown to be reasonable from an engineering point of view. Continuing with this assumption, a generalized shear-lag model for multilayer, off-axis laminates subjected to full in-plane loads is developed. This model is used to quantitatively evaluate the effective elastic properties of the damaged material. The results are applicable to materials such as ceramic matrix or polymer matrix unidirectional fiber systems where damage in the form of transverse matrix cracks arises.
Transient dynamic analysis of laminated composite plates subjected to transverse impact
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wu, Hsi-Yung T.; Chang, Fu-Kuo
1989-01-01
The dynamic response of a composite laminate plate to transverse impact loading is simulated numerically. An FEM scheme based on an eight-point brick element and three-dimensional linear elasticity theory is employed, assuming that the laminate layers are homogeneous and orthotropic. The derivation of the model is given in detail; the numerical implementation is briefly outlined; and results for the impact of 0.5-inch-diameter Al spheres at 500, 1000, and 1500 inch/sec on clamped or simply supported 3 x 3-inch plates made of T300/934 graphite/epoxy prepreg with ply orientation (0/-45/45/90)2S are presented in extensive graphs. The model is shown to provide accurate information on the histories of impactor-plate contact force; impactor displacement and velocity; and displacement, velocity, strain, and stress throughout the plate.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Fusheng; Pzinz, R.; Zichy, J. H.
1993-04-01
The heat-moisture effect on interlaminar fracture toughness of T300/914C graphite/epoxy unidirectional composite laminates is investigated under mode I opening loading witb DCB specimen. The fracture toughness in moisture-heat conditioning increases, and the glass transition temperature decreases. SEM fractographs revealed no discernible difference in the fracture surface morphology of moisture-heat and dry conditioned specimens. No fiber bridging occurs in the testing. Delamination fatigue crack growth experiments are carried out on T300/914C graphite/epoxy unidirectional laminates. It is found that the mode I cyclic crack growth rate yields a power low relationship between da/dN and the maximum cyclic strain energy release rate. The crack growth rate of the moisture-heat conditioned specimen is lower than that of the dry conditioned. The environmental effects are explained on the basis of fractography and fracture mechanisms and fracture mechanics.
Multi-objective selection and optimization of shaped materials and laminated composites
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Singh, Jasveer
Most of the current optimization techniques for the design of light-weight structures are unable to generate structural alternatives at the concept stage of design. This research tackles the challenge of developing methods for the early stage of design involving structures made up of conventional materials and composite laminates. For conventional materials, the recently introduced shape transformer approach is used. This work extends the method to deal with the case of torsional stiffness design, and generalizes it to single and multi-criteria selection of lightweight shafts subjected to a combination of bending, shear, and torsional load. The prominent feature of the work is the useful integration of shape and material to model and visualize multi-objective selection problems. The scheme is centered on concept selection in structural design, and hinges on measures that govern the shape properties of a cross-section regardless of its size. These measures, referred to as shape transformers, can classify shapes in a way similar to material classification. The procedure is demonstrated by considering torsional stiffness as a constraint. Performance charts are developed for both single and multi-criteria cases to let the reader visualize in a glance the whole range of cross-sectional shapes for each material. Each design chart is explained with a brief example. The above mentioned approach is also extended to incorporate orthotropic composite laminates. Design charts are obtained for the selection of five generic design variables: shape, size, material, layup, and number of plies. These charts also aid in comparing the performances of two commonly used laminates in bending and torsion - angle plies and cross plies. For a generic composite laminate, due to the number of variables involved, these kinds of design charts are very difficult. However, other tactics like using an analytical model for function evaluation can be used at conceptual stage of design. This is
NDT evaluation of long-term bond durability of CFRP-structural systems applied to RC highway bridges
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Crawford, Kenneth C.
2016-06-01
The long-term durability of CFRP structural systems applied to reinforced-concrete (RC) highway bridges is a function of the system bond behavior over time. The sustained structural load performance of strengthened bridges depends on the carbon fiber-reinforced polymer (CFRP) laminates remaining 100 % bonded to concrete bridge members. Periodic testing of the CFRP-concrete bond condition is necessary to sustain load performance. The objective of this paper is to present a non-destructive testing (NDT) method designed to evaluate the bond condition and long-term durability of CFRP laminate (plate) systems applied to RC highway bridges. Using the impact-echo principle, a mobile mechanical device using light impact hammers moving along the length of a bonded CFRP plate produces unique acoustic frequencies which are a function of existing CFRP plate-concrete bond conditions. The purpose of this method is to test and locate CFRP plates de-bonded from bridge structural members to identify associated deterioration in bridge load performance. Laboratory tests of this NDT device on a CFRP plate bonded to concrete with staged voids (de-laminations) produced different frequencies for bonded and de-bonded areas of the plate. The spectra (bands) of frequencies obtained in these tests show a correlation to the CFRP-concrete bond condition and identify bonded and de-bonded areas of the plate. The results of these tests indicate that this NDT impact machine, with design improvements, can potentially provide bridge engineers a means to rapidly evaluate long lengths of CFRP laminates applied to multiple highway bridges within a national transportation infrastructure.
NDT evaluation of long-term bond durability of CFRP-structural systems applied to RC highway bridges
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Crawford, Kenneth C.
2016-03-01
The long-term durability of CFRP structural systems applied to reinforced-concrete (RC) highway bridges is a function of the system bond behavior over time. The sustained structural load performance of strengthened bridges depends on the carbon fiber-reinforced polymer (CFRP) laminates remaining 100 % bonded to concrete bridge members. Periodic testing of the CFRP-concrete bond condition is necessary to sustain load performance. The objective of this paper is to present a non-destructive testing (NDT) method designed to evaluate the bond condition and long-term durability of CFRP laminate (plate) systems applied to RC highway bridges. Using the impact-echo principle, a mobile mechanical device using light impact hammers moving along the length of a bonded CFRP plate produces unique acoustic frequencies which are a function of existing CFRP plate-concrete bond conditions. The purpose of this method is to test and locate CFRP plates de-bonded from bridge structural members to identify associated deterioration in bridge load performance. Laboratory tests of this NDT device on a CFRP plate bonded to concrete with staged voids (de-laminations) produced different frequencies for bonded and de-bonded areas of the plate. The spectra (bands) of frequencies obtained in these tests show a correlation to the CFRP-concrete bond condition and identify bonded and de-bonded areas of the plate. The results of these tests indicate that this NDT impact machine, with design improvements, can potentially provide bridge engineers a means to rapidly evaluate long lengths of CFRP laminates applied to multiple highway bridges within a national transportation infrastructure.
Ultrasonic and mechanical characterizations of fatigue states of graphite epoxy composite laminates
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Williams, J. H., Jr.; Yuce, H.; Lee, S. S.
1982-01-01
Eight-ply (0, + or - 45, 0)s laminates of Hercules AS/3501-6 graphite epoxy composite are fabricated using various cure pressures ranging from 0.52 to 0.86 MPa and cure temperatures ranging from 150 C to 200 C. In general, the minimum composite void volume fraction is obtained at a cure temperature of 175 C and a cure pressure of 0.86 MPa, or at 200 C and 0.86 MPa. The ultrasonic attenuation at 4 MHz was found to correlate with the composite void volume fraction. Composite specimens were tested in flexural fatigue. Beyond 10,000 fatigue cycles, the ultrasonic attenuation at 4 MHz was found to increase and the flexural stiffness was found to decrease. The ultrasonic attenuation at 4 MHz of the as-fabricated composite can be correlated with the number of fatigue cycles to failure.
Impedance-Based Structural Health Monitoring for Composite Laminates at Cryogenic Environments
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Tseng, Kevin
2003-01-01
One of the important ways of increasing the payload in a reusable launch vehicle (RLV) is to replace heavy metallic materials by lightweight composite laminates. Among various parts and systems of the RLV, this project focuses on tanks containing cryogenic fuel. Historically, aluminum alloys have been used as the materials to construct fuel tanks for launch vehicles. To replace aluminum alloys with composite laminates or honeycomb materials, engineers have to make sure that the composites are free of defects before, during, and after launch. In addition to robust design and manufacturing procedures, the performance of the composite structures needs to be monitored constantly.In recent years, the impedance-based health monitoring technique has shown its promise in many applications. This technique makes use of the special properties of smart piezoelectric materials to identify the change of material properties due to the nucleation and progression of damage. The piezoceramic patch serves as a sensor and an actuator simultaneously. The piezoelectric patch is bonded onto an existing structure or embedded into a new structure and electrically excited at high frequencies. The signature (impedance or admittance) is extracted as a function of the exciting frequency and is compared with the baseline signature of the healthy state. The damage is quantified using root mean square deviation (RMSD) in the impedance signatures with respect to the baseline signature. A major advantage of this technique is that the procedure is nondestructive in nature and does not perturb the properties and performance of the materials and structures. This project aims at applying the impedance-based nondestructive testing technique to the damage identification of composite laminates at cryogenic temperature.
Design guidelines for high dimensional stability of CFRP optical bench
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Desnoyers, Nichola; Boucher, Marc-André; Goyette, Philippe
2013-09-01
In carbon fiber reinforced plastic (CFRP) optomechanical structures, particularly when embodying reflective optics, angular stability is critical. Angular stability or warping stability is greatly affected by moisture absorption and thermal gradients. Unfortunately, it is impossible to achieve the perfect laminate and there will always be manufacturing errors in trying to reach a quasi-iso laminate. Some errors, such as those related to the angular position of each ply and the facesheet parallelism (for a bench) can be easily monitored in order to control the stability more adequately. This paper presents warping experiments and finite-element analyses (FEA) obtained from typical optomechanical sandwich structures. Experiments were done using a thermal vacuum chamber to cycle the structures from -40°C to 50°C. Moisture desorption tests were also performed for a number of specific configurations. The selected composite material for the study is the unidirectional prepreg from Tencate M55J/TC410. M55J is a high modulus fiber and TC410 is a new-generation cyanate ester designed for dimensionally stable optical benches. In the studied cases, the main contributors were found to be: the ply angular errors, laminate in-plane parallelism (between 0° ply direction of both facesheets), fiber volume fraction tolerance and joints. Final results show that some tested configurations demonstrated good warping stability. FEA and measurements are in good agreement despite the fact that some defects or fabrication errors remain unpredictable. Design guidelines to maximize the warping stability by taking into account the main dimensional stability contributors, the bench geometry and the optical mount interface are then proposed.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mikulas, Martin M., Jr.; Sumpter, Rod
1999-01-01
In a previous paper, a new merit function for determining the strength performance of flawed composite laminates was presented. This previous analysis was restricted to circular hole flaws that were large enough that failure could be predicted using the laminate stress concentration factor. In this paper, the merit function is expanded to include the flaw cases of an arbitrary size circular hole or a center crack. Failure prediction for these cases is determined using the point stress criterion. An example application of the merit function is included for a wide range of graphite/epoxy laminates.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mikulas, Martin M., Jr.; Sumpter, Rod
1997-01-01
In a previous paper, a new merit function for determining the strength performance of flawed composite laminates was presented. This previous analysis was restricted to circular hole flaws that were large enough that failure could be predicted using the laminate stress concentration factor. In this paper, the merit function is expanded to include the flaw cases of an arbitrary size circular hole or a center crack. Failure prediction for these cases is determined using the point stress criterion. An example application of the merit function is included for a wide range of graphite/epoxy laminates.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Martin, Mikulas M., Jr.; Sumpter, Rod
2000-01-01
In a previous paper, a new merit function for determining the strength performance of flawed composite laminates was presented. This previous analysis was restricted to circular hole flaws that were large enough that failure could be predicted using the laminate stress concentration factor. In this paper, the merit function is expanded to include the flaw cases of an arbitrary size circular hole or center crack. Failure prediction for these cases is determined using the point stress criterion. An example application of the merit function is included for a wide range of graphite/epoxy laminates.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Modak, Partha; Hossain, M. Jamil; Ahmed, S. Reaz
2016-07-01
An accurate stress analysis has been carried out to investigate the suitability of a hybrid balanced laminate as a structural material for thick composite beams with axial stiffeners. Three different balanced laminates composed of dissimilar ply material as well as fiber orientations are considered for a thick beam on simple supports with stiffened lateral ends. A displacement potential based elasticity approach is used to obtain the numerical solution of the corresponding elastic fields. The overall laminate stresses as well as individual ply stresses are analysed mainly in the perspective of laminate hybridization. Both the fiber material and ply angle of individual laminas are found to play dominant roles in defining the design stresses of the present composite beam.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Nemeth, Michael P.; Mikulas, Martin M., Jr.
2009-01-01
Simple formulas for the buckling stress of homogeneous, specially orthotropic, laminated-composite cylinders are presented. The formulas are obtained by using nondimensional parameters and equations that facilitate general validation, and are validated against the exact solution for a wide range of cylinder geometries and laminate constructions. Results are presented that establish the ranges of the nondimensional parameters and coefficients used. General results, given in terms of the nondimensional parameters, are presented that encompass a wide range of geometries and laminate constructions. These general results also illustrate a wide spectrum of behavioral trends. Design-oriented results are also presented that provide a simple, clear indication of laminate composition on critical stress, critical strain, and axial stiffness. An example is provided to demonstrate the application of these results to thin-walled column designs.
Static and dynamic strain energy release rates in toughened thermosetting composite laminates
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Cairns, Douglas S.
1992-01-01
In this work, the static and dynamic fracture properties of several thermosetting resin based composite laminates are presented. Two classes of materials are explored. These are homogeneous, thermosetting resins and toughened, multi-phase, thermosetting resin systems. Multi-phase resin materials have shown enhancement over homogenous materials with respect to damage resistance. The development of new dynamic tests are presented for composite laminates based on Width Tapered Double Cantilevered Beam (WTDCB) for Mode 1 fracture and the End Notched Flexure (ENF) specimen. The WTDCB sample was loaded via a low inertia, pneumatic cylinder to produce rapid cross-head displacements. A high rate, piezo-electric load cell and an accelerometer were mounted on the specimen. A digital oscilloscope was used for data acquisition. Typical static and dynamic load versus displacement plots are presented. The ENF specimen was impacted in three point bending with an instrumented impact tower. Fracture initiation and propagation energies under static and dynamic conditions were determined analytically and experimentally. The test results for Mode 1 fracture are relatively insensitive to strain rate effects for the laminates tested in this study. The test results from Mode 2 fracture indicate that the toughened systems provide superior fracture initiation and higher resistance to propagation under dynamic conditions. While the static fracture properties of the homogeneous systems may be relatively high, the apparent Mode 2 dynamic critical strain energy release rate drops significantly. The results indicate that static Mode 2 fracture testing is inadequate for determining the fracture performance of composite structures subjected to conditions such as low velocity impact. A good correlation between the basic Mode 2 dynamic fracture properties and the performance is a combined material/structural Compression After Impact (CAI) test is found. These results underscore the importance of
Response of laminated composite plates to low-speed impact by different impactors
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Prasad, Chunchu; Ambur, Damodar R.; Starnes, James H.
1994-01-01
An analytic procedure has been developed to determine the transient response of simply supported, retangular laminated composite plates subjected to impact loads from airgun-propelled or drop-weight impactors. A first-order shear deformation theory has been included in the analysis to represent properly any local short-wavelength transient bending response. The impact force has been modeled as a locally distributed load with cosine-cosine distribution. A double Fourier series expansion and the Timoshenko small increment method have been used to determine the contact force, out-of-plane deflections, and in-plane strains and stresses at any plate location due to an impact force at any plate location. The results of experimental and analytical studies are compared for quasi-isotropic laminates. The results indicate the importance of including transverse shear deformation effects in the analysis for predicting the response of laminated plates subjected to both airgun-propelled and dropped-weight impactors. The results also indicate that plate boundary conditions influence the axial strains more significantly than the contact force for a dropped-weight impactor. The results of parametric studies identify a scaling approach based on impactor momentum that may account for the differences in the responses of plates impacted by airgun-propelled or dropped-weight impactors.
A Numerical and Experimental Study of Damage Growth in a Composite Laminate
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
McElroy, Mark; Ratcliffe, James; Czabaj, Michael; Wang, John; Yuan, Fuh-Gwo
2014-01-01
The present study has three goals: (1) perform an experiment where a simple laminate damage process can be characterized in high detail; (2) evaluate the performance of existing commercially available laminate damage simulation tools by modeling the experiment; (3) observe and understand the underlying physics of damage in a composite honeycomb sandwich structure subjected to low-velocity impact. A quasi-static indentation experiment has been devised to provide detailed information about a simple mixed-mode damage growth process. The test specimens consist of an aluminum honeycomb core with a cross-ply laminate facesheet supported on a stiff uniform surface. When the sample is subjected to an indentation load, the honeycomb core provides support to the facesheet resulting in a gradual and stable damage growth process in the skin. This enables real time observation as a matrix crack forms, propagates through a ply, and then causes a delamination. Finite element analyses were conducted in ABAQUS/Explicit(TradeMark) 6.13 that used continuum and cohesive modeling techniques to simulate facesheet damage and a geometric and material nonlinear model to simulate core crushing. The high fidelity of the experimental data allows a detailed investigation and discussion of the accuracy of each numerical modeling approach.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Satyanarayana, Arunkumar; Bogert, Philip B.; Chunchu, Prasad B.
2007-01-01
The influence of delamination on the progressing damage path and initial failure load in composite laminates is investigated. Results are presented from a numerical and an experimental study of center-notched tensile-loaded coupons. The numerical study includes two approaches. The first approach considers only intralaminar (fiber breakage and matrix cracking) damage modes in calculating the progression of the damage path. In the second approach, the model is extended to consider the effect of interlaminar (delamination) damage modes in addition to the intralaminar damage modes. The intralaminar damage is modeled using progressive damage analysis (PDA) methodology implemented with the VUMAT subroutine in the ABAQUS finite element code. The interlaminar damage mode has been simulated using cohesive elements in ABAQUS. In the experimental study, 2-3 specimens each of two different stacking sequences of center-notched laminates are tensile loaded. The numerical results from the two different modeling approaches are compared with each other and the experimentally observed results for both laminate types. The comparisons reveal that the second modeling approach, where the delamination damage mode is included together with the intralaminar damage modes, better simulates the experimentally observed damage modes and damage paths, which were characterized by splitting failures perpendicular to the notch tips in one or more layers. Additionally, the inclusion of the delamination mode resulted in a better prediction of the loads at which the failure took place, which were higher than those predicted by the first modeling approach which did not include delaminations.
Bidirectional bending of laminated composite plates using an improved zig-zag model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lee, K. H.; Lin, W. Z.; Chow, S. T.
The behaviour of simply supported rectangular symmetric cross-ply laminated composite plates subjected to bidirectional bending is determined using an improved zig-zag displacement model. The zig-zag model is based upon a layerwise cubic variation of the in-plane displacements and a parabolic variation of the transverse shear stresses with zero values at the free surfaces. By satisfying the continuity conditions of the in-plane displacements and the transverse shear stresses at the interfaces, the number of variables is shown to be the same as that in the first-order shear deformation theory of Mindlin, independent of the number of layers in the laminate. The accuracy of the model and its suitability for use in engineering design is examined by applying it to four established bidirectional bending problems which have been solved by Pagano using exact elasticity theory. The numerical results indicate that the present model predicts very accurate results for displacements and stresses for symmetric cross-ply laminates, even for small length-to-thickness ratios.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ahn, Jung Hyun
1999-10-01
Understanding the mechanisms of failure of composite structures and developing mechanism based failure criteria are important considerations in designing structures made of composite materials. The compressive response of composite materials and structures has received considerable attention due to their significance in the aerospace industry and the complexity associated with compressive failure. Several competing failure mechanisms such as fiber instability, fiber/matrix interfacial failure, fiber microbuckling/kinking, delamination initiation and delamination buckling may become active in compressive loading. Environmental effect such as an elevated temperature can alter and affect these failure mechanisms. In this thesis, a micromechanics based finite element predictive model for notched strength of multidirectional laminates is presented. The in-situ shear response of the matrix, the fiber mechanical properties, the lay-up (stacking sequence) and fiber volume fraction serve as input to the model. The prediction of the model is found to match favorably with experimental data. The effect of ply angle and its influence on the failure mechanism are quantified and compared with a set of available experimental data. The present work is the first development of a non-empirical mechanics based failure prediction methodology for notched compressive strength of composite laminates. Both an experimental and an analytical study are presented herein.
Damage Model and Progressive Failure Analyses for Filament Wound Composite Laminates
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ribeiro, Marcelo Leite; Vandepitte, Dirk; Tita, Volnei
2013-10-01
Recent improvements in manufacturing processes and materials properties associated with excellent mechanical characteristics and low weight have made composite materials very attractive for application on civil aircraft structures. However, even new designs are still very conservative, because the composite failure phenomenon is very complex. Several failure criteria and theories have been developed to describe the damage process and how it evolves, but the solution of the problem is still open. Moreover, modern filament winding techniques have been used to produce a wide variety of structural shapes not only cylindrical parts, but also “flat” laminates. Therefore, this work presents the development of a damage model and its application to simulate the progressive failure of flat composite laminates made using a filament winding process. The damage model was implemented as a UMAT (User Material Subroutine), in ABAQUSTM Finite Element (FE) framework. Progressive failure analyses were carried out using FE simulation in order to simulate the failure of flat filament wound composite structures under different loading conditions. In addition, experimental tests were performed in order to identify parameters related to the material model, as well as to evaluate both the potential and the limitations of the model. The difference between numerical and the average experimental results in a four point bending set-up is only 1.6 % at maximum load amplitude. Another important issue is that the model parameters are not so complicated to be identified. This characteristic makes this model very attractive to be applied in an industrial environment.
A review of failure models for ceramic matrix composite laminates under monotonic loads
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Tripp, David E.; Hemann, John H.; Gyekenyesi, John P.
1989-01-01
Ceramic matrix composites offer significant potential for improving the performance of turbine engines. In order to achieve their potential, however, improvements in design methodology are needed. In the past most components using structural ceramic matrix composites were designed by trial and error since the emphasis of feasibility demonstration minimized the development of mathematical models. To understand the key parameters controlling response and the mechanics of failure, the development of structural failure models is required. A review of short term failure models with potential for ceramic matrix composite laminates under monotonic loads is presented. Phenomenological, semi-empirical, shear-lag, fracture mechanics, damage mechanics, and statistical models for the fast fracture analysis of continuous fiber unidirectional ceramic matrix composites under monotonic loads are surveyed.
Phased array beamforming and imaging in composite laminates using guided waves
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tian, Zhenhua; Leckey, Cara A. C.; Yu, Lingyu
2016-04-01
This paper presents the phased array beamforming and imaging using guided waves in anisotropic composite laminates. A generic phased array beamforming formula is presented, based on the classic delay-and-sum principle. The generic formula considers direction-dependent guided wave properties induced by the anisotropic material properties of composites. Moreover, the array beamforming and imaging are performed in frequency domain where the guided wave dispersion effect has been considered. The presented phased array method is implemented with a non-contact scanning laser Doppler vibrometer (SLDV) to detect multiple simulated defects at different locations in an anisotropic composite plate. The array is constructed of scan points in a small area rapidly scanned by the SLDV. Using the phased array method, multiple simulated defects at different locations are successfully detected. Our study shows that the guided wave phased array method is a potential effective method for rapid inspection of large composite structures.
Environmental effects and viscoelastic behavior of laminated graphite/epoxy composites
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Dillard, D. A.; Morris, D. H.; Brinson, H. F.
1983-01-01
Primarily because of the polymeric matrix, graphite/epoxy composites are viscoelastic materials which exhibit creep and delayed failures. Guided by the time-temperature superposition principle, the authors are developing accelerated characterization techniques to predict the long term compliance behavior and creep rupture strength of composite materials based on short term tests at elevated temperatures. The effect of a post-cure cycle on the compliance and creep rupture strength of composite materials is discussed. The Zhurkov type failure law is applied to experimental creep rupture data of a typical laminate and is shown to correlate the data. A beneficial mechanical strengthening effect is described which significantly affects the failure strengths of specimens which have been under creep loading for a period of time. This aging effect is reversible if the specimen is allowed to recover before being loaded to failure. Other environmental aspects of composite materials are also reviewed.
Phased Array Beamforming and Imaging in Composite Laminates Using Guided Waves
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Tian, Zhenhua; Leckey, Cara A. C.; Yu, Lingyu
2016-01-01
This paper presents the phased array beamforming and imaging using guided waves in anisotropic composite laminates. A generic phased array beamforming formula is presented, based on the classic delay-and-sum principle. The generic formula considers direction-dependent guided wave properties induced by the anisotropic material properties of composites. Moreover, the array beamforming and imaging are performed in frequency domain where the guided wave dispersion effect has been considered. The presented phased array method is implemented with a non-contact scanning laser Doppler vibrometer (SLDV) to detect multiple defects at different locations in an anisotropic composite plate. The array is constructed of scan points in a small area rapidly scanned by the SLDV. Using the phased array method, multiple defects at different locations are successfully detected. Our study shows that the guided wave phased array method is a potential effective method for rapid inspection of large composite structures.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kalnins, Kaspars; Graham, Adrian J.; Sinnema, Gerben
2012-07-01
This article presents a study of CFRP/Al honeycomb panels subjected to a low velocity impact which, as a result, caused strength reduction. The main scope of the current study was to investigate experimental procedures, which are not well standardized and later verify them with numerical simulations. To ensure integrity of typical lightweight structural panels of modern spacecraft, knowledge about the impact energy required to produce clearly visible damage, and the resulting strength degradation is of high importance. For this initial investigation, Readily available ‘heritage’ (1980s) sandwich structure with relatively thin skin was used for this investigation. After initial attempts to produce impact damage, it was decided to create quasistatic indentation instead of low velocity impact, to cause barely visible damage. Forty two edgewise Compressions After Impact (CAI) test specimens have been produced and tested up to failure, while recording the strain distribution by optical means during the tests. Ultrasonic C-scan inspection was used to identify the damage evolution before and after each test. The optical strain measurements acquired during the tests showed sensitivity level capable to track the local buckling of damaged region.
Development and verification of global/local analysis techniques for laminated composites
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Thompson, Danniella Muheim; Griffin, O. Hayden, Jr.
1991-01-01
A two-dimensional to three-dimensional global/local finite element approach was developed, verified, and applied to a laminated composite plate of finite width and length containing a central circular hole. The resulting stress fields for axial compression loads were examined for several symmetric stacking sequences and hole sizes. Verification was based on comparison of the displacements and the stress fields with those accepted trends from previous free edge investigations and a complete three-dimensional finite element solution of the plate. The laminates in the compression study included symmetric cross-ply, angle-ply and quasi-isotropic stacking sequences. The entire plate was selected as the global model and analyzed with two-dimensional finite elements. Displacements along a region identified as the global/local interface were applied in a kinematically consistent fashion to independent three-dimensional local models. Local areas of interest in the plate included a portion of the straight free edge near the hole, and the immediate area around the hole. Interlaminar stress results obtained from the global/local analyses compares well with previously reported trends, and some new conclusions about interlaminar stress fields in plates with different laminate orientations and hole sizes are presented for compressive loading. The effectiveness of the global/local procedure in reducing the computational effort required to solve these problems is clearly demonstrated through examination of the computer time required to formulate and solve the linear, static system of equations which result for the global and local analyses to those required for a complete three-dimensional formulation for a cross-ply laminate. Specific processors used during the analyses are described in general terms. The application of this global/local technique is not limited software system, and was developed and described in as general a manner as possible.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hou, T. H.
1985-01-01
High quality long fiber reinforced composites, such as those used in aerospace and industrial applications, are commonly processed in autoclaves. An adequate resin flow model for the entire system (laminate/bleeder/breather), which provides a description of the time-dependent laminate consolidation process, is useful in predicting the loss of resin, heat transfer characteristics, fiber volume fraction and part dimension, etc., under a specified set of processing conditions. This could be accomplished by properly analyzing the flow patterns and pressure profiles inside the laminate during processing. A newly formulated resin flow model for composite prepreg lamination process is reported. This model considers viscous resin flows in both directions perpendicular and parallel to the composite plane. In the horizontal direction, a squeezing flow between two nonporous parallel plates is analyzed, while in the vertical direction, a poiseuille type pressure flow through porous media is assumed. Proper force and mass balances have been made and solved for the whole system. The effects of fiber-fiber interactions during lamination are included as well. The unique features of this analysis are: (1) the pressure gradient inside the laminate is assumed to be generated from squeezing action between two adjacent approaching fiber layers, and (2) the behavior of fiber bundles is simulated by a Finitely Extendable Nonlinear Elastic (FENE) spring.
Novel MRE/CFRP sandwich structures for adaptive vibration control
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kozlowska, J.; Boczkowska, A.; Czulak, A.; Przybyszewski, B.; Holeczek, K.; Stanik, R.; Gude, M.
2016-03-01
The aim of this work was the development of sandwich structures formed by embedding magnetorheological elastomers (MRE) between constrained layers of carbon fibre-reinforced plastic (CFRP) laminates. The MREs were obtained by mechanical stirring of a reactive mixture of substrates with carbonyl-iron particles, followed by orienting the particles into chains under an external magnetic field. Samples with particle volume fractions of 11.5% and 33% were examined. The CFRP/MRE sandwich structures were obtained by compressing MREs samples between two CFRP laminates composed. The used A.S.SET resin was in powder form and the curing process was carried out during pressing with MRE. The microstructure of the manufactured sandwich beams was inspected using SEM. Moreover, the rheological and damping properties of the examined materials with and without a magnetic field were experimentally investigated. In addition, the free vibration responses of the adaptive three-layered MR beams were studied at different fixed magnetic field levels. The free vibration tests revealed that an applied non-homogeneous magnetic field causes a shift in natural frequency values and a reduction in the vibration amplitudes of the CFRP/MRE adaptive beams. The reduction in vibration amplitude was attributed mainly to the stiffening effect of the MRE core and only a minor contribution was made by the enhanced damping capacity, which was evidenced by the variation in damping ratio values.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kerr-Anderson, Eric
Structural composite laminates were ballistically impacted while under in-plane compressive pre-stress. Residual properties, damage characterization, and energy absorption were compared to determine synergistic effects of in-plane compressive pre-stress and impact velocity. A fixture was developed to apply in-plane compressive loads up to 30 tons to structural composites during an impact event using a single-stage light-gas gun. Observed failure modes included typical conical delamination, the development of an impact initiated shear crack (IISC), and the shear failure of a pre-stressed composite due to impact. It was observed that the compressive failure threshold quadratically decreased in relation to the impact velocity up to velocities that caused partial penetration. For all laminates impacted at velocities causing partial or full penetration up to 350 ms-1, the failure threshold was consistent and used as an experimental normalization. Samples impacted below 65% of the failure threshold witnessed no significant change in damage morphology or residual properties when compared to typical conical delamination. Samples impacted above 65% of the failure threshold witnessed additional damage in the form of a shear crack extending perpendicular to the applied load from the point of impact. The presence of an IISC reduced the residual properties and even caused failure upon impact at extreme combinations. Four failure envelopes have been established as: transient failure, steady state failure, impact initiated shear crack, and conical damage. Boundaries and empirically based equations for residual compressive strength have been developed for each envelope with relation to two E-glass/vinyl ester laminate systems. Many aspects of pre-stressed impact have been individually examined, but there have been no comprehensive examinations of pre-stressed impact. This research has resulted in the exploration and characterization of compressively pre-stressed damage for impact
Rotary ultrasonic machining of CFRP: A comparison with grinding.
Ning, F D; Cong, W L; Pei, Z J; Treadwell, C
2016-03-01
Carbon fiber reinforced plastic (CFRP) composites have been intensively used in various industries due to their superior properties. In aircraft and aerospace industry, a large number of holes are required to be drilled into CFRP components at final stage for aircraft assembling. There are two major types of methods for hole making of CFRP composites in industry, twist drilling and its derived multi-points machining methods, and grinding and its related methods. The first type of methods are commonly used in hole making of CFRP composites. However, in recent years, rotary ultrasonic machining (RUM), a hybrid machining process combining ultrasonic machining and grinding, has also been successfully used in drilling of CFRP composites. It has been shown that RUM is superior to twist drilling in many aspects. However, there are no reported investigations on comparisons between RUM and grinding in drilling of CFRP. In this paper, these two drilling methods are compared in five aspects, including cutting force, torque, surface roughness, hole diameter, and material removal rate. PMID:26614168
Shear-flexible finite-element models of laminated composite plates and shells
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Noor, A. K.; Mathers, M. D.
1975-01-01
Several finite-element models are applied to the linear static, stability, and vibration analysis of laminated composite plates and shells. The study is based on linear shallow-shell theory, with the effects of shear deformation, anisotropic material behavior, and bending-extensional coupling included. Both stiffness (displacement) and mixed finite-element models are considered. Discussion is focused on the effects of shear deformation and anisotropic material behavior on the accuracy and convergence of different finite-element models. Numerical studies are presented which show the effects of increasing the order of the approximating polynomials, adding internal degrees of freedom, and using derivatives of generalized displacements as nodal parameters.
Nonlinear dynamic response of laminated composite plates subjected to pulse loading
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Upadhyay, A. K.; Pandey, Ramesh; Shukla, K. K.
2011-11-01
An analytical solution methodology for the non-linear dynamic displacement response of laminated composite plates subjected to different types of pulse loading is presented. The mathematical formulation is based on third-order shear deformation plate theory and von-Karman non-linear kinematics. Fast-converging finite double Chebyshev series is employed for evaluating the displacement response. Houbolt time marching scheme is used for temporal discretization and quadratic extrapolation technique is used for linearization. The effects of magnitude and duration of the pulse load, boundary conditions and plate parameters on the central displacement and bending moment responses are studied.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Carlone, Pierpaolo; Palazzo, Gaetano S.
2011-05-01
In this paper a simulation based optimization procedure, based on the combination of the Simulated Annealing and the Nelder Mead algorithms, for the time reduction of the thermal cure cycle of composite laminates, has been proposed and discussed. The cycle time has been assumed as the objective function to be minimized, taking into account technological limitations by the means of a penalty function. Several simulations have been performed to test the proposed method and investigate the influence of the optimization algorithm parameters on the quality of the solution and the convergence rate of the algorithm, evidencing the capability of the procedure to converge to an optimal process window for cure cycle design.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hou, Jean W.
1985-01-01
The thermal analysis and the calculation of thermal sensitivity of a cure cycle in autoclave processing of thick composite laminates were studied. A finite element program for the thermal analysis and design derivatives calculation for temperature distribution and the degree of cure was developed and verified. It was found that the direct differentiation was the best approach for the thermal design sensitivity analysis. In addition, the approach of the direct differentiation provided time histories of design derivatives which are of great value to the cure cycle designers. The approach of direct differentiation is to be used for further study, i.e., the optimal cycle design.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kim, Heung Soo; Zhu, Linfa; Chattopadhyay, Aditi; Goldberg, Robert K.
2004-01-01
A procedure has been developed to investigate the nonlinear response of composite plates under large strain and high strain rate loading. A recently developed strain dependent micromechanics model is extended to account for the shear effects during impact. Four different assumptions of shear deformation effects are investigated to improve the development strain rate dependent micromechanics model. A method to determine through the thickness strain and transverse Poisson's ratio is developed. The revised micromechanics model is implemented into higher order laminate theory. Parametric studies are conducted to investigate transverse shear effects during impact.
LOW VELOCITY IMPACT RESPONSE OF A LAMINATED COMPOSITE TUBE WITH A METALLIC BUMPER LAYER
Ibekwe, S.I.; Li, G.; Pang, S.S.; and Smith, B. H.
2006-07-01
A thin metallic sheet was bonded to the outer surface of a laminated composite curved beam as a bumper layer. It was believed that a metallic bumper layer such as an aluminum thin sheet would be able to intercept any lateral impacting force and absorb impact energy through plastic deformation. Since aluminum is comparatively light weight, a thin sheet will not result in a significant increase in structural weight. Results showed that impact damage occurred primarily in the bumper layer, thereby resulting in a much higher residual bending strength compared to the control specimen.
A Novel Multiscale Physics Based Progressive Failure Methodology for Laminated Composite Structures
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Pineda, Evan J.; Waas, Anthony M.; Bednarcyk, Brett A.; Collier, Craig S.; Yarrington, Phillip W.
2008-01-01
A variable fidelity, multiscale, physics based finite element procedure for predicting progressive damage and failure of laminated continuous fiber reinforced composites is introduced. At every integration point in a finite element model, progressive damage is accounted for at the lamina-level using thermodynamically based Schapery Theory. Separate failure criteria are applied at either the global-scale or the microscale in two different FEM models. A micromechanics model, the Generalized Method of Cells, is used to evaluate failure criteria at the micro-level. The stress-strain behavior and observed failure mechanisms are compared with experimental results for both models.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ehret, R. M.; Scanlan, P. R.; Rosen, C. D.
1982-01-01
A design allowables test program was conducted on Celion 6000/LARC-160 graphite polyimide composite to establish material performance over a 116 K (-250 F) to 589 K (600 F) temperature range. Tension, compression, in-plane shear and short beam shear properties were determined for uniaxial, quasi-isotropic and + or - 45 deg laminates. Effects of thermal aging and moisture saturation on mechanical properties were also evaluated. Celion 6000/LARC-160 graphite/polyimide can be considered an acceptable material system for structural applications to 589 K (600 F).
Elastic-plastic analysis of AS4/PEEK composite laminate using a one-parameter plasticity model
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Sun, C. T.; Yoon, K. J.
1992-01-01
A one-parameter plasticity model was shown to adequately describe the plastic deformation of AS4/PEEK (APC-2) unidirectional thermoplastic composite. This model was verified further for unidirectional and laminated composite panels with and without a hole. The elastic-plastic stress-strain relations of coupon specimens were measured and compared with those predicted by the finite element analysis using the one-parameter plasticity model. The results show that the one-parameter plasticity model is suitable for the analysis of elastic-plastic deformation of AS4/PEEK composite laminates.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Moore, M.; Ziaei-Rad, S.; Salehi, H.
2013-02-01
In this study, the stability characteristics and thermal response of a bistable composite plate with different asymmetric composition were considered. The non-linear finite element method (FEM) was utilized to determine the response of the laminate. Attention was focused on the temperature dependency of laminate mechanical properties, especially on the thermal expansion coefficients of the composite graphite-epoxy plate. Also the effect of including the resin layers on the stability characteristics of the laminate was investigated. The effect of the temperature on the laminate cured configurations in the range of 25°C to 180°C and -60°C to 40°C was examined. The results indicate that the coefficient of thermal expansions has a major effect on the cured shapes. Next, optical microscopy was used to characterize the laminate composition and for the first time the effect of including the resin layers on the actuation loads that causes snapping behavior between two stable shapes was studied. The results obtained from the finite element simulations were compared with experimental results and a good correlation was obtained. Finally, the stability characteristics of a tapered composite panel were investigated for using in a sample winglet as a candidate application of bistable structures.