Quintella, Leonardo P; Cuzzi, Tullia; Madeira, Maria de F; Okamoto, Thais; Schubach, Armando de O
The present study reports the production of the rabbit anti-Leishmania (L.) chagasi hyperimmune serum, the standardization of the immunohistochemistry (IHC) technique and the evaluation of its employment in cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) lesions diagnosed by Leishmania sp. culture isolation. Thirty fragments of active CL lesions were examined as well as 10 fragments of cutaneous mycosis lesions as control group. IHC proved more sensitive in detecting amastigotes than conventional hematoxylin-eosin (HE) stained slides: the former was positive in 24 (80%) biopsies whereas the latter, in 16 (53%) (p = 0.028). The reaction stained different fungus species causing cutaneous mycosis. Besides, positive reaction was noticed in mononuclear and endothelial cells. Nevertheless, this finding was present in the control group biopsies. It is concluded that IHC showed good sensitivity in detecting amastigotes.
Yan, Weiwei; Shin, Kang-Soon; Wang, Shih-Jon; Xiang, Hua; Divers, Thomas; McDonough, Sean; Bowman, James; Rowlands, Anne; Akey, Bruce; Mohamed, Hussni
Clostridium (C.) difficile is a common cause of nosocomial diarrhea in horses. Vancomycin and metronidazole have been used as standard treatments but are only moderately effective, which highlights the need for a novel alternative therapy. In the current study, we prepared antiserum of equine origin against both C. difficile toxins A and B as well as whole-cell bacteria. The toxin-neutralizing activities of the antibodies were evaluated in vitro and the prophylactic effects of in vivo passive immunotherapy were demonstrated using a conventional mouse model. The data demonstrated that immunized horses generated antibodies against both toxins A and B that possessed toxin-neutralizing activity. Additionally, mice treated with the antiserum lost less weight without any sign of illness and regained weight back to a normal range more rapidly compared to the control group when challenged orally with 107 C. difficile spores 1 day after serum injection. These results indicate that intravenous delivery of hyperimmune serum can protect animals from C. difficile challenge in a dose-dependent manner. Hence, immunotherapy may be a promising prophylactic strategy for preventing C. difficile infection in horses. PMID:24136208
Ramos-Jesus, Joilson; Carvalho, Kellyanne A; Fonseca, Rosana A S; Oliveira, Geraldo G S; Melo, Stella M Barrouin; Alcântara-Neves, Neuza M; Dutra, Rosa F
The American visceral leishmaniasis is an important cause of morbidity and mortality in Brazil for both humans and dogs. Attempts to make a diagnosis of this disease need to be improved, especially in endemic areas, and in the tracking and screening of asymptomatic dogs, which are their main host in urban areas. A quartz crystal microbalance immunosensor for the diagnosis of the canine visceral leishmaniasis using a recombinant antigen of Leishmania chagasi (rLci2B-NH6) was developed. The rLci2B-NH6 was tightly immobilized on a quartz crystal gold electrode by self-assembled monolayer based on short-chain length thiol. The strategy was the use of the antigen-histidine tail covalently linked to glutaraldehyde performing a Schift base which permits a major exposure of epitopes and a reduced steric hindrance. The immunosensor showed good results regarding sensitivity and reproducibility, being able to distinguish positive and negative canine serum for L. chagasi. Furthermore, the immunosensor can be reused through exposure to sodium dodecyl sulfate solution, which promotes the dissociation of antigen-antibody binding, restoring the sensor surface with immobilized biologically active antigens for further analysis.
Valadas, Samantha; Minervino, Antonio H H; Lima, Valéria M F; Soares, Rodrigo M; Ortolani, Enrico L; Gennari, Solange M
A cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the occurrence of anti-Toxoplasma gondii, anti-Neospora caninum, and anti- Leishmania chagasi antibodies in dogs of the state of Pará, Brazil. For this purpose, 129 blood samples were collected from dogs of different ages and gender. Samples of 72 dogs were collected from 39 rural properties from 19 municipalities, and 57 samples were from stray dogs, collected after captivity by the Center of Zoonosis Control from the municipality of Santarém. The sera were analyzed for anti-T. gondii and anti-N. caninum antibodies by indirect fluorescent antibody tests with cutoff values of 1:16 and 1:50, respectively. For the presence of L. chagasi antibodies, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was used and positive results were confirmed by immunochromatographic method using the recombinant antigen K39. Of the total of 129 dogs, 90 (69.8%) were positive for T. gondii, 16 (12.4%) for N. caninum, and 30 (23.3%) for L. chagasi. Antibodies for all three parasites were found simultaneously in seven dogs (5.4%), mostly in urban dogs (six of seven). No association was observed related to gender and location (urban or rural) of dogs and occurrence of N. caninum and T. gondii antibodies although, regarding L. chagasi, higher prevalence was found in females (P < 0.02) and in dogs from urban location (P < 0.001). From the 39 farms, in 30 (76.9%) at least one dog was positive for T. gondii or N. caninum or both. Higher occurrence of Leishmania antibodies was observed in N. caninum-negative dogs (P < 0.05).
... Hemolysis Hyperimmunization Immunoelectrophoresis - blood Immunofixation blood test Liver disease Malignancy Malnutrition Nephrotic syndrome Rheumatoid arthritis Serum globulin electrophoresis Serum iron test Systemic lupus erythematosus ...
Rodríguez, Nilda E; Gaur, Upasna; Wilson, Mary E
Caveolae are membrane microdomains enriched in cholesterol, ganglioside M1 (GM1) and caveolin-1. We explored whether caveolae facilitate the entry of Leishmania chagasi into murine macrophages. Transient depletion of macrophage membrane cholesterol by 1 h exposure to methyl-beta-cyclodextrin (MbetaCD) impaired the phagocytosis of non-opsonized and serum-opsonized virulent L. chagasi. In contrast, MbetaCD did not affect the phagocytosis of opsonized attenuated L. chagasi. As early as 5 min after phagocytosis, virulent L. chagasi colocalized with the caveolae markers GM1 and caveolin-1, and colocalization continued for over 48 h. We explored the kinetics of lysosome fusion. Whereas fluorescent-labelled dextran entered macrophage lysosomes by 30 min after addition, localization of L. chagasi in lysosomes was delayed for 24-48 h after phagocytosis. However, after transient depletion of cholesterol from macrophage membrane with MbetaCD, the proportion of L. chagasi-containing phagosomes that fused with lysosomes increased significantly. Furthermore, intracellular replication was impaired in parasites entering after transient cholesterol depletion, even though lipid microdomains were restored by 4 h after treatment. These observations suggest that virulent L. chagasi localize in caveolae during phagocytosis by host macrophages, and that cholesterol-containing macrophage membrane domains, such as caveolae, target parasites to a pathway that promotes delay of lysosome fusion and intracellular survival.
Whether there exists a computable universal numbering for a computable family is the key question in theory of numberings. In a very general setting, this problem was explored in [Yu. L. Ershov, Theory of Numberings, Handbook of Computability Theory, North-Holland; Amsterdam: Stud. Log. Found. Math., Vol. 140, pp. 473-503, 1999]. For sets A that are Turing jumps of the empty set, the problem was treated in [S. A. Badaev, S. S. Goncharov, and A. Sorbi, Computability and Models, 11-44 (2003)] and other papers. In this work, we investigate families of total functions computable relative to hyperimmune and hyperimmune-free oracles.
da Silva-López, Raquel Elisa; dos Santos, Tatiana Resende; Morgado-Díaz, José Andrés; Tanaka, Marcelo Neves; de Simone, Salvatore Giovanni
The present work reports the isolation, biochemical characterization, and subcellular location of serine proteases from aqueous, detergent soluble, and culture supernatant of Leishmania chagasi promastigote extracts, respectively, LCSII, LCSI, and LCSIII. The active enzyme molecular masses of LCSII were about 105, 66, and 60 kDa; of LCSI, 60 and 58 kDa; and of LCSIII, approximately 76 and 68 kDa. Optimal pH for the enzymes was 7.0 for LCSI and LCSIII and 8.5 for LCSII, and the optimal temperature for all enzymes was 37°C, using α-N-ρ-tosyl-L: -arginine methyl ester as substrate. Assay of thermal stability indicated that LCSIII is the more stable enzyme. Hemoglobin, bovine serum albumin, and ovalbumin were hydrolyzed by LCSII and LCSI but not by LCSIII. Inhibition studies suggested that enzymes belong to the serine protease class modulated by divalent cations. Rabbit antiserum against 56-kDa serine protease of Leishmania amazonensis identified proteins in all extracts of L. chagasi. Furthermore, immunocytochemistry demonstrated that serine proteases are located in flagellar pocket region and cytoplasmic vesicles of L. chagasi promastigotes. These findings indicate that L. chagasi serine proteases differ from L. amazonensis proteases and all known flagellate proteases, but display some similarities with serine proteases from other Leishmania species, suggesting a conservation of this enzymatic activity in the genus.
Marcondes, M; Biondo, A W; Gomes, A A D; Silva, A R S; Vieira, R F C; Camacho, A A; Quinn, John; Chandrashekar, R
Canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL) is caused by Leishmania donovani complex parasites including L. donovani, Leishmania infantum and Leishmania chagasi. As some studies suggest that L. chagasi and L. infantum may be very similar or even the same species, the aim of the present study was to evaluate a commercial rapid ELISA test, originally designed for L. infantum, in the diagnosis of CVL in dogs naturally infected by L. chagasi. A total of 400 serum canine samples, including 283 positive dogs for CVL from an endemic area, 86 clinically healthy dogs from a non-endemic area and 31 dogs seropositive for confounding infectious agents (Trypanosoma cruzi, Toxoplasma gondii, Neospora caninum, Babesia canis and Ehrlichia canis) were used for test validation. An overall sensitivity of 94.7% (95% CI=91.41-97.01%) and specificity of 90.6% (95% CI=83.80-95.21%) was found, with a high degree of agreement (k=0.8445) to the indirect ELISA. When confounding infectious diseases were excluded, specificity increased to 100% (95% CI=95.8-100%), with a higher degree of agreement (k=0.8928). In conclusion, the commercial kit designed for L. infantum was a highly sensitive and specific device for detection of L. chagasi infection in dogs, which indicates high immunoreactivity similarities between L. infantum and L. chagasi.
Baptista, T. S.; Zamboni, C. B.; Marcelino, J. R.
The Cl and Na concentration values in four types of hyperimmune sera (anti-Bothrops, anti-Diphtheria, anti-Rabies and anti-Tetanus) used for immunological therapy were determined using Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA). These data were compatible with the specifications established by the Word Health Organization (WHO-OMS) and with the Brazilian Official Pharmacopea (Pharmaceutical Code Official of the Country). These data are an important support for quality control of hyperimmune sera production at Butantan Institute (São Paulo city, Brazil), responsible for supplying the Brazilian market.
AD_________________ Award Number: W81XWH-08-C-0004 TITLE: Therapeutic Human Hyperimmune Polyclonal Antibodies against Staphylococcal...01-05-2008 2. REPORT TYPE Final, Phase I 3. DATES COVERED 19 OCT 2007 - 18 APR 2008 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Therapeutic ...aerosol in a biowarfare scenario. The primary goal of Phase I was to demonstrate the feasibility of therapeutic intervention with immunoglobulin
Ramer-Tait, Amanda E; Lei, Soi Meng; Bellaire, Bryan H; Beetham, Jeffrey K
Previous works demonstrated that various species of Leishmania promastigotes exhibit differential sensitivity to complement-mediated lysis (CML) during development. Upon exposure to normal human serum (NHS), cultures of Leishmania chagasi promastigotes recently isolated from infected hamsters (fewer than 5 in vitro passages) are CML-sensitive when in the logarithmic growth phase but become CML-resistant upon transition to the stationary culture phase. Visualization by light and electron microscopy revealed dramatic morphological differences between promastigotes from the 2 culture phases following exposure to NHS. Flow cytometric analysis demonstrated that surface deposition of the complement components C3, C5, and C9 correlated inversely with promastigote CML-resistance. The highest levels of complement protein surface accumulation were observed for logarithmic phase promastigotes, while stationary phase promastigotes adsorbed the least amount of complement proteins. Additionally, fluorescence microscopy revealed that C3 and C5 localized in a fairly uniform pattern to the plasma membrane of promastigotes from logarithmic phase cultures, while the staining of promastigotes from stationary phase cultures was indistinguishable from background. By Western blot analysis, high levels of the complement proteins C3, C5, and C9 were detected in the total lysates of NHS-exposed logarithmic phase L. chagasi promastigotes, relative to NHS-exposed stationary phase promastigotes; this finding indicates that the low levels of C3 and C5 seen on the surface of stationary phase promastigotes were not due to protein uptake/internalization. Together, these data demonstrate the differential deposition of complement proteins on the surfaces of logarithmic and stationary phase L. chagasi promastigotes. The data support a model wherein stationary phase L. chagasi promastigotes resist CML by limiting the deposition of C3 and its derivatives, which, in turn, limit surface levels of
Lei, Soi Meng; Romine, Nathan M; Beetham, Jeffrey K
Leishmania chagasi causes visceral leishmaniasis, a potentially fatal disease of humans. Within the sand fly vector, L. chagasi replicates as promastigotes which undergo complex changes in morphology as they progress from early stage procyclic promastigotes, to intermediate stage leptomonad and nectomonad promastigotes, and ultimately to terminal stage metacyclic promastigotes that are highly infective to vertebrates. This developmental progression is largely recapitulated in vitro using axenic promastigote cultures that have been passaged only a few times. Within a single passage (which takes about a week), axenic cultures progress from logarithmic to stationary growth phases; parasites within those growth phases progress from stages that do not have metacyclic cell properties to ones that do. Interestingly, repeated serial passage of promastigote cultures will result in cell populations that exhibit perturbations in developmental progression, in expression levels of surface macromolecules (major surface protease, MSP, and promastigote surface antigen, PSA), and in virulence properties, including resistance to serum lysis. Experiments were performed to determine whether there exists a direct relationship between promastigote developmental form and perturbations associated with repeated serial passage. Passage 2 to passage 4 L. chagasi cultures at stationary growth phase were predominately (>85%) comprised of metacyclic promastigotes and exhibited high resistance to serum lysis and high levels of MSP and PSA. Serial passaging 8, or more, times resulted in a stationary phase population that was largely (>85%) comprised of nectomonad promastigotes, almost completely devoid (<2%) of metacyclic promastigotes, and that exhibited low resistance to serum lysis and low levels of MSP and PSA. The study suggests that the loss of particular cell properties seen in cells from serially passaged cultures is principally due to a dramatic reduction in the proportion of metacyclic
Alberio, Sanny O; Dias, Suzana S; Faria, Flávio P; Mortara, Renato A; Barbiéri, Clara L; Freymüller Haapalainen, Edna
The present work showed the presence of a megasome in Leishmania (Leishmania) chagasi amastigotes. Transmission electron microscopy analysis of ultrathin serial sections and three-dimensional reconstruction allowed visualization of large structures in amastigote forms of L. (L.) chagasi and a multivesicular tubule-lysosome structure in metacyclic promastigotes. Morphometric data showed that the relative volume occupied by the megasome and the multivesicular tubule (MVT)-lysosome structures was about 5% and 3.2%, respectively, in amastigotes and promastigotes of L. (L.) chagasi. Further characterization of the megasome in L. (L.) chagasi amastigotes was carried out by immunolabeling of cysteine proteinase, whereas the lysosomal content of amastigotes and promastigotes was confirmed by arylsulfatase cytochemistry.
Gaur Dixit, Upasna; Barker, Jason H.; Teesch, Lynn M.; Love-Homan, Laurie; Donelson, John E.; Wilson, Mary E.
The infectious metacyclic promastigotes of Leishmania protozoa establish infection in a mammalian host after they are deposited into the dermis by a sand fly vector. Several Leishmania virulence factors promote infection, including the glycosylphosphatidylinositol membrane-anchored major surface protease (MSP). Metacyclic Leishmania infantum chagasi promastigotes were treated with methyl-beta-cyclodextrin (MβCD), a sterol-chelating reagent, causing a 3-fold reduction in total cellular sterols as well as enhancing MSP release without affecting parasite viability in vitro. MβCD-treated promastigotes were more susceptible to complement-mediated lysis than untreated controls and reduced the parasite load 3-fold when inoculated into BALB/c mice. Paradoxically, MβCD-treated promastigotes caused a higher initial in vitro infection rate in human or murine macrophages than untreated controls, although their intracellular multiplication was hindered upon infection establishment. There was a corresponding larger amount of covalently bound C3b than iC3b on the parasite surfaces of MβCD-treated promastigotes exposed to healthy human serum in vitro, as well as loss of MSP, a protease that enhances C3b cleavage to iC3b. Mass spectrometry showed that MβCD promotes the release of proteins into the extracellular medium, including both MSP and MSP-like protein (MLP), from virulent metacyclic promastigotes. These data support the hypothesis that plasma membrane sterols are important for the virulence of Leishmania protozoa at least in part through retention of membrane virulence proteins. PMID:23630964
Yao, Chaoqun; Gaur Dixit, Upasna; Barker, Jason H; Teesch, Lynn M; Love-Homan, Laurie; Donelson, John E; Wilson, Mary E
The infectious metacyclic promastigotes of Leishmania protozoa establish infection in a mammalian host after they are deposited into the dermis by a sand fly vector. Several Leishmania virulence factors promote infection, including the glycosylphosphatidylinositol membrane-anchored major surface protease (MSP). Metacyclic Leishmania infantum chagasi promastigotes were treated with methyl-beta-cyclodextrin (MβCD), a sterol-chelating reagent, causing a 3-fold reduction in total cellular sterols as well as enhancing MSP release without affecting parasite viability in vitro. MβCD-treated promastigotes were more susceptible to complement-mediated lysis than untreated controls and reduced the parasite load 3-fold when inoculated into BALB/c mice. Paradoxically, MβCD-treated promastigotes caused a higher initial in vitro infection rate in human or murine macrophages than untreated controls, although their intracellular multiplication was hindered upon infection establishment. There was a corresponding larger amount of covalently bound C3b than iC3b on the parasite surfaces of MβCD-treated promastigotes exposed to healthy human serum in vitro, as well as loss of MSP, a protease that enhances C3b cleavage to iC3b. Mass spectrometry showed that MβCD promotes the release of proteins into the extracellular medium, including both MSP and MSP-like protein (MLP), from virulent metacyclic promastigotes. These data support the hypothesis that plasma membrane sterols are important for the virulence of Leishmania protozoa at least in part through retention of membrane virulence proteins.
de Mendonça, Ivete Lopes; Batista, Joilson Ferreira; Alves, Leucio Camara
Canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL) is difficult to diagnosis, mainly due to the presence of asymptomatic animals, the diversity of clinical symptoms and the difficulty in obtaining diagnostic evidence of high sensitivity and specificity. The purpose of this study was to diagnose CVL in urinary sediment of 70 dogs of different breeds, sexes and ages from the veterinary hospital of the Federal University of Piauí and Zoonosis Control Center of Teresina, Brazil. The serological tests were TR DPP® for CVL and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for CVL, parasitological exams of bone marrow and lymph nodes and urine sediment cultures. Leishmania was detected in the bone marrow and/or lymph node of 61.0% of the animals (43/70), and urine sediment culture was positive in 9.30% (4/43) of these animals. In the serological exams, 70.0% (49/70) were reactive using the DPP and 78.2% (55/70) were reactive using ELISA. The goal of this study was to diagnose the presence of L. (infantum) chagasi in a culture of urinary sediment.
Lei, Soi Meng; Ramer-Tait, Amanda E; Dahlin-Laborde, Rebecca R; Mullin, Kathleen; Beetham, Jeffrey K
Leishmania chagasi, a causal agent of visceral leishmaniasis, requires passage through lab animals such as hamsters to maintain its virulence. Hamster infection is typically accomplished via cardiac puncture or intraperitoneal injection, procedures accompanied by risks of increased animal stress and death. The use of the hamster model also necessitates a regular supply of infected animals, because L. chagasi parasites newly isolated from an infected hamster can be grown in culture for only several weeks before loss of function/phenotype occurs. In an effort to decrease animal usage and animal stress, experiments were performed to assess a more gentle inoculation procedure (saphenous vein inoculation) and the use of cryopreserved parasite cells for research experiments. Of 81 hamsters inoculated by the saphenous vein, 80 became infected as determined ante mortem, by display of clinical symptoms of leishmaniasis (onset of symptoms at 105 +/- 22 days post-inoculation), and postmortem by the presence of parasites within the spleen. Splenic parasite load calculated for a subset (n = 34) of infected hamsters was 124 to 26,177 Leishmania donovani infection units. Cryopreserved, and never-stored, cells were equivalent in all properties evaluated, including developmental changes in morphology during culture, culture growth rates, parasite resistance to serum-mediated lysis, and expression of developmentally regulated surface proteins major surface protease and promastigote surface antigen.
Zheng, Xuexing; Wong, Gary; Zhao, Yongkun; Wang, Hualei; He, Shihua; Bi, Yuhai; Chen, Weijin; Jin, Hongli; Gai, Weiwei; Chu, Di; Cao, Zengguo; Wang, Chong; Fan, Quanshui; Chi, Hang; Gao, Yuwei; Wang, Tiecheng; Feng, Na; Yan, Feihu; Huang, Geng; Zheng, Ying; Li, Nan; Li, Yuetao; Qian, Jun; Zou, Yong; Kobinger, Gary; Gao, George Fu; Qiu, Xiangguo; Yang, Songtao; Xia, Xianzhu
Recent successes with monoclonal antibody cocktails ZMappTM and MIL77 against Ebola virus (EBOV) infections have reignited interest in antibody-based therapeutics. Since the production process for monoclonal antibodies can be prolonged and costly, alternative treatments should be investigated. We produced purified equine antisera from horses hyperimmunized with EBOV virus-like particles, and tested the post-exposure efficacy of the antisera in a mouse model of infection. BALB/c mice were given up to 2 mg of purified equine antisera per animal, at 30 minutes, 1 or 2 days post-infection (dpi), in which all animals survived. To decrease the possibility of serum sickness, the equine antisera was digested with pepsin to generate F(ab′)2 fragments, with in vitro neutralizing activity comparable to whole immunoglobulin. Full protection was achieved with when treatment was initiated at 1 dpi, but the suboptimal protection observed with the 30 minute and 2 dpi groups demonstrate that in addition to virus neutralization, other Fc-dependent antibody mechanisms may also contribute to survival. Guinea pigs given 20 mg of antisera or F(ab′)2 at or starting at 1 or 2 dpi were also fully protected from EBOV infection. These results justify future efficacy studies for purified equine products in NHPs. PMID:27067649
Sesana, Aretha Molina; Monti-Rocha, Renata; Vinhas, Solange Alves; Morais, Carlos Gustavo; Dietze, Reynaldo; Lemos, Elenice Moreira
Cochleate delivery vehicles are a novel lipid-based system with potential for delivery of amphotericin B (AmB). In this study, the efficacy of cochleates was evaluated by examining the in vitro activity of AmB cochleates (CAMB) against Leishmania chagasi in a macrophage model of infection. We demonstrate that CAMB is nontoxic to macrophages at concentrations as high as 2.5 μg/mL, whereas the conventional formulation, AmB deoxycholate, showed high toxicity at this concentration. The in vitro activity of CAMB against L. chagasi was found to be similar to that of the reference drug AmB deoxycholate, with ED50s of 0.017 μg/mL and 0.021 μg/mL, respectively. Considering that L. chagasi affects organs amenable to cochleate-mediated delivery of AmB, we hypothesize that CAMB will be an effective lipid system for the treatment of visceral leishmaniasis.
Pinheiro, Paulo Henrique da Costa; Pinheiro, Adriana Nunes; Ferreira, Josie Haydée Lima; Costa, Francisco Assis Lima; Katz, Simone; Barbiéri, Clara Lúcia
A recombinant protein, rLdccys1, produced by expression of the gene encoding a 30kDa cysteine proteinase from Leishmania (Leishmania) chagasi, was used to detect specific antibodies in serum by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays and to test for reactivity in delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) responses of dogs from an endemic region of visceral leishmaniasis (VL), Teresina, Piauí State, Brazil. Amastigote or promastigote extracts were also assayed for comparison. The sensitivity for detection of specific antibodies to L. (L.) chagasi using rLdccys1, lysates from L. (L.) chagasi promastigotes and amastigotes was 96%, 68%, and 69%, respectively. No cross-reactivity between rLdccys1 and Chagas disease was observed, and little reactivity was found with sera from dogs with babesiosis and ehrlichiosis. Among 106 sera from symptomatic dogs and 22 from non-infected controls, no false negatives and only two false positive sera were found for rLdccys1. In contrast, amastigote lysates yielded 11 false positives and 13 false negatives, whereas the corresponding numbers for promastigote lysates were 17 and 16. DTH responses were determined after intradermal injection of rLdccys1 or amastigote extract and the induration area was measured at 24, 48 and 72h after injection. All asymptomatic dogs showed a positive intradermal response to rLdccys1 (>10mm) which peaked at 48h, whereas no significant reactivity to the recombinant antigen was found in the symptomatic group. Histological analysis of the intradermal induration showed a predominance of necrotic and hemorrhagic areas in sections from asymptomatic dogs injected with L. (L.) chagasi amastigote extract, whereas a typical granulomatous reaction mediated by mononuclear cells was observed in sections from asymptomatic animals injected with rLdccys1. Grouping data from ELISA and DTH assays with rLdccys1 and L. (L.) chagasi amastigote extracts showed that humoral and cellular responses were inversely correlated during the
Martín-Gómez, S; Alvarez-Sánchez, M A; Rojo-Vázquez, F A
Three ewes were immunized five times over a 2-month period prior to giving birth by intramuscular injection, oral administration and intramammary infusion of antigen and viable or freeze-dried Cryptosporidium parvum oocyst solution emulsified with Freund's complete and incomplete adjuvant. Two animals served as controls and another two as adjuvant controls. Serum was collected at first immunization and thereafter every 2 to 4 weeks. Colostrum and milk were collected as well. All samples were assayed for C. parvum-specific antibodies using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay methodology, and Western blotting was used to recognize the C. parvum antigens. Hyperimmunization resulted in a progressive and significant increase in specific anti-C. parvum serum IgG, IgA and IgM titres, with the highest values noted at the point of lambing. Titres decreased slightly in milk, although they were in all cases higher than those in the control animals. Moreover, some 30 bands of C. parvum were recognized.
de Queiroz, N M G P; da Silveira, R C V; de Noronha, A C F; Oliveira, T M F S; Machado, R Z; Starke-Buzetti, W A
Canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL) is caused by a protozoa parasite of the specie Leishmania (L.) chagasi endemic for humans and dogs in many regions of Brazil. The purpose of the present study was the detection of (L.) chagasi in canine skin tissues from three different groups of clinical signs: asymptomatic, oligosymptomatic and polysymptomatic Leishmania-infected dogs. Lesional or non-lesional skin tissue samples from 34 naturally infected dogs were obtained and processed by histochemistry (HE) and immunohistochemistry (IMHC) for direct parasitological examination and the results were compared with a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method. IMHC and HE methods detected intact Leishmania-amastigote parasites in lesional and no lesional skin, particularly in asymptomatic and oligosymptomatic dogs. 50% of skin samples collected from asymptomatic and 21.4% from oligosymptomatic dogs had parasites in their skins even though with mild inflammatory reaction or without any macroscopic dermatological alterations. On the other hand, 100% of polysymptomatic dogs showed several forms of clinical dermatological alterations and 91.7% had intact amastigotes with parasite load ranging from mild to intense. By PCR, DNA of Leishmania spp. was detected in 97.8% skin samples regardless clinical status of the dogs or IMHC/HE test results. PCR on skin was a sensitive procedure for CVL diagnosis, but direct observation of intact parasite in skin biopsies, particularly by IMHC, may be also considered to support the diagnosis.
da Silveira Neto, Osvaldo José; Duarte, Sabrina Castilho; da Costa, Hérika Xavier; Linhares, Guido Fontgalland Coelho
The objective of this study was to design and evaluate new primers for species-specific detection of L. infantum chagasi using PCR. Two combinations of primer pairs were established with the aim of obtaining specific amplification products from the L. infantum chagasi 18S rRNA gene. The combinations of the primer pairs and the respective sizes of the PCR products, based on the U422465 GenBank reference sequence of L. infantum chagasi, were: LCS1/LCS3 (259 bp) and LCS2/LCS3 (820 bp). It was concluded that the new PCR assays optimized using the primer pairs LCS1/LCS3 and LCS2/LCS3 were effective for specific detection of L. infantum chagasi, with analytical sensitivity to detect 1 pg/µL of DNA.
Moraes, Caroline S; Seabra, Sergio H; Castro, Daniele P; Brazil, Reginaldo P; de Souza, Wanderley; Garcia, Eloi S; Azambuja, Patrícia
Studies on the lysis of L. chagasi caused by the bacteria Serratia marcescens were carried out. In vitro experiments demonstrated that S. marcescens variant SM 365, a prodigiosin pigment producer, lysed this species of Leishmania but variant DB11, a nonpigmented bacteria, was unable to lyse the parasite. High concentrations of d-mannose were found to protect L. chagasi markedly diminishing the lysis by S. marcescens SM 365. Promastigotes of L. chagasi bound the lectin Concanavalin A conjugated with FITC, the fluorescence was intensely found at the base of the flagellum (flagellar pocket). Scanning electron microscopy revealed that the bacteria adherence occurred mainly in the flagellar pocket. S. marcescens SM 365 formed filamentous structures, identified as biofilms, which connect the protozoan to the developing bacterial clusters, in low concentrations of bacteria after 30 min incubation time. We suggest that bacterial mannose-sensitive (MS) fimbriae are relevant to S. marcescens SM 365 in the lysis of L. chagasi.
Santos, Keity Souza; Stephano, Marco Antonio; Marcelino, José Roberto; Ferreira, Virginia Maria Resende; Rocha, Thalita; Caricati, Celso; Higashi, Hisako Gondo; Moro, Ana Maria; Kalil, Jorge Elias; Malaspina, Osmar; Castro, Fabio Fernandes Morato; Palma, Mário Sérgio
Victims of massive bee attacks become extremely ill, presenting symptoms ranging from dizziness and headache to acute renal failure and multiple organ failure that can lead to death. Previous attempts to develop specific antivenom to treat these victims have been unsuccessful. We herein report a F(ab)(´)(2)-based antivenom raised in horse as a potential new treatment for victims of multiple bee stings. The final product contains high specific IgG titers and is effective in neutralizing toxic effects, such as hemolysis, cytotoxicity and myotoxicity. The assessment of neutralization was revised and hemolysis, the primary toxic effect of these stings, was fully neutralized in vivo for the first time.
Maciel, Bruna L Lima; Lacerda, Hênio G; Queiroz, José W; Galvão, Juliana; Pontes, Núbia N; Dimenstein, Roberto; McGowan, Stephen E; Pedrosa, Lúcia F C; Jerônimo, Selma M B
Outcomes of infection with Leishmania chagasi range from self-resolving infection to visceral leishmaniasis (VL). Risk factors determining development of disease are not totally understood, but probably include environmental influences and host genetics. We assessed whether nutrition influenced the outcome of Leishmania infection by comparing relatives of children with VL with either self-resolving Leishmania spp. infection or apparently uninfected households. We observed a decrease in body mass index (P < 0.0005) and mid-upper arm circumference for age (P = 0.022) z-scores for children with VL. Levels of vitamin A were lower in active children with VL as measured by serum retinol (P = 0.035) and the modified-relative-dose-response test (P = 0.009). Higher birth weight (P = 0.047) and albumin concentrations (P = 0.040) protected against disease. Increased breastfeeding time (P = 0.036) was associated with asymptomatic infection. The results indicate that modifiable nutritional aspects are associated with the outcome of Leishmania spp. infection in humans.
Dutra, Fernando L; Oliveira, Maurício M; Santos, Reinaldo S; Silva, Wagner Seixas; Alviano, Daniela S; Vieira, Danielle P; Lopes, Angela H
The most commonly used drugs against visceral leishmaniasis are based on pentavalent antimonial compounds, which have played a fundamental role in therapy for over 70 years. However, the treatment is painful and has severe toxic side effects that can be fatal. Antimonial resistance is spreading and reaching alarming proportions. Linalool and eugenol have been shown to kill Leishmania (L.) amazonensis and Trypanosoma cruzi at low doses. In the present study, we demonstrate the effects of linalool and eugenol, components of essential oils, on Leishmania (L.) infantum chagasi, one of the causative agents of visceral leishmaniasis. We compared the effects of those compounds to the effects of glucantime, a positive control. In L. infantum chagasi killing assays, the LD50 for eugenol was 220μg/ml, and that for linalool was 550μg/ml. L. infantum chagasi was added to cultures of peritoneal mouse macrophages for four hours prior to drug treatment. Eugenol and linalool significantly decreased the number of parasites within the macrophages. Eugenol and linalool enhanced the activities of the L. infantum chagasi protein kinases PKA and PKC. Linalool also decreased L. infantum chagasi oxygen consumption. In conclusion, both linalool and eugenol promoted a decrease in the proliferation and viability of L. infantum chagasi. These effects were more pronounced during the interaction between the parasites and peritoneal mouse macrophages.
Verçosa, Bárbara Laurice Araújo; Melo, Maria Norma; Puerto, Helen Lima Del; Mendonça, Ivete Lopes; Vasconcelos, Anilton César
The skin has an important role in infection by Leishmania chagasi. Apoptosis modulates the inflammatory response acting distinctively either on the progression or regression of the lesions. The parasites interact with multiple regulatory systems inducing apoptosis in host cells, during cell invasion, stabilization and multiplication of pathogens. In this context, the aim of this study was to evaluate cell death within the inflammatory infiltrates, and to correlate these results with parasite load and clinical features of dogs naturally infected with L. chagasi. Fragments of skin pinnas (8 symptomatic+8 asymptomatic+6 negative controls) were used to characterize and measure the inflammatory response, parasite load and apoptosis. Diagnosis of canine leishmaniasis was confirmed by the detection of anti-Leishmania antibodies by IFA and ELISA in serum, direct visualization of the parasite and culture in spleen, liver, pinna, bone marrow and lymph nodes, and PCR (pinna). Histomorphometry was performed with images obtained from 20 representative histological fields in a light microscope. Ultra-thin sections were mounted over a 300 mesh grids, contrasted with 2% uranyl acetate and lead citrate and examined under a Transmission Electronic Microscopy. Amastigotes were only found in the skin of symptomatic animals (31.94 ± 18.81). The number of foci and cellularity of the inflammatory infiltrates in symptomatic dogs were higher than in other groups and in asymptomatics were higher than in controls (p<0.05; Tukey). The average area, perimeter and extreme diameters of the inflammatory infiltrates obtained in symptomatic dogs were higher than in controls (p<0.05; Tukey). The apoptotic index was higher in symptomatic than in other groups and there was no difference between asymptomatics and controls (p<0.05; Tukey). Ultrastructurally, apoptotic cells were shrunken, with condensed nuclear chromatin and cytoplasm. Condensed nuclei were frequently fragmented. Internucleosomal DNA
Salerno Pimentel, Isabella Aparecida; Paladi, Carolina de Siqueira; Katz, Simone; de Souza Júdice, Wagner Alves; Cunha, Rodrigo L O R; Barbiéri, Clara Lúcia
Tellurium compounds have shown several biological properties and recently the leishmanicidal effect of one organotellurane was demonstrated. These findings led us to test the effect of the organotellurium compound RF07 on Leishmania (Leishmania) chagasi, the agent of visceral leishmaniasis in Latin America. In vitro assays were performed in L. (L.) chagasi-infected bone marrow derived macrophages treated with different concentrations of RF07. In in vivo experiments Golden hamsters were infected with L. (L.) chagasi and injected intraperitoneally with RF07 whereas control animals received either Glucantime or PBS. The effect of RF07 on cathepsin B activity of L. (L.) chagasi amastigotes was assayed spectrofluorometrically using fluorogenic substrates. The main findings were: 1) RF07 showed significant leishmanicidal activity against intracellular parasites at submicromolar concentrations (IC50 of 529.7±26.5 nM), and the drug displayed 10-fold less toxicity to macrophages (CC50 of 5,426±272.8 nM); 2) kinetics assays showed an increasing leishmanicidal action of RF07 at longer periods of treatment; 3) one month after intraperitoneal injection of RF07 L. (L.) chagasi-infected hamsters showed a reduction of 99.6% of parasite burden when compared to controls that received PBS; 4) RF07 inhibited the cathepsin B activity of L. (L.) chagasi amastigotes. The present results demonstrated that the tellurium compound RF07 is able to destroy L. (L.) chagasi in vitro and in vivo at concentrations that are non toxic to the host. We believe these findings support further study of the potential of RF07 as a possible alternative for the chemotherapy of visceral leishmaniasis.
Winthrop, M D; DeNardo, S J; DeNardo, G L
Radioimmunotherapy (RIT) has demonstrated potential for improving clinical cancer therapy. Optimizing the approach has proven difficult thus far. Antibody phage display libraries provide unique molecules that could improve RIT. A phage display library of single chain antibody fragments (scFv) against the MUC-1 mucin molecule, which is expressed on 90% of human breast cancers, was produced from the spleen cells of MUC-1 hyperimmunized BALB/c mice. Increased serum IgG levels, 15 times baseline, were detected following the third immunization. RNA from the spleen cells was isolated, cDNA was made, and variable heavy and variable light immunoglobulin chain gene regions were amplified using PCR technology. The variable heavy and variable light chain gene regions were combined with a flexible linker, ligated into the pCANTAB 5E phagemid vector, and electroporated into TG1 Escherichia coli cells. A library of 10(7) initial colonies was compiled. Forty-six of 288 colonies screened for reactivity demonstrated binding to MUC-1-expressing MCF-7 breast cancer cell membrane fragments. Anti-MUC-1 library diversity evaluated by BstNI digest demonstrated that 52% of the anti-MUC-1 scFv binding MCF-7 possessed individual banding patterns representative of approximately 5 x 10(5) colonies likely able to recognize distinct epitopes present on MUC-1 positive human breast cancers. In summary, the anti-MUC-1 scFv antibody phage library contains diverse scFv molecules, which should provide unique characteristics and epitope recognition. These molecules will be used in the development of pretargeting RIT strategies designed to improve the clinical outcome of patients with breast cancer.
Brasil, Paula Ferreira; de Freitas, Júlia Araújo; Barreto, Anna Léa Silva; Adade, Camila Marques; Reis de Sá, Leandro Figueira; Constantino-Teles, Pamella; Toledo, Fabiano Travanca; de Sousa, Bruno A; Gonçalves, Augusto Cesar; Romanos, Maria Teresa Villela; Comasseto, João V; Dos Santos, Alcindo A; Tessis, Ana Claudia; Souto-Padrón, Thais; Soares, Rosangela Maria A; Ferreira-Pereira, Antonio
Leishmania (Leishmania) infantum chagasi is one of the agents that cause visceral leishmaniasis. This disease occurs more frequently in third world countries, such as Brazil. The treatment is arduous, and is dependent on just a few drugs like the antimonial derivatives and amphotericin B. Moreover, these drugs are not only expensive, but they can also cause severe side effects and require long-term treatment. Therefore, it is very important to find new compounds that are effective against leishmaniasis. In the present work we evaluated a new group of synthetic amides against the promastigote and amastigote forms of L. infantum chagasi. The results showed that one of these amides in particular, presented very effective activity against the promastigotes and amastigotes of L. infantum chagasi at low concentrations and it also presented low toxicity for mammal cells, which makes this synthetic amide a promising drug for combating leishmaniasis.
de Vasconcelos, Gisele Moledo; Azevedo-Silva, Fernanda; dos Santos Thuler, Luiz Claudio; Pina, Eugênia Terra Granado; Souza, Celeste S.F.; Calabrese, Katia; Pombo-de-Oliveira, Maria S.
Objective This study investigated the co-existence of Leishmania chagasi infection and childhood leukemia in patients naïve to treatment; this has serious clinical and epidemiological implications. Methods The seroprevalence of L. chagasi antibodies prior to any treatment was investigated in children with clinical features of acute leukemia. Serological tests were performed in 470 samples drawn from under 14-year-old children from different regions of Brazil with clinical suspicion of acute leukemia. Acute leukemia subtypes were characterized by immunophenotyping using flow cytometry. Morphological analyses of bone marrow aspirates were systematically performed to visualize blast cells and/or the formation of L. chagasi amastigotes. Data analysis used a standard univariate procedure and the Pearson's chi-square test. Results The plasma of 437 children (93%) displayed antibodies against L. chagasi by indirect immunofluorescence assay and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay tests. Of the 437 patients diagnosed from 2002 to 2006, 254 had acute lymphoblastic leukemia, 92 had acute myeloid leukemia, and 91 did not have acute leukemia. The seroprevalence of L. chagasi antibodies according to the indirect immunofluorescence assay test (22.5%) was similar in children with or without acute leukemia (p-value = 0.76). The co-existence of visceral leishmanasis and acute leukemia was confirmed in 24 children. The overall survival of these children was poor with a high death rate during the first year of leukemia treatment. Conclusion In the differential diagnosis of childhood leukemia, visceral leishmanasis should be considered as a potential concurrent disease in regions where L. chagasi is endemic. PMID:25305169
Graczyk, T K; Cranfield, M R; Bostwick, E F
Therapy based on the protective passive immunity of hyperimmune bovine colostrum (HBC) was applied to 12 moribund Leopard geckos (Eublepharis macularius) infected with Cryptosporidium sp. The geckos were lethargic and moderately to severely emaciated, weighing on average 36% of the baseline body weight value. Seven gastric HBC treatments at 1-week intervals each decreased the relative output of Cryptosporidium sp. oocysts and the prevalence of oocyst-positive fecal specimens. Histologically, after 8 weeks of therapy, seven out of 12 geckos had only single developmental stages of Cryptosporidium sp. in the intestinal epithelium, and three, one and one geckos had low, moderate and high numbers, respectively, of the pathogen developmental stages. The HBC therapy was efficacious in decreasing the parasite load in moribund geckos. Morphometric and immunologic analysis of Cryptosporidium sp. oocyst isolates originating from Leopard geckos (E. macularius) demonstrated differences between gecko-derived oocyst isolates and isolates of C. serpentis recovered from snakes.
de Souza Dias, Suzana; da Costa Pinheiro, Paulo Henrique; Katz, Simone; dos Santos, Márcia Regina Machado; Barbiéri, Clara Lúcia
A recombinant protein, rLdccys1, which was produced by expression of the gene encoding a 30 kDa cysteine proteinase from Leishmania (Leishmania) chagasi, was used for detection of antibodies in sera from patients with active visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. Analysis of the predicted amino acid sequence of rLdccys1 showed that it contains all the characteristics of a cysteine proteinase. The ability of the protein to react with sera from humans with VL was also shown by Western blotting. The sensitivity for detection of specific antibodies to L. (L.) chagasi bodies using rLdccys1, L. (L.) chagasi promastigote lysates, and amastigote lysates was 80%, 98%, and 99%, respectively. No cross-reactivity between rLdccys1 and Chagas disease was observed, and there was little positive reactivity with sera from patients with cutaneous leishmaniasis and tuberculosis, compared with promastigote and amastigote extracts. Our findings indicate that rLdccys1 from L. (L.) chagasi constitutes a potential tool for the diagnosis of American VL.
Malafaia, G; Serafim, T D; Silva, M E; Pedrosa, M L; Rezende, S A
Protein-energy malnutrition and visceral leishmaniasis are important problems of public health affecting millions of people worldwide. Vaccine efficacy depends on the ability of individuals to mount an appropriate immune response and may be inadequate in malnourished persons. In this study, we used a mouse model to verify the effect of combined protein, iron and zinc deficiency in the response to Leishmania chagasi antigen vaccine. BALB/c mice were fed with a low-protein (3% casein), iron- and zinc-deficient diet or control diet (14% casein and sufficient in zinc and iron). After malnutrition establishment, mice were vaccinated subcutaneously with L. chagasi Ag plus saponin. After vaccination, mice were nutritionally repleted and then all mice were challenged with L. chagasi promastigotes. Four weeks later, liver and spleen parasite load was evaluated. Our data show that vaccine caused a significant reduction in parasite load in spleen and liver from mice fed with control diet. However, splenic parasitism was increased in mice fed with deficient diet and this diet caused a reduction in splenocyte IFN-gamma production in response to the vaccine in repleted mice. These data suggest that malnutrition may alter immune response to L. chagasi vaccine in BALB/c model of infection, even after nutritional repletion.
Craft, Noah; Birnbaum, Ron; Quanquin, Natalie; Erfe, Marie Crisel B.; Quant, Cara; Haskell, Jacquelyn
New prevention and treatment strategies are needed for visceral leishmaniasis, particularly ones that can be deployed simply and inexpensively in areas where leishmaniasis is endemic. Synthetic molecules that activate Toll-like receptor 7 and 8 (TLR7/8) pathways have previously been demonstrated to enhance protection against cutaneous leishmaniasis. We initially sought to determine whether the TLR7/8-activating molecule resiquimod might serve as an effective vaccine adjuvant targeting visceral leishmaniasis caused by infection with Leishmania infantum chagasi. Resiquimod was topically applied to the skin of mice either prior to or after systemic infection with L. infantum chagasi, and parasite burdens were assessed. Surprisingly, topical resiquimod application alone, in the absence of vaccination, conferred robust resistance to mice against future intravenous challenge with virulent L. infantum chagasi. This protection against L. infantum chagasi infection persisted as long as 8 weeks after the final topical resiquimod treatment. In addition, in mice with existing infections, therapeutic treatment with topical resiquimod led to significantly lower visceral parasite loads. Resiquimod increased trafficking of leukocytes, including B cells, CD4+ and CD8+ T cells, dendritic cells, macrophages, and granulocytes, in livers and spleens, which are the key target organs of visceralizing infection. We conclude that topical resiquimod leads to systemic immune modulation and confers durable protection against visceralizing L. infantum chagasi infection, in both prophylactic and therapeutic settings. These studies support continued studies of TLR-modulating agents to determine mechanisms of protection and also provide a rationale for translational development of a critically needed, novel class of topical, preventative, and therapeutic agents for these lethal infections. PMID:25030052
Lee, S H; Lillehoj, H S; Park, D W; Jang, S I; Morales, A; García, D; Lucio, E; Larios, R; Victoria, G; Marrufo, D; Lillehoj, Erik P
Avian coccidiosis is caused by several distinct species of Eimeria protozoa and is the major parasitic disease of poultry of economic importance. As an alternative strategy to control avian coccidiosis without using prophylactic medications, we have investigated the efficacy of inducing passive immunity against coccidiosis by orally feeding hyperimmune IgY antibodies. In this study, a commercially available egg yolk powder, Supracox (SC), a purified IgY fraction of egg yolk prepared from hens hyperimmunized with three major species of Eimeria oocysts, were continuously fed to young chicks from hatch. Upon orally infecting these broiler chicks with Eimeria tenella and Eimeria maxima oocysts at 1 week of age, they showed significantly higher body weight gains (P<0.05) compared to the untreated controls. Furthermore, SC-fed chicks showed significantly less intestinal lesions and reduced fecal oocyst output compared to the untreated controls following oral infections with E. tenella and E. maxima. These results provide clear evidence that passive immunization of chicks with hyperimmune egg yolk IgY antibodies provide significant protection against E. tenella or E. maxima infections.
Petersen, C; Gut, J; Doyle, P S; Crabb, J H; Nelson, R G; Leech, J H
Cryptosporidium parvum, a zoonotic Apicomplexan pathogen, causes profound diarrhea, malnutrition, and dehydration in patients with AIDS. A less severe, self-limited disease occurs in immunocompetent individuals, particularly children, animal handlers, and residents of the developing world. Very little is known about the biology of the organism, the pathophysiology of the disease process, or the mechanism of protective immunity. There is no effective therapy for cryptosporidiosis, but hyperimmune bovine colostrum raised against Cryptosporidium oocysts and sporozoites has ameliorated infection and disease in some patients with AIDS, and a variety of monoclonal antibodies, as well as hyperimmune bovine colostrum, have significantly reduced cryptosporidial infection of mice and calves. We report here the identification and initial characterization of a > 900,000-M(r) Cryptosporodium sporozoite glycoprotein (GP900) that is a prominent antigen recognized by protective hyperimmune bovine colostral immunoglobulin. Three of six murine anticryptosporidial monoclonal antibodies reacted with GP900, indicating that the molecule is highly immunogenic in mice as well as in cows. GP900 is Triton X-100 soluble and N glycosylated. Western blotting of the N-deglycosylated protein, detected with antibodies eluted from recombinant clones expressing a partial GP900 fusion protein, suggested that the polypeptide backbone of the glycoprotein has an M(r) of < 190,000. GP900 is encoded by a single-copy gene that resides on the largest Cryptosporidium chromosome. Images PMID:1452347
Fletcher, C V; Goodroad, B K; Cummins, L M; Henry, K; Balfour, H H; Rhame, F S
Hyperimmune anti-human immunodeficiency virus immunoglobulin (HIVIG) is an intravenous immunoglobulin prepared from HIV-infected asymptomatic donors with a CD4 cell count greater than 400 cells/microl and a high titer of antibody to HIV-1 p24 protein. Twelve persons with AIDS received four doses of HMG (two at 50 mg/kg of body weight and then two at 200 mg/kg) every 28 days. Pharmacokinetics were evaluated by measurement of anti-p24 antibody. HIVIG was well tolerated, and all participants completed the study. Three subjects who were not receiving Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (PCP) prophylaxis developed PCP. The mean value for HIVIG clearance was 3.02 ml/kg/day at 50 mg/kg and 3.65 ml/kg/day at 200 mg/kg (P = 0.027); the mean trough antibody titers (reciprocal units) were 1,442 and 4,428, respectively. This study indicates that high titers of anti-p24 antibody can be maintained with a monthly administration schedule of HIVIG and that short-term safety is acceptable. Comparisons to evaluate the therapeutic potential of HIVIG are justified. PMID:9210687
Steele, Jennifer; Sponseller, Jerlyn; Schmidt, Diane; Cohen, Ocean; Tzipori, Saul
Hyperimmune bovine colostrum (HBC), produced by vaccination of a cow during gestation, is rich in targeted immunoglobulins, and can be used to treat a variety of diseases. The published history of HBC use for treating gastrointestinal infections in humans has developed over the past several decades and demonstrates the promise of this type of therapeutic for GI infectious disease. HBC, or purified derivative products, have been used successfully for treatment or prevention of cryptosporidiosis, shigellosis, rotavirus, enterotoxigenic E. coli, and C. difficile infection (CDI). Given the positive results of previous studies using HBC for treatment of CDI, we have produced HBC with antibodies against the two most important virulence factors of C. difficile, TcdA and TcdB, using a novel recombinant vaccine. Our preliminary results demonstrate efficacy of the HBC product for treatment of CDI in the gnotobiotic piglet model, and warrant more thorough investigation. HBC may provide an effective treatment alternative to antibiotics, which can spare the normal gut microflora, and reduce rates of recurrence and antibiotic resistance.
Hemagglutination inhibition (HAI) antibody responses to anti–influenza virus hyperimmune intravenous immunoglobulin (hIVIG) were characterized. Thirty-one patients with influenza during the 2013–2014 season were randomly assigned to receive 0.25 g/kg of hIVIG (n = 16) or placebo (n = 15). For hIVIG recipients, the ratio of geometric mean titers (1 hour after infusion/before infusion) was 4.00 (95% confidence interval [CI], 2.61–6.13) for 2009 pandemic influenza A(H1N1) and 1.76 (95% CI, 1.33–2.32) for influenza A(H3N2) and influenza B. Among patients with 2009 pandemic influenza A(H1N1), ratios for hIVIG (n = 9) versus placebo (n = 8) were higher 1 hour after infusion (3.9 [95% CI, 2.3–6.7]) and sustained through day 3 (2.0 [95% CI, 1.0–4.0]). hIVIG administration significantly increases HAI titer levels among patients with influenza, supporting the need to perform a clinical outcomes study. Clinical trials registration: NCT02008578. PMID:26374911
Disch, J; Maciel, F C; de Oliveira, M C; Orsini, M; Rabello, A
A polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay for the detection of Leishmania spp. DNA in peripheral blood was optimized and evaluated for the diagnosis of human visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in Brazil during May 2001 to December 2002. Optimization of the technique resulted in a detection limit of 1.65 fg of purified L. (L.) chagasi DNA, equivalent to 1.65 x 10(-2) parasites. Leishmania DNA was detected in the blood of 48 of 53 patients with parasitologically-confirmed VL, which corresponds to a sensitivity of 91%. No DNA was detected in the peripheral blood of 15 healthy, non-exposed volunteers, giving a specificity of 100%. We conclude that detection of parasite DNA in peripheral blood offers a non-invasive, sensitive and rapid method for the detection of VL caused by L. (L.) chagasi.
Reimão, Juliana Q; Colombo, Fábio A; Pereira-Chioccola, Vera L; Tempone, André G
The objective of this study was to develop a novel liposomal formulation, containing phosphatidylserine (PS), of buparvaquone (BPQ) and to evaluate its in vivo effectiveness in Leishmania (L.) infantum chagasi-infected hamsters. The activity of BPQ was evaluated against both the promastigote forms of different Leishmania species and the intracellular amastigotes of L. (L.) infantum chagasi. Buparvaquone was entrapped in PS-liposomes (BPQ-PS-LP), and the drug was quantified by ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography. The treatment was quantified by detecting the RNA of the living amastigotes in the spleen and the liver by real-time PCR. In vitro assays with L. (L.) infantum chagasi intracellular amastigotes were performed in peritoneal macrophages for the evaluation of the 50% inhibitory concentration (IC(50)). BPQ-PS-LP at 0.33 mg/kg/day for eight consecutive days reduced the number of amastigotes by 89.4% (P<0.05) in the spleen and by 67.2% (P>0.05) in the liver, compared to 84.3% (P<0.05) and 99.7% (P<0.05), respectively, following Glucantime® treatment at 50 mg/kg/day. Free BPQ at 20 mg/kg/day failed to treat the hamsters when compared to the untreated group. BPQ was significantly (P<0.05) selective against L. (L.) infantum chagasi intracellular amastigotes, with an IC(50) value of 1.5 μM; no in vitro mammalian cytotoxicity could be detected. Other cutaneous species were also susceptible to BPQ, with IC(50) values in the range 1-4 μM. BPQ-PS-LP caused a significant reduction in the parasite burden at a 60-fold lower dose than did the free BPQ. These results show the potential of PS-liposome formulations for the successful targeted delivery of BPQ in visceral leishmaniasis.
Montoya-Lerma, J; Cadena, H; Oviedo, M; Ready, P D; Barazarte, R; Travi, B L; Lane, R P
The infection rates and development of Leishmania chagasi in two sandfly species, Lutzomyia evansi and Lutzomyia longipalpis, were evaluated under natural and experimental conditions. Natural infection rates of Lu. evansi in San Andrés de Sotavento (Colombia) and Montañas de Peraza (Venezuela) (0.05 and 0.2%, respectively) were similar to those previously recorded for this species in Colombia and Venezuela and for Lu. longipalpis in many foci of American Visceral Leishmaniasis (AVL). Both sand fly species were able to support the development of two Colombian strains of L. chagasi experimentally acquired from dogs, hamsters or membrane feeders. However, the experimental infection rates and the sequence of parasite development in the guts of these sand flies revealed that parasite colonisation, differentiation, migration and attachment were more frequent and uniform in Lu. longipalpis than in Lu. evansi. This is consistent with a more recent association between L. chagasi and Lu. evansi, and these results might help to explain the irregularity of AVL outbreaks in foci where Lu. evansi has been reported as the sole vector.
de Almeida, Arleana do Bom Parto Ferreira; Sousa, Valéria Régia Franco; Sorte, Eveline da Cruz Boa; Figueiredo, Fabiano Borges; de Paula, Daphine Ariadne Jesus; Pimentel, Maria Fernanda Aranega; Dutra, Valéria; Madeira, Maria de Fátima
In Brazil, although the domestic dog is a major target for the control actions for visceral leishmaniasis, knowledge gaps of the Leishmania species present in those animals still exist in many endemic areas. The objective of this study was the use of parasitological culture as a diagnosis tool and identification of species of Leishmania and other trypanosomatids in the canine population in the city of Cuiaba/Mato Grosso. Biological samples such as blood, intact skin fragments, cutaneous ulcers, and bone marrow were collected during a cross-sectional study and cultured on biphasic medium (Novy-MacNeil-Nicolle [NNN]/Schneider's). Leishmania isolates were characterized through isoenzyme electrophoresis. Isolates were obtained from 11.2% (n=54) of the 482 animals studied considering the different anatomical sites investigated. Leishmania chagasi was confirmed in 8.3% (n=40) dogs and Trypanosoma caninum in 2.9% (n=14). The sample of intact skin presented a higher chance of isolation of L. chagasi in symptomatic dogs and bone marrow in asymptomatic dogs (p<0.05). The results presented in this study emphasize the value of culture and confirm, for the first time, the circulation of L. chagasi in the canine population in different neighborhoods of the city of Cuiaba and broaden the knowledge of the geographical distribution of T. caninum in Brazil.
Use of ELISA employing Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis and Leishmania (Leishmania) chagasi antigens for the detection of IgG and IgG1 and IgG2 subclasses in the diagnosis of American tegumentary leishmaniasis in dogs.
Ribeiro, Flávia Coelho; de O Schubach, Armando; Mouta-Confort, Eliame; Schubach, Tânia M P; de Fátima Madeira, Maria; Marzochi, Mauro C A
American tegumentary leishmaniasis (ATL) shows a reduced humoral response in dogs and levels of specific antibodies may therefore not be detected by indirect immunofluorescence. Although the sensitivity of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) is higher than that of indirect immunofluorescence, the best antigen for the diagnosis of ATL in dogs has not been defined. The detection of IgG subclasses represents an alternative to increase the efficiency of the serological diagnosis. In Rio de Janeiro, sporotrichosis is the main differential diagnosis of ATL in dogs, and a sensitive, specific and little invasive method that permits the discrimination of the two diseases is desired. In the present study, 69 serum samples, 34 obtained from dogs with ATL and 35 from dogs with sporotrichosis, all of them with a confirmed etiological diagnosis, were tested. The samples were analyzed by ELISA using Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis and L. (L.) chagasi antigens for the detection of anti-Leishmania IgG, IgG1 and IgG2. The use of L. (V.) braziliensis antigens for the detection of IgG and IgG2 yielded the best results. Using L. (L.) chagasi antigen, the sensitivity and specificity for the detection of IgG were 82.4% and 100%, respectively, whereas both sensitivity and specificity were 97.1% with the L. (V.) braziliensis antigen. No improvement in the performance of the test was observed when IgG2 was analyzed separately. The IgG1 assays presented low accuracy, irrespective of the antigen used: sensitivity and specificity of 58.8% and 60% for L. (V.) braziliensis and of 64.7% and 77.1% for L. (L.) chagasi, respectively. The present results suggest that IgG ELISA using the L. (V.) braziliensis shows the best performance for the diagnosis of ATL, permitting the discrimination between cases of ATL and sporotrichosis in dogs.
Resende, Lucilene Aparecida; Aguiar-Soares, Rodrigo Dian de Oliveira; Gama-Ker, Henrique; Roatt, Bruno Mendes; de Mendonça, Ludmila Zanandreis; Alves, Marina Luiza Rodrigues; da Silveira-Lemos, Denise; Corrêa-Oliveira, Rodrigo; Martins-Filho, Olindo Assis; Araújo, Márcio Sobreira Silva; Fujiwara, Ricardo Toshio; Gontijo, Nelder Figueiredo; Reis, Alexandre Barbosa; Giunchetti, Rodolfo Cordeiro
Dogs represent the most important domestic reservoir of L. chagasi (syn. L. infantum). A vaccine against canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL) would be an important tool for decreasing the anxiety related to possible L. chagasi infection and for controlling human visceral leishmaniasis (VL). Because the sand fly salivary proteins are potent immunogens obligatorily co-deposited during transmission of Leishmania parasites, their inclusion in an anti-Leishmania vaccine has been investigated in past decades. We investigated the immunogenicity of the “LbSapSal” vaccine (L. braziliensis antigens, saponin as adjuvant, and Lutzomyia longipalpis salivary gland extract) in dogs at baseline (T0), during the post-vaccination protocol (T3rd) and after early (T90) and late (T885) times following L. chagasi-challenge. Our major data indicated that immunization with “LbSapSal” is able to induce biomarkers characterized by enhanced amounts of type I (tumor necrosis factor [TNF]-α, interleukin [IL]-12, interferon [IFN]-γ) cytokines and reduction in type II cytokines (IL-4 and TGF-β), even after experimental challenge. The establishment of a prominent pro-inflammatory immune response after “LbSapSal” immunization supported the increased levels of nitric oxide production, favoring a reduction in spleen parasitism (78.9%) and indicating long-lasting protection against L. chagasi infection. In conclusion, these results confirmed the hypothesis that the “LbSapSal” vaccination is a potential tool to control the Leishmania chagasi infection. PMID:27556586
Vasconcelos, Camila Oliveira; Coêlho, Zirlane C Branco; Chaves, Cristina de Souza; Teixeira, Clarissa Romero; Pompeu, Margarida M Lima; Teixeira, Maria Jania
Recruitment of a specific cell population after Leishmania infection can influence the outcome of the disease. Cellular migration in response to Leishmania or vector saliva has been reported in air pouch model, however, cellular migration induced by Leishmania associated with host's blood and vector saliva in this model has not been described. Herein we investigated cellular migration into air pouch of hamster after stimulation with combination of L. chagasi and host's blood and Lutzomyia longipalpis saliva. Migration induced by saliva was 3-fold more than those induced by L. chagasi alone. Additionally, L. chagasi associated with blood and saliva induced significantly even more leukocytes into air pouch than Leishmania alone. L. chagasi recruited a diverse cell population; however, most of these cells seem to have not migrated to the inflammatory exudate, remaining in the pouch lining tissue. These results indicate that L. chagasi can reduce leukocyte accumulation to the initial site of infection, and when associated with vector saliva in the presence of blood components, increase the influx of more neutrophils than macrophages, suggesting that the parasite has developed a strategy to minimize the initial inflammatory response, allowing an unlimited progression within the host. This work reinforces the importance of studies on the salivary components of sand fly vectors of leishmaniasis in the transmission process and the establishment of the infection.
Resende, Lucilene Aparecida; Aguiar-Soares, Rodrigo Dian de Oliveira; Gama-Ker, Henrique; Roatt, Bruno Mendes; Mendonça, Ludmila Zanandreis de; Alves, Marina Luiza Rodrigues; Silveira-Lemos, Denise da; Corrêa-Oliveira, Rodrigo; Martins-Filho, Olindo Assis; Araújo, Márcio Sobreira Silva; Fujiwara, Ricardo Toshio; Gontijo, Nelder Figueiredo; Reis, Alexandre Barbosa; Giunchetti, Rodolfo Cordeiro
Dogs represent the most important domestic reservoir of L. chagasi (syn. L. infantum). A vaccine against canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL) would be an important tool for decreasing the anxiety related to possible L. chagasi infection and for controlling human visceral leishmaniasis (VL). Because the sand fly salivary proteins are potent immunogens obligatorily co-deposited during transmission of Leishmania parasites, their inclusion in an anti-Leishmania vaccine has been investigated in past decades. We investigated the immunogenicity of the "LbSapSal" vaccine (L. braziliensis antigens, saponin as adjuvant, and Lutzomyia longipalpis salivary gland extract) in dogs at baseline (T0), during the post-vaccination protocol (T3rd) and after early (T90) and late (T885) times following L. chagasi-challenge. Our major data indicated that immunization with "LbSapSal" is able to induce biomarkers characterized by enhanced amounts of type I (tumor necrosis factor [TNF]-α, interleukin [IL]-12, interferon [IFN]-γ) cytokines and reduction in type II cytokines (IL-4 and TGF-β), even after experimental challenge. The establishment of a prominent pro-inflammatory immune response after "LbSapSal" immunization supported the increased levels of nitric oxide production, favoring a reduction in spleen parasitism (78.9%) and indicating long-lasting protection against L. chagasi infection. In conclusion, these results confirmed the hypothesis that the "LbSapSal" vaccination is a potential tool to control the Leishmania chagasi infection.
Rascón-Castelo, Edgar; Burgara-Estrella, Alexel; Reséndiz-Sandoval, Mónica; Hernández-Lugo, Andrés; Hernández, Jesús
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the humoral and cellular responses of commercial multiparous and hyper-immunized sows against peptides from non-structural (nsp) and structural proteins of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV). We selected sows with different numbers of parities from a commercial farm. Management practices on this farm include the use of the MLV commercial vaccine four times per year, plus two vaccinations during the acclimation period. The humoral response was evaluated via the antibody recognition of peptides from nsp and structural proteins, and the cellular response was assessed by measuring the frequency of peptide and PRRSV-specific IFN-gamma-secreting cells (IFNγ-SC). Our results show that sows with six parities have more antibodies against peptides from structural proteins than against peptides from nsp. The analysis of the cellular response revealed that the number of immunizations did not affect the frequency of IFNγ-SC and that the response was stronger against peptides from structural proteins (M protein) than against nsp (nsp2). In summary, these results demonstrate that multiparous, hyper-immunized sows have a stronger immune humoral response to PRRSV structural peptides than nsp, but no differences in IFNγ-SC against the same peptides were observed.
Rascón-Castelo, Edgar; Burgara-Estrella, Alexel; Reséndiz-Sandoval, Mónica; Hernández-Lugo, Andrés; Hernández, Jesús
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the humoral and cellular responses of commercial multiparous and hyper-immunized sows against peptides from non-structural (nsp) and structural proteins of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV). We selected sows with different numbers of parities from a commercial farm. Management practices on this farm include the use of the MLV commercial vaccine four times per year, plus two vaccinations during the acclimation period. The humoral response was evaluated via the antibody recognition of peptides from nsp and structural proteins, and the cellular response was assessed by measuring the frequency of peptide and PRRSV-specific IFN-gamma-secreting cells (IFNγ-SC). Our results show that sows with six parities have more antibodies against peptides from structural proteins than against peptides from nsp. The analysis of the cellular response revealed that the number of immunizations did not affect the frequency of IFNγ-SC and that the response was stronger against peptides from structural proteins (M protein) than against nsp (nsp2). In summary, these results demonstrate that multiparous, hyper-immunized sows have a stronger immune humoral response to PRRSV structural peptides than nsp, but no differences in IFNγ-SC against the same peptides were observed. PMID:26633527
Histopathological and immunohistochemical study of type 3 complement receptors (CD11b/CD18) in livers and spleens of asymptomatic and symptomatic dogs naturally infected with Leishmania (Leishmania) chagasi.
Lima, W G; Oliveira, P S; Caliari, M V; Gonçalves, R; Michalick, M S M; Melo, M N; Tafuri, W L; Tafuri, W L
Leishmania promastigotes interact with macrophages through the association of multiple membrane surface receptors. Macrophage complement receptor CR3 (CD11b/CD18 or Mac-1) has been implicated in the interaction of both human and murine macrophages with serum-opsonized promastigotes. The aim of this study was to determine CR3 expression in the livers and spleens of dogs naturally infected with Leishmania (Leishmania) chagasi. CR3 expression in liver was higher in asymptomatic than in symptomatic animals. Moreover, the hepatic parasitism load determined by immunocytochemical analysis was lower in parallel with higher numbers of granulomas. In contrast, in spleens, CR3 expression was higher in symptomatic animals than in asymptomatic ones. However, the tissue parasite load was greater in spleens of symptomatic dogs. There was a strict correlation between the parasite load and cellular CR3 expression in the spleens of dogs naturally infected with L. chagasi. CR3 macrophage integrins could be essential receptors for Leishmania survival. Considering that the symptomatic animals showed higher parasite loads and higher CD11b/CD18 expression in their spleens, we can conclude that these splenic cells (monocyte-macrophages) might serve to perpetuate intracellular infection.
Freitas, Elisangela Oliveira; Nico, Dirlei; Guan, Rong; Meyer-Fernandes, José Roberto; Clinch, Keith; Evans, Gary B.; Tyler, Peter C.; Schramm, Vern L.; Palatnik-de-Sousa, Clarisa B.
Chemotherapy against visceral leishmaniasis is associated with high toxicity and drug resistance. Leishmania parasites are purine auxotrophs that obtain their purines from exogenous sources. Nucleoside hydrolases release purines from nucleosides and are drug targets for anti-leishmanial drugs, absent in mammal cells. We investigated the substrate specificity of the Leishmania (L.) donovani recombinant nucleoside hydrolase NH36 and the inhibitory effect of the immucillins IA (ImmA), DIA (DADMe-ImmA), DIH (DADMe-ImmH), SMIH (SerMe-ImmH), IH (ImmH), DIG (DADMe-ImmG), SMIG (SerMe-ImmG) and SMIA (SerME-ImmA) on its enzymatic activity. The inhibitory effects of immucillins on the in vitro multiplication of L. (L.) infantum chagasi and L. (L.) amazonensis promastigotes were determined using 0.05–500 μM and, when needed, 0.01–50 nM of each drug. The inhibition on multiplication of L. (L.) infantum chagasi intracellular amastigotes in vitro was assayed using 0.5, 1, 5 and 10 μM of IA, IH and SMIH. The NH36 shows specificity for inosine, guanosine, adenosine, uridine and cytidine with preference for adenosine and inosine. IA, IH, DIH, DIG, SMIH and SMIG immucillins inhibited L. (L.) infantum chagasi and L. (L.) amazonensis promastigote growth in vitro at nanomolar to micromolar concentrations. Promastigote replication was also inhibited in a chemically defined medium without a nucleoside source. Addition of adenosine decreases the immucillin toxicity. IA and IH inhibited the NH36 enzymatic activity (Ki = 0.080 μM for IA and 0.019 μM for IH). IA, IH and SMIH at 10 μM concentration, reduced the in vitro amastigote replication inside mice macrophages by 95% with no apparent effect on macrophage viability. Transmission electron microscopy revealed global alterations and swelling of L. (L.) infantum chagasi promastigotes after treatment with IA and IH while SMIH treatment determined intense cytoplasm vacuolization, enlarged vesicles and altered kinetoplasts. Our results
Freitas, Elisangela Oliveira; Nico, Dirlei; Guan, Rong; Meyer-Fernandes, José Roberto; Clinch, Keith; Evans, Gary B; Tyler, Peter C; Schramm, Vern L; Palatnik-de-Sousa, Clarisa B
Chemotherapy against visceral leishmaniasis is associated with high toxicity and drug resistance. Leishmania parasites are purine auxotrophs that obtain their purines from exogenous sources. Nucleoside hydrolases release purines from nucleosides and are drug targets for anti-leishmanial drugs, absent in mammal cells. We investigated the substrate specificity of the Leishmania (L.) donovani recombinant nucleoside hydrolase NH36 and the inhibitory effect of the immucillins IA (ImmA), DIA (DADMe-ImmA), DIH (DADMe-ImmH), SMIH (SerMe-ImmH), IH (ImmH), DIG (DADMe-ImmG), SMIG (SerMe-ImmG) and SMIA (SerME-ImmA) on its enzymatic activity. The inhibitory effects of immucillins on the in vitro multiplication of L. (L.) infantum chagasi and L. (L.) amazonensis promastigotes were determined using 0.05-500 μM and, when needed, 0.01-50 nM of each drug. The inhibition on multiplication of L. (L.) infantum chagasi intracellular amastigotes in vitro was assayed using 0.5, 1, 5 and 10 μM of IA, IH and SMIH. The NH36 shows specificity for inosine, guanosine, adenosine, uridine and cytidine with preference for adenosine and inosine. IA, IH, DIH, DIG, SMIH and SMIG immucillins inhibited L. (L.) infantum chagasi and L. (L.) amazonensis promastigote growth in vitro at nanomolar to micromolar concentrations. Promastigote replication was also inhibited in a chemically defined medium without a nucleoside source. Addition of adenosine decreases the immucillin toxicity. IA and IH inhibited the NH36 enzymatic activity (Ki = 0.080 μM for IA and 0.019 μM for IH). IA, IH and SMIH at 10 μM concentration, reduced the in vitro amastigote replication inside mice macrophages by 95% with no apparent effect on macrophage viability. Transmission electron microscopy revealed global alterations and swelling of L. (L.) infantum chagasi promastigotes after treatment with IA and IH while SMIH treatment determined intense cytoplasm vacuolization, enlarged vesicles and altered kinetoplasts. Our results
Rosa, F A; Leite, J H A C; Braga, E T; Moreira, P R R; Baltazar, F H; Biondo, A W; Padua, P P M; Vasconcelos, R O; Camacho, A A; Ferreira, W L; Machado, G F; Marcondes, M
The hearts of 30 dogs naturally infected with Leishmania infantum chagasi were evaluated histologically and immunohistochemically. Myocardial lesions were detected in all dogs, including lymphoplasmacytic myocarditis (27/30), myonecrosis (24/30), increased interstitial collagen (22/30), lepromatous-type granulomatous myocarditis (7/30), fibrinoid vascular change (3/30), and vasculitis (1/30). The parasite was detected in the hearts of 20 of 30 dogs. The number of parasitized cells correlated with the intensity of the inflammation and with the number of granulomas. The results indicate that cardiac lesions are prevalent in dogs with naturally occurring leishmaniasis even in the absence of clinical signs of cardiac disease.
Costa, Juliana Dias; Nogueira de Melo, Ana Cristina; Vermelho, Alane Beatriz; Meirelles, Maria de Nazareth; Porrozzi, Renato
Leishmania (Leishmania) chagasi infection activates macrophages, which release several microbicidal agents, including peptidases, to eliminate the parasite. Leishmanicidal mediators released in large amounts may cause morphological and/or functional injuries to the liver. In order to investigate the involvement of peptidases in this phenomenon, an in vitro co-culture model of peritoneal macrophages infected with L. chagasi and hepatocytes was used. High levels of released hepatic transaminases were found in supernatants from infected co-cultures at the same time point in which alterations in hepatocyte morphology and maximum proteolytic activity were observed. The largest proteolytic activity being at pH 10 as well as the greatest efficiency of treatment with 1,10-phenantroline observed in supernatants from the infected co-cultures suggests the presence of metallopeptidases during the leishmanicidal activity by infected macrophages. Furthermore, TNF-alpha levels and high levels of TGF-beta were increased at this time point, and this can be related to the synthesis of metallopeptidases and the conversion of the latent form to the active form. Metallopeptidase activities were detected by gelatin SDS-PAGE in higher amounts in infected macrophages and co-culture supernatant; moreover, one metallopeptidase migrating at 85 kDa produced in excess (41% more) by infected macrophages was identified as MMP-9. This metallopeptidase may be participating in this phenomenon together with other leishmanicidal factors released by these host cells.
Lima, Iraci D; Queiroz, Jose W; Lacerda, Henio G; Queiroz, Paula V S; Pontes, Nubia N; Barbosa, James D A; Martins, Daniella R; Weirather, Jason L; Pearson, Richard D; Wilson, Mary E; Jeronimo, Selma M B
Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is endemic in large cities in Brazil, including Natal. We determined the prevalence of asymptomatic human infection with Leishmania infantum chagasi and associated environmental risks around Natal. Infection was detected by Leishmania skin test (LST) and anti-leishmanial antibodies in humans and anti-leishmanial antibodies in dogs. Amongst 345 humans, 24.6% were seropositive, and 38.6% were LST-positive. Prevalence of positive serology was similar in both sexes and across all ages. However, positive LST responses increased with age, suggesting that LST is long-lasting and cumulative. Multinomial logistic analysis showed that LST response varied with location (P = 0.007) and that males were more frequently LST-positive (P = 0.027). Indicators of lower socioeconomic status associated significantly with human infection. Furthermore, there was geographic coincidence of seropositive humans and dogs (r = 0.7926, P = 0.011). These data suggest that dog and human L. i. chagasi infection are intimately interrelated in environmental conditions associated with low income.
Giunchetti, R C; Mayrink, W; Genaro, O; Carneiro, C M; Corrêa-Oliveira, R; Martins-Filho, O A; Marques, M J; Tafuri, W L; Reis, A B
The skin is the first point of contact with organisms of the genus Leishmania from sand fly vectors, and apparently normal skin of sick dogs harbours amastigote forms of Leishmania chagasi. In relation to canine visceral leishmaniosis (CVL), the ear skin was examined in 10 uninfected dogs (UDs) and in 31 dogs dogs naturally infected with L. chagasi. The infected animals consisted of 10 symptomless dogs (SLDs), 12 mildly affected dogs (MADs) and nine affected dogs (ADs). A higher parasite burden was demonstrated in ADs than in SLDs by anti-Leishmania immunohistochemistry (P<0.01), and by Leishman Donivan Unit (LDU) indices (P=0.0024) obtained from Giemsa-stained impression smears. Sections stained with haematoxylin and eosin demonstrated a higher intensity of inflammatory changes in ADs than in SLDs (P<0.05), and in the latter group flow cytometry demonstrated a correlation (P=0.05/r=0.7454) between the percentage of CD14(+) monocytes in peripheral blood and chronic dermal inflammation. Extracellular matrix assessment for reticular fibres by staining of sections with Masson trichrome and Gomori ammoniacal silver demonstrated a decrease in collagen type I and an increase in collagen type III as the clinical signs increased. The data on correlation between cellular phenotypes and histological changes seemed to reflect cellular activation and migration from peripheral blood to the skin, mediated by antigenic stimulation. The results suggested that chronic dermal inflammation and cutaneous parasitism were directly related to the severity of clinical disease.
Tzipori, S; Rand, W; Griffiths, J; Widmer, G; Crabb, J
Several immunodeficient rodent models currently exist in which persistent, largely asymptomatic, Cryptosporidium parvum infections can be established. Piglets, in contrast, develop a self-limiting diarrheal illness. We have consequently developed an animal model system in which scid mice were used to screen drugs for inhibitory activity against C. parvum, after which the drugs' therapeutic potential was evaluated with piglets. Paromomycin and hyperimmune bovine colostrum-immunoglobulin were selected to evaluate this system. C. paravum infections in suckling scid mice tended to be associated with villus surfaces, while in weaned and in older scid mice infections were more commonly localized in abscessed crypts. Rates of oocyst shedding in suckling scid mice were 50 to 200 times higher than in weaned mice and therefore made suckling mice a considerably more sensitive model for drug testing. Paromomycin given in high doses over 9 to 10 days was not toxic to either scid mice (3,000 mg/kg of body weight per day) or piglets (500 mg/kg/day). Paromomycin treatment was very effective against villus surface infections in suckling mice and considerably less effective against infections in inaccessible sites such as abscessed crypts and stomach pits seen in weaned and adult scid mice. The therapeutic efficacy of paromomycin in piglets depended on the severity of the diarrheal illness. Mild to moderate diarrhea and infection were cleared after paromomycin treatment of piglets infected with one C. parvum isolate. However, paromomycin had no impact on severely affected piglets infected with a second isolate, presumably because of a rapid transit time through the gut. In contrast to paromomycin hyperimmune bovine colostrum-immunoglobulin treatment reduced the rate of C. parvum infection moderately in scid mice and only slightly in piglets, again probably because of a rapid transit time through the gut and inactivation in the stomach. It was also clear that the impact of effective
DebRoy, Sruti; Keenan, Alexandra B; Ueno, Norikiyo; Jeronimo, Selma M B; Donelson, John E; Wilson, Mary E
The parasitic protozoan, Leishmania, survives in harsh environments within its mammalian and sand fly hosts. Secreted proteins likely play critical roles in the parasite's interactions with its environment. As a preliminary identification of the spectrum of potential excreted/secreted (ES) proteins of Leishmania infantum chagasi (Lic), a causative agent of visceral leishmaniasis, we used standard algorithms to screen the annotated L. infantum genome for genes whose predicted protein products have an N-terminal signal peptide and lack transmembrane domains and membrane anchors. A suite of 181 candidate ES proteins were identified. These included several that were documented in the literature to be released by other Leishmania spp. Six candidate ES proteins were selected for further validation of their expression and release by different parasite stages. We found both amastigote-specific and promastigote-specific released proteins. The ES proteins of Lic are candidates for future studies of parasite virulence determinants and host protective immunity.
Melo, Ferdinan; Amaral, Marina; Oliveira, Patricia; Lima, Wanderson; Andrade, Marina; Michalick, Marilene; Raso, Pedro; Tafuri, Washington; Tafuri, Wagner
The aim of this study was to evaluate the diffuse intralobular fibrosis in dogs naturally infected with Leishmania (Leishmania) chagasi. One hundred five infected animals with positive serologic tests for Leishmania were divided into two clinical groups: 69 symptomatic animals and 36 asymptomatic. Special staining with Gomori, Heidenhain, Silver, and Picrosirius Red was applied to characterize fibrilopoesis. The tissue parasite load was measured by immunohistochemistry and associated histomorphometric analyses. Intralobular fibrosis was observed in all dogs, and more collagen deposition was confirmed in the infected animals than in the controls by these histomorphometric studies. There were significant differences among the distinct clinical groups. In fact, symptomatic dogs showed an increased collagen deposition in the liver compared with asymptomatic ones. A peculiar diffuse intralobular fibrosis, where the collagen fibers encircled small groups of hepatocyte(s), was observed in two cases (1.9%).
Abánades, Daniel R.; Arruda, Leonardo V.; Arruda, Elaine S.; Pinto, José Roberto A. S.; Palma, Mario S.; Aquino, Dorlene; Caldas, Arlene J.; Soto, Manuel; Barral, Aldina; Barral-Netto, Manoel
Background Protection and recovery from visceral leishmaniasis (VL) have been associated with cell-mediated immune (CMI) responses, whereas no protective role has been attributed to humoral responses against specific parasitic antigens. In this report, we compared carefully selected groups of individuals with distinct responses to Leishmania chagasi to explore antigen-recognizing IgG present in resistant individuals. Methodology and Principal Findings VL patients with negative delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) were classified into the susceptible group. Individuals who had recovered from VL and converted to a DTH+ response, as well as asymptomatic infected individuals (DTH+), were categorized into the resistant group. Sera from these groups were used to detect antigens from L. chagasi by conventional and 2D Western blot assays. Despite an overall reduction in the reactivity of several proteins after DTH conversion, a specific group of proteins (approximately 110–130 kDa) consistently reacted with sera from DTH converters. Other antigens that specifically reacted with sera from DTH+ individuals were isolated and tandem mass spectrometry followed by database query with the protein search engine MASCO were used to identify antigens. The serological properties of recombinant version of the selected antigens were tested by ELISA. Sera from asymptomatic infected people (DTH+) reacted more strongly with a mixture of selected recombinant antigens than with total soluble Leishmania antigen (SLA), with less cross-reactivity against Chagas disease patients' sera. Significance Our results are the first evidence of leishmania proteins that are specifically recognized by sera from individuals who are putatively resistant to VL. In addition, these data highlight the possibility of using specific proteins in serological tests for the identification of asymptomatic infected individuals. PMID:22724032
Safety and pharmacokinetics of hyperimmune anti-human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) immunoglobulin administered to HIV-infected pregnant women and their newborns. Pediatric AIDS Clinical Trials Group Protocol 185 Pharmacokinetic Study Group.
Lambert, J S; Mofenson, L M; Fletcher, C V; Moye, J; Stiehm, E R; Meyer, W A; Nemo, G J; Mathieson, B J; Hirsch, G; Sapan, C V; Cummins, L M; Jimenez, E; O'Neill, E; Kovacs, A; Stek, A
The pharmacokinetics and safety of hyperimmune anti-human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) intravenous immunoglobulin (HIVIG) were evaluated in the first 28 maternal-infant pairs enrolled in a randomized, intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG)-controlled trial of HIVIG maternal-infant HIV transmission prophylaxis. Using 200 mg/kg, mean half-life and volume of distribution (Vd) in women were 15 days and 72 mL/kg, respectively, after one and 32 days and 154 mL/kg after three monthly infusions, with stable 4 mL/kg/day clearance. Transplacental passage occurred. Newborn single-dose half-life, Vd, and clearance were 30 days, 143 mL/kg, and 4 mL/kg/day, respectively. HIVIG rapidly cleared maternal serum immune complex-dissociated p24 antigen, and plasma HIV-1 RNA levels were stable. Mild to moderate adverse clinical effects occurred in 2 of 103 maternal and 2 of 25 infant infusions. No adverse hematologic, blood chemistry, or immunologic effects were seen. HIVIG is well-tolerated in HIV-infected pregnant women and their newborns, clears antigenemia, crosses the placenta, and exhibits pharmacokinetics similar to those of other immunoglobulin preparations.
do Rêgo Lima, Luciana Vieira; Santos Ramos, Patrícia Karla; Campos, Marliane Batista; dos Santos, Thiago Vasconcelos; de Castro Gomes, Claudia Maria; Laurenti, Márcia Dalastra; Corbett, Carlos Eduardo Pereira; Silveira, Fernando Tobias
American visceral leishmaniasis (AVL) is an infectious disease, often with long-duration evolution, caused by Leishmania (L.) infantum chagasi. However, although the disease is considered the major clinical manifestation of the link between L. (L.) i. chagasi and the human immune response, we have recently identified five clinical-immunological profiles of infection in the Brazilian Amazon: three asymptomatic (Asymptomatic Infection--AI, Sub-clinical Resistant Infection--SRI, and Indeterminate Initial Infection--III), and two symptomatic ones [Symptomatic Infection--SI (=AVL) and Sub-clinical Oligosymptomatic Infection--SOI]. We confirm here the preclinical diagnosis of AVL through the IgM-antibody response in a case of an early infection (profile III) that evolved to the full disease after 6 weeks.
Ettinger, Nicholas A; Wilson, Mary E
Visceral leishmaniasis is a potentially fatal infectious disease caused by the protozoan parasite Leishmania infantum/chagasi in the New World, or by L. donovani or L. infantum/chagasi in the Old World. Infection leads to a variety of outcomes ranging from asymptomatic infection to active disease, characterized by fevers, cachexia, hepatosplenomegaly and suppressed immune responses. We reasoned that events occurring during the initial few hours when the parasite encounters cells of the innate and adaptive immune systems are likely to influence the eventual immune response that develops. Therefore, we performed gene expression analysis using Affymetrix U133Plus2 microarray chips to investigate a model of early infection with human monocyte-derived macrophages (MDMs) challenged with wild-type L. chagasi parasites, with or without subsequent co-culture with Leishmania-naïve, autologous T-cells. Microarray data generated from total RNA were analyzed with software from the Bioconductor Project and functional clustering and pathway analysis were performed with DAVID and Gene Set Enrichment Analysis (GSEA), respectively. Many transcripts were down-regulated by infection in cultures containing macrophages alone, and the pattern indicated a lack of a classically activated phenotype. By contrast, the addition of autologous Leishmania-naïve T cells to infected macrophages resulted in a pattern of gene expression including many markers of type 1 immune cytokine activation (IFN-gamma, IL-6, IL-1alpha, IL-1beta). There was simultaneous up-regulation of a few markers of immune modulation (IL-10 cytokine accumulation; TGF-beta Signaling Pathway). We suggest that the initial encounter between L. chagasi and cells of the innate and adaptive immune system stimulates primarily type 1 immune cytokine responses, despite a lack of classical macrophage activation. This local microenvironment at the site of parasite inoculation may determine the initial course of immune T
Bhatia, A; Daifalla, N S; Jen, S; Badaro, R; Reed, S G; Skeiky, Y A
We report here the molecular cloning and characterization of two related hydrophilic antigens of Leishmania chagasi. These two antigens have predicted molecular weights of approximately 9 and 26 kDa and detect antibodies in sera of patients with kala-azar (k). Thus, to maintain consistency with nomenclature of the previously described 39 kDa diagnostic antigen of L. chagasi (k39 ), these antigens are being referred to as k9 and k26. A significant difference between k9 and k26 is the presence of 11 copies of a 14 amino acid repeat in the open reading frame of k26. The region flanking the repeats of k26 shares a 69% identity with the open reading frame of k9. The recombinant proteins encoded by both antigens are very hydrophilic and show aberrant migration on SDS PAGE. Results of Southern blot analysis reveal that k9 and k26 are conserved to varying degrees among various Leishmania species. Interestingly, the repeat region of k26 is specific to L. chagasi and L. donovani while the flanking region is conserved among several other species. Transcript levels of k26 are significantly upregulated in the amastigote stage of the parasite. Our results show that recombinant K26 is specific in detecting antibodies in infection sera from visceral leishmaniasis (VL) patients. Thus rK26 may complement rK39 in a more accurate diagnosis of VL in the old and the new world.
de Gouvêa Viana, Luciana; de Assis, Tália Santana Machado; Orsini, Marcela; da Silva, Alexandre Rotondo; de Souza, Guenael Freire; Caligiorne, Rachel; da Silva, Aline Christiane Louredo; Peruhype-Magalhães, Vanessa; Marciano, Ana Paula Vieira; Martins-Filho, Olindo Assis; Rabello, Ana
Peripheral blood samples of 138 co-habitants from 25 families with recently diagnosed cases of visceral leishmaniasis in the Metropolitan Region of Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil, were analyzed by indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT), rK39 and Leishmania chagasi Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA), intradermal skin-test and Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) over a 12-month period. The cumulative positivity was significantly higher by PCR (29.7%) than by IFAT, rK39 ELISA, L. chagasi ELISA and intradermal skin-test (5.1%, 6.5%, 14.5% and 2.9%, respectively). In addition, the cytokine profile was measured in 16 of the 138 volunteers, of whom eight were asymptomatic carriers and eight were non-infected co-habitants. The innate immunity cells from asymptomatic carriers displayed, upon in vitro antigenic stimulation, a modulated increase in cytokine synthesis that was distinct from that observed in non-infected volunteers. This study suggests that the identification of a large proportion of asymptomatic carriers is facilitated when more than one diagnostic method is applied and that a mixed pattern of immune response is correlated with clinical status of asymptomatic individuals. These observations suggest also that asymptomatic infection by L. chagasi is a frequent event and that control programs could benefit by including this indicator in their interventions.
da Silva, R N; Amorim, A C; Brandão, R M S S; de Andrade, H M; Yokoo, M; Ribeiro, M L; Bartchewsky, W; Socorro-Silva, A; de Castro, J A F; do Monte, S J H
The performance of the less expensive SYBR-Green-based PCR assay, for quantifying Leishmania chagasi in smears of bone-marrow aspirates from naturally infected, mongrel dogs, was recently compared with that of a similar PCR based on TaqMan chemistry. Aspirates were obtained from 36 infected dogs and examined for parasites by direct examination, culture, and quantitative PCR (qPCR) using specific primers (based on the parasite's kinetoplast DNA), DNA extracted from a smear, and either the SYBR-Green or TaqMan chemistries. Every aspirate smear was found PCR-positive for L. chagasi (whether the assay employed SYBR Green or TaqMan) but only 74% of the aspirates were found positive by culture and only 33% by direct, microscopical examination. There was no evidence of PCR inhibition when the DNA was collected from smears, and the parasite loads estimated using the SYBR-Green PCR were almost identical to those estimated using the TaqMan PCR (r=0.99). As a method for quantifying parasite loads in dogs infected with L. chagasi (and, probably, other mammals infected with other leishmanial parasites), PCR based on SYBR Green may therefore be an appropriate and inexpensive alternative to PCR based on TaqMan, and a reliable clinical tool.
Lyra, Marcelo Rosandiski; Pimentel, Maria Inês Fernandes; Madeira, Maria de Fátima; Antonio, Liliane de Fátima; Lyra, Janine Pontes de Miranda; Fagundes, Aline; Schubach, Armando de Oliveira
American tegumentary leishmaniasis (ATL) is an infectious disease caused by protozoa of the genus Leishmania, and transmitted by sandflies. In the state of Rio de Janeiro, almost all of the cases of American tegumentary leishmaniasis (ATL) are caused by Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis, while cases of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) are caused by Leishmania (Leishmania) infantum chagasi. The resurgence of autochthonous VL cases in Rio de Janeiro is related to the geographic expansion of the vector Lutzomyia longipalpis and its ability to adapt to urban areas. We report the first case of leishmaniasis with exclusively cutaneous manifestations caused by L. (L.) infantum chagasi in an urban area of Rio de Janeiro. An eighty-one-year-old woman presented three pleomorphic skin lesions that were not associated with systemic symptoms or visceromegalies. Multilocus enzyme electrophoresis identified L. (L.) infantum chagasi, but direct smear and PCR of bone narrow were negative for Leishmania sp. (suggesting exclusively cutaneous involvement). We discuss the different dermatological presentations of viscerotropic leishmaniasis of the New and Old World, and the clinical and epidemiological importance of the case. Etiologic diagnosis of ATL based upon exclusive clinical criteria may lead to incorrect conclusions. We should be aware of the constant changes in epidemiological patterns related to leishmaniases.
Leemans, Jérôme; Hamers, Claude; Chery, Roland; Bibard, Amandine; Besancon, Laure; Duboeuf, Michelle; Hudelet, Pascal; Goutebroze, Sylvain; Kirschvink, Nathalie
Despite the widespread use of Bluetongue serotype 8 (BTV-8) vaccines across Europe, there remain unanswered questions on the effects of maternally derived antibodies (MDA) on vaccination. This study investigated the persistence of MDA in lambs and their interference on vaccine efficacy. Lambs born from hyperimmune ewes-i.e. ewes naturally infected with BTV-8 in 2007 and repeatedly vaccinated thereafter-were used. They were allocated to five groups (n=7/group), four receiving a BTV-8 vaccine at different ages (3, 5, 7 and 9 months) and one left unvaccinated. Vaccine protection was assessed upon a BTV-8 challenge performed at 10 months of age. The neutralising antibody titres were also measured throughout the study. Vaccination at 5, 7 and 9 months led to seroconversion and full clinical and virological protection in all animals. Among lambs vaccinated at 3 months, three (3/7) did not respond to vaccination and were not protected from challenge infection. Others animals (4/7) were fully protected from clinical disease and viraemia in accordance with their seropositive status at time of challenge. In our very stringent conditions, MDA hampered response to BTV-8 vaccination in lambs for at least 3 months after birth. Accordingly, the optimal age of vaccination needs to be adjusted to the immune status of the sheep population.
Kopaniak, M. M.; Movat, H. Z.
The inflammatory response to Escherichia coli was quantitated in the skin of normal rabbits and the kinetics established as described previously. Hyperemia, measured with radiolabeled microspheres; vascular permeability, estimated with 125 I-albumin; and leukocyte infiltration, quantitated with 51Cr-labeled autologous leukocytes, reached maximal values 3 hours after the injection of bacteria and subsided almost completely by 6 hours. Hemorrhage, measured with homologous 59Fe-erythrocytes, continued to increase between 1 and 6 hours after injection and then reached plateau levels. The lesions were studied up to 8 hours, since in the previous study no changes were observed beyond that time. In the study described in this paper, the host mediation systems were manipulated in various groups of rabbits in order to elucidate the mechanisms underlying the development of the inflammatory reaction. One group of animals was hyperimmunized with the E coli organisms, another was partially depleted of hemolytic complement with cobra venom factor, and yet another was rendered leukopenic with nitrogen mustard. In hyperimmunized animals hyperemia in the dermal lesions induced by the microorganisms was significantly more intense than in normal rabbits. Vascular permeability increase occurred earlier in hyperimmunized rabbits and at 1 hour was significantly greater than in normals. Decomplemented rabbits had significantly less vascular permeability than normal animals, whereas in leukopenic rabbits no increase in vascular permeability could be elicited. Leukocyte accumulation was increased over the normal animals in the lesions of hyperimmunized rabbits. Hemorrhage was significantly decreased in leukopenic rabbits. Histologic examination of the lesions revealed that whereas in normal animals the infiltrating neutrophils ingested most of the bacteria and formed definite abscesses by 6-8 hours, these abscesses were absent in leukopenic animals, and free-lying bacteria were
Rodrigues, Cleusa Alves Theodore; Batista, Luís Fábio da Silva; Filho, Roberto Santos Teixeira; Santos, Claire da Silva; Pinheiro, Cristiane Garboggini; Almeida, Taís Fontoura de; Freitas, Luiz Antônio Rodrigues de; Veras, Patrícia Sampaio Tavares
While the response to Leishmania spp. is well characterized in mice and humans, much less is known concerning the canine immune response, particularly soon after exposure to the parasite. Early events are considered to be a determinant of infection outcome. To investigate the dog's early immune response to L. chagasi, an in vitro priming system (PIV) using dog naïve PBMC was established. Until now, dog PIV immune response to L. chagasi has not been assessed. We co-cultivated PBMC primarily stimulated with L. chagasi in vitro with autologous infected macrophages and found that IFN-gamma mRNA is up-regulated in these cells compared to control unstimulated cells. IL-4 and IL-10 mRNA expression by L. chagasi-stimulated PBMC was similar to control unstimulated PBMC when incubated with infected macrophages. Surprisingly, correlation studies showed that a lower IFN-gamma/IL-4 expression ratio correlated with a lower percentage of infection. We propose that the direct correlation between IFN-gamma/IL-4 ratio and parasite load is dependent on the higher correlation of both IFN-gamma and IL-4 expression with lower parasite infection. This PIV system was shown to be useful in evaluating the dog immune response to L. chagasi, and results indicate that a balance between IFN-gamma and IL-4 is associated with control of parasite infection in vitro.
Serums from goats hyperimmunized with Chlamydia psittaci consistently produce antichlamydial fluorescent antibody conjugate of high titer. The titer of the fluorescent antibody conjugate prepared from a given serum correlated well with the titer obtained by agar gel precipitin, but not with the complement fixation. The agar gel precipitin test can be used to predict whether a given serum is satisfactory for use in production of a conjugate for direct fluorescent antibody tests. Serums with an agar gel precipitin titer of 1/8 or higher generally produce a usable fluorescent antibody conjugate. Labeling gamma globulins with fluorescein isothiocyanate at a ratio of 1/150 resulted in satisfactory fluorescent antibody conjugates. Cultures of Vero cells infected with chlamydiae were found to be suitable for titration of the fluorescent antibody conjugates. PMID:6372973
Paul, Narayan C; Al-Adwani, Salma; Crespo, Rocio; Shah, Devendra H
Campylobacter jejuni is a leading cause of foodborne bacterial gastroenteritis in human. Chickens are the reservoir host of C. jejuni, and contaminated chicken meat is an important source of human infection. Therefore, control of C. jejuni in chickens can have direct effect on human health. In this study we tested the passive immunotherapeutic efficacy of the chicken egg-yolk-derived antibodies, in the form of hyperimmunized egg yolk powder (HEYP), against 7 colonization-associated proteins of C. jejuni, namely, CadF (Campylobacter adhesion to fibronectin), FlaA (flagellar proteins), MOMP (major outer membrane protein), FlpA (fibronectin binding protein A), CmeC (Campylobacter multidrug efflux C), Peb1A (Campylobacter putative adhesion), and JlpA (Jejuni lipoprotein A). Three chicken experiments were performed. In each experiment, chickens were treated orally via feed supplemented with 10% (wt/wt) egg yolk powder. In experiment 1, chicken groups were experimentally infected with C. jejuni (10(8) cfu) followed by treatment with 5 HEYP (CadF, FlaA, MOMP, FlpA, CmeC) for 4 d either individually or as a cocktail containing equal parts of each HEYP. In experiment 2, chickens were treated for 21 d with cocktail containing equal parts of 7 HEYP before and after experimental infection with C. jejuni (10(8) cfu). In experiment 3, chickens were treated with feed containing a cocktail of 7 HEYP before and after (prophylaxis), and after (treatment) experimental infection with C. jejuni (10(5) cfu). Intestinal colonization of C. jejuni was monitored by culturing cecal samples from chickens euthanized at the end of each experiment. The results showed that there were no differences in the cecal colonization of C. jejuni between HEYP treated and nontreated control chickens, suggesting that use of HEYP at the dose and the regimens used in the current study is not efficacious in reducing C. jejuni colonization in chickens.
Yu, Wei; Ge, Meili; Lu, Shihong; Shi, Jun; Feng, Sizhou; Li, Xingxin; Zhang, Jizhou; Wang, Min; Huang, Jinbo; Shao, Yingqi; Huang, Zhendong; Zhang, Jing; Nie, Neng; Zheng, Yizhou
Acquired aplastic anemia (AA) is an immune-mediated bone marrow failure syndrome. 1α,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3 [1,25(OH)2 D3 ], the biologically active metabolite of vitamin D, is a critical modulator of immune response via binding with vitamin D receptor (VDR). Previous studies have established that 1,25(OH)2 D3 and VDR were involved in the pathogenesis of some autoimmune diseases. In this study, we evaluated the involvement of 1,25(OH)2 D3 and VDR on T-cell responses in AA. Plasma 25(OH)D3 levels were comparable between patients with AA and healthy controls. Surprisingly, VDR mRNA was significantly lower in untreated patients with AA than in healthy controls. Subsequent in vitro experiments revealed that 1,25(OH)2 D3 treatment suppressed the proliferation of lymphocytes and inhibited the secretion of interferon-γ, tumor necrosis factor-α, and interleukin-17A, meanwhile promoting the production of transforming growth factor-β1 in patients with AA. Moreover, 1,25(OH)2 D3 inhibited the differentiation of type 1 and Th17 cells but induced the differentiation of type 2 and regulatory T cells. Interestingly, VDR mRNA was elevated in healthy controls after 1,25(OH)2 D3 treatment, but not in patients with AA. In conclusion, decreased expression of VDR might contribute to the hyperimmune status of AA and appropriate vitamin D supplementation could partly correct the immune dysfunction by strengthening signal transduction through VDR in patients with AA.
Melo, Ferdinan Almeida; Moura, Eliane Perlatto; Ribeiro, Raul Rio; Alves, Cíntia Fontes; Caliari, Marcelo Vidigal; Tafuri, Washington Luiz; da Silva Calabrese, Kátia; Tafuri, Wagner Luiz
The aim of this work was to study alterations in the extracellular matrix of liver in dogs naturally infected with Leishmania (Leishmania) chagasi that are correlated with clinical aspects and with histological, parasitological and immunological findings. The study was carried out on 30 dogs, 10 uninfected (control group) and 20 infected. The infected animals were further divided into two groups: an asymptomatic group of 10 dogs without clinical signs of the disease; and a symptomatic group of 10 dogs with classical clinical signs. All thirty animals were mongrel dogs of undefined age, obtained from the municipality of Belo Horizonte, MG, metropolitan area. During necropsy, liver fragments were collected and fixed in 10% buffered formaldehyde for histological examination. Paraffined sections of the tissues were stained with haematoxylin–eosin, Gomori’s ammoniacal silver stain for reticular fibres and strepto-avidin peroxidase for immunohistochemical detection of Leishmania amastigotes. Frozen tissue sections were stained by immunofluorescence for fibronectin (FN) and laminin (LN). Liver collagen deposition was significantly greater in the infected than the control animals and differed significantly between the symptomatic and asymptomatic dogs. There was a positive correlation between the parasite load and liver collagen deposition. The increased collagen deposition in infected animal livers may be associated with the parasite burden. Adhesive FN and LN fibres were significantly more highly expressed in the livers of symptomatic than of asymptomatic dogs. Our results demonstrate that canine visceral leishmaniasis causes fibrogenesis in liver, associated with the parasite load and degenerative processes. PMID:19765108
Alves, G B B; Pinho, F A; Silva, S M M S; Cruz, M S P; Costa, F A L
Fifteen symptomatic and seven asymptomatic dogs infected naturally with Leishmania chagasi were examined in order to identify the presence of parasites and changes in heart and lung. Histopathological, cytological, and immunohistochemical analyses were performed on samples of heart and lung tissues. An inflammatory reaction characterized by inflammatory mononuclear, perivascular and intermuscular infiltrates was observed in both symptomatic and asymptomatic animals on histopathological analysis of the heart. In the lung, there was thickening of the alveolar septa due to congestion, edema, inflammatory infiltrate, and fibroblast proliferation. A focal reaction was observed although a diffuse reaction was present in both groups. On cytological examination, heart and lung imprints revealed amastigotes in two symptomatic animals and heart imprints were found in 1 asymptomatic dog. Immunoperoxidase staining showed amastigotes in the lung and heart of only 1 of 6 symptomatic animals examined. Within the ethical principles and limits of this research, it can be inferred that the study of heart and lung alterations in canine visceral leishmaniasis is increasingly important for understanding the problem related to humans. Dogs with visceral leishmaniasis were a good experimental model, since infection was caused by the same agent and the animals developed clinical, pathological and immunological alterations similar to those observed in humans.
Ramos, Rafael Antonio do Nascimento; Ramos, Carlos Alberto do Nascimento; Jusi, Márcia Mariza Gomes; de Araújo, Flábio Ribeiro; Machado, Rosangela Zacarias; Faustino, Maria Aparecida da Glória; Alves, Leucio Câmara
The importance of dogs as a reservoir for Leishmania infantumchagasi in urban environments has stimulated numerous studies assessing diagnostic techniques. When performed properly, such procedures are an important step in preventing leishmaniasis in humans. Molecular methods have become prominent for this purpose. The aim of the present study was to determine the performance of the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and real-time PCR (qPCR) for diagnosing of canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL) using different biological samples. For this, 35 dogs from an area endemic for CVL were used. Bone marrow aspirate and lymph node and spleen fragments from these dogs were used for the molecular diagnosis. In the present study, qPCR was able to detect a greater number of positive animals than seen with PCR. Among the different biological samples used, there was no significant difference in L. infantumchagasi DNA detection between PCR and qPCR. However, considering that lymph nodes are easy to acquire, these can be considered to be the best samples for making molecular diagnoses of L. infantum chagasi infection.
Rondon, Fernanda Cristina Macedo; Bevilaqua, Claudia Maria Leal; Accioly, Marina Parissi; de Morais, Selene Maia; de Andrade-Júnior, Heitor Franco; de Carvalho, Camila Aparecida; Lima, Josemar Coelho; Magalhães, Hilton César Rodrigues
The increased incidence of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in Brazil is due to a lack of effective disease control measures. In addition to that, no effective treatment exists for canine VL in response to synthetic drugs. Thus, the objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of the essential oils of Coriandrum sativum and Lippia sidoides, and oleoresin from Copaifera reticulata, on Leishmania chagasi promastigotes and amastigotes. We also examined the toxicity of these treatments on the murine monocyte cell line RAW 264.7. To determine the IC50 a MTT test (3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) was performed on promastigotes, and an in situ ELISA assay was conducted on amastigotes. Here, we demonstrate that oleoresin from C. reticulata was effective against both promastigotes (IC50 of 7.88 µg.mL-1) and amastigotes (IC50 of 0.52 µg.mL-1), and neither of the two treatments differed significantly (p > 0.05) from pentamidine (IC50 of 2.149 µg.mL-1) and amphotericin B (IC50 of 9.754 µg.mL-1). Of the three plant oils tested, only oleoresin showed no toxicity toward monocyte, with 78.45% viability after treatment. Inhibition of promastigote and amastigote growth and the lack of cytotoxicity by C. reticulata demonstrate that oleoresin may be a viable option for analyzing the in vivo therapeutic effects of leishmanicidal plants.
Humberg, Roberta M. P.; Oshiro, Elisa T.; Cruz, Maria do Socorro Pires e; Ribolla, Paulo E. M.; Alonso, Diego P.; Ferreira, Alda M. T.; Bonamigo, Raquel A.; Tasso, Norton; de Oliveira, Alessandra Gutierrez
We investigated the occurrence of Leishmania infantum chagasi in Didelphis albiventris opossums at a wild animal rehabilitation center in the city of Campo Grande, Brazil. A total of 54 opossums were tested for L. i. chagasi infection in peripheral blood and bone marrow samples. The samples were analyzed by direct examination, culturing in a specific medium, and polymerase chain reaction–restriction fragment length polymorphism. Leishmania i. chagasi DNA was detected by polymerase chain reaction–restriction fragment length polymorphism in 11 (20.37%) animals. A total of 81.81% of positive opossums were captured in areas of known visceral leishmaniasis transmission. These results suggest a role for D. albiventris in the urban transmission of visceral leishmaniasis. PMID:22802435
Zhou, Xiaoming; Wang, Hong; Koles, Nancy L; Zhang, Aihong; Aronson, Naomi E
Visceral leishmaniasis patients have been reported to have a urine concentration defect. Concentration of urine by the renal inner medulla is essentially dependent on a transcription factor, NFAT5/TonEBP, because it activates expression of osmoprotective genes betaine/glycine transporter 1 (BGT1) and sodium/myo-inositol transporter (SMIT), and water channel aquaporin-2, all of which are imperative for concentrating urine. Leishmania parasites evade macrophage immune defenses by activating protein tyrosine phosphatases, among which SHP-1 is critical. We previously demonstrated that SHP-1 inhibits tonicity-dependent activation of NFAT5/TonEBP in HEK293 cells through screening a genome-wide small interfering (si) RNA library against phosphatases (Zhou X, Gallazzini M, Burg MB, Ferraris JD. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 107: 7072-7077, 2010). We sought to examine whether Leishmania can activate SHP-1 and inhibit NFAT5/TonEBP activity in the renal inner medulla in a murine model of visceral leishmaniasis by injection of female BALB/c mice with a single intravenous dose of 5 × 10(5) L. chagasi metacyclic promastigotes. We found that SHP-1 is expressed in the kidney inner medulla. L. chagasi activates SHP-1 with an increase in stimulatory phosphorylation of SHP-1-Y536 in the region. L. chagasi reduces expression of NFAT5/TonEBP mRNA and protein as well as expression of its targeted genes: BGT1, SMIT, and aquaporin-2. The culture supernatant from L. chagasi metacyclic promastigotes increases SHP-1 protein abundance and potently inhibits NFAT5 transcriptional activity in mIMCD3 cells. However, L. chagasi in our animal model has no significant effect on urinary concentration. We conclude that L. chagasi, most likely through its secreted virulence factors, activates SHP-1 and reduces NFAT5/TonEBP gene expression, which leads to reduced NFAT5/TonEBP transcriptional activity in the kidney inner medulla.
Viana, Kelvinson Fernandes; Aguiar-Soares, Rodrigo Dian Oliveira; Roatt, Bruno Mendes; Resende, Lucilene Aparecida; da Silveira-Lemos, Denise; Corrêa-Oliveira, Rodrigo; Martins-Filho, Olindo Assis; Moura, Sandra Lima; Zanini, Marcos Santos; Araújo, Márcio Sobreira Silva; Reis, Alexandre Barbosa; Giunchetti, Rodolfo Cordeiro
Canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL) is a parasitic disease endemic in many countries, and dogs present as the major natural reservoir of the parasite, Leishmania chagasi (syn. L. infantum). Biomarkers in the canine immune system is an important technique in the course of developing vaccines and treatment strategies against CVL. New methodologies for studying the immune response of dogs during Leishmania infection and after receiving vaccines and treatments against CVL would be useful. In this context, we used peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from healthy dogs to evaluate procedures related to (i) establishment of in vitro conditions of monocytes differentiated into macrophages infected with L. chagasi and (ii) purification procedures of T-cell subsets (CD4(+) and CD8(+)) using microbeads. Our data demonstrated that after 5 days of differentiation, macrophages were able to induce significant phagocytic and microbicidal activity after L. chagasi infection and also showed increased frequency of parasitism and a higher parasite load. Although N-acetyl-β-d-glucosaminidase (NAG) levels presented similar levels of macrophage culture and L. chagasi infection, a progressive decrease in myeloperoxidase (MPO) levels was a hallmark over 5 days of culture. High purity levels (>90%) of CD4 and CD8 T cells were obtained on a magnetic separation column. We concluded that monocytes differentiated into macrophages at 5 days and displayed an intermediate frequency of parasitism and parasite load 72 h after L. chagasi infection. Furthermore, the purification system using canine T-lymphocyte subsets obtained after 5 days of monocyte differentiation proved efficient for CD4 or CD8 T-cell purification (≥90%). The in vitro analysis using L. chagasi-infected macrophages and purified T cells presented a prospective methodology that could be incorporated in CVL vaccine and treatment studies that aim to analyze the microbicidal potential induced by specific CD4(+) and/or CD8(+) T
Silveira, Fernando Tobias; Lainson, Ralph; De Souza, Adelson Alcimar Almeida; Campos, Marliane Batista; Carneiro, Liliane Almeida; Lima, Luciana Vieira Rego; Ramos, Patrícia Karla Santos; de Castro Gomes, Cláudia Maria; Laurenti, Marcia Dalastra; Corbett, Carlos Eduardo Pereira
This was a prospective study carried out during a period over 2 years (May/2006-September/2008) with a cohort of 1,099 individuals of both genders, aged 1 year old and older, from an endemic area of American visceral leishmaniasis (AVL) in Pará state, Brazil. The object was to analyze the prevalence and incidence of human Leishmania (L.) infantum chagasi infection as well as the dynamics evolution of its clinical-immunological profiles prior identified: (1) asymptomatic infection (AI); (2) symptomatic infection (SI = AVL); (3) sub-clinical oligosymptomatic infection (SOI); (4) sub-clinical resistant infection (SRI) and; (5) indeterminate initial infection (III). The infection diagnosis was performed by using both the indirect fluorescent antibody test and leishmanin skin test with amastigotes and promastigotes antigens of L. (L.) i. chagasi, respectively. A total of 187 cases of infection were recorded in the prevalence (17%), 117 in the final incidence (6.9%), and 304 in the accumulated prevalence (26.7%), which provided the following distribution into the clinical-immunological profiles: AI, 51.6%; III, 22.4%; SRI, 20.1%; SOI, 4.3%; and SI (=AVL), 1.6%. The major finding regarding the dynamics evolution of infection was concerned to III profile, from which the cases of infection evolved to either the resistant profiles, SRI (21 cases, 30.8%) and AI (30 cases, 44.1%), or the susceptible SI (=AVL; 1 case, 1.5%); the latter 16 cases remained as III till the end of the study. These results provided the conclusion that this diagnostic approach may be useful for monitoring human L. (L.) i. chagasi infection in endemic area and preventing the high morbidity of severe AVL cases.
Vides, Juliana Peloi; Schwardt, Tatianna Frate; Sobrinho, Ludmila Silva Vicente; Marinho, Márcia; Laurenti, Márcia Dalastra; Biondo, Alexander Welker; Leutenegger, Christian; Marcondes, Mary
Although dogs are considered the main domestic reservoirs for Visceral Leishmaniosis (VL), which is caused in the Americas by Leishmania chagasi, infected cats have also been recently found in endemic areas of several countries and became a public health concern. Accordingly, the purpose of this study was to evaluate cats with dermatologic lesions from an endemic area of VL and the natural infection of L. chagasi. A total of 55 cats were selected between April 2008 and November 2009 from two major animal shelters of Araçatuba, Southeastern Brazil. All cats underwent general and dermatologic examinations, followed by direct parasitological examination of lymphoid organs, immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and indirect immunofluorescence (IFAT). In addition, detection of amastigotes was performed by immunohistochemistry (IHC) in skin lesions of all cats. VL was diagnosed in 27/55 (49.1%) cats with dermatological problems. Amastigotes were found in lymphoid organs of 10/27 (37.0%) cats; serology of 14/27 (51.9%), 6/27 (22.2%) and 5/27 (18.5%) cats was positive for ELISA, IFAT and both, respectively. The IHC identified 9/27 (33.3%) cats; 5/27 (18.5%) were positive only for IHC and therefore increased the overall sensitivity. Specific FIV antibodies were found in 6/55 (10.9%) cats, of which 5/6 (83.3%) had leishmaniosis. Real time PCR followed by amplicon sequencing successfully confirmed L. chagasi infection. In conclusion, dermatological lesions in cats from endemic areas was highly associated to visceral leishmaniosis, and therefore skin IHC and differential diagnosis of LV should be always conducted in dermatological patients in such areas.
Coelho, Willian Marinho Dourado; Lima, Valéria Marçal Felix de; Amarante, Alessandro Francisco Talamini do; Langoni, Helio; Pereira, Virgínia Bodelão Richini; Abdelnour, Aziz; Bresciani, Katia Denise Saraiva
This work describes natural infection by Leishmania in a domestic cat where amastigote forms of the parasite were observed in the popliteal lymph node imprint. Positive and negative serological reactions were observed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA), respectively. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) revealed that the nucleotide sequence of the sample was identical to Leishmania (L.) chagasi. This is the first report of the disease in felines of the city of Andradina, SP, an area considered endemic for canine and human visceral leishmaniasis.
Santos, P L; Costa, R V; Braz, J M; Santos, L F V C; Batista, A C; Vasconcelos, C R O; Rangel, M R; Ribeiro de Jesus, A; de Moura, T R; Leopoldo, P T G; Almeida, R P
Nitric oxide (NO) plays an important role as a leishmanicidal agent in murine macrophages. NO resistant Escherichia coli and Mycobacterium tuberculosis have been associated with poor outcomes of their resulting diseases. NO resistant Leishmania braziliensis has also been identified and exacerbates the clinical course of human leishmaniasis. We report, for the first time, natural resistance of Leishmania chagasi promastigotes to NO. These parasites were isolated from humans and dogs with visceral leishmaniasis. We also demonstrate that this resistance profile was associated with a greater survival capacity and a greater parasite burden in murine macrophages, independent of activation and after activation by IFN-γ and LPS.
Hsiao, Chia-Hung Christine; Yao, Chaoqun; Storlie, Patricia; Donelson, John E; Wilson, Mary E
The Leishmania spp. protozoa have an abundant surface metalloprotease called MSP (major surface protease), which in Leishmania chagasi is encoded by three distinct gene classes (MSPS, MSPL, MSPC). Although MSP has been characterized primarily in extracellular promastigotes, it also facilitates survival of intracellular amastigotes. Promastigotes express MSPS, MSPL, and two forms of MSPC RNAs, whereas amastigotes express only MSPL RNA and one MSPC transcript. We confirmed the presence of MSPC protein in both promastigotes and amastigotes by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). More than 10 MSP isoforms were visualized in both amastigotes and promastigotes using two-dimensional immunoblots, but amastigote MSPs migrated at a more acidic pI. Promastigote MSPs were N-glycosylated, whereas most amastigote MSPs were not. Immuno-electron microscopy showed that two-thirds of the promastigote MSP is distributed along the cell surface. In contrast, most amastigote MSP localized at the flagellar pocket, the major site of leishmania endocytosis/exocytosis. Biochemical analyses indicated that most amastigote MSP is soluble in the cytosol, vesicles or organelles, whereas most promastigote MSP is membrane-associated and GPI anchored. Activity gels and immunoblots confirmed the presence of a novel proteolytically active amastigote MSP of higher Mr than the promastigote MSPs. Furthermore, promastigote MSP is shed extracellularly whereas MSP is not shed from axenic amastigotes. We conclude that amastigotes and promastigotes both express multiple MSP isoforms, but these MSPs differ biochemically and localize differently in the two parasite stages. We hypothesize that MSP plays different roles in the extracellular versus intracellular forms of Leishmania spp.
Ferreira, Leandro Rodrigues; Kesper, Norival; Teixeira, Marta M G; Laurenti, Marcia Dalastra; Barbieri, C L; Lindoso, José Angelo; Umezawa, Eufrosina S
We investigated whether ELISA using crude antigens from insect and plant trypanosomatids, which are non-pathogenic and easily cultivated in large scale, has the same positivity data as Leishmania (Leishmania) chagasi, the etiological agent of human visceral leishmaniasis (VL) or canine leishmaniasis (CanL), or as Trypanosoma cruzi, the etiological agent of Chagas disease (CD). The antigens from Crithidia fasciculata, Crithidia luciliae, and Leptomonas seymouri showed 100% cross-reactivity with VL and CanL samples, with no statistically titers differences from L. (L.) chagasi, however, 34% (17/50) of VL samples revealed higher titers using the insect trypanosomatids than the homologous antigen. On the other hand, antigens from Strigomonas culicis, Angomonas deanei, and Phytomonas serpens showed low cross-reactivity with VL and CanL samples. The sera from patients with American tegumentary leishmaniasis showed low levels of cross-reactivity with all trypanosomatids investigated, even with L. (L) chagasi, without titers dissimilarity among them. These parasites were also worthless as antigen source for detection of CD cases, which required homologous antigens to reach 100% positivity. This study showed, by ELISA, that crude extract of Crithidia and Leptomonas have epitopes similar to L. (L.) chagasi, which supports the idea of using them as antigens source for the serodiagnosis of visceral leishmaniasis.
Tasca, Karen Ingrid; Buzetti, Wilma Aparecida Starke; Tenorio, Michely da Silva; Paulan, Silvana de Cássia; Lima, Flávia Luna; de Queiroz, Nina Mari Gual Pimenta; Machado, Rosângela Zacarias; Oliveira, Tricia Maria Ferreira de Souza; Neves, Maria Francisca; de Noronha, Antonio Carlos Faconti; de Assis, Juliana
The purpose of this work was a Canine Visceral Leishmaniasis--CVL study by parasitological direct examination of Leishmania (L.) chagasi (imprinting and histological), immunohistochemical test and histopathological analysis using spleen tissues from 34 dogs euthanized by the Zoonotic Disease Control Centre from Ilha Solteira, SP, Brazil. According to the clinical signs, the dogs were divided in three groups: asymptomatics (8 dogs), oligosymptomatics (17 dogs) and symptomatics (9 dogs). After the accomplishment of all diagnostic tests, 22 dogs were considered positives (64.7%) and 12 (35.3%) were negatives to CVL. From these positive dogs, 1/22 (4.5%) was asymptomatic, 12/22(54.5%) were oligosymptomatics and 8/22 (40.1%) were symptomatics. The histopathological study in spleen tissues from positive, especially symptomatic dogs, showed a diffuse chronic inflammation with thickness of capsular and trabecular regions and there was extensive morphologic alteration of the red and white pulp by the presence of abundant macrophages full with amastigotes, the granulomatous inflammatory reaction and haemorrhagic areas. The data of this work from histopathologic examination and direct microscopic visualization of L. (L.) chagasi showed that the spleen was an useful organ to collect sample tissues for CVL diagnosis. The immunostaining detected the highest number of positive dogs and were considered an important and conclusive method to be used in addition to parasitological methods for CVL, particularly in asymptomatic or oligosymptomatic dogs.
da Costa, Andréa Pereira; Costa, Francisco Borges; Soares, Herbert Sousa; Ramirez, Diego Garcia; Mesquita, Eric Takashi Kamakura de Carvalho; Gennari, Solange Maria; Marcili, Arlei
Trypanosoma and Leishmania are obligate parasites that cause important diseases in human and domestic animals. Wild mammals are the natural reservoirs of these parasites, which are transmitted by hematophagous arthropods. The present study aimed to detect the natural occurrence of trypanosomatids through serological diagnosis, PCR of whole blood and blood culture (hemoculture), and phylogenetic relationships using small subunit ribosomal DNA (SSU rDNA), cytochrome b, and glycosomal glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (gGAPDH) genes. Samples from 131 wild animals, including rodents, marsupials, and bats, were sampled in six areas in the state of Maranhão, in a transition zone of semiarid climates northeast of the equatorial humid Amazon. Serological analysis for Leishmania (Leishmania) infantum chagasi was performed in opossums by indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT), and all animals were serologically negative. Nine positive hemocultures (6.77%) were isolated and cryopreserved and from mammals of the Didelphimorphia and Chiroptera orders and positioned in phylogenies on the basis of sequences from different genes with reference strains of Trypanosoma cruzi marinkellei and T. cruzi. From primary samples (blood and tissues) only one bat, Pteronotus parnellii, was positive to SSU rDNA and gGAPDH genes and grouped with the L. infantum chagasi branch. The studies conducted in Maranhão State provide knowledge of parasite diversity. It is important to determine the presence of trypanosomatids in wild mammals with synanthropic habits.
Background Visceral leishmaniasis is the most serious form of leishmaniasis and can be lethal if left untreated. Currently available treatments for these parasitic diseases are frequently associated to severe side effects. The leaves of Croton cajucara are used as an infusion in popular medicine to combat several diseases. Previous studies have demonstrated that the linalool-rich essential oil from C. cajucara (white sacaca) is extremely efficient against the tegumentary specie Leishmania amazonensis. In this study, we investigated the effects of the 7-hydroxycalamenene-rich essential oil from the leaves of C. cajucara (red sacaca) against Leishmania chagasi, as well as on the interaction of these parasites with host cells. Methods Promastigotes were treated with different concentrations of the essential oil for determination of its minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC). In addition, the effects of the essential oil on parasite ultrastructure were analyzed by transmission electron microscopy. To evaluate its efficacy against infected cells, mouse peritoneal macrophages infected with L. chagasi promastigotes were treated with the inhibitory and sub-inhibitory concentrations of the essential oil. Results The minimum inhibitory concentrations of the essential oil and its purified component 7-hydroxycalamenene against L. chagasi were 250 and 15.6 μg/mL, respectively. Transmission electron microscopy analysis revealed important nuclear and kinetoplastic alterations in L. chagasi promastigotes. Pre-treatment of macrophages and parasites with the essential oil reduced parasite/macrophage interaction by 52.8%, while it increased the production of nitric oxide by L. chagasi-infected macrophages by 80%. Conclusion These results indicate that the 7-hydroxycalamenene-rich essential oil from C. cajucara is a promising source of leishmanicidal compounds. PMID:24088644
Carneiro, Liliane Almeida; Silveira, Fernando Tobias; Campos, Marliane Batista; Brígido, Maria do Carmo de Oliveira; Gomes, Claudia Maria C; Corbett, Carlos E P; Laurenti, Márcia D
In Amazonian Brazil, the Cebus apella monkey (Primates: Cebidae) has been associated with the enzootic cycle of Leishmania (V.) shawi, a dermotropic parasite causing American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL). It has also been successfully used as animal model for studying cutaneous leishmaniasis. In this work, there has been investigated its susceptibility to experimental Leishmania (L.) infantum chagasi-infection, the etiologic agent of American visceral leishmaniasis (AVL). There were used ten C. apella specimens, eight adult and two young, four males and six females, all born and raised in captivity. Two experimental infection protocols were performed: i) six monkeys were inoculated, intra-dermal via (ID), into the base of the tail with 2 x 10(6) promastigotes forms from the stationary phase culture medium; ii) other four monkeys were inoculated with 3 x 10(7) amastigotes forms from the visceral infection of infected hamsters by two different via: a) two by intravenous via (IV) and, b) other two by intra-peritoneal via (IP). The parameters of infection evaluation included: a) clinical: physical exam of abdomen, weigh and body temperature; b) parasitological: needle aspiration of the bone-marrow for searching of amastigotes (Giemsa-stained smears) and promastigotes forms (culture medium); c) immunological: Indirect fluorescence antibody test (IFAT) and, Delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH). In the six monkeys ID inoculated (promastigotes forms) all parameters of infection evaluation were negative during the 12 months period of follow-up. Among the four monkeys inoculated with amastigotes forms, two IV inoculated showed the parasite in the bone-marrow from the first toward to the sixth month p.i. and following that they cleared the infection, whereas the other two IP inoculated were totally negative. These four monkeys showed specific IgG-antibody response since the third month p.i. (IP: 1/80 and IV: 1/320 IgG) toward to the 12th month (IP: 1/160 and IV: 1/5120). The
Gomes, Izabelle Teixeira; Carvalho, Sílvio Fernando Guimarães; Rocha, Roberta Dias Rodrigues; Peruhype-Magalhães, Vanessa; Dietze, Reynaldo; Martins-Filho, Olindo de Assis; Lemos, Elenice Moreira
We have previously reported a novel flow cytometric based methodology to access the reactivity of seric anti-live (FC-ALPA) and fixed (FC-AFPA) L. chagasi IgG antibodies applicable for cure assessment after specific therapy of VL. Both, FC-ALPA-IgG and FC-AFPA-IgG are promising targets to be used for early cure assessment. However, our finding suggested that further refinements were still required to improve the performance of FC-AFPA IgG for early cure assessment in VL. In the present investigation, we have established and evaluated the performance of FC-AFPA-IgG1/IgG2/IgG3/IgG4 aiming to increase the performance index of the previously reported for FC-AFPA-IgG. The data was expressed as percentage of fluorescent positive parasites after incubation of pre-fixed L. chagasi promastigotes with the test sera samples and addition of second-step FITC-labeled anti-human IgG subclasses conjugates. The analysis of anti-L. chagasi IgG reactivity in polled sera samples from VL patients demonstrated that, before the etiological treatment, the IgG subclass profile was characterized by IgG1>IgG3 with the absence of IgG2 and IgG4 at the specific sera dilution tested. Following the establishment of specific PPFP cut-off-edges to segregate negative and positive results (PPFP of 50% for FC-AFPA-IgG1 and PPFP of 40% for FC-AFPA-IgG3), the analysis of IgG1 and IgG3 reactivity demonstrated good performance for early cure assessment in VL. The analysis of individual samples indicated that despite at 2 mAT, most treated VL patients (81%) still displayed positive results in FC-AFPA-IGg1 analysis, an increased fraction of treated patients (76%) presented negative in FC-AFPA-IgG1 analysis at 6 mAT. Interestingly, the data from FC-AFPA-IgG3 demonstrated an outstanding performance of this method to early cure assessment in VL with increased frequency of treated patients displaying negative results at 2 mAT (90.5%) as well as at 6 mAT (95.2%). The analysis of likelihood ratio (LR) further
Lemos, Elenice Moreira; Gomes, Izabelle Teixeira; Carvalho, Sílvio Fernando Guimarães; Rocha, Roberta Dias Rodrigues; Pissinate, Jauber Fornaciari; Martins-Filho, Olindo Assis; Dietze, Reynaldo
The residual serological reactivity observed in patients cured of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) represents the major factor underlying the low efficiency of most anti-Leishmania serological approaches to assess posttherapeutic cure in VL. Herein, we have described a detuned flow cytometry-based methodology to detect anti-live (FC-ALPA-immunoglobulin G [IgG]) and anti-fixed (FC-AFPA-IgG) L. chagasi promastigote IgG, along the titration curve (1:2,000 to 1:128,000), as a tool to assess late (12 months after treatment [12 mAT]) and early (2 and 6 mAT) posttherapeutic cure of pediatric American visceral leishmaniasis. Reactivities were reported as the percentage of positive fluorescent parasite (PPFP), using a PPFP of 50% as a cutoff to segregate positive and negative results. Our data demonstrated that both FC-ALPA-IgG at 1:4,000 and FC-ALPA-IgG at 1:32,000 are useful for late cure assessment in VL, with 100% specificity and outstanding likelihood ratio indices. Cure assessment at 6 mAT also showed promising performance indices, identifying 81% and 71.4% of the treated patients with negative results. However, new interpretation parameters were necessary to monitor cure at 2 mAT. We then introduced the differential PPFP (DeltaPPFP) of 25% as a new cutoff for early cure assessment at specific serum dilutions to analyze IgG reactivity by FC-ALPA-IgG and FC-AFPA-IgG. Our data demonstrated that at 2 mAT, DeltaPPFP was >25% in 60% and 57.1% of treated patients, whereas at 6 mAT, a DeltaPPFP of >25% was observed in 100% and 95.2% of samples assayed by FC-ALPA-IgG and FC-AFPA-IgG, respectively. Together, our findings showed the potential of both FC-ALPA-IgG and FC-AFPA-IgG regarding their applicability to detect differential serological reactivity and further contribution to posttherapeutic cure assessment in VL.
Otto, Wlodzimierz; Najnigier, Boguslaw; Stelmasiak, Teodor; Robins-Browne, Roy M
Objective. Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) is the leading cause of travelers' diarrhea. The aim of this study was to investigate the ability of a powdered extract of hyperimmune bovine colostrum to protect against diarrhea in volunteers challenged with ETEC. Materials and methods. Tablets were manufactured from a colostrum extract from cattle immunized with 14 ETEC strains, including serogroup O78. Two separate randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials involving 90 healthy adult volunteers were performed to investigate the ability of different tablet formulations to protect against diarrhea following an oral challenge with an O78 ETEC strain. Results. The first study with 30 participants evaluated the efficacy of tablets, containing 400 mg of colostrum protein, taken thrice daily with bicarbonate buffer. This regimen conferred 90.9% protection against diarrhea in the group receiving the active preparation compared with the placebo group (p = 0.0005). The second study examined the efficacy of tablets containing 400 mg colostrum protein given with buffer (83.3% protection;p = 0.0004) or without buffer (76.7% protection;p =0.007), and tablets containing 200 mg colostrum protein given without buffer (58.3% protection; p = 0.02), compared with placebo. The difference between buffered and unbuffered treatments was not significant (p > 0.1). Conclusions. Active tablet formulations were significantly more effective than placebo in protecting volunteers against the development of diarrhea caused by ETEC. These results suggest that administration of a tablet formulation of hyperimmune bovine colostrum containing antibodies against ETEC strains may reduce the risk of travelers' diarrhea. PMID:21526980
Fernandes, Ana Paula; Costa, Míriam Maria Silva; Coelho, Eduardo Antônio Ferraz; Michalick, Marilene Suzan Marques; de Freitas, Eloísa; Melo, Maria Norma; Luiz Tafuri, Wagner; Resende, Daniela de Melo; Hermont, Vinícius; Abrantes, Christiane de Freitas; Gazzinelli, Ricardo Tostes
In this study, we investigated in dogs the immunogenicity and protective immunity against Leishmania (Leishmania) chagasi infection induced by vaccination with a formulation containing the recombinant A2 protein, an amastigote specific antigen, and saponin. Vaccinated animals produced significantly increased levels of total IgG and IgG2, but not IgG1 anti-A2 antibodies, and remained negative in conventional leishmaniasis serodiagnostic methods. Significantly increased IFN-gamma and low IL-10 levels were detected in vaccinated animals before and after challenge, as compared to control animals. Importantly, while the symptoms onset appeared as early as three months after infection in most control dogs, 14 months after challenge, 5 out of 7 vaccinated dogs remained asymptomatic. Therefore, immunization with rA2 antigen was immunogenic and induced partial protection in dogs, and allowed the serological differentiation between vaccinated and infected animals, an important requirement for a canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL) vaccine.
Cezário, Glaucia Aparecida Gomes; de Oliveira, Larissa Ragozo Cardoso; Peresi, Eliana; Nicolete, Vanessa Cristina; Polettini, Jossimara; de Lima, Carlos Roberto Gonçalves; Gatto, Mariana; Calvi, Sueli Aparecida
Toll-like receptors (TLRs) recognise pathogen-derived molecules and influence immunity to control parasite infections. This study aimed to evaluate the mRNA expression of TLRs 2 and 4, the expression and production of the cytokines interleukin (IL)-12, interferon (IFN)-γ, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, IL-17, IL-10 and transforming growth factor (TGF)-β and the production of nitric oxide (NO) in the spleen of mice infected with Leishmania chagasi. It also aimed to evaluate any correlations between mRNA expression TLR2 and 4 and cytokines and NO production. Infection resulted in increased TLR2-4, IL-17, TNF-α and TGF-β mRNA expression during early infection, with decreased expression during late infection correlating with parasite load. IFN-γ and IL-12 mRNA expression decreased at the peak of parasitism. IL-10 mRNA expression increased throughout the entire time period analysed. Although TGF-β, TNF-α and IL-17 were highly produced during the initial phase of infection, IFN-γ and IL-12 exhibited high production during the final phase of infection. IL-10 and NO showed increased production throughout the evaluated time period. In the acute phase of infection, there was a positive correlation between TLR2-4, TNF-α, IL-17, NO, IL-10 and TGF-β expression and parasite load. During the chronic phase of infection, there was a positive correlation between TLR2-4, TNF-α, IL-17 and TGF-β expression and parasite load. Our data suggest that infection by L. chagasi resulted in modulation of TLRs 2 and 4 and cytokines.
Pinedo-Cancino, Viviana; Kesper, Norival; Barbiéri, Clara Lúcia; Lindoso, José Angelo Lauletta; Umezawa, Eufrosina Setsu
The analysis of promastigote excreted-secreted antigen (ESA) reactivity with 53 visceral leishmaniasis (VL) cases showed that each sample reacted regardless of the antigen or the Leishmania species used in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) displayed 100% positivity with the L. (L.) chagasi ESA-blot recognizing bands of molecular weight ranging from 26.5 to 31.5 kDa. The analysis of 160 non-visceral cases showed that 5% of the samples cross-reacted with the L. (L.) chagasi ESA-ELISA and 9.4% reacted with the ESA isolated from L. (L.) amazonensis and L. (V.) braziliensis, whereas a high cross-reaction ranging from 24.4% to 25% was observed with total crude promastigote antigens (PRO-ELISA). The ESA-blot of L. (L.) chagasi tested with non-visceral sera samples showed a cross-reaction with 8.8% of cases; most of these cases represented tegumentary leishmaniasis and only one acute chagasic case. These data lead us to recommend the use of ESA as an alternative antigen in VL diagnosis.
Vale, A M; Fujiwara, R T; da Silva Neto, A F; Miret, J A; Alvarez, D C C; da Silva, J C F; Campos-Neto, A; Reed, S; Mayrink, W; Nascimento, E
The Leishmania species present a genetic homology that ranges from 69 to 90%. Because of this homology, heterologous antigens have been used in the immunodiagnosis and vaccine development against Leishmania infections. In the current work, we describe the identification of species-specific and cross-reactive antigens among several New World Leishmania species, using symptomatic and asymptomatic naturally Leishmania chagasi-infected dog sera. Soluble antigens from five strains of New World Leishmania were separated by electrophoresis in SDS-PAGE and immunoblotted. Different proteins were uniquely recognized in the L. chagasi panel by either symptomatic or asymptomatic dog sera suggesting their use as markers for the progression of disease and diagnosis of the initial (sub-clinical) phase of the infection. Cross-reactive antigens were identified using heterologous antigenic panels (L. amazonensis strains PH8 and BH6, L. guyanensis and L. braziliensis). L. guyanensis panel showed the highest cross-reactivity against L. chagasi specific antibodies, suggesting that proteins from this extract might be suitable for the diagnosis of visceral canine leishmaniasis. Interestingly, the 51 and 97 kDa proteins of Leishmania were widely recognized (77.8% to 100%) among all antigenic panels tested, supporting their potential use for immunodiagnosis. Finally, we identified several leishmanial antigens that might be useful for routine diagnosis and seroepidemiological studies of the visceral canine leishmaniasis.
Kashino, S S; Abeijon, C; Qin, L; Kanunfre, K A; Kubrusly, F S; Silva, F O; Costa, D L; Campos, D; Costa, C H N; Raw, I; Campos-Neto, A
Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a serious lethal parasitic disease caused by Leishmania donovani in Asia and by Leishmania infantum chagasi in southern Europe and South America. VL is endemic in 47 countries with an annual incidence estimated to be 500,000 cases. This high incidence is due in part to the lack of an efficacious vaccine. Here, we introduce an innovative approach to directly identify parasite vaccine candidate antigens that are abundantly produced in vivo in humans with VL. We combined RP-HPLC and mass spectrometry and categorized three L. infantum chagasi proteins, presumably produced in spleen, liver and bone marrow lesions and excreted in the patients' urine. Specifically, these proteins were the following: Li-isd1 (XP_001467866.1), Li-txn1 (XP_001466642.1) and Li-ntf2 (XP_001463738.1). Initial vaccine validation studies were performed with the rLi-ntf2 protein produced in Escherichia coli mixed with the adjuvant BpMPLA-SE. This formulation stimulated potent Th1 response in BALB/c mice. Compared to control animals, mice immunized with Li-ntf2+ BpMPLA-SE had a marked parasite burden reduction in spleens at 40 days post-challenge with virulent L. infantum chagasi. These results strongly support the proposed antigen discovery strategy of vaccine candidates to VL and opens novel possibilities for vaccine development to other serious infectious diseases.
Oliveira, Valéria C S; Moura, Daniela M S; Lopes, José A D; de Andrade, Paulo P; da Silva, Nicácio H; Figueiredo, Regina C B Q
The current therapy for leishmaniasis, which affects annually about 2 million people, is far from satisfactory. All available drugs require parenteral administration and are potentially toxic. Plant essential oils have been traditionally used in folk medicine and appear as valuable alternative source for chemotherapeutic compounds. In this study, we demonstrated the effect of essential oils from Cymbopogon citratus, Lippia sidoides, and Ocimum gratissimum on growth and ultrastructure of Leishmania chagasi promastigote forms. Steam distillation was used to isolate the essential oils, and their constituents were characterized by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance. All essential oils showed in vitro inhibitory action on L. chagasi promastigotes growth in a dose-dependent way, with IC(50)/72 h of 45, 89, and 75 microg/mL for C. citratus, L. sidoides, and O. gratissimum, respectively. Drastic morphological alterations were observed in all essential oil-treated parasites, including cell swelling, accumulation of lipid droplets in the cytoplasm, and increase of acidocalcisome volume. Furthermore, aberrant-shaped cells with multi-septate body were observed by scanning electron microscopy, suggesting an additional effect on cytokinesis. Taken together, our data show that these essential oils affect the parasite viability being the C. citratus essential oil the most effective against L. chagasi.
de Andrade, Renata Aline; Reis, Alexandre Barbosa; Gontijo, Célia Maria Ferreira; Braga, Lidiane Bento; Rocha, Roberta Dias Rodrigues; Araújo, Márcio Sobreira Silva; Vianna, Leonardo Rocha; Martins-Filho, Olindo Assis
Leishmune vaccination covers a broader number of endemic areas of canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL) and therefore the development of new serological devices able to discriminate CVL from Leishmune vaccinees becomes an urgent need considering the post-vaccine seroconversion detected throughout conventional methodologies. Herein, we have described the establishment of a flow cytometry based methodology to detect anti-fixed L. (L.) chagasi promastigotes antibodies (FC-AFPA-IgG, FC-AFPA-IgG1 and FC-AFPA-IgG2) in sera samples from Leishmania (Leishmania) chagasi infected dogs and Leishmune vaccinees. The results of FC-AFPA were reported along the sera titration curve (1:128-1:524,288), as percentage-of-positive-fluorescent-parasite (PPFP). The use of PPFP=20% as a cut-off edge to segregate negative and positive results at sera dilution 1:2048 revealed outstanding performance indexes that elect FC-AFPA-IgG and IgG2 (both detected by polyclonal FITC-labeled second step reagent) applicable to the serological diagnosis of CVL, with 100% of specificity for both IgG and IgG2 and 97 and 93% of sensitivity, respectively. Moreover, FC-AFPA-IgG, applied at sera dilution 1:2048, also appeared as a useful tool to discriminate L. chagasi infected dogs from Leishmune vaccinees, with 76% of specificity. Outstanding likelihood indexes further support the performance of FC-AFPA-IgG for exclusion diagnosis of CVL in Leishmune vaccinees. Analysis of FC-AFPA-IgG at sera dilution 1:8192 revealed the most outstanding indexes, demonstrating that besides the ability of PPFP
Viana, Kelvinson Fernandes; Aguiar-Soares, Rodrigo Dian Oliveira; Ker, Henrique Gama; Resende, Lucilene Aparecida; Souza-Fagundes, Elaine Maria; Dutra, Walderez Ornelas; Fujiwara, Ricardo Toshio; da Silveira-Lemos, Denise; Sant'Ana, Rita de Cássia Oliveira; Wardini, Amanda Brito; Araújo, Márcio Sobreira Silva; Martins-Filho, Olindo Assis; Reis, Alexandre Barbosa; Giunchetti, Rodolfo Cordeiro
New methods for evaluating the canine immune system are necessary, not only to monitor immunological disorders, but also to provide insights for vaccine evaluations and therapeutic interventions, reducing the costs of assays using dog models, and provide a more rational way for analyzing the canine immune response. The present study intended to establish an in vitro toll to assess the parasitological/immunological status of dogs, applicable in pre-clinical trials of vaccinology, prognosis follow-up and therapeutics analysis of canine visceral leishmaniasis. We have evaluated the performance of co-culture systems of canine Leishmania chagasi-infected macrophages with different cell ratios of total lymphocytes or purified CD4(+) and CD8(+) T-cells. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells from uninfected dogs were used for the system set up. Employing the co-culture systems of L. chagasi-infected macrophages and purified CD4(+) or CD8(+) T-cell subsets we observed a microenvironment compatible with the expected status of the analyzed dogs. In this context, it was clearly demonstrated that, at this selected T-cell:target ratio, the adaptive immune response of uninfected dogs, composed by L. chagasi-unprimed T-cells was not able to perform the in vitro killing of L. chagasi-infected macrophages. Our data demonstrated that the co-culture system with T-cells from uninfected dogs at 1:5 and 1:2 ratio did not control the infection, yielding to patent in vitro parasitism (≥ 80%), low NO production (≤ 5 μM) and IL-10 modulated (IFN-γ/IL-10 ≤ 2) immunological profile in vitro. CD4(+) or CD8(+) T-cells at 1:5 or 1:2 ratio to L. chagasi-infected macrophages seems to be ideal for in vitro assays. This co-culture system may have great potential as a canine immunological analysis method, as well as in vaccine evaluations, prognosis follow-up and therapeutic interventions.
Benca, J; Dubai, A; Sladeckova, V
Malaria should not be present in altitudes more than 1,800 m a.s.l. However due to global warming, highlands malaria (HM) occurs up to 2,000 m. The purpose of this study is comparison of clinical picture and prognosis of HM and compare it to malaria in endemic region of southern Sudan (endemic malaria - EM) among hyper-immune population.
Stiehm, E R; Fletcher, C V; Mofenson, L M; Palumbo, P E; Kang, M; Fenton, T; Sapan, C V; Meyer, W A; Shearer, W T; Hawkins, E; Fowler, M G; Bouquin, P; Purdue, L; Sloand, E M; Nemo, G J; Wara, D; Bryson, Y J; Starr, S E; Petru, A; Burchett, S
The clinical, immunologic, and virologic effects and the pharmacokinetics of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) human hyperimmune immunoglobulin (HIVIG) were assessed in 30 HIV-infected children aged 2-11 years. All had moderately advanced disease with an immune complex-dissociated (ICD) p24 antigen >70 pg/mL and were on stable antiviral therapy. Three groups of 10 children received 6 monthly infusions of 200, 400, or 800 mg/kg of HIVIG, and serial immunologic and virologic assays were performed. HIVIG doses as high as 800 mg/kg were safe and well tolerated. The half-life of HIVIG, determined by serial p24 antibody titers, was 13-16 days, the volume of distribution was 102-113 mL/kg, and clearance was 5.6-6.0 mL/kg/day. Plasma ICD p24 decreased during the infusions, but CD4 cell levels, plasma RNA copy number, cellular virus, immunoglobulin levels, and neutralizing antibody titers were minimally affected by the infusions. Clinical status did not change during the 6-month infusion and 3-month follow-up periods.
Petrušić, Vladimir; Todorović, Nevena; Živković, Irena; Dimitrijević, Rajna; Muhandes, Lina; Rajnpreht, Irena; Dimitrijević, Ljiljana
Recent data concerning antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) induction have shown that β2-glycoprotein I (β2GPI) binds lipopolysaccharide (LPS), which results in conformational changes, exposition of a cryptic epitope and possible pathological anti-β2GPI antibody production. In order to investigate the effects of LPS on the induction of APS-related pathology, we performed hyperimmunization of BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice with LPS, alone or in combination with tetanus toxoid (TTd), a protein structurally similar to β2GPI. We report that, although high affinity pathological anti-β2GPI antibodies were produced in all groups of animals, the reproductive pathology was recorded only in mice that received both LPS and TTd, implying on the important roles of both infections and molecular mimicry in APS pathogenesis. Moreover, APS-related reproductive pathology was more pronounced in BALB/c (lowered fertility and fecundity) than C57BL/6 mice (lowered fecundity), which correlated well with the disruption in natural antibody network observed in BALB/c mouse strain.
Collin, Nicolas; Reynoso, David; Jochim, Ryan; Oliveira, Fabiano; Seitz, Amy; Elnaiem, Dia-Eldin; Caldas, Arlene; de Souza, Ana Paula; Brodskyn, Cláudia I.; de Oliveira, Camila Indiani; Mendonca, Ivete; Costa, Carlos H. N.; Volf, Petr; Barral, Aldina; Kamhawi, Shaden; Valenzuela, Jesus G.
Background Sand flies deliver Leishmania parasites to a host alongside salivary molecules that affect infection outcomes. Though some proteins are immunogenic and have potential as markers of vector exposure, their identity and vector specificity remain elusive. Methodology/Principal Findings We screened human, dog, and fox sera from endemic areas of visceral leishmaniasis to identify potential markers of specific exposure to saliva of Lutzomyia longipalpis. Human and dog sera were further tested against additional sand fly species. Recombinant proteins of nine transcripts encoding secreted salivary molecules of Lu. longipalpis were produced, purified, and tested for antigenicity and specificity. Use of recombinant proteins corresponding to immunogenic molecules in Lu. longipalpis saliva identified LJM17 and LJM11 as potential markers of exposure. LJM17 was recognized by human, dog, and fox sera; LJM11 by humans and dogs. Notably, LJM17 and LJM11 were specifically recognized by humans exposed to Lu. longipalpis but not by individuals exposed to Lu. intermedia. Conclusions/Significance Salivary recombinant proteins are of value as markers of vector exposure. In humans, LJM17 and LJM11 emerged as potential markers of specific exposure to Lu. longipalpis, the vector of Leishmania infantum chagasi in Latin America. In dogs, LJM17, LJM11, LJL13, LJL23, and LJL143 emerged as potential markers of sand fly exposure. Testing these recombinant proteins in large scale studies will validate their usefulness as specific markers of Lu. longipalpis exposure in humans and of sand fly exposure in dogs. PMID:20351786
Ueno, Norikiyo; Bratt, Carol L; Rodriguez, Nilda E; Wilson, Mary E
The obligate intracellular protozoan, Leishmania infantum chagasi (Lic) undergoes receptor-mediated phagocytosis by macrophages followed by a transient delay in phagolysosome maturation. We found differences in the pathway through which virulent Lic metacyclic promastigotes or avirulent logarithmic promastigotes are phagocytosed by human monocyte-derived macrophages (MDMs). Both logarithmic and metacyclic promastigotes entered MDMs through a compartment lined by the third complement receptor (CR3). In contrast, many logarithmic promastigotes entered through vacuoles lined by mannose receptors (MR) whereas most metacyclic promastigotes did not (P < 0.005). CR3-positive vacuoles containing metacyclic promastigotes stained for caveolin-1 protein, suggesting CR3 localizes in caveolae during phagocytosis. Following entry, the kinetics of phagolysosomal maturation and intracellular survival also differed. Vacuoles containing metacyclic parasites did not accumulate lysosome-associated membrane protein-1 (LAMP-1) at early times after phagocytosis, whereas vacuoles with logarithmic promastigotes did. MDMs phagocytosed greater numbers of logarithmic than metacyclic promastigotes, yet metacyclics ultimately replicated intracellularly with greater efficiency. These data suggest that virulent metacyclic Leishmania promastigotes fail to ligate macrophage MR, and enter through a path that ultimately enhances intracellular survival. The relatively quiescent entry of virulent Leishmania spp. into macrophages may be accounted for by the ability of metacyclic promastigotes to selectively bypass deleterious entry pathways.
dos Santos, Fernando Rocha; Vieira, Paula Melo Abreu; Correa-Oliveira, Rodrigo; Giunchetti, Rodolfo Cordeiro; Carneiro, Claudia Martins; Reis, Alexandre Barbosa; Malaquias, Luiz Cosme Cotta
Nitric oxide (NO), the product of the nitric oxide synthase enzymes has been detected in Leishmania-infected animals. Besides its role on the immunity to infection, the role of NO and the inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in the pathogenesis of canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL) is not well understood. This study aimed at evaluating immunohistochemically the iNOS expression in the spleen of dogs naturally infected (ID) with Leishmania (L.) chagasi compared with non-infected dogs (NID). The ID was grouped according to the clinical form and the parasite load. Symptomatic dogs (SD) presented higher parasite load in relation to oligosymptomatic (OD) and asymptomatic (AD). The qualitative expression of iNOS was observed only in ID. SD presented strong and prominent labeling of iNOS, followed by OD and AD. Quantitatively, the results showed that the median expression of iNOS was higher in SD and OD compared to NID. Also, dog spleens with high parasitism load showed marked iNOS expression. Taken together, the results suggest that the expression of iNOS in the spleen of infected dogs with CVL was associated with clinical worsening of the disease and with high parasitism.
Araújo-Santos, Théo; Rodríguez, Nilda E; Moura-Pontes, Sara; Dixt, Upasna Gaur; Abánades, Daniel R; Bozza, Patrícia T; Wilson, Mary E; Borges, Valéria Matos
Lipid bodies (LB; lipid droplets) are cytoplasmic organelles involved in lipid metabolism. Mammalian LBs display an important role in host-pathogen interactions, but the role of parasite LBs in biosynthesis of prostaglandin F2α (PGF2α) has not been investigated. We report herein that LBs increased in abundance during development of Leishmania infantum chagasi to a virulent metacyclic stage, as did the expression of PGF2α synthase (PGFS). The amount of parasite LBs and PGF2α were modulated by exogenous arachidonic acid. During macrophage infection, LBs were restricted to parasites inside the parasitophorous vacuoles (PV). We detected PGF2α receptor (FP) on the Leishmania PV surface. The blockage of FP with AL8810, a selective antagonist, hampered Leishmania infection, whereas the irreversible inhibition of cyclooxygenase with aspirin increased the parasite burden. These data demonstrate novel functions for parasite-derived LBs and PGF2α in the cellular metabolism of Leishmania and its evasion of the host immune response.
Ikeda-Garcia, Fabiana Augusta; Lopes, Raimundo Souza; Marques, Fábia Judice; de Lima, Valéria Marçal Félix; Morinishi, Celina Kazue; Bonello, Fábio Luís; Zanette, Maurício Franco; Perri, Sílvia Helena Venturoli; Feitosa, Mary Marcondes
Aiming to evaluate the efficacy of the treatment of canine visceral leishmaniasis, to verify the occurrence of a possible disease relapse, and to search for the presence of the parasites after the end of the treatment, seven dogs naturally infected by Leishmania (Leishmania) chagasi were used. The dogs were subjected to a treatment with 75 mg/kg meglumine antimoniate subcutaneously every 12 h for 21 days, and followed-up for a period of 6 months. During the whole experimental period the animals wore deltamethrin collars and were kept in a screened kennel to avoid reinfection. Lymph node and bone marrow aspiration biopsy was carried out to search for the parasite at seven moments: before the treatment, 30, 60, 90, 120, 150 and 180 days after the start of the treatment. After the end of the experiment all dogs were humanely euthanized. Then, spleen and liver "imprints" and in vitro cultures were carried out to search for amastigote forms of the parasite. During the treatment all animals presented remission of symptoms. However, two dogs were observed to present new symptoms in the course of the experiment. At the end of the experiment, the presence of amastigote forms of the parasite was evidenced in five of the seven dogs. This enabled us to conclude that the treatment promoted clinical cure but did not eliminate the parasites completely.
Stober, Carmel B.; Jeronimo, Selma M. B.; Pontes, Nubia N.; Miller, E. Nancy; Blackwell, Jenefer M.
Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is fatal if untreated, and there are no vaccines for this disease. High levels of CD4-derived interferon-γ (IFN-γ) in the presence of low levels of interleukin-10 (IL-10) predicts vaccine success. Tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) is also important in this process. We characterized human immune responses in three groups exposed to Leishmania infantum chagasi in Brazil: 1) drug-cured VL patients (recovered VL); 2) asymptomatic persons with positive Leishmania-specific delayed-type hypersensitivity skin reactions (DTH+); and 3) DTH-negative household contacts. Magnitude of DTH correlated with crude Leishmania antigen–driven IFN-γ, TNF-α, and IL-5, but not IL-10. DTH+ persons showed equivalent levels of IFN-γ, but higher levels of IL-10, to tryparedoxin peroxidase and Leishmania homolog of receptor for activated C kinase compared with recovered VL patients. The IFN-γ:IL-10 and TNF-α:IL-10 ratios were higher in recovered VL patients than in DTH+ persons. Seven of 11 novel candidates (R71, L37, N52, L302.06, M18, J41, and M22) elicited cytokine responses (36–71% of responders) in recovered VL patients and DTH+ persons. This result confirmed their putative status as cross-species vaccine/immunotherapeutic candidates. PMID:22826477
Rodrigues, Cleusa Alves Theodoro; Batista, Luís Fábio da Silva; Teixeira, Márcia Cristina Aquino; Pereira, Andréa Mendes; Santos, Patrícia Oliveira Meira; de Sá Oliveira, Geraldo Gileno; de Freitas, Luiz Antônio Rodrigues; Veras, Patrícia Sampaio Tavares
Leishmania chagasi is the causative agent of visceral leishmaniasis in both humans and dogs in the New World. The dog is the main domestic reservoir and its infection displays different clinical presentations, from asymptomatic to severe disease. Macrophages play an important role in the control of Leishmania infection. Although it is not an area of intense study, some data suggest a role for canine macrophages in parasite killing by a NO-dependent mechanism. It has been proposed that control of human disease could be possible with the development of an effective vaccine against canine visceral leishmaniasis. Development of a rapid in vitro test to predict animal responses to Leishmania infection or vaccination should be helpful. In this study, an in vitro model was established to test whether peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) supernatants from dogs immunized with promastigote lysates and infected with L. chagasi promastigotes could stimulate macrophages from healthy dogs in order to control parasite infection. PBMC from a majority of the immunized and experimentally infected dogs expressed IFN-gamma mRNA and secreted IFN-gamma when stimulated with soluble L. chagasi antigen (SLA) in vitro. Additionally, the supernatants from stimulated PBMC were able to reduce the percentage of infected donor macrophages. The results also indicate that parasite killing in this system is dependent on NO, since aminoguanidine (AMG) reversed this effect. This in vitro test appears to be useful for screening animal responses to parasite inoculation as well as studying the lymphocyte effector mechanisms involved in pathogen killing by canine macrophages.
Ohshima, Motohiro; Inoue, Kazuyuki; Hayashi, Hideki; Tsuji, Daiki; Mizugaki, Michinao; Itoh, Kunihiko
DNA methylation is involved in many diseases such as cancer and autoimmunity. We generated recombinant single-chain Fv (scFv) antibodies against 5-methyl-2'-deoxycytidine (m(5)dCyd) using phage display technology and a hyperimmunized mouse, and the scFv of most interest were constructed as fusion proteins with green fluorescent protein obtained from Aequorea coerulescens GFP (AcGFP). Using RNA isolated from mouse spleens, we constructed a scFv library consisting of λ light chains. The scFv library was selected against m(5)Cyd-BSA and enriched through four rounds of panning. The scFv library was concentrated about 390-fold and an individual clone was reacted with m(5)Cyd-BSA. Two scFvs with high reactivity for m(5)Cyd-BSA termed 1-2 and 1-12 were produced. Furthermore, methylated DNA-binding activities of the scFvs were confirmed using an indirect immunofluorescence assay. Additionally, N- and C-terminal scFv 1-2 fusion with AcGFP were constructed, and we observed the N-terminal AcGFP exhibited much higher fluorescence intensity than the C-terminal fusions. The AcGFP-scFv 1-2 modified N-terminus of scFv with AcGFP had high fluorescence intensity, but the scFv 1-2-AcGFP modified C-terminus of scFv with AcGFP had low fluorescence intensity. The cross-reactivity of AcGFP-scFv 1-2 was similar to scFv 1-2, and thus, AcGFP-scFv 1-2 could be used in a direct immunofluorescence assay. The scFv fusion proteins may be useful for the detection and quantification of cellular methylated DNA in various specimens.
Immunization with the cysteine proteinase Ldccys1 gene from Leishmania (Leishmania) chagasi and the recombinant Ldccys1 protein elicits protective immune responses in a murine model of visceral leishmaniasis.
Ferreira, Josie Haydée L; Gentil, Luciana Girotto; Dias, Suzana Souza; Fedeli, Carlos Eduardo C; Katz, Simone; Barbiéri, Clara Lúcia
The gene Ldccys1 encoding a cysteine proteinase of 30 kDa from Leishmania (Leishmania) chagasi, as well as the recombinant cysteine proteinase rLdccys1, obtained by cloning and expression of the Ldccys1 gene in the pHIS vector, were used to evaluate their ability to induce immune protective responses in BALB/c mice against L. (L.) chagasi infection. Mice were immunized subcutaneously with rLdccys1 plus Bacille Calmette Guerin (BCG) or Propionibacterium acnes as adjuvants or intramuscularly with a plasmid carrying the Ldccys1 gene (Ldccys1/pcDNA3) and CpG ODN as the adjuvant, followed by a booster with rLdccys1 plus CpG ODN. Two weeks after immunization the animals were challenged with 1 x 10(7) amastigotes of L. (L.) chagasi. Both immunization protocols induced significant protection against L. (L.) chagasi infection as shown by a very low parasite load in the spleen of immunized mice compared to the non-immunized controls. However, DNA immunization was 10-fold more protective than immunization with the recombinant protein. Whereas rLdccys1 induced a significant secretion of IFN-gamma and nitric oxide (NO), animals immunized with the Ldccys1 gene increased the production of IgG2a antibodies, IFN-gamma and NO. These results indicated that protection triggered by the two immunization protocols was correlated to a predominant Th1 response.
Savani, Elisa San Martin Mouriz; Nunes, Vania Lúcia Brandão; Galati, Eunice Aparecida Bianchi; Castilho, Tiago Moreno; Araujo, Fernando Shiroma de; Ilha, Iêda Maria Novaes; Camargo, Maria Cecília Gibrail de Oliveira; D'Auria, Sandra Regina Nicoletti; Floeter-Winter, Lucile Maria
A natural case of co-infection by Leishmania and Trypanosoma is reported in a dog (Canis familiaris) in south- western state of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. Both amastigote and trypomastigote forms were observed after Giemsa staining of cytological preparations of the dog's bone marrow aspirate. No parasite was detected using medium culture inoculation of the sample. DNA obtained from the bone marrow aspirate sample and from the blood buffy coat was submitted to polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with a set of rDNA-based primers S4/S12. The nucleotide sequence of the PCR product was identical to that of Trypanosoma (Trypanozoon) evansi. The S4/S12 PCR was then used as template in a nested-PCR using a specific Leishmania set S17/S18 as primers, to explain the amastigote forms. The nucleotide sequence of the new PCR product was identical to that of Leishmania (Leishmania) chagasi. This case, as far as we know, is the first report of a dog co-infected with these parasites, suggesting that besides L. (L.) chagasi, the natural transmission of T. (T.) evansi occurs in the area under study.
Morais-Teixeira, Eliane de; Carvalho, Alcione S de; Costa, Jorge C S da; Duarte, Silvio L; Mendonça, Jorge S; Boechat, Núbia; Rabello, Ana
The leishmanicidal activity of four batches of meglumine antimoniate, produced in Farmanguinhos-Fiocruz, Brazil (TAMs), was assessed and compared to Glucantime-Aventis Pharma Ltda. Using the amastigote-like in vitro model, the active concentrations of Sb v varied from 10microg/ml to 300microg/ml for L. (L.) chagasi and from 50microg/ml to 300microg/ml for L. (L.) amazonensis, with no statistically significant differences among the four batches of TAMs and Glucantime. The inhibitory concentrations (IC50) determined by the amastigote-infected macrophage model for TAM01/03 and Glucantime were, respectively: 26.3microg/ml and 127.6microg/ml for L. chagasi, 15.4microg /ml and 22.9microg/ml for L. amazonensis, and 12.1 microg/ml and 24.2microg/ml for L. (V.) braziliensis. The activities of the four batches of TAMs were confirmed in an in vivo model by assessing, during eight weeks skin lesions caused by L. braziliensis in hamster that were treated with 20mg Sb v/Kg/day for 30 consecutive days. The meglumine antimoniate produced by Farmanguinhos was as effective as the reference drug, Glucantime-Aventis, against three species of Leishmania that are of medical importance in Brazil.
Crescente, José Angelo B; Silveira, Fernando T; Lainson, Ralph; Gomes, Claudia M C; Laurenti, Márcia D; Corbett, Carlos E P
The objectives of this study were to identify individuals with symptomatic and/or asymptomatic infection due to Leishmania (L.) infantum chagasi; to study the two types of infection, both clinically and immunologically, and to determine the prevalence rate of infection at the beginning of the study. This was a cross-sectional study with a cohort of 946 individuals, of both genders, from the age of 1 year, living in the municipality of Barcarena, PA, Brazil, an area endemic for American visceral leishmaniasis (AVL). The leishmanin skin test (LST) and the indirect fluorescent test (IFAT), were used for the diagnosis of infection. One hundred and twenty cases of infection were diagnosed, with a prevalence rate of 12.6%; eight cases showed high seroreactivity (1280-10240, IgG) in IFAT and no LST reaction; four of these cases were typical AVL and four had subclinical oligosymptomatic infection. Using two immunological methods with a clinical examination of the infected individuals enabled the identification of five clinical-immunological profiles which may promote a better understanding of the interaction between L. (L.) i. chagasi and the human immune response: asymptomatic infection (AI) 73.4%; subclinical resistant infection (SRI) 15%; subclinical oligosymptomatic infection (SOI) 3%; symptomatic infection (AVL) 3% and indeterminate initial infection (III) 5%.
Costa, Míriam M; Andrade, Hélida M; Bartholomeu, Daniella C; Freitas, Leandro M; Pires, Simone F; Chapeaurouge, Alexander D; Perales, Jonas; Ferreira, André T; Giusta, Mário S; Melo, Maria N; Gazzinelli, Ricardo T
Identification of novel antigens is essential for developing new diagnostic tests and vaccines. We used DIGE to compare protein expression in amastigote and promastigote forms of Leishmania chagasi. Nine hundred amastigote and promastigote spots were visualized. Five amastigote-specific, 25 promastigote-specific, and 10 proteins shared by the two parasite stages were identified. Furthermore, 41 proteins were identified in the Western blot employing 2-DE and sera from infected dogs. From these proteins, 3 and 38 were reactive with IgM and total IgG, respectively. The proteins recognized by total IgG presented different patterns in terms of their recognition by IgG1 and/or IgG2 isotypes. All the proteins selected by Western blot were mapped for B-cell epitopes. One hundred and eighty peptides were submitted to SPOT synthesis and immunoassay. A total of 25 peptides were shown of interest for serodiagnosis to visceral leishmaniasis. In addition, all proteins identified in this study were mapped for T cell epitopes by using the NetCTL software, and candidates for vaccine development were selected. Therefore, a large-scale screening of L. chagasi proteome was performed to identify new B and T cell epitopes with potential use for developing diagnostic tests and vaccines.
(1) Brief introduction to iron metabolism and the biochemistry of ferritin. (2) Early studies of circulating ferritin. (3) Methods for measuring serum ferritin concentrations -- immunoradiometric, radioimmuno- and enzyme-linked immuno assays based on liver or spleen ferritin -- an evaluation of these techniques. (4) Serum ferritin concentrations in normal subjects -- definition of normality -- relationship between storage iron and serum ferritin concentrations -- changes during development from birth to old age -- iron deficiency -- variability of serum ferritin concentration -- evaluation of use of ferritin assay for assessment of storage iron levels. (5) Serum ferritin concentrations in disease -- hemochromatosis -- secondary iron overload -- liver damage -- infection and chronic disease -- cancer. (6) Assay of serum ferritin with antibodies to ferritins other than liver or spleen -- ferritinemia and cancer. (7) Properties of serum ferritin -- molecular weight -- iron content -- isoelectric focusing patterns -- carbohydrate content -- immunological properties. (8) Physiology of circulating ferritin -- release of ferritin from tissues -- origin of circulating ferritin -- clearance from the plasma -- iron and protein turnover. (9) Summary -- factors influencing serum ferritin concentrations and clinical use of ferritin estimations.
Oliveira, Dulcilene M; Costa, Mariana Amália F; Chavez-Fumagalli, Miguel A; Valadares, Diogo G; Duarte, Mariana C; Costa, Lourena E; Martins, Vivian T; Gomes, Rosângela F; Melo, Maria N; Soto, Manuel; Tavares, Carlos Alberto P; Coelho, Eduardo Antonio F
Experimental vaccines to protect against visceral leishmaniasis (VL) have been developed by using BALB/c mice infected with a large (10⁷ to 10⁸) inoculum of parasites. Remarkably, prior literature has reported that the poor protection observed is mainly due to the high susceptibility of this strain. To determine factors inherent to mice that might abrogate vaccine-induced efficacy, the present research sought to investigate the impact of the administration of different infective inoculums of Leishmania chagasi (syn. L. infantum) in BALB/c mice, evaluating subcutaneous and intravenous routes of administration as well as parasitological and immunological parameters over different periods of time. This study shows that the injection of a highly infective inoculum in mice, through both subcutaneous and intravenous routes, results in a sustained infection. The mice developed a high parasite load in the liver; however, these values diminished over time. This result did not corroborate with the parasite load in the bone marrow and brain and proved to be expressively different in the spleen and draining lymph nodes, where the values increased over time. Mice infected with a low dose of parasites (10³) showed a certain resistance against infection, based mainly on the IFN-γ and oxide nitric production. Considering all the elements, it could be concluded that the models employing high doses (10⁷) of L. chagasi in BALB/c mice can bring about an imbalance in the animals' immune response, thus allowing for the development of the disease at the expense of efficacy within the vaccine candidates.
Reis, Alexandre B; Teixeira-Carvalho, Andréa; Vale, André M; Marques, Marcos J; Giunchetti, Rodolfo C; Mayrink, Wilson; Guerra, Luanda Liboreiro; Andrade, Renata A; Corrêa-Oliveira, Rodrigo; Martins-Filho, Olindo A
The role of anti-leishmanial immune response underlying the susceptibility/resistance during canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL) has been recognized throughout ex vivo and in vitro investigations. Recently, we demonstrated that immunoglobulin levels (Igs), as well as the parasite load are relevant hallmarks of distinct clinical status of CVL. To further characterize and upgrade the background on this issue, herein, we have evaluated, in Leishmania (Leishmania) chagasi naturally infected dogs, the relationship between tissue parasitism (skin, bone marrow, spleen, liver and lymph node), the CVL clinical status (asymptomatic (AD), with no suggestive signs of the disease; oligosymptomatic (OD), with maximum three clinical signs-opaque bristles; localized alopecia and moderate loss of weight; symptomatic (SD), serologically positive with severe clinical signs of visceral leishmaniasis), and the humoral immunological profile of anti-Leishmania immunoglobulins (IgG, IgG1, IgG2, IgM, IgA and IgE). Our major statistically significant findings revealed distinct patterns of tissue parasite density within L. chagasi-infected dogs despite their clinical status, pointing out the spleen and skin as the most relevant sites of high parasitism during ongoing CVL. Parasite density of bone marrow and spleen were the most reliable parasitological markers to decode the clinical status of CVL. Moreover, the parasite density of bone marrow better correlates with most anti-Leishmania Igs reactivity. Additionally, a prognostic hallmark for canine visceral leishmaniasis was found, highlighting strong correlation between IgG1 and asymptomatic disease, but with IgA, IgE and IgG2 displaying better association with symptomatic disease. The new aspects of this study highlighted pioneer findings that correlated the degree of tissue parasite density (low (LP), medium (MP) and high (HP) parasitism) with distinct patterns of anti-Leishmania Igs reactivity. In this scope, our data re-enforce the anti
Sobrinho, Ludmila Silva Vicente; Rossi, Cláudio Nazaretian; Vides, Juliana Peloi; Braga, Eveline Tozzi; Gomes, Ana Amélia Domingues; de Lima, Valéria Marçal Félix; Perri, Sílvia Helena Venturoli; Generoso, Diego; Langoni, Hélio; Leutenegger, Christian; Biondo, Alexander Welker; Laurenti, Márcia Dalastra; Marcondes, Mary
The aim of the present study was to determine the coinfection of Leishmania sp. with Toxoplasma gondii, Feline Immunodeficiency Virus (FIV) and Feline Leukemia Virus (FeLV) in a population of cats from an endemic area for zoonotic visceral leishmaniasis. An overall 66/302 (21.85%) cats were found positive for Leishmania sp., with infection determined by direct parasitological examination in 30/302 (9.93%), by serology in 46/302 (15.23%) and by both in 10/302 (3.31%) cats. Real time PCR followed by amplicon sequencing successfully confirmed Leishmania infantum (syn Leishmania chagasi) infection. Out of the Leishmania infected cats, coinfection with FIV was observed in 12/66 (18.18%), with T. gondii in 17/66 (25.75%) and with both agents in 5/66 (7.58%) cats. FeLV was found only in a single adult cat with no Leishmania infection. A positive association was observed in coinfection of Leishmania and FIV (p<0.0001), but not with T. gondii (p>0.05). In conclusion, cats living in endemic areas of visceral leishmaniasis are significantly more likely to be coinfected with FIV, which may present confounding clinical signs and therefore cats in such areas should be always carefully screened for coinfections.
Differentiation between canine cutaneous and visceral leishmaniasis by the detection of immunoglobulin G specific for Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis and Leishmania (Leishmania) chagasi antigens using flow cytometry.
Santiago, Marta de Almeida; Ribeiro, Flávia Coelho; Mouta-Confort, Eliame; Nascimento, Lílian Dias; Schubach, Armando de Oliveira; Madeira, Maria de Fatima; Bertho, Alvaro Luiz
Flow cytometry employing Leishmania (L.) chagasi (Lc) and L. (Viannia) braziliensis (Lb) antigen was used to establish the differential diagnosis between visceral (VL) and cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) in dogs. Flow cytometry permitted the detection of Leishmania-specific immunoglobulin G in sera from 19 dogs: nine with CL and 10 with VL. A significant difference in the percentage of positive staining was observed in sera from dogs with CL between the homologous antigen (69% for Lb) and the heterologous antigen (42% for Lc). However, this difference was not significant in sera from dogs with VL (61% for Lb and 73% for Lc). No significant staining was observed in control sera (0.6% for Lb and 0.4% for Lc) consisting of samples from healthy dogs, or in the group with sporotrichosis (1.8% for Lb and 1.5% for Lc), a differential diagnosis of CL. The results suggest that flow cytometry might be useful for the differentiation between CL and VL in dogs, with practical applications in areas where the two infections overlap.
Umezawa, E S; Souza, A I; Pinedo-Cancino, V; Marcondes, M; Marcili, A; Camargo, L M A; Camacho, A A; Stolf, A M S; Teixeira, M M G
We standardized serodiagnosis of dogs infected with Trypanosoma cruzi using TESA (trypomastigote excreted-secreted antigen)-blot developed for human Chagas disease. TESA-blot showed 100% sensitivity and specificity. In contrast, ELISA using TESA (TESA-ELISA) or epimastigotes (epi-ELISA) as antigen yielded 100% sensitivity but specificity of 94.1% and 49.4%, respectively. When used in field studies in an endemic region for Chagas disease, visceral leishmaniasis and Trypanosoma evansi (Mato Grosso do Sul state, Central Brazil), positivities were 9.3% for TESA-blot, 10.7% for TESA-ELISA and 32% for epi-ELISA. Dogs from a non-endemic region for these infections (Rondonia state, western Amazonia) where T. cruzi is enzootic showed positivity of 4.5% for TESA-blot and epi-ELISA and 6.8% for TESA-ELISA. Sera from urban dogs from Santos, São Paulo, where these diseases are absent, yielded negative results. TESA-blot was the only method that distinguished dogs infected with T. cruzi from those infected with Leishmania chagasi and/or Trypanosoma evansi.
Silveira, Fernando T; Lainson, Ralph; Crescente, José Angelo; de Souza, Adelson A A; Campos, Marliane B; Gomes, Claudia M C; Laurenti, Márcia D; Corbett, Carlos E P
This prospective study was carried out from October 2003 to December 2005 and involved a cohort of 946 individuals of both genders, aged 1-89 years, from an endemic area for American visceral leishmaniasis (AVL), in Pará State, Brazil. The aim of the study was to analyze the dynamics of the clinical and immunological evolution of human Leishmania (L.) infantum chagasi infection represented by the following clinical-immunological profiles: asymptomatic infection (AI); symptomatic infection (SI=AVL); subclinical oligosymptomatic infection (SOI); subclinical resistant infection (SRI); and indeterminate initial infection (III). Infection diagnosis was determined by the indirect fluorescent antibody test and leishmanin skin test. In total, 231 cases of infection were diagnosed: the AI profile was the most frequent (73.2%), followed by SRI (12.1%), III (9.9%), SI (2.6%) and SOI (2.2%). The major conclusion regarding evolution dynamics was that the III profile plays a pivotal role from which the cases evolve to either the resistant, SRI and AI, or susceptible, SOI and SI, profiles; only one of the 23 III cases evolved to SI, while most evolved to either SRI (nine cases) or SOI (five cases) and eight cases remained as III.
Mendes, Daniella G; Lauria-Pires, Liana; Nitz, Nadjar; Lozzi, Silene P; Nascimento, Rubens J; Monteiro, Pedro S; Rebelo, Manuel M; Rosa, Ana de Cássia; Santana, Jaime M; Teixeira, Antonio R L
Lack of conservation of the Amazon tropical rainforest has imposed severe threats to its human population living in newly settled villages, resulting in outbreaks of some infectious diseases. We conducted a seroepidemiological survey of 1100 inhabitants of 15 villages of Paço do Lumiar County, Brazil. Thirty-five (3%) individuals had been exposed to Trypanosoma cruzi (Tc), 41 (4%) to Leishmania braziliensis (Lb) and 50 (4.5%) to Leishmania chagasi (Lc) infections. Also, 35 cases had antibodies that were cross-reactive against the heterologous kinetoplastid antigens. Amongst these, the Western blot assays revealed that 11 (1%) had Tc and Lb, that seven (0.6%) had Lc and Tc, and that 17 (1.6%) had Lb and Lc infections. All of these cases of exposures to mixed infections with Leishmania sp, and eight of 11 cases of Tc and Lb were confirmed by specific PCR assays and Southern hybridizations. Two cases had triple infections. We consider these asymptomatic cases showing phenotype and genotype markers consistent with mixed infections by two or more kinetoplastid flagellates a high risk factor for association with Psychodidae and Triatominae vectors blood feeding and transmitting these protozoa infections. This is the first publication showing human exposure to mixed asymptomatic kinetoplastid infections in the Amazon.
Efficacy of zidovudine and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) hyperimmune immunoglobulin for reducing perinatal HIV transmission from HIV-infected women with advanced disease: results of Pediatric AIDS Clinical Trials Group protocol 185.
Stiehm, E R; Lambert, J S; Mofenson, L M; Bethel, J; Whitehouse, J; Nugent, R; Moye, J; Glenn Fowler, M; Mathieson, B J; Reichelderfer, P; Nemo, G J; Korelitz, J; Meyer, W A; Sapan, C V; Jimenez, E; Gandia, J; Scott, G; O'Sullivan, M J; Kovacs, A; Stek, A; Shearer, W T; Hammill, H
Pediatric AIDS Clinical Trials Group protocol 185 evaluated whether zidovudine combined with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) hyperimmune immunoglobulin (HIVIG) infusions administered monthly during pregnancy and to the neonate at birth would significantly lower perinatal HIV transmission compared with treatment with zidovudine and intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) without HIV antibody. Subjects had baseline CD4 cell counts =500/microL (22% had counts <200/microL) and required zidovudine for maternal health (24% received zidovudine before pregnancy). Transmission was associated with lower maternal baseline CD4 cell count (odds ratio, 1.58 per 100-cell decrement; P=.005; 10.0% vs. 3.6% transmission for count <200 vs. >/=200/microL) but not with time of zidovudine initiation (5.6% vs. 4.8% if started before vs. during pregnancy; P=. 75). The Kaplan-Meier transmission rate for HIVIG recipients was 4. 1% (95% confidence interval, 1.5%-6.7%) and for IVIG recipients was 6.0% (2.8%-9.1%) (P=.36). The unexpectedly low transmission confirmed that zidovudine prophylaxis is highly effective, even for women with advanced HIV disease and prior zidovudine therapy, although it limited the study's ability to address whether passive immunization diminishes perinatal transmission.
Silveira, Fernando T; Lainson, Ralph; Pereira, Elza A; de Souza, Adelson A A; Campos, Marliane B; Chagas, Eugênia J; Gomes, Claudia M C; Laurenti, Márcia D; Corbett, Carlos E P
This was a longitudinal study carried out during a period over 2 years with a cohort of 946 individuals of both sexes, aged 1 year and older, from an endemic area of American visceral leishmaniasis (AVL) in Pará State, Brazil. The object was to analyze the transmission dynamics of human Leishmania (Leishmania) infantum chagasi infection based principally on the prevalence and incidence. For diagnosis of the infection, the indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT) and leishmanin skin test (LST) were performed with amastigote and promastigote antigens of the parasite, respectively. The prevalence by LST (11.2%) was higher (p < 0.0001) than that (3.4%) by IFAT, and the combined prevalence by both tests was 12.6%. The incidences by LST were also higher (p < 0.05) than those by IFAT at 6 (4.7% x 0.6%), 12 (4.7% x 2.7%), and 24 months (2.9% x 0.3%). Moreover, there were no differences (p > 0.05) between the combined incidences by both tests on the same point surveys, 5.2%, 6.3%, and 3.6%. During the study, 12 infected persons showed high IFAT IgG titers with no LST reactions: five children and two adults developed AVL (2,560-10,120), and two children and three adults developed subclinical oligosymptomatic infection (1280-2560). The combined tests diagnosed a total of 231 cases of infection leading to an accumulated prevalence of 24.4%.
Alves, Cíntia F; de Amorim, Izabela F G; Moura, Eliane P; Ribeiro, Raul R; Alves, Cibele F; Michalick, Marilene S; Kalapothakis, Evanguedes; Bruna-Romero, Oscar; Tafuri, Wagner L; Teixeira, Mauro M; Melo, Maria N
American visceral leishmaniasis is a zoonosis of the New World. Dogs are the main reservoir of the disease and there is much interest in the understanding of mechanisms implicated in protection against canine infection. Nevertheless, most studies in dogs have not been carried out in organs that are targets of infection. This work is first to report the profile of cytokines and parasite burdens, as determined by real-time PCR, in the lymph nodes of dogs naturally infected with Leishmania chagasi. With this purpose, 18 mongrel dogs were divided in three groups: control non-infected dogs (n=6) and naturally infected animals with L. chagasi, asymptomatic (n=6) and symptomatic (n=6). Parasite burden in lymph nodes was 73-fold greater in symptomatic than asymptomatic animals. Prescapular lymph nodes of asymptomatic dogs had the highest expression of IFN-gamma and TNF-alpha and low parasite burden, indicating that these cytokines play a role in protection against infection. Highest expression of IL-10 and TGF-beta and high parasite burden were observed in symptomatic dogs, suggesting a role for these cytokines in the progression of disease. Hence, the balance of expression of IFN-gamma and TNF-alpha (protective) and IL-10 and TGF-beta (disease progression) in lymph nodes determine parasite burden and clinical expression in naturally infected dogs.
Mascola, J R; Louder, M K; VanCott, T C; Sapan, C V; Lambert, J S; Muenz, L R; Bunow, B; Birx, D L; Robb, M L
Three antibody reagents that neutralize primary human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) isolates were tested for magnitude and breadth of neutralization when used alone or in double or triple combinations. Hyperimmune anti-HIV immunoglobulin (HIVIG) is derived from the plasma of HIV-1-infected donors, and monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) 2F5 and 2G12 bind to distinct regions of the HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein. The antibodies were initially tested against a panel of 15 clade B HIV-1 isolates, using a single concentration that is achievable in vivo (HIVIG, 2,500 microg/ml; MAbs, 25 microg/ml). Individual antibody reagents neutralized many of the viruses tested, but antibody potency varied substantially among the viruses. The virus neutralization produced by double combinations of HIVIG plus 2F5 or 2G12, the two MAbs together, or the triple combination of HIVIG, 2F5, and 2G12 was generally equal to or greater than that predicted by the effect of individual antibodies. Overall, the triple combination displayed the greatest magnitude and breadth of neutralization. Synergistic neutralization was evaluated by analyzing data from dose-response curves of each individual antibody reagent compared to the triple combination and was demonstrated against each of four viruses tested. Therefore, combinations of polyclonal and monoclonal anti-HIV antibodies can produce additive or synergistic neutralization of primary HIV-1 isolates. Passive immunotherapy for treatment or prophylaxis of HIV-1 should consider mixtures of potent neutralizing antibody reagents to expand the magnitude and breadth of virus neutralization.
Mascola, J R; Louder, M K; VanCott, T C; Sapan, C V; Lambert, J S; Muenz, L R; Bunow, B; Birx, D L; Robb, M L
Three antibody reagents that neutralize primary human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) isolates were tested for magnitude and breadth of neutralization when used alone or in double or triple combinations. Hyperimmune anti-HIV immunoglobulin (HIVIG) is derived from the plasma of HIV-1-infected donors, and monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) 2F5 and 2G12 bind to distinct regions of the HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein. The antibodies were initially tested against a panel of 15 clade B HIV-1 isolates, using a single concentration that is achievable in vivo (HIVIG, 2,500 microg/ml; MAbs, 25 microg/ml). Individual antibody reagents neutralized many of the viruses tested, but antibody potency varied substantially among the viruses. The virus neutralization produced by double combinations of HIVIG plus 2F5 or 2G12, the two MAbs together, or the triple combination of HIVIG, 2F5, and 2G12 was generally equal to or greater than that predicted by the effect of individual antibodies. Overall, the triple combination displayed the greatest magnitude and breadth of neutralization. Synergistic neutralization was evaluated by analyzing data from dose-response curves of each individual antibody reagent compared to the triple combination and was demonstrated against each of four viruses tested. Therefore, combinations of polyclonal and monoclonal anti-HIV antibodies can produce additive or synergistic neutralization of primary HIV-1 isolates. Passive immunotherapy for treatment or prophylaxis of HIV-1 should consider mixtures of potent neutralizing antibody reagents to expand the magnitude and breadth of virus neutralization. PMID:9311792
Alleviation of insulin resistance and liver damage by oral administration of Imm124-E is mediated by increased Tregs and associated with increased serum GLP-1 and adiponectin: results of a phase I/II clinical trial in NASH
Mizrahi, Meir; Shabat, Yehudit; Ben Ya’acov, Ami; Lalazar, Gadi; Adar, Tomer; Wong, Victor; Muller, Brian; Rawlin, Grant; Ilan, Yaron
Background Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is considered to be part of the nonalcoholic fatty liver disorders and its incidence is increasing. Imm124-E (Immuron Ltd, Melbourne, Australia), containing hyperimmune bovine colostrum, has been shown to exert an immunomodulatory effect and to alleviate target organ damage in animal models of NASH. The aim of our study was to determine the safety and efficacy of oral administration of Imm124-E to patients with insulin resistance and NASH. Methods In an open-label trial, ten patients with biopsy-proven NASH and insulin resistance were orally treated with Imm124-E for 30 days. Results Oral administration of Imm124-E was safe, and no side effects were noted. Alleviation of insulin resistance was reflected by significantly improved hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) values in all ten treated patients. For between five and eight responders, the following effects were noted: a decrease in fasting glucose levels; improved oral glucose tolerance test (OGGT) and homeostatic model assessment insulin resistance (HOMA) scores; and alleviation in lipid profile. These effects were accompanied by increased serum levels of glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1), adiponectin and T regulatory cells. Conclusion Hyperimmune colostrum alleviates NASH. PMID:23293533
Stevens, R.G.; Morris, J.S.; Hann, H.L.; Pulsipher, B.; Stahlhut, M.W.
Stored serum samples can be an important research resource into the etiology of cancer. These sera cannot be replaced and should therefore be used to best advantage. In previous epidemiologic studies, only single serum constituents have been assayed in individual serum samples. For example, serum ferritin has been examined in samples stored for as long as 10 years at -20C for a possible relation with general mortality (1) and cancer death (2). Ferritin is the tissue iron-storage protein and is therefore subject to denaturation. Serum selenium has also been examined in relation to cancer risk in a prospective manner by using stored frozen serum samples (3, 4). The interactions of a variety of serum factors in relation to cancer risk would be a desirable research goal, except that the amounts of serum typically available in frozen serum banks are less than 1 ml. It was the purpose of this investigation to determine if a radioimmunoassay for ferritin affected a subsequent neutron activation assay for selenium on the same 0.1 ml serum sample.
Canine visceral leishmaniasis due to Leishmania (L.) infantum chagasi in Amazonian Brazil: comparison of the parasite density from the skin, lymph node and visceral tissues between symptomatic and asymptomatic, seropositive dogs.
Lima, Luciana Vieira R; Carneiro, Liliane Almeida; Campos, Marliane Batista; Chagas, Eujênia Janis; Laurenti, Márcia D; Corbett, Carlos E P; Lainson, Ralph; Silveira, Fernando Tobias
Canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL) is recognizable by characteristic signs of disease and is highly lethal. The infection, however, may be quite inapparent in some seropositive dogs, and this has raised the polemic question as to whether or not such animals can be a source of infection for Lutzomyia longipalpis, the vector of American visceral leishmaniasis (AVL). In this study we have examined 51 dogs with acute CVL from an AVL area in Pará State, northern Brazil, and compared the parasite density, amastigotes of Leishmania (L.) infantum chagasi, in the skin, lymph node and viscera of symptomatic with that of nine asymptomatic but seropositive dogs (IFAT-IgG). Post-mortem biopsy fragments of these tissues were processed by immunohistochemistry, using a polyclonal antibody against Leishmania sp. The X² and Mann Whitney tests were used to evaluate the means of infected macrophage density (p < 0.05). There was no difference (p > 0.05) in the skin (10.7/mm² x 15.5/mm²) and lymph node (6.3/mm² x 8.3/mm²), between asymptomatic and symptomatic dogs, respectively. It was higher (p < 0.05), however, in the viscera of symptomatic (5.3/mm²) than it was in asymptomatic (1.4/mm²) dogs. These results strongly suggest that asymptomatic or symptomatic L. (L.) i. chagasi-infected dogs can serve as a source of infection, principally considering the highest (p < 0.05) parasite density from skin (10.7/mm² x 15.5/mm²), the place where the vetor L. longipalpis takes its blood meal, compared with those from lymph node (6.3/mm² x 8.3/mm²) and viscera (1.4/mm²x 5.3/mm²).
A cross-sectional study on canine Leishmania (L.) infantum chagasi infection in Amazonian Brazil ratifies a higher prevalence of specific IgG-antibody response than delayed-type hypersensitivity in symptomatic and asymptomatic dogs.
Silveira, Fernando T; Carneiro, Liliane A; Ramos, Patrícia K S; Chagas, Eugênia J; Lima, Luciana V R; Campos, Marliane B; Laurenti, Márcia D; Gomes, Claudia M C; Corbett, Carlos E P
This was a cross-sectional study which analyzed the prevalence and the clinical and immunological spectrum of canine Leishmania (L.) infantum chagasi infection in a cohort of 320 mongrel dogs living in an endemic area of American visceral leishmaniasis in the Amazonian Brazil by using, mainly, the indirect fluorescence antibody test (IFAT-IgG) and the delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH), and the parasite research by the popliteal lymph node aspiration. The IFAT and DTH reactivity recognized three different immune response profiles: (1) IFAT((+))/DTH((-)) (107 dogs), (2) IFAT((-))/DTH((+)) (18 dogs), and (3) IFAT((+))/DTH((+)) (13 dogs), providing an overall prevalence of infection of 43% (138/320). Thus, the specific prevalence of IFAT( (+) )/DTH( (-) ) 33.4% (107/320) was higher than those of IFAT( (-) )/DTH( (+) ) 5.6% (18/320) and IFAT( (+) )/DTH( (+) ) 4.0% (13/320). Moreover, the frequency of these profiles among 138 infected dogs showed that the IFAT( (+) )/DTH( (-) ) rate of 77.5% (107/138) was also higher than those of 13.0% (18/138) of IFAT( (-) )/DTH( (+) ) and 9.5% (13/138) of IFAT( (+) )/DTH( (+) ) rates. The frequency of asymptomatic dogs (76%-105) was higher than those of symptomatic (16.6%-23) and oligosymptomatic ones (7.4%-10). A total of 16 (11.6%) L. (L.) i. chagasi isolates were obtained from infected dogs, all from the IFAT( (+) ) /DTH( (-) ) profile: 41% (9/22) from symptomatic, 33.3% (3/9) from oligosymptomatic, and 5.2% (4/76) from asymptomatic dogs. These findings strongly suggested that despite the higher frequency of asymptomatic dogs (76%-105), the majority (72.4%-76) was characterized by the IFAT( (+) ) /DTH( (-) ) profile with a doubtful immunogenetic resistance against infection.
Lin, R Y
Numerous agents are known to cause serum sickness reactions. Although generally a benign disorder, serum sickness must be distinguished from various rheumatic and infectious disorders. The causative agent must be identified in order to avoid subsequent reactions. With the introduction of new drugs and biotechnically produced hormones and antibodies, new causes of serum sickness reactions are likely.
Jenkins, M; Kerr, D; Fayer, R; Wall, R
In an effort to generate high titer colostrum for immunotherapy of cryptosporidiosis, a study was conducted to test the efficacy of immunizing sheep with recombinant plasmid DNA (pCMV-CP15/60) encoding epitopes of 15 and 60 kDa surface antigens of Cryptosporidium parvum sporozoites. The plasmid DNA was used to immunize preparturient ewes at three dose levels by jet-injection into either hind limb muscle (IM) or mammary tissue (IMAM). Regardless of route of injection, a dose-dependent anti-CP15/60 immunoglobulin response was observed in sera and colostrum from sheep immunized with pCMV-CP15/60 plasmid DNA. High titer antibody responses were observed in one of three animals per group receiving an IM injection of 100 or 1000 micrograms pCMV-CP15/60. IMAM immunization with 100 or 1000 micrograms pCMV-CP15/60 plasmid DNA elicited higher titer colostrum responses and more consistent serum responses compared to IM injections. A negligible serum and colostrum anti-CP15/60 response was observed in ewes injected IM with 10 micrograms pCMV-CP15/60 or 1000 micrograms control plasmid DNA. Immunoblotting of native C. parvum sporozoite/oocyst protein with hyperimmune serum and colostrum corroborated the increased titers against CP15/60 antigen. Serum and colostrum antibodies from pCMV-CP15/60-immunized sheep were eluted from native CP15 protein and bound a surface antigen of C. parvum sporozoites as indicated by indirect immunofluorescence staining.
Vozianova, Zh I; Chepilko, K I
As many as 2247 patients with different clinical forms of diphtheria were examined. Antidiphtheric serum (ADS) was administered in 1556 children, the dosage being determined by condition of the patient. Serum sickness developed at day 7 to 9 in 24 (1.5%); 10 patients were found to run a mild course, 14--moderately severe. 6 patients had allergic reactions: 3--to antibiotic (penicillin), urticaria type, 1--to pertussoid-tetanic anatoxin, 2 had pollinosis-type reaction. Thus, serum sickness has practical value, which fact requires a detailed allergic history together with skin tests to be performed before the administration of ADS.
Guirado, Evelyn; Amat, Isabel; Gil, Olga; Díaz, Jorge; Arcos, Virginia; Caceres, Neus; Ausina, Vicenç; Cardona, Pere-Joan
We investigated the protective role of immune-sera against reactivation of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection in SCID mice and found that passive immunization with sera obtained from mice treated with detoxified M. tuberculosis extracts (delivered in liposomes in a composition known as RUTI) exerted significant protection. Our SCID mouse model consisted of aerosol infection by M. tuberculosis, followed by 3 to 8weeks of chemotherapy with isoniazid+rifampicin (INH+RIF) (25 and 10mg/kg, respectively). After infection and antibiotic administration, two groups of mice were treated for up to 10weeks with intraperitoneal passive immunization using hyperimmune serum (HS) obtained from mice infected with M. tuberculosis, treated with chemotherapy (INH+RIF) for 8weeks and inoculated with RUTI (HS group) or with normal serum (CT group). Significant differences were found between HS and CT groups in the number of bacilli in the lungs (3.68+/-2.02 vs. 5.72+/-1.41log(10) c.f.u.), extent of pulmonary granulomatomous infiltration (10.33+/-0.67 vs. 31.2+/-1.77%), and percentage of animals without pulmonary abscesses (16.7% vs. 45.5%). These data strongly suggest a protective role of specific antibodies against lung dissemination of M. tuberculosis infection.
Carroll, J. C.
Maternal serum screening (MSS) measures three serum markers: alpha-fetoprotein, human chorionic gonadotropin, and unconjugated estriol, from which the risk of fetal Down syndrome or open neural tube defect is calculated. Initially, 8% of women will have positive results. I present a protocol for investigating these women. Family physicians should be informed about MSS so they can give their patients information and guidance. PMID:7524838
Anti-fixed Leishmania chagasi promastigotes IgG antibodies detected by flow cytometry (FC-AFPA-IgG) as a tool for serodiagnosis and for post-therapeutic cure assessment in American visceral leishmaniasis.
Garcia, Lúcia Maria; Coelho-Dos-Reis, Jordana Grazziela Alves; Peruhype-Magalhães, Vanessa; Teixeira-Carvalho, Andréa; Rocha, Roberta Dias Rodrigues; Araújo, Márcio Sobreira Silva; Gomes, Izabelle Teixeira; Carvalho, Sílvio Fernando Guimarães; Dietze, Reynaldo; Lemos, Elenice Moreira; Andrade, Mariléia Chaves; Martins-Filho, Olindo Assis
Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a systemic infection, caused by an intracellular protozoan parasite belonging to the Leishmania donovani complex. The diagnosis of VL is complex because most clinical features are shared with other commonly occurring febrile hepatosplenic diseases that can be endemic along with VL. A number of serological devices are available but still require improvement mainly due to residual post-therapeutic serology and the cross-reactivity with other Trypanosomatidae protozooses. This study intended to describe and evaluate the performance of an indirect immunofluorescence assay referred as flow cytometry anti-fixed Leishmania chagasi promastigote IgG antibodies (FC-AFPA-IgG) for serodiagnosis of VL and assessment of post-therapeutic cure. The sera reactivity is reported as the percentage of positive fluorescent parasite (PPFP) along the titration curve. The analysis of sera titration curve indicated the sera dilution 1/32,000 and the PPFP=25% as the cut-off to segregate positive and negative results. Using these parameters, the FC-AFPA-IgG displayed outstanding sensitivity and specificity for diagnosis and post-therapeutic cure assessment purposes. The inter-test reproducibility of FC-AFPA-IgG was also verified, considering two independent Analysts and validated the results obtained by FC-AFPA-IgG. Moreover, the comparison between FC-AFPA-IgG and the conventional serologic test (ELISA) showed that besides the statistically analogous results with strong positive correlation the FC-AFPA-IgG displayed higher performance indexes. Further analysis demonstrated that while cross-reactivity was observed in 8% of samples tested by ELISA, no cross-reactivity was detected by FC-AFPA-IgG. Together, the findings presented in this study showed the potential of FC-AFPA-IgG in both diagnosis and post-therapeutic cure assessment of VL.
Chruszcz, Maksymilian; Mikolajczak, Katarzyna; Mank, Nicholas; Majorek, Karolina A.; Porebski, Przemyslaw J.; Minor, Wladek
Background Albumins are multifunctional proteins present in the blood serum of animals. They can bind and transport a wide variety of ligands which they accommodate due to their conformational flexibility. Serum albumins are highly conserved both in amino acid sequence and three-dimensional structure. Several mammalian and avian serum albumins (SAs) are also allergens. Sensitization to one of the SAs coupled with the high degree of conservation between SAs may result in cross-reactive antibodies in allergic individuals. Sensitivity to SA generally begins with exposure to an aeroallergen, which can then lead to cross-sensitization to serum albumins present in food. Scope of Review This review focuses on the allergenicity of SAs presented in a structural context. Major Conclusions SA allergenicity is unusual taking into account the high sequence identity and similarity between SA from different species and human serum albumin. Cross-reactivity of human antibodies towards different SAs is one of the most important characteristics of these allergens. General Significance Establishing a relationship between sequence and structure of different SAs and their interactions with antibodies is crucial for understanding the mechanisms of cross-sensitization of atopic individuals. Structural information can also lead to better design and production of recombinant SAs to replace natural proteins in allergy testing and desensitization. Therefore, structural analyses are important for diagnostic and treatment purposes. PMID:23811341
Fleisher, Mover S.; Jones, Lloyd
1. The injection of a single large dose of normal horse serum into rabbits results in the appearance 3 to 8 days later of erythematous and edematous reactions on the ears in 68.9 per cent of the animals. 2. The injections may be given by any of several routes and reactions appear when the site of injection is definitely distant from the ears. 3. Injections of various antisera into rabbits cause the appearance of similar reactions. 4. These reactions can be considered as manifestations of serum sickness in rabbits. PMID:19869943
Herati, Amin S; Cengiz, Cenk; Lamb, Dolores J
The diagnosis of male hypogonadism depends on an assessment of the clinical signs and symptoms of hypogonadism and serum testosterone level. Current clinical laboratory testosterone assay platforms include immunoassays and mass spectrometry. Despite significant advances to improve the accuracy and precision of the currently available assays, limited comparability exists between assays at the lower and upper extremes of the testosterone range. Because of this lack of comparability, there is no current gold standard assay for the assessment of total testosterone levels.
Psychogios, Nikolaos; Hau, David D.; Peng, Jun; Guo, An Chi; Mandal, Rupasri; Bouatra, Souhaila; Sinelnikov, Igor; Krishnamurthy, Ramanarayan; Eisner, Roman; Gautam, Bijaya; Young, Nelson; Xia, Jianguo; Knox, Craig; Dong, Edison; Huang, Paul; Hollander, Zsuzsanna; Pedersen, Theresa L.; Smith, Steven R.; Bamforth, Fiona; Greiner, Russ; McManus, Bruce; Newman, John W.; Goodfriend, Theodore; Wishart, David S.
Continuing improvements in analytical technology along with an increased interest in performing comprehensive, quantitative metabolic profiling, is leading to increased interest pressures within the metabolomics community to develop centralized metabolite reference resources for certain clinically important biofluids, such as cerebrospinal fluid, urine and blood. As part of an ongoing effort to systematically characterize the human metabolome through the Human Metabolome Project, we have undertaken the task of characterizing the human serum metabolome. In doing so, we have combined targeted and non-targeted NMR, GC-MS and LC-MS methods with computer-aided literature mining to identify and quantify a comprehensive, if not absolutely complete, set of metabolites commonly detected and quantified (with today's technology) in the human serum metabolome. Our use of multiple metabolomics platforms and technologies allowed us to substantially enhance the level of metabolome coverage while critically assessing the relative strengths and weaknesses of these platforms or technologies. Tables containing the complete set of 4229 confirmed and highly probable human serum compounds, their concentrations, related literature references and links to their known disease associations are freely available at http://www.serummetabolome.ca. PMID:21359215
Leggett, J E; Wolz, S A; Craig, W A
Although pooled human serum diluent is advocated in the serum dilution test, its use may compensate for protein binding defects in patients and yield nonrepresentative titers. To test this hypothesis, comparison was made of serum ultrafiltrate (molecular weight cutoff less than or equal to 30,000) serially diluted into either pooled serum ultrafiltrate or Mueller-Hinton broth with patient serum samples diluted into pooled human serum in 111 assays from 55 patients and 6 volunteers. Of 111 bactericidal titers in ultrafiltrate and/or Mueller-Hinton broth, 101 were within a single twofold dilution of titers in pooled human serum. Nine of 10 discordant titers involved highly bound drugs and were usually higher in ultrafiltrate than in pooled human serum. In seven additional volunteers with renal failure, titers in ultrafiltrate and in each volunteer's serum were higher than those diluted in pooled human serum (P = .002). Recommended methods using pooled serum diluent may not accurately predict actual bactericidal titers in patients with abnormal protein binding.
Carter, Daniel C.; Ho, Joseph X.
Because of its availability, low cost, stability, and unusual ligand-binding properties, serum albumin has been one of the mst extensively studied and applied proteins in biochemistry. However, as a protein, albumin is far from typical, and the widespread interest in and application of albumin have not been balanced by an understanding of its molecular structure. Indeed, for more than 30 years structural information was surmised based solely on techniques such as hydrodynamics, low-angle X-ray scattering, and predictive methods.
Eickhoff, Theodore C; Graves, Patricia S
At the University of Colorado, Dr. Gordon Meiklejohn pursed the study of influenza and other respiratory pathogens for an unbroken period of 40 years, under the auspices of the Commission on Influenza of the Armed Forces Epidemiological Board through a series of contracts with the U.S. Army Medical Research and Development Command. Sera, throat washings, and other specimens for diagnosis were sent to Dr. Meiklejohn's laboratory. After serologic and virologic studies were carried out, aliquots of sera and virus samples were logged in and frozen. Sera were stored at -20°C and virus specimens at -70°C. These specimens became known as the Denver Serum Bank. The Bank supported military research programs and other researchers nationally and internationally until the 1990s when lacking of funding and considerations of administration, space, and cost resulted in the destruction of all specimens.
Perkins, Greg L; Slater, Evan D; Sanders, Georganne K; Prichard, John G
Monoclonal antibodies are used to detect serum antigens associated with specific malignancies. These tumor markers are most useful for monitoring response to therapy and detecting early relapse. With the exception of prostate-specific antigen (PSA), tumor markers do not have sufficient sensitivity or specificity for use in screening. Cancer antigen (CA) 27.29 most frequently is used to follow response to therapy in patients with metastatic breast cancer. Carcinoembryonic antigen is used to detect relapse of colorectal cancer, and CA 19-9 may be helpful in establishing the nature of pancreatic masses. CA 125 is useful for evaluating pelvic masses in postmenopausal women, monitoring response to therapy in women with ovarian cancer, and detecting recurrence of this malignancy. Alpha-fetoprotein (AFP), a marker for hepatocellular carcinoma, sometimes is used to screen highly selected populations and to assess hepatic masses in patients at particular risk for developing hepatic malignancy. Testing for the beta subunit of human chorionic gonadotropin (beta-hCG) is an integral part of the diagnosis and management of gestational trophoblastic disease. Combined AFP and beta-hCG testing is an essential adjunct in the evaluation and treatment of nonseminomatous germ cell tumors, and in monitoring the response to therapy. AFP and beta-hCG also may be useful in evaluating potential origins of poorly differentiated metastatic cancer. PSA is used to screen for prostate cancer, detect recurrence of the malignancy, and evaluate specific syndromes of adenocarcinoma of unknown primary.
Bazillou, M; Fendri, C; Castel, O; Ingrand, P; Fauchére, J L
Superficial and released components were extracted from six selected Helicobacter pylori strains. The protein and antigenic profiles of these extracts were representative of the profiles found most frequently among the clinical strains and included major peptidic fractions at 19, 23.5, 57, 68, 76, 118, and 132 kDa and major antigens at 68, 57, and 23.5 kDa. Immuno-cross-reactions were seen with a hyperimmune rabbit serum to Campylobacter fetus but not with sera to Campylobacter jejuni or Salmonella spp. An antigenic preparation was obtained by pooling equivalent quantities of each extract, and the antigenic preparation was used to study the antibody responses of sera from 65 French patients and 127 Tunisian patients. By enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, we observed that the sera from French and Tunisian patients clustered into two populations, defined as antibody positive (72 patients) and antibody negative (120 patients). The antibody-positive patients were more frequently infected with H. pylori (P < 0.01) and were more frequently affected with gastritis (P = 0.05). However, no correlation between antibody levels and clinical signs of dyspepsia was noticed. The proportions of antibody-positive patients were similar in France and Tunisia. Antibody-positive and antibody-negative sera were studied by western blot (immunoblot) analysis. The antibody-positive sera revealed an average of 7.7 antigenic bands, whereas the antibody-negative sera revealed an average of 2.4 antigenic bands (P < 0.01). The antigens between 15 and 40 kDa and greater than 66 kDa were specifically recognized by the antibody-positive sera, although in this molecular size range the antibody profiles of these sera exhibited a fairly high degree of diversity. We conclude that the superficial and released components from H. pylori contain a variety of bacterial immunogens and may be useful in antigenic preparations for the serodiagnosis of H. pylori infections. Moreover, a group of antigens in
Bourhim, Mustapha; Rajendran, Anita; Ramos, Yanira; Srikrishnan, Thamarapu; Sulkowski, Eugene
An investigation of the binding of native and recombinant human serum albumin and bovine serum albumin on three thiophilic gels, PyS, 2S, and 3S was performed. In addition to these proteins, we studied serum albumins from several species such as goat, rabbit, guinea pig, rat, hamster, baboon, and pig. Our results reveal that recombinant human serum albumin (rHSA) binds completely to PyS whereas native human serum albumin and bovine serum albumin bind only partially to PyS. The binding affinities of rHSA, human serum albumin and bovine serum albumin to 2S and 3S gels are less than their binding to PyS. Serum albumins from goat, rabbit, guinea pig, rat, hamster, baboon, and pig bind much stronger to 3S gel than human and bovine serum albumins. The binding of pig and hamster serum albumins is stronger than that of rat, goat, baboon, and rabbit.
Vandenberge, J; Moodie, A S; Keller, R E
A clinical blood serum mercury test of 111 dentists and auxiliaries revelaed that more than 50% had above normal serum mercury levels. This study showed that there may be a mercury health hazard in some dental environments. Acute mercury poisoning may be corrected simply by removing the cause, but long-term chronic effects are not known. Frequent screening of offices and personnel is advised. Experience reported here indicates that large amounts of mercury vapor are emitted when an amalgam carrier is heated over a flame ot dislodge particles, and also, that water-covered amalgam scrap relesases mercury vapor.
Moreira, Pamela Rodrigues Reina; Vieira, Lais Mendes; de Andrade, Mariana Macedo Costa; de Barros Bandarra, Marcio; Machado, Gisele Fabrino; Munari, Danísio Prado; Vasconcelos, Rosemeri de Oliveira
The present study aimed to estimate the cell response and parasite load in the popliteal lymph nodes of dogs with visceral leishmaniasis (VL), comparing these findings with the clinical staging of the disease. From the necropsy, 33 dogs were classified as symptomatic (S), asymptomatic (A), or oligosymptomatic (O). Cytology and histopathology were used to determine any presence of microscopic lesions and immunohistochemistry, for parasite load. Dog hyperimmune serum was used as the primary antibody. The inflammatory infiltrate in lymph nodes consisted of macrophages and plasmocytes. The granulomas invaded the trabecular and sinusoid regions and sometimes compressed the lymphocytes of the cortical region (atrophy) and medullary cord cells. Parasite load intensity was unrelated to the density of the macrophages infiltrating the lymph node. Significant differences in parasite load (P < 0.05) were observed between the three groups of infected dogs. Follicular hyperplasia of the cortical region occurred among A and O, while follicular atrophy predominated among S. The parasite load was the greatest among S, followed by O. It can be concluded that, regardless of clinical condition, the most evident cell response consisted of macrophages and plasmocytes. Lymphoid atrophy was observed among animals with intense granulomatous reaction and high parasite load, such as among the symptomatic dogs (P < 0.05). Likewise, the oligosymptomatic dogs also presented high density of parasites in the lymph nodes. Thus, we can confirm that dogs with clinical manifestations of VL have an immune system that is less effective for controlling infection by Leishmania chagasi, thereby favoring parasite multiplication.
Epishin, A V
Serum immunoglobulin content was determined in 85 patients with thyrotoxicosis and in 80 healthy persons by radial immunodiffusion in agar after Mancini by means of monospecific antisera (made at the N. F. Gamaleya Institute of Epidemiology immunoglobulins of classes G and M. The most pronounced increase was noted in patients with severe and moderate thyrotoxicosis.
Capobianco, Joseph A.
The development of a serum protein detector will provide opportunities for better screening of at-risk cancer patients, tighter surveillance of disease recurrence and better monitoring of treatment. An integrated system that can process clinical samples for a number of different types of biomarkers would be a useful tool in the early detection of cancer. Also, screening biomarkers such as antibodies in serum would provide clinicians with information regarding the patient's response to treatment. Therefore, the goal of this study is to develop a sensor which can be used for rapid, all-electrical, real-time, label-fee, in-situ, specific quantification of cancer markers, e.g., human epidermal receptor 2 (Her2) or antibodies, in serum. To achieve this end, piezoelectric microcantilever sensors (PEMS) were constructed using an 8 mum thick lead magnesium niobate-lead titanate (PMN-PT) freestanding film as the piezoelectric layer. The desired limit of detection is on the order of pg/mL. In order to achieve this goal the higher frequency lateral extension modes were used. Also, as the driving and sensing of the PEMS is electrical, the PEMS must be insulated in a manner that allows it to function in aqueous solutions. The insulation layer must also be compatible with standardized bioconjugation techniques. Finally, detection of both cancer antigens and antibodies in serum was carried out, and the results were compared to a standard commercialized protocol. PEMS have demonstrated the capability of detecting Her2 at a concentration of 5 pg/mL in diluted human serum (1:40) in less than 1 hour. The approach can be easily translated into the clinical setting because the sensitivity is more than sufficient for monitoring prognosis of breast cancer patients. In addition to Her2 detection, antibodies in serum were assayed in order to demonstrate the feasibility of monitoring the immune response for antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) in patients on antibody therapies
recombinant glycoprotein (GP) vaccine consisting of the 2014 Ebola virus (EBOV)-Makona isolate. Serum collected from these hyperimmunized Tc...countermeasures for EBOV infections in humans. Effective countermeasures that include vaccines , antivirals, and other prophylactic and therapeutic...traditional animal systems used to produce polyclonal antibodies, Tc bovines can be hyperimmunized over a long period of time with vaccines containing strong
Baptista, Tatyana S.; Zamboni, Cibele B.; Medeiros, Jose Agostinho G. de; Marcelino, Jose R.; Higashi, Hisako G.; Freitas, Monica G.
Neutron Activation Analysis was utilized for determining the concentration of chlorine and sodium in blood of Crioulo breed horses used for hyperimmune sera production (Bothrops, Diphtheria and Tetanus) at Butantan Institute (Sao Paulo city, Brasil). These data are an important support for a toxicological control of adverse reactions in patients who will receive the hyperimmune serum.
Baptista, Tatyana S.; Zamboni, Cibele B.; de Medeiros, José Agostinho G.; Marcelino, José R.; Higashi, Hisako G.; Freitas, Mônica G.
Neutron Activation Analysis was utilized for determining the concentration of chlorine and sodium in blood of Crioulo breed horses used for hyperimmune sera production (Bothrops, Diphtheria and Tetanus) at Butantan Institute (São Paulo city, Brasil). These data are an important support for a toxicological control of adverse reactions in patients who will receive the hyperimmune serum.
Cybulska, J; Jeljaszewicz, J
Cybulska, Janina (State Institute of Hygiene, Warsaw, Poland), and J. Jeljaszewicz. Bacteriostatic activity of serum against staphylococci. J. Bacteriol. 91:953-962. 1966.-Antistaphylococcal activity of normal serum against strains exhibiting various patterns of coagulase, clumping-factor, and staphylokinase production is not connected with the presence of these factors. Purified coagulase does not influence this property of serum. Coagulase-negative strains with clumping-factor activity grow in normal serum as typical pathogenic staphylococci. Serum bacteriostatic activity against staphylococci may be reversed by several nonspecific factors, such as sterile broth, supernatant fluids of coagulase-negative strains, and ammonium sulfate precipitates of culture supernatant fluids of various staphylococci. Immune sera with a high agglutinating titer for staphylococcal cells do not prevent growth of serum-resistant strains; serum-susceptible strains are inhibited as in normal serum control. Activation or blocking of the serum fibrinolytic system does not influence serum bacteriostatic activity. The growth rate of serum-resistant strains is identical in serum and in Todd-Hewitt broth; serum-susceptible strains are inhibited to the inoculum level, but decreases and increases in viable count are noted during a 24-hr observation period. Observations made with sera of 10 animal species clearly demonstrated differences in serum bacteriostatic activity, mouse serum being completely noninhibitory and cat serum only weakly inhibitory. The technique of quantitative determination of serum susceptibility of staphylococci is described, and the importance of serum antistaphylococcal activity in vitro is discussed. Experimental staphylococcal infection produced in rabbits by intravenous injection of different Staphylococcus aureus strains did not result in significant changes in serum antistaphylococcal activity. The technique of experimental infection used caused chronic infection
Yamauchi, Mika; Sugimoto, Toshitsugu
Serum sclerostin levels are being investigated in various metabolic bone diseases. Since serum sclerostin levels are decreased in primary hyperparathyroidism and elevated in hypoparathyroidism, parathyroid hormone (PTH) is thought to be a regulatory factor for sclerostin. Serum sclerostin levels exhibit a significant positive correlation with bone mineral density. On the other hand, a couple of studies on postmenopausal women have shown that high serum sclerostin levels are a risk factor for fracture. Although glucocorticoid induced osteoporosis and diabetes are both diseases that reduce bone formation, serum sclerostin levels have been reported to be decreased in the former and elevated in the latter, suggesting differences in the effects of sclerostin in the two diseases. Serum sclerostin levels are correlated with renal function, and increase with reduction in renal function. Serum sclerostin level may be a new index of bone assessment that differs from bone mineral density and bone metabolic markers.
Brasse-Lagnel, Carole; Poli, Maura; Lesueur, Céline; Grandchamp, Bernard; Lavoinne, Alain; Beaumont, Carole; Bekri, Soumeya
Background Hemojuvelin, a critical regulator of iron homeostasis, is involved in the regulation of hepcidin expression and iron homeostasis. It is expressed both as a membrane-bound form and as a soluble one. Serum hemojuvelin can be produced by secretion following furin cleavage or by proteolytic cleavage of the membrane-bound form by matriptase 2 (TMPRSS6). These forms contribute to down-regulation of hepcidin expression upon iron deficiency or hypoxia. This study describes the development and validation of the first enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for hemojuvelin in human serum. Design and Methods This assay is based on the use of a recombinant human repulsive guidance molecule-c peptide and a polyclonal antibody against hemojuvelin able to recognize the recombinant peptide and the native soluble hemojuvelin by immunoprecipitation. Results The enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was validated and appeared to be a robust method with intra- and inter-coefficients of variance ranging from 2.6% to 15%. The assay was able to quantify hemojuvelin levels in a control population within a range from 0.88 to 1.14 mg/L. Patients with iron-refractory iron-deficiency anemia with a mutation in the TMPRSS6 gene were found to have lower levels of circulating hemojuvelin than those in healthy patients. The enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay also showed that soluble hemojuvelin levels were significantly higher in patients with anemia of chronic disease than in control individuals. Conclusions This enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay has a good specificity and sensitivity for the quantification of soluble hemojuvelin in human serum and could be a valuable aid to understanding the physiological role of this protein. PMID:20713458
Andreeva, A M
Data are presented about the presence of serum albumins in fishes of different classes and orders inhabiting different ecological conditions, about structure of typical albumins and albumin-like proteins, and about the degree of homology of these proteins to mammalian albumins. There is shown a wide spectrum of structural diversity of albumins in Pisces due to their participation in osmotic, plastic, and transport functions under conditions of environment and of the organism internal media. Detection of similar motifs in the piscine and mammalian albumin genes allows uniting these genes into one superfamily and considering vertebrate albumins the homologous proteins.
Winitz, M. (Inventor)
By feeding a human subject as the sole source of sustenance a defined diet wherein the carbohydrate consists substantially entirely of glucose, maltose or a polysaccharide of glucose, the blood serum cholesterol level of the human subject is substantially reduced. If 25 percent of the carbohydrate is subsequently supplied in the form of sucrose, an immediate increase from the reduced level is observed. The remainder of the defined diet normally includes a source of amino acids, such as protein or a protein hydrolysate, vitamins, minerals and a source of essential fatty acid.
Llorens, Isabelle; Den Auwer, Christophe; Moisy, Philippe; Ansoborlo, Eric; Vidaud, Claude; Funke, Harld
Although of major impact in terms of biological and environmental hazards, interactions of actinide cations with biological molecules are only partially understood. Human serum transferrin (Tf) is one of the major iron carriers in charge of iron regulation in the cell cycle and consequently contamination by actinide cations is a critical issue of nuclear toxicology. Combined X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) and near infrared absorption spectrometry were used to characterize a new complex between Tf and Np (IV) with the synergistic nitrilotriacetic acid (NTA) anion. Description of the neptunium polyhedron within the iron coordination site is given.
Kalff, R; Houtkooper, M A; Meyer, J W; Goedhart, D M; Augusteijn, R; Meinardi, H
Serum sodium levels of 674 epileptic patients were tabulated according to the following categories: less than 135 mmol/L, hyponatremia (28 patients); 135-145 mmol/L, normonatremia (530 patients); greater than 145 mmol/L, hypernatremia (116 patients). One hundred one patients were treated with antiepileptics without carbamazepine (CBZ), 113 with CBZ monotherapy, and 460 with CBZ plus other antiepileptic drugs. Twenty-three patients could be followed up after the first detection of a serum sodium level of less than 135 mg/L. Ten patients were consistently hyponatremic (greater than 50% of the follow-up measurements were less than 135 mg/L), whereas the remaining 13 were occasionally hyponatremic. The following facts could be derived from the study: (1) The hyponatremic group was significantly older compared with the other groups. (2) In patients not treated with CBZ, no hyponatremia was seen. Only two patients on CBZ monotherapy showed hyponatremia. (3) The combination of CBZ, valproic acid, especially in high dosages, and barbiturates seemed to lead to hyponatremia. (4) The excretion of antidiuretic hormone, measured in 12 patients, was subnormal (less than 25 ng/24 h) in seven hyponatremic patients and in three normonatremic patients and normal (25-250 ng/24 h) in two other normonatremic patients. (5) Cyclic AMP, measured in five hyponatremic patients, was normal. (6) In all patients the hyponatremia was slight and did not cause any clinical symptoms. Special treatment was not required.
The Provisional International Standard Antityphoid Serum, prepared in 1935, provided standards of the O and the Vi antibodies, both contained in a single serum preparation, and was used for standardizing the potency of therapeutic antityphoid serum. The “Provisional Standard Serum for Vi Agglutination”, which is one of the series of proposed Standard Agglutinating Sera for Typhoid and Paratyphoid A and B Fevers, is based on the Provisional International Standard Antityphoid Serum. It is recommended that the Provisional International Standard Antityphoid Serum, in conjunction with a standard typhoid vaccine, be used in the test for the determination of the “functional efficacy” of the Vi antibody. This is one of the several tests recommended for the official control of the immunizing potency of typhoid vaccines. PMID:13199654
Gui, Liqiong; Chan, Stephen A; Breuer, Christopher K; Niklason, Laura E
Decellularization of native tissues is a promising technique with numerous applications in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. However, there are various limitations of currently available decellularization methods, such as alteration of extracellular matrix mechanics and restricted use on certain tissues. This study was conducted to explore the effect of serum on the decellularization of various types of tissues. Fetal bovine serum-containing cell culture medium endothelial growth media-2 removed DNA but not cellular beta-actin from human umbilical artery after detergent treatment, without compromising the tissue mechanical strength assessed by burst pressure. In addition, the effect of serum-containing endothelial growth media-2 on DNA removal was replicated in other types of tissues such as tissue-engineered vessels and myocardium. Other types of serum, including human serum, were also shown to remove DNA from detergent-pretreated tissues. In conclusion, we describe a novel utilization of serum that may have broad applications in tissue decellularization.
Stafford, J E; Lees, S; Watson, D
Two radioimmunassays for the determination of serum triiodothyronine (T3) were developed. The assay of T3 in unextracted serum had several advantages over the assay on extracted serum and was chosen for the routine determination of T3 in serum from 117 patients requiring assessment of their thyroid status. In 53 subjects considered retrospectively not to have thyroid dysfunction nor to have been on steroid contraceptives or therapy, the pooled mean serum T3 concentration was 1-92 (actual range 0-88-2-62) nmol/l. A significant inverse relationship was observed between the serum T3 level and the age of the subject. Serum total T3 levels discriminate clearly between hypo-,eu- and hyperthyroid patients and provide a rather more sensitive index of hyperthyroid function than total serum T4. In the face of normal serum T4 the T3 level was depressed in five patients with marked hypoproteinaemia and elevated in two patients taking heroin. PMID:977774
Akinwolere, O A; Akinkugbe, F M; Oyewole, A I; Salimonu, L S
Serum immunoglobulins G, M and A levels were studied in 187 Nigerian neonates. Estimations were done by the radial immunodifusion method of Mancini. Immunoglobulin G shows a fall in value in the first few days of life to about 62% of the value in the last days of the neonatal period. There is however a gradual increase in the level of IgM to about double at the end of the neonatal period. IgA level remained relatively constantly low throughout this period. The effect of maternal education on the levels of immunoglobulins of their neonates was also investigated. This had a positive influence at the secondary educational level, affecting only the IgG and IgA.
This reports the first 2 cases of serum sicknesslike reaction to bupropion in children (age 12 and 14). Serum sicknesslike reactions are an example of immune-complex medicated disease. The cardinal symptoms of serum sickness are fever, lymphadenopathy, arthralgias or arthritis, and urticaria. Symptoms usually resolve without long-term sequela following discontinuation of the exogenous antigen. It is likely that serum sicknesslike reactions to bupropion are either relatively rare or underrecognized and underreported. Between May 1998 and May 2001, GlaxoSmith Kline received 172 reports of seizures (a well-known adverse drug reaction) and only 37 reports of serum sicknesslike reactions (Wooltorton 2002). We do not know if children and adolescents are more prone than adults to develop serum sicknesslike reactions to bupropion. Luckily, the reported cases of serum sicknesslike reactions to bupropion have not caused irreversible morbidity or mortality. Nevertheless, the symptoms are painful, temporarily disfiguring and disabling, and warrant prompt medical attention. Parents and patients should be educated about this potential side effect at the onset of treatment, because symptoms are similar to many infectious childhood illnesses, and the treatment of serum sicknesslike reactions to bupropion should include the discontinuation of bupropion.
Fumić, K; Vladović-Relja, T; Karada, J; Kracun, I; Stavljenić, A; Kubat, M; Cosović, C; Oberman, B
In this study, tumor and serum gangliosides were analyzed in patients bearing lung planocellular carcinoma (LPC) before and after operative therapy. Tumor tissue, pathohistologically characterized as carcinoma planocellulare corneum (Ca. epidermoide, type 8070/3, WHO, Geneva, 1981), showed an elevated concentration of gangliosides in comparison to normal tung tissue. The composition of gangliosides in LPC tissue varied from one tumor sample to another, however, two general features were observed. First, LPC contained an increased amount of GM3 and a decreased amount of GD3 gangliosides. Second, an elevated proportion of gangliosides migrating as polysialogangliosides (x3, x5, x6) characterized the majority of LPC tissues. On the other hand, serum of patients with LPC contained an elevated amount of gangliosides (15.8 +/- 0.3 mumols/L) in comparison to control serum (6.1 +/- 0.8 mumols/L) (P less than 0.01). However, analyzing the composition of serum gangliosides by thin-layer chromatography, all serum gangliosides were more or less elevated. By day 21 after the surgical removal of LPC, serum gangliosides dropped by approximately 50% approaching the normal values. It seems that elevated serum gangliosides in LPC patients were secreted from carcinoma cells, because they normalized after surgical removal of LPC. Thus, serum gangliosides might be a useful biochemical tool for diagnosis and therapy monitoring of this carcinoma.
Murphy, G A; Davies, R W; Choi, M W; Perkins, J; Turteltaub, K W; McCutchen-Maloney, S L; Langlois, R G; Curzi, M P; Trebes, J E; Fitch, J P; Dalmasso, E A; Colston, B W; Ying, Y; Chromy, B A
Background: Serum protein profiling patterns can reflect the pathological state of a patient and therefore may be useful for clinical diagnostics. Here, we present results from a pilot study of proteomic expression patterns in hemodialysis patients designed to evaluate the range of serum proteomic alterations in this population. Methods: Surface-Enhanced Laser Desorption/Ionization Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry (SELDI-TOFMS) was used to analyze serum obtained from patients on periodic hemodialysis treatment and healthy controls. Serum samples from patients and controls were first fractionated into six eluants on a strong anion exchange column, followed by application to four array chemistries representing cation exchange, anion exchange, metal affinity and hydrophobic surfaces. A total of 144 SELDI-TOF-MS spectra were obtained from each serum sample. Results: The overall profiles of the patient and control samples were consistent and reproducible. However, 30 well-defined protein differences were observed; 15 proteins were elevated and 15 were decreased in patients compared to controls. Serum from one patient exhibited novel protein peaks suggesting possible additional changes due to a secondary disease process. Conclusion: SELDI-TOF-MS demonstrated dramatic serum protein profile differences between patients and controls. Similarity in protein profiles among dialysis patients suggests that patient physiological responses to end-stage renal disease and/or dialysis therapy have a major effect on serum protein profiles.
Aloia, John F.; Feuerman, Martin; Yeh, James K.
Objective To determine whether the reference range for parathyroid hormone (PTH) should be lowered (from 65 pg/mL to a proposed value of 46 pg/mL) with use of the Allegro radioimmunometric assay. Methods We examined the reference range for PTH, adjusted for serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-OHD), in 503 healthy African American and white women, who were 20 to 80 years old. We also analyzed other factors that are thought to influence PTH levels. Results Univariate predictors of PTH were identified, and a multivariate model was developed with use of the variables and PTH. Serum PTH was significantly higher in black study subjects than in white study subjects (P<0.02). Increasing PTH was also significantly correlated with increasing body mass index, age, and serum creatinine and with decreasing dietary calcium intake and serum 25-OHD levels. A stepwise multiple linear regression analysis yielded the following predictors of PTH: body mass index (R2 = 9.4%), age (R2 = 1.0%), and serum 25-OHD (R2 = 0.8%). In our study population, many PTH values were above the proposed new upper limit of 46 pg/mL. Conclusion The upper limit of the reference range for serum PTH should not be changed. Factors to be considered in analysis of serum PTH values in the upper reference range in patients with normocalcemia include obesity, race, 25-OHD levels, advanced age, serum creatinine, and dietary calcium intake. PMID:16690460
Choi, Jaehoon; Chung, Jee-Hyeok; Kwon, Geun-Yong; Kim, Ki-Wan; Kim, Sukwha; Chang, Hak
In cell culture, medium supplemented with fetal bovine serum is commonly used, and it is widely known that fetal bovine serum supplies an adequate environment for culture and differentiation of stem cells. Nevertheless, the use of xenogeneic serum can cause several problems. We compared the effects of four different concentrations of autologous serum (1, 2, 5, and 10%) on expansion and adipogenic differentiation of adipose-derived stem cells using 10% fetal bovine serum as a control. The stem cells were grafted on nude mice and the in vivo differentiation capacity was evaluated. The isolation of adipose-derived stem cells was successful irrespective of the culture medium. The proliferation potential was statistically significant at passage 2, as follows: 10% autologous serum > 10% fetal bovine serum = 5% autologous serum > 2% autologous serum = 1% autologous serum. The differentiation capacity appeared statistically significant at passage 4, as follows: 10% fetal bovine serum > 10% autologous serum = 5% autologous serum > 2% autologous serum = 1% autologous serum. Ten percent autologous serum and 10% fetal bovine serum had greater differentiation capacity than 1 and 2% autologous serum in vivo, and no significant difference was observed between the groups at ≥ 5% concentration at 14 weeks. In conclusion, 10% autologous serum was at least as effective as 10% fetal bovine serum with respect to the number of adipose-derived stem cells at the end of both isolation and expansion, whereas 1 and 2% autologous serum was inferior.
Balblanc, J C; Hartmann, D; Noyer, D; Mathieu, P; Conrozier, T; Tron, A M; Piperno, M; Richard, M; Vignon, E
In this prospective study, serum hyaluronate (SH) was assayed using a radiometric method (Pharmacia) in 73 osteoarthritis patients and 39 controls. All assays were performed between 8 h 00 and 9 h 00 a.m. because SH levels exhibit circadian variations. SH levels were significantly higher in patients with osteoarthritis than in controls (92 +/- 66 micrograms/l and 39 +/- 21 micrograms/l, respectively, p = 0.0001). Among 50 patients with osteoarthritis, including 29 with knee involvement and 21 with hip involvement, SH levels were not correlated with morning stiffness, duration of symptoms, Lequesne's algofunctional index, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, C-reactive protein, severity of roentgenographic changes in the affected knee or hip, disease extension, or severity. The lack of any relationship between changes in SH levels and Lequesne's is index values in 25 patients or between SH levels and joint space narrowing evaluated retrospectively in 16 patients, as well as the prompt return to high SH levels after arthroplasty and synovectomy in 14 patients with hip joint osteoarthritis, suggest that this potential marker is not useful for monitoring osteoarthritis in a single joint.
Kemmotsu, Yasushi; Saji, Tsutomu; Kusunoki, Natsuko; Tanaka, Nahoko; Nishimura, Chiaki; Ishiguro, Akira; Kawai, Shinichi
Adipokines are cytokines derived from adipose tissue. Recently it has been established that adipokines are closely linked to the pathophysiology of not only metabolic diseases, such as diabetes mellitus, obesity, and atherosclerosis, but also to inflammation and immune diseases. In this study we measured serum levels of adipokines in patients with acute Kawasaki disease to investigate the role of adipokines in the pathophysiology of Kawasaki disease. Serum resistin, high-molecular-weight (HMW) adiponectin, leptin, and visfatin levels were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in a total of 117 subjects: 56 patients with acute Kawasaki disease, 30 healthy children, and 31 patients with acute infectious diseases. Serum resistin levels in patients with Kawasaki disease were significantly higher than those of healthy children and patients with acute infectious diseases. In contrast, mean serum HMW adiponectin, leptin, and visfatin levels in patients with Kawasaki disease exhibited no statistically significant differences compared with those in healthy children and patients with infectious diseases. Serum resistin levels decreased significantly after administration of intravenous immune globulin. Serum resistin levels on admission were significantly higher in nonresponders compared with responders to intravenous immune globulin therapy. A multivariate model revealed that C-reactive protein was a factor that was significantly related to elevated serum resistin level in patients with Kawasaki disease. In patients with Kawasaki disease, serum resistin levels were elevated, but decreased to nearly normal after intravenous administration of immune globulin. In contrast, serum HMW adiponectin, leptin, and visfatin levels showed no statistically significant changes. These findings suggest that resistin plays an important role, while other adipokines do not play a major role, in the pathogenesis of Kawasaki disease.
Castro, Arnold R.; Morrill, William E.; Pope, Victoria
The efficacy of lipid removal from human serum samples obtained by using Cleanascite HC, a commercially available product, was compared to that obtained by the standard chloroform method. Separate samples of 21 frozen, banked human serum samples used in the preparation of samples for proficiency testing were treated with either Cleanascite HC or chloroform. The lipid content was measured before and after treatment. The total percentages of lipid removed ranged from 61 to 70% with Cleanascite HC and from 60 to 62% with chloroform. The advantage of Cleanascite HC over chloroform is based on the simplicity of the procedure with Cleanascite HC without the environmental concerns inherent in the use of chloroform. In 15 serum samples known to contain antibodies to treponemal and nontreponemal syphilis antigens, Cleanascite HC bound some immunoglobulin, but with only minimal loss of reactivity in the serologic tests for syphilis. Cleanascite HC is therefore an acceptable alternative to chloroform for lipid reduction in human serum samples. PMID:10702492
Horse Serum Albumin crystals grown during the USML-1 (STS-50) mission's Protein Crystal Growth Glovebox Experiment. These crystals were grown using a vapor diffusion technique at 22 degrees C. The crystals were allowed to grow for nine days while in orbit. Crystals of 1.0 mm in length were produced. The most abundant blood serum protein, regulates blood pressure and transports ions, metabolites, and therapeutic drugs. Principal Investigator was Edward Meehan.
Chang, Yu-Mei; Hadox, Erin; Szladovits, Balazs; Garden, Oliver A
The serum or plasma biochemical profile is essential in the diagnosis and monitoring of systemic disease in veterinary medicine, but current reference intervals typically take no account of breed-specific differences. Breed-specific hematological phenotypes have been documented in the domestic dog, but little has been published on serum biochemical phenotypes in this species. Serum biochemical profiles of dogs in which all measurements fell within the existing reference intervals were retrieved from a large veterinary database. Serum biochemical profiles from 3045 dogs were retrieved, of which 1495 had an accompanying normal glucose concentration. Sixty pure breeds plus a mixed breed control group were represented by at least 10 individuals. All analytes, except for sodium, chloride and glucose, showed variation with age. Total protein, globulin, potassium, chloride, creatinine, cholesterol, total bilirubin, ALT, CK, amylase, and lipase varied between sexes. Neutering status significantly impacted all analytes except albumin, sodium, calcium, urea, and glucose. Principal component analysis of serum biochemical data revealed 36 pure breeds with distinctive phenotypes. Furthermore, comparative analysis identified 23 breeds with significant differences from the mixed breed group in all biochemical analytes except urea and glucose. Eighteen breeds were identified by both principal component and comparative analysis. Tentative reference intervals were generated for breeds with a distinctive phenotype identified by comparative analysis and represented by at least 120 individuals. This is the first large-scale analysis of breed-specific serum biochemical phenotypes in the domestic dog and highlights potential genetic components of biochemical traits in this species.
Nicoloff, G; Angelova, M; Christova, I; Nikolov, A; Alexiev, A
The effect of cobalt on the cardiovascular system is one of many aspects of cobalt metabolism in humans. Elastin and collagen are the main proteins of the vascular wall. The aims of this study were: 1) to determine serum cobalt concentrations in children with hypertension; and 2) to study the correlation between serum cobalt and some biological markers of the extracellular matrix of the vascular wall, i.e., anti-elastin and anti-collagen type IV antibodies. Patients showed statistically significant higher levels of systolic and diastolic blood pressure, and significantly lower serum cobalt concentrations, than controls. Children with hypertension showed significantly higher levels of total cholesterol (P = 0.0003) and collagen type IV IgM (P = 0.04). Collagen type IV IgG levels (P = 0.027) were lower than in controls. Serum cobalt in patients showed a correlation with systolic blood pressure (r = -0.44, P = 0.05), elastin IgM (r = 0.60, P = 0.007), and collagen type IV IgG (r = -0.46, P = 0.04). Our data suggest the existence of a correlation between changes in levels of serum cobalt, total cholesterol, anti-collagen type IV antibodies, and essential hypertension in children. This is the first study of serum cobalt in children with essential hypertension.
Perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) have been widely used in industrial applications and consumer products. Their persistent nature and potential health impacts are of concern. Given the high cost of collecting serum samples, this study is to understand whether we can quantify PFC serum concentrations using factors extracted from questionnaire responses and indirect measurements, and whether a single serum measurement can be used to classify an individual′s exposure over a one-year period. The study population included three demographic groups: young children (2–8 years old) (N=67), parents of young children (55 years old) (N=59). PFC serum concentrations, house dust concentrations, and questionnaires were collected. The geometric mean of perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) was highest for the older adults. In contrast, the geometric mean of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) was highest for children. Serum concentrations of the parent and the child from the same family were moderately correlated (Spearman correlation (r)=0.26–0.79, p<0.05), indicating common sources within a family. For adults, age, having occupational exposure or having used fire extinguisher, frequencies of consuming butter/margarine, pork, canned meat entrées, tuna and white fish, freshwater fish, and whether they ate microwave popcorn were significantly positively associated with serum concentrations of individual PFCs. For children, residential dust
Chang, Yu-Mei; Hadox, Erin; Szladovits, Balazs; Garden, Oliver A.
The serum or plasma biochemical profile is essential in the diagnosis and monitoring of systemic disease in veterinary medicine, but current reference intervals typically take no account of breed-specific differences. Breed-specific hematological phenotypes have been documented in the domestic dog, but little has been published on serum biochemical phenotypes in this species. Serum biochemical profiles of dogs in which all measurements fell within the existing reference intervals were retrieved from a large veterinary database. Serum biochemical profiles from 3045 dogs were retrieved, of which 1495 had an accompanying normal glucose concentration. Sixty pure breeds plus a mixed breed control group were represented by at least 10 individuals. All analytes, except for sodium, chloride and glucose, showed variation with age. Total protein, globulin, potassium, chloride, creatinine, cholesterol, total bilirubin, ALT, CK, amylase, and lipase varied between sexes. Neutering status significantly impacted all analytes except albumin, sodium, calcium, urea, and glucose. Principal component analysis of serum biochemical data revealed 36 pure breeds with distinctive phenotypes. Furthermore, comparative analysis identified 23 breeds with significant differences from the mixed breed group in all biochemical analytes except urea and glucose. Eighteen breeds were identified by both principal component and comparative analysis. Tentative reference intervals were generated for breeds with a distinctive phenotype identified by comparative analysis and represented by at least 120 individuals. This is the first large-scale analysis of breed-specific serum biochemical phenotypes in the domestic dog and highlights potential genetic components of biochemical traits in this species. PMID:26919479
Xiong, Xiao-Yi; Chen, Jing; Zhu, Wen-Yao; Zhao, Ting; Zhong, Qi; Zhou, Kai; Meng, Zhao-You; Wang, Yan-Chun; Wang, Peng-Fei; Fang, Huang; Yang, Qing-Wu
Iron plays a detrimental role in the intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH)-induced brain damage, while hepcidin is the most important iron-regulated hormone. Here, we investigate the association between serum hepcidin and serum iron, outcome in patients with ICH. Serum samples of 81 cases with ICH were obtained on consecutive days to detect the levels of hepcidin, iron, interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α). The National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score (NIHSS) was measured at admission and on days 7 and 30, and the modified Rankin Scale (mRS) score was evaluated at 3 months after ICH. Additionally, the correlations of serum hepcidin with serum iron and the mRS score were analyzed by a generalized linear model. Higher serum hepcidin levels were detected in patients with poor outcomes (P < 0.001), and the mRS score increased by a mean of 1.135 points (95% CI 1.021-1.247, P < 0.001) for every serum hepcidin quartile after adjusting for other prognostic variables. Pearson correlation analysis showed that serum hepcidin was negatively correlated with serum iron (r = -0.5301, P < 0.001), and a significantly lower concentration of serum iron was found in patients with poor outcomes (P = 0.007). Additionally, serum hepcidin was independently correlated with mRS scores of ICH patients (OR 1.115, 95% CI 0.995-1.249, P = 0.021). Our results suggest that serum hepcidin is closely related to the outcome of patients with ICH and may be a biological marker for outcome prediction.
Knekt, P.; Heliövaara, M.; Rissanen, A.; Aromaa, A.; Aaran, R. K.
OBJECTIVE--To investigate serum concentrations of alpha tocopherol, beta carotene, retinol, and selenium for their prediction of end stage cataract. DESIGN--A case-control study, nested within a cohort study, based on the linkage of records of subjects aged 40-83 from a health survey with those from the national Finnish hospital discharge register. SUBJECTS--47 patients admitted to ophthalmological wards for senile cataract over 15 years and two controls per patient individually matched for sex, age, and municipality. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE--Concentration of serum micronutrients, development of cataract according to whether operation was performed. RESULTS--Low serum concentrations of antioxidant vitamins predicted the development of senile cataract, the odds ratio between the lowest third and the two higher thirds of the distribution of serum concentrations of alpha tocopherol and beta carotene being 1.9 (95% confidence interval 0.9 to 4.1) and 1.7 (0.8 to 3.8), respectively. Patients with both alpha tocopherol and beta carotene concentrations in the lowest third had an odds ratio of 2.6 (1.0 to 6.8) of cataract compared with subjects in the top two thirds. The associations were strengthened by adjustment for potential confounding factors such as occupation, smoking, blood pressure, serum cholesterol concentration, body mass index, and diabetes. No association was found between the serum concentrations of selenium, retinol, and retinol binding protein and the risk of cataract. CONCLUSIONS--Low serum concentrations of the antioxidant vitamins alpha tocopherol and beta carotene are risk factors for end stage senile cataract. Controlled trials of the role of antioxidant vitamins in cataract prevention are therefore warranted. PMID:1486302
Kang, E S; Matsuo, N; Nagai, T; Greenhaw, J; Williams, P L
High levels of the serum free fatty acids (FFA) are found in Reye's syndrome (RS). While this is attributed to enhanced adipose tissue lipolysis, the possibility that intravascular lipolysis could augment this process was investigated by measuring lipase activity in sera from RS and other subjects. Ordinarily, lipolytic activity is not detectable in serum from unheparinized subjects. Significant lipolytic activities ranging from 1-3 mumol/ml serum per hour were detected in sera from 5 of the 7 RS patients studied. Similar activities were also found in sera from two other subjects one of whom was a long-term survivor of RS and the other who had recurrent bouts of biliary obstruction and encephalopathy. Lipase activity was negligible in the serum from 2 other RS patients, 4 other long-term survivors of RS, 2 siblings, one RS parent and in 20 disease controls including patients with influenza, diabetic ketoacidosis and cerebral edema, meningitis and febrile infections with diarrhea and vomiting. None of these individuals had received heparin. An inverse relationship was found between LPL and hepatic lipase (HL) activities. Glucose levels tended to correlate directly with LPL and inversely with HL activity. The basis for the presence of LPL activity in RS sera is not known but the presence of serum lipase activity in unheparinized patients supports the notion that the TG in the circulating lipoprotein particles probably also serve as another source of FFA in the sera of RS patients.
Background The applications of proteomic strategies to ovine medicine remain limited. The definition of serum proteome may be a good tool to identify useful protein biomarkers for recognising sub-clinical conditions and overt disease in sheep. Findings from bovine species are often directly translated for use in ovine medicine. In order to characterize normal protein patterns and improve knowledge of molecular species-specific characteristics, we generated a two-dimensional reference map of sheep serum. The possible application of this approach was tested by analysing serum protein patterns in ewes with mild broncho-pulmonary disease, which is very common in sheep and in the peripartum period which is a stressful time, with a high incidence of infectious and parasitic diseases. Results This study generated the first reference 2-DE maps of sheep serum. Overall, 250 protein spots were analyzed, and 138 identified. Compared with healthy sheep, serum protein profiles of animals with rhino-tracheo-bronchitis showed a significant decrease in protein spots identified as transthyretin, apolipoprotein A1 and a significant increase in spots identified as haptoglobin, endopin 1b and alpha1B glycoprotein. In the peripartum period, haptoglobin, alpha-1-acid glycoprotein, apolipoprotein A1 levels rose, while transthyretin content dropped. Conclusions This study describes applications of proteomics in putative biomarker discovery for early diagnosis as well as for monitoring the physiological and metabolic situations critical for ovine welfare. PMID:22630135
Cui, Zhigang; Liu, Dezhong; Liu, Chun; Liu, Gang
Abstract Some observational studies have shown that elevated serum selenium levels are associated with reduced prostate cancer risk; however, not all published studies support these results. A literature search of PubMed, Embase, Medline, and the Cochrane Library up until September 2016 identified 17 studies suitable for further investigation. A meta-analysis was conducted on these studies to investigate the association between serum selenium levels and subsequent prostate cancer risk. Pooled odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were used to evaluate the overall OR of prostate cancer for the highest versus the lowest levels of serum selenium. We found a pooled OR (95% CI) of 0.76 (0.64, 0.91; P < 0.05). In subgroup analysis, an inverse association between serum selenium levels and prostate cancer risk was found in each of case–control studies, current and former smokers, high-grade cancer cases, advanced cancer cases, and different populations. Such correlations were not found for subgroups containing each of cohort studies, nonsmokers, low-grade cancer cases, and early stage cancer cases. In conclusion, our study suggests an inverse relationship between serum selenium levels and prostate cancer risk. However, further cohort studies and randomized control trials based on non-Western populations are required. PMID:28151881
Varicocele is most often surgically repaired due to male infertility, however, has recently been linked to low serum testosterone. This paper serves to review the current literature regarding varicocele and its subsequent repair on serum testosterone. Twenty-eight human studies were identified with fifteen showing improved serum testosterone after repair. The majority of the studies that demonstrated improvement had preoperative testosterone levels that were low or below normal. Additionally, multiple well-designed studies with control groups not undergoing surgical repair demonstrated significant difference between groups. This improvement was less observed in studies with normal preoperative serum testosterone. A majority of these patients studied were presenting for infertility. It remains to be determined if these findings can be reproduced in men without infertility. The findings suggest that microsurgical varicocele repair can improve serum testosterone in men with low levels preoperatively in appropriately counseled men. It remains to be seen whether varicocele repair can help prevent the development of low testosterone in the future or which patients are at risk of developing low testosterone due to varicocele. PMID:28078218
Denchev, K; Radkov, M; Lipcheva, N
Serum immunoglobulin E level was determined in 50 patients with bronchial asthma, treated in the out-patients department and clinical conditions at the Faculty Hospital--Varna. The quantitative determination of immunoglobulin E was carried out by radial immunodiffusion according to Mancini with monospecific anti-IgE globulin serum from Behringswerke (GFR). A considerable elevation of immunoglobulin E in the patients' sera was found, at an average of 394 IU (control 124 IU). A discrepancy in serum immunoglobulin E level was established with the different clinical forms of asthma. The highest are the values with infectious-allergic astmha-424 IU. High are the values both in the treated and not-treated with corticosteroids, without an essential difference between the two patient groups. Some of the rest immunoglobulins showed also an elevationppIgG 2620 mg% and IgA 366 mg%.
Bhat, G A; Mubarik, M; Bhat, M Y
Serum levels of the immunoglobulins IgG, IgA and IgM were estimated in 102 apparently healthy Kashmiri adults in the age group of 16-60 years, using single radial immunodiffusion method of Mancini et al. The mean serum levels of IgG, IgA and IgM were observed to be 1289.19 +/- 234.9, 216.18 +/- 50.70 and 118.97 +/- 41.88 respectively. No significant difference in the mean serum levels was observed between the two sexes as such, but IgM showed a significant increase in females in the age group of 16-30 years. IgA showed a significant increase with age, with no such increase in case of IgG and IgM.
Sawke, N G; Sawke, G K
We review the present knowledge of serum fucose with special attention to its relation with various malignant diseases. We summarize the role of serum fucose as a useful diagnostic and prognostic marker when used singly or in combination. The purpose of this review is to provide an expert opinion on the practical and applied aspect of serum fucose level in clinical practice and research settings. Our review is based on information from published research studies, library books, and electronic searches through Medline and PubMed. The available published data were used as the basis for recommendations. Each of the subsections concludes to provide information to assist the clinicians and the research scientists make informed decisions.
Somasundaram, Kumaravel; Nijaguna, Mamatha B; Kumar, Durairaj Mohan
The prognosis of patients with glioblastoma, the most malignant adult glial brain tumor, remains poor in spite of advances in treatment procedures, including surgical resection, irradiation and chemotherapy. Genetic heterogeneity of glioblastoma warrants extensive studies in order to gain a thorough understanding of the biology of this tumor. While there have been several studies of global transcript profiling of glioma with the identification of gene signatures for diagnosis and disease management, translation into clinics is yet to happen. Serum biomarkers have the potential to revolutionize the process of cancer diagnosis, grading, prognostication and treatment response monitoring. Besides having the advantage that serum can be obtained through a less invasive procedure, it contains molecules at an extraordinary dynamic range of ten orders of magnitude in terms of their concentrations. While the conventional methods, such as 2DE, have been in use for many years, the ability to identify the proteins through mass spectrometry techniques such as MALDI-TOF led to an explosion of interest in proteomics. Relatively new high-throughput proteomics methods such as SELDI-TOF and protein microarrays are expected to hasten the process of serum biomarker discovery. This review will highlight the recent advances in the proteomics platform in discovering serum biomarkers and the current status of glioma serum markers. We aim to provide the principles and potential of the latest proteomic approaches and their applications in the biomarker discovery process. Besides providing a comprehensive list of available serum biomarkers of glioma, we will also propose how these markers will revolutionize the clinical management of glioma patients.
Lala, L G; D'Mello, P M; Naik, S R
Diclofenac sodium is one of the potent Non Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs (NSAID) used in the treatment of inflammatory conditions. The present work deals with the estimation of diclofenac sodium from serum by a novel High Performance Thin Layer Chromatographic (HPTLC) method developed in our laboratory. Standard diclofenac sodium was spotted on Silica Gel 60 F(254) precoated plates, which were developed using the mobile phase toluene:acetone:glacial acetic acid (80:30:1,v/v/v). Densitometric analysis of diclofenac sodium was carried out at 280 nm with diclofenac being detected at an R(f) of 0.58. The method was subsequently developed to estimate diclofenac sodium from serum. Diclofenac sodium was extracted with ethyl acetate from serum samples, spotted on Silica Gel 60 F(254) plates and the plates were developed using the above mentioned mobile phase. The method was validated for selectivity, extraction efficiency, sensitivity, accuracy, and intra and inter-day reproducibility studies. The extraction efficiency was found to range from 76 to 80%. The Limit of Detection (LOD) and Limit of Quantification (LOQ) of diclofenac sodium in serum were found to be 90 and 120 ng, respectively. The calibration curve of diclofenac sodium in serum was found to be linear in the range of 200-800 ng. The mean values (+/-S.D.) of correlation coefficient, slope and intercept were found to be 0.9876 (+/-0.0105), 0.0228 (+/-0.0036) and 6.15 (+/-1.4), respectively. The mean percentage coefficient of variation for accuracy, intra-day and inter-day analysis at 200-800 ng of diclofenac sodium were found to be 3.2, 6.35 and 8.025, respectively. The proposed method is a simple and sensitive method with good precision and reproducibility for the estimation of diclofenac sodium form serum samples.
Konttinen, A; Ojala, K
An improved electrophoretic modification for measuring aspartate aminotransferase (ASAT) isoenzymes is presented. This method fulfils the clinical requirements for sensitivity and allows the detection of 1 U/l mitochondria ASAT activity at 25 degree C. The procedure is relatively simple, requiring about one hour for a series of 8 determinations. Mitochondrial ASAT activity was found in all patients suffering from acute myocardial infarction pathological activity was observed for several days longer than that of total serum ASAT enzyme. None of the 25 healthy people studied had mitochondrial ASAT in their serum.
A competitive protein-binding method was used to determine serum thyroxine concentration throughout childhood, adolescence, and in young adults. The values showed a gradual decrease as the child became older and reached adult levels by the time of adolescence. The range (mean ± 2 SD μg/100 ml) for cord serum was 8·8-14·8; for 4 weeks to 11 years, 6·5-13·9; for 11 to 17 years, 5·4-12·2, and for young adults 6·0-11·2. PMID:4627748
Mayén-Mondragón, R.; Yánez-Limón, J. M.; Palomares, P.; Sosa, M.; Bernal-Alvarado, J.
Using a thermal lens experimental set up, the thermal diffusivity of human serum and plasma were measured. Several samples were studied and the results are reported as the average, including the standard deviation. The samples of serum and plasma were obtained in healthy adult donors from the Guanajuato State Blood Transfusion Center, Mexico; the donors were clinically tested and they were free of hepatitis, AIDS and other infectious diseases. The parameters reported were obtained using the thermal lens aberrant model with the lasers arranged in the mismatched mode.
conditions. Materials and methods MateriaLs Most of the chemicals used were purchased as iron -free reagents (G. Frederick Smith Co.. Columbus. OH). Water...Bedford. MA). The iron -releasing reagent was made to contain 0.5r Tween-20 (v/v), 0.55 thiourea (w/v) and 0.1% ascorbic acid (w/v). all dissolved in 0.1... reagent and 0.2 ml color-develop- ment reagent . A serum blank was prepared by adding to another test tube, 0.1 ml serum, 0.7 ml iron -releasing reagent and
Nakazato, Ayumi; Momoi, Yasuyuki; Kadoya, Michiyo; Iwasaki, Toshiroh
A bioassay was developed to measure feline interleukin-5 (IL-5). Human IL-5 receptor alpha chain transfected murine Ba/F3 cells (Ba/F3-IL-5R) showed feline IL-5-dependent proliferation in a dose-dependent manner. IL-5 levels in serum samples from 54 cats with suspected allergic dermatitis and from 11 control cats could be successfully measured using Ba/F3-IL-5R cells. The number of eosinophils in peripheral blood was not correlated with serum IL-5 level.
Westerlind, Kim C.; And Others
This study examining the effect of a 10-week hydraulic resistance exercise program on serum androgen levels, strength, and lean body weight in 18 college women revealed that training did not result in significant increases in androgen hormones, although there were significant gains in strength. (Author/CB)
Stewart, Sheila M.; Fisher, Mary; Young, Joy E.; Lutz, W.
The ampicillin levels in sputum, serum, and saliva from 40 patients receiving a dose of 250 mg., 26 patients receiving a dose of 500 mg., and 11 patients receiving a dose of 1 g. were estimated. The ampicillin was given orally four times daily. The 1-2 hour and 2-3 hour sputum levels were similar in individual patients. There was no difference in the range or mean sputum or saliva levels between specimens from patients receiving 250 mg. and 500 mg., but the levels were significantly higher after the 1 g. dose. The mean serum level showed a small increase after 500 mg. ampicillin as compared with the 250 mg. dose and a big increase after the 1 g. dose: only the latter difference was significant. The sputum levels were approximately 30 to 40 times lower than the corresponding serum levels. There was considerable scatter in the sputum level for any level of ampicillin in the serum: in only two of the 1-2 hour sputum specimens was there no detectable ampicillin. There was no correlation between the sputum levels and either the body weight or the dose in milligrams per kilogram. There was no evidence that corticosteroids or diuretics affected the sputum level. It was not possible to demonstrate any relationship between the purulence of the sputum and the level of ampicillin after doses of 250 mg. or 500 mg., but higher levels were found in the more purulent specimens after 1 g. doses. PMID:4318047
Karaulova, Iu V; Shutov, A A
Tension headache (TH) is one of the most frequent types of idiopathic headaches. The leading role in its pathogenesis is played by depression and dysmetabolism of the neurotransmitter serotonin. The subjects were 100 patients with TH. The examination included study of headache intensity, complex psychometric testing, and immune-enzyme measurement of serotonin serum level, performed before and after treatment with the anti-depressant prodep. All the patients had moderate pain syndrome, depression, and moderate or severe anxiety, which demonstrated negative correlation with serotonin serum level. In particular, the intensity of episodic THs (n = 24) was 52 mm visual analogue scale, reactive anxiety level was as high as 51.08 +/- 4.2, the level of depression was moderate (12.9 Beck scale); serotonin blood level showed a tendency to fall (205.72 +/- 6.74 ng/ml). In 76 patients, suffering from chronic THs with a cephalgia intensity of 62 mm visual analogue scale, high indexes of reactive and personal anxiety (46.81 -/+ 2.68 and 54.2 +/- 3.64, respectively), and high depression level were associated with a prominent decrease of serotonin blood concentration (119.38 +/- 9.42 ng/ml). A course of treatment with prodep led to significant decrease of headache intensity and improved depression, while an increase of serum serotonin level was observed. Thus, serotonin serum level may be used as a marker of pain intensity and the level of depression, and an objective indicator of anti-depressive therapy.
Lewkonia, R. M.; Finn, Ronald
A disproportionate excess of blood group O was found in a circumscribed outbreak of serum hepatitis among patients and staff of a haemodialysis unit. The more severe cases were also mostly of group O. This suggests that host factors may be important in the genesis of this disease. PMID:5800364
Menon, Madhav C; Ix, Joachim H
Recent epidemiologic studies have linked higher serum phosphorus concentrations to cardiovascular disease (CVD) events and mortality. This association has been identified in the general population and in those with chronic kidney disease (CKD). The risk of adverse outcomes appears to begin with phosphorus concentrations within the upper limit of the normal reference range. Multiple experimental studies have suggested pathogenetic mechanisms that involve direct and indirect effects of high phosphorus concentrations to explain these associations. Drawing from these observations, guideline-forming agencies have recommended that serum phosphorus concentrations be maintained within the normal reference range in patients with CKD and that dietary phosphorus restriction or use of intestinal phosphate binders should be considered to achieve this goal. However, outside the dialysis population, the links between dietary phosphorus intake and serum phosphorus concentrations, and dietary phosphorus intake and CVD events, are uncertain. With specific reference to the nondialysis populations, this review discusses the available data linking dietary phosphorus intake with serum phosphorus concentrations and CVD events.
Sahu, Aditi K.; Dhoot, Suyash; Singh, Amandeep; Sawant, Sharada S.; Nandakumar, Nikhila; Talathi-Desai, Sneha; Garud, Mandavi; Pagare, Sandeep; Srivastava, Sanjeeva; Nair, Sudhir; Chaturvedi, Pankaj; Murali Krishna, C.
Serum Raman spectroscopy (RS) has previously shown potential in oral cancer diagnosis and recurrence prediction. To evaluate the potential of serum RS in oral cancer screening, premalignant and cancer-specific detection was explored in the present study using 328 subjects belonging to healthy controls, premalignant, disease controls, and oral cancer groups. Spectra were acquired using a Raman microprobe. Spectral findings suggest changes in amino acids, lipids, protein, DNA, and β-carotene across the groups. A patient-wise approach was employed for data analysis using principal component linear discriminant analysis. In the first step, the classification among premalignant, disease control (nonoral cancer), oral cancer, and normal samples was evaluated in binary classification models. Thereafter, two screening-friendly classification approaches were explored to further evaluate the clinical utility of serum RS: a single four-group model and normal versus abnormal followed by determining the type of abnormality model. Results demonstrate the feasibility of premalignant and specific cancer detection. The normal versus abnormal model yields better sensitivity and specificity rates of 64 and 80% these rates are comparable to standard screening approaches. Prospectively, as the current screening procedure of visual inspection is useful mainly for high-risk populations, serum RS may serve as a useful adjunct for early and specific detection of oral precancers and cancer.
The repair of open wounds depends on granulation tissue formation and contraction, which is primarily mediated by myofibroblasts. A subset of myofibroblasts originates from bone-marrow-derived monocytes which differentiate into fibroblast-like cells called fibrocytes. Serum amyloid P (SAP) inhibits ...
Ghassemi, Fariba; Shields, Carol L; Mohebbi, Masoumeh; Nili Ahmadabadi, Mehdi; Morsali, Fatemeh; Sabour, Siamak
Purpose The purpose of this study was to investigate the serum hypercoagulability state and common viral and protozoan infections in Coats’ disease versus a normal control group. Materials and methods In this comparative case series, 22 consecutive patients with Coats’ disease and 19 non-Coats’ patients undergoing lensectomy for congenital, traumatic, or senile cataract between January 2011 and June 2014 were included. Laboratory data for hypercoagulability states and common viral and protozoan infections were investigated. Results The mean age for the Coats’ group was 14.5 years (median 8 years, range: 2 months to 59 years), and for the control group it was 30.6 years (median 17 years, range: 2–82 years). In patients aged 10 years or younger, anticytomegalovirus immunoglobulin G (IgG) (P≤0.01), homocysteine (P=0.03), and serum beta globulin (P<0.001) were associated with Coats’ disease. In those older than 10 years, higher serum protein S (P=0.04), beta globulin (P=0.05), and gamma globulin (P=0.04) were related to Coats’ diagnosis. After adjusting for sex and age as confounding factors, only beta globulin was found to be associated with Coats’ disease in logistic regression analysis (odds ratio: 1.8, 95% confidence interval: 1.0–3.1, P=0.02). Conclusion Serum beta globulin levels appear to be elevated in patients with Coats’ disease. PMID:28223774
Neonatal hypocalcemia is defined as a total serum calcium concentration of <7 mg/dL or an ionized calcium concentration of <4 mg/dL (1mmol/L). In very low birth weight (VLBW) infants, ionized calcium values of 0.8 to 1 mmol/L are common and not usually associated with clinical symptoms. In larger in...
Sohail, Muhammad Adnan; Nasir, Junaid; Ikram, Umaira; Genese, Thomas
Serum sickness-like reaction is a rare immunological condition which may develop following exposure to certain drugs such as penicillins, cephalosporins, and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, among many others. It is described classically as a type III hypersensitivity response to heterologous proteins. Its true mechanism is still unclear. We present a case of serum sickness-like reaction to clarithromycin, a commonly prescribed drug for the treatment of respiratory tract infections. The patient had been taking this drug for 3 days when she experienced generalized body aches, rash, arthralgia, and shortness of breath, prompting presentation to the emergency department. Laboratory studies showed decreased C4 and total complement with a slightly elevated sedimentation rate. After exclusion of other possible causes, the diagnosis of serum sickness-like reaction was made. The patient responded well to nonsteroidal antiinflammatory medication, antihistamines, and a short, tapering dose of steroids. To our knowledge, serum sickness-like reaction to clarithromycin has never been reported previously. This case emphasizes the need for increased clinical awareness of such an adverse outcome to clarithromycin use.
Bentzon, M. Weis; Krag, P.
Following the establishment by WHO of International Reference Preparations of Cardiolipin and Egg Lecithin to facilitate reproduction of cardiolipin antigens for use in serological tests for syphilis, a series of studies has been carried out between co-operating laboratories in several parts of the world, aiming at the establishment of an international standard preparation for freeze-dried human syphilitic serum. The WHO Expert Committee on Biological Standardization, in 1957, established the new International Standard for Human Syphilitic Serum which is now available to national laboratories from the International Laboratory for Biological Standards, Statens Serum-institut, Copenhagen. The International Unit of Human Syphilitic Serum is equivalent to 3.617 mg of the freeze-dried International Standard. A solution containing 8 International Units per ml can be obtained by reconstituting the contents of one ampoule of the International Standard in 6.1 ml of 0.6% saline. The new Standard will allow major serological laboratories to calibrate their national reference sera in terms of the International Unit; the comparability of results from different areas will be improved by this procedure. Technical details are given on the investigations preceding the establishment of the Standard. The analysis of the collaborative assay between co-operating laboratories also includes data on titres, reactivity, turbidity and other technical aspects. PMID:20604087
Grevel, J; Thomas, J; Richards, M L; Sadée, W
A sensitive radioreceptor assay (RRA) to determine the serum concentrations of fentanyl, pentazocine and morphine was developed on the basis of the drug's competition with a labeled tracer ((3)H-naloxone) for the membrane bound opioid receptor in rat brain homogenates. The binding data were computer-fitted to a standard curve by means of nonlinear least square regression. Sensitivity of the assay applied directly to serum samples without extraction was limited to approximately 3, 5 and 25 ng/ml for fentanyl, morphine and pentazocine, respectively, because of endogenous plasma constituents that interfere with the opioid receptor binding. With the use of petrol-ether extraction the sensitivity was improved to 0.3 ng/ml fentanyl and 3 ng/ml pentazocine (0.3 ml serum samples). No RRA-active metabolites were detectable after HPLC separation of serum from a patient treated with fentanyl. The plasma concentration time course of fentanyl in a patient, measured by RRA, was similar to that obtained by a radioimmunoassay (RIA). The RRA represents a general procedure for the detection of clinically used opioid analgesics and their active metabolites.
Atamanalp, S. Selcuk; Keles, M. Sait; Aydinli, Bulent
Objective: This study aimed to determine the serum potassium concentrations in patients with sigmoid volvulus (SV), which is a rare large bowel obstruction. Materials and Methods: The records of 86 patients with SV were reviewed retrospectively, while the records of 41 patients diagnosed with obstructive rectosigmoid cancer (ORC) were considered as the control group and as such, served as a source for comparison. Results: The analysis revealed a mean serum potassium concentration of 3.9 ± 0.6 mEq/L for the patients with SV, while the mean potassium concentration was 3.9 ± 0.5 mEq/L for the patients diagnosed with ORC (t:0.1, P>0.05). The number of hypokalemic and hyperkalemic patients identified in this study sample were 11 versus 5 patients and 1 versus 0 patients, respectively for the SV and ORC groups (x2 = 0.1 and 0.5, respectively with a P>0.05). Conclusions: No cause-and-effect relationship was observed between the serum potassium concentrations and SV. The serum potassium concentration is not pathognomonic for SV. PMID:25610090
Wagner, Brett A; Teesch, Lynn M; Buettner, Garry R; Britigan, Bradley E; Burns, C Patrick; Reszka, Krzysztof J
We have previously shown that the anticancer agent doxorubicin undergoes oxidation and inactivation when exposed to myeloperoxidase-containing human leukemia HL-60 cells, or to isolated myeloperoxidase, in the presence of hydrogen peroxide and nitrite. In the current study we report that commercial fetal bovine serum (FBS) alone oxidizes doxorubicin in the presence of hydrogen peroxide and that nitrite accelerates this oxidation. The efficacy of inactivation was dependent on the concentration of serum present; no reaction was observed when hydrogen peroxide or serum was omitted. Peroxidase activity assays, based on oxidation of 3,3',5,5'-tetramethylbenzidine, confirmed the presence of a peroxidase in the sera from several suppliers. The peroxidative activity was contained in the >10000 MW fraction. We also found that hemoglobin, a heme protein likely to be present in commercial FBS, is capable of oxidizing doxorubicin in the presence of hydrogen peroxide and that nitrite further stimulates the reaction. In contrast to intact doxorubicin, the serum + hydrogen peroxide + nitrite treated drug appeared to be nontoxic for PC3 human prostate cancer cells. Together, this study shows that (pseudo)peroxidases present in sera catalyze oxidation of doxorubicin by hydrogen peroxide and that this diminishes the tumoricidal activity of the anthracycline, at least in in vitro settings. Finally, this study also points out that addition of H2O2 to media containing FBS will stimulate peroxidase-type of reactions, which may affect cytotoxic properties of studied compounds.
The PFCs have been used in a wide range of consumer, including residential, products (e.g., stain-resistant coatings for carpets and upholstery). Carbon-fluoride bonds are highly stable, mak-ing PFCs extremely resistant to biodegradation. Thus, PFCs have become globally distributed and are ubiquitously present in serum of wildlife and people. Despite this, comparatively little is known as to how people are primarily exposed, and what (if any) health risk is associated with chronic, low-level exposure. It is hypothesized that house dust may represent a significant exposure route because PFCs can slough or volatilize from products used indoors, subsequently adsorbing to and accumulating within house dust. The purpose of this study was to determine if PFC serum levels in domestic cats tended to increase in proportion to time spent indoors and whether analyte patterns reflected that of food sources [e.g., fish products with high perfluoro-octane sulfonate (PFOS) but low perfluorohexanesulfonate (PFHxS)] or with house dust (PFOS + PFHxS + perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) ─ with high PFHxS levels in the most contaminated dust). In 2008, serum was obtained from feral and pet cats presenting to shelters and clinics in the Raleigh, NC area, including the NCSU VTH. PFC serum levels were measured using high-resolution time-of-flight mass spectroscopy. Data on housing status was available for 50 cats. From least to greatest indoor residential exposure, cats were grouped as
Braithwaite, Irene; Travers, Justin; Bowles, Darren; Strik, Rianne; Siebers, Rob; Holweg, Cecile; Matthews, John; Weatherall, Mark; Beasley, Richard
Serum periostin is a potential biomarker of response to therapies that target type 2 inflammation in asthma. The objectives of this study were to describe: 1) the distribution of serum periostin levels in adults with symptomatic airflow obstruction; 2) its relationship with other variables, including type 2 biomarkers; and 3) the effect of inhaled corticosteroids on periostin levels. Serum periostin levels were measured in a cross-sectional study exploring phenotypes and biomarkers in 386 patients aged 18–75 years who reported wheeze and breathlessness in the past 12 months. In 49 ICS-naïve patients, periostin levels were measured again after 12 weeks of budesonide (800 μg·day−1). The distribution of serum periostin levels was right skewed (mean±sd 57.3±18.6 ng·mL−1, median (interquartile range) 54.0 (45.1–65.6) ng·mL−1, range 15.0–164.7 ng·mL−1). Periostin was positively associated with exhaled nitric oxide (Spearman's rho=0.22, p<0.001), blood eosinophil count (Spearman's rho=0.21, p<0.001), and total IgE (Spearman's rho=0.14, p=0.007). The Hodges–Lehmann estimator (95% CI) of change in periostin level after ICS therapy was −4.8 (−6.7– −3.2) ng·mL−1 (p<0.001). These findings provide data on the distribution of serum periostin in adults with symptomatic airflow obstruction, the weak associations between periostin and other type 2 markers, and the reduction in periostin with inhaled corticosteroid therapy. PMID:26917610
Katsakoulas, Ioannis; Lougovoi, Claudia; Paraskevopoulou, Penelope; Vougioukas, Nikolaos
Keratoconjunctivitis sicca is one of the most frequent diagnoses for seeking eye care. Accumulated evidence over the past three decades has revealed a significant contribution of several molecules contained in tears at the homeostasis of the epithelium of the ocular surface. Therefore, autologous blood serum in the form of eye drops can provide substantial help in the management of keratoconjunctivitis sicca. Also making this a favorable treatment for keratoconjunctivitis sicca is the fact that this approach has become an insurance-covered benefit in some countries. This report demonstrates a formulation of blood serum eye drops with the purpose of providing an alternative to the marked absence of a universally established protocol. Exclusion criteria, equipment, preservation, dosage, duration, and guidelines for patients are described. Also included are details on the treatment of one representative embodiment. All (pre-/post-)analytical considerations and the total cost are addressed. Outcome measures such as Schirmer' s test, break up time, and Ocular Surface Disease Index score are recorded before treatment, at 1 and 2 months, ideally as monotherapy with 100% serum q.i.d. Blood serum isolated under aseptic conditions maintained throughout is delivered as a ready-to-use formulation to the patient. Serum eye drops should be included in the modern armamentarium against keratoconjunctivitis sicca, and, hopefully, their eventual widespread application will result in coverage by most if not all insurance funds. The implementation described contributes to the hopeful establishment of a standardized protocol and provides a potentially benefit of a low-cost, applicable treatment of the ocular epithelium without side effects.
Han, ShuYi; Xu, YiHui; Gao, MeiHua; Wang, YunShan; Wang, Jun; Liu, YanYan; Wang, Min; Zhang, XiaoQian
Apolipoprotein E (ApoE), which has been shown to influence serum lipid parameters, can bind to multiple types of lipids and plays an important role in the metabolism and homeostasis of lipids and lipoproteins. A previous study showed that ApoE concentration significantly affects serum lipid levels independently of ApoE polymorphism. The serum lipid levels were also closely correlated with dietary habits, and Shandong cuisine is famous for its high salt and oil contents, which widely differ among the different areas in China. Therefore, studying the effect of ApoE polymorphism on ApoE concentration and serum lipid levels in Shandong province is very important.A total of 815 subjects including 285 men and 530 women were randomly selected and studied from Jinan, Shandong province. In order to evaluate the association of ApoE polymorphism and serum level on lipid profiles, the ApoE genotypes, as well as levels of fasting serum ApoE and other lipid parameters, were detected in all subjects.The frequency of the ApoE E3 allele was highest (83.1%), while those of E2 and E4 were 9.4% and 7.5%, respectively, which are similar to those in other Asian populations. ApoE2 allele carriers showed significantly increased ApoE levels but lower levels of serum total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and Apolipoprotein B (ApoB).We found that ApoE level is influenced by ApoE polymorphism in a gene-dependent manner. The ApoE polymorphism showed different influences on serum lipid parameters with increasing age and body mass index (BMI) in our Shandong Han population.
Han, ShuYi; Xu, YiHui; Gao, MeiHua; Wang, YunShan; Wang, Jun; Liu, YanYan; Wang, Min; Zhang, XiaoQian
Abstract Apolipoprotein E (ApoE), which has been shown to influence serum lipid parameters, can bind to multiple types of lipids and plays an important role in the metabolism and homeostasis of lipids and lipoproteins. A previous study showed that ApoE concentration significantly affects serum lipid levels independently of ApoE polymorphism. The serum lipid levels were also closely correlated with dietary habits, and Shandong cuisine is famous for its high salt and oil contents, which widely differ among the different areas in China. Therefore, studying the effect of ApoE polymorphism on ApoE concentration and serum lipid levels in Shandong province is very important. A total of 815 subjects including 285 men and 530 women were randomly selected and studied from Jinan, Shandong province. In order to evaluate the association of ApoE polymorphism and serum level on lipid profiles, the ApoE genotypes, as well as levels of fasting serum ApoE and other lipid parameters, were detected in all subjects. The frequency of the ApoE E3 allele was highest (83.1%), while those of E2 and E4 were 9.4% and 7.5%, respectively, which are similar to those in other Asian populations. ApoE2 allele carriers showed significantly increased ApoE levels but lower levels of serum total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and Apolipoprotein B (ApoB). We found that ApoE level is influenced by ApoE polymorphism in a gene-dependent manner. The ApoE polymorphism showed different influences on serum lipid parameters with increasing age and body mass index (BMI) in our Shandong Han population. PMID:27977609
Arpornmaeklong, Premjit; Sutthitrairong, Chotika; Jantaramanant, Piyathida; Pripatnanont, Prisana
Exposing human periodontal ligament stem cells (hPDLSCs) to animal proteins during cell expansion would compromise quality and safety of the hPDLSCs for clinical applications. The current study aimed to evaluate the replacement of animal based serum by human serum for the expansion of hPDLSCs. Human PDLSCs were cultured in culture media supplemented with 4 types of serums, Group A: fetal bovine serum (FBS), Group B: allogeneic human male AB serum (HS) and Group C in-house autologous (Auto-HS) and Group D: in-house allogeneic human serums (Allo-HS). Exhibitions of mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) characteristics of hPDLSCs were examined. Then growth and osteogenic differentiation potential of hPDLSCs in FBS and HS at passages 5 and 15 were compared to investigate effects of serum supplements on growth and expansion stability of the expanded hPDLSCs. After that, growth and osteogenic differentiation of hPDLSCs in Auto- and Allo-HS were investigated. Flow cytometrical analyses, functional differentiations, cell growth kinetic, cytogenetic analysis, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and calcium content assays and oil red O and von Kossa staining were performed. Results showed that at passage 5, HS promoted growth and osteogenic differentiation of hPDLSCs and extensive cell expansion, decreased growth and differentiation potential of the expanded hPDLSCs, particularly in HS. Growth and osteogenic differentiation of hPDLSCs in Auto-HS and Allo-HS were not different. In summary, allogeneic human serum could be a replacement to FBS for hPDLSC expansion. In vitro cell expansion of hPDLSCs should be minimal to ensure optimal cell quality. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Herrero-Mercado, Margarita; Waliszewski, S M; Caba, M; Martínez-Valenzuela, C; Gómez Arroyo, S; Villalobos Pietrini, R; Cantú Martínez, P C; Hernández-Chalate, F
The objective of the present study was to determine levels and calculate ratios of copartition coefficients among organochlorine pesticides β-HCH, pp'DDE, op'DDT and pp'DDT in maternal adipose tissue, maternal blood serum and umbilical blood serum of mother-infant pairs from Veracruz, Mexico. Organochlorine pesticides were analyzed in 70 binomials: maternal adipose tissue, maternal serum and umbilical cord serum samples, using gas chromatography with electron capture detection (GC-ECD). The results were expressed as mg/kg on fat basis. p,p'-DDE was the major organochlorine component, detected in every maternal adipose tissue (0.770 mg/kg), maternal serum sample (5.8 mg/kg on fat basis) and umbilical cord blood sample (6.9 mg/kg on fat basis). p,p'-DDT was detected at 0.101 mg/kg, 2.2 mg/kg and 5.9 mg/kg respectively, according to the order given above. β-HCH was detected at 0.027 mg/kg, 4.2 mg/kg and 28.0 mg/kg respectively. op'DDT was detected only in maternal adipose tissue at 0.011 mg/kg. The copartition coefficients among samples identify significant increases in concentrations from adipose tissue to maternal blood serum and to umbilical blood serum. The increase indicated that maternal adipose tissue released organochlorine pesticides to blood serum and that they are carried over to umbilical cord blood.
Wolf, F; Haug, M; Farhadi, J; Candrian, C; Martin, I; Barbero, A
For the generation of cell-based therapeutic products, it would be preferable to avoid the use of animal-derived components. Our study thus aimed at investigating the possibility to replace foetal bovine serum (FBS) with autologous serum (AS) for the engineering of cartilage grafts using expanded human nasal chondrocytes (HNC). HNC isolated from 7 donors were expanded in medium containing 10% FBS or AS at different concentrations (2%, 5% and 10%) and cultured in pellets using serum-free medium or in Hyaff(R)-11 meshes using medium containing FBS or AS. Tissue forming capacity was assessed histologically (Safranin O), immunohistochemically (type II collagen) and biochemically (glycosaminoglycans -GAG- and DNA). Differences among experimental groups were assessed by Mann Whitney tests. HNC expanded under the different serum conditions proliferated at comparable rates and generated cartilaginous pellets with similar histological appearance and amounts of GAG. Tissues generated by HNC from different donors cultured in Hyaff(R)-11 had variable quality, but the accumulated GAG amounts were comparable among the different serum conditions. Staining intensity for collagen type II was consistent with GAG deposition. Among the different serum conditions tested, the use of 2% AS resulted in the lowest variability in the GAG contents of generated tissues. In conclusion, a low percentage of AS can replace FBS both during the expansion and differentiation of HNC and reduce the variability in the quality of the resulting engineered cartilage tissues.
Khan, Abbul Bashar; Khan, Javed Masood; Ali, Mohd. Sajid; Khan, Rizwan Hasan; Kabir-ud-Din
To know the interaction of amphiphilic drugs nortriptyline hydrochloride (NOT) and promazine hydrochloride (PMZ) with serum albumins (i.e., human serum albumin (HSA) and bovine serum albumin (BSA)), techniques of UV-visible, fluorescence, and circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopies are used. The binding affinity is more in case of PMZ with both the serum albumins. The quenching rate constant (kq) values suggest a static quenching process for all the drug-serum albumin interactions. The UV-visible results show that the change in protein conformation of PMZ-serum albumin interactions are more prominent as compared to NOT-serum albumin interactions. The CD results also explain the conformational changes in the serum albumins on binding with the drugs. The increment in %α-helical structure is slightly more for drug-BSA complexes as compared to drug-HSA complexes.
Khan, Abbul Bashar; Khan, Javed Masood; Ali, Mohd Sajid; Khan, Rizwan Hasan; Kabir-Ud-Din
To know the interaction of amphiphilic drugs nortriptyline hydrochloride (NOT) and promazine hydrochloride (PMZ) with serum albumins (i.e., human serum albumin (HSA) and bovine serum albumin (BSA)), techniques of UV-visible, fluorescence, and circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopies are used. The binding affinity is more in case of PMZ with both the serum albumins. The quenching rate constant (k(q)) values suggest a static quenching process for all the drug-serum albumin interactions. The UV-visible results show that the change in protein conformation of PMZ-serum albumin interactions are more prominent as compared to NOT-serum albumin interactions. The CD results also explain the conformational changes in the serum albumins on binding with the drugs. The increment in %α-helical structure is slightly more for drug-BSA complexes as compared to drug-HSA complexes.
Hogan-Ryan, A; Fennelly, J J; Jones, M; Cantwell, B; Duffy, M J
The concentration of bound sialic acid in the sera of 56 normal subjects and 65 subjects with breast cancer was measured, in order to determine (1) whether serum sialic acid concentrations are raised in breast cancer and (2) whether the concentration of sialic acid in serum reflects tumour stage. The amount of sialic acid in serum was compared to serum carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) values. Urinary hydroxyproline and serum alkaline phosphatase concentrations were used as indicators of bone and liver involvement. Erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) was also measured. Significantly elevated serum sialic acid concentrations were found in breast cancer, and showed correlation with tumour stage. Serum sialic acid values did not correlate with CEA values. The results suggest that measurement of serum sialic acid concentrations may be of adjunctive value in assessing tumour stage.
Wilber, R L; Drake, S D; Hesson, J L; Nelson, J A; Kearney, J T; Dallam, G M; Williams, L L
In this investigation we evaluated the effect of a 5-week training program at 1860 m on serum creatine kinase (CK) activity and serum cortisol concentration in national-caliber triathletes for the purpose of monitoring the response to training in a hypobaric hypoxic environment. Subjects included 16 junior-level female (n = 8) and male (n = 8) triathletes who were training for the International Triathlon Union (ITU) World Championships. After an initial acclimatization period, training intensity and/or volume were increased progressively during the 5-week altitude training camp. Resting venous blood samples were drawn at 0700 hours following a 12-h overnight fast and were analyzed for serum CK activity and serum cortisol concentration. Subjects were evaluated before [7-10 days pre-altitude (SL 1)] and after [7-10 days post-altitude (SL 2)] the 5-week training camp at 1860 m. At altitude, subjects were evaluated within 24-36 h after arrival (ALT 1), 7 days after arrival (ALT 2), 18 days after arrival (ALT 3), and 24-36 h prior to leaving the altitude training camp (ALT 4). A repeated-measures analysis of variance was used to evaluate differences over time from SL 1 to SL 2. Compared to SL 1, serum CK activity increased approximately threefold (P < 0.05) within the initial 24-36 h at altitude (ALT 1), and increased by an additional 70% (P < 0.05) after the 1st week of altitude training (ALT 2). Serum CK activity remained significantly elevated over the duration of the experimental period compared to pre-altitude baseline levels. Serum cortisol concentration was increased (P < 0.05) at the end of the 5-week altitude training period (ALT 4) relative to SL 1, ALT 1 and ALT 3. These data suggest that: (1) the initial increase in serum CK activity observed in the first 24-36 h at altitude was due primarily to acute altitude exposure and was independent of increased training intensity and/or training volume, (2) the subsequent increases in serum CK activity observed over
Slama, T G
Serum sickness is a systemic hypersensitivity reaction initially reported in children receiving horse serum. Drugs such as penicillins, cephalosporins, and sulfonamides are now noted to be the most common etiologic agents of serum sickness-like reactions. This case report describes a serum sickness-like reaction temporally related to ciprofloxacin, a previously unreported adverse effect of this drug or any of the other quinolones.
Sinclair, D; Dagg, J H; Mowat, A M; Parrott, D M; Stott, D I
The presence of paraproteins in the sera of 10 patients with chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL) was investigated using immunoisoelectric focusing. Monoclonal immunoglobulins were found in nine of these 10 sera. Five sera contained a single monoclonal IgM paraprotein, one serum contained a single monoclonal IgG paraprotein, while three sera contained more than one monoclonal paraprotein--namely, IgM + IgD, IgM + IgG, and IgM + IgD + IgG. The results indicate that the malignant B cells of CLL may be at a later stage of differentiation than previously assumed and serum monoclonal immunoglobulin could be of value as a tumour marker. Images PMID:6707229
Joshi, U M; Joseph, R; Adatia, A R; Choudhary, V N; Joshi, J V; Mehta, S; Hazari, K T
A cross-sectional study was conducted to detect the return of ovulation in 56 women with (LA) lactational amenorrhea ranging from 2-12 months. As serum progesterone of 5 ng/ml provides an indirect evidence of ovulation. It was estimated by radioimmunoassay in 4 blood samples collected weekly over a period of 1 month in all the women. 37 women showed persistently low values of progesterone ( 5 mg/ml) throughout the study period. The other 19 women had serum progesterone of 5 ng/ml in 1 or several samples. 13 of these women, however, continued to have LA beyond 1 month in spite of the detection of high circulating progesterone. The possibility of pregnancy was excluded in all of them. The endometrial refractoriness to the circulating steriods is proposed as a mechanism of persistent LA.
Erokhina, I A
The content of modified albumin (Am) in harp seal (Pagophilus groenlandica Erxleben, 1777) blood serum was studied. Am was determined by paper electrophoresis by means of re-precipitation in the trichloroacetic acid-ethanol system. Modified albumin content in normal seal pups' blood serum increased from 1990 to 1994. The Am level in undernourished pups was stable from year to year and higher than in normal pups. In oceanarium investigations it was revealed a low albumin resistance to denaturation and the dependence of Am content on the animals' physiological state. Thus there is a possibility to regard modified albumin content as one of the significant parameters in biomonitoring of harp seal population and, moreover, as a supplementary criterion for estimation of seals' health state in captivity.
Coşkun, Ozlem; Nurten, Rüstem
In the present study, NAD(+) glycohydrolase was purified from serum samples collected from healthy individuals using ammonium sulfate fractionation, Affi-Gel blue (Cibacron Blue F3GA) affinity chromatography, Sephadex G-100 column chromatography and isoelectric focusing. The final step was followed by a second Sephadex G-100 column chromatography assay in order to remove the ampholytes from the isoelectric focusing step. In terms of enhancement of specific activity, the NAD(+) glycohydrolase protein was purified ∼480-fold, with a yield of 1% compared with the initial serum fraction. The purified fraction appeared to be homogeneous, with a molecular weight of 39 kDa, as revealed by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) analysis, and also corresponded to the soluble (monomeric) form of surface antigen CD38.
(PCG) Protein Crystal Growth Human Serum Albumin. Contributes to many transport and regulatory processes and has multifunctional binding properties which range from various metals, to fatty acids, hormones, and a wide spectrum of therapeutic drugs. The most abundant protein of the circulatory system. It binds and transports an incredible variety of biological and pharmaceutical ligands throughout the blood stream. Principal Investigator on STS-26 was Larry DeLucas.
Sogorb, Miguel A; Carrera, Victoria; Benabent, Mónica; Vilanova, Eugenio
One of the main detoxification processes of the carbamate insecticides is the hydrolysis of the carbamic ester bond. Carboxylesterases seem to play important roles in the metabolization of carbamates. This study performs a biochemical characterization of the capabilities of rabbit serum albumin (RSA) to hydrolyze the carbamate carbaryl. Rabbit serum albumin was able to hydrolyze carbaryl with a K(cat) of 7.1 x 10(-5) s(-1). The K(m) for this hydrolysis reaction was 240 microM. Human, chicken, and bovine serum albumins were also able to hydrolyze carbaryl. The divalent cation Cu(2+) at 1 mM concentration inhibited around 50% of the hydrolysis of carbaryl by RSA. Other mono- and divalent cations at 1 mM concentration and 5 mM EDTA exerted no significant effects on the hydrolysis of carbaryl by RSA. The inhibition of the carbaryl hydrolysis by sulfydril blocking agents suggests that a cysteine residue plays an important role in the active center of the catalytic activity. Both caprylic and palmitic acids were noncompetitive inhibitors of the carbaryl hydrolysis by RSA. The carboxyl ester p-nitrophenyl butyrate is a substrate of RSA and competitively inhibited the hydrolysis of carbaryl by this protein, suggesting that the hydrolysis of carbaryl and the hydrolysis of carboxyl esters occur in the same catalytic site and through a similar mechanism. This mechanism might be based on the carbamylation of a tyrosine residue of the RSA. Serum albumin is a protein universally present in nontarget species of insecticides; therefore, the capability of this protein to hydrolyze other carbamates must be studied because it might have important toxicological and ecotoxicological implications.
Bot, M; Chan, M K; Jansen, R; Lamers, F; Vogelzangs, N; Steiner, J; Leweke, F M; Rothermundt, M; Cooper, J; Bahn, S; Penninx, B W J H
Much has still to be learned about the molecular mechanisms of depression. This study aims to gain insight into contributing mechanisms by identifying serum proteins related to major depressive disorder (MDD) in a large psychiatric cohort study. Our sample consisted of 1589 participants of the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety, comprising 687 individuals with current MDD (cMDD), 482 individuals with remitted MDD (rMDD) and 420 controls. We studied the relationship between MDD status and the levels of 171 serum proteins detected on a multi-analyte profiling platform using adjusted linear regression models. Pooled analyses of two independent validation cohorts (totaling 78 MDD cases and 156 controls) was carried out to validate our top markers. Twenty-eight analytes differed significantly between cMDD cases and controls (P < 0.05), whereas 10 partly overlapping markers differed significantly between rMDD cases and controls. Antidepressant medication use and comorbid anxiety status did not substantially impact on these findings. Sixteen of the cMDD-related markers had been assayed in the pooled validation cohorts, of which seven were associated with MDD. The analytes prominently associated with cMDD related to diverse cell communication and signal transduction processes (pancreatic polypeptide, macrophage migration inhibitory factor, ENRAGE, interleukin-1 receptor antagonist and tenascin-C), immune response (growth-regulated alpha protein) and protein metabolism (von Willebrand factor). Several proteins were implicated in depression. Changes were more prominent in cMDD, suggesting that molecular alterations in serum are associated with acute depression symptomatology. These findings may help to establish serum-based biomarkers of depression and could improve our understanding of its pathophysiology.
Stricker, B H; Tijssen, J G
In this study, we evaluated whether the high number of reports of serum sickness to cefaclor was present in every country and year, and whether these figures from voluntary reporting facilitated an estimation of the relative risk. A nested case-control study was performed with reports of all suspected adverse reactions (ADR) to cefaclor, amoxicillin and cephalexin in the period 1968-1987, as reported to the WHO Collaborating Center for International Drug Monitoring from the U.S.A., the U.K., Sweden, Canada and Germany. The ADR-reporting odds ratio was defined as the ratio of the odds of the number of ADR-reports of serum sickness to cefaclor and amoxicillin or cephalexin and the odds of similar reports of non-serum sickness to cefaclor and amoxicillin or cephalexin. The ADR-reporting odds ratio adjusted for country, age, gender, origin of the report and year of marketing was 12.4 for cefaclor vs amoxicillin and 18.5 for cefaclor vs cephalexin. In children (< 15 years of age) and in adults (> 15 years of age), the relative risk of developing serum sickness of cefaclor vs amoxicillin was estimated at 13.9 (95% confidence interval (95% CI): 6.0-32.2) and 2.9 (95% CI: 0.9-9.4) respectively in the U.S.A., and at 15.1 (95% CI: 7.2-31.5) and 5.5 (95% CI: 2.0-15.0) respectively in the other four countries together. In this study, the ADR-reporting odds ratio facilitated a valid estimation of the relative risk.
Seki, K; Kato, K; Tabei, T
Serum relaxin concentrations were measured every 30 min during a 24-h period in nonpregnant and pregnant women. Relaxin was undetectable in all serum samples obtained from 3 nonpregnant women. Relaxin was detectable in all serum samples obtained from 2 pregnant women. However, neither episodic secretion of relaxin nor a 24-h rhythm in relaxin secretion was discernible in these women.
Donfrancesco, Renato; Parisi, Pasquale; Vanacore, Nicola; Martines, Francesca; Sargentini, Vittorio; Cortese, Samuele
Objective: (a) To compare serum ferritin levels in a sample of stimulant-naive children with ADHD and matched controls and (b) to assess the association of serum ferritin to ADHD symptoms severity, ADHD subtypes, and IQ. Method: The ADHD and the control groups included 101 and 93 children, respectively. Serum ferritin levels were determined with…
Sann, L; Chayvialle, A P; Bremond, A; Lambert, R
Serum gastrin concentration was measured in newborns and infants with no gastrointestinal disorders, in the fasting state and after food stimulation. Mean fasting concentration in 14 newborns aged 1 to 12 days (130 . 4 pg/ml +/- 11 . 4 SE) was significantly higher than the mean value in 23 infants aged 1.5 to 22 months (101.4 +/- 6.6 pg/ml). Ingestion of the usual milk meal resulted in a definite rise of the serum gastrin level in the 5 subjects tested (3 newborns and 2 infants). The mean fasting serum gastrin level in 6 babies with hiatus hernia and gastro-oesophageal reflux was found to be no different from the corresponding value in 8 age-matched controls. However, a conspicuously raised fasting gastrin concentration was observed in one infant with lower oesophageal dyskinesia. The results indicate that the release of gastrin and the reactivity of the hormone-producing sites to food stimulation in early life are similar to those in adult humans. No defect of gastrin release was shown in patients with gastro-oesophageal reflux. PMID:1244175
Lowry, Sarah J; Sprague, Brian L; Aiello Bowles, Erin J; Hedman, Curtis J; Hemming, Jocelyn; Hampton, John M; Burnside, Elizabeth S; Sisney, Gale A; Buist, Diana S M; Trentham-Dietz, Amy
Some forms of estrogen are associated with breast cancer risk as well as with mammographic density (MD), a strong marker of breast cancer risk. Whether phytoestrogen intake affects breast density, however, remains unclear. We evaluated the association between serum levels of phytoestrogens and MD in postmenopausal women. We enrolled 269 women, ages 55-70 yr, who received a screening mammogram and had no history of postmenopausal hormone use. Subjects completed a survey on diet and factors related to MD and provided a blood sample for analysis of 3 phytoestrogens: genistein, daidzein, and coumestrol. We examined whether mean percent MD was related to serum level of phytoestrogens, adjusting for age and body mass index. Genistein and daidzein levels correlated with self-reported soy consumption. Mean percent MD did not differ across women with different phytoestrogen levels. For example, women with nondetectable genistein levels had mean density of 11.0% [95% confidence intervals (CI) = 9.9-12.4], compared to 10.5% (95% CI = 8.0-13.7) and 11.2% (95% CI = 8.7-14.6) for < and ≥ median detectable levels, respectively. In a population with relatively low soy intake, serum phytoestrogens were not associated with mammographic density. Additional studies are needed to determine effects of higher levels, particularly given patterns of increasing phytoestrogen intake.
Ahyayauch, Hasna; Arana, Gorka; Sot, Jesús; Alonso, Alicia; Goñi, Félix M
Serum albumin is an abundant protein in blood plasma, that is well-known for its ability to transport hydrophobic biomolecules and drugs. Recent hypotheses propose that serum albumin plays a role in the regulation of lipid metabolism in addition to its lipid transport properties. The present work explores the capacity of bovine serum albumin (BSA) to extract diacylglycerols (DAG) from phospholipid bilayers, and the inhibition of such interaction by divalent cations. Quantitative measurements using radioactive DAG and morphological evidence derived from giant unilamellar vesicles examined by confocal microscopy provide concurrent results. BSA extracts DAG from vesicles consisting of phosphatidylinositol/DAG. Long, saturated DAG species are incorporated more readily than the shorter-chain or unsaturated ones. Divalent cations hinder DAG uptake by BSA. For Ca(2+), the concentration causing half-maximal inhibition is approximately 10 muM; 90% inhibition is caused by 100 muM Ca(2+). Sr(2+) requires concentrations one order of magnitude higher, while Mg(2+) has virtually no effect. As an example on how DAG uptake by BSA, and its inhibition by Ca(2+), could play a regulating role in lipid metabolism, a PI-specific phospholipase C has been assayed in the presence of BSA and/or Ca(2+). BSA activates the enzyme by removing the end-product DAG, but the activation is reverted by Ca(2+) that inhibits DAG uptake.
Chassany, O; Urien, S; Claudepierre, P; Bastian, G; Tillement, J P
The binding of doxorubicin, iododoxorubicin, daunorubicin, epirubicin, pirarubicin, zorubicin, aclarubicin, and mitoxantrone to 600 microM human serum albumin and 50 microM alpha 1-acid glycoprotein was studied by ultrafiltration at 37 degrees C and pH 7.4. Anthracycline concentrations (total and free) were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with fluorometric detection. Binding to albumin (600 microM) varied from 61% (daunorubicin) to 94% (iododoxorubicin). The binding to alpha 1-acid glycoprotein (50 microM) was more variable, ranging from 31% (epirubicin) to 64% (zorubicin), and was essentially related to the hydrophobicity of the derivatives. Simulations showed that the total serum binding varied over a broad range from 71% (doxorubicin) to 96% (iododoxorubicin). We recently reported that the binding to lipoproteins of a series of eight anthracycline analogues could be ascribed to chemicophysical determinants of lipophilicity . The present study was conducted to evaluate in vitro the contribution of albumin and alpha 1-acid glycoprotein to the total serum binding of these drugs.
Chao, Y K; Shyur, S D; Wu, C Y; Wang, C Y
Childhood serum sickness is a rare allergic disease that follows the administration of a foreign antigenic material, most commonly caused by injecting a protein or haptenic drug. The disease is a type III hypersensitivity reaction mediated by deposits of circulating immune complexes in small vessels, which leads to complement activation and subsequent inflammation. The clinical features are fever, cutaneous eruptions, lymphadenopathy, arthralgias, albuminuria, and nephritis. Serum sickness is an acute self-limited disease. We report a 3-year-old child who presented with fever and a rash; an invasive bacterial infection was strongly suspected. He was therefore given penicillin and gentamicin and responded well. At day 4 after admission, he developed a serum sickness reaction and showed symptoms of arthralgias, generalized edema, purpura, and gross hematuria. The white blood cell count was 12 190/mm3 with 7% eosinophils. Urinalysis revealed red blood cell above 100 per high power field, white blood cell 10 to 15 per high power field, and proteinuria. The antibiotics were discontinued and hydrocortisone (20 mg/kg/d), diphenhydramine HCl (4 mg/kg/d), aspirin (66 mg/kg/d) was administered, plus 1 dose of epinephrine (0.01 mL/kg) administered intramuscularly. On day 7, the 3rd day after withholding antibiotics, his condition dramatically improved. The clinical symptoms resolved progressively and his urinalysis returned to normal.
Bechmann, Troels; Madsen, Jonna Skov; Brandslund, Ivan; Lund, Erik Dalsgaard; Ormstrup, Tina; Jakobsen, Erik Hugger; Jylling, Anne Marie Bak; Steffensen, Karina Dahl; Jakobsen, Anders
Brain metastases are a major cause of morbidity and mortality in breast cancer. The aim of the current study was to evaluate the prediction of brain metastases based on serum S100B and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2). A total of 107 breast cancer patients were included in the current study from two prospective cohort studies with either elevated serum HER2 levels >15 ng/ml or brain metastases verified by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) or computer tomography (CT). Following the exclusion of six patients, the remaining 101 patients were divided into two groups: Group 0 (n=55), patients with normal MRI results; and group 1 (n=46), patients with brain metastases. The levels of serum S100B and HER2 in the two groups were analyzed prior to MRI or CT of the brain, and no significant differences were identified in the serum HER2 (P=0.060) or S100B levels (P=0.623) between the groups. The univariate analysis of prognostic factors for brain metastases showed a significant correlation with systemic disease (P<0.001), axillary lymph node metastases (P=0.001) and serum HER2 >30 ng/ml (P=0.002). Only systemic disease (P<0.001) remained statistically significant in the multivariate analysis. In conclusion, serum levels of S100B and HER2 did not predict the risk of brain metastases. In the multivariate analysis, brain metastases were only found to correlate with systemic disease. However, in the univariate analysis, serum HER2 levels >30 ng/ml were identified to correlate with increased risk of brain metastases, which calls for further investigation.
Karnieli, Ohad; Friedner, Oryan Makler; Allickson, Julie G; Zhang, Nan; Jung, Sunghoon; Fiorentini, David; Abraham, Eytan; Eaker, Shannon S; Yong, Tan Kah; Chan, Allan; Griffiths, Sarah; When, Amy K; Oh, Steve; Karnieli, Ohad
The cell therapy industry is a fast-growing industry targeted toward a myriad of clinical indications. As the cell therapy industry matures and clinical trials hit their pivotal Phase 3 studies, there will be a significant need for scale-up, process validation, and critical raw material quality assurance. Part of the well discussed challenges of upscaling manufacturing processes there is a less discussed issue relating to the availability of raw materials in the needed quality and quantities. The FDA recently noted that over 80% of the 66 investigational new drug (IND) applications for mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) products analyzed described the use of FBS during manufacturing. Accumulated data from the past years show an acceleration in serum consumption by at least 10%-15% annually, which suggests that the global demand for serum may soon exceed the supply. Ongoing concerns of safety issues due to risks of various pathogen contaminations, as well as issues related to the aforementioned serum variability that can affect final product reproducibility, are strong motivators to search for serum substitutes or serum-free media. it is important to note that there are no accepted definitions for most of these terms which leads to misleading's and misunderstandings, where the same term might be defined differently by different vendors, manufacturer, and users. It is the drug developer's responsibility to clarify what the supplied labels mean and to identify the correct questions and audits to ensure quality. The paper reviews the available serum replacements, main components, basic strategies for replacement of serum and suggests definitions.
Kapelouzou, Alkistis; Tsourelis, Loukas; Kaklamanis, Loukas; Degiannis, Dimitrios; Kogerakis, Nektarios; Cokkinos, Dennis V.
Background: Calcific aortic valve stenosis (CAVS) is seen in a large proportion of individuals over 60 years. It is an active process, influenced by lipid accumulation, mechanical stress, inflammation, and abnormal extracellular matrix turnover. Various biomarkers (BMs) are studied, as regards mechanisms, diagnosis and prognosis. Methods: In the calcified valves calcium deposition, elastin fragmentation and disorganization of cellular matrix were assessed, together with expression of OPN, OPG, osteocalcin (OCN) and RL2. We prospectively studied the following serum BMs in 60 patients with CAVS and compared them to 20 healthy controls, free from any cardiac disease: Matrix metalloproteinases (MMP) 2 and 9 and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 1 (TIMP1), which regulate collagen turnover, inflammatory factors, i.e. tumor necrosis factor a (TNFa), interleukin 2 (IL2), transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1) which regulates fibrosis, fetuin-A (fet-A), osteopontin (OPN), osteoprotegerin (OPG), sclerostin (SOST), and relaxin-2 (RL2) which positively or negatively regulate calcification. Monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP-1) which regulates migration and infiltration of monocytes/macrophages was also studied as well as malondialdehyde (MDA) an oxidative marker. Results: Extent of tissue valve calcification (Alizarin Red stain) was negatively correlated with tissue elastin, and RL2, and positively correlated with tissue OCN and serum TIMP1 and MCP-1 and negatively with MMP9. Tissue OCN was positively correlated with OPN and negatively with the elastin. Tissue OPN was negatively correlated with elastin and OPG. Tissue OPN OPG and RL2 were not correlated with serum levels In the serum we found in patients statistically lower TIMP1, fet-A and RL2 levels, while all other BMs were higher compared to the healthy group. Positive correlations between SOST and IL2, OPG and MDA but negative with TNFa and OPN were found; also MMP9 was negatively correlated with TNFa and MCP-1
Carter, D. C.; Chang, B.; Ho, J. X.; Keeling, K.; Krishnasami, Z.
Several crystal forms of serum albumin suitable for three-dimensional structure determination have been grown. These forms include crystals of recombinant and wild-type human serum albumin, baboon serum albumin, and canine serum albumin. The intrinsic limits of X-ray diffraction for these crystals are in the range 0.28-0.22 nm. Two of the crystal forms produced from human and canine albumin include incorporated long-chain fatty acids. Molecular replacement experiments have been successfully conducted on each crystal form using the previously determined atomic coordinates of human serum albumin illustrating the conserved tertiary structure.
Lopez, A.L.; Kohrs, M.B.; Horwitz, D.L.; Cyborski, C.K.; Czajka-Narins, D.M.; Kamath, S.
To determine the effect of glucose loading on serum zinc concentrations, 34 elderly subjects aged 60-86 y were studied. Anthropometric data, medical and dietary histories were obtained. Serum zinc and glucose concentrations were obtained fasting and 1/2, 1, 1 1/2, 2 and 3 h after 75 g oral glucose load; glycohemoglobin and fasting serum lipids were also determined. For comparison, the subjects were categorized as: normal or low serum zinc concentrations; normal or high body mass index BMI; normal or high sum of skinfolds and normal or high serum cholesterol. Results showed that low serum zinc concentrations increased significantly over baseline values after the glucose load and did not return to fasting levels. On the other hand, mean serum zinc concentrations significantly declined without recovery for those with normal zinc values. For the total group, no significant differences were noted between fasting values and subsequent time periods. No correlations were noted between fasting serum zinc and area under the curve for zinc except in the high BMI group (positive correlation observed). For the high BMI group, fasting serum zinc differed significantly from the succeeding measurements except for 30 min. For the group as a whole, mean serum zinc concentration was within normal limits (76.9 +/- 2.8 mcg/ml): mean zinc intake was less than 2/3rds the RDA. They conclude that glucose ingestion may alter serum zinc and should be considered in interpreting these levels.
Belsom, Adam; Schneider, Michael; Fischer, Lutz; Brock, Oliver; Rappsilber, Juri
Chemical cross-linking combined with mass spectrometry has proven useful for studying protein-protein interactions and protein structure, however the low density of cross-link data has so far precluded its use in determining structures de novo. Cross-linking density has been typically limited by the chemical selectivity of the standard cross-linking reagents that are commonly used for protein cross-linking. We have implemented the use of a heterobifunctional cross-linking reagent, sulfosuccinimidyl 4,4'-azipentanoate (sulfo-SDA), combining a traditional sulfo-N-hydroxysuccinimide (sulfo-NHS) ester and a UV photoactivatable diazirine group. This diazirine yields a highly reactive and promiscuous carbene species, the net result being a greatly increased number of cross-links compared with homobifunctional, NHS-based cross-linkers. We present a novel methodology that combines the use of this high density photo-cross-linking data with conformational space search to investigate the structure of human serum albumin domains, from purified samples, and in its native environment, human blood serum. Our approach is able to determine human serum albumin domain structures with good accuracy: root-mean-square deviation to crystal structure are 2.8/5.6/2.9 Å (purified samples) and 4.5/5.9/4.8Å (serum samples) for domains A/B/C for the first selected structure; 2.5/4.9/2.9 Å (purified samples) and 3.5/5.2/3.8 Å (serum samples) for the best out of top five selected structures. Our proof-of-concept study on human serum albumin demonstrates initial potential of our approach for determining the structures of more proteins in the complex biological contexts in which they function and which they may require for correct folding. Data are available via ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD001692.
Forzy, G; Quelquejay, J; Dhondt, J-L
Osmolality can be measured or calculated. More than ten formulas have been proposed for calculating serum osmolality from chemical concentrations. The aim of this work was to compare results obtained whith some of these formulas, those calculated in the laboratory using a multiple regression model and measurements with an osmometer. Scattered results for natremia and chloremia, depending on the automate, led us to define formulas adapted for each measurement system in order to reduce the risk of error in the evaluation of the " osmolar gap ".
Chandra, R K
Serum haemolytic complement activity and C3 were significantly decreased in 35 malnourished children. The changes were more pronounced in those with infection. Electrophoretically altered forms of complement C were detected in 14. There was an inverse correlation between C3 levels and immunoconglutinin titres. Nutritional rehabilitation and eradication of infection reversed the abnormalities. It is suggested that reduced complement function in malnutrition is the combined result of impaired synthesis, complement activation in vivo, and changes in plasma volume, and that it may contribute to an increased susceptibility to infection in undernourished individuals. PMID:807166
Singh, J; Hutton, T; Hussain, M; Waring, J J
This study investigates the inotropic effects of serum, its protein and lipid extracts, and commercial serum proteins and lipid on the isolated, spontaneously-beating heart and superfused, hypodynamic ventricle of the frog. Serum taken from either man, horse, calf, frog, or rabbit evoked marked positive inotropic responses which were unaffected by cholinergic, serotonergic, and adrenergic receptor antagonists. Dialysed serum (dialisand) and void volume fractions from Sephadex G200-120 columns corresponding to large molecular weight constituents evoked marked positive inotropic responses. When serum was separated into fractions containing either proteins or lipids/lipoproteins by high-density ultracentrifugation or activated charcoal, both extracts evoked marked positive inotropic responses. Commercial serum globulins and serum containing a high proportion of immunoglobulins elicited large increases in contractile force, whereas serum albumin evoked a negative inotropic effect. Serum which was either boiled and/or treated with chymotrypsin to denature proteins also caused a marked increase in isometric twitch tension in the frog heart. Similar inotropic response was obtained with fractions of boiled serum eluted on columns of Sephadex G200-120. These fractions corresponded to molecular weight in the region of 60-70 kDa. However, the inotropic effect of boiled serum was abolished following pretreatment with lipase. Superfusion of frog hearts with commercial cardiolipin resulted in marked dose-dependent increases in contractile force. The results demonstrate the presence of at least two large molecular weight cardioactive principles in serum. These substances are comparable in size to constituents of serum proteins (e.g., globulins and immunoglobulins) and serum lipids/lipoproteins (e.g., cardiolipin) and may serve as physiological regulators of cardiac function.
Janetzki, Sylvia; Price, L; Britten, C M; van der Burg, S H; Caterini, J; Currier, J R; Ferrari, G; Gouttefangeas, C; Hayes, P; Kaempgen, E; Lennerz, V; Nihlmark, K; Souza, V; Hoos, A
The choice of serum for supplementation of media for T cell assays and in particular, Elispot has been a major challenge for assay performance, standardization, optimization, and reproducibility. The Assay Working Group of the Cancer Vaccine Consortium (CVC-CRI) has recently identified the choice of serum to be the leading cause for variability and suboptimal performance in large international Elispot proficiency panels. Therefore, a serum task force was initiated to compare the performance of commercially available serum-free media to laboratories' own medium/serum combinations. The objective of this project was to investigate whether a serum-free medium exists that performs as well as lab-own serum/media combinations with regard to antigen-specific responses and background reactivity in Elispot. In this way, a straightforward solution could be provided to address the serum challenge. Eleven laboratories tested peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from four donors for their reactivity against two peptide pools, following their own Standard Operating Procedure (SOP). Each laboratory performed five simultaneous experiments with the same SOP, the only difference between the experiments was the medium used. The five media were lab-own serum-supplemented medium, AIM-V, CTL, Optmizer, and X-Vivo. The serum task force results demonstrate compellingly that serum-free media perform as well as qualified medium/serum combinations, independent of the applied SOP. Recovery and viability of cells are largely unaffected by serum-free conditions even after overnight resting. Furthermore, one serum-free medium was identified that appears to enhance antigen-specific IFNgamma-secretion.
Doumas, B T
We have studied the standardization of total serum protein assay with the biuret reaction. Standard solutions were prepared from lyophilized preparations of human serum albumin and bovine serum albumin, with corrections made for volatile material and ash contents. These solutions and a solution of crystalline albumin standard were analyzed with a new stable biuret reagent, to establish absorptivity values (values for the absorbance of a 1 g/liter final reaction mixture). The mean values obtained were 0.302, 0.292, and 0.290 for human serum albumin, bovine serum albumin, and the crystalline albumin, respectively. We believe that the established absorptivity value will improve the accuracy of serum protein determinations. We studied the linearity of the relation between color produced and protein concentration, with use of the solutions described above and a serum pool. The color adheres to Beer's law up to the highest concentration tested: 3 g/liter for HSA and BSA, and 2.8 g/liter for serum in the final reaction mixture. The new biuret reagent has been stable for one year at room temperature. We recommend the use of bovine serum albumin as a primary standard for serum protein assays. It is inexpensive, easily available, and exhibits the best linearity in the biuret reaction.
Liu, Linsheng; Aa, Jiye; Wang, Guangji; Yan, Bei; Zhang, Ying; Wang, Xinwen; Zhao, Chunyan; Cao, Bei; Shi, Jian; Li, Mengjie; Zheng, Tian; Zheng, Yuanting; Hao, Gang; Zhou, Fang; Sun, Jianguo; Wu, Zimei
In metabolomic research, blood plasma and serum have been considered to possess similar compositions and properties. Their perceived equivalence has resulted in researchers choosing arbitrarily between serum and plasma for analysis. Here, routine serum and plasma were prepared and their low-molecular-weight compounds were determined using gas chromatography/time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Principal components analysis was applied to process the acquired data, and marked differences in metabolite profiles were observed between serum and plasma. Of the 72 identified compounds, 36 (50%) discriminate serum from plasma, with 29 and 7 metabolites showing a significantly higher abundance (t test, P<0.05) in serum and plasma, respectively. Incubation of blood had distinct effects on the analyte peak areas, with the effects being more pronounced for plasma than for serum and more pronounced for a shorter incubation than for a longer incubation. These results highlight the importance in choosing serum or plasma as the analytical sample and in stipulating the incubation time. Because incubation affected the analyte peak areas less in serum than in plasma, we recommend serum as the sample of choice in metabolomic studies.
Calka, Omer; Metin, Ahmet; Dülger, Haluk; Erkoç, Reha
Leptin is a 167 amino acid protein encoded by the obesity gene that is synthesized in adipose tissue and interacts with receptors in the hypothalamus linked to the regulation of appetite and metabolism. It is known to suppress appetite and increase energy expenditure. Cyproheptadine is a piperidine antihistamine that increases appetite through its antiserotonergic effect on 5-HT2 receptors in the brain. Although both leptin and cyproheptadine are effective in controlling appetite, their interaction has not been addressed in clinical studies. This study evaluated serum leptin concentrations in patients who received cyproheptadine to treat a variety of disorders. Sixteen patients aged 7 to 71 years (mean, 26.25 years) were given cyproheptadine 2 to 6 mg/day for a minimum of 7 days. Body weight was measured and blood samples were obtained at baseline and after 1 week of treatment. Serum leptin levels were determined by leptin radioimmunoassay. The mean body weight at baseline (52.59 kg) did not differ significantly from that at 1 week after treatment (52.84 kg; P > .05), but the mean leptin level after 1 week of treatment with cyproheptadine (3.14 ng/mL) was 14.2% higher than that at baseline (2.75 ng/mL; P < .05). This increase may suggest that both leptin and cyproheptadine may affect appetite via similar receptors and that cyproheptadine does not impair leptin activity through these receptors. Further study will be necessary to clarify this relationship.
Hung, Adriana M; Hakim, Raymond M
Most patients with end-stage renal disease depend on intermittent hemodialysis to maintain levels of serum potassium and other electrolytes within a normal range. However, one of the challenges has been the safety of using a low-potassium dialysate to achieve that goal, given the concern about the effects that rapid and/or large changes in serum potassium concentrations may have on cardiac electrophysiology and arrhythmia. Additionally, in this patient population, there is a high prevalence of structural cardiac changes and ischemic heart disease, making them even more susceptible to acute arrhythmogenic triggers. This concern is highlighted by the knowledge that about two-thirds of all cardiac deaths in dialysis are due to sudden cardiac death and that sudden cardiac death accounts for 25% of the overall death for end-stage renal disease. Developing new approaches and practice standards for potassium removal during dialysis, as well as understanding other modifiable triggers of sudden cardiac death, such as other electrolyte components of the dialysate (magnesium and calcium), rapid ultrafiltration rates, and safety of a number of medications (ie, drugs that prolong the QT interval or use of digoxin), are critical in order to decrease the unacceptably high cardiac mortality experienced by hemodialysis-dependent patients.
Furlong, C E; Richter, R J; Chapline, C; Crabb, J W
Rabbit serum paraoxonase/arylesterase has been purified to homogeneity by Cibacron Blue-agarose chromatography, gel filtration, DEAE-Trisacryl M chromatography, and preparative SDS gel electrophoresis. Renaturation (Copeland et al., 1982) and activity staining of the enzyme resolved by SDS gel electrophoresis allowed for identification and purification of paraoxonase. Two bands of active enzyme were purified by this procedure (35,000 and 38,000). Enzyme electroeluted from the preparative gels was reanalyzed by analytical SDS gel electrophoresis, and two higher molecular weight bands (43,000 and 48,000) were observed in addition to the original bands. This suggested that repeat electrophoresis resulted in an unfolding or other modification and slower migration of some of the purified protein. The lower mobility bands stained weakly for paraoxonase activity in preparative gels. Bands of each molecular weight species were electroblotted onto PVDF membranes and sequenced. The gas-phase sequence analysis showed that both the active bands and apparent molecular weight bands had identical amino-terminal sequences. Amino acid analysis of the four electrophoretic components from PVDF membranes also indicated compositional similarity. The amino-terminal sequences are typical of the leader sequences of secreted proteins. Human serum paraoxonase was purified by a similar procedure, and ten residues of the amino terminus were sequenced by gas-phase procedures. One amino acid difference between the first ten residues of human and rabbit was observed.
Poór, Miklós; Lemli, Beáta; Bálint, Mónika; Hetényi, Csaba; Sali, Nikolett; Kőszegi, Tamás; Kunsági-Máté, Sándor
Citrinin (CIT) is a mycotoxin produced by several Aspergillus, Penicillium, and Monascus species. CIT occurs worldwide in different foods and drinks and causes health problems for humans and animals. Human serum albumin (HSA) is the most abundant plasma protein in human circulation. Albumin forms stable complexes with many drugs and xenobiotics; therefore, HSA commonly plays important role in the pharmacokinetics or toxicokinetics of numerous compounds. However, the interaction of CIT with HSA is poorly characterized yet. In this study, the complex formation of CIT with HSA was investigated using fluorescence spectroscopy and ultrafiltration techniques. For the deeper understanding of the interaction, thermodynamic, and molecular modeling studies were performed as well. Our results suggest that CIT forms stable complex with HSA (logK ~ 5.3) and its primary binding site is located in subdomain IIA (Sudlow’s Site I). In vitro cell experiments also recommend that CIT-HSA interaction may have biological relevance. Finally, the complex formations of CIT with bovine, porcine, and rat serum albumin were investigated, in order to test the potential species differences of CIT-albumin interactions. PMID:26633504
Imel, Erik A; Liu, Ziyue; McQueen, Amie K; Acton, Dena; Acton, Anthony; Padgett, Leah R; Peacock, Munro; Econs, Michael J
Fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) circulates as active protein and inactive fragments. Low iron status increases FGF23 gene expression, and iron deficiency is common. We hypothesized that in healthy premenopausal women, serum iron influences C-terminal and intact FGF23 concentrations, and that iron and FGF23 associate with bone mineral density (BMD). Serum iron, iron binding capacity, percent iron saturation, phosphorus, and other biochemistries were measured in stored fasting samples from healthy premenopausal white (n=1898) and black women (n=994), age 20-55years. Serum C-terminal and intact FGF23 were measured in a subset (1631 white and 296 black women). BMD was measured at the lumbar spine and femur neck. Serum phosphorus, calcium, alkaline phosphatase and creatinine were lower in white women than black women (p<0.001). Serum iron (p<0.0001) and intact FGF23 (p<0.01) were higher in white women. C-terminal FGF23 did not differ between races. Phosphorus correlated with intact FGF23 (white women, r=0.120, p<0.0001; black women r=0.163, p<0.01). However, phosphorus correlated with C-terminal FGF23 only in black women (r=0.157, p<0.01). Intact FGF23 did not correlate with iron. C-terminal FGF23 correlated inversely with iron (white women r=-0.134, p<0.0001; black women r=-0.188, p<0.01), having a steeper slope at iron <50mcg/dl than ≥50mcg/dl. Longitudinal changes in iron predicted changes in C-terminal FGF23. Spine BMD correlated with iron negatively (r=-0.076, p<0.01) in white women; femur neck BMD correlated with iron negatively (r=-0.119, p<0.0001) in black women. Both relationships were eliminated in weight-adjusted models. BMD did not correlate with FGF23. Serum iron did not relate to intact FGF23, but was inversely related to C-terminal FGF23. Intact FGF23 correlated with serum phosphorus. In weight-adjusted models, BMD was not related to intact FGF23, C-terminal FGF23 or iron. The influence of iron on FGF23 gene expression is not important in
Erlandsen, E J; Randers, E; Kristensen, J H
The aim of this study was to establish reference intervals for cerum cystatin C and serum creatinine in adults. Blood samples were collected from 270 healthy blood donors (135 men and 135 women between 20 and 65 years old with 15 men and 15 women in each five-year-interval). Serum cystatin C was analyzed using an automated particle-enhanced immunoassay (DAKO Cystatin C PET kit) on the Cobas Mira S analyzer. Serum creatinine was analyzed using the Vitros Creatinine Slide, an enzymatic method on the Vitros 950 chemistry analyzer. The calculated reference intervals for serum cystatin C were 0.62-1.15 mg/l in women (median 0.84 mg/l, range 0.56-1.29 mg/l) and 0.51-1.25 mg/l in men (median 0.87 mg/l, range 0.42-1.39 mg/l). The Mann-Whithey U-test revealed no gender-related difference for cystatin C (p = 0.48). A common reference interval in women and men was calculated to be 0.54-1.21 mg/l (median 0.85 mg/l, range 0.42-1.39 mg/l). The non-parametric reference interval for serum creatinine was 57-95 mumol/l in women (median 72 mumol/l, range 44-105 mumol/l) and 69-111 mumol/l in men (median 89 mumol/l, range 58-123 mumol/l).
Gonzalez, A; Wang, H; Carruthers, T D; Murphy, B D; Mapletoft, R J
The effects of pregnant mare serum gonadotrophin (PMSG) dose and PMSG antiserum on superovulation in crossbred beef cows were studied. In experiment I, three groups were treated with 1200, 2400 or 3600 IU of PMSG and 48 h later with prostaglandin (PGF). The mean numbers of corpora lutea (CL), unovulated follicles, and total ova/embryos collected increased as the PMSG dose increased. The percent of fertilized ova and transferable embryos was lowest in the highest dose group (p < 0.05). In experiment II, all cows received 2500 IU of PMSG; groups 1 and 2 were treated with sheep anti-PMSG serum at 48 h or 60 h after PGF; group 3 cows were PMSG-only controls. The number of CL was lowest and the number of unovulated follicles highest in the PMSG-only group (p < 0.05). The number of CL was higher in group 2 (anti-PMSG at 60 h) than in the control group, with the anti-PMSG at 48 h not different from the other groups. Numbers of total ova/embryos, fertilized ova, and transferable embryos were higher (p < 0.05) in both antiserum-treated groups relative to the PMSG-only group. We conclude that superovulation of beef cows with PMSG and treatment with PMSG antiserum will induce a higher superovulatory response and will result in higher CL numbers and fewer unovulated follicles. Further, the variability in the superovulatory response to PMSG treatment was still evident when PMSG antiserum was administered. PMID:8055430
In cadmium exposed workers with renal tubular dysfunction the determination of beta2m in urine is an important diagnostic test. Cadmium exposure's influence on serum beta2m levels and its relationship to urinary excretion of beta2m were studied in 24 cadmium exposed workers with normal serum creatinine levels (less than 10 mg/l)) and no obvious tubular dysfunction. With increasing blood levels of cadmium beta2m was found to increase in serum. There was no concomitant increase in the urinary excretion of beta2m. Serum beta2m was not dependent on serum creatinine within the range studied. The results suggest that for evaluating renal glomerular function in cadmium exposed workers, it might be better to use the serum creatinine level, creatinine clearance or inulin clearance since beta2m might give some false positive results.
Marks, Denese C; Fisher, Jenny; Mondy, Phillip; Segatchian, Jerard; Dennington, Peta M
Serum eye drops are used to treat diseases such as dry eye syndrome (keratoconjunctivitis sicca), a disease of the surface of the eye that results in an unstable tear film. Patients are referred to the Australian Red Cross Blood Service by ophthalmologists for autologous serum eye drops when other therapies such as artificial tears or topical immunosuppressive agents have failed. In order to manufacture autologous serum eye drops, whole blood is collected from the patients using standard blood collection procedures. The blood is then allowed to clot to produce serum and processed into 20% serum eye drops, which are then returned to the patient for their own use. The eye drops are packaged into a long length of tubing, which is then heat-sealed to produce single-use segments. The demand for serum eye drops in Australia is increasing every year, with a 30% increase in the past 12 months.
Wu, Audrey H; Gladden, James D; Ahmed, Mustafa; Ahmed, Ali; Filippatos, Gerasimos
This review summarizes recent published literature on the association between serum uric acid and cardiovascular disease, a relationship which is complex and not fully elucidated. Uric acid may be a marker for risk, a causative agent in cardiovascular disease, or both. Various biologic factors can influence serum uric acid levels, and serum uric acid level itself is closely related to conditions such as hypertension, dyslipidemia, obesity, and impaired glucose metabolism, that contribute to cardiovascular disease pathophysiology. Serum uric acid levels have been found to be associated with adverse outcomes, including mortality, in the general population. In addition, serum uric acid is associated with increased risk for incident coronary heart disease, heart failure, and atrial fibrillation. In the setting of established systolic heart failure, serum uric acid is positively associated with disease severity and mortality risk. Whether targeting treatment based on uric acid levels might affect clinical outcomes is still being studied.
Clark, Brychan M; Kotti, George H; Shah, Anand D; Conger, Nicholas G
Serum sickness is a type III hypersensitivity reaction mediated by immune complex deposition with subsequent complement activation, small-vessel vasculitis, and tissue inflammation. Although the overall incidence of serum sickness is declining because of decreased use of heterologous sera and improved vaccinations, rare sporadic cases of serum sickness from nonprotein drugs such as penicillins continue to occur. Drug-induced serum sickness is usually self-limited, with symptoms lasting only 1-2 weeks before resolving. We report an unusual case of a severe and prolonged serum sickness reaction that occurred after exposure to an intramuscular penicillin depot injection (probable relationship by Naranjo score) and discuss how pharmacokinetics may have played a role. Clinicians should be familiar with serum sickness reactions particularly as they relate to long-acting penicillin preparations. Accurate diagnosis in conjunction with cessation of drug exposure and prompt initiation of antiinflammatory treatment with corticosteroids can produce complete recovery
Di Girolamo, Francesco; D'Amato, Alfonsina; Lante, Isabella; Signore, Fabrizio; Muraca, Marta; Putignani, Lorenza
Due to the incompleteness of animal genome sequencing, the analysis and characterization of serum proteomes of most farm animals are still in their infancy, compared to the already well-documented human serum proteome. This review focuses on the implications of the farm animal serum proteomics in order to identify novel biomarkers for animal welfare, early diagnosis, prognosis and monitoring of infectious disease treatment, and develop new vaccines, aiming at determining the reciprocal benefits for humans and animals.
Introduction Serum interleukin (IL)-17 concentrations have been reported to be increased in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), but associations with clinical characteristics are not well understood. We characterized clinical associations of serum IL-17 in SLE. Methods We quantified IL-17 in serum samples from 98 SLE patients studied cross-sectionally, and in 246 samples from 75 of these patients followed longitudinally over two years. Disease activity was recorded using the SLE Disease Activity Index (SLEDAI)-2k. Serum IL-6, migration inhibitory factor (MIF), and B cell activating factor of the tumour necrosis factor family (BAFF) were also measured in these samples. Results Serum IL-17 levels were significantly higher in SLE patients compared to healthy donors (P <0.0001). No correlation was observed between serum IL-17 and SLEDAI-2k, at baseline or during longitudinal follow-up. However, we observed that SLEDAI-2k was positively correlated with IL-17/IL-6 ratio. Serum IL-17 was significantly increased in SLE patients with central nervous system (CNS) disease (P = 0.0298). A strong correlation was observed between serum IL-17 and IL-6 (r = 0.62, P <0.0001), and this relationship was observed regardless of disease activity and persisted when integrating cytokine levels over the period observed (r = 0.66, P <0.0001). A strong correlation of serum IL-17 was also observed with serum BAFF (r = 0.64, P <0.0001), and MIF (r = 0.36, P = 0.0016). Conclusions Serum IL-17 concentration correlates poorly with SLE disease activity but is significantly elevated in patients with CNS disease. IL-17/IL-6 ratio may be more useful than IL-17 or IL-6 alone to characterize Th17-driven disease, such as SLE. The association of other cytokines with serum IL-17 suggests that IL-17 may drive activation of diverse immune pathways in SLE. PMID:23968496
Noel, N.E.; Ruthman, J.C.
Metal fume fever is not an uncommon syndrome among welders following exposure to oxidized metal fumes (usually zinc). The relationship of serum zinc level to the acute phase of this illness is not known. Two cases of metal fume fever, associated with elevated serum zinc levels, are presented. Further studies are necessary to determine the diagnostic usefulness of serum zinc levels in metal fume fever.
Zhang, Haoze; Li, Ping; Wu, Di; Xu, Dong; Hou, Yong; Wang, Qian; Li, Mengtao; Li, Yongzhe; Zeng, Xiaofeng; Zhang, Fengchun; Shi, Qun
To characterize serum IgG subclass levels in several autoimmune diseases, including primary Sjogren syndrome (pSS), systemic sclerosis (SSc), systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), and primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC). We aimed to analyze serum IgG subclass distribution and to test whether serum IgG4 levels are elevated in these diseases. Serum IgG subclass levels from 102 pSS, 102 SSc, 100 SLE, and 59 PBC patients, as well as 40 healthy controls (HCs), were measured using the immunonephelometric assay. The distribution of IgG subclasses among these autoimmune diseases was analyzed. In this cross-sectional study, serum IgG1 (IgG1/IgG) and/or IgG3 (IgG3/IgG) were significantly increased, compared with those in HCs. Only 6.34% of patients had levels of serum IgG4 >135 mg/dL. There were no significant differences in the frequency of elevated serum IgG4 levels between patients and HC. In pSS, serum IgG1 levels were much higher than those in other disease groups, whereas serum IgG2 and IgG3 levels were most prominently increased in PBC. A strikingly different serum IgG subclass distribution was detected in patients with autoimmune diseases compared with HCs. Serum IgG subclass levels also showed distinct characteristics among different autoimmune diseases. Serum IgG4 levels in these patients were lower or not much higher than those in HCs, which differed from IgG4-related diseases.
Ellul-Micallef, R.; Galdes, A.; Fenech, F. F.
Serum zinc levels have been measured in twenty-four asthmatic patients, of whom sixteen were on long term corticosteroid therapy. They were carefully screened to exclude any concomitant disease. The non-steroid-treated asthmatics had normal serum zinc levels which ranged from 89 to 138 μg/ml. The corticosteroid-treated patients had a mean serum zinc level of 64 ± 9 μg/100 ml; this was significantly lower than normal (P = < 0·001). PMID:1264936
Berg, Kåre; Boman, Helge; Torsvik, Harald; Walker, Suzanne M.
A common antigenic polymorphism of high density lipoprotein (HDL) in rabbit serum is described. The presence or absence of an antigen termed Hl 1 appears to be controlled by autosomal dominant inheritance. The polymorphism should be a useful tool in the study of serum lipoproteins, particularly since genetic polymorphisms within the low density lipoprotein are already known in several species. The Hl polymorphism may make the rabbit more useful for model studies of serum lipoproteins in health and disease. Images PMID:4995822
Girolamo, Francesco Di; D’Amato, Alfonsina; Lante, Isabella; Signore, Fabrizio; Muraca, Marta; Putignani, Lorenza
Due to the incompleteness of animal genome sequencing, the analysis and characterization of serum proteomes of most farm animals are still in their infancy, compared to the already well-documented human serum proteome. This review focuses on the implications of the farm animal serum proteomics in order to identify novel biomarkers for animal welfare, early diagnosis, prognosis and monitoring of infectious disease treatment, and develop new vaccines, aiming at determining the reciprocal benefits for humans and animals. PMID:25257521
Avian coccidiosis is economically the most important parasitic disease of the poultry industry and is caused by intestinal infection with Eimeria spp. An alternative control strategy potentially applicable to intestinal diseases such as avian coccidiosis involves passive immunization using hyperimm...
Avian coccidiosis is a major parasitic disease of poultry with substantial economic consequences. Although good management practices and live vaccination with prophylactic medication have helped to reduce the spread of coccidiosis, alternative control strategies need to be developed due to the evid...
Yuyan, Li; Junqing, Wu; Wei, Yuan; Weijin, Zhou; Ersheng, Gao
Low serum zinc levels are harmful to semen quality in Chinese men. In this study, eligible men aged 20-59 years old-excluding those who had ever had urinary or genital disease, tuberculosis, or occupational heavy metal contact-were examined for semen quality and serum zinc and copper concentrations. Progressive motility showed differences among the five copper groups, but multiple logistic analyses did not show that higher or lower serum copper levels had a significant effect on sperm quality. When serum zinc concentration was low, the risk of asthenozoospermia was higher. The ratio of Cu/Zn was higher in the progressive motility abnormal group than in the normal group.
Nakamura, Yukiko Kawashima; Omaye, Stanley Teruo
Oxidation of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) may be a prelude to atherogenesis and directly age related. To assess whether there may be relationship between age and plasma lipoprotein (LP) oxidation, we studied copper-mediated LP oxidation isolated from the blood of 2 months, 7 months, and 15 months old rats. We determined whether the susceptibility of LP to oxidation might be related to vitamin C levels in serum, vitamin E levels in LP, or the total antioxidant capacity (TAC) of serum or LP. Serum vitamin C content was inversely related to age, malondialdehyde (MDA) propagation rate, and maximum change of MDA concentrations. However, there were no significant relationships between age and serum TAC, LP TAC, serum vitamin E, or the ratio of LP vitamin E to serum vitamin C content. The lag phase of MDA formation was significantly decreased with age and the ratio of LP vitamin E content to serum vitamin C content, increased with age. Maximum change of MDA concentration was positively correlated with the ratio of LP vitamin E contents to serum vitamin C concentration. Thus, as the rat ages, vitamin C status decreases with an increased LP susceptibility to oxidation. It is tempting to speculate that enhanced LP oxidation in older rats may reflect a reduced amount of recycling of LDL vitamin E by serum vitamin C.
Ge, Jinwen; Wang, Dongsheng; He, Rong; Zhu, Huibin; Wang, Yuhong; He, Shilin
Serum pharmacological method has generally been used in herb studies. However, preparation of test serum for ex vivo experiment is an intricate process: besides pretreatment (heat or chemicals), it involves the proteolytic cascades of coagulation along with fibrinolysis, complement and kinin systems, as well as platelet and leukocyte activation resulting in release reactions. These processes deviate serum sample components away from the original in vivo state, and possibly also have effects on the absorbed herbal components and their downstream effectors in blood. The conclusions drawn from serum pharmacological method are at least partially uncertain in its validity. These processes can be avoided by anticoagulation. Compared to those of the serum, constituents of plasma are better reflectors of the in vivo physiological/pathological state and medicinal herb-induced changes. Therefore, we have advocated the adoption of plasma pharmacological method in ex vivo experiments of herb studies. Recent studies including our work demonstrated that the constituents and biological activities are partially different between absorbed medicinal herbs in plasma and serum. This review summarizes the experimental evidence supporting the feasibility of plasma pharmacological method and discusses the reasons and facts that flaw the serum pharmacological method. But serum pharmacological method can be used if anticoagulants interfere with experiments. It should be emphasized that the domination between plasma and serum pharmacological methods is different depending on the usage. Indeed, the pros and cons of both methods as well as the appropriate choices of coagulants in different ex vivo experimental settings remain to be further elucidated.
Goldenberg, I; Jonas, M; Thaler, M; Grossman, E
Elevated serum creatine kinase levels are one of the major criteria for the diagnosis of myocardial injury. Noncardiac causes such as muscular and brain damage may also be associated with elevated serum creatine kinase levels. Hyponatremia may induce increased serum creatine kinase in association with rhabdomyolysis or with hypothyroidism. A patient is described where three episodes of hyponatraemia not associated with rhabdomyolysis or hypothyroidism induced transient elevations of serum creatine kinase levels. The association between hyponatraemia and elevated creatine kinase levels should be emphasized to prevent erroneous diagnosis of myocardial injury.
Miajlovic, Helen; Smith, Stephen G
The ability to survive the bactericidal action of serum is advantageous to extraintestinal pathogenic Escherichia coli that gain access to the bloodstream. Evasion of the innate defences present in serum, including complement and antimicrobial peptides, involves multiple factors. Serum resistance mechanisms utilized by E. coli include the production of protective extracellular polysaccharide capsules and expression of factors that inhibit or interfere with the complement cascade. Recent studies have also highlighted the importance of structural integrity of the cell envelope in serum survival. These survival strategies are outlined in this review with particular attention to novel findings and recent insights into well-established resistance mechanisms.
Ma, Chun-Hui; Guo, Ru-Hua; Wu, Wei-Jian; Yan, Jun-Xiong; Yu, Jin-Lin; Zhu, Ye-Hua; He, Qi-Tong; Luo, Yi-Hong; Huang, Lu; Ye, Rui-Yun
This study was aimed to evaluate the impact of regular donating platelets on serum ferritin (SF) of donors. A total of 93 male blood donors including 24 initial plateletpheresis donors and 69 regular plateletpheresis donors were selected randomly. Their SF level was measured by ELISA. The results showed that the SF level of initial plateletpheresis donors and regular plateletpheresis donors were 91.08 ± 23.38 µg/L and 57.16 ± 35.48 µg/L respectively, and all were in normal levels, but there was significant difference between the 2 groups (p < 0.05). The SF level decreased when the donation frequency increased, there were no significant differences between the groups with different donation frequency. Correlation with lifetime donations of platelets was not found. It is concluded that regular plateletpheresis donors may have lower SF level.
Patterson, R.; Suszko, I.M.; Grammer, L.C.
Extensive previous studies have demonstrated that attempts to produce polymers of Hymenoptera venoms for human immunotherapy resulted in insoluble precipitates that could be injected with safety but with very limited immunogenicity in allergic patients. We now report soluble polymers prepared by conjugating bee venom with human serum albumin with glutaraldehyde. The bee venom-albumin polymer (BVAP) preparation was fractionated on Sephacryl S-300 to have a molecular weight range higher than catalase. /sup 125/I-labeled bee venom phospholipase A was almost completely incorporated into BVAP. Rabbit antibody responses to bee venom and bee venom phospholipase A were induced by BVAP. Human antisera against bee venom were absorbed by BVAP. No new antigenic determinants on BVAP were present as evidenced by absorption of antisera against BVAP by bee venom and albumin. BVAP has potential immunotherapeutic value in patients with anaphylactic sensitivity to bee venom.
Skipski, V. P.; Barclay, Marion; Barclay, R. K.; Fetzer, Valentina A.; Good, J. J.; Archibald, F. M.
1. The lipid compositions of the low-density lipoproteins, the high-density lipoproteins and the ultracentrifugal residue of human serum are presented, with emphasis on certain lipoprotein classes and lipid components not previously described. 2. Except for the lipoproteins with the lowest and highest densities, there is a trend for stepwise successive increase or, respectively, decrease in the relative amounts of the main constituents of lipoproteins. 3. High-density lipoprotein-2 and high-density lipoprotein-3 have different amounts of certain lipids; high-density lipoprotein-2 has relatively more free cholesterol and sphingomyelin; high-density lipoprotein-3 has more free fatty acids, diglycerides and ceramide monohexosides. 4. All the lipoproteins contain hydrocarbons of the alkane series. The greatest amount, which averages 4·4% of total lipid extracted, is in the ultracentrifugal residue; n-alkanes comprise 18–50% of the hydrocarbons. 5. All the lipoproteins contain ceramide monohexosides. The highest relative contents of these glycolipids are in high-density lipoprotein-3 and in the ultracentrifugal residue. 6. The ultracentrifugal residue contains 55% of the total quantity of free fatty acids present in serum. The remaining free fatty acids are distributed among the other lipoprotein classes. 7. The choline-containing phospholipids (phosphatidylcholine, lysophosphatidylcholine and sphingomyelin) comprise about 90% of the phospholipids in all the lipoprotein classes except the low-density lipoprotein-2, which contains about 80% of these phospholipids. 8. The presence of a large amount of lysophosphatidylcholine in the ultracentrifugal residue and the successive decrease of sphingomyelin from the low-density lipoprotein-1 to the ultracentrifugal residue was confirmed. 9. The low-density lipoprotein-2 and the ultracentrifugal residue are characterized by relatively high contents of the lower glycerides. PMID:6048776
Kanakis, C. D.; Tarantilis, P. A.; Polissiou, M. G.; Diamantoglou, S.; Tajmir-Riahi, H. A.
Human serum albumin (HSA) is a principal extracellular protein with a high concentration in blood plasma and carrier for many drugs to different molecular targets. Flavonoids are powerful antioxidants and prevent DNA damage. The antioxidative protections are related to their binding modes to DNA duplex and complexation with free radicals in vivo. However, flavonoids are known to inhibit the activities of several enzymes such as calcium phospholipid-dependent protein kinase, tyrosine protein kinase from rat lung, phosphorylase kinase, phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase and DNA topoisomerases that exhibit the importance of flavonoid-protein interaction. This study was designed to examine the interaction of human serum albumin (HSA) with quercetin (que), kaempferol (kae) and delphinidin (del) in aqueous solution at physiological conditions, using constant protein concentration of 0.25 mM (final) and various drug contents of 1 μM-1 mM. FTIR and UV-vis spectroscopic methods were used to determine the polyphenolic binding mode, the binding constant and the effects of flavonoid complexation on protein secondary structure. The spectroscopic results showed that flavonoids are located along the polypeptide chains through H-bonding interactions with overall affinity constant of Kque = 1.4 × 10 4 M -1, Kkae = 2.6 × 10 5 M -1 and Kdel = 4.71 × 10 5 M -1. The protein secondary structure showed no alterations at low pigment concentration (1 μM), whereas at high flavonoid content (1 mM), major reduction of α-helix from 55% (free HSA) to 42-46% and increase of β-sheet from 15% (free HSA) to 17-19% and β-anti from 7% (free HSA) to 10-20% occurred in the flavonoid-HSA adducts. The major reduction of HSA α-helix is indicative of a partial protein unfolding upon flavonoid interaction.
Godenir, N L; Jeenah, M S; Coetzee, G A; Van der Westhuyzen, D R; Strachan, A F; De Beer, F C
An adequate method for standardising the quantitation of serum amyloid A protein (SAA) in human serum was developed. Acute phase high density lipoprotein3 (HDL3) was used as a standard. The concentration of the SAA in the standard was determined by the use of purified SAA. After protein determination, various concentrations of purified SAA were run on SDS-polyacrylamide gel together with the HDL3 standard containing an unknown amount of SAA amongst the apolipoproteins. From the standard curve obtained by pyridine extraction (Coomassie blue colour yield at A605 nm) the concentration of SAA in the HDL3 standard was determined. An established immunoradiometric assay (IRMA) for SAA was standardised with the HDL3. SAA concentrations in normal and acute phase sera were determined.
Tilak, Mona A; Dhat, Vaishali V; More, Umesh M; Shinde, Sarita A; Phalak, Pradnya; Deshmukh, Anita D
Background: Recent studies indicate that the risk of coronary artery disease (CAD) in women is no less than that in men and menopausal women are equally vulnerable as men. Studies of recent risk factors like hyperhomocysteinemia and elevation in lipoprotein (a) reveal controversial role of the same. This study hence is an attempt to study the prevalence of these factors in women and their correlation with lipid profile. Materials and Methods: Two hundred women were enrolled in the study- 100 premenopausal women (21-45y) and 100 menopausal (50-55y). All the subjects were screened for homocysteine by ELISA and lipoprotein (a) and lipid profile by automation. Results: Prevalence of hyperhomocysteinemia was 52% and 62% in premenopausal and menopausal women respectively. A significant positive correlation was seen for total cholesterol and triacylglycerol with serum Homocysteine in premenopausal women while pronounced positive correlation for serum cholesterol with serum Homocysteine in menopausal women. The prevalence of elevated lipoprotein (a) was 42% and 45% in premenopausal and menopausal women respectively. There was no correlation between lipoprotein (a) and lipid profile in both groups. Conclusion: The findings of the study conclude that premenopausal and menopausal women constitute a subpopulation where recent risk factors like hyperhomocysteinemia and elevated lipoprotein(a) could be assessed along with lipid profile as screening tests to identify the risk of CAD. This would help in proper counselling of the concerned women and minimize the risk. PMID:25478337
Bienzle, Dorothee; Jacobs, Robert M.; Lumsden, John H.
A retrospective study was performed in order to assess the relationship between serum calcium and serum albumin concentrations in domestic animals. Results of 9041 canine, 1564 feline, 2917 equine, and 613 bovine serum samples from hospitalized patients were examined by regression analysis. Subpopulations of cases with concurrent elevations in creatinine or that were less than six months of age were evaluated separately. Statistically significant linear relationships between calcium and albumin concentrations were established for each species (p <0.05). The coefficients of determination (r2) were 0.169 for dogs, 0.294 for cats, 0.222 for horses, and 0.032 for cattle. The correlation coefficients (r) computed were: dogs = 0.411, cats = 0.543, horses = 0.471, cattle = 0.182. Neither increases in creatinine concentration nor juvenile age appreciably influenced the relationship between calcium and albumin concentrations. Interspecies variation was marked, and a strong correlation between calcium and albumin concentrations was not established in any species. PMID:17424241
Kang, Hyeon-Ju; Kim, Hye-Jin; Cha, Sang-Hoon
The serum albumin (SA) has been exploited to generate long-acting biotherapeutics by taking advantage of the FcRn-mediated recycling mechanism in a direct or an indirect way. Since Fab fragments have been proven to be clinically safe for human usage, we assumed that human anti-SA Fab antibodies could have a great potential as a carrier molecule to extend the serum half-life of therapeutic proteins. We, herein, had attempted to isolate anti-SA Fab antibodies from HuDVFab-8L antibody library via a phage display technology, and identified eight discrete human Fab antibodies. One of the Fab antibodies, SL335, showed the strongest binding reactivity to human SA with nM range of affinity at both pH 6 and pH 7.4, and cross-reacted to SAs from various species including rat, mouse, canine and monkey. The in vivo pharmacokinetic assay using a rat model indicated that SL335 has approximately 10 fold longer serum half-life and 26 to 44-fold increase in AUC0 → ∞ compared to the negative control Fab molecule in both intravenous and subcutaneous administrations. Knowing that Fabs have proven to be safe in clinics for a long time, SL335 seems to have a great potential in generating long-acting protein drugs by tagging effector molecules with either chemical conjugation or genetic fusion.
Serum biomarkers to identify susceptibility to disease in aged humans are well researched. On the other hand, our understanding of biomarkers in animal models of aging is limited. Hence, we applied a commercially available panel of 58 serum analytes to screen for possible biomark...
Objective. Adropin is a newly identified regulatory protein encoded by the Enho gene and is critically involved in energy homeostasis and insulin sensitivity. This study aims to determine the correlation of serum adropin concentrations with diabetic nephropathy (DN). Methods. This study consisted of 245 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and 81 healthy subjects. Then T2DM patients were divided into normoalbuminuria, microalbuminuria, and macroalbuminuria subgroups based on urine albumin to creatinine ratio (ACR). Results. T2DM patients showed significantly lower serum adropin concentrations than those in the controls. T2DM patients with macroalbuminuria had significantly decreased serum adropin concentrations compared with the other three groups. In addition, T2DM patients with microalbuminuria showed lower serum adropin concentrations than those in patients with normoalbuminuria. Logistic regression analysis showed that serum adropin was correlated with decreased risk of developing T2DM and DN. Pearson correlation analysis indicated that serum adropin was negatively correlated with body mass index (BMI), blood urea nitrogen, creatinine, and ACR and positively correlated with glomerular filtration rate. Furthermore, multiple linear regression analysis showed that BMI and ACR were negatively correlated with serum adropin levels. Conclusion. Serum adropin concentrations are negatively associated with renal function. Adropin may be implicated in the pathogenesis of DN development. PMID:27546995
Mead, G P; Carr-Smith, H D; Drayson, M T; Morgan, G J; Child, J A; Bradwell, A R
Monoclonal immunoglobulin free light chains (FLC) are found in the serum and urine of patients with a number of B-cell proliferative disorders, including multiple myeloma. Automated immunoassays, which can measure FLC in serum, are useful for the diagnosis and monitoring of light chain (AL) amyloidosis, Bence Jones myeloma and non-secretory myeloma patients. We report the results of a study investigating the utility of serum FLC measurements in myeloma patients producing monoclonal intact immunoglobulin proteins. FLC concentrations were measured in presentation sera from 493 multiple myeloma patients with monoclonal, intact immunoglobulin proteins. Serial samples were assayed from 17 of these patients and the FLC measurements were compared with other disease markers. Serum FLC concentrations were abnormal in 96% of patients at presentation. FLC concentrations fell more rapidly in response to treatment than intact immunoglobulin G (IgG) and showed greater concordance with serum beta2 microglobulin concentrations and bone marrow plasma cell assessments. It was concluded that serum FLC assays could be used to follow the disease course in nearly all multiple myeloma patients. In addition, because of their short serum half-life, changes in serum FLC concentrations provide a rapid indication of the response to treatment.
Serum albumin first appeared in early vertebrates and is present in the plasma of all mammals. Its canonical structure supported by a conserved set of disulfide bridges is maintained in all mammalian serum albumins and any changes in sequence are highly correlated with evolution of the species. Previous structural investigations of mammalian serum albumins have only concentrated on human serum albumin (HSA), most likely as a consequence of crystallization and diffraction difficulties. Here, the crystal structures of serum albumins isolated from bovine, equine and leporine blood plasma are reported. The structure of bovine serum albumin (BSA) was determined at 2.47 Å resolution, two crystal structures of equine serum albumin (ESA) were determined at resolutions of 2.32 and 2.04 Å, and that of leporine serum albumin (LSA) was determined at 2.27 Å resolution. These structures were compared in detail with the structure of HSA. The ligand-binding pockets in BSA, ESA and LSA revealed different amino-acid compositions and conformations in comparison to HSA in some cases; however, much more significant differences were observed on the surface of the molecules. BSA, which is one of the most extensively utilized proteins in laboratory practice and is used as an HSA substitute in many experiments, exhibits only 75.8% identity compared with HSA. The higher resolution crystal structure of ESA highlights the binding properties of this protein because it includes several bound compounds from the crystallization solution that provide additional structural information about potential ligand-binding pockets.
The microneutralization (MN) assay is a modification of the serum virus neutralization assay and is a serological test to detect the presence of functional systemic antibodies that prevent infectivity of virus. When infectious virus is mixed with serum antibody, the virus infectivity can be "neutral...
Gahl, W A; Pitot, H C
1. Using protein-separative chromatographic procedures and assays specific for putrescine oxidase and spermidine oxidase, adult bovine serum was found to contain a single polyamine-degrading enzyme with substrate preferences for spermidine and spermine. Apparent Km values for these substrates were approx. 40 microM. The apparent Km for putrescine was 2 mM. With spermidine as substrate, the Ki values for aminoguanidine (AM) and methylglyoxal bis(guanylhydrazone) (MGBG) were 70 microM and 20 microM respectively. 2. Bovine serum spermidine oxidase degraded spermine to spermidine to putrescine and N8-acetylspermidine to N-acetylputrescine. Acrolein was produced in all these reactions and recovered in quantities equivalent to H2O2 recovery. 3. Spermidine oxidase activity was present in foetal bovine serum, but increased markedly after birth to levels in adult serum that were almost 100 times the activity in foetal bovine serum. 4. Putrescine oxidase, shown to be a separate enzyme from bovine serum spermidine oxidase, was present in foetal bovine serum but absent from bovine serum after birth. This enzyme displayed an apparent Km for putrescine of 2.6 microM. The enzyme was inhibited by AM and MGBG with Ki values of 20 nM. Putrescine, cadaverine and 1,3-diaminopropane proved excellent substrates for the enzyme compared with spermidine and spermine, and N-acetylputrescine was a superior substrate to N1- or N8-acetylspermidine. PMID:7092834
Zinc plays an important role in immune function. The association between serum zinc and pneumonia in the elderly has not been studied. The study aim is to determine if serum zinc concentrations in nursing home elderly are associated with incidence and duration of pneumonia, total and duration of ant...
... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true Total solids in serums. 610.16 Section 610.16 Food... GENERAL BIOLOGICAL PRODUCTS STANDARDS General Provisions § 610.16 Total solids in serums. Except as... solids....
... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Total solids in serums. 610.16 Section 610.16 Food... GENERAL BIOLOGICAL PRODUCTS STANDARDS General Provisions § 610.16 Total solids in serums. Except as... solids....
Background To determine the associations between serum osteocalcin level and insulin resistance, coronary atherosclerosis by using dual-source coronary computed tomography angiography. Methods A total of 98 subjects (24 men and 74 women) were selected for this retrospective cross-sectional study who voluntarily visited a health examination center for routine health check-up including the blood test for serum osteocalcin level and coronary computed tomography angiography. Multiple regression analysis was used to determine which variables were independently related to osteocalcin levels and coronary atherosclerosis. Results Stepwise multiple regression analysis adjusted for age, sex, menopausal status, body mass index, serum alkaline phosphatase, serum calcium and phosphate showed that osteocalcin negatively correlated with serum glucose (β=-0.145, P=0.001) and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) index (β=-1.794, P=0.027) independently. The age, serum glucose, smoking status but not osteocalcin level were independent risk factors for coronary atherosclerosis by use of multiple logistic regression analysis after controlling for other variables. Conclusions Serum osteocalcin level was inversely associated with fasting glucose level and insulin resistance measured by HOMA-IR, suggesting that osteocalcin is important for glucose metabolism. However, in this study, no significant difference was observed in the serum osteocalcin level according to the presence of coronary atherosclerotic plaques. PMID:27965939
Rusia, U; Flowers, C; Madan, N; Agarwal, N; Sood, S K; Sikka, M
A prospective hospital-based study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of serum transferrin receptors in the detection of iron deficiency in pregnant women. The iron status of 100 pregnant women with single uncomplicated term pregnancies in the first stage of labor was established using standard laboratory measures. These included complete hemogram, red cell indices, serum iron, percent transferrin saturation, and serum ferritin. In addition, serum transferrin receptor (STFR) was estimated. The results of 81 women with complete laboratory profiles were analyzed. Thirty-five (43.2%) women were anemic (hemoglobin <11 g/dl). Hemoglobin (Hb) showed a significant correlation with MCH, MCHC, serum iron, and percent transferrin saturation, suggesting that the anemia was likely to be due to iron deficiency. The mean STFR level was 18.05+/-9.9 mg/l in the anemic women and was significantly raised (p<0.001) compared with that of the nonanemic women. STFR correlated significantly with Hb (p<0.001), MCH (p<0.05), MCHC (p<0.01), serum iron (p<0.01), and percent transferrin saturation (p<0.01) and also showed a highly significant correlation with the degree of anemia. Serum ferritin in these women did not correlate with Hb, and only 54.4% of the women had levels <12 ng/ml, which does not reflect the true prevalence of iron deficiency. Serum transferrin receptor estimation is thus a useful measure for detecting iron deficiency in pregnancy.
Holtzman, R. B.; Ilcewicz, F. H.
Differential absorption spectrophotometric technique, using murexide, gives a highly precise analysis of calcium in volumes of blood serum as small as 0.01 ml. The method of additions and proper timing allows compensation to be made for fading, variation in type of serum or plasma, and aging of the specimen.
Karabakan, M; Erkmen, A E; Guzel, O; Aktas, B K; Bozkurt, A; Akdemir, S
This study measured the serum folic acid (FA) level in patients with erectile dysfunction (ED) and evaluated the possible association between the serum FA level and erectile function. The study divided 120 patients with ED into 3 groups of 40 patients each: those with severe, moderate and mild ED. Forty healthy men served as controls. Fasting serum samples were obtained, and the total testosterone, cholesterol and FA levels were measured using chemiluminescent immunoassays. There were no significant differences in the mean age, mean body mass index or mean serum total testosterone and cholesterol levels among the three ED groups and controls (P > 0.05). The mean serum FA concentrations were 7.2 ± 3.7, 7.1 ± 3.2, 10.2 ± 4.6 and 10.7 ± 4.6 ng ml(-1) in the severe, moderate and mild ED and control groups respectively. The mean serum FA concentration was significantly higher in the control group than in the severe and moderate ED groups (both P < 0.001), but not the mild ED group (P = 0.95). Considering the significant differences in the serum FA levels between the control and ED groups, serum FA deficiency might reflect the severity of ED.
Darsonval, Astrid; Boels, David; Clerc, Marie-Anne; De Haro, Luc; Penot-Ragon, Christine; Moal, Fréderic; Quistinic, Pierre; Lourdais, Olivier; Harry, Patrick
For several years exotic snakes have been bred in France. In view of the increased risk of envenomation from some of these species, the Poison Centre in Angers has joined forces with several private licensed snake breeders to create an Anti-venom Serum Bank. The main objective of the new organization is to provide an effective means of dealing with bites and subsequent envenomation by exotic snakes by managing a stock of anti-venom serums in a hospital pharmacy, so that cases can be treated as quickly as possible. The hospital pharmacy has the authority to purchase and supply the anti-venom serums. The selection and purchase of the serums is done in conjunction with the French Ministry of Ecology, the French Drug Agency and specialist doctors. At the time of writing, the Antivenom Serum Bank has the capacity to treat about thirty different kinds of envenomation, compared to the 135 exotic venomous snake species officially registered. In the long term the Anti-venom Serum Bank will help eradicate the use of serums from unauthorized sources, evaluate the safety and efficacy of new serums and reduce transport times.
A simple solid-phase extraction (SPE) method was developed to extract organochlorine pesticides (OCs) and persistent organic pollutants (POPs) from avian serum. In this method, a 1-mL serum sample fortified with two levels of OCs or POPs was treated with 8M urea or 4M urea and 4...
Iyer, Chandrashekhar M; Madivalar, Mamatha Thimmanna; Wadde, Satish Kishanrao; Howale, Deepak Sadashiv
Introduction Diabetes mellitus (DM), a metabolic disorder characterized by hyperglycaemia, associated with deficiency or resistance to insulin indicates endocrinal abnormality of the pancreas. Amylase and lipase are enzymes secreted by the exocrine portion of the pancreas. Endocrinal derangement observed in diabetes may interfere with the exocrine function of the pancreas. Aim To estimate the levels of fasting blood sugar, serum lipase, serum amylase in patients of type 1 and type 2 DM. Than comparing them with healthy controls and to study the effect of type 1 and type 2 DM on pancreatic exocrine function using serum levels of amylase and lipase as biochemical marker. Materials and Methods This study was conducted at GMERS Medical College and Hospital from Dec 2015 to July 2016. Thirty patients of type 1 DM and 30 patients of type 2 DM, who were already diagnosed and taking treatment, were included in this study. A total number of 30 apparently healthy individuals were recruited as the control group in our study. Fasting venous blood samples were collected from the cases as well as the controls and they were analysed by using semi auto analyser for blood glucose, serum amylase and serum lipase. The results were analysed statistically by using SPSS software. Values were expressed as means ± SD. Results We found statistically significant (p<0.01) low values for serum amylase and serum lipase in patients with type 1 and type 2 DM as compared to healthy controls. Fasting blood sugar was significantly higher in cases as compared to controls. We found negative correlation of fasting blood sugar level with serum amylase and serum lipase and positive correlation of serum amylase with serum lipase in both type 1 and type 2 DM. Conclusion Our study clearly demonstrated that in type 1 and type 2 DM, there was increase in fasting blood sugar with decrease in serum amylase and serum lipase which signifies the derangement of endocrine-exocrine axis of the pancreas. Serum
Kiyici, Sinem; Basaran, Nesrin Filiz; Cavun, Sinan; Savci, Vahide
In this study we aimed to test central administration of CDP-choline on serum ghrelin, leptin, glucose and corticosterone levels in rats. Intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 µmol CDP-choline and saline were administered to male Wistar-Albino rats. For the measurement of serum leptin and ghrelin levels, blood samples were obtained baseline and at 5, 15, 30, 60 and 120 min following i.c.v. CDP-choline injection. Equimolar doses of i.c.v. choline (1.0 µmol) and cytidine (1.0 µmol) were administered and measurements were repeated throughout the second round of the experiment. Atropine (10 µg) and mecamylamine (50 µg) were injected intracerebroventricularly prior to CDP-choline and measurements repeated in the third round of the experiment. After 1 µmol CDP-choline injection, serum ghrelin levels were suppressed significantly at 60 min (P=0.025), whereas serum leptin levels were increased at 60 and 120 min (P=0.012 and P=0.017 respectively). CDP-choline injections also induced a dose- and time-dependent increase in serum glucose and corticosterone levels. The effect of choline on serum leptin and ghrelin levels was similar with CDP-choline while no effect was seen with cytidine. Suppression of serum ghrelin levels was eliminated through mecamylamine pretreatment while a rise in leptin was prevented by both atropine and mecamylamine pretreatments. In conclusion; centrally injected CDP-choline suppressed serum ghrelin levels while increasing serum leptin levels. The observed effects following receptor antagonist treatment suggest that nicotinic receptors play a role in suppression of serum ghrelin levels,whereas nicotinic and muscarinic receptors both play a part in the increase of serum leptin levels.
Azab, Seham F.; Akeel, Nagwa E.; Abdalhady, Mohamed A.; Elhewala, Ahmed A.; Ali, Al Shymaa A.; Amin, Ezzat K.; Sarhan, Dina T.; Almalky, Mohamed A.A.; Elhindawy, Eman M.; Salam, Mohamed M.A.; Soliman, Attia A.; Abdellatif, Sawsan H.; Ismail, Sanaa M.; Elsamad, Nahla A.; Hashem, Mustafa I.A.; Aziz, Khalid A.; Elazouni, Osama M.A.; Arafat, Manal S.
Abstract Recently, hepcidin, an antimicrobial-like peptide hormone, has evolved as the master regulator of iron homeostasis. Despite the growing evidence of iron imbalance in childhood-onset ischemic stroke, serum hepcidin level in those patients has not yet been researched. In this study, we aimed to estimate serum (hepcidin) level in acute ischemic stroke (AIS) patients and to investigate whether subcutaneous enoxaparin sodium, which is a low-molecular-weight heparin (LMWH) derivative, could modulate serum hepcidin level in those patients. This was a case–control study included 60 (AIS) cases, and 100 healthy children with comparable age and gender as control group. For all subjects’ serum hepcidin, interleukin-6 (IL-6), and soluble transferrin receptor [sTfR]) levels were assessed by (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay [ELISA] method). Iron parameters including (serum iron, ferritin, transferrin, and total iron binding capacity [TIBC]) were also measured. The patients were subdivided according to treatment with an LMWH derivative into 2 groups and serum hepcidin levels were assessed initially and 1 week after stroke onset for all cases. We found that AIS cases had higher serum iron, ferritin, and IL6 levels compared to the control group (all P < 0.01). Serum hepcidin was significantly higher in AIS cases (median, 36[15–73]ng/mL) compared to the control group (median, 24[10–41]ng/mL; P < 0.01). On the 1st day of AIS diagnosis, serum hepcidin levels were similar in both stroke subgroups (P > 0.05). However, on the 7th day of diagnosis serum hepcidin level decreased significantly in AIS cases treated with LMWH (group 1) (median, 36 vs 21 ng/mL; P < 0.01, respectively). Meanwhile, no significant change was observed in serum hepcidin level in AIS cases not treated with LMWH (group 2) (P > 0.05). Serum hepcidin showed significant positive correlations with serum iron, transferrin saturation, ferritin, and IL6 (r = 0.375, P < 0
Bingen, E; Mariani-Kurkdjian, P; Nebbad, B
Vancomycin is the cornerstone of therapy against methicillin-resistant Staphylococus aureus in both community and nosocomial-acquired infections. Because vancomycin is a concentration-independent or time-dependant antibiotic, most clinicians have abandoned the routine practice of determining peak serum concentrations to rely solely on monitoring serum concentrations. The so-called therapeutic range most often quoted for vancomycin was assessed for through serum concentrations of 5-10 mg/l. But prolonged exposure to serum concentration close to the MIC is associated with the emergence of resistance. More recent guidelines recommended vancomycin in concentrations of 15-20 mg/l for the treatment of severe Staphylococcus infections or in situations where vancomycin penetration is poor. However, because of the great variability of vancomycin MIC(S) (0,12-4 mg/l) of susceptible Staphylococcus strains, guidelines should recommend through serum concentrations of 5-10 times the MIC.
Cesur, Salih; Kocaturk, Pelin Aribal; Kavas, Guzin Ozelci; Aksaray, Sebahat; Tezeren, Deniz; Ciftci, Ugur
The aim of this study was to measure the alterations in serum trace element concentrations, including zinc (Zn) and copper (Cu) in patients with brucellosis and to compare them with the results of healthy individuals. Seventy-five subjects, 60 patients with brucellosis and 15 healthy individuals were included in this study. The serum Zn and Cu concentrations were measured by using atomic absorbtion spectrophotometer in sera of patients with brucellosis and statistically compared with those of healthy individuals. Serum Cu concentration was found to be significantly higher in patients with brucellosis than that of healthy individual (130.5+/-24.7, 96+/-8.65 microg/dl, respectively) (p < 0.01). Serum Zn concentration was lower in patients with brucellosis than those of healthy subjects (79.5 +/-13.5 and 83+/-5.59 microg/dl, respectively) (p < 0.01). Serum trace element concentrations showed significant alterations in patients with brucellosis compared with healthy subjects.
Ciprandi, G; De Amici, M; Marseglia, G L
Th9 is a new T cell subset characterized by IL-9 production. It has been reported that serum IL-9 levels are related with symptom severity in patients with allergic rhinitis (AR). This study is aimed at investigating whether serum IL-9 may be modulated by sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT) in patients with persistent AR due to Parietaria allergy. Twenty-one AR patients (9 males, median age 41 years) successfully treated with SLIT and 52 AR patients (25 males, median age 34 years) treated only with drugs were evaluated during the pollen season. Serum IL-9 was dosed in all patients. SLIT-treated patients showed significantly lower serum IL-9 levels than untreated AR patients (p <0.0001). In conclusion, this preliminary study shows that a single pre-seasonal SLIT course might modulate serum IL-9.
Lynn, K L; Mitchell, T R; Shepperd, J
Studies in 144 patients on maintenace hemodialysis have shown that serum ferritin concentration is influenced by the period the patient has been on dialysis, the presence of liver disease and to some extent the underlying diagnosis. It was observed that parenteral iron therapy could still produce an increase in hemoglobin concentration when the serum ferritin was as high as 60--55 micrograms/l. This suggests that the target serum ferritin, whatever the route of iron replacement, should be at least 55 micrograms/l. The higher levels of ferritin at which an increase in hemoglobin concentration can occur, together with the variable increment in serum ferritin after parenteral iron, indicates that the simple relationship between serum ferritin and marrow iron stores may be distrubed in some patients.
Srinivasan, A; Rusia, U; Anand, N K; Sood, S K
Serum and CSF ferritin were estimated in 35 consecutive patients of acute leukaemia at the time of admission and on induction of remission. Serum ferritin levels were significantly raised in 94 per cent patients of acute leukaemia. The mean (+/- SD) serum ferritin (314.36 +/- 158.4 micrograms/1) was significantly higher when compared with control values (P less than 0.001). Remission induction resulted in significant fall in serum ferritin values to a mean of 149 (+/- 98.7) micrograms/l (P less than 0.05). Serum ferritin is thus of value in assessing the state of remission and is a sensitive indicator of the leukaemic cell mass and the state of activity of the disease. CSF ferritin levels in acute leukaemia were comparable to normal control values. CSF ferritin did not reflect CNS involvement in acute leukaemia and therefore its value as a tumour marker of CNS infiltration is doubtful.
Juan, Hu; Qijun, Wang; Junlan, Liu
The objective of this study was to measure the serum concentrations of C-reactive protein (CRP) in cancer patients and compare with those of immune disease patients and healthy individuals for discriminatory analysis. For this purpose, automatic systems for special protein analysis (Type: Drcon Diognostica Tarbox) was used to measure serum CRP concentrations in 276 cancer patients (Group A), 110 immune disease patients (Group B), 161 phlogistic patients (Group C), and 125 age-matched healthy individuals (Group D). Our data show that serum CRP concentrations in Group A were significantly higher than those in Groups B and D, whereas CRP concentrations in Group B were higher than those in Group D. The differences of serum CRP concentrations between Groups A and B as well as between Groups B and D were significant (P < 0.01). We, therefore, concluded that the measurement of serum CRP concentrations was a fast and accurate method to distinguish between cancer and immune disease patients.
Chakraborti, Goutam; Biswas, Rabindranath; Chakraborti, Sandip; Sen, Pradyot Kumar
Background: Lichen planus (LP) is a common disorder whose etiopathogenesis is not clear. Recently, it has been suggested that increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) play important roles in the underlying mechanism of LP. Objectives: The principal aim of this study was to evaluate serum uric acid (UA) levels as a measure of the antioxidant defense status in LP patients. Methods: Serum UA levels were determined in 58 LP patients and 61 controls. Results: Serum UA levels were significantly decreased in patients with respect to controls. Moreover, serum UA level was decreased according to increasing duration of disease. Conclusions: The results of our study suggest that LP is associated with decrease of UA levels in serum. UA may be a potential, useful biomarker of antioxidant status in LP for elaboration of treatment strategy and monitoring. PMID:25484383
Rodrigues, A F; Carmo, M; Alves, P M; Coroadinha, A S
The use of retroviral vectors for gene therapy applications demands high titer preparations and stringent quality standards. However, the manufacturing of these vectors still represents a highly challenging task due to the low productivity of the cell lines and reduced stability of the vector infectivity, particularly under serum-free conditions. With the objective of understanding the major limitations of retroviral vector production under serum deprivation, a thorough study of viral production kinetics, vector characterization and cell growth and metabolic behavior was conducted, for 293 FLEX 18 and Te Fly Ga 18 producer cell lines using different serum concentrations. The reduction of serum supplementation in the culture medium resulted in pronounced decreases in cell productivity of infectious vector, up to ninefold in 293 FLEX 18 cells and sevenfold in Te Fly Ga 18 cells. Total particles productivity was maintained, as assessed by measuring viral RNA; therefore, the decrease in infectious vector production could be attributed to higher defective particles output. The absence of the serum lipid fraction was found to be the major cause for this decrease in cell viral productivity. The use of delipidated serum confirmed the requirement of serum lipids, particularly cholesterol, as its supplementation not only allowed the total recovery of viral titers as well as additional production increments in both cell lines when comparing with the standard 10% (v/v) FBS supplementation. This work identified lower production ratios of infectious particles/total particles as the main restraint of retroviral vector production under serum deprivation; this is of the utmost importance concerning the clinical efficacy of the viral preparations. Lipids were confirmed as the key serum component correlated with the production of infective retroviral vectors and this knowledge can be used to efficiently design medium supplementation strategies for serum-free production. Biotechnol
Kudchodkar, B J; Lacko, A G; Dory, L; Fungwe, T V
We examined the effects of dietary fats with specific fatty acid compositions, on serum paraoxonase (PON1) activity in rats. Male adult Sprague-Dawley rats were divided randomly into four dietary groups. One group received the control diet [AIN 93M with soybean oil (5 g/100 g diet)], whereas the remaining three groups received the modified control diet supplemented with (15 g/100 g diet) triolein, tripalmitin or fish oil, respectively. After 20 d, blood was obtained after overnight food deprivation and PON1 activity was determined. Serum lipids and lipid components of lipoproteins were also determined. Serum PON1 activity [micromol/(L.min)] was significantly (P: < 0.05) higher in triolein (98 +/- 6) and lower in fish oil (41 +/- 4), compared with tripalmitin-fed rats (63 +/- 11). Serum PON1 activity in tripalmitin-fed rats was comparable to that of controls (67 +/- 9). Serum PON1 activity correlated significantly with serum lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT) activity (r = 0.77, P: < 0.001) and was transported in blood principally in association with the denser subfraction of HDL, very high density lipoprotein (VHDL; d > 1.15 kg/L). Serum PON1 activity correlated strongly with serum lipids as well as lipids of VLDL, HDL and its subfractions. Multiple linear regression analysis, however, showed a significant relationship of serum PON1 activity, principally with the phospholipids of VHDL (r = 0.47, P: < 0.002). These data suggest that the modulation of serum PON1 activity by dietary fat may be mediated via the effect of the specific fatty acids on the synthesis and secretion of VHDL, the subfraction of HDL that transports the majority of PON1 in the blood.
Harvey, Kevin; Siddiqui, Rafat A; Sliva, Daniel; Garcia, Joe G N; English, Denis
Our previous studies have demonstrated that lipid and protein angiogenic factors operate in tandem to induce optimal angiogenic responses in vivo. This study was undertaken to clarify the nature of the substances in human serum that are responsible for its remarkable ability to promote capillary morphogenesis in vitro. The ability of dilute (2%) human serum to promote the morphogenic differentiation of human dermal microvascular endothelial cells on Matrigel supports was depleted by more than 50% by treatment of the serum with activated charcoal, a procedure that effectively removes biologically active lipid growth factors. The remainder of the activity within serum was lost on heating to 60 degrees C for 60 minutes, indicating the involvement of a protein in the response. The ability of charcoal-treated serum to promote capillary morphogenesis was completely restored by the addition of sphingosine 1-phosphate (SPP, 500 nmol/L), but other lipids thought to be released into serum during clotting were ineffective. In addition, basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) effectively restored the ability of heat-treated serum to promote endothelial cell morphogenesis, but other protein growth factors, including vascular endothelial growth factor and platelet-derived growth factor, were ineffective. Together, SPP and bFGF were as effective as whole serum in promoting capillary morphogenesis. Responses to purified SPP were entirely sensitive to the effects of preexposure of the cells to pertussis toxin, whereas responses to bFGF were entirely pertussis toxin-resistant. Consistent with our hypothesis that two distinct factors in serum play a role in promoting capillary morphogenesis, responses induced by serum were inhibited approximately 50% by preexposure of endothelial cells to pertussis toxin. We conclude that platelet-released SPP acts in conjunction with circulating bFGF to promote capillary formation by microvascular endothelial cells. Lipid and protein growth factors
Franklin, R.A.; Davila, D.R.; Westly, H.J.; Kelley, K.W.
The authors have found that heat-inactivated serum (57/sup 0/C for 1 hour) from normal chickens reduces the proliferation of mitogen-stimulated chicken and murine splenocytes as well as some transformed mammalian lymphoblastoid cell lines. Greater than a 50% reduction in /sup 3/H-thymidine incorporation was observed when concanavalin A (Con A)-activated chicken splenocytes that were cultured in the presence of 10% autologous or heterologous serum were compared to mitogen-stimulated cells cultured in the absence of serum. Normal chicken serum (10%) also caused greater than 95% suppression of /sup 3/H-thymidine incorporation by bovine (EBL-1 and BL-3) and gibbon ape (MLA 144) transformed lymphoblastoid cell lines. The only cell line tested that was not inhibited by chicken serum was an IL-2-dependent, murine cell line. Chicken serum also inhibited both /sup 3/H-thymidine incorporation and IL-2 synthesis by Con A-activated murine splenocytes. Suppression was caused by actions other than cytotoxicity because viability of chicken splenocytes was unaffected by increasing levels of chicken serum. Furthermore, dialyzed serum retained its activity, which suggested that thymidine in the serum was not inhibiting uptake of radiolabeled thymidine. Suppressive activity was not due to adrenal glucocorticoids circulating in plasma because neither physiologic nor pharmacologic doses of corticosterone had inhibitory effects on mitogen-stimulated chicken splenocytes. These data demonstrate that an endogenous factor that is found in normal chicken serum inhibits proliferation of T-cells from chickens and mice as well as some transformed mammalian lymphoblastoid cell lines.
Molteni, A.; Ward, W.F.; Kim, Y.T.; Shetty, R.; Brizio-Molteni, L.; Giura, R.; Ribner, H.; Lomont, M. )
The purpose of this ongoing study is to determine whether thoracic radiotherapy for lung cancer produces an early increase in serum copper (Cu) concentration, an increase which might predict clinical outcome. Copper and iron concentrations were measured in serum obtained from nonsmall cell lung cancer patients at 0, 1, 2, 4, and 6 weeks after the start of radiotherapy. Control groups included patients irradiated for breast cancer (low dose of radiation to the lung), for endometrial, cervical or prostatic cancer, and patients with congestive heart failure, pulmonary hypertension, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and cutaneous burns with or without smoke inhalation. Serum Cu concentration increased at least 10 micrograms/dl from the pretreatment level in approximately 75% of the adenocarcinoma and squamous cell lung cancer patients, but in only 1 of 4 undifferentiated lung cancer cases. In virtually all of these responders, serum Cu increased to a maximum at 2 weeks after the start of therapy, then plateaued or decreased slightly despite continuing irradiation. Within the subset of squamous cell lung cancers, there was a direct correlation between the degree of histologic differentiation and both baseline serum Cu concentration and the probability of an early increase therein. In contrast, only 33% of breast cancer patients and 15% of endometrial, cervical and prostate cancer patients exhibited an increase in serum Cu concentration at 2 weeks after the start of radiotherapy. Serum Cu concentration was within normal limits in virtually all patients with congestive heart failure, pulmonary hypertension, and COPD. Burn patients exhibited a significant reduction in serum Cu, although concomitant smoke inhalation increased serum Cu back to low-normal levels. Serum iron concentration did not change significantly in any category of patients.
Tanaka, M; Fujimoto, K; Chihara, Y; Torimoto, K; Yoneda, T; Tanaka, N; Hirayama, A; Miyanaga, N; Akaza, H; Hirao, Y
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of supplementing healthy men with soy isoflavones on the serum levels of sex hormones implicated in prostate cancer development. A total of 28 Japanese healthy volunteers (18 equol producers and 10 equol non-producers) between 30 and 59 years of age were given soy isoflavones (60 mg daily) supplements for 3 months, and the changes in their sex hormone levels were investigated at the baseline and after administration. The serum and urine concentrations of daidzein, genistein, and the levels of equol in the fasting blood samples and 24-h stored urine samples were also measured. All 28 volunteers completed the 3-month supplementation with isoflavone. No changes in the serum levels of estradiol and total testosterone were detected after 3-month supplementation. The serum levels of sex hormone-binding globulin significantly increased, and the serum levels of free testosterone and dihydrotestosterone (DHT) decreased significantly after 3-month supplementation. Among the 10 equol non-producers, equol became detectable in the serum of two healthy volunteers after 3-month supplementation. This study revealed that short-term administration of soy isoflavones stimulated the production of serum equol and decreased the serum DHT level in Japanese healthy volunteers. These results suggest the possibility of converting equol non-producers to producers by prolonged and consistent soy isoflavones consumption. PMID:19597532
You, Jeong Soon; Park, Ji Yeon; Zhao, Xu; Jeong, Jin Seok; Choi, Mi Ja; Chang, Kyung Ja
Human adipose tissue is not only a storage organ but also an active endocrine organ to release adipokines. This study was conducted to investigate the relationship among serum taurine and adipokine levels, and body composition during 8-week human body weight control program in obese female college students. The program consisted of diet therapy, exercise, and behavior modification. After the program, body weight, body fat mass, percent body fat, and body mass index (BMI) were significantly decreased. Serum triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (TC), and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels were significantly decreased. Also serum adiponectin level was significantly increased and serum leptin level was significantly decreased. There were no differences in serum taurine and homocysteine levels. The change of serum adiponectin level was positively correlated with change of body fat mass and percent body fat. These results may suggest that body fat loss by human body weight control program is associated with an increase in serum adiponectin in obese female college students. Therefore, further study such as taurine intervention study is needed to know more exact correlation between dietary taurine intake and serum adipokines or body composition.
Anguizola, Jeanethe; Matsuda, Ryan; Barnaby, Omar S.; Joseph, K.S.; Wa, Chunling; DeBolt, Erin; Koke, Michelle; Hage, David S.
Glycation involves the non-enzymatic addition of reducing sugars and/or their reactive degradation products to amine groups on proteins. This process is promoted by the presence of elevated blood glucose concentrations in diabetes and occurs with various proteins that include human serum albumin (HSA). This review examines work that has been conducted in the study and analysis of glycated HSA. The general structure and properties of HSA are discussed, along with the reactions that can lead to modification of this protein during glycation. The use of glycated HSA as a short-to-intermediate term marker for glycemic control in diabetes is examined, and approaches that have been utilized for measuring glycated HSA are summarized. Structural studies of glycated HSA are reviewed, as acquired for both in vivo and in vitro glycated HSA, along with data that have been obtained on the rate and thermodynamics of HSA glycation. In addition, this review considers various studies that have investigated the effects of glycation on the binding of HSA with drugs, fatty acids and other solutes and the potential clinical significance of these effects. PMID:23891854
Cabrera Jiménez, M; Valdés Sánchez, A F; Argüelles Sobrino, D; Gómez Echevarría, A H; Lastra Alfonso, G
One hundred eighty one asthmatic patients were evaluated at the Allergy Consultation in Hermanos Ameijeiras Clinical Surgical Hospital. A case history was made for each of the patients, where the family background and personal history of allergy was collected; possible precipitating factors (such as inhalable, food, infectious, irritant, as well as climate factors) and physical and respiratory examinations. Serum immunoglobulin tests (by means of the ultramicroanalitic system (SUMA) and the rest of Igs: IgA, IgG, IgM by means of Mancini's simple radial immunodifusion method were made. Total eosinophil count was made to all of the patients in the study as well as serial studies of the faces. An increase in the IgE and IgM figures was found in asthmatic patients related to individual controls, and in relation to the normal figures for the adult population in our country. IgA and IgG determinations were normal both in the asthmatic and control groups, related to the standard figures.
Hotz, P; Thielemans, N; Bernard, A; Gutzwiller, F; Lauwerys, R
It has been postulated that occupational exposure to hydrocarbons may damage the kidney and lead to glomerulonephritis and chronic renal failure. As laminin is a ubiquitous basement membrane component that seems to play a central part in the structure and function of basement membranes and as the normal renal filtration process is highly dependent on an intact glomerular basement membrane, the serum laminin concentration was examined in a population of workers exposed to hydrocarbons. The hydrocarbon exposure was assessed by exposure surrogates (exposure duration and exposure score). An interaction between occupational exposure to hydrocarbons and hypertension increased the laminin concentration whereas the laminin concentration decreased in workers exposed for a long time probably because of a selection effect. In a subgroup of printers exposed to toluene whose hippuric acid excretion had been recorded for several years this interaction was confirmed when the hippuric acid excretion was substituted for the other exposure indices. In the exposed group, the age-related decline in creatinine clearance was accelerated. These results seem to confirm that occupational exposure to hydrocarbons is a non-specific factor that may promote a deterioration of renal function. PMID:8280641
N' soukpoe-Kossi, C N; St-Louis, C; Beauregard, M; Subirade, M; Carpentier, R; Hotchandani, S; Tajmir-Riahi, H A
Resveratrol (Res), a polyphenolic compound found largely in the skin of red grape and wine, exhibits a wide range of pharmaceutical properties and plays a role in prevention of human cardiovascular diseases [Pendurthi et al., Arterioscler. Thromb. Vasc. Biol. 19, 419-426 (1999)]. It shows a strong affinity towards protein binding and used as inhibitor for cyclooxygenase and ribonuclease reductase. The aim of this study was to examine the interaction of resveratrol with human serum albumin (HSA) in aqueous solution at physiological conditions, using a constant protein concentration (0.3 mM) and various pigment contents (microM to mM). FTIR, UV-Visible, CD, and fluorescence spectroscopic methods were used to determine the resveratrol binding mode, the binding constant and the effects of pigment complexation on protein secondary structure. Structural analysis showed that resveratrol bind non-specifically (H-bonding) via polypeptide polar groups with overall binding constant of K(Res) = 2.56 x 10(5) M(-1). The protein secondary structure, analysed by CD spectroscopy, showed no major alterations at low resveratrol concentrations (0.125 mM), whereas at high pigment content (1 mM), major increase of alpha-helix from 57% (free HSA) to 62% and a decrease of beta-sheet from 10% (free HSA) to 7% occurred in the resveratrol-HSA complexes. The results indicate a partial stabilization of protein secondary structure at high resveratrol content.
Rajan, Nitin; Rajauria, Sukumar; Cleland, Andrew
Rapid and low cost immunoassays targeting proteins in blood or other bodily fluids are highly sought after for point-of-care devices and early screening of patients. Immunoturbidimetric assays utilize latex particles functionalized with antibodies, with particle aggregation in the presence of the analyte detected by a change in absorbance. Using a high throughput micro-fluidic particle analyzer based solely on electrical signals (resistive pulse sensing), we are able to accurately quantify the degree of aggregation by analyzing the changes in the particle size distribution. Thus we study the aggregation of streptavidin (SAv) coated beads in the presence of biotinylated bovine serum albumin as a proof-of-principle assay and extract the binding capacity of the SAv beads from the dose-response curve. We also use our aggregation measurement platform to characterize a commercial C-reactive protein (CRP) immunoturbidimetric assay (hsCRP, Diazyme Inc.). We obtain a linear calibration curve as well as a better limit of detection of CRP than that obtained by absorbance measurements. By using different bead sizes functionalized with different antibodies, multiplexed analyte detection is also possible. We demonstrate this by combining the commercial anti-CRP functionalized beads (0.4 microns) with biotin coated beads (1.0 microns), and carry out the simultaneous detection of SAv and CRP in a single sample.
Yang, Fengmin; Du, Jie; Zhang, Hong; Ruan, Guorui; Xiang, Junfeng; Wang, Lixia; Sun, Hongxia; Guan, Aijiao; Shen, Gang; Liu, Yan; Guo, Xiaomeng; Li, Qian; Tang, Yalin
Burkitt lymphoma (BL) is a rare and highly aggressive type of non-Hodgkin lymphoma. The mortality rate of BL patients is very high due to the rapid growth rate and frequent systemic spread of the disease. A better understanding of the pathogenesis, more sensitive diagnostic tools and effective treatment methods for BL are essential. Metabolomics, an important aspect of systems biology, allows the comprehensive analysis of global, dynamic and endogenous biological metabolites based on their nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and mass spectrometry (MS). It has already been used to investigate the pathogenesis and discover new biomarkers for disease diagnosis and prognosis. In this study, we analyzed differences of serum metabolites in BL mice and normal mice by NMR-based metabolomics. We found that metabolites associated with energy metabolism, amino acid metabolism, fatty acid metabolism and choline phospholipid metabolism were altered in BL mice. The diagnostic potential of the metabolite differences was investigated in this study. Glutamate, glycerol and choline had a high diagnostic accuracy; in contrast, isoleucine, leucine, pyruvate, lysine, α-ketoglutarate, betaine, glycine, creatine, serine, lactate, tyrosine, phenylalanine, histidine and formate enabled the accurate differentiation of BL mice from normal mice. The discovery of abnormal metabolism and relevant differential metabolites may provide useful clues for developing novel, noninvasive approaches for the diagnosis and prognosis of BL based on these potential biomarkers. PMID:28129369
Gheorghe, N; Boerescu, I; Ciuntu, L; Coman, M; Boroş, I
On studying a number of 59 patients with chronic active hepatitis and with hepatic cirrhosis, with 37% and 41% cases respectively our research-works have proved increased serum AFP concentrations varying between 30-45 ng/ml, their values being much larger in active hepatic cirrhosis. The significant increase in aminotransferase and bilirubin has been correlated with a more severe stage of the hepatic disease. The gamma glutamyltranspeptidase (GGTP) assays for 9 of the 17 cases with active chronic hepatitis and for 17 cases with alcoholic hepatitis have shown a 6-15 times increase of this enzyme as compared to the other cases. Very high values of AFP, ranging between 300-900 ng/ml, have been found in the hepatic adenocirrhosis cases. A certain correlation between the AFP modifications and the scintigraphy has been found in 5 of the cases with malignant changes, in contrast with the AFP low and sporadic increase in the case of other gastrointestinal tract tumors. The scintigraphic modifications have been evident with low or multiple lacunary fixations, in considerable sizes and forms, with irregular edges, their dimensions, depending upon the disease evolution stage.
Cross-reactions between bovine serum albumin and equine serum albumin were studied using heterologous soluble complexes and specifically purified cross-reacting antibody. Experiments with soluble complexes showed that homologous antigen can displace heterologous antigen specifically bound to antibody but heterologous antigen cannot displace homologous antigen. On gel precipitation tests a specific precipitation resulted when heterologous soluble complex reacted with homologous antigen. By using equine serum albumin conjugated to polyaminopolystyrene the cross-reacting antibodies from anti-bovine serum albumin imune sera could be isolated. These are divalent 7S, γ-globulin antibodies. A figure of cross-reaction was obtained when these purified antibodies were tested by double diffusion in agar with bovine and equine serum albumins. The results obtained both with soluble complexes and with purified antibody support the view that cross-reacting antibody is more avid for the homologous than for the heterologous antigen. ImagesFIG. 3FIG. 4FIG. 5 PMID:14245318
Burke, D A; Clayden, S A; Axon, A T
A microtitre method was developed to screen Escherichia coli from 48 patients with ulcerative colitis and 25 controls for serum resistance. Bactericidal resistance was indicated by a change in colour of indicator due to acid production by viable organisms and quantitated by a change in absorbance. The method clearly differentiated between organisms confirmed as resistant or sensitive by conventional techniques. Twenty four (50%) disease and 14 (56%) control E coli specimens showed serum resistance. Bactericidal competence of sera from patients with ulcerative colitis was assessed by incubating sensitive E coli with sera from 10 patients with ulcerative colitis and pooled normal serum. All sera effectively reduced viable counts to less than 6% of original inoculum. This study shows that serum samples from patients with ulcerative colitis are bactericidally competent and that there is no increase in the number of serum resistant E coli in patients with ulcerative colitis. PMID:2187904
Kuwabara, Masanari; Hisatome, Ichiro; Roncal-Jimenez, Carlos A.; Niwa, Koichiro; Andres-Hernando, Ana; Jensen, Thomas; Bjornstad, Petter; Milagres, Tamara; Cicerchi, Christina; Song, Zhilin; Garcia, Gabriela; Sánchez-Lozada, Laura G.; Ohno, Minoru; Lanaspa, Miguel A.; Johnson, Richard J.
Background Epidemics of chronic kidney disease (CKD) not due to diabetes mellitus (DM) or hypertension have been observed among individuals working in hot environments in several areas of the world. Experimental models have documented that recurrent heat stress and water restriction can lead to CKD, and the mechanism may be mediated by hyperosmolarity that activates pathways (vasopressin, aldose reductase-fructokinase) that induce renal injury. Here we tested the hypothesis that elevated serum sodium, which reflects serum osmolality, may be an independent risk factor for the development of CKD. Methods This study was a large-scale, single-center, retrospective 5-year cohort study at Center for Preventive Medicine, St. Luke’s International Hospital, Tokyo, Japan, between 2004 and 2009. We analyzed 13,201 subjects who underwent annual medical examination of which 12,041 subjects (age 35 to 85) without DM and/or CKD were enrolled. This analysis evaluated age, sex, body mass index, abdominal circumference, hypertension, dyslipidemia, hyperuricemia, fasting glucose, BUN, serum sodium, potassium, chloride and calculated serum osmolarity. Results Elevated serum sodium was an independent risk factor for development of CKD (OR: 1.03, 95% CI, 1.00–1.07) after adjusted regression analysis with an 18 percent increased risk for every 5 mmol/L change in serum sodium. Calculated serum osmolarity was also an independent risk factor for CKD (OR: 1.04; 95% CI, 1.03–1.05) as was BUN (OR: 1.08; 95% CI, 1.06–1.10) (independent of serum creatinine). Conclusions Elevated serum sodium and calculated serum osmolarity are independent risk factors for developing CKD. This finding supports the role of limiting salt intake and preventing dehydration to reduce risk of CKD. PMID:28081152
Zielenski, J.; Newman, L.J.; Slomiany, B.L.; Slomiany, A.
Studies on serum and gastrointestinal secretion from CF patient is suggest that defective accumulation of mucus in gastrointestinal tract and excessive amount of a protease resistant peptides in serum are related to the abnormal activity of enzymes responsible for fatty acylation of proteins. Here, the authors investigated the fatty acyltransferase activities in serum of normal and CF patients. A 15 l of serum was mixed with 0.85 nmol ( UC)palmitoyl CoA, 200 g of serine and threonine and incubated at 37C for 30 min. The incubates were immediately frozen, dried extracted with C/M and chromatographed in chloroform/methanol/water. The incorporation of ( UC)palmitate was determined using linear radioscanner and authoradiography. The results of HPTLC revealed that CF serum in addition of ACAT and LCAT contained enzymes responsible for the transfer of ( UC)palmitate to monoacylphosphoglycerides, and serine and threonine. In normal serum the formation of a small amount of palmitoyl serine and palmitoyl threonine was also observed but the acylation of monoacylphosphoglycerides was not detectable. The authors conclude that in cystic fibrosis the abnormal fatty acyltransferases are responsible for the occurrence of protease resistant glycoprotein, unusual peptides in serum and possibly for the modification of membrane proteins and lipids.
Karaye, Kamilu M; Yahaya, Isah A; Lindmark, Krister; Henein, Michael Y
The study aimed to determine if selenium deficiency, serum ceruloplasmin and traditional birth practices are risk factors for peripartum cardiomyopathy (PPCM), in Kano, Nigeria. This is a case-control study carried out in three hospitals, and PPCM patients were followed up for six months. Critically low serum selenium concentration was defined as <70 µg/L. A total of 39 PPCM patients and 50 controls were consecutively recruited after satisfying the inclusion criteria. Mean serum selenium in patients (61.7 ± 14.9 µg/L) was significantly lower than in controls (118.4 ± 45.6 µg/L) (p < 0.001). The prevalence of serum selenium <70 µg/L was significantly higher among patients (76.9%) than controls (22.0%) (p < 0.001). The mean ceruloplasmin and prevalence of socio-economic indices, multiparity, pregnancy-induced hypertension, obesity and twin pregnancy were not different between the groups (p > 0.05). Logistic regression showed that rural residency significantly increased the odds for serum selenium <70 µg/L by 2.773-fold (p = 0.037). Baseline serum levels of selenium and ceruloplasmin were not associated with six-month mortality. This study has shown that selenium deficiency is a risk factor for PPCM in Kano, Nigeria, and is related to rural residency. However, serum ceruloplasmin, customary birth practices and some other characteristics were not associated with PPCM in the study area.
Gu, Yingying; Zhao, Kai; Luan, Xiaoqian; Liu, Zhihua; Cai, Yan; Wang, Qiongzhang; Zhu, Beilei; He, Jincai
Post-stroke depression (PSD) is a common psychiatric complication of stroke that is associated with a poor outcome in stroke patients. Our aim was to assess the association between the serum magnesium levels and the presence of PSD in Chinese patients. Two hundred nine stroke patients were included in the study. Depressive symptoms were measured by the 17-Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression at 3 months after stroke. Based on the depressive symptoms, diagnoses of depression were made in line with the DSM-IV criteria for PSD. Serum magnesium levels were evaluated using the dimethyl aniline blue colorimetric method at admission. Multivariate analyses were conducted using logistic regression models. Further, 120 normal subjects were recruited, and their serum magnesium levels were also measured as control. At 3 months, fifty-nine patients (28.2%) were diagnosed as PSD. The serum magnesium levels were significantly lower in both PSD patients and non-PSD patients than in normal subjects (p < 0.001). Indeed, patients with PSD showed lower serum magnesium levels (p < 0.001) than did non-PSD patients at admission. In the multivariate analyses, after adjusting for potential variables, we found that an increased risk of PSD was associated with serum magnesium levels ≤ 0.84mmol/L (OR 2.614, 95% CI 1.178-5.798, p=0.018). Low serum magnesium levels at admission were found to be associated with the presence of PSD at 3 months after stroke. PMID:28053818
Karaye, Kamilu M.; Yahaya, Isah A.; Lindmark, Krister; Henein, Michael Y.
The study aimed to determine if selenium deficiency, serum ceruloplasmin and traditional birth practices are risk factors for peripartum cardiomyopathy (PPCM), in Kano, Nigeria. This is a case-control study carried out in three hospitals, and PPCM patients were followed up for six months. Critically low serum selenium concentration was defined as <70 µg/L. A total of 39 PPCM patients and 50 controls were consecutively recruited after satisfying the inclusion criteria. Mean serum selenium in patients (61.7 ± 14.9 µg/L) was significantly lower than in controls (118.4 ± 45.6 µg/L) (p < 0.001). The prevalence of serum selenium <70 µg/L was significantly higher among patients (76.9%) than controls (22.0%) (p < 0.001). The mean ceruloplasmin and prevalence of socio-economic indices, multiparity, pregnancy-induced hypertension, obesity and twin pregnancy were not different between the groups (p > 0.05). Logistic regression showed that rural residency significantly increased the odds for serum selenium <70 µg/L by 2.773-fold (p = 0.037). Baseline serum levels of selenium and ceruloplasmin were not associated with six-month mortality. This study has shown that selenium deficiency is a risk factor for PPCM in Kano, Nigeria, and is related to rural residency. However, serum ceruloplasmin, customary birth practices and some other characteristics were not associated with PPCM in the study area. PMID:25853263
Alshaarawy, Omayma; Xiao, Jie; Shankar, Anoop
Hypertension is a major public health problem. Identifying novel risk factors for hypertension, including widely prevalent environmental exposures, is therefore important. Active smoking is a well-known risk factor for hypertension and cardiovascular diseases. However, there are no studies investigating the relationship between secondhand smoke exposure, measured objectively by serum cotinine, and high blood pressure among never smokers. We examined 2889 never smokers from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2005-2008. Our exposure of interest was secondhand smoke exposure among never smokers, estimated by serum cotinine level, and our main outcome was hypertension (n=1004). We found that in never smokers, higher serum cotinine levels were positively associated with hypertension. In comparison with those with serum cotinine levels ≤ 0.025 ng/mL, the multivariable odds ratio (95% confidence interval) of hypertension among those with serum cotinine levels ≥ 0.218 ng/mL was 1.44 (1.01-2.04). In addition, higher serum cotinine was positively associated with mean change in systolic blood pressure (odds ratio [95% confidence interval], 3.24 [0.86-5.63]; P=0.0061). However, no association was present with diastolic blood pressure. In conclusion, in never smokers, higher secondhand smoke exposure measured objectively by serum cotinine levels was found to be associated with systolic blood pressure and hypertension independent of age, sex, ethnicity, education, alcohol drinking, body mass index, glycohemoglobin, total cholesterol, and other confounders.
Horacek, M.; Papesch, W.
Bovine serum is the essential culture medium for cell cultures. Therefore it is highly demanded and the quality of the serum, e.g.: absence of bacteria, viruses certain antibodies, etc.., are important criteria. as some cattle diseases are endemic in certain regions, the origin of bovine serum is an important quality measure for its value. Thus the need to control the declared origins is present. Bovine serum was measured for d2H, d13C, d15N and d34S of proteine (dry residue) and d2H and d18O of the serum water. The hydrogen and oxygen are mainly depending by the isotopic composition of the water ingested by the cattle, and thus usually influenced by the isotopic signal of the precipitation. The carbon isotope signal is reflecting the diet of the cattle, whether it mainly feed on C3- or C4-plants. The nitrogen and sulphur isotope ratio is transferred from the ground/soil into the plant material and into the animal tissue, with some offset for nitrogen and without any significant offset for sulphur. Bovine serum samples from Canada, USA, Mexico, Brazil, Australia and New Zealand have been analysed. Due to the variations in the environmental conditions in different countries and regions which influence the isotope signatures of the serum samples it is possible to discriminate samples of different origin. Main discriminating parameters are d2H and d18O, d13C and d34S.
Goodarzi, Parisa; Arjmand, Babak; Emami-Razavi, Seyed Hassan; Soleimani, Masoud; Khodadadi, Abbas; Mohamadi-Jahani, Fereshteh; Aghayan, Hamid Reza
Nowadays, cell -based and tissue engineered products have opened new horizons in treatment of incurable nervous system disorders. The number of studies on the role of Schwann cells (SC) in treating nervous disorders is higher than other cell types. Different protocols have been suggested for isolation and expansion of SC which most of them have used multiple growth factors, mitogens and fetal bovine sera (FBS) in culture medium. Because of potential hazards of animal-derived reagents, this study was designed to evaluate the effect of replacing FBS with human autologous serum (HAS) on SC's yield and culture parameters. Samples from 10 peripheral nerve biopsies were retrieved and processed under aseptic condition. The isolated cells cultured in FBS (1st group) or autologous serum (2nd group). After primary culture the cells were seeded at 10000 cell/cm2 in a 12 wells cell culture plate for each group. At 100% confluency, the cell culture parameters (count, viability, purity and culture duration) of 2 groups were compared using paired t-test. The average donors' age was 35.80 (SD=13.35) and except for 1 sample the others cultured successfully. In first group, the averages of cell purity, viability and culture duration were 97% (SD=1.32), 97/33% (SD=1.22) and 11.77 (SD=2.58) days respectively. This parameters were 97.33% (SD=1.00), 97.55% (SD=1.33) and 10.33 days (SD=1.65) in second group. The difference of cell count, purity and viability were not significant between 2 groups (P>0.05). The cells of second group reached to 100% confluency in shorter period of time (P=0.03). The results of this study showed that autologous serum can be a good substitute for FBS in human SC culture. This can reduce the costs and improve the safety of cell product for clinical application.
Kenanova, Vania E.; Olafsen, Tove; Salazar, Felix B.; Williams, Lawrence E.; Knowles, Scott; Wu, Anna M.
The long circulation persistence of human serum albumin (HSA) is enabled by its domain III (DIII) interaction with the neonatal Fc receptor (FcRn). A protein scaffold based on HSA DIII was designed. To modify the serum half life of the scaffold, residues H535, H510, and H464 were individually mutated to alanine. HSA DIII wild type (WT) and variants were fused to the anti-carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) T84.66 diabody (Db), radiolabeled with 124I and injected into xenografted athymic mice for serial PET/CT imaging. All proteins targeted the CEA-positive tumor. The mean residence times (MRT) of the proteins, calculated by quantifying blood activity from the PET images, were: Db-DIII WT (56.7 h), H535A (25 h), H510A (20 h), H464A (17 h), compared with Db (2.9 h). Biodistribution confirmed the order of blood clearance from slow to fast: Db-DIII WT > H535A > H510A > H464A > Db with 4.0, 2.0, 1.8, 1.6 and 0.08 %ID/g of remaining blood activity at 51 h, respectively. This study demonstrates that attenuating the DIII–FcRn interaction provides a way of controlling the pharmacokinetics of the entire Db-DIII fusion protein without compromising tumor targeting. H464 appears to be most crucial for FcRn binding (greatest reduction in MRT), followed by H510 and H535. By mutating the DIII scaffold, we can dial serum kinetics for imaging or therapy applications. PMID:20802234
Okano, Yoshiyuki; Nagasaka, Hironori
High serum phenylalanine in adult patients with phenylketonuria (PKU) causes neuropsychological and psychosocial problems that can be resolved by phenylalanine-restricted diet. Therefore, PKU patients must continue to adhere to phenylalanine-restricted diet for life, although the optimal serum phenylalanine level in later life has yet to be established. The purpose of this review was to establish the optimal serum phenylalanine level in later life of PKU patients. We evaluated oxidative stress status, nitric oxide metabolism, cholesterol-derived oxysterols, vitamin D and bone status, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in adult PKU patients according to serum phenylalanine level. Oxidative stress increased markedly at serum phenylalanine of 700-800 μmol/L. Serum phenylalanine higher than 700-850 μmol/L correlated with the disturbance of nitric oxide regulatory system. Adult PKU patients had poor vitamin D status and exhibited predominance of bone resorption over bone formation. In the brain, the levels of 24S-hydroxycholesterol, a marker of brain cholesterol elimination, were low at serum phenylalanine levels exceeding 650 μmol/L. MRI studies showed high signal intensity in deep white matter on T2-weighted and FLAIR images of PKU patients with serum phenylalanine greater than 500 μmol/L, with decreased apparent diffusion coefficients. Changes in most parameters covering the entire body organs in adult PKU were almost acceptable below 700-800 μmol/L of phenylalanine level. However, the optimal serum phenylalanine level should be 500 μmol/L or less in later life for the brain to be safe.
Akinloye, O; Arowojolu, A O; Shittu, O B; Abbiyesuku, F M; Adejuwon, C A; Osotimehin, B
Male infertility constitutes a worldwide problem, especially in Nigeria where most men do not readily accept that they may contribute to the couple's infertility. In order to assess hormonal disturbances in the male infertility we compared male reproductive hormonal levels in human serum and seminal plasma and evaluated the hypothalamic-pituitary-testicular-axis in infertile Nigerian males. The biophysical semen parameters were assessed by W.H.O. standard manual method. Serum and seminal plasma male reproductive hormones (Leutinizing hormones, Follicular stimulating hormone, Prolactin and Testosterone) were measured by Enzyme Immunoassay (EIA) technique of W.H.O. in sixty (60) infertile adult male Nigerians (Oligospermic; n = 40 and azoopermic; n = 20) and forty controls of proven fertility (Normospermic subjects; n = 40). The results show that the serum concentrations of gonadotropins (LH and FSH) were significantly higher (P<0.05) in infertile subjects than controls. Patterns of serum prolactin levels were similar. The values of gonadotropins in serum were significantly higher (P<0.05) than those of seminal plasma. Seminal plasma testosterone in infertile subjects was significantly higher (P<0.005) than that of controls but the serum levels of testosterone were significantly higher (P<0.05) in azoospermic than oligospermic subjects and controls. There was no significant correlation between serum hormonal level and seminal plasma hormonal level in all the groups (P<0.05). We concluded that male infertility in Nigerians is characterized by hyperprolactinaemia, raised serum gonadotropins (LH, FSH), and raised seminal plasma testosterone. Hormonal profiles in serum and seminal plasma were not significantly correlated, and hence cannot be used as exclusive alternative in male infertility investigations. The observed spermogram in spite of significant elevation of seminal plasma testosterone in infertile males investigated suggests Sertoli cells malfunction.
Rosenberg-Hasson, Yael; Hansmann, Leo; Liedtke, Michaela; Herschmann, Iris; Maecker, Holden T
Multiplexed fluorescence or electrochemiluminescence immunoassays of soluble cytokines are commonly performed in the context of human serum or plasma, to look for disease biomarkers and to monitor the immune system in a simple and minimally invasive way. These assays provide challenges due to the complexities of the matrix (serum or plasma) and the presence of many cytokines near the limit of detection of the assay. Here, we compare the readout of matched serum and plasma samples, which are generally correlated. However, a subset of cytokines usually have higher levels in serum, and the non-specific background is significantly increased in serum versus plasma. Presumably as a result of this non-specific background, disease-related decreases in low-abundance cytokines can sometimes be detected in plasma but not in serum. We further show, through spike recovery experiments, that both serum and plasma inhibit the readout of many cytokines, with some variability between donors, but with serum causing greater inhibition than plasma in many cases. Standard diluents from different vendors can partially reverse this inhibition to varying degrees. Dilution of samples can also partly overcome the inhibitory effect of the matrix. We also show that dilution is nonlinear and differentially affects various cytokines. Together, these data argue that (1) plasma is a more sensitive matrix for detecting changes in certain low-abundance cytokines; (2) calculation of concentrations in serum or plasma matrices is inherently inaccurate; and (3) dilution of samples should not be assumed to be linear, i.e., all comparisons need to be made among similarly diluted samples.
Coirini, H; White, A; Marusic, E T; De Nicola, A F
Binding of cortisol and corticosterone by serum proteins is well established, but discrepancies exist regarding aldosterone. We have observed that approximately 1% of 3H-aldosterone incubated with rat serum was bound in a time-dependent process, although it was not competed by a large excess of non-radioactive aldosterone, assessed by Florisil separation or gel filtration on Sephadex G-50 columns. After electrophoresis on cellulose acetate of rat serum incubated with 3H-aldosterone, specific or non-specific binding to protein fractions was not obtained. Further, a 10 000-fold molar excess of aldosterone (10 microM) displaced only 34% of the bound 3H-aldosterone to rat serum, preventing the calculation of the IC50 value. Increasing concentrations of aldosterone (3-83 nM) did not displace 3H-corticosterone bound in rat serum to presumably corticosterone binding globulin (CBG). In contrast, inhibition of this binding by 3-83 nM corticosterone was concentration dependent, showing an IC50 value of 10(-8) M. In normal human serum, binding of 3H-aldosterone demonstrated competition by a 100 and 1 000-fold excess of aldosterone. Displacement curves of 3H corticosterone bound to human serum by 1.7-75 nM corticosterone or 0.05-8.8 microM aldosterone yielded IC50 values in the range of 10(-8) M for corticosterone and 10(-6) M for aldosterone. With horse serum, aldosterone's binding affinity was three orders of magnitude lower than that of corticosterone. These studies suggest that in the rat aldosterone was loosely and weakly bound to a high capacity binder, possibly albumin. In agreement with the work of others, in humans aldosterone may be bound to both CBG and albumin. The current data do not substantiate for the presence of specific aldosterone binding proteins in serum.
Lyberopoulou, Aggeliki; Chachami, Georgia; Gatselis, Nikolaos K; Kyratzopoulou, Eleni; Saitis, Asterios; Gabeta, Stella; Eliades, Petros; Paraskeva, Efrosini; Zachou, Kalliopi; Koukoulis, George K; Mamalaki, Avgi; Dalekos, George N; Simos, George
Hepcidin, a liver hormone, is important for both innate immunity and iron metabolism regulation. As dysfunction of the hepcidin pathway may contribute to liver pathology, we analysed liver hepcidin mRNA and serum hepcidin in patients with chronic liver diseases. Hepcidin mRNA levels were determined in liver biopsies obtained from 126 patients with HCV (n = 21), HBV (n = 23), autoimmune cholestatic disease (primary biliary cirrhosis and primary sclerosing cholangitis; PBC/PSC; n = 34), autoimmune hepatitis (AIH; n = 16) and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD; n = 32). Sera sampled on the biopsy day from the same patients were investigated for serum hepcidin levels. Hepatic hepcidin mRNA levels correlated positively with ferritin and negatively with serum γ-GT levels. However, no correlation was found between serum hepcidin and either ferritin or liver hepcidin mRNA. Both serum hepcidin and the serum hepcidin/ferritin ratio were significantly lower in AIH and PBC/PSC patients' sera compared to HBV, HCV or NAFLD (P<0.001 for each comparison) and correlated negatively with serum ALP levels. PBC/PSC and AIH patients maintained low serum hepcidin during the course of their two-year long treatment. In summary, parallel determination of liver hepcidin mRNA and serum hepcidin in patients with chronic liver diseases shows that circulating hepcidin and its respective ratio to ferritin are significantly diminished in patients with autoimmune liver diseases. These novel findings, once confirmed by follow-up studies involving bigger size and better-matched disease subgroups, should be taken into consideration during diagnosis and treatment of autoimmune liver diseases.
Brown, J.F. Jr.; Lawton, R.W.
It has been recently suggested that variabilities in the partitioning of chronically retained lipophilic xenobiotics between adipose tissue and serum may be relatable to variations in the lipid content of the serum. Here, the authors present theoretical considerations and experimental data showing that this is indeed the case for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in humans. At equilibrium, in the absence of active transport, any lipophilic substance must distribute itself among body tissues in such a way that its chemical activity and also its chemical potential are the same at all points. In order to verify the theoretical relationships, three sorts of data relating to serum PCB levels in a human population were examined.
He, Xiao M.; Carter, Daniel C.
The three-dimensional structure of human serum albumin has been determined crystallographically to a resolution of 2.8 A. It comprises three homologous domains that assemble to form a heart-shaped molecule. Each domain is a product of two subdomains that possess common structural motifs. The principal regions of ligand binding to human serum albumin are located in hydrophobic cavities in subdomains IIA and ILIA, which exhibit similar chemistry. The structure explains numerous physical phenomena and should provide insight into future pharmacokinetic and genetically engineered therapeutic applications of serum albumin.
Walker, P. G.; Woollen, Mary E.; Pugh, Doreen
A spectrophotometric method for the estimation of N-acetyl-β-glucosaminidase in serum has been devised. Sera from normal adult males and females showed similar levels of activity. The activity in serum rose progressively during pregnancy and fell rapidly after parturition to normal levels. This change resembled closely that which occurs in serum β-glucuronidase. Placenta showed a moderate and chorion a high level of N-acetyl-β-glucosaminidase. High N-acetyl-β-glucosaminidase activity was demonstrated histochemically in decidual cells. The functions of N-acetyl-β-glucosaminidase and β-glucuronidase and factors influencing their activity are discussed. Images PMID:13782743
Bahadur K C, Remant; Thapa, Bindu; Xu, Peisheng
A novel gene delivery system, called PoSC, consisting of PEI, PSP, and HA is described. In contrast to the DNA/PEI/HA ternary system whose transfection efficiency decreases significantly with increasing serum concentration, PoSC exhibits a high transfection efficiency of about 51 and 87% for NIH3T3 and HCT116 cells, respectively, at 50% serum concentration. Furthermore, PoSC shows no cytotoxic effect at its working concentration. The overall results suggest that HA adsorption on cationic complexes enhances the transfection efficiency, while PSP is essential for high transfection efficiency at higher serum concentration.
Hasegawa, J; Hurwitz, A; Krol, G; Davies, R
A sensitive TLC-fluorometric method was developed for the analysis of butaclamol, a benzo[6,7]cyclohepta[1,2,3-de]-pyrido[2,1-a]isoquinoline derivative, in serum. The method involves cyclohexane extraction of serum samples followed by TLC of the concentrated extracts. The developed TLC plates were sprayed with an oxidizing reagent and heated at 110 degrees. Highly fluorescent spots were produced for butaclamol, which was well separated from metabolites and serum components. Fluorometric densitometry permitted quantitation with a sensitivity of 10 ng/spot application.
Beauchemin, R; N'soukpoé-Kossi, C N; Thomas, T J; Thomas, T; Carpentier, R; Tajmir-Riahi, H A
Polyamine analogues show antitumor activity in experimental models, and their ability to alter activity of cytotoxic chemotherapeutic agents in breast cancer is well documented. Association of polyamines with nucleic acids and protein is included in their mechanism of action. The aim of this study was to examine the interaction of human serum albumin (HSA) with several polyamine analogues, such as 1,11-diamino-4,8-diazaundecane (333), 3,7,11,15-tetrazaheptadecane.4HCl (BE-333), and 3,7,11,15,19-pentazahenicosane.5HCl (BE-3333), in aqueous solution at physiological conditions using a constant protein concentration and various polyamine contents (microM to mM). FTIR, UV-visible, and CD spectroscopic methods were used to determine the polyamine binding mode and the effects of polyamine complexation on protein stability and secondary structure. Structural analysis showed that polyamines bind nonspecifically (H-bonding) via polypeptide polar groups with binding constants of K333 = 9.30 x 10(3) M(-1), KBE-333 = 5.63 x 10(2) M(-1), and KBE-3333 = 3.66 x 10(2) M(-1). The protein secondary structure showed major alterations with a reduction of alpha-helix from 55% (free protein) to 43-50% and an increase of beta-sheet from 17% (free protein) to 29-36% in the 333, BE-333, and BE-3333 complexes, indicating partial protein unfolding upon polyamine interaction. HSA structure was less perturbed by polyamine analogues compared to those of the biogenic polyamines.
Mair, T S; Sherlock, C E; Boden, L A
Few studies have evaluated cortisol concentrations in horses with colic. In humans with septic shock, high cortisol levels are associated with an increased risk of death. The objectives of this study were to compare the serum total cortisol concentrations (STCCs) in horses with colic to those without colic, and to assess whether the STCC relates to the pathological nature or outcome of the disease. STCCs were determined at presentation in horses with colic and in systemically healthy 'control' horses. Horses with colic were grouped based on clinical and clinico-pathological parameters at admission, treatment, lesion type and location, and outcome. Univariable and multivariable logistic regression were performed using two different outcome measures: (a) whether the horse had colic or not (yes vs. no), and (b) horse STCC (≥200 nmol/L vs. <200 nmol/L). Horses were more likely to have colic if they presented with high STCCs (≥200 nmol/L compared with <200 nmol/L). Horses with colic and with STCCs ≥200nmol/L were more likely to have moderate or severe colic signs (compared with mild colic) and heart rates >45 beats per min (compared with ≤45 beats per min). It was concluded that colic in horses is associated with elevated STCCs, and increased STCC in horses with colic appears to relate to the severity of the disease. STCCs may provide additional decision-making and prognostic information in horses with colic but further studies are required to avoid misinterpretations associated with the wide variation in STCCs.
Clark, Penny; Franklyn, Jayne
Thyroglobulin (Tg) is a tumour marker for differentiated thyroid cancer. Interpretation requires a knowledge of the current thyrotropin (TSH) concentration as secretion is TSH-dependent. While a raised serum Tg may be indicative of residual or recurrent thyroid cancer, trauma to the thyroid (e.g. surgical, biopsy or due to radioiodine treatment) also causes an increase. Tg may be measured when TSH is suppressed and also following recombinant TSH (rhTSH) stimulation. Interpretation of results in pregnancy and in children is discussed. Assay bias and interference by endogenous Tg antibodies (Abs) are the main confounders in the interpretation of results. Although there is an international standard for Tg, there are large differences in results and yet there are few assay-specific clinical decision limits. Patients should therefore be monitored with the same assay. Endogenous TgAbs may cause false-negative interference in immunometric assays and may cause false-positive results in radioimmunoassay. Although the measurement of TgAbs has been advocated for predicting interference, it is now clear that interference can still occur when TgAbs have not been detected, the effect being TgAb-assay-specific. Approaches to identifying those samples where there may be interference are discussed. The laboratory should have a protocol for the investigation of possible interferences and data on the bias of the Tg assay that they use. An appreciation of the clinical uses of the service is required as an understanding by endocrinologists, oncologists and endocrine surgeons of the analytical limitations of the service.
Yu, Zhonghao; Zhai, Guangju; Singmann, Paula; He, Ying; Xu, Tao; Prehn, Cornelia; Römisch-Margl, Werner; Lattka, Eva; Gieger, Christian; Soranzo, Nicole; Heinrich, Joachim; Standl, Marie; Thiering, Elisabeth; Mittelstraß, Kirstin; Wichmann, Heinz-Erich; Peters, Annette; Suhre, Karsten; Li, Yixue; Adamski, Jerzy; Spector, Tim D; Illig, Thomas; Wang-Sattler, Rui
Understanding the complexity of aging is of utmost importance. This can now be addressed by the novel and powerful approach of metabolomics. However, to date, only a few metabolic studies based on large samples are available. Here, we provide novel and specific information on age-related metabolite concentration changes in human homeostasis. We report results from two population-based studies: the KORA F4 study from Germany as a discovery cohort, with 1038 female and 1124 male participants (32–81 years), and the TwinsUK study as replication, with 724 female participants. Targeted metabolomics of fasting serum samples quantified 131 metabolites by FIA-MS/MS. Among these, 71/34 metabolites were significantly associated with age in women/men (BMI adjusted). We further identified a set of 13 independent metabolites in women (with P values ranging from 4.6 × 10−04 to 7.8 × 10−42, αcorr = 0.004). Eleven of these 13 metabolites were replicated in the TwinsUK study, including seven metabolite concentrations that increased with age (C0, C10:1, C12:1, C18:1, SM C16:1, SM C18:1, and PC aa C28:1), while histidine decreased. These results indicate that metabolic profiles are age dependent and might reflect different aging processes, such as incomplete mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation. The use of metabolomics will increase our understanding of aging networks and may lead to discoveries that help enhance healthy aging. PMID:22834969
Chadha, Kailash C.; Miller, Austin; Nair, Bindukumar B.; Schwartz, Stanley A.; Trump, Donald L.; Underwood, Willie
Background Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) is currently used as a biomarker for diagnosis and management of prostate cancer (CaP). However, PSA typically lacks the sensitivity and specificity desired of a diagnostic marker. Objective The goal of this study was to identify an additional biomarker or a panel of biomarkers that is more sensitive and specific than PSA in differentiating benign versus malignant prostate disease and/or localized CaP versus metastatic CaP. Methods Concurrent measurements of circulating interleukin-8 (IL-8), Tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and soluble tumor necrosis factor-α receptors 1 (sTNFR1) were obtained from four groups of men: (1) Controls (2) with elevated prostate-specific antigen with a negative prostate biopsy (elPSA_negBx) (3) with clinically localized CaP and (4) with castration resistant prostate cancer. Results TNF-α Area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC = 0.93) and sTNFR1 (AUC = 0.97) were strong predictors of elPSA_negBx (vs. CaP). The best predictor of elPSA_negBx vs CaP was sTNFR1 and IL-8 combined (AUC = 0.997). The strongest single predictors of localized versus metastatic CaP were TNF-α (AUC = 0.992) and PSA (AUC = 0.963) levels. Conclusions The specificity and sensitivity of a PSA-based CaP diagnosis can be significantly enhanced by concurrent serum measurements of IL-8, TNF-α and sTNFR1. In view of the concerns about the ability of PSA to distinguish clinically relevant CaP from indolent disease, assessment of these biomarkers in the larger cohort is warranted. PMID:25593898
Sousa, Cristina P; Azevedo, Jorge T; Silva, Amélia M; Viegas, Carlos A; Reis, Rui L; Gomes, Manuela E; Dias, Isabel R
This study aimed to assess serum total alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and its bone isoform (BALP) levels during the ageing and in different physiologic states of sheep, in order to expand the knowledge about the variation of these biomarkers over the sheep lifespan. Ninety female sheep were divided into nine groups of various ages and physiological states (dry, lactation and pregnancy). Serum ALP, BALP and mineral levels were determined by commercial immunoassay, molecular absorbance spectrophotometry and chemical luminescence for BALP determination. Serum ALP and BALP decreased as sheep aged, and no statistically significant differences were obtained between ewes in different physiologic states. The continuous decline of serum BALP concentration along the sheep lifespan, namely in mature and old sheep, is a sign of decreasing bone turnover associated with ageing. Serum calcium concentrations increased slightly until 2 years of age and then showed a tenuous but statistically significant decrease in mature sheep, while serum phosphorus maintained an uninterrupted decrease as sheep matured. The knowledge of serum values of bone biomarkers throughout the sheep lifespan may be useful in preclinical orthopaedic research studies and for animal science studies using sheep.
Adar, T; Ben Ya'acov, A; Lalazar, G; Lichtenstein, Y; Nahman, D; Mizrahi, M; Wong, V; Muller, B; Rawlin, G; Ilan, Y
Insulin resistance and metabolic syndrome are chronic inflammatory conditions that lead to hepatic injury and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Bovine colostrum has therapeutic effects in a variety of chronic infections. However its effectiveness in NASH was never studied. Natural killer T (NKT) cells have been shown to be associated with some of the pathological and metabolic abnormalities accompanying NASH in leptin-deficient (ob/ob) mice. In the present study, we used hyperimmune bovine colostrum to treat hepatic injury and insulin resistance and we also assessed the effects on NKT cells. We used ob/ob mice that were fed for 6 weeks with either 0·1 mg bovine colostrum prepared from non-immunized cows, 0·1 mg hyperimmune colostrum raised against a bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) extract or 0·001, 0·1 or 1 mg of immunoglobulin (Ig)G purified from hyperimmune colostrum (IgG–LPS). NKT cells were phenotyped by flow cytometry, and hepatic injury and insulin resistance were assessed by measuring fasting glucose levels, glucose tolerance tests and liver enzymes. Fat accumulation was measured in the liver and plasma. Oral administration of hyperimmune colostrums decreased alanine aminotransferase (ALT) serum levels and serum triglycerides compared to controls. Glucose intolerance was also improved by the hyperimmune colostrum preparations. These results were accompanied by a decrease in serum tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α levels following oral treatment with 0·1 or 1 mg of IgG–LPS. The beneficial effects of hyperimmune colostrums were associated with an increase in the number of splenic NKT cells. These data suggest that oral administration of hyperimmune colostrum preparations can alleviate chronic inflammation, liver injury and insulin resistance associated with NASH. PMID:22236001
Huang, Peiwu; Ren, Xiaohu; Huang, Zhijun; Yang, Xifei; Hong, Wenxu; Zhang, Yanfang; Zhang, Hang; Liu, Wei; Huang, Haiyan; Huang, Xinfeng; Wu, Desheng; Yang, Linqing; Tang, Haiyan; Zhou, Li; Li, Xuan; Liu, Jianjun
Trichloroethylene (TCE) is an industrial solvent with widespread occupational exposure and also a major environmental contaminant. Occupational medicamentosa-like dermatitis induced by trichloroethylene (OMLDT) is an autoimmune disease and it has become one major hazard in China. In this study, sera from 3 healthy controls and 3 OMLDT patients at different disease stages were used for a screening study by 2D-DIGE and MALDI-TOF-MS/MS. Eight proteins including transthyretin (TTR), retinol binding protein 4 (RBP4), haptoglobin, clusterin, serum amyloid A protein (SAA), apolipoprotein A-I, apolipoprotein C-III and apolipoprotein C-II were found to be significantly altered among the healthy, acute-stage, healing-stage and healed-stage groups. Specifically, the altered expression of TTR, RBP4 and haptoglobin were further validated by Western blot analysis and ELISA. Our data not only suggested that TTR, RBP4 and haptoglobin could serve as potential serum biomarkers of OMLDT, but also indicated that measurement of TTR, RBP4 and haptoglobin or their combination could help aid in the diagnosis, monitoring the progression and therapy of the disease.
Zhang, Yong; Zhang, Linlin; Cao, Bo
Growing evidence indicates that apolipoprotein E (ApoE) is one of the most important candidate genes for influencing the development of hemodialysis (HD). This study aims to detect the potential association between serum ApoE genetic polymorphism and serum lipid level in HD. A total of 485 subjects were enrolled in this case-control study. The created restriction site polymerase chain reaction and DNA sequencing methods were used to investigate ApoE c.109G>A genetic polymorphism. Our data suggested that there were significant differences in the distribution of allelic and genotypic frequencies between HD patients and healthy controls. The levels of total cholesterol, triglyceride, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, ApoA-I, ApoB, ApoE, and lipoprotein (a) for genotype AA were different from genotype GG in HD patients and healthy controls. Our findings support that the ApoE c.109G>A genetic polymorphism might influence the development of HD and could be a risk factor for assessing HD.
Joshi, Narahari V.; Joshi, Virgina O. d.; Contreras, Silvia; Gil, Herminia; Medina, Honorio; Siemiarczuk, Aleksander
Nonenzymatic glycation, also known as Maillard reaction, plays an important role in the secondary complications of the diabetic pathology and aging, therefore, human serum albumin (HSA) and bovine serum albumin (BSA) were glycated by a conventional method in our laboratory using glucose as the glycating agent. Fluorescence lifetime measurements were carried out with a laser strobe fluorometer equipped with a nitrogen/dye laser and a frequency doubler as a pulsed excitation source. The samples were excited at 295 nm and the emission spectra were recorded at 345 nm. The obtained decay curves were tried for double and triple exponential functions. It has been found that the shorter lifetime increases for glycated proteins as compared with that of the native ones. For example, in the case of glycated BSA the lifetime increased from 1.36 ns to 2.30 ns. Similarly, for HSA, the lifetime increases from 1.58 ns to 2.26 ns. Meanwhile, the longer lifetime changed very slightly for both proteins (from 6.52 ns to 6.72 ns). The increase in the lifetime can be associated with the environmental effect; originated from the attachment of glucose to some lysine residues. A good example is Trp 214 which is in the cage of Lys 225, Lys 212, Lys 233, Lys 205, Lys 500, Lys 199 and Lys 195. If fluorescence lifetime technique is calibrated and properly used it could be employed for assessing glycation of proteins.
A total of 474 serum samples from client owned Irish dogs were tested for the presence of antibodies against serovars Canicola, Icterohaemorrhagiae, Bratislava, Autumnalis, Pomona, Altodouro, Grippotyphosa, Mozdok, Hardjobovis and Ballum. Six percent of dogs presented to veterinary practitioners for...
Maisel, John C.; Lytle, Ralph I.
Nucleoli of animal cells cultured in vitro are modified by a component of "nonimmune" animal serum. Modified nucleoli bind fluorescein-conjugated nonimmune serum proteins, as shown by calcium ion-dependent fluorescence. Analysis of serum indicates that the nucleolar-binding component is a globulin, with an electrophoretic mobility in the same region as the slow alpha-1 component in pH 8.6 Veronal buffer. The component has a low sedimentation constant (2.4S), and appears to contain glycoprotein with relatively high sialic acid content (8.5%); the latter moiety may be essential to reaction with nucleoli. The nucleolar component reacting with this alpha globulin fraction appears to be a histonelike basic protein. Primary cultures of animal cells have been supported for 1 wk through attachment, spreading, and outgrowth from colonies to confluent monolayers in medium containing a nucleolar-reactive serum fraction as the only protein supplement. PMID:4164214
Cattle temperament has been reported to influence blood metabolites. Specifically, temperament was related with increased circulation of serum NEFA, decreased blood urea nitrogen, and reduced insulin sensitivity. Metabolic alterations such as these may impact cattle immune function, performance trai...
Sklavounou, A D; Laskaris, G; Angelopoulos, A P
Serum immunoglobulins and complement (C'3) were determined by single radial immunodiffusion according to the method of Mancini and co-workers in fifty patients with oral lichen planus and twenty persons with clinically normal oral mucosa. Significantly increased levels of serum IgG (p less than 0.05) and a significant reduction of serum IgA concentration (p less than 0.05) in the experimental group as compared with normal controls were observed. Mean serum IgM and complement (C'3) levels were similar in patients and controls. No correlation between disease variety or extensiveness and immunoglobulin or complement levels was noticed. These results suggest that patients with oral lichen planus may have a generalized immunologic disorder in which humoral immunity is disturbed. Whether humoral immunity is of etiologic significance, contributes to the disease process, or, finally, represents an event secondary to the pathologic changes seen in the disease remains to be determined.
Green, H.; Anker, H. S.
1. The effect of varying body temperature on the rate of amino acid incorporation into serum protein does not give support to the idea that the rate of this process is adjusted in vivo to restore those protein molecules destroyed by thermal denaturation. The experimentally observed Q10 was about 3.9. 2. When amino acids are injected into the blood of animals in a steady state of serum protein turnover, a period of time elapses before these amino acids can be found in the serum proteins. This has been called transit time. At a given temperature (31°) it is the same in rabbits, turtles, and Limulus (1 hour). In rabbits and turtles it has a Q10 of 3.2. It appears to be specifically related to the process of synthesis (or release) of serum proteins. 3. It was not possible to affect the transit time or the incorporation rate by the administration of amino acid analogues. PMID:13221773
Gerasimov, I G; Zorkova, E V
Serum IgA, IgM, and IgG were measured by radial immunodiffusion in gel; immunoglobulin concentrations correlated with the diameter of their diffusion. A theoretically-based equation was derived; use of this equation will help estimate serum Ig content without plotting a calibration curve by the square diameter of the immunodiffusion ring of undiluted reference serum in a wide range of concentrations (0.3-3 mg/ml for IgA and IgM and 2-18 mg/ml for IgG). This modification of measuring serum immunoglobulins by radial immunodiffusion in gel is as accurate as other methods, but is reagent- and time-saving.
Krishnan, Ravi S; Hsu, Sylvia
Infliximab is a chimeric, murine-human, monoclonal antibody against tumor necrosis alpha which has shown great efficacy in the treatment of psoriasis. Serum sickness, which is an immune complex mediated syndrome consisting of a cutaneous eruption, fever, arthritis, edema, and lymphadenopathy, has been described in several patients receiving infliximab for the treatment of Crohn's disease. However, to our knowledge, this type of reaction has not been well described in a patient treated with infliximab for psoriasis. We describe a patient who developed serum sickness while receiving infliximab for psoriasis and discuss the pathogenesis, diagnosis, and treatment of serum sickness. We believe that with the increasing use of infliximab for psoriasis, more cases of serum sickness will occur. Therefore, awareness of this adverse effect is essential.
Wiest, E; Armbruster, F P; Loeser, E L; Seeger, H; Voelter, W; Lippert, T H
Relaxin was measured in serum and amniotic fluid of 136 pregnant women between the 12th and 38th gestational week by means of a new human relaxin-RIA. The pregnancies consisted of 111 pathology-free single fetuses, 10 with rhesus incompatibility, 7 with chromosomal aberration and 8 with sonographic diagnosed abnormalities. Relaxin could be detected in all samples tested the levels being ten times lower in amniotic fluid compared to serum. Serum relaxin levels showed a slight but not statistically significant decrease with increasing gestational age, in amniotic fluid relaxin values were consistent over the course of pregnancy. The ratio of amniotic fluid to serum relaxin displayed a statistically significant increase from the 12th to 23rd week of pregnancy. Individual courses of relaxin concentration in amniotic fluid revealed only low intra-individual variations but distinct inter-individual differences.
Afrin, Rehana; Shirako, Yuji; Kishimoto, Kikuo; Ikai, Atsushi
The poly(vinyl pyrrolidone)-covered hydrophilic surface of hollow-fiber membranes (fiber membrane, hereafter) for hemodialysis was mechanically probed using modified tips on an atomic force microscope (AFM) with covalent crosslinkers and several types of serum protein. The retraction part of many of the force extension (F-E) curves obtained with AFM tips coated with serum albumin had a long and smooth extension up to 200-300 nm indicating forced elongation of poly(vinyl pyrrolidone) chains. When fibrinogen-coated tips were used, long extension F-E curves up to 500 nm with multiple peaks were obtained in addition to smooth curves most likely reflecting the unfolding of fibrinogen molecules. The results indicated that individual polymer chains had a significant affinity toward serum proteins. The adhesion frequency of tips coated with serum proteins was lower on the poly(vinyl pyrrolidone) surface than on the uncoated hydrophobic polysulfone surface.
Day, M J; Penhale, W J
The normal level of serum IgA in Western Australian dogs was defined by single radial immunodiffusion using sera from 100 healthy randomly selected adult crossbred animals. Serum IgA values of 185 animals from six breeds were also determined. The mean and variance of serum IgA of these groups were similar to the crossbred dogs with the exception of German shepherd dogs where these values were statistically greater. In addition, 210 dogs with a range of chronic diseases (autoimmune, hypersensitivity, pyoderma, neoplasia, demodecosis, disseminated aspergillosis) were assayed and low values recorded in five cases. In all disease groups the mean serum IgA value was significantly greater than in the crossbred group and the variance significantly greater in most of these groups. The German shepherd group were the only normal dogs with a mean and variance similar to those of the clinical series suggesting that this breed may have a primary defect in IgA metabolism.
Winchell, Harry S.; Barak, Morton; Van Fleet, III, Parmer
A reagent comprising macroaggregated human serum albumin having dispersed therein particles of stannous tin and a method for instantly making a labeled pharmaceutical therefrom, are disclosed. The labeled pharmaceutical is utilized in organ imaging.
Khaustova, S A; Senyavina, N V; Tonevitsky, A G; Eremina, O V; Pavlovich, S V
The content of low-molecular-weight components in blood serum was studied by tandem mass-spectrometry in pregnant women. Serum metabolic profiles of patients with a grave obstetrical history were detected. The most significant changes were observed for the concentrations of low-molecular-weight substances involved in glucogenesis and β-oxidation processes and in metabolic chains involving carbohydrates, carnitines, amino acids, and lipids.
Yuan, Zu-Yang; Gao, Shu-Geng; Mu, Ju-Wei; Xue, Qi; Mao, You-Sheng; Wang, Da-Li; Zhao, Jun; Gao, Yu-Shun; Huang, Jin-Feng
Background The prognostic value of serum lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) has been demonstrated in various solid tumors. We attempted to determine whether serum LDH was predictive of survival in thymic carcinoma after surgical resection. Methods Ninety-five patients with thymic carcinoma treated in our hospital between January 2005 and December 2015 were retrospectively enrolled. Serum LDH was measured before surgery and categorized as low or high relative to the upper limit of normal (ULN) (225 U/L). The relationships of serum LDH level and other clinical variables with survival were estimated by Cox regression and Kaplan-Meier survival analysis. Results Serum LDH levels were found to be significantly associated with overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) of these patients. The 1-, 3-, and 5-year PFS were 76%, 51%, and 38%, and the 1-, 3- and 5-year OS were 97%, 75%, and 46%, respectively. Univariate analysis found that high serum LDH (>225 U/L) was associated with both lower OS [hazard ratio (HR) =2.710; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.363–1.5.391; P=0.004] and PFS (HR =3.365; 95% CI: 1.776–6.374; P<0.001). Multivariate analysis found that high serum LDH was associated with lower PFS (HR =2.122; 95% CI: 1.056–4.267; P=0.035). Moreover, high LDH was significantly associated with advanced Masaoka stage (P=0.001). Conclusions High serum LDH (>225 U/L) was an independent predictor of decreased PFS in thymic carcinoma patients. It was also significantly associated with reduced OS, but was not an independent predictor of death in those patients. PMID:27746998
Labadie, M; Laplaud, P M; Lachatre, G; Breton, J C
A simple methodology for the spectrophotometric assay of phosphonate esterase activity in human serum samples is described, featuring incubation at 30 degrees C in a medium containing p-nitrophenol and phenyl-phosphonic acid ester. Reproducibility of the method as well a mean values in normal patients vs age and sex are reported. Serum activity appears to be increased almost exclusively during pregnancy or administration of estrogenic drugs (as oral contraceptives or in prostate neoplasms).
cardiovascular disease . All sera dissolved additional cholesterol. Sera from the hospitalized group dissolved at least as much additional cholesterol as did sera from the normal group. This finding suggests that in atherosclerosis the reserve cholesterol transport capacity is not diminished. This statement, however, must be accepted within the limitations of the method and the unknown effects of therapeutic regimens. The amount of additional cholesterol dissolved by a sample of serum is not correlated with the original concentration of cholesterol in the serum.
Lubran, M M
The biuret reaction for proteins provides a simple and precise method for measuring serum proteins; Beer's law is obeyed to at least 10 g per dl. Several stable biuret reagents are available. Hemoglobin is the only important cause of interference which cannot be minimized by use of a sample blank. The mechanism of the biuret reaction is described and attention is drawn to the heterogeneity of the serum proteins and to the use of a certified albumin standard.
Stakhneva, E M; Meshcheryakova, I A; Demidov, E A; Starostin, K V; Ragino, Yu I; Peltek, S E; Voevoda, M I
Changes in the blood serum proteins were assessed in men with coronary atherosclerosis and without coronary heart disease. Proteins were separated by 2D-electrophoresis, protein fractions were identified by their peptide fingerprint by MALDI method; fractions with more than twofold increase in protein level were determined. In blood serum of patients with coronary atherosclerosis, the content of C4 complement protein increased and ceruloplasmin level decreased, which is typical of heart failure and coronary heart disease.
Koopman, B J; Hindriks, F R; Lokerse, Y G; Wolthers, B G; Orverdijk, J F
Colorimetry of iron in serum with Ferrozine (as used in the Technicon SMAC) or with bathophenanthroline (as used in the Du Pont aca) is influenced by EDTA, in contrast to such measurements with atomic absorption spectroscopy. Therefore EDTA contamination should be avoided with these colorimetric methods. If, however, contamination with EDTA is suspected, addition of zinc sulfate to serum or to the SMAC "ascorbic acid reagent" will cancel the influence of EDTA on measurements of iron in the SMAC.
de Waal, J M; Steyn, A F; Harms, J H; Slabber, C F; Pannall, P R
Pyridoxine has been reported as having an antilactogenic effect, presumably by suppressing prolactin secretion. We have measured serum prolactin levels during pyridoxine administration in two groups of hyperprolactinaemic subjects. In normal postpartum women, the postdelivery fall in serum prolactin levels did not differ significantly in treated and control subjects. In patients with chlorpromazine-induced hyperprolactinaemia and galactorrhoea, pyridoxine did not reduce the elevated levels. In neither group was milk production suppressed.
Campbell, Lia H; Brockbank, Kelvin G M
With the development of cell-based assays and therapies, the purity of reagents used to grow and maintain cells has become much more important. In particular, the use of fetal calf serum for culturing cells presents a direct path for potential contamination of cell cultures. In recent years, much research has focused on the development of serum-free culturing systems, not only to alleviate difficulties due to availability and cost of fetal calf serum but also to prevent the transmission of potentially fatal diseases to human patients. Additionally, methods need to be developed for long-term storage of cell stocks that also reduce the risk of exposure to harmful diseases. As most methods employ fetal calf serum in their freezing formulations, solutions that avoid the use of fetal calf serum while providing equivalent or better recovery of cells upon thawing would be ideal. In this study, two vascular cell lines have been cryopreserved as adherent cell populations in two widely used cryoprotectants, dimethyl sulfoxide and 1,2-propanediol, and two vehicle solutions, Euro-Collins and Unisol-cryoprotectant vehicle specifically formulated for the maintenance of cell homeostasis at temperatures below 37 degrees C. The addition of serum to these formulations was also evaluated to determine if its presence provided any additional benefit to the cells during cryopreservation. The results demonstrated that using vehicle solutions designed for lower temperatures produced viable cells that retained cell population viability values up to 75% of unfrozen controls. These results also demonstrated that including serum in the formulation provided no additional benefit to the cells and in some cases actually produced lower cell viability after cryopreservation. In conclusion, the development of solutions designed for low-temperature storage of cells provides a viable alternative to more conventional cryopreservation protocols and eliminates the necessity of including serum in these
Sueishi, Yoshimi; Kamogawa, Erisa; Kimura, Anna; Kitahara, Go; Satoh, Hiroyuki; Asanuma, Taketoshi; Oowada, Shigeru
Multiple free-radical scavenging (MULTIS) activity in cattle and human sera was evaluated with electron spin resonance spectroscopy. Scavenging rates against six active species, namely hydroxyl radical, superoxide anion, alkoxyl radical, alkylperoxyl radical, methyl radical, and singlet oxygen were quantified. The difference in the electron spin resonance signal intensity in the presence and absence of the serum was converted into the scavenging rates. Comparative MULTIS measurements were made in sera from eight beef cattle, three fetal calves and fifteen healthy human volunteers. Further, we determined the MULTIS value of albumin, the most abundant component in serum. MULTIS values in cattle sera indicated higher scavenging activity against most free radical species tested than human sera. In particular, cattle serum scavenging activities against superoxide and methyl radical were higher than human serum by 2.6 and 3.7 fold, respectively. In cattle serum, albumin appears to play a dominant role in MULTIS activity, but in human serum that is not the case. Previous data indicated that the abundance of uric acid in bovine blood is nearly 80% less than humans; however, this difference does not explain the deviation in MULTIS profile. PMID:28163386
Ishiwata, Yasuyoshi; Itoga, Yoshie; Yasuhara, Masato
To clarify the mechanism of fluoroquinolone-induced abnormalities in blood glucose, the effect of levofloxacin on serum glucose concentration was investigated in rats. Rats received an intravenous injection of levofloxacin and their arterial blood was sampled periodically. The serum glucose concentration decreased after an injection of 100 mg/kg of levofloxacin, while it increased at levofloxacin 300 mg/kg. The serum immunoreactive insulin concentration increased as the dose of levofloxacin increased. The serum epinephrine concentration was rapidly elevated by levofloxacin at 300 mg/kg. The serum histamine concentration increased after injections of levofloxacin, 200 and 300 mg/kg. Diphenhydramine (1 mg/kg) antagonized the hyperglycemia induced by 300 mg/kg of levofloxacin. In an in vitro study, the release of epinephrine from the adrenal medulla in the presence of levofloxacin was determined. Levofloxacin (300 microg/ml) did not affect epinephrine release from the adrenal medulla. Levofloxacin can induce hypoglycemia and hyperglycemia in rats. Levofloxacin can promote histamine release, leading to an increased serum epinephrine concentration and hyperglycemia.
Avci, Oğuzhan; Doğan, Müge; İnce, Ömer Barış
Lumpy skin disease is an economically important poxvirus disease of cattle. Vaccination is the main method of control but sporadic outbreaks have been reported in Turkey. This study was carried out to determine the changes in serum biochemical values of cattle naturally infected with lumpy skin disease virus (LSDV). For this study, blood samples in EDTA, serum samples, and nodular skin lesions were obtained from clinically infected animals (n = 15) whereas blood samples in EDTA and serum samples were collected from healthy animals (n = 15). A quantitative real-time PCR method was used to detect Capripoxvirus (CaPV) DNA in clinical samples. A real-time PCR high-resolution melt assay was performed to genotype CaPVs. Serum cardiac, hepatic, and renal damage markers and lipid metabolism products were measured by autoanalyzer. LSDV nucleic acid was detected in all samples which were obtained from clinically infected cattle. The results of serum biochemical analysis showed that aspartate aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, total protein, and creatinine concentrations were markedly increased in serum from infected animals. However, there were no significant differences in the other biochemical parameters evaluated. The results of the current study suggest that liver and kidney failures occur during LSDV infection. These findings may help in developing effective treatment strategies in LSDV infection. PMID:27294125
Ohyoshi, Yukimi; Makino, Takamitsu; Jinnin, Masatoshi; Nakayama, Wakana; Fukushima, Satoshi; Inoue, Yuji; Ihn, Hironobu
Summary Microvascular damage is one of the primary pathologic components of systemic sclerosis (SSc). Serological abnormalities of angiogenic and angiostatic factors in SSc have previously been described. Like these factors, the plasma levels of leptin were significantly elevated in patients with SSc in comparison to normal controls. However, leptin receptor has not been examined in patients with SSc. The current study used sandwich ELISA to evaluate the serum levels of leptin receptor in patients with SSc. Serum samples were obtained from 36 patients with SSc. Samples were also obtained from 12 healthy control subjects and 10 patients with scleroderma spectrum disorder (SSD) who did not fulfill the criteria for SSc but who had the potential to develop SSc. Mean serum leptin receptor levels were significantly higher in patients with SSD than in patients with SSc (255.7 ng/mL vs. 184.6 ng/mL, p < 0.05 according to a Mann-Whitney test). There were no statistically significant differences between healthy control subjects and patients with SSc. Clinical parameters were evaluated, and the frequency of esophageal reflux was significantly lower in patients with elevated serum leptin receptor levels than in those with reduced levels (6.3% vs. 35.3%, p < 0.05). In summary, these results suggest that the serum levels of leptin receptor are a clinically useful marker of SSD, and measurement of serum leptin receptor over time in patients with SSD may lead to early detection of SSc. PMID:25343103
Demir, Mehmet; Demir, Canan; Uyan, Umut; Melek, Mehmet
Background Several studies have demonstrated that higher serum bilirubin inhibits the inflammation and proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells; also there is a relationship between serum bilirubin and cardiovascular disease. However, the relationship between bilirubin and atrial fibrillation (AF) is still unknown. In our study, we compared serum bilirubin, between nonvalvular AF patients and controls. Materials and Method One hundred and two patients with nonvalvular chronic AF without any other cardiovascular disease (mean age 62.51 ± 5.88) were included in our study. One hundred age-matched healthy people with sinus rhythm were accepted as control groups (mean age 61.35 ± 5.44). Routine biochemical parameters and serum bilirubin levels were performed. Results No statistically significant difference was found between two groups in terms of basic characteristics. Total, direct and indirect serum bilirubin levels were significantly lower among persons with AF compared to controls (0.82 ± 0.8 vs. 0.48 ± 0.5, 0.30 ± 0.2 vs. 0.19 ± 0.1 and 0.52 ± 0.5 vs. 0.29 ± 0.3 mg/dL; all P < 0.001, respectively). Conclusion As a result, our study revealed a relationship between serum bilirubin and nonvalvular AF.
Ward, W.F.; Molteni, A.; Ts'ao, C.; Ischiropoulos, H. )
Serum copper (Cu) concentration was evaluated as an index of lung injury in two rat models of pneumotoxicity: hemithoracic irradiation and monocrotaline ingestion. In both models there was a dose- and time-dependent increase in serum Cu concentration. This hypercupremia paralleled the development of pulmonary endothelial dysfunction (decreased lung plasminogen activator activity and increased prostacyclin production) and pulmonary fibrosis (hydroxyproline accumulation). In the radiation model, lung injury and hypercupremia persisted for at least 6 months, and were spared similarly when the total dose was delivered in multiple daily fractions as compared to single doses. In irradiated rats, the elevated serum Cu concentration was accompanied by increases in plasma ceruloplasmin, lung Cu concentration, and lung Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity. In monocrotaline-treated rats, lung damage and hypercupremia also were accompanied by a reduction in liver Cu concentration, and by a direct correlation between the concentrations of Cu and SGOT in the serum. In both models, some but not all modifiers of lung damage (penicillamine, angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors, pentoxifylline) also partially prevented the insult-induced hypercupremia. In contrast, serum iron concentration was largely independent of treatment in all experiments. These data suggest that elevated serum copper concentration is an accurate and minimally invasive index of lung injury in irradiated and monocrotaline-treated rats.
Mueller, Nicole; Schneider, Britta; Pfizenmaier, Klaus; Wajant, Harald
Due to their immune stimulating and apoptosis inducing properties, ligands of the TNF family attract increasing interest as therapeutic proteins. A general limitation of in vivo applications of recombinant soluble TNF ligands is their notoriously rapid clearance from circulation. To improve the serum half life of the TNF family members TNF, TWEAK and TRAIL, we genetically fused soluble variants of these molecules to human serum albumin (HSA). The serum albumin-TNF ligand fusion proteins were found to be of similar bioactivity as the corresponding HSA-less counterparts. Upon intravenous injection (i.v.), serum half life of HSA-TNF ligand fusion proteins, as determined by ELISA, was around 15 h as compared to approximately 1 h for all of the recombinant control TNF ligands without HSA domain. Moreover, serum samples collected 6 or 24 h after i.v. injection still contained high TNF ligand bioactivity, demonstrating that there is only limited degradation/inactivation of circulating HSA-TNF ligand fusion proteins in vivo. In a xenotransplantation model, significantly less of the HSA-TRAIL fusion protein compared to the respective control TRAIL protein was required to achieve inhibition of tumor growth indicating that the increased half life of HSA-TNF ligand fusion proteins translates into better therapeutic action in vivo. In conclusion, our data suggest that genetic fusion to serum albumin is a powerful and generally applicable mean to improve bioavailability and in vivo activity of TNF ligands.
Asadi, F; Asadian, P; Shahriari, A; Pourkabir, M; Kazemi, A
Patterns of serum biochemical parameters vary among horse breeds. The objective of the present study was to compare serum lipoproteins of Iranian Caspian ponies with those of other horses (Arabs and Thoroughbreds) in the Iranian region. Serum lipoprotein values were determined by agar-agarose gel electrophoresis and measured by scan densitometry. Moreover, serum triglyceride and cholesterol concentrations were determined and the results were analysed by one-way analysis of variance. Serum triglyceride and cholesterol values were 1.13 +/- 0.23 and 2.38 +/- 0.18 mmol/l in Caspian ponies, 1.96 +/- 0.49 and 1.92 +/- 0.25 mmol/l in Arab horses and 1.38 +/- 0.26 and 2.17 +/- 0.53 mmol/l in Thoroughbred horses. The relative percentages of alpha- (72.63 +/- 17.76%) and beta-lipoproteins (29.10 +/- 5.49%) in serum electrophoretic tracings from Caspian ponies were not significantly different from those of other horses (p > 0.05). The lipoprotein phenotype in Caspian ponies may be useful for evaluating metabolic diseases.
Kwon, Ami; Choi, Yun-Seok; Choi, Yong-Won; Chung, Woo-Baek; Park, Chul-Soo; Chung, Wook-Sung; Lee, Man-Young; Youn, Ho-Joong
Abstract Osteoprotegerin (OPG) is a kind of tumor necrosis factor, which is related to bone metabolism and vascular calcification. The increase of Osteoprotegerin concentration in serum is related to cardiovascular diseases in humans. The purpose of this study was to figure out the relevance between osteoprotegerin in serum and carotid calcification. Serum OPG concentrations were compared in 145 patients who underwent carotid sonography (average age: 68 ± 9 years old, male: female = 81:64). A calcified plaque (CP) (37 people [27%]), a noncalcified plaque (NCP) (54 people [37%]), and a nonplaque (NP) (54 people [37%]) were classified for this study. No significant differences among 3 groups were demonstrated in the distribution of age, diabetes, high blood pressure, and hyperlipidemia. Serum osteoprotegerin concentrations were significantly increased in CP group rather than NCP group or NP group; (median [interquartile range], 4016  vs 3210  pg/mL, P < 0.05 and 4016  vs 3204  pg/mL, P < 0.05). Serum osteoprotegerin concentrations did not indicate a significant difference between NCP Group or NP Group. This study had proved that patient group accompanied with carotid calcification in carotid artery disease had an increased serum OPG concentration, so it could consider that OPG plays an important function on calcification related to arteriosclerosis. PMID:27082605
Lu, Leihong; Zhan, Yiqiang; Yu, Jinming; Sui, Lihong
The present study aimed to investigate the prevalence of thrombocytopenia and its association with serum magnesium in a nationally representative cohort. A total of 8478 participants aged 18 years and over were recruited in a cross-sectional survey. Thrombocytopenia was defined as platelet count less than 150 × 10(9)/L. Multivariable logistic regression models were applied to examine the association between serum magnesium and thrombocytopenia. The prevalence of thrombocytopenia in total was 16.5% with 18.8% for men and 14.4% for women (P < 0.0001), respectively. Compared with men in the first quartile of serum magnesium, the odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for those in the second, third, and fourth quartiles of serum magnesium were 0.96 (0.75, 1.21), 0.78 (0.62, 0.98), and 0.82 (0.65, 1.04), respectively, after adjusting for multiple confounders. Likewise, the corresponding ORs (95% CIs) were 0.80 (0.63, 1.01), 0.79 (0.62, 0.99), and 0.65 (0.51, 0.84) in women. When serum magnesium was treated as a continuous variable, each one standard deviation increase of magnesium was associated with 12 and 8% lower risk of thrombocytopenia in men and women, respectively. Serum magnesium was inversely associated with thrombocytopenia, and the association was slightly different in men compared with that in women.
Isler, C M; Bellamy, J E; Wobeser, G A
Mouse inoculation was used to test for the presence of a toxin in the serum, cerebrospinal fluid, and intestinal contents collected from cases of bovine enteric coccidiosis, with and without neurological signs, and from control calves. Intravenous inoculation of mice with 10 mL/kg of serum from calves showing nervous signs caused effects significantly different from those caused by the inoculation of serum from calves not showing nervous signs and from control calves. The effect was particularly evident in female mice. At this dosage severe neurological signs such as loss of righting reflex, seizures and death occurred only with serum from calves with "nervous coccidiosis". The results suggest that serum from the calves with neurological signs contains a neurotoxin. This toxin appears to be highly labile. It was not present in the cerebrospinal fluid at levels comparable to those in the serum. The significance of this labile neurotoxin with respect to the pathogenesis of the neurological signs associated with bovine enteric coccidiosis is unknown. PMID:2955865
Olak-Białoń, Bogusława; Marcisz, Czesław; Jonderko, Gerard; Olak, Zygfryd; Szymszal, Jan; Orzeł, Arkadiusz
The drinking of coffee, a commonly used beverage, was a subject of many studies, mainly regarded to coffee influence on cardiovascular system. However, only one study indicates that coffee drinking in male adults may lead to decrease in serum uric acid level. Hyperuricaemia is a risk factor of many diseases. The aim of this study was to examine the influence of coffee drinking on serum uric acid concentration. 1955 working persons aged from 18 to 65 years were included into research. There were 571 women among them. We determined energy expenditure during professional work, blood pressure, body mass index, and measured serum levels of uric acid, glucose and creatinine. The amount of coffee and ethanol consumption was evaluated on the ground of an interview. It was showed that persons drinking coffee have lower serum uric acid concentration than non-drinkers, especially among women, who drank more coffee then men. Uricaemia was correlated negatively with number of cups of coffee consumed and positively with body mass index, ethanol consumption and diastolic blood pressure. The author conclude that: 1) among women drinking on an average 10 cups of coffee per week appeared a decrease in serum uric acid concentration and a lower risk of development of hyperuricaemia, 2) elevated serum uric acid concentration is accompanied by elevated blood pressure and increased body mass index.
Ayanoğlu, G; Uihlein, M; Grigoleit, H G
Tolbutamide is known to bind highly to serum proteins. Quite different values have, however, been reported for binding, ranging from 80 to 99 percent. In this study, in vivo and in vitro binding of increasing concentrations of tolbutamide to human serum proteins were evaluated. In vitro studies were done serum from three healthy males and for in vivo studies serum samples from eight healthy males who had received 1,000 mg tolbutamide were used. Protein binding was determined by equilibrium dialysis, using DIANORM system. Tolbutamide concentrations were determined by HPLC method of Uihlein and Hack. The results suggest that there is an increase in percent tolbutamide bound with increasing concentrations of tolbutamide. Generally, an inverse relationship between the total concentration of a drug in serum and its bound fraction is observed. Our findings seem to be contrary to this, at least within the concentration range studied. There exist at least two binding sites on albumin with different affinities for tolbutamide and most probably, at low concentrations, the drug binds mainly to the high affinity sites, whereas at higher concentrations additional drug will bind to the lower affinity sites leading to the observed increase in fraction bound with concentration. In conclusion it may be said that serum protein binding is a much more complicated phenomenon than generally stated and that the normal observations are only true for some ideal compounds where only one site of adsorption has to be taken into account.
Berg, G; Kohlmeier, L; Brenner, H
High serum copper concentration--a well-known effect of oral contraceptive (OC) use--has been linked to increased mortality from cardiovascular disease. The influence of OCs containing newer progestins has not been investigated, however. This concern was addressed in a 1987-88 cross-sectional epidemiologic study of 610 nonpregnant, nonlactating West German women 18-44 years of age. 195 women (32.1%) were current OC users, but only 152 of these women were able to cite the name of the formulation they were taking. In 70% of cases, the OC contained less than 45 mcg of ethylestradiol (median dose, 32.4 mcg). The most common progestin components were desogestrel (41%) and levonorgestrel (30%). Mean serum copper concentration was higher among users of all types of OCs than among non-users, but this concentration varied more strongly according to the OC's progestin compound than its estrogen content. The greatest increase in serum copper (55% compared with non-users) was recorded in users of OCs containing anti-androgen progestins, followed by desogestrel (46%), norethisterone/lynestrenol (42%), and levonorgestrel (34%). The increase in serum copper was more pronounced in women taking OCs containing 45 mcg or less of ethylestradiol than in users of OCs with a high estrogen dose. In the regression models, the different progestin compounds alone explained 28% of the total variance in serum copper concentration. Further investigation of OC-induced increases in serum copper concentration and their impact on cardiovascular risk are warranted.
Cauley, J.A.; Kuller, L.H.; LeDonne, D. ); Gutai, J.P. ); Powell, J.G. )
Serum sex hormones may be related to the risk of several diseases including osteoporosis, heart disease, and breast and endometrial cancer in postmenopausal women. In the current report, the authors examined the epidemiology of serum sex hormones in 176 healthy, white postmenopausal women (mean age 58 years) recruited from the metropolitan Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, area. The data were collected during 1982-1983; none of the women were on estrogen replacement therapy. Serum concentrations of estrone, estradiol, testosterone, and androstenedione were measured by a combination of extraction, column chromatography, and radioimmunoassay. Neither age nor time since menopause was a significant predictor of sex hormones. The degree of obesity was a major determinant of estrone and estradiol. The estrone levels of obese women were about 40% higher than the levels of nonobese women. There was a weak relation between obesity and the androgens. Cigarette smokers had significantly higher levels of androstenedione than nonsmokers, with little difference in serum estrogens between smokers and nonsmokers. Both estrone and estradiol levels tended to decline with increasing alcohol consumption. Physical activity was an independent predictor of serum estrone. More active women had lower levels of estrone. There was a positive relation of muscle strength with estrogen levels. The data suggest interesting relations between environmental and lifestyle factors and serum sex hormones. These environmental and lifestyle factors are potentially modifiable and, hence, if associations between sex hormones and disease exist, modification of these factors could affect disease risks.
Zhou, Shengmei; O’Gorman, Maurice R. G.; Yang, Fusheng; Andresen, Kevin; Wang, Larry
Hepatoblastoma (HB) is the most common primary liver cancer in children. The conventional serum marker for HB, alpha-fetoprotein (AFP), has its limitations. Novel serum markers need to be explored. Glypican 3 (GPC3) has been reported to be an excellent histological immunomarker for HB. However, the clinical value of serum GPC3 in patients with HB is unknown. A total of 184 serum samples were tested for both GPC3 by ELISA, and AFP by immunometric assay. Of these, 134 were from 32 patients with HB at three treatment stages, 30 from age-matched patients with benign hepatobiliary disorders (BHD) and 20 from age-matched “normal controls”(NC). We found that the GPC3 levels in HB pretreatment group were significantly higher than those in NC group and HB remission group but not statistically different from those in BHD group and HB during treatment group. In contrast, AFP showed significant differences among different groups. The areas under the receiver operating curve (AUROC) value, sensitivity and specificity of GPC3 for HB pretreatment group versus all controls were all significantly lower than those of AFP. Serum GPC3 levels were not associated with prognostic parameters. We concluded that GPC3 is inferior to AFP as a serum marker for HB. PMID:28378832
Chow, Brian A; Hamilton, Jason; Alsop, Derek; Cattet, Marc R L; Stenhouse, Gordon; Vijayan, Mathilakath M
Serum corticosteroid levels are routinely measured as markers of stress in wild animals. However, corticosteroid levels rise rapidly in response to the acute stress of capture and restraint for sampling, limiting its use as an indicator of chronic stress. We hypothesized that serum corticosteroid binding globulin (CBG), the primary transport protein for corticosteroids in circulation, may be a better marker of the stress status prior to capture in grizzly bears (Ursus arctos). To test this, a full-length CBG cDNA was cloned and sequenced from grizzly bear testis and polyclonal antibodies were generated for detection of this protein in bear sera. The deduced nucleotide and protein sequences were 1218 bp and 405 amino acids, respectively. Multiple sequence alignments showed that grizzly bear CBG (gbCBG) was 90% and 83% identical to the dog CBG nucleotide and amino acid sequences, respectively. The affinity purified rabbit gbCBG antiserum detected grizzly bear but not human CBG. There were no sex differences in serum total cortisol concentration, while CBG expression was significantly higher in adult females compared to males. Serum cortisol levels were significantly higher in bears captured by leg-hold snare compared to those captured by remote drug delivery from helicopter. However, serum CBG expression between these two groups did not differ significantly. Overall, serum CBG levels may be a better marker of chronic stress, especially because this protein is not modulated by the stress of capture and restraint in grizzly bears.
There is mounting evidence that the serum concentration of TSH is an independent predictor for the diagnosis of thyroid malignancy in patients with nodular thyroid disease. Furthermore, preoperative serum TSH concentrations are higher in patients with more aggressive tumours, suggesting a potential role for TSH in the progression of differentiated thyroid cancer. Based on these observations, patients with higher serum TSH concentrations and borderline cytological results may require more aggressive investigation and treatment when compared with those with lower baseline TSH levels. The mechanisms underlying the finding of higher serum TSH in patients with thyroid cancer remain unexplained. In this issue of Endocrine-Related Cancer, Fiore et al. have analysed the relationship between serum TSH and diagnosis of papillary thyroid cancer in 10 178 patients with nodular thyroid disease who were investigated by fine-needle aspiration biopsy. They found significantly higher TSH concentrations in patients who were subsequently diagnosed with thyroid cancer compared with those with benign disease. In addition, they found that the development of autonomous thyroid function (TSH<0.4 muU/ml) was associated with a reduction in the risk of papillary thyroid carcinoma. In this commentary, the evidence regarding the association between serum TSH and thyroid cancer is discussed placing these new findings into context.
Farhoudi, Mehdi; Taheraghdam, Aliakbar; Farid, Gholnar Abbasi; Talebi, Mahnaz; Pashapou, Ali; Majidi, Jafar; Goldust, Mohamad
Parkinson disease is a prevalent progressive neurodegenerative disorder, especially in western countries and among the elderly. This study aimed at evaluating serum iron and ferritin in patients with idiopathic Parkinson disease. In this case-control study, 50 patients with clinical diagnosis of idiopathic Parkinson disease (case group) were evaluated during a 12 month period. Fifty healthy persons (control group) recruited as well. Serum iron and ferritin levels were measured by biochemical and quantitative luminance methods, respectively in the case and control group. Fifty patients, 28 males and 22 females with the mean age of 64.53 +/- 10.18 (40-84) years and 50 controls were enrolled. Serum iron levels were 70.22 +/- 25.18 mg dL(-1) and 67.62 +/- 39.53 mg dL(-1) in case and control group, respectively. Serum ferritin levels were 129.79 +/- 137.67 ng dL(-1) and 109.87 +/- 154.71 ng dL(-1) in case and control group, respectively. There was no significant difference between different grades of Parkinson disease considering the serum level of iron or ferritin. The current study showed that generally there is no significant difference between the patients with the idiopathic Parkinson disease and healthy controls in terms of serum iron and ferritin levels. The same results were attributable to different grades of the disease.
Kjelgaard-Hansen, Mads; Christensen, Michelle B; Lee, Marcel H; Jensen, Asger L; Jacobsen, Stine
Serum amyloid A (SAA) is a major acute phase protein in dogs. However, knowledge of qualitative properties of canine SAA and extent of its synthesis in extrahepatic tissues is limited. The aim of the study was to investigate expression of different SAA isoforms in serum and synovial fluid in samples obtained from dogs (n=16) suffering from different inflammatory or non-inflammatory conditions, which were either related or unrelated to joints. Expression of SAA isoforms was visualized by denaturing isoelectric focusing and Western blotting. Serum amyloid A was present in serum from all dogs with systemic inflammatory activity, and up to four major isoforms with apparent isoelectric points between 6.1 and 7.9 were identified. In synovial fluid from inflamed joints one or more highly alkaline SAA isoforms (with apparent isoelectric points above 9.3) were identified, with data suggesting local production of these isoforms in the canine inflamed joint.
Wu, Wan-Chen; Ma, Wen-Ya; Wei, Jung-Nan; Yu, Tse-Ya; Lin, Mao-Shin; Shih, Shyang-Rong; Hua, Cyue-Huei; Liao, Ying-Jhu; Chuang, Lee-Ming; Li, Hung-Yuan
In the diagnosis of diabetes mellitus, hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) is sometimes measured to determine the need of an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). However, HbA1c does not accurately reflect glycemic status in certain conditions. This study was performed to test the possibility that measurement of serum glycated albumin (GA) better assesses the need for OGTT. From 2006 to 2012, 1559 subjects not known to have diabetes or to use anti-diabetic medications were enrolled. Serum GA was measured, and a 75-g OGTT was then performed to diagnose diabetes. Serum GA correlated significantly to age (r = 0.27, p<0.001), serum albumin (r = -0.1179, age-adjusted p = 0.001), body mass index (r = -0.24, age-adjusted p<0.001), waist circumference (r = -0.16, age-adjusted p<0.001), and plasma GA (r = 0.999, p<0.001), but was unaffected by diet (p = 0.8). Using serum GA at 15% for diagnosis of diabetes, the sensitivity, specificity, and area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve were 74%, 85%, and 0.86, respectively. Applying a fasting plasma glucose (FPG) value of < 100 mg/dL to exclude diabetes and of ≥ 126 mg/dL to diagnose diabetes, 14.4% of the study population require an OGTT (OGTT%) with a sensitivity of 78.8% and a specificity of 100%. When serum GA value of 14% and 17% were used to exclude and diagnose diabetes, respectively, the sensitivity improved to 83.3%, with a slightly decrease in specificity (98.2%), but a significant increase in OGTT% (35%). Using combined FPG and serum GA cutoff values (FPG < 100 mg/dL plus serum GA < 15% to exclude diabetes and FPG ≥ 126 mg/dL or serum GA ≥ 17% to diagnose diabetes), the OGTT% was reduced to 22.5% and the sensitivity increased to 85.6% with no change in specificity (98.2%). In the diagnosis of diabetes, serum GA measurements can be used to determine the need of an OGTT.
Ratcliffe, W.A.; Corrie, J.E.; Dalziel, A.H.; Macpherson, J.S.
Researchers compared two direct radioimmunoassays for progesterone in 50 microL of unextracted serum or plasma with assays involving extraction of serum. The direct assays include the use of either danazol at pH 7.4 or 8-anilino-1-naphthalenesulfonic acid at pH 4.0 to displace progesterone from serum binding-proteins. Progesterone is then assayed by using an antiserum to a progesterone 11 alpha hemisuccinyl conjugate and the radioligand /sup 125/I-labeled progesterone 11 alpha-glucuronyl tyramine, with separation by double-antibody techniques. Direct assays with either displacing agent gave good analytical recovery of progesterone added to human serum, and progesterone values for patients' specimens correlated well (r greater than 0.96) with results of assays involving extraction of serum. Precision was similar with each displacing agent over the working range 2.5-100 nmol/L and superior to that of extraction assays. Researchers conclude that these direct assays of progesterone are analytically valid and more robust, precise, and technically convenient than many conventional methods involving extraction of serum.
Ratcliffe, W.A.; Corrie, J.E.T.; Dalziel, A.H.; Macpherson, J.S.
Two direct radioimmunoassays for progesterone in 50 ..mu..L of unextracted serum or plasma with assays involving extraction of serum were compared. The direct assays include the use of either danazol at pH 7.4 or 8-anilino-1-naphthalenesulfonic acid at pH 4.0 to displace progesterone from serum binding-proteins. Progesterone is then assayed by using an antiserum to a progesterone 11..cap alpha..-hemisuccinyl conjugate and the radioligand /sup 125/I-labeled progesterone 11..cap alpha..-glucuronyl tyramine, with separation by double-antibody techniques. Direct assays with either displacing agent gave good analytical recovery of progesterone added to human serum, and progesterone values for patients' specimens correlated well (r > 0.96) with results of assays involving extraction of serum. Precision was similar with each displacing agent over the working range 2.5-100 nmol/L and superior to that of extraction assays. We conclude that these direct assays of progesterone are analytically valid and more robust, precise, and technically convenient than many conventional methods involving extraction of serum.
Sugimoto, C; Kodama, H; Mikami, T
Complement-dependent antibody cytotoxicity (CDAC) against cells of a lymphoblastoid cell line (MSB-1) derived from Marek's disease lymphoma was investigated in a chicken antibody system using complements from several animal species. Cytotoxicity was seldom observed when rabbit, guinea pig, or chicken complements were used in the presence of hyperimmune chicken serum against MSB-1. With duck complement, however, cytotoxicity was always observed. Therefore, duck complement appears to be suitable for assay of hyperimmune chicken serum against MSB-1 cells by the CDAC test.
Worwood, M; Dawkins, S; Wagstaff, M; Jacobs, A
1. Ferritin has been isolated from the serum of four patients with iron overload by using two methods. 2. In method A, the serum was adjusted to pH 4.8 and heated to 70 degrees C. After removal of denatured protein, ferritin was concentrated and further purified by ion-exchange chromatography and gel filtration. In most cases, only a partial purification was achieved. 3. In method B, ferritin was extracted from the serum with a column of immuno-adsorbent [anti-(human ferritin)] and released from the column with 3M-KSCN. Further purification was achieved by anion-exchange chromatography followed by the removal of remaining contaminating serum proteins by means of a second immunoadsorbent. Purifications of up to 31 000-fold were achieved, and the homogeneity of the final preparations was demonstrated by polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis. 4. Serum ferritin purified by either method has the same elution volume as human spleen ferritin on gel filtration on Sephadex G-200. Serum ferritin has a relatively low iron content and iron/protein ratios of 0.023 and 0.067 (mug of Fe/mug of protein) were found in two pure preparations. On anion-exchange chromatography serum ferritin has a low affinity for the column when compared with various tissue ferritins. Isoelectric focusing has demonstrated the presence of a high proportion of isoferritins of relatively high pI. 5. Possible mechanisms for the release of ferritin into the circulation are briefly discussed. Images PLATE 2 PLATE 1 PMID:962866
ASSARZADEGAN, Farhad; ASADOLLAHI, Mostafa; DERAKHSHANFAR, Hojjat; KASHEFIZADEH, Azam; ARYANI, Omid; KHORSHIDI, Mona
Objective Migraine is known as one of the most disabling types of headache. Among the variety of theories to explain mechanism of migraine, role of serum magnesium is of great importance. Serum magnesium, as a pathogenesis factor, was considerably lower in patients with migraine. We established this study to see if serum ionized magnesium, not its total serum level, was different in migraineurs from normal individuals. Materials & Methods In this case control study, all participants were recruited from Neurology Clinic of Imam Hossein Hospital, Tehran, Iran. Ninety-six people were entered in the study, 48 for each of case and control groups. The two groups were matched by age and sex. Migrainous patients were selected according to the criteria of International Headache Society. Various characteristics of headache were recorded based on patients’ report. Controls had no history of migraine or any significant chronic headaches. Serum ionized magnesium level was measured in both of the case and control groups and the results were compared to each other. P value of <0.05 was considered as significant. Results Case group consisted of 13 males, 35 females, and control group included 14 males, as well as 34 females. Mean age was 33.47± 10.32 yr for case and 30.45 ±7.12 yr for control group. Twenty-eight patients described the intensity of their headaches as moderate; 15 patients had severe and the 5 remainders had only mild headaches. Mean serum level of ionized Mg was 1.16± 0.08 in case group and 1.13± 0.11 in control group of no significant difference (P >0.05). Conclusion Serum ionized magnesium, which is the active form of this ion, was not significantly different in migraineurs and those without migraine. This may propose a revision regarding pathogenesis of migraine and question the role of magnesium in this type of headache. PMID:26401148
Krüger, Tanja; Ghisari, Mandana; Hjelmborg, Philip S; Deutch, Bente; Bonefeld-Jorgensen, Eva C
Background The persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are highly lipophilic and resistant to biodegradation and found in e.g. seafood and marine mammals. Greenlandic Inuit have high intake of marine food and thus high POP burden that varies according to local conditions and dietary preference. We do for the very first time report the serum POP related non-steroidal xenohormone activity of Inuit across Greenland. The aims were 1) to determine the integrated xenohormone bioactivities as an exposure biomarker of the actual lipophilic serum POP mixture measuring the effect on estrogen (ER) and androgen receptor (AR) transactivity in citizens from different Greenlandic districts and 2) to evaluate associations to serum POP markers (14 PCBs and 10 pesticides) and lifestyle characteristics. Methods Serum samples from 121 men and 119 women from Nuuk, Sisimiut and Qaanaaq were extracted using SPE-HPLC fractionation to obtain the serum POP fraction free of endogenous hormones. The serum POP fraction was used for determination of xenohormone transactivity using ER and AR reporter gene assays. Results In overall, the xenohormone transactivities differed between districts as well as between the genders. Associations between the transactivities and age, n-3/n-6 and smoker years were observed. The xenoestrogenic and xenoandrogenic transactivities correlated negatively to the POPs for the combined female and male data, respectively. Conclusion The non-steroidal xenohormone transactivities can be used as an integrated biomarker of POP exposure and lifestyle characteristics. The actual serum POP mixtures antagonized the age adjusted sex hormone receptor functions. Comparison of different study populations requires in addition to age inclusion of diet and lifestyle factors. PMID:18627625
Bach-Huynh, Thien-Giang; Nayak, Bindu; Loh, Jennifer; Soldin, Steven; Jonklaas, Jacqueline
Context: Patients treated with levothyroxine typically ingest it in a fasting state to prevent food impairing its absorption. The serum thyrotropin concentration is the therapeutic index of levothyroxine action. Objective: The study objective was to determine the effect of the timing of levothyroxine administration in relationship to food on serum thyrotropin levels. Design: Participants were randomized to one of six sequences, each consisting of three 8-wk regimens in a three-period crossover design. These regimens were in a fasting state, at bedtime, and with breakfast. The concentrations of TSH, free T4, and total T3 during each of the three timing regimens were documented. The primary outcome was the difference between serum TSH concentrations under fasting conditions compared with concentrations during the other 8-wk regimens. Setting: The study was conducted in an academic medical center. Participants: Study participants were receiving levothyroxine for treatment of hypothyroidism or thyroid cancer. Results: Sixty-five patients completed the study. The mean thyrotropin concentration was 1.06 ± 1.23 mIU/liter when levothyroxine was administered in the fasting state. When levothyroxine was taken with breakfast, the serum thyrotropin concentration was significantly higher (2.93 ± 3.29 mIU/liter). When levothyroxine was taken at bedtime, the serum TSH concentration was also significantly higher (2.19 ± 2.66 mIU/liter). Conclusion: Nonfasting regimens of levothyroxine administration are associated with higher and more variable serum TSH concentrations. If a specific serum TSH goal is desired, thereby avoiding iatrogenic subclinical thyroid disease, then fasting ingestion of levothyroxine ensures that TSH concentrations remain within the narrowest target range. PMID:19584184
Sönmez, H; Süer, S; Güngör, Z; Baloglu, H; Kökoglu, E
Breast cancer is both one of the most common and one of the most treatable of all human malignancies. It has been suggested by various investigators that sialic acid increases in the sera of cancerous patients. In cancer patients, an increase in the levels of serum sialic acid may also be due to an increase in the activity of serum or tissue sialidase. The purpose of the present investigation was to determine whether the concentration of sialidase in serum and breast tissue could be used as a tumor marker in breast cancer. In this study; serum sialidase levels in 26 patient with breast cancer and 31 controls were found to be 77.04+/-25.07 U/l and 55.56+/-7.50 U/l, respectively. The mean tissue sialidase levels in 26 breast cancer patients and 13 controls were 39.76+/-17.03 U/g protein and 14.30+/-7.09 U/g protein, respectively. Serum and tissue sialidase levels in breast cancer were significantly higher than those found in the control group (P < 0.001). The mean serum and tissue sialidase levels in 14 Grade I-II and 12 Grade III breast cancer patients were found to be 67.73+/-11.87 U/l and 33.41+/-12.17 U/g protein and 87.89+/-31.94 U/l and 47.17+/-19.30 U/g protein, respectively. Also we found a significant difference between the levels of serum and tissue sialidase in Grade I-II and III (P < 0.05).
Herrick, Robert F; Meeker, John D; Hauser, Russ; Altshul, Larisa; Weymouth, George A
Background The presence of PCB in caulking (sealant) material found in masonry buildings has been well-documented in several countries. A recent investigation of 24 buildings in the greater Boston area found that 8 buildings had high PCB levels in caulking materials used around window frames and in joints between masonry blocks. Workers removing caulking material have been shown to have elevated serum PCB levels. Methods This project compared serum PCB levels among male workers who installed and/or removed PCB-containing caulking material from buildings in the greater Boston area with reference serum PCB levels from 358 men from the same area. Serum PCB levels were measured in the same laboratory by liquid-liquid extraction, column chromatography clean-up and dual capillary column GC/microECD analysis. Results When the congener profiles were compared between the reference population and the construction workers, the serum levels of the more volatile, lighter PCBs (di-, tri-and tetrachloro, sum of IUPAC# 6–74) were substantially higher among the construction workers. One of the youngest workers had the lowest total serum PCB levels (sum of 57 congeners) of all 6 workers, but the contribution of more volatile (less chlorinated) PCB congeners (#16, 26,28,33,74,66, and 60) was markedly higher than in other 5 workers and reference men. Only this worker was working on a job that involved removing PCB caulking at the time of the blood sampling. Conclusion While the results of this pilot study are based upon small numbers (6 construction workers who handled PCB caulking), the serum PCB levels among the construction workers exceed the referents. Comparison of the congener profiles suggests that there are substantial differences between the construction workers and the general population samples. These differences, and the similarities of profiles among the construction workers strongly suggest that occupational contact with caulking material can be a major source of PCB
Khoshdel, Zahra; Naghibalhossaini, Fakhraddin; Abdollahi, Kourosh; Shojaei, Shahla; Moradi, Mostafa; Malekzadeh, Mahyar
Alterations of trace element concentrations adversely affect biological processes and could promote carcinogenesis. Only a few studies have investigated the degree of changes in copper and zinc levels in colorectal cancer (CRC). The aim of the present study was to compare the serum copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn) concentrations in patients with CRC from Iran with those of healthy subjects. Cu and Zn concentrations in the serum of 119 cancer patients and 128 healthy individuals were measured by atomic absorption spectrometry. We found a significant decrease in the total mean serum Cu and Zn concentrations in CRC patients as compared with the control group (137.5 ± 122.38 vs. 160.68 ± 45.12 μg/dl and 81.04 ± 52.05 vs. 141.64 ± 51.75, respectively). However, the serum Cu/Zn ratio in the patient group was significantly higher than that measured in the control group (p = 0.00). There was no significant difference in the mean values of serum Cu and Zn concentrations between young (<60 years) and elderly (≥60 years) patients. However, the Cu/Zn ratio in <60-year cases was significantly higher than that in ≥60-year age group (p < 0.05). In addition, mean serum Cu level in normal weight patients was significantly higher than that in overweight/obese cases (132.31 ± 87.43 vs. 103.81 ± 53.72 μg/dl, respectively) (p < 0.05). There was no difference in mean serum Cu and Zn concentrations in patients stratified by the site, stage, or differentiation grade of tumors. Our findings suggest that imbalance in Cu and Zn trace element level is associated with CRC and might play an important role in cancer development among Iranian patients.
Dunbar, M R; Cunningham, M W; Linda, S B
Many of the anomalies and clinical signs afflicting the Florida panther (Felis concolor coryi) are suggestive of vitamin A deficiency. Our objectives in this study were to determine if a vitamin A deficiency exists in the free-ranging panther population and to determine if there are differences in vitamin A levels among various subgroups of free-ranging panthers. Retinol concentrations were used as an index to Vitamin A concentrations and were determined in serum and liver from free-ranging (serum, n = 45; liver, n = 22) and captive (serum, n = 9; liver, n = 2) juvenile and adult Florida panthers from southern peninsular Florida (USA), and in liver from free-ranging cougars (F. concolor subspp.) from Washington (USA) and Texas (USA) between November 1984 and March 1994. Combined juvenile (6- to 24-mo-old) and adult (> 24-mo-old) free-ranging Florida panthers had mean +/- SD serum retinol concentrations of 772.5 +/- 229 pmol/ml. Adult free-ranging Florida panthers had mean liver retinol concentrations of 4794.5 +/- 3747 nmol/g. Free-ranging nursing Florida panther kittens (age < 1 mo) had mean serum retinol concentrations of 397.9 +/- 69 pmol/ml. Among subgroups of free-ranging Florida panthers, females had higher corrected mean serum retinol concentrations than males and adult free-ranging Florida panthers had higher mean liver retinol concentrations than juveniles. Retinol concentrations in free-ranging Florida panthers did not differ significantly from those in captive panthers (liver and serum) or other free-ranging cougars (liver). Based on limited published values and our controls, a vitamin A deficiency could not be demonstrated in the Florida panther population nor were any subgroups or individuals considered deficient.
Serum sclerostin has been inversely associated with serum 25OHD concentration, but the effect of supplementation with vitamin D and calcium on serum sclerostin is unknown. This study was done to determine whether supplementation altered serum sclerostin levels in healthy older adults. We measured s...
Spatz, J. M.; Fields, E. E.; Yu, E. W.; Divieti, Pajevic P.; Bouxsein, M. L.; Sibonga, M. L.; Zwart, S. R.; Smith, S. M.
Animal models and human studies suggest that osteocytes regulate the skeleton s response to mechanical unloading at the cellular level in part by an increase in sclerostin, an inhibitor of the anabolic Wnt pathway. However, few studies have reported changes in serum sclerostin in humans exposed to reduced mechanical loading. Thus, we determined changes in serum sclerostin and bone turnover markers in healthy adult men who participated in a controlled bed rest study. Seven healthy adult men (31 +/- 3 yrs old) underwent 90-day six-degree head down tilt bed rest at the University of Texas Medical Branch in Galveston's Institute for Translational Sciences - Clinical Research Center (ITS-CRC). Serum sclerostin, PTH, serum markers of bone turnover (bone specific alkaline phosphatase, RANKL/OPG, and osteocalcin), urinary calcium and phosphorus excretion, and 24 hour pooled urinary markers of bone resorption (NTX, DPD, PYD) were evaluated pre-bed rest (BL), bed rest day 28 (BR-28), bed rest day 60 (BR-60), and bed rest day 90 (BR-90). In addition, bone mineral density (BMD) was assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) at BL, BR-60, and post bed rest day 5 (BR+5). Data are reported as mean +/- standard deviation. We used repeated measures ANOVA to compare baseline values to BR-28, BR-60, and BR-90. RESULTS Consistent with prior reports, BMD declined significantly (1-2% per month) at weight-bearing skeletal sites (spine, hip, femur neck, and calcaneus). Serum sclerostin levels were elevated above BL at BR-28 (+29% +/- 20%, p = 0.003), BR-60 (+42% +/- 31%, p < 0.001), and BR-90 (22% +/- 21%, p = 0.07). Serum PTH levels were reduced at BR-28 (-17% +/- 16%, p = 0.02), BR-60 (-24% +/- 14%, p = 0.03), and returned to baseline at BR-90 (-21% +/- 21%, p = 0.14). Serum bone turnover markers did not change, however urinary bone resorption markers and calcium were significantly elevated following bed rest (p < 0.01). CONCLUSION We observed an increase of serum sclerostin
Van Herle, A J; Klandorf, H; Uller, R P
A double antibody radioimmunoassay has been developed to measure thyroglobulin in rat (RTg) serum. The lowest detectable quantity measurable was 5.0 ng/ml. Specificity was documented by: (a) fall in serum RTg to undetectable levels after thyroid ablation; (b) the fact that L-thyroxine, D-thyroxine, L-triiodothyronine, D-triiodothyronine, triiodothyroacetic acid, tetraiodothyroacetic acid, triiodothyropropionic acid, moniodotyrosine, diiodotyrosine, and human thyroglobulin (HTg) in concentrations up to 40,000 ng per tube did not cross-react in the assay; (c) the demonstration that constant levels of serum RTg were observed while varying amounts of serum (criterion of parallelism) were introduced in the assay. The mean RTg concentration in tail vein blood of adult Sprague-Dawley rats were 101.5 +/- 13.0 ng/ml (SEM) (n=21); values ranged from 12.0 to 258.0 ng/ml. Chronic administration of a high-iodine diet (HID) did not affect serum thyroglobulin levels. Chronic administration of a low-iodine diet (LID) and propylthiouracil (PTU) led to a statistically significant increase in serum RTg that was accompanied by a significant rise in serum thyrotropin (rTSH). Serum thyroxine (T4) administered to normal rats for 14 days (20 mug/day subcutaneously) depressed serum RTg concentration from a mean level of 119.4 +/- 17.5 ng/ml (n=19) to a mean of 35.0 +/- 0.27 ng/ml (n=19) (P less than 0.001). While rats were on continuous T4 suppression, bovine thyroid-stimulating hormone (bTSH) given intravenously (2 IU) resulted in a mean maximal increment of RTg of 332.0 +/- 81.5 ng/ml (n=6) at 24 h. IgC-(LATS) long-acting thyroid stimulatory injected intravenously resulted in a mean maximal increment of RTg concentration at 96 h of 87.2 +/- 14.3 ng/ml (n=5). Normal IgG had no statistical significant effect of RTg levels at any time after the injection. Images PMID:1184735
Van Herle, A J; Klandorf, H; Uller, R P
A double antibody radioimmunoassay has been developed to measure thyroglobulin in rat (RTg) serum. The lowest detectable quantity measurable was 5.0 ng/ml. Specificity was documented by: (a) fall in serum RTg to undetectable levels after thyroid ablation; (b) the fact that L-thyroxine, D-thyroxine, L-triiodothyronine, D-triiodothyronine, triiodothyroacetic acid, tetraiodothyroacetic acid, triiodothyropropionic acid, moniodotyrosine, diiodotyrosine, and human thyroglobulin (HTg) in concentrations up to 40,000 ng per tube did not cross-react in the assay; (c) the demonstration that constant levels of serum RTg were observed while varying amounts of serum (criterion of parallelism) were introduced in the assay. The mean RTg concentration in tail vein blood of adult Sprague-Dawley rats were 101.5 +/- 13.0 ng/ml (SEM) (n=21); values ranged from 12.0 to 258.0 ng/ml. Chronic administration of a high-iodine diet (HID) did not affect serum thyroglobulin levels. Chronic administration of a low-iodine diet (LID) and propylthiouracil (PTU) led to a statistically significant increase in serum RTg that was accompanied by a significant rise in serum thyrotropin (rTSH). Serum thyroxine (T4) administered to normal rats for 14 days (20 mug/day subcutaneously) depressed serum RTg concentration from a mean level of 119.4 +/- 17.5 ng/ml (n=19) to a mean of 35.0 +/- 0.27 ng/ml (n=19) (P less than 0.001). While rats were on continuous T4 suppression, bovine thyroid-stimulating hormone (bTSH) given intravenously (2 IU) resulted in a mean maximal increment of RTg of 332.0 +/- 81.5 ng/ml (n=6) at 24 h. IgC-(LATS) long-acting thyroid stimulatory injected intravenously resulted in a mean maximal increment of RTg concentration at 96 h of 87.2 +/- 14.3 ng/ml (n=5). Normal IgG had no statistical significant effect of RTg levels at any time after the injection.
Landi, Nicola; Lombardi, Ilaria; Manfredini, Daniele; Casarosa, Elena; Biondi, Katya; Gabbanini, Massimo; Bosco, Mario
The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of sexual hormones in a young adult population affected by articular forms of temporomandibular disorders (TMD), measuring 17beta-estradiol and progesterone serum levels. In the study, we included 40 patients (20 males and 20 females) with a Research Diagnostic Criteria for Temporomandibular Disorders (RDC/TMD) axis I group II diagnosis of disk displacement and/or group III diagnosis of arthralgia, osteoarthritis or osteoarhrosis, and 32 healthy controls. In female patients, blood samples were collected in follicular and luteal phases of the same menstrual cycle, while only one blood sample was drawn in male patients. Serum levels of estradiol and progesterone were determined using a radioimmunoassay and the comparison between the two groups was performed using a t test. Regarding estradiol, our results showed significantly higher serum levels in patients affected by TMD than in healthy controls, both in males (p < 0.01) and in the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle in females (p < 0.05), while no difference was found for progesterone serum levels. Considering the multifactorial etiology of TMD and the hypothesis that some joint tissues (e.g., bone, cartilage, collagen, proteins) could be a target for sexual hormones, these data suggest that high serum estrogen levels might be implicated in the physiopathology of TMD.
Vasilyeva, Ekaterina; Abdulkhakov, Sayar; Cherepnev, Georgi; Mayanskaya, Irina; Valeeva, Alina; Abdulkhakov, Rustam; Safina, Dilyara
Crohn's disease (CD) is a chronic inflammatory bowel disease that can be diagnosed at any age. There are two major patient groups based on diagnosis of this disease, before or after the age of 20 (juvenile/adolescent or adult), with disease progression in adults usually milder than in juvenile CD patients. Immune mechanisms have been suggested to play an important role in CD pathogenesis, with cytokines governing the development of the immune response. Upregulation of inflammatory cytokines in serum of juvenile and adult CD patients has been documented; still little is known about age-dependent differences in serum cytokine profiles of CD patients. We applied multiplex technology to analyze serum levels of 12 cytokines in juveniles and adults. We show that during the acute stage of the disease all CD patients have high serum levels of CXCL10, which remains upregulated during remission. Increased serum levels of TNF-α and IL-6 during the acute stage was characteristic of juvenile CD patients, whereas adult CD patients had upregulated levels of GM-CSF and IFN-γ. Taken together, these results demonstrate age-dependent differences in cytokine profiles, which may affect the pathogenesis of CD in patients at different ages of disease onset. PMID:28070144
Foddis, R.; Landi, S.; Melaiu, O.; De Santi, C.; Giusti, L.; Donadio, E.; Ciregia, F.; Mazzoni, M. R.; Lucacchini, A.; Bovenzi, M.; Comar, M.; Pantani, E.; Pistelli, A.; Cristaudo, A.
Exposure to asbestos is the main cause of malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM), a highly aggressive cancer of the pleura. Since the only tools for early detection are based on radiological tests, some authors focused on serum markers (i.e., mesothelin). The aim of this study was the evaluation of new serum biomarkers to be used individually or in combination, in order to improve the outcome of patients whose disease would be diagnosed at an earlier stage. Serum and plasma were available from 43 subjects previously exposed to asbestos and 27 MPM patients, all being epithelioid type. All the new markers found differentially expressed in MPM and healthy subjects, by proteomic and genomic approaches, have been validated in the serum by the use of specific ELISA. The combined approach, using tools of genomics and proteomics, is found to be highly innovative for this type of disease and led to the identification of new serum markers in the diagnosis of MPM. These results, if confirmed in a larger series, may have a strong impact in this area, because early detection of this cancer in people at high risk could significantly improve the course of the disease and the clinical approach to an individualized therapy. PMID:28348450
Kim, Young-Eun; Roh, Yong-Kyun; Ju, Sang-Yhun; Yoon, Yeo-Joon; Nam, Ga-Eun; Nam, Hyo-Yun; Choi, Jun-Seok; Lee, Jong-Eun; Sang, Jung-Eun; Han, Kyungdo
Background Ferritin is associated with various cardiometabolic risk factors such as dyslipidemia, hypertension, obesity, and insulin resistance in adults. We aimed to study the association between serum ferritin levels and dyslipidemia in adolescents, because dyslipidemia is considered an important modifiable cardiovascular risk factor in the young. Methods We analyzed 1,879 subjects (1,026 boys and 853 girls) from the 2009–2010 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey IV. Subjects were categorized into quartiles according to their lipid parameters, which were classified according to age and gender. Those in the highest quartile groups for total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and triglyceride concentrations were diagnosed as having dyslipidemia. Those in the lowest quartile for high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) values were diagnosed with abnormal levels. Results In boys, total cholesterol, LDL-C, and triglyceride concentrations were significantly correlated with serum ferritin levels. In both boys and girls, serum ferritin levels were negatively associated with HDL-C values, even after adjusting for all covariates. Furthermore, there was no significant correlation between serum ferritin levels and total cholesterol, LDL, and triglyceride concentrations in girls. Conclusion Serum ferritin levels were significantly associated with major dyslipidemia parameters, more prominently in boys than in girls, and this association represents a cardiometabolic risk factor. PMID:27070153
Watson, K. C.; Kerr, E. J.
An antistreptolysin factor (ASF) was generated in normal human serum by the growth of Staph, aureus and Pseud, aeruginosa. Alpha toxin producing strains of the former were usually positive but activity was not restricted to such strains. Positive strains produce cholesterol esterase which was obtained from DEAE-cellulose column fractions of 18 h broth cultures. Antistreptolysin factor develops slowly in serum, being maximal between the 5th and 10th days and is associated with alterations and disappearance of beta lipoproteins on gel electrophoresis. Activity also appeared in beta lipoproteins precipitated from normal serum with dextran sulphate and redissolved in nutrient broth before inoculation with Staph, aureus. The slow appearance of antistreptolysin activity in serum appears to be due to an esterase inhibitor which is present in high concentrations in some sera. Activity is also modified by the production of a staphylococcal fraction capable of binding to the antistreptolysin factor and reducing its activity. It is suggested that antistreptolysin factor which can be demonstrated in small amounts in normal human serum represents a readily available non-specific defence mechanism capable of binding to certain bacterial products and possible to other foreign protein molecules. Images Fig. 2 PMID:178333
Li, Kun-Bin; Yao, Xian-Li; Sun, Ping-Ge; Wu, Zhi-Yuan; Li, Xiao-Xing; Liu, Jun-Qi; Li, Yi-Lan
Background: To investigate the relation between serum leptin levels and cerebral infarction (CI) by meta-analysis. Materials and Methods: Scientific literature databases were searched for studies published in Chinese and English. After retrieving relevant articles through database searches and screening using predefined selection criteria, high-quality studies related to our research topic were selected for inclusion in this meta-analysis. All statistical analyses were conducted using Comprehensive Meta-Analysis 2.0 (CMA 2.0, Biostat Inc., Englewood, New Jersey, USA). Results: The study results revealed that serum leptin levels were significantly higher in CI patients as compared to normal controls. The outcomes of subgroup analysis by ethnicity suggested that the serum leptin levels in CI patients were significantly higher than normal controls in both Asian and Caucasian populations. Further, subgroup analysis based on the detection method indicated that the serum leptin levels in CI patients were significantly higher compared with normal controls when measured by radioimmunoassay (RIA) but enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA)-based measurements did not show such statistically significant differences. Conclusion: Our meta-analysis results suggest that serum leptin levels in CI patients may be closely correlated with CI risks. PMID:27904550
Tabur, S; Korkmaz, H; Özkaya, M; Elboğa, U; Tarakçıoglu, M; Aksoy, N; Akarsu, E
The aim of this study was to evaluate serum calprotectin levels and oxidative stress status in patients with papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) and the changes in their levels after total thyroidectomy. The study involved 30 patients with PTC and 30 healthy controls. Blood samples were obtained from the PTC patients before and 1 month after the operation. Preoperative and postoperative serum samples from PTC patients and healthy controls were analysed for calprotectin, total antioxidant status (TAS), total oxidant status (TOS) and lipid hydroperokside (LOOH). The preoperative calprotectin, TOS, OSI and LOOH levels of the patients with PTC were significantly higher compared to those of the control group (p < 0.001, for each). The levels of calprotectin decreased significantly in patients with PTC after the operation (p < 0.001), while TAS, TOS and OSI levels remained unchanged (p = 0.313, p = 0.085 and p = 0.163, respectively). Preoperative serum calprotectin levels were positively correlated with TOS, OSI and LOOH levels and negatively correlated with TAS levels in patients with PTC. In conclusion, serum calprotectin levels is increased in patients with PTC, and calprotectin is positively correlated with TOS and LOOH. Serum calprotectin levels is significantly decreased after total thyroidectomy.
Rodríguez-Piñeiro, Ana M; de la Cadena, María Páez; López-Saco, Angel; Rodríguez-Berrocal, Francisco J
Clusterin is an enigmatic protein altered in tumors of colorectal cancer patients. Because there is no information available about serum clusterin regarding this pathology, we applied proteomic techniques to analyze its isoforms in donors and patients. First we separated serum proteins through concanavalin A, obtaining a fraction with non- and O-glycosylated proteins (FI) and a second fraction enriched in N-glycoproteins (FII) wherein clusterin was supposed to elute on the basis of its glycosylation. Surprisingly analysis of the FI fraction revealed the existence of an unexpected and aberrantly N-glycosylated clusterin that was overexpressed in patients and comprised at least five isoforms with different isoelectric points. On the other hand, two-dimensional electrophoretic analysis of the clusterin eluted in FII detected one isoform that was increased and 15 isoforms that were decreased or absent in serum of patients. Finally immunoquantification by slot blot showed that in total serum and in FI the clusterin levels were significantly increased in patients, whereas in FII there was no significant variation. Therefore, serum clusterin and some of its isoforms could have a potential value as colorectal tumor markers and are interesting subjects for biomarker studies.
Lens, X M; Oliva, J A; Codinach, P; Pascual, R; Carrió, J; Mallafré, J M
In order to study the effect of physical exercise on serum potassium in renal failure, twelve patients currently on chronic dialysis were subjected to physical exercise by means of an ergometric bicycle. The initial serum potassium was 5.2 +/- 0.6 mmol/l and after the performance of 3.304 +/- 1.583 kilopondimeters of total work, serum potassium was not modified: 5.5 +/- 0.6 mmol/l (p = NS). With regard to the parameters that regulate the intra-cellular distribution of serum potassium, physical exercise aggravated metabolic acidosis, decreasing the blood pH: from 7.33 +/- 0.05 to 7.23 +/- 0.08 (p less than 0.01) and plasma bicarbonate: from 19 +/- 3 mmol/l to 14 +/- 4 mmol/l (p less than 0.01); this was accompanied by a significant and percentage-wise similar increase in plasma epinephrine and norepinephrine. Patients with end-stage renal failure can perform moderate physical exercise, since this does not produce significant changes in serum potassium.
Szemraj, Maciej; Bielecka-Kowalska, Anna; Oszajca, Katarzyna; Krajewska, Marta; Goś, Roman; Jurowski, Piotr; Kowalski, Michał; Szemraj, Janusz
Background Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a major cause of blindness worldwide. Circulating microRNAs (miRNAs) in serum have emerged as novel candidate biomarkers for many diseases. The aim of the present study was to identify a serum microRNA (miRNA) expression profile specific for dry and wet forms of AMD. Material/Methods Serum miRNA expression was first screened using TaqMan® Human MicroRNA Array A (Applied Biosystems). An extensive, self-validated, individual, quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) study was then performed on a cohort of 300 AMD patients (150 wet form and 150 dry form) and 200 controls. The Mann-Whitney U test and nonparametric Spearman’s rank correlation coefficient were used for statistical analysis. Results miRNA expression analysis revealed increased expression of miR661 and miR3121 in serum of patients with dry AMD and miR4258, miR889, and Let7 in patients with wet form. Expression of analyzed miRNA was not observed or remained at low level in controls. Conclusions Differences in miRNA serum profile exist between patients with wet and dry form of AMD, which indicates miRNAs as potential biomarkers of AMD. Further studies should be performed to confirm its significance in clinical practice. PMID:26366973
Hicks, J J; Medina-Navarro, R
The capacity of human serum for inhibiting in vitro the membrane lipoperoxidation induced by a controlled system (ADP/NADPH + H+/Fe3+) was demonstrated. A concentration of 8 nmol of malondialdehyde was produced in 20 min in rat liver microsomes (1.5 mg of protein) after exposure to an induced lipoperoxidation mixture. Addition of 100 microliters (13.89 mg of protein) of human serum decreased malondialdehyde production nearly 50%. An increase of 25.97% of the inhibitory capacity of serum was obtained by the in vitro addition of 10 microliters/ml of vitamin E. Ten volunteers were supplemented with 400 mg of vitamin E and 1 g of vitamin C/daily for 2 weeks. Their serum inhibitory capacity increased in 12% (p < 0.05). The serum inhibitory capacity for microsomal lipoperoxidation is described herein, and we propose its utilization as an index to determine the individual nonspecific antioxidative defenses against free radical injury and lipoperoxidation in relation to exposure to air pollutants, tobacco smoke, and several acute and chronic diseases, including the hypoxia-reperfusion phenomena.
Van Wijk, R.; Wiegant, F. A. C.; Popp, Fritz A.; Storms, G. E. M. G.
The concept that free radicals mediate vascular abnormalities in diabetes has been debated. This study examines the relationship between serum free radical activity and glycaemic regulation. A cross-sectional assessment is presented of the chemiluminescence of blood serum, long term glycaemic control (HbAlc, fructosamine) and blood glucose concentrations in patients with type-1 (n equals 114) and patients with type-2 (n equals 112) diabetes. The average value of serum chemiluminescence of type-1 patients is higher than that of type-2 patients (p equals 0.014). Spectral analysis suggests that different sources of free radical activity are responsible in different ratios for chemiluminescence in type-1 and type-2 sera. Serum chemiluminescence values of type-1 patients strongly correspond with blood glucose levels (p < 0.001). Chemiluminescence values were higher, although not significant (p equals 0.082) in the 'poorly' controlled group characterized by high values of HbAlc and/or fructosamine in comparision with the group of 'good' glycaemic control with lower values of HbAlc and/or fructosamine. Serum chemeluminescence values of type-2 patients neither correspond to their long tern glycaemic status nor to their blood glucose levels. It is concluded that changes in glucose metabolism and changes in chemiluminescence are coordinated for type-1 but not for type-2 patients. This strongly indicates the relevance of ther free radical connection to diabetes type-1 complications.
Polyfluoroalkyl chemicals (PFCs) comprise a group of man-made organic compounds, some of which are persistent contaminants with developmental toxicity shown in laboratory animals. There is a paucity of human perinatal exposure data. The US EPA conducted a pilot study (Methods Advancement in Milk Analysis) including 34 breastfeeding women in North Carolina. Milk and serum samples were collected at 2-7 weeks and 3-4 months postpartum; 9 PFCs were assessed in milk and 7 in serum. Perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA), and perfluorohexane sulfonic acid (PFHxS) were found in nearly 100% of the serum samples. PFOS and PFOA were found at the highest concentrations. PFCs were below the limit of detection in most milk samples. Serum concentrations of PFOS, PFOA and PFHxS were lower (p<0.01) at the second visit compared to the first visit, and living in North Carolina 10 years or longer was related to elevated PFOS, PFOA and PFNA (p<0.03). These pilot data support the need to further explore perinatal PFC exposures and potentially related health effects, as planned in the upcoming National Children’s Study which provided the framework for this investigation. These data demonstrate very low transfer of perfluorinated chemicals (PFCs) to breast milk, even though PFCs are readily detected in the sera of lactating NC women. Our data correlation statistics suggest that there is an elevation of average serum PFCs i
Righton, Alison L; St Leger, Judy A; Schmitt, Todd; Murray, Michael J; Adams, Lance; Fascetti, Andrea J
Individual dietary preferences and difficulty with animal training create challenges and nutritional concerns when evaluating a captive sea otter (Enhydra lutris) diet. The importance of vitamin A within the body reflects the necessity that it be ingested in adequate amounts to ensure optimal health. To compare levels of serum vitamin A concentrations from captive sea otters on daily oral vitamin A supplementation, serum samples from eight adult sea otters from three institutions were evaluated for serum vitamin A concentrations. The eight animals were fed a total of four different diets and received oral supplementation via three different methods. Multiple diet items were analyzed for vitamin A content and were found to have low to nondetectable levels of vitamin A. Oral vitamin A supplementation, as a slurry with dietary items, was shown to be effective and a mean serum concentration of approximately 170 +/- 51 microg/L was obtained for serum vitamin A concentrations in captive sea otters. Captive diets can be modified to increase vitamin A concentration and supplementation and, if accepted, can be used as a means to ensure adequate vitamin A intake.
Orbach, O.; Schussler, G.C.
A high serum cortisol concentration, apparently due to increased cortisol-binding globulin (CBG), was found in a patient (index case) with chronic active hepatitis (CAH). We therefore performed further studies to determine whether increased cortisol binding is generally associated with CAH. Serum samples were obtained from 15 hospitalized patients with long-term liver function test elevations but no evidence of cirrhosis, 15 normal subjects without a history of hepatitis, four healthy pregnant women, and 10 alcoholic patients with stigmata of cirrhosis. Serum cortisol binding was measured by an adaptation of a previously described charcoal uptake method. Thyroxine-binding globulin (TBG) and sex hormone-binding globulin were determined by radioimmunoassays. Charcoal uptake of 125I cortisol from sera of normal subjects and additional patients with CAH revealed that increased serum cortisol binding by a saturable site, presumably CBG, was associated with CAH. Cortisol binding was significantly correlated with immunoassayable TBG, suggesting that in CAH, similar mechanisms may be responsible for increasing the serum concentrations of CBG and TBG.
Hopfer, S.M.; Fay, W.P.; Sunderman, F.W. Jr.
Nickel was analyzed by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrophotometry in serum specimens from 22 healthy hospital workers and 30 patients with end-stage renal disease treated by extracorporeal hemodialysis, who resided in Sudbury, Ontario, Canada, a city with extensive nickel mines and smelters. Samples of tap water from Sudbury contained 109 +/- 46 micrograms Ni per L (P less than 0.01 vs 0.4 +/- 0.2 micrograms Ni per L in corresponding water samples from Hartford, Connecticut). Serum nickel concentrations averaged 0.6 +/- 0.3 micrograms Ni per L in Sudbury hospital workers (P less than 0.05 vs 0.2 +/- 0.2 micrograms Ni per L in corresponding serums from 43 healthy hospital workers in Hartford). In serums collected post-treatment from Sudbury hemodialysis patients, nickel concentrations averaged 8.5 +/- 2.8 micrograms Ni per L, (i.e., 14-times the corresponding mean in Sudbury hospital workers, P less than 0.01), but were not significantly higher than the nickel concentrations in serums from 42 Hartford hemodialysis patients (7.2 +/- 2.2 micrograms Ni per L). This study confirms the presence of hypernickelemia in hemodialysis patients, but does not suggest that hemodialysis patients have significantly increased risk of nickel toxicity in Sudbury, compared to Hartford, despite the high nickel concentrations in Sudbury tap water. This favorable outcome attests to the efficient deionization of water used to prepare hemodialysis solutions in Sudbury.
U-shaped relationship was observed between serum phosphate and mortality in dialysis patients. The connection between high serum phosphate and mortality can be explained partially by the contribution of phosphate to vascular calcification and oxidative stress in endothelial cells. Epidemiological study about the prior history of hip fracture in Japan revealed that high serum phosphate was associated with lower prevalence of prior fracture by univariate analysis. However, this association was eliminated by including many nutritional variables in multivariate analysis. This analysis also showed that severe hypophosphatemia less than 3 mg/dL was independently associated with high prevalence, implying the connection of malnutrition with bone health. Epidemiological data regarding incident fracture is also needed to know the factors really contributing to bone fragility. There is no way other than to determine target ranges of serum phosphate using observational studies, since interventional trial with hard outcome was practically impossible. The focus of observational studies will move on, in future, to the association between mortality and the methods to decrease serum phosphate level.
Olson, D P; South, P J; Hendrix, K
Serum chemical values were determined in cold-stressed Holstein bull calves ranging from 1 to 7 days of age. The animals were anesthetized and cold-stressed until their core body temperature (colonic) was lowered 10 C. Animals were then rewarmed in warm water, with heat pads or heat lamps, or were allowed to recover naturally (unassisted) at room temperature. Blood samples were collected at selected intervals during cooling and recovery. Increases (P less than 0.05) were observed in the concentrations of glucose, calcium, phosphorus, iron, alkaline phosphatase, aspartate aminotransferase, lactate dehydrogenase, total protein, albumin, total globulin, serum urea nitrogen, uric acid, total bilirubin, indirect bilirubin, and cholesterol in the cold-stressed calves during cooling. Concentrations of chloride and insulin decreased (P less than 0.05) during the same period. Changes observed in many of the serum chemical values during rewarming were generally the reverse of the respective changes that occurred during cooling, although insulin values became exceedingly high in some cases midway or near the end of recovery. Serum enzyme values also remained high during most of recovery. Data did not indicate a clear advantage of one method of rewarming over the other methods used in terms of return of the serum chemical values to normal.
Fleshner, M; Laudenslager, M L; Simons, L; Maier, S F
Many studies have linked various physical stressors with changes in immune function. The present experiment examined the effect of a social stressor, defeat associated with territorial defense, on serum antibodies to a specific protein, keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH). Pairs of male rats formed colonies and experimental rats were intruders. Experimental animals were immunized with KLH prior to exposures to territorially defensive colonies. Control animals were placed into colonies but separated from residents by a Plexiglas barrier. Behavioral measures, including number of bites and total time spent in submissive postures, were taken for colony-intruder interactions. Serum antibody levels were determined from blood samples taken one, two, and three weeks following immunization. Experimental animals had significantly less serum antibodies to KLH than did controls. Within the experimental group, total time spent in submissive postures at week one was significantly correlated with serum antibody levels, such that animals spending the most time in submission had lower antibody levels. Total bites correlated only slightly with antibody levels. The correlation between submission and serum antibody levels increased when the bites factor was partialled out. A stressful social encounter may thus affect immune function in a manner independent of the influence of physical (nociceptive) stressors.
Kapoor, Aneel; Zuberi, Nudrat Anwar; Rathore, M. Imran; Baig, Mukhtiar
Objectives: The aim of present study was to investigate serum homocysteine levels in apparently healthy vegetarians and ominvores in Mithi, district Tharparker, Sindh, Pakistan. Methods: This study was conducted in the Department of Biochemistry, Basic Medical Sciences Institute (BMSI), Jinnah Postgraduate Medical Center (JPMC), Karachi and blood samples were collected from Mithi, district Tharparker, Sindh, Pakistan, in 2012. One hundred vegetarian and one hundred omnivores (age ranging from 20-40 years) were enrolled for this study. Serum homocysteine levels were measured by the chemiluminescence enzyme immunoassay method. Results: Serum homocysteine (Hcy) level was considerably higher (p<0.001) in vegetarian group compared to omnivores. We further grouped and analyzed our study subjects according to their gender and according to Hcy level (greater than or lower than 15µmol/L). A considerable number of vegetarian subjects 30% were having Hcy >15µmol/L compared to omnivores 6%, (p<0.001). Gender-wise comparison showed that 27.02% male and 38.46% females had >15µmol/L serum Hcy level in vegetarian group and 6.9% male and 3.5% females had >15µmol/L serum Hcy level in omnivores group, but the difference was not significant in any group. Conclusion: Vegetarians are more prone to develop hyperhomocysteinemia, so they are at high risk to develop cardiovascular disease. PMID:25878628
Bruce, Stephen J; Gardiner, Brooke B; Burke, Les J; Gongora, M Milena; Grimmond, Sean M; Perkins, Andrew C
Background Expression profiling of embryonic stem (ES) cell differentiation in the presence of serum has been performed previously. It remains unclear if transcriptional activation is dependent on complex growth factor mixtures in serum or whether this process is intrinsic to ES cells once the stem cell program has been inactivated. The aims of this study were to determine the transcriptional programs associated with the stem cell state and to characterize mesoderm differentiation between serum and serum-free culture. Results ES cells were differentiated as embryoid bodies in 10% FBS or serum-free media containing BMP4 (2 ng/ml), and expression profiled using 47 K Illumina(R) Sentrix arrays. Statistical methods were employed to define gene sets characteristic of stem cell, epiblast and primitive streak programs. Although the initial differentiation profile was similar between the two culture conditions, cardiac gene expression was inhibited in serum whereas blood gene expression was enhanced. Also, expression of many members of the Kruppel-like factor (KLF) family of transcription factors changed dramatically during the first few days of differentiation. KLF2 and KLF4 co-localized with OCT4 in a sub-nuclear compartment of ES cells, dynamic changes in KLF-DNA binding activities occurred upon differentiation, and strong bio-informatic evidence for direct regulation of many stem cell genes by KLFs was found. Conclusion Down regulation of stem cell genes and activation of epiblast/primitive streak genes is similar in serum and defined media, but subsequent mesoderm differentiation is strongly influenced by the composition of the media. In addition, KLF family members are likely to be important regulators of many stem cell genes. PMID:17925037
Honma, Masaru; Nozaki, Hiroyoshi; Nagahata, Hiroko; Fujii, Mizue; Shibuya, Takashi; Kanno, Kyoko; Minami-Hori, Masako; Ishida-Yamamoto, Akemi
Anhidrosis/hypohidrosis are conditions presenting various level of sweating dysfunction. Among them, acquired idiopathic generalized anhidrosis (AIGA) presents inadequate decrease or loss of sweating without apparent neurological and dermatological symptoms except cholinergic urticaria. Recently, serum level of carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), one of the most well-known tumor markers, has been proposed as a clinical marker reflecting activity of AIGA. This study was performed to verify the specificity and independence of serum CEA level from the other serum tumor markers especially related to adenocarcinoma. The expression of various tumor markers in the serum collected from three healthy control subjects, four AIGA cases, and a cholinergic urticaria (CU) case with elevation of serum CEA level and history of hyperthermia was analyzed using a membrane-based antibody array. In all AIGA and CU cases, the intensity of CEA was significantly increased (7.60-15.9 times compared with that of control), relatively well-reflecting the serum CEA level, and the mean intensity of CEA was 11.8 times higher than the control subjects (P = 0.0011). On the other hand, the ratio of carbohydrate antigen (CA)125 and CA19-9 was 1.93 and 0.23 times compared with the mean intensity of the control subjects, respectively, and there was no statistical significance. Immunohistochemistry on 10 AIGA cases showed increased expression of CEA but not CA19-9 and CA125 in the eccrine sweat glands. In conclusion, the elevation of serum CEA level was independent from the other tumor markers in hypohidrotic condition represented by AIGA.
Gentry, Jimmy; Webb, Jonathan; Davenport, Daniel; Malluche, Hartmut H
It is well-established that parathyroid hormone (PTH) correlates with the level of bone turnover in patients with chronic kidney disease stage 5D (CKD-5D). Hyperphosphatemia is a well-established complication of end-stage renal disease and is usually attributed to dietary intake. This study evaluates the relationship between serum phosphorus levels and bone turnover in patients with CKD-5D. 93 patients with CKD-5D from the Kentucky Bone Registry who had sequentially undergone anterior iliac bone biopsies were reviewed. Undecalcified bone sections were qualitatively assessed for turnover and placed into a group with low turnover and a group with non-low (normal/high) turnover. Results of PTH and phosphorus concentrations in blood drawn at the time of biopsies were compared between the groups. PTH and phosphorus levels were significantly higher in the non-low turnover group compared to the low turnover group. Cutoff levels for PTH and phosphorus were tested for predictive power of bone turnover. Both PTH and phosphorus correlated with turnover. Adding serum phosphorus to serum PTH enhanced predictive power of PTH for low turnover. The vast majority of patients with serum phosphorus levels ≥ 6.0 mg/dL had non-low turnover, while the majority of those with low turnover had phosphorus values < 6.0 mg/dL. Classification and regression-tree analysis showed that elevated serum phosphorus (> 6.2 mg/dL) in patients with PTH < 440 pg/mL was helpful in diagnosing nonlow turnover in this range of PTH. In patients with PTH ranges of 440 - 814 pg/mL, serum phosphorus levels > 4.55 mg/dL ruled out low turnover bone disease. This suggests that not only dietary intake but also bone affects serum phosphorus levels.
Guercia, Elena; Forzato, Cristina; Navarini, Luciano; Berti, Federico
Cafestol and 16-O-methylcafestol are diterpenes present in coffee, but whilst cafestol is found in both Coffea canephora and Coffea arabica, 16-O-methylcafestol (16-OMC) was reported to be specific of only C. canephora. The interactions of such compounds, with serum albumins, have been studied. Three albumins have been considered, namely human serum albumin (HSA), fatty acid free HSA (ffHSA) and bovine serum albumin (BSA). The proteins interact with the diterpenes at the interface between Sudlow site I and the fatty acid binding site 6 in a very peculiar way, leading to a significant change in the secondary structure. The diterpenes do not displace reference binding drugs of site 2, but rather they enhance the affinity of the site for the drugs. They, therefore, may alter the pharmacokinetic profile of albumin - bound drugs.
Sterns, Richard H.
A variety of formulas have been proposed to predict changes in serum sodium concentration. All are based on an experiment done over 50 years ago by Edelman, who derived a formula relating the plasma sodium concentration to isotopically measured body sodium, potassium, and water. Some of these formulas fail because they do not include urinary losses of electrolytes and water. Even those that include these essential variables are not accurate enough for clinical use because it is impractical to adjust calculations to rapid changes in urinary composition, and because the formulas do not account for changes in serum sodium caused by internal exchanges between soluble and bound sodium stores or shifts of water into or out of cells resulting from changes in intracellular organic osmolytes. Nephrologists should curb their enthusiasm for predictive formulas and rely instead on frequent measurements of the serum sodium when correcting hyponatremia and hypernatremia. PMID:27478590
Harris, W R; Shifrine, M
Samples of 8 ashes were leached with canine serum for 24 h to remove metal ions from the particle surfaces. The particles were removed by filtration, and the concentrations of 11 metal ions in the serum leachates were determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The leachate samples were evaluated using the canine whole-blood lymphocyte stimulation test (WB/LST). The serum extracts of oil-related ashes were highly inhibitory, while lower biological activity was observed for the extracts of coal ashes. The observed inhibition in the WB/LST was correlated with the concentration of each metal ion using Kendall's rank correlation test. The highest correlations were observed for Mn and V. The results are compared with previous WB/LST studies on pure metal salts.
Abstract This study evaluates serum gastrin concentrations in dogs with chronic lymphocytic-plasmacytic enteritis, as well as its possible relationship with the severity of lesions present in the stomach. To achieve this aim, 5 dogs without gastrointestinal disease and 15 dogs with chronic lymphocytic-plasmacytic enteritis were included. Serum gastrin concentrations were significantly increased in dogs with chronic lymphocytic-plasmacytic enteritis compared with those in dogs without gastrointestinal disease. Also, there was a positive correlation between the severity of the gastric lesion and the serum gastrin concentration. Our findings indicate the possibility that gastrin plays a role in the etiology of an accompanying chronic antral gastritis in canine chronic lymphocytic-plasmacytic enteritis. PMID:16152719
Wolfram, Joy; Suri, Krishna; Yang, Yong; Shen, Jianliang; Celia, Christian; Fresta, Massimo; Zhao, Yuliang; Shen, Haifa; Ferrari, Mauro
An essential requisite for the design of nanodelivery systems is the ability to characterize the size, homogeneity and zeta potential of nanoparticles. Such properties can be tailored in order to create the most efficient drug delivery platforms. An important question is whether these characteristics change upon systemic injection. Here, we have studied the behavior of phosphatidylcholine/cholesterol liposomes exposed to serum proteins. The results reveal a serum-induced reduction in the size and homogeneity of both pegylated and non-pegylated liposomes, implicating the possible role of osmotic forces. In addition, changes to zeta-potential were observed upon exposing liposomes to serum. The liposomes with polyethylene glycol expressed different characteristics than their non-polymeric counterparts, suggesting the potential formation of a denser protein corona around the non-pegylated liposomes.
Haynes, S.P.; Corcoran, J.M.; Eastman, C.J.; Doy, F.A.
A rapid, precise radioimmunoassay for progesterone in 25 ..mu..L of unextracted serum is described. Progesterone is released from its binding protein by adding an optimal amount of cortisol, which binds to the same protein (cortisol binding globulin) as progesterone. The amount of cortisol required does not cross react with the specific progesterone antibody used. This approach considerably shortens assay time and removes a tedious and imprecise stage in the conventional assay of serum progesterone. Results correlated well (r = 0.97) with a method involving organic solvent extraction of progesterone from serum. During the two years we have used this mehod in a busy diagnostic endocrine laboratory, the between-assay precision (CV) for low-, medium-, and high-concentration quality control sera was 12, 7, and 9%, respectively. Data from participation in an independent external quality-control program verified the adequacies of the method.
Lumachi, Franco; Basso, Stefano M M
Several serum tumor markers have been investigated in patients with breast cancer for assessing outcome, predicting recurrence and monitoring the therapeutic response. There is a general consensus concerning their limited application in diagnosing malignancy; however, serum tumor markers can be considered for the early detection of recurrence. The most effective markers for this indication are cancer antigens (CA)15-3 and 27.29, and c-erbB-2, although their efficacy in establishing disease progression has not been determined to date. In terms of evaluating prognosis and predicting response to therapy, only the expression of c-erbB-2 has clinical evidence. To conclude, at present, no serum tumor marker is cost effective, and none can be used with confidence in the decision making regarding breast cancer patients.
Borrelli, Michael J.; O’Brien, William D.; Bernock, Laura J.; Williams, Heather R.; Hamilton, Eric; Wu, Jonah; Oelze, Michael L.; Culp, William C.
Uniformly-sized preparations with average microbubble (MB) diameters from 1 µm to 7 µm were produced reliably by sonicating decafluorobutane-saturated solutions of serum albumin and dextrose. Detailed protocols for producing and size-separating the MBs are presented, along with the effects that changing each production parameter (serum albumin concentration, sonication power, sonication time, etc.) had on MB size distribution and acoustic stability. These protocols can be used to produce MBs for experimental applications or serve as templates for developing new protocols that yield MBs with physical and acoustic properties better suited to specific applications. Size stability and ultrasonic performance quality control tests were developed to assure that successive MB preparations perform identically and to distinguish the physical and acoustic properties of identically sized MBs produced with different serum albumin-dextrose formulations and sonication parameters. MBs can be stored at 5°C for protracted periods (2 weeks to one year depending on formulation). PMID:21689961
Salum, J; Guerra, H D; Guerra, M V; Salum, M M
The serum hexosamine levels of 39 patients with Pênfigo Foliáceo Brasileiro were determined. The mean value obtained, compared with the mean value found in 30 normal individuals in our laboratory, by Santos et al. (1977), shows that in this disease, the levels of serum glycosamine are higher than in the normal group. The application of Student's test (/t/) indicates a significant difference in the mean values (/t/) = 9,02 P greater than 0,001). Although little is known about the fundamental processes concerned with the increase of serum glycosamines, the authors based on the suggestions of Seibert et al. (1947) reason on the possibility that the essential lesion, i.e., the destruction of the intercellular cement (of glycoprotein nature) is an important factor in the increase of glycoproteins rich in glicosamines.
Sabitha; Suneetha; Mohanty, Shruti; Rao, Pragna
Breast cancer is a hormone dependent neoplasm. Conflicting results regarding the clinical correlation between breast cancer and thyroid diseases have been reported. The objective of this study was to determine the association of anti - TPO levels in patients having complaints of a lump in breast. Serum samples and Fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) samples were collected from 31 female patients with a lump in breast between the age group of 20-75 years. 31 age matched normal healthy controls were also examined for the same parameters. Serum samples were analyzed for its anti - TPO levels. FNAC reports confirmed patients as having duct cell carcinoma. They had raised serum anti - TPO levels compared to controls. FNAC results of others (n=26) were reported as fibroadenoma whose anti - TPO levels were less than the controls.
Makarov, V K; Mokhov, E M; Mosiagin, A V
The study was undertaken to determine the serum lipid profile in patients with obstructive jaundice (OJ) of various genesis versus those with chronic viral hepatitis B (CVHB). The serum lipid profile was studied in 50 patients with OJ whose cause was cancer diseases and calculous cholecystitis in 20 and 30 patients, respectively. Thirty patients with CVHB were examined as a control group. In patients with OJ, the relative serum content of phospholipids was found to be twice less than that in patients with CVHB. In patients with OJ, hyperlipemia was mainly caused by free cholesterol or cholesterol esters. As compared with the patients with calculous cholecystitis and CVHB, the patients with cancer diseases had low sphingomyelin levels; this fact may be used as an additional measure in detecting OJ of cancer genesis.
Qin, Zonghua; Chen, Ting; Li, Renqiang
The isoelectric points of immunoglobulin (Ig) and serum albumin (SA) in animal serum are about 7.8 and 4.8, respectively. Based on their larger difference of isoelectric points, Q Sepharose-XL strong anion exchange chromatography coupled with molecular exclusion chromatography was used to purify Ig and SA simultaneously from the high immune rabbit serum. After the Q Sepharose-XL strong anion exchange column was equilibrated with 0.02 mol/L Tris-HCl buffer of pH 8.0, a 10-fold dilution sample of rabbit serum was loaded onto the column and the pH gradient elution was performed. With the low flow rate of elution of 0.3 mL/min, the high-purity Ig was obtained when the elution pH was at 6.0. Continuously eluted at pH 4.0 with the same flow rate of elution, the SA was obtained and its purity was greater than 95% after molecular exclusion chromatography through Sephadex G-75. The purified Ig and SA were demonstrated to maintain normal activities by activity analysis. The results of protein content showed that the purification recoveries of Ig and SA were over 95% and 90%, respectively. The method has the advantages of simple operation and rapidity, and the Ig and SA purified simultaneously from the animal serum could maintain normal activities.
Hata, Keiko; Tochigi, Tatsuo; Sato, Ikuro; Kawamura, Sadafumi; Shiozaki, Kazuhiro; Wada, Tadashi; Takahashi, Kohta; Moriya, Setsuko; Yamaguchi, Kazunori; Hosono, Masahiro; Miyagi, Taeko
Aberrant sialylation in glycoproteins and glycolipids is a characteristic feature of malignancy. Human sialidases, which catalyze the removal of sialic acid residues from glycoconjugates, have been implicated in cancer progression. They have been detected in a wide variety of human cells and tissues, but few studies have focused on their existence in human serum. Among the four types identified to date, we previously demonstrated that plasma membrane-associated ganglioside sialidase (NEU3) is markedly upregulated in various human cancers, including examples in the colon and prostate. Here, using a sensitive assay method, we found a significant increase of sialidase activity in the serum of patients with prostate cancer compared with that in healthy subjects having low activity, if any. Activity was apparent with gangliosides as substrates, but only to a very limited extent with 4-methylumbelliferyl sialic acid, a good synthetic substrate for sialidases other than human NEU3. The serum sialidase was also almost entirely immunoprecipitated with anti-NEU3 antibody, but not with antibodies for other sialidases. Interestingly, sera additionally contained inhibitory activity against the sialidase and also against recombinant human NEU3. The sialidase and inhibitor activities could be separated by exosome isolation and by hydrophobic column chromatography. The serum sialidase was assessed by a sandwich ELISA method using two anti-NEU3 antibodies. The results provide strong evidence that the serum sialidase is, in fact, NEU3, and this subtype may, therefore, be a potential utility for novel diagnosis of human cancers.
Nuevo-Ordóñez, Yoana; Montes-Bayón, M; Blanco-González, E; Paz-Aparicio, J; Raimundez, J Diánez; Tejerina, J M; Peña, M A; Sanz-Medel, A
Increased concentrations of circulating metal-degradation products derived from the use of Ti orthopaedic implants may have deleterious biological effects over the long term. Therefore, there is an increasing need to establish the basal level of Ti in the serum of the population (exposed and non-exposed) with appropriate highly sensitive techniques and strategies. With this aim, we have developed a quantitative strategy for the determination of total Ti concentration in human serum samples by isotope dilution analysis using a double-focussing inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer. Minimizing sample handling and therefore contamination issues, we obtained detection limits of about 0.05 μg L(-1) Ti working at medium resolution (m/Δm 4000). Such extremely good sensitivity permitted us to establish the range of Ti concentration in serum of 40 control individuals (mean 0.26 μg L(-1)) and also to compare it with the level in exposed patients with different Ti metal implants. On the other hand, Ti transport "in vivo" studies have been enabled by online coupling of liquid chromatography (anion-exchange) separation and double-focussing inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry for sensitive detection of Ti. The development of a postcolumn isotope dilution strategy permitted quantitative characterization of the Ti-transporting biomolecules in human serum. The results for unspiked serum revealed that 99.8% of the Ti present in this fluid is bound to the protein transferrin, with column recoveries greater than 95%.
Nakamoto, Keitaro; Watanabe, Masato; Sada, Mitsuru; Inui, Toshiya; Nakamura, Masuo; Honda, Kojiro; Wada, Hiroo; Mikami, Yu; Matsuzaki, Hirotaka; Horie, Masafumi; Noguchi, Satoshi; Yamauchi, Yasuhiro; Koyama, Hikari; Kogane, Toshiyuki; Kohyama, Tadashi; Takizawa, Hajime
Background and Purpose Bronchial asthma (BA) is a chronic airway disease characterized by airway hyperresponsiveness and remodeling, which are intimately linked to chronic airway inflammation. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) such as hydrogen peroxide are generated by inflammatory cells that are involved in the pathogenesis of BA. However, the role of ROS in the management of BA patients is not yet clear. We attempted to determine the role of ROS as a biomarker in the clinical setting of BA. Subjects and Methods We enrolled patients with BA from 2013 through 2015 and studied the degrees of asthma control, anti-asthma treatment, pulmonary function test results, fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO), serum reactive oxygen metabolite (ROM) levels, and serum levels of interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-8. Results We recruited 110 patients with BA. Serum ROM levels correlated with white blood cell (WBC) count (rs = 0.273, p = 0.004), neutrophil count (rs = 0.235, p = 0.014), CRP (rs = 0.403, p < 0.001), and IL-6 (rs = 0.339, p < 0.001). Serum ROM levels and IL-8 and CRP levels negatively correlated with %FEV1 (rs = -0.240, p = 0.012, rs = -0.362, p < 0.001, rs = -0.197, p = 0.039, respectively). Serum ROM levels were significantly higher in patients who experienced severe exacerbation within 3 months than in patients who did not (339 [302–381] vs. 376 [352–414] CARR U, p < 0.025). Receiver-operating characteristics analysis showed that ROM levels correlated significantly with the occurrence of severe exacerbation (area under the curve: 0.699, 95% CI: 0.597–0.801, p = 0.025). Conclusions Serum levels of ROM were significantly associated with the degrees of airway obstruction, WBC counts, neutrophil counts, IL-6, and severe exacerbations. This biomarker may be useful in predicting severe exacerbations of BA. PMID:27776186
Wiener, R Constance
Purpose Tobacco smoke exposure continues to be the leading preventable risk factor for many diseases and has the potential to be a risk factor for chronic pain. The purpose of this study is to determine the relationship of chronic pain with smoking, secondhand smoke exposure and non-smoking using serum cotinine (and self-report of living with someone who smokes in the home) to identify the tobacco exposure groups. Methods The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2003–2004 was used for this study. Participants were queried about pain duration and had serum cotinine levels determined during the course of the NHANES examination/survey. Participants, ages 20 years and above, with complete data on chronic pain, cotinine level, sex, race/ethnicity, and responses concerning living with someone who smoked in the home were included in the study (n=4429). Results The adjusted odds ratio of tobacco smoke exposure on chronic pain was 1.67 (95% CI: 1.08, 2.59; p=0.0220) for participants with a serum cotinine level >10 ng/mg (smokers) as compared with individuals who had a non-detectable serum cotinine level. For individuals with a serum cotinine level >0.011 ng/mg to 10 ng/mg who identified as living with someone who smoked in the home, the adjusted odds ratio was 0.88 (95% CI: 0.47, 1.65; p=0.6785) as compared with individuals who had a non-detectable serum cotinine level. Conclusion Chronic pain is a complex situation with many factors affecting it. Similarly, smoking is a complex addiction. The interplay of chronic pain and cotinine levels in this study were significant. PMID:26835515
López-Prieto, Javier; Pelazas-González, Ricardo; Alemán-Valls, M.Remedios; José de la Vega-Prieto, María; Jorge-Ripper, Carlos; Durán-Castellón, M. Carmen; Santolaria-Fernández, F
Background Sclerostin inhibits osteoblast functions, differentiations, and survival rates. As an endogenous inhibitor of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway, the sclerostin should be related to decreased bone masses, although several studies indicate opposite results. In addition, it may be related to insulin resistances and carbohydrate metabolisms, a relation shared with other markers of bone metabolisms, such as osteocalcin. Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infected patients may present osteoporosis, and frequently show liver steatosis, which is a consequence of insulin resistance. The behaviour of sclerostin in these patients is yet unknown. The aim of this work is to analyse the relationships between serum sclerostin and osteocalcin levels and bone mineral density (BMD), liver functions, the intensity of liver steatosis and biochemical markers of bone homeostasis and insulin resistance in HCV-infected patients. Methods Forty HCV patients with 20 years of age and gender-matching controls were included in this study and underwent bone densitometry. Serum sclerostin, osteocalcin, collagen telopeptide, adiponectin, leptin, insulin, resistin, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, and interleukin (IL)-6 were determined. Liver fat was histomorphometrically assessed. Results Sclerostin levels were slightly higher in patients than in controls, and were directly related to BMD at different parts of the skeleton, also to the serum telopeptide, and to the liver steatosis and TNF-α. On the contrary, osteocalcin showed a significant direct relationship with serum adiponectin, and an inverse one with IL-6. Conclusions Serum sclerostin levels were within the normal range in HCV patients, and correlated directly with BMD and serum telopeptide. In addition, the relationships of sclerostin and osteocalcin with variables associated with insulin resistance suggested the role of bones for intermediary metabolisms. PMID:24707469
Osteosarcoma is the most common primary high-grade bone tumor in both adolescents and children. Early tumor detection is key to ensuring effective treatment. Serum marker discovery and validation for pediatric osteosarcoma has accelerated in recent years, coincident with an evolving understanding of molecules and their complex interactions, and the compelling need for improved pediatric osteosarcoma outcome measures in clinical trials. This review gives a short overview of serological markers for pediatric osteosarcoma, and highlights advances in pediatric osteosarcoma-related marker research within the past year. Studies in the past year involving serum markers in patients with pediatric osteosarcoma can be assigned to one of four categories, i.e., new approaches and new markers, exploratory studies in specialized disease subsets, large cross-sectional validation studies, and longitudinal studies, with and without an intervention. Most of the studies have examined the association of a serum marker with some aspect of the natural history of pediatric osteosarcoma. As illustrated by the many studies reviewed, several serum markers are emerging that show a credible association with disease modification. The expanding pool of informative osteosarcoma-related markers is expected to impact development of therapeutics for pediatric osteosarcoma positively and, it is hoped, ultimately clinical care. Combinations of serum markers of natural immunity, thyroid hormone homeostasis, and bone tumorigenesis may be undertaken together in patients with pediatric osteosarcoma. These serum markers in combination may do better. The potential effect of an intrinsic dynamic balance of tumor angiogenesis residing within a single hormone (tri-iodothyronine) is an attractive concept for regulation of vascularization in pediatric osteosarcoma. PMID:22587902
Schwartzbaum, Judith; Seweryn, Michal; Holloman, Christopher; Harris, Randall; Handelman, Samuel K; Rempala, Grzegorz A; Huang, Ruo-Pan; Burkholder, Brett; Brandemihl, Adam; Kallberg, Henrik; Johannesen, Tom Borge; Ahlbom, Anders; Feychting, Maria; Grimsrud, Tom K
Allergy is inversely related to glioma risk. To determine whether prediagnostic allergy-related serum proteins are associated with glioma, we conducted a nested case-control study of seven cytokines (IL4, IL13, IL5, IL6, IL10, IFNG, TGFB2), two soluble cytokine receptors (sIL4RA, sIL13RA2) and three allergy-related transcription factors (FOXP3, STAT3, STAT6) using serum specimens from the Janus Serum Bank Cohort in Oslo, Norway. Blood donors subsequently diagnosed with glioma (n = 487) were matched to controls (n = 487) on age and date of blood draw and sex. We first estimated individual effects of the 12 serum proteins and then interactions between IL4 and IL13 and their receptors using conditional logistic regression. We next tested equality of case-control inter-correlations among the 12 serum proteins. We found that TGFB2 is inversely related to glioblastoma (Odds Ratio (OR) = 0.87, 95% Confidence Interval (CI)) = 0.76, 0.98). In addition, ≤ 5 years before diagnosis, we observed associations between IL4 (OR = 0.82, 95% CI = 0.66, 1.01), sIL4RA (OR = 0.80, 95% CI = 0.65, 1.00), their interaction (OR = 1.06, 95% CI = 1.01, 1.12) and glioblastoma. This interaction was apparent > 20 years before diagnosis (IL4-sIL4RA OR = 1.20, 95% CI = 1.05, 1.37). Findings for glioma were similar. Case correlations were different from control correlations stratified on time before diagnosis. Five years or less before diagnosis, correlations among case serum proteins were weaker than were those among controls. Our findings suggest that IL4 and sIL4RA reduce glioma risk long before diagnosis and early gliomagenesis affects circulating immune function proteins.
Pavuk, M; Olson, J R; Wattigney, W A; Dutton, N D; Sjödin, A; Shelton, C; Turner, W E; Bartell, S M; Bartell, S; Carpenter, D O; Cash, J; Foushee, R; Percy, A; Frumkin, H; Lavender, M; Moysich, K; Olson, J; Pavuk, M; Rosenbaum, P; Silverstone, A; Weinstock, R; Shelton, C
The Anniston Community Health Survey was a community-based cross-sectional study of Anniston, Alabama, residents who live in close proximity to a former PCB production facility to identify factors associated with serum PCB levels. The survey comprises 765 Anniston residents who completed a questionnaire interview and provided a blood sample for analysis in 2005-2007. Several reports based on data from the Anniston survey have been previously published, including associations between PCB exposure and diabetes and blood pressure. In this study we examine demographic, behavioral, dietary, and occupational characteristics of Anniston survey participants as predictors of serum PCB concentrations. Of the 765 participants, 54% were White and 45% were African-American; the sample was predominantly female (70%), with a mean age of 55 years. Serum PCB concentrations varied widely between participants (range for sum of 35 PCBs: 0.11-170.4 ng/g wet weight). Linear regression models with stepwise selection were employed to examine factors associated with serum PCBs. Statistically significant positive associations were observed between serum PCB concentrations and age, race, residential variables, current smoking, and local fish consumption, as was a negative association with education level. Age and race were the most influential predictors of serum PCB levels. A small age by sex interaction was noted, indicating that the increase in PCB levels with age was steeper for women than for men. Significant interaction terms indicated that the associations between PCB levels and having ever eaten locally raised livestock and local clay were much stronger among African-Americans than among White participants. In summary, demographic variables and past consumption of locally produced foods were found to be the most important predictors of PCB concentrations in residents living in the vicinity of a former PCB manufacturing facility.
Pavuk, M.; Olson, J.R.; Wattigney, W.A.; Dutton, N.D.; Sjödin, A.; Shelton, C.; Turner, W.E.; Bartell, S.M.; Bartell, S.; Carpenter, D.O.; Cash, J.; Foushee, R.; Percy, A.; Frumkin, H.; Lavender, M.; Moysich, K.; Olson, J.; Pavuk, M.; Rosenbaum, P.; Silverstone, A.; Weinstock, R.; Shelton, C.
The Anniston Community Health Survey was a community-based cross-sectional study of Anniston, Alabama, residents who live in close proximity to a former PCB production facility to identify factors associated with serum PCB levels. The survey comprises 765 Anniston residents who completed a questionnaire interview and provided a blood sample for analysis in 2005–2007. Several reports based on data from the Anniston survey have been previously published, including associations between PCB exposure and diabetes and blood pressure. In this study we examine demographic, behavioral, dietary, and occupational characteristics of Anniston survey participants as predictors of serum PCB concentrations. Of the 765 participants, 54% were White and 45% were African-American; the sample was predominantly female (70%), with a mean age of 55 years. Serum PCB concentrations varied widely between participants (range for sum of 35 PCBs: 0.11–170.4 ng/g wet weight). Linear regression models with stepwise selection were employed to examine factors associated with serum PCBs. Statistically significant positive associations were observed between serum PCB concentrations and age, race, residential variables, current smoking, and local fish consumption, as was a negative association with education level. Age and race were the most influential predictors of serum PCB levels. A small age by sex interaction was noted, indicating that the increase in PCB levels with age was steeper for women than for men. Significant interaction terms indicated that the associations between PCB levels and having ever eaten locally raised livestock and local clay were much stronger among African-Americans than among White participants. In summary, demographic variables and past consumption of locally produced foods were found to be the most important predictors of PCB concentrations in residents living in the vicinity of a former PCB manufacturing facility. PMID:25115605
Houston, Denise K.; Schwartz, Ann V.; Cauley, Jane A.; Tylavsky, Frances A.; Simonsick, Eleanor M.; Harris, Tamara B.; de Rekeneire, Nathalie; Schwartz, Gary G.; Kritchevsky, Stephen B.
Objectives To examine the association between serum parathyroid hormone (PTH) levels and incident falls in older diabetic adults. Design Longitudinal analysis of incident falls over 1 year in a sub-study of diabetic participants in the Health, Aging and Body Composition study. Setting Pittsburgh, PA, and Memphis, TN. Participants Well-functioning, community-dwelling black and white adults aged 70-79 with diabetes (n = 472). Measurements Measured baseline serum PTH. Self-report of falls over the subsequent 12 months. Baseline physical performance and self-reported demographic, behavioral, and health status measures including kidney function, chronic conditions and medication use. Results 30.3% of participants reported falling over one year of follow-up. The mean ± SD baseline serum PTH was 53.5 ± 30.0 pg/mL in non-fallers and 62.6 ± 46.2 pg/mL in fallers (p = 0.01). For every 1 SD (36 pg/mL) increment in baseline serum PTH, there was approximately a 30% increased likelihood of reporting a fall in the subsequent year after adjusting for age, gender, race, field center, alcohol consumption, BMI, physical activity, and winter/spring season (adjusted odds ratio (OR) = 1.30, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.06-1.59). Further adjustment for kidney function, chronic conditions, medication and supplement use, and physical performance attenuated the association slightly (OR (95% CI): 1.26 (1.01-1.58)). A trend remained after additional adjustment for reported falls in the previous year. Conclusion Higher serum PTH was associated with incident falls among older, well-functioning diabetic men and women. Further investigation aimed at understanding the underlying mechanism for the association between serum PTH and falls is needed. PMID:19016936
Mai, Manuel; Tönjes, Anke; Kovacs, Peter; Stumvoll, Michael; Fiedler, Georg Martin; Leichtle, Alexander Benedikt
Objective The role of mitochondrial function in the complex pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes is not yet completely understood. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate serum concentrations of short-, medium- and long-chain acylcarnitines as markers of mitochondrial function in volunteers with normal, impaired or diabetic glucose control. Methods Based on a 75 g oral glucose tolerance test, 1019 studied subjects were divided into a group with normal glucose tolerance (NGT; n = 636), isolated impaired fasting glycaemia (IFG; n = 184), impaired glucose tolerance (IGT; n = 87) or type 2 diabetes (T2D; n = 112). Serum concentrations of free carnitine and 24 acylcarnitines were measured by mass spectrometry. Results Serum levels of acetylcarnitine (C2), propionylcarnitine (C3), octanoylcarnitine (C8), malonylcarnitine/hydroxybutyrylcarnitine (C3DC+C4OH), hexanoylcarnitine (C6), octenoylcarnitine (C8:1), decanoylcarnitine (C10), decenoylcarnitine (C10:1), dodecanoylcarnitine (C12), tetradecenoylcarnitine (C14:1), tetradecadienylcarnitine (C14:2), hydroxytetradecanoylcarnitine (C14OH), hydroxyhexadecanoylcarnitine (C16OH) and octadecenoylcarnitine (C18:1) were significantly different among the groups (all p<0.05 adjusted for age, gender and BMI). Between the prediabetic states C14:1, C14:2 and C18:1 showed significantly higher serum concentrations in persons with IGT (p<0.05). Compared to T2D the IFG and the IGT subjects showed lower serum concentrations of malonylcarnitine/hydroxybutyrylcarnitine (C3DC+C4OH) (p<0.05). Conclusion Alterations in serum concentrations of several acylcarnitines, in particular tetradecenoylcarnitine (C14:1), tetradecadienylcarnitine (C14:2), octadecenoylcarnitine (C18:1) and malonylcarnitine/hydroxybutyrylcarnitine (C3DC+C4OH) are associated not only with T2D but also with prediabetic states. PMID:24358186
Sakız, Davut; Kaya, Ahmet; Kulaksizoglu, Mustafa
The thyroid gland is susceptible to nodulation. The mechanism responsible for the growth of only some follicular cells, which results in nodule formation, is not yet clear. Selenium deficiency may be a risk factor in the development of thyroid nodules. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between selenium levels in patients with euthyroid nodular thyroid disease. Seventy patients with a solitary euthyroid thyroid nodule, 70 patients with more than one euthyroid nodule, and 60 healthy patients without thyroid nodules were included in the study. Venous serum samples were stored at -80°C and analyzed the same day using spectrometry. The selenium levels of patients with multiple thyroid nodules, solitary nodules, and patients without nodules were 57.3 ± 14.8 μg/L; 58.8 ± 15.1 μg/L; and 57.6 ± 13.3 μg/L, respectively. The mean serum selenium level of all patients included in the study was 57.9 ± 14.4 μg/L. Although serum selenium levels were slightly higher in men, a statistically significant difference was not observed. In our study, a significant relationship between serum selenium levels and nodular thyroid disease was not seen. Our study was undertaken in an iodine sufficient region. Mean serum selenium levels were lower compared with many other studies, which may be associated with the low selenium content of the soil. Nodular thyroid disease shows multifactorial features. When our study is considered together with previous studies, serum selenium levels may considered to be effective on structural thyroid diseases if combined with additional factors such as severe iodine deficiency. Further studies are required to assess the role of selenium in thyroid nodule formation.
Graugnard, Elton; Cox, Amber; Lee, Jeunghoon; Jorcyk, Cheryl; Yurke, Bernard; Hughes, William L.
The potential for inferring the presence of cancer by the detection of miRNA in human blood has motivated research into the design and operation of DNA-based chemical amplifiers that can operate in bodily fluids. As a first step toward this goal, we have tested the operation of a DNA-based autocatalytic network in human serum and mouse serum. With the addition of sodium dodecyl sulfate to prevent degradation by nuclease activity, the network was found to operate successfully with both DNA and RNA catalysts.
Carter, Daniel C.
Sequences of amino acids defined for use in making polypeptides one-third to one-sixth as large as parent human serum albumin molecule. Smaller, chemically stable peptides have diverse applications including service as artificial human serum and as active components of biosensors and chromatographic matrices. In applications involving production of artificial sera from new sequences, little or no concern about viral contaminants. Smaller genetically engineered polypeptides more easily expressed and produced in large quantities, making commercial isolation and production more feasible and profitable.
Petersen, K G; Schlüter, K J; Kerp, L
Counterregulatory secretion of epinephrine occurs during severe insulin-induced hypoglycemia. Under these conditions (minimal plasma glucose 27.4 +/- 1 mg/dl) the decrease of serum potassium concentration (0.9 mVal/L) is mediated by two mechanisms: insulin-induced (0.48 mVal/L) and epinephrine-induced (0.42 mVal/L) cellular uptake of potassium. Epinephrine-induced serum potassium uptake appears to be more sensitive to beta-adrenoceptor blockade than glucose production. The intensification of insulin-induced hypokalemia by epinephrine is of clinical significance.
Fisher, G.L.; Spitler, L.E.; McNeill, K.L.; Rosenblatt, L.S.
Serum copper levels (SCL) and serum zinc levels (SZL) were evaluated in malignant melanoma patients at various clinical stages. Copper levels were generally found to be elevated, reflecting the degree and extent of tumor activity. Zinc levels and, hence, SCL:SZL ratios did not reflect tumor activity. SCL appeared to prognosticate disease progression in that all patients whose values never declined below 150 ..mu..g/100 ml died during the course of the study. However, not all patients who died from tumor metastases displayed persistent elevations of SCL. Patients receiving BCG immunotherapy appeared to have higher SCL than untreated patients.
Cartlidge, P H; Rutter, N
Serum albumin concentration was measured in 195 infants of 25 to 42 weeks' gestation during the neonatal period. Concentrations were significantly lower in preterm infants, rising from a mean of 19 g/l at 26 weeks to 31 g/l at term. There was a 15% increase in albumin concentrations in the first three weeks of life. Oedema in the early and late neonatal period was common in preterm infants but correlated poorly with hypoalbuminaemia. Measurement of serum albumin concentrations in preterm infants either routinely or because of oedema is not clinically useful. PMID:3740904
Overed-Sayer, Catherine L; Mosedale, David E; Goodall, Margaret; Grainger, David J
This unit describes an ELISA for the quantitative measurement of IgD levels in human serum. The ELISA is highly specific and sensitive, with a minimum detectable concentration of 30 pg/ml and more than 10,000-fold specificity for IgD over all other human immunoglobulins. Linear dilution characteristics enable measurement of IgD concentrations ranging over 5 orders of magnitude. These factors are vital for the IgD assay, since IgD makes up only a small proportion of the total immunoglobulins present in normal sera, and IgD serum concentrations are known to vary widely between individuals.
I believe we have made considerable progress. NA. Purification of LPS binding substances in inflammatory serum ’ We radiolabeled E . Coli 018, E . Coli ...0113, E . Coli 0111:B4 and, S. typhimurium by growing the organisms in tritated broth and extracting the 3H-LPS by the hot phenol method as described...HPLC system which will speed up the work. B. Binding of 3H-LPS to substances in polyclonal serum to E . Coli J5 Although not written into the initial
Akdeniz, Ali; Caglayan, Mehmet Gokhan; Polivina, Irina; Anzenbacher, Pavel
Two fluorometric sensors based on the tri-serine tri-lactone scaffold and thiourea or sulfonamide moieties serving as hydrogen bond donors allowing for anion binding are described. The sensor utilizing thiourea as a recognition moiety shows fluorescence enhancement while the sensor with sulfonamide shows quenching upon addition of phosphates. Sensor arrays composed of two sensors are able to discriminate structurally similar organic phosphates in the presence of interferents in human blood serum. The quantitative analysis of ATP in human blood serum shows high accuracy (the root mean square error of prediction, 1.65%) without requiring any sample pretreatment.
Skopp, Gisela; Richter, Barbara; Pötsch, Lucia
Low concentrations of THC and 11-hydroxy-THC in serum samples are often claimed not to result from recent cannabis use. Prediction of time of exposure is difficult, especially if distinctive features of drug use could not be observed. Therefore, the aim of the study was to investigate the presence of THC and 11-hydroxy-THC in serum samples as well as to obtain preliminary data on the analyte profile for a time window of 24-48 hours after discontinuation of cannabis smoking. Serum samples from heavy (n = 12, > 1 joint/day), moderate (n = 11, < or = 1 joint/day) and light (n = 6, < 1 joint/week) smokers of cannabis were analyzed for THC, 11-hydroxy-THC and free THC-COOH by GC/MS as well as for glucuronidated THC-COOH by LC/MS-MS. The blood samples were collected 24-48 hours after abstaining from cannabis use. Additionally, 8 specimens were obtained from persons after discontinuation of the drug for more than 48 hours. During collection of the blood samples, distinctive effects due to drug use could not be observed. For heavy users of cannabis, THC was detectable in 8 samples, and in 5 cases both biologically active compounds, THC and 11-hydroxy-THC, were present (1.3-6.4 ng THC/mL serum, 0.5-2.4 ng 11-hydroxy-THC/mL serum). Among moderate users, in 1 sample 1.8 ng THC/mL serum and 1.3 ng 11-hydroxy-THC/mL serum were determined, and another sample was tested positive with low concentrations close to the limit of detection. In serum samples of light users both analytes could not be detected, indicating that in those persons a positive finding of THC and 11-hydroxy-THC may rather result from recent consumption than from cannabis use 1 or 2 days prior to blood sampling. The concentrations of THC-COOH and its glucuronide covered a wide range in all groups of cannabis users. However, there was a trend to higher concentrations in heavy users compared to moderate users, and the mean concentration was smaller in light smokers than in moderate smokers. Overall, the findings
Hassanein, M.; Ghaleb, H. A.; Haroun, E. A.; Hegazy, M. R.; Khayyal, M. A. H.
An intravenous glucose tolerance test was carried out in 11 patients with chronic manganese poisoning. Prolonged reactionary hypoglycaemia was observed. The underlying mechanism is discussed. It may be due to a disturbance of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis. In seven of these patients total serum proteins were estimated and were separated electrophoretically. The albumin: globulin ratios were lower in patients than in controls. There were significant reductions in serum albumin concentrations and increases in concentrations of α1 and β globulins. PMID:5904101
Satoh, P S; Elberg, A J; Fleming, W E; Baluarte, H J; Gruskin, A B
Serum of children with the nephrotic syndrome contained high titers of a (19S) IgM antibody against sheep, horse, guinea pig, rat, and rabbit red blood cells but not against cow red blood cells. There was high correlation between high titers of antisheep antibodies and active nephrotic syndrome in the children with minimal change nephrotic syndrome. The antibody differed from the Paul-Bunnell antibody found in patients with infectious mononucleosis and from the anti-Forssman, Hangautziu-Deicher antibody found in patients with horse serum sickness. Rabbit red blood cells completely absorbed the antibody, but horse or guinea pig red blood cells removed only the anti-Forssman activity.
Murabayashi, Dai; Mochizuki, Mai; Tamaki, Yuichi; Nakahara, Taka
Stem cell-based therapies depend on the reliable expansion of patient-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in vitro. The supplementation of cell culture media with serum is associated with several risks; accordingly, serum-free media are commercially available for cell culture. Furthermore, hypoxia is known to accelerate the expansion of MSCs. The present study aimed to characterize the properties of periodontal ligament-derived MSCs (PDLSCs) cultivated in serum-free and serum-containing media, under hypoxic and normoxic conditions. Cell growth, gene and protein expression, cytodifferentiation potential, genomic stability, cytotoxic response, and in vivo hard tissue generation of PDLSCs were examined. Our findings indicated that cultivation in serum-free medium does not affect the MSC phenotype or chromosomal stability of PDLSCs. PDLSCs expanded in serum-free medium exhibited more active growth than in fetal bovine serum-containing medium. We found that hypoxia does not alter the cell growth of PDLSCs under serum-free conditions, but inhibits their osteogenic and adipogenic cytodifferentiation while enabling maintenance of their multidifferentiation potential regardless of the presence of serum. PDLSCs expanded in serum-free medium were found to retain common MSC characteristics, including the capacity for hard tissue formation in vivo. However, PDLSCs cultured in serum-free culture conditions were more susceptible to damage following exposure to extrinsic cytotoxic stimuli than those cultured in medium supplemented with serum, suggesting that serum-free culture conditions do not exert protective effects against cytotoxicity on PDLSC cultures. The present work provides a comparative evaluation of cell culture in serum-free and serum-containing media, under hypoxic and normoxic conditions, for applications in regenerative medicine.
Vilar, José M.; Rubio, Mónica; Spinella, Giuseppe; Cuervo, Belén; Sopena, Joaquín; Cugat, Ramón; Garcia-Balletbó, Montserrat; Dominguez, Juan M.; Granados, Maria; Tvarijonaviciute, Asta; Ceron, José J.; Carrillo, José M.
The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of serum type II collagen cleavage epitope and serum hyaluronic acid as biomarkers for treatment monitoring in osteoarthritic dogs. For this purpose, a treatment model based on mesenchymal stem cells derived from adipose tissue combined with plasma rich in growth factors was used. This clinical study included 10 dogs with hip osteoarthritis. Both analytes were measured in serum at baseline, just before applying the treatment, and 1, 3, and 6 months after treatment. These results were compared with those obtained from force plate analysis using the same animals during the same study period. Levels of type II collagen cleavage epitope decreased and those of hyaluronic acid increased with clinical improvement objectively verified via force plate analysis, suggesting these two biomarkers could be effective as indicators of clinical development of joint disease in dogs. PMID:26886592
Vilar, José M; Rubio, Mónica; Spinella, Giuseppe; Cuervo, Belén; Sopena, Joaquín; Cugat, Ramón; Garcia-Balletbó, Montserrat; Dominguez, Juan M; Granados, Maria; Tvarijonaviciute, Asta; Ceron, José J; Carrillo, José M
The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of serum type II collagen cleavage epitope and serum hyaluronic acid as biomarkers for treatment monitoring in osteoarthritic dogs. For this purpose, a treatment model based on mesenchymal stem cells derived from adipose tissue combined with plasma rich in growth factors was used. This clinical study included 10 dogs with hip osteoarthritis. Both analytes were measured in serum at baseline, just before applying the treatment, and 1, 3, and 6 months after treatment. These results were compared with those obtained from force plate analysis using the same animals during the same study period. Levels of type II collagen cleavage epitope decreased and those of hyaluronic acid increased with clinical improvement objectively verified via force plate analysis, suggesting these two biomarkers could be effective as indicators of clinical development of joint disease in dogs.
The aim of this study was to compare the effect of sucrose on biomarkers of energy metabolism and utilization in migrainous men and women. A total of 20 participants (7=Migraine (female), 5=Migraine (male), 8=Non-migraine control) submitted to an oral sucrose tolerance test (OSTT), which required them to fast for 15 h overnight and then ingest 75 g sucrose dissolved in 175 g water at 9 AM the next morning. Blood sampling for the assessment of serum insulin, serum cortisol and plasma glucose was conducted upon arrival at 0900 h and then at regular 15-min intervals across a 150-min period. Comparison of insulin sensitivity indexes that rely on fasting glucose and insulin data failed to find evidence of insulin resistance in migraineurs or controls. Prior to sucrose consumption the level of fasting serum cortisol at 0-min on average was significantly higher in migraineurs. However, no significant group differences in the level of fasting serum insulin and plasma glucose at 0-min were noted. Following sucrose consumption: the level of serum insulin was significantly higher in female migraineurs; the level of serum cortisol was significantly higher in male migraineurs; glucose/insulin (G/I) ratio was significantly higher in male migraineurs at 135-min and 150-min; insulin/cortisol (I/C) ratio was significantly different with the I/C ratio lower in male migraineurs and higher in female migraineurs; area under the curve (AUC) insulin was significantly different across groups with AUC insulin lower in male migraineurs and higher in female migraineurs; and AUC cortisol was significantly higher in male migraineurs. It was concluded that the effect of sucrose on biomarkers of energy metabolism and utilization in male and female migraineurs is not the same. Therefore, the factors underlying migraine pathogenesis in men and women may also be different.
Romanov, Yu A; Balashova, E E; Volgina, N E; Kabaeva, N V; Dugina, T N; Sukhikh, G T
Optimal conditions for culturing of multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells in the presence of pooled umbilical cord blood serum were determined. It was found that umbilical cord blood serum in a concentration range of 1-10% effectively supported high viability and proliferative activity of cells with unaltered phenotype and preserved multilineage differentiation capacity. The proposed approach allows avoiding the use of xenogenic animal sera for culturing of multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells and creates prerequisites for designing and manufacturing safe cellular and/or acellular products for medical purposes.
Witte-Foster, S R; Garcia, P A; Dove, C R
Serum lipid profiles, serum immunoglobulins, and serum proteins were investigated in 65 noninstitutionalized older women living in a rural community. All women were mentally and physically able to participate in the study. They did not have any overt disease nor were they taking any prescription or nonprescription drugs that would interfere with the study. Personal interview elicited medical history, drug usage, dietary information, height, and weight from 25 reference women (50 through 64 years old), 28 young-old women (65 through 84 years old), and 12 old-old women (85 through 92 years old). Blood samples were obtained from fasting participants and analyzed for total serum cholesterol, high-density-lipoprotein cholesterol, serum triglyceride, serum immunoglobulins (IgG, IgA, and IgM), serum albumin, and total serum protein. Serum lipids were not significantly affected by age, drug use, or age-by-drug use interaction. Effects of age were observed for IgA and serum albumin. Mean concentrations of serum immunoglobulins, serum albumin, and total serum proteins were within normal limits for all participants. Based on this small sample of rural older women, our results indicate that the normal levels of high-density-lipoprotein cholesterol and the healthy life-styles of these women may help offset any possible negative effects of elevated serum cholesterol concentrations.
Karmaus, Wilfried; Riebow, John F
Valid exposure assessment and biomonitoring of toxicants rely on standardized specimen collection, handling, storage, and measurement. In a study designed to determine organochlorine concentrations in blood samples, we recruited participants from registered anglers in Michigan. After participants were interviewed, blood was collected from study subjects, either at home by a phlebotomist or in a commercial blood-draw station. The phlebotomists stored their samples in glass containers, but without our knowledge, the commercial laboratory transferred the specimens to plastic containers for freezing in its central facility. Samples were analyzed in the Analytical Chemistry Section Laboratory of the Michigan Department of Community Health. This laboratory also provided information on storage in glass (n = 28) versus plastic containers (n = 113). We conducted linear regression analyses to assess factors that may explain the concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE), and polybrominated biphenyls (PBBs). Our results indicate that storage of serum in plastic containers altered the total concentrations of PCBs, in particular, the higher chlorinated PCBs (PCB-180 and PCB-199), but not DDE or PBBs. No other characteristics of the samples could explain the higher PCB values (0.75 micro g/L vs. 0.45 micro g/L; p = 0.025) of those stored in plastic containers. The proportion of PCB detects in both subsamples did not differ. Some preceding studies have provided information on whether specimens were stored in glass or plastic containers; however, a number of studies have not. We suggest the initiation of a new review process to determine whether these earlier reports were based on unbiased PCB determinations. We recommend standardizing specimen collection, handling, storage, and measurement, which is particularly necessary for newly emerging analytes.
Ganji, Vijay; Kafai, Mohammad R; McCarthy, Erin
Background Leptin is known to play a role in food intake regulation. The aim of this study was to investigate the relation between serum leptin concentrations and dietary patterns and demographic, lifestyle, and health factors in the US population. Methods Data from the third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1988–1994 were used to study the association between fasting serum leptin and dietary patterns, sex, race-ethnicity, smoking, age, energy and alcohol intakes, body mass index (BMI), plasma glucose, serum triacylglycerol, and serum insulin in 4009 individuals. Factor analysis was used to derive three principle factors and these were labeled as Vegetable, Fruit, and Lean Meat, Western, and Mixed dietary patterns. Results Serum leptin concentrations were significantly higher in Vegetable, Fruit, and Lean Meat (8.5 fg/L) and Mixed patterns (8.0 fg/L) compared to Western pattern (6.29 fg/L) (P < 0.0001). When analysis was adjusted for confounding variables, no significant association was observed between serum leptin and dietary patterns (P = 0.22). Multivariate adjusted serum leptin concentrations were significantly associated with sex (higher in women than in men; β = -1.052; P < 0.0001), age (direct relation, β = 0.006, P < 0.0001), BMI, (direct relation, β = 0.082, P < 0.0001), fasting plasma glucose (inverse relation, β = -0.024, P = 0.0146), serum triacylglycerol (direct relation, β = 0.034, P = 0.0022), and serum insulin (direct relation, β = 0.003, P < 0.0001) but not with race-ethnicity (P = 0.65), smoking (P = 0.20), energy intake (P = 0.42), and alcohol intake (P = 0.73). Conclusion In this study, serum leptin was not independently associated with dietary patterns. Sex, age, BMI, serum triacylglycerol, plasma glucose, and serum insulin are independent predictors of serum leptin concentrations. PMID:19144201
Moslem, Maryam; Zarei Mahmoudabadi, Ali; Fatahinia, Mahnaz; Kheradmand, Alireza
Background: Candida species are normal mycoflora of human body which are capable to cause urinary tract infection (UTI). Mannose-binding lectin (MBL) is a kind of innate immune system and decreasing plasma levels of MBL may disrupt the natural immune response and increase susceptibility to infections. Objectives: The aim of the present study was to assess MBL in the serum of patients with candiduria and compare them with control. Patients and Methods: The blood and urine samples were collected from 335 patients (hospitalized in Golestan hospital, Ahvaz) using standard methods and the growing colonies on CHROMagar were identified using routine diagnostic tests. MBL activity in the serum of 45 patients with candiduria and 45 controls was measured using Eastbiopharm enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kit. Results: In this study, 45 (13.4 %) urine samples were positive for Candida species (17 males and 28 females). The most common isolated yeast was Candida albicans (34%), followed by C. glabrata (32.1%), C. tropicalis (9.4%), other Candida species (22.6%), and Rhodotorula species (1.9%). The mean serum levels of MBL were 0.85 ± 0.01 ng/mL and 1.02 ± 0.03 ng/mL among candiduric patients and controls, respectively, and there was no significant difference between the two groups (P = 0.6). Conclusions: Our results showed that there was no significant relationship between MBL serum levels and candiduria. PMID:26870314
Sandeep, Thirunavukkarasu; Roopakala, Mysore Subrahmanyam; Silvia, Chickballapur Rayappa Wilma Delphine; Chandrashekara, Srikantaiah; Rao, Mohan
Background: Immunoglobulin E and associated cellular responses are responsible for allergic airway diseases. A hypersensitivity reaction initiated by immunologic mechanisms, mediated by IgE antibodies occurs in allergic asthma Aim: To estimate and compare serum IgE levels in mild, moderate, and severe asthmatics and in normal subjects and to obtain a mathematical model describing the relationship between serum IgE levels and severity of asthma. Materials and Methods: A stratified sample of 60 patients within age group of 18-60 years and 31 male and 29 female asthmatic patients and 13 healthy controls within 18-60 years were included in this study and classified according to GINA classification. Serum IgE levels were estimated by using ELISA kit. Results: Mean IgE levels ranged from 151.95 IU/ml in normal subjects to 1045.32 IU/ml in severe asthmatics. The model developed was 27% efficient. Conclusion: Serum Immunoglobulin E levels were high in asthmatics as compared to normal subjects. On an average, the levels increased as the severity of asthma increased. However, there was no statistically significant correlation since the variability in each level of asthma was very large PMID:20931031
Levels of serum IgE (an immunoglobulin carrying reaginic antibody activity) were investigated in 16 Down's syndrome adolescents (12-to 18-years old) and in an equal number of retardates matched for age and sex residing in the same institution. (CL)
Vlahos, I.; MacMahon, W.; Sgoutas, D.; Bowers, W.; Thompson, J.; Trawick, W.
In this method, we use the Amicon MPS-1 centrifugal ultrafiltration device and the YMB membrane in measuring free testosterone in serum. Two independent assays are combined: total testosterone and the ultrafiltrable fraction of added (/sup 3/H)testosterone. The unbound fraction is determined in 0.15-0.5 mL ultrafiltrates of 0.6 to 1 mL of variably diluted serum that has been equilibrated with (/sup 3/H)testosterone at 37 degrees C. The assay is rapid (less than 1 h), practicable (requires 0.6 mL of serum), and reproducible (CV 3.2% within assay, 3.9% between assays). Accuracy was evaluated as the fraction of free testosterone in the ultrafiltrate of dialyzed serum vs that in a prior dialysate; they were the same confirming the validity of the free testosterone measurement. Samples from ostensibly healthy men and women and from hirsute and pregnant women gave results that agreed with those obtained by equilibrium dialysis. Total testosterone concentrations for normal and hirsute women showed considerable overlap, but data on free testosterone concentrations in these populations were better resolved.
Liao, S; Witte, D
Circulating autoantibodies to human and rat androgen receptors are present at high titers in the blood sera of some patients with prostate diseases. The antibodies from some serum samples were associated with a purified IgG fraction and interacted with the 3.8S cytosolic androgen-receptor complexes of rat ventral prostate to form 9- to 12S units. Other serum samples, however, formed 14- to 19S units, suggesting that other immunoglobulins might be involved. In the presence of an anti-human immunoglobulin as a second antibody, the androgen-receptor-antibody complexes could be immunoprecipitated. The antibodies interacted with the nuclear and the cytosolic androgen-receptor complexes, either the DNA-binding or the nonbinding form, but not with receptors for estradiol, progestin, or dexamethasone from a variety of sources. Human testosterone/estradiol-binding globulin, rat epididymal androgen-binding protein, or rat prostate alpha-protein (a nonreceptor steroid-binding protein) also did not interact with the antibodies to form immunoprecipitates. About 37% of male and 3% of female serum samples screened had significant antibody titer. The chance of finding serum with a high titer is much better in males older than 66 years than in the younger males or females at all ages. The presence of the high-titer antibodies may make it possible to prepare monoclonal antibodies to androgen receptors without purification of the receptors for immunization. PMID:3866227
... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false The rapid serum test. 2 147.2 Section 147.2 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LIVESTOCK IMPROVEMENT AUXILIARY PROVISIONS ON NATIONAL POULTRY IMPROVEMENT PLAN Blood...