Quintella, Leonardo P; Cuzzi, Tullia; Madeira, Maria de F; Okamoto, Thais; Schubach, Armando de O
The present study reports the production of the rabbit anti-Leishmania (L.) chagasi hyperimmune serum, the standardization of the immunohistochemistry (IHC) technique and the evaluation of its employment in cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) lesions diagnosed by Leishmania sp. culture isolation. Thirty fragments of active CL lesions were examined as well as 10 fragments of cutaneous mycosis lesions as control group. IHC proved more sensitive in detecting amastigotes than conventional hematoxylin-eosin (HE) stained slides: the former was positive in 24 (80%) biopsies whereas the latter, in 16 (53%) (p = 0.028). The reaction stained different fungus species causing cutaneous mycosis. Besides, positive reaction was noticed in mononuclear and endothelial cells. Nevertheless, this finding was present in the control group biopsies. It is concluded that IHC showed good sensitivity in detecting amastigotes.
Mackenzie, R; Kiernan, M; McKenzie, D; Youl, B D
The authors report a patient with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) who showed a lessening of deterioration in respiratory muscle strength during treatment with hyperimmune goat serum (HGS) (Aimspro). Respiratory function tests (RFTs) were measured by established protocols, and all measurements were expressed as a percentage of normal predicted values. The rate of decline was calculated by linear regression analysis. Respiratory muscle strength decline was less during 13 months of treatment with HGS (mean 1.3% per month, range 0.8-1.7%) compared to the preceding 13 months (mean 2.3% per month, range 1.2-3.1%), while a greater decline would be expected with disease progression. Comparison with similarly affected patients in the literature suggest that a decline of 4-5% per month of predicted values may be expected during the treatment phase.
Rockman, Steven; Maher, Darryl; Middleton, Deborah
Although use of hyperimmune serum to treat patients with severe influenza infection, infections resistant to antiviral drugs, or as an interim therapy during a pandemic is frequently proposed, there have been no randomized case-control trials to investigate its efficacy. Reports of the use of hyperimmune serum in human influenza infection are sporadic and studies in animal models are limited. Ferrets exposed to an otherwise lethal dose of highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 were used as a model of severe human disease. Hyperimmune serum was administered 24 hrs before virus exposure, during early fever, or at the onset of initial clinical signs of influenza (lethargy, lack of appetite) to reflect clinically relevant intervention points. Animals were monitored for 14 days after challenge and assessed for local and constitutional signs of influenza as measured by survival, weight loss, activity scores, viral shedding, and seroconversion. All animals administered hyperimmune serum homologous to the challenge virus before challenge survived the infection with no significant morbidity. The majority of animals receiving hyperimmune serum after virus exposure and during early fever survived the period of observation but showed significant morbidity and prolonged convalescence. The majority of animals that received serum later in the disease course died of acute infection. In highly pathogenic systemic influenza infections, the window for successful intervention by administration of hyperimmune serum may be narrow.
Ramos-Jesus, Joilson; Carvalho, Kellyanne A; Fonseca, Rosana A S; Oliveira, Geraldo G S; Melo, Stella M Barrouin; Alcântara-Neves, Neuza M; Dutra, Rosa F
The American visceral leishmaniasis is an important cause of morbidity and mortality in Brazil for both humans and dogs. Attempts to make a diagnosis of this disease need to be improved, especially in endemic areas, and in the tracking and screening of asymptomatic dogs, which are their main host in urban areas. A quartz crystal microbalance immunosensor for the diagnosis of the canine visceral leishmaniasis using a recombinant antigen of Leishmania chagasi (rLci2B-NH6) was developed. The rLci2B-NH6 was tightly immobilized on a quartz crystal gold electrode by self-assembled monolayer based on short-chain length thiol. The strategy was the use of the antigen-histidine tail covalently linked to glutaraldehyde performing a Schift base which permits a major exposure of epitopes and a reduced steric hindrance. The immunosensor showed good results regarding sensitivity and reproducibility, being able to distinguish positive and negative canine serum for L. chagasi. Furthermore, the immunosensor can be reused through exposure to sodium dodecyl sulfate solution, which promotes the dissociation of antigen-antibody binding, restoring the sensor surface with immobilized biologically active antigens for further analysis.
Nedbalcova, K; Kucerova, Z; Krejci, J; Tesarik, R; Gopfert, E; Kummer, V; Leva, L; Kudlackova, H; Ondriasova, R; Faldyna, M
The protective role of hyperimmune serum in the prevention of Haemophilus parasuis infections in post-weaned piglets was assessed by experimental challenge. The hyperimmune serum was obtained from a pig vaccinated with a commercial vaccine against Glässer's disease. Thirty-eight weaned piglets were divided into four groups: three groups were immunised intramuscularly with 10 ml of hyperimmune serum and one group consisted of unimmunised control animals. All piglets were subsequently infected intraperitoneally with H. parasuis serotype 5 at different times after immunisation. The use of hyperimmune serum provided the piglets with partial protection against experimental infection. The levels of protection indirectly depend on time between serum inoculation and challenge infection. The best protection of piglets against experimental infection was obtained in the group immunised 1 week before inoculation; the same group in which the highest levels of antibodies were detected at the time of challenge. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Yan, Weiwei; Shin, Kang-Soon; Wang, Shih-Jon; Xiang, Hua; Divers, Thomas; McDonough, Sean; Bowman, James; Rowlands, Anne; Akey, Bruce; Mohamed, Hussni; Chang, Yung-Fu
Clostridium (C.) difficile is a common cause of nosocomial diarrhea in horses. Vancomycin and metronidazole have been used as standard treatments but are only moderately effective, which highlights the need for a novel alternative therapy. In the current study, we prepared antiserum of equine origin against both C. difficile toxins A and B as well as whole-cell bacteria. The toxin-neutralizing activities of the antibodies were evaluated in vitro and the prophylactic effects of in vivo passive immunotherapy were demonstrated using a conventional mouse model. The data demonstrated that immunized horses generated antibodies against both toxins A and B that possessed toxin-neutralizing activity. Additionally, mice treated with the antiserum lost less weight without any sign of illness and regained weight back to a normal range more rapidly compared to the control group when challenged orally with 10(7) C. difficile spores 1 day after serum injection. These results indicate that intravenous delivery of hyperimmune serum can protect animals from C. difficile challenge in a dose-dependent manner. Hence, immunotherapy may be a promising prophylactic strategy for preventing C. difficile infection in horses.
Yan, Weiwei; Shin, Kang-Soon; Wang, Shih-Jon; Xiang, Hua; Divers, Thomas; McDonough, Sean; Bowman, James; Rowlands, Anne; Akey, Bruce; Mohamed, Hussni
Clostridium (C.) difficile is a common cause of nosocomial diarrhea in horses. Vancomycin and metronidazole have been used as standard treatments but are only moderately effective, which highlights the need for a novel alternative therapy. In the current study, we prepared antiserum of equine origin against both C. difficile toxins A and B as well as whole-cell bacteria. The toxin-neutralizing activities of the antibodies were evaluated in vitro and the prophylactic effects of in vivo passive immunotherapy were demonstrated using a conventional mouse model. The data demonstrated that immunized horses generated antibodies against both toxins A and B that possessed toxin-neutralizing activity. Additionally, mice treated with the antiserum lost less weight without any sign of illness and regained weight back to a normal range more rapidly compared to the control group when challenged orally with 107 C. difficile spores 1 day after serum injection. These results indicate that intravenous delivery of hyperimmune serum can protect animals from C. difficile challenge in a dose-dependent manner. Hence, immunotherapy may be a promising prophylactic strategy for preventing C. difficile infection in horses. PMID:24136208
Lee, C H; Olson, L D
A direct fluorescent antibody test was developed for the identification of large spirochetes which are considered to be the cause of swine dysentery. Sera from swine which had recovered from swine dysentery and had been hyperimmunized by the intravenous and intraperitoneal injection of filtered spirochetes were used for conjugation with fluorescein isothiocyanate. A bright greenish fluorescence of large spirochetes was observed with the conjugated serum from hyperimmunized pig No. 1 when diluted 1:8 and hyperimmunized pig No. 2 when diluted 1:2. Pig No. 1 had developed a serum titer of 1:64 using the indirect fluorescent antibody test for large spirochetes. The conjugated serum from the three swine which had recovered from swine dysentery fluoresced spirochetes only when undiluted. The conjugated serum from the two swine treated while having a hemorrhagic diarrhea did not fluoresce spirochetes. No immunofluorescence of Vibrio spp. was observed. Images Fig. 1. PMID:793697
Marinescu, Bogdan; Coman, Cristin; Iancu, Adina Daniela; Stavaru, Crina; Lupulescu, Emilia; Onu, Adrian; Radu, Dorel Lucian
Serotherapy still remains a way of treatment in some diseases, and it could be consider superior to any other mode of action because the protecting substances of the body are the products of the organism itself. The aim of the study was to establish an "in vivo" method for testing the efficacy of therapeutic serum. Hyperimmune serum for influenza A/PR8/34 viral strain, was prepared in sheep, and tested for inhibition of haemagglutination and microneutralisation. Seroprotection was evaluated in mice one day after being challenged with a lethal dose of the same virus. Our study shows that protection occurred in all mice treated with undiluted hyperimmune serum one day post infection (no clinical signs, faster recovery of the body weight after the first three days of the infection, all mice survived).
Kotiw, Michael; Morgan, Michael; Taylor, Stephen M; Shiels, Ian A
Increased serum tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFalpha) activity has been associated with onset of serious inflammatory diseases in dogs. Development of treatment with TNFalpha-antagonists has been limited by the unavailability of suitable reagents and potency assays for TNFalpha. The objectives of this study were to optimize a cell-based assay to measure anti-TNFalpha activity in serum and plasma from hyperimmune (vaccinated with an Escherichia coli J5 bacterin) and unvaccinated canine donors; to use the assay to determine whether hyperimmune serum inhibits TNFalpha activity in vivo; and to determine whether soluble TNF receptor-1 (sTNFR1, a naturally occurring TNFalpha antagonist) contributes to anti-TNFalpha activity. Commercial plasma and serum from hyperimmune-frozen plasma (HFP) donors and unvaccinated fresh-frozen plasma (FFP) donors were used in the study. An L929-cell TNFalpha-inhibition assay (LTIA) was optimized to measure anti-TNFalpha activity. Using a rat subcutaneous pouch model of inflammation, the effects of HFP, FFP, a synthetic TNFalpha antagonist (Etanercept), and carprofen on TNFalpha activity were compared in vivo. Immunofluorescence was used to measure soluble sTNFR1 concentration. Using the optimized LTIA, HFP serum but not FFP serum decreased canine TNFalpha activity (P<.01). HFP plasma and Etanercept (but not FFP plasma or carprofen) significantly decreased TNFalpha activity in pouch exudates (P<.05). A significantly higher concentration of sTNFR1 was found in HFP than FFP serum. Using the LTIA, anti-TNFalpha activity is readily measured in canine serum and inflammatory exudates. sTNFR1 appears to contribute to anti-TNFalpha activity in HFP serum. These results suggest HFP should be investigated further as a potential immunotherapeutic agent for controlling canine diseases in which TNFalpha is implicated.
Baddini, Ana Luiza Q; da Cunha, Luiz Eduardo R; de Oliveira, Antônia Maria C; Cassella, Ricardo J
In the present work, the determination of the total protein concentration in hyperimmune serum samples was performed through a partial least-squares near-infrared (NIR-PLS) method. The method was based on the chemometric treatment of the NIR spectra of samples. The influences of spectra preprocessing and spectral window utilized in the construction of PLS model were studied. Models were built using reference data of 19 samples selected through the use of hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) of NIR spectra of samples and another 24 samples were employed for external validation of the method. A model with better prediction capacity was obtained after whole spectra preprocessing by multiplicative scattering correction (MSC) algorithm and using data in the spectral range of 2158-2209nm. Under optimized conditions a RMSEP of 0.21gdl(-1) and a quality coefficient value (QC) of only 5.8% were obtained for the prediction of total protein content in the samples used for external validation. Also, a determination coefficient, r(2), of 0.97 was obtained in the correlation of predicted and reference data of samples situated in the validation set. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Quillinan, N P; McIntosh, D; Vernes, J; Haq, S; Denton, C P
Objective The primary objective of the study was to explore safety and tolerability of hyperimmune caprine serum (AIMSPRO) in established diffuse cutaneous systemic sclerosis (SSc). Secondary objectives included assessment of potential efficacy and biological activity and exploration of candidate biomarkers. Methods This was a double-blind parallel group randomised placebo-controlled clinical trial. After informed consent 20 patients with established diffuse cutaneous SSc of greater than 3 years duration not receiving immunosuppressive therapy were randomised to receive either active (n=10) or placebo formulation (n=10) by subcutaneous twice weekly injection over 26 weeks. Clinical assessments were evaluated over 26 weeks. Results There were no safety concerns during this study. Frequency of adverse events was not different between active and placebo groups. Mean modified Rodnan Skin Score (mRSS) fell by 1.4±4.7 units with active treatment but increased by 2.1±6.4 units on placebo when baseline values were compared with 26 weeks and responder analysis showed clinically meaningful improvement in mRSS at 26 weeks in 5 (50%) of actively treated patients compared with 1 (10%) in the control group (p=0.062). PIIINP (µg/L) showed a comparatively larger increase in the treatment group compared with the placebo group, (p=0.0118). Conclusions These results confirm tolerability and safety of this novel biological agent in established diffuse SSc. The value of a placebo treated control group in small clinical trials evaluating skin disease in SSc is confirmed. Potential improvement in mRSS and changes in PIIINP in cases receiving active therapy suggest that this intervention may be of clinical benefit and warrants further evaluation. PMID:24067785
Quillinan, N P; McIntosh, D; Vernes, J; Haq, S; Denton, C P
The primary objective of the study was to explore safety and tolerability of hyperimmune caprine serum (AIMSPRO) in established diffuse cutaneous systemic sclerosis (SSc). Secondary objectives included assessment of potential efficacy and biological activity and exploration of candidate biomarkers. This was a double-blind parallel group randomised placebo-controlled clinical trial. After informed consent 20 patients with established diffuse cutaneous SSc of greater than 3 years duration not receiving immunosuppressive therapy were randomised to receive either active (n=10) or placebo formulation (n=10) by subcutaneous twice weekly injection over 26 weeks. Clinical assessments were evaluated over 26 weeks. There were no safety concerns during this study. Frequency of adverse events was not different between active and placebo groups. Mean modified Rodnan Skin Score (mRSS) fell by 1.4±4.7 units with active treatment but increased by 2.1±6.4 units on placebo when baseline values were compared with 26 weeks and responder analysis showed clinically meaningful improvement in mRSS at 26 weeks in 5 (50%) of actively treated patients compared with 1 (10%) in the control group (p=0.062). PIIINP (µg/L) showed a comparatively larger increase in the treatment group compared with the placebo group, (p=0.0118). These results confirm tolerability and safety of this novel biological agent in established diffuse SSc. The value of a placebo treated control group in small clinical trials evaluating skin disease in SSc is confirmed. Potential improvement in mRSS and changes in PIIINP in cases receiving active therapy suggest that this intervention may be of clinical benefit and warrants further evaluation.
Khalifa, Khalifa E; El-Wakil, Hala S I; Habib, Fayza S; Abdel Baki, Mohamed H; Azab, Magda E
The SDS-PAGE and immunoblot were used to identify Trichomonas vaginalis antigenic epitopes present in purified somatic and exo-antigens. The presence of common immunogenic proteins corresponding to molecular weights of 76, 60 and 23 kDa was revealed. Distinctive immunogenic bands of 92, 72, 55 and 40 kDa for the exo-antigens, and of 110, 80, 78 and 50 kDa for the somatic antigens, appeared when the antigens were probed by the homologous immune rabbit serum.
Nahed, A Kamel; Hanan, S Abdel-Raouf; Hanan, M S el-Zawahry; Laila, A Sedeek; Fatma, S Mahmoud
The aim of this study was to produce a specific hyperimmune serum for diagnosis of peste des petits ruminants (PPR). Based on good laboratory practices and standard operating procedures, we produced this reagent in goats using attenuated local strain of PPRV. The quality was assured to meet the internationally required levels of potency and sterility. The titer of the product was 1024 as evaluated by virus neutralization (VN) and agar gel immunodiffusion (AGID) tests. In its final form, it is a sterile disc of a lyophilized material with a pale yellow colour, placed into an evacuated, tightly capped and capsulated vial. Local availability of such a product could be of great benefit at the time of need.
Susceptibility of the different developmental stages of the asexual (schizogonic) erythrocyte cycle of Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi to hyperimmune serum, immunoglobulin (Ig)G1, IgG2a and F(ab')2 fragments.
Cavinato, R A; Bastos, K R; Sardinha, L R; Elias, R M; Alvarez, J M; d'Império Lima, M R
The mechanisms by which antibodies interfere with Plasmodium growth are still under debate. Characterizing the asexual erythrocyte stages susceptible to antibodies from hyperimmune individuals is therefore a relevant contribution to vaccine research. In this study, using a virulent and synchronous murine malaria parasite, Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi AJ, we have shown that trophozoites and circulating schizonts are not the main targets for antibodies from hyperimmune serum. In drug-cured mice challenged with a high inoculum of ring-infected erythrocytes, parasitemias do not decline until the moment of erythrocyte rupture, suggesting that effector mechanisms operate immediately prior to reinvasion. Confirming these findings, treatment of primary-infected mice with hyperimmune serum inhibited the generation of new ring forms, but did not alter the numbers of schizont-infected erythrocytes, despite the fact that these cells were recognized by immunoglobulin (Ig)G antibodies. When these mice were treated with IgG1 or IgG2a purified from hyperimmune serum, both subclasses limited reinvasion, but IgG2a showed a stronger protective activity. The fact that Fc digestion decreases but does not abrogate protection suggests that both Fc-dependent and independent mechanisms participate in this process. Treatment with cobra venom factor did not interfere with the antibody-mediated protection, ruling out the participation of the complement system in both lysis and phagocytosis of merozoites or infected erythrocytes. Therefore, in mice suffering from P. c. chabaudi AJ malaria, merozoite neutralization seems to be a major mechanism of protection conferred by hyperimmune serum antibodies. However, FcgammaR-mediated interactions, or other mechanisms not yet defined, may also contribute to inhibit erythrocyte reinvasion.
Farci, Patrizia; Shimoda, Atsushi; Wong, Doris; Cabezon, Teresa; De Gioannis, Daniela; Strazzera, Antonello; Shimizu, Yohko; Shapiro, Max; Alter, Harvey J.; Purcell, Robert H.
The identification of the neutralization domains of hepatitis C virus (HCV) is essential for the development of an effective vaccine. Here, we show that the hypervariable region 1 (HVR1) of the envelope 2 (E2) protein is a critical neutralization domain of HCV. Neutralization of HCV in vitro was attempted with a rabbit hyperimmune serum raised against a homologous synthetic peptide derived from the HVR1 of the E2 protein, and the residual infectivity was evaluated by inoculation of HCV-seronegative chimpanzees. The source of HCV was plasma obtained from a patient (H) during the acute phase of posttransfusion non-A, non-B hepatitis, which had been titered for infectivity in chimpanzees. The anti-HVR1 antiserum induced protection against homologous HCV infection in chimpanzees, but not against the emergence of neutralization escape mutants that were found to be already present in the complex viral quasispecies of the inoculum. The finding that HVR1 can elicit protective immunity opens new perspectives for the development of effective preventive strategies. However, the identification of the most variable region of HCV as a critical neutralization domain poses a major challenge for the development of a broadly reactive vaccine against HCV. PMID:8986822
Valadas, Samantha; Minervino, Antonio H H; Lima, Valéria M F; Soares, Rodrigo M; Ortolani, Enrico L; Gennari, Solange M
A cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the occurrence of anti-Toxoplasma gondii, anti-Neospora caninum, and anti- Leishmania chagasi antibodies in dogs of the state of Pará, Brazil. For this purpose, 129 blood samples were collected from dogs of different ages and gender. Samples of 72 dogs were collected from 39 rural properties from 19 municipalities, and 57 samples were from stray dogs, collected after captivity by the Center of Zoonosis Control from the municipality of Santarém. The sera were analyzed for anti-T. gondii and anti-N. caninum antibodies by indirect fluorescent antibody tests with cutoff values of 1:16 and 1:50, respectively. For the presence of L. chagasi antibodies, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was used and positive results were confirmed by immunochromatographic method using the recombinant antigen K39. Of the total of 129 dogs, 90 (69.8%) were positive for T. gondii, 16 (12.4%) for N. caninum, and 30 (23.3%) for L. chagasi. Antibodies for all three parasites were found simultaneously in seven dogs (5.4%), mostly in urban dogs (six of seven). No association was observed related to gender and location (urban or rural) of dogs and occurrence of N. caninum and T. gondii antibodies although, regarding L. chagasi, higher prevalence was found in females (P < 0.02) and in dogs from urban location (P < 0.001). From the 39 farms, in 30 (76.9%) at least one dog was positive for T. gondii or N. caninum or both. Higher occurrence of Leishmania antibodies was observed in N. caninum-negative dogs (P < 0.05).
... Hemolysis Hyperimmunization Immunoelectrophoresis - blood Immunofixation blood test Liver disease Malignancy Malnutrition Nephrotic syndrome Rheumatoid arthritis Serum globulin electrophoresis Serum iron test Systemic lupus erythematosus ...
Rodríguez, Nilda E; Gaur, Upasna; Wilson, Mary E
Caveolae are membrane microdomains enriched in cholesterol, ganglioside M1 (GM1) and caveolin-1. We explored whether caveolae facilitate the entry of Leishmania chagasi into murine macrophages. Transient depletion of macrophage membrane cholesterol by 1 h exposure to methyl-beta-cyclodextrin (MbetaCD) impaired the phagocytosis of non-opsonized and serum-opsonized virulent L. chagasi. In contrast, MbetaCD did not affect the phagocytosis of opsonized attenuated L. chagasi. As early as 5 min after phagocytosis, virulent L. chagasi colocalized with the caveolae markers GM1 and caveolin-1, and colocalization continued for over 48 h. We explored the kinetics of lysosome fusion. Whereas fluorescent-labelled dextran entered macrophage lysosomes by 30 min after addition, localization of L. chagasi in lysosomes was delayed for 24-48 h after phagocytosis. However, after transient depletion of cholesterol from macrophage membrane with MbetaCD, the proportion of L. chagasi-containing phagosomes that fused with lysosomes increased significantly. Furthermore, intracellular replication was impaired in parasites entering after transient cholesterol depletion, even though lipid microdomains were restored by 4 h after treatment. These observations suggest that virulent L. chagasi localize in caveolae during phagocytosis by host macrophages, and that cholesterol-containing macrophage membrane domains, such as caveolae, target parasites to a pathway that promotes delay of lysosome fusion and intracellular survival.
da Silva-López, Raquel Elisa; dos Santos, Tatiana Resende; Morgado-Díaz, José Andrés; Tanaka, Marcelo Neves; de Simone, Salvatore Giovanni
The present work reports the isolation, biochemical characterization, and subcellular location of serine proteases from aqueous, detergent soluble, and culture supernatant of Leishmania chagasi promastigote extracts, respectively, LCSII, LCSI, and LCSIII. The active enzyme molecular masses of LCSII were about 105, 66, and 60 kDa; of LCSI, 60 and 58 kDa; and of LCSIII, approximately 76 and 68 kDa. Optimal pH for the enzymes was 7.0 for LCSI and LCSIII and 8.5 for LCSII, and the optimal temperature for all enzymes was 37°C, using α-N-ρ-tosyl-L: -arginine methyl ester as substrate. Assay of thermal stability indicated that LCSIII is the more stable enzyme. Hemoglobin, bovine serum albumin, and ovalbumin were hydrolyzed by LCSII and LCSI but not by LCSIII. Inhibition studies suggested that enzymes belong to the serine protease class modulated by divalent cations. Rabbit antiserum against 56-kDa serine protease of Leishmania amazonensis identified proteins in all extracts of L. chagasi. Furthermore, immunocytochemistry demonstrated that serine proteases are located in flagellar pocket region and cytoplasmic vesicles of L. chagasi promastigotes. These findings indicate that L. chagasi serine proteases differ from L. amazonensis proteases and all known flagellate proteases, but display some similarities with serine proteases from other Leishmania species, suggesting a conservation of this enzymatic activity in the genus.
Mila, H; Grellet, A; Mariani, C; Feugier, A; Guard, B; Suchodolski, J; Steiner, J; Chastant-Maillard, S
Colostrum and milk are complex mammary secretions providing the puppy with many nutritional and immunological factors, which play a crucial role for its correct development and survival. In the case of colostrum and/or milk intake deficiency, puppies are at increased risk of infectious diseases. This work reviews the various nutritional hyperimmune supplementations proposed to provide a passive immune protection and to positively impact puppies' health. Some strategies rely on canine immunoglobulins: canine colostrum banking and canine serum/plasma supplementation. Others involve heterologous sources of antibodies and other immune factors: bovine colostrum or hyperimmune egg powder. Among the different solutions evaluated from birth to weaning, canine plasma and hyperimmune egg powder showed promising beneficial effect on puppies' health. Canine plasma seems to positively impact not only growth (increased growth during the neonatal period), but also digestive health (higher species richness of intestinal microbiota) and the general health (tendency of lower morbidity). Puppies supplemented with hyperimmune egg powder presented increased neonatal growth and decreased risk of canine parvovirus infection. Nevertheless, natural canine maternal colostrum and milk ingestion remains the optimal guarantee for puppies' health and survival, as a source of immunity, energy and growth factors. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.
Marcondes, M; Biondo, A W; Gomes, A A D; Silva, A R S; Vieira, R F C; Camacho, A A; Quinn, John; Chandrashekar, R
Canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL) is caused by Leishmania donovani complex parasites including L. donovani, Leishmania infantum and Leishmania chagasi. As some studies suggest that L. chagasi and L. infantum may be very similar or even the same species, the aim of the present study was to evaluate a commercial rapid ELISA test, originally designed for L. infantum, in the diagnosis of CVL in dogs naturally infected by L. chagasi. A total of 400 serum canine samples, including 283 positive dogs for CVL from an endemic area, 86 clinically healthy dogs from a non-endemic area and 31 dogs seropositive for confounding infectious agents (Trypanosoma cruzi, Toxoplasma gondii, Neospora caninum, Babesia canis and Ehrlichia canis) were used for test validation. An overall sensitivity of 94.7% (95% CI=91.41-97.01%) and specificity of 90.6% (95% CI=83.80-95.21%) was found, with a high degree of agreement (k=0.8445) to the indirect ELISA. When confounding infectious diseases were excluded, specificity increased to 100% (95% CI=95.8-100%), with a higher degree of agreement (k=0.8928). In conclusion, the commercial kit designed for L. infantum was a highly sensitive and specific device for detection of L. chagasi infection in dogs, which indicates high immunoreactivity similarities between L. infantum and L. chagasi.
Partial passive protection with two monoclonal antibodies and frequency of feeding of hyperimmune anti-transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV) serum for protection of three-day-old piglets from a TGEV challenge infection.
Wesley, R D; Woods, R D
Passive protection experiments were conducted to determine the frequency and amounts of hyperimmune antiserum needed to block a transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV) challenge infection and to identify monoclonal antibodies that are partially protective against TGEV. Hyperimmune antiserum or monoclonal antibodies were added to milk at each feeding or at selected feedings when the amount of antiserum was reduced. Three-day-old piglets were challenged with virulent virus that had been preincubated with antiserum or monoclonal antibodies. The results indicated that supplementing antiserum every other day was not efficacious for protection. Supplementing even small quantities of hyperimmune antiserum (0.5 ml) at least once a day in most cases was sufficient for piglet survival but did not prevent morbidity. Increasing the amount (>2 ml) and providing antiserum 3 times/day completely blocked the TGEV challenge infection. Two monoclonal antibodies were discovered that also provided passive protection for baby pigs. One monoclonal antibody, 5G1, had a high neutralizing titer, and the other, 6C4, was more effective in neutralizing and binding to virulent TGEV than to attenuated TGEVs. Both of these monoclonal antibodies were partially effective as supplements in milk for passive protection. Furthermore, these monoclonal antibodies were useful for boosting the efficacy of TGEV-neutralizing colostrum, which by itself was ineffective. These results show that other antigenic sites, different from the 4-well characterized epitopes on the S glycoprotein of TGEV, also are important for passive protection.
Whether there exists a computable universal numbering for a computable family is the key question in theory of numberings. In a very general setting, this problem was explored in [Yu. L. Ershov, Theory of Numberings, Handbook of Computability Theory, North-Holland; Amsterdam: Stud. Log. Found. Math., Vol. 140, pp. 473-503, 1999]. For sets A that are Turing jumps of the empty set, the problem was treated in [S. A. Badaev, S. S. Goncharov, and A. Sorbi, Computability and Models, 11-44 (2003)] and other papers. In this work, we investigate families of total functions computable relative to hyperimmune and hyperimmune-free oracles.
Ambrosino, Donna; Schreiber, John R.; Daum, Robert S.; Siber, George R.
To determine the protective efficacy of human hyperimmune globulin to Haemophilus influenzae type b disease in an infant rat model, we compared hyperimmune globulin containing 600 μg of anti-polyribophosphate (PRP) antibody per ml to conventional immune globulin containing 66 μg of anti-PRP antibody per ml. The hyperimmune globulin was fractionated from the pooled plasma of 55 adult donors immunized with PRP, the capsular polysaccharide of H. influenzae type b. The disappearance of passively administered antibody was biphasic, with a linear first-order disappearance curve during the first 7 days. The initial half-life for anti-PRP antibody was 2.38 days in rats nasally colonized but not detectably bacteremic with H. influenzae type b and significantly longer (half-life, 10.3 days; P < 0.01) in noncolonized animals. Hyperimmune globulin afforded 10 times the protection of conventional globulin against bacteremia and meningitis. Globulin depleted of anti-PRP antibody offered no protection. The initial serum antibody levels and the levels during the 8-day observation period predicted protection. Rats maintaining serum antibody levels greater or equal to 50 ng/ml to day 8 had a 10% bacteremia and 5% meningitis incidence in contrast with 95% bacteremia (P < 0.001) and 55% meningitis (P < 0.001) in rats with less than 50 ng of anti-PRP antibody per ml. We conclude that studies of the pharmacology and efficacy of hyperimmune globulin are warranted in high-risk children unable to respond to active immunization. PMID:6601060
and specific human anti-SEB antibodies purified from IVIG was used as a surrogate for hyperimmune globulin . It was demonstrated that human polyclonal...AD_________________ Award Number: W81XWH-08-C-0004 TITLE: Therapeutic Human Hyperimmune Polyclonal Antibodies against Staphylococcal...Human Hyperimmune Polyclonal Antibodies against Staphylococcal Enterotoxin B 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-08-C-0004 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6
Leblois, Raphaël; Kuhls, Katrin; François, Olivier; Schönian, Gabriele; Wirth, Thierry
The evolutionary history of Leishmania chagasi, the aetiological agent of visceral leishmaniasis in South America has been widely debated. This study addresses the problem of the origin of L. chagasi, its timing and demography with fast evolving genetic markers, a suite of Bayesian clustering algorithms and coalescent modelling. Here, using 14 microsatellite markers, 450 strains from the Leishmania donovani complex, we show that the vast majority of the Central and South American L. chagasi were nested within the Portuguese Leishmania infantum clade. Moreover, L. chagasi allelic richness was half that of their Old World counterparts. The bottleneck signature was estimated to be about 500 years old and the settlement of L. chagasi in the New World, probably via infected dogs, was accompanied by a thousand-fold population decrease. Visceral leishmaniasis, lethal if untreated, is therefore one more disease that the Conquistadores brought to the New World. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Ramer-Tait, Amanda E; Lei, Soi Meng; Bellaire, Bryan H; Beetham, Jeffrey K
Previous works demonstrated that various species of Leishmania promastigotes exhibit differential sensitivity to complement-mediated lysis (CML) during development. Upon exposure to normal human serum (NHS), cultures of Leishmania chagasi promastigotes recently isolated from infected hamsters (fewer than 5 in vitro passages) are CML-sensitive when in the logarithmic growth phase but become CML-resistant upon transition to the stationary culture phase. Visualization by light and electron microscopy revealed dramatic morphological differences between promastigotes from the 2 culture phases following exposure to NHS. Flow cytometric analysis demonstrated that surface deposition of the complement components C3, C5, and C9 correlated inversely with promastigote CML-resistance. The highest levels of complement protein surface accumulation were observed for logarithmic phase promastigotes, while stationary phase promastigotes adsorbed the least amount of complement proteins. Additionally, fluorescence microscopy revealed that C3 and C5 localized in a fairly uniform pattern to the plasma membrane of promastigotes from logarithmic phase cultures, while the staining of promastigotes from stationary phase cultures was indistinguishable from background. By Western blot analysis, high levels of the complement proteins C3, C5, and C9 were detected in the total lysates of NHS-exposed logarithmic phase L. chagasi promastigotes, relative to NHS-exposed stationary phase promastigotes; this finding indicates that the low levels of C3 and C5 seen on the surface of stationary phase promastigotes were not due to protein uptake/internalization. Together, these data demonstrate the differential deposition of complement proteins on the surfaces of logarithmic and stationary phase L. chagasi promastigotes. The data support a model wherein stationary phase L. chagasi promastigotes resist CML by limiting the deposition of C3 and its derivatives, which, in turn, limit surface levels of
Christian, Charles L.; DeSimone, Arthur R.; Abruzzo, John L.
Complement-fixing anti-DNA antibodies were detected in a minority of sera of rabbits hyperimmunized with killed Gram-negative bacteria. The C'-fixing property of DNA was lost after DNase treatment. Preferential reactivity with denatured DNA was observed. The antisera reacted with DNA preparations derived from rabbit bone marrow and thymus, calf thymus, pneumococci, salmon sperm, and Escherichia coli. E. coli DNA was less effective than preparations of mammalian and salmon sperm DNA in fixation of C'. Inhibition of DNA C' fixation by nucleotides and nucleosides was observed. The bulk of anti-DNA activity was associated with the low molecular weight antibody fraction. PMID:14264274
Gourlay, W A; O'Neil, J J; Hancock, W W; Monaco, A P; Maki, T
Although preformed natural antibodies cause hyperacute rejection of primarily vascularized xenografts, tissue grafts such as skin or islets are revascularized by in-growth of host capillaries and therefore might be resistant to circulating antibodies. We examined the effect of hyperimmune serum and primed T cells on the survival of long-term porcine islet xenografts in diabetic nude mice. Porcine islets were transplanted beneath the kidney capsule of streptozotocin-induced diabetic BALB/c athymic mice. Hyperimmune serum and sensitized splenocytes were prepared by repeated immunization of BALB/c mice with porcine lymph node cells. Splenic T cells were enriched by nylon wool column separation. Tissues were examined by immunohistology using murine- and porcine-specific monoclonal antibodies. Porcine islets survived in nude mice for > 100 days with high levels of circulating porcine C-peptide and maintenance of normoglycemia. Injection of the hyperimmune sera (IgG) into normoglycemic nude mice bearing porcine islets for > 70 days failed to induce rejection despite the continued presence of circulating anti-porcine cytotoxic antibody. Injection of sensitized T cells caused acute rejection of long-term (>140 days) porcine islets, whereas injection of naive T cells had no effect. Histologically, porcine islets removed from mice treated with hyperimmune serum showed no staining for IgG. Long-surviving porcine islet grafts showed strong staining for interleukin (IL)-10 and a lesser amount of IL-4 but no staining for IL-2 or interferon-gamma. Although fresh porcine islets were positive for swine leukocyte antigen class 1 antigen and intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM)-1 but negative for mouse platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule and ICAM-2, long-surviving porcine islets showed positive endothelial staining for mouse platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule and ICAM-2. Established islet xenografts are resistant to hyperimmune serum as a result of a lack of target
Deresinski, S C
This paper reviews a meeting at which basic pathophysiology of infections, mechanisms of action of hyperimmune products and pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic parameters, as well as currently available hyperimmunes and their potential new targets and uses, were discussed. A hyperimmune product was defined as either a monoclonal antibody or a polyclonal preparation enriched with antibody directed against one or more particular targets. A number of issues were emphasised, including: resistant bacterial pathogens, such as Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pyogenes; the role of hyperimmune intravenous globulins in the prevention of sepsis in low birthweight infants; hepatitis B virus infection associated with liver transplantation; combination therapy; the potential role of hyperimmunes in the prevention and treatment of hepatitis C virus; and the use of immunoglobulins for the prophylaxis of Epstein-Barr virus-related lymphoproliferative disease. Routes of administration were also discussed. It was concluded that the development of hyperimmunes faces numerous obstacles. It was agreed that the use of hyperimmunes in clinical trials must be standardised; clinical trials must be large enough to have sufficient power to demonstrate efficacy with clear-cut end-points, and means need to be developed, in conjunction with regulatory agencies, for the feasible evaluation of combination products. However, progress in all these aspects will provide a wide range of hyperimmunes for future use.
Dahroug, Magyda A A; Almeida, Arleana B P F; Sousa, Valéria R F; Dutra, Valéria; Turbino, Nívea C M R; Nakazato, Luciano; de Souza, Roberto L
This study used a PCR-RFLP test to determine the presence of Leishmania (Leishmania) chagasi in 16 captive wild felids [seven Puma concolor (Linnaeus, 1771); five Panthera onca (Linnaeus, 1758) and four Leopardus pardalis (Linnaeus, 1758)] at the zoological park of the Federal University of Mato Grosso, Brazil. Amplification of Leishmania spp. DNA was seen in samples from five pumas and one jaguar, and the species was characterized as L. chagasi using restriction enzymes. It is already known that domestic felids can act as a reservoir of L. chagasi in endemic areas, and further studies are necessary to investigate their participation in the epidemiological chain of leishmaniasis.
Lei, Soi Meng; Romine, Nathan M.; Beetham, Jeffrey K.
Leishmania chagasi causes visceral leishmaniasis, a potentially fatal disease of humans. Within the sand fly vector, L. chagasi replicates as promastigotes which undergo complex changes in morphology as they progress from early stage procyclic promastigotes, to intermediate stage leptomonad and nectomonad promastigotes, and ultimately to terminal stage metacyclic promastigotes that are highly infective to vertebrates. This developmental progression is largely recapitulated in vitro using axenic promastigote cultures that have been passaged only a few times. Within a single passage (which takes about a week), axenic cultures progress from logarithmic to stationary growth phases; parasites within those growth phases progress from stages that do not have metacyclic cell properties to ones that do. Interestingly, repeated serial passage of promastigote cultures will result in cell populations that exhibit perturbations in developmental progression, in expression levels of surface macromolecules (major surface protease, MSP, and promastigote surface antigen, PSA), and in virulence properties, including resistance to serum lysis. Experiments were performed to determine whether there exists a direct relationship between promastigote developmental form and perturbations associated with repeated serial passage. Passage 2 to passage 4 L. chagasi cultures at stationary growth phase were predominately (>85%) comprised of metacyclic promastigotes and exhibited high resistance to serum lysis and high levels of MSP and PSA. Serial passaging 8, or more, times resulted in a stationary phase population that was largely (>85%) comprised of nectomonad promastigotes, almost completely devoid (<2%) of metacyclic promastigotes, and that exhibited low resistance to serum lysis and low levels of MSP and PSA. The study suggests that the loss of particular cell properties seen in cells from serially passaged cultures is principally due to a dramatic reduction in the proportion of metacyclic
Lei, Soi Meng; Romine, Nathan M; Beetham, Jeffrey K
Leishmania chagasi causes visceral leishmaniasis, a potentially fatal disease of humans. Within the sand fly vector, L. chagasi replicates as promastigotes which undergo complex changes in morphology as they progress from early stage procyclic promastigotes, to intermediate stage leptomonad and nectomonad promastigotes, and ultimately to terminal stage metacyclic promastigotes that are highly infective to vertebrates. This developmental progression is largely recapitulated in vitro using axenic promastigote cultures that have been passaged only a few times. Within a single passage (which takes about a week), axenic cultures progress from logarithmic to stationary growth phases; parasites within those growth phases progress from stages that do not have metacyclic cell properties to ones that do. Interestingly, repeated serial passage of promastigote cultures will result in cell populations that exhibit perturbations in developmental progression, in expression levels of surface macromolecules (major surface protease, MSP, and promastigote surface antigen, PSA), and in virulence properties, including resistance to serum lysis. Experiments were performed to determine whether there exists a direct relationship between promastigote developmental form and perturbations associated with repeated serial passage. Passage 2 to passage 4 L. chagasi cultures at stationary growth phase were predominately (>85%) comprised of metacyclic promastigotes and exhibited high resistance to serum lysis and high levels of MSP and PSA. Serial passaging 8, or more, times resulted in a stationary phase population that was largely (>85%) comprised of nectomonad promastigotes, almost completely devoid (<2%) of metacyclic promastigotes, and that exhibited low resistance to serum lysis and low levels of MSP and PSA. The study suggests that the loss of particular cell properties seen in cells from serially passaged cultures is principally due to a dramatic reduction in the proportion of metacyclic
Alberio, Sanny O; Dias, Suzana S; Faria, Flávio P; Mortara, Renato A; Barbiéri, Clara L; Freymüller Haapalainen, Edna
The present work showed the presence of a megasome in Leishmania (Leishmania) chagasi amastigotes. Transmission electron microscopy analysis of ultrathin serial sections and three-dimensional reconstruction allowed visualization of large structures in amastigote forms of L. (L.) chagasi and a multivesicular tubule-lysosome structure in metacyclic promastigotes. Morphometric data showed that the relative volume occupied by the megasome and the multivesicular tubule (MVT)-lysosome structures was about 5% and 3.2%, respectively, in amastigotes and promastigotes of L. (L.) chagasi. Further characterization of the megasome in L. (L.) chagasi amastigotes was carried out by immunolabeling of cysteine proteinase, whereas the lysosomal content of amastigotes and promastigotes was confirmed by arylsulfatase cytochemistry.
Yao, Chaoqun; Gaur Dixit, Upasna; Barker, Jason H; Teesch, Lynn M; Love-Homan, Laurie; Donelson, John E; Wilson, Mary E
The infectious metacyclic promastigotes of Leishmania protozoa establish infection in a mammalian host after they are deposited into the dermis by a sand fly vector. Several Leishmania virulence factors promote infection, including the glycosylphosphatidylinositol membrane-anchored major surface protease (MSP). Metacyclic Leishmania infantum chagasi promastigotes were treated with methyl-beta-cyclodextrin (MβCD), a sterol-chelating reagent, causing a 3-fold reduction in total cellular sterols as well as enhancing MSP release without affecting parasite viability in vitro. MβCD-treated promastigotes were more susceptible to complement-mediated lysis than untreated controls and reduced the parasite load 3-fold when inoculated into BALB/c mice. Paradoxically, MβCD-treated promastigotes caused a higher initial in vitro infection rate in human or murine macrophages than untreated controls, although their intracellular multiplication was hindered upon infection establishment. There was a corresponding larger amount of covalently bound C3b than iC3b on the parasite surfaces of MβCD-treated promastigotes exposed to healthy human serum in vitro, as well as loss of MSP, a protease that enhances C3b cleavage to iC3b. Mass spectrometry showed that MβCD promotes the release of proteins into the extracellular medium, including both MSP and MSP-like protein (MLP), from virulent metacyclic promastigotes. These data support the hypothesis that plasma membrane sterols are important for the virulence of Leishmania protozoa at least in part through retention of membrane virulence proteins.
Gaur Dixit, Upasna; Barker, Jason H.; Teesch, Lynn M.; Love-Homan, Laurie; Donelson, John E.; Wilson, Mary E.
The infectious metacyclic promastigotes of Leishmania protozoa establish infection in a mammalian host after they are deposited into the dermis by a sand fly vector. Several Leishmania virulence factors promote infection, including the glycosylphosphatidylinositol membrane-anchored major surface protease (MSP). Metacyclic Leishmania infantum chagasi promastigotes were treated with methyl-beta-cyclodextrin (MβCD), a sterol-chelating reagent, causing a 3-fold reduction in total cellular sterols as well as enhancing MSP release without affecting parasite viability in vitro. MβCD-treated promastigotes were more susceptible to complement-mediated lysis than untreated controls and reduced the parasite load 3-fold when inoculated into BALB/c mice. Paradoxically, MβCD-treated promastigotes caused a higher initial in vitro infection rate in human or murine macrophages than untreated controls, although their intracellular multiplication was hindered upon infection establishment. There was a corresponding larger amount of covalently bound C3b than iC3b on the parasite surfaces of MβCD-treated promastigotes exposed to healthy human serum in vitro, as well as loss of MSP, a protease that enhances C3b cleavage to iC3b. Mass spectrometry showed that MβCD promotes the release of proteins into the extracellular medium, including both MSP and MSP-like protein (MLP), from virulent metacyclic promastigotes. These data support the hypothesis that plasma membrane sterols are important for the virulence of Leishmania protozoa at least in part through retention of membrane virulence proteins. PMID:23630964
Planitzer, Christina B; Saemann, Marcus D; Gajek, Hartwig; Farcet, Maria R; Kreil, Thomas R
Cytomegalovirus (CMV) remains one of the most important pathogens after transplantation, potentially leading to CMV disease, allograft dysfunction, acute, and chronic rejection and opportunistic infections. Immunoglobulin G (IgG) preparations with high antibody titers against CMV are a valuable adjunctive prevention and treatment option for clinicians and apart from standard intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG), CMV hyperimmune preparations are available. The CMV antibody titer of these preparations is typically determined by Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), also used for the selection of high titer plasma donors for the production of the CMV Hyperimmune product. However, CMV ELISA titers do not necessarily correlate with CMV antibody function which is determined by virus neutralization tests. CMV antibody titers were determined by both ELISA and virus neutralization assay and the IgG subclass distribution was compared between a CMV hyperimmune licensed in Europe and standard IVIG preparations. Although the expected high CMV IgG ELISA antibody titers were confirmed for three lots of a CMV hyperimmune preparation, the functionally more relevant CMV neutralizing antibody titers were significantly higher for 31 lots of standard IVIG preparations. Moreover, considerably lower IgG3 levels were found for the CMV hyperimmune preparation compared with standard IVIG preparations. The higher functional CMV neutralization titers of standard IVIG preparations and the better availability of these preparations, suggest that these products could be a valuable alternative to the CMV hyperimmune preparation.
de Mendonça, Ivete Lopes; Batista, Joilson Ferreira; Alves, Leucio Camara
Canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL) is difficult to diagnosis, mainly due to the presence of asymptomatic animals, the diversity of clinical symptoms and the difficulty in obtaining diagnostic evidence of high sensitivity and specificity. The purpose of this study was to diagnose CVL in urinary sediment of 70 dogs of different breeds, sexes and ages from the veterinary hospital of the Federal University of Piauí and Zoonosis Control Center of Teresina, Brazil. The serological tests were TR DPP® for CVL and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for CVL, parasitological exams of bone marrow and lymph nodes and urine sediment cultures. Leishmania was detected in the bone marrow and/or lymph node of 61.0% of the animals (43/70), and urine sediment culture was positive in 9.30% (4/43) of these animals. In the serological exams, 70.0% (49/70) were reactive using the DPP and 78.2% (55/70) were reactive using ELISA. The goal of this study was to diagnose the presence of L. (infantum) chagasi in a culture of urinary sediment.
Mota, M M; Brown, K N; Do Rosário, V E; Holder, A A; Jarra, W
In regions where malaria is endemic, inhabitants remain susceptible to repeated reinfection as they develop and maintain clinical immunity. This immunity includes responses to surface-exposed antigens on Plasmodium sp.-infected erythrocytes. Some of these parasite-encoded antigens may be diverse and phenotypically variable, and the ability to respond to this diversity and variability is an important component of acquired immunity. Characterizing the relative specificities of antibody responses during the acquisition of immunity and in hyperimmune individuals is thus an important adjunct to vaccine research. This is logistically difficult to do in the field but is relatively easily carried out in animal models. Infections in inbred mice with rodent malaria parasite Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi AS represent a good model for Plasmodium falciparum in humans. This model has been used in the present study in a comparative analysis of cross-reactive and specific immune responses in rodent malaria. CBA/Ca mice were rendered hyperimmune to P. chabaudi chabaudi (AS or CB lines) or Plasmodium berghei (KSP-11 line) by repeated infection with homologous parasites. Serum from P. chabaudi chabaudi AS hyperimmune mice reacted with antigens released from disrupted P. chabaudi chabaudi AS-infected erythrocytes, but P. chabaudi chabaudi CB and P. berghei KSP-11 hyperimmune serum also contained cross-reactive antibodies to these antigens. However, antibody activity directed against antigens exposed at the surfaces of intact P. chabaudi chabaudi-infected erythrocytes was mainly parasite species specific and, to a lesser extent, parasite line specific. Importantly, this response included opsonizing antibodies, which bound to infected erythrocytes, leading to their phagocytosis and destruction by macrophages. The results are discussed in the context of the role that antibodies to both variable and invariant antigens may play in protective immunity in the face of continuous susceptibility
Revello, Maria Grazia; Lazzarotto, Tiziana; Guerra, Brunella; Spinillo, Arsenio; Ferrazzi, Enrico; Kustermann, Alessandra; Guaschino, Secondo; Vergani, Patrizia; Todros, Tullia; Frusca, Tiziana; Arossa, Alessia; Furione, Milena; Rognoni, Vanina; Rizzo, Nicola; Gabrielli, Liliana; Klersy, Catherine; Gerna, Giuseppe
Congenital infection with human cytomegalovirus (CMV) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality. In an uncontrolled study published in 2005, administration of CMV-specific hyperimmune globulin to pregnant women with primary CMV infection significantly reduced the rate of intrauterine transmission, from 40% to 16%. We evaluated the efficacy of hyperimmune globulin in a phase 2, randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind study. A total of 124 pregnant women with primary CMV infection at 5 to 26 weeks of gestation were randomly assigned within 6 weeks after the presumed onset of infection to receive hyperimmune globulin or placebo every 4 weeks until 36 weeks of gestation or until detection of CMV in amniotic fluid. The primary end point was congenital infection diagnosed at birth or by means of amniocentesis. A total of 123 women could be evaluated in the efficacy analysis (1 woman in the placebo group withdrew). The rate of congenital infection was 30% (18 fetuses or infants of 61 women) in the hyperimmune globulin group and 44% (27 fetuses or infants of 62 women) in the placebo group (a difference of 14 percentage points; 95% confidence interval, -3 to 31; P=0.13). There was no significant difference between the two groups or, within each group, between the women who transmitted the virus and those who did not, with respect to levels of virus-specific antibodies, T-cell-mediated immune response, or viral DNA in the blood. The clinical outcome of congenital infection at birth was similar in the two groups. The number of obstetrical adverse events was higher in the hyperimmune globulin group than in the placebo group (13% vs. 2%). In this study involving 123 women who could be evaluated, treatment with hyperimmune globulin did not significantly modify the course of primary CMV infection during pregnancy. (Funded by Agenzia Italiana del Farmaco; CHIP ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00881517; EudraCT no. 2008-006560-11.).
Lei, Soi Meng; Ramer-Tait, Amanda E; Dahlin-Laborde, Rebecca R; Mullin, Kathleen; Beetham, Jeffrey K
Leishmania chagasi, a causal agent of visceral leishmaniasis, requires passage through lab animals such as hamsters to maintain its virulence. Hamster infection is typically accomplished via cardiac puncture or intraperitoneal injection, procedures accompanied by risks of increased animal stress and death. The use of the hamster model also necessitates a regular supply of infected animals, because L. chagasi parasites newly isolated from an infected hamster can be grown in culture for only several weeks before loss of function/phenotype occurs. In an effort to decrease animal usage and animal stress, experiments were performed to assess a more gentle inoculation procedure (saphenous vein inoculation) and the use of cryopreserved parasite cells for research experiments. Of 81 hamsters inoculated by the saphenous vein, 80 became infected as determined ante mortem, by display of clinical symptoms of leishmaniasis (onset of symptoms at 105 +/- 22 days post-inoculation), and postmortem by the presence of parasites within the spleen. Splenic parasite load calculated for a subset (n = 34) of infected hamsters was 124 to 26,177 Leishmania donovani infection units. Cryopreserved, and never-stored, cells were equivalent in all properties evaluated, including developmental changes in morphology during culture, culture growth rates, parasite resistance to serum-mediated lysis, and expression of developmentally regulated surface proteins major surface protease and promastigote surface antigen.
Baptista, T. S.; Zamboni, C. B.; Marcelino, J. R.
The Cl and Na concentration values in four types of hyperimmune sera (anti-Bothrops, anti-Diphtheria, anti-Rabies and anti-Tetanus) used for immunological therapy were determined using Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA). These data were compatible with the specifications established by the Word Health Organization (WHO-OMS) and with the Brazilian Official Pharmacopea (Pharmaceutical Code Official of the Country). These data are an important support for quality control of hyperimmune sera production at Butantan Institute (São Paulo city, Brazil), responsible for supplying the Brazilian market.
Luz, Nívea F.; Andrade, Bruno B.; Feijó, Daniel F.; Araújo-Santos, Théo; Quintela, Graziele C.; Andrade, Daniela; Abánades, Daniel R.; Melo, Enaldo V.; Silva, Angela M.; Brodyskn, Cláudia I.; Barral-Netto, Manoel; Barral, Aldina; Soares, Rodrigo P.; Almeida, Roque P.; Bozza, Marcelo T.; Borges, Valéria M.
Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) remains a major public health problem worldwide. This disease is highly associated with chronic inflammation and a lack of the cellular immune responses against Leishmania. It is important to identify major factors driving the successful establishment of the Leishmania infection in order to develop better tools for the disease control. Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) is a key enzyme triggered by cellular stress, and its role in VL has not been investigated. Herein, we evaluated the role of HO-1 in the infection by Leishmania infantum chagasi, the causative agent of VL cases in Brazil. We found that L. chagasi infection or lipophosphoglycan (LPG) isolated from promastigotes triggered HO-1 production by murine macrophages. Interestingly, cobalt protoporphyrin IX (CoPP), a HO-1 inductor, increased the parasite burden in both mouse and human derived macrophages. Upon L. chagasi infection, macrophages from Hmox1 knockout mice presented significantly lower parasite loads when compared to those from wild type mice. Furthermore, upregulation of HO-1 by CoPP diminished the production of TNF-α and reactive oxygen species by infected murine macrophages and increased Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase expression in human monocytes. Finally, patients with VL presented higher systemic concentrations of HO-1 than healthy individuals and this increase of HO-1 was reduced after antileishmanial treatment, suggesting that HO-1 is associated with disease susceptibility. Our data argue that HO-1 has a critical role in the L. chagasi infection and is strongly associated with the inflammatory imbalance during VL. Manipulation of HO-1 pathways during VL could serve as an adjunctive therapeutic approach. PMID:22461696
Sesana, Aretha Molina; Monti-Rocha, Renata; Vinhas, Solange Alves; Morais, Carlos Gustavo; Dietze, Reynaldo; Lemos, Elenice Moreira
Cochleate delivery vehicles are a novel lipid-based system with potential for delivery of amphotericin B (AmB). In this study, the efficacy of cochleates was evaluated by examining the in vitro activity of AmB cochleates (CAMB) against Leishmania chagasi in a macrophage model of infection. We demonstrate that CAMB is nontoxic to macrophages at concentrations as high as 2.5 μg/mL, whereas the conventional formulation, AmB deoxycholate, showed high toxicity at this concentration. The in vitro activity of CAMB against L. chagasi was found to be similar to that of the reference drug AmB deoxycholate, with ED50s of 0.017 μg/mL and 0.021 μg/mL, respectively. Considering that L. chagasi affects organs amenable to cochleate-mediated delivery of AmB, we hypothesize that CAMB will be an effective lipid system for the treatment of visceral leishmaniasis.
Pinheiro, Paulo Henrique da Costa; Pinheiro, Adriana Nunes; Ferreira, Josie Haydée Lima; Costa, Francisco Assis Lima; Katz, Simone; Barbiéri, Clara Lúcia
A recombinant protein, rLdccys1, produced by expression of the gene encoding a 30kDa cysteine proteinase from Leishmania (Leishmania) chagasi, was used to detect specific antibodies in serum by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays and to test for reactivity in delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) responses of dogs from an endemic region of visceral leishmaniasis (VL), Teresina, Piauí State, Brazil. Amastigote or promastigote extracts were also assayed for comparison. The sensitivity for detection of specific antibodies to L. (L.) chagasi using rLdccys1, lysates from L. (L.) chagasi promastigotes and amastigotes was 96%, 68%, and 69%, respectively. No cross-reactivity between rLdccys1 and Chagas disease was observed, and little reactivity was found with sera from dogs with babesiosis and ehrlichiosis. Among 106 sera from symptomatic dogs and 22 from non-infected controls, no false negatives and only two false positive sera were found for rLdccys1. In contrast, amastigote lysates yielded 11 false positives and 13 false negatives, whereas the corresponding numbers for promastigote lysates were 17 and 16. DTH responses were determined after intradermal injection of rLdccys1 or amastigote extract and the induration area was measured at 24, 48 and 72h after injection. All asymptomatic dogs showed a positive intradermal response to rLdccys1 (>10mm) which peaked at 48h, whereas no significant reactivity to the recombinant antigen was found in the symptomatic group. Histological analysis of the intradermal induration showed a predominance of necrotic and hemorrhagic areas in sections from asymptomatic dogs injected with L. (L.) chagasi amastigote extract, whereas a typical granulomatous reaction mediated by mononuclear cells was observed in sections from asymptomatic animals injected with rLdccys1. Grouping data from ELISA and DTH assays with rLdccys1 and L. (L.) chagasi amastigote extracts showed that humoral and cellular responses were inversely correlated during the
Kocher, Alfred A; Bonaros, Nikolaos; Dunkler, Daniela; Ehrlich, Marek; Schlechta, Bernhard; Zweytick, Barbara; Grimm, Michael; Zuckermann, Andreas; Wolner, Ernst; Laufer, Guenther
Cytomegalovirus (CMV) has emerged as the most important pathogen to affect the post-operative course after heart transplantation. We performed a retrospective analysis to evaluate the efficiency of CMV hyperimmune globulin (CMVIG) prophylaxis in preventing CMV disease in aggressively immunosuppressed patients after heart transplantation. We studied 377 heart transplant recipients who received quadruple-immunosuppressive therapy and CMVIG as sole CMV prophylaxis. The study population was categorized into 4 groups according to donor and recipient CMV serology at the time of transplantation (D+/R+, D+/R-, D-/R+, D-/R-) and was monitored for CMV immediate early antigen in peripheral blood cells, in urine sediments, and in throat washings; for the presence of serum CMV immunoglobulin M and CMV immunoglobulin G; and for clinical evidence of CMV-related symptoms. In addition, we compared the incidence of cardiac allograft vasculopathy and infection among the groups. During the first 5 years after transplantation, CMV disease developed in 79 patients (20.96%). Comparison among the groups showed significantly increased risk for CMV disease in allograft recipients of organs from seropositive donors (D+, 27.31%; D-, 11.33%; p = 0.0003). We observed 6 CMV-associated deaths, all in CMV-antibody-negative recipients. Additionally CMV-positive recipients had a greater incidence of cardiac allograft vasculopathy (p = 0.048), and a greater overall infection rate (p = 0.0034). Cytomegalovirus hyperimmune globulin administration prevents CMV disease and infection in aggressively immunosuppressed heart transplant recipients. Because fatal CMV disease in CMV-negative recipients of organs from seropositive donors could not be prevented with CMVIG alone, we recommend the additional use of prophylactic ganciclovir in this CMV-mismatched population.
de Queiroz, N M G P; da Silveira, R C V; de Noronha, A C F; Oliveira, T M F S; Machado, R Z; Starke-Buzetti, W A
Canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL) is caused by a protozoa parasite of the specie Leishmania (L.) chagasi endemic for humans and dogs in many regions of Brazil. The purpose of the present study was the detection of (L.) chagasi in canine skin tissues from three different groups of clinical signs: asymptomatic, oligosymptomatic and polysymptomatic Leishmania-infected dogs. Lesional or non-lesional skin tissue samples from 34 naturally infected dogs were obtained and processed by histochemistry (HE) and immunohistochemistry (IMHC) for direct parasitological examination and the results were compared with a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method. IMHC and HE methods detected intact Leishmania-amastigote parasites in lesional and no lesional skin, particularly in asymptomatic and oligosymptomatic dogs. 50% of skin samples collected from asymptomatic and 21.4% from oligosymptomatic dogs had parasites in their skins even though with mild inflammatory reaction or without any macroscopic dermatological alterations. On the other hand, 100% of polysymptomatic dogs showed several forms of clinical dermatological alterations and 91.7% had intact amastigotes with parasite load ranging from mild to intense. By PCR, DNA of Leishmania spp. was detected in 97.8% skin samples regardless clinical status of the dogs or IMHC/HE test results. PCR on skin was a sensitive procedure for CVL diagnosis, but direct observation of intact parasite in skin biopsies, particularly by IMHC, may be also considered to support the diagnosis.
Silva, N; Solana, A; Castro, J M
Hyperimmune egg yolk semen extender was used for the inactivation of bovine herpesvirus (BHV-1) in experimentally infected bovine semen. As much as 5 x 10(4) TCID50/ml of virus was inactivated in semen as assayed by tissue culture. Moreover the hyperimmune egg yolk semen extender did not produce any adverse effect on the quality of the semen after being frozen/thawed in comparison with normal egg yolk semen extender (P > 0.05). The hyperimmune egg yolk semen extender is considered an important tool for containing the spread of BHV-1 from infected semen.
Moxley, Katherine; Knudtson, Eric J
Congenital cytomegalovirus (CMV) is a common infection with limited treatment options. Vertical transmission can lead to fetal death or long-term neurologic injury. We present a case wherein fetal hydrops resolved after maternal and fetal intravenous administration of CMV hyperimmune globulin. A 20-year-old gravida 3, para 0 was referred for Level II ultrasonography secondary to hydrops fetalis. Amniocentesis demonstrated in utero CMV infection. Resolution of hydrops occurred after the administration of CMV hyperimmune globulin to the patient and then to her fetus. Resolution of hydrops secondary to congenital CMV was temporally related to the administration of maternal and fetal hyperimmune globulin.
da Silveira Neto, Osvaldo José; Duarte, Sabrina Castilho; da Costa, Hérika Xavier; Linhares, Guido Fontgalland Coelho
The objective of this study was to design and evaluate new primers for species-specific detection of L. infantum chagasi using PCR. Two combinations of primer pairs were established with the aim of obtaining specific amplification products from the L. infantum chagasi 18S rRNA gene. The combinations of the primer pairs and the respective sizes of the PCR products, based on the U422465 GenBank reference sequence of L. infantum chagasi, were: LCS1/LCS3 (259 bp) and LCS2/LCS3 (820 bp). It was concluded that the new PCR assays optimized using the primer pairs LCS1/LCS3 and LCS2/LCS3 were effective for specific detection of L. infantum chagasi, with analytical sensitivity to detect 1 pg/µL of DNA.
Moraes, Caroline S; Seabra, Sergio H; Castro, Daniele P; Brazil, Reginaldo P; de Souza, Wanderley; Garcia, Eloi S; Azambuja, Patrícia
Studies on the lysis of L. chagasi caused by the bacteria Serratia marcescens were carried out. In vitro experiments demonstrated that S. marcescens variant SM 365, a prodigiosin pigment producer, lysed this species of Leishmania but variant DB11, a nonpigmented bacteria, was unable to lyse the parasite. High concentrations of d-mannose were found to protect L. chagasi markedly diminishing the lysis by S. marcescens SM 365. Promastigotes of L. chagasi bound the lectin Concanavalin A conjugated with FITC, the fluorescence was intensely found at the base of the flagellum (flagellar pocket). Scanning electron microscopy revealed that the bacteria adherence occurred mainly in the flagellar pocket. S. marcescens SM 365 formed filamentous structures, identified as biofilms, which connect the protozoan to the developing bacterial clusters, in low concentrations of bacteria after 30 min incubation time. We suggest that bacterial mannose-sensitive (MS) fimbriae are relevant to S. marcescens SM 365 in the lysis of L. chagasi.
Dahroug, Magyda A A; Almeida, Arleana B P F; Sousa, Valéria R F; Dutra, Valéria; Guimarães, Luciana D; Soares, César E; Nakazato, Luciano; de Souza, Roberto L
We reported here the first known case of natural infection of a lion (Panthera leo-Linnaeus, 1758) with Leishmania (Leishmania) chagasi (L. chagasi) in Brazil. The specimen was created by a circus handler in the state of Mato Grosso and was donated to the zoological park of the Federal University of Mato Grosso. Infection by L. chagasi was detected using a PCR-RFLP test. It was known that the domestic felids can act as reservoir of infection of L. chagasi in endemic areas, making it important that studies demonstrate their participation in the epidemiological chain. We demonstrate in this work that wild animals can have an important role in the epidemiological chain and must be considered in order to plan methods of control of this zoonosis.
Dahroug, Magyda AA; Almeida, Arleana BPF; Sousa, Valéria RF; Dutra, Valéria; Guimarães, Luciana D; Soares, César E; Nakazato, Luciano; de Souza, Roberto L
We reported here the first known case of natural infection of a lion (Panthera leo-Linnaeus, 1758) with Leishmania (Leishmania) chagasi (L. chagasi) in Brazil. The specimen was created by a circus handler in the state of Mato Grosso and was donated to the zoological park of the Federal University of Mato Grosso. Infection by L. chagasi was detected using a PCR-RFLP test. It was known that the domestic felids can act as reservoir of infection of L. chagasi in endemic areas, making it important that studies demonstrate their participation in the epidemiological chain. We demonstrate in this work that wild animals can have an important role in the epidemiological chain and must be considered in order to plan methods of control of this zoonosis. PMID:23569768
Adler, Stuart P; Nigro, Giovanni
A primary maternal infection with cytomegalovirus (CMV) either during or just before pregnancy accounts for the majority of congenital infections where the baby is symptomatic at birth. Following a primary maternal infection, depending on gestational age, between one quarter and three quarters of fetuses will become infected, and approximately one-third of infected fetuses will have symptoms at birth. Experiments using animal models of CMV infection and observational studies in humans indicate that administration of a CMV hyperimmune globulin (HIG) to the pregnant woman with a primary CMV infection should be effective for both the treatment and prevention of fetal infection. The HIG probably acts by reducing placental inflammation, neutralizing virus with high avidity antibodies, and perhaps by reducing cytokine mediated cellular immune responses.
Maciel, Bruna L Lima; Lacerda, Hênio G; Queiroz, José W; Galvão, Juliana; Pontes, Núbia N; Dimenstein, Roberto; McGowan, Stephen E; Pedrosa, Lúcia F C; Jerônimo, Selma M B
Outcomes of infection with Leishmania chagasi range from self-resolving infection to visceral leishmaniasis (VL). Risk factors determining development of disease are not totally understood, but probably include environmental influences and host genetics. We assessed whether nutrition influenced the outcome of Leishmania infection by comparing relatives of children with VL with either self-resolving Leishmania spp. infection or apparently uninfected households. We observed a decrease in body mass index (P < 0.0005) and mid-upper arm circumference for age (P = 0.022) z-scores for children with VL. Levels of vitamin A were lower in active children with VL as measured by serum retinol (P = 0.035) and the modified-relative-dose-response test (P = 0.009). Higher birth weight (P = 0.047) and albumin concentrations (P = 0.040) protected against disease. Increased breastfeeding time (P = 0.036) was associated with asymptomatic infection. The results indicate that modifiable nutritional aspects are associated with the outcome of Leishmania spp. infection in humans.
Dutra, Fernando L; Oliveira, Maurício M; Santos, Reinaldo S; Silva, Wagner Seixas; Alviano, Daniela S; Vieira, Danielle P; Lopes, Angela H
The most commonly used drugs against visceral leishmaniasis are based on pentavalent antimonial compounds, which have played a fundamental role in therapy for over 70 years. However, the treatment is painful and has severe toxic side effects that can be fatal. Antimonial resistance is spreading and reaching alarming proportions. Linalool and eugenol have been shown to kill Leishmania (L.) amazonensis and Trypanosoma cruzi at low doses. In the present study, we demonstrate the effects of linalool and eugenol, components of essential oils, on Leishmania (L.) infantum chagasi, one of the causative agents of visceral leishmaniasis. We compared the effects of those compounds to the effects of glucantime, a positive control. In L. infantum chagasi killing assays, the LD50 for eugenol was 220μg/ml, and that for linalool was 550μg/ml. L. infantum chagasi was added to cultures of peritoneal mouse macrophages for four hours prior to drug treatment. Eugenol and linalool significantly decreased the number of parasites within the macrophages. Eugenol and linalool enhanced the activities of the L. infantum chagasi protein kinases PKA and PKC. Linalool also decreased L. infantum chagasi oxygen consumption. In conclusion, both linalool and eugenol promoted a decrease in the proliferation and viability of L. infantum chagasi. These effects were more pronounced during the interaction between the parasites and peritoneal mouse macrophages.
Ng, Wy Ching; Wong, Victor; Muller, Brian; Rawlin, Grant; Brown, Lorena E
Despite the availability of specific vaccines and antiviral drugs, influenza continues to impose a heavy toll on human health worldwide. Passive transfer of specific antibody (Ab) may provide a useful means of preventing or treating disease in unvaccinated individuals or those failing to adequately seroconvert, especially now that resistance to antiviral drugs is on the rise. However, preparation of appropriate Ab in large scale, quickly and on a yearly basis is viewed as a significant logistical hurdle for this approach to control seasonal influenza. In this study, bovine colostrum, which contains approximately 500 g of IgG per milking per animal, has been investigated as a source of polyclonal antibody for delivery to the respiratory tract. IgG and F(ab')2 were purified from the hyperimmune colostrum of cows vaccinated with influenza A/Puerto Rico/8/34 (PR8) vaccine and were shown to have high hemagglutination-inhibitory and virus-neutralizing titers. In BALB/c mice, a single administration of either IgG or F(ab')2 could prevent the establishment of infection with a sublethal dose of PR8 virus when given as early as 7 days prior to exposure to virus. Pre-treated mice also survived an otherwise lethal dose of virus, the IgG- but not the F(ab')2-treated mice showing no weight loss. Successful reduction of established infection with this highly virulent virus was also observed with a single treatment 24 hr after virus exposure. These data suggest that a novel and commercially-scalable technique for preparing Ab from hyperimmune bovine colostrum could allow production of a valuable substitute for antiviral drugs to control influenza with the advantage of eliminating the need for daily administration.
Zheng, Xuexing; Wong, Gary; Zhao, Yongkun; Wang, Hualei; He, Shihua; Bi, Yuhai; Chen, Weijin; Jin, Hongli; Gai, Weiwei; Chu, Di; Cao, Zengguo; Wang, Chong; Fan, Quanshui; Chi, Hang; Gao, Yuwei; Wang, Tiecheng; Feng, Na; Yan, Feihu; Huang, Geng; Zheng, Ying; Li, Nan; Li, Yuetao; Qian, Jun; Zou, Yong; Kobinger, Gary; Gao, George Fu; Qiu, Xiangguo; Yang, Songtao; Xia, Xianzhu
Recent successes with monoclonal antibody cocktails ZMappTM and MIL77 against Ebola virus (EBOV) infections have reignited interest in antibody-based therapeutics. Since the production process for monoclonal antibodies can be prolonged and costly, alternative treatments should be investigated. We produced purified equine antisera from horses hyperimmunized with EBOV virus-like particles, and tested the post-exposure efficacy of the antisera in a mouse model of infection. BALB/c mice were given up to 2 mg of purified equine antisera per animal, at 30 minutes, 1 or 2 days post-infection (dpi), in which all animals survived. To decrease the possibility of serum sickness, the equine antisera was digested with pepsin to generate F(ab′)2 fragments, with in vitro neutralizing activity comparable to whole immunoglobulin. Full protection was achieved with when treatment was initiated at 1 dpi, but the suboptimal protection observed with the 30 minute and 2 dpi groups demonstrate that in addition to virus neutralization, other Fc-dependent antibody mechanisms may also contribute to survival. Guinea pigs given 20 mg of antisera or F(ab′)2 at or starting at 1 or 2 dpi were also fully protected from EBOV infection. These results justify future efficacy studies for purified equine products in NHPs. PMID:27067649
Zheng, Xuexing; Wong, Gary; Zhao, Yongkun; Wang, Hualei; He, Shihua; Bi, Yuhai; Chen, Weijin; Jin, Hongli; Gai, Weiwei; Chu, Di; Cao, Zengguo; Wang, Chong; Fan, Quanshui; Chi, Hang; Gao, Yuwei; Wang, Tiecheng; Feng, Na; Yan, Feihu; Huang, Geng; Zheng, Ying; Li, Nan; Li, Yuetao; Qian, Jun; Zou, Yong; Kobinger, Gary; Gao, George Fu; Qiu, Xiangguo; Yang, Songtao; Xia, Xianzhu
Recent successes with monoclonal antibody cocktails ZMapp(TM) and MIL77 against Ebola virus (EBOV) infections have reignited interest in antibody-based therapeutics. Since the production process for monoclonal antibodies can be prolonged and costly, alternative treatments should be investigated. We produced purified equine antisera from horses hyperimmunized with EBOV virus-like particles, and tested the post-exposure efficacy of the antisera in a mouse model of infection. BALB/c mice were given up to 2 mg of purified equine antisera per animal, at 30 minutes, 1 or 2 days post-infection (dpi), in which all animals survived. To decrease the possibility of serum sickness, the equine antisera was digested with pepsin to generate F(ab')2 fragments, with in vitro neutralizing activity comparable to whole immunoglobulin. Full protection was achieved with when treatment was initiated at 1 dpi, but the suboptimal protection observed with the 30 minute and 2 dpi groups demonstrate that in addition to virus neutralization, other Fc-dependent antibody mechanisms may also contribute to survival. Guinea pigs given 20 mg of antisera or F(ab')2 at or starting at 1 or 2 dpi were also fully protected from EBOV infection. These results justify future efficacy studies for purified equine products in NHPs.
Verçosa, Bárbara Laurice Araújo; Melo, Maria Norma; Puerto, Helen Lima Del; Mendonça, Ivete Lopes; Vasconcelos, Anilton César
The skin has an important role in infection by Leishmania chagasi. Apoptosis modulates the inflammatory response acting distinctively either on the progression or regression of the lesions. The parasites interact with multiple regulatory systems inducing apoptosis in host cells, during cell invasion, stabilization and multiplication of pathogens. In this context, the aim of this study was to evaluate cell death within the inflammatory infiltrates, and to correlate these results with parasite load and clinical features of dogs naturally infected with L. chagasi. Fragments of skin pinnas (8 symptomatic+8 asymptomatic+6 negative controls) were used to characterize and measure the inflammatory response, parasite load and apoptosis. Diagnosis of canine leishmaniasis was confirmed by the detection of anti-Leishmania antibodies by IFA and ELISA in serum, direct visualization of the parasite and culture in spleen, liver, pinna, bone marrow and lymph nodes, and PCR (pinna). Histomorphometry was performed with images obtained from 20 representative histological fields in a light microscope. Ultra-thin sections were mounted over a 300 mesh grids, contrasted with 2% uranyl acetate and lead citrate and examined under a Transmission Electronic Microscopy. Amastigotes were only found in the skin of symptomatic animals (31.94 ± 18.81). The number of foci and cellularity of the inflammatory infiltrates in symptomatic dogs were higher than in other groups and in asymptomatics were higher than in controls (p<0.05; Tukey). The average area, perimeter and extreme diameters of the inflammatory infiltrates obtained in symptomatic dogs were higher than in controls (p<0.05; Tukey). The apoptotic index was higher in symptomatic than in other groups and there was no difference between asymptomatics and controls (p<0.05; Tukey). Ultrastructurally, apoptotic cells were shrunken, with condensed nuclear chromatin and cytoplasm. Condensed nuclei were frequently fragmented. Internucleosomal DNA
Salerno Pimentel, Isabella Aparecida; Paladi, Carolina de Siqueira; Katz, Simone; de Souza Júdice, Wagner Alves; Cunha, Rodrigo L O R; Barbiéri, Clara Lúcia
Tellurium compounds have shown several biological properties and recently the leishmanicidal effect of one organotellurane was demonstrated. These findings led us to test the effect of the organotellurium compound RF07 on Leishmania (Leishmania) chagasi, the agent of visceral leishmaniasis in Latin America. In vitro assays were performed in L. (L.) chagasi-infected bone marrow derived macrophages treated with different concentrations of RF07. In in vivo experiments Golden hamsters were infected with L. (L.) chagasi and injected intraperitoneally with RF07 whereas control animals received either Glucantime or PBS. The effect of RF07 on cathepsin B activity of L. (L.) chagasi amastigotes was assayed spectrofluorometrically using fluorogenic substrates. The main findings were: 1) RF07 showed significant leishmanicidal activity against intracellular parasites at submicromolar concentrations (IC50 of 529.7±26.5 nM), and the drug displayed 10-fold less toxicity to macrophages (CC50 of 5,426±272.8 nM); 2) kinetics assays showed an increasing leishmanicidal action of RF07 at longer periods of treatment; 3) one month after intraperitoneal injection of RF07 L. (L.) chagasi-infected hamsters showed a reduction of 99.6% of parasite burden when compared to controls that received PBS; 4) RF07 inhibited the cathepsin B activity of L. (L.) chagasi amastigotes. The present results demonstrated that the tellurium compound RF07 is able to destroy L. (L.) chagasi in vitro and in vivo at concentrations that are non toxic to the host. We believe these findings support further study of the potential of RF07 as a possible alternative for the chemotherapy of visceral leishmaniasis.
Makhoul, Badira; Braun, Eyal; Herskovitz, Moshe; Ramadan, Rawi; Hadad, Salim; Norberto, Krivoy
West Nile virus, the etiologic agent of West Nile fever, is an emerging mosquito-borne disease. WNV was recognized as a cause of severe human meningoencephalitis in elderly patients during outbreaks in various parts of the world. To analyze WNV encephalitis therapy and its outcome after prescribing hyperimmune gammaglobulin therapy. Eight subjects with WNV encephalitis were treated with supportive therapy and 5 days of IVIG 0.4 g/kg/day containing high WNV antibodies obtained from healthy blood donors. Patients who were treated with IVIG as soon as possible exhibited an improvement in their symptoms. All subjects presented with high fever, progressive confusion and headaches, nausea and vomiting. The Glasgow Coma Screen for six patients ranged between 8 and 13 and all were discharged with a score of 15. The remaining two subjects died during their hospitalization. In severe WNV infection, where the disease affects the central and/or peripheral nervous system, early intervention with IVIG together with supportive treatment is recommended.
Lu, Jia-Hai; Guo, Zhong-Min; Han, Wen-Yu; Wang, Guo-Ling; Zhang, Ding-Mei; Wang, Yi-Fei; Sun, Sheng-Yun; Yang, Qin-He; Zheng, Huan-Ying; Wong, Bing L; Zhong, Nan-Shan
The resurgence of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) is still a threat because the causative agent remaining in animal reservoirs is not fully understood, and sporadic cases continue to be reported. Developing high titers of anti-SARS hyperimmune globulin to provide an alternative pathway for emergent future prevention and treatment of SARS. SARS coronavirus (CoV)F69 (AY313906) and Z2-Y3 (AY394989) were isolated and identified from 2 different Cantonese onset SARS patients. Immunogen was prepared from SARS-CoV F69 strain. Six health horses were immunized 4 times and serum was collected periodically to measure the profile of specific IgG and neutralizing antibodies using indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and a microneutralization test. Sera were collected in large amounts at the peak, where IgG was precipitated using ammonium sulphate and subsequently digested with pepsin. The product was then purified using anion-exchange chromatography to obtain F(ab')2 fragments. The specific IgG and neutralizing antibody titers peaked at approximately week 7 after the first immunization, with a maximum value of 1:14210. The sera collected at the peak were then purified. Fragment of approximately 15 g F(ab')2 was obtained from 1litre antiserum and the purity was above 90% with the titer of 1:5120, which could neutralize the other strain (SARS-CoV Z2-Y3) as well. This research provides a viable strategy for the prevention and treatment of SARS coronavirus infection with equine hyperimmune globulin, with the purpose of combating any resurgence of SARS.
Zhang, Zhan; Xie, Yi-Wu; Hong, Jiling; Zhang, Xin; Kwok, Sui Yi; Huang, Xiaowu; Wong, Sai Wah; Wong, Bing-Lou
Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) is a new infectious disease caused by the SARS virus. Current first-line treatments are experimental, and their effectiveness remains open to question. For more effective treatment and prevention of SARS, human SARS hyperimmune globulins for intravenous (IV) injection were purified in this study. A combination of cold ethanol precipitation and ion-exchange chromatography was used to process pooled SARS convalescent plasma samples. Virus inactivation and removal approaches were taken to ensure safety. The purified hyperimmune globulins were formulated as a 5 percent solution, with an antibody titer specifically against the SARS virus of 1:83, 1:1600, and 1:200, as determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, immunofluorescence assay, and neutralizing antibody test, respectively. The purity of the SARS hyperimmune globulins was 99.0 percent, and the monomer and dimer content was 100 percent. Other variables analyzed met the Chinese Requirements of Biologics for IV immune globulin. The SARS hyperimmune globulins prepared were subsequently approved for clinical evaluation by the Chinese National Institute for the Control of Pharmaceutical & Biological Products. IV-injectable, purified, and concentrated human SARS hyperimmune globulins were prepared from pooled convalescent plasma samples, which are ready to be further evaluated.
Quintal, Amanda P N; Borges, Bruna C; Brígido, Paula C; Silva, Rebecca T; Notário, Ana F; Santos, Marlus A; de Souza, Maria A; Nascimento, Fernanda G O; Mundim, Antônio V; Costa, Guilherme M J; Vasconcelos, André B; da Silva, Claudio V
Leishmaniasis causes alterations and lesions in the genital system, which leads to azoospermia and testicular atrophy in animals during the chronic phase of the infection. The aim of this study was to reveal the kinetics of Leishmania chagasi infection in the genital system of male golden hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus). Animals were intraperitoneally inoculated with amastigotes from L. chagasi. At different time points animals were euthanized and genital organs processed for histo-pathological, qPCR, cytokines and testosterone detection assays. Our results showed a high parasite load in testis, followed by an increase of pro-inflammatory cytokines IL1-β, TNF-α and IFN-γ, and testosterone. Subsequently, IL-4 expression was upregulated and basal parasite persistence in testis was observed using the experimental approach. Extracellular amastigotes migrated to the epididymis posing as a potential major factor of parasite persistence and venereal transmission of L. chagasi infection in hamsters.
Brasil, Paula Ferreira; de Freitas, Júlia Araújo; Barreto, Anna Léa Silva; Adade, Camila Marques; Reis de Sá, Leandro Figueira; Constantino-Teles, Pamella; Toledo, Fabiano Travanca; de Sousa, Bruno A; Gonçalves, Augusto Cesar; Romanos, Maria Teresa Villela; Comasseto, João V; Dos Santos, Alcindo A; Tessis, Ana Claudia; Souto-Padrón, Thais; Soares, Rosangela Maria A; Ferreira-Pereira, Antonio
Leishmania (Leishmania) infantum chagasi is one of the agents that cause visceral leishmaniasis. This disease occurs more frequently in third world countries, such as Brazil. The treatment is arduous, and is dependent on just a few drugs like the antimonial derivatives and amphotericin B. Moreover, these drugs are not only expensive, but they can also cause severe side effects and require long-term treatment. Therefore, it is very important to find new compounds that are effective against leishmaniasis. In the present work we evaluated a new group of synthetic amides against the promastigote and amastigote forms of L. infantum chagasi. The results showed that one of these amides in particular, presented very effective activity against the promastigotes and amastigotes of L. infantum chagasi at low concentrations and it also presented low toxicity for mammal cells, which makes this synthetic amide a promising drug for combating leishmaniasis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
de Vasconcelos, Gisele Moledo; Azevedo-Silva, Fernanda; dos Santos Thuler, Luiz Claudio; Pina, Eugênia Terra Granado; Souza, Celeste S.F.; Calabrese, Katia; Pombo-de-Oliveira, Maria S.
Objective This study investigated the co-existence of Leishmania chagasi infection and childhood leukemia in patients naïve to treatment; this has serious clinical and epidemiological implications. Methods The seroprevalence of L. chagasi antibodies prior to any treatment was investigated in children with clinical features of acute leukemia. Serological tests were performed in 470 samples drawn from under 14-year-old children from different regions of Brazil with clinical suspicion of acute leukemia. Acute leukemia subtypes were characterized by immunophenotyping using flow cytometry. Morphological analyses of bone marrow aspirates were systematically performed to visualize blast cells and/or the formation of L. chagasi amastigotes. Data analysis used a standard univariate procedure and the Pearson's chi-square test. Results The plasma of 437 children (93%) displayed antibodies against L. chagasi by indirect immunofluorescence assay and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay tests. Of the 437 patients diagnosed from 2002 to 2006, 254 had acute lymphoblastic leukemia, 92 had acute myeloid leukemia, and 91 did not have acute leukemia. The seroprevalence of L. chagasi antibodies according to the indirect immunofluorescence assay test (22.5%) was similar in children with or without acute leukemia (p-value = 0.76). The co-existence of visceral leishmanasis and acute leukemia was confirmed in 24 children. The overall survival of these children was poor with a high death rate during the first year of leukemia treatment. Conclusion In the differential diagnosis of childhood leukemia, visceral leishmanasis should be considered as a potential concurrent disease in regions where L. chagasi is endemic. PMID:25305169
The protective effect of hyperimmune IgY fraction of egg yolk (SC) prepared from hens hyperimmunized with multiple species of Eimeria oocysts, on experimental coccidiosis was evaluated in young broilers. Chickens were continuously fed from hatch with a standard diet containing SC or a non-suppleme...
Siber, G R; Ambrosino, D M; McIver, J; Ervin, T J; Schiffman, G; Sallan, S; Grady, G F
As a first step in exploring the feasibility of passive antibody prophylaxis and therapy of serious infections caused by common encapsulated bacteria, we have immunized healthy adults with Haemophilus influenzae type b vaccine, 14-valent pneumococcal vaccine, and meningococcal group A and C vaccine; collected plasma by repeated pheresis; and purified a hyperimmune globulin termed bacterial polysaccharide immune globulin by the cold-ethanol fractionation method of Cohn and Oncley. Specific antibacterial antibody concentrations were measured in individual donors before and after immunization. In addition, antibody concentrations were measured in plasma pools prepared from immunized donors and from unimmunized controls and in the immunoglobulin-containing Cohn-Oncley fractions II and III derived from the respective plasma pools. A comparison of Cohn-Oncley fractions II, which contain primarily immunoglobulin G and which are used therapeutically as immune globulin, revealed that antibody to H. influenzae type b was enriched 15.3-fold and that antibody to meningococcal serogroups and pneumococcal types was enriched a mean of 4.4-fold (range, 1.2- to 9.9-fold). Enrichment of antibacterial antibody in Cohn fraction III, which contains substantial amounts of immunoglobulin M and immunoglobulin A in addition to immunoglobulin G, closely paralleled that in fraction II. Only antibodies to pneumococcal types 1 and 7 were increased disproportionately in fraction III. Based on the clinical experience that conventional immune serum globulin at a dose of 100 mg/kg protects agammaglobulinemic patients for ca. 1 month, we estimate that bacterial polysaccharide immune globulin, in similar dosage, will provide protection from systemic H. influenzae type b infection for 4 to 6 months and from pneumococcal and meningococcal infections for 3 to 4 months. PMID:6429048
Lee, S H; Lillehoj, H S; Park, D W; Jang, S I; Morales, A; García, D; Lucio, E; Larios, R; Victoria, G; Marrufo, D; Lillehoj, E P
The protective effect of hyperimmune IgY fraction of egg yolk prepared from hens hyperimmunized with multiple species of Eimeria oocysts on experimental coccidiosis was evaluated in young broilers. Chickens were continuously fed from hatch with a standard diet containing hyperimmune IgY egg yolk powder or a nonsupplemented control diet and orally challenged at d 7 posthatch with 5.0 x 10(3) sporulated Eimeria acervulina oocysts. Body weight gain between d 0 and 10 and fecal oocyst shedding between d 5 and 10 postinfection were determined as parameters of protective immunity. Chickens given 10 or 20% hyperimmune IgY egg yolk powder showed significantly increased BW gain and reduced fecal oocyst shedding compared with control birds fed the nonsupplemented diet. In another trial, lower IgY concentrations (0.01, 0.02, and 0.05%) were used to treat birds with 1.0 x 10(4) oocysts of E. acervulina. Total oocyst shedding was significantly (P < 0.05) reduced in chickens fed the 0.02 and 0.05% hyperimmune IgY supplemented-diets compared with animals fed the nonsupplemented diet. Similarly, chickens fed 0.5% of hyperimmune IgY egg yolk powder diet and challenged with 1.0 x 10(4) oocysts exhibited reduced oocyst shedding compared with the control birds given 0.5% of IgY from nonimmunized hen eggs, although BW gain was not affected. We conclude that passive immunization of chickens with anti-coccidia IgY antibodies provide protective immunity against coccidiosis challenge infection.
Bonaros, Nikolaos E; Kocher, Alfred; Dunkler, Daniela; Grimm, Michael; Zuckermann, Andreas; Ankersmit, Jan; Ehrlich, Marek; Wolner, Ernst; Laufer, Günther
Seronegative heart transplant recipients who receive an allograft from seropositive donors have a higher risk of developing cytomegalovirus (CMV) disease and cardiac allograft vasculopathy (CAV) and dysfunction. Neither CMV-specific hyperimmune globulin nor ganciclovir as sole CMV prophylaxis is sufficient to prevent CMV disease in high-risk patients. We retrospectively evaluated the efficacy of CMV-hyperimmune globulin with and without ganciclovir in 207 D+/R- heart transplant recipients. The study population was divided into two groups: Group A was composed of 96 patients who received CMV hyperimmune globulin as sole CMV prophylaxis, and group B was composed of 111 patients who received combined CMV prophylaxis. All recipients were subjected to quadruple cytolytic immunosuppression. Primary and secondary end points included prevention of CMV-associated death, CMV disease and productive infection, CAV, and overall infection. There was no difference in overall survival between the two groups. Four patients in the group A died of CMV sepsis, whereas no CMV-associated death was observed in group B (P =0.0326). The actuarial incidence of CMV disease was significantly lower in patients who received double CMV prophylaxis (32.29 vs. 11.71, P =0.0003). Although no difference was observed with regard to productive CMV infection (53.12 vs. 65.77, P =not significant), CAV and overall infection rates were significantly higher in the first group (7.29 vs. 0.9, P =0.0157 and 70.83 vs. 62.16, P =0.03, respectively). Double CMV prophylaxis consisting of CMV hyperimmune globulin and ganciclovir is able to abolish CMV death and prevent CMV disease in high-risk heart transplant recipients. Therefore, the use of a combination regimen is recommended for seronegative recipients with seropositive donors.
de Souza Dias, Suzana; da Costa Pinheiro, Paulo Henrique; Katz, Simone; dos Santos, Márcia Regina Machado; Barbiéri, Clara Lúcia
A recombinant protein, rLdccys1, which was produced by expression of the gene encoding a 30 kDa cysteine proteinase from Leishmania (Leishmania) chagasi, was used for detection of antibodies in sera from patients with active visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. Analysis of the predicted amino acid sequence of rLdccys1 showed that it contains all the characteristics of a cysteine proteinase. The ability of the protein to react with sera from humans with VL was also shown by Western blotting. The sensitivity for detection of specific antibodies to L. (L.) chagasi bodies using rLdccys1, L. (L.) chagasi promastigote lysates, and amastigote lysates was 80%, 98%, and 99%, respectively. No cross-reactivity between rLdccys1 and Chagas disease was observed, and there was little positive reactivity with sera from patients with cutaneous leishmaniasis and tuberculosis, compared with promastigote and amastigote extracts. Our findings indicate that rLdccys1 from L. (L.) chagasi constitutes a potential tool for the diagnosis of American VL.
Malafaia, G; Serafim, T D; Silva, M E; Pedrosa, M L; Rezende, S A
Protein-energy malnutrition and visceral leishmaniasis are important problems of public health affecting millions of people worldwide. Vaccine efficacy depends on the ability of individuals to mount an appropriate immune response and may be inadequate in malnourished persons. In this study, we used a mouse model to verify the effect of combined protein, iron and zinc deficiency in the response to Leishmania chagasi antigen vaccine. BALB/c mice were fed with a low-protein (3% casein), iron- and zinc-deficient diet or control diet (14% casein and sufficient in zinc and iron). After malnutrition establishment, mice were vaccinated subcutaneously with L. chagasi Ag plus saponin. After vaccination, mice were nutritionally repleted and then all mice were challenged with L. chagasi promastigotes. Four weeks later, liver and spleen parasite load was evaluated. Our data show that vaccine caused a significant reduction in parasite load in spleen and liver from mice fed with control diet. However, splenic parasitism was increased in mice fed with deficient diet and this diet caused a reduction in splenocyte IFN-gamma production in response to the vaccine in repleted mice. These data suggest that malnutrition may alter immune response to L. chagasi vaccine in BALB/c model of infection, even after nutritional repletion.
Martín-Gómez, S; Alvarez-Sánchez, M A; Rojo-Vázquez, F A
Three ewes were immunized five times over a 2-month period prior to giving birth by intramuscular injection, oral administration and intramammary infusion of antigen and viable or freeze-dried Cryptosporidium parvum oocyst solution emulsified with Freund's complete and incomplete adjuvant. Two animals served as controls and another two as adjuvant controls. Serum was collected at first immunization and thereafter every 2 to 4 weeks. Colostrum and milk were collected as well. All samples were assayed for C. parvum-specific antibodies using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay methodology, and Western blotting was used to recognize the C. parvum antigens. Hyperimmunization resulted in a progressive and significant increase in specific anti-C. parvum serum IgG, IgA and IgM titres, with the highest values noted at the point of lambing. Titres decreased slightly in milk, although they were in all cases higher than those in the control animals. Moreover, some 30 bands of C. parvum were recognized.
Sanz, M G; Loynachan, A; Horohov, D W
Since a vaccine is not available against Rhodococcus equi, R equi-specific hyperimmune plasma (HIP) is commonly used, although its efficacy remains controversial. The objective of this study was to evaluate the ability of a commercially available HIP to prevent clinical rhodococcal pneumonia in neonatal foals after experimental challenge. British Veterinary Association.
Craft, Noah; Birnbaum, Ron; Quanquin, Natalie; Erfe, Marie Crisel B.; Quant, Cara; Haskell, Jacquelyn
New prevention and treatment strategies are needed for visceral leishmaniasis, particularly ones that can be deployed simply and inexpensively in areas where leishmaniasis is endemic. Synthetic molecules that activate Toll-like receptor 7 and 8 (TLR7/8) pathways have previously been demonstrated to enhance protection against cutaneous leishmaniasis. We initially sought to determine whether the TLR7/8-activating molecule resiquimod might serve as an effective vaccine adjuvant targeting visceral leishmaniasis caused by infection with Leishmania infantum chagasi. Resiquimod was topically applied to the skin of mice either prior to or after systemic infection with L. infantum chagasi, and parasite burdens were assessed. Surprisingly, topical resiquimod application alone, in the absence of vaccination, conferred robust resistance to mice against future intravenous challenge with virulent L. infantum chagasi. This protection against L. infantum chagasi infection persisted as long as 8 weeks after the final topical resiquimod treatment. In addition, in mice with existing infections, therapeutic treatment with topical resiquimod led to significantly lower visceral parasite loads. Resiquimod increased trafficking of leukocytes, including B cells, CD4+ and CD8+ T cells, dendritic cells, macrophages, and granulocytes, in livers and spleens, which are the key target organs of visceralizing infection. We conclude that topical resiquimod leads to systemic immune modulation and confers durable protection against visceralizing L. infantum chagasi infection, in both prophylactic and therapeutic settings. These studies support continued studies of TLR-modulating agents to determine mechanisms of protection and also provide a rationale for translational development of a critically needed, novel class of topical, preventative, and therapeutic agents for these lethal infections. PMID:25030052
Borborema, Samanta Etel Treiger; Osso Jr, João Alberto; Andrade Jr, Heitor Franco de; Nascimento, Nanci do
Pentavalent antimonials such as meglumine antimoniate (MA) are the primary treatments for leishmaniasis, a complex disease caused by protozoan parasites of the genus Leishmania . Despite over 70 years of clinical use, their mechanisms of action, toxicity and pharmacokinetics have not been fully elucidated. Radiotracer studies performed on animals have the potential to play a major role in pharmaceutical development. The aims of this study were to prepare an antimony radiotracer by neutron irradiation of MA and to determine the biodistribution of MA in healthy and Leishmania (Leishmania) infantum chagasi-infected mice. MA (Glucantime®) was neutron irradiated inside the IEA-R1 nuclear reactor, producing two radioisotopes, ¹²²Sb and ¹²⁴Sb, with high radionuclidic purity and good specific activity. This irradiated compound presented anti-leishmanial activity similar to that of non-irradiated MA in both in vitro and in vivo evaluations. In the biodistribution studies, healthy mice showed higher uptake of antimony in the liver than infected mice and elimination occurred primarily through biliary excretion, with a small proportion of the drug excreted by the kidneys. The serum kinetic curve was bi-exponential, with two compartments: the central compartment and another compartment associated with drug excretion. Radiotracers, which can be easily produced by neutron irradiation, were demonstrated to be an interesting tool for answering several questions regarding antimonial pharmacokinetics and chemotherapy.
Borborema, Samanta Etel Treiger; Osso, João Alberto; de Andrade, Heitor Franco; do Nascimento, Nanci
Pentavalent antimonials such as meglumine antimoniate (MA) are the primary treatments for leishmaniasis, a complex disease caused by protozoan parasites of the genus Leishmania . Despite over 70 years of clinical use, their mechanisms of action, toxicity and pharmacokinetics have not been fully elucidated. Radiotracer studies performed on animals have the potential to play a major role in pharmaceutical development. The aims of this study were to prepare an antimony radiotracer by neutron irradiation of MA and to determine the biodistribution of MA in healthy and Leishmania (Leishmania) infantum chagasi-infected mice. MA (Glucantime(r)) was neutron irradiated inside the IEA-R1 nuclear reactor, producing two radioisotopes, 122Sb and 124Sb, with high radionuclidic purity and good specific activity. This irradiated compound presented anti-leishmanial activity similar to that of non-irradiated MA in both in vitro and in vivo evaluations. In the biodistribution studies, healthy mice showed higher uptake of antimony in the liver than infected mice and elimination occurred primarily through biliary excretion, with a small proportion of the drug excreted by the kidneys. The serum kinetic curve was bi-exponential, with two compartments: the central compartment and another compartment associated with drug excretion. Radiotracers, which can be easily produced by neutron irradiation, were demonstrated to be an interesting tool for answering several questions regarding antimonial pharmacokinetics and chemotherapy. PMID:23903979
Sonnenday, Christopher J; Warren, Daniel S; Cooper, Mathew; Samaniego, Milagros; Haas, Mark; King, Karen E; Shirey, R Sue; Simpkins, Christopher E; Montgomery, Robert A
The majority of preconditioning protocols developed to allow ABO-incompatible (ABOi) renal transplantation include concurrent splenectomy as a prerequisite to successful engraftment. Our center has developed a preconditioning protocol that includes plasmapheresis (PP), low-dose CMV hyperimmune globulin (CMVIg), and anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody (rituximab) to allow ABOi renal transplantation without splenectomy. Our initial experience has included treatment of six recipients and successful transplantation from blood group A(1), A(2), and group B living donors. Mean (+/- SD) serum creatinine was 1.3 +/- 0.1 mg/dL among the six recipients and no episodes of antibody-mediated rejection (AMR) occurred at a median follow-up of 12 months. ABO antibody titers have remained below pretreatment levels. The absence of AMR and stable allograft function in this series show the potential of this preconditioning protocol to increase ABOi renal transplantation. The use of rituximab, allowing avoidance of splenectomy, may further remove one of the significant disincentives to ABOi transplantation, and eliminate the risk of post-splenectomy infections.
Liu, Yong-jun; Xiao, Chang; Wang, Gui-ping; Xuan, Hua; Tu, Chang-chun
The fusion protein (F) and attachment glycoprotein (G) of Nipah virus (NiV) are important for the virus to infect cells and induce protective immunity. In this study, the NiV F1 and G gene fragments without the sequences of signal peptide and transmembrane domain were amplified by PCR, then cloned into E. coli expression vector pGEX-6P-1 and modified baculovirus vector, respectively. After induction by IPTG, NiV F1 and G proteins were efficiently expressed in E. coli when analyzed by SDS-PAGE, both showing good reactivity with the rabbit antiserum anti-NiV serum in Western blot. The expression of NiV F1 and G in baculovirus system were also detected by indirect immunofluorescent assay (IFA) of fixed Sf9 cells monolayer infected with the recombinant baculoviruses expressing F1 and G. Furthermore the anti-F1 and anti-G hyperimmune sera were prepared by immunization of rabbits respectively with purified E. coli-expressed F1 and G proteins. Western blot and IFA as well as ELISA showed that antisera against both protein had high titers with good reactivity and specificity. The present study has provided a base for development of diagnostic reagents for detection of NiV infection.
Disch, J; Maciel, F C; de Oliveira, M C; Orsini, M; Rabello, A
A polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay for the detection of Leishmania spp. DNA in peripheral blood was optimized and evaluated for the diagnosis of human visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in Brazil during May 2001 to December 2002. Optimization of the technique resulted in a detection limit of 1.65 fg of purified L. (L.) chagasi DNA, equivalent to 1.65 x 10(-2) parasites. Leishmania DNA was detected in the blood of 48 of 53 patients with parasitologically-confirmed VL, which corresponds to a sensitivity of 91%. No DNA was detected in the peripheral blood of 15 healthy, non-exposed volunteers, giving a specificity of 100%. We conclude that detection of parasite DNA in peripheral blood offers a non-invasive, sensitive and rapid method for the detection of VL caused by L. (L.) chagasi.
Freitas, Vanessa C.; Parreiras, Klívia P.; Duarte, Ana Paula M.; Secundino, Nágila F. C.; Pimenta, Paulo F. P.
We analyzed the development of Leishmania (Leishmania) infantum chagasi in its natural sandfly vector Lutzomyia longipalpis. In addition, we compared sandfly infections initiated with axenic amastigotes or promastigotes. Our data showed no important difference between Lu. longipalpis infection rates resulting from either type of infections. Furthermore, development of infection was equivalent in both cases. All promastigote forms were found inside the sandfly and, after blood digestion, most of the population consisted of procyclics and nectomonads. A low percentage of metacyclic forms was coincident with a high number of nectomonads during late stages of infection, but which form gives rise to metacyclic forms in L. infantum chagasi is unknown. These results also show that the promastigote infection model, at least for this situation, is suitable for obtaining of infected sandflies because it is easier and less laborious. PMID:22492144
Souza, Nely Pinheiro; Almeida, Arleana do Bom Parto Ferreira de; Freitas, Tatiana Pádua Tavares de; Paz, Regina Celia Rodrigues da; Dutra, Valéria; Nakazato, Luciano; Sousa, Valéria Régia Franco
Visceral leishmaniasis is a zoonosis that affects many mammals, and domestic canids are the main reservoirs in urban environments. This note describes infection by Leishmania (Leishmania) infantum chagasi among wild canids kept in captivity in the State of Mato Grosso, Brazil. Skin, bone marrow and lymph node samples were collected from six crab-eating foxes (Cerdocyon thous) and one bush dog (Spheotos venaticus), in order to detect and characterize Leishmania using the PCR-RFLP technique. All the animals studied were positive for Leishmania (L.) infantum chagasi. This study highlights the importance of adequate monitoring of these animals, as well as greater control of this disease, given that these animals are in a public recreation environment.
Reimão, Juliana Q; Colombo, Fábio A; Pereira-Chioccola, Vera L; Tempone, André G
The objective of this study was to develop a novel liposomal formulation, containing phosphatidylserine (PS), of buparvaquone (BPQ) and to evaluate its in vivo effectiveness in Leishmania (L.) infantum chagasi-infected hamsters. The activity of BPQ was evaluated against both the promastigote forms of different Leishmania species and the intracellular amastigotes of L. (L.) infantum chagasi. Buparvaquone was entrapped in PS-liposomes (BPQ-PS-LP), and the drug was quantified by ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography. The treatment was quantified by detecting the RNA of the living amastigotes in the spleen and the liver by real-time PCR. In vitro assays with L. (L.) infantum chagasi intracellular amastigotes were performed in peritoneal macrophages for the evaluation of the 50% inhibitory concentration (IC(50)). BPQ-PS-LP at 0.33 mg/kg/day for eight consecutive days reduced the number of amastigotes by 89.4% (P<0.05) in the spleen and by 67.2% (P>0.05) in the liver, compared to 84.3% (P<0.05) and 99.7% (P<0.05), respectively, following Glucantime® treatment at 50 mg/kg/day. Free BPQ at 20 mg/kg/day failed to treat the hamsters when compared to the untreated group. BPQ was significantly (P<0.05) selective against L. (L.) infantum chagasi intracellular amastigotes, with an IC(50) value of 1.5 μM; no in vitro mammalian cytotoxicity could be detected. Other cutaneous species were also susceptible to BPQ, with IC(50) values in the range 1-4 μM. BPQ-PS-LP caused a significant reduction in the parasite burden at a 60-fold lower dose than did the free BPQ. These results show the potential of PS-liposome formulations for the successful targeted delivery of BPQ in visceral leishmaniasis.
Gantt, Kira R; Schultz-Cherry, Stacey; Rodriguez, Nilda; Jeronimo, Selma M B; Nascimento, Eliana T; Goldman, Todd L; Recker, Thomas J; Miller, Melissa A; Wilson, Mary E
TGF-beta is a potent regulatory cytokine that suppresses expression of inducible NO synthase and IFN-gamma, and suppresses Th1 and Th2 cell development. We examined whether functionally active TGF-beta is present in the local environment surrounding the invading protozoan Leishmania chagasi. Our prior data showed that TGF-beta levels are significantly increased in L. chagasi-infected mice. In the current study, we found TGF-beta was also abundant in bone marrows of humans with acute visceral leishmaniasis but not in those of uninfected controls. Furthermore, L. chagasi infection caused an increase in biologically active TGF-beta in human macrophage cultures without changing the total TGF-beta. Therefore, we investigated the means through which leishmania could augment activated but not total TGF-beta. Incubation of latent TGF-beta with Leishmania sp. promastigotes caused active TGF-beta to be released from the latent complex. In contrast, the nonpathogenic protozoan Crithidia fasciculata could not activate TGF-beta. TGF-beta activation by leishmania was prevented by inhibitors of cysteine proteases and by the specific cathepsin B inhibitor CA074. Physiologic concentrations of TGF-beta inhibited killing of intracellular L. chagasi in macrophages, although the phagocytosis-induced respiratory burst remained intact. In contrast, supraphysiologic concentrations of TGF-beta had no effect on parasite survival. We hypothesize that the combined effect of abundant TGF-beta stores at extracellular sites during infection, and the ability of the parasite to activate TGF-beta in its local environment, leads to high levels of active TGF-beta in the vicinity of the infected macrophage. Locally activated TGF-beta could, in turn, enhance parasite survival through its effects on innate and adaptive immune responses.
Díaz, A M; Valentini, E J; Albas, A; Fuches, R M; Gallina, N M
To determine the rabies antibody level of twenty-four hyperimmune equine sera, Standard Mouse Neutralization (SMN) and Couterimmunoelectrophoresis (CIE) tests were carried out, both at the Instituto Butantan (IB) and Instituto Panamericano de Proteccíon de Alimentos y Zoonosis (INPPAZ). Statistical analysis has shown a correlation (r) of 0.9317 between the SMN and CIE performed at the IB, while at the INPPAZ it scored 0.974. Comparison of CIE data of both laboratories yielded a correlation of 0.845. The CIE technique has shown to be a sensitive and efficient as the SMN in titrating antirabies hyperimmune equine sera. Based on CIE results, a simple, rapid and inexpensive technique, titers of sera antibody can be rellably estimated in SMN test.
Marennikova, S. S.
Smallpox prophylaxis studies having shown that the classical Jennerian type of vaccination may in some instances prove inadequate to prevent the development of the disease or may be contra-indicated for certain persons, attempts were made to evolve a method which could supplement or replace such vaccination. Investigations reported in this paper have demonstrated that the administration of gamma-globulin obtained from the sera of various animals hyperimmunized with vaccinia virus gives highly effective results in the prevention of different forms of experimental vaccinial infection. Encouraging results were also obtained with this gamma-globulin given prophylactically to 13 persons who had been in close contact with smallpox patients during an outbreak of this disease in Moscow in 1960. The author suggests that hyperimmune antivaccinia gamma-globulin of animal origin may also prove effective in the treatment of postvaccinal complications. PMID:13932966
de Almeida, Arleana do Bom Parto Ferreira; Sousa, Valéria Régia Franco; Sorte, Eveline da Cruz Boa; Figueiredo, Fabiano Borges; de Paula, Daphine Ariadne Jesus; Pimentel, Maria Fernanda Aranega; Dutra, Valéria; Madeira, Maria de Fátima
In Brazil, although the domestic dog is a major target for the control actions for visceral leishmaniasis, knowledge gaps of the Leishmania species present in those animals still exist in many endemic areas. The objective of this study was the use of parasitological culture as a diagnosis tool and identification of species of Leishmania and other trypanosomatids in the canine population in the city of Cuiaba/Mato Grosso. Biological samples such as blood, intact skin fragments, cutaneous ulcers, and bone marrow were collected during a cross-sectional study and cultured on biphasic medium (Novy-MacNeil-Nicolle [NNN]/Schneider's). Leishmania isolates were characterized through isoenzyme electrophoresis. Isolates were obtained from 11.2% (n=54) of the 482 animals studied considering the different anatomical sites investigated. Leishmania chagasi was confirmed in 8.3% (n=40) dogs and Trypanosoma caninum in 2.9% (n=14). The sample of intact skin presented a higher chance of isolation of L. chagasi in symptomatic dogs and bone marrow in asymptomatic dogs (p<0.05). The results presented in this study emphasize the value of culture and confirm, for the first time, the circulation of L. chagasi in the canine population in different neighborhoods of the city of Cuiaba and broaden the knowledge of the geographical distribution of T. caninum in Brazil.
Montoya-Lerma, J; Cadena, H; Oviedo, M; Ready, P D; Barazarte, R; Travi, B L; Lane, R P
The infection rates and development of Leishmania chagasi in two sandfly species, Lutzomyia evansi and Lutzomyia longipalpis, were evaluated under natural and experimental conditions. Natural infection rates of Lu. evansi in San Andrés de Sotavento (Colombia) and Montañas de Peraza (Venezuela) (0.05 and 0.2%, respectively) were similar to those previously recorded for this species in Colombia and Venezuela and for Lu. longipalpis in many foci of American Visceral Leishmaniasis (AVL). Both sand fly species were able to support the development of two Colombian strains of L. chagasi experimentally acquired from dogs, hamsters or membrane feeders. However, the experimental infection rates and the sequence of parasite development in the guts of these sand flies revealed that parasite colonisation, differentiation, migration and attachment were more frequent and uniform in Lu. longipalpis than in Lu. evansi. This is consistent with a more recent association between L. chagasi and Lu. evansi, and these results might help to explain the irregularity of AVL outbreaks in foci where Lu. evansi has been reported as the sole vector.
Wang, Lu; Sun, Xinghua; Ghosh, Raja
Hyperimmune equine IgG is widely used as antivenom and anti-rabies agents. This article discusses a membrane based enhanced hybrid bioseparation technique for efficient and scalable purification of equine immunoglobulin G (IgG) from horse serum. This technique is an improved version of a standard hybrid bioseparation technique developed within our group earlier for fractionation of human plasma proteins (Ghosh. 2004. J Membr Sci 237: 109-117). In the presence of a high antichaotropic salt concentration, equine IgG is selectively and reversibly captured within a stirred cell membrane module from horse serum, partly due to precipitation and microfiltration, and partly due to hydrophobic interaction based membrane adsorption, while the impurities are washed out from the device. The reversibly sequestered IgG is then released by lowering the salt concentration which favor both dissolution of the precipitated IgG and desorption of the membrane bound IgG. The enhanced hybrid bioseparation technique improves the IgG recovery from the membrane module by switching from a stirring to non-stirring mode during the IgG release phase. It also reduces membrane fouling by an appropriate pH switch. The effects of operating conditions on equine IgG capture were first systematically studied. The enhanced hybrid bioseparation technique was followed by an ultrafiltration step to remove ammonium sulfate and low molecular weight impurities. The equine IgG purity obtained under optimized conditions was 88% and its recovery was over 90%, both being significantly higher than corresponding values obtained using currently used purification techniques. (c) 2007 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Santos, Keity Souza; Stephano, Marco Antonio; Marcelino, José Roberto; Ferreira, Virginia Maria Resende; Rocha, Thalita; Caricati, Celso; Higashi, Hisako Gondo; Moro, Ana Maria; Kalil, Jorge Elias; Malaspina, Osmar; Castro, Fabio Fernandes Morato; Palma, Mário Sérgio
Victims of massive bee attacks become extremely ill, presenting symptoms ranging from dizziness and headache to acute renal failure and multiple organ failure that can lead to death. Previous attempts to develop specific antivenom to treat these victims have been unsuccessful. We herein report a F(ab)´2-based antivenom raised in horse as a potential new treatment for victims of multiple bee stings. The final product contains high specific IgG titers and is effective in neutralizing toxic effects, such as hemolysis, cytotoxicity and myotoxicity. The assessment of neutralization was revised and hemolysis, the primary toxic effect of these stings, was fully neutralized in vivo for the first time. PMID:24236166
Santos, Keity Souza; Stephano, Marco Antonio; Marcelino, José Roberto; Ferreira, Virginia Maria Resende; Rocha, Thalita; Caricati, Celso; Higashi, Hisako Gondo; Moro, Ana Maria; Kalil, Jorge Elias; Malaspina, Osmar; Castro, Fabio Fernandes Morato; Palma, Mário Sérgio
Victims of massive bee attacks become extremely ill, presenting symptoms ranging from dizziness and headache to acute renal failure and multiple organ failure that can lead to death. Previous attempts to develop specific antivenom to treat these victims have been unsuccessful. We herein report a F(ab)(´)(2)-based antivenom raised in horse as a potential new treatment for victims of multiple bee stings. The final product contains high specific IgG titers and is effective in neutralizing toxic effects, such as hemolysis, cytotoxicity and myotoxicity. The assessment of neutralization was revised and hemolysis, the primary toxic effect of these stings, was fully neutralized in vivo for the first time.
Use of ELISA employing Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis and Leishmania (Leishmania) chagasi antigens for the detection of IgG and IgG1 and IgG2 subclasses in the diagnosis of American tegumentary leishmaniasis in dogs.
Ribeiro, Flávia Coelho; de O Schubach, Armando; Mouta-Confort, Eliame; Schubach, Tânia M P; de Fátima Madeira, Maria; Marzochi, Mauro C A
American tegumentary leishmaniasis (ATL) shows a reduced humoral response in dogs and levels of specific antibodies may therefore not be detected by indirect immunofluorescence. Although the sensitivity of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) is higher than that of indirect immunofluorescence, the best antigen for the diagnosis of ATL in dogs has not been defined. The detection of IgG subclasses represents an alternative to increase the efficiency of the serological diagnosis. In Rio de Janeiro, sporotrichosis is the main differential diagnosis of ATL in dogs, and a sensitive, specific and little invasive method that permits the discrimination of the two diseases is desired. In the present study, 69 serum samples, 34 obtained from dogs with ATL and 35 from dogs with sporotrichosis, all of them with a confirmed etiological diagnosis, were tested. The samples were analyzed by ELISA using Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis and L. (L.) chagasi antigens for the detection of anti-Leishmania IgG, IgG1 and IgG2. The use of L. (V.) braziliensis antigens for the detection of IgG and IgG2 yielded the best results. Using L. (L.) chagasi antigen, the sensitivity and specificity for the detection of IgG were 82.4% and 100%, respectively, whereas both sensitivity and specificity were 97.1% with the L. (V.) braziliensis antigen. No improvement in the performance of the test was observed when IgG2 was analyzed separately. The IgG1 assays presented low accuracy, irrespective of the antigen used: sensitivity and specificity of 58.8% and 60% for L. (V.) braziliensis and of 64.7% and 77.1% for L. (L.) chagasi, respectively. The present results suggest that IgG ELISA using the L. (V.) braziliensis shows the best performance for the diagnosis of ATL, permitting the discrimination between cases of ATL and sporotrichosis in dogs.
Resende, Lucilene Aparecida; Aguiar-Soares, Rodrigo Dian de Oliveira; Gama-Ker, Henrique; Roatt, Bruno Mendes; Mendonça, Ludmila Zanandreis de; Alves, Marina Luiza Rodrigues; Silveira-Lemos, Denise da; Corrêa-Oliveira, Rodrigo; Martins-Filho, Olindo Assis; Araújo, Márcio Sobreira Silva; Fujiwara, Ricardo Toshio; Gontijo, Nelder Figueiredo; Reis, Alexandre Barbosa; Giunchetti, Rodolfo Cordeiro
Dogs represent the most important domestic reservoir of L. chagasi (syn. L. infantum). A vaccine against canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL) would be an important tool for decreasing the anxiety related to possible L. chagasi infection and for controlling human visceral leishmaniasis (VL). Because the sand fly salivary proteins are potent immunogens obligatorily co-deposited during transmission of Leishmania parasites, their inclusion in an anti-Leishmania vaccine has been investigated in past decades. We investigated the immunogenicity of the "LbSapSal" vaccine (L. braziliensis antigens, saponin as adjuvant, and Lutzomyia longipalpis salivary gland extract) in dogs at baseline (T0), during the post-vaccination protocol (T3rd) and after early (T90) and late (T885) times following L. chagasi-challenge. Our major data indicated that immunization with "LbSapSal" is able to induce biomarkers characterized by enhanced amounts of type I (tumor necrosis factor [TNF]-α, interleukin [IL]-12, interferon [IFN]-γ) cytokines and reduction in type II cytokines (IL-4 and TGF-β), even after experimental challenge. The establishment of a prominent pro-inflammatory immune response after "LbSapSal" immunization supported the increased levels of nitric oxide production, favoring a reduction in spleen parasitism (78.9%) and indicating long-lasting protection against L. chagasi infection. In conclusion, these results confirmed the hypothesis that the "LbSapSal" vaccination is a potential tool to control the Leishmania chagasi infection.
Resende, Lucilene Aparecida; Aguiar-Soares, Rodrigo Dian de Oliveira; Gama-Ker, Henrique; Roatt, Bruno Mendes; de Mendonça, Ludmila Zanandreis; Alves, Marina Luiza Rodrigues; da Silveira-Lemos, Denise; Corrêa-Oliveira, Rodrigo; Martins-Filho, Olindo Assis; Araújo, Márcio Sobreira Silva; Fujiwara, Ricardo Toshio; Gontijo, Nelder Figueiredo; Reis, Alexandre Barbosa; Giunchetti, Rodolfo Cordeiro
Dogs represent the most important domestic reservoir of L. chagasi (syn. L. infantum). A vaccine against canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL) would be an important tool for decreasing the anxiety related to possible L. chagasi infection and for controlling human visceral leishmaniasis (VL). Because the sand fly salivary proteins are potent immunogens obligatorily co-deposited during transmission of Leishmania parasites, their inclusion in an anti-Leishmania vaccine has been investigated in past decades. We investigated the immunogenicity of the “LbSapSal” vaccine (L. braziliensis antigens, saponin as adjuvant, and Lutzomyia longipalpis salivary gland extract) in dogs at baseline (T0), during the post-vaccination protocol (T3rd) and after early (T90) and late (T885) times following L. chagasi-challenge. Our major data indicated that immunization with “LbSapSal” is able to induce biomarkers characterized by enhanced amounts of type I (tumor necrosis factor [TNF]-α, interleukin [IL]-12, interferon [IFN]-γ) cytokines and reduction in type II cytokines (IL-4 and TGF-β), even after experimental challenge. The establishment of a prominent pro-inflammatory immune response after “LbSapSal” immunization supported the increased levels of nitric oxide production, favoring a reduction in spleen parasitism (78.9%) and indicating long-lasting protection against L. chagasi infection. In conclusion, these results confirmed the hypothesis that the “LbSapSal” vaccination is a potential tool to control the Leishmania chagasi infection. PMID:27556586
Vasconcelos, Camila Oliveira; Coêlho, Zirlane C Branco; Chaves, Cristina de Souza; Teixeira, Clarissa Romero; Pompeu, Margarida M Lima; Teixeira, Maria Jania
Recruitment of a specific cell population after Leishmania infection can influence the outcome of the disease. Cellular migration in response to Leishmania or vector saliva has been reported in air pouch model, however, cellular migration induced by Leishmania associated with host's blood and vector saliva in this model has not been described. Herein we investigated cellular migration into air pouch of hamster after stimulation with combination of L. chagasi and host's blood and Lutzomyia longipalpis saliva. Migration induced by saliva was 3-fold more than those induced by L. chagasi alone. Additionally, L. chagasi associated with blood and saliva induced significantly even more leukocytes into air pouch than Leishmania alone. L. chagasi recruited a diverse cell population; however, most of these cells seem to have not migrated to the inflammatory exudate, remaining in the pouch lining tissue. These results indicate that L. chagasi can reduce leukocyte accumulation to the initial site of infection, and when associated with vector saliva in the presence of blood components, increase the influx of more neutrophils than macrophages, suggesting that the parasite has developed a strategy to minimize the initial inflammatory response, allowing an unlimited progression within the host. This work reinforces the importance of studies on the salivary components of sand fly vectors of leishmaniasis in the transmission process and the establishment of the infection.
Giguère, Steeve; Gaskin, Jack M; Miller, Corey; Bowman, James L
To determine efficacy of a commercially available hyperimmune plasma product for prevention of naturally acquired pneumonia caused by Rhodococcus equi in foals. Randomized clinical trial. 165 foals. Foals were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 groups (hyperimmune plasma or nontreated controls). Foals with failure of passive transfer (FPT) of immunity were treated with hyperimmune plasma and evaluated as a third group. Foals that received plasma were given 950 ml between 1 and 10 days of age and between 30 and 50 days of age. A tracheobronchial aspirate was obtained from foals with clinical signs of respiratory tract disease for bacteriologic culture. A significant difference in incidence of pneumonia caused by R equi in foals with adequate passive transfer was not detected between foals that received plasma (19.1%) and nontreated foals (30%). Of 13 foals without FPT that received plasma and developed pneumonia caused by R equi, 12 developed disease prior to administration of the second dose of hyperimmune plasma. Incidence of undifferentiated pneumonia of all causes was not different between groups. Intravenous administration of the commercially available hyperimmune plasma was safe, and the product contained high concentrations of anti-R equi antibodies. However, within this limited foal population, the difference in incidence of pneumonia caused by R equi observed between foals that received plasma and control foals was not significant.
Sanz, M G; Oliveira, A F; Page, A; Horohov, D W
Rhodococcus equi is the most common cause of pneumonia in young foals. A vaccine is not available and the use of R equi-specific hyperimmune plasma (HIP) is common. Despite its widespread use, the efficacy of HIP in preventing disease remains controversial. The objectives of this study were (1) to evaluate the virulence associate protein A (VapA)-specific IgG and IgG subclasses in commercially available R equi HIP and (2) to evaluate serum VapA-specific IgG and IgG subclasses in foals following administration of commercial R equi HIP. Three different lots from four commercial R equi HIP were sampled. VapA-specific IgG and IgG subclasses were evaluated in all samples using an ELISA. Serum was collected from newborn foals either after commercial R equi HIP was administered (n=97) or not (n=70). Serum was also collected from each mare. Administration of HIP significantly (P<0.001) increased VapA-specific IgGs in recipient foals, however, there was a marked variation in VapA-specific IgGs in foals receiving the same product. VapA-specific IgGs were significantly different (P<0.001) between products and varied between lots, with coefficients of variation ranging from 17 to 123 per cent. These results may explain previously reported disparities in HIP efficacy. British Veterinary Association.
Winthrop, M D; DeNardo, S J; DeNardo, G L
Radioimmunotherapy (RIT) has demonstrated potential for improving clinical cancer therapy. Optimizing the approach has proven difficult thus far. Antibody phage display libraries provide unique molecules that could improve RIT. A phage display library of single chain antibody fragments (scFv) against the MUC-1 mucin molecule, which is expressed on 90% of human breast cancers, was produced from the spleen cells of MUC-1 hyperimmunized BALB/c mice. Increased serum IgG levels, 15 times baseline, were detected following the third immunization. RNA from the spleen cells was isolated, cDNA was made, and variable heavy and variable light immunoglobulin chain gene regions were amplified using PCR technology. The variable heavy and variable light chain gene regions were combined with a flexible linker, ligated into the pCANTAB 5E phagemid vector, and electroporated into TG1 Escherichia coli cells. A library of 10(7) initial colonies was compiled. Forty-six of 288 colonies screened for reactivity demonstrated binding to MUC-1-expressing MCF-7 breast cancer cell membrane fragments. Anti-MUC-1 library diversity evaluated by BstNI digest demonstrated that 52% of the anti-MUC-1 scFv binding MCF-7 possessed individual banding patterns representative of approximately 5 x 10(5) colonies likely able to recognize distinct epitopes present on MUC-1 positive human breast cancers. In summary, the anti-MUC-1 scFv antibody phage library contains diverse scFv molecules, which should provide unique characteristics and epitope recognition. These molecules will be used in the development of pretargeting RIT strategies designed to improve the clinical outcome of patients with breast cancer.
Histopathological and immunohistochemical study of type 3 complement receptors (CD11b/CD18) in livers and spleens of asymptomatic and symptomatic dogs naturally infected with Leishmania (Leishmania) chagasi.
Lima, W G; Oliveira, P S; Caliari, M V; Gonçalves, R; Michalick, M S M; Melo, M N; Tafuri, W L; Tafuri, W L
Leishmania promastigotes interact with macrophages through the association of multiple membrane surface receptors. Macrophage complement receptor CR3 (CD11b/CD18 or Mac-1) has been implicated in the interaction of both human and murine macrophages with serum-opsonized promastigotes. The aim of this study was to determine CR3 expression in the livers and spleens of dogs naturally infected with Leishmania (Leishmania) chagasi. CR3 expression in liver was higher in asymptomatic than in symptomatic animals. Moreover, the hepatic parasitism load determined by immunocytochemical analysis was lower in parallel with higher numbers of granulomas. In contrast, in spleens, CR3 expression was higher in symptomatic animals than in asymptomatic ones. However, the tissue parasite load was greater in spleens of symptomatic dogs. There was a strict correlation between the parasite load and cellular CR3 expression in the spleens of dogs naturally infected with L. chagasi. CR3 macrophage integrins could be essential receptors for Leishmania survival. Considering that the symptomatic animals showed higher parasite loads and higher CD11b/CD18 expression in their spleens, we can conclude that these splenic cells (monocyte-macrophages) might serve to perpetuate intracellular infection.
Roselino, Ana Maria; Chociay, Maria Fernanda; Costa, Roberto Silva; Machado, Alcyone Artioli; Figueiredo, José Fernando de Castro
Concomitant skin lesions in visceral leishmaniasis (VL) or kala-azar are rare, being more common the description of post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis occurring post treatment of kala-azar. Skin lesions caused by Leishmania donovani are frequently seen in the aids-VL co-infection. In Brazil cutaneous or mucosal forms of tegumentary leishmaniasis concomitant with aids are more commonly registered. Here we present a case of aids-VL co-infection, with unusual cutaneous and digestive compromising attributed to L. (L.) chagasi, with special attention to ecthymatous aspect of the lesion, allied to the absence of parasite on the histological skin biopsy.
Freitas, Elisangela Oliveira; Nico, Dirlei; Guan, Rong; Meyer-Fernandes, José Roberto; Clinch, Keith; Evans, Gary B; Tyler, Peter C; Schramm, Vern L; Palatnik-de-Sousa, Clarisa B
Chemotherapy against visceral leishmaniasis is associated with high toxicity and drug resistance. Leishmania parasites are purine auxotrophs that obtain their purines from exogenous sources. Nucleoside hydrolases release purines from nucleosides and are drug targets for anti-leishmanial drugs, absent in mammal cells. We investigated the substrate specificity of the Leishmania (L.) donovani recombinant nucleoside hydrolase NH36 and the inhibitory effect of the immucillins IA (ImmA), DIA (DADMe-ImmA), DIH (DADMe-ImmH), SMIH (SerMe-ImmH), IH (ImmH), DIG (DADMe-ImmG), SMIG (SerMe-ImmG) and SMIA (SerME-ImmA) on its enzymatic activity. The inhibitory effects of immucillins on the in vitro multiplication of L. (L.) infantum chagasi and L. (L.) amazonensis promastigotes were determined using 0.05-500 μM and, when needed, 0.01-50 nM of each drug. The inhibition on multiplication of L. (L.) infantum chagasi intracellular amastigotes in vitro was assayed using 0.5, 1, 5 and 10 μM of IA, IH and SMIH. The NH36 shows specificity for inosine, guanosine, adenosine, uridine and cytidine with preference for adenosine and inosine. IA, IH, DIH, DIG, SMIH and SMIG immucillins inhibited L. (L.) infantum chagasi and L. (L.) amazonensis promastigote growth in vitro at nanomolar to micromolar concentrations. Promastigote replication was also inhibited in a chemically defined medium without a nucleoside source. Addition of adenosine decreases the immucillin toxicity. IA and IH inhibited the NH36 enzymatic activity (Ki = 0.080 μM for IA and 0.019 μM for IH). IA, IH and SMIH at 10 μM concentration, reduced the in vitro amastigote replication inside mice macrophages by 95% with no apparent effect on macrophage viability. Transmission electron microscopy revealed global alterations and swelling of L. (L.) infantum chagasi promastigotes after treatment with IA and IH while SMIH treatment determined intense cytoplasm vacuolization, enlarged vesicles and altered kinetoplasts. Our results
Rosa, F A; Leite, J H A C; Braga, E T; Moreira, P R R; Baltazar, F H; Biondo, A W; Padua, P P M; Vasconcelos, R O; Camacho, A A; Ferreira, W L; Machado, G F; Marcondes, M
The hearts of 30 dogs naturally infected with Leishmania infantum chagasi were evaluated histologically and immunohistochemically. Myocardial lesions were detected in all dogs, including lymphoplasmacytic myocarditis (27/30), myonecrosis (24/30), increased interstitial collagen (22/30), lepromatous-type granulomatous myocarditis (7/30), fibrinoid vascular change (3/30), and vasculitis (1/30). The parasite was detected in the hearts of 20 of 30 dogs. The number of parasitized cells correlated with the intensity of the inflammation and with the number of granulomas. The results indicate that cardiac lesions are prevalent in dogs with naturally occurring leishmaniasis even in the absence of clinical signs of cardiac disease.
Freitas, Elisangela Oliveira; Nico, Dirlei; Guan, Rong; Meyer-Fernandes, José Roberto; Clinch, Keith; Evans, Gary B.; Tyler, Peter C.; Schramm, Vern L.; Palatnik-de-Sousa, Clarisa B.
Chemotherapy against visceral leishmaniasis is associated with high toxicity and drug resistance. Leishmania parasites are purine auxotrophs that obtain their purines from exogenous sources. Nucleoside hydrolases release purines from nucleosides and are drug targets for anti-leishmanial drugs, absent in mammal cells. We investigated the substrate specificity of the Leishmania (L.) donovani recombinant nucleoside hydrolase NH36 and the inhibitory effect of the immucillins IA (ImmA), DIA (DADMe-ImmA), DIH (DADMe-ImmH), SMIH (SerMe-ImmH), IH (ImmH), DIG (DADMe-ImmG), SMIG (SerMe-ImmG) and SMIA (SerME-ImmA) on its enzymatic activity. The inhibitory effects of immucillins on the in vitro multiplication of L. (L.) infantum chagasi and L. (L.) amazonensis promastigotes were determined using 0.05–500 μM and, when needed, 0.01–50 nM of each drug. The inhibition on multiplication of L. (L.) infantum chagasi intracellular amastigotes in vitro was assayed using 0.5, 1, 5 and 10 μM of IA, IH and SMIH. The NH36 shows specificity for inosine, guanosine, adenosine, uridine and cytidine with preference for adenosine and inosine. IA, IH, DIH, DIG, SMIH and SMIG immucillins inhibited L. (L.) infantum chagasi and L. (L.) amazonensis promastigote growth in vitro at nanomolar to micromolar concentrations. Promastigote replication was also inhibited in a chemically defined medium without a nucleoside source. Addition of adenosine decreases the immucillin toxicity. IA and IH inhibited the NH36 enzymatic activity (Ki = 0.080 μM for IA and 0.019 μM for IH). IA, IH and SMIH at 10 μM concentration, reduced the in vitro amastigote replication inside mice macrophages by 95% with no apparent effect on macrophage viability. Transmission electron microscopy revealed global alterations and swelling of L. (L.) infantum chagasi promastigotes after treatment with IA and IH while SMIH treatment determined intense cytoplasm vacuolization, enlarged vesicles and altered kinetoplasts. Our results
Dixon, Frank J.; Maurer, Paul H.; Weigle, William O.; Deichmiller, Maria P.
Determinations of the rates of antibody synthesis during first, second, and hyperimmune responses to bovine gamma globulin using S35-labelle aminod acids indicate the following: 1. In all three responses the rate of antibody synthesis increases while antigen is circulating and then begins to decline rapidly after elimination of detectable circulating antigen. 2. The initial rates of decline of antibody synthesis are approximately the same for all three responses. 3. There is a relatively persistent source of antibody production which appears after repeated stimulation and increases in proportion to the number of repeated stimuli. PMID:13306852
de Sousa Junior, Francisco Caninde; Vaz, Michelle Rossana Ferreira; de Araújo Padilha, Carlos Eduardo; Chibério, Abimaelle Silva; Martins, Daniella Regina Arantes; de Macedo, Gorete Ribeiro; dos Santos, Everaldo Silvino
Visceral leishmaniasis, a disease caused by Leishmania infantum chagasi, represents a major public health problem in many areas of the world. However, there is currently no vaccine for human use. The aim of this work was to purify the 503 antigen of Leishmania i. chagasi directly from unclarified Escherichia coli feedstock through expanded bed adsorption (EBA) chromatography. Batch experiments were performed to optimize the adsorption and elution conditions of the antigen onto a STREAMLINE Chelating resin using two central composite rotatable designs (CCRD). The results showed that the optimal binding conditions of the 503 antigen were pH 8.0 in the presence of 2.4 M NaCl. For the elution of the target protein, the optimized conditions included the presence of 600.0 mM imidazole. The adsorption isothermal data of the 503 antigen were fitted to the Langmuir adsorption isotherm. The EBA experiment successfully recovered 59.2% of the 503 antigen from the unclarified E. coli homogenate with a purification factor of 6.0. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Costa, Juliana Dias; Nogueira de Melo, Ana Cristina; Vermelho, Alane Beatriz; Meirelles, Maria de Nazareth; Porrozzi, Renato
Leishmania (Leishmania) chagasi infection activates macrophages, which release several microbicidal agents, including peptidases, to eliminate the parasite. Leishmanicidal mediators released in large amounts may cause morphological and/or functional injuries to the liver. In order to investigate the involvement of peptidases in this phenomenon, an in vitro co-culture model of peritoneal macrophages infected with L. chagasi and hepatocytes was used. High levels of released hepatic transaminases were found in supernatants from infected co-cultures at the same time point in which alterations in hepatocyte morphology and maximum proteolytic activity were observed. The largest proteolytic activity being at pH 10 as well as the greatest efficiency of treatment with 1,10-phenantroline observed in supernatants from the infected co-cultures suggests the presence of metallopeptidases during the leishmanicidal activity by infected macrophages. Furthermore, TNF-alpha levels and high levels of TGF-beta were increased at this time point, and this can be related to the synthesis of metallopeptidases and the conversion of the latent form to the active form. Metallopeptidase activities were detected by gelatin SDS-PAGE in higher amounts in infected macrophages and co-culture supernatant; moreover, one metallopeptidase migrating at 85 kDa produced in excess (41% more) by infected macrophages was identified as MMP-9. This metallopeptidase may be participating in this phenomenon together with other leishmanicidal factors released by these host cells.
Lima, Iraci D; Queiroz, Jose W; Lacerda, Henio G; Queiroz, Paula V S; Pontes, Nubia N; Barbosa, James D A; Martins, Daniella R; Weirather, Jason L; Pearson, Richard D; Wilson, Mary E; Jeronimo, Selma M B
Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is endemic in large cities in Brazil, including Natal. We determined the prevalence of asymptomatic human infection with Leishmania infantum chagasi and associated environmental risks around Natal. Infection was detected by Leishmania skin test (LST) and anti-leishmanial antibodies in humans and anti-leishmanial antibodies in dogs. Amongst 345 humans, 24.6% were seropositive, and 38.6% were LST-positive. Prevalence of positive serology was similar in both sexes and across all ages. However, positive LST responses increased with age, suggesting that LST is long-lasting and cumulative. Multinomial logistic analysis showed that LST response varied with location (P = 0.007) and that males were more frequently LST-positive (P = 0.027). Indicators of lower socioeconomic status associated significantly with human infection. Furthermore, there was geographic coincidence of seropositive humans and dogs (r = 0.7926, P = 0.011). These data suggest that dog and human L. i. chagasi infection are intimately interrelated in environmental conditions associated with low income.
Giunchetti, R C; Mayrink, W; Genaro, O; Carneiro, C M; Corrêa-Oliveira, R; Martins-Filho, O A; Marques, M J; Tafuri, W L; Reis, A B
The skin is the first point of contact with organisms of the genus Leishmania from sand fly vectors, and apparently normal skin of sick dogs harbours amastigote forms of Leishmania chagasi. In relation to canine visceral leishmaniosis (CVL), the ear skin was examined in 10 uninfected dogs (UDs) and in 31 dogs dogs naturally infected with L. chagasi. The infected animals consisted of 10 symptomless dogs (SLDs), 12 mildly affected dogs (MADs) and nine affected dogs (ADs). A higher parasite burden was demonstrated in ADs than in SLDs by anti-Leishmania immunohistochemistry (P<0.01), and by Leishman Donivan Unit (LDU) indices (P=0.0024) obtained from Giemsa-stained impression smears. Sections stained with haematoxylin and eosin demonstrated a higher intensity of inflammatory changes in ADs than in SLDs (P<0.05), and in the latter group flow cytometry demonstrated a correlation (P=0.05/r=0.7454) between the percentage of CD14(+) monocytes in peripheral blood and chronic dermal inflammation. Extracellular matrix assessment for reticular fibres by staining of sections with Masson trichrome and Gomori ammoniacal silver demonstrated a decrease in collagen type I and an increase in collagen type III as the clinical signs increased. The data on correlation between cellular phenotypes and histological changes seemed to reflect cellular activation and migration from peripheral blood to the skin, mediated by antigenic stimulation. The results suggested that chronic dermal inflammation and cutaneous parasitism were directly related to the severity of clinical disease.
Lima, Iraci D.; Queiroz, Jose W.; Lacerda, Henio G.; Queiroz, Paula V. S.; Pontes, Nubia N.; Barbosa, James D. A.; Martins, Daniella R.; Weirather, Jason L.; Pearson, Richard D.; Wilson, Mary E.; Jeronimo, Selma M. B.
Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is endemic in large cities in Brazil, including Natal. We determined the prevalence of asymptomatic human infection with Leishmania infantum chagasi and associated environmental risks around Natal. Infection was detected by Leishmania skin test (LST) and anti-leishmanial antibodies in humans and anti-leishmanial antibodies in dogs. Amongst 345 humans, 24.6% were seropositive, and 38.6% were LST-positive. Prevalence of positive serology was similar in both sexes and across all ages. However, positive LST responses increased with age, suggesting that LST is long-lasting and cumulative. Multinomial logistic analysis showed that LST response varied with location (P = 0.007) and that males were more frequently LST-positive (P = 0.027). Indicators of lower socioeconomic status associated significantly with human infection. Furthermore, there was geographic coincidence of seropositive humans and dogs (r = 0.7926, P = 0.011). These data suggest that dog and human L. i. chagasi infection are intimately interrelated in environmental conditions associated with low income. PMID:22232458
da Luz, João S. B.; de Oliveira, Erwelly B.; Martins, Monica C. B.; da Silva, Nicácio H.; Alves, Luiz C.; dos Santos, Fábio A. B.; da Silva, Luiz L. S.; Silva, Eliete C.; de Medeiros, Paloma L.
Leishmaniasis is considered by the World Health Organization as one of the infectious parasitic diseases endemic of great relevance and a global public health problem. Pentavalent antimonials used for treatment of this disease are limited and new phytochemicals emerge as an alternative to existing treatments, due to the low toxicity and cost reduction. Usnic acid is uniquely found in lichens and is especially abundant in genera such as Alectoria, Cladonia, Evernia, Lecanora, Ramalina, and Usnea. Usnic acid has been shown to exhibit antiviral, antiprotozoal, antiproliferative, anti-inflammatory, and analgesic activity. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antileishmanial activity of usnic acid on Leishmania infantum chagasi promastigotes and the occurrence of drug-induced ultrastructural damage in the parasite. Usnic acid was effective against the promastigote forms (IC50 = 18.30 ± 2.00 µg/mL). Structural and ultrastructural aspects of parasite were analyzed. Morphological alterations were observed as blebs in cell membrane and shapes given off, increasing the number of cytoplasmic vacuoles, and cellular and mitochondrial swelling, with loss of cell polarity. We concluded that the usnic acid presented antileishmanial activity against promastigote forms of Leishmania infantum chagasi and structural and ultrastructural analysis reinforces its cytotoxicity. Further, in vitro studies are warranted to further evaluate this potential. PMID:25767824
Fayer, R; Guidry, A; Blagburn, B L
Infection with Cryptosporidium parvum, a ubiquitous protozoan parasite of virtually all mammals, can cause mild to severe diarrhea in immunocompetent hosts and life-threatening diarrhea in immunocompromised hosts. Passive immunotherapy of experimentally infected animals and naturally infected humans with hyperimmune bovine colostrum has been reported to be efficacious, whereas chemotherapy has not. In this study, the efficacy of specific immunoglobulin isotypes purified from bovine colostrum from a cow hyperimmunized with Cryptosporidium parvum was assessed in neonatal BALB/c mice. Mice were orally infected with oocysts and treated with whole whey immunoglobulin G1 (IgG1), IgG2, IgA, or IgM at six intervals from 22 to 66 h postinfection. In histologic sections of intestine examined at 72 h postinfection, the reduction in number of intestinal stages in treated mice versus untreated controls was very highly significant (P less than 0.0001). The greatest reduction in parasite number was found in mice treated with IgG1, IgA, or whey.
Dyavar Shetty, Ravi; Velu, Vijayakumar; Titanji, Kehmia; Bosinger, Steven E; Freeman, Gordon J; Silvestri, Guido; Amara, Rama Rao
Hyperimmune activation is a strong predictor of disease progression during pathogenic immunodeficiency virus infections and is mediated in part by sustained type I IFN signaling in response to adventitious microbial infection. The immune inhibitory receptor programmed death-1 (PD-1) regulates functional exhaustion of virus-specific CD8(+) T cells during chronic infections, and in vivo PD-1 blockade has been shown to improve viral control of SIV. Here, we show that PD-1 blockade during chronic SIV infection markedly reduced the expression of transcripts associated with type I IFN signaling in the blood and colorectal tissue of rhesus macaques (RMs). The effect of PD-1 blockade on type I IFN signaling was durable and persisted even under conditions of high viremia. Reduced type I IFN signaling was associated with enhanced expression of some of the junction-associated genes in colorectal tissue and with a profound decrease in plasma LPS levels, suggesting a possible repair of gut-associated junctions and decreased microbial translocation into the blood. PD-1 blockade enhanced immunity to gut-resident pathogenic bacteria, control of gut-associated opportunistic infections, and survival of SIV-infected RMs. Our results suggest PD-1 blockade as a potential novel therapeutic approach to enhance combination antiretroviral therapy by suppressing hyperimmune activation in HIV-infected individuals.
Hemming, V G; Prince, G A; Groothuis, J R; Siber, G R
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is an important community and nosocomial respiratory pathogen for infants and young children. RSV causes especially severe disease in the prematurely born or those with chronic cardiopulmonary diseases. Elderly persons and those with T-cell deficiencies, such as bone marrow transplant recipients, are also at high risk for serious lower respiratory tract infections. To date, prevention of RSV infections by vaccination has proven elusive and no preventive drugs exist. Studies in animals and humans have shown that the lower respiratory tract can be protected from RSV infection by sufficient circulating RSV neutralizing antibody levels. Recently, an RSV hyperimmune immune globulin (RSVIG) was developed and tested for the prevention of RSV infections or reduction of disease severity. Passive immunization of high-risk children with RSVIG during the respiratory disease season effected significant reductions in RSV infections, hospitalizations, days of hospitalization, intensive care unit admissions, days in the intensive care unit, and ribavirin use. Studies in cotton rats and owl monkeys show that RSV infections can also be treated with inhalation of immune globulin at doses substantially smaller than required for parenteral treatment. Therapeutic trials of parenteral RSVIG have been completed and are pending analysis. The use of polyclonal, hyperimmune globulins and perhaps human monoclonal antibodies provides an additional approach to the prevention and perhaps the treatment of certain viral lower respiratory tract infections such as those caused by RSV. PMID:7704893
Hemming, V G; Prince, G A; Groothuis, J R; Siber, G R
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is an important community and nosocomial respiratory pathogen for infants and young children. RSV causes especially severe disease in the prematurely born or those with chronic cardiopulmonary diseases. Elderly persons and those with T-cell deficiencies, such as bone marrow transplant recipients, are also at high risk for serious lower respiratory tract infections. To date, prevention of RSV infections by vaccination has proven elusive and no preventive drugs exist. Studies in animals and humans have shown that the lower respiratory tract can be protected from RSV infection by sufficient circulating RSV neutralizing antibody levels. Recently, an RSV hyperimmune immune globulin (RSVIG) was developed and tested for the prevention of RSV infections or reduction of disease severity. Passive immunization of high-risk children with RSVIG during the respiratory disease season effected significant reductions in RSV infections, hospitalizations, days of hospitalization, intensive care unit admissions, days in the intensive care unit, and ribavirin use. Studies in cotton rats and owl monkeys show that RSV infections can also be treated with inhalation of immune globulin at doses substantially smaller than required for parenteral treatment. Therapeutic trials of parenteral RSVIG have been completed and are pending analysis. The use of polyclonal, hyperimmune globulins and perhaps human monoclonal antibodies provides an additional approach to the prevention and perhaps the treatment of certain viral lower respiratory tract infections such as those caused by RSV.
Higuchi, T; Arakawa, T; Hashikura, S; Inui, T; Senba, H; Takai, S
The effect on foals of prophylactic administration of hyperimmune plasma to prevent R. equi infection was investigated on three farms at which R. equi infection was endemic. Sixteen foals between 10 and 39 days of age were intravenously given 1-21 of hyperimmune plasma. ELISA antibody titres against R. equi were significantly increased and maintained at high levels for over 30 days in most of the recipient foals. The prevalence of R. equi infection was 6.3% (1/16) in the foals that received the immune plasma, and 26.3% (5/19) in the control foals not given the immune plasma on the three farms. For 2 years before and after this field trial on the three farms, 18 of 64 foals (28.1%) showed clinical signs of respiratory tract infection and four of them died of R. equi pneumonia. Heavy contamination of horses and their environment with virulent R. equi was detected by colony blotting, and plasmid profiles also suggested that foals on the three farms were constantly exposed to virulent R. equi. The results of this field trial support previous observations by some researchers that the administration of hyperimmune plasma to foals in the early days of life promotes prevention of R. equi infection on endemic farms; however, the mechanism of hyperimmune plasma protection remains unclear.
Fayer, R; Barta, J R; Guidry, A J; Blagburn, B L
Ultrathin sections of mouse ileum infected with Cryptosporidium parvum were stained by immunogold techniques. Sections first were stained with polyvalent antibodies in whey from hyperimmune bovine colostrum (HBC), then stained by secondary antibodies in rabbit antibovine IgA, IgM, IgG1, and IgG2, and lastly labeled by goat anti-rabbit gold conjugate. Examination of the immunostained specimens by electron microscopy revealed that each bovine immunoglobulin isotype in the whey recognized antigens in meronts, merozoites, microgametocytes, microgametes, and macrogamonts. Based on these findings it is hypothesized that antigens in all stages of C. parvum provide targets of opportunity for the antiparasitic activity of HBC whey antibodies thereby accounting for its efficacy as an immunotherapeutic agent.
Graczyk, T K; Cranfield, M R; Bostwick, E F
Therapy based on the protective passive immunity of hyperimmune bovine colostrum (HBC) was applied to 12 moribund Leopard geckos (Eublepharis macularius) infected with Cryptosporidium sp. The geckos were lethargic and moderately to severely emaciated, weighing on average 36% of the baseline body weight value. Seven gastric HBC treatments at 1-week intervals each decreased the relative output of Cryptosporidium sp. oocysts and the prevalence of oocyst-positive fecal specimens. Histologically, after 8 weeks of therapy, seven out of 12 geckos had only single developmental stages of Cryptosporidium sp. in the intestinal epithelium, and three, one and one geckos had low, moderate and high numbers, respectively, of the pathogen developmental stages. The HBC therapy was efficacious in decreasing the parasite load in moribund geckos. Morphometric and immunologic analysis of Cryptosporidium sp. oocyst isolates originating from Leopard geckos (E. macularius) demonstrated differences between gecko-derived oocyst isolates and isolates of C. serpentis recovered from snakes.
DebRoy, Sruti; Keenan, Alexandra B.; Ueno, Norikiyo; Jeronimo, Selma M. B.; Donelson, John E.; Wilson, Mary E.
The parasitic protozoan, Leishmania, survives in harsh environments within its mammalian and sand fly hosts. Secreted proteins likely play critical roles in the parasite’s interactions with its environment. As a preliminary identification of the spectrum of potential excreted/secreted (ES) proteins of Leishmania infantum chagasi (Lic), a causative agent of visceral leishmaniasis, we used standard algorithms to screen the annotated L. infantum genome for genes whose predicted protein products have an N-terminal signal peptide and lack transmembrane domains and membrane anchors. A suite of 181 candidate ES proteins were identified. These included several that were documented in the literature to be released by other Leishmania spp. Six candidate ES proteins were selected for further validation of their expression and release by different parasite stages. We found both amastigote-specific and promastigote-specific released proteins. The ES proteins of Lic are candidates for future studies of parasite virulence determinants and host protective immunity. PMID:20542033
DebRoy, Sruti; Keenan, Alexandra B; Ueno, Norikiyo; Jeronimo, Selma M B; Donelson, John E; Wilson, Mary E
The parasitic protozoan, Leishmania, survives in harsh environments within its mammalian and sand fly hosts. Secreted proteins likely play critical roles in the parasite's interactions with its environment. As a preliminary identification of the spectrum of potential excreted/secreted (ES) proteins of Leishmania infantum chagasi (Lic), a causative agent of visceral leishmaniasis, we used standard algorithms to screen the annotated L. infantum genome for genes whose predicted protein products have an N-terminal signal peptide and lack transmembrane domains and membrane anchors. A suite of 181 candidate ES proteins were identified. These included several that were documented in the literature to be released by other Leishmania spp. Six candidate ES proteins were selected for further validation of their expression and release by different parasite stages. We found both amastigote-specific and promastigote-specific released proteins. The ES proteins of Lic are candidates for future studies of parasite virulence determinants and host protective immunity.
Melo, Ferdinan; Amaral, Marina; Oliveira, Patricia; Lima, Wanderson; Andrade, Marina; Michalick, Marilene; Raso, Pedro; Tafuri, Washington; Tafuri, Wagner
The aim of this study was to evaluate the diffuse intralobular fibrosis in dogs naturally infected with Leishmania (Leishmania) chagasi. One hundred five infected animals with positive serologic tests for Leishmania were divided into two clinical groups: 69 symptomatic animals and 36 asymptomatic. Special staining with Gomori, Heidenhain, Silver, and Picrosirius Red was applied to characterize fibrilopoesis. The tissue parasite load was measured by immunohistochemistry and associated histomorphometric analyses. Intralobular fibrosis was observed in all dogs, and more collagen deposition was confirmed in the infected animals than in the controls by these histomorphometric studies. There were significant differences among the distinct clinical groups. In fact, symptomatic dogs showed an increased collagen deposition in the liver compared with asymptomatic ones. A peculiar diffuse intralobular fibrosis, where the collagen fibers encircled small groups of hepatocyte(s), was observed in two cases (1.9%).
Miescher, S M; Huber, T M; Kühne, M; Lieby, P; Snydman, D R; Vensak, J L; Berger, M
To evaluate standard intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) as an alternative to intravenous cytomegalovirus hyperimmune immunoglobulin (CMVIG) for prophylaxis and therapy of cytomegalovirus (CMV) disease, we measured the ELISA and neutralizing titres of CMV-specific antibodies in CMVIG and IVIG preparations. Anti-CMV-IgG ELISA and neutralizing titres (fibroblast-based test) in CMVIG CG (Cytogam®, n = 20), CMVIG CT (Cytotect® CP, n = 3), IVIG P (Privigen®, n = 32) and IVIG K/G (Kiovig®/Gammagard®, n = 5) were compared, and IgG subclasses 1-4 were determined by nephelometry. Cytomegalovirus hyperimmune immunoglobulins contained more than fourfold higher CMV ELISA and CMV-neutralizing activity per gram of IgG than the standard IVIGs. Pooled data for all four products showed a significant correlation between anti-CMV-IgG ELISA and neutralizing titres (r = 0·93, P < 0·001). There was a good correlation between the IgG3 content and CMV-neutralizing antibodies amongst lots of CMVIGs (r = 0·91, P = 0·01), but this did not extend to the IVIGs. CMVIG CG contained the highest CMV-neutralizing activity (3497 ± 395 PEIU/g IgG) of any product tested. The higher anti-CMV neutralization capacity of CMVIG per gram of IgG vs. standard IVIG suggests that standard IVIGs are not equivalent to or interchangeable with CMVIG. © 2015 The Authors. Vox Sanguinis published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of International Society of Blood Transfusion.
Abánades, Daniel R.; Arruda, Leonardo V.; Arruda, Elaine S.; Pinto, José Roberto A. S.; Palma, Mario S.; Aquino, Dorlene; Caldas, Arlene J.; Soto, Manuel; Barral, Aldina; Barral-Netto, Manoel
Background Protection and recovery from visceral leishmaniasis (VL) have been associated with cell-mediated immune (CMI) responses, whereas no protective role has been attributed to humoral responses against specific parasitic antigens. In this report, we compared carefully selected groups of individuals with distinct responses to Leishmania chagasi to explore antigen-recognizing IgG present in resistant individuals. Methodology and Principal Findings VL patients with negative delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) were classified into the susceptible group. Individuals who had recovered from VL and converted to a DTH+ response, as well as asymptomatic infected individuals (DTH+), were categorized into the resistant group. Sera from these groups were used to detect antigens from L. chagasi by conventional and 2D Western blot assays. Despite an overall reduction in the reactivity of several proteins after DTH conversion, a specific group of proteins (approximately 110–130 kDa) consistently reacted with sera from DTH converters. Other antigens that specifically reacted with sera from DTH+ individuals were isolated and tandem mass spectrometry followed by database query with the protein search engine MASCO were used to identify antigens. The serological properties of recombinant version of the selected antigens were tested by ELISA. Sera from asymptomatic infected people (DTH+) reacted more strongly with a mixture of selected recombinant antigens than with total soluble Leishmania antigen (SLA), with less cross-reactivity against Chagas disease patients' sera. Significance Our results are the first evidence of leishmania proteins that are specifically recognized by sera from individuals who are putatively resistant to VL. In addition, these data highlight the possibility of using specific proteins in serological tests for the identification of asymptomatic infected individuals. PMID:22724032
Mair-Jenkins, John; Saavedra-Campos, Maria; Baillie, J Kenneth; Cleary, Paul; Khaw, Fu-Meng; Lim, Wei Shen; Makki, Sophia; Rooney, Kevin D; Nguyen-Van-Tam, Jonathan S; Beck, Charles R
Administration of convalescent plasma, serum, or hyperimmune immunoglobulin may be of clinical benefit for treatment of severe acute respiratory infections (SARIs) of viral etiology. We conducted a systematic review and exploratory meta-analysis to assess the overall evidence. Healthcare databases and sources of grey literature were searched in July 2013. All records were screened against the protocol eligibility criteria, using a 3-stage process. Data extraction and risk of bias assessments were undertaken. We identified 32 studies of SARS coronavirus infection and severe influenza. Narrative analyses revealed consistent evidence for a reduction in mortality, especially when convalescent plasma is administered early after symptom onset. Exploratory post hoc meta-analysis showed a statistically significant reduction in the pooled odds of mortality following treatment, compared with placebo or no therapy (odds ratio, 0.25; 95% confidence interval, .14-.45; I(2) = 0%). Studies were commonly of low or very low quality, lacked control groups, and at moderate or high risk of bias. Sources of clinical and methodological heterogeneity were identified. Convalescent plasma may reduce mortality and appears safe. This therapy should be studied within the context of a well-designed clinical trial or other formal evaluation, including for treatment of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus CoV infection. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America.
Impact of cytomegalovirus hyperimmune globulin on outcome after cardiothoracic transplantation: a comparative study of combined prophylaxis with CMV hyperimmune globulin plus ganciclovir versus ganciclovir alone.
Valantine, H A; Luikart, H; Doyle, R; Theodore, J; Hunt, S; Oyer, P; Robbins, R; Berry, G; Reitz, B
Cytomegalovirus (CMV) disease was previously shown to be unaltered by a 28-day course of ganciclovir compared with placebo in seronegative recipients of hearts from seropositive donors (D+/R-). This study tests the hypothesis that a combination of ganciclovir plus CMV hyperimmune globulin (CMVIG) is more effective than ganciclovir alone for preventing acute CMV illness and its long-term sequelae. The study population receiving CMVIG (n=80) included 27 heart transplant recipients (D+/R-) and 53 heart-lung and lung transplant recipients (R+ and/or D+). Each group was matched with historical controls who underwent transplantation within the preceding 2-3 years. Outcome measures compared were as follows: 3-year incidence of CMV disease; fungal infection; acute rejection; survival; rates and severity of transplant coronary artery disease (in heart patients) defined by intimal thickness (ultrasound) and coronary artery stenosis (angiographic); and incidence and death from obliterative bronchiolitis defined by pathological criteria on endobronchial biopsy specimens (in heart-lung/lung patients). Patients treated with CMVIG had a higher disease-free incidence of CMV, lower rejection incidence, and higher survival rate compared with the patients treated with ganciclovir alone. The coronary artery intimal thickness and the prevalence of intimal thickening were lower in the patients receiving CMVIG. Heart-lung and lung transplant patients treated with CMVIG had lower incidences of obliterative bronchiolitis and death from obliterative bronchiolitis and longer survival compared with the patients treated with ganciclovir alone. CMVIG plus ganciclovir seems to be more effective that ganciclovir alone for preventing the sequelae of CMV infection. A prospective randomized study is required to confirm these observations.
do Rêgo Lima, Luciana Vieira; Santos Ramos, Patrícia Karla; Campos, Marliane Batista; dos Santos, Thiago Vasconcelos; de Castro Gomes, Claudia Maria; Laurenti, Márcia Dalastra; Corbett, Carlos Eduardo Pereira; Silveira, Fernando Tobias
American visceral leishmaniasis (AVL) is an infectious disease, often with long-duration evolution, caused by Leishmania (L.) infantum chagasi. However, although the disease is considered the major clinical manifestation of the link between L. (L.) i. chagasi and the human immune response, we have recently identified five clinical-immunological profiles of infection in the Brazilian Amazon: three asymptomatic (Asymptomatic Infection--AI, Sub-clinical Resistant Infection--SRI, and Indeterminate Initial Infection--III), and two symptomatic ones [Symptomatic Infection--SI (=AVL) and Sub-clinical Oligosymptomatic Infection--SOI]. We confirm here the preclinical diagnosis of AVL through the IgM-antibody response in a case of an early infection (profile III) that evolved to the full disease after 6 weeks.
Andreoni, Kenneth A; Wang, Xin; Huang, Shu-Mei; Huang, Eng-Shang
Inhibition of virus-induced intracellular signaling pathways and viral infectivity are our ultimate goals in the development of effective antiviral agents to control human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infections. The HCMV hyperimmune globulin may meet such criteria. In a human embryonic lung (HEL) fibroblast culture model, pretreatment of Towne strain HCMV with HCMV hyperimmune globulin was shown to inhibit viral infectivity successfully, as measured by a standard plaque assay. The extracellular viral titers and extracellular viral DNA, as measured by plaque assay and PCR, respectively, were also decreased. In addition, the HCMV hyperimmune globulin prevented HCMV from inducing the intracellular activation of NF-kappaB, Sp-1, and PI3-K signaling pathways. The PI3-K pathway was examined by following phosphorylation (activation) of two of its downstream kinases, Akt and p70S6K. HCMV hyperimmune globulin also prevented the production of immediate early, early, and late viral proteins. These studies show that HCMV hyperimmune globulin neutralization of HCMV prevents the earliest known events observed after viral envelope glycoproteins bind their cell membrane receptors, i.e., NF-kappaB, Sp-1 and PI3-K activation. This suggests that HCMV hyperimmune globulin not only can inhibit viral infectivity, but can also prevent the abnormal cellular signaling that may induce unwanted cellular proliferation or cytokine synthesis. Copyright 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
Ettinger, Nicholas A.; Wilson, Mary E.
Visceral leishmaniasis is a potentially fatal infectious disease caused by the protozoan parasite Leishmania infantum/chagasi in the New World, or by L. donovani or L. infantum/chagasi in the Old World. Infection leads to a variety of outcomes ranging from asymptomatic infection to active disease, characterized by fevers, cachexia, hepatosplenomegaly and suppressed immune responses. We reasoned that events occurring during the initial few hours when the parasite encounters cells of the innate and adaptive immune systems are likely to influence the eventual immune response that develops. Therefore, we performed gene expression analysis using Affymetrix U133Plus2 microarray chips to investigate a model of early infection with human monocyte-derived macrophages (MDMs) challenged with wild-type L. chagasi parasites, with or without subsequent co-culture with Leishmania-naïve, autologous T-cells. Microarray data generated from total RNA were analyzed with software from the Bioconductor Project and functional clustering and pathway analysis were performed with DAVID and Gene Set Enrichment Analysis (GSEA), respectively. Many transcripts were down-regulated by infection in cultures containing macrophages alone, and the pattern indicated a lack of a classically activated phenotype. By contrast, the addition of autologous Leishmania-naïve T cells to infected macrophages resulted in a pattern of gene expression including many markers of type 1 immune cytokine activation (IFN-γ, IL-6, IL-1α, IL-1β). There was simultaneous up-regulation of a few markers of immune modulation (IL-10 cytokine accumulation; TGF-β Signaling Pathway). We suggest that the initial encounter between L. chagasi and cells of the innate and adaptive immune system stimulates primarily type 1 immune cytokine responses, despite a lack of classical macrophage activation. This local microenvironment at the site of parasite inoculation may determine the initial course of immune T-cell development. PMID
Ettinger, Nicholas A; Wilson, Mary E
Visceral leishmaniasis is a potentially fatal infectious disease caused by the protozoan parasite Leishmania infantum/chagasi in the New World, or by L. donovani or L. infantum/chagasi in the Old World. Infection leads to a variety of outcomes ranging from asymptomatic infection to active disease, characterized by fevers, cachexia, hepatosplenomegaly and suppressed immune responses. We reasoned that events occurring during the initial few hours when the parasite encounters cells of the innate and adaptive immune systems are likely to influence the eventual immune response that develops. Therefore, we performed gene expression analysis using Affymetrix U133Plus2 microarray chips to investigate a model of early infection with human monocyte-derived macrophages (MDMs) challenged with wild-type L. chagasi parasites, with or without subsequent co-culture with Leishmania-naïve, autologous T-cells. Microarray data generated from total RNA were analyzed with software from the Bioconductor Project and functional clustering and pathway analysis were performed with DAVID and Gene Set Enrichment Analysis (GSEA), respectively. Many transcripts were down-regulated by infection in cultures containing macrophages alone, and the pattern indicated a lack of a classically activated phenotype. By contrast, the addition of autologous Leishmania-naïve T cells to infected macrophages resulted in a pattern of gene expression including many markers of type 1 immune cytokine activation (IFN-gamma, IL-6, IL-1alpha, IL-1beta). There was simultaneous up-regulation of a few markers of immune modulation (IL-10 cytokine accumulation; TGF-beta Signaling Pathway). We suggest that the initial encounter between L. chagasi and cells of the innate and adaptive immune system stimulates primarily type 1 immune cytokine responses, despite a lack of classical macrophage activation. This local microenvironment at the site of parasite inoculation may determine the initial course of immune T
de Gouvêa Viana, Luciana; de Assis, Tália Santana Machado; Orsini, Marcela; da Silva, Alexandre Rotondo; de Souza, Guenael Freire; Caligiorne, Rachel; da Silva, Aline Christiane Louredo; Peruhype-Magalhães, Vanessa; Marciano, Ana Paula Vieira; Martins-Filho, Olindo Assis; Rabello, Ana
Peripheral blood samples of 138 co-habitants from 25 families with recently diagnosed cases of visceral leishmaniasis in the Metropolitan Region of Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil, were analyzed by indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT), rK39 and Leishmania chagasi Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA), intradermal skin-test and Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) over a 12-month period. The cumulative positivity was significantly higher by PCR (29.7%) than by IFAT, rK39 ELISA, L. chagasi ELISA and intradermal skin-test (5.1%, 6.5%, 14.5% and 2.9%, respectively). In addition, the cytokine profile was measured in 16 of the 138 volunteers, of whom eight were asymptomatic carriers and eight were non-infected co-habitants. The innate immunity cells from asymptomatic carriers displayed, upon in vitro antigenic stimulation, a modulated increase in cytokine synthesis that was distinct from that observed in non-infected volunteers. This study suggests that the identification of a large proportion of asymptomatic carriers is facilitated when more than one diagnostic method is applied and that a mixed pattern of immune response is correlated with clinical status of asymptomatic individuals. These observations suggest also that asymptomatic infection by L. chagasi is a frequent event and that control programs could benefit by including this indicator in their interventions.
da Silva, R N; Amorim, A C; Brandão, R M S S; de Andrade, H M; Yokoo, M; Ribeiro, M L; Bartchewsky, W; Socorro-Silva, A; de Castro, J A F; do Monte, S J H
The performance of the less expensive SYBR-Green-based PCR assay, for quantifying Leishmania chagasi in smears of bone-marrow aspirates from naturally infected, mongrel dogs, was recently compared with that of a similar PCR based on TaqMan chemistry. Aspirates were obtained from 36 infected dogs and examined for parasites by direct examination, culture, and quantitative PCR (qPCR) using specific primers (based on the parasite's kinetoplast DNA), DNA extracted from a smear, and either the SYBR-Green or TaqMan chemistries. Every aspirate smear was found PCR-positive for L. chagasi (whether the assay employed SYBR Green or TaqMan) but only 74% of the aspirates were found positive by culture and only 33% by direct, microscopical examination. There was no evidence of PCR inhibition when the DNA was collected from smears, and the parasite loads estimated using the SYBR-Green PCR were almost identical to those estimated using the TaqMan PCR (r=0.99). As a method for quantifying parasite loads in dogs infected with L. chagasi (and, probably, other mammals infected with other leishmanial parasites), PCR based on SYBR Green may therefore be an appropriate and inexpensive alternative to PCR based on TaqMan, and a reliable clinical tool.
Lyra, Marcelo Rosandiski; Pimentel, Maria Inês Fernandes; Madeira, Maria de Fátima; Antonio, Liliane de Fátima; Lyra, Janine Pontes de Miranda; Fagundes, Aline; Schubach, Armando de Oliveira
American tegumentary leishmaniasis (ATL) is an infectious disease caused by protozoa of the genus Leishmania, and transmitted by sandflies. In the state of Rio de Janeiro, almost all of the cases of American tegumentary leishmaniasis (ATL) are caused by Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis, while cases of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) are caused by Leishmania (Leishmania) infantum chagasi. The resurgence of autochthonous VL cases in Rio de Janeiro is related to the geographic expansion of the vector Lutzomyia longipalpis and its ability to adapt to urban areas. We report the first case of leishmaniasis with exclusively cutaneous manifestations caused by L. (L.) infantum chagasi in an urban area of Rio de Janeiro. An eighty-one-year-old woman presented three pleomorphic skin lesions that were not associated with systemic symptoms or visceromegalies. Multilocus enzyme electrophoresis identified L. (L.) infantum chagasi, but direct smear and PCR of bone narrow were negative for Leishmania sp. (suggesting exclusively cutaneous involvement). We discuss the different dermatological presentations of viscerotropic leishmaniasis of the New and Old World, and the clinical and epidemiological importance of the case. Etiologic diagnosis of ATL based upon exclusive clinical criteria may lead to incorrect conclusions. We should be aware of the constant changes in epidemiological patterns related to leishmaniases.
Bhatia, A; Daifalla, N S; Jen, S; Badaro, R; Reed, S G; Skeiky, Y A
We report here the molecular cloning and characterization of two related hydrophilic antigens of Leishmania chagasi. These two antigens have predicted molecular weights of approximately 9 and 26 kDa and detect antibodies in sera of patients with kala-azar (k). Thus, to maintain consistency with nomenclature of the previously described 39 kDa diagnostic antigen of L. chagasi (k39 ), these antigens are being referred to as k9 and k26. A significant difference between k9 and k26 is the presence of 11 copies of a 14 amino acid repeat in the open reading frame of k26. The region flanking the repeats of k26 shares a 69% identity with the open reading frame of k9. The recombinant proteins encoded by both antigens are very hydrophilic and show aberrant migration on SDS PAGE. Results of Southern blot analysis reveal that k9 and k26 are conserved to varying degrees among various Leishmania species. Interestingly, the repeat region of k26 is specific to L. chagasi and L. donovani while the flanking region is conserved among several other species. Transcript levels of k26 are significantly upregulated in the amastigote stage of the parasite. Our results show that recombinant K26 is specific in detecting antibodies in infection sera from visceral leishmaniasis (VL) patients. Thus rK26 may complement rK39 in a more accurate diagnosis of VL in the old and the new world.
LYRA, Marcelo Rosandiski; PIMENTEL, Maria Inês Fernandes; MADEIRA, Maria de Fátima; ANTONIO, Liliane de Fátima; LYRA, Janine Pontes de Miranda; FAGUNDES, Aline; SCHUBACH, Armando de Oliveira
SUMMARY American tegumentary leishmaniasis (ATL) is an infectious disease caused by protozoa of the genus Leishmania, and transmitted by sandflies. In the state of Rio de Janeiro, almost all of the cases of American tegumentary leishmaniasis (ATL) are caused by Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis, while cases of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) are caused by Leishmania (Leishmania) infantum chagasi. The resurgence of autochthonous VL cases in Rio de Janeiro is related to the geographic expansion of the vector Lutzomyia longipalpis and its ability to adapt to urban areas. We report the first case of leishmaniasis with exclusively cutaneous manifestations caused by L. (L.) infantum chagasi in an urban area of Rio de Janeiro. An eighty-one-year-old woman presented three pleomorphic skin lesions that were not associated with systemic symptoms or visceromegalies. Multilocus enzyme electrophoresis identified L. (L.) infantum chagasi, but direct smear and PCR of bone narrow were negative for Leishmania sp. (suggesting exclusively cutaneous involvement). We discuss the different dermatological presentations of viscerotropic leishmaniasis of the New and Old World, and the clinical and epidemiological importance of the case. Etiologic diagnosis of ATL based upon exclusive clinical criteria may lead to incorrect conclusions. We should be aware of the constant changes in epidemiological patterns related to leishmaniases. PMID:26603237
Yousif, Ausama A; Mohammad, Walaa A; Khodeir, Mohammad H; Zeid, Abo Zeid A Abo; el-Sanousi, Ahmed A; Saber, Mohammad S; Reda, Ismail M
Infectious bursal disease (IBD) is one of the most important viral diseases of poultry. Hygienic management and proper vaccination are currently the only economic approach for control of this disease. Attempts have been made to control the disease after the onset of an outbreak using parenteral administration of hyperimmune IgY preparations. Such attempts are usually cumbersome and time consuming with an overall reduced economic return. We investigated the use of oral administration of hyperimmune chicken IgY to control IBDV outbreaks early after their discovery in poultry farms. Our approach attempted to change the environmental viral load around susceptible birds and, to modify the host's initial immune-contact with the virulent virus and the subsequent balance of the immune response to that virus. An experimental exposure/protection model that simulates a natural infection in susceptible populations was developed. IBDV hyperimmune yolk was orally administered to a group of IBDV-exposed susceptible layer chicks via drinking water. Disease patterns and mortality rates were monitored up to 10 days post exposure and compared to that in the exposed-untreated group of the same breed and age. Mortality rates dropped by 66.6% in the exposed-treated group compared to the control exposed-untreated group. Similarly, the morbidity shifted towards a milder syndrome in the exposed-treated group as compared to the control exposed-untreated group. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a successful control of an experimental IBDV infection in susceptible poultry populations using oral administration of hyperimmune yolk preparations.
Petersen, C; Gut, J; Doyle, P S; Crabb, J H; Nelson, R G; Leech, J H
Cryptosporidium parvum, a zoonotic Apicomplexan pathogen, causes profound diarrhea, malnutrition, and dehydration in patients with AIDS. A less severe, self-limited disease occurs in immunocompetent individuals, particularly children, animal handlers, and residents of the developing world. Very little is known about the biology of the organism, the pathophysiology of the disease process, or the mechanism of protective immunity. There is no effective therapy for cryptosporidiosis, but hyperimmune bovine colostrum raised against Cryptosporidium oocysts and sporozoites has ameliorated infection and disease in some patients with AIDS, and a variety of monoclonal antibodies, as well as hyperimmune bovine colostrum, have significantly reduced cryptosporidial infection of mice and calves. We report here the identification and initial characterization of a > 900,000-M(r) Cryptosporodium sporozoite glycoprotein (GP900) that is a prominent antigen recognized by protective hyperimmune bovine colostral immunoglobulin. Three of six murine anticryptosporidial monoclonal antibodies reacted with GP900, indicating that the molecule is highly immunogenic in mice as well as in cows. GP900 is Triton X-100 soluble and N glycosylated. Western blotting of the N-deglycosylated protein, detected with antibodies eluted from recombinant clones expressing a partial GP900 fusion protein, suggested that the polypeptide backbone of the glycoprotein has an M(r) of < 190,000. GP900 is encoded by a single-copy gene that resides on the largest Cryptosporidium chromosome. Images PMID:1452347
Lee, S H; Lillehoj, H S; Park, D W; Jang, S I; Morales, A; García, D; Lucio, E; Larios, R; Victoria, G; Marrufo, D; Lillehoj, Erik P
Avian coccidiosis is caused by several distinct species of Eimeria protozoa and is the major parasitic disease of poultry of economic importance. As an alternative strategy to control avian coccidiosis without using prophylactic medications, we have investigated the efficacy of inducing passive immunity against coccidiosis by orally feeding hyperimmune IgY antibodies. In this study, a commercially available egg yolk powder, Supracox (SC), a purified IgY fraction of egg yolk prepared from hens hyperimmunized with three major species of Eimeria oocysts, were continuously fed to young chicks from hatch. Upon orally infecting these broiler chicks with Eimeria tenella and Eimeria maxima oocysts at 1 week of age, they showed significantly higher body weight gains (P<0.05) compared to the untreated controls. Furthermore, SC-fed chicks showed significantly less intestinal lesions and reduced fecal oocyst output compared to the untreated controls following oral infections with E. tenella and E. maxima. These results provide clear evidence that passive immunization of chicks with hyperimmune egg yolk IgY antibodies provide significant protection against E. tenella or E. maxima infections.
Rodrigues, Cleusa Alves Theodore; Batista, Luís Fábio da Silva; Filho, Roberto Santos Teixeira; Santos, Claire da Silva; Pinheiro, Cristiane Garboggini; Almeida, Taís Fontoura de; Freitas, Luiz Antônio Rodrigues de; Veras, Patrícia Sampaio Tavares
While the response to Leishmania spp. is well characterized in mice and humans, much less is known concerning the canine immune response, particularly soon after exposure to the parasite. Early events are considered to be a determinant of infection outcome. To investigate the dog's early immune response to L. chagasi, an in vitro priming system (PIV) using dog naïve PBMC was established. Until now, dog PIV immune response to L. chagasi has not been assessed. We co-cultivated PBMC primarily stimulated with L. chagasi in vitro with autologous infected macrophages and found that IFN-gamma mRNA is up-regulated in these cells compared to control unstimulated cells. IL-4 and IL-10 mRNA expression by L. chagasi-stimulated PBMC was similar to control unstimulated PBMC when incubated with infected macrophages. Surprisingly, correlation studies showed that a lower IFN-gamma/IL-4 expression ratio correlated with a lower percentage of infection. We propose that the direct correlation between IFN-gamma/IL-4 ratio and parasite load is dependent on the higher correlation of both IFN-gamma and IL-4 expression with lower parasite infection. This PIV system was shown to be useful in evaluating the dog immune response to L. chagasi, and results indicate that a balance between IFN-gamma and IL-4 is associated with control of parasite infection in vitro.
Hemagglutination inhibition (HAI) antibody responses to anti–influenza virus hyperimmune intravenous immunoglobulin (hIVIG) were characterized. Thirty-one patients with influenza during the 2013–2014 season were randomly assigned to receive 0.25 g/kg of hIVIG (n = 16) or placebo (n = 15). For hIVIG recipients, the ratio of geometric mean titers (1 hour after infusion/before infusion) was 4.00 (95% confidence interval [CI], 2.61–6.13) for 2009 pandemic influenza A(H1N1) and 1.76 (95% CI, 1.33–2.32) for influenza A(H3N2) and influenza B. Among patients with 2009 pandemic influenza A(H1N1), ratios for hIVIG (n = 9) versus placebo (n = 8) were higher 1 hour after infusion (3.9 [95% CI, 2.3–6.7]) and sustained through day 3 (2.0 [95% CI, 1.0–4.0]). hIVIG administration significantly increases HAI titer levels among patients with influenza, supporting the need to perform a clinical outcomes study. Clinical trials registration: NCT02008578. PMID:26374911
Steele, Jennifer; Sponseller, Jerlyn; Schmidt, Diane; Cohen, Ocean; Tzipori, Saul
Hyperimmune bovine colostrum (HBC), produced by vaccination of a cow during gestation, is rich in targeted immunoglobulins, and can be used to treat a variety of diseases. The published history of HBC use for treating gastrointestinal infections in humans has developed over the past several decades and demonstrates the promise of this type of therapeutic for GI infectious disease. HBC, or purified derivative products, have been used successfully for treatment or prevention of cryptosporidiosis, shigellosis, rotavirus, enterotoxigenic E. coli, and C. difficile infection (CDI). Given the positive results of previous studies using HBC for treatment of CDI, we have produced HBC with antibodies against the two most important virulence factors of C. difficile, TcdA and TcdB, using a novel recombinant vaccine. Our preliminary results demonstrate efficacy of the HBC product for treatment of CDI in the gnotobiotic piglet model, and warrant more thorough investigation. HBC may provide an effective treatment alternative to antibiotics, which can spare the normal gut microflora, and reduce rates of recurrence and antibiotic resistance.
Fletcher, C V; Goodroad, B K; Cummins, L M; Henry, K; Balfour, H H; Rhame, F S
Hyperimmune anti-human immunodeficiency virus immunoglobulin (HIVIG) is an intravenous immunoglobulin prepared from HIV-infected asymptomatic donors with a CD4 cell count greater than 400 cells/microl and a high titer of antibody to HIV-1 p24 protein. Twelve persons with AIDS received four doses of HMG (two at 50 mg/kg of body weight and then two at 200 mg/kg) every 28 days. Pharmacokinetics were evaluated by measurement of anti-p24 antibody. HIVIG was well tolerated, and all participants completed the study. Three subjects who were not receiving Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (PCP) prophylaxis developed PCP. The mean value for HIVIG clearance was 3.02 ml/kg/day at 50 mg/kg and 3.65 ml/kg/day at 200 mg/kg (P = 0.027); the mean trough antibody titers (reciprocal units) were 1,442 and 4,428, respectively. This study indicates that high titers of anti-p24 antibody can be maintained with a monthly administration schedule of HIVIG and that short-term safety is acceptable. Comparisons to evaluate the therapeutic potential of HIVIG are justified. PMID:9210687
Shannon, O; Uekotter, A; Flock, J-I
Staphylococcus aureus is a significant cause of acute and chronic infection and boasts a diverse array of virulence factors. S. aureus produces and secretes a protein, extracellular fibrinogen (Fg)-binding protein (Efb), which contributes to virulence in wound infection. Efb binds to both Fg and platelets and inhibits platelet function in vitro and in vivo. In this study, we have characterized the antibody response against Efb. Antibodies generated in response to immunization with Efb can neutralize the biological effects of Efb. Hyperimmune sheep immunoglobulin (Ig)G against Efb blocked the binding of Efb to Fg and prevented Efb-mediated inhibition of platelet aggregation. Furthermore, these antibodies cross-reacted with coagulase and blocked coagulase activity in plasma. Immunization of mice with Efb resulted in the generation of high titre specific antibodies. When subjected to a foreign-body-associated wound infection, the vaccinated animals developed significantly less severe wound infection than the unvaccinated controls. Also, human IgG against Efb was prepared from commercial IgG pools; however, the monospecific human anti-Efb that was enriched was unable to neutralize Efb. We conclude that immunization with Efb is required in order to generate a protective antibody response to Efb from S. aureus.
Hemagglutination inhibition (HAI) antibody responses to anti-influenza virus hyperimmune intravenous immunoglobulin (hIVIG) were characterized. Thirty-one patients with influenza during the 2013-2014 season were randomly assigned to receive 0.25 g/kg of hIVIG (n = 16) or placebo (n = 15). For hIVIG recipients, the ratio of geometric mean titers (1 hour after infusion/before infusion) was 4.00 (95% confidence interval [CI], 2.61-6.13) for 2009 pandemic influenza A(H1N1) and 1.76 (95% CI, 1.33-2.32) for influenza A(H3N2) and influenza B. Among patients with 2009 pandemic influenza A(H1N1), ratios for hIVIG (n = 9) versus placebo (n = 8) were higher 1 hour after infusion (3.9 [95% CI, 2.3-6.7]) and sustained through day 3 (2.0 [95% CI, 1.0-4.0]). hIVIG administration significantly increases HAI titer levels among patients with influenza, supporting the need to perform a clinical outcomes study. NCT02008578. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail firstname.lastname@example.org.
Rondon, Fernanda Cristina Macedo; Bevilaqua, Claudia Maria Leal; Accioly, Marina Parissi; de Morais, Selene Maia; de Andrade-Júnior, Heitor Franco; de Carvalho, Camila Aparecida; Lima, Josemar Coelho; Magalhães, Hilton César Rodrigues
The increased incidence of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in Brazil is due to a lack of effective disease control measures. In addition to that, no effective treatment exists for canine VL in response to synthetic drugs. Thus, the objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of the essential oils of Coriandrum sativum and Lippia sidoides, and oleoresin from Copaifera reticulata, on Leishmania chagasi promastigotes and amastigotes. We also examined the toxicity of these treatments on the murine monocyte cell line RAW 264.7. To determine the IC50 a MTT test (3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) was performed on promastigotes, and an in situ ELISA assay was conducted on amastigotes. Here, we demonstrate that oleoresin from C. reticulata was effective against both promastigotes (IC50 of 7.88 µg.mL-1) and amastigotes (IC50 of 0.52 µg.mL-1), and neither of the two treatments differed significantly (p > 0.05) from pentamidine (IC50 of 2.149 µg.mL-1) and amphotericin B (IC50 of 9.754 µg.mL-1). Of the three plant oils tested, only oleoresin showed no toxicity toward monocyte, with 78.45% viability after treatment. Inhibition of promastigote and amastigote growth and the lack of cytotoxicity by C. reticulata demonstrate that oleoresin may be a viable option for analyzing the in vivo therapeutic effects of leishmanicidal plants.
Melo, Ferdinan Almeida; Moura, Eliane Perlatto; Ribeiro, Raul Rio; Alves, Cíntia Fontes; Caliari, Marcelo Vidigal; Tafuri, Washington Luiz; da Silva Calabrese, Kátia; Tafuri, Wagner Luiz
The aim of this work was to study alterations in the extracellular matrix of liver in dogs naturally infected with Leishmania (Leishmania) chagasi that are correlated with clinical aspects and with histological, parasitological and immunological findings. The study was carried out on 30 dogs, 10 uninfected (control group) and 20 infected. The infected animals were further divided into two groups: an asymptomatic group of 10 dogs without clinical signs of the disease; and a symptomatic group of 10 dogs with classical clinical signs. All thirty animals were mongrel dogs of undefined age, obtained from the municipality of Belo Horizonte, MG, metropolitan area. During necropsy, liver fragments were collected and fixed in 10% buffered formaldehyde for histological examination. Paraffined sections of the tissues were stained with haematoxylin–eosin, Gomori’s ammoniacal silver stain for reticular fibres and strepto-avidin peroxidase for immunohistochemical detection of Leishmania amastigotes. Frozen tissue sections were stained by immunofluorescence for fibronectin (FN) and laminin (LN). Liver collagen deposition was significantly greater in the infected than the control animals and differed significantly between the symptomatic and asymptomatic dogs. There was a positive correlation between the parasite load and liver collagen deposition. The increased collagen deposition in infected animal livers may be associated with the parasite burden. Adhesive FN and LN fibres were significantly more highly expressed in the livers of symptomatic than of asymptomatic dogs. Our results demonstrate that canine visceral leishmaniasis causes fibrogenesis in liver, associated with the parasite load and degenerative processes. PMID:19765108
Alves, G B B; Pinho, F A; Silva, S M M S; Cruz, M S P; Costa, F A L
Fifteen symptomatic and seven asymptomatic dogs infected naturally with Leishmania chagasi were examined in order to identify the presence of parasites and changes in heart and lung. Histopathological, cytological, and immunohistochemical analyses were performed on samples of heart and lung tissues. An inflammatory reaction characterized by inflammatory mononuclear, perivascular and intermuscular infiltrates was observed in both symptomatic and asymptomatic animals on histopathological analysis of the heart. In the lung, there was thickening of the alveolar septa due to congestion, edema, inflammatory infiltrate, and fibroblast proliferation. A focal reaction was observed although a diffuse reaction was present in both groups. On cytological examination, heart and lung imprints revealed amastigotes in two symptomatic animals and heart imprints were found in 1 asymptomatic dog. Immunoperoxidase staining showed amastigotes in the lung and heart of only 1 of 6 symptomatic animals examined. Within the ethical principles and limits of this research, it can be inferred that the study of heart and lung alterations in canine visceral leishmaniasis is increasingly important for understanding the problem related to humans. Dogs with visceral leishmaniasis were a good experimental model, since infection was caused by the same agent and the animals developed clinical, pathological and immunological alterations similar to those observed in humans.
Ramos, Rafael Antonio do Nascimento; Ramos, Carlos Alberto do Nascimento; Jusi, Márcia Mariza Gomes; de Araújo, Flábio Ribeiro; Machado, Rosangela Zacarias; Faustino, Maria Aparecida da Glória; Alves, Leucio Câmara
The importance of dogs as a reservoir for Leishmania infantumchagasi in urban environments has stimulated numerous studies assessing diagnostic techniques. When performed properly, such procedures are an important step in preventing leishmaniasis in humans. Molecular methods have become prominent for this purpose. The aim of the present study was to determine the performance of the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and real-time PCR (qPCR) for diagnosing of canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL) using different biological samples. For this, 35 dogs from an area endemic for CVL were used. Bone marrow aspirate and lymph node and spleen fragments from these dogs were used for the molecular diagnosis. In the present study, qPCR was able to detect a greater number of positive animals than seen with PCR. Among the different biological samples used, there was no significant difference in L. infantumchagasi DNA detection between PCR and qPCR. However, considering that lymph nodes are easy to acquire, these can be considered to be the best samples for making molecular diagnoses of L. infantum chagasi infection.
Matrangolo, Fabiana S V; Liarte, Daniel B; Andrade, Laila C; de Melo, Melina F; Andrade, Juvana M; Ferreira, Rafael F; Santiago, André S; Pirovani, Carlos P; Silva-Pereira, Rosiane A; Murta, Silvane M F
The emergence of drug-resistant Leishmania species is a significant problem in several countries. A comparative proteomic analysis of antimony-susceptible and antimony-resistant Leishmania braziliensis (LbSbR) and Leishmania infantum chagasi (LcSbR) lines was carried out using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) followed by mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) for protein identification. Out of 132 protein spots exclusive or up-regulated submitted to MS, we identified 80 proteins that corresponded to 57 distinct proteins. Comparative analysis of data showed that most of the protein spots with differential abundance in both species are involved in antioxidant defense, general stress response, glucose and amino acid metabolism, and cytoskeleton organization. Five proteins were commonly more abundant in both SbIII-resistant Leishmania lines: tryparedoxin peroxidase, alpha-tubulin, HSP70, HSP83, and HSP60. Analysis of the protein abundance by Western blotting assays confirmed our proteomic data. These assays revealed that cyclophilin-A is less expressed in both LbSbR and LcSbR lines. On the other hand, the expression of pteridine reductase is higher in the LbSbR line, whereas tryparedoxin peroxidase is overexpressed in both LbSbR and LcSbR lines. Together, these results show that the mechanism of antimony-resistance in Leishmania spp. is complex and multifactorial. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Humberg, Roberta M. P.; Oshiro, Elisa T.; Cruz, Maria do Socorro Pires e; Ribolla, Paulo E. M.; Alonso, Diego P.; Ferreira, Alda M. T.; Bonamigo, Raquel A.; Tasso, Norton; de Oliveira, Alessandra Gutierrez
We investigated the occurrence of Leishmania infantum chagasi in Didelphis albiventris opossums at a wild animal rehabilitation center in the city of Campo Grande, Brazil. A total of 54 opossums were tested for L. i. chagasi infection in peripheral blood and bone marrow samples. The samples were analyzed by direct examination, culturing in a specific medium, and polymerase chain reaction–restriction fragment length polymorphism. Leishmania i. chagasi DNA was detected by polymerase chain reaction–restriction fragment length polymorphism in 11 (20.37%) animals. A total of 81.81% of positive opossums were captured in areas of known visceral leishmaniasis transmission. These results suggest a role for D. albiventris in the urban transmission of visceral leishmaniasis. PMID:22802435
Viana, Kelvinson Fernandes; Aguiar-Soares, Rodrigo Dian Oliveira; Roatt, Bruno Mendes; Resende, Lucilene Aparecida; da Silveira-Lemos, Denise; Corrêa-Oliveira, Rodrigo; Martins-Filho, Olindo Assis; Moura, Sandra Lima; Zanini, Marcos Santos; Araújo, Márcio Sobreira Silva; Reis, Alexandre Barbosa; Giunchetti, Rodolfo Cordeiro
Canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL) is a parasitic disease endemic in many countries, and dogs present as the major natural reservoir of the parasite, Leishmania chagasi (syn. L. infantum). Biomarkers in the canine immune system is an important technique in the course of developing vaccines and treatment strategies against CVL. New methodologies for studying the immune response of dogs during Leishmania infection and after receiving vaccines and treatments against CVL would be useful. In this context, we used peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from healthy dogs to evaluate procedures related to (i) establishment of in vitro conditions of monocytes differentiated into macrophages infected with L. chagasi and (ii) purification procedures of T-cell subsets (CD4(+) and CD8(+)) using microbeads. Our data demonstrated that after 5 days of differentiation, macrophages were able to induce significant phagocytic and microbicidal activity after L. chagasi infection and also showed increased frequency of parasitism and a higher parasite load. Although N-acetyl-β-d-glucosaminidase (NAG) levels presented similar levels of macrophage culture and L. chagasi infection, a progressive decrease in myeloperoxidase (MPO) levels was a hallmark over 5 days of culture. High purity levels (>90%) of CD4 and CD8 T cells were obtained on a magnetic separation column. We concluded that monocytes differentiated into macrophages at 5 days and displayed an intermediate frequency of parasitism and parasite load 72 h after L. chagasi infection. Furthermore, the purification system using canine T-lymphocyte subsets obtained after 5 days of monocyte differentiation proved efficient for CD4 or CD8 T-cell purification (≥90%). The in vitro analysis using L. chagasi-infected macrophages and purified T cells presented a prospective methodology that could be incorporated in CVL vaccine and treatment studies that aim to analyze the microbicidal potential induced by specific CD4(+) and/or CD8(+) T
Zhou, Xiaoming; Wang, Hong; Koles, Nancy L; Zhang, Aihong; Aronson, Naomi E
Visceral leishmaniasis patients have been reported to have a urine concentration defect. Concentration of urine by the renal inner medulla is essentially dependent on a transcription factor, NFAT5/TonEBP, because it activates expression of osmoprotective genes betaine/glycine transporter 1 (BGT1) and sodium/myo-inositol transporter (SMIT), and water channel aquaporin-2, all of which are imperative for concentrating urine. Leishmania parasites evade macrophage immune defenses by activating protein tyrosine phosphatases, among which SHP-1 is critical. We previously demonstrated that SHP-1 inhibits tonicity-dependent activation of NFAT5/TonEBP in HEK293 cells through screening a genome-wide small interfering (si) RNA library against phosphatases (Zhou X, Gallazzini M, Burg MB, Ferraris JD. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 107: 7072-7077, 2010). We sought to examine whether Leishmania can activate SHP-1 and inhibit NFAT5/TonEBP activity in the renal inner medulla in a murine model of visceral leishmaniasis by injection of female BALB/c mice with a single intravenous dose of 5 × 10(5) L. chagasi metacyclic promastigotes. We found that SHP-1 is expressed in the kidney inner medulla. L. chagasi activates SHP-1 with an increase in stimulatory phosphorylation of SHP-1-Y536 in the region. L. chagasi reduces expression of NFAT5/TonEBP mRNA and protein as well as expression of its targeted genes: BGT1, SMIT, and aquaporin-2. The culture supernatant from L. chagasi metacyclic promastigotes increases SHP-1 protein abundance and potently inhibits NFAT5 transcriptional activity in mIMCD3 cells. However, L. chagasi in our animal model has no significant effect on urinary concentration. We conclude that L. chagasi, most likely through its secreted virulence factors, activates SHP-1 and reduces NFAT5/TonEBP gene expression, which leads to reduced NFAT5/TonEBP transcriptional activity in the kidney inner medulla.
Vides, Juliana Peloi; Schwardt, Tatianna Frate; Sobrinho, Ludmila Silva Vicente; Marinho, Márcia; Laurenti, Márcia Dalastra; Biondo, Alexander Welker; Leutenegger, Christian; Marcondes, Mary
Although dogs are considered the main domestic reservoirs for Visceral Leishmaniosis (VL), which is caused in the Americas by Leishmania chagasi, infected cats have also been recently found in endemic areas of several countries and became a public health concern. Accordingly, the purpose of this study was to evaluate cats with dermatologic lesions from an endemic area of VL and the natural infection of L. chagasi. A total of 55 cats were selected between April 2008 and November 2009 from two major animal shelters of Araçatuba, Southeastern Brazil. All cats underwent general and dermatologic examinations, followed by direct parasitological examination of lymphoid organs, immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and indirect immunofluorescence (IFAT). In addition, detection of amastigotes was performed by immunohistochemistry (IHC) in skin lesions of all cats. VL was diagnosed in 27/55 (49.1%) cats with dermatological problems. Amastigotes were found in lymphoid organs of 10/27 (37.0%) cats; serology of 14/27 (51.9%), 6/27 (22.2%) and 5/27 (18.5%) cats was positive for ELISA, IFAT and both, respectively. The IHC identified 9/27 (33.3%) cats; 5/27 (18.5%) were positive only for IHC and therefore increased the overall sensitivity. Specific FIV antibodies were found in 6/55 (10.9%) cats, of which 5/6 (83.3%) had leishmaniosis. Real time PCR followed by amplicon sequencing successfully confirmed L. chagasi infection. In conclusion, dermatological lesions in cats from endemic areas was highly associated to visceral leishmaniosis, and therefore skin IHC and differential diagnosis of LV should be always conducted in dermatological patients in such areas.
Silveira, Fernando Tobias; Lainson, Ralph; De Souza, Adelson Alcimar Almeida; Campos, Marliane Batista; Carneiro, Liliane Almeida; Lima, Luciana Vieira Rego; Ramos, Patrícia Karla Santos; de Castro Gomes, Cláudia Maria; Laurenti, Marcia Dalastra; Corbett, Carlos Eduardo Pereira
This was a prospective study carried out during a period over 2 years (May/2006-September/2008) with a cohort of 1,099 individuals of both genders, aged 1 year old and older, from an endemic area of American visceral leishmaniasis (AVL) in Pará state, Brazil. The object was to analyze the prevalence and incidence of human Leishmania (L.) infantum chagasi infection as well as the dynamics evolution of its clinical-immunological profiles prior identified: (1) asymptomatic infection (AI); (2) symptomatic infection (SI = AVL); (3) sub-clinical oligosymptomatic infection (SOI); (4) sub-clinical resistant infection (SRI) and; (5) indeterminate initial infection (III). The infection diagnosis was performed by using both the indirect fluorescent antibody test and leishmanin skin test with amastigotes and promastigotes antigens of L. (L.) i. chagasi, respectively. A total of 187 cases of infection were recorded in the prevalence (17%), 117 in the final incidence (6.9%), and 304 in the accumulated prevalence (26.7%), which provided the following distribution into the clinical-immunological profiles: AI, 51.6%; III, 22.4%; SRI, 20.1%; SOI, 4.3%; and SI (=AVL), 1.6%. The major finding regarding the dynamics evolution of infection was concerned to III profile, from which the cases of infection evolved to either the resistant profiles, SRI (21 cases, 30.8%) and AI (30 cases, 44.1%), or the susceptible SI (=AVL; 1 case, 1.5%); the latter 16 cases remained as III till the end of the study. These results provided the conclusion that this diagnostic approach may be useful for monitoring human L. (L.) i. chagasi infection in endemic area and preventing the high morbidity of severe AVL cases.
Reimão, Juliana Q; Oliveira, Jordana C; Trinconi, Cristiana T; Cotrim, Paulo C; Coelho, Adriano C; Uliana, Silvia R B
The only oral drug available for the treatment of leishmaniasis is miltefosine, described and approved for visceral leishmaniasis in India. Miltefosine is under evaluation for the treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis in the Americas although its efficacy for the treatment of human visceral leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania infantum chagasi has not been described. Drug efficacy for visceral leishmaniasis is ideally tested in hamsters, an experimental model that mimics human disease. Luciferase has been validated as a quantitative tool for the determination of parasite burden in experimental leishmaniasis. However, there are no reports of luciferase detection in the model of progressive visceral leishmaniasis in hamsters. Therefore, the aims of this study were to generate recombinant Leishmania infantum chagasi expressing the luciferase gene (Lc-LUC), characterize the biological properties of this transgenic line as compared with the wild-type parasites and evaluate miltefosine effectiveness in Lc-LUC infected hamsters. A transgenic line containing a luciferase encoding gene integrated into the ribosomal DNA locus was obtained and shown to produce bioluminescence which correlated with the number of parasites. Lc-LUC growth curves and susceptibility to pentavalent antimony and miltefosine in vitro were indistinguishable from the wild-type parasites. The effectiveness of pentavalent antimony was evaluated in Lc-LUC infected hamsters through bioimaging and determination of Leishman Donovan Units. Both methods showed concordant results. Miltefosine was effective in the treatment of Lc-LUC-infected hamsters, as demonstrated by the reduction in parasite burden in a dose-dependent manner and by prolongation of animal survival. Luciferase expressing parasites are a reliable alternative for parasite burden quantification in hamsters with advantages such as the possibility of estimating parasite load before drug treatment and therefore allowing distribution of animals in
Hung, Ivan F N; To, Kelvin K W; Lee, Cheuk-Kwong; Lee, Kar-Lung; Yan, Wing-Wa; Chan, Kenny; Chan, Wai-Ming; Ngai, Chun-Wai; Law, Kin-Ip; Chow, Fu-Loi; Liu, Raymond; Lai, Kang-Yiu; Lau, Candy C Y; Liu, Shao-Haei; Chan, Kwok-Hung; Lin, Che-Kit; Yuen, Kwok-Yung
Experience from influenza pandemics suggested that convalescent plasma treatment given within 4 to 5 days of symptom onset might be beneficial. However, robust treatment data are lacking. This is a multicenter, prospective, double-blind, randomized controlled trial. Convalescent plasma from patients who recovered from the 2009 pandemic influenza A(H1N1) (A[H1N1]) infection was fractionated to hyperimmune IV immunoglobulin (H-IVIG) by CSL Biotherapies (now BioCSL). Patients with severe A(H1N1) infection on standard antiviral treatment requiring intensive care and ventilatory support were randomized to receive H-IVIG or normal IV immunoglobulin manufactured before 2009 as control. Clinical outcome and adverse effects were compared. Between 2010 and 2011, 35 patients were randomized to receive H-IVIG (17 patients) or IV immunoglobulin (18 patients). One defaulted patient was excluded from analysis. No adverse events related to treatment were reported. Baseline demographics and viral load before treatment were similar between the two groups. Serial respiratory viral load demonstrated that H-IVIG treatment was associated with significantly lower day 5 and 7 posttreatment viral load when compared with the control (P = .04 and P = .02, respectively). The initial serum cytokine level was significantly higher in the H-IVIG group but fell to a similar level 3 days after treatment. Subgroup multivariate analysis of the 22 patients who received treatment within 5 days of symptom onset demonstrated that H-IVIG treatment was the only factor that independently reduced mortality (OR, 0.14; 95% CI, 0.02-0.92; P = .04). Treatment of severe A(H1N1) infection with H-IVIG within 5 days of symptom onset was associated with a lower viral load and reduced mortality. ClinialTrials.gov; No.: NCT01617317; URL: www.clinicaltrials.gov.
Santos, P L; Costa, R V; Braz, J M; Santos, L F V C; Batista, A C; Vasconcelos, C R O; Rangel, M R; Ribeiro de Jesus, A; de Moura, T R; Leopoldo, P T G; Almeida, R P
Nitric oxide (NO) plays an important role as a leishmanicidal agent in murine macrophages. NO resistant Escherichia coli and Mycobacterium tuberculosis have been associated with poor outcomes of their resulting diseases. NO resistant Leishmania braziliensis has also been identified and exacerbates the clinical course of human leishmaniasis. We report, for the first time, natural resistance of Leishmania chagasi promastigotes to NO. These parasites were isolated from humans and dogs with visceral leishmaniasis. We also demonstrate that this resistance profile was associated with a greater survival capacity and a greater parasite burden in murine macrophages, independent of activation and after activation by IFN-γ and LPS.
Coelho, Willian Marinho Dourado; Lima, Valéria Marçal Felix de; Amarante, Alessandro Francisco Talamini do; Langoni, Helio; Pereira, Virgínia Bodelão Richini; Abdelnour, Aziz; Bresciani, Katia Denise Saraiva
This work describes natural infection by Leishmania in a domestic cat where amastigote forms of the parasite were observed in the popliteal lymph node imprint. Positive and negative serological reactions were observed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA), respectively. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) revealed that the nucleotide sequence of the sample was identical to Leishmania (L.) chagasi. This is the first report of the disease in felines of the city of Andradina, SP, an area considered endemic for canine and human visceral leishmaniasis.
Sears, Khandra T; Tennant, Sharon M; Reymann, Mardi K; Simon, Raphael; Konstantopoulos, Nicky; Blackwelder, William C; Barry, Eileen M; Pasetti, Marcela F
Diarrhea is a common illness among travelers to resource-limited countries, the most prevalent attributable agent being enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC). At this time, there are no vaccines licensed specifically for the prevention of ETEC-induced traveler's diarrhea (TD), and this has propelled investigation of alternative preventive methods. Colostrum, the first milk expressed after birthing, is rich in immunoglobulins and innate immune components for protection of newborns against infectious agents. Hyperimmune bovine colostrum (HBC) produced by immunization of cows during gestation (and containing high levels of specific antibodies) is a practical and effective prophylactic tool against gastrointestinal illnesses. A commercial HBC product, Travelan, is available for prevention of ETEC-induced diarrhea. Despite its demonstrated clinical efficacy, the underlying immune components and antimicrobial activity that contribute to protection remain undefined. We investigated innate and adaptive immune components of several commercial HBC products formulated to reduce the risk of ETEC-induced diarrhea, including Travelan and IMM-124E, a newer product that has broader gastrointestinal health benefits. The immune components measured included total and ETEC-specific IgG, total IgA, cytokines, growth factors, and lactoferrin. HBC products contained high levels of IgG specific for multiple ETEC antigens, including O-polysaccharide 78 and colonization factor antigen I (CFA/I) present in the administered vaccines. Antimicrobial activity was measured in vitro using novel functional assays. HBC greatly reduced ETEC motility in soft agar and exhibited bactericidal activity in the presence of complement. We have identified immune components and antimicrobial activity potentially involved in the prevention of ETEC infection by HBC in vivo. Copyright © 2017 Sears et al.
Gentili, G; D'Amelio, R; Wirz, M; Matricardi, P M; Nisini, R; Collotti, C; Pasquini, P; Stroffolini, T
Systematic mandatory immunization of children against tetanus was started in Italy in 1968. Prevalence of tetanus hyperimmunization (> 5 IU/ml) was assessed among 214 immune subjects born after 1968 and found to be 17.3%. This figure is significantly higher (p < 0.01) than the 10.8% found in a previous study of subjects born before 1968. This increase is statistically significant in the Center (p < 0.01) and in the South (p < 0.05) of Italy, but not in the North. Hyperimmunization is not associated with family size (odds ratio 2.16; C. I. 95% = 0.5-7.6) or the father's years of education (odds ratio 1.83; C. I. 95% = 0.6-5.3). No difference was found between urban and rural areas of residence. Indiscriminate administration of booster doses of tetanus vaccine in hyperimmune subjects in some areas could result in unnecessary vaccinations, which can cause hypersensitivity reactions.
Bhakdi, S; Mannhardt, U; Muhly, M; Hugo, F; Ronneberger, H; Hungerer, K D
Alpha-toxin, the major cytolysin of Staphylococcus aureus, preferentially attacks human platelets and cultured monocytes, thereby promoting coagulation and the release of interleukin-1 and tumor necrosis factor. Titers of naturally occurring antibodies in human blood are not high enough to substantially inhibit these pathological reactions. In the present study, F(ab')2 fragment preparations from hyperimmune globulin obtained from immunized volunteers were tested for their capacity to inhibit the cytotoxic action of alpha-toxin in vitro and in vivo. These antibody preparations exhibited neutralizing anti-alpha-toxin titers of 80 to 120 IU/ml, whereas titers in commercial immunoglobulin preparations were 1 to 4 IU/ml. In vitro, the presence of 2 to 4 mg of hyperimmune globulin per ml protected human platelets against the action of 1 to 2 micrograms of alpha-toxin per ml. Similarly, these antibodies fully protected human monocytes against the ATP-depleting and cytokine-liberating effects of 0.1 to 1 microgram of alpha-toxin per ml. Intravenous application of 0.5 mg (85 to 120 micrograms/kg of body weight) of alpha-toxin in cynomolgus monkeys elicited acute pathophysiological reactions which were heralded by a selective drop in blood platelet counts. Toxin doses of 1 to 2 mg (170 to 425 micrograms/kg) had a rapid lethal effect, the animals presenting with signs of cardiovascular collapse and pulmonary edema. Prior intravenous application of 4 ml of hyperimmune globulins per kg inhibited the systemic toxic and lethal effects of 1 mg (200 micrograms/kg) of alpha-toxin. In contrast, normal human immunoglobulins exhibited no substantial protective efficacy in vitro and only marginal effects in vivo. It is concluded that high-titered anti-alpha-toxin antibodies effectively protect against the cytotoxic actions of alpha-toxin. PMID:2777380
Hsiao, Chia-Hung Christine; Yao, Chaoqun; Storlie, Patricia; Donelson, John E; Wilson, Mary E
The Leishmania spp. protozoa have an abundant surface metalloprotease called MSP (major surface protease), which in Leishmania chagasi is encoded by three distinct gene classes (MSPS, MSPL, MSPC). Although MSP has been characterized primarily in extracellular promastigotes, it also facilitates survival of intracellular amastigotes. Promastigotes express MSPS, MSPL, and two forms of MSPC RNAs, whereas amastigotes express only MSPL RNA and one MSPC transcript. We confirmed the presence of MSPC protein in both promastigotes and amastigotes by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). More than 10 MSP isoforms were visualized in both amastigotes and promastigotes using two-dimensional immunoblots, but amastigote MSPs migrated at a more acidic pI. Promastigote MSPs were N-glycosylated, whereas most amastigote MSPs were not. Immuno-electron microscopy showed that two-thirds of the promastigote MSP is distributed along the cell surface. In contrast, most amastigote MSP localized at the flagellar pocket, the major site of leishmania endocytosis/exocytosis. Biochemical analyses indicated that most amastigote MSP is soluble in the cytosol, vesicles or organelles, whereas most promastigote MSP is membrane-associated and GPI anchored. Activity gels and immunoblots confirmed the presence of a novel proteolytically active amastigote MSP of higher Mr than the promastigote MSPs. Furthermore, promastigote MSP is shed extracellularly whereas MSP is not shed from axenic amastigotes. We conclude that amastigotes and promastigotes both express multiple MSP isoforms, but these MSPs differ biochemically and localize differently in the two parasite stages. We hypothesize that MSP plays different roles in the extracellular versus intracellular forms of Leishmania spp.
da Costa, Andréa Pereira; Costa, Francisco Borges; Soares, Herbert Sousa; Ramirez, Diego Garcia; Mesquita, Eric Takashi Kamakura de Carvalho; Gennari, Solange Maria; Marcili, Arlei
Trypanosoma and Leishmania are obligate parasites that cause important diseases in human and domestic animals. Wild mammals are the natural reservoirs of these parasites, which are transmitted by hematophagous arthropods. The present study aimed to detect the natural occurrence of trypanosomatids through serological diagnosis, PCR of whole blood and blood culture (hemoculture), and phylogenetic relationships using small subunit ribosomal DNA (SSU rDNA), cytochrome b, and glycosomal glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (gGAPDH) genes. Samples from 131 wild animals, including rodents, marsupials, and bats, were sampled in six areas in the state of Maranhão, in a transition zone of semiarid climates northeast of the equatorial humid Amazon. Serological analysis for Leishmania (Leishmania) infantum chagasi was performed in opossums by indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT), and all animals were serologically negative. Nine positive hemocultures (6.77%) were isolated and cryopreserved and from mammals of the Didelphimorphia and Chiroptera orders and positioned in phylogenies on the basis of sequences from different genes with reference strains of Trypanosoma cruzi marinkellei and T. cruzi. From primary samples (blood and tissues) only one bat, Pteronotus parnellii, was positive to SSU rDNA and gGAPDH genes and grouped with the L. infantum chagasi branch. The studies conducted in Maranhão State provide knowledge of parasite diversity. It is important to determine the presence of trypanosomatids in wild mammals with synanthropic habits.
Figueiredo, Maria Marta; Moura, Eliane Perlatto; Costa, Miriam Maria; Ribeiro, Vitor Marcio; Michalick, Marilene Suzan; Tafuri, Washington Luiz; Tafuri, Wagner Luiz
Although 90% of clinical cases of American visceral leishmaniasis (AVL) occur in the northeastern region of Brazil, the incidence of cases in recent years has increased in southeastern states such as Minas Gerais (MG), where the disease has been reported in several cities, including Belo Horizonte, the state capital. Some studies have shown a strong correlation between the incidence of AVL and canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL) in Belo Horizonte. A study of 108 dogs with parasite Leishmania chagasi detected by immuno-histochemistry in healthy ear skin was obtained from two distinct geographical areas: 55 from a metropolitan area of the municipality (Santa Luzia, MG) and 53 dogs from a central area of Belo Horizonte. In parallel, a group of 10 beagles were experimentally infected with L. chagasi. Considering the clinical aspects of all naturally infected dogs, symptomatic dogs were more frequent than asymptomatic ones, especially animals from the metropolitan area compared with the central area (79.6% and 20.3%, respectively). A chronic exudate was observed in the ear of 51 out of 55 dogs naturally infected from the metropolitan area (92.7%) and 45 out of 53 dogs naturally infected from the central area (84.9%). Importantly, asymptomatic dogs from the central area harbor more parasites in the skin than the asymptomatic ones from the metropolitan area. In addition, a profound difference was noted in the intensity of the inflammatory reaction and parasite load in the skin of experimental infected dogs.
Tasca, Karen Ingrid; Buzetti, Wilma Aparecida Starke; Tenorio, Michely da Silva; Paulan, Silvana de Cássia; Lima, Flávia Luna; de Queiroz, Nina Mari Gual Pimenta; Machado, Rosângela Zacarias; Oliveira, Tricia Maria Ferreira de Souza; Neves, Maria Francisca; de Noronha, Antonio Carlos Faconti; de Assis, Juliana
The purpose of this work was a Canine Visceral Leishmaniasis--CVL study by parasitological direct examination of Leishmania (L.) chagasi (imprinting and histological), immunohistochemical test and histopathological analysis using spleen tissues from 34 dogs euthanized by the Zoonotic Disease Control Centre from Ilha Solteira, SP, Brazil. According to the clinical signs, the dogs were divided in three groups: asymptomatics (8 dogs), oligosymptomatics (17 dogs) and symptomatics (9 dogs). After the accomplishment of all diagnostic tests, 22 dogs were considered positives (64.7%) and 12 (35.3%) were negatives to CVL. From these positive dogs, 1/22 (4.5%) was asymptomatic, 12/22(54.5%) were oligosymptomatics and 8/22 (40.1%) were symptomatics. The histopathological study in spleen tissues from positive, especially symptomatic dogs, showed a diffuse chronic inflammation with thickness of capsular and trabecular regions and there was extensive morphologic alteration of the red and white pulp by the presence of abundant macrophages full with amastigotes, the granulomatous inflammatory reaction and haemorrhagic areas. The data of this work from histopathologic examination and direct microscopic visualization of L. (L.) chagasi showed that the spleen was an useful organ to collect sample tissues for CVL diagnosis. The immunostaining detected the highest number of positive dogs and were considered an important and conclusive method to be used in addition to parasitological methods for CVL, particularly in asymptomatic or oligosymptomatic dogs.
DE F MICHELIN, A; PERRI, S H V; DE LIMA, V M F
Dogs are the main domestic reservoirs of L. (L.) chagasi. Once in the vertebrate host, the parasite can cause visceral leishmaniasis, which can also be transmitted to humans. Cytokines are key elements of the host immune response against Leishmania spp. To investigate whether tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-4 and IL-10 are associated with pattern infection in dogs, these cytokines were quantified in the spleen and liver of dogs naturally infected with L. (L.) chagasi, with or without clinical manifestations, and their levels were correlated with the parasite load verified in these organs. A total of 40 adult dogs naturally infected with L. (L.) chagasi were assessed, together with 12 uninfected control dogs. Samples from spleen and liver were used to determine the cytokine levels by capture ELISA and for quantifying parasite load by real-time PCR. Statistical analysis was performed using the minimum Chi square method and group means were compared using the Tukey test. TNF-α, IL-4 and IL-10 levels in infected dogs were higher than in control groups; the liver was the main cytokine-producing organ during infection. The level of splenic TNF-α showed correlation with parasite load and may represent an important marker for infection process evolution, with the participation of IL-10. These results may contribute to a clearer understanding of the immune response in dogs infected with L. (L.) chagasi, which may lead to the development of prophylactic or preventive measures for these animals. PMID:21929879
Ferreira, Leandro Rodrigues; Kesper, Norival; Teixeira, Marta M G; Laurenti, Marcia Dalastra; Barbieri, C L; Lindoso, José Angelo; Umezawa, Eufrosina S
We investigated whether ELISA using crude antigens from insect and plant trypanosomatids, which are non-pathogenic and easily cultivated in large scale, has the same positivity data as Leishmania (Leishmania) chagasi, the etiological agent of human visceral leishmaniasis (VL) or canine leishmaniasis (CanL), or as Trypanosoma cruzi, the etiological agent of Chagas disease (CD). The antigens from Crithidia fasciculata, Crithidia luciliae, and Leptomonas seymouri showed 100% cross-reactivity with VL and CanL samples, with no statistically titers differences from L. (L.) chagasi, however, 34% (17/50) of VL samples revealed higher titers using the insect trypanosomatids than the homologous antigen. On the other hand, antigens from Strigomonas culicis, Angomonas deanei, and Phytomonas serpens showed low cross-reactivity with VL and CanL samples. The sera from patients with American tegumentary leishmaniasis showed low levels of cross-reactivity with all trypanosomatids investigated, even with L. (L) chagasi, without titers dissimilarity among them. These parasites were also worthless as antigen source for detection of CD cases, which required homologous antigens to reach 100% positivity. This study showed, by ELISA, that crude extract of Crithidia and Leptomonas have epitopes similar to L. (L.) chagasi, which supports the idea of using them as antigens source for the serodiagnosis of visceral leishmaniasis. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Rascón-Castelo, Edgar; Burgara-Estrella, Alexel; Reséndiz-Sandoval, Mónica; Hernández-Lugo, Andrés; Hernández, Jesús
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the humoral and cellular responses of commercial multiparous and hyper-immunized sows against peptides from non-structural (nsp) and structural proteins of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV). We selected sows with different numbers of parities from a commercial farm. Management practices on this farm include the use of the MLV commercial vaccine four times per year, plus two vaccinations during the acclimation period. The humoral response was evaluated via the antibody recognition of peptides from nsp and structural proteins, and the cellular response was assessed by measuring the frequency of peptide and PRRSV-specific IFN-gamma-secreting cells (IFNγ-SC). Our results show that sows with six parities have more antibodies against peptides from structural proteins than against peptides from nsp. The analysis of the cellular response revealed that the number of immunizations did not affect the frequency of IFNγ-SC and that the response was stronger against peptides from structural proteins (M protein) than against nsp (nsp2). In summary, these results demonstrate that multiparous, hyper-immunized sows have a stronger immune humoral response to PRRSV structural peptides than nsp, but no differences in IFNγ-SC against the same peptides were observed.
Rascón-Castelo, Edgar; Burgara-Estrella, Alexel; Reséndiz-Sandoval, Mónica; Hernández-Lugo, Andrés; Hernández, Jesús
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the humoral and cellular responses of commercial multiparous and hyper-immunized sows against peptides from non-structural (nsp) and structural proteins of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV). We selected sows with different numbers of parities from a commercial farm. Management practices on this farm include the use of the MLV commercial vaccine four times per year, plus two vaccinations during the acclimation period. The humoral response was evaluated via the antibody recognition of peptides from nsp and structural proteins, and the cellular response was assessed by measuring the frequency of peptide and PRRSV-specific IFN-gamma-secreting cells (IFNγ-SC). Our results show that sows with six parities have more antibodies against peptides from structural proteins than against peptides from nsp. The analysis of the cellular response revealed that the number of immunizations did not affect the frequency of IFNγ-SC and that the response was stronger against peptides from structural proteins (M protein) than against nsp (nsp2). In summary, these results demonstrate that multiparous, hyper-immunized sows have a stronger immune humoral response to PRRSV structural peptides than nsp, but no differences in IFNγ-SC against the same peptides were observed. PMID:26633527
Background Visceral leishmaniasis is the most serious form of leishmaniasis and can be lethal if left untreated. Currently available treatments for these parasitic diseases are frequently associated to severe side effects. The leaves of Croton cajucara are used as an infusion in popular medicine to combat several diseases. Previous studies have demonstrated that the linalool-rich essential oil from C. cajucara (white sacaca) is extremely efficient against the tegumentary specie Leishmania amazonensis. In this study, we investigated the effects of the 7-hydroxycalamenene-rich essential oil from the leaves of C. cajucara (red sacaca) against Leishmania chagasi, as well as on the interaction of these parasites with host cells. Methods Promastigotes were treated with different concentrations of the essential oil for determination of its minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC). In addition, the effects of the essential oil on parasite ultrastructure were analyzed by transmission electron microscopy. To evaluate its efficacy against infected cells, mouse peritoneal macrophages infected with L. chagasi promastigotes were treated with the inhibitory and sub-inhibitory concentrations of the essential oil. Results The minimum inhibitory concentrations of the essential oil and its purified component 7-hydroxycalamenene against L. chagasi were 250 and 15.6 μg/mL, respectively. Transmission electron microscopy analysis revealed important nuclear and kinetoplastic alterations in L. chagasi promastigotes. Pre-treatment of macrophages and parasites with the essential oil reduced parasite/macrophage interaction by 52.8%, while it increased the production of nitric oxide by L. chagasi-infected macrophages by 80%. Conclusion These results indicate that the 7-hydroxycalamenene-rich essential oil from C. cajucara is a promising source of leishmanicidal compounds. PMID:24088644
Harkin, D W; Arnold, R; Hoper, M
Acute limb ischaemia is a common and often lethal clinical event. Reperfusion of an ischaemic limb has been shown to induce a remote gut injury associated with transmigration of endotoxin into the portal and systemic circulation, which in turn has been implicated in the conversion of the sterile inflammatory response to a sepsis syndrome, after lower torso ischaemia-reperfusion injury. This study tests the hypothesis that an anti-endotoxin hyperimmune globulin attenuates ischaemia-reperfusion (I/R) associated sepsis syndrome. Prospective, randomised placebo controlled trial, animal experiment. Experimental porcine model, bilateral hind limb I/R injury, randomised to receive anti-endotoxin hyperimmune globulin or placebo. Bilateral hind limb I/R injury significantly increased intestinal mucosal acidosis, portal endotoxaemia, plasma cytokine (TNF-alpha, IL-6, IL-8) concentrations, circulating phagocytic cell priming and pulmonary leukosequestration, oedema, and capillary-alveolar protein leak. Conversely, pigs treated with anti-endotoxin hyperimmune globulin (IgG) 20mg/kg at onset of reperfusion had significantly reduced portal endotoxaemia, early circulating phagocytic cell priming, plasma cytokinaemia and attenuation of acute lung injury. Endotoxin translocation across a hyperpermeable gut barrier, phagocytic cell priming and cytokinaemia are key events of limb I/R injury induced systemic inflammation and acute lung injury. This study shows that an anti-endotoxin hyperimmune globulin attenuates portal endotoxaemia, which may reduce early phagocytic cell activation, cytokinaemia and ultimately acute lung injury.
Carneiro, Liliane Almeida; Silveira, Fernando Tobias; Campos, Marliane Batista; Brígido, Maria do Carmo de Oliveira; Gomes, Claudia Maria C; Corbett, Carlos E P; Laurenti, Márcia D
In Amazonian Brazil, the Cebus apella monkey (Primates: Cebidae) has been associated with the enzootic cycle of Leishmania (V.) shawi, a dermotropic parasite causing American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL). It has also been successfully used as animal model for studying cutaneous leishmaniasis. In this work, there has been investigated its susceptibility to experimental Leishmania (L.) infantum chagasi-infection, the etiologic agent of American visceral leishmaniasis (AVL). There were used ten C. apella specimens, eight adult and two young, four males and six females, all born and raised in captivity. Two experimental infection protocols were performed: i) six monkeys were inoculated, intra-dermal via (ID), into the base of the tail with 2 x 10(6) promastigotes forms from the stationary phase culture medium; ii) other four monkeys were inoculated with 3 x 10(7) amastigotes forms from the visceral infection of infected hamsters by two different via: a) two by intravenous via (IV) and, b) other two by intra-peritoneal via (IP). The parameters of infection evaluation included: a) clinical: physical exam of abdomen, weigh and body temperature; b) parasitological: needle aspiration of the bone-marrow for searching of amastigotes (Giemsa-stained smears) and promastigotes forms (culture medium); c) immunological: Indirect fluorescence antibody test (IFAT) and, Delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH). In the six monkeys ID inoculated (promastigotes forms) all parameters of infection evaluation were negative during the 12 months period of follow-up. Among the four monkeys inoculated with amastigotes forms, two IV inoculated showed the parasite in the bone-marrow from the first toward to the sixth month p.i. and following that they cleared the infection, whereas the other two IP inoculated were totally negative. These four monkeys showed specific IgG-antibody response since the third month p.i. (IP: 1/80 and IV: 1/320 IgG) toward to the 12th month (IP: 1/160 and IV: 1/5120). The
Gomes, Izabelle Teixeira; Carvalho, Sílvio Fernando Guimarães; Rocha, Roberta Dias Rodrigues; Peruhype-Magalhães, Vanessa; Dietze, Reynaldo; Martins-Filho, Olindo de Assis; Lemos, Elenice Moreira
We have previously reported a novel flow cytometric based methodology to access the reactivity of seric anti-live (FC-ALPA) and fixed (FC-AFPA) L. chagasi IgG antibodies applicable for cure assessment after specific therapy of VL. Both, FC-ALPA-IgG and FC-AFPA-IgG are promising targets to be used for early cure assessment. However, our finding suggested that further refinements were still required to improve the performance of FC-AFPA IgG for early cure assessment in VL. In the present investigation, we have established and evaluated the performance of FC-AFPA-IgG1/IgG2/IgG3/IgG4 aiming to increase the performance index of the previously reported for FC-AFPA-IgG. The data was expressed as percentage of fluorescent positive parasites after incubation of pre-fixed L. chagasi promastigotes with the test sera samples and addition of second-step FITC-labeled anti-human IgG subclasses conjugates. The analysis of anti-L. chagasi IgG reactivity in polled sera samples from VL patients demonstrated that, before the etiological treatment, the IgG subclass profile was characterized by IgG1>IgG3 with the absence of IgG2 and IgG4 at the specific sera dilution tested. Following the establishment of specific PPFP cut-off-edges to segregate negative and positive results (PPFP of 50% for FC-AFPA-IgG1 and PPFP of 40% for FC-AFPA-IgG3), the analysis of IgG1 and IgG3 reactivity demonstrated good performance for early cure assessment in VL. The analysis of individual samples indicated that despite at 2 mAT, most treated VL patients (81%) still displayed positive results in FC-AFPA-IGg1 analysis, an increased fraction of treated patients (76%) presented negative in FC-AFPA-IgG1 analysis at 6 mAT. Interestingly, the data from FC-AFPA-IgG3 demonstrated an outstanding performance of this method to early cure assessment in VL with increased frequency of treated patients displaying negative results at 2 mAT (90.5%) as well as at 6 mAT (95.2%). The analysis of likelihood ratio (LR) further
Serums from goats hyperimmunized with Chlamydia psittaci consistently produce antichlamydial fluorescent antibody conjugate of high titer. The titer of the fluorescent antibody conjugate prepared from a given serum correlated well with the titer obtained by agar gel precipitin, but not with the complement fixation. The agar gel precipitin test can be used to predict whether a given serum is satisfactory for use in production of a conjugate for direct fluorescent antibody tests. Serums with an agar gel precipitin titer of 1/8 or higher generally produce a usable fluorescent antibody conjugate. Labeling gamma globulins with fluorescein isothiocyanate at a ratio of 1/150 resulted in satisfactory fluorescent antibody conjugates. Cultures of Vero cells infected with chlamydiae were found to be suitable for titration of the fluorescent antibody conjugates. PMID:6372973
Blázquez-Gamero, Daniel; Galindo Izquierdo, A; Del Rosal, T; Baquero-Artigao, F; Izquierdo Méndez, N; Soriano-Ramos, M; Rojo Conejo, P; González-Tomé, M I; García-Burguillo, A; Pérez Pérez, N; Sánchez, V; Ramos-Amador, J T; De la Calle, M
Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is the leading cause of congenital infection worldwide. Data about the management of CMV infection in pregnant women are scarce, and treatment options are very limited. The aim of the study is to investigate the effectiveness of cytomegalovirus hyperimmune globulin (CMV-HIG) for the prevention and treatment of congenital CMV (cCMV) infection. A retrospective observational study was conducted in three tertiary hospitals in Madrid. In the period 2009-2015, CMV-HIG (Cytotect® CP Biotest, Biotest) treatment was offered to all pregnant women with primary CMV infection and/or detection of CMV-DNA in amniotic fluid in participating centers. Women were divided into prevention and treatment groups (PG and TG, respectively). Those with primary CMV infection who had not undergone amniocentesis comprised the PG and received monthly CMV-HIG (100 UI/kg). If CMV-DNA was subsequently detected in amniotic fluid, one extra dose of CMV-HIG (200 UI/kg) was given 4 weeks after the last dose. Those women were considered to be part of the PG group despite detection of CMV-DNA in amniotic fluid. In the case of a negative result in CMV-DNA detection in amniotic fluid or if amniocentesis was not performed, monthly HIG was given up to the end of the pregnancy. Thirty-six pregnant women were included. Median gestational age at birth was 39 weeks [interquartile range (IQR): 38-40] and 2 children (5.5%) were premature (born at 28 and 34 weeks' gestation). Amniocentesis was performed in 30/36 (83.4%) pregnancies and CMV PCR was positive in 21 of them (70%). One fetus with a positive PCR in amniotic fluid that received one dose of HIG after amniocentesis presented a negative CMV-PCR in urine at birth, and was asymptomatic at 12 months of age. Twenty-four children were infected at birth, and 16/21 (76.2%) presented no sequelae at 12 months, while 2 (9.5%) had mild unilateral hearing loss and three (14.3%) severe hearing loss or neurological sequelae. Seventeen women
Fernandes, Ana Paula; Costa, Míriam Maria Silva; Coelho, Eduardo Antônio Ferraz; Michalick, Marilene Suzan Marques; de Freitas, Eloísa; Melo, Maria Norma; Luiz Tafuri, Wagner; Resende, Daniela de Melo; Hermont, Vinícius; Abrantes, Christiane de Freitas; Gazzinelli, Ricardo Tostes
In this study, we investigated in dogs the immunogenicity and protective immunity against Leishmania (Leishmania) chagasi infection induced by vaccination with a formulation containing the recombinant A2 protein, an amastigote specific antigen, and saponin. Vaccinated animals produced significantly increased levels of total IgG and IgG2, but not IgG1 anti-A2 antibodies, and remained negative in conventional leishmaniasis serodiagnostic methods. Significantly increased IFN-gamma and low IL-10 levels were detected in vaccinated animals before and after challenge, as compared to control animals. Importantly, while the symptoms onset appeared as early as three months after infection in most control dogs, 14 months after challenge, 5 out of 7 vaccinated dogs remained asymptomatic. Therefore, immunization with rA2 antigen was immunogenic and induced partial protection in dogs, and allowed the serological differentiation between vaccinated and infected animals, an important requirement for a canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL) vaccine.
Lemos, Elenice Moreira; Gomes, Izabelle Teixeira; Carvalho, Sílvio Fernando Guimarães; Rocha, Roberta Dias Rodrigues; Pissinate, Jauber Fornaciari; Martins-Filho, Olindo Assis; Dietze, Reynaldo
The residual serological reactivity observed in patients cured of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) represents the major factor underlying the low efficiency of most anti-Leishmania serological approaches to assess posttherapeutic cure in VL. Herein, we have described a detuned flow cytometry-based methodology to detect anti-live (FC-ALPA-immunoglobulin G [IgG]) and anti-fixed (FC-AFPA-IgG) L. chagasi promastigote IgG, along the titration curve (1:2,000 to 1:128,000), as a tool to assess late (12 months after treatment [12 mAT]) and early (2 and 6 mAT) posttherapeutic cure of pediatric American visceral leishmaniasis. Reactivities were reported as the percentage of positive fluorescent parasite (PPFP), using a PPFP of 50% as a cutoff to segregate positive and negative results. Our data demonstrated that both FC-ALPA-IgG at 1:4,000 and FC-ALPA-IgG at 1:32,000 are useful for late cure assessment in VL, with 100% specificity and outstanding likelihood ratio indices. Cure assessment at 6 mAT also showed promising performance indices, identifying 81% and 71.4% of the treated patients with negative results. However, new interpretation parameters were necessary to monitor cure at 2 mAT. We then introduced the differential PPFP (DeltaPPFP) of 25% as a new cutoff for early cure assessment at specific serum dilutions to analyze IgG reactivity by FC-ALPA-IgG and FC-AFPA-IgG. Our data demonstrated that at 2 mAT, DeltaPPFP was >25% in 60% and 57.1% of treated patients, whereas at 6 mAT, a DeltaPPFP of >25% was observed in 100% and 95.2% of samples assayed by FC-ALPA-IgG and FC-AFPA-IgG, respectively. Together, our findings showed the potential of both FC-ALPA-IgG and FC-AFPA-IgG regarding their applicability to detect differential serological reactivity and further contribution to posttherapeutic cure assessment in VL.
Ferrara, Francesca; Molesti, Eleonora; Scott, Simon; Cattoli, Giovanni; Temperton, Nigel
The pseudotype particle neutralization test (pp-NT) is a next-generation serological assay employed for the sensitive study of influenza antibody responses against hemagglutinin (HA), including stalk-directed antibodies. However, a validation of this assay has yet to be performed, and this limits its use to primarily research laboratories. To identify possible serological standards to be used in optimization and validation of the pp-NT, we have evaluated the cross-reactivity of hyperimmune chicken reference antisera in this assay. Our findings show that the cross-reactivity detected by the pp-NT is only partly explained by phylogenetic relationships and protein homology between the HA subtypes analysed; further studies are necessary to understand the origin of the cross-reactivity detected, and reference standards with higher specificity should be evaluated or generated de novo for future use in pp-NT.
Caston, Stephanie S; McClure, Scott R; Martens, Ronald J; Chaffin, M Keith; Miles, Kristina G; Griffith, Ronald W; Cohen, Noah D
This study evaluated the prophylactic effectiveness of hyperimmune plasma (HIP) as an aid in the prevention of pneumonia caused by experimental infection with Rhodococcus equi. Thirty neonatal foals were administered R. equi HIP or saline at 2 days of age and were infected with virulent R. equi at 7 days. All foals developed signs or symptoms of respiratory disease. Radiographic scores on day 28 and neutrophil concentrations on day 49 were significantly greater in control foals, and time to respiratory effort score of 2 or higher was significantly shorter for control foals. Three foals, all in the principal group, died or were euthanized before the end of the study, but there was no significant difference in mortality between groups. VapA titers were significantly greater in principal foals. Administration of R. equi HIP decreased the severity of radiographic lesions and prolonged time to increased respiratory effort due to R. equi-induced pneumonia.
Cezário, Glaucia Aparecida Gomes; de Oliveira, Larissa Ragozo Cardoso; Peresi, Eliana; Nicolete, Vanessa Cristina; Polettini, Jossimara; de Lima, Carlos Roberto Gonçalves; Gatto, Mariana; Calvi, Sueli Aparecida
Toll-like receptors (TLRs) recognise pathogen-derived molecules and influence immunity to control parasite infections. This study aimed to evaluate the mRNA expression of TLRs 2 and 4, the expression and production of the cytokines interleukin (IL)-12, interferon (IFN)-γ, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, IL-17, IL-10 and transforming growth factor (TGF)-β and the production of nitric oxide (NO) in the spleen of mice infected with Leishmania chagasi. It also aimed to evaluate any correlations between mRNA expression TLR2 and 4 and cytokines and NO production. Infection resulted in increased TLR2-4, IL-17, TNF-α and TGF-β mRNA expression during early infection, with decreased expression during late infection correlating with parasite load. IFN-γ and IL-12 mRNA expression decreased at the peak of parasitism. IL-10 mRNA expression increased throughout the entire time period analysed. Although TGF-β, TNF-α and IL-17 were highly produced during the initial phase of infection, IFN-γ and IL-12 exhibited high production during the final phase of infection. IL-10 and NO showed increased production throughout the evaluated time period. In the acute phase of infection, there was a positive correlation between TLR2-4, TNF-α, IL-17, NO, IL-10 and TGF-β expression and parasite load. During the chronic phase of infection, there was a positive correlation between TLR2-4, TNF-α, IL-17 and TGF-β expression and parasite load. Our data suggest that infection by L. chagasi resulted in modulation of TLRs 2 and 4 and cytokines.
Tzipori, S; Rand, W; Griffiths, J; Widmer, G; Crabb, J
Several immunodeficient rodent models currently exist in which persistent, largely asymptomatic, Cryptosporidium parvum infections can be established. Piglets, in contrast, develop a self-limiting diarrheal illness. We have consequently developed an animal model system in which scid mice were used to screen drugs for inhibitory activity against C. parvum, after which the drugs' therapeutic potential was evaluated with piglets. Paromomycin and hyperimmune bovine colostrum-immunoglobulin were selected to evaluate this system. C. paravum infections in suckling scid mice tended to be associated with villus surfaces, while in weaned and in older scid mice infections were more commonly localized in abscessed crypts. Rates of oocyst shedding in suckling scid mice were 50 to 200 times higher than in weaned mice and therefore made suckling mice a considerably more sensitive model for drug testing. Paromomycin given in high doses over 9 to 10 days was not toxic to either scid mice (3,000 mg/kg of body weight per day) or piglets (500 mg/kg/day). Paromomycin treatment was very effective against villus surface infections in suckling mice and considerably less effective against infections in inaccessible sites such as abscessed crypts and stomach pits seen in weaned and adult scid mice. The therapeutic efficacy of paromomycin in piglets depended on the severity of the diarrheal illness. Mild to moderate diarrhea and infection were cleared after paromomycin treatment of piglets infected with one C. parvum isolate. However, paromomycin had no impact on severely affected piglets infected with a second isolate, presumably because of a rapid transit time through the gut. In contrast to paromomycin hyperimmune bovine colostrum-immunoglobulin treatment reduced the rate of C. parvum infection moderately in scid mice and only slightly in piglets, again probably because of a rapid transit time through the gut and inactivation in the stomach. It was also clear that the impact of effective
Safety and pharmacokinetics of hyperimmune anti-human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) immunoglobulin administered to HIV-infected pregnant women and their newborns. Pediatric AIDS Clinical Trials Group Protocol 185 Pharmacokinetic Study Group.
Lambert, J S; Mofenson, L M; Fletcher, C V; Moye, J; Stiehm, E R; Meyer, W A; Nemo, G J; Mathieson, B J; Hirsch, G; Sapan, C V; Cummins, L M; Jimenez, E; O'Neill, E; Kovacs, A; Stek, A
The pharmacokinetics and safety of hyperimmune anti-human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) intravenous immunoglobulin (HIVIG) were evaluated in the first 28 maternal-infant pairs enrolled in a randomized, intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG)-controlled trial of HIVIG maternal-infant HIV transmission prophylaxis. Using 200 mg/kg, mean half-life and volume of distribution (Vd) in women were 15 days and 72 mL/kg, respectively, after one and 32 days and 154 mL/kg after three monthly infusions, with stable 4 mL/kg/day clearance. Transplacental passage occurred. Newborn single-dose half-life, Vd, and clearance were 30 days, 143 mL/kg, and 4 mL/kg/day, respectively. HIVIG rapidly cleared maternal serum immune complex-dissociated p24 antigen, and plasma HIV-1 RNA levels were stable. Mild to moderate adverse clinical effects occurred in 2 of 103 maternal and 2 of 25 infant infusions. No adverse hematologic, blood chemistry, or immunologic effects were seen. HIVIG is well-tolerated in HIV-infected pregnant women and their newborns, clears antigenemia, crosses the placenta, and exhibits pharmacokinetics similar to those of other immunoglobulin preparations.
Oliveira, Valéria C S; Moura, Daniela M S; Lopes, José A D; de Andrade, Paulo P; da Silva, Nicácio H; Figueiredo, Regina C B Q
The current therapy for leishmaniasis, which affects annually about 2 million people, is far from satisfactory. All available drugs require parenteral administration and are potentially toxic. Plant essential oils have been traditionally used in folk medicine and appear as valuable alternative source for chemotherapeutic compounds. In this study, we demonstrated the effect of essential oils from Cymbopogon citratus, Lippia sidoides, and Ocimum gratissimum on growth and ultrastructure of Leishmania chagasi promastigote forms. Steam distillation was used to isolate the essential oils, and their constituents were characterized by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance. All essential oils showed in vitro inhibitory action on L. chagasi promastigotes growth in a dose-dependent way, with IC(50)/72 h of 45, 89, and 75 microg/mL for C. citratus, L. sidoides, and O. gratissimum, respectively. Drastic morphological alterations were observed in all essential oil-treated parasites, including cell swelling, accumulation of lipid droplets in the cytoplasm, and increase of acidocalcisome volume. Furthermore, aberrant-shaped cells with multi-septate body were observed by scanning electron microscopy, suggesting an additional effect on cytokinesis. Taken together, our data show that these essential oils affect the parasite viability being the C. citratus essential oil the most effective against L. chagasi.
Pinedo-Cancino, Viviana; Kesper, Norival; Barbiéri, Clara Lúcia; Lindoso, José Angelo Lauletta; Umezawa, Eufrosina Setsu
The analysis of promastigote excreted-secreted antigen (ESA) reactivity with 53 visceral leishmaniasis (VL) cases showed that each sample reacted regardless of the antigen or the Leishmania species used in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) displayed 100% positivity with the L. (L.) chagasi ESA-blot recognizing bands of molecular weight ranging from 26.5 to 31.5 kDa. The analysis of 160 non-visceral cases showed that 5% of the samples cross-reacted with the L. (L.) chagasi ESA-ELISA and 9.4% reacted with the ESA isolated from L. (L.) amazonensis and L. (V.) braziliensis, whereas a high cross-reaction ranging from 24.4% to 25% was observed with total crude promastigote antigens (PRO-ELISA). The ESA-blot of L. (L.) chagasi tested with non-visceral sera samples showed a cross-reaction with 8.8% of cases; most of these cases represented tegumentary leishmaniasis and only one acute chagasic case. These data lead us to recommend the use of ESA as an alternative antigen in VL diagnosis.
Vale, A M; Fujiwara, R T; da Silva Neto, A F; Miret, J A; Alvarez, D C C; da Silva, J C F; Campos-Neto, A; Reed, S; Mayrink, W; Nascimento, E
The Leishmania species present a genetic homology that ranges from 69 to 90%. Because of this homology, heterologous antigens have been used in the immunodiagnosis and vaccine development against Leishmania infections. In the current work, we describe the identification of species-specific and cross-reactive antigens among several New World Leishmania species, using symptomatic and asymptomatic naturally Leishmania chagasi-infected dog sera. Soluble antigens from five strains of New World Leishmania were separated by electrophoresis in SDS-PAGE and immunoblotted. Different proteins were uniquely recognized in the L. chagasi panel by either symptomatic or asymptomatic dog sera suggesting their use as markers for the progression of disease and diagnosis of the initial (sub-clinical) phase of the infection. Cross-reactive antigens were identified using heterologous antigenic panels (L. amazonensis strains PH8 and BH6, L. guyanensis and L. braziliensis). L. guyanensis panel showed the highest cross-reactivity against L. chagasi specific antibodies, suggesting that proteins from this extract might be suitable for the diagnosis of visceral canine leishmaniasis. Interestingly, the 51 and 97 kDa proteins of Leishmania were widely recognized (77.8% to 100%) among all antigenic panels tested, supporting their potential use for immunodiagnosis. Finally, we identified several leishmanial antigens that might be useful for routine diagnosis and seroepidemiological studies of the visceral canine leishmaniasis.
Kashino, S S; Abeijon, C; Qin, L; Kanunfre, K A; Kubrusly, F S; Silva, F O; Costa, D L; Campos, D; Costa, C H N; Raw, I; Campos-Neto, A
Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a serious lethal parasitic disease caused by Leishmania donovani in Asia and by Leishmania infantum chagasi in southern Europe and South America. VL is endemic in 47 countries with an annual incidence estimated to be 500,000 cases. This high incidence is due in part to the lack of an efficacious vaccine. Here, we introduce an innovative approach to directly identify parasite vaccine candidate antigens that are abundantly produced in vivo in humans with VL. We combined RP-HPLC and mass spectrometry and categorized three L. infantum chagasi proteins, presumably produced in spleen, liver and bone marrow lesions and excreted in the patients' urine. Specifically, these proteins were the following: Li-isd1 (XP_001467866.1), Li-txn1 (XP_001466642.1) and Li-ntf2 (XP_001463738.1). Initial vaccine validation studies were performed with the rLi-ntf2 protein produced in Escherichia coli mixed with the adjuvant BpMPLA-SE. This formulation stimulated potent Th1 response in BALB/c mice. Compared to control animals, mice immunized with Li-ntf2+ BpMPLA-SE had a marked parasite burden reduction in spleens at 40 days post-challenge with virulent L. infantum chagasi. These results strongly support the proposed antigen discovery strategy of vaccine candidates to VL and opens novel possibilities for vaccine development to other serious infectious diseases.
Genzini, T; Dos Santos, R G; Pedrosa, C; Curvelo, L A; Noujaim, H M; Crescentini, F; Mota, L T; Guirro, T G; Ferreira, F Y; Salomão, P; Pereira, J R B; de Miranda, M P
Hepatitis B (HBV) is a public health problem worldwide; one-third of the population has already been in contact with HBV, and 350 million people are chronic carriers of virus. The appearance of hyperimmune gamma globulin and antiviral drugs has allowed that group to undergone hepatic transplantation, achieving satisfactory results to prevent a relapse. But the use of hyperimmune gamma globulin has an extremely high cost, and combined therapies with new antiviral drugs seem to be a therapeutic alternative. We analyzed 21 patients with hepatitis B associated or not with Delta hepatitis over a mean follow-up period of 19.5 months, concluding that use of only nucleotide analogues has sufficient to achieve satisfactory results. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Viana, Kelvinson Fernandes; Aguiar-Soares, Rodrigo Dian Oliveira; Ker, Henrique Gama; Resende, Lucilene Aparecida; Souza-Fagundes, Elaine Maria; Dutra, Walderez Ornelas; Fujiwara, Ricardo Toshio; da Silveira-Lemos, Denise; Sant'Ana, Rita de Cássia Oliveira; Wardini, Amanda Brito; Araújo, Márcio Sobreira Silva; Martins-Filho, Olindo Assis; Reis, Alexandre Barbosa; Giunchetti, Rodolfo Cordeiro
New methods for evaluating the canine immune system are necessary, not only to monitor immunological disorders, but also to provide insights for vaccine evaluations and therapeutic interventions, reducing the costs of assays using dog models, and provide a more rational way for analyzing the canine immune response. The present study intended to establish an in vitro toll to assess the parasitological/immunological status of dogs, applicable in pre-clinical trials of vaccinology, prognosis follow-up and therapeutics analysis of canine visceral leishmaniasis. We have evaluated the performance of co-culture systems of canine Leishmania chagasi-infected macrophages with different cell ratios of total lymphocytes or purified CD4(+) and CD8(+) T-cells. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells from uninfected dogs were used for the system set up. Employing the co-culture systems of L. chagasi-infected macrophages and purified CD4(+) or CD8(+) T-cell subsets we observed a microenvironment compatible with the expected status of the analyzed dogs. In this context, it was clearly demonstrated that, at this selected T-cell:target ratio, the adaptive immune response of uninfected dogs, composed by L. chagasi-unprimed T-cells was not able to perform the in vitro killing of L. chagasi-infected macrophages. Our data demonstrated that the co-culture system with T-cells from uninfected dogs at 1:5 and 1:2 ratio did not control the infection, yielding to patent in vitro parasitism (≥ 80%), low NO production (≤ 5 μM) and IL-10 modulated (IFN-γ/IL-10 ≤ 2) immunological profile in vitro. CD4(+) or CD8(+) T-cells at 1:5 or 1:2 ratio to L. chagasi-infected macrophages seems to be ideal for in vitro assays. This co-culture system may have great potential as a canine immunological analysis method, as well as in vaccine evaluations, prognosis follow-up and therapeutic interventions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
de Andrade, Renata Aline; Reis, Alexandre Barbosa; Gontijo, Célia Maria Ferreira; Braga, Lidiane Bento; Rocha, Roberta Dias Rodrigues; Araújo, Márcio Sobreira Silva; Vianna, Leonardo Rocha; Martins-Filho, Olindo Assis
Leishmune vaccination covers a broader number of endemic areas of canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL) and therefore the development of new serological devices able to discriminate CVL from Leishmune vaccinees becomes an urgent need considering the post-vaccine seroconversion detected throughout conventional methodologies. Herein, we have described the establishment of a flow cytometry based methodology to detect anti-fixed L. (L.) chagasi promastigotes antibodies (FC-AFPA-IgG, FC-AFPA-IgG1 and FC-AFPA-IgG2) in sera samples from Leishmania (Leishmania) chagasi infected dogs and Leishmune vaccinees. The results of FC-AFPA were reported along the sera titration curve (1:128-1:524,288), as percentage-of-positive-fluorescent-parasite (PPFP). The use of PPFP=20% as a cut-off edge to segregate negative and positive results at sera dilution 1:2048 revealed outstanding performance indexes that elect FC-AFPA-IgG and IgG2 (both detected by polyclonal FITC-labeled second step reagent) applicable to the serological diagnosis of CVL, with 100% of specificity for both IgG and IgG2 and 97 and 93% of sensitivity, respectively. Moreover, FC-AFPA-IgG, applied at sera dilution 1:2048, also appeared as a useful tool to discriminate L. chagasi infected dogs from Leishmune vaccinees, with 76% of specificity. Outstanding likelihood indexes further support the performance of FC-AFPA-IgG for exclusion diagnosis of CVL in Leishmune vaccinees. Analysis of FC-AFPA-IgG at sera dilution 1:8192 revealed the most outstanding indexes, demonstrating that besides the ability of PPFP
Kopaniak, M. M.; Movat, H. Z.
The inflammatory response to Escherichia coli was quantitated in the skin of normal rabbits and the kinetics established as described previously. Hyperemia, measured with radiolabeled microspheres; vascular permeability, estimated with 125 I-albumin; and leukocyte infiltration, quantitated with 51Cr-labeled autologous leukocytes, reached maximal values 3 hours after the injection of bacteria and subsided almost completely by 6 hours. Hemorrhage, measured with homologous 59Fe-erythrocytes, continued to increase between 1 and 6 hours after injection and then reached plateau levels. The lesions were studied up to 8 hours, since in the previous study no changes were observed beyond that time. In the study described in this paper, the host mediation systems were manipulated in various groups of rabbits in order to elucidate the mechanisms underlying the development of the inflammatory reaction. One group of animals was hyperimmunized with the E coli organisms, another was partially depleted of hemolytic complement with cobra venom factor, and yet another was rendered leukopenic with nitrogen mustard. In hyperimmunized animals hyperemia in the dermal lesions induced by the microorganisms was significantly more intense than in normal rabbits. Vascular permeability increase occurred earlier in hyperimmunized rabbits and at 1 hour was significantly greater than in normals. Decomplemented rabbits had significantly less vascular permeability than normal animals, whereas in leukopenic rabbits no increase in vascular permeability could be elicited. Leukocyte accumulation was increased over the normal animals in the lesions of hyperimmunized rabbits. Hemorrhage was significantly decreased in leukopenic rabbits. Histologic examination of the lesions revealed that whereas in normal animals the infiltrating neutrophils ingested most of the bacteria and formed definite abscesses by 6-8 hours, these abscesses were absent in leukopenic animals, and free-lying bacteria were
Forsgren, A.; Quie, P. G.
The influence of the alternative pathway of complement activation on opsonization of S. aureus, E. coli and Candida albicans for phagocytosis was selectively studied by chelating serum with 10 mM EGTA and 10 mM MgC12. Opsonic activity of the chelated serum depended on the alternative pathway of complement activation. The classical pathway was inhibited. There was no phagocytosis of S. aureus in chelated normal serum, suggesting that activation of complement activity by the classical pathway is necessary for opsonization of this micro-organism. In control experiments when opsonization of S. aureus was accomplished by IgG separated from hyperimmune serum, without the requirement of complement activity, there was no inhibition of phagocytosis by EGTA and magnesium chloride. E. coli and C. albicans were opsonized in chelated normal serum, indicating that the alternative pathway of complement activation is involved in opsonization of these micro-organisms. PMID:4604857
Leemans, Jérôme; Hamers, Claude; Chery, Roland; Bibard, Amandine; Besancon, Laure; Duboeuf, Michelle; Hudelet, Pascal; Goutebroze, Sylvain; Kirschvink, Nathalie
Despite the widespread use of Bluetongue serotype 8 (BTV-8) vaccines across Europe, there remain unanswered questions on the effects of maternally derived antibodies (MDA) on vaccination. This study investigated the persistence of MDA in lambs and their interference on vaccine efficacy. Lambs born from hyperimmune ewes-i.e. ewes naturally infected with BTV-8 in 2007 and repeatedly vaccinated thereafter-were used. They were allocated to five groups (n=7/group), four receiving a BTV-8 vaccine at different ages (3, 5, 7 and 9 months) and one left unvaccinated. Vaccine protection was assessed upon a BTV-8 challenge performed at 10 months of age. The neutralising antibody titres were also measured throughout the study. Vaccination at 5, 7 and 9 months led to seroconversion and full clinical and virological protection in all animals. Among lambs vaccinated at 3 months, three (3/7) did not respond to vaccination and were not protected from challenge infection. Others animals (4/7) were fully protected from clinical disease and viraemia in accordance with their seropositive status at time of challenge. In our very stringent conditions, MDA hampered response to BTV-8 vaccination in lambs for at least 3 months after birth. Accordingly, the optimal age of vaccination needs to be adjusted to the immune status of the sheep population.
Bonaros, Nikolaos; Mayer, Bernd; Schachner, Thomas; Laufer, Günther; Kocher, Alfred
The goal of this meta-analysis was to investigate the impact of cytomegalovirus hyperimmune globulin (CMVIG) on cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection, CMV disease, and mid-term survival in solid organ transplant recipients. Medline, EMBASE, and the Cochrane databases were searched since their inceptions until 2006. Inclusion criteria comprised: prospective randomized trials, in solid organ transplantation which received CMV prophylaxis including CMVIG on one of the treatment arms. Random effects models were used to calculate pooled risk ratios (RR) and meta-regression was employed to explain study heterogeneity. Stratified analyses were conducted and Funnel plot was used to assess publication bias. Literature searches identified 11 randomized trials (698 patients; median follow-up: 12 months, range: 3-22 months) including six randomized trials (302 patients) after kidney transplantation. The analysis demonstrated a beneficial effect of the prophylactic use of CMVIG on total survival [RR (95% confidence interval; CI): 0.67 (0.47-0.95)] and prevention of CMV-associated death [RR (95% CI): 0.45 (0.24-0.84)] in solid organ transplant recipients but not kidney transplant recipients [RR (95% CI): 0.35 (0.12-1.04)]. CMV disease was significantly reduced in all recipients receiving prophylactic CMVIG [RR (95% CI): 0.697 (0.57-0.85)]. CMVIG had no impact on CMV-infections and clinically relevant rejections. Prophylactic administration of CMVIG after solid organ transplantation is associated with improved total survival, reduced CMV disease, and CMV-associated deaths.
Nigro, Giovanni; Capretti, Ilaria; Manganello, Anne-Marie; Best, Al M; Adler, Stuart P
Cytomegalovirus (CMV) hyperimmune globulin (HIG) may be helpful after a primary maternal CMV infection during pregnancy as a therapy for infected fetuses or to prevent maternal-to-fetus transmission of CMV. Although immunoglobulins administered during pregnancy appear safe, previous studies have not monitored HIG for a possible effect on duration of gestation and birth weight. We used clinical data on 358 women with a primary CMV infection during pregnancy, 164 of whom received one or more infusions of HIG. The average birth weight of the 358 infants was 3076 g and the average gestational age at delivery for 351 women was 38.2 weeks. After adjusting for potential confounding variables, the only factor associated with low birth weight and the duration of gestation was the presence of symptoms at birth. The receipt of HIG was not associated with either a diminished birth weight or a reduced duration of pregnancy. The receipt of multiple doses of HIG (range 1-8) was significantly correlated with an increase in birth weight (p=0.006) and gestational age at delivery (p=0.014). This correlation was also significant for all asymptomatic infants and for infants whose mothers received multiple doses of HIG to prevent fetal infection. HIG administration during pregnancy is not associated with either diminished gestation or decreased birth weight and may enhance these parameters among women who receive multiple doses starting in early gestation.
Silva, A A S; Morais, S M; Falcão, M J C; Vieira, I G P; Ribeiro, L M; Viana, S M; Teixeira, M J; Barreto, F S; Carvalho, C A; Cardoso, R P A; Andrade-Junior, H F
The aim of the study was to evaluate in vitro the antileishmanial activity of triterpenes and sterols isolated from Musa paradisiaca (banana) fruit peel used traditionally to treat leishmaniasis. The compounds were isolated from the ethanolic extract of the peel of the banana fruit by column chromatography. The chemical structure of compounds was determined by (1)H and (13)C - nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The cytotoxicity was measured in RAW 264.7 cells and LLC-MK2. Leishmanicidal activity against L. infantum chagasi promastigotes was performed by the MTT colorimetric method and activity against amastigotes was assayed in mammalian cells using in situ ELISA method. Five compounds were identified, consisting of three triterpenes: cycloeucalenone, 31-norcyclolaudenone and 24-methylene-cicloartanol and a mixture of two sterols: beta-sitosterol and stigmasterol. With the exception of cycloeucalenone, all compounds showed statistically similar activity against promastigote to pentamidine. While, acting against amastigotes, excluding 31-norcyclolaudenone, other compounds showed activity similar to amphotericin B. All compounds showed low cytotoxicity in mammalian cells. This study partially confirms the use of Musa paradisiaca in folk medicine against leishmaniasis. Further in vivo studies are necessary to evaluate the efficacy. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.
Ueno, Norikiyo; Bratt, Carol L; Rodriguez, Nilda E; Wilson, Mary E
The obligate intracellular protozoan, Leishmania infantum chagasi (Lic) undergoes receptor-mediated phagocytosis by macrophages followed by a transient delay in phagolysosome maturation. We found differences in the pathway through which virulent Lic metacyclic promastigotes or avirulent logarithmic promastigotes are phagocytosed by human monocyte-derived macrophages (MDMs). Both logarithmic and metacyclic promastigotes entered MDMs through a compartment lined by the third complement receptor (CR3). In contrast, many logarithmic promastigotes entered through vacuoles lined by mannose receptors (MR) whereas most metacyclic promastigotes did not (P < 0.005). CR3-positive vacuoles containing metacyclic promastigotes stained for caveolin-1 protein, suggesting CR3 localizes in caveolae during phagocytosis. Following entry, the kinetics of phagolysosomal maturation and intracellular survival also differed. Vacuoles containing metacyclic parasites did not accumulate lysosome-associated membrane protein-1 (LAMP-1) at early times after phagocytosis, whereas vacuoles with logarithmic promastigotes did. MDMs phagocytosed greater numbers of logarithmic than metacyclic promastigotes, yet metacyclics ultimately replicated intracellularly with greater efficiency. These data suggest that virulent metacyclic Leishmania promastigotes fail to ligate macrophage MR, and enter through a path that ultimately enhances intracellular survival. The relatively quiescent entry of virulent Leishmania spp. into macrophages may be accounted for by the ability of metacyclic promastigotes to selectively bypass deleterious entry pathways.
dos Santos, Fernando Rocha; Vieira, Paula Melo Abreu; Correa-Oliveira, Rodrigo; Giunchetti, Rodolfo Cordeiro; Carneiro, Claudia Martins; Reis, Alexandre Barbosa; Malaquias, Luiz Cosme Cotta
Nitric oxide (NO), the product of the nitric oxide synthase enzymes has been detected in Leishmania-infected animals. Besides its role on the immunity to infection, the role of NO and the inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in the pathogenesis of canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL) is not well understood. This study aimed at evaluating immunohistochemically the iNOS expression in the spleen of dogs naturally infected (ID) with Leishmania (L.) chagasi compared with non-infected dogs (NID). The ID was grouped according to the clinical form and the parasite load. Symptomatic dogs (SD) presented higher parasite load in relation to oligosymptomatic (OD) and asymptomatic (AD). The qualitative expression of iNOS was observed only in ID. SD presented strong and prominent labeling of iNOS, followed by OD and AD. Quantitatively, the results showed that the median expression of iNOS was higher in SD and OD compared to NID. Also, dog spleens with high parasitism load showed marked iNOS expression. Taken together, the results suggest that the expression of iNOS in the spleen of infected dogs with CVL was associated with clinical worsening of the disease and with high parasitism.
Araújo-Santos, Théo; Rodríguez, Nilda E; Moura-Pontes, Sara; Dixt, Upasna Gaur; Abánades, Daniel R; Bozza, Patrícia T; Wilson, Mary E; Borges, Valéria Matos
Lipid bodies (LB; lipid droplets) are cytoplasmic organelles involved in lipid metabolism. Mammalian LBs display an important role in host-pathogen interactions, but the role of parasite LBs in biosynthesis of prostaglandin F2α (PGF2α) has not been investigated. We report herein that LBs increased in abundance during development of Leishmania infantum chagasi to a virulent metacyclic stage, as did the expression of PGF2α synthase (PGFS). The amount of parasite LBs and PGF2α were modulated by exogenous arachidonic acid. During macrophage infection, LBs were restricted to parasites inside the parasitophorous vacuoles (PV). We detected PGF2α receptor (FP) on the Leishmania PV surface. The blockage of FP with AL8810, a selective antagonist, hampered Leishmania infection, whereas the irreversible inhibition of cyclooxygenase with aspirin increased the parasite burden. These data demonstrate novel functions for parasite-derived LBs and PGF2α in the cellular metabolism of Leishmania and its evasion of the host immune response.
Ikeda-Garcia, Fabiana Augusta; Lopes, Raimundo Souza; Marques, Fábia Judice; de Lima, Valéria Marçal Félix; Morinishi, Celina Kazue; Bonello, Fábio Luís; Zanette, Maurício Franco; Perri, Sílvia Helena Venturoli; Feitosa, Mary Marcondes
Aiming to evaluate the efficacy of the treatment of canine visceral leishmaniasis, to verify the occurrence of a possible disease relapse, and to search for the presence of the parasites after the end of the treatment, seven dogs naturally infected by Leishmania (Leishmania) chagasi were used. The dogs were subjected to a treatment with 75 mg/kg meglumine antimoniate subcutaneously every 12 h for 21 days, and followed-up for a period of 6 months. During the whole experimental period the animals wore deltamethrin collars and were kept in a screened kennel to avoid reinfection. Lymph node and bone marrow aspiration biopsy was carried out to search for the parasite at seven moments: before the treatment, 30, 60, 90, 120, 150 and 180 days after the start of the treatment. After the end of the experiment all dogs were humanely euthanized. Then, spleen and liver "imprints" and in vitro cultures were carried out to search for amastigote forms of the parasite. During the treatment all animals presented remission of symptoms. However, two dogs were observed to present new symptoms in the course of the experiment. At the end of the experiment, the presence of amastigote forms of the parasite was evidenced in five of the seven dogs. This enabled us to conclude that the treatment promoted clinical cure but did not eliminate the parasites completely.
Collin, Nicolas; Reynoso, David; Jochim, Ryan; Oliveira, Fabiano; Seitz, Amy; Elnaiem, Dia-Eldin; Caldas, Arlene; de Souza, Ana Paula; Brodskyn, Cláudia I.; de Oliveira, Camila Indiani; Mendonca, Ivete; Costa, Carlos H. N.; Volf, Petr; Barral, Aldina; Kamhawi, Shaden; Valenzuela, Jesus G.
Background Sand flies deliver Leishmania parasites to a host alongside salivary molecules that affect infection outcomes. Though some proteins are immunogenic and have potential as markers of vector exposure, their identity and vector specificity remain elusive. Methodology/Principal Findings We screened human, dog, and fox sera from endemic areas of visceral leishmaniasis to identify potential markers of specific exposure to saliva of Lutzomyia longipalpis. Human and dog sera were further tested against additional sand fly species. Recombinant proteins of nine transcripts encoding secreted salivary molecules of Lu. longipalpis were produced, purified, and tested for antigenicity and specificity. Use of recombinant proteins corresponding to immunogenic molecules in Lu. longipalpis saliva identified LJM17 and LJM11 as potential markers of exposure. LJM17 was recognized by human, dog, and fox sera; LJM11 by humans and dogs. Notably, LJM17 and LJM11 were specifically recognized by humans exposed to Lu. longipalpis but not by individuals exposed to Lu. intermedia. Conclusions/Significance Salivary recombinant proteins are of value as markers of vector exposure. In humans, LJM17 and LJM11 emerged as potential markers of specific exposure to Lu. longipalpis, the vector of Leishmania infantum chagasi in Latin America. In dogs, LJM17, LJM11, LJL13, LJL23, and LJL143 emerged as potential markers of sand fly exposure. Testing these recombinant proteins in large scale studies will validate their usefulness as specific markers of Lu. longipalpis exposure in humans and of sand fly exposure in dogs. PMID:20351786
Stober, Carmel B.; Jeronimo, Selma M. B.; Pontes, Nubia N.; Miller, E. Nancy; Blackwell, Jenefer M.
Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is fatal if untreated, and there are no vaccines for this disease. High levels of CD4-derived interferon-γ (IFN-γ) in the presence of low levels of interleukin-10 (IL-10) predicts vaccine success. Tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) is also important in this process. We characterized human immune responses in three groups exposed to Leishmania infantum chagasi in Brazil: 1) drug-cured VL patients (recovered VL); 2) asymptomatic persons with positive Leishmania-specific delayed-type hypersensitivity skin reactions (DTH+); and 3) DTH-negative household contacts. Magnitude of DTH correlated with crude Leishmania antigen–driven IFN-γ, TNF-α, and IL-5, but not IL-10. DTH+ persons showed equivalent levels of IFN-γ, but higher levels of IL-10, to tryparedoxin peroxidase and Leishmania homolog of receptor for activated C kinase compared with recovered VL patients. The IFN-γ:IL-10 and TNF-α:IL-10 ratios were higher in recovered VL patients than in DTH+ persons. Seven of 11 novel candidates (R71, L37, N52, L302.06, M18, J41, and M22) elicited cytokine responses (36–71% of responders) in recovered VL patients and DTH+ persons. This result confirmed their putative status as cross-species vaccine/immunotherapeutic candidates. PMID:22826477
Drug allergy - serum sickness; Allergic reaction - serum sickness; Allergy - serum sickness ... penicillin, cefaclor, and sulfa) can cause a similar reaction. Injected proteins such as antithymocyte globulin (used to ...
Bell, S A; Hobbs, M V; Rubin, R L
The toxic oil syndrome is characterized by IgE elevation and eosinophilia, as well as scleroderma-like skin manifestations and other symptoms of autoimmune disease. Fatty acid anilides, found in large amounts in adulterated cooking oil, were suspected to be the etiologic agent in this disease. The capacity of oleic acid anilide to induce features of autoimmunity in vivo was investigated. B10.S mice were continuously treated i.p. with oleic acid anilide for 6 wk by using osmotic pumps. A significant increase in IgE and IgM serum levels was observed after 1 to 3 wk; subsequently five of six mice developed IgG1 levels 3.5- to 10-fold higher than the controls. Anilide-treated mice developed splenomegaly with a 2.1- and a 3.5-fold increase in IgM- and IgG-bearing splenocytes, respectively, and a 5.6- and 29-fold elevation in functional IgM- and IgG-secreting cells, respectively. Increased serum levels of predominantly IgM antibodies to histone, denatured DNA, and DNP as well as rheumatoid factor were detected. In vivo expression in the spleen of 10 cytokine genes was also examined, and mRNA encoding IL-1 beta and IL-6 were significantly elevated in splenocytes of anilide-treated mice. The enhanced Ig production suggests that anilide induced a cytokine-mediated polyclonal activation of B cells. Elicitation of IgM antibodies to denatured forms of autoantigens indicates that anilide treatment partially broke autoimmune tolerance in these mice. Anilide-treated mice may be a useful animal model for further exploring the mechanism and pathogenesis of systemic autoimmunity in the toxic oil syndrome.
Atanasiu, P.; Bahmanyar, M.; Baltazard, M.; Fox, J. P.; Habel, K.; Kaplan, M. M.; Kissling, R. E.; Komarov, A.; Koprowski, H.; Lépine, P.; Gallardo, F. Pérez; Schaeffer, M.
Groups of adult humans, previously unexposed to rabies and with no history of rabies vaccination, were inoculated with different schedules of phenolized inactivated vaccine and Flury strain chicken-embryo vaccine, with or without one inoculation of hyperimmune serum. Serum specimens of the inoculated individuals were studied for antibody up to the 28th day following the first inoculation of the vaccines and serum. The results can be summarized as follows: 1. Passive antibody appeared in the blood-stream within one day following inoculation of hyperimmune serum. The antibody persisted at a good level for at least 10 days, but dropped slightly by the 14th day and was present in most individuals at the 21st day. 2. There was a tendency for the antibody levels at 21 and 28 days to be lower in the phenolized vaccine plus antiserum groups than in those groups which received phenolized vaccine alone. 3. Seven or 12 daily inoculations of phenolized vaccine alone produced antibody in most instances by the 10th day and persisted generally through the 28th day. 4. Daily inoculations of phenolized vaccine produced a superior antibody response to that derived from the same total amount of vaccine given as a single inoculation. 5. A single inoculation intramuscularly of Flury strain chicken-embryo vaccine of high egg-passage did not produce detectable antibody. 6. The group which received hyperimmune serum followed by 12 daily inoculations of phenolized vaccine showed early and persistent antibody throughout the entire period of test. The antibody levels were comparable to those recently observed in man treated effectively with antiserum-vaccine combination after severe exposure to rabies.9 PMID:13356137
Rodrigues, Cleusa Alves Theodoro; Batista, Luís Fábio da Silva; Teixeira, Márcia Cristina Aquino; Pereira, Andréa Mendes; Santos, Patrícia Oliveira Meira; de Sá Oliveira, Geraldo Gileno; de Freitas, Luiz Antônio Rodrigues; Veras, Patrícia Sampaio Tavares
Leishmania chagasi is the causative agent of visceral leishmaniasis in both humans and dogs in the New World. The dog is the main domestic reservoir and its infection displays different clinical presentations, from asymptomatic to severe disease. Macrophages play an important role in the control of Leishmania infection. Although it is not an area of intense study, some data suggest a role for canine macrophages in parasite killing by a NO-dependent mechanism. It has been proposed that control of human disease could be possible with the development of an effective vaccine against canine visceral leishmaniasis. Development of a rapid in vitro test to predict animal responses to Leishmania infection or vaccination should be helpful. In this study, an in vitro model was established to test whether peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) supernatants from dogs immunized with promastigote lysates and infected with L. chagasi promastigotes could stimulate macrophages from healthy dogs in order to control parasite infection. PBMC from a majority of the immunized and experimentally infected dogs expressed IFN-gamma mRNA and secreted IFN-gamma when stimulated with soluble L. chagasi antigen (SLA) in vitro. Additionally, the supernatants from stimulated PBMC were able to reduce the percentage of infected donor macrophages. The results also indicate that parasite killing in this system is dependent on NO, since aminoguanidine (AMG) reversed this effect. This in vitro test appears to be useful for screening animal responses to parasite inoculation as well as studying the lymphocyte effector mechanisms involved in pathogen killing by canine macrophages.
Rossmann, F S; Kropec, A; Laverde, D; Saaverda, F R; Wobser, D; Huebner, J
We compared different immunoglobulin preparations containing IgG (Intraglobin/Intratect) or a mixture of IgG, IgA, and IgM (Pentaglobin) to assess the opsonic and protective efficacy of human immunoglobulin preparations against multiresistent nosocomial pathogens. Clinical isolates of E. coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Enterococcus faecalis, Enterococcus faecium, and Staphylococcus aureus were tested by opsonophagocytic assay using immunologobulin preparations at dilutions usually obtained in patients. The target antigens of opsonic antibodies were characterized by opsonophagocytic inhibition assays, and the protective efficacy in vivo was tested in a mouse bacteremia model as previously described. All strains were killed to at least 50% by Pentaglobin. One P. aeruginosa strain was not efficiently killed by Intraglobin (23%) but the other strains were killed by Intraglobin to a similar degree compared to Pentaglobin. Opsonic IgG antibodies against E. faecalis were directed against LTA, while opsonic antibodies in Pentaglobin were primarily directed against other cell wall carbohydrates. In a mouse bacteremia model, Pentaglobin was more protective than Intratect against Staphylococcus aureus, while Intratect reduced colony counts better than normal rabbit serum or saline. All tested human immunoglobulin preparations contain opsonic and protective antibodies against targets present on multiresistant Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Enrichment of these preparations with IgM increases the protective efficacy against some strains, probably due to antibodies directed against cell wall carbohydrates.
Menis, Mikhail; Sridhar, Gayathri; Selvam, Nandini; Ovanesov, Mikhail V; Divan, Hozefa A; Liang, Yideng; Scott, Dorothy; Golding, Basil; Forshee, Richard; Ball, Robert; Anderson, Steven A; Izurieta, Hector S
Thrombotic events (TEs) are rare serious complications following administration of hyperimmune globulin (HIG) products. Our retrospective claims-based study assessed occurrence of same-day TEs following administration of HIGs during 2008-2011 and examined potential risk factors using HealthCore's Integrated Research Database (HIRD(SM) ) and laboratory testing of products' procoagulant Factor XIa activity by U.S. Food and Drug Administration. Multivariable regression was used to estimate same-day TE risk for different products. Of 101,956 individuals exposed to 23 different HIG product groups, 86 (0.84 per 1,000 persons) had a TE diagnosis code (DC) recorded on the same day as HIG administration. Unadjusted same-day TE DC rates (per 1,000 persons) ranged from 0.4 to 148.9 for different products. GamaSTAN S/D IG >10 cc had statistically significantly higher same-day TE DC risk compared to Tetanus IG (OR = 57.57; 95% CI = 19.72-168.10). Increased TE risk was also observed with older age (≥45 years), prior thrombotic events, and hypercoagulable state(s). Laboratory investigation identified elevated Factor XIa activity for GamaSTAN S/D, HepaGam B, HyperHep B S/D, WinRho SDF, HyperRHO S/D full dose, and HyperTET S/D. Our study, for the first time, identified increase in the same-day TE DC risk with GamaSTAN S/D IG >10 cc and suggests potentially elevated TE risk with other HIGs. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Yu, Wei; Ge, Meili; Lu, Shihong; Shi, Jun; Feng, Sizhou; Li, Xingxin; Zhang, Jizhou; Wang, Min; Huang, Jinbo; Shao, Yingqi; Huang, Zhendong; Zhang, Jing; Nie, Neng; Zheng, Yizhou
Acquired aplastic anemia (AA) is an immune-mediated bone marrow failure syndrome. 1α,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3 [1,25(OH)2 D3 ], the biologically active metabolite of vitamin D, is a critical modulator of immune response via binding with vitamin D receptor (VDR). Previous studies have established that 1,25(OH)2 D3 and VDR were involved in the pathogenesis of some autoimmune diseases. In this study, we evaluated the involvement of 1,25(OH)2 D3 and VDR on T-cell responses in AA. Plasma 25(OH)D3 levels were comparable between patients with AA and healthy controls. Surprisingly, VDR mRNA was significantly lower in untreated patients with AA than in healthy controls. Subsequent in vitro experiments revealed that 1,25(OH)2 D3 treatment suppressed the proliferation of lymphocytes and inhibited the secretion of interferon-γ, tumor necrosis factor-α, and interleukin-17A, meanwhile promoting the production of transforming growth factor-β1 in patients with AA. Moreover, 1,25(OH)2 D3 inhibited the differentiation of type 1 and Th17 cells but induced the differentiation of type 2 and regulatory T cells. Interestingly, VDR mRNA was elevated in healthy controls after 1,25(OH)2 D3 treatment, but not in patients with AA. In conclusion, decreased expression of VDR might contribute to the hyperimmune status of AA and appropriate vitamin D supplementation could partly correct the immune dysfunction by strengthening signal transduction through VDR in patients with AA.
Ashraf, H; Mahalanabis, D; Mitra, A K; Tzipori, S; Fuchs, G J
Immunological approaches have been considered as an alternative therapeutic option for the treatment of enteric infections over the past few years. Hyperimmune bovine colostrum (HBC) is a potentially innovative immunological option in the management of shigellosis together with traditional antibiotic therapy. Children aged 1-12 y with a history of bloody mucoid diarrhoea of less than 5 d duration were enrolled after their stool specimen was found to be positive for Shigella dysenteriae type I antigen by a rapid diagnostic fluorescent antibody staining test. They were randomized to receive either HBC containing very high titres of antibody against S. dysenteriae type I antigen or bovine colostrum (BC) without any antibody. The study group received 100 ml of HBC three times a day orally for 3 d and control group received BC. Children also received pivmecillinam in a dose of 50 mg kg(-1) d(-1) in four divided doses orally for 5 d. Admission characteristics of the 34 children in the HBC group and 35 in the BC group were comparable. No significant differences were observed in duration of diarrhoea, fever, anorexia, abdominal pain, tenesmus, stool frequency or visible blood in the stool between the groups. Two (6%) children in the study and five (14%) in the control group remained stool culture positive for S. dysenteriae type 1, even after 5 d of sensitive antimicrobial therapy. The results indicate that HBC as an adjuvant is unable to show any beneficial effect in reducing the stool frequency, duration or severity of childhood shigellosis due to S. dysenteriae type I infection.
Balakrishna, K; Tuteja, U; Murali, H S; Batra, H V
To evaluate the potential of an intergeneric multidomain recombinant chimeric protein for the simultaneous detection of Bacillus anthracis, Yersinia pestis and Staphylococcal enterotoxin B. Truncated portions of protective antigen (pag) of B. anthracis, fraction 1 capsular antigen (F1) of Y. pestis and enterotoxin B (entB) of Staphylococcus aureus were PCR amplified and linked each other using ligation-dependent cloning. The fusion gene was codon-optimized for expression in Escherichia coli and encoded a 55 kDa recombinant PFE protein (rPFE). Hyperimmune antiserum raised against rPFE specifically reacted individually with the native PA of B. anthracis, F1 antigen of Y. pestis and SEB of S. aureus on Western blot analysis as well as in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). For simultaneous detection of these three antigens from culture supernatants, common media consisting of BHI broth supplemented with 0·2% xylose were used. To assess the detection capability, a known number of these organisms (10(8) -10(2) CFU ml(-1)) were experimentally spiked on to the meat and blood samples, the polyclonal antibodies were again clearly able to identify all three target proteins up to a dilution of 10(5) CFU ml(-1). This recombinant chimeric protein-based immunodetection approach may eventually provide advantages over PCR formats during onsite investigations of biological emergencies or even during routine testing by laboratories. The trivalent recombinant PFE protein could be a novel intervention for possible diagnosis/detection of potential biological agents simultaneously in environmental and clinical samples to reduce the responding time and minimize the impact of the bioattack. © 2014 The Society for Applied Microbiology.
Rapaport, F.T.; Meek, A.G.; Arnold, A.N.; Miura, S.; Hayashi, R.; Strober, S.
Hyperimmunized subjects are a particularly high-risk and rapidly growing group in the patient population awaiting renal transplantation. In a search for methods designed to ameliorate the prognosis in such cases, dogs of defined DLA genotype were sensitized with DLA incompatible skin allografts and injections of buffy coat. Each recipient was challenged with a renal allograft bearing the same DLA incompatibilities. Five dogs received kidney transplants, without any other treatment, and rejected their transplants at 2.5, 4, 5, 6, and 6.5 days, respectively. Another four dogs were given a 9-11-week course (1760 +/- 35 cGy) of total-lymphoid irradiation (TLI), followed by rabbit antithymocyte globulin (ATG); these animals rejected their renal allografts at 7, 8, 14, and 17 days, respectively. Five other dogs were treated with TLI and received cyclosporine (CsA) and methylprednisolone (MPd) daily until graft rejection. Their renal allografts survived for 7.5, 8.5, 20, 62, and 227 days, respectively. Renal allografts placed in normal recipients under the same conditions of donor-recipient DLA incompatibility had a mean survival time of 12.4 days (range: 10-18 days). At the time of transplantation, the specific anti-DLA antibody titers in the recipients were 81 to 243 in the untreated dogs; 27 to 81 in the TLI-ATG-treated group, and 3 to 243 in the TLI-CsA/MPd-treated group. The titers fell within 24-48 hr after renal transplantation, to 3 to 81 in the untreated sensitized dogs; they were 3 to 9 in the TLI-ATG-treated group, and were 9 to 243 in the TLI-CsA/MPd treated group. The cytotoxic antibody titers reached postoperative peaks of 6500 to 200,000 in the untreated dogs; 729 to 6500 in the TLI-ATG-treated dogs, and 243 to 6500 in the TLI-CsA/MPd-treated recipients.
Paul, Narayan C; Al-Adwani, Salma; Crespo, Rocio; Shah, Devendra H
Campylobacter jejuni is a leading cause of foodborne bacterial gastroenteritis in human. Chickens are the reservoir host of C. jejuni, and contaminated chicken meat is an important source of human infection. Therefore, control of C. jejuni in chickens can have direct effect on human health. In this study we tested the passive immunotherapeutic efficacy of the chicken egg-yolk-derived antibodies, in the form of hyperimmunized egg yolk powder (HEYP), against 7 colonization-associated proteins of C. jejuni, namely, CadF (Campylobacter adhesion to fibronectin), FlaA (flagellar proteins), MOMP (major outer membrane protein), FlpA (fibronectin binding protein A), CmeC (Campylobacter multidrug efflux C), Peb1A (Campylobacter putative adhesion), and JlpA (Jejuni lipoprotein A). Three chicken experiments were performed. In each experiment, chickens were treated orally via feed supplemented with 10% (wt/wt) egg yolk powder. In experiment 1, chicken groups were experimentally infected with C. jejuni (10(8) cfu) followed by treatment with 5 HEYP (CadF, FlaA, MOMP, FlpA, CmeC) for 4 d either individually or as a cocktail containing equal parts of each HEYP. In experiment 2, chickens were treated for 21 d with cocktail containing equal parts of 7 HEYP before and after experimental infection with C. jejuni (10(8) cfu). In experiment 3, chickens were treated with feed containing a cocktail of 7 HEYP before and after (prophylaxis), and after (treatment) experimental infection with C. jejuni (10(5) cfu). Intestinal colonization of C. jejuni was monitored by culturing cecal samples from chickens euthanized at the end of each experiment. The results showed that there were no differences in the cecal colonization of C. jejuni between HEYP treated and nontreated control chickens, suggesting that use of HEYP at the dose and the regimens used in the current study is not efficacious in reducing C. jejuni colonization in chickens. ©2014 Poultry Science Association Inc.
Vrtovec, B; Thomas, C D; Radovancevic, R; Frazier, O H; Radovancevic, B
We compared the use of intravenous ganciclovir and cytomegalovirus hyperimmune globulin (CMVIG) as a pre-emptive treatment for cytomegalovirus (CMV)-positive heart transplant recipients. Of 59 CMV-seropositive adult heart transplant recipients enrolled in Group 1, 37 tested positive for pp65 antigen within 12 weeks post-transplantation. These patients were randomized to receive either intravenous ganciclovir (n = 23) or CMVIG (n = 14). Group 2 included 133 CMV-seropositive heart transplant recipients who were not tested for CMV antigenemia and who received no anti-CMV therapy. CMV disease developed in 0 of 59 patients from Group 1, and in 27 of 133 patients (20%) in Group 2 (p = 0.0001). The incidence of superinfections was lower in Group 1 (0.28 +/- 0.46) than in Group 2 (1.10 +/- 1.33) (p = 0.01). The 2 groups did not differ with regard to incidence of rejection (0.7 +/- 0.9 in Group 1 vs 1.0 +/- 1.2 in Group 2; p = NS), transplant coronary artery disease at 1 year (14% in Group 1 vs 16% in Group 2; p = NS) or post-transplant lymphoproliferative disease (0% in Group 1 vs 2% in Group 2; p = NS). Ganciclovir and CMVIG therapies were associated with similar rates of rejection (0.52 +/- 0.6 with ganciclovir vs 0.50 +/- 0.60 with CMVIG; p = NS), superinfection (0.30 +/- 0.48 with ganciclovir vs 0.25 +/- 0.46 with CMVIG; p = NS), and transplant coronary artery disease at 1 year (13% with ganciclovir vs 14% with CMVIG, p = NS). The pre-emptive anti-CMV approach is superior to prophylaxis in CMV-seropositive heart transplant recipients. Both ganciclovir and CMVIG are equally effective.
Essien, Bryan E; Kotiw, Michael
Tumour necrosis factor-α (TNFα) and polymorphonuclear neutrophils play key and interrelated roles in the inflammatory response against infectious agents. However, these entities can mediate significant tissue damage if their biological activity becomes deregulated. We have previously shown that canine hyperimmune frozen plasma (HFP) contains anti-TNFα activity that is attributable to elevated levels of soluble TNFα receptor 1 (sTNFR1). The aim of this study was to determine the effect of HFP on TNFα levels and neutrophil infiltration in a lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-mediated rat air pouch model of inflammation. Rats were administered either HFP, HFP which had been pre-incubated with anti-sTNFR1 antibody (5 ng/ml), fresh frozen plasma (FFP), physiological saline (PS) at 2 ml/day or Carprofen at 5 mg/kg for 3 days prior to LPS challenge. Pouch fluid was withdrawn at 1, 6, 12, 24 and 48 h post-LPS challenge and assayed for TNFα by ELISA, and for total leukocytes and neutrophils by microscopic examination. At 6 h post-LPS challenge, both TNFα levels and neutrophil counts were significantly lower in HFP-treated rats than was found in FFP, PS or Carprofen treated animals (p<0.05). In a sTNFR1 blocking experiment, incubation of HFP with anti-sTNFR1 antibody resulted in significant increases in neutrophil numbers and TNFα levels, which suggests that the anti-TNFα activity observed in HFP may be due to elevated levels of sTNFR1. The data also revealed a significant inverse correlation between total leukocyte counts and sTNFR1 levels present in pouch fluid (r= -0.73, p<0.0001). Our observations suggest that HFP warrants further investigation as a possible means for modulating acute inflammatory processes where TNFα is a key mediator.
Background Hepatitis B immune globulins (HBIG) in combination with nucleos(t)ide analogues (NA) are effectively used for the prevention of hepatitis B virus (HBV) recurrence after liver transplantation (LT). However, associated treatment costs for HBIG are exceedingly high. Methods Fresh frozen plasma obtained from blood donors with high anti-HBs levels (hyperimmune plasma, HIP) containing at least 4,500 IU anti-HBs was used as alternative treatment for HBV recurrence prophylaxis post-LT. Results Twenty-one HBV-related LT recipients received HIP starting at transplantation, followed by long-term combination treatment with NA. Mean follow-up time was 4.5 years (range 0.5-12.6) and each patient received on average 8.2 HIP per year (range 5.8-11.4). Anti-HBs terminal elimination kinetic after HIP administration was 20.6 days (range 13.8-30.9), which is comparable to values reported for commercial HBIG products. All 21 patients remained free of HBV recurrence during follow-up and no transfusion-transmitted infection or other serious complication was observed. Seven patients developed reversible mild transfusion reactions. The cost for one HIP unit was US$140; average yearly HBIG treatment cost was US$1,148 per patient, as compared to US$25,000-100,000 for treatment with commercial HBIG. Conclusion The results of this study suggest that the use of HIP may be a useful and economical approach for the prevention of HBV recurrence post-LT if used in combination with NA. Additional prospective controlled studies in larger populations are needed to confirm these results. PMID:20598161
Bihl, Florian; Russmann, Stefan; Gurtner, Vanina; Di Giammarino, Loriana; Pizzi-Bosman, Loredana; Michel, Martine; Cerny, Andreas; Hadengue, Antoine; Majno, Pietro; Giostra, Emiliano; Castelli, Damiano; Mentha, Gilles
Hepatitis B immune globulins (HBIG) in combination with nucleos(t)ide analogues (NA) are effectively used for the prevention of hepatitis B virus (HBV) recurrence after liver transplantation (LT). However, associated treatment costs for HBIG are exceedingly high. Fresh frozen plasma obtained from blood donors with high anti-HBs levels (hyperimmune plasma, HIP) containing at least 4,500 IU anti-HBs was used as alternative treatment for HBV recurrence prophylaxis post-LT. Twenty-one HBV-related LT recipients received HIP starting at transplantation, followed by long-term combination treatment with NA. Mean follow-up time was 4.5 years (range 0.5-12.6) and each patient received on average 8.2 HIP per year (range 5.8-11.4). Anti-HBs terminal elimination kinetic after HIP administration was 20.6 days (range 13.8-30.9), which is comparable to values reported for commercial HBIG products. All 21 patients remained free of HBV recurrence during follow-up and no transfusion-transmitted infection or other serious complication was observed. Seven patients developed reversible mild transfusion reactions. The cost for one HIP unit was US$140; average yearly HBIG treatment cost was US$1,148 per patient, as compared to US$25,000-100,000 for treatment with commercial HBIG. The results of this study suggest that the use of HIP may be a useful and economical approach for the prevention of HBV recurrence post-LT if used in combination with NA. Additional prospective controlled studies in larger populations are needed to confirm these results.
Guay, Laura A; Musoke, Philippa; Hom, David L; Nakabiito, Clemensia; Bagenda, Danstan; Fletcher, Courtney V; Marum, Lawrence H; Fowler, Mary Glenn; Falksveden, Lars G; Wahren, Britta; Kataaha, Peter; Wigzell, Hans; Mmiro, Francis A; Jackson, J Brooks
To assess the safety, tolerance, pharmacokinetics, and virologic and immunologic changes associated with the use of Ugandan HIV hyperimmune globulin (HIVIGLOB) in HIV infected pregnant Ugandan women and their infants. A prospective, phase I/II, three-arm dose escalation trial of HIVIGLOB. HIVIGLOB was prepared from discarded HIV infected units of blood collected from the National Blood Bank in Kampala. From June 1996 to April 1997, 31 HIV positive pregnant women were enrolled with HIVIGLOB infusions given at 37 weeks gestation and within 16 h of birth for infants. The first 10 mother-infant pairs were infused at a dose of 50 mg/kg, followed by 11 pairs at 200 mg/kg, and 10 pairs at 400 mg/kg. Study participants were followed for 30 months. Thirty-one women and 29 infants were infused with HIVIGLOB. The infusions were safe and well tolerated by the women and their infants at all doses. There were no significant changes in virologic or immunologic parameters after HIVIGLOB infusion. Pharmacokinetic properties of this product were similar to other immune globulin products with a median half-life of 28 days in women and 30 days in infants. An HIV immune globulin product derived from HIV infected Ugandan donors is safe, well tolerated, and has pharmacokinetic properties consistent with other immunoglobulin products. Data suggest that a 400 mg/kg dose of HIVIGLOB would be the most appropriate dose for a subsequent efficacy trial of HIVIGLOB for the prevention of mother to child HIV transmission.
Fouts, Ashley E; Chan, Pamela; Stephan, Jean-Philippe; Vandlen, Richard; Feierbach, Becket
Anti-cytomegalovirus (anti-CMV) hyperimmune globulin (HIG) has demonstrated efficacy in preventing CMV disease in solid-organ transplant patients as well as congenital disease when administered to pregnant women. To identify the neutralizing component of cytomegalovirus hyperimmune globulin (CMV-HIG), we performed serial depletions of CMV-HIG on cell-surface-expressed CMV antigens as well as purified antigens. Using this approach, we demonstrate that the major neutralizing antibody response is directed at the gH/gL/UL128/UL130/UL131 complex, suggesting little role for anti-gB antibodies in CMV-HIG neutralization.
Savani, Elisa San Martin Mouriz; Nunes, Vania Lúcia Brandão; Galati, Eunice Aparecida Bianchi; Castilho, Tiago Moreno; Araujo, Fernando Shiroma de; Ilha, Iêda Maria Novaes; Camargo, Maria Cecília Gibrail de Oliveira; D'Auria, Sandra Regina Nicoletti; Floeter-Winter, Lucile Maria
A natural case of co-infection by Leishmania and Trypanosoma is reported in a dog (Canis familiaris) in south- western state of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. Both amastigote and trypomastigote forms were observed after Giemsa staining of cytological preparations of the dog's bone marrow aspirate. No parasite was detected using medium culture inoculation of the sample. DNA obtained from the bone marrow aspirate sample and from the blood buffy coat was submitted to polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with a set of rDNA-based primers S4/S12. The nucleotide sequence of the PCR product was identical to that of Trypanosoma (Trypanozoon) evansi. The S4/S12 PCR was then used as template in a nested-PCR using a specific Leishmania set S17/S18 as primers, to explain the amastigote forms. The nucleotide sequence of the new PCR product was identical to that of Leishmania (Leishmania) chagasi. This case, as far as we know, is the first report of a dog co-infected with these parasites, suggesting that besides L. (L.) chagasi, the natural transmission of T. (T.) evansi occurs in the area under study.
Morais-Teixeira, Eliane de; Carvalho, Alcione S de; Costa, Jorge C S da; Duarte, Silvio L; Mendonça, Jorge S; Boechat, Núbia; Rabello, Ana
The leishmanicidal activity of four batches of meglumine antimoniate, produced in Farmanguinhos-Fiocruz, Brazil (TAMs), was assessed and compared to Glucantime-Aventis Pharma Ltda. Using the amastigote-like in vitro model, the active concentrations of Sb v varied from 10microg/ml to 300microg/ml for L. (L.) chagasi and from 50microg/ml to 300microg/ml for L. (L.) amazonensis, with no statistically significant differences among the four batches of TAMs and Glucantime. The inhibitory concentrations (IC50) determined by the amastigote-infected macrophage model for TAM01/03 and Glucantime were, respectively: 26.3microg/ml and 127.6microg/ml for L. chagasi, 15.4microg /ml and 22.9microg/ml for L. amazonensis, and 12.1 microg/ml and 24.2microg/ml for L. (V.) braziliensis. The activities of the four batches of TAMs were confirmed in an in vivo model by assessing, during eight weeks skin lesions caused by L. braziliensis in hamster that were treated with 20mg Sb v/Kg/day for 30 consecutive days. The meglumine antimoniate produced by Farmanguinhos was as effective as the reference drug, Glucantime-Aventis, against three species of Leishmania that are of medical importance in Brazil.
Crescente, José Angelo B; Silveira, Fernando T; Lainson, Ralph; Gomes, Claudia M C; Laurenti, Márcia D; Corbett, Carlos E P
The objectives of this study were to identify individuals with symptomatic and/or asymptomatic infection due to Leishmania (L.) infantum chagasi; to study the two types of infection, both clinically and immunologically, and to determine the prevalence rate of infection at the beginning of the study. This was a cross-sectional study with a cohort of 946 individuals, of both genders, from the age of 1 year, living in the municipality of Barcarena, PA, Brazil, an area endemic for American visceral leishmaniasis (AVL). The leishmanin skin test (LST) and the indirect fluorescent test (IFAT), were used for the diagnosis of infection. One hundred and twenty cases of infection were diagnosed, with a prevalence rate of 12.6%; eight cases showed high seroreactivity (1280-10240, IgG) in IFAT and no LST reaction; four of these cases were typical AVL and four had subclinical oligosymptomatic infection. Using two immunological methods with a clinical examination of the infected individuals enabled the identification of five clinical-immunological profiles which may promote a better understanding of the interaction between L. (L.) i. chagasi and the human immune response: asymptomatic infection (AI) 73.4%; subclinical resistant infection (SRI) 15%; subclinical oligosymptomatic infection (SOI) 3%; symptomatic infection (AVL) 3% and indeterminate initial infection (III) 5%.
Costa, Míriam M; Andrade, Hélida M; Bartholomeu, Daniella C; Freitas, Leandro M; Pires, Simone F; Chapeaurouge, Alexander D; Perales, Jonas; Ferreira, André T; Giusta, Mário S; Melo, Maria N; Gazzinelli, Ricardo T
Identification of novel antigens is essential for developing new diagnostic tests and vaccines. We used DIGE to compare protein expression in amastigote and promastigote forms of Leishmania chagasi. Nine hundred amastigote and promastigote spots were visualized. Five amastigote-specific, 25 promastigote-specific, and 10 proteins shared by the two parasite stages were identified. Furthermore, 41 proteins were identified in the Western blot employing 2-DE and sera from infected dogs. From these proteins, 3 and 38 were reactive with IgM and total IgG, respectively. The proteins recognized by total IgG presented different patterns in terms of their recognition by IgG1 and/or IgG2 isotypes. All the proteins selected by Western blot were mapped for B-cell epitopes. One hundred and eighty peptides were submitted to SPOT synthesis and immunoassay. A total of 25 peptides were shown of interest for serodiagnosis to visceral leishmaniasis. In addition, all proteins identified in this study were mapped for T cell epitopes by using the NetCTL software, and candidates for vaccine development were selected. Therefore, a large-scale screening of L. chagasi proteome was performed to identify new B and T cell epitopes with potential use for developing diagnostic tests and vaccines.
Marcili, Arlei; Sperança, Marcia Ap; da Costa, Andrea P; Madeira, Maria de F; Soares, Herbert S; Sanches, Camila de O C C; Acosta, Igor da C L; Girotto, Aline; Minervino, Antonio H H; Horta, Maurício C; Shaw, Jeffrey J; Gennari, Solange M
Phylogenetic studies on trypanosomatid barcode using V7V8 SSU rRNA and gGAPDH gene sequences have provided support for redefining some trypanosomatid species and positioning new isolates. The genus Leishmania is a slow evolving monophyletic group and including important human pathogens. The phylogenetic relationships of this genus have been determined by the natural history of its vertebrate hosts, vector specificity, clinical manifestations, geographical distribution and molecular approaches using different markers. Thus, in an attempt to better understand the phylogenetic relationships of Leishmania species, we performed phylogenetic analysis on trypanosomatid barcode using V7V8 SSU rRNA and gGAPDH gene sequences among a large number of Leishmania species and also several Brazilian visceral Leishmania infantum chagasi isolates obtained from dogs and humans. Our phylogenetic analysis strongly suggested that Leishmania hertigi and Leishmania equatoriensis should be taxonomically revised so as to include them in the genus Endotrypanum; and supported ancient divergence of Leishmania enriettii. This, together with recent data in the literature, throws light on the discussion about the evolutionary southern supercontinent hypothesis for the origin of Leishmania ssp. and validates L. infantum chagasi from Brazil, thus clearly differentiating it from L. infantum, for the first time. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Immunization with the cysteine proteinase Ldccys1 gene from Leishmania (Leishmania) chagasi and the recombinant Ldccys1 protein elicits protective immune responses in a murine model of visceral leishmaniasis.
Ferreira, Josie Haydée L; Gentil, Luciana Girotto; Dias, Suzana Souza; Fedeli, Carlos Eduardo C; Katz, Simone; Barbiéri, Clara Lúcia
The gene Ldccys1 encoding a cysteine proteinase of 30 kDa from Leishmania (Leishmania) chagasi, as well as the recombinant cysteine proteinase rLdccys1, obtained by cloning and expression of the Ldccys1 gene in the pHIS vector, were used to evaluate their ability to induce immune protective responses in BALB/c mice against L. (L.) chagasi infection. Mice were immunized subcutaneously with rLdccys1 plus Bacille Calmette Guerin (BCG) or Propionibacterium acnes as adjuvants or intramuscularly with a plasmid carrying the Ldccys1 gene (Ldccys1/pcDNA3) and CpG ODN as the adjuvant, followed by a booster with rLdccys1 plus CpG ODN. Two weeks after immunization the animals were challenged with 1 x 10(7) amastigotes of L. (L.) chagasi. Both immunization protocols induced significant protection against L. (L.) chagasi infection as shown by a very low parasite load in the spleen of immunized mice compared to the non-immunized controls. However, DNA immunization was 10-fold more protective than immunization with the recombinant protein. Whereas rLdccys1 induced a significant secretion of IFN-gamma and nitric oxide (NO), animals immunized with the Ldccys1 gene increased the production of IgG2a antibodies, IFN-gamma and NO. These results indicated that protection triggered by the two immunization protocols was correlated to a predominant Th1 response.
McClain, J B; Edelman, R; Shmuklarsky, M; Que, J; Cryz, S J; Cross, A S
Persistence of intravenous (i.v.) hyperimmune immunoglobulin (100 mg/kg) directed against clinically predominant serotypes of Pseudomonas and Klebsiella in ill, febrile patients was compared to healthy volunteers to determine if ill patients have a decreased Ig half-life resulting in an increased immunoglobulin requirement. Type-specific antibodies were measured by ELISA for 83 days in eight healthy volunteers and for 35 days in eight ill patients with surgical complications or hematologic malignancy. Mean values and fold rises of antibody concentrations for the two groups were above preinfusion values at 35 days. The antibody fold rises in patients and in healthy volunteers were similar. Type-specific antibody levels in some patients increased after illness coincident with elevation of total immunoglobulins. We conclude that the duration of potentially therapeutic levels of infused type-specific hyperimmune immunoglobulin may persist for a longer period of time than what has been measured for total immunoglobulin. While the mechanism of this persistence remains to be characterized, the possibility of type-specific antibody synthesis induced by immunoglobulin administration must be considered.
Oliveira, Dulcilene M; Costa, Mariana Amália F; Chavez-Fumagalli, Miguel A; Valadares, Diogo G; Duarte, Mariana C; Costa, Lourena E; Martins, Vivian T; Gomes, Rosângela F; Melo, Maria N; Soto, Manuel; Tavares, Carlos Alberto P; Coelho, Eduardo Antonio F
Experimental vaccines to protect against visceral leishmaniasis (VL) have been developed by using BALB/c mice infected with a large (10⁷ to 10⁸) inoculum of parasites. Remarkably, prior literature has reported that the poor protection observed is mainly due to the high susceptibility of this strain. To determine factors inherent to mice that might abrogate vaccine-induced efficacy, the present research sought to investigate the impact of the administration of different infective inoculums of Leishmania chagasi (syn. L. infantum) in BALB/c mice, evaluating subcutaneous and intravenous routes of administration as well as parasitological and immunological parameters over different periods of time. This study shows that the injection of a highly infective inoculum in mice, through both subcutaneous and intravenous routes, results in a sustained infection. The mice developed a high parasite load in the liver; however, these values diminished over time. This result did not corroborate with the parasite load in the bone marrow and brain and proved to be expressively different in the spleen and draining lymph nodes, where the values increased over time. Mice infected with a low dose of parasites (10³) showed a certain resistance against infection, based mainly on the IFN-γ and oxide nitric production. Considering all the elements, it could be concluded that the models employing high doses (10⁷) of L. chagasi in BALB/c mice can bring about an imbalance in the animals' immune response, thus allowing for the development of the disease at the expense of efficacy within the vaccine candidates.
Otto, Wlodzimierz; Najnigier, Boguslaw; Stelmasiak, Teodor; Robins-Browne, Roy M
Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) is the leading cause of travelers' diarrhea. The aim of this study was to investigate the ability of a powdered extract of hyperimmune bovine colostrum to protect against diarrhea in volunteers challenged with ETEC. Tablets were manufactured from a colostrum extract from cattle immunized with 14 ETEC strains, including serogroup O78. Two separate randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials involving 90 healthy adult volunteers were performed to investigate the ability of different tablet formulations to protect against diarrhea following an oral challenge with an O78 ETEC strain. The first study with 30 participants evaluated the efficacy of tablets, containing 400 mg of colostrum protein, taken thrice daily with bicarbonate buffer. This regimen conferred 90.9% protection against diarrhea in the group receiving the active preparation compared with the placebo group (p = 0.0005). The second study examined the efficacy of tablets containing 400 mg colostrum protein given with buffer (83.3% protection; p = 0.0004) or without buffer (76.7% protection; p = 0.007), and tablets containing 200 mg colostrum protein given without buffer (58.3% protection; p = 0.02), compared with placebo. The difference between buffered and unbuffered treatments was not significant (p > 0.1). Active tablet formulations were significantly more effective than placebo in protecting volunteers against the development of diarrhea caused by ETEC. These results suggest that administration of a tablet formulation of hyperimmune bovine colostrum containing antibodies against ETEC strains may reduce the risk of travelers' diarrhea.
Otto, Wlodzimierz; Najnigier, Boguslaw; Stelmasiak, Teodor; Robins-Browne, Roy M
Objective. Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) is the leading cause of travelers' diarrhea. The aim of this study was to investigate the ability of a powdered extract of hyperimmune bovine colostrum to protect against diarrhea in volunteers challenged with ETEC. Materials and methods. Tablets were manufactured from a colostrum extract from cattle immunized with 14 ETEC strains, including serogroup O78. Two separate randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials involving 90 healthy adult volunteers were performed to investigate the ability of different tablet formulations to protect against diarrhea following an oral challenge with an O78 ETEC strain. Results. The first study with 30 participants evaluated the efficacy of tablets, containing 400 mg of colostrum protein, taken thrice daily with bicarbonate buffer. This regimen conferred 90.9% protection against diarrhea in the group receiving the active preparation compared with the placebo group (p = 0.0005). The second study examined the efficacy of tablets containing 400 mg colostrum protein given with buffer (83.3% protection;p = 0.0004) or without buffer (76.7% protection;p =0.007), and tablets containing 200 mg colostrum protein given without buffer (58.3% protection; p = 0.02), compared with placebo. The difference between buffered and unbuffered treatments was not significant (p > 0.1). Conclusions. Active tablet formulations were significantly more effective than placebo in protecting volunteers against the development of diarrhea caused by ETEC. These results suggest that administration of a tablet formulation of hyperimmune bovine colostrum containing antibodies against ETEC strains may reduce the risk of travelers' diarrhea. PMID:21526980
Benca, J; Dubai, A; Sladeckova, V
Malaria should not be present in altitudes more than 1,800 m a.s.l. However due to global warming, highlands malaria (HM) occurs up to 2,000 m. The purpose of this study is comparison of clinical picture and prognosis of HM and compare it to malaria in endemic region of southern Sudan (endemic malaria - EM) among hyper-immune population.
Reis, Alexandre B; Teixeira-Carvalho, Andréa; Vale, André M; Marques, Marcos J; Giunchetti, Rodolfo C; Mayrink, Wilson; Guerra, Luanda Liboreiro; Andrade, Renata A; Corrêa-Oliveira, Rodrigo; Martins-Filho, Olindo A
The role of anti-leishmanial immune response underlying the susceptibility/resistance during canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL) has been recognized throughout ex vivo and in vitro investigations. Recently, we demonstrated that immunoglobulin levels (Igs), as well as the parasite load are relevant hallmarks of distinct clinical status of CVL. To further characterize and upgrade the background on this issue, herein, we have evaluated, in Leishmania (Leishmania) chagasi naturally infected dogs, the relationship between tissue parasitism (skin, bone marrow, spleen, liver and lymph node), the CVL clinical status (asymptomatic (AD), with no suggestive signs of the disease; oligosymptomatic (OD), with maximum three clinical signs-opaque bristles; localized alopecia and moderate loss of weight; symptomatic (SD), serologically positive with severe clinical signs of visceral leishmaniasis), and the humoral immunological profile of anti-Leishmania immunoglobulins (IgG, IgG1, IgG2, IgM, IgA and IgE). Our major statistically significant findings revealed distinct patterns of tissue parasite density within L. chagasi-infected dogs despite their clinical status, pointing out the spleen and skin as the most relevant sites of high parasitism during ongoing CVL. Parasite density of bone marrow and spleen were the most reliable parasitological markers to decode the clinical status of CVL. Moreover, the parasite density of bone marrow better correlates with most anti-Leishmania Igs reactivity. Additionally, a prognostic hallmark for canine visceral leishmaniasis was found, highlighting strong correlation between IgG1 and asymptomatic disease, but with IgA, IgE and IgG2 displaying better association with symptomatic disease. The new aspects of this study highlighted pioneer findings that correlated the degree of tissue parasite density (low (LP), medium (MP) and high (HP) parasitism) with distinct patterns of anti-Leishmania Igs reactivity. In this scope, our data re-enforce the anti
(1) Brief introduction to iron metabolism and the biochemistry of ferritin. (2) Early studies of circulating ferritin. (3) Methods for measuring serum ferritin concentrations -- immunoradiometric, radioimmuno- and enzyme-linked immuno assays based on liver or spleen ferritin -- an evaluation of these techniques. (4) Serum ferritin concentrations in normal subjects -- definition of normality -- relationship between storage iron and serum ferritin concentrations -- changes during development from birth to old age -- iron deficiency -- variability of serum ferritin concentration -- evaluation of use of ferritin assay for assessment of storage iron levels. (5) Serum ferritin concentrations in disease -- hemochromatosis -- secondary iron overload -- liver damage -- infection and chronic disease -- cancer. (6) Assay of serum ferritin with antibodies to ferritins other than liver or spleen -- ferritinemia and cancer. (7) Properties of serum ferritin -- molecular weight -- iron content -- isoelectric focusing patterns -- carbohydrate content -- immunological properties. (8) Physiology of circulating ferritin -- release of ferritin from tissues -- origin of circulating ferritin -- clearance from the plasma -- iron and protein turnover. (9) Summary -- factors influencing serum ferritin concentrations and clinical use of ferritin estimations.
Torgeman, Amram; Mador, Nurit; Dorozko, Marina; Lifshitz, Aliza; Eschar, Naomi; White, Moshe D; Wolf, Dana G; Epstein, Eyal
Assuring viral safety of horse plasma-derived products is fundamental for ethical and regulatory reasons. We previously demonstrated the ability of pepsin digestion at low pH to inactivate West Nile and Sindbis viruses in horse plasma. The present study further examined the efficiency of pepsin digestion to inactivate four additional viruses: HSV-1 and BVDV (lipid-enveloped), BPV and Reo-3 (nonenveloped). These viruses were spiked into hyperimmunized horse plasma against botulinum toxin and subjected to low pH (3.2) alone or combined with pepsin digestion (1200 units/ml). Peptic digestion inactivated the lipid-enveloped viruses, whereas the nonenveloped viruses were unaffected. Interestingly, HSV-1 was rapidly inactivated by acidic pH alone (≥4.9 ± 0.6 log10), whereas a non-robust but meaningful BVDV inactivation (2.9 ± 0.7 log10) was achieved by combined low pH and pepsin. The current study demonstrated the ability of low pH alone and in combination with pepsin digestion to inactivate enveloped viral contaminants in anti-toxin horse plasma. Copyright © 2017 International Alliance for Biological Standardization. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Wang, Yuanyuan; Lin, Lianjie; Yin, Chunming; Othtani, Satoru; Aoyama, Katsuhiko; Lu, Changlong; Sun, Xun; Yoshikai, Yasunobu
The goal of this study was to examine the effects of oral administration of bovine milk from cows hyperimmunized with a proprietary bacterin (immune milk “Sustaina”) on mucosal immunity in the intestine of adult mice. C57BL/6 mice were orally given immune or control milk for two weeks, and then lymphocyte population and the cytokine production in lamina propria of colon in normal mice and mice induced colitis by dextran sulphate sodium (DSS) were detected. We found that the levels of IFN-γ and IL-10 increased, but the levels of IL-17A and IL-4, decreased in lamina propria of colon in immune milk-fed mice as compared with those in control milk-fed mice. Interestingly, oral administration of immune milk partially improved the acute colitis induced by DSS. The levels of TNF-α and IFN-γ increased, but IL-6, IL-17A and IL-4 decreased in lamina propria (LP) of colon in immune milk-fed mice with DSS-induced colitis. Our results suggest that immune milk may stimulate CD4+ T cells to polarize towards a Th1 type response, but contrarily suppress Th17 and Th2 cells responses in large intestinal LP of mice. The results indicate that this kind of immune milk has is able to promote the maintainance of intestinal homeostasis and enhance protection against infection, and could alleviate the symptoms of acute colitis in mice. PMID:24686517
Stiehm, E R; Fletcher, C V; Mofenson, L M; Palumbo, P E; Kang, M; Fenton, T; Sapan, C V; Meyer, W A; Shearer, W T; Hawkins, E; Fowler, M G; Bouquin, P; Purdue, L; Sloand, E M; Nemo, G J; Wara, D; Bryson, Y J; Starr, S E; Petru, A; Burchett, S
The clinical, immunologic, and virologic effects and the pharmacokinetics of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) human hyperimmune immunoglobulin (HIVIG) were assessed in 30 HIV-infected children aged 2-11 years. All had moderately advanced disease with an immune complex-dissociated (ICD) p24 antigen >70 pg/mL and were on stable antiviral therapy. Three groups of 10 children received 6 monthly infusions of 200, 400, or 800 mg/kg of HIVIG, and serial immunologic and virologic assays were performed. HIVIG doses as high as 800 mg/kg were safe and well tolerated. The half-life of HIVIG, determined by serial p24 antibody titers, was 13-16 days, the volume of distribution was 102-113 mL/kg, and clearance was 5.6-6.0 mL/kg/day. Plasma ICD p24 decreased during the infusions, but CD4 cell levels, plasma RNA copy number, cellular virus, immunoglobulin levels, and neutralizing antibody titers were minimally affected by the infusions. Clinical status did not change during the 6-month infusion and 3-month follow-up periods.
Erganis, Osman; Sayin, Zafer; Hadimli, Hasan Huseyin; Sakmanoglu, Asli; Pinarkara, Yasemin; Ozdemir, Ozgur; Maden, Mehmet
This study aimed to determine the effectiveness of a pregnant mare immunization of a Rhodococcus equi (R. equi) vaccine candidate containing a water-based nanoparticle mineral oil adjuvanted (Montanide IMS 3012) inactive bacterin and virulence-associated protein A (VapA), as well as the administration of anti-R. equi hyperimmune (HI) plasma against R. equi challenge in the mares' foals. The efficacy of passive immunizations (colostral passive immunity by mare vaccination and artificial passive immunity by HI plasma administration) was evaluated based on clinical signs, complete blood count, blood gas analysis, serological response (ELISA), interleukin-4 (IL-4) and interferon gamma (IFN-γ), total cell count of the bronchoalveolar lavage fluids (BALF) samples, reisolation rate of R. equi from BALF samples (CFU/mL), lung samples (CFU/gr), and lesion scores of the organs and tissue according to pathological findings after necropsy in the foals. The vaccination of pregnant mares and HI plasma administration in the foals reduced the severity of R. equi pneumonia and lesion scores of the organs and tissue by 3.54-fold compared to the control foals. This study thus indicates that immunization of pregnant mares with R. equi vaccine candidate and administration of HI plasma in mares' foals effectively protect foals against R. equi challenge. PMID:24982958
da Silva, Cristiane Caldeira; Presgrave, Octavio Augusto França; Hartung, Thomas; de Moraes, Aurea Maria Lage; Delgado, Isabella Fernandes
Pyrogen tests are safety assays performed during the routine quality control of injectable products required by regulatory agencies. Currently, there are three available testing possibilities: 1) the Rabbit Pyrogen Test (RPT); 2) the Bacterial Endotoxin Test (BET); and 3) test systems using human whole-blood or monocytes, termed Monocyte Activation Test (MAT). Although BET is often considered as a replacement for the animal test, it is unable to detect pyrogens other than endotoxin. MAT is based on the human fever reaction and thus, most closely reflects the human response. The aim of this study was to conduct a parallel comparison of the RPT and MAT for hyperimmune sera (HS) batches analyzed during the routine of a quality control laboratory. MAT was performed in the same 43 batches of HS previously tested using RPT. The results showed that MAT presented 100% sensitivity and approximately 85% specificity as compared to RPT, i.e., no false-negative results were obtained. Few suspicious samples, which were negative in the RPT after retesting, provided divergent positive results suggesting a lower limit of detection of MAT. MAT is thus able to detect contaminants in biological products such as HS batches. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Savarino, Stephen J; McKenzie, Robin; Tribble, David R; Porter, Chad K; O'Dowd, Aisling; Cantrell, Joyce A; Sincock, Stephanie A; Poole, Steven T; DeNearing, Barbara; Woods, Colleen M; Kim, Hye; Grahek, Shannon L; Brinkley, Carl; Crabb, Joseph H; Bourgeois, A Louis
Tip-localized adhesive proteins of bacterial fimbriae from diverse pathogens confer protection in animal models, but efficacy in humans has not been reported. Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) commonly elaborate colonization factors comprising a minor tip adhesin and major stalk-forming subunit. We assessed the efficacy of antiadhesin bovine colostral IgG (bIgG) antibodies against ETEC challenge in volunteers. Adults were randomly assigned (1:1:1) to take oral hyperimmune bIgG raised against CFA/I minor pilin subunit (CfaE) tip adhesin or colonization factor I (CFA/I) fimbraie (positive control) or placebo. Two days before challenge, volunteers began a thrice-daily, 7-day course of investigational product administered in sodium bicarbonate 15 minutes after each meal. On day 3, subjects drank 1 × 109 colony-forming units of colonization factor I (CFA/I)-ETEC strain H10407 with buffer. The primary efficacy endpoint was diarrhea within 120 hours of challenge. After enrollment and randomization, 31 volunteers received product, underwent ETEC challenge, and were included in the per protocol efficacy analysis. Nine of 11 placebos developed diarrhea, 7 experiencing moderate to severe disease. Protective efficacy of 63% (P = .03) and 88% (P = .002) was observed in the antiadhesin bIgG and positive control groups, respectively. Oral administration of anti-CFA/I minor pilin subunit (CfaE) antibodies conferred significant protection against ETEC, providing the first clinical evidence that fimbrial tip adhesins function as protective antigens.
Erganis, Osman; Sayin, Zafer; Hadimli, Hasan Huseyin; Sakmanoglu, Asli; Pinarkara, Yasemin; Ozdemir, Ozgur; Maden, Mehmet
This study aimed to determine the effectiveness of a pregnant mare immunization of a Rhodococcus equi (R. equi) vaccine candidate containing a water-based nanoparticle mineral oil adjuvanted (Montanide IMS 3012) inactive bacterin and virulence-associated protein A (VapA), as well as the administration of anti-R. equi hyperimmune (HI) plasma against R. equi challenge in the mares' foals. The efficacy of passive immunizations (colostral passive immunity by mare vaccination and artificial passive immunity by HI plasma administration) was evaluated based on clinical signs, complete blood count, blood gas analysis, serological response (ELISA), interleukin-4 (IL-4) and interferon gamma (IFN- γ ), total cell count of the bronchoalveolar lavage fluids (BALF) samples, reisolation rate of R. equi from BALF samples (CFU/mL), lung samples (CFU/gr), and lesion scores of the organs and tissue according to pathological findings after necropsy in the foals. The vaccination of pregnant mares and HI plasma administration in the foals reduced the severity of R. equi pneumonia and lesion scores of the organs and tissue by 3.54-fold compared to the control foals. This study thus indicates that immunization of pregnant mares with R. equi vaccine candidate and administration of HI plasma in mares' foals effectively protect foals against R. equi challenge.
Petrušić, Vladimir; Todorović, Nevena; Živković, Irena; Dimitrijević, Rajna; Muhandes, Lina; Rajnpreht, Irena; Dimitrijević, Ljiljana
Recent data concerning antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) induction have shown that β2-glycoprotein I (β2GPI) binds lipopolysaccharide (LPS), which results in conformational changes, exposition of a cryptic epitope and possible pathological anti-β2GPI antibody production. In order to investigate the effects of LPS on the induction of APS-related pathology, we performed hyperimmunization of BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice with LPS, alone or in combination with tetanus toxoid (TTd), a protein structurally similar to β2GPI. We report that, although high affinity pathological anti-β2GPI antibodies were produced in all groups of animals, the reproductive pathology was recorded only in mice that received both LPS and TTd, implying on the important roles of both infections and molecular mimicry in APS pathogenesis. Moreover, APS-related reproductive pathology was more pronounced in BALB/c (lowered fertility and fecundity) than C57BL/6 mice (lowered fecundity), which correlated well with the disruption in natural antibody network observed in BALB/c mouse strain.
Sobrinho, Ludmila Silva Vicente; Rossi, Cláudio Nazaretian; Vides, Juliana Peloi; Braga, Eveline Tozzi; Gomes, Ana Amélia Domingues; de Lima, Valéria Marçal Félix; Perri, Sílvia Helena Venturoli; Generoso, Diego; Langoni, Hélio; Leutenegger, Christian; Biondo, Alexander Welker; Laurenti, Márcia Dalastra; Marcondes, Mary
The aim of the present study was to determine the coinfection of Leishmania sp. with Toxoplasma gondii, Feline Immunodeficiency Virus (FIV) and Feline Leukemia Virus (FeLV) in a population of cats from an endemic area for zoonotic visceral leishmaniasis. An overall 66/302 (21.85%) cats were found positive for Leishmania sp., with infection determined by direct parasitological examination in 30/302 (9.93%), by serology in 46/302 (15.23%) and by both in 10/302 (3.31%) cats. Real time PCR followed by amplicon sequencing successfully confirmed Leishmania infantum (syn Leishmania chagasi) infection. Out of the Leishmania infected cats, coinfection with FIV was observed in 12/66 (18.18%), with T. gondii in 17/66 (25.75%) and with both agents in 5/66 (7.58%) cats. FeLV was found only in a single adult cat with no Leishmania infection. A positive association was observed in coinfection of Leishmania and FIV (p<0.0001), but not with T. gondii (p>0.05). In conclusion, cats living in endemic areas of visceral leishmaniasis are significantly more likely to be coinfected with FIV, which may present confounding clinical signs and therefore cats in such areas should be always carefully screened for coinfections. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Differentiation between canine cutaneous and visceral leishmaniasis by the detection of immunoglobulin G specific for Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis and Leishmania (Leishmania) chagasi antigens using flow cytometry.
Santiago, Marta de Almeida; Ribeiro, Flávia Coelho; Mouta-Confort, Eliame; Nascimento, Lílian Dias; Schubach, Armando de Oliveira; Madeira, Maria de Fatima; Bertho, Alvaro Luiz
Flow cytometry employing Leishmania (L.) chagasi (Lc) and L. (Viannia) braziliensis (Lb) antigen was used to establish the differential diagnosis between visceral (VL) and cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) in dogs. Flow cytometry permitted the detection of Leishmania-specific immunoglobulin G in sera from 19 dogs: nine with CL and 10 with VL. A significant difference in the percentage of positive staining was observed in sera from dogs with CL between the homologous antigen (69% for Lb) and the heterologous antigen (42% for Lc). However, this difference was not significant in sera from dogs with VL (61% for Lb and 73% for Lc). No significant staining was observed in control sera (0.6% for Lb and 0.4% for Lc) consisting of samples from healthy dogs, or in the group with sporotrichosis (1.8% for Lb and 1.5% for Lc), a differential diagnosis of CL. The results suggest that flow cytometry might be useful for the differentiation between CL and VL in dogs, with practical applications in areas where the two infections overlap.
Umezawa, E S; Souza, A I; Pinedo-Cancino, V; Marcondes, M; Marcili, A; Camargo, L M A; Camacho, A A; Stolf, A M S; Teixeira, M M G
We standardized serodiagnosis of dogs infected with Trypanosoma cruzi using TESA (trypomastigote excreted-secreted antigen)-blot developed for human Chagas disease. TESA-blot showed 100% sensitivity and specificity. In contrast, ELISA using TESA (TESA-ELISA) or epimastigotes (epi-ELISA) as antigen yielded 100% sensitivity but specificity of 94.1% and 49.4%, respectively. When used in field studies in an endemic region for Chagas disease, visceral leishmaniasis and Trypanosoma evansi (Mato Grosso do Sul state, Central Brazil), positivities were 9.3% for TESA-blot, 10.7% for TESA-ELISA and 32% for epi-ELISA. Dogs from a non-endemic region for these infections (Rondonia state, western Amazonia) where T. cruzi is enzootic showed positivity of 4.5% for TESA-blot and epi-ELISA and 6.8% for TESA-ELISA. Sera from urban dogs from Santos, São Paulo, where these diseases are absent, yielded negative results. TESA-blot was the only method that distinguished dogs infected with T. cruzi from those infected with Leishmania chagasi and/or Trypanosoma evansi.
Silveira, Fernando T; Lainson, Ralph; Crescente, José Angelo; de Souza, Adelson A A; Campos, Marliane B; Gomes, Claudia M C; Laurenti, Márcia D; Corbett, Carlos E P
This prospective study was carried out from October 2003 to December 2005 and involved a cohort of 946 individuals of both genders, aged 1-89 years, from an endemic area for American visceral leishmaniasis (AVL), in Pará State, Brazil. The aim of the study was to analyze the dynamics of the clinical and immunological evolution of human Leishmania (L.) infantum chagasi infection represented by the following clinical-immunological profiles: asymptomatic infection (AI); symptomatic infection (SI=AVL); subclinical oligosymptomatic infection (SOI); subclinical resistant infection (SRI); and indeterminate initial infection (III). Infection diagnosis was determined by the indirect fluorescent antibody test and leishmanin skin test. In total, 231 cases of infection were diagnosed: the AI profile was the most frequent (73.2%), followed by SRI (12.1%), III (9.9%), SI (2.6%) and SOI (2.2%). The major conclusion regarding evolution dynamics was that the III profile plays a pivotal role from which the cases evolve to either the resistant, SRI and AI, or susceptible, SOI and SI, profiles; only one of the 23 III cases evolved to SI, while most evolved to either SRI (nine cases) or SOI (five cases) and eight cases remained as III.
Mendes, Daniella G; Lauria-Pires, Liana; Nitz, Nadjar; Lozzi, Silene P; Nascimento, Rubens J; Monteiro, Pedro S; Rebelo, Manuel M; Rosa, Ana de Cássia; Santana, Jaime M; Teixeira, Antonio R L
Lack of conservation of the Amazon tropical rainforest has imposed severe threats to its human population living in newly settled villages, resulting in outbreaks of some infectious diseases. We conducted a seroepidemiological survey of 1100 inhabitants of 15 villages of Paço do Lumiar County, Brazil. Thirty-five (3%) individuals had been exposed to Trypanosoma cruzi (Tc), 41 (4%) to Leishmania braziliensis (Lb) and 50 (4.5%) to Leishmania chagasi (Lc) infections. Also, 35 cases had antibodies that were cross-reactive against the heterologous kinetoplastid antigens. Amongst these, the Western blot assays revealed that 11 (1%) had Tc and Lb, that seven (0.6%) had Lc and Tc, and that 17 (1.6%) had Lb and Lc infections. All of these cases of exposures to mixed infections with Leishmania sp, and eight of 11 cases of Tc and Lb were confirmed by specific PCR assays and Southern hybridizations. Two cases had triple infections. We consider these asymptomatic cases showing phenotype and genotype markers consistent with mixed infections by two or more kinetoplastid flagellates a high risk factor for association with Psychodidae and Triatominae vectors blood feeding and transmitting these protozoa infections. This is the first publication showing human exposure to mixed asymptomatic kinetoplastid infections in the Amazon.
Ohshima, Motohiro; Inoue, Kazuyuki; Hayashi, Hideki; Tsuji, Daiki; Mizugaki, Michinao; Itoh, Kunihiko
DNA methylation is involved in many diseases such as cancer and autoimmunity. We generated recombinant single-chain Fv (scFv) antibodies against 5-methyl-2'-deoxycytidine (m(5)dCyd) using phage display technology and a hyperimmunized mouse, and the scFv of most interest were constructed as fusion proteins with green fluorescent protein obtained from Aequorea coerulescens GFP (AcGFP). Using RNA isolated from mouse spleens, we constructed a scFv library consisting of λ light chains. The scFv library was selected against m(5)Cyd-BSA and enriched through four rounds of panning. The scFv library was concentrated about 390-fold and an individual clone was reacted with m(5)Cyd-BSA. Two scFvs with high reactivity for m(5)Cyd-BSA termed 1-2 and 1-12 were produced. Furthermore, methylated DNA-binding activities of the scFvs were confirmed using an indirect immunofluorescence assay. Additionally, N- and C-terminal scFv 1-2 fusion with AcGFP were constructed, and we observed the N-terminal AcGFP exhibited much higher fluorescence intensity than the C-terminal fusions. The AcGFP-scFv 1-2 modified N-terminus of scFv with AcGFP had high fluorescence intensity, but the scFv 1-2-AcGFP modified C-terminus of scFv with AcGFP had low fluorescence intensity. The cross-reactivity of AcGFP-scFv 1-2 was similar to scFv 1-2, and thus, AcGFP-scFv 1-2 could be used in a direct immunofluorescence assay. The scFv fusion proteins may be useful for the detection and quantification of cellular methylated DNA in various specimens.
Perkins, Gillian A; Yeager, Amy; Erb, Hollis N; Nydam, Daryl V; Divers, Thomas J; Bowman, James L
The purpose of this study was to determine if colostrum-deprived foals with experimentally induced Rhodococcus equi pneumonia have a decreased severity of the disease and decreased mortality rate when given hyperimmune (HI) R. equi antibody plasma (R. equi titer at least 100 % and virulence-associated protein A [VapA] at least 10000) prophylactically versus when given normal equine plasma (R. equi titer less than 20 % and VapA less than 160). Sixteen colostrum-deprived foals (R. equi titer less than 5 %) each received normal equine plasma in the first 24 hours of life (R. equi titer less than 20 %). At 14 days of age, six foals were given normal equine plasma and 10 foals were given HI plasma. All foals were subsequently infected intrabronchially with a pathogenic strain of R. equi (2.5 x 10 sup 8; organisms) at 21 days of age. Repeated physical examinations, weight measurements, complete blood cell counts, fibrinogen measurements, and thoracic radiographs (ventrodorsal and lateral) were performed to help determine the severity of the disease. Foals given HI plasma had significantly higher R. equi ELISA titers (42.4 %) than those given normal plasma (20.9 %) on the day of experimental infection. Mortality rates and severity of disease were statistically similar (P >.05) for the groups. Although none of the foals was treated with antibiotics, several with severe R. equi pneumonia recovered. Either HI or normal equine plasma administered to foals in the first few weeks of life caused no adverse effects and may be protective against R. equi, although the exact constituent responsible for protection is undetermined and requires further investigation.
Lu, Jiahai; Guo, Zhongmin; Pan, Xinghua; Wang, Guoling; Zhang, Dingmei; Li, Yanbin; Tan, Bingyan; Ouyang, Liping; Yu, Xinbing
Avian influenza virus H5N1 has demonstrated considerable pandemic potential. Currently, no effective vaccines for H5N1 infection are available, so passive immunotherapy may be an alternative strategy. To investigate the possible therapeutic effect of antibody against highly pathogenic H5N1 virus on a mammal host, we prepared specific equine anti-H5N1 IgGs from horses vaccinated with inactivated H5N1 virus, and then obtained the F(ab')2 fragments by pepsin digestion of IgGs. The horses were vaccinated with inactivated H5N1 vaccine to prepare anti-H5N1 IgGs. The F(ab')2 fragments were purified from anti-H5N1 hyperimmune sera by a protocol for 'enhanced pepsin digestion'. The protective effect of the F(ab')2 fragments against H5N1 virus infection was determined in cultured MDCK cells by cytopathic effect (CPE) assay and in a BALB/c mouse model by survival rate assay. By the protocol for 'enhanced pepsin digestion', total 16 g F(ab')2 fragments were finally obtained from one liter equine antisera with the purity of over 90%. The H5N1-specific F(ab')2 fragments had a HI titer of 1:1024, and the neutralization titre of F(ab')2 reached 1: 2048. The in vivo assay showed that 100 microg of the F(ab')2 fragments could protect BALB/c mice infected with a lethal dose of influenza H5N1 virus. The availability of highly purified H5N1-specific F(ab')2 fragments may be promising for treatment of influenza H5N1 infection. Our work has provided experimental support for the application of the therapeutic equine immunoglobulin in future large primate or human trials.
Kreil, Thomas R; Mc Vey, John K; Lei, Laura Shau-Ping; Camacho, Laureano; Wodal, Walter; Kerschbaum, Astrid; Segura, Edy; Vandamme, Etienne; Gavit, Patrick; Ehrlich, Hartmut J; Barrett, P Noel; Baker, Donald A
The recent H1N1 pandemic provided an opportunity to conceptually assess the possibility of rapidly providing a "hyperimmune" human immunoglobulin (H-IVIG) to an emerging infectious disease, in useful quantities with respect to public health. Commercial-scale H-IVIG production from plasma collected from donors convalescent from or vaccinated against pandemic influenza A (H1N1) virus is described. A special protocol was implemented for the collection, processing, and shipment of plasma from previously qualified source plasma donors, self-identifying as convalescent from or vaccinated against H1N1 influenza. A licensed IVIG manufacturing process was utilized for the preparation of two commercial lots of approximately 50 kg 10% human IVIG preparation in total. The H1N1 hemagglutination inhibition and neutralization antibody titers of the resulting H-IVIG preparations were determined and compared with standard preparations. Twenty-six plasma collection centers participated in the protocol. Donor enrollment exceeded 300 donors per week and within 30 days of protocol deployment plasma was being collected at a rate of more than 2000 L/week. Manufacture of both H-IVIG lots was unremarkable and both lots met the requirements for commercial release and the bulk of the product was distributed in normal commercial channels. Examination of plasma pools and final IVIG product confirmed pandemic H1N1 antibody titers substantially higher than those collected before the emergence of the pandemic H1N1 virus. This work demonstrates the feasibility of producing a H-IVIG preparation at large scale relatively rapidly, with a significant enrichment in antibodies to the H1N1 influenza, achieved by donor self-identification. © 2011 American Association of Blood Banks.
Silveira, Fernando T; Lainson, Ralph; Pereira, Elza A; de Souza, Adelson A A; Campos, Marliane B; Chagas, Eugênia J; Gomes, Claudia M C; Laurenti, Márcia D; Corbett, Carlos E P
This was a longitudinal study carried out during a period over 2 years with a cohort of 946 individuals of both sexes, aged 1 year and older, from an endemic area of American visceral leishmaniasis (AVL) in Pará State, Brazil. The object was to analyze the transmission dynamics of human Leishmania (Leishmania) infantum chagasi infection based principally on the prevalence and incidence. For diagnosis of the infection, the indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT) and leishmanin skin test (LST) were performed with amastigote and promastigote antigens of the parasite, respectively. The prevalence by LST (11.2%) was higher (p < 0.0001) than that (3.4%) by IFAT, and the combined prevalence by both tests was 12.6%. The incidences by LST were also higher (p < 0.05) than those by IFAT at 6 (4.7% x 0.6%), 12 (4.7% x 2.7%), and 24 months (2.9% x 0.3%). Moreover, there were no differences (p > 0.05) between the combined incidences by both tests on the same point surveys, 5.2%, 6.3%, and 3.6%. During the study, 12 infected persons showed high IFAT IgG titers with no LST reactions: five children and two adults developed AVL (2,560-10,120), and two children and three adults developed subclinical oligosymptomatic infection (1280-2560). The combined tests diagnosed a total of 231 cases of infection leading to an accumulated prevalence of 24.4%.
Alves, Cíntia F; de Amorim, Izabela F G; Moura, Eliane P; Ribeiro, Raul R; Alves, Cibele F; Michalick, Marilene S; Kalapothakis, Evanguedes; Bruna-Romero, Oscar; Tafuri, Wagner L; Teixeira, Mauro M; Melo, Maria N
American visceral leishmaniasis is a zoonosis of the New World. Dogs are the main reservoir of the disease and there is much interest in the understanding of mechanisms implicated in protection against canine infection. Nevertheless, most studies in dogs have not been carried out in organs that are targets of infection. This work is first to report the profile of cytokines and parasite burdens, as determined by real-time PCR, in the lymph nodes of dogs naturally infected with Leishmania chagasi. With this purpose, 18 mongrel dogs were divided in three groups: control non-infected dogs (n=6) and naturally infected animals with L. chagasi, asymptomatic (n=6) and symptomatic (n=6). Parasite burden in lymph nodes was 73-fold greater in symptomatic than asymptomatic animals. Prescapular lymph nodes of asymptomatic dogs had the highest expression of IFN-gamma and TNF-alpha and low parasite burden, indicating that these cytokines play a role in protection against infection. Highest expression of IL-10 and TGF-beta and high parasite burden were observed in symptomatic dogs, suggesting a role for these cytokines in the progression of disease. Hence, the balance of expression of IFN-gamma and TNF-alpha (protective) and IL-10 and TGF-beta (disease progression) in lymph nodes determine parasite burden and clinical expression in naturally infected dogs.
Hyperimmune intravenous immunoglobulin containing high titers of pandemic H1N1 hemagglutinin and neuraminidase antibodies provides dose-dependent protection against lethal virus challenge in SCID mice.
Hohenadl, Christine; Wodal, Walter; Kerschbaum, Astrid; Fritz, Richard; Howard, M Keith; Farcet, Maria R; Portsmouth, Daniel; McVey, John K; Baker, Donald A; Ehrlich, Hartmut J; Barrett, P Noel; Kreil, Thomas R
Convalescent plasma and fractionated immunoglobulins have been suggested as prophylactic or therapeutic interventions during an influenza pandemic. Intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) preparations manufactured from human plasma collected before the 2009 H1N1 influenza pandemic, and post-pandemic hyperimmune (H)-IVIG preparations were characterized with respect to hemagglutination inhibition (HI), microneutralization (MN) and neuraminidase-inhibiting (NAi) antibody titers against pandemic H1N1 (pH1N1) and seasonal H1N1 (sH1N1) viruses. The protective efficacy of the IVIG and H-IVIG preparations was evaluated in a SCID mouse challenge model.Substantial levels of HI, MN and NAi antibodies against pH1N1 (GMTs 1:45, 1:204 and 1: 727, respectively) and sH1N1 (GMTs 1:688, 1:4,946 and 1:312, respectively) were present in pre-pandemic IVIG preparations. In post-pandemic H-IVIG preparations, HI, MN and NAi antibody GMTs against pH1N1 were 1:1,280, 1:11,404 and 1:2,488 (28-, 56- and 3.4-fold enriched), respectively, compared to pre-pandemic IVIG preparations (p < 0.001). Post-pandemic H-IVIG (HI titer 1:1,280) provided complete protection from lethality of SCID mice against pH1N1 challenge (100% of mice survived for 29 days post-challenge). Pre-pandemic IVIG (HI titer 1:70) did not provide significant protection against pH1N1 challenge (50% of mice survived 29 days post-challenge compared to 40% survival in the buffer control group). There was a highly significant correlation between circulating in vivo HI and MN antibody titers and survival (p < 0001). The substantial enrichment of HA- and NA-specific antibodies in H-IVIG and the efficacious protection of SCID mice against challenge with pH1N1 suggests H-IVIG as a promising intervention against pandemic influenza for immunocompromised patients and other risk groups.
Hyperimmune intravenous immunoglobulin containing high titers of pandemic H1N1 hemagglutinin and neuraminidase antibodies provides dose-dependent protection against lethal virus challenge in SCID mice
Background Convalescent plasma and fractionated immunoglobulins have been suggested as prophylactic or therapeutic interventions during an influenza pandemic. Findings Intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) preparations manufactured from human plasma collected before the 2009 H1N1 influenza pandemic, and post-pandemic hyperimmune (H)-IVIG preparations were characterized with respect to hemagglutination inhibition (HI), microneutralization (MN) and neuraminidase-inhibiting (NAi) antibody titers against pandemic H1N1 (pH1N1) and seasonal H1N1 (sH1N1) viruses. The protective efficacy of the IVIG and H-IVIG preparations was evaluated in a SCID mouse challenge model. Substantial levels of HI, MN and NAi antibodies against pH1N1 (GMTs 1:45, 1:204 and 1: 727, respectively) and sH1N1 (GMTs 1:688, 1:4,946 and 1:312, respectively) were present in pre-pandemic IVIG preparations. In post-pandemic H-IVIG preparations, HI, MN and NAi antibody GMTs against pH1N1 were 1:1,280, 1:11,404 and 1:2,488 (28-, 56- and 3.4-fold enriched), respectively, compared to pre-pandemic IVIG preparations (p < 0.001). Post-pandemic H-IVIG (HI titer 1:1,280) provided complete protection from lethality of SCID mice against pH1N1 challenge (100% of mice survived for 29 days post-challenge). Pre-pandemic IVIG (HI titer 1:70) did not provide significant protection against pH1N1 challenge (50% of mice survived 29 days post-challenge compared to 40% survival in the buffer control group). There was a highly significant correlation between circulating in vivo HI and MN antibody titers and survival (p < 0001). Conclusion The substantial enrichment of HA- and NA-specific antibodies in H-IVIG and the efficacious protection of SCID mice against challenge with pH1N1 suggests H-IVIG as a promising intervention against pandemic influenza for immunocompromised patients and other risk groups. PMID:24739285
Nakamura, R M; Weigle, W O
When rabbits were injected with 10.0 mg rabbit thyroglobulin in complete Freund's adjuvant, the earliest thyroid lesions were seen on day 5 and uniformly severe thyroid lesions were seen by day 14; these observations were not significantly different from the thyroid lesions observed at 1 and 2 months post-immunization. Pooled sera were obtained from immunized, thyroidectomized, and nonthyroidectomized donors on various days and transferred to normal recipient rabbits in different experiments. Successful transfer of thyroid lesions was seen when serum containing early antithyroglobulin antibody obtained from thyroidectomized donor animals at various times after immunization was injected into normal recipients in a sequential manner. Immunofluorescent studies of recipient thyroid glands showed focal fixation of rabbit gamma-globulin and beta(1C) complement in thyroid follicles. When purified antibody to rabbit thyroglobulin obtained from thyroidectomized donor sera was transferred sequentially as above, significant thyroid lesions were seen in recipient rabbits. In contrast, no thyroid lesions were seen in recipient animals injected with rabbit sera containing late antithyroglobulin antibody from thyroidectomized donors or hyperimmune sera from guinea pigs. No thyroid lesions were seen in recipient animals injected either with sera from donors given complete adjuvant without thyroglobulin or with globulin fraction of pooled sera containing early antithyroglobulin antibody obtained on various days from nonthyroidectomized donors. Similarly, rabbits rendered unresponsive to guinea pig gammaG-globulin and periodically injected with guinea pig anti-rabbit thyroglobulin showed no thyroid lesions.
Canine visceral leishmaniasis due to Leishmania (L.) infantum chagasi in Amazonian Brazil: comparison of the parasite density from the skin, lymph node and visceral tissues between symptomatic and asymptomatic, seropositive dogs.
Lima, Luciana Vieira R; Carneiro, Liliane Almeida; Campos, Marliane Batista; Chagas, Eujênia Janis; Laurenti, Márcia D; Corbett, Carlos E P; Lainson, Ralph; Silveira, Fernando Tobias
Canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL) is recognizable by characteristic signs of disease and is highly lethal. The infection, however, may be quite inapparent in some seropositive dogs, and this has raised the polemic question as to whether or not such animals can be a source of infection for Lutzomyia longipalpis, the vector of American visceral leishmaniasis (AVL). In this study we have examined 51 dogs with acute CVL from an AVL area in Pará State, northern Brazil, and compared the parasite density, amastigotes of Leishmania (L.) infantum chagasi, in the skin, lymph node and viscera of symptomatic with that of nine asymptomatic but seropositive dogs (IFAT-IgG). Post-mortem biopsy fragments of these tissues were processed by immunohistochemistry, using a polyclonal antibody against Leishmania sp. The X² and Mann Whitney tests were used to evaluate the means of infected macrophage density (p < 0.05). There was no difference (p > 0.05) in the skin (10.7/mm² x 15.5/mm²) and lymph node (6.3/mm² x 8.3/mm²), between asymptomatic and symptomatic dogs, respectively. It was higher (p < 0.05), however, in the viscera of symptomatic (5.3/mm²) than it was in asymptomatic (1.4/mm²) dogs. These results strongly suggest that asymptomatic or symptomatic L. (L.) i. chagasi-infected dogs can serve as a source of infection, principally considering the highest (p < 0.05) parasite density from skin (10.7/mm² x 15.5/mm²), the place where the vetor L. longipalpis takes its blood meal, compared with those from lymph node (6.3/mm² x 8.3/mm²) and viscera (1.4/mm²x 5.3/mm²).
A cross-sectional study on canine Leishmania (L.) infantum chagasi infection in Amazonian Brazil ratifies a higher prevalence of specific IgG-antibody response than delayed-type hypersensitivity in symptomatic and asymptomatic dogs.
Silveira, Fernando T; Carneiro, Liliane A; Ramos, Patrícia K S; Chagas, Eugênia J; Lima, Luciana V R; Campos, Marliane B; Laurenti, Márcia D; Gomes, Claudia M C; Corbett, Carlos E P
This was a cross-sectional study which analyzed the prevalence and the clinical and immunological spectrum of canine Leishmania (L.) infantum chagasi infection in a cohort of 320 mongrel dogs living in an endemic area of American visceral leishmaniasis in the Amazonian Brazil by using, mainly, the indirect fluorescence antibody test (IFAT-IgG) and the delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH), and the parasite research by the popliteal lymph node aspiration. The IFAT and DTH reactivity recognized three different immune response profiles: (1) IFAT((+))/DTH((-)) (107 dogs), (2) IFAT((-))/DTH((+)) (18 dogs), and (3) IFAT((+))/DTH((+)) (13 dogs), providing an overall prevalence of infection of 43% (138/320). Thus, the specific prevalence of IFAT( (+) )/DTH( (-) ) 33.4% (107/320) was higher than those of IFAT( (-) )/DTH( (+) ) 5.6% (18/320) and IFAT( (+) )/DTH( (+) ) 4.0% (13/320). Moreover, the frequency of these profiles among 138 infected dogs showed that the IFAT( (+) )/DTH( (-) ) rate of 77.5% (107/138) was also higher than those of 13.0% (18/138) of IFAT( (-) )/DTH( (+) ) and 9.5% (13/138) of IFAT( (+) )/DTH( (+) ) rates. The frequency of asymptomatic dogs (76%-105) was higher than those of symptomatic (16.6%-23) and oligosymptomatic ones (7.4%-10). A total of 16 (11.6%) L. (L.) i. chagasi isolates were obtained from infected dogs, all from the IFAT( (+) ) /DTH( (-) ) profile: 41% (9/22) from symptomatic, 33.3% (3/9) from oligosymptomatic, and 5.2% (4/76) from asymptomatic dogs. These findings strongly suggested that despite the higher frequency of asymptomatic dogs (76%-105), the majority (72.4%-76) was characterized by the IFAT( (+) ) /DTH( (-) ) profile with a doubtful immunogenetic resistance against infection.
Alleviation of insulin resistance and liver damage by oral administration of Imm124-E is mediated by increased Tregs and associated with increased serum GLP-1 and adiponectin: results of a phase I/II clinical trial in NASH
Mizrahi, Meir; Shabat, Yehudit; Ben Ya’acov, Ami; Lalazar, Gadi; Adar, Tomer; Wong, Victor; Muller, Brian; Rawlin, Grant; Ilan, Yaron
Background Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is considered to be part of the nonalcoholic fatty liver disorders and its incidence is increasing. Imm124-E (Immuron Ltd, Melbourne, Australia), containing hyperimmune bovine colostrum, has been shown to exert an immunomodulatory effect and to alleviate target organ damage in animal models of NASH. The aim of our study was to determine the safety and efficacy of oral administration of Imm124-E to patients with insulin resistance and NASH. Methods In an open-label trial, ten patients with biopsy-proven NASH and insulin resistance were orally treated with Imm124-E for 30 days. Results Oral administration of Imm124-E was safe, and no side effects were noted. Alleviation of insulin resistance was reflected by significantly improved hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) values in all ten treated patients. For between five and eight responders, the following effects were noted: a decrease in fasting glucose levels; improved oral glucose tolerance test (OGGT) and homeostatic model assessment insulin resistance (HOMA) scores; and alleviation in lipid profile. These effects were accompanied by increased serum levels of glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1), adiponectin and T regulatory cells. Conclusion Hyperimmune colostrum alleviates NASH. PMID:23293533
Stevens, R.G.; Morris, J.S.; Hann, H.L.; Pulsipher, B.; Stahlhut, M.W.
Stored serum samples can be an important research resource into the etiology of cancer. These sera cannot be replaced and should therefore be used to best advantage. In previous epidemiologic studies, only single serum constituents have been assayed in individual serum samples. For example, serum ferritin has been examined in samples stored for as long as 10 years at -20C for a possible relation with general mortality (1) and cancer death (2). Ferritin is the tissue iron-storage protein and is therefore subject to denaturation. Serum selenium has also been examined in relation to cancer risk in a prospective manner by using stored frozen serum samples (3, 4). The interactions of a variety of serum factors in relation to cancer risk would be a desirable research goal, except that the amounts of serum typically available in frozen serum banks are less than 1 ml. It was the purpose of this investigation to determine if a radioimmunoassay for ferritin affected a subsequent neutron activation assay for selenium on the same 0.1 ml serum sample.
Onyango-Makumbi, Carolyne; Omer, Saad B; Mubiru, Michael; Moulton, Lawrence H; Nakabiito, Clemensia; Musoke, Philippa; Mmiro, Francis; Zwerski, Sheryl; Wigzell, Hans; Falksveden, Lars; Wahren, Britta; Antelman, Gretchen; Fowler, Mary Glenn; Guay, Laura; Jackson, J Brooks
This phase III, randomized, clinical trial compared single-dose nevirapine (sdNVP) plus HIV hyperimmune globulin (HIVIGLOB) with sdNVP alone for preventing maternal-to-child transmission of HIV. Primary objectives were to determine rates of HIV infection among infants and to assess the safety of HIVIGLOB in combination with sdNVP in HIV-infected Ugandan pregnant women and their infants. Mother-infant pairs were randomized to receive 200 mg of nevirapine to women in labor and 2 mg/kg NVP to newborns within 72 hours after birth (sdNVP arm) or to receive sdNVP plus a single intravenous 240-mL dose of HIVIGLOB given to women at 36- to 38-week gestation and a single intravenous 24-mL dose to newborns within 18 hours of birth (HIVIGLOB/sdNVP arm). Risk of HIV infection was determined using Kaplan-Meier and risk ratio estimates at birth, 2, 6, 14 weeks, 6, and 12 months of age. Intent-to-treat analysis included 198 HIVIGLOB/sdNVP and 294 sdNVP mother-infant pairs. At 6 months of age, the primary endpoint, there was no statistically significant difference in HIV transmission in the HIVIGLOB/sdNVP arm vs. the sdNVP arm [18.7% vs. 15.0%; risk ratio = 1.240 (95% confidence interval: 0.833 to 1.846); P = 0.290]. Similarly, the proportion of serious adverse events in the HIVIGLOB/sdNVP and sdNVP arms, respectively, for mothers (18.9% vs. 19.3%; P = 0.91) and infants (62.6% vs. 59.5%; P = 0.51) was not significantly different. Giving mother-infant pairs an infusion of peripartum HIV hyperimmune globulin in addition to sdNVP for preventing maternal-to-child transmission was as safe as sdNVP alone but was no more effective than sdNVP alone in preventing HIV transmission.
Efficacy of zidovudine and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) hyperimmune immunoglobulin for reducing perinatal HIV transmission from HIV-infected women with advanced disease: results of Pediatric AIDS Clinical Trials Group protocol 185.
Stiehm, E R; Lambert, J S; Mofenson, L M; Bethel, J; Whitehouse, J; Nugent, R; Moye, J; Glenn Fowler, M; Mathieson, B J; Reichelderfer, P; Nemo, G J; Korelitz, J; Meyer, W A; Sapan, C V; Jimenez, E; Gandia, J; Scott, G; O'Sullivan, M J; Kovacs, A; Stek, A; Shearer, W T; Hammill, H
Pediatric AIDS Clinical Trials Group protocol 185 evaluated whether zidovudine combined with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) hyperimmune immunoglobulin (HIVIG) infusions administered monthly during pregnancy and to the neonate at birth would significantly lower perinatal HIV transmission compared with treatment with zidovudine and intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) without HIV antibody. Subjects had baseline CD4 cell counts =500/microL (22% had counts <200/microL) and required zidovudine for maternal health (24% received zidovudine before pregnancy). Transmission was associated with lower maternal baseline CD4 cell count (odds ratio, 1.58 per 100-cell decrement; P=.005; 10.0% vs. 3.6% transmission for count <200 vs. >/=200/microL) but not with time of zidovudine initiation (5.6% vs. 4.8% if started before vs. during pregnancy; P=. 75). The Kaplan-Meier transmission rate for HIVIG recipients was 4. 1% (95% confidence interval, 1.5%-6.7%) and for IVIG recipients was 6.0% (2.8%-9.1%) (P=.36). The unexpectedly low transmission confirmed that zidovudine prophylaxis is highly effective, even for women with advanced HIV disease and prior zidovudine therapy, although it limited the study's ability to address whether passive immunization diminishes perinatal transmission.
Lin, R Y
Numerous agents are known to cause serum sickness reactions. Although generally a benign disorder, serum sickness must be distinguished from various rheumatic and infectious disorders. The causative agent must be identified in order to avoid subsequent reactions. With the introduction of new drugs and biotechnically produced hormones and antibodies, new causes of serum sickness reactions are likely.
Pirtle, E. C.
Hyperimmune anti-hog cholera and nonimmune swine sera yielded approximately 50% more precipitation reactions in agar-gel diffusion tests with pancreas extracts from SPF noninfected swine than with extracts obtained from swine experimentally infected with virulent hog cholera virus. The pancreas-reacting property of swine serum was determined to be relatively heat stable, withstanding 68 C for 30 minutes. Of various swine serum fractions tested, the only one that reacted with pancreas extracts contained gamma, beta and alpha-globulins. In the absence of alpha-globulin, precipitation reactions were not observed. Sera of newborn SPF piglets, containing 50% alpha-2 globulin, formed more intense precipitation lines with swine pancreas extracts than were formed by the sera of their dams with the same extracts. The pancreas-reacting activity of swine sera was completely removed by absorption with pancreatic tissue. This property was not removed by absorption with guinea pig kidney, or beef, swine or human erythrocytes. Maceration of pancreatic tissue released reactive substances in a polydispersed form. This was demonstrated by the ability of almost all supernates and sediments from differential centrifugation of such preparations to form precipitation lines with swine sera. Reactive substances from swine pancreas were found to be relatively heat labile, being inactivated in one hour at 56C. No evidence was obtained in this study to indicate that the observed precipitation reactions were related to hog cholera virus and its corresponding antibody. The reactions are believed to have resulted from the interaction of protein-related substances present in normal swine pancreas with a relatively heat stable component, possibly alpha-globulin, in swine serum. PMID:17649466
Cook, J D; Skikne, B S; Baynes, R D
The transferrin receptor plays a critical role in iron metabolism by precisely controlling the flow of transferrin iron into body cells. A soluble truncated form of the receptor can be detected in human serum using sensitive immunoassays, and the initial clinical experience with this new measurement indicates that it reflects the total body mass of tissue receptor. Serum receptor levels rise significantly with tissue iron deficiency and the heightened demand for iron associated with expansion of the erythroid marrow. The serum receptor provides a quantitative measure of functional iron deficiency and distinguishes the associated anemia from that of chronic disease. If iron deficiency is excluded, the serum receptor provides a quantitative measure of total erythropoiesis that is more sensitive and less invasive than bone marrow examination currently used to assess red cell precursor mass. Performed in conjunction with serum ferritin measurements, the serum receptor will be useful in establishing the true prevalence of iron deficiency anemia in population studies.
Anti-fixed Leishmania chagasi promastigotes IgG antibodies detected by flow cytometry (FC-AFPA-IgG) as a tool for serodiagnosis and for post-therapeutic cure assessment in American visceral leishmaniasis.
Garcia, Lúcia Maria; Coelho-Dos-Reis, Jordana Grazziela Alves; Peruhype-Magalhães, Vanessa; Teixeira-Carvalho, Andréa; Rocha, Roberta Dias Rodrigues; Araújo, Márcio Sobreira Silva; Gomes, Izabelle Teixeira; Carvalho, Sílvio Fernando Guimarães; Dietze, Reynaldo; Lemos, Elenice Moreira; Andrade, Mariléia Chaves; Martins-Filho, Olindo Assis
Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a systemic infection, caused by an intracellular protozoan parasite belonging to the Leishmania donovani complex. The diagnosis of VL is complex because most clinical features are shared with other commonly occurring febrile hepatosplenic diseases that can be endemic along with VL. A number of serological devices are available but still require improvement mainly due to residual post-therapeutic serology and the cross-reactivity with other Trypanosomatidae protozooses. This study intended to describe and evaluate the performance of an indirect immunofluorescence assay referred as flow cytometry anti-fixed Leishmania chagasi promastigote IgG antibodies (FC-AFPA-IgG) for serodiagnosis of VL and assessment of post-therapeutic cure. The sera reactivity is reported as the percentage of positive fluorescent parasite (PPFP) along the titration curve. The analysis of sera titration curve indicated the sera dilution 1/32,000 and the PPFP=25% as the cut-off to segregate positive and negative results. Using these parameters, the FC-AFPA-IgG displayed outstanding sensitivity and specificity for diagnosis and post-therapeutic cure assessment purposes. The inter-test reproducibility of FC-AFPA-IgG was also verified, considering two independent Analysts and validated the results obtained by FC-AFPA-IgG. Moreover, the comparison between FC-AFPA-IgG and the conventional serologic test (ELISA) showed that besides the statistically analogous results with strong positive correlation the FC-AFPA-IgG displayed higher performance indexes. Further analysis demonstrated that while cross-reactivity was observed in 8% of samples tested by ELISA, no cross-reactivity was detected by FC-AFPA-IgG. Together, the findings presented in this study showed the potential of FC-AFPA-IgG in both diagnosis and post-therapeutic cure assessment of VL.
Stojanović, Marijana; Petrušić, Vladimir; Zivković, Irena; Inić-Kanada, Aleksandra; Stojićević, Ivana; Marinković, Emilija; Dimitrijević, Ljiljana
It is known that tetanus toxoid (TTd)-hyperimmunization induces increased titer of sera β2-glycoprotein I (β2GPI)-specific antibodies (Abs) in Balb/c mice. The concentrations of such induced anti-β2GPI Abs as well as their pathogenic potential are strongly influenced by the context of TTd application. β2GPI-specific immune response is established as a part of TTd-specific immune response by molecular mimicry mechanism due to structural homology between TTd and β2GPI. This finding is supported by the following facts: (1) cross-reactive Abs that recognize both TTd and β2GPI epitopes are present in Balb/c mice sera; (2) anti-TTd Abs secretion in splenic cultures is induced after β2GPI stimulation and vice versa. However, analyses of (1) IL-10 production following in vitro stimulation of immunized Balb/c mice splenocytes by TTd, β2GPI or glutaraldehyde-treated β2GPI and (2) specific impact of ConA and agonists of TLR2, TLR4, and TLR9 on anti-TTd and autoreactive Abs secretion strongly imply that these two branches of the TTd-induced immune response do not use identical cell populations and are regulated in a different way. Results presented in this paper describe that structural homology between foreign and self-antigens could focus mounted autoreactive immune response toward specific self-structure, but the context of antigen application, including a history of previous immune stimulations and adjuvants applied together with the antigen, are the main factors which determine the outcome of the induced immune response.
Engineered Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG expressing IgG-binding domains of protein G: Capture of hyperimmune bovine colostrum antibodies and protection against diarrhea in a mouse pup rotavirus infection model.
Günaydın, Gökçe; Zhang, Ran; Hammarström, Lennart; Marcotte, Harold
Rotavirus-induced diarrhea causes more than 500,000 deaths annually in the world, and although vaccines are being made available, new effective treatment strategies should still be considered. Purified antibodies derived from hyperimmune bovine colostrum (HBC), from cows immunized with rotavirus, were previously used for treatment of rotavirus diarrhea in children. A combination of HBC antibodies and a probiotic strain of Lactobacillus (L. rhamnosus GG) was also found to be more effective than HBC alone in reducing diarrhea in a mouse model of rotavirus infection. In order to further improve this form of treatment, L. rhamnosus GG was engineered to display surface expressed IgG-binding domains of protein G (GB1, GB2, and GB3) which capture HBC-derived IgG antibodies (HBC-IgG) and thus target rotavirus. The expression of IgG-binding domains on the surface of the bacteria as well as their binding to HBC-IgG and to rotavirus (simian strain RRV) was demonstrated by Western blot, flow cytometry, and electron microscopy. The prophylactic effect of engineered L. rhamnosus GG and anti-rotaviral activity of HBC antibodies was evaluated in a mouse pup model of RRV infection. The combination therapy with engineered L. rhamnosus GG (PG3) and HBC was significantly more effective in reducing the prevalence, severity, and duration of diarrhea in comparison to HBC alone or a combination of wild-type L. rhamnosus GG and HBC. The new therapy reduces the effective dose of HBC between 10 to 100-fold and may thus decrease treatment costs. This antibody capturing platform, tested here for the first time in vivo, could potentially be used to target additional gastrointestinal pathogens. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Mascola, J R; Louder, M K; VanCott, T C; Sapan, C V; Lambert, J S; Muenz, L R; Bunow, B; Birx, D L; Robb, M L
Three antibody reagents that neutralize primary human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) isolates were tested for magnitude and breadth of neutralization when used alone or in double or triple combinations. Hyperimmune anti-HIV immunoglobulin (HIVIG) is derived from the plasma of HIV-1-infected donors, and monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) 2F5 and 2G12 bind to distinct regions of the HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein. The antibodies were initially tested against a panel of 15 clade B HIV-1 isolates, using a single concentration that is achievable in vivo (HIVIG, 2,500 microg/ml; MAbs, 25 microg/ml). Individual antibody reagents neutralized many of the viruses tested, but antibody potency varied substantially among the viruses. The virus neutralization produced by double combinations of HIVIG plus 2F5 or 2G12, the two MAbs together, or the triple combination of HIVIG, 2F5, and 2G12 was generally equal to or greater than that predicted by the effect of individual antibodies. Overall, the triple combination displayed the greatest magnitude and breadth of neutralization. Synergistic neutralization was evaluated by analyzing data from dose-response curves of each individual antibody reagent compared to the triple combination and was demonstrated against each of four viruses tested. Therefore, combinations of polyclonal and monoclonal anti-HIV antibodies can produce additive or synergistic neutralization of primary HIV-1 isolates. Passive immunotherapy for treatment or prophylaxis of HIV-1 should consider mixtures of potent neutralizing antibody reagents to expand the magnitude and breadth of virus neutralization. PMID:9311792
Mascola, J R; Louder, M K; VanCott, T C; Sapan, C V; Lambert, J S; Muenz, L R; Bunow, B; Birx, D L; Robb, M L
Three antibody reagents that neutralize primary human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) isolates were tested for magnitude and breadth of neutralization when used alone or in double or triple combinations. Hyperimmune anti-HIV immunoglobulin (HIVIG) is derived from the plasma of HIV-1-infected donors, and monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) 2F5 and 2G12 bind to distinct regions of the HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein. The antibodies were initially tested against a panel of 15 clade B HIV-1 isolates, using a single concentration that is achievable in vivo (HIVIG, 2,500 microg/ml; MAbs, 25 microg/ml). Individual antibody reagents neutralized many of the viruses tested, but antibody potency varied substantially among the viruses. The virus neutralization produced by double combinations of HIVIG plus 2F5 or 2G12, the two MAbs together, or the triple combination of HIVIG, 2F5, and 2G12 was generally equal to or greater than that predicted by the effect of individual antibodies. Overall, the triple combination displayed the greatest magnitude and breadth of neutralization. Synergistic neutralization was evaluated by analyzing data from dose-response curves of each individual antibody reagent compared to the triple combination and was demonstrated against each of four viruses tested. Therefore, combinations of polyclonal and monoclonal anti-HIV antibodies can produce additive or synergistic neutralization of primary HIV-1 isolates. Passive immunotherapy for treatment or prophylaxis of HIV-1 should consider mixtures of potent neutralizing antibody reagents to expand the magnitude and breadth of virus neutralization.
Kramski, Marit; Center, Rob J; Wheatley, Adam K; Jacobson, Jonathan C; Alexander, Marina R; Rawlin, Grant; Purcell, Damian F J
Bovine colostrum (first milk) contains very high concentrations of IgG, and on average 1 kg (500 g/liter) of IgG can be harvested from each immunized cow immediately after calving. We used a modified vaccination strategy together with established production systems from the dairy food industry for the large-scale manufacture of broadly neutralizing HIV-1 IgG. This approach provides a low-cost mucosal HIV preventive agent potentially suitable for a topical microbicide. Four cows were vaccinated pre- and/or postconception with recombinant HIV-1 gp140 envelope (Env) oligomers of clade B or A, B, and C. Colostrum and purified colostrum IgG were assessed for cross-clade binding and neutralization against a panel of 27 Env-pseudotyped reporter viruses. Vaccination elicited high anti-gp140 IgG titers in serum and colostrum with reciprocal endpoint titers of up to 1 × 10(5). While nonimmune colostrum showed some intrinsic neutralizing activity, colostrum from 2 cows receiving a longer-duration vaccination regimen demonstrated broad HIV-1-neutralizing activity. Colostrum-purified polyclonal IgG retained gp140 reactivity and neutralization activity and blocked the binding of the b12 monoclonal antibody to gp140, showing specificity for the CD4 binding site. Colostrum-derived anti-HIV antibodies offer a cost-effective option for preparing the substantial quantities of broadly neutralizing antibodies that would be needed in a low-cost topical combination HIV-1 microbicide.
Jenkins, M; Kerr, D; Fayer, R; Wall, R
In an effort to generate high titer colostrum for immunotherapy of cryptosporidiosis, a study was conducted to test the efficacy of immunizing sheep with recombinant plasmid DNA (pCMV-CP15/60) encoding epitopes of 15 and 60 kDa surface antigens of Cryptosporidium parvum sporozoites. The plasmid DNA was used to immunize preparturient ewes at three dose levels by jet-injection into either hind limb muscle (IM) or mammary tissue (IMAM). Regardless of route of injection, a dose-dependent anti-CP15/60 immunoglobulin response was observed in sera and colostrum from sheep immunized with pCMV-CP15/60 plasmid DNA. High titer antibody responses were observed in one of three animals per group receiving an IM injection of 100 or 1000 micrograms pCMV-CP15/60. IMAM immunization with 100 or 1000 micrograms pCMV-CP15/60 plasmid DNA elicited higher titer colostrum responses and more consistent serum responses compared to IM injections. A negligible serum and colostrum anti-CP15/60 response was observed in ewes injected IM with 10 micrograms pCMV-CP15/60 or 1000 micrograms control plasmid DNA. Immunoblotting of native C. parvum sporozoite/oocyst protein with hyperimmune serum and colostrum corroborated the increased titers against CP15/60 antigen. Serum and colostrum antibodies from pCMV-CP15/60-immunized sheep were eluted from native CP15 protein and bound a surface antigen of C. parvum sporozoites as indicated by indirect immunofluorescence staining.
Vozianova, Zh I; Chepilko, K I
As many as 2247 patients with different clinical forms of diphtheria were examined. Antidiphtheric serum (ADS) was administered in 1556 children, the dosage being determined by condition of the patient. Serum sickness developed at day 7 to 9 in 24 (1.5%); 10 patients were found to run a mild course, 14--moderately severe. 6 patients had allergic reactions: 3--to antibiotic (penicillin), urticaria type, 1--to pertussoid-tetanic anatoxin, 2 had pollinosis-type reaction. Thus, serum sickness has practical value, which fact requires a detailed allergic history together with skin tests to be performed before the administration of ADS.
... and services. Advertising & Sponsorship: Policy | Opportunities Serum Free Light Chains Share this page: Was this page helpful? Also known as: Free Light Chains; SFLC; FLC; Kappa and Lambda Free Light ...
Carroll, J. C.
Maternal serum screening (MSS) measures three serum markers: alpha-fetoprotein, human chorionic gonadotropin, and unconjugated estriol, from which the risk of fetal Down syndrome or open neural tube defect is calculated. Initially, 8% of women will have positive results. I present a protocol for investigating these women. Family physicians should be informed about MSS so they can give their patients information and guidance. PMID:7524838
Guirado, Evelyn; Amat, Isabel; Gil, Olga; Díaz, Jorge; Arcos, Virginia; Caceres, Neus; Ausina, Vicenç; Cardona, Pere-Joan
We investigated the protective role of immune-sera against reactivation of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection in SCID mice and found that passive immunization with sera obtained from mice treated with detoxified M. tuberculosis extracts (delivered in liposomes in a composition known as RUTI) exerted significant protection. Our SCID mouse model consisted of aerosol infection by M. tuberculosis, followed by 3 to 8weeks of chemotherapy with isoniazid+rifampicin (INH+RIF) (25 and 10mg/kg, respectively). After infection and antibiotic administration, two groups of mice were treated for up to 10weeks with intraperitoneal passive immunization using hyperimmune serum (HS) obtained from mice infected with M. tuberculosis, treated with chemotherapy (INH+RIF) for 8weeks and inoculated with RUTI (HS group) or with normal serum (CT group). Significant differences were found between HS and CT groups in the number of bacilli in the lungs (3.68+/-2.02 vs. 5.72+/-1.41log(10) c.f.u.), extent of pulmonary granulomatomous infiltration (10.33+/-0.67 vs. 31.2+/-1.77%), and percentage of animals without pulmonary abscesses (16.7% vs. 45.5%). These data strongly suggest a protective role of specific antibodies against lung dissemination of M. tuberculosis infection.
The regulation of serum phosphate, an acknowledged risk factor for chronic kidney disease and cardiovascular mortality, is poorly understood. The discovery of fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) as a key regulator of renal phosphate handling and activation of vitamin D has revolutionized our comprehension of phosphate homeostasis. Through as yet undetermined mechanisms, circulating and dietary phosphate appear to have a direct effect on FGF23 release by bone cells that, in turn, causes renal phosphate excretion and decreases intestinal phosphate absorption through a decrease in vitamin D production. Thus, the two major phosphaturic hormones, PTH and FGF23, have opposing effects on vitamin D production, placing vitamin D at the nexus of phosphate homeostasis. While our understanding of phosphate homeostasis has advanced, the factors determining regulation of serum phosphate level remain enigmatic. Diet, time of day, season, gender, age and genetics have all been identified as significant contributors to serum phosphate level. The effects of these factors on serum phosphate have major implications for what is understood as ‘normal’ and for studies of phosphate homeostasis and metabolism. Moreover, other hormonal mediators such as dopamine, insulin-like growth factor, and angiotensin II also affect renal handling of phosphate. How the major hormone effects on phosphate handling are regulated and how the effect of these other factors are integrated to yield the measurable serum phosphate are only now beginning to be studied. PMID:24973411
Chruszcz, Maksymilian; Mikolajczak, Katarzyna; Mank, Nicholas; Majorek, Karolina A.; Porebski, Przemyslaw J.; Minor, Wladek
Background Albumins are multifunctional proteins present in the blood serum of animals. They can bind and transport a wide variety of ligands which they accommodate due to their conformational flexibility. Serum albumins are highly conserved both in amino acid sequence and three-dimensional structure. Several mammalian and avian serum albumins (SAs) are also allergens. Sensitization to one of the SAs coupled with the high degree of conservation between SAs may result in cross-reactive antibodies in allergic individuals. Sensitivity to SA generally begins with exposure to an aeroallergen, which can then lead to cross-sensitization to serum albumins present in food. Scope of Review This review focuses on the allergenicity of SAs presented in a structural context. Major Conclusions SA allergenicity is unusual taking into account the high sequence identity and similarity between SA from different species and human serum albumin. Cross-reactivity of human antibodies towards different SAs is one of the most important characteristics of these allergens. General Significance Establishing a relationship between sequence and structure of different SAs and their interactions with antibodies is crucial for understanding the mechanisms of cross-sensitization of atopic individuals. Structural information can also lead to better design and production of recombinant SAs to replace natural proteins in allergy testing and desensitization. Therefore, structural analyses are important for diagnostic and treatment purposes. PMID:23811341
Fleisher, Mover S.; Jones, Lloyd
1. The injection of a single large dose of normal horse serum into rabbits results in the appearance 3 to 8 days later of erythematous and edematous reactions on the ears in 68.9 per cent of the animals. 2. The injections may be given by any of several routes and reactions appear when the site of injection is definitely distant from the ears. 3. Injections of various antisera into rabbits cause the appearance of similar reactions. 4. These reactions can be considered as manifestations of serum sickness in rabbits. PMID:19869943
du Noüy, P. Lecomte
1. The injection of antigen into an animal determines a gradual change in the blood fluid which finds expression in two physicochemical manifestations that can readily be followed, namely a decrease in the static value of the surface tension of serum solutions, and a special form of crystallization when serum diluted with isotonic sodium chloride solution is allowed to evaporate under certain conditions. 2. The change in the blood is at a maximum around the 13th day after the first antigen injection, and decreases progressively thereafter until it can no longer be observed, which is usually around the 30th day. 3. The change follows the same course, whether a single large injection of antigen is made, or many smaller ones. It begins at the same time in either case, it comes to a maximum after the same period, and in its subsequent course it is not affected by the reinjection of antigen. The manifestations of the change would appear to be independent of the presence of antigen in the circulation. 4. The mean length of the protein molecules of the immune serum obtained after the injection of the antigen dealt with is little if at all different from that of the protein molecules of normal serum. 5. It is possible that this reaction is independent of the antibody formation. PMID:19869026
Herati, Amin S; Cengiz, Cenk; Lamb, Dolores J
The diagnosis of male hypogonadism depends on an assessment of the clinical signs and symptoms of hypogonadism and serum testosterone level. Current clinical laboratory testosterone assay platforms include immunoassays and mass spectrometry. Despite significant advances to improve the accuracy and precision of the currently available assays, limited comparability exists between assays at the lower and upper extremes of the testosterone range. Because of this lack of comparability, there is no current gold standard assay for the assessment of total testosterone levels.
Psychogios, Nikolaos; Hau, David D.; Peng, Jun; Guo, An Chi; Mandal, Rupasri; Bouatra, Souhaila; Sinelnikov, Igor; Krishnamurthy, Ramanarayan; Eisner, Roman; Gautam, Bijaya; Young, Nelson; Xia, Jianguo; Knox, Craig; Dong, Edison; Huang, Paul; Hollander, Zsuzsanna; Pedersen, Theresa L.; Smith, Steven R.; Bamforth, Fiona; Greiner, Russ; McManus, Bruce; Newman, John W.; Goodfriend, Theodore; Wishart, David S.
Continuing improvements in analytical technology along with an increased interest in performing comprehensive, quantitative metabolic profiling, is leading to increased interest pressures within the metabolomics community to develop centralized metabolite reference resources for certain clinically important biofluids, such as cerebrospinal fluid, urine and blood. As part of an ongoing effort to systematically characterize the human metabolome through the Human Metabolome Project, we have undertaken the task of characterizing the human serum metabolome. In doing so, we have combined targeted and non-targeted NMR, GC-MS and LC-MS methods with computer-aided literature mining to identify and quantify a comprehensive, if not absolutely complete, set of metabolites commonly detected and quantified (with today's technology) in the human serum metabolome. Our use of multiple metabolomics platforms and technologies allowed us to substantially enhance the level of metabolome coverage while critically assessing the relative strengths and weaknesses of these platforms or technologies. Tables containing the complete set of 4229 confirmed and highly probable human serum compounds, their concentrations, related literature references and links to their known disease associations are freely available at http://www.serummetabolome.ca. PMID:21359215
Leggett, J E; Wolz, S A; Craig, W A
Although pooled human serum diluent is advocated in the serum dilution test, its use may compensate for protein binding defects in patients and yield nonrepresentative titers. To test this hypothesis, comparison was made of serum ultrafiltrate (molecular weight cutoff less than or equal to 30,000) serially diluted into either pooled serum ultrafiltrate or Mueller-Hinton broth with patient serum samples diluted into pooled human serum in 111 assays from 55 patients and 6 volunteers. Of 111 bactericidal titers in ultrafiltrate and/or Mueller-Hinton broth, 101 were within a single twofold dilution of titers in pooled human serum. Nine of 10 discordant titers involved highly bound drugs and were usually higher in ultrafiltrate than in pooled human serum. In seven additional volunteers with renal failure, titers in ultrafiltrate and in each volunteer's serum were higher than those diluted in pooled human serum (P = .002). Recommended methods using pooled serum diluent may not accurately predict actual bactericidal titers in patients with abnormal protein binding.
Carter, Daniel C.; Ho, Joseph X.
Because of its availability, low cost, stability, and unusual ligand-binding properties, serum albumin has been one of the mst extensively studied and applied proteins in biochemistry. However, as a protein, albumin is far from typical, and the widespread interest in and application of albumin have not been balanced by an understanding of its molecular structure. Indeed, for more than 30 years structural information was surmised based solely on techniques such as hydrodynamics, low-angle X-ray scattering, and predictive methods.
Boerth, Joel M; Caley, Charles F; Goethe, John W
Risperidone is an atypical antipsychotic commonly used for treatment of schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders. Although therapeutic drug monitoring is not routine for any of the atypical antipsychotics, serum antipsychotic concentrations are measured routinely to assess treatment nonadherence. In humans, risperidone is metabolized by cytochrome P450 2D6 to 9-hydroxyrisperidone; together these constitute the active moiety. Dose-proportional increases in serum concentrations have not been reported for the parent drug, but have been reported for 9-hydroxyrisperidone and the active moiety (i.e., the combined concentrations of risperidone and 9-hydroxyrisperidone). We describe a 34-year-old Caucasian man of Sicilian descent with a history of schizophrenia, disorganized type. He was suspected to be noncompliant with his risperidone therapy. Initially, active moiety risperidone concentrations increased linearly with prescribed dosage increases. However, with continued increases, active moiety concentrations adjusted downward and remained 17-36% below anticipated levels. We propose a method for estimating target active moiety concentrations of risperidone based on dosage-a method that may be used to guide clinicians in assessing nonadherence to risperidone treatment.
Eickhoff, Theodore C; Graves, Patricia S
At the University of Colorado, Dr. Gordon Meiklejohn pursed the study of influenza and other respiratory pathogens for an unbroken period of 40 years, under the auspices of the Commission on Influenza of the Armed Forces Epidemiological Board through a series of contracts with the U.S. Army Medical Research and Development Command. Sera, throat washings, and other specimens for diagnosis were sent to Dr. Meiklejohn's laboratory. After serologic and virologic studies were carried out, aliquots of sera and virus samples were logged in and frozen. Sera were stored at -20°C and virus specimens at -70°C. These specimens became known as the Denver Serum Bank. The Bank supported military research programs and other researchers nationally and internationally until the 1990s when lacking of funding and considerations of administration, space, and cost resulted in the destruction of all specimens. Reprint & Copyright © 2015 Association of Military Surgeons of the U.S.
Perkins, Greg L; Slater, Evan D; Sanders, Georganne K; Prichard, John G
Monoclonal antibodies are used to detect serum antigens associated with specific malignancies. These tumor markers are most useful for monitoring response to therapy and detecting early relapse. With the exception of prostate-specific antigen (PSA), tumor markers do not have sufficient sensitivity or specificity for use in screening. Cancer antigen (CA) 27.29 most frequently is used to follow response to therapy in patients with metastatic breast cancer. Carcinoembryonic antigen is used to detect relapse of colorectal cancer, and CA 19-9 may be helpful in establishing the nature of pancreatic masses. CA 125 is useful for evaluating pelvic masses in postmenopausal women, monitoring response to therapy in women with ovarian cancer, and detecting recurrence of this malignancy. Alpha-fetoprotein (AFP), a marker for hepatocellular carcinoma, sometimes is used to screen highly selected populations and to assess hepatic masses in patients at particular risk for developing hepatic malignancy. Testing for the beta subunit of human chorionic gonadotropin (beta-hCG) is an integral part of the diagnosis and management of gestational trophoblastic disease. Combined AFP and beta-hCG testing is an essential adjunct in the evaluation and treatment of nonseminomatous germ cell tumors, and in monitoring the response to therapy. AFP and beta-hCG also may be useful in evaluating potential origins of poorly differentiated metastatic cancer. PSA is used to screen for prostate cancer, detect recurrence of the malignancy, and evaluate specific syndromes of adenocarcinoma of unknown primary.
El-Sebae, A.K.H.; Zeid, M.M.A.; Abdel-Rahman, F.H.; Saleh, M.A. . Environmental Chemistry and Toxicology Lab.)
Human serum transferrin (HSTF), human serum albumin (HSA) and rat serum were compared for their interaction with AlCl[sub 3], in a Tris-HCl buffer solutions. The AlCl[sub 3] was tested in series of concentrations in the range of 50 [mu]M up to 500 [mu]M. HSTF, HSA and their 1:1 mixture and rat serum were incubated at 37 C with series of AlCl[sub 3] concentrations. The protein profile of the incubated solutions were compared to control using SDS-PAGE and FPLC tests. The results indicated that HSTF was more specifically responsive to AlCl[sub 3] showing a characteristic increase in it UV absorption, peak and area dimensions. Simultaneously, HSA was less affected, but it showed a significant shift with an increase in molecular weight accompanied with a change in its profile. The respective bands of transferrin and albumin in rat serum behaved similarly.
Mousavi, Malahat; Jonsson, Pär; Antti, Henrik; Adolfsson, Rolf; Nordin, Annelie; Bergdahl, Jan; Eriksson, Kåre; Moritz, Thomas; Nilsson, Lars-Göran; Nyberg, Lars
Aims: This study compared serum metabolites of demented patients (Alzheimer's disease and vascular dementia) and controls, and explored serum metabolite profiles of nondemented individuals 5 years preceding the diagnosis. Methods: Cognitively healthy participants were followed up for 5-20 years. Cognitive assessment, serum sampling, and diagnosis were completed every 5 years. Multivariate analyses were conducted on the metabolite profiles generated by gas chromatography/time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Results: A significant group separation was found between demented patients and controls, and between incident cases and controls. Metabolites that contributed in both analyses were 3,4-dihydroxybutanoic acid, docosapentaenoic acid, and uric acid. Conclusions: Serum metabolite profiles are altered in demented patients, and detectable up to 5 years preceding the diagnosis. Blood sampling can make an important contribution to the early prediction of conversion to dementia. PMID:25177334
Mishra, T.K.; Shankar, R.; Sharma, I.; Srivastava, P.K.
SUMMARY Serum cholesterol, total triglycerides, HDL-cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, VLDL-cholesterol, free cholesterol and total phospholipids were studied in 36 patients of anxiety neurosis and 24 control subjects. Serum triglycerides, VLDL-cholesterol and free-cholesterol were found to be significantly raised while esterified cholesterol WJS significantly lowered in anxiety neurosis. A significant negative correlation was observed between the anxiety score and free cholesterol in ferrule patients. The significance of these findings has been discussed. PMID:21965991
Bazillou, M; Fendri, C; Castel, O; Ingrand, P; Fauchére, J L
Superficial and released components were extracted from six selected Helicobacter pylori strains. The protein and antigenic profiles of these extracts were representative of the profiles found most frequently among the clinical strains and included major peptidic fractions at 19, 23.5, 57, 68, 76, 118, and 132 kDa and major antigens at 68, 57, and 23.5 kDa. Immuno-cross-reactions were seen with a hyperimmune rabbit serum to Campylobacter fetus but not with sera to Campylobacter jejuni or Salmonella spp. An antigenic preparation was obtained by pooling equivalent quantities of each extract, and the antigenic preparation was used to study the antibody responses of sera from 65 French patients and 127 Tunisian patients. By enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, we observed that the sera from French and Tunisian patients clustered into two populations, defined as antibody positive (72 patients) and antibody negative (120 patients). The antibody-positive patients were more frequently infected with H. pylori (P < 0.01) and were more frequently affected with gastritis (P = 0.05). However, no correlation between antibody levels and clinical signs of dyspepsia was noticed. The proportions of antibody-positive patients were similar in France and Tunisia. Antibody-positive and antibody-negative sera were studied by western blot (immunoblot) analysis. The antibody-positive sera revealed an average of 7.7 antigenic bands, whereas the antibody-negative sera revealed an average of 2.4 antigenic bands (P < 0.01). The antigens between 15 and 40 kDa and greater than 66 kDa were specifically recognized by the antibody-positive sera, although in this molecular size range the antibody profiles of these sera exhibited a fairly high degree of diversity. We conclude that the superficial and released components from H. pylori contain a variety of bacterial immunogens and may be useful in antigenic preparations for the serodiagnosis of H. pylori infections. Moreover, a group of antigens in
Bourhim, Mustapha; Rajendran, Anita; Ramos, Yanira; Srikrishnan, Thamarapu; Sulkowski, Eugene
An investigation of the binding of native and recombinant human serum albumin and bovine serum albumin on three thiophilic gels, PyS, 2S, and 3S was performed. In addition to these proteins, we studied serum albumins from several species such as goat, rabbit, guinea pig, rat, hamster, baboon, and pig. Our results reveal that recombinant human serum albumin (rHSA) binds completely to PyS whereas native human serum albumin and bovine serum albumin bind only partially to PyS. The binding affinities of rHSA, human serum albumin and bovine serum albumin to 2S and 3S gels are less than their binding to PyS. Serum albumins from goat, rabbit, guinea pig, rat, hamster, baboon, and pig bind much stronger to 3S gel than human and bovine serum albumins. The binding of pig and hamster serum albumins is stronger than that of rat, goat, baboon, and rabbit.
Moreira, Pamela Rodrigues Reina; Vieira, Lais Mendes; de Andrade, Mariana Macedo Costa; de Barros Bandarra, Marcio; Machado, Gisele Fabrino; Munari, Danísio Prado; Vasconcelos, Rosemeri de Oliveira
The present study aimed to estimate the cell response and parasite load in the popliteal lymph nodes of dogs with visceral leishmaniasis (VL), comparing these findings with the clinical staging of the disease. From the necropsy, 33 dogs were classified as symptomatic (S), asymptomatic (A), or oligosymptomatic (O). Cytology and histopathology were used to determine any presence of microscopic lesions and immunohistochemistry, for parasite load. Dog hyperimmune serum was used as the primary antibody. The inflammatory infiltrate in lymph nodes consisted of macrophages and plasmocytes. The granulomas invaded the trabecular and sinusoid regions and sometimes compressed the lymphocytes of the cortical region (atrophy) and medullary cord cells. Parasite load intensity was unrelated to the density of the macrophages infiltrating the lymph node. Significant differences in parasite load (P < 0.05) were observed between the three groups of infected dogs. Follicular hyperplasia of the cortical region occurred among A and O, while follicular atrophy predominated among S. The parasite load was the greatest among S, followed by O. It can be concluded that, regardless of clinical condition, the most evident cell response consisted of macrophages and plasmocytes. Lymphoid atrophy was observed among animals with intense granulomatous reaction and high parasite load, such as among the symptomatic dogs (P < 0.05). Likewise, the oligosymptomatic dogs also presented high density of parasites in the lymph nodes. Thus, we can confirm that dogs with clinical manifestations of VL have an immune system that is less effective for controlling infection by Leishmania chagasi, thereby favoring parasite multiplication.
[Efficacy of the association of a single dose of hepatitis B hyperimmune gammaglobulin and entecavir in the prophylaxis of hepatitis B after liver transplantation: experience of a single center in Argentina].
Anders, María; Orozco, Federico; Goldaracena, Nicolás; Quiñonez, Emilio; McCormack, Lucas; Mastai, Ricardo
The present study reports the effectiveness of the association of a single dose of hepatitis B immunoglobulin (HBIg) associated to entecavir in the prophylaxis of hepatitis B in patients who have undergone liver transplantation. Six patients that had been transplanted because of hepatitis B liver disease were retrospectively evaluated. Three of them developed non-oncological complications related to liver cirrhosis, two had hepatocellular carcinoma and another one had fulminant HBV hepatitis. The mean follow-up was 22 months (range: 7-52 months). The 6 patients received entecavir as prophylactic treatment before transplantation. The pretransplant viral load was undetectable in all patients. HBsAg seroconversion was observed in four of the six patients. Three patients died during follow-up, two because of recurrent hepatocellular carcinoma, none of them had detectable HBV serum viral load. In a small series of patients we could demonstrate that a regimen with a single dose of gamma globulin entecavir is effective in the post-transplant management of patients with liver disease associated with HBV. Future studies will be able to demonstrate the effectiveness of specific gamma globulin-free regimens.
with higher levels of communication problems among the ASD boys. 2. Identify the antibody recognized by the ASD1 peptoid. We have pulled down the...56 kD on the gel, and greater amount pulled down from the ASD pooled serum vs. TD pooled serum. Future study will be required to identify the...between ASD, TD and AM sera. - A peptoid, ASD1, has been identified that binds significantly lower levels of IgG1 in ASD boys vs. TD boys. - Pull- down
Vandenberge, J; Moodie, A S; Keller, R E
A clinical blood serum mercury test of 111 dentists and auxiliaries revelaed that more than 50% had above normal serum mercury levels. This study showed that there may be a mercury health hazard in some dental environments. Acute mercury poisoning may be corrected simply by removing the cause, but long-term chronic effects are not known. Frequent screening of offices and personnel is advised. Experience reported here indicates that large amounts of mercury vapor are emitted when an amalgam carrier is heated over a flame ot dislodge particles, and also, that water-covered amalgam scrap relesases mercury vapor.
viral antibody may be useful in the selection of optimum donors for the preparation of hyperimmune globulin . In addition, the efficacy of an anti...that hyperimmune globulin or monoclonal antibody preparations reflect the subclasses of IgG that are associated with optimum viral neutralization and/or...The infection/viremia generates a brisk and promptly effective (neutralizing) antibody response in the host and hyperimmune serum provides effective
Benedetti, Fabio; Berti, Federico; Bidoggia, Silvia
Bovine and human serum albumins catalyze the aldol reaction of aromatic aldehyedes and acetone, with saturation kinetics and moderate and opposite enantioselectivity. The reaction occurs at the binding site in domain IIa, and is inhibited by warfarin. Kinetic data are consistent with an enamine mechanism. The activity is conserved in a 103 aminoacid peptide derived from the albumin sequence.
Epishin, A V
Serum immunoglobulin content was determined in 85 patients with thyrotoxicosis and in 80 healthy persons by radial immunodiffusion in agar after Mancini by means of monospecific antisera (made at the N. F. Gamaleya Institute of Epidemiology immunoglobulins of classes G and M. The most pronounced increase was noted in patients with severe and moderate thyrotoxicosis.
Capobianco, Joseph A.
The development of a serum protein detector will provide opportunities for better screening of at-risk cancer patients, tighter surveillance of disease recurrence and better monitoring of treatment. An integrated system that can process clinical samples for a number of different types of biomarkers would be a useful tool in the early detection of cancer. Also, screening biomarkers such as antibodies in serum would provide clinicians with information regarding the patient's response to treatment. Therefore, the goal of this study is to develop a sensor which can be used for rapid, all-electrical, real-time, label-fee, in-situ, specific quantification of cancer markers, e.g., human epidermal receptor 2 (Her2) or antibodies, in serum. To achieve this end, piezoelectric microcantilever sensors (PEMS) were constructed using an 8 mum thick lead magnesium niobate-lead titanate (PMN-PT) freestanding film as the piezoelectric layer. The desired limit of detection is on the order of pg/mL. In order to achieve this goal the higher frequency lateral extension modes were used. Also, as the driving and sensing of the PEMS is electrical, the PEMS must be insulated in a manner that allows it to function in aqueous solutions. The insulation layer must also be compatible with standardized bioconjugation techniques. Finally, detection of both cancer antigens and antibodies in serum was carried out, and the results were compared to a standard commercialized protocol. PEMS have demonstrated the capability of detecting Her2 at a concentration of 5 pg/mL in diluted human serum (1:40) in less than 1 hour. The approach can be easily translated into the clinical setting because the sensitivity is more than sufficient for monitoring prognosis of breast cancer patients. In addition to Her2 detection, antibodies in serum were assayed in order to demonstrate the feasibility of monitoring the immune response for antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) in patients on antibody therapies
Cybulska, J; Jeljaszewicz, J
Cybulska, Janina (State Institute of Hygiene, Warsaw, Poland), and J. Jeljaszewicz. Bacteriostatic activity of serum against staphylococci. J. Bacteriol. 91:953-962. 1966.-Antistaphylococcal activity of normal serum against strains exhibiting various patterns of coagulase, clumping-factor, and staphylokinase production is not connected with the presence of these factors. Purified coagulase does not influence this property of serum. Coagulase-negative strains with clumping-factor activity grow in normal serum as typical pathogenic staphylococci. Serum bacteriostatic activity against staphylococci may be reversed by several nonspecific factors, such as sterile broth, supernatant fluids of coagulase-negative strains, and ammonium sulfate precipitates of culture supernatant fluids of various staphylococci. Immune sera with a high agglutinating titer for staphylococcal cells do not prevent growth of serum-resistant strains; serum-susceptible strains are inhibited as in normal serum control. Activation or blocking of the serum fibrinolytic system does not influence serum bacteriostatic activity. The growth rate of serum-resistant strains is identical in serum and in Todd-Hewitt broth; serum-susceptible strains are inhibited to the inoculum level, but decreases and increases in viable count are noted during a 24-hr observation period. Observations made with sera of 10 animal species clearly demonstrated differences in serum bacteriostatic activity, mouse serum being completely noninhibitory and cat serum only weakly inhibitory. The technique of quantitative determination of serum susceptibility of staphylococci is described, and the importance of serum antistaphylococcal activity in vitro is discussed. Experimental staphylococcal infection produced in rabbits by intravenous injection of different Staphylococcus aureus strains did not result in significant changes in serum antistaphylococcal activity. The technique of experimental infection used caused chronic infection
Yamauchi, Mika; Sugimoto, Toshitsugu
Serum sclerostin levels are being investigated in various metabolic bone diseases. Since serum sclerostin levels are decreased in primary hyperparathyroidism and elevated in hypoparathyroidism, parathyroid hormone (PTH) is thought to be a regulatory factor for sclerostin. Serum sclerostin levels exhibit a significant positive correlation with bone mineral density. On the other hand, a couple of studies on postmenopausal women have shown that high serum sclerostin levels are a risk factor for fracture. Although glucocorticoid induced osteoporosis and diabetes are both diseases that reduce bone formation, serum sclerostin levels have been reported to be decreased in the former and elevated in the latter, suggesting differences in the effects of sclerostin in the two diseases. Serum sclerostin levels are correlated with renal function, and increase with reduction in renal function. Serum sclerostin level may be a new index of bone assessment that differs from bone mineral density and bone metabolic markers.
Carrel, Alexis; Ebeling, Albert H.
The presence in a culture medium of heterogenic serum of various concentrations exerts a definite influence on the rate of multiplication of fibroblasts. Dog serum does not inhibit the growth of See PDF for Structure chicken fibroblasts markedly until its concentration reaches 15 per cent. Beyond this figure, each increase of the concentration brings about a rapid decrease in the rate of cell multiplication. When the concentration reaches from 30 to 45 per cent, no growth takes place. The inhibiting action of cat serum begins to manifest itself at a concentration of 25 per cent and prevents cell proliferation completely at a concentration of 55 and 60 per cent. The ratio, See PDF for Equation can be taken as expressing the action of the serum on fibroblast multiplication; that is, as the growth index of the serum. See PDF for Structure The inhibiting influence of heterogenic serum was found to vary in direct ratio to the age of the animal from which it was obtained. The rate of proliferation of chicken fibroblasts was studied comparatively in media containing varied concentrations of serum from young and old animals. For each concentration of serum, the rate of growth in the serum of the old animal was expressed in relation to the rate of growth in the serum of the young animal. When cat serum was used, the curve obtained in plotting this ratio in ordinates and the serum concentration in abscissæ showed a rapid increase in the inhibiting action of the old serum as soon as the concentration reached 30 per cent. The same tests were repeated with the serum from young and old dogs. The general results were identical, although See PDF for Structure the quantitative inhibiting action of both sera was greater than that of cat serum. It may be concluded that under the conditions of the experiments: 1. Heterogenicsera inhibit and prevent the growth of chicken fibroblasts when their concentration is made to vary within certain limits. 2. A relation exists between the rate
Brasse-Lagnel, Carole; Poli, Maura; Lesueur, Céline; Grandchamp, Bernard; Lavoinne, Alain; Beaumont, Carole; Bekri, Soumeya
Background Hemojuvelin, a critical regulator of iron homeostasis, is involved in the regulation of hepcidin expression and iron homeostasis. It is expressed both as a membrane-bound form and as a soluble one. Serum hemojuvelin can be produced by secretion following furin cleavage or by proteolytic cleavage of the membrane-bound form by matriptase 2 (TMPRSS6). These forms contribute to down-regulation of hepcidin expression upon iron deficiency or hypoxia. This study describes the development and validation of the first enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for hemojuvelin in human serum. Design and Methods This assay is based on the use of a recombinant human repulsive guidance molecule-c peptide and a polyclonal antibody against hemojuvelin able to recognize the recombinant peptide and the native soluble hemojuvelin by immunoprecipitation. Results The enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was validated and appeared to be a robust method with intra- and inter-coefficients of variance ranging from 2.6% to 15%. The assay was able to quantify hemojuvelin levels in a control population within a range from 0.88 to 1.14 mg/L. Patients with iron-refractory iron-deficiency anemia with a mutation in the TMPRSS6 gene were found to have lower levels of circulating hemojuvelin than those in healthy patients. The enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay also showed that soluble hemojuvelin levels were significantly higher in patients with anemia of chronic disease than in control individuals. Conclusions This enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay has a good specificity and sensitivity for the quantification of soluble hemojuvelin in human serum and could be a valuable aid to understanding the physiological role of this protein. PMID:20713458
Llorens, Isabelle; Den Auwer, Christophe; Moisy, Philippe; Ansoborlo, Eric; Vidaud, Claude; Funke, Harld
Although of major impact in terms of biological and environmental hazards, interactions of actinide cations with biological molecules are only partially understood. Human serum transferrin (Tf) is one of the major iron carriers in charge of iron regulation in the cell cycle and consequently contamination by actinide cations is a critical issue of nuclear toxicology. Combined X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) and near infrared absorption spectrometry were used to characterize a new complex between Tf and Np (IV) with the synergistic nitrilotriacetic acid (NTA) anion. Description of the neptunium polyhedron within the iron coordination site is given.
Winitz, M. (Inventor)
By feeding a human subject as the sole source of sustenance a defined diet wherein the carbohydrate consists substantially entirely of glucose, maltose or a polysaccharide of glucose, the blood serum cholesterol level of the human subject is substantially reduced. If 25 percent of the carbohydrate is subsequently supplied in the form of sucrose, an immediate increase from the reduced level is observed. The remainder of the defined diet normally includes a source of amino acids, such as protein or a protein hydrolysate, vitamins, minerals and a source of essential fatty acid.
Mandecki, Tadeusz; Giec, Leszek; Kargul, Włodzimierz
Serum aspartate aminotransferase (SGOT), alanine aminotransferase (SGPT), creatinine phosphokinase (CPK), and butyric acid dehydrogenase (BDH) were determined in 94 patients before, 1½ hours, and 24 hours after cardioversion. An increase in SGOT and CPK activity was observed 24 hours after cardioversion in the group of patients treated with two or more DC shocks. The importance of this enzyme activity increase is discussed. It originates in the skeletal muscles and probably has no clinical significance, as no other signs of myocardial damage were observed simultaneously in a large group of patients. PMID:5470040
Andreeva, A M
Data are presented about the presence of serum albumins in fishes of different classes and orders inhabiting different ecological conditions, about structure of typical albumins and albumin-like proteins, and about the degree of homology of these proteins to mammalian albumins. There is shown a wide spectrum of structural diversity of albumins in Pisces due to their participation in osmotic, plastic, and transport functions under conditions of environment and of the organism internal media. Detection of similar motifs in the piscine and mammalian albumin genes allows uniting these genes into one superfamily and considering vertebrate albumins the homologous proteins.
da Silva, Denise Amaro; Madeira, Maria de Fátima; Abrantes, Tuanne Rotti; Filho, Carlos José de Lima Barbosa; Figueiredo, Fabiano Borges
An immunoenzymatic assay (ELISA), an indirect immunofluorescence antibody test (IFAT) with different antigens (ELISA-Leishmania chagasi, ELISA-L. major-like, IFAT-L. chagasi and IFAT-L. major-like), and an immunochromatographic test were assessed for the diagnosis of canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL). Serum samples from 144 dogs from an endemic area for visceral leishmaniasis in the municipality of Rio de Janeiro were tested. The sensitivities of the serological tests were 93%, 100%, 73%, 60% and 93%, with specificities of 87%, 92%, 77%, 96% and 92% for the ELISA-L. major-like, ELISA-L. chagasi, IFAT-L. major-like, IFAT-L. chagasi and the immuno chromatographic test, respectively. ELISA-L. chagasi was the best test for the diagnosis of CVL, but the immunochromatographic test could be a useful alternative as it offers simple and rapid diagnosis without the need for a specialized laboratory. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Baptista, Tatyana S.; Zamboni, Cibele B.; Medeiros, Jose Agostinho G. de; Marcelino, Jose R.; Higashi, Hisako G.; Freitas, Monica G.
Neutron Activation Analysis was utilized for determining the concentration of chlorine and sodium in blood of Crioulo breed horses used for hyperimmune sera production (Bothrops, Diphtheria and Tetanus) at Butantan Institute (Sao Paulo city, Brasil). These data are an important support for a toxicological control of adverse reactions in patients who will receive the hyperimmune serum.
Baptista, Tatyana S.; Zamboni, Cibele B.; de Medeiros, José Agostinho G.; Marcelino, José R.; Higashi, Hisako G.; Freitas, Mônica G.
Neutron Activation Analysis was utilized for determining the concentration of chlorine and sodium in blood of Crioulo breed horses used for hyperimmune sera production (Bothrops, Diphtheria and Tetanus) at Butantan Institute (São Paulo city, Brasil). These data are an important support for a toxicological control of adverse reactions in patients who will receive the hyperimmune serum.
Kalff, R; Houtkooper, M A; Meyer, J W; Goedhart, D M; Augusteijn, R; Meinardi, H
Serum sodium levels of 674 epileptic patients were tabulated according to the following categories: less than 135 mmol/L, hyponatremia (28 patients); 135-145 mmol/L, normonatremia (530 patients); greater than 145 mmol/L, hypernatremia (116 patients). One hundred one patients were treated with antiepileptics without carbamazepine (CBZ), 113 with CBZ monotherapy, and 460 with CBZ plus other antiepileptic drugs. Twenty-three patients could be followed up after the first detection of a serum sodium level of less than 135 mg/L. Ten patients were consistently hyponatremic (greater than 50% of the follow-up measurements were less than 135 mg/L), whereas the remaining 13 were occasionally hyponatremic. The following facts could be derived from the study: (1) The hyponatremic group was significantly older compared with the other groups. (2) In patients not treated with CBZ, no hyponatremia was seen. Only two patients on CBZ monotherapy showed hyponatremia. (3) The combination of CBZ, valproic acid, especially in high dosages, and barbiturates seemed to lead to hyponatremia. (4) The excretion of antidiuretic hormone, measured in 12 patients, was subnormal (less than 25 ng/24 h) in seven hyponatremic patients and in three normonatremic patients and normal (25-250 ng/24 h) in two other normonatremic patients. (5) Cyclic AMP, measured in five hyponatremic patients, was normal. (6) In all patients the hyponatremia was slight and did not cause any clinical symptoms. Special treatment was not required.
Grieb, P; Ryba, M S; Jagielski, J; Gackowski, W; Paczkowski, P; Chrapusta, S J
Reduced blood cholesterol levels were reported in patients with a variety of malignant peripheral tumors. This fact is likely related to increased cholesterol demand by proliferating tumor cells. The question arises whether this 'tumor-associated hypocholesterolemia' occurs also in patients with brain tumors, and--if it does not--whether its absence can be related to the location of the tumors. We have compared fasting serum total cholesterol levels among three groups of patients: 52 patients with gliomas, 56 patients with symptomatic metastatic brain tumors, and 50 patients harboring malignant tumors of peripheral location but showing no clinical signs of brain metastases. Patients in the last group, despite being--on an average--more age-advanced, had lower total serum cholesterol levels than either the patients with gliomas, or the patients with brain metastases. No difference in the cholesterol levels was found between the two latter groups, and a majority of these patients had borderline or elevated cholesterol levels. This apparent absence of 'tumor-associated hypocholesterolemia' in brain tumor patients may be related to either brain tumors' ability to synthesize cholesterol de novo and their reduced dependence on peripheral cholesterol supply, the existence of brain tumor-blood barrier, effect of medications used to counteract brain edema and seizures, or a combination of these factors.
Hage, Valerie; Pelletier, Solenne; Dubourg, Laurence; Drai, Jocelyne; Cuerq, Charlotte; Lemoine, Sandrine; Hadj-Aissa, Aoumeur; Laville, Maurice; Fouque, Denis
Klotho is an "aging-suppressor" gene and encodes a single-pass transmembrane protein predominantly expressed in renal tubules. Whether chronic kidney disease (CKD) affects serum Klotho is poorly documented. We aimed to measure the relationship of serum α-Klotho with renal function, acid-base status, bone biomarkers, and proteinuria in CKD patients. We measured serum α-Klotho, serum FGF23, and glomerular filtration rate by inulin clearance in 60 CKD patients between January and July 2011. We also measured serum creatinine, bicarbonate, calcium, phosphorus, parathyroid hormone, C-reactive protein, and 25-OH vitamin D. Proteinuria was obtained from a 24-h urine collection. The median serum α-Klotho was 478 (348-658) pg/mL. We found an inverse relationship between serum α-Klotho and serum creatinine (r = -0.36, P = .007), proteinuria (r = -0.36, P = .013), and a positive relationship with serum bicarbonate (r = 0.33, P = .011). There was no further significant relation between serum α-Klotho and inulin clearance or serum FGF23. Multiple regression analysis including serum bicarbonate, serum creatinine, and proteinuria indicated that only serum bicarbonate was associated with serum α-Klotho (P = .003). This study shows that in CKD, serum α-Klotho is related to serum bicarbonate and proteinuria and not to renal function. Further research is required to determine whether correcting these 2 amenable conditions would improve serum α-Klotho. Copyright © 2014 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Yip, C. C.; Logothetopoulos, J.
A specific antibody against proinsulin has been obtained by adsorbing the original anti-proinsulin guinea pig serum with a solid immunosorbent of Sephadex-insulin. The specificity of the antibody against antigenic determinants of proinsulin was established by radioimmunoassay and by passive cutaneous anaphylaxis (PCA) tests. The presence of proinsulin in calf serum has been demonstrated by (a) gel filtration of an acid alcohol extract of the serum followed by immunoassays of the fractions using anti-insulin or the specific anti-proinsulin serum, and (b) direct assay of calf serum with the specific anti-proinsulin serum. PMID:5256220
The Provisional International Standard Antityphoid Serum, prepared in 1935, provided standards of the O and the Vi antibodies, both contained in a single serum preparation, and was used for standardizing the potency of therapeutic antityphoid serum. The “Provisional Standard Serum for Vi Agglutination”, which is one of the series of proposed Standard Agglutinating Sera for Typhoid and Paratyphoid A and B Fevers, is based on the Provisional International Standard Antityphoid Serum. It is recommended that the Provisional International Standard Antityphoid Serum, in conjunction with a standard typhoid vaccine, be used in the test for the determination of the “functional efficacy” of the Vi antibody. This is one of the several tests recommended for the official control of the immunizing potency of typhoid vaccines. PMID:13199654
Goot, Katie; Hazeldine, Simon; Bentley, Peter; Olynyk, John; Crawford, Darrell
Elevated serum ferritin is commonly encountered in general practice. Ninety percent of elevated serum ferritin is due to noniron overload conditions, where venesection therapy is not the treatment of choice. This article aims to outline the role of the Australian Red Cross Blood Service Therapeutic Venesection program, to clarify the interpretation of the HFE gene test and iron studies, and to describe the steps in evaluating a patient with elevated serum ferritin. After exclusion of hereditary haemochromatosis, investigation of elevated serum ferritin involves identifying alcohol consumption, metabolic syndrome, obesity, diabetes, liver disease, malignancy, infection or inflammation as causative factors. Referral to a gastroenterologist, haematologist or physician with an interest in iron overload is appropriate if serum ferritin is >1000 µg/L or if the cause of elevated serum ferritin is still unclear.
Gui, Liqiong; Chan, Stephen A; Breuer, Christopher K; Niklason, Laura E
Decellularization of native tissues is a promising technique with numerous applications in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. However, there are various limitations of currently available decellularization methods, such as alteration of extracellular matrix mechanics and restricted use on certain tissues. This study was conducted to explore the effect of serum on the decellularization of various types of tissues. Fetal bovine serum-containing cell culture medium endothelial growth media-2 removed DNA but not cellular beta-actin from human umbilical artery after detergent treatment, without compromising the tissue mechanical strength assessed by burst pressure. In addition, the effect of serum-containing endothelial growth media-2 on DNA removal was replicated in other types of tissues such as tissue-engineered vessels and myocardium. Other types of serum, including human serum, were also shown to remove DNA from detergent-pretreated tissues. In conclusion, we describe a novel utilization of serum that may have broad applications in tissue decellularization.
Vukelić, Jelka; Kapamadzija, Aleksandra; Petrović, Djordje; Grujić, Zorica; Novakov-Mikić, Aleksandra; Kopitović, Vesna; Bjelica, Artur
Copper is essential micronutrient and has an important role in the human body. The serum copper increases during pregnancy and is doubled at full term. Lower levels of serum copper in pregnancy are connected with some pathological conditions. The aim of this study was to estimate the levels of serum copper in normal and pathological pregnancies, comparing them with values of serum copper in non-pregnant women, to determine if serum copper is lower in some pathological pregnancies and if this is of some importance. A total of 2170 plasma samples for copper analyses were made in the following groups: healthy non-pregnant women; healthy pregnant women from the 5th-40th gestational week, during the first delivery stage and during the first three postpartum weeks, in pregnant women with habitual abortion, imminent abortion, abortion in progress, missed abortion (9th-24th weeks), missed labour and premature rupture of membranes (29th-40th weeks). Levels of serum copper were determined by colorimetric technique of bathocuproin with disulphate as a chromogen. Serum copper values in non-pregnant women range from 11.6-25.8 micromol/L. In healthy pregnant women, there is a constant trend of the increase of serum copper. The mean serum copper values revealed three significant peaks at the 22nd, 27th and 35th gestational week. Serum copper values in the patients with some pathological pregnancies in relation to the serum copper values of the healthy pregnant women were significantly lower. Serum copper values can be used as an indicator of some pathological pregnancies.
Maes, M; De Vos, N; Demedts, P; Wauters, A; Neels, H
There is now some evidence that major depression is accompanied by activation of the inflammatory response system (IRS). Other signs of IRS activation, which have been reported in major depression are lowered serum zinc (Zn) and serum albumin (Alb) concentrations. In serum, Zn is closely bound to Alb. The aims of the present study were to replicate previous findings that major depression is accompanied by lowered serum Zn and Alb and to examine whether the decrease in serum Zn may be explained by that in serum Alb. The above variables were determined in 48 major depressed patients and in 15 age-sex-matched healthy volunteers. Serum Zn and Alb were significantly lower in major depressed patients than in normal volunteers. In healthy volunteers and major depressed patients, there were significant and positive correlations between serum Zn and Alb. We found that 53.8% of the variance in serum Zn could be explained by the combined effects of serum Alb and diagnostic classification. The results suggest that lower serum Zn in depression is in part explained by lowered serum Alb and by another depression-related mechanism. It is suggested that lower serum Zn in depression may be secondary to sequestration of metallothionein in the liver, which may be related to increased production of interleukin-6.
Stafford, J E; Lees, S; Watson, D
Two radioimmunassays for the determination of serum triiodothyronine (T3) were developed. The assay of T3 in unextracted serum had several advantages over the assay on extracted serum and was chosen for the routine determination of T3 in serum from 117 patients requiring assessment of their thyroid status. In 53 subjects considered retrospectively not to have thyroid dysfunction nor to have been on steroid contraceptives or therapy, the pooled mean serum T3 concentration was 1-92 (actual range 0-88-2-62) nmol/l. A significant inverse relationship was observed between the serum T3 level and the age of the subject. Serum total T3 levels discriminate clearly between hypo-,eu- and hyperthyroid patients and provide a rather more sensitive index of hyperthyroid function than total serum T4. In the face of normal serum T4 the T3 level was depressed in five patients with marked hypoproteinaemia and elevated in two patients taking heroin. PMID:977774
Akinwolere, O A; Akinkugbe, F M; Oyewole, A I; Salimonu, L S
Serum immunoglobulins G, M and A levels were studied in 187 Nigerian neonates. Estimations were done by the radial immunodifusion method of Mancini. Immunoglobulin G shows a fall in value in the first few days of life to about 62% of the value in the last days of the neonatal period. There is however a gradual increase in the level of IgM to about double at the end of the neonatal period. IgA level remained relatively constantly low throughout this period. The effect of maternal education on the levels of immunoglobulins of their neonates was also investigated. This had a positive influence at the secondary educational level, affecting only the IgG and IgA.
Schnelle, Amy N; Barger, Anne M; MacNeill, Amy L; Mitchell, Mark M; Solter, Philip
Oxidative stress inhibits albumin's ability to complex with cobalt. Feline serum-cobalt binding has not been described. The objective was to develop a cobalt binding test for use with feline serum, and correlate the results with other biochemical and cellular constituents in blood, and with clinical diseases of cats. A colorimetric test of cobalt binding, based on the oxidation-reduction reaction of Co(+2) and dithiothreitol, was developed using feline serum. The test was used to measure cobalt binding in stored serum from 176 cats presented to the University of Illinois Veterinary Teaching Hospital for a variety of disease conditions. Time-matched hematology and biochemical data, and clinical information, were obtained from the medical record of each cat and correlated with the serum-cobalt binding results. Serial dilution of feline serum with phosphate-buffered saline resulted in a highly linear decrease in serum-cobalt binding (r(2) = .9984). Serum-cobalt binding of the clinical samples also correlated with albumin concentrations in a stepwise linear regression model (r(2) = .425), and both cobalt binding and albumin were significantly decreased in cases of inflammation. Albumin and cobalt binding also shared significant correlations with several erythron variables, and serum concentration of total calcium and bilirubin. The correlation of cobalt binding measured by a colorimetric test with albumin concentration in the clinical samples and with serum dilution is consistent with feline albumin-cobalt complex formation. Hypoalbuminemia is the likely cause of reduced serum-cobalt binding in inflammation and the correlations observed between cobalt binding and other variables. © 2015 American Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology.
Aloia, John F.; Feuerman, Martin; Yeh, James K.
Objective To determine whether the reference range for parathyroid hormone (PTH) should be lowered (from 65 pg/mL to a proposed value of 46 pg/mL) with use of the Allegro radioimmunometric assay. Methods We examined the reference range for PTH, adjusted for serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-OHD), in 503 healthy African American and white women, who were 20 to 80 years old. We also analyzed other factors that are thought to influence PTH levels. Results Univariate predictors of PTH were identified, and a multivariate model was developed with use of the variables and PTH. Serum PTH was significantly higher in black study subjects than in white study subjects (P<0.02). Increasing PTH was also significantly correlated with increasing body mass index, age, and serum creatinine and with decreasing dietary calcium intake and serum 25-OHD levels. A stepwise multiple linear regression analysis yielded the following predictors of PTH: body mass index (R2 = 9.4%), age (R2 = 1.0%), and serum 25-OHD (R2 = 0.8%). In our study population, many PTH values were above the proposed new upper limit of 46 pg/mL. Conclusion The upper limit of the reference range for serum PTH should not be changed. Factors to be considered in analysis of serum PTH values in the upper reference range in patients with normocalcemia include obesity, race, 25-OHD levels, advanced age, serum creatinine, and dietary calcium intake. PMID:16690460
Fumić, K; Vladović-Relja, T; Karada, J; Kracun, I; Stavljenić, A; Kubat, M; Cosović, C; Oberman, B
In this study, tumor and serum gangliosides were analyzed in patients bearing lung planocellular carcinoma (LPC) before and after operative therapy. Tumor tissue, pathohistologically characterized as carcinoma planocellulare corneum (Ca. epidermoide, type 8070/3, WHO, Geneva, 1981), showed an elevated concentration of gangliosides in comparison to normal tung tissue. The composition of gangliosides in LPC tissue varied from one tumor sample to another, however, two general features were observed. First, LPC contained an increased amount of GM3 and a decreased amount of GD3 gangliosides. Second, an elevated proportion of gangliosides migrating as polysialogangliosides (x3, x5, x6) characterized the majority of LPC tissues. On the other hand, serum of patients with LPC contained an elevated amount of gangliosides (15.8 +/- 0.3 mumols/L) in comparison to control serum (6.1 +/- 0.8 mumols/L) (P less than 0.01). However, analyzing the composition of serum gangliosides by thin-layer chromatography, all serum gangliosides were more or less elevated. By day 21 after the surgical removal of LPC, serum gangliosides dropped by approximately 50% approaching the normal values. It seems that elevated serum gangliosides in LPC patients were secreted from carcinoma cells, because they normalized after surgical removal of LPC. Thus, serum gangliosides might be a useful biochemical tool for diagnosis and therapy monitoring of this carcinoma.
Whitmore, D. N.; Evans, D. I. K.
An automated method for magnesium determination in serum is described using conventional AutoAnalyser equipment. The method gives results comparable with those obtained by the flame photometer. The method may prove particularly useful with subnormal serum magnesium levels. PMID:14227433
Franson, J. Christian; Flint, Paul L.; Schmutz, Joel A.
The data set contains results for nine serum biochemistries in molting Pacific black brant (Branta bernicla nigricans). These data were used to calculate reference intervals (sometimes referred to as normal values) for the nine serum biochemistries. All brant were after-hatch year. All samples were collected in 2006 and 2007 in the Teshekpuk Lake Special Area, Alaska.
This reports the first 2 cases of serum sicknesslike reaction to bupropion in children (age 12 and 14). Serum sicknesslike reactions are an example of immune-complex medicated disease. The cardinal symptoms of serum sickness are fever, lymphadenopathy, arthralgias or arthritis, and urticaria. Symptoms usually resolve without long-term sequela following discontinuation of the exogenous antigen. It is likely that serum sicknesslike reactions to bupropion are either relatively rare or underrecognized and underreported. Between May 1998 and May 2001, GlaxoSmith Kline received 172 reports of seizures (a well-known adverse drug reaction) and only 37 reports of serum sicknesslike reactions (Wooltorton 2002). We do not know if children and adolescents are more prone than adults to develop serum sicknesslike reactions to bupropion. Luckily, the reported cases of serum sicknesslike reactions to bupropion have not caused irreversible morbidity or mortality. Nevertheless, the symptoms are painful, temporarily disfiguring and disabling, and warrant prompt medical attention. Parents and patients should be educated about this potential side effect at the onset of treatment, because symptoms are similar to many infectious childhood illnesses, and the treatment of serum sicknesslike reactions to bupropion should include the discontinuation of bupropion.
Murphy, G A; Davies, R W; Choi, M W; Perkins, J; Turteltaub, K W; McCutchen-Maloney, S L; Langlois, R G; Curzi, M P; Trebes, J E; Fitch, J P; Dalmasso, E A; Colston, B W; Ying, Y; Chromy, B A
Background: Serum protein profiling patterns can reflect the pathological state of a patient and therefore may be useful for clinical diagnostics. Here, we present results from a pilot study of proteomic expression patterns in hemodialysis patients designed to evaluate the range of serum proteomic alterations in this population. Methods: Surface-Enhanced Laser Desorption/Ionization Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry (SELDI-TOFMS) was used to analyze serum obtained from patients on periodic hemodialysis treatment and healthy controls. Serum samples from patients and controls were first fractionated into six eluants on a strong anion exchange column, followed by application to four array chemistries representing cation exchange, anion exchange, metal affinity and hydrophobic surfaces. A total of 144 SELDI-TOF-MS spectra were obtained from each serum sample. Results: The overall profiles of the patient and control samples were consistent and reproducible. However, 30 well-defined protein differences were observed; 15 proteins were elevated and 15 were decreased in patients compared to controls. Serum from one patient exhibited novel protein peaks suggesting possible additional changes due to a secondary disease process. Conclusion: SELDI-TOF-MS demonstrated dramatic serum protein profile differences between patients and controls. Similarity in protein profiles among dialysis patients suggests that patient physiological responses to end-stage renal disease and/or dialysis therapy have a major effect on serum protein profiles.
The relationships between six of the seven allotypes or families of allotypes (a, b, c, d, f, g) described in the preceding paper, have been studied from the standpoints of (1) their antigenic specificities, (2) their mutual influence on the limitation of their respective frequencies, and (3) their genetic control. Although the six different allotypes (or families) react quite differently with the rabbit antisera, at least five of them react identically with a guinea pig antiserum. Therefore, a large portion of the antigenic specificity of these allotypes, distinct from their allotypic specificity, is uniform in all the individuals of the rabbit species and is termed for this reason "isotypic specificity." In the early period of the rabbit's life, allotypes may be found in the serum, which are not determined by the genotype of the individual, but are directly transmitted by the mother. The allotypes of the antigenic species of globulin studied in this paper, which were synthesized by the young animal, did not appear in its serum before a certain period of time. Allelic relationships between the genes which control allotypes were indicated by, (1) the absence of certain kinds of groupings of the allotypes, which limits the number of allotypic formulas in the population sample studied, (2) dosage effects, the concentration of certain allotypes (drawn from the penetration of the zones in gel tubes) being smaller in supposed heterozygotes than in supposed homozygotes, (3) the results of the analysis of the sera of a number of rabbits and of their parents. Eight of the different antigenic substances studied in this paper (allotype e excluded) appear to be allotypic forms of what would have been considered to be a uniform protein antigen. They may be classified as follows: a first group which contains two allotypes b and d and a family of two allotypes c and c' apparently controlled by three allelic genes b c d, c and c' being controlled by the same gene; a second group
Cook, J D
The concentration of the soluble fragment of transferrin receptor in serum is an important new hematological parameter. Clinical and laboratory studies have shown that this serum form of the receptor reflects the total body mass of cellular transferrin receptor, 80% of which is contained in the erythroid marrow. The two disorders that result in an elevation in the serum transferrin receptor are anemias associated with enhanced erythropoiesis and tissue iron deficiency. The concentration of soluble transferrin receptor provides a useful quantitative measure of the erythroid marrow mass and thereby assists clinically in categorizing the type of anemia. The most important clinical use of the serum transferrin receptor is in determining the cause of iron deficient erythropoiesis (that is, identifying iron deficiency anemia whether it occurs alone or in the presence of the anemia of chronic disease). Present evidence supports the routine use of the serum transferrin receptor in the clinical evaluation of anemic patients.
van der Valk, Jan; Bieback, Karen; Buta, Christiane; Cochrane, Brett; Dirks, Wilhelm G; Fu, Jianan; Hickman, James J; Hohensee, Christiane; Kolar, Roman; Liebsch, Manfred; Pistollato, Francesca; Schulz, Markus; Thieme, Daniel; Weber, Tilo; Wiest, Joachim; Winkler, Stefan; Gstraunthaler, Gerhard
The supplementation of culture medium with fetal bovine serum (FBS, also referred to as 'fetal calf serum') is still common practice in cell culture applications. Due to a number of disadvantages in terms of quality and reproducibility of in vitro data, animal welfare concerns, and in light of recent cases of fraudulent marketing, the search for alternatives and the development of serum-free medium formulations gained global attention. Here, we report on the 3rd Workshop on FBS, Serum Alternatives and Serum-free Media, where (a) regulatory aspects, (b) the serum dilemma, (c) alternatives to FBS, (d) case-studies of serum-free in vitro applications, and (e) the establishment of serum-free databases, were discussed. The whole process of obtaining blood from a living calf fetus to using the FBS produced from it for scientific purposes is de facto not yet legally regulated, despite the existing EU-Directive 2010/63/EU on the use of animals for scientific purposes. Together with above mentioned challenges, several strategies have been developed to reduce or replace FBS in cell culture media in terms of the 3Rs (Refinement, Reduction, Replacement). Most recently, releasates of activated human donor thrombocytes (human platelet lysates) have been shown to be one of the most promising serum alternatives when chemically defined media are not yet an option. Additionally, new developments in cell-based assay techniques, advanced organ-on-chip and microphysiological systems are covered in this report. Chemically-defined serum-free media are shown to be the ultimate goal for the majority of culture systems, and examples are discussed.
Choi, Jaehoon; Chung, Jee-Hyeok; Kwon, Geun-Yong; Kim, Ki-Wan; Kim, Sukwha; Chang, Hak
In cell culture, medium supplemented with fetal bovine serum is commonly used, and it is widely known that fetal bovine serum supplies an adequate environment for culture and differentiation of stem cells. Nevertheless, the use of xenogeneic serum can cause several problems. We compared the effects of four different concentrations of autologous serum (1, 2, 5, and 10%) on expansion and adipogenic differentiation of adipose-derived stem cells using 10% fetal bovine serum as a control. The stem cells were grafted on nude mice and the in vivo differentiation capacity was evaluated. The isolation of adipose-derived stem cells was successful irrespective of the culture medium. The proliferation potential was statistically significant at passage 2, as follows: 10% autologous serum > 10% fetal bovine serum = 5% autologous serum > 2% autologous serum = 1% autologous serum. The differentiation capacity appeared statistically significant at passage 4, as follows: 10% fetal bovine serum > 10% autologous serum = 5% autologous serum > 2% autologous serum = 1% autologous serum. Ten percent autologous serum and 10% fetal bovine serum had greater differentiation capacity than 1 and 2% autologous serum in vivo, and no significant difference was observed between the groups at ≥ 5% concentration at 14 weeks. In conclusion, 10% autologous serum was at least as effective as 10% fetal bovine serum with respect to the number of adipose-derived stem cells at the end of both isolation and expansion, whereas 1 and 2% autologous serum was inferior.
Balblanc, J C; Hartmann, D; Noyer, D; Mathieu, P; Conrozier, T; Tron, A M; Piperno, M; Richard, M; Vignon, E
In this prospective study, serum hyaluronate (SH) was assayed using a radiometric method (Pharmacia) in 73 osteoarthritis patients and 39 controls. All assays were performed between 8 h 00 and 9 h 00 a.m. because SH levels exhibit circadian variations. SH levels were significantly higher in patients with osteoarthritis than in controls (92 +/- 66 micrograms/l and 39 +/- 21 micrograms/l, respectively, p = 0.0001). Among 50 patients with osteoarthritis, including 29 with knee involvement and 21 with hip involvement, SH levels were not correlated with morning stiffness, duration of symptoms, Lequesne's algofunctional index, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, C-reactive protein, severity of roentgenographic changes in the affected knee or hip, disease extension, or severity. The lack of any relationship between changes in SH levels and Lequesne's is index values in 25 patients or between SH levels and joint space narrowing evaluated retrospectively in 16 patients, as well as the prompt return to high SH levels after arthroplasty and synovectomy in 14 patients with hip joint osteoarthritis, suggest that this potential marker is not useful for monitoring osteoarthritis in a single joint.
Conceicao, S C; Weightman, D; Smith, P A; Luno, J; Ward, M K; Kerr, D N
Four hundred and eighteen measurements of serum ionised calcium, total calcium, and protein concentrations were made from 47 normal volunteers, 104 patients with chronic renal failure (33 being treated conservatively and 71 with regular haemodialysis), and 83 renal transplant recipients. The serum ionised calcium concentration was measured with an Orion SS-20 meter and calculated from the total serum calcium and protein concentrations by using three formulae and a nomogram. In the normal subjects and patients undergoing regular haemodialysis, whose serum calcium concentrations were in or near the normal range, three of the calculations gave results similar to those obtained by direct measurement. In patients with conservatively treated chronic renal failure and those who had received renal transplants, however, there was poor aggrement between the methods. When patients with hypercalcaemia and hypocalcaemia from all the groups were considered separately there was again poor agreement between calculated and measured concentrations of serum ionised calcium. Of the patients whose measured concentrations of serum ionised calcium were high, 69-76% were classified as normal by the four indirect methods. We conclude that calculation of the serum ionised calcium concentrations is not an adequate substitute for direct measurement. PMID:346162
Kemmotsu, Yasushi; Saji, Tsutomu; Kusunoki, Natsuko; Tanaka, Nahoko; Nishimura, Chiaki; Ishiguro, Akira; Kawai, Shinichi
Adipokines are cytokines derived from adipose tissue. Recently it has been established that adipokines are closely linked to the pathophysiology of not only metabolic diseases, such as diabetes mellitus, obesity, and atherosclerosis, but also to inflammation and immune diseases. In this study we measured serum levels of adipokines in patients with acute Kawasaki disease to investigate the role of adipokines in the pathophysiology of Kawasaki disease. Serum resistin, high-molecular-weight (HMW) adiponectin, leptin, and visfatin levels were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in a total of 117 subjects: 56 patients with acute Kawasaki disease, 30 healthy children, and 31 patients with acute infectious diseases. Serum resistin levels in patients with Kawasaki disease were significantly higher than those of healthy children and patients with acute infectious diseases. In contrast, mean serum HMW adiponectin, leptin, and visfatin levels in patients with Kawasaki disease exhibited no statistically significant differences compared with those in healthy children and patients with infectious diseases. Serum resistin levels decreased significantly after administration of intravenous immune globulin. Serum resistin levels on admission were significantly higher in nonresponders compared with responders to intravenous immune globulin therapy. A multivariate model revealed that C-reactive protein was a factor that was significantly related to elevated serum resistin level in patients with Kawasaki disease. In patients with Kawasaki disease, serum resistin levels were elevated, but decreased to nearly normal after intravenous administration of immune globulin. In contrast, serum HMW adiponectin, leptin, and visfatin levels showed no statistically significant changes. These findings suggest that resistin plays an important role, while other adipokines do not play a major role, in the pathogenesis of Kawasaki disease.
Carrel, Alexis; Ebeling, Albert H.
It may be concluded that, under the conditions of the experiments: 1. Lymphocytes and large mononuclear cells can live and increase greatly in numbers in blood serum, while fibroblasts are not capable of doing so. 2. While living in serum, lymphocytes and large mononuclear cells manufacture and secrete substances which may be used as food material by the fibroblasts. 3. It is probable that lymphocytes and large mononuclear cells synthetize from the nitrogenous compounds contained in serum the substances which fibroblasts and epithelial cells require for their multiplication. PMID:19868806
Castro, Arnold R.; Morrill, William E.; Pope, Victoria
The efficacy of lipid removal from human serum samples obtained by using Cleanascite HC, a commercially available product, was compared to that obtained by the standard chloroform method. Separate samples of 21 frozen, banked human serum samples used in the preparation of samples for proficiency testing were treated with either Cleanascite HC or chloroform. The lipid content was measured before and after treatment. The total percentages of lipid removed ranged from 61 to 70% with Cleanascite HC and from 60 to 62% with chloroform. The advantage of Cleanascite HC over chloroform is based on the simplicity of the procedure with Cleanascite HC without the environmental concerns inherent in the use of chloroform. In 15 serum samples known to contain antibodies to treponemal and nontreponemal syphilis antigens, Cleanascite HC bound some immunoglobulin, but with only minimal loss of reactivity in the serologic tests for syphilis. Cleanascite HC is therefore an acceptable alternative to chloroform for lipid reduction in human serum samples. PMID:10702492
Friedberg, M; Shihabi, Z K
A method for the quantification of ketoprofen, a new non-prescription non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug, in serum, by capillary zone electrophoresis for therapeutic monitoring and emergency toxicology is described. Serum is deproteinized with acetonitrile in the presence of an internal standard, to remove serum proteins and to induce sample stacking. The migration time was about 10 min. The assay was linear between 1-10 mg/l without any interferences. The method compared well to an HPLC assay. The HPLC afforded a better detection limit, but the CE was less expensive to operate. This method demonstrates that capillary electrophoresis is a simple and effective method for determination of ketoprofen as well as other drugs in human serum at levels close to 1 mg/l.
Schley, G; Höfliger, N; Vogt, M
A 46-year-old previously healthy man was incidentally found to have an elevated serum creatinine concentration of 2,7 mg/dl (250 micromol/l) in a dry chemical enzyme test. He had no symptoms. Physical examination was unremarkable. 12 days after the first laboratory test serum creatinine was to be normal (0,66 g/dl, 58 micromol/l). Urinalysis and ultrasound scan of the kidneys revealed no anomalies. But increased sarcosine levels were found in both urine and plasma. The creatinine testing assay interfered with an elevated serum sarcosine level, which is found in an inborn error of aminoacid metabolism called sarcosinemia. In a patient with sarcosinemia a dry chemical enzyme analysis which is often used by general practitioners can produce falsely high creatinine levels. When suspecting sarcosinemia, serum creatinine should be checked against another type of laboratory test.
Hodgman, Michael; Marraffa, Jeanna M; Wojcik, Susan; Grant, William
The diagnosis of ethylene glycol intoxication can be challenging. Definitive testing for ethylene glycol is not readily available and clinical decisions are often based on clinical suspicion and the results of more readily available tests. One of these findings is hypocalcemia, presumable through complexation with the ethylene glycol metabolite oxalate. We performed a retrospective review of all patients admitted to a tertiary care hospital between 2005 and 2013 with laboratory confirmed ethylene glycol intoxication. Serum calcium on presentation was compared to blood gas pH on presentation as well as presentation serum bicarbonate. We did not find any relationship between calcium and serum pH either by linear regression or when dichotomized by pH ≥ or <7.3. We did observe an inverse relationship between serum calcium and bicarbonate. Hypocalcemia is not commonly observed following ethylene glycol poisoning, even in acidotic patients.
Horse Serum Albumin crystals grown during the USML-1 (STS-50) mission's Protein Crystal Growth Glovebox Experiment. These crystals were grown using a vapor diffusion technique at 22 degrees C. The crystals were allowed to grow for nine days while in orbit. Crystals of 1.0 mm in length were produced. The most abundant blood serum protein, regulates blood pressure and transports ions, metabolites, and therapeutic drugs. Principal Investigator was Edward Meehan.
Horse Serum Albumin crystals grown during the USML-1 (STS-50) mission's Protein Crystal Growth Glovebox Experiment. These crystals were grown using a vapor diffusion technique at 22 degrees C. The crystals were allowed to grow for nine days while in orbit. Crystals of 1.0 mm in length were produced. The most abundant blood serum protein, regulates blood pressure and transports ions, metabolites, and therapeutic drugs. Principal Investigator was Edward Meehan.
Pandurangi, A K; Narasimhachari, N; Blackard, W G; Landa, B S
The antipsychotic drug molindone is considered to be atypical in its mode of action and to have mild side effects. Currently no data are available on the range of serum levels of this drug during treatment. By means of a high performance liquid chromatographic technique, serum molindone levels were measured in 14 psychotic patients receiving a wide range of doses of this drug. Molindone levels as high as 350 ng/mL were obtained and were not associated with any toxic effects. Significant relations were noted between the serum level of the drug and both serum prolactin level and treatment response. The authors suggest that molindone may have a range of serum levels consistent with therapeutic benefit. Serum molindone and prolactin levels might help assess resistance to molindone treatment.
Ford, H C; Carter, J M; Rendle, M A
Serum and red blood cell folate levels and serum B12 concentration were determined by radioassay in 20 hyperthyroid patients and compared with values obtained when the same patients had been euthyroid for at least 4 months. In hyperthyroidism, the levels of serum and red blood cell folate were significantly (P less than .01) higher than when euthyroidism was achieved. There was no significant change in serum B12 concentration. Declines in serum and red blood cell folate levels between hyperthyroidism and euthyroidism occurred in 15 and 16 of the 20 patients, respectively. Although the explanation for the relative elevations of serum and red blood cell folate levels in hyperthyroid patients is unclear at present, our findings do not support the view that hyperthyroidism in man is associated with depletion of folate stores or subclinical deficiency of the vitamin.
Chang, Yu-Mei; Hadox, Erin; Szladovits, Balazs; Garden, Oliver A
The serum or plasma biochemical profile is essential in the diagnosis and monitoring of systemic disease in veterinary medicine, but current reference intervals typically take no account of breed-specific differences. Breed-specific hematological phenotypes have been documented in the domestic dog, but little has been published on serum biochemical phenotypes in this species. Serum biochemical profiles of dogs in which all measurements fell within the existing reference intervals were retrieved from a large veterinary database. Serum biochemical profiles from 3045 dogs were retrieved, of which 1495 had an accompanying normal glucose concentration. Sixty pure breeds plus a mixed breed control group were represented by at least 10 individuals. All analytes, except for sodium, chloride and glucose, showed variation with age. Total protein, globulin, potassium, chloride, creatinine, cholesterol, total bilirubin, ALT, CK, amylase, and lipase varied between sexes. Neutering status significantly impacted all analytes except albumin, sodium, calcium, urea, and glucose. Principal component analysis of serum biochemical data revealed 36 pure breeds with distinctive phenotypes. Furthermore, comparative analysis identified 23 breeds with significant differences from the mixed breed group in all biochemical analytes except urea and glucose. Eighteen breeds were identified by both principal component and comparative analysis. Tentative reference intervals were generated for breeds with a distinctive phenotype identified by comparative analysis and represented by at least 120 individuals. This is the first large-scale analysis of breed-specific serum biochemical phenotypes in the domestic dog and highlights potential genetic components of biochemical traits in this species.
Perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) have been widely used in industrial applications and consumer products. Their persistent nature and potential health impacts are of concern. Given the high cost of collecting serum samples, this study is to understand whether we can quantify PFC serum concentrations using factors extracted from questionnaire responses and indirect measurements, and whether a single serum measurement can be used to classify an individual′s exposure over a one-year period. The study population included three demographic groups: young children (2–8 years old) (N=67), parents of young children (55 years old) (N=59). PFC serum concentrations, house dust concentrations, and questionnaires were collected. The geometric mean of perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) was highest for the older adults. In contrast, the geometric mean of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) was highest for children. Serum concentrations of the parent and the child from the same family were moderately correlated (Spearman correlation (r)=0.26–0.79, p<0.05), indicating common sources within a family. For adults, age, having occupational exposure or having used fire extinguisher, frequencies of consuming butter/margarine, pork, canned meat entrées, tuna and white fish, freshwater fish, and whether they ate microwave popcorn were significantly positively associated with serum concentrations of individual PFCs. For children, residential dust
González-Tarancón, Ricardo; Calvo-Ruata, Luisa; Aramendía, Maite; Ortega, Carmen; García-González, Elena; Rello, Luis
Low serum Cu and ceruloplasmin (Cp) concentrations in newborns can be the first indication of a severe Cu deficient intake or, alternatively, of genetic diseases affecting Cu metabolism. However, Cu and Cp concentrations can also be influenced by other variables that render their quantitative results difficult to interpret. Therefore, it is necessary to identify these variables and stratify Cu and Cp concentrations according to these altering factors. Serum Cu and Cp concentrations for 564 hospitalized newborns (0-12days of life) are stratified according to their age, prematurity (birth weight or gestational age), type of feeding and inflammatory state (assessed by the serum high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) level) to identify potential correlations. Serum Cu and Cp concentrations are influenced by all four variables analyzed, although inflammation is the most significant: the greater the hs-CRP concentration, the greater the serum Cu and Cp concentrations. Prematurity is also an important factor and preterm infants often show very low Cu and Cp concentrations. Age of life and type of feeding have in turn a more modest effect on these magnitudes, being slightly greater at 3-5days of age in breastfed newborns. Inflammation and prematurity are the main variables affecting serum Cu and Cp concentrations in newborns. Therefore, hs-CRP should always be assayed in parallel to Cu status. When there is an inflammatory state proper interpretation of these concentrations can be challenging. Copyright Â© 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.
Nicoloff, G; Angelova, M; Christova, I; Nikolov, A; Alexiev, A
The effect of cobalt on the cardiovascular system is one of many aspects of cobalt metabolism in humans. Elastin and collagen are the main proteins of the vascular wall. The aims of this study were: 1) to determine serum cobalt concentrations in children with hypertension; and 2) to study the correlation between serum cobalt and some biological markers of the extracellular matrix of the vascular wall, i.e., anti-elastin and anti-collagen type IV antibodies. Patients showed statistically significant higher levels of systolic and diastolic blood pressure, and significantly lower serum cobalt concentrations, than controls. Children with hypertension showed significantly higher levels of total cholesterol (P = 0.0003) and collagen type IV IgM (P = 0.04). Collagen type IV IgG levels (P = 0.027) were lower than in controls. Serum cobalt in patients showed a correlation with systolic blood pressure (r = -0.44, P = 0.05), elastin IgM (r = 0.60, P = 0.007), and collagen type IV IgG (r = -0.46, P = 0.04). Our data suggest the existence of a correlation between changes in levels of serum cobalt, total cholesterol, anti-collagen type IV antibodies, and essential hypertension in children. This is the first study of serum cobalt in children with essential hypertension.
Chang, Yu-Mei; Hadox, Erin; Szladovits, Balazs; Garden, Oliver A.
The serum or plasma biochemical profile is essential in the diagnosis and monitoring of systemic disease in veterinary medicine, but current reference intervals typically take no account of breed-specific differences. Breed-specific hematological phenotypes have been documented in the domestic dog, but little has been published on serum biochemical phenotypes in this species. Serum biochemical profiles of dogs in which all measurements fell within the existing reference intervals were retrieved from a large veterinary database. Serum biochemical profiles from 3045 dogs were retrieved, of which 1495 had an accompanying normal glucose concentration. Sixty pure breeds plus a mixed breed control group were represented by at least 10 individuals. All analytes, except for sodium, chloride and glucose, showed variation with age. Total protein, globulin, potassium, chloride, creatinine, cholesterol, total bilirubin, ALT, CK, amylase, and lipase varied between sexes. Neutering status significantly impacted all analytes except albumin, sodium, calcium, urea, and glucose. Principal component analysis of serum biochemical data revealed 36 pure breeds with distinctive phenotypes. Furthermore, comparative analysis identified 23 breeds with significant differences from the mixed breed group in all biochemical analytes except urea and glucose. Eighteen breeds were identified by both principal component and comparative analysis. Tentative reference intervals were generated for breeds with a distinctive phenotype identified by comparative analysis and represented by at least 120 individuals. This is the first large-scale analysis of breed-specific serum biochemical phenotypes in the domestic dog and highlights potential genetic components of biochemical traits in this species. PMID:26919479
Xiong, Xiao-Yi; Chen, Jing; Zhu, Wen-Yao; Zhao, Ting; Zhong, Qi; Zhou, Kai; Meng, Zhao-You; Wang, Yan-Chun; Wang, Peng-Fei; Fang, Huang; Yang, Qing-Wu
Iron plays a detrimental role in the intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH)-induced brain damage, while hepcidin is the most important iron-regulated hormone. Here, we investigate the association between serum hepcidin and serum iron, outcome in patients with ICH. Serum samples of 81 cases with ICH were obtained on consecutive days to detect the levels of hepcidin, iron, interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α). The National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score (NIHSS) was measured at admission and on days 7 and 30, and the modified Rankin Scale (mRS) score was evaluated at 3 months after ICH. Additionally, the correlations of serum hepcidin with serum iron and the mRS score were analyzed by a generalized linear model. Higher serum hepcidin levels were detected in patients with poor outcomes (P < 0.001), and the mRS score increased by a mean of 1.135 points (95% CI 1.021-1.247, P < 0.001) for every serum hepcidin quartile after adjusting for other prognostic variables. Pearson correlation analysis showed that serum hepcidin was negatively correlated with serum iron (r = -0.5301, P < 0.001), and a significantly lower concentration of serum iron was found in patients with poor outcomes (P = 0.007). Additionally, serum hepcidin was independently correlated with mRS scores of ICH patients (OR 1.115, 95% CI 0.995-1.249, P = 0.021). Our results suggest that serum hepcidin is closely related to the outcome of patients with ICH and may be a biological marker for outcome prediction.
Cao, Zhimin; West, Clint; Norton-Wenzel, Carol S; Rej, Robert; Davis, Faith B; Davis, Paul J; Rej, Robert
Charcoal- or resin-stripping of fetal bovine serum (FBS) or bovine calf serum (BCS) intended for supplementation of cell culture media is widely practiced to remove a variety of endogenous compounds, including steroid, peptide, and thyroid hormones. The possibility that stripping removes other biologically relevant factors from serum may not be appreciated. In this report, standardized clinical laboratory testing methods were used to assess the effects of resin- and charcoal-stripping on content in FBS and BCS of more than 25 analytes in the sera. In addition to hormones, the serum constituents affected by stripping are certain vitamins, electrolytes, enzyme activities, and metabolites.
Lan, Xiufeng; Liu, Jiangang; Liu, Ying; Luo, Xiaosen; Lu, Jian; Ni, Xiaowu
With the increase of people"s living standard and the changes of living form, the number of people who suffer from hypercholesterolemia is increasing. It is not only harmful to heart and blood vessel, but also leading to obstruction of cognition. The conventional blood detection technology has weakness such as complex operation, long detecting period, and bad visibility. In order to develop a new detection method that can checkout hypercholesterolemia conveniently, spectroscopy of cholesterol in hypercholesterolemia serum is obtained by the multifunctional grating spectrograph. The experiment results indicate that, under the excitation of light-emitting diode (LED) with the wavelength at 407 nm, the serum from normal human and the hypercholesterolemia serum emit different fluorescence spectra. The former can emit one fluorescence region with the peak locating at 516 nm while the latter can emit two more regions with peaks locating at 560 nm and 588 nm. Moreover, the fluorescence intensity of serum is non-linear increasing with the concentration of cholesterol increases when the concentration of cholesterol is lower than 13.8 mmol/L, and then, with the concentration of cholesterol increase, the fluorescence intensity decreases. However, the fluorescence intensity is still much higher than that of serum from normal human. Conclusions can be educed from the experiments: the intensity and the shape of fluorescence spectra of hypercholesterolemia serum are different of those of normal serum, from which the cholesterol abnormal in blood can be judged. The consequences in this paper may offer an experimental reference for the diagnosis of the hypercholesterolemia.
Knekt, P.; Heliövaara, M.; Rissanen, A.; Aromaa, A.; Aaran, R. K.
OBJECTIVE--To investigate serum concentrations of alpha tocopherol, beta carotene, retinol, and selenium for their prediction of end stage cataract. DESIGN--A case-control study, nested within a cohort study, based on the linkage of records of subjects aged 40-83 from a health survey with those from the national Finnish hospital discharge register. SUBJECTS--47 patients admitted to ophthalmological wards for senile cataract over 15 years and two controls per patient individually matched for sex, age, and municipality. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE--Concentration of serum micronutrients, development of cataract according to whether operation was performed. RESULTS--Low serum concentrations of antioxidant vitamins predicted the development of senile cataract, the odds ratio between the lowest third and the two higher thirds of the distribution of serum concentrations of alpha tocopherol and beta carotene being 1.9 (95% confidence interval 0.9 to 4.1) and 1.7 (0.8 to 3.8), respectively. Patients with both alpha tocopherol and beta carotene concentrations in the lowest third had an odds ratio of 2.6 (1.0 to 6.8) of cataract compared with subjects in the top two thirds. The associations were strengthened by adjustment for potential confounding factors such as occupation, smoking, blood pressure, serum cholesterol concentration, body mass index, and diabetes. No association was found between the serum concentrations of selenium, retinol, and retinol binding protein and the risk of cataract. CONCLUSIONS--Low serum concentrations of the antioxidant vitamins alpha tocopherol and beta carotene are risk factors for end stage senile cataract. Controlled trials of the role of antioxidant vitamins in cataract prevention are therefore warranted. PMID:1486302
de Miranda Santos, Isabel K. F.; Costa, Carlos H. N.; Krieger, Henrique; Feitosa, Mary F.; Zurakowski, David; Fardin, Babak; Gomes, Regis B. B.; Weiner, Debra L.; Harn, Donald A.; Ezekowitz, R. Alan B.; Epstein, Judith E.
Levels of the serum opsonin mannan-binding lectin (MBL) were directly correlated with the probability of developing visceral leishmaniasis. Monocytes infected with MBL-opsonized Leishmania chagasi promastigotes secreted higher levels of tumor necrosis factor alpha and interleukin-6 than cells infected with nonopsonized parasites. Our findings indicate that MBL can modulate the clinical outcome of infection with L. chagasi and the function of infected macrophages. PMID:11447210
Cui, Zhigang; Liu, Dezhong; Liu, Chun; Liu, Gang
Abstract Some observational studies have shown that elevated serum selenium levels are associated with reduced prostate cancer risk; however, not all published studies support these results. A literature search of PubMed, Embase, Medline, and the Cochrane Library up until September 2016 identified 17 studies suitable for further investigation. A meta-analysis was conducted on these studies to investigate the association between serum selenium levels and subsequent prostate cancer risk. Pooled odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were used to evaluate the overall OR of prostate cancer for the highest versus the lowest levels of serum selenium. We found a pooled OR (95% CI) of 0.76 (0.64, 0.91; P < 0.05). In subgroup analysis, an inverse association between serum selenium levels and prostate cancer risk was found in each of case–control studies, current and former smokers, high-grade cancer cases, advanced cancer cases, and different populations. Such correlations were not found for subgroups containing each of cohort studies, nonsmokers, low-grade cancer cases, and early stage cancer cases. In conclusion, our study suggests an inverse relationship between serum selenium levels and prostate cancer risk. However, further cohort studies and randomized control trials based on non-Western populations are required. PMID:28151881
Background The applications of proteomic strategies to ovine medicine remain limited. The definition of serum proteome may be a good tool to identify useful protein biomarkers for recognising sub-clinical conditions and overt disease in sheep. Findings from bovine species are often directly translated for use in ovine medicine. In order to characterize normal protein patterns and improve knowledge of molecular species-specific characteristics, we generated a two-dimensional reference map of sheep serum. The possible application of this approach was tested by analysing serum protein patterns in ewes with mild broncho-pulmonary disease, which is very common in sheep and in the peripartum period which is a stressful time, with a high incidence of infectious and parasitic diseases. Results This study generated the first reference 2-DE maps of sheep serum. Overall, 250 protein spots were analyzed, and 138 identified. Compared with healthy sheep, serum protein profiles of animals with rhino-tracheo-bronchitis showed a significant decrease in protein spots identified as transthyretin, apolipoprotein A1 and a significant increase in spots identified as haptoglobin, endopin 1b and alpha1B glycoprotein. In the peripartum period, haptoglobin, alpha-1-acid glycoprotein, apolipoprotein A1 levels rose, while transthyretin content dropped. Conclusions This study describes applications of proteomics in putative biomarker discovery for early diagnosis as well as for monitoring the physiological and metabolic situations critical for ovine welfare. PMID:22630135
Kang, E S; Matsuo, N; Nagai, T; Greenhaw, J; Williams, P L
High levels of the serum free fatty acids (FFA) are found in Reye's syndrome (RS). While this is attributed to enhanced adipose tissue lipolysis, the possibility that intravascular lipolysis could augment this process was investigated by measuring lipase activity in sera from RS and other subjects. Ordinarily, lipolytic activity is not detectable in serum from unheparinized subjects. Significant lipolytic activities ranging from 1-3 mumol/ml serum per hour were detected in sera from 5 of the 7 RS patients studied. Similar activities were also found in sera from two other subjects one of whom was a long-term survivor of RS and the other who had recurrent bouts of biliary obstruction and encephalopathy. Lipase activity was negligible in the serum from 2 other RS patients, 4 other long-term survivors of RS, 2 siblings, one RS parent and in 20 disease controls including patients with influenza, diabetic ketoacidosis and cerebral edema, meningitis and febrile infections with diarrhea and vomiting. None of these individuals had received heparin. An inverse relationship was found between LPL and hepatic lipase (HL) activities. Glucose levels tended to correlate directly with LPL and inversely with HL activity. The basis for the presence of LPL activity in RS sera is not known but the presence of serum lipase activity in unheparinized patients supports the notion that the TG in the circulating lipoprotein particles probably also serve as another source of FFA in the sera of RS patients.
Varicocele is most often surgically repaired due to male infertility, however, has recently been linked to low serum testosterone. This paper serves to review the current literature regarding varicocele and its subsequent repair on serum testosterone. Twenty-eight human studies were identified with fifteen showing improved serum testosterone after repair. The majority of the studies that demonstrated improvement had preoperative testosterone levels that were low or below normal. Additionally, multiple well-designed studies with control groups not undergoing surgical repair demonstrated significant difference between groups. This improvement was less observed in studies with normal preoperative serum testosterone. A majority of these patients studied were presenting for infertility. It remains to be determined if these findings can be reproduced in men without infertility. The findings suggest that microsurgical varicocele repair can improve serum testosterone in men with low levels preoperatively in appropriately counseled men. It remains to be seen whether varicocele repair can help prevent the development of low testosterone in the future or which patients are at risk of developing low testosterone due to varicocele. PMID:28078218
Chiaradia, Elisabetta; Avellini, Luca; Tartaglia, Micaela; Gaiti, Alberto; Just, Ingo; Scoppetta, Fausto; Czentnar, Zoltan; Pich, Andreas
The applications of proteomic strategies to ovine medicine remain limited. The definition of serum proteome may be a good tool to identify useful protein biomarkers for recognising sub-clinical conditions and overt disease in sheep. Findings from bovine species are often directly translated for use in ovine medicine. In order to characterize normal protein patterns and improve knowledge of molecular species-specific characteristics, we generated a two-dimensional reference map of sheep serum. The possible application of this approach was tested by analysing serum protein patterns in ewes with mild broncho-pulmonary disease, which is very common in sheep and in the peripartum period which is a stressful time, with a high incidence of infectious and parasitic diseases. This study generated the first reference 2-DE maps of sheep serum. Overall, 250 protein spots were analyzed, and 138 identified.Compared with healthy sheep, serum protein profiles of animals with rhino-tracheo-bronchitis showed a significant decrease in protein spots identified as transthyretin, apolipoprotein A1 and a significant increase in spots identified as haptoglobin, endopin 1b and alpha1B glycoprotein.In the peripartum period, haptoglobin, alpha-1-acid glycoprotein, apolipoprotein A1 levels rose, while transthyretin content dropped. This study describes applications of proteomics in putative biomarker discovery for early diagnosis as well as for monitoring the physiological and metabolic situations critical for ovine welfare.
Chan, M S; Hoff, G L; Bigler, W J; Tomas, J A; Schneider, N J
Serum proteins of gray squirrels were electrophoretically separated into 7 fractions as compared with the 5 fractions obtained from human serum. The mobility of the albumin fraction was approximately the same for both human and squirrel serums. The prealbumin fraction did not vary significantly in the percentage for squirrels bled at different times of the year. Immunoelectrophoresis patterns showed squirrel serum had a small number of fractions with the same antigenic characteristics as human serum.
Califano, F; Giovanniello, T; Pantone, P; Campana, E; Parlapiano, C; Alegiani, F; Vincentelli, G M; Turchetti, P
Thrombomodulin is a glycoprotein that can bind to thrombin and activate protein C, thus mitigating the effects of cytokines produced by inflammatory and immunological processes. The molecule exerts a protective function on endothelial cells. Thrombomodulin is cleaved to its soluble form by neutrophil elastase and by other substances produced during acute and chronic inflammatory responses, immunologic reactions and complement activation. ELISA technique yields normal serum levels of 3.1 +/- 1.3 ng/ml; in males these levels are higher; TM levels also rise during menopause. Other circumstances associated with an increase of serum TM levels are smoking, disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC), cardiac surgery, atherosclerosis, ARDS, liver cirrhosis, diabetes mellitus, cerebral and myocardial infarction, and multiple sclerosis. Serum levels of TM represent an useful prognostic index, because they are associated with an increase in mortality rate, or however a progression of the underlying pathological condition.
Denchev, K; Radkov, M; Lipcheva, N
Serum immunoglobulin E level was determined in 50 patients with bronchial asthma, treated in the out-patients department and clinical conditions at the Faculty Hospital--Varna. The quantitative determination of immunoglobulin E was carried out by radial immunodiffusion according to Mancini with monospecific anti-IgE globulin serum from Behringswerke (GFR). A considerable elevation of immunoglobulin E in the patients' sera was found, at an average of 394 IU (control 124 IU). A discrepancy in serum immunoglobulin E level was established with the different clinical forms of asthma. The highest are the values with infectious-allergic astmha-424 IU. High are the values both in the treated and not-treated with corticosteroids, without an essential difference between the two patient groups. Some of the rest immunoglobulins showed also an elevationppIgG 2620 mg% and IgA 366 mg%.
Bhat, G A; Mubarik, M; Bhat, M Y
Serum levels of the immunoglobulins IgG, IgA and IgM were estimated in 102 apparently healthy Kashmiri adults in the age group of 16-60 years, using single radial immunodiffusion method of Mancini et al. The mean serum levels of IgG, IgA and IgM were observed to be 1289.19 +/- 234.9, 216.18 +/- 50.70 and 118.97 +/- 41.88 respectively. No significant difference in the mean serum levels was observed between the two sexes as such, but IgM showed a significant increase in females in the age group of 16-30 years. IgA showed a significant increase with age, with no such increase in case of IgG and IgM.
Lu, Yang; Nakanishi, Takeo; Fukazawa, Miki; Tamai, Ikumi
Clinical studies have shown that moderate whisky consumption increased renal excretion of urate into urine and decreased serum urate level, but the mechanism involved has not been established. Because renal reabsorption influences serum urate level, the effects of the whisky congeners on urate transporters, urate transporter 1 (URAT1), and voltage-driven urate transporter (URATv1) involved in reabsorptive transport of urate were examined. In transporter-expressing Xenopus oocytes, 12-year-old and 18-year-old whisky congeners inhibited urate uptake by URAT1 with IC50 values of 0.08 ± 0.01 and 0.04 ± 0.01 mg/mL, respectively, while urate uptake by URATv1 was inhibited only at 1 mg/mL. Decreased serum urate level after whisky consumption may be mainly due to inhibition of URAT1 by the congeners. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Sunnetcioglu, Mahmut; Karadas, Sevdegul; Aslan, Mehmet; Ceylan, Mehmet Resat; Demir, Halit; Oncu, Mehmet Resit; Karahocagil, Mustafa Kasım; Sunnetcioglu, Aysel; Aypak, Cenk
Adenosine deaminase (ADA) activity has been discovered in several inflammatory conditions; however, there are no data associated with cutaneous anthrax. The aim of this study was to investigate serum ADA activity in patients with cutaneous anthrax. Sixteen patients with cutaneous anthrax and 17 healthy controls were enrolled. We measured ADA activity; peripheral blood leukocyte, lymphocyte, neutrophil, and monocyte counts; erythrocyte sedimentation rate; and C reactive protein levels. Serum ADA activity was signiﬁcantly higher in patients with cutaneous anthrax than in the controls (p<0.001). A positive correlation was observed between ADA activity and lymphocyte counts (r=0.589, p=0.021) in the patient group. This study suggests that serum ADA could be used as a biochemical marker in cutaneous anthrax.
Konikoff, F.; Halevy, J.; Theodor, E.
Serum creatine kinase (CK) activity was measured after intramuscular injections in 44 patients hospitalized for non-cardiac reasons. The drugs injected were: diazepam, dipyrone, metoclopramide, meperidine, pentazocine and procaine penicillin. Only 3 out of 44 patients (7%) demonstrated significant elevation of CK levels following the intramuscular injections. In these 3 patients the elevation was mainly due to a rise of the MM-isoenzyme fraction with MB levels increased in one patient. These findings do not justify the common clinical notion of regarding intramuscular injections as a frequent cause of serum CK elevation. It is concluded that high CK serum values in a patient with chest pain should always be considered with utmost suspicion, disregarding the possible effects of a previous intramuscular injection. PMID:4022892
Sawke, N G; Sawke, G K
We review the present knowledge of serum fucose with special attention to its relation with various malignant diseases. We summarize the role of serum fucose as a useful diagnostic and prognostic marker when used singly or in combination. The purpose of this review is to provide an expert opinion on the practical and applied aspect of serum fucose level in clinical practice and research settings. Our review is based on information from published research studies, library books, and electronic searches through Medline and PubMed. The available published data were used as the basis for recommendations. Each of the subsections concludes to provide information to assist the clinicians and the research scientists make informed decisions.
Samanta, B B
Hypercholes erolaemia is a modifiable risk factor in atherosclerosis. Women lose their relative protection against coronory heart disease at menopause because of changed lipid profile due to oestrogen deficiency. Total serum cholesterol was estimated in 82 healthy postmenopausal women in the age group of 46-72 years (51.5 +/- 7.39). Thirty five healthy pre-menopausal women in the age group of 18-38 years (29.5 +/- 6.4) served as controls. The mean serum cholesterol concentration was significantly higher in the postmenopausal group compared to control group (178.5 +/- 39.8 Vs 155.4 +/- 24 mg/dl; P < 0.01). Serum cholesterol concentration in the study group was not related to social class, dietary habit and obesity.
Lala, L G; D'Mello, P M; Naik, S R
Diclofenac sodium is one of the potent Non Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs (NSAID) used in the treatment of inflammatory conditions. The present work deals with the estimation of diclofenac sodium from serum by a novel High Performance Thin Layer Chromatographic (HPTLC) method developed in our laboratory. Standard diclofenac sodium was spotted on Silica Gel 60 F(254) precoated plates, which were developed using the mobile phase toluene:acetone:glacial acetic acid (80:30:1,v/v/v). Densitometric analysis of diclofenac sodium was carried out at 280 nm with diclofenac being detected at an R(f) of 0.58. The method was subsequently developed to estimate diclofenac sodium from serum. Diclofenac sodium was extracted with ethyl acetate from serum samples, spotted on Silica Gel 60 F(254) plates and the plates were developed using the above mentioned mobile phase. The method was validated for selectivity, extraction efficiency, sensitivity, accuracy, and intra and inter-day reproducibility studies. The extraction efficiency was found to range from 76 to 80%. The Limit of Detection (LOD) and Limit of Quantification (LOQ) of diclofenac sodium in serum were found to be 90 and 120 ng, respectively. The calibration curve of diclofenac sodium in serum was found to be linear in the range of 200-800 ng. The mean values (+/-S.D.) of correlation coefficient, slope and intercept were found to be 0.9876 (+/-0.0105), 0.0228 (+/-0.0036) and 6.15 (+/-1.4), respectively. The mean percentage coefficient of variation for accuracy, intra-day and inter-day analysis at 200-800 ng of diclofenac sodium were found to be 3.2, 6.35 and 8.025, respectively. The proposed method is a simple and sensitive method with good precision and reproducibility for the estimation of diclofenac sodium form serum samples.
Brutsaert, Erika F; Gersten, Adam J; Tassler, Andrew B; Surks, Martin I
Calcitonin is a sensitive biomarker that is used for diagnosis and follow-up in medullary thyroid cancer (MTC). In patients with tumors > 1 cm, it is uncommon for preoperative serum calcitonin to be in the normal laboratory reference range in patients with MTC, and even more unusual for serum calcitonin to be undetectable. A 39-year-old woman was found to have a left thyroid nodule on magnetic resonance imaging done for neck pain. Ultrasound and fine-needle aspiration biopsy were performed, and cytopathology was positive for malignant cells. The cells also had features suggestive of a neuroendocrine tumor, and the specimen was immune-stained with calcitonin. There was positive immunoreactivity for calcitonin in isolated cells of the cytospin, highly favoring a diagnosis of MTC. Serum calcitonin was < 2 pg/mL (<6 pg/mL), and serum carcinoembryonic antigen was 3.1 ng/mL (<5.2 ng/mL). Given the low calcitonin levels, procalcitonin was also tested and was elevated at 0.21 ng/mL (< 0.1 ng/mL). The patient subsequently underwent a total thyroidectomy and central and ipsilateral lateral lymph node dissection. Histopathology confirmed a 2.6 × 2.0 × 1.2-cm MTC, with strong, diffuse immunostaining for calcitonin. Postoperatively, serum calcitonin has remained undetectable, carcinoembryonic antigen has remained within the reference range, and procalcitonin has become undetectable. We present a rare case of a patient with MTC with undetectable preoperative serum calcitonin, whose tumor demonstrated strong, diffuse immunohistochemical staining for calcitonin. We discuss the possible pathogenesis of calcitonin-negative MTC and the challenges in following patients with this condition.
Somasundaram, Kumaravel; Nijaguna, Mamatha B; Kumar, Durairaj Mohan
The prognosis of patients with glioblastoma, the most malignant adult glial brain tumor, remains poor in spite of advances in treatment procedures, including surgical resection, irradiation and chemotherapy. Genetic heterogeneity of glioblastoma warrants extensive studies in order to gain a thorough understanding of the biology of this tumor. While there have been several studies of global transcript profiling of glioma with the identification of gene signatures for diagnosis and disease management, translation into clinics is yet to happen. Serum biomarkers have the potential to revolutionize the process of cancer diagnosis, grading, prognostication and treatment response monitoring. Besides having the advantage that serum can be obtained through a less invasive procedure, it contains molecules at an extraordinary dynamic range of ten orders of magnitude in terms of their concentrations. While the conventional methods, such as 2DE, have been in use for many years, the ability to identify the proteins through mass spectrometry techniques such as MALDI-TOF led to an explosion of interest in proteomics. Relatively new high-throughput proteomics methods such as SELDI-TOF and protein microarrays are expected to hasten the process of serum biomarker discovery. This review will highlight the recent advances in the proteomics platform in discovering serum biomarkers and the current status of glioma serum markers. We aim to provide the principles and potential of the latest proteomic approaches and their applications in the biomarker discovery process. Besides providing a comprehensive list of available serum biomarkers of glioma, we will also propose how these markers will revolutionize the clinical management of glioma patients.
Rhoads, C P
Through the kindness of Dr. W. H. Park we have been enabled to study a horse antipoliomyelitic serum. This preparation has been supplied us in three forms: citrated blood plasma, serum, and globulin concentrate. We have tested these preparations in vitro and in vivo for inactivating or neutralizing or, to use perhaps a better term, antiviral effects against a constant, potent, filtrate virus of poliomyelitis. The preparations exhibited these effects when combined in vitro. Their action in this respect appears to be greater and more constant than that found by Stewart and Haselbauer for the Pettit antipoliomyelitic horse serum. On the other hand, in vivo tests carried out by us were less successful. In comparison with the constancy of action, under given conditions, of convalescent monkey and human sera, the antipoliomyelitic horse serum displayed striking irregularity, and certain preparations were devoid of protective power. The precise nature of the inactivating substances in the horse antiserum and their relation to the corresponding substances in convalescent sera have still, to be determined. As far as one absorption test carried out by us indicates, precipitin does not play a major rôle in the inactivating process. When an active globulin concentrate was filtered through Berkefeld candles, it lost its in vitro inactivating power. This is not true of convalescent sera in the native state. No tests have, however, been made with globulin concentrates from such sera. The experiments described in this paper raise the question whether, therapeutically considered, the antipoliomyelitic horse serum should be regarded as an exact equivalent of, and hence employed as a perfect substitute for, convalescent serum. This question can only be answered by further experiment and observation.
Mayén-Mondragón, R.; Yánez-Limón, J. M.; Palomares, P.; Sosa, M.; Bernal-Alvarado, J.
Using a thermal lens experimental set up, the thermal diffusivity of human serum and plasma were measured. Several samples were studied and the results are reported as the average, including the standard deviation. The samples of serum and plasma were obtained in healthy adult donors from the Guanajuato State Blood Transfusion Center, Mexico; the donors were clinically tested and they were free of hepatitis, AIDS and other infectious diseases. The parameters reported were obtained using the thermal lens aberrant model with the lasers arranged in the mismatched mode.
conditions. Materials and methods MateriaLs Most of the chemicals used were purchased as iron -free reagents (G. Frederick Smith Co.. Columbus. OH). Water...Bedford. MA). The iron -releasing reagent was made to contain 0.5r Tween-20 (v/v), 0.55 thiourea (w/v) and 0.1% ascorbic acid (w/v). all dissolved in 0.1... reagent and 0.2 ml color-develop- ment reagent . A serum blank was prepared by adding to another test tube, 0.1 ml serum, 0.7 ml iron -releasing reagent and
Nakazato, Ayumi; Momoi, Yasuyuki; Kadoya, Michiyo; Iwasaki, Toshiroh
A bioassay was developed to measure feline interleukin-5 (IL-5). Human IL-5 receptor alpha chain transfected murine Ba/F3 cells (Ba/F3-IL-5R) showed feline IL-5-dependent proliferation in a dose-dependent manner. IL-5 levels in serum samples from 54 cats with suspected allergic dermatitis and from 11 control cats could be successfully measured using Ba/F3-IL-5R cells. The number of eosinophils in peripheral blood was not correlated with serum IL-5 level.
A competitive protein-binding method was used to determine serum thyroxine concentration throughout childhood, adolescence, and in young adults. The values showed a gradual decrease as the child became older and reached adult levels by the time of adolescence. The range (mean ± 2 SD μg/100 ml) for cord serum was 8·8-14·8; for 4 weeks to 11 years, 6·5-13·9; for 11 to 17 years, 5·4-12·2, and for young adults 6·0-11·2. PMID:4627748
Konttinen, A; Ojala, K
An improved electrophoretic modification for measuring aspartate aminotransferase (ASAT) isoenzymes is presented. This method fulfils the clinical requirements for sensitivity and allows the detection of 1 U/l mitochondria ASAT activity at 25 degree C. The procedure is relatively simple, requiring about one hour for a series of 8 determinations. Mitochondrial ASAT activity was found in all patients suffering from acute myocardial infarction pathological activity was observed for several days longer than that of total serum ASAT enzyme. None of the 25 healthy people studied had mitochondrial ASAT in their serum.
Rosenblatt, Kevin P; Bryant-Greenwood, Peter; Killian, J Keith; Mehta, Arpita; Geho, David; Espina, Virginia; Petricoin, Emanuel F; Liotta, Lance A
Mass spectrometry-based diagnostics has the potential to revolutionize molecular medicine. Using modern mass-spectrometer technologies, clinical tests can be developed that are practical, robust, accurate, and inexpensive. Serum proteomic pattern profiling couples mass spectrometry with adaptive artificial-intelligence-based bioinformatics, which can now be employed to detect pathological states reflected in the serum proteome. With this approach, rapid and cost-effective tests with exquisite clinical sensitivity and specificity are emerging. These tools may dramatically change how disease is detected, monitored, and managed.
Watarai, Rika; Suzuki, Koji; Ichino, Naohiro; Osakabe, Keisuke; Sugimoto, Keiko; Yamada, Hiroya; Hamajima, Takeshi; Hamajima, Nobuyuki; Inoue, Takashi
Asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) is an endogenous inhibitor of endothelium nitric oxide synthase (NOS). ADMA binds to a substrate-binding site of NOS and then inhibits nitric oxide production from vascular endothelial cells. Elevated ADMA levels are a risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Recently, it was reported that plasma ADMA levels were negatively correlated with vegetable and fruit consumption. The purpose of this study was to examine the association between serum levels of carotenoids and serum ADMA levels in Japanese subjects. We conducted a cross-sectional study of 470 subjects (203 men and 267 women) who attended a health examination in August 2011. Serum levels of several carotenoids were separately measured by high-performance liquid chromatography. Serum ADMA levels were determined by using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kit. In women, the multivariate-adjusted odds ratios (ORs) of elevated serum ADMA levels were significantly decreased in the highest tertile for β-cryptoxanthin (OR 0.47, 95% CI 0.23-0.95), α-carotene (OR 0.39, 95% CI 0.18-0.79), and β-carotene (OR 0.36, 95% CI 0.17-0.73) compared to the lowest tertile. In men, significantly decreased ORs were observed in the highest tertiles of serum zeaxanthin/lutein (OR 0.23, 95% CI 0.06-0.69) and α-carotene (OR 0.26, 95% CI 0.07-0.82), and in the middle and the highest tertiles of serum β-carotene (OR 0.27, 95% CI 0.09-0.74 and OR 0.20, 95% CI 0.03-0.88, respectively) when the tertile cutoff points of women were extrapolated to men. Higher serum levels of carotenoids, such as α-carotene and β-carotene, may help to prevent elevated serum ADMA levels in Japanese subjects.
Karaulova, Iu V; Shutov, A A
Tension headache (TH) is one of the most frequent types of idiopathic headaches. The leading role in its pathogenesis is played by depression and dysmetabolism of the neurotransmitter serotonin. The subjects were 100 patients with TH. The examination included study of headache intensity, complex psychometric testing, and immune-enzyme measurement of serotonin serum level, performed before and after treatment with the anti-depressant prodep. All the patients had moderate pain syndrome, depression, and moderate or severe anxiety, which demonstrated negative correlation with serotonin serum level. In particular, the intensity of episodic THs (n = 24) was 52 mm visual analogue scale, reactive anxiety level was as high as 51.08 +/- 4.2, the level of depression was moderate (12.9 Beck scale); serotonin blood level showed a tendency to fall (205.72 +/- 6.74 ng/ml). In 76 patients, suffering from chronic THs with a cephalgia intensity of 62 mm visual analogue scale, high indexes of reactive and personal anxiety (46.81 -/+ 2.68 and 54.2 +/- 3.64, respectively), and high depression level were associated with a prominent decrease of serotonin blood concentration (119.38 +/- 9.42 ng/ml). A course of treatment with prodep led to significant decrease of headache intensity and improved depression, while an increase of serum serotonin level was observed. Thus, serotonin serum level may be used as a marker of pain intensity and the level of depression, and an objective indicator of anti-depressive therapy.
Menon, Madhav C; Ix, Joachim H
Recent epidemiologic studies have linked higher serum phosphorus concentrations to cardiovascular disease (CVD) events and mortality. This association has been identified in the general population and in those with chronic kidney disease (CKD). The risk of adverse outcomes appears to begin with phosphorus concentrations within the upper limit of the normal reference range. Multiple experimental studies have suggested pathogenetic mechanisms that involve direct and indirect effects of high phosphorus concentrations to explain these associations. Drawing from these observations, guideline-forming agencies have recommended that serum phosphorus concentrations be maintained within the normal reference range in patients with CKD and that dietary phosphorus restriction or use of intestinal phosphate binders should be considered to achieve this goal. However, outside the dialysis population, the links between dietary phosphorus intake and serum phosphorus concentrations, and dietary phosphorus intake and CVD events, are uncertain. With specific reference to the nondialysis populations, this review discusses the available data linking dietary phosphorus intake with serum phosphorus concentrations and CVD events.
The repair of open wounds depends on granulation tissue formation and contraction, which is primarily mediated by myofibroblasts. A subset of myofibroblasts originates from bone-marrow-derived monocytes which differentiate into fibroblast-like cells called fibrocytes. Serum amyloid P (SAP) inhibits ...
Sahu, Aditi K.; Dhoot, Suyash; Singh, Amandeep; Sawant, Sharada S.; Nandakumar, Nikhila; Talathi-Desai, Sneha; Garud, Mandavi; Pagare, Sandeep; Srivastava, Sanjeeva; Nair, Sudhir; Chaturvedi, Pankaj; Murali Krishna, C.
Serum Raman spectroscopy (RS) has previously shown potential in oral cancer diagnosis and recurrence prediction. To evaluate the potential of serum RS in oral cancer screening, premalignant and cancer-specific detection was explored in the present study using 328 subjects belonging to healthy controls, premalignant, disease controls, and oral cancer groups. Spectra were acquired using a Raman microprobe. Spectral findings suggest changes in amino acids, lipids, protein, DNA, and β-carotene across the groups. A patient-wise approach was employed for data analysis using principal component linear discriminant analysis. In the first step, the classification among premalignant, disease control (nonoral cancer), oral cancer, and normal samples was evaluated in binary classification models. Thereafter, two screening-friendly classification approaches were explored to further evaluate the clinical utility of serum RS: a single four-group model and normal versus abnormal followed by determining the type of abnormality model. Results demonstrate the feasibility of premalignant and specific cancer detection. The normal versus abnormal model yields better sensitivity and specificity rates of 64 and 80% these rates are comparable to standard screening approaches. Prospectively, as the current screening procedure of visual inspection is useful mainly for high-risk populations, serum RS may serve as a useful adjunct for early and specific detection of oral precancers and cancer.
Ghassemi, Fariba; Shields, Carol L; Mohebbi, Masoumeh; Nili Ahmadabadi, Mehdi; Morsali, Fatemeh; Sabour, Siamak
Purpose The purpose of this study was to investigate the serum hypercoagulability state and common viral and protozoan infections in Coats’ disease versus a normal control group. Materials and methods In this comparative case series, 22 consecutive patients with Coats’ disease and 19 non-Coats’ patients undergoing lensectomy for congenital, traumatic, or senile cataract between January 2011 and June 2014 were included. Laboratory data for hypercoagulability states and common viral and protozoan infections were investigated. Results The mean age for the Coats’ group was 14.5 years (median 8 years, range: 2 months to 59 years), and for the control group it was 30.6 years (median 17 years, range: 2–82 years). In patients aged 10 years or younger, anticytomegalovirus immunoglobulin G (IgG) (P≤0.01), homocysteine (P=0.03), and serum beta globulin (P<0.001) were associated with Coats’ disease. In those older than 10 years, higher serum protein S (P=0.04), beta globulin (P=0.05), and gamma globulin (P=0.04) were related to Coats’ diagnosis. After adjusting for sex and age as confounding factors, only beta globulin was found to be associated with Coats’ disease in logistic regression analysis (odds ratio: 1.8, 95% confidence interval: 1.0–3.1, P=0.02). Conclusion Serum beta globulin levels appear to be elevated in patients with Coats’ disease. PMID:28223774
Beeley, J. M.; Darke, C. S.; Owen, G.; Cooper, R. D.
Beeley, J. M., Darke, C. S., Owen, G., and Cooper, R. D. (1974).Thorax, 29, 21-25. Serum zinc, bronchiectasis, and bronchial carcinoma. Serum zinc levels were measured by atomic absorption spectrophotometry in 65 patients with proven bronchiectasis; the mean level was 93 μg/100 ml, while the levels in two groups of healthy control subjects were 88·6 and 92·7 μg/100 ml respectively. The range of individual values was similar in all groups and the differences between the mean serum zinc levels of the two groups of control subjects and the mean level of the group of patients with bronchiectasis were small and did not attain significance at the conventional 0·05 level. In contrast, the mean level in bronchial carcinoma patients (75·9 μg/100 ml) was significantly less than in each of the other groups of subjects. Zinc sulphate was administered for six weeks on a double-blind cross-over basis to patients with bronchiectasis and, although serum zinc levels rose, no detectable clinical improvement resulted. No definitive evidence of zinc deficiency in bronchiectasis has been established. PMID:4596632
Stewart, Sheila M.; Fisher, Mary; Young, Joy E.; Lutz, W.
The ampicillin levels in sputum, serum, and saliva from 40 patients receiving a dose of 250 mg., 26 patients receiving a dose of 500 mg., and 11 patients receiving a dose of 1 g. were estimated. The ampicillin was given orally four times daily. The 1-2 hour and 2-3 hour sputum levels were similar in individual patients. There was no difference in the range or mean sputum or saliva levels between specimens from patients receiving 250 mg. and 500 mg., but the levels were significantly higher after the 1 g. dose. The mean serum level showed a small increase after 500 mg. ampicillin as compared with the 250 mg. dose and a big increase after the 1 g. dose: only the latter difference was significant. The sputum levels were approximately 30 to 40 times lower than the corresponding serum levels. There was considerable scatter in the sputum level for any level of ampicillin in the serum: in only two of the 1-2 hour sputum specimens was there no detectable ampicillin. There was no correlation between the sputum levels and either the body weight or the dose in milligrams per kilogram. There was no evidence that corticosteroids or diuretics affected the sputum level. It was not possible to demonstrate any relationship between the purulence of the sputum and the level of ampicillin after doses of 250 mg. or 500 mg., but higher levels were found in the more purulent specimens after 1 g. doses. PMID:4318047
Lewkonia, R. M.; Finn, Ronald
A disproportionate excess of blood group O was found in a circumscribed outbreak of serum hepatitis among patients and staff of a haemodialysis unit. The more severe cases were also mostly of group O. This suggests that host factors may be important in the genesis of this disease. PMID:5800364
Neonatal hypocalcemia is defined as a total serum calcium concentration of <7 mg/dL or an ionized calcium concentration of <4 mg/dL (1mmol/L). In very low birth weight (VLBW) infants, ionized calcium values of 0.8 to 1 mmol/L are common and not usually associated with clinical symptoms. In larger in...
Vaugier, Céline; Amano, Mariane T; Chemouny, Jonathan M; Dussiot, Michael; Berrou, Claire; Matignon, Marie; Ben Mkaddem, Sanae; Wang, Pamella H M; Fricot, Aurélie; Maciel, Thiago T; Grapton, Damien; Mathieu, Jacques R R; Beaumont, Carole; Peraldi, Marie-Noëlle; Peyssonnaux, Carole; Mesnard, Laurent; Daugas, Eric; Vrtovsnik, François; Monteiro, Renato C; Hermine, Olivier; Ginzburg, Yelena Z; Benhamou, Marc; Camara, Niels O S; Flamant, Martin; Moura, Ivan C
Renal transplants remain a medical challenge, because the parameters governing allograft outcome are incompletely identified. Here, we investigated the role of serum iron in the sterile inflammation that follows kidney ischemia-reperfusion injury. In a retrospective cohort study of renal allograft recipients (n=169), increased baseline levels of serum ferritin reliably predicted a positive outcome for allografts, particularly in elderly patients. In mice, systemic iron overload protected against renal ischemia-reperfusion injury-associated sterile inflammation. Furthermore, chronic iron injection in mice prevented macrophage recruitment after inflammatory stimuli. Macrophages cultured in high-iron conditions had reduced responses to Toll-like receptor-2, -3, and -4 agonists, which associated with decreased reactive oxygen species production, increased nuclear localization of the NRF2 transcription factor, increased expression of the NRF2-related antioxidant response genes, and limited NF-κB and proinflammatory signaling. In macrophage-depleted animals, the infusion of macrophages cultured in high-iron conditions did not reconstitute AKI after ischemia-reperfusion, whereas macrophages cultured in physiologic iron conditions did. These findings identify serum iron as a critical protective factor in renal allograft outcome. Increasing serum iron levels in patients may thus improve prognosis of renal transplants. Copyright © 2017 by the American Society of Nephrology.
Sohail, Muhammad Adnan; Nasir, Junaid; Ikram, Umaira; Genese, Thomas
Serum sickness-like reaction is a rare immunological condition which may develop following exposure to certain drugs such as penicillins, cephalosporins, and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, among many others. It is described classically as a type III hypersensitivity response to heterologous proteins. Its true mechanism is still unclear. We present a case of serum sickness-like reaction to clarithromycin, a commonly prescribed drug for the treatment of respiratory tract infections. The patient had been taking this drug for 3 days when she experienced generalized body aches, rash, arthralgia, and shortness of breath, prompting presentation to the emergency department. Laboratory studies showed decreased C4 and total complement with a slightly elevated sedimentation rate. After exclusion of other possible causes, the diagnosis of serum sickness-like reaction was made. The patient responded well to nonsteroidal antiinflammatory medication, antihistamines, and a short, tapering dose of steroids. To our knowledge, serum sickness-like reaction to clarithromycin has never been reported previously. This case emphasizes the need for increased clinical awareness of such an adverse outcome to clarithromycin use.
Westerlind, Kim C.; And Others
This study examining the effect of a 10-week hydraulic resistance exercise program on serum androgen levels, strength, and lean body weight in 18 college women revealed that training did not result in significant increases in androgen hormones, although there were significant gains in strength. (Author/CB)
Bacterially-synthesized menaquinones (MKn) may contribute to vitamin K (VK) nutriture. There are limited data on interindividual variability in endogenous MK synthesis and its relation to circulating forms of VK. Serum and fecal VK concentrations were assessed in 13 healthy adults (45-65 yr) consumi...
Baran, Anna; Myśliwiec, Hanna; Kiluk, Paulina; Świderska, Magdalena; Flisiak, Iwona
Irisin has been proposed to regulate metabolic diseases such as obesity, diabetes or metabolic syndrome which are common comorbidities in psoriasis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the serum irisin level in psoriasis and elucidate possible associations with disease activity, inflammatory or metabolic parameters and topical treatment. Thirty-seven individuals with active plaque-type psoriasis and 15 healthy controls were enrolled. Blood samples were collected before and after two weeks of therapy. Serum irisin concentrations were examined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The results were correlated with psoriasis area and severity index (PASI), body mass index (BMI), inflammatory and biochemical markers, lipid profile and effectiveness of topical treatment. Irisin serum levels were insignificantly increased in psoriatic patients in comparison to the controls (p = 0.38). No significant correlations between investigated adipokine and several indicators of metabolic disorders, nor BMI (p = 0.37) or PASI (p = 0.5) were found. Significant positive correlations with C-reactive protein (CRP) (0.009), lipocalin-2 (p = 0.02), age (p = 0.02) and disease duration (p = 0.008) were noted. After topical treatment, serum irisin level did not significantly change (p = 0.31), despite clinical improvement. Irisin might be a marker of inflammation in psoriatic patients, but may not be a reliable indicator of metabolic conditions, severity of psoriasis nor efficacy of antipsoriatic treatment.
Atamanalp, S. Selcuk; Keles, M. Sait; Aydinli, Bulent
Objective: This study aimed to determine the serum potassium concentrations in patients with sigmoid volvulus (SV), which is a rare large bowel obstruction. Materials and Methods: The records of 86 patients with SV were reviewed retrospectively, while the records of 41 patients diagnosed with obstructive rectosigmoid cancer (ORC) were considered as the control group and as such, served as a source for comparison. Results: The analysis revealed a mean serum potassium concentration of 3.9 ± 0.6 mEq/L for the patients with SV, while the mean potassium concentration was 3.9 ± 0.5 mEq/L for the patients diagnosed with ORC (t:0.1, P>0.05). The number of hypokalemic and hyperkalemic patients identified in this study sample were 11 versus 5 patients and 1 versus 0 patients, respectively for the SV and ORC groups (x2 = 0.1 and 0.5, respectively with a P>0.05). Conclusions: No cause-and-effect relationship was observed between the serum potassium concentrations and SV. The serum potassium concentration is not pathognomonic for SV. PMID:25610090
The PFCs have been used in a wide range of consumer, including residential, products (e.g., stain-resistant coatings for carpets and upholstery). Carbon-fluoride bonds are highly stable, mak-ing PFCs extremely resistant to biodegradation. Thus, PFCs have become globally distributed and are ubiquitously present in serum of wildlife and people. Despite this, comparatively little is known as to how people are primarily exposed, and what (if any) health risk is associated with chronic, low-level exposure. It is hypothesized that house dust may represent a significant exposure route because PFCs can slough or volatilize from products used indoors, subsequently adsorbing to and accumulating within house dust. The purpose of this study was to determine if PFC serum levels in domestic cats tended to increase in proportion to time spent indoors and whether analyte patterns reflected that of food sources [e.g., fish products with high perfluoro-octane sulfonate (PFOS) but low perfluorohexanesulfonate (PFHxS)] or with house dust (PFOS + PFHxS + perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) ─ with high PFHxS levels in the most contaminated dust). In 2008, serum was obtained from feral and pet cats presenting to shelters and clinics in the Raleigh, NC area, including the NCSU VTH. PFC serum levels were measured using high-resolution time-of-flight mass spectroscopy. Data on housing status was available for 50 cats. From least to greatest indoor residential exposure, cats were grouped as
Wagner, Brett A; Teesch, Lynn M; Buettner, Garry R; Britigan, Bradley E; Burns, C Patrick; Reszka, Krzysztof J
We have previously shown that the anticancer agent doxorubicin undergoes oxidation and inactivation when exposed to myeloperoxidase-containing human leukemia HL-60 cells, or to isolated myeloperoxidase, in the presence of hydrogen peroxide and nitrite. In the current study we report that commercial fetal bovine serum (FBS) alone oxidizes doxorubicin in the presence of hydrogen peroxide and that nitrite accelerates this oxidation. The efficacy of inactivation was dependent on the concentration of serum present; no reaction was observed when hydrogen peroxide or serum was omitted. Peroxidase activity assays, based on oxidation of 3,3',5,5'-tetramethylbenzidine, confirmed the presence of a peroxidase in the sera from several suppliers. The peroxidative activity was contained in the >10000 MW fraction. We also found that hemoglobin, a heme protein likely to be present in commercial FBS, is capable of oxidizing doxorubicin in the presence of hydrogen peroxide and that nitrite further stimulates the reaction. In contrast to intact doxorubicin, the serum + hydrogen peroxide + nitrite treated drug appeared to be nontoxic for PC3 human prostate cancer cells. Together, this study shows that (pseudo)peroxidases present in sera catalyze oxidation of doxorubicin by hydrogen peroxide and that this diminishes the tumoricidal activity of the anthracycline, at least in in vitro settings. Finally, this study also points out that addition of H2O2 to media containing FBS will stimulate peroxidase-type of reactions, which may affect cytotoxic properties of studied compounds.
Engel, S; Diezel, W
Serum immune complexes were estimated by a polyethylene glycol precipitation method in 51 patients with early syphilis. The immune complexes were increased in 41% of patients before treatment and decreased to normal limits in only 56% during treatment. The results of the specific antireponemal tests using dissolved immune complexes show that antibodies from the immune complexes are specific antibodies. PMID:7427696
Grevel, J; Thomas, J; Richards, M L; Sadée, W
A sensitive radioreceptor assay (RRA) to determine the serum concentrations of fentanyl, pentazocine and morphine was developed on the basis of the drug's competition with a labeled tracer ((3)H-naloxone) for the membrane bound opioid receptor in rat brain homogenates. The binding data were computer-fitted to a standard curve by means of nonlinear least square regression. Sensitivity of the assay applied directly to serum samples without extraction was limited to approximately 3, 5 and 25 ng/ml for fentanyl, morphine and pentazocine, respectively, because of endogenous plasma constituents that interfere with the opioid receptor binding. With the use of petrol-ether extraction the sensitivity was improved to 0.3 ng/ml fentanyl and 3 ng/ml pentazocine (0.3 ml serum samples). No RRA-active metabolites were detectable after HPLC separation of serum from a patient treated with fentanyl. The plasma concentration time course of fentanyl in a patient, measured by RRA, was similar to that obtained by a radioimmunoassay (RIA). The RRA represents a general procedure for the detection of clinically used opioid analgesics and their active metabolites.
Bentzon, M. Weis; Krag, P.
Following the establishment by WHO of International Reference Preparations of Cardiolipin and Egg Lecithin to facilitate reproduction of cardiolipin antigens for use in serological tests for syphilis, a series of studies has been carried out between co-operating laboratories in several parts of the world, aiming at the establishment of an international standard preparation for freeze-dried human syphilitic serum. The WHO Expert Committee on Biological Standardization, in 1957, established the new International Standard for Human Syphilitic Serum which is now available to national laboratories from the International Laboratory for Biological Standards, Statens Serum-institut, Copenhagen. The International Unit of Human Syphilitic Serum is equivalent to 3.617 mg of the freeze-dried International Standard. A solution containing 8 International Units per ml can be obtained by reconstituting the contents of one ampoule of the International Standard in 6.1 ml of 0.6% saline. The new Standard will allow major serological laboratories to calibrate their national reference sera in terms of the International Unit; the comparability of results from different areas will be improved by this procedure. Technical details are given on the investigations preceding the establishment of the Standard. The analysis of the collaborative assay between co-operating laboratories also includes data on titres, reactivity, turbidity and other technical aspects. PMID:20604087
Katsakoulas, Ioannis; Lougovoi, Claudia; Paraskevopoulou, Penelope; Vougioukas, Nikolaos
Keratoconjunctivitis sicca is one of the most frequent diagnoses for seeking eye care. Accumulated evidence over the past three decades has revealed a significant contribution of several molecules contained in tears at the homeostasis of the epithelium of the ocular surface. Therefore, autologous blood serum in the form of eye drops can provide substantial help in the management of keratoconjunctivitis sicca. Also making this a favorable treatment for keratoconjunctivitis sicca is the fact that this approach has become an insurance-covered benefit in some countries. This report demonstrates a formulation of blood serum eye drops with the purpose of providing an alternative to the marked absence of a universally established protocol. Exclusion criteria, equipment, preservation, dosage, duration, and guidelines for patients are described. Also included are details on the treatment of one representative embodiment. All (pre-/post-)analytical considerations and the total cost are addressed. Outcome measures such as Schirmer' s test, break up time, and Ocular Surface Disease Index score are recorded before treatment, at 1 and 2 months, ideally as monotherapy with 100% serum q.i.d. Blood serum isolated under aseptic conditions maintained throughout is delivered as a ready-to-use formulation to the patient. Serum eye drops should be included in the modern armamentarium against keratoconjunctivitis sicca, and, hopefully, their eventual widespread application will result in coverage by most if not all insurance funds. The implementation described contributes to the hopeful establishment of a standardized protocol and provides a potentially benefit of a low-cost, applicable treatment of the ocular epithelium without side effects.
Braithwaite, Irene; Travers, Justin; Bowles, Darren; Strik, Rianne; Siebers, Rob; Holweg, Cecile; Matthews, John; Weatherall, Mark; Beasley, Richard
Serum periostin is a potential biomarker of response to therapies that target type 2 inflammation in asthma. The objectives of this study were to describe: 1) the distribution of serum periostin levels in adults with symptomatic airflow obstruction; 2) its relationship with other variables, including type 2 biomarkers; and 3) the effect of inhaled corticosteroids on periostin levels. Serum periostin levels were measured in a cross-sectional study exploring phenotypes and biomarkers in 386 patients aged 18–75 years who reported wheeze and breathlessness in the past 12 months. In 49 ICS-naïve patients, periostin levels were measured again after 12 weeks of budesonide (800 μg·day−1). The distribution of serum periostin levels was right skewed (mean±sd 57.3±18.6 ng·mL−1, median (interquartile range) 54.0 (45.1–65.6) ng·mL−1, range 15.0–164.7 ng·mL−1). Periostin was positively associated with exhaled nitric oxide (Spearman's rho=0.22, p<0.001), blood eosinophil count (Spearman's rho=0.21, p<0.001), and total IgE (Spearman's rho=0.14, p=0.007). The Hodges–Lehmann estimator (95% CI) of change in periostin level after ICS therapy was −4.8 (−6.7– −3.2) ng·mL−1 (p<0.001). These findings provide data on the distribution of serum periostin in adults with symptomatic airflow obstruction, the weak associations between periostin and other type 2 markers, and the reduction in periostin with inhaled corticosteroid therapy. PMID:26917610
el-Sewedy, S M; Abdel-Tawab, G A; Zaki, A M
Serum alkaline ribonuclease activity and serum albumin concentration were determined in 25 normal children and 59 children with protein-energy malnutrition. The increase in serum ribonuclease was marked in marasmus and marasmic kwashiorkor. The ribonuclease activity dropped significantly after two weeks of treatment and returned to normal by four weeks. In kwashiorkor, serum ribonuclease activity was significantly lower than control and returned to normal after four weeks of treatment. These findings support previous observations that the serum ribonuclease is a good criterion of the nutritional status and indicates that the enzyme activity, particularly when related to serum albumin, is a good prognostic index in this respect.
Potop, Isabela; Boeru, Vera; Mreană, Georgeta
1. Thymectomy in young rabbits decreased the ATP content and increased the inorganic phosphate content of skeletal muscle. The serum calcium content was decreased, whereas the inorganic phosphate content was increased. 2. The administration of a lipid fraction (TL) or protein fractions (CIF and TP) of thymus extracts to thymectomized rabbits in short-term experiments increased the ATP content of muscle and decreased the inorganic phosphate contents of muscle and serum. Serum calcium content was increased. 3. The action of the thymus extract TP was specific only on the phosphate compounds, since the increase in serum calcium concentration was also caused by the control extract from muscle. The action of the extract TL is not specific, being paralleled by the action of a control extract from muscle. PMID:5966281
Góes, M A; Dalboni, M A; Manfredi, S R; Cendoroglo, M S; Batista, M C; Canziani, M E; Balakrishnan, V S; Pereira, B J G; Draibe, S A; Cendoroglo, M
Soluble Fas levels (sFas) are increased in the serum of uremic patients and are associated with the presence of anemia and recombinant human EPO (rHuEPO) dosage in dialysis patients. It is possible that sFas levels are associated with an increased need for serum erythropoietin levels (Epo) in chronic kidney disease and dialysis patients in order to maintain hematocrit (Hct) levels. To investigate the relationship between serum sFas levels, serum Epo levels and the ratio between Epo levels and Hct in uremic patients. We studied 52 predialysis chronic kidney disease patients (CKD; 33 M, 57 +/- 12 years, hematocrit (Hct) = 37 +/- 7%), 29 peritoneal dialysis patients (PD; 12 M, 54 +/- 14 years, Hct = 36 +/- 7%), 29 hemodialysis patients (HD; 19 M, 47 +/- 14 years, Hct = 33 +/- 5%) and 29 healthy volunteers (control group 17 M, 50 +/- 16 years, Hct = 43 +/- 3%). We examined the relationship between Hct and serum levels of Epo, sFas, C-reactive protein, IL-6 and iron status. The ratio of serum Epo divided by Hct (Epo/Hct) was used as an indicator of Epo responsiveness. Compared to normal subjects, the CKD, PD and HD groups presented lower Hct levels and higher serum levels of sFas, Epo, Epo/Hct and IL-6. Serum levels of sFas correlated negatively with albumin (r = -0.24, p = 0.02), IL-6 (r = -0.18, p = 0.04) and Epo/Hct (r = -0.37, p < 0.001). In multivariate analysis, after adjusting for markers of iron store and inflammation, only sFas correlated with Epo/Hct. In the CKD group, there were negative correlations between serum levels of sFas and glomerular filtration rate (GFR) (r = -0.45, p < 0.001) and between Epo/Hct and GFR (r = -0.32; p = 0.02). There was a positive correlation between Epo/Hct and serum levels of sFas in the CKD group (r = 0.31, p = 0.03) and in the HD groups (r = 0.58, p = 0.001). Our findings show that serum sFas is associated with higher Epo/Hct ratio, suggesting that sFas may be a marker of Epo hyporesponsiveness in uremia. Further studies are
Herrero-Mercado, Margarita; Waliszewski, S M; Caba, M; Martínez-Valenzuela, C; Gómez Arroyo, S; Villalobos Pietrini, R; Cantú Martínez, P C; Hernández-Chalate, F
The objective of the present study was to determine levels and calculate ratios of copartition coefficients among organochlorine pesticides β-HCH, pp'DDE, op'DDT and pp'DDT in maternal adipose tissue, maternal blood serum and umbilical blood serum of mother-infant pairs from Veracruz, Mexico. Organochlorine pesticides were analyzed in 70 binomials: maternal adipose tissue, maternal serum and umbilical cord serum samples, using gas chromatography with electron capture detection (GC-ECD). The results were expressed as mg/kg on fat basis. p,p'-DDE was the major organochlorine component, detected in every maternal adipose tissue (0.770 mg/kg), maternal serum sample (5.8 mg/kg on fat basis) and umbilical cord blood sample (6.9 mg/kg on fat basis). p,p'-DDT was detected at 0.101 mg/kg, 2.2 mg/kg and 5.9 mg/kg respectively, according to the order given above. β-HCH was detected at 0.027 mg/kg, 4.2 mg/kg and 28.0 mg/kg respectively. op'DDT was detected only in maternal adipose tissue at 0.011 mg/kg. The copartition coefficients among samples identify significant increases in concentrations from adipose tissue to maternal blood serum and to umbilical blood serum. The increase indicated that maternal adipose tissue released organochlorine pesticides to blood serum and that they are carried over to umbilical cord blood.
Han, ShuYi; Xu, YiHui; Gao, MeiHua; Wang, YunShan; Wang, Jun; Liu, YanYan; Wang, Min; Zhang, XiaoQian
Apolipoprotein E (ApoE), which has been shown to influence serum lipid parameters, can bind to multiple types of lipids and plays an important role in the metabolism and homeostasis of lipids and lipoproteins. A previous study showed that ApoE concentration significantly affects serum lipid levels independently of ApoE polymorphism. The serum lipid levels were also closely correlated with dietary habits, and Shandong cuisine is famous for its high salt and oil contents, which widely differ among the different areas in China. Therefore, studying the effect of ApoE polymorphism on ApoE concentration and serum lipid levels in Shandong province is very important.A total of 815 subjects including 285 men and 530 women were randomly selected and studied from Jinan, Shandong province. In order to evaluate the association of ApoE polymorphism and serum level on lipid profiles, the ApoE genotypes, as well as levels of fasting serum ApoE and other lipid parameters, were detected in all subjects.The frequency of the ApoE E3 allele was highest (83.1%), while those of E2 and E4 were 9.4% and 7.5%, respectively, which are similar to those in other Asian populations. ApoE2 allele carriers showed significantly increased ApoE levels but lower levels of serum total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and Apolipoprotein B (ApoB).We found that ApoE level is influenced by ApoE polymorphism in a gene-dependent manner. The ApoE polymorphism showed different influences on serum lipid parameters with increasing age and body mass index (BMI) in our Shandong Han population.
Han, ShuYi; Xu, YiHui; Gao, MeiHua; Wang, YunShan; Wang, Jun; Liu, YanYan; Wang, Min; Zhang, XiaoQian
Abstract Apolipoprotein E (ApoE), which has been shown to influence serum lipid parameters, can bind to multiple types of lipids and plays an important role in the metabolism and homeostasis of lipids and lipoproteins. A previous study showed that ApoE concentration significantly affects serum lipid levels independently of ApoE polymorphism. The serum lipid levels were also closely correlated with dietary habits, and Shandong cuisine is famous for its high salt and oil contents, which widely differ among the different areas in China. Therefore, studying the effect of ApoE polymorphism on ApoE concentration and serum lipid levels in Shandong province is very important. A total of 815 subjects including 285 men and 530 women were randomly selected and studied from Jinan, Shandong province. In order to evaluate the association of ApoE polymorphism and serum level on lipid profiles, the ApoE genotypes, as well as levels of fasting serum ApoE and other lipid parameters, were detected in all subjects. The frequency of the ApoE E3 allele was highest (83.1%), while those of E2 and E4 were 9.4% and 7.5%, respectively, which are similar to those in other Asian populations. ApoE2 allele carriers showed significantly increased ApoE levels but lower levels of serum total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and Apolipoprotein B (ApoB). We found that ApoE level is influenced by ApoE polymorphism in a gene-dependent manner. The ApoE polymorphism showed different influences on serum lipid parameters with increasing age and body mass index (BMI) in our Shandong Han population. PMID:27977609
Schwettmann, Lutz; Berbu, Siw
Deficiencies of folate and vitamin B12 lead to an elevated serum concentration of homocysteine which has been associated with many diseases including cardiovascular disease. Laboratory algorithms often include initial testing of serum folate and vitamin B12. Reference intervals for these vitamins can vary significantly among populations for which dietary intakes may be different. The aim of this study was to establish reference intervals in a Norwegian population and to assess the folate and vitamin B12 status related to reference intervals. Blood samples were taken from 144 healthy volunteers aged 18 - 65 years. A questionnaire provided data of medication, medical history, vitamin supplementation, alcohol consumption, and use of oral contraceptives and others. Serum folate and vitamin B12 concentrations were measured on the Abbott Architect i2000. Reference values were calculated using the bootstrap method. Results of serum folate, vitamin B12, and homocysteine from 1190 individuals from regional primary health care centers were evaluated related to reference values and the proportion of individuals with deficiency was estimated. Mean serum concentrations of folate and vitamin B12 were 11.9 nmol/L and 328 pmol/L, respectively. Men were found to have statistically significant higher vitamin B12 concentrations than women. 95%-reference intervals were calculated to 5.2 - 29.2 nmol/L for folate and 133 - 595 pmol/L for vitamin B12. 1.1% of the study population has serum vitamin B12-concentrations < 133 pmol/L and 3.4% has serum folate concentrations < 5.2 nmoI/L. The serum reference intervals for folate and vitamin B12 for a healthy, not vitamin-supplemented adult population were determined from 144 subjects. The application of these intervals will assist in the evaluation of folate and vitamin status.
Arpornmaeklong, Premjit; Sutthitrairong, Chotika; Jantaramanant, Piyathida; Pripatnanont, Prisana
Exposing human periodontal ligament stem cells (hPDLSCs) to animal proteins during cell expansion would compromise quality and safety of the hPDLSCs for clinical applications. The current study aimed to evaluate the replacement of animal-based serum by human serum for the expansion of hPDLSCs. hPDLSCs were cultured in culture media supplemented with four types of serums: Group A: fetal bovine serum (FBS); Group B: allogeneic human male AB serum (HS); Group C: in-house autologous (Auto-HS); and Group D: in-house allogeneic human serums (Allo-HS). Exhibitions of mesenchymal stem cell characteristics of hPDLSCs were examined. Then, growth and osteogenic (OS) differentiation potential of hPDLSCs in FBS and HS at passages 5 and 15 were compared to investigate the effects of serum supplements on growth and expansion stability of the expanded hPDLSCs. After that, growth and OS differentiation of hPDLSCs in Auto- and Allo-HS were investigated. Flow cytometrical analyses, functional differentiations, cell growth kinetic, cytogenetic analysis, alkaline phosphatase and calcium content assays, and oil red O and von Kossa staining were performed. Results showed that at passage 5, HS promoted growth and OS differentiation of hPDLSCs and extensive cell expansion, decreased growth and differentiation potential of the expanded hPDLSCs, particularly in HS. Growth and OS differentiation of hPDLSCs in Auto-HS and Allo-HS were not different. In summary, allogeneic human serum could be a replacement to FBS for hPDLSC expansion. In vitro cell expansion of hPDLSCs should be minimal to ensure optimal cell quality. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Yotis, William W.
Yotis, William W. (Loyola University, Chicago, Ill.). Absorption of the antibacterial serum factor by staphylococci. J. Bacteriol. 85:911–917. 1963.—The absorption of antibacterial serum factor by eight bacterial species and one yeast showed good correlation with the sensitivity of the organisms to the serum factor. The serum factor was removed from aqueous solution by coagulase-positive and coagulase-negative strains of staphylococci and Bacillus subtilis, and the oxygen consumption of the bacteria was inhibited by prior exposure to the serum factor. Escherichia coli, Neisseria catarrhalis, Proteus vulgaris, Bacillus megaterium, Mycobacterium phlei, and Saccharomyces cerevisiae failed to absorb the serum factor, and their respiration was not inhibited by prior exposure to 40 mg or more of the serum factor per ml. Staphylococci treated with 0.25 mg per ml of coagulase were almost completely refractory to the antibacterial action of 2 mg of serum factor per ml, and the serum factor was not absorbed. When the staphylococci were first treated with the serum factor, subsequent treatment with coagulase had no effect. Exposure of staphylocci to heat (70 C for 1 hr), 3.6% formaldehyde, 1 n sodium hydroxide, and 1 n hydrochloric acid did not prevent absorption of the serum factor. However, pretreatment with 88% liquefied phenol partially prevented serum factor absorption. The absorption and antibacterial activity of the serum factor were dependent on the concentration, the time and temperature of exposure, and the nature and concentration of salts present. PMID:14044962
Berghoff, Nora; Suchodolski, Jan S; Steiner, Jörg M
The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between serum methylmalonic acid (MMA), a proposed marker of cellular cobalamin deficiency, and serum cobalamin concentrations in dogs. Serum samples from 555 dogs were grouped according to their serum cobalamin concentrations (<150 ng/L to 1000 ng/L). Additionally, serum samples were collected from 43 healthy dogs to calculate a reference interval for canine serum MMA. MMA was measured using a GC/MS method. Groups were compared using a Kruskal-Wallis test with Dunn's post test. Proportions of dogs above the upper limit of the reference interval were calculated and a χ2-test for trend was performed to evaluate the association between serum cobalamin and MMA concentrations. The reference interval for serum MMA was calculated to be 414.7-1192.5 nmol/L. Dogs with serum cobalamin concentrations <251 ng/L had significantly higher MMA concentrations (P<0.05) and the χ2-test for trend showed a trend for increasing serum MMA concentrations with decreasing serum cobalamin concentrations (P<0.0001). Additionally, a number of dogs with normal serum cobalamin concentrations had increased serum MMA concentrations, suggesting that some of these dogs may have cobalamin deficiency on a cellular level. Further studies are warranted to determine if these dogs should receive cobalamin supplementation. Copyright Â© 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Ferruzza, Simonetta; Rossi, Carlotta; Sambuy, Yula; Scarino, Maria Laura
Human intestinal Caco-2 cells were differentiated using serum-reduced medium with fetal bovine serum (FBS) added only to the basolateral (BL) medium, and four serum-free media, containing insulin, transferrin, selenium (ITS), or MITO+™ serum extender (ITS plus growth factors), with or without addition of a lipid mixture, respectively. Differentiation was assessed by monitoring monolayer permeability, alkaline phosphatase and sucrase activities, and the transport of digoxin and cephalexin. Notably, the serum-reduced protocol produced results that were comparable to cells differentiated in the control medium and should be recommended as an alternative to the use of 10% FBS in both apical (AP) and BL media. ITS serum-free medium elicited permeability values and cephalexin transport similar to control cells. MITO+™ medium was the most efficient in promoting the two transport activities investigated, and it should be further evaluated with a larger set of substances, although its undisclosed composition represents a limit that may override these advantages.
Horney, Barbara S.; MacKenzie, Allan L.; Burton, Shelley A.; Olexson, Dennis W.; Mitton, Katherine L.; Coty, William A.; Rinne, Sherrie G.
A homogenous enzyme immunoassay (EIA) for measurement of serum thyroxine (T4) concentration was evaluated for use with canine and feline serum. The EIA method was linear from 0 to 150 nmol T4/L for human serum, 0 to 94 nmol T4/L for feline serum and 10 to 60 nmol T4/L for canine serum. Intra- and interassay precision studies yielded coefficients of variation = 8% using single point measurements. Method comparison studies gave close agreement between radioimmunoassay (RIA) and EIA results. Correlation coefficients (r values) were 0.88 and 0.97 for canine and feline samples respectively, after application of species-specific factors to correct the calibrator values assigned for human serum samples. The EIA showed no interference from hemolysis at hemoglobin concentrations = 20 g/L or from moderate lipemia. Highly lipemic specimens could be tested after centrifugation to clarify the sample. The EIA showed less interference from autoantibodies to T4 than the RIA method. The EIA method allows automation of T4 testing in a veterinary hospital or laboratory, and can be integrated with the routine clinical chemistry panel.
S, Pratibha; JB, Agadi
Context: Serum Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) & phosphate are considered to be indicators of vascular calcification. Link between bone metabolism, vascular calcification, cardiovascular events have been well studied in chronic kidney disease and ischemic heart disease. Aims: To determine that increased serum phosphate and alkaline phosphatase are predictors of mortality rates and recurrent vascular events in stroke. Materials and Methods: Sixty patients admitted with acute stroke (ischemic & haemorrhagic) were included in the study. Their baseline clinical characteristics and biochemical parameters including serum ALP and phosphate were noted. All patients were followed up for a period of one year. The all- cause mortality, the mortality due to cardiovascular events and recurrent vascular events without death were noted during the follow up. Statistical analyses were done to look for any correlation between mortality and baseline levels of serum ALP and phosphate. Results: Of the 60 patients, 8 (13.3%) patients were lost for follow up. Fourteen (26.9%) patients died; of which 12 deaths were due to vascular causes and 2 deaths were due to non vascular causes. Increasing levels of serum ALP and phosphate correlated with all cause mortality and recurrent vascular events without death Conclusion: Serum ALP and phosphate prove to be cost effective prognostic indicator of mortality and recurrent vascular events in stroke. This finding has to be confirmed with studies including larger population. Further research on ALP inhibitors, Vitamin D analogues and phosphate binders to improve mortality in stroke population can be encouraged. PMID:25300293
S, Pratibha; S, Praveen-Kumar; Jb, Agadi
Serum Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) & phosphate are considered to be indicators of vascular calcification. Link between bone metabolism, vascular calcification, cardiovascular events have been well studied in chronic kidney disease and ischemic heart disease. To determine that increased serum phosphate and alkaline phosphatase are predictors of mortality rates and recurrent vascular events in stroke. Sixty patients admitted with acute stroke (ischemic & haemorrhagic) were included in the study. Their baseline clinical characteristics and biochemical parameters including serum ALP and phosphate were noted. All patients were followed up for a period of one year. The all- cause mortality, the mortality due to cardiovascular events and recurrent vascular events without death were noted during the follow up. Statistical analyses were done to look for any correlation between mortality and baseline levels of serum ALP and phosphate. Of the 60 patients, 8 (13.3%) patients were lost for follow up. Fourteen (26.9%) patients died; of which 12 deaths were due to vascular causes and 2 deaths were due to non vascular causes. Increasing levels of serum ALP and phosphate correlated with all cause mortality and recurrent vascular events without death Conclusion: Serum ALP and phosphate prove to be cost effective prognostic indicator of mortality and recurrent vascular events in stroke. This finding has to be confirmed with studies including larger population. Further research on ALP inhibitors, Vitamin D analogues and phosphate binders to improve mortality in stroke population can be encouraged.
Wolf, F; Haug, M; Farhadi, J; Candrian, C; Martin, I; Barbero, A
For the generation of cell-based therapeutic products, it would be preferable to avoid the use of animal-derived components. Our study thus aimed at investigating the possibility to replace foetal bovine serum (FBS) with autologous serum (AS) for the engineering of cartilage grafts using expanded human nasal chondrocytes (HNC). HNC isolated from 7 donors were expanded in medium containing 10% FBS or AS at different concentrations (2%, 5% and 10%) and cultured in pellets using serum-free medium or in Hyaff(R)-11 meshes using medium containing FBS or AS. Tissue forming capacity was assessed histologically (Safranin O), immunohistochemically (type II collagen) and biochemically (glycosaminoglycans -GAG- and DNA). Differences among experimental groups were assessed by Mann Whitney tests. HNC expanded under the different serum conditions proliferated at comparable rates and generated cartilaginous pellets with similar histological appearance and amounts of GAG. Tissues generated by HNC from different donors cultured in Hyaff(R)-11 had variable quality, but the accumulated GAG amounts were comparable among the different serum conditions. Staining intensity for collagen type II was consistent with GAG deposition. Among the different serum conditions tested, the use of 2% AS resulted in the lowest variability in the GAG contents of generated tissues. In conclusion, a low percentage of AS can replace FBS both during the expansion and differentiation of HNC and reduce the variability in the quality of the resulting engineered cartilage tissues.
Rissing, J. Peter; Newman, Cheryl; Moore, William L.
Eighteen patients developed abnormally low serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase values during metronidazole therapy. Metronidazole absorbs at 340 nm, simulating reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide, which is the final colorimetric product of the serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase assay. PMID:214030
Khan, Abbul Bashar; Khan, Javed Masood; Ali, Mohd. Sajid; Khan, Rizwan Hasan; Kabir-ud-Din
To know the interaction of amphiphilic drugs nortriptyline hydrochloride (NOT) and promazine hydrochloride (PMZ) with serum albumins (i.e., human serum albumin (HSA) and bovine serum albumin (BSA)), techniques of UV-visible, fluorescence, and circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopies are used. The binding affinity is more in case of PMZ with both the serum albumins. The quenching rate constant (kq) values suggest a static quenching process for all the drug-serum albumin interactions. The UV-visible results show that the change in protein conformation of PMZ-serum albumin interactions are more prominent as compared to NOT-serum albumin interactions. The CD results also explain the conformational changes in the serum albumins on binding with the drugs. The increment in %α-helical structure is slightly more for drug-BSA complexes as compared to drug-HSA complexes.
Khan, Abbul Bashar; Khan, Javed Masood; Ali, Mohd Sajid; Khan, Rizwan Hasan; Kabir-Ud-Din
To know the interaction of amphiphilic drugs nortriptyline hydrochloride (NOT) and promazine hydrochloride (PMZ) with serum albumins (i.e., human serum albumin (HSA) and bovine serum albumin (BSA)), techniques of UV-visible, fluorescence, and circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopies are used. The binding affinity is more in case of PMZ with both the serum albumins. The quenching rate constant (k(q)) values suggest a static quenching process for all the drug-serum albumin interactions. The UV-visible results show that the change in protein conformation of PMZ-serum albumin interactions are more prominent as compared to NOT-serum albumin interactions. The CD results also explain the conformational changes in the serum albumins on binding with the drugs. The increment in %α-helical structure is slightly more for drug-BSA complexes as compared to drug-HSA complexes.
Hogan-Ryan, A; Fennelly, J J; Jones, M; Cantwell, B; Duffy, M J
The concentration of bound sialic acid in the sera of 56 normal subjects and 65 subjects with breast cancer was measured, in order to determine (1) whether serum sialic acid concentrations are raised in breast cancer and (2) whether the concentration of sialic acid in serum reflects tumour stage. The amount of sialic acid in serum was compared to serum carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) values. Urinary hydroxyproline and serum alkaline phosphatase concentrations were used as indicators of bone and liver involvement. Erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) was also measured. Significantly elevated serum sialic acid concentrations were found in breast cancer, and showed correlation with tumour stage. Serum sialic acid values did not correlate with CEA values. The results suggest that measurement of serum sialic acid concentrations may be of adjunctive value in assessing tumour stage.
Wilber, R L; Drake, S D; Hesson, J L; Nelson, J A; Kearney, J T; Dallam, G M; Williams, L L
In this investigation we evaluated the effect of a 5-week training program at 1860 m on serum creatine kinase (CK) activity and serum cortisol concentration in national-caliber triathletes for the purpose of monitoring the response to training in a hypobaric hypoxic environment. Subjects included 16 junior-level female (n = 8) and male (n = 8) triathletes who were training for the International Triathlon Union (ITU) World Championships. After an initial acclimatization period, training intensity and/or volume were increased progressively during the 5-week altitude training camp. Resting venous blood samples were drawn at 0700 hours following a 12-h overnight fast and were analyzed for serum CK activity and serum cortisol concentration. Subjects were evaluated before [7-10 days pre-altitude (SL 1)] and after [7-10 days post-altitude (SL 2)] the 5-week training camp at 1860 m. At altitude, subjects were evaluated within 24-36 h after arrival (ALT 1), 7 days after arrival (ALT 2), 18 days after arrival (ALT 3), and 24-36 h prior to leaving the altitude training camp (ALT 4). A repeated-measures analysis of variance was used to evaluate differences over time from SL 1 to SL 2. Compared to SL 1, serum CK activity increased approximately threefold (P < 0.05) within the initial 24-36 h at altitude (ALT 1), and increased by an additional 70% (P < 0.05) after the 1st week of altitude training (ALT 2). Serum CK activity remained significantly elevated over the duration of the experimental period compared to pre-altitude baseline levels. Serum cortisol concentration was increased (P < 0.05) at the end of the 5-week altitude training period (ALT 4) relative to SL 1, ALT 1 and ALT 3. These data suggest that: (1) the initial increase in serum CK activity observed in the first 24-36 h at altitude was due primarily to acute altitude exposure and was independent of increased training intensity and/or training volume, (2) the subsequent increases in serum CK activity observed over
Coşkun, Ozlem; Nurten, Rüstem
In the present study, NAD(+) glycohydrolase was purified from serum samples collected from healthy individuals using ammonium sulfate fractionation, Affi-Gel blue (Cibacron Blue F3GA) affinity chromatography, Sephadex G-100 column chromatography and isoelectric focusing. The final step was followed by a second Sephadex G-100 column chromatography assay in order to remove the ampholytes from the isoelectric focusing step. In terms of enhancement of specific activity, the NAD(+) glycohydrolase protein was purified ∼480-fold, with a yield of 1% compared with the initial serum fraction. The purified fraction appeared to be homogeneous, with a molecular weight of 39 kDa, as revealed by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) analysis, and also corresponded to the soluble (monomeric) form of surface antigen CD38.
Erokhina, I A
The content of modified albumin (Am) in harp seal (Pagophilus groenlandica Erxleben, 1777) blood serum was studied. Am was determined by paper electrophoresis by means of re-precipitation in the trichloroacetic acid-ethanol system. Modified albumin content in normal seal pups' blood serum increased from 1990 to 1994. The Am level in undernourished pups was stable from year to year and higher than in normal pups. In oceanarium investigations it was revealed a low albumin resistance to denaturation and the dependence of Am content on the animals' physiological state. Thus there is a possibility to regard modified albumin content as one of the significant parameters in biomonitoring of harp seal population and, moreover, as a supplementary criterion for estimation of seals' health state in captivity.
Boullart, A C I; de Graaf, J; Stalenhoef, A F
Dyslipidemia, especially elevated serum levels of cholesterol, is causally related to cardiovascular disease. The specific role of triglycerides has long been controversial. In this article we discuss the role of serum triglycerides in relation to the risk of cardiovascular disease. First, the (patho)physiology of triglycerides is described, including the definition and a short summary of the primary and secondary causes of hypertriglyceridemia. Furthermore, we will give an overview of the published epidemiological studies concerning hypertriglyceridemia and cardiovascular disease to support the view that triglyceride-rich lipoproteins are an independently associated risk factor. Finally, treatment strategies and treatment targets are discussed. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Triglyceride Metabolism and Disease. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Joshi, U M; Joseph, R; Adatia, A R; Choudhary, V N; Joshi, J V; Mehta, S; Hazari, K T
A cross-sectional study was conducted to detect the return of ovulation in 56 women with (LA) lactational amenorrhea ranging from 2-12 months. As serum progesterone of 5 ng/ml provides an indirect evidence of ovulation. It was estimated by radioimmunoassay in 4 blood samples collected weekly over a period of 1 month in all the women. 37 women showed persistently low values of progesterone ( 5 mg/ml) throughout the study period. The other 19 women had serum progesterone of 5 ng/ml in 1 or several samples. 13 of these women, however, continued to have LA beyond 1 month in spite of the detection of high circulating progesterone. The possibility of pregnancy was excluded in all of them. The endometrial refractoriness to the circulating steriods is proposed as a mechanism of persistent LA.
Sinclair, D; Dagg, J H; Mowat, A M; Parrott, D M; Stott, D I
The presence of paraproteins in the sera of 10 patients with chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL) was investigated using immunoisoelectric focusing. Monoclonal immunoglobulins were found in nine of these 10 sera. Five sera contained a single monoclonal IgM paraprotein, one serum contained a single monoclonal IgG paraprotein, while three sera contained more than one monoclonal paraprotein--namely, IgM + IgD, IgM + IgG, and IgM + IgD + IgG. The results indicate that the malignant B cells of CLL may be at a later stage of differentiation than previously assumed and serum monoclonal immunoglobulin could be of value as a tumour marker. Images PMID:6707229
McGlinchey, Neil; Johnson, Martin K
Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) remains a difficult-to-treat condition with high mortality. Biomarkers are utilized to aid with diagnosis, prognostication and response to treatment. A clinically useful and PAH-specific single biomarker that is easy to measure remains elusive. This is in part due to the heterogeneity of PAH and its complex etiology. Brain natriuretic peptide and its N-terminal fragment are currently the most widely used serum markers; however, several novel serum biomarkers have been investigated recently. Taken individually, the evidence for each of these seems provisionally promising though currently weak overall. It is likely that a multibiomarker panel will be recommended in the future, with the optimal combination yet to be determined.
Slama, T G
Serum sickness is a systemic hypersensitivity reaction initially reported in children receiving horse serum. Drugs such as penicillins, cephalosporins, and sulfonamides are now noted to be the most common etiologic agents of serum sickness-like reactions. This case report describes a serum sickness-like reaction temporally related to ciprofloxacin, a previously unreported adverse effect of this drug or any of the other quinolones.
Galanello, R; Melis, M A; Paglietti, E; Cornacchia, G; de Virgiliis, S; Cao, A
This study shows that hemoglobin H disease patients aged between 0.5 and 44 years, usually (27 out of 30) have normal serum ferritin levels according to age. This reconfirms that in this disease there are usually normal iron stores. However, in a few patients (3 out of 30) increased levels were found. This may be due to inappropriate iron medication, transfusions or associated idiopathic hereditary hemocromatosis gene.
Yoshida, Kazunari; Uchida, Hiroyuki; Suzuki, Takefumi; Watanabe, Masahiro; Yoshino, Nariyasu; Houchi, Hitoshi; Mimura, Masaru; Fukuoka, Noriyasu
Introduction Therapeutic drug monitoring is necessary for lithium, but clinical application of several prediction strategies is still limited because of insufficient predictive accuracy. We herein proposed a suitable model, using creatinine clearance (CLcr)-based lithium clearance (Li-CL). Methods Patients receiving lithium provided the following information: serum lithium and creatinine concentrations, time of blood draw, dosing regimen, concomitant medications, and demographics. Li-CL was calculated as a daily dose per trough concentration for each subject, and the mean of Li-CL/CLcr was used to estimate Li-CL for another 30 subjects. Serum lithium concentrations at the time of sampling were estimated by 1-compartment model with Li-CL, fixed distribution volume (0.79 L/kg), and absorption rate (1.5/hour) in the 30 subjects. Results One hundred thirty-one samples from 82 subjects (44 men; mean±standard deviation age: 51.4±16.0 years; body weight: 64.6±13.8 kg; serum creatinine: 0.78±0.20 mg/dL; dose of lithium: 680.2±289.1 mg/day) were used to develop the pharmacokinetic model. The mean±standard deviation (95% confidence interval) of absolute error was 0.13±0.09 (0.10-0.16) mEq/L. Discussion Serum concentrations of lithium can be predicted from oral dosage with high precision, using our prediction model. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
Sogorb, Miguel A; Carrera, Victoria; Benabent, Mónica; Vilanova, Eugenio
One of the main detoxification processes of the carbamate insecticides is the hydrolysis of the carbamic ester bond. Carboxylesterases seem to play important roles in the metabolization of carbamates. This study performs a biochemical characterization of the capabilities of rabbit serum albumin (RSA) to hydrolyze the carbamate carbaryl. Rabbit serum albumin was able to hydrolyze carbaryl with a K(cat) of 7.1 x 10(-5) s(-1). The K(m) for this hydrolysis reaction was 240 microM. Human, chicken, and bovine serum albumins were also able to hydrolyze carbaryl. The divalent cation Cu(2+) at 1 mM concentration inhibited around 50% of the hydrolysis of carbaryl by RSA. Other mono- and divalent cations at 1 mM concentration and 5 mM EDTA exerted no significant effects on the hydrolysis of carbaryl by RSA. The inhibition of the carbaryl hydrolysis by sulfydril blocking agents suggests that a cysteine residue plays an important role in the active center of the catalytic activity. Both caprylic and palmitic acids were noncompetitive inhibitors of the carbaryl hydrolysis by RSA. The carboxyl ester p-nitrophenyl butyrate is a substrate of RSA and competitively inhibited the hydrolysis of carbaryl by this protein, suggesting that the hydrolysis of carbaryl and the hydrolysis of carboxyl esters occur in the same catalytic site and through a similar mechanism. This mechanism might be based on the carbamylation of a tyrosine residue of the RSA. Serum albumin is a protein universally present in nontarget species of insecticides; therefore, the capability of this protein to hydrolyze other carbamates must be studied because it might have important toxicological and ecotoxicological implications.
Bot, M; Chan, M K; Jansen, R; Lamers, F; Vogelzangs, N; Steiner, J; Leweke, F M; Rothermundt, M; Cooper, J; Bahn, S; Penninx, B W J H
Much has still to be learned about the molecular mechanisms of depression. This study aims to gain insight into contributing mechanisms by identifying serum proteins related to major depressive disorder (MDD) in a large psychiatric cohort study. Our sample consisted of 1589 participants of the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety, comprising 687 individuals with current MDD (cMDD), 482 individuals with remitted MDD (rMDD) and 420 controls. We studied the relationship between MDD status and the levels of 171 serum proteins detected on a multi-analyte profiling platform using adjusted linear regression models. Pooled analyses of two independent validation cohorts (totaling 78 MDD cases and 156 controls) was carried out to validate our top markers. Twenty-eight analytes differed significantly between cMDD cases and controls (P < 0.05), whereas 10 partly overlapping markers differed significantly between rMDD cases and controls. Antidepressant medication use and comorbid anxiety status did not substantially impact on these findings. Sixteen of the cMDD-related markers had been assayed in the pooled validation cohorts, of which seven were associated with MDD. The analytes prominently associated with cMDD related to diverse cell communication and signal transduction processes (pancreatic polypeptide, macrophage migration inhibitory factor, ENRAGE, interleukin-1 receptor antagonist and tenascin-C), immune response (growth-regulated alpha protein) and protein metabolism (von Willebrand factor). Several proteins were implicated in depression. Changes were more prominent in cMDD, suggesting that molecular alterations in serum are associated with acute depression symptomatology. These findings may help to establish serum-based biomarkers of depression and could improve our understanding of its pathophysiology.
Coelho, Roberta; Levandowski, Mateus L; Mansur, Rodrigo B; da Cunha, Graccielle Rodrigues; Asevedo, Elson; Zugman, André; Salum, Giovanni A; Gadelha, Ary; Pan, Pedro M; Rizzo, Lucas B; Manfro, Gisele; Mari, Jair J; Rohde, Luis A; Miguel, Eurípedes C; Bressan, Rodrigo A; Brietzke, Elisa; Grassi-Oliveira, Rodrigo
Childhood maltreatment (CM) has been related to a persistent reprograming of stress-response. Copeptin is a marker of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activation; however, few studies have examined copeptin levels in children exposed to CM. The aim of this study was to compare serum copeptin levels in children reporting child abuse and/or neglect and children with no history of CM. This study included 65 children with a positive history of moderate to severe CM, as reported by themselves and their parent(s) during a clinical interview, and 71 children with no history of CM as a comparison group. CM was considered moderate to severe based on the child-reported frequency of being exposed to events related to sexual abuse, physical abuse, emotional abuse, emotional neglect, and/or physical neglect. Child psychopathology symptoms were assessed using the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL). We measured serum copeptin concentration using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Children exposed to CM exhibited higher levels of serum copeptin compared to children without CM when controlling for sex, age, and psychiatric morbidity. The CBCL total score, including internalizing and externalizing symptoms, was higher in children with CM. We found no correlation between copeptin and CBCL scores for internalizing symptoms and externalizing symptoms. CM is associated with copeptin serum levels independently of age, sex, and symptom severity. Copeptin is a promising new biomarker for children with a history of abuse and/or neglect. © 2016 The Authors. Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences © 2016 Japanese Society of Psychiatry and Neurology.
(PCG) Protein Crystal Growth Human Serum Albumin. Contributes to many transport and regulatory processes and has multifunctional binding properties which range from various metals, to fatty acids, hormones, and a wide spectrum of therapeutic drugs. The most abundant protein of the circulatory system. It binds and transports an incredible variety of biological and pharmaceutical ligands throughout the blood stream. Principal Investigator on STS-26 was Larry DeLucas.
Stricker, B H; Tijssen, J G
In this study, we evaluated whether the high number of reports of serum sickness to cefaclor was present in every country and year, and whether these figures from voluntary reporting facilitated an estimation of the relative risk. A nested case-control study was performed with reports of all suspected adverse reactions (ADR) to cefaclor, amoxicillin and cephalexin in the period 1968-1987, as reported to the WHO Collaborating Center for International Drug Monitoring from the U.S.A., the U.K., Sweden, Canada and Germany. The ADR-reporting odds ratio was defined as the ratio of the odds of the number of ADR-reports of serum sickness to cefaclor and amoxicillin or cephalexin and the odds of similar reports of non-serum sickness to cefaclor and amoxicillin or cephalexin. The ADR-reporting odds ratio adjusted for country, age, gender, origin of the report and year of marketing was 12.4 for cefaclor vs amoxicillin and 18.5 for cefaclor vs cephalexin. In children (< 15 years of age) and in adults (> 15 years of age), the relative risk of developing serum sickness of cefaclor vs amoxicillin was estimated at 13.9 (95% confidence interval (95% CI): 6.0-32.2) and 2.9 (95% CI: 0.9-9.4) respectively in the U.S.A., and at 15.1 (95% CI: 7.2-31.5) and 5.5 (95% CI: 2.0-15.0) respectively in the other four countries together. In this study, the ADR-reporting odds ratio facilitated a valid estimation of the relative risk.
Neuberger, Hans-Ruprecht; Cacciatore, Angela; Reil, Jan-Christian; Gräber, Stefan; Schäfers, Hans-Joachim; Ukena, Christian; Böhm, Michael; Mewis, Christian
Atrial fibrosis and its spatial heterogeneity are regarded as a substrate for the perpetuation of atrial arrhythmias. During collagen synthesis and degradation, collagen propeptides and telopeptides are released into the blood. This study tested the hypothesis that serum markers of collagen turnover correlate with atrial fibrosis. We prospectively included 28 patients in sinus rhythm undergoing cardiac surgery. Plasma concentrations of the carboxy- and amino-terminal propeptide of procollagen type-I (PICP and PINP) and type-III (PIIINP), and the C-terminal telopeptide of type-I collagen (ICTP) were determined. Interstitial fibrosis of left (n = 10) and right atrial appendages (n = 28) was analyzed histologically. We found a correlation between left and right atrial fibrosis (r (s) = 0.79, p < 0.01). Interestingly, the higher the interstitial collagen content, the higher was the spatial heterogeneity of fibrosis (r (s) = 0.90, p < 0.001). However, PICP, PIIINP, and ICTP were not correlated to left or right atrial collagen content, or to the spatial heterogeneity of atrial fibrosis. There was a weak and even negative correlation between the serum PINP concentration and the degree of fibrosis in both the left and the right atrium (r (s) = -0.65 (p = 0.04) and r (s) = -0.42 (p = 0.03), respectively). A high degree of interstitial atrial fibrosis indicates a high degree of spatial heterogeneity of interstitial collagen. Although serum PICP is known to be correlated with ventricular fibrosis, this and other serum markers of collagen turnover (PINP, PIIINP, and ICTP) do not directly reflect atrial fibrosis in patients with severe cardiac disease.
Mondul, Alison M.; Watters, Joanne L.; Männistö, Satu; Weinstein, Stephanie J.; Snyder, Kirk; Virtamo, Jarmo; Albanes, Demetrius
Greater exposure to retinol (vitamin A) may prevent prostate cancer, although under some conditions it could promote cell growth and de-differentiation. The authors prospectively examined prostate cancer risk and serum retinol levels, measured by using high-performance liquid chromatography, at baseline (n = 29,104) and after 3 years (n = 22,843) in the Alpha-Tocopherol, Beta-Carotene Cancer Prevention Study cohort. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate the relative risk of total (n = 2,041) and aggressive (n = 461) prostate cancer by quintiles of baseline and 3-year serum retinol concentrations and by change in serum retinol levels from baseline to 3 years. Men with higher retinol concentrations at baseline were more likely to develop prostate cancer (quintile 5 vs. quintile 1 hazard ratio = 1.19, 95% confidence interval: 1.03, 1.36; Ptrend = 0.009). The results were similar for aggressive disease. Joint categorization based on baseline and 3-year retinol levels showed that men who were in the highest quintile at both time points had the greatest increased risk (baseline/3-year quintile 5/quintile 5 vs. quintile 1/quintile 1 hazard ratio = 1.31, 95% confidence interval: 1.08, 1.59). In this largest study to date of vitamin A status and subsequent risk of prostate cancer, higher serum retinol was associated with elevated risk, with sustained high exposure conferring the greatest risk. Future studies may clarify the underlying biologic mechanisms of the retinol-prostate cancer association. PMID:21389041
Mondul, Alison M; Watters, Joanne L; Männistö, Satu; Weinstein, Stephanie J; Snyder, Kirk; Virtamo, Jarmo; Albanes, Demetrius
Greater exposure to retinol (vitamin A) may prevent prostate cancer, although under some conditions it could promote cell growth and de-differentiation. The authors prospectively examined prostate cancer risk and serum retinol levels, measured by using high-performance liquid chromatography, at baseline (n = 29,104) and after 3 years (n = 22,843) in the Alpha-Tocopherol, Beta-Carotene Cancer Prevention Study cohort. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate the relative risk of total (n = 2,041) and aggressive (n = 461) prostate cancer by quintiles of baseline and 3-year serum retinol concentrations and by change in serum retinol levels from baseline to 3 years. Men with higher retinol concentrations at baseline were more likely to develop prostate cancer (quintile 5 vs. quintile 1 hazard ratio = 1.19, 95% confidence interval: 1.03, 1.36; P(trend) = 0.009). The results were similar for aggressive disease. Joint categorization based on baseline and 3-year retinol levels showed that men who were in the highest quintile at both time points had the greatest increased risk (baseline/3-year quintile 5/quintile 5 vs. quintile 1/quintile 1 hazard ratio = 1.31, 95% confidence interval: 1.08, 1.59). In this largest study to date of vitamin A status and subsequent risk of prostate cancer, higher serum retinol was associated with elevated risk, with sustained high exposure conferring the greatest risk. Future studies may clarify the underlying biologic mechanisms of the retinol-prostate cancer association.
Sann, L; Chayvialle, A P; Bremond, A; Lambert, R
Serum gastrin concentration was measured in newborns and infants with no gastrointestinal disorders, in the fasting state and after food stimulation. Mean fasting concentration in 14 newborns aged 1 to 12 days (130 . 4 pg/ml +/- 11 . 4 SE) was significantly higher than the mean value in 23 infants aged 1.5 to 22 months (101.4 +/- 6.6 pg/ml). Ingestion of the usual milk meal resulted in a definite rise of the serum gastrin level in the 5 subjects tested (3 newborns and 2 infants). The mean fasting serum gastrin level in 6 babies with hiatus hernia and gastro-oesophageal reflux was found to be no different from the corresponding value in 8 age-matched controls. However, a conspicuously raised fasting gastrin concentration was observed in one infant with lower oesophageal dyskinesia. The results indicate that the release of gastrin and the reactivity of the hormone-producing sites to food stimulation in early life are similar to those in adult humans. No defect of gastrin release was shown in patients with gastro-oesophageal reflux. PMID:1244175
Rohrscheib, Mark; Rondon-Berrios, Helbert; Argyropoulos, Christos; Glew, Robert H; Murata, Glen H; Tzamaloukas, Antonios H
Although disturbances of serum tonicity (effective osmolality) may have dire consequences, only surrogate indices of tonicity are available in practice. This report identifies the appropriate index for expressing clinical states of dystonicity. Serum sodium concentration ([Na]S) and osmolality ([Osm]S) may be incongruent. When the tonicity state shown by [Osm]S is higher than [Na]S and the difference between the 2 indices is caused by an excess of solute that distributes in total body water, tonicity is described by [Na]S. When this difference results from a gain of solute with extracellular distribution like mannitol or a decrease in serum water content, causing a falsely low measurement of [Na]S, [Osm]S accurately reflects tonicity. Two indices of tonicity are applicable during hyperglycemia: the tonicity formula (2 ·[Na]S + [Glucose]S/18) and the corrected [Na]S ([Na]S corrected to a normal [Glucose]S using an empirically derived coefficient). Clinicians should understand the uses and limitations of the tonicity indices.
Lowry, Sarah J; Sprague, Brian L; Aiello Bowles, Erin J; Hedman, Curtis J; Hemming, Jocelyn; Hampton, John M; Burnside, Elizabeth S; Sisney, Gale A; Buist, Diana S M; Trentham-Dietz, Amy
Some forms of estrogen are associated with breast cancer risk as well as with mammographic density (MD), a strong marker of breast cancer risk. Whether phytoestrogen intake affects breast density, however, remains unclear. We evaluated the association between serum levels of phytoestrogens and MD in postmenopausal women. We enrolled 269 women, ages 55-70 yr, who received a screening mammogram and had no history of postmenopausal hormone use. Subjects completed a survey on diet and factors related to MD and provided a blood sample for analysis of 3 phytoestrogens: genistein, daidzein, and coumestrol. We examined whether mean percent MD was related to serum level of phytoestrogens, adjusting for age and body mass index. Genistein and daidzein levels correlated with self-reported soy consumption. Mean percent MD did not differ across women with different phytoestrogen levels. For example, women with nondetectable genistein levels had mean density of 11.0% [95% confidence intervals (CI) = 9.9-12.4], compared to 10.5% (95% CI = 8.0-13.7) and 11.2% (95% CI = 8.7-14.6) for < and ≥ median detectable levels, respectively. In a population with relatively low soy intake, serum phytoestrogens were not associated with mammographic density. Additional studies are needed to determine effects of higher levels, particularly given patterns of increasing phytoestrogen intake.
Reed, W. P.; Albright, Elizabeth L.
Eight strains of Shigella were tested for susceptibility to killing by seven normal human sera. Although there was a wide range of susceptibility between strains of bacteria, there was surprisingly little difference in the killing activity of individual sera and no relationship between antibody titres and killing capacity. Bacteriolysis required small amounts of antibody, but as little as 0.02 mg of a 19S fraction from normal serum restored full killing capacity to 1 ml of antibody depleted serum. Neither 11S IgA nor Cohn fraction II restored the bacteriolytic ability. Both the early reacting complement sequence and the alternate C3 activating pathway appeared to participate in killing as indicated by the roles of C2 and C3PA. Killing occurred, but with reduced efficiency, when either of the two substances was missing. However, serum lacking both C2 and C3PA could no longer kill Shigella. Killing also required the presence of C3, and presumably some of the later components of complement are subsequently involved. PMID:4846468
Conrady, Christopher D.; Bell, James P.; Besch, Brian M.; Gorusupudi, Aruna; Farnsworth, Kelliann; Ermakov, Igor; Sharifzadeh, Mohsen; Ermakova, Maia; Gellermann, Werner; Bernstein, Paul S.
Purpose Ocular and systemic measurement and imaging of the macular carotenoids lutein and zeaxanthin have been employed extensively as potential biomarkers of AMD risk. In this study, we systematically compare dual wavelength retinal autofluorescence imaging (AFI) of macular pigment with skin resonance Raman spectroscopy (RRS) and serum carotenoid levels in a clinic-based population. Methods Eighty-eight patients were recruited from retina and general ophthalmology practices from a tertiary referral center and excluded only if they did not have all three modalities tested, had a diagnosis of macular telangiectasia (MacTel) or Stargardt disease, or had poor AFI image quality. Skin, macular, and serum carotenoid levels were measured by RRS, AFI, and HPLC, respectively. Results Skin RRS measurements and serum zeaxanthin concentrations correlated most strongly with AFI macular pigment volume under the curve (MPVUC) measurements up to 9° eccentricity relative to MPVUC or rotationally averaged macular pigment optical density (MPOD) measurements at smaller eccentricities. These measurements were reproducible and not significantly affected by cataracts. We also found that these techniques could readily identify subjects taking oral carotenoid-containing supplements. Conclusions Larger macular pigment volume AFI and skin RRS measurements are noninvasive, objective, and reliable methods to assess ocular and systemic carotenoid levels. They are an attractive alternative to psychophysical and optical methods that measure MPOD at a limited number of eccentricities. Consequently, skin RRS and MPVUC at 9° are both reasonable biomarkers of macular carotenoid status that could be readily adapted to research and clinical settings. PMID:28728169
Conrady, Christopher D; Bell, James P; Besch, Brian M; Gorusupudi, Aruna; Farnsworth, Kelliann; Ermakov, Igor; Sharifzadeh, Mohsen; Ermakova, Maia; Gellermann, Werner; Bernstein, Paul S
Ocular and systemic measurement and imaging of the macular carotenoids lutein and zeaxanthin have been employed extensively as potential biomarkers of AMD risk. In this study, we systematically compare dual wavelength retinal autofluorescence imaging (AFI) of macular pigment with skin resonance Raman spectroscopy (RRS) and serum carotenoid levels in a clinic-based population. Eighty-eight patients were recruited from retina and general ophthalmology practices from a tertiary referral center and excluded only if they did not have all three modalities tested, had a diagnosis of macular telangiectasia (MacTel) or Stargardt disease, or had poor AFI image quality. Skin, macular, and serum carotenoid levels were measured by RRS, AFI, and HPLC, respectively. Skin RRS measurements and serum zeaxanthin concentrations correlated most strongly with AFI macular pigment volume under the curve (MPVUC) measurements up to 9° eccentricity relative to MPVUC or rotationally averaged macular pigment optical density (MPOD) measurements at smaller eccentricities. These measurements were reproducible and not significantly affected by cataracts. We also found that these techniques could readily identify subjects taking oral carotenoid-containing supplements. Larger macular pigment volume AFI and skin RRS measurements are noninvasive, objective, and reliable methods to assess ocular and systemic carotenoid levels. They are an attractive alternative to psychophysical and optical methods that measure MPOD at a limited number of eccentricities. Consequently, skin RRS and MPVUC at 9° are both reasonable biomarkers of macular carotenoid status that could be readily adapted to research and clinical settings.
Chao, Y K; Shyur, S D; Wu, C Y; Wang, C Y
Childhood serum sickness is a rare allergic disease that follows the administration of a foreign antigenic material, most commonly caused by injecting a protein or haptenic drug. The disease is a type III hypersensitivity reaction mediated by deposits of circulating immune complexes in small vessels, which leads to complement activation and subsequent inflammation. The clinical features are fever, cutaneous eruptions, lymphadenopathy, arthralgias, albuminuria, and nephritis. Serum sickness is an acute self-limited disease. We report a 3-year-old child who presented with fever and a rash; an invasive bacterial infection was strongly suspected. He was therefore given penicillin and gentamicin and responded well. At day 4 after admission, he developed a serum sickness reaction and showed symptoms of arthralgias, generalized edema, purpura, and gross hematuria. The white blood cell count was 12 190/mm3 with 7% eosinophils. Urinalysis revealed red blood cell above 100 per high power field, white blood cell 10 to 15 per high power field, and proteinuria. The antibiotics were discontinued and hydrocortisone (20 mg/kg/d), diphenhydramine HCl (4 mg/kg/d), aspirin (66 mg/kg/d) was administered, plus 1 dose of epinephrine (0.01 mL/kg) administered intramuscularly. On day 7, the 3rd day after withholding antibiotics, his condition dramatically improved. The clinical symptoms resolved progressively and his urinalysis returned to normal.
Chassany, O; Urien, S; Claudepierre, P; Bastian, G; Tillement, J P
The binding of doxorubicin, iododoxorubicin, daunorubicin, epirubicin, pirarubicin, zorubicin, aclarubicin, and mitoxantrone to 600 microM human serum albumin and 50 microM alpha 1-acid glycoprotein was studied by ultrafiltration at 37 degrees C and pH 7.4. Anthracycline concentrations (total and free) were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with fluorometric detection. Binding to albumin (600 microM) varied from 61% (daunorubicin) to 94% (iododoxorubicin). The binding to alpha 1-acid glycoprotein (50 microM) was more variable, ranging from 31% (epirubicin) to 64% (zorubicin), and was essentially related to the hydrophobicity of the derivatives. Simulations showed that the total serum binding varied over a broad range from 71% (doxorubicin) to 96% (iododoxorubicin). We recently reported that the binding to lipoproteins of a series of eight anthracycline analogues could be ascribed to chemicophysical determinants of lipophilicity . The present study was conducted to evaluate in vitro the contribution of albumin and alpha 1-acid glycoprotein to the total serum binding of these drugs.
Siddighi, Sam; Yune, Junchan J; Kwon, Nicole B; Hardesty, Jeffrey S; Kim, Joo H; Chan, Philip J
To illustrate a simple method that screens for ureteral injury in the acute postoperative period after urogynecologic surgeries. Serum creatinine measurements in the preoperative (baseline) and postoperative periods of urogynecologic surgeries were determined and the correlation of the change to ureteral injury and/or obstruction analyzed. The sample size calculation showed 7 cases and 28 controls were sufficient to detect significant changes in creatinine. Each of the seven cases was matched for age and type of surgery with a control patient in a 1:4 ratio following standard protocol. Chart review of patients (273 cases) undergoing urogynecologic surgeries from October 2009 to June 2014 were undertaken. There were 7 cases of ureteral injury and 28 matching control cases. All cases had intraoperative cystoscopy confirming bilateral ureteral flow. In the ureteral injury group, blockage of ureter was confirmed by CT scan with IV contrast. There was a 59.8% increase in serum creatinine levels postoperative in the ureteral injury group versus a 3.8% decrease in controls. A difference of creatinine levels greater than or equal to 0.3 mg/dL over baseline was evident in ureteral injury cases. A small change in serum creatinine level over baseline after urogynecologic surgery alerted the possibility of ureteral injury or obstruction. A simple and inexpensive evaluation of perioperative creatinine levels can promptly diagnose ureteral damage in the acute postoperative period for gynecologic reconstructive surgeries.
Donfrancesco, Renato; Parisi, Pasquale; Vanacore, Nicola; Martines, Francesca; Sargentini, Vittorio; Cortese, Samuele
Objective: (a) To compare serum ferritin levels in a sample of stimulant-naive children with ADHD and matched controls and (b) to assess the association of serum ferritin to ADHD symptoms severity, ADHD subtypes, and IQ. Method: The ADHD and the control groups included 101 and 93 children, respectively. Serum ferritin levels were determined with…
Donfrancesco, Renato; Parisi, Pasquale; Vanacore, Nicola; Martines, Francesca; Sargentini, Vittorio; Cortese, Samuele
Objective: (a) To compare serum ferritin levels in a sample of stimulant-naive children with ADHD and matched controls and (b) to assess the association of serum ferritin to ADHD symptoms severity, ADHD subtypes, and IQ. Method: The ADHD and the control groups included 101 and 93 children, respectively. Serum ferritin levels were determined with…
Seki, K; Kato, K; Tabei, T
Serum relaxin concentrations were measured every 30 min during a 24-h period in nonpregnant and pregnant women. Relaxin was undetectable in all serum samples obtained from 3 nonpregnant women. Relaxin was detectable in all serum samples obtained from 2 pregnant women. However, neither episodic secretion of relaxin nor a 24-h rhythm in relaxin secretion was discernible in these women.
Ramsdell, Susan Griffith
The primary change in surface tension of serum incident to anaphylactic shock is probably due to a lowering of the surface tension of the serum by the addition of the antigen serum. But this may be followed by further decrease or by an increase depending on the intensity and duration of certain secondary tissue changes. PMID:19869462
Karnieli, Ohad; Friedner, Oryan Makler; Allickson, Julie G; Zhang, Nan; Jung, Sunghoon; Fiorentini, David; Abraham, Eytan; Eaker, Shannon S; Yong, Tan Kah; Chan, Allan; Griffiths, Sarah; When, Amy K; Oh, Steve; Karnieli, Ohad
The cell therapy industry is a fast-growing industry targeted toward a myriad of clinical indications. As the cell therapy industry matures and clinical trials hit their pivotal Phase 3 studies, there will be a significant need for scale-up, process validation, and critical raw material quality assurance. Part of the well discussed challenges of upscaling manufacturing processes there is a less discussed issue relating to the availability of raw materials in the needed quality and quantities. The FDA recently noted that over 80% of the 66 investigational new drug (IND) applications for mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) products analyzed described the use of FBS during manufacturing. Accumulated data from the past years show an acceleration in serum consumption by at least 10%-15% annually, which suggests that the global demand for serum may soon exceed the supply. Ongoing concerns of safety issues due to risks of various pathogen contaminations, as well as issues related to the aforementioned serum variability that can affect final product reproducibility, are strong motivators to search for serum substitutes or serum-free media. it is important to note that there are no accepted definitions for most of these terms which leads to misleading's and misunderstandings, where the same term might be defined differently by different vendors, manufacturer, and users. It is the drug developer's responsibility to clarify what the supplied labels mean and to identify the correct questions and audits to ensure quality. The paper reviews the available serum replacements, main components, basic strategies for replacement of serum and suggests definitions.
Fitz-Simon, Nicola; Fletcher, Tony; Luster, Michael I.; Steenland, Kyle; Calafat, Antonia M.; Kato, Kayoko; Armstrong, Ben
Background Several epidemiological cross-sectional studies have found positive associations between serum concentrations of lipids and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA, or C8). A longitudinal study should be less susceptible to biases from uncontrolled confounding or reverse causality. Methods We investigated the association between within-individual changes in serum PFOA and perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS) and changes in serum lipid levels (low-density lipoprotein [LDL] cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, total cholesterol, and triglycerides) over a 4.4-year period. The study population consisted of 560 adults living in parts of Ohio and West Virginia where public drinking water had been contaminated with PFOA. They had participated in a cross-sectional study in 2005–2006, and were followed up in 2010, by which time exposure to PFOA had been substantially reduced. Results Overall serum concentrations of PFOA and PFOS fell by half from initial geometric means of 74.8 and 18.5 ng/mL, respectively, with little corresponding change in LDL cholesterol (mean increase 1.8%, standard deviation 26.6%). However, there was a tendency for people with greater declines in serum PFOA or PFOS to have greater LDL decrease. For a person whose serum PFOA fell by half, the predicted fall in LDL cholesterol was 3.6% (95% confidence interval = 1.5–5.7%). The association with a decline in PFOS was even stronger, with a 5% decrease in LDL (2.5–7.4%). Conclusions Our findings from this longitudinal study support previous evidence from cross-sectional studies of positive associations between PFOA and PFOS in serum and LDL cholesterol. PMID:23685825
Fitz-Simon, Nicola; Fletcher, Tony; Luster, Michael I; Steenland, Kyle; Calafat, Antonia M; Kato, Kayoko; Armstrong, Ben
Several epidemiological cross-sectional studies have found positive associations between serum concentrations of lipids and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA, or C8). A longitudinal study should be less susceptible to biases from uncontrolled confounding or reverse causality. We investigated the association between within-individual changes in serum PFOA and perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS) and changes in serum lipid levels (low-density lipoprotein [LDL] cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, total cholesterol, and triglycerides) over a 4.4-year period. The study population consisted of 560 adults living in parts of Ohio and West Virginia where public drinking water had been contaminated with PFOA. They had participated in a cross-sectional study in 2005-2006, and were followed up in 2010, by which time exposure to PFOA had been substantially reduced. Overall serum concentrations of PFOA and PFOS fell by half from initial geometric means of 74.8 and 18.5 ng/mL, respectively, with little corresponding change in LDL cholesterol (mean increase 1.8%, standard deviation 26.6%). However, there was a tendency for people with greater declines in serum PFOA or PFOS to have greater LDL decrease. For a person whose serum PFOA fell by half, the predicted fall in LDL cholesterol was 3.6% (95% confidence interval = 1.5-5.7%). The association with a decline in PFOS was even stronger, with a 5% decrease in LDL (2.5-7.4%). Our findings from this longitudinal study support previous evidence from cross-sectional studies of positive associations between PFOA and PFOS in serum and LDL cholesterol.
Ludwig, Elsa K; Brandon Wiese, R; Graham, Megan R; Tyler, Amelia J; Settlage, Julie M; Werre, Stephen R; Petersson-Wolfe, Christina S; Kanevsky-Mullarky, Isis; Dahlgren, Linda A
To investigate the serum and synovial fluid serum amyloid A (SAA) response in equine models of synovitis and septic arthritis and to compare handheld and validated immunoturbidometric assays for SAA quantification. Controlled, experimental study. Healthy adult horses (n = 9). Synovitis (n = 4) and septic arthritis (n = 5) were induced using lipopolysaccharide and Staphylococcus aureus, respectively, and serial serum and synovial fluid samples were collected. Serial synovial fluid cytology was performed for both models and synovial fluid from the septic arthritis model was submitted for bacterial culture. Serum and synovial fluid SAA were quantified by handheld test and immunoturbidometric assay. Cytologic and SAA data were compared within and between models (mixed model ANOVA) and results of SAA assays were compared using category-by-category analysis (weighted kappa coefficient). Synovial fluid total nucleated cell counts and total protein increased significantly following induction of both models. Serum and synovial fluid SAA remained normal in synovitis horses and increased significantly in septic arthritis horses. Serum SAA increased more rapidly than synovial fluid SAA. Agreement was 98% when SAA concentrations were low (<50 μg/mL) but the assays diverged when concentrations were greater than ∼100 μg/mL. Overall, there was good category-by-category agreement between SAA assays (weighted kappa = 0.824). Serum and synovial fluid SAA may be useful adjuncts in diagnosing septic arthritis in horses. SAA concentrations for the assays diverged and examination using a larger sample size is needed before direct numeric comparisons between the assays can be made. © Copyright 2016 by The American College of Veterinary Surgeons.
Bechmann, Troels; Madsen, Jonna Skov; Brandslund, Ivan; Lund, Erik Dalsgaard; Ormstrup, Tina; Jakobsen, Erik Hugger; Jylling, Anne Marie Bak; Steffensen, Karina Dahl; Jakobsen, Anders
Brain metastases are a major cause of morbidity and mortality in breast cancer. The aim of the current study was to evaluate the prediction of brain metastases based on serum S100B and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2). A total of 107 breast cancer patients were included in the current study from two prospective cohort studies with either elevated serum HER2 levels >15 ng/ml or brain metastases verified by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) or computer tomography (CT). Following the exclusion of six patients, the remaining 101 patients were divided into two groups: Group 0 (n=55), patients with normal MRI results; and group 1 (n=46), patients with brain metastases. The levels of serum S100B and HER2 in the two groups were analyzed prior to MRI or CT of the brain, and no significant differences were identified in the serum HER2 (P=0.060) or S100B levels (P=0.623) between the groups. The univariate analysis of prognostic factors for brain metastases showed a significant correlation with systemic disease (P<0.001), axillary lymph node metastases (P=0.001) and serum HER2 >30 ng/ml (P=0.002). Only systemic disease (P<0.001) remained statistically significant in the multivariate analysis. In conclusion, serum levels of S100B and HER2 did not predict the risk of brain metastases. In the multivariate analysis, brain metastases were only found to correlate with systemic disease. However, in the univariate analysis, serum HER2 levels >30 ng/ml were identified to correlate with increased risk of brain metastases, which calls for further investigation.
He, Lianping; Qian, Yifan; Ren, Xiaohua; Jin, Yuelong; Chang, Weiwei; Li, Jie; Chen, Yan; Song, Xiuli; Tang, Hui; Ding, Lingling; Guo, Daoxia; Yao, Yingshui
Our previous studies showed that serum calcium level may have influence in the blood pressure to older male subjects, but the relationship between serum calcium level and blood lipids is unclear. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between total serum calcium level and blood lipids. In our study, total serum calcium level and blood lipids were measured among 1,075 subjects, with age range of 30-60 years, who were recruited for the routine health screening in 2006. The results showed that serum calcium level was positively correlated with triglyceride and total cholesterol weight, but not HDL-cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol in female subjects (P < 0.05). No correlation was found between total serum calcium level and blood lipids in male subjects (P > 0.05). These findings suggest that a higher total serum calcium level may have a adverse effects on serum cholesterol and triglycerides among female subjects.
Lindström, P; Wager, O
ELISA was applied for analysis of the HSA-human IgG autoantibody system responsible for the immunoelectrophoretic 'Tailing Albumin' (TA) phenomenon induced in most of the TA patients by prolonged nitrofurantoin therapy. Both hyperimmune porcine anti-HSA and autoimmune human anti-HSA antibodies of the IgG class were detectable by ELISA. The presence of autologous or added HSA had some inhibitory effect upon the detectability of the anti-HSA antibodies. Partial elimination of the autologous HSA by sucrose gradient ultracentrifugation or salt precipitation increased or unmasked the anti-HSA activity of some TA sera. The sensitivity of the ELISA as detector of the anti-HSA autoantibodies of whole human sera was roughly equal to that of the immunoelectrophoretic TA phenomenon. The analogy of the anti-HSA autoantibodies and the rheumatoid factors and the theoretical interest of both of them is stressed.
Kapelouzou, Alkistis; Tsourelis, Loukas; Kaklamanis, Loukas; Degiannis, Dimitrios; Kogerakis, Nektarios; Cokkinos, Dennis V.
Background: Calcific aortic valve stenosis (CAVS) is seen in a large proportion of individuals over 60 years. It is an active process, influenced by lipid accumulation, mechanical stress, inflammation, and abnormal extracellular matrix turnover. Various biomarkers (BMs) are studied, as regards mechanisms, diagnosis and prognosis. Methods: In the calcified valves calcium deposition, elastin fragmentation and disorganization of cellular matrix were assessed, together with expression of OPN, OPG, osteocalcin (OCN) and RL2. We prospectively studied the following serum BMs in 60 patients with CAVS and compared them to 20 healthy controls, free from any cardiac disease: Matrix metalloproteinases (MMP) 2 and 9 and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 1 (TIMP1), which regulate collagen turnover, inflammatory factors, i.e. tumor necrosis factor a (TNFa), interleukin 2 (IL2), transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1) which regulates fibrosis, fetuin-A (fet-A), osteopontin (OPN), osteoprotegerin (OPG), sclerostin (SOST), and relaxin-2 (RL2) which positively or negatively regulate calcification. Monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP-1) which regulates migration and infiltration of monocytes/macrophages was also studied as well as malondialdehyde (MDA) an oxidative marker. Results: Extent of tissue valve calcification (Alizarin Red stain) was negatively correlated with tissue elastin, and RL2, and positively correlated with tissue OCN and serum TIMP1 and MCP-1 and negatively with MMP9. Tissue OCN was positively correlated with OPN and negatively with the elastin. Tissue OPN was negatively correlated with elastin and OPG. Tissue OPN OPG and RL2 were not correlated with serum levels In the serum we found in patients statistically lower TIMP1, fet-A and RL2 levels, while all other BMs were higher compared to the healthy group. Positive correlations between SOST and IL2, OPG and MDA but negative with TNFa and OPN were found; also MMP9 was negatively correlated with TNFa and MCP-1
Introduction Humans are widely exposed to estrogenically active phthalates, parabens, and phenols, raising concerns about potential effects on breast tissue and breast cancer risk. We sought to determine the association of circulating serum levels of these chemicals (reflecting recent exposure) with mammographic breast density (a marker of breast cancer risk). Methods We recruited postmenopausal women aged 55 to 70 years from mammography clinics in Madison, Wisconsin (N = 264). Subjects completed a questionnaire and provided a blood sample that was analyzed for mono-ethyl phthalate, mono-butyl phthalate, mono-benzyl phthalate, butyl paraben, propyl paraben, octylphenol, nonylphenol, and bisphenol A (BPA). Percentage breast density was measured from mammograms by using a computer-assisted thresholding method. Results Serum BPA was positively associated with mammographic breast density after adjusting for age, body mass index, and other potentially confounding factors. Mean percentage density was 12.6% (95% confidence interval (CI), 11.4 to 14.0) among the 193 women with nondetectable BPA levels, 13.7% (95% CI, 10.7 to 17.1) among the 35 women with detectable levels below the median (<0.55 ng/ml), and 17.6% (95% CI, 14.1 to 21.5) among the 34 women with detectable levels above the median (>0.55 ng/ml; Ptrend = 0.01). Percentage breast density was also elevated (18.2%; 95% CI, 13.4 to 23.7) among the 18 women with serum mono-ethyl phthalate above the median detected level (>3.77 ng/ml) compared with women with nondetectable BPA levels (13.1%; 95% CI, 11.9 to 14.3; Ptrend = 0.07). No other chemicals demonstrated associations with percentage breast density. Conclusions Postmenopausal women with high serum levels of BPA and mono-ethyl phthalate had elevated breast density. Further investigation of the impact of BPA and mono-ethyl phthalate on breast cancer risk by using repeated serum measurements or other markers of xenoestrogen exposure are needed. PMID:23710608
Cabrera de León, Antonio; Almeida González, Delia; González Hernández, Ana; Domínguez Coello, Santiago; Marrugat, Jaume; Juan Alemán Sánchez, José; Brito Díaz, Buenaventura; Marcelino Rodríguez, Itahisa; Pérez, María del Cristo Rodríguez
The serum resistin level is associated with the incidence of ischemic heart disease in the general population. We analyzed the associations between serum resistin and fat intake, serum lipid concentrations and adiposity in the general population. A cross-sectional study of 6,637 randomly recruited adults was conducted. The resistin levels were measured in thawed aliquots of serum using an enzyme immunoanalysis technique. The resistin level exhibited a positive nonparametric correlation with saturated fat intake(p < 0.001) and an inverse correlation with adherence to the Mediterranean diet(p < 0.001), monounsaturated fat intake(p < 0.05), total serum cholesterol(p < 0.001), non-HDL cholesterol(p < 0.001), LDL cholesterol(p < 0.001), body mass index(p < 0.001), waist circumference(p < 0.001) and the waist/height ratio(p < 0.001). An elevated resistin concentration(fifth quintile) was associated with adherence to the Mediterranean diet(OR=0.82 CI95%=0.71-0.93), saturated fat intake(OR=1.34 CI95%=1.16-1.56), monounsaturated fat intake(OR=0.88 CI95%=0.78-0.99), a total cholesterol level of ≥200 mg/dL(OR=0.81 CI95%=0.72-0.91), a low HDL cholesterol level(OR=0.84 CI95%= 0.76-0.93), a high non-HDL cholesterol level(OR=0.84 CI95%=0.72-0.99), a high LDL cholesterol level(OR=0.82 CI95%=0.70-0.97) and a waist/height ratio of ≥0.55(OR=0.76 CI95%=0.67-0.85). The multivariate models corroborated the positive associations between the resistin level and saturated fat intake(p < 0.001) and serum triglycerides(p=0.004) and the inverse associations between the resistin level and adherence to the Mediterranean diet(p=0.002), total serum cholesterol(p < 0.001) and cholesterol fractions and the waist/height ratio(p=0.02). In the general population, the serum resistin level is associated with fat intake: positively with saturated fat intake and inversely with monounsaturated fat intake. As a consequence, the resistin level is also inversely associated with adherence to the
Skaper, S D; Selak, I; Varon, S
Explants of embryonic day 8 (E8) chicken dorsal root ganglia (DRG) have been cultured with medium containing serum or the serum-free supplement N1 on one of three substrata: collagen, polyornithine (PORN), or PORN exposed to a polyornithine-binding neurite-promoting factor (PNPF-PORN). Replicate cultures were maintained with or without nerve growth factor (NGF). NGF elicited its classical neuritic outgrowth on all three substrata in serum-containing or serum-free medium. In the absence of NGF, however, a gradation of increasing neurite growth was seen with: PNPF-PORN greater than PORN greater than collagen. This response occurred in both media. In addition, the neuritic halo in each instance was markedly more developed in the absence of serum, especially on PNPF-PORN. Nonneuronal behaviors reflected both serum and substratum influences: thus, nonneuronal outgrowth consisted mainly of flat cells with serum and collagen, was nonexistent with serum and PORN or PNPF-PORN, and involved mostly Schwann-like scattered cells in the absence of serum on any one substratum. The serum-dependent behaviors of ganglionic neurites were examined further with explants from chicken E11 sympathetic ganglia. A single substratum was used (PORN), without exogenous trophic factor. Neurite outgrowth was depressed by the presence of fetal calf serum, thus supporting the generality of this phenomenon. Lastly, PC12 cells, a clonal line of rat pheochromocytoma, will grow neurites in the presence of NGF after 48 hr in serum-free, but not serum-containing media. Addition of serum to serum-free cultures at this time results in the rapid and complete retraction of neurites.
Barrón-González, M P; Villarreal-Treviño, L; Verduzco-Martínez, J A; Mata-Cárdenas, B D; Morales-Vallarta, M R
The current media for axenic cultivation of Entamoeba histolytica and Entamoeba invadens are supplemented with bovine or equine serum, which provides several essential nutrients to amoebas. Serum has also been considered an essential component in encystation media for E. invadens. A substitute of serum, PACSR has been described as an alternative for growth of E. histolytica and also maintains growth of E. invadens. When PACSR was used instead of serum for encystation of E. invadens the efficiency was the same as for serum. Our present data show that PACSR can support the growth and induction of encystation of E. invadens strain IP-1.
Carter, D. C.; Chang, B.; Ho, J. X.; Keeling, K.; Krishnasami, Z.
Several crystal forms of serum albumin suitable for three-dimensional structure determination have been grown. These forms include crystals of recombinant and wild-type human serum albumin, baboon serum albumin, and canine serum albumin. The intrinsic limits of X-ray diffraction for these crystals are in the range 0.28-0.22 nm. Two of the crystal forms produced from human and canine albumin include incorporated long-chain fatty acids. Molecular replacement experiments have been successfully conducted on each crystal form using the previously determined atomic coordinates of human serum albumin illustrating the conserved tertiary structure.
Carter, D. C.; Chang, B.; Ho, J. X.; Keeling, K.; Krishnasami, Z.
Several crystal forms of serum albumin suitable for three-dimensional structure determination have been grown. These forms include crystals of recombinant and wild-type human serum albumin, baboon serum albumin, and canine serum albumin. The intrinsic limits of X-ray diffraction for these crystals are in the range 0.28-0.22 nm. Two of the crystal forms produced from human and canine albumin include incorporated long-chain fatty acids. Molecular replacement experiments have been successfully conducted on each crystal form using the previously determined atomic coordinates of human serum albumin illustrating the conserved tertiary structure.
Lopez, A.L.; Kohrs, M.B.; Horwitz, D.L.; Cyborski, C.K.; Czajka-Narins, D.M.; Kamath, S.
To determine the effect of glucose loading on serum zinc concentrations, 34 elderly subjects aged 60-86 y were studied. Anthropometric data, medical and dietary histories were obtained. Serum zinc and glucose concentrations were obtained fasting and 1/2, 1, 1 1/2, 2 and 3 h after 75 g oral glucose load; glycohemoglobin and fasting serum lipids were also determined. For comparison, the subjects were categorized as: normal or low serum zinc concentrations; normal or high body mass index BMI; normal or high sum of skinfolds and normal or high serum cholesterol. Results showed that low serum zinc concentrations increased significantly over baseline values after the glucose load and did not return to fasting levels. On the other hand, mean serum zinc concentrations significantly declined without recovery for those with normal zinc values. For the total group, no significant differences were noted between fasting values and subsequent time periods. No correlations were noted between fasting serum zinc and area under the curve for zinc except in the high BMI group (positive correlation observed). For the high BMI group, fasting serum zinc differed significantly from the succeeding measurements except for 30 min. For the group as a whole, mean serum zinc concentration was within normal limits (76.9 +/- 2.8 mcg/ml): mean zinc intake was less than 2/3rds the RDA. They conclude that glucose ingestion may alter serum zinc and should be considered in interpreting these levels.
Belsom, Adam; Schneider, Michael; Fischer, Lutz; Brock, Oliver; Rappsilber, Juri
Chemical cross-linking combined with mass spectrometry has proven useful for studying protein-protein interactions and protein structure, however the low density of cross-link data has so far precluded its use in determining structures de novo. Cross-linking density has been typically limited by the chemical selectivity of the standard cross-linking reagents that are commonly used for protein cross-linking. We have implemented the use of a heterobifunctional cross-linking reagent, sulfosuccinimidyl 4,4'-azipentanoate (sulfo-SDA), combining a traditional sulfo-N-hydroxysuccinimide (sulfo-NHS) ester and a UV photoactivatable diazirine group. This diazirine yields a highly reactive and promiscuous carbene species, the net result being a greatly increased number of cross-links compared with homobifunctional, NHS-based cross-linkers. We present a novel methodology that combines the use of this high density photo-cross-linking data with conformational space search to investigate the structure of human serum albumin domains, from purified samples, and in its native environment, human blood serum. Our approach is able to determine human serum albumin domain structures with good accuracy: root-mean-square deviation to crystal structure are 2.8/5.6/2.9 Å (purified samples) and 4.5/5.9/4.8Å (serum samples) for domains A/B/C for the first selected structure; 2.5/4.9/2.9 Å (purified samples) and 3.5/5.2/3.8 Å (serum samples) for the best out of top five selected structures. Our proof-of-concept study on human serum albumin demonstrates initial potential of our approach for determining the structures of more proteins in the complex biological contexts in which they function and which they may require for correct folding. Data are available via ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD001692. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.
Yu, Ling; Li, Han; Wang, Shi-Xiang
The study aimed to investigate the potential contributing effect of serum magnesium on mortality in maintenance hemodialysis (MHD) patients. The patients receiving regular MHD in March 2013 were involved. Baseline data including clinical data, anthropometrics and biochemical measurement were collected. After being followed for 36 months, the time of death and reason were recorded. One hundred and thirty-five MHD patients were enrolled in the study and analyzed, with mean serum magnesium of 1.11 ± 0.15 mmol/l. The level of serum magnesium in 64 patients was normal (47.4%), and it was elevated in 71 of the 135 patients (52.6%). And none of MHD patients had hypomagnesemia. The levels of serum albumin (Alb), urea nitrogen, creatinine (Cr), uric acid and phosphorus were significantly higher, but high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (Hs-CRP) and lipoprotein A were significantly lower in hypermagnesemia group compared to the normal serum magnesium group (p < 0.05). Serum Alb, serum Cr, serum phosphorus and Hs-CRP were related factors of hypermagnesemia by multivariate logistic regression analysis (p < 0.05). During the 36 months of follow-up, 27 patients died (20.0%), of whom 55.6% died of cardiovascular (CV) events. Kaplan-Meier curves showed that cumulative incidence of CV mortality were significantly higher in the normal serum magnesium group than in the hypermagnesemia group (p = 0.027); however, there was no significant difference in all-cause mortality (p > 0.05). Serum magnesium was elevated, which was related with nutrition and inflammation markers including serum Alb, serum Cr, serum phosphorus and Hs-CRP. Lower serum magnesium is a risk factor of CV mortality in MHD patients. Intervention studies are needed to clarify whether magnesium supplementation is beneficial for improving patient prognosis, when MHD patients had inflammatory and malnutrition. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.
of Ebola virus-infected cynomolgus monkeys with immunoglobulin from hyperimmune horses. Arch Virol 11: 135–140. 13. Jahrling PB, Geisbert TW, Geisbert...JB, Swearengen JR, Bray M, et al. (1999) Evaluation of immune globulin and recombinant interferon-alpha2b for treatment of experimental Ebola virus...40: 270–273. 18. Kudoyarova-Zubavichene NM, Sergeyev NN, Chepurnov AA, Netesov SV (1999) Preparation and use of hyperimmune serum for prophylaxis and
Forzy, G; Quelquejay, J; Dhondt, J-L
Osmolality can be measured or calculated. More than ten formulas have been proposed for calculating serum osmolality from chemical concentrations. The aim of this work was to compare results obtained whith some of these formulas, those calculated in the laboratory using a multiple regression model and measurements with an osmometer. Scattered results for natremia and chloremia, depending on the automate, led us to define formulas adapted for each measurement system in order to reduce the risk of error in the evaluation of the " osmolar gap ".
Sonnino, Sandro; Chiricozzi, Elena; Ciampa, Maria Grazia; Mauri, Laura; Prinetti, Alessandro; Toffano, Gino; Aureli, Massimo
In peripheral neuropathies, such as sensorimotor neuropathies, motor neuron diseases, or the Guillain-Barré syndrome, serum antibodies recognizing saccharide units, portion of oligosaccharides, or oligosaccharide chains, have been found. These antibodies are called anti-glycosphingolipid (GSL) or anti-ganglioside antibodies. However, the information on the aglycone carrying the hydrophilic oligosaccharide remains elusive. The absolute and unique association of GSL to the onset, development and symptomatology of the peripheral neuropathies could be misleading. Here, we report some thoughts on the matter.
Chandra, R K
Serum haemolytic complement activity and C3 were significantly decreased in 35 malnourished children. The changes were more pronounced in those with infection. Electrophoretically altered forms of complement C were detected in 14. There was an inverse correlation between C3 levels and immunoconglutinin titres. Nutritional rehabilitation and eradication of infection reversed the abnormalities. It is suggested that reduced complement function in malnutrition is the combined result of impaired synthesis, complement activation in vivo, and changes in plasma volume, and that it may contribute to an increased susceptibility to infection in undernourished individuals. PMID:807166
Heras, Manuel; Fernández-Reyes, María José
Abnormalities in potassium concentrations are associated with morbidity and mortality. In recent years it has been considered that small variations in serum potassium concentrations within normal intervals may also be associated with mortality. Strategies for achieving normokalaemia include dietary measures, limiting the use of potassium retaining drugs, and use of conventional cation exchange resins (calcium/sodium polystyrene sulfonate) and/or the new non-absorbed cation exchange polymer (patiromer). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Conwill, D E; Granger, D N; Cook, B H; Johnson, B B; Taylor, A E
Clinical data in neprtotic and nonnephrotic subjects were examined to help delineate the mechanism of hypercholesterolemia in nephrotic syndrome. Analyses of the relationship between total serum cholesterol and serum albumin levels and between total serum cholesterol and calculated serum oncotic pressure in 500 nonnephrotic individuals revealed strong positive correlations (r = 0.9714, p less than 0.001 and r = 0.9720, p less than 0.001, respectively). Serum beta-lipoprotein concentration was found to bear an inverse relationship to measured serum oncotic pressure in 13 nephrotic patients (r = -0.8192, p less than 0.01). Our results lend support to the thesis that serum oncotic pressure is the major governing factor in hypercholesterolemia in nephrotic syndrome.
Janetzki, Sylvia; Price, L; Britten, C M; van der Burg, S H; Caterini, J; Currier, J R; Ferrari, G; Gouttefangeas, C; Hayes, P; Kaempgen, E; Lennerz, V; Nihlmark, K; Souza, V; Hoos, A
The choice of serum for supplementation of media for T cell assays and in particular, Elispot has been a major challenge for assay performance, standardization, optimization, and reproducibility. The Assay Working Group of the Cancer Vaccine Consortium (CVC-CRI) has recently identified the choice of serum to be the leading cause for variability and suboptimal performance in large international Elispot proficiency panels. Therefore, a serum task force was initiated to compare the performance of commercially available serum-free media to laboratories' own medium/serum combinations. The objective of this project was to investigate whether a serum-free medium exists that performs as well as lab-own serum/media combinations with regard to antigen-specific responses and background reactivity in Elispot. In this way, a straightforward solution could be provided to address the serum challenge. Eleven laboratories tested peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from four donors for their reactivity against two peptide pools, following their own Standard Operating Procedure (SOP). Each laboratory performed five simultaneous experiments with the same SOP, the only difference between the experiments was the medium used. The five media were lab-own serum-supplemented medium, AIM-V, CTL, Optmizer, and X-Vivo. The serum task force results demonstrate compellingly that serum-free media perform as well as qualified medium/serum combinations, independent of the applied SOP. Recovery and viability of cells are largely unaffected by serum-free conditions even after overnight resting. Furthermore, one serum-free medium was identified that appears to enhance antigen-specific IFNgamma-secretion.
Singh, J; Hutton, T; Hussain, M; Waring, J J
This study investigates the inotropic effects of serum, its protein and lipid extracts, and commercial serum proteins and lipid on the isolated, spontaneously-beating heart and superfused, hypodynamic ventricle of the frog. Serum taken from either man, horse, calf, frog, or rabbit evoked marked positive inotropic responses which were unaffected by cholinergic, serotonergic, and adrenergic receptor antagonists. Dialysed serum (dialisand) and void volume fractions from Sephadex G200-120 columns corresponding to large molecular weight constituents evoked marked positive inotropic responses. When serum was separated into fractions containing either proteins or lipids/lipoproteins by high-density ultracentrifugation or activated charcoal, both extracts evoked marked positive inotropic responses. Commercial serum globulins and serum containing a high proportion of immunoglobulins elicited large increases in contractile force, whereas serum albumin evoked a negative inotropic effect. Serum which was either boiled and/or treated with chymotrypsin to denature proteins also caused a marked increase in isometric twitch tension in the frog heart. Similar inotropic response was obtained with fractions of boiled serum eluted on columns of Sephadex G200-120. These fractions corresponded to molecular weight in the region of 60-70 kDa. However, the inotropic effect of boiled serum was abolished following pretreatment with lipase. Superfusion of frog hearts with commercial cardiolipin resulted in marked dose-dependent increases in contractile force. The results demonstrate the presence of at least two large molecular weight cardioactive principles in serum. These substances are comparable in size to constituents of serum proteins (e.g., globulins and immunoglobulins) and serum lipids/lipoproteins (e.g., cardiolipin) and may serve as physiological regulators of cardiac function.
Liu, Linsheng; Aa, Jiye; Wang, Guangji; Yan, Bei; Zhang, Ying; Wang, Xinwen; Zhao, Chunyan; Cao, Bei; Shi, Jian; Li, Mengjie; Zheng, Tian; Zheng, Yuanting; Hao, Gang; Zhou, Fang; Sun, Jianguo; Wu, Zimei
In metabolomic research, blood plasma and serum have been considered to possess similar compositions and properties. Their perceived equivalence has resulted in researchers choosing arbitrarily between serum and plasma for analysis. Here, routine serum and plasma were prepared and their low-molecular-weight compounds were determined using gas chromatography/time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Principal components analysis was applied to process the acquired data, and marked differences in metabolite profiles were observed between serum and plasma. Of the 72 identified compounds, 36 (50%) discriminate serum from plasma, with 29 and 7 metabolites showing a significantly higher abundance (t test, P<0.05) in serum and plasma, respectively. Incubation of blood had distinct effects on the analyte peak areas, with the effects being more pronounced for plasma than for serum and more pronounced for a shorter incubation than for a longer incubation. These results highlight the importance in choosing serum or plasma as the analytical sample and in stipulating the incubation time. Because incubation affected the analyte peak areas less in serum than in plasma, we recommend serum as the sample of choice in metabolomic studies.
Doumas, B T
We have studied the standardization of total serum protein assay with the biuret reaction. Standard solutions were prepared from lyophilized preparations of human serum albumin and bovine serum albumin, with corrections made for volatile material and ash contents. These solutions and a solution of crystalline albumin standard were analyzed with a new stable biuret reagent, to establish absorptivity values (values for the absorbance of a 1 g/liter final reaction mixture). The mean values obtained were 0.302, 0.292, and 0.290 for human serum albumin, bovine serum albumin, and the crystalline albumin, respectively. We believe that the established absorptivity value will improve the accuracy of serum protein determinations. We studied the linearity of the relation between color produced and protein concentration, with use of the solutions described above and a serum pool. The color adheres to Beer's law up to the highest concentration tested: 3 g/liter for HSA and BSA, and 2.8 g/liter for serum in the final reaction mixture. The new biuret reagent has been stable for one year at room temperature. We recommend the use of bovine serum albumin as a primary standard for serum protein assays. It is inexpensive, easily available, and exhibits the best linearity in the biuret reaction.
Skikne, B S; Flowers, C H; Cook, J D
This study was undertaken to evaluate the role of serum transferrin receptor measurements in the assessment of iron status. Repeated phlebotomies were performed in 14 normal volunteer subjects to obtain varying degrees of iron deficiency. Serial measurements of serum iron, total iron-binding capacity, mean cell volume (MCV), free erythrocyte protoporphyrin (FEP), red cell mean index, serum ferritin, and serum transferrin receptor were performed throughout the phlebotomy program. There was no change in receptor levels during the phase of storage iron depletion. When the serum ferritin level reached subnormal values there was an increase in serum receptor levels, which continued throughout the phlebotomy program. Functional iron deficiency was defined as a reduction in body iron beyond the point of depleted iron stores. The serum receptor level was a more sensitive and reliable guide to the degree of functional iron deficiency than either the FEP or MCV. Our studies indicate that the serum receptor measurement is of particular value in identifying mild iron deficiency of recent onset. The iron status of a population can be fully assessed by using serum ferritin as a measure of iron stores, serum receptor as a measure of mild tissue iron deficiency, and hemoglobin concentration as a measure of advanced iron deficiency.
Poór, Miklós; Lemli, Beáta; Bálint, Mónika; Hetényi, Csaba; Sali, Nikolett; Kőszegi, Tamás; Kunsági-Máté, Sándor
Citrinin (CIT) is a mycotoxin produced by several Aspergillus, Penicillium, and Monascus species. CIT occurs worldwide in different foods and drinks and causes health problems for humans and animals. Human serum albumin (HSA) is the most abundant plasma protein in human circulation. Albumin forms stable complexes with many drugs and xenobiotics; therefore, HSA commonly plays important role in the pharmacokinetics or toxicokinetics of numerous compounds. However, the interaction of CIT with HSA is poorly characterized yet. In this study, the complex formation of CIT with HSA was investigated using fluorescence spectroscopy and ultrafiltration techniques. For the deeper understanding of the interaction, thermodynamic, and molecular modeling studies were performed as well. Our results suggest that CIT forms stable complex with HSA (logK ~ 5.3) and its primary binding site is located in subdomain IIA (Sudlow’s Site I). In vitro cell experiments also recommend that CIT-HSA interaction may have biological relevance. Finally, the complex formations of CIT with bovine, porcine, and rat serum albumin were investigated, in order to test the potential species differences of CIT-albumin interactions. PMID:26633504