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Sample records for chain polyunsaturated fatty

  1. Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in chronic childhood disorders: panacea, promising, or placebo

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA, or LCP) include the essential fatty acids alpha-linolenic acid (ALA, 18:3 n-3) and linoleic acid (LA, 18:2 n-6) as well as a number of metabolites of both, including eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 20:5n-3), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n-3), and arachid...

  2. Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid sources and evaluation of their nutritional and functional properties

    PubMed Central

    Abedi, Elahe; Sahari, Mohammad Ali

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies have clearly shown the importance of polyunsaturated fatty acids (as essential fatty acids) and their nutritional value for human health. In this review, various sources, nutritional properties, and metabolism routes of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA) are introduced. Since the conversion efficiency of linoleic acid (LA) to arachidonic acid (AA) and also α-linolenic acid (ALA) to docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosatetraenoic acid (EPA) is low in humans, looking for the numerous sources of AA, EPA and EPA fatty acids. The sources include aquatic (fish, crustaceans, and mollusks), animal sources (meat, egg, and milk), plant sources including 20 plants, most of which were weeds having a good amount of LC-PUFA, fruits, herbs, and seeds; cyanobacteria; and microorganisms (bacteria, fungi, microalgae, and diatoms). PMID:25473503

  3. Biosynthesis of very-long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in transgenic oilseeds: constraints on their accumulation.

    PubMed

    Abbadi, Amine; Domergue, Fréderic; Bauer, Jörg; Napier, Johnathan A; Welti, Ruth; Zähringer, Ulrich; Cirpus, Petra; Heinz, Ernst

    2004-10-01

    Omega6- and omega3-polyunsaturated C20 fatty acids represent important components of the human diet. A more regular consumption and an accordingly sustainable source of these compounds are highly desirable. In contrast with the very high levels to which industrial fatty acids have to be enriched in plant oils for competitive use as chemical feedstocks, much lower percentages of very-long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (VLCPUFA) in edible plant oils would satisfy nutritional requirements. Seed-specific expression in transgenic tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) and linseed (Linum usitatissimum) of cDNAs encoding fatty acyl-desaturases and elongases, absent from all agronomically important plants, resulted in the very high accumulation of Delta6-desaturated C18 fatty acids and up to 5% of C20 polyunsaturated fatty acids, including arachidonic and eicosapentaenoic acid. Detailed lipid analyses of developing seeds from transgenic plants were interpretated as indicating that, after desaturation on phosphatidylcholine, Delta6-desaturated products are immediately channeled to the triacylglycerols and effectively bypass the acyl-CoA pool. Thus, the lack of available Delta6-desaturated acyl-CoA substrates in the acyl-CoA pool limits the synthesis of elongated C20 fatty acids and disrupts the alternating sequence of lipid-linked desaturations and acyl-CoA dependent elongations. As well as the successful production of VLCPUFA in transgenic oilseeds and the identification of constraints on their accumulation, our results indicate alternative strategies to circumvent this bottleneck.

  4. Medium-chain triglyceride and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid-containing emulsions in intravenous nutrition.

    PubMed

    Chan, S; McCowen, K C; Bistrian, B

    1998-03-01

    Medium-chain triglycerides and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid emulsions as a physical mixture have attracted increasing interest for use in parenteral nutrition and may play an important role in the development of structured triglycerides in a future generation of new lipids. Over the past two decades, the clinical use of intravenous emulsion for the nutritional support of hospitalized patients has relied exclusively on long-chain triglycerides providing both a safe, calorically dense alternative to dextrose and a source of essential fatty acids needed for biological membranes and maintenance of the immune function. During the past decade, the development of new triglycerides (medium- and long-chain triglyceride emulsions and structured triglyceride emulsions) for parenteral use have provided useful advances and opportunities to enhance nutritional and metabolic support. Medium-chain triglycerides and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid emulsions possess unique physical, chemical, and metabolic properties that make them theoretically advantageous over the conventional long-chain triglycerides. The physical mixture of medium- and long-chain triglycerides have been used clinically in patients with critical illness, liver disease, immunosuppression, pulmonary disease, and in premature infants, with good tolerance and the avoidance of some of the problems encountered with long-chain triglycerides alone. PMID:10565343

  5. Bacterial Long-Chain Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids: Their Biosynthetic Genes, Functions, and Practical Use

    PubMed Central

    Yoshida, Kiyohito; Hashimoto, Mikako; Hori, Ryuji; Adachi, Takumi; Okuyama, Hidetoshi; Orikasa, Yoshitake; Nagamine, Tadashi; Shimizu, Satoru; Ueno, Akio; Morita, Naoki

    2016-01-01

    The nutritional and pharmaceutical values of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFAs) such as arachidonic, eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids have been well recognized. These LC-PUFAs are physiologically important compounds in bacteria and eukaryotes. Although little is known about the biosynthetic mechanisms and functions of LC-PUFAs in bacteria compared to those in higher organisms, a combination of genetic, bioinformatic, and molecular biological approaches to LC-PUFA-producing bacteria and some eukaryotes have revealed the notably diverse organization of the pfa genes encoding a polyunsaturated fatty acid synthase complex (PUFA synthase), the LC-PUFA biosynthetic processes, and tertiary structures of the domains of this enzyme. In bacteria, LC-PUFAs appear to take part in specific functions facilitating individual membrane proteins rather than in the adjustment of the physical fluidity of the whole cell membrane. Very long chain polyunsaturated hydrocarbons (LC-HCs) such as hentriacontanonaene are considered to be closely related to LC-PUFAs in their biosynthesis and function. The possible role of LC-HCs in strictly anaerobic bacteria under aerobic and anaerobic environments and the evolutionary relationships of anaerobic and aerobic bacteria carrying pfa-like genes are also discussed. PMID:27187420

  6. The function of very long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in the pineal gland.

    PubMed

    Catalá, Angel

    2010-02-01

    The mammalian pineal gland is a prominent secretory organ with a high metabolic activity. Melatonin (N-acetyl-5-methoxytryptamine), the main secretory product of the pineal gland, efficiently scavenges both the hydroxyl and peroxyl radicals counteracting lipid peroxidation in biological membranes. Approximately 25% of the total fatty acids present in the rat pineal lipids are represented by arachidonic acid (20:4n-6) and docosahexaenoic acid (22:6n-3). These very long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids play important roles in the pineal gland. In addition to the production of melatonin, the mammalian pineal gland is able of convert these polyunsaturated fatty acids into bioactive lipid mediators. Lipoxygenation is the principal lipoxygenase (LOX) activity observed in the rat pineal gland. Lipoxygenation in the pineal gland is exceptional because no other brain regions express significant LOX activities under normal physiological conditions. The rat pineal gland expresses both 12- and 15-lipoxygenase (LOX) activities, producing 12- and 15-hydroperoxyeicosatetraenoic acid (12- and 15-HpETE) from arachidonic acid and 14- and 17-hydroxydocosahexaenoic acid (14- and 17-HdoHE) from docosahexaenoic acid, respectively. The rat pineal also produces hepoxilins via LOX pathways. The hepoxilins are bioactive epoxy-hydroxy products of the arachidonic acid metabolism via the 12S-lipoxygenase (12S-LOX) pathway. The two key pineal biochemical functions, lipoxygenation and melatonin synthesis, may be synergistically regulated by the status of n-3 essential fatty acids.

  7. Mechanisms involved in the selective transfer of long chain polyunsaturated Fatty acids to the fetus.

    PubMed

    Gil-Sánchez, Alfonso; Demmelmair, Hans; Parrilla, J J; Koletzko, Berthold; Larqué, Elvira

    2011-01-01

    The concentration of long chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (LCPUFA) in the fetal brain increases dramatically from the third trimester until 18 months of life. Several studies have shown an association between the percentage of maternal plasma docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) during gestation and development of cognitive functions in the neonate. Since only very low levels of LCPUFA are synthesized in the fetus and placenta, their primary source for the fetus is the maternal circulation. Both in vitro and human in vivo studies using labeled fatty acids have shown preferential transfer of LCPUFA from the placenta to the fetus compared with other fatty acids, although the mechanisms involved are still uncertain. The placenta takes up circulating maternal non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) and fatty acids released mainly by maternal lipoprotein lipase and endothelial lipase. These NEFA may enter the cell by passive diffusion or by means of membrane carrier proteins. Once in the cytosol, NEFA bind to cytosolic fatty acid-binding proteins for transfer to the fetal circulation or can be oxidized within the trophoblasts, and even re-esterified and stored in lipid droplets. Although trophoblast cells are not specialized for lipid storage, LCPUFA may up-regulate peroxisome proliferator activated receptor-γ (PPARγ) and hence the gene expression of fatty acid transport carriers, fatty acid acyl-CoA-synthetases and adipophilin or other enzymes involved in lipolysis, modifying the rate of placental transfer, and metabolism. The placental transfer of LCPUFA during pregnancy seems to be a key factor in the neurological development of the fetus. Increased knowledge of the factors that modify placental transfer of fatty acids would contribute to our understanding of this complex process. PMID:22303352

  8. Alternative Sources of n-3 Long-Chain Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids in Marine Microalgae

    PubMed Central

    Martins, Dulce Alves; Custódio, Luísa; Barreira, Luísa; Pereira, Hugo; Ben-Hamadou, Radhouan; Varela, João; Abu-Salah, Khalid M.

    2013-01-01

    The main source of n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA) in human nutrition is currently seafood, especially oily fish. Nonetheless, due to cultural or individual preferences, convenience, geographic location, or awareness of risks associated to fatty fish consumption, the intake of fatty fish is far from supplying the recommended dietary levels. The end result observed in most western countries is not only a low supply of n-3 LC-PUFA, but also an unbalance towards the intake of n-6 fatty acids, resulting mostly from the consumption of vegetable oils. Awareness of the benefits of LC-PUFA in human health has led to the use of fish oils as food supplements. However, there is a need to explore alternatives sources of LC-PUFA, especially those of microbial origin. Microalgae species with potential to accumulate lipids in high amounts and to present elevated levels of n-3 LC-PUFA are known in marine phytoplankton. This review focuses on sources of n-3 LC-PUFA, namely eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids, in marine microalgae, as alternatives to fish oils. Based on current literature, examples of marketed products and potentially new species for commercial exploitation are presented. PMID:23807546

  9. Metabolic engineering of microorganisms to produce omega-3 very long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Gong, Yangmin; Wan, Xia; Jiang, Mulan; Hu, Chuanjiong; Hu, Hanhua; Huang, Fenghong

    2014-10-01

    Omega-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFAs) have received growing attention due to their significant roles in human health. Currently the main source of these nutritionally and medically important fatty acids is marine fish, which has not met ever-increasing global demand. Microorganisms are an important alternative source also being explored. Although many microorganisms accumulate omega-3 LC-PUFAs naturally, metabolic engineering might still be necessary for significantly improving their yields. Here, we review recent research involving the engineering of microorganisms for production of omega-3 LC-PUFAs, including eicospentaenoic acid and docosohexaenoic acid. Both reconstitution of omega-3 LC-PUFA biosynthetic pathways and modification of existing pathways in microorganisms have demonstrated the potential to produce high levels of omega-3 LC-PUFAs. However, the yields of omega-3 LC-PUFAs in host systems have been substantially limited by potential metabolic bottlenecks, which might be caused partly by inefficient flux of fatty acid intermediates between the acyl-CoA and different lipid class pools. Although fatty acid flux in both native and heterologous microbial hosts might be controlled by several acyltransferases, evidence has suggested that genetic manipulation of one acyltransferase alone could significantly increase the accumulation of LC-PUFAs. The number of oleaginous microorganisms that can be genetically transformed is increasing, which will advance engineering efforts to maximize LC-PUFA yields in microbial strains.

  10. Dietary long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids modify heart, kidney, and lung fatty acid composition in weanling rats.

    PubMed

    Suárez, A; Faus, M J; Gil, A

    1996-03-01

    The fatty acid composition of heart, kidney, and lung was studied in weanling rats fed three diets differing in their polyunsaturated fatty acid content for 0, 2, and 4 wk. The first group had a 10% w/w fat semipurified diet which consisted of a mixture of olive oil (62.5%), soybean oil (11.1%), and refined coconut oil (26.4%) and provided 18:1n-9, 18:2n-6, and 18:3n-3 in similar amounts to a maternal human milk (diet HO). The second group received 7% of HO fat and 3% fish oil (0.4% 20:4n-6 and 5% 22:6n-3 of total fatty acids) (diet FO), and the third group was fed 7% HO fat, 1.5% of the same fish oil, and 1.5% of a purified pig brain phospholipid concentrate (0.6% 20:4n-6 and 3.5% 22:6n-3 of total fatty acids) (diet FO + BPL). The experimental diets increased tissue monounsaturated fatty acids in comparison with rats at weaning. Tissue lipid content of 20:4n-6 was increased and 22:6n-3 decreased in Group HO compared with weanling rats, whereas opposite changes were observed in Group FO. Feeding diet FO + BPL increased 22:6n:3 in tissue lipids compared with diet HO, and increased 20:4n-6 content in relation to diet FO. Our results indicate that rat heart, kidney, and lung are highly responsive to dietary n-3 and n-6 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids during postnatal life. PMID:8900466

  11. PTH1 Receptor Is Involved in Mediating Cellular Response to Long-Chain Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids

    PubMed Central

    Chachisvilis, Mirianas

    2012-01-01

    The molecular pathways by which long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA) influence skeletal health remain elusive. Both LCPUFA and parathyroid hormone type 1 receptor (PTH1R) are known to be involved in bone metabolism while any direct link between the two is yet to be established. Here we report that LCPUFA are capable of direct, PTH1R dependent activation of extracellular ligand-regulated kinases (ERK). From a wide range of fatty acids studied, varying in chain length, saturation, and position of double bonds, eicosapentaenoic (EPA) and docosahexaenoic fatty acids (DHA) caused the highest ERK phosphorylation. Moreover, EPA potentiated the effect of parathyroid hormone (PTH(1–34)) in a superagonistic manner. EPA or DHA dependent ERK phosphorylation was inhibited by the PTH1R antagonist and by knockdown of PTH1R. Inhibition of PTH1R downstream signaling molecules, protein kinases A (PKA) and C (PKC), reduced EPA and DHA dependent ERK phosphorylation indicating that fatty acids predominantly activate G-protein pathway and not the β-arrestin pathway. Using picosecond time-resolved fluorescence microscopy and a genetically engineered PTH1R sensor (PTH-CC), we detected conformational responses to EPA similar to those caused by PTH(1–34). PTH1R antagonist blocked the EPA induced conformational response of the PTH-CC. Competitive binding studies using fluorescence anisotropy technique showed that EPA and DHA competitively bind to and alter the affinity of PTH1 receptor to PTH(1–34) leading to a superagonistic response. Finally, we showed that EPA stimulates protein kinase B (Akt) phosphorylation in a PTH1R-dependent manner and affects the osteoblast survival pathway, by inhibiting glucocorticoid-induced cell death. Our findings demonstrate for the first time that LCPUFAs, EPA and DHA, can activate PTH1R receptor at nanomolar concentrations and consequently provide a putative molecular mechanism for the action of fatty acids in bone. PMID:23300710

  12. Quantification of long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids by gas chromatography. Evaluation of factors affecting accuracy.

    PubMed

    Schreiner, Matthias

    2005-11-18

    The accurate and reproducible analysis of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) is of growing importance. Especially for labeling purposes, clear guidelines are needed in order to achieve optimum accuracy. Since calibration standards cannot be used for method validation due to the instability of PUFAs, there is no direct way to check for the absence of systematic errors. In this study the sources of error that weaken the accuracy were evaluated using theoretical considerations and calibration standards with corrected composition. It was demonstrated that the key role for optimum accuracy lies in the optimization of the split injection system. Even when following the instructions outlined in the official methods of the American Oil Chemist's Society (AOCS), systematic errors of more than 7% can arise. Clear guidelines regarding system calibration and selection of appropriate internal standards (IS) can improve precision and accuracy significantly.

  13. Omega-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids support aerial insectivore performance more than food quantity.

    PubMed

    Twining, Cornelia W; Brenna, J Thomas; Lawrence, Peter; Shipley, J Ryan; Tollefson, Troy N; Winkler, David W

    2016-09-27

    Once-abundant aerial insectivores, such as the Tree Swallow (Tachycineta bicolor), have declined steadily in the past several decades, making it imperative to understand all aspects of their ecology. Aerial insectivores forage on a mixture of aquatic and terrestrial insects that differ in fatty acid composition, specifically long-chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (LCPUFA) content. Aquatic insects contain high levels of both LCPUFA and their precursor omega-3 PUFA, alpha-linolenic acid (ALA), whereas terrestrial insects contain much lower levels of both. We manipulated both the quantity and quality of food for Tree Swallow chicks in a full factorial design. Diets were either high-LCPUFA or low in LCPUFA but high in ALA, allowing us to separate the effects of direct LCPUFA in diet from the ability of Tree Swallows to convert their precursor, ALA, into LCPUFA. We found that fatty acid composition was more important for Tree Swallow chick performance than food quantity. On high-LCPUFA diets, chicks grew faster, were in better condition, and had greater immunocompetence and lower basal metabolic rates compared with chicks on both low LCPUFA diets. Increasing the quantity of high-LCPUFA diets resulted in improvements to all metrics of performance while increasing the quantity of low-LCPUFA diets only resulted in greater immunocompetence and lower metabolic rates. Chicks preferentially retained LCPUFA in brain and muscle when both food quantity and LCPUFA were limited. Our work suggests that fatty acid composition is an important dimension of aerial insectivore nutritional ecology and reinforces the importance of high-quality aquatic habitat for these declining birds. PMID:27638210

  14. Omega-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids support aerial insectivore performance more than food quantity.

    PubMed

    Twining, Cornelia W; Brenna, J Thomas; Lawrence, Peter; Shipley, J Ryan; Tollefson, Troy N; Winkler, David W

    2016-09-27

    Once-abundant aerial insectivores, such as the Tree Swallow (Tachycineta bicolor), have declined steadily in the past several decades, making it imperative to understand all aspects of their ecology. Aerial insectivores forage on a mixture of aquatic and terrestrial insects that differ in fatty acid composition, specifically long-chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (LCPUFA) content. Aquatic insects contain high levels of both LCPUFA and their precursor omega-3 PUFA, alpha-linolenic acid (ALA), whereas terrestrial insects contain much lower levels of both. We manipulated both the quantity and quality of food for Tree Swallow chicks in a full factorial design. Diets were either high-LCPUFA or low in LCPUFA but high in ALA, allowing us to separate the effects of direct LCPUFA in diet from the ability of Tree Swallows to convert their precursor, ALA, into LCPUFA. We found that fatty acid composition was more important for Tree Swallow chick performance than food quantity. On high-LCPUFA diets, chicks grew faster, were in better condition, and had greater immunocompetence and lower basal metabolic rates compared with chicks on both low LCPUFA diets. Increasing the quantity of high-LCPUFA diets resulted in improvements to all metrics of performance while increasing the quantity of low-LCPUFA diets only resulted in greater immunocompetence and lower metabolic rates. Chicks preferentially retained LCPUFA in brain and muscle when both food quantity and LCPUFA were limited. Our work suggests that fatty acid composition is an important dimension of aerial insectivore nutritional ecology and reinforces the importance of high-quality aquatic habitat for these declining birds.

  15. Long chain polyunsaturated fatty acid production and partitioning to triacylglycerols in four microalgae.

    PubMed

    Tonon, Thierry; Harvey, David; Larson, Tony R; Graham, Ian A

    2002-09-01

    Gas chromatographic profiling of fatty acids was performed during the growth cycle of four marine microalgae in order to establish which, if any, of these could act as a reliable source of genes for the metabolic engineering of long chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (LC-PUFA) synthesis in alternative production systems. A high-throughput column based method for extraction of triacylglycerols (TAGs) was used to establish how much and at what stage in the growth phase LC-PUFAs partition to storage lipid in the different species. Differences in the time course of production and incorporation of docosahexaenoic acid (22:6n-3, DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5n-3, EPA) into TAGs were found in the marine microalgae Nannochloropsis oculata (Eustigmatophyceae), Phaeodactylum tricornutum and Thalassiosira pseudonana (Bacillariophyceae), and the Haptophyte Pavlova lutheri. Differences were not only observed between species but also during the different phases of growth within a species. A much higher percentage of the total cellular EPA was partitioned to TAGs in stationary phase cells of N. oculata compared to P. tricornutum. Although P. tricornutum produces DHA it does not partition it to TAGs. Both T. pseudonana and P. lutheri produce EPA and DHA and partition these to TAGs during the stationary phase of growth. These two species are therefore good candidates for further biochemical and molecular analysis, in order to understand and manipulate the processes that are responsible for the incorporation of LC-PUFAs into storage oils.

  16. Dietary long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids upregulate expression of FADS3 transcripts

    PubMed Central

    Reardon, Holly T.; Hsieh, Andrea T.; Park, Woo Jung; Kothapalli, Kumar S.D.; Anthony, Joshua C.; Nathanielsz, Peter W.; Brenna, J. Thomas

    2012-01-01

    The fatty acid desaturase (FADS) gene family at 11q12-13.1 includes FADS1 and FADS2, both known to mediate biosynthesis of omega-3 and omega-6 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA). FADS3 is a putative desaturase due to its sequence similarity with FADS1 and FADS2, but its function is unknown. We have previously described 7 FADS3 alternative transcripts (AT) and 1 FADS2 AT conserved across multiple species. This study examined the effect of dietary LCPUFA levels on liver FADS gene expression in vivo and in vitro, evaluated by qRT-PCR. Fourteen baboon neonates were randomized to three diet groups for their first 12 weeks of life: C: Control, no LCPUFA; L: 0.33% docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)/ 0.67% arachidonic acid (ARA) (w/w); and L3: 1.00% DHA/ 0.67% ARA (w/w). Liver FADS1 and both FADS2 transcripts were downregulated by at least 50% in the L3 group compared to controls. In contrast, FADS3 AT were upregulated (L3>C), with four transcripts significantly upregulated by 40% or more. However, there was no evidence for a shift in liver fatty acids to coincide with increased FADS3 expression. Significant upregulation of FADS3 AT was also observed in human liver-derived HepG2 cells after DHA or ARA treatment. The PPARγ antagonist GW9662 prevented FADS3 upregulation, while downregulation of FADS1 and FADS2 was unaffected. Thus, FADS3 AT were directly upregulated by LCPUFA by a PPARγ-dependent mechanism unrelated to regulation of other desaturases. This opposing pattern and mechanism of regulation suggests a dissimilar function for FADS3 AT compared to other FADS gene products. PMID:22398025

  17. Metabolic engineering of the omega-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acid biosynthetic pathway into transgenic plants.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-López, Noemi; Sayanova, Olga; Napier, Johnathan A; Haslam, Richard P

    2012-04-01

    Omega-3 (ω-3) very long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (VLC-PUFAs) such as eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA; 20:5 Δ5,8,11,14,17) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; 22:6 Δ4,7,10,13,16,19) have been shown to have significant roles in human health. Currently the primary dietary source of these fatty acids are marine fish; however, the increasing demand for fish and fish oil (in particular the expansion of the aquaculture industry) is placing enormous pressure on diminishing marine stocks. Such overfishing and concerns related to pollution in the marine environment have directed research towards the development of a viable alternative sustainable source of VLC-PUFAs. As a result, the last decade has seen many genes encoding the primary VLC-PUFA biosynthetic activities identified and characterized. This has allowed the reconstitution of the VLC-PUFA biosynthetic pathway in oilseed crops, producing transgenic plants engineered to accumulate ω-3 VLC-PUFAs at levels approaching those found in native marine organisms. Moreover, as a result of these engineering activities, knowledge of the fundamental processes surrounding acyl exchange and lipid remodelling has progressed. The application of new technologies, for example lipidomics and next-generation sequencing, is providing a better understanding of seed oil biosynthesis and opportunities for increasing the production of unusual fatty acids. Certainly, it is now possible to modify the composition of plant oils successfully, and, in this review, the most recent developments in this field and the challenges of producing VLC-PUFAs in the seed oil of higher plants will be described.

  18. The effect of dietary sulfur on the metabolism of long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, M.F.

    1988-01-01

    The effect of methionine-supplemented diet on the metabolism of polyunsaturated fatty acids was studied by comparing results of control and cysteine-supplemented diets in rats. Adult Sprague-Dawley rats were fed for a period of 17 days one of the following diets: control, cysteine-supplemented, and/or methionine-supplemented. On the last day of the feeding period, the rats were administered either (1-{sup 14}C) arachidonic acid (AA) or (1-{sup 14}C) eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) by stomach tube five hours before sacrificing. The cyclooxygenase activity in liver microsomes, the apparent Km of the fatty acyl-CoA synthetase in liver and brain homogenates, and the incorporation of polyunsaturated fatty acids into the phosphatidylinositol fraction of brain, heat, lung, spleen, and kidney tissues were analyzed.

  19. Folate and long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in psychiatric disease.

    PubMed

    Muskiet, Frits A J; Kemperman, Ramses F J

    2006-11-01

    Schizophrenia, autism and depression do not inherit by Mendel's law, and the search for a genetic basis seems unsuccessful. Schizophrenia and autism relate to low birth weight and pregnancy complications, which are associated with developmental adaptations by "programming". Epigenetics might constitute the basis of programming and depend on folate status and one-carbon metabolism in general. Early folate status of patients with schizophrenia might be compromised as suggested by (i) coinciding incidences of schizophrenia and neural tube defects (NTDs) in the Dutch hunger winter, (ii) coinciding seasonal fluctuations in birth of patients with schizophrenia and NTDs, (iii) higher schizophrenia incidence in immigrants and (iv) higher incidence in methylene tetrahydrofolate reductase 677C-->T homozygotes. Recent studies in schizophrenia and autism point at epigenetic silencing of critical genes or chromosomal loci. The long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA), arachidonic acid (AA, from meat) and docosahexaenoic acid (fish) are components of brain phospholipids and modulators of signal transduction and gene expression. Patients with schizophrenia and, possibly, autism exhibit abnormal phospholipid metabolism that might cause local AA depletion and impaired eicosanoid-mediated signal transduction. National fish intakes relate inversely with major and postpartum depressions. Five out of six randomized controlled trials with eicosapentaenoic acid (fish) have shown positive effects in schizophrenia, and 4 of 6 were favorable in depression and bipolar disorders. We conclude that folate and LCPUFA might be important in both the etiology and severity of at least some psychiatric diseases. PMID:16650750

  20. Metabolic health benefits of long-chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Howe, Peter; Buckley, Jon

    2014-11-01

    Restricting energy intake and increasing physical activity are advocated for reducing obesity, but many individuals have difficulty complying with these recommendations. Consumption of long-chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 LCPUFA) offers multiple mechanisms to counteract obesity, including appetite suppression; circulatory improvements, which promote nutrient delivery to skeletal muscle and changes in gene expression, which shift metabolism toward increased fat oxidation; increased energy expenditure; and reduced fat deposition. n-3 LCPUFA may also alter gene expression in skeletal muscle to suppress catabolic pathways and upregulate anabolic pathways, resulting in greater lean tissue mass, metabolic rate, and maintenance of physical function. n-3 LCPUFA supplementation has been shown to counteract obesity in rodents, but evidence in humans is limited. Epidemiological associations between n-3 LCPUFA intakes and obesity are inconclusive. Several studies, on the other hand, indicate inverse relationships between biomarkers of n-3 LCPUFA status and obesity, although causality is uncertain. There have been few human intervention trials of omega-3 supplementation for obesity; some have indicated potential benefits, especially when combined with energy-restricted diets or exercise. More trials are needed to confirm these effects and identify mechanisms of action.

  1. Synovial fluid and plasma n3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in patients with inflammatory arthritis.

    PubMed

    Moghaddami, Mahin; James, Michael; Proudman, Susanna; Cleland, Leslie G

    2015-06-01

    Relationships between n-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA) in plasma and synovial fluid (SF) were examined in 36 patients with knee effusion within the context of a variety of rheumatic diagnoses and various stated fish oil (FO) intakes (from 0 to 30mL of standard FO daily) of variable duration. In a sub-group of patients, correlations between PUFA in SF mononuclear cells (MNC) and cell-free supernatants of SF and between SF MNC and peripheral blood (PB) MNC were examined. Correlations were also sought between clinical data (stated FO intake, pain score) and n-3 LC-PUFA. Correlations between plasma n-3 LC-PUFA and SF n-3 LC-PUFA were very strong (r(2)>0.9, p<0.001). The LC-PUFA profiles of SF supernatants differed from those of MNC. PUFA profiles in PB MNC and SF MNC were similar, except for a higher proportion of DHA in the latter. Positive correlations were observed between stated intakes of FO and EPA in plasma and SF (for both r=0.37, p=0.02) and DHA in plasma (r=0.37, p=0.02) and SF (r=0.36, p=0.03). n-3 LC-PUFA in plasma and SF correlated inversely with pain score (plasma r(2)=0.16, p<0.02; SF r(2) 0.32, p=0.001). In conclusion, plasma n-3 LC-PUFA is a strong indicator of SF n-3 LC-PUFA status across a broad range of rheumatic diagnoses and FO intakes. Higher n-3 LC-PUFA in plasma and SF were associated with lesser pain experience. PMID:25817850

  2. Fish oil and mental health: the role of n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in cognitive development and neurological disorders.

    PubMed

    Assisi, Alessandro; Banzi, Rita; Buonocore, Carmela; Capasso, Filippo; Di Muzio, Valeria; Michelacci, Francesca; Renzo, Danila; Tafuri, Giovanni; Trotta, Francesco; Vitocolonna, Maria; Garattini, Silvio

    2006-11-01

    Epidemiological and experimental studies have indicated that consumption of more n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids may reduce the risk for a variety of diseases, including cardiovascular, neurological and immunological disorders, diabetes and cancer. This article focuses on the role of marine n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in brain functions, including the development of the central nervous system and neurological disorders. An overview of the major animal studies and clinical trials is provided here, focusing on fatty acid supplementation during pregnancy and infancy, and prevention and management of Alzheimer's disease, schizophrenia, depression and attention deficit hyperactive disorder. Although an optimal balance in n-3/n-6 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid ratio is important for proper neurodevelopment and cognitive functions, results from randomized controlled trials are controversial and do not confirm any useful effect of supplementation on development of preterm and term infants. The relationship between fatty acid status and mental disorders is confirmed by reduced levels of n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in erythrocyte membranes of patients with central nervous system disorders. Nevertheless, there are very little data supporting the use of fish oil in those patients. The only way to verify whether n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids are a potential therapeutic option in the management and prevention of mental disorders is to conduct a large definitive randomized controlled trials similar to those required for the licensing of any new pharmacological treatment.

  3. Genomic Analysis of Genes Involved in the Biosynthesis of Very Long Chain Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids in Thraustochytrium sp. 26185.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xianming; Dauenpen, Meesapyodsuk; Qu, Cunmin; Qiu, Xiao

    2016-09-01

    Thraustochytrium sp. 26185 is a marine protist that can produce a large amount of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n-3), an ω3 very long chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (VLCPUFA) of nutritional importance. However, the mechanism of how this fatty acid is synthesized and assembled into the storage lipid triacylglycerol is unclear. Here we report sequencing of the whole genome and genomic analysis of genes involved in the biosynthesis and assembly of the fatty acids in this species. Genome sequencing produced a total of 2,418,734,139 bp clean sequences with about 62 fold genome coverage. Annotation of the genome sequences revealed 10,797 coding genes. Among them, 10,216 genes could be assigned into 25 KOG classes where 451 genes were specifically assigned to the group of lipid transport and metabolism. Detailed analysis of these genes revealed co-existence of both aerobic pathway and anaerobic pathways for the biosynthesis of DHA in this species. However, in the aerobic pathway, a key gene encoding stearate Δ9 desaturase introducing the first double bond to long chain saturated fatty acid 18:0 was missing from the genome. Genomic survey of genes involved in the acyl trafficking among glycerolipids showed that, unlike plants, this protist did not possess phosphatidylcholine:diacylglycerol cholinephosphotransferase, an important enzyme in bridging two types of glycerolipids, diacylglycerols (DAG) and phosphatidylcholines (PtdCho). These results shed new insight on the biosynthesis and assembly of VLCPUFA in the Thraustochytrium. PMID:27514858

  4. Fads1 and 2 are promoted to meet instant need for long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in goose fatty liver.

    PubMed

    Osman, Rashid H; Liu, Long; Xia, Lili; Zhao, Xing; Wang, Qianqian; Sun, Xiaoxian; Zhang, Yihui; Yang, Biao; Zheng, Yun; Gong, Daoqing; Geng, Tuoyu

    2016-07-01

    Global prevalence of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) constitutes a threat to human health. Goose is a unique model of NAFLD for discovering therapeutic targets as its liver can develop severe steatosis without overt injury. Fatty acid desaturase (Fads) is a potential therapeutic target as Fads expression and mutations are associated with liver fat. Here, we hypothesized that Fads was promoted to provide a protection for goose fatty liver. To test this, goose Fads1 and Fads2 were sequenced. Fads1/2/6 expression was determined in goose liver and primary hepatocytes by quantitative PCR. Liver fatty acid composition was also analyzed by gas chromatography. Data indicated that hepatic Fads1/2/6 expression was gradually increased with the time of overfeeding. In contrast, trans-C18:1n9 fatty acid (Fads inhibitor) was reduced. However, enhanced Fads capacity for long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (LC-PUFA) synthesis was not sufficient to compensate for the depleted LC-PUFAs in goose fatty liver. Moreover, cell studies showed that Fads1/2/6 expression was regulated by fatty liver-associated factors. Together, these findings suggest Fads1/2 as protective components are promoted to meet instant need for LC-PUFAs in goose fatty liver, and we propose this is required for severe hepatic steatosis without liver injury. PMID:27344166

  5. Prevention of alcoholic fatty liver and mitochondrial dysfunction in the rat by long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids

    PubMed Central

    Song, Byoung-Joon; Moon, Kwan-Hoon; Olsson, Nils U.; Salem, Norman

    2008-01-01

    Background/Aims We reported that reduced dietary intake of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) such as arachidonic (AA,20:4n6, omega-6) and docosahexaenoic (DHA,22:6n3, omega-3) acids led to alcohol-induced fatty liver and fibrosis. This study was aimed at studying the mechanisms by which a DHA/AA-supplemented diet prevents alcohol-induced fatty liver. Methods Male Long-Evans rats were fed an ethanol or control liquid-diet with or without DHA/AA for 9 weeks. Plasma transaminase levels, liver histology, oxidative/nitrosative stress markers, and activities of oxidatively-modified mitochondrial proteins were evaluated. Results Chronic alcohol administration increased the degree of fatty liver but fatty liver decreased significantly in rats fed the alcohol-DHA/AA-supplemented diet. Alcohol exposure increased oxidative/nitrosative stress with elevated levels of ethanol-inducible CYP2E1, nitric oxide synthase, nitrite and mitochondrial hydrogen peroxide. However, these increments were normalized in rats fed the alcohol-DHA/AA-supplemented diet. The number of oxidatively-modified mitochondrial proteins was markedly increased following alcohol exposure but significantly reduced in rats fed the alcohol-DHA/AA-supplemented diet. The suppressed activities of mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenase, ATP synthase, and 3-ketoacyl-CoA thiolase in ethanol-exposed rats were also recovered in animals fed the ethanol-DHA/AA-supplemented diet. Conclusions Addition of DHA/AA prevents alcohol-induced fatty liver and mitochondrial dysfunction in an animal model by protecting various mitochondrial enzymes most likely through reducing oxidative/nitrosative stress. PMID:18571270

  6. Diets containing long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids affect behaviour differently during development than ageing in mice.

    PubMed

    Carrié, I; Guesnet, P; Bourre, J M; Francès, H

    2000-04-01

    The effect of a standard diet providing essential fatty acids enriched in fish oil or palm oil was studied in young, mature and old mice. Two groups of pregnant and lactating OF1 mice were fed on diets with or without high levels of long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids. Offspring were maintained on these diets after weaning. The litter size did not differ. The weight increased more quickly in fish-oil-fed mice than palm-oil-fed mice. The fish-oil diet induced a significant increase in exploratory activity in young mice which was not found in mature and old mice. The level of locomotor activity was significantly higher in young, no different in mature, and lower in old fish-oil-fed mice than in controls. Habituation, the simpler form of learning, occurred to the same extent in the two diet groups. For the place learning protocol of the Morris water maze there was no difference between the two diet groups; however, in the probe trial, the mature fish-oil-fed mice remembered the situation well compared with the control mice. In the active avoidance test, on the first day of acquisition the young fish-oil-fed mice made more avoidances than control mice, whereas in contrast, mature and old-fish-fed mice made less avoidances than control mice. These results suggest a positive effect on arousal and learning ability of a diet enriched in long chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in young mice and a detrimental effect in old mice.

  7. Positional specificity of gastric hydrolysis of long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids of seal milk triglycerides.

    PubMed

    Iverson, S J; Sampugna, J; Oftedal, O T

    1992-11-01

    Long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) of marine oils are important dietary components for both infants and adults, and are incorporated into milks following maternal dietary intake. However, little is known about the hydrolysis of these PUFA from milk triglycerides (TG) by lipases in suckling young. Seals, like humans, possess gastric lipase; however, the milk lipids of seals and sea lions are almost devoid of the readily hydrolyzable medium-chain fatty acids, and are characterized by a large percentage (10-30%) of n-3 PUFA. Gastric hydrolysis of milk lipids was studied in vivo in suckling pups of three species (the California sea lion, the harp seal and the hooded seal) in order to elucidate the actions and specificity of gastric lipases on milk TG in relation to fatty acid composition and TG structure. Regardless of milk fat content (31-61% fat) or extent of gastric hydrolysis (10-56%), the same fatty acids were preferentially released in all three species, as determined by their relative enrichment in the free fatty acid (FFA) fraction. In addition to 16:1 and 18:0, these were the PUFA of 18 carbons and longer, except for 22:6n-3. Levels of 20:5n-3 were most notably enriched in FFA, at up to five times that found in the TG. Although 22:6n-3 was apparently also released from the TG (reduced in the diglyceride), it was also notably reduced in FFA.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  8. Reducing the burden of obesity-associated cancers with anti-inflammatory long-chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids

    PubMed Central

    Khatib, Subreen A.; Rossi, Emily L.; Bowers, Laura W.; Hursting, Stephen D.

    2016-01-01

    Today’s world population has an unprecedented risk of dying from the consequences of being overweight and obese. Chronic diseases such as cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, and cancer are often accelerated because of excessive adiposity. Various biological mechanisms are implicated in the obesity-cancer link, particularly local and systemic inflammation as well as altered growth factor signaling pathways. In order to combat obesity-induced inflammation and the resulting increases in cancer risk and progression, the identification of safe and effective mechanism-based interventions is imperative. Notably, long chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) modulate the secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines, prostaglandins and other inflammatory mediators, restore insulin sensitivity, and can prevent or delay tumorigenesis. Delineating the precise mechanisms by which omega-3 PUFAs suppress obesity-induced inflammation will help identify promising key mechanistic targets and intervention strategies to break the obesity-cancer link. PMID:27448716

  9. Reducing the burden of obesity-associated cancers with anti-inflammatory long-chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Khatib, Subreen A; Rossi, Emily L; Bowers, Laura W; Hursting, Stephen D

    2016-09-01

    Today's world population has an unprecedented risk of dying from the consequences of being overweight and obese. Chronic diseases such as cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, and cancer are often accelerated because of excessive adiposity. Various biological mechanisms are implicated in the obesity-cancer link, particularly local and systemic inflammation as well as altered growth factor signaling pathways. In order to combat obesity-induced inflammation and the resulting increases in cancer risk and progression, the identification of safe and effective mechanism-based interventions is imperative. Notably, long chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) modulate the secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines, prostaglandins and other inflammatory mediators, restore insulin sensitivity, and can prevent or delay tumorigenesis. Delineating the precise mechanisms by which omega-3 PUFAs suppress obesity-induced inflammation will help identify promising key mechanistic targets and intervention strategies to break the obesity-cancer link.

  10. BMI Affects the Relationship between Long Chain N-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Intake and Stroke Risk: a Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Pengfei; Huang, Wen; Bai, Shunjie; Wu, Yu; Yu, Jia; Zhu, Xiaofeng; Qi, Zhiguo; Shao, Weihua; Xie, Peng

    2015-01-01

    We performed a meta-analysis to clarify the relationship between long chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) intake and stroke risk. Relevant studies were identified by searching online databases through May 2015. Log relative risks (RRs) of the highest versus the lowest for cohort studies were weighed by the inverse variance method to obtain pooled RRs. Fourteen prospective cohort studies including 514,483 individuals and 9,065 strokes were included. The pooled RR of overall stroke risk for long chain n-3 PUFA intake was 0.87 [95% confidence interval (CI), 0.79-0.95]. Stratification analysis showed that higher long chain n-3 PUFAs intake was associated with reduced fatal stroke risk (RR = 0.84; 95% CI, 0.73-0.97), reduced stroke risk for BMI < 24 (RR = 0.86; 95% CI, 0.75-0.98) and reduced stroke risk for females (RR = 0.81; 95% CI, 0.71-0.92), but was not associated with stroke risk for either BMI ≥ 24 or men. This meta-analysis reveals that higher long chain n-3 PUFA intake is inversely associated with risk of stroke morbidity and mortality with BMI and sex as key factors influencing this risk. Individuals should be encouraged to manage their body weight while increasing their intake of long chain n-3 PUFAs. PMID:26369699

  11. Three Randomized Controlled Trials of Early Long-Chain Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Supplementation on Means-End Problem Solving in 9-Month-Olds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drover, James; Hoffman, Dennis R.; Castaneda, Yolanda S.; Morale, Sarah E.; Birch, Eileen E.

    2009-01-01

    This study examines whether feeding infants formula supplemented with long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA) improves cognitive function of 9-month-olds. Participants included 229 infants from 3 randomized controlled trials. Children received either formula supplemented with docosahexaenoic acid and arachidonic acid, or a control formula…

  12. Effects of Long-Chain Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Supplementation of Infant Formula on Cognition and Behaviour at 9 Years of Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Jong, Corina; Kikkert, Hedwig K.; Fidler, Vaclav; Hadders-Algra, Mijna

    2012-01-01

    Aim: Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (LCPUFA) supplementation of infant formula may have a beneficial effect on cognitive development. This study aimed to investigate the effect of LCPUFA formula supplementation primarily on cognition and secondarily on behaviour at age 9 years. Special attention was paid to the potentially modifying effect…

  13. Egg yolk as a source of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in infant feeding.

    PubMed

    Simopoulos, A P; Salem, N

    1992-02-01

    In this paper we compare the fatty acid content of egg yolks from hens fed four different feeds as a source of docosahexaenoic acid to supplement infant formula. Greek eggs contain more docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6 omega 3) and less linoleic acid (LA, 18:2 omega 6) and alpha-linolenic acid (LNA, 18:3 omega 3) than do fish-meal or flax eggs. Two to three grams of Greek egg yolk may provide an adequate amount of DHA and arachidonic acid for a preterm neonate. Mean intake of breast milk at age 1 mo provides 250 mg long-chain omega 3 fatty acids. This amount can be obtained from less than 1 yolk of a Greek egg (0.94), greater than 1 yolk of flax eggs (1.6) and fish-meal eggs (1.4), or 8.3 yolks of supermarket eggs. With proper manipulation of the hens' diets, eggs could be produced with fatty acid composition similar to that of Greek eggs.

  14. Altered development and function of the placental regions in preeclampsia and its association with long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Rani, Alka; Wadhwani, Nisha; Chavan-Gautam, Preeti; Joshi, Sadhana

    2016-09-01

    The placenta is an essential organ formed during pregnancy that mainly transfers nutrients from the mother to the fetus. Nutrients taken up by the placenta are required for its own growth and development and to optimize fetal growth. Hence, placental function is an important determinant of pregnancy outcome. Among various nutrients, fatty acids, especially long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFAs), including omega 3 and omega 6 fatty acids, are essential for placental development from the time of implantation. Studies have associated these LCPUFAs with placental development through their roles in regulating oxidative stress, angiogenesis, and inflammation, which may in turn influence their transfer to the fetus. The placenta has a heterogeneous morphology with variable regional vasculature, oxidative stress, and LCPUFA levels in healthy pregnancies depending upon the location within the placenta. However, these regional structural and functional parameters are found to be disturbed in pathological conditions, such as preeclampsia (PE), thereby affecting pregnancy outcome. Hence, the alterations in LCPUFA metabolism and transport in different regions of the PE placenta as compared with normal placenta could potentially be contributing to the pathological features of PE. The regional variations in development and function of the placenta and its possible association with placental LCPUFA metabolism and transport in normal and PE pregnancies are discussed in this review. WIREs Dev Biol 2016, 5:582-597. doi: 10.1002/wdev.238 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. PMID:27239793

  15. Ingestion of a single serving of saury alters postprandial levels of plasma n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and long-chain monounsaturated fatty acids in healthy human adults

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Saury oil contains considerable amounts of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) with long aliphatic tails (>18C atoms). Ingestion of saury oil reduces the risk of developing metabolic syndrome concomitant with increases in n-3 PUFA and long-chain MUFA in plasma and organs of mice. We therefore evaluated changes in postprandial plasma fatty acid levels and plasma parameters in healthy human subjects after ingestion of a single meal of saury. Findings Five healthy human adults ingested 150 g of grilled saury. Blood was collected before the meal and at 2, 6, and 24 hr after the meal, and plasma was prepared. Plasma levels of eicosapentaenoic acid, docosahexaenoic acid, and long-chain MUFA (C20:1 and C22:1 isomers combined) increased significantly throughout the postprandial period compared with the pre-meal baseline. Postprandial plasma insulin concentration increased notably, and plasma levels of glucose and free fatty acids decreased significantly and subsequently returned to the pre-meal levels. Conclusions Our study suggests that a single saury meal may alter the postprandial plasma levels of n-3 PUFA and long-chain MUFA in healthy human subjects. PMID:22846384

  16. Meta-Analysis of Long-Chain Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids (LCω-3PUFA) and Prostate Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Alexander, Dominik D.; Bassett, Julie K.; Weed, Douglas L.; Barrett, Erin Cernkovich; Watson, Heather; Harris, William

    2015-01-01

    We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to estimate the potential association between LCω-3PUFAs and prostate cancer (PC). A comprehensive literature search was performed through 2013 to identify prospective studies that examined dietary intakes of long-chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCω-3PUFA) or blood biomarkers of LCω-3PUFA status and risk of PC. Random-effects meta-analyses were conducted to generate summary relative risk estimates (SRREs) for LCω-3PUFAs and total PC, and by stage and grade. Subgroup analyses were also conducted for specific fatty acids and other study characteristics. Twelve self-reported dietary intake and 9 biomarker studies from independent study populations were included in the analysis, with 446,243 and 14,897 total participants, respectively. No association between LCω-3PUFAs and total PC was observed (SRRE = 1.00, 95% CI: 0.93–1.09) for the dietary intake studies (high vs. low LCω-3PUFAs category comparison) or for the biomarker studies (SRRE of 1.07, 95% CI: 0.94–1.20). In general, most summary associations for the dietary intake studies were in the inverse direction, whereas the majority of summary associations for the biomarker studies were in the positive direction, but all were weak in magnitude. The results from this meta-analysis do not support an association between LCω-3PUFAs and PC. PMID:25826711

  17. Heterotrophic Production of Omega-3 Long-Chain Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids by Trophically Converted Marine Diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum

    PubMed Central

    Hamilton, Mary L.; Powers, Stephen; Napier, Johnathan A.; Sayanova, Olga

    2016-01-01

    We have created via metabolic engineering a heterotrophic strain of Phaeodactylum tricornutum that accumulates enhanced levels of the high value omega-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (LC-PUFAs) docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). This was achieved by generation of transgenic strains in which the Δ5-elongase from Ostreococcus tauri was co-expressed with a glucose transporter from the moss Physcomitrella patens. This double transformant has the capacity to grow in the dark in liquid medium supplemented with glucose and accumulate substantial levels of omega-3 LC-PUFAs. The effects of glucose concentrations on growth and LC-PUFA production of wild type and transformed strains cultivated in the light and dark were studied. The highest omega-3 LC-PUFAs accumulation was observed in cultures grown under mixotrophic conditions in the presence of 1% glucose (up to 32.2% of total fatty acids, TFA). Both DHA and EPA are detected at high levels in the neutral lipids of transgenic cells grown under phototrophic conditions, averaging 36.5% and 23.6% of TFA, respectively. This study demonstrates the potential for P. tricornutum to be developed as a viable commercial strain for both EPA and DHA production under mixo- and heterotrophic conditions. PMID:27005636

  18. Dietary (n-3) long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids prevent sucrose-induced insulin resistance in rats.

    PubMed

    Ghafoorunissa; Ibrahim, Ahamed; Rajkumar, Laxmi; Acharya, Vani

    2005-11-01

    This study was designed to determine the effect of substituting (n-3) long-chain PUFAs (LCPUFAs) for linoleic acid and hence decreasing the (n-6):(n-3) fatty acid ratio on sucrose-induced insulin resistance in rats. Weanling male Wistar rats were fed casein-based diets containing 100 g/kg fat for 12 wk. Insulin resistance was induced by replacing starch (ST) with sucrose (SU). The dietary fats were formulated with groundnut oil, palmolein, and fish oil to provide the following ratios of (n-6):(n-3) fatty acids: 210 (ST-210, SU-210), 50 (SU-50), 10 (SU-10), and 5 (SU-5). Compared with starch (ST-210), sucrose feeding (SU-210) significantly increased the plasma insulin and triglyceride concentrations and the plasma insulin area under the curve (AUC) in response to an oral glucose load. Adipocytes isolated from rats fed SU-210 had greater lipolytic rate, lower insulin stimulated glucose transport, and lower insulin-mediated antilipolysis than those from rats fed ST-210. Decreasing the dietary (n-6):(n-3) ratio in sucrose-fed rats (SU-10 and SU-5) normalized the plasma insulin concentration and the AUC of insulin after a glucose load. The sucrose-induced increase in plasma triglyceride concentration was normalized in rats fed SU-50, SU-10 and SU-5. Further, sucrose-induced alterations in adipocyte lipolysis and antilipolysis were partially reversed and glucose transport improved in rats fed diets SU-5 and SU-10. In diaphragm phospholipids, decreasing the (n-6):(n-3) ratio in the diet increased the concentration of (n-3) LCPUFAs with concomitant decreases in the concentration of (n-6) LCPUFAs. These results suggest that (n-3) LCPUFAs at a level of 2.6 g/kg diet [0.56% energy (n-3) LCPUFAs, (n-6):(n-3) ratio = 10] may prevent sucrose-induced insulin resistance by improving peripheral insulin sensitivity.

  19. Reduced Maternal Erythrocyte Long Chain Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids Exist in Early Pregnancy in Preeclampsia.

    PubMed

    Wadhwani, Nisha S; Narang, Ankita S; Mehendale, Savita S; Wagh, Girija N; Gupte, Sanjay A; Joshi, Sadhana R

    2016-01-01

    The present prospective study examines proportions of maternal erythrocyte fatty acids across gestation and their association with cord erythrocyte fatty acids in normotensive control (NC) and preeclamptic pregnancies. We hypothesize that maternal fatty acid status in early pregnancy influences fetal fatty acid stores in preeclampsia. 137 NC women and 58 women with preeclampsia were included in this study. Maternal blood was collected at 3 time points during pregnancy (16-20th weeks, 26-30th weeks and at delivery). Cord blood was collected at delivery. Fatty acids were analyzed using gas chromatography. The proportions of maternal erythrocyte α-linolenic acid, docosahexaenoic acid, nervonic acid, and monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) (p < 0.05 for all) were lower while total n-6 fatty acids were higher (p < 0.05) at 16-20th weeks of gestation in preeclampsia as compared with NC. Cord 18:3n-3, 22:6n-3, 24:1n-9, MUFA, and total n-3 fatty acids (p < 0.05 for all) were also lower in preeclampsia as compared with NC. A positive association was observed between maternal erythrocyte 22:6n-3 and 24:1n-9 at 16-20th weeks with the same fatty acids in cord erythrocytes (p < 0.05 for both) in preeclampsia. Our study for the first time indicates alteration in maternal erythrocyte fatty acids at 16th weeks of gestation which is further reflected in cord erythrocytes at delivery in preeclampsia.

  20. Climate warming is predicted to reduce omega-3, long-chain, polyunsaturated fatty acid production in phytoplankton.

    PubMed

    Hixson, Stefanie M; Arts, Michael T

    2016-08-01

    Phytoplankton are the main source of energy and omega-3 (n-3) long-chain essential fatty acids (EFA) in aquatic ecosystems. Their growth and biochemical composition are affected by surrounding environmental conditions, including temperature, which continues to increase as a result of climate warming. Increasing water temperatures may negatively impact the production of EFA by phytoplankton through the process of homeoviscous adaptation. To investigate this, we conducted an exploratory data synthesis with 952 fatty acid (FA) profiles from six major groups of marine and freshwater phytoplankton. Temperature was strongly correlated with a decrease in the proportion of n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated FA (LC-PUFA) and an increase in omega-6 FA and saturated FA. Based on linear regression models, we predict that global n-3 LC-PUFA production will be reduced by 8.2% for eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and 27.8% for docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) with an increase in water temperature of 2.5 °C. Using a previously published estimate of the global production of EPA by diatoms, which contribute to most of the world's supply of EPA, we predict a loss of 14.2 Mt of EPA annually as a result of ocean warming. The n-3 LC-PUFA are vitally important for an array of key physiological functions in aquatic and terrestrial organisms, and these FA are mainly produced by phytoplankton. Therefore, reduced production of these EFA, as a consequence of climate warming, is predicted to negatively affect species that depend on these compounds for optimum physiological function. Such profound changes in the biochemical composition of phytoplankton cell membranes can lead to cascading effects throughout the world's ecosystems.

  1. Metabolic and Endocrine Effects of Long Chain vs. Essential Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids in Polycystic Ovary Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Vargas, M. Luisa; Almario, Rogelio U.; Buchan, Wendy; Kim, Kyoungmi; Karakas, Sidika E.

    2011-01-01

    Objective To compare the effects of essential vs. long chain omega (n)-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Materials/Methods In this 6-week, prospective, double-blinded, placebo (soybean oil) controlled study, 51 completers received 3.5 g n-3 PUFA/day (essential from flaxseed oil or long chain from fish oil). Anthropometric variables, cardiovascular risk factors and androgens were measured; oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and frequently sampled intravenous GTT (FSIVGTT) were conducted at the baseline and 6 wks. Results Between group comparisons showed significant differences in serum triglyceride response (p = 0.0368), while the changes in disposition index (DI) also tended to differ (p = 0.0621). When within group changes (after vs. before intervention) were considered, fish oil and flaxseed oil lowered serum triglyceride (p = 0.0154 and p = 0.0176, respectively). Fish oil increased glucose at 120 min of OGTT (p = 0.0355); decreased Matsuda index (p= 0.0378); and tended to decrease early insulin response during IVGTT (AIRg; p = 0.0871). Soybean oil increased glucose at 30 min (p = 0.0030) and 60 min (p = 0.0121) and AUC for glucose (p = 0.0122) during OGTT; tended to decrease AIRg during IVGTT (p= 0.0848); reduced testosterone (p = 0.0216) and tended to reduce SHBG (p = 0.0858). Fasting glucose, insulin, adiponectin, leptin or hs-CRP did not change with any intervention. Conclusions Long chain vs. essential n-3 PUFA rich oils have distinct metabolic and endocrine effects in PCOS, and therefore they should not be used inter-changeably. PMID:21640360

  2. Identification and quantification of triacylglycerols containing n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in bovine milk.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhiqian; Moate, Peter; Ezerniks, Vilnis; Cocks, Benjamin G; Rochfort, Simone

    2015-12-01

    The n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA) are low-abundance components in milk fat, but have great potential in promoting human health. A comprehensive survey on triacylglycerol (TAG) molecular species in milk that contain at least one type of n-3 LC-PUFA, namely eicosapentaenoic acid, docosahexaenoic acid, and docosapentaenoic acid, was conducted in this work using HPLC-linear trap quadrupole-Orbitrap and HPLC-triple quadrupole mass spectrometry techniques. A total of 51 TAG species that contain n-3 LC-PUFA have been identified in bovine milk and their structures assigned. The TAG species containing docosahexaenoic acid were found in much smaller number and at much lower abundance compared with the other 2 types of TAG. An HPLC-triple quadrupole mass spectrometry-based method was developed, which provides relative quantification of all these TAG species in a run of 36 min. Application of this method to the quantification of n-3 LC-PUFA-incorporated TAG in 32 individual animal milk samples allowed us to determine variation between animals, identify strong metabolic relationships between TAG species, and reveal negative effect of a grape marc supplement on the accumulation of eicosapentaenoic acid in milk.

  3. Fish Consumption, Long-Chain Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Intake and Risk of Metabolic Syndrome: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Yong-Seok; Xun, Pengcheng; He, Ka

    2015-01-01

    Fish and long-chain ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (LCω3PUFA) intake in relation to the risk of cardiovascular diseases have been well studied. However, studies that directly link fish consumption or LCω3PUFA intake to the risk of metabolic syndrome (MetS) are sparse and the results are inconsistent. We reviewed literature through December 2014 and used random-effects or fixed-effects models, as appropriate, to pool the associations of fish or LCω3PUFA intake with the risk of MetS. Nine independent cross-sectional samples (seven cross-sectional studies) and three independent prospective cohorts (two prospective cohort studies) were identified as eligible for this meta-analysis. By pooling data from the prospective cohorts (7860 participants and 1671 incident cases), a significant inverse association between fish consumption and incidence of MetS was found. The pooled RR (95% CI) was 0.71 (0.58, 0.87), comparing the highest to the lowest category of fish consumption, and 0.94 (0.90, 0.98) for one serving/week increment. Consistent results were found for LCω3PUFA intake. Non-significant inverse association of fish or LCω3PUFA intake with risk of MetS was found when pooling the cross-sectional studies. By quantitatively summarizing the literature, a modest inverse association between fish or LCω3PUFA intake and risk of MetS cannot be excluded. PMID:25811108

  4. Identification and quantification of triacylglycerols containing n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in bovine milk.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhiqian; Moate, Peter; Ezerniks, Vilnis; Cocks, Benjamin G; Rochfort, Simone

    2015-12-01

    The n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA) are low-abundance components in milk fat, but have great potential in promoting human health. A comprehensive survey on triacylglycerol (TAG) molecular species in milk that contain at least one type of n-3 LC-PUFA, namely eicosapentaenoic acid, docosahexaenoic acid, and docosapentaenoic acid, was conducted in this work using HPLC-linear trap quadrupole-Orbitrap and HPLC-triple quadrupole mass spectrometry techniques. A total of 51 TAG species that contain n-3 LC-PUFA have been identified in bovine milk and their structures assigned. The TAG species containing docosahexaenoic acid were found in much smaller number and at much lower abundance compared with the other 2 types of TAG. An HPLC-triple quadrupole mass spectrometry-based method was developed, which provides relative quantification of all these TAG species in a run of 36 min. Application of this method to the quantification of n-3 LC-PUFA-incorporated TAG in 32 individual animal milk samples allowed us to determine variation between animals, identify strong metabolic relationships between TAG species, and reveal negative effect of a grape marc supplement on the accumulation of eicosapentaenoic acid in milk. PMID:26476942

  5. Test meals rich in marine long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids increase postprandial chylomicron response.

    PubMed

    Griffo, E; Di Marino, L; Patti, L; Bozzetto, L; Annuzzi, G; Cipriano, P; Mangione, A; Della Pepa, G; Cocozza, S; Riccardi, G; Rivellese, A A

    2014-08-01

    Postprandial lipid abnormalities are considered an independent cardiovascular risk factor. Hence, it is important to find nutritional strategies that are able to positively influence these abnormalities. Since the effect of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and polyphenols on postprandial lipids in humans is still under debate, we evaluated the acute response of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins to test meals that are naturally rich in polyphenols and/or marine long-chain (LC) n-3 PUFAs. We hypothesized that LC n-3 PUFA would have a different effect on chylomicron and very low density lipoproteins when compared with polyphenols or their combination. We randomly assigned 78 individuals who were at high cardiometabolic risk to 4 isoenergetic diets. These diets only differed in amount of LC n-3 PUFA and/or polyphenols. Prior to starting the intervention, each subject underwent a test meal similar to the type of diet assigned: low in LC n-3 PUFA and polyphenols (control), rich in LC n-3 PUFA and low in polyphenols, rich in polyphenols and low in LC n-3 PUFA, or rich in both. Blood samples were taken before and up to 6 hours after the test meal in order to evaluate cholesterol and triglycerides (plasma and triglyceride-rich lipoprotein), apolipoprotein B-48 (large very low density lipoprotein), glucagon-like peptide-1, and free fatty acid plasma levels. The levels of chylomicron cholesterol and triglyceride in response to the test meal rich in LC n-3 PUFA were significantly higher than after the control meal (P = .037 and P = .018); there was no difference in the other variables. In conclusion, this study indicates that acute administration of marine LC n-3 PUFA increases postprandial chylomicron response in contrast with their lowering chronic effects. These differences underline the importance of understanding the acute and chronic effects of nutritional, as well as of other types of, interventions. PMID:25193793

  6. Polyunsaturated fatty acids in emerging psychosis.

    PubMed

    Mossaheb, Nilufar; Schloegelhofer, Monika; Schaefer, Miriam R; Fusar-Poli, Paolo; Smesny, Stefan; McGorry, Pat; Berger, Gregor; Amminger, G Paul

    2012-01-01

    The role of polyunsaturated fatty acids and their metabolites for the cause and treatment of psychotic disorders are widely discussed. The efficacy as an augmenting agent in chronic schizophrenia seems to be small or not present, however epidemiological data, as well as some recent controlled studies in emerging psychosis point towards possible preventive effects of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in early and very early stages of psychotic disorders and some potential secondary or tertiary beneficial long-term effects in later, more chronic stages, in particular for metabolic or extra-pyramidal side effects. In this comprehensive review, we describe the physiology and metabolism of polyunsaturated fatty acids, phospholipases, epidemiological evidence and the effect of these fatty acids on the brain and neurodevelopment. Furthermore, we examine the available evidence in indicated prevention in emerging psychosis, monotherapy, add-on therapy and tolerability. The neuroprotective potential of n-3 LC-PUFAs for indicated prevention, i.e. delaying transition to psychosis in high-risk populations needs to be further explored.

  7. Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid biosynthesis in the euryhaline herbivorous teleost Scatophagus argus: Functional characterization, tissue expression and nutritional regulation of two fatty acyl elongases.

    PubMed

    Xie, Dizhi; Chen, Fang; Lin, Siyuan; You, Cuihong; Wang, Shuqi; Zhang, Qinghao; Monroig, Óscar; Tocher, Douglas R; Li, Yuanyou

    2016-08-01

    Both the spotted scat Scatophagus argus and rabbitfish Siganus canaliculatus belong to the few cultured herbivorous marine teleost, however, their fatty acyl desaturase (Fad) system involved in long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (LC-PUFA) biosynthesis is different. The S. argus has a △6 Fad, while the rabbitfish has △4 and △6/△5 Fads, which were the first report in vertebrate and marine teleost, respectively. In order to compare the characteristics of elongases of very long-chain fatty acids (Elovl) between them, two Elovl cDNAs were cloned from S. argus in the present study. One has 885bp of open read fragment (ORF) encoding a protein with 294 amino acid (aa) showing Elovl5 activity functionally characterized by heterologous expression in yeast, which was primarily active for the elongation of C18 and C20 PUFAs. The other has 915bp of ORF coding for a 305 aa protein showing Elovl4 activity, which was more efficient in the elongation of C20 and C22 PUFAs. Tissue distribution analyses by RT-PCR showed that elovl5 was highly expressed in the liver compared to other tissues determined, whereas elovl4 transcripts were only detected in the eye. The expression of elovl5 and elovl4 were significantly affected by dietary fatty acid composition, with highest expression of mRNA in the liver and eye of fish fed a diet with an 18:3n-3/18:2n-6 ratio of 1.7:1. These results indicated that the S. argus has a similar Elovl system in the LC-PUFA biosynthetic pathway to that of rabbitfish although their Fad system was different, suggesting that the diversification of fish LC-PUFA biosynthesis specificities is more associated with its Fad system. These new insights expand our knowledge and understanding of the molecular basis and regulation of LC-PUFA biosynthesis in fish. PMID:27050407

  8. Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid biosynthesis in the euryhaline herbivorous teleost Scatophagus argus: Functional characterization, tissue expression and nutritional regulation of two fatty acyl elongases.

    PubMed

    Xie, Dizhi; Chen, Fang; Lin, Siyuan; You, Cuihong; Wang, Shuqi; Zhang, Qinghao; Monroig, Óscar; Tocher, Douglas R; Li, Yuanyou

    2016-08-01

    Both the spotted scat Scatophagus argus and rabbitfish Siganus canaliculatus belong to the few cultured herbivorous marine teleost, however, their fatty acyl desaturase (Fad) system involved in long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (LC-PUFA) biosynthesis is different. The S. argus has a △6 Fad, while the rabbitfish has △4 and △6/△5 Fads, which were the first report in vertebrate and marine teleost, respectively. In order to compare the characteristics of elongases of very long-chain fatty acids (Elovl) between them, two Elovl cDNAs were cloned from S. argus in the present study. One has 885bp of open read fragment (ORF) encoding a protein with 294 amino acid (aa) showing Elovl5 activity functionally characterized by heterologous expression in yeast, which was primarily active for the elongation of C18 and C20 PUFAs. The other has 915bp of ORF coding for a 305 aa protein showing Elovl4 activity, which was more efficient in the elongation of C20 and C22 PUFAs. Tissue distribution analyses by RT-PCR showed that elovl5 was highly expressed in the liver compared to other tissues determined, whereas elovl4 transcripts were only detected in the eye. The expression of elovl5 and elovl4 were significantly affected by dietary fatty acid composition, with highest expression of mRNA in the liver and eye of fish fed a diet with an 18:3n-3/18:2n-6 ratio of 1.7:1. These results indicated that the S. argus has a similar Elovl system in the LC-PUFA biosynthetic pathway to that of rabbitfish although their Fad system was different, suggesting that the diversification of fish LC-PUFA biosynthesis specificities is more associated with its Fad system. These new insights expand our knowledge and understanding of the molecular basis and regulation of LC-PUFA biosynthesis in fish.

  9. Hypothalamic fatty acid sensing in Senegalese sole (Solea senegalensis): response to long-chain saturated, monounsaturated, and polyunsaturated (n-3) fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Conde-Sieira, Marta; Bonacic, Kruno; Velasco, Cristina; Valente, Luisa M P; Morais, Sofia; Soengas, José L

    2015-12-15

    We assessed the presence of fatty acid (FA)-sensing mechanisms in hypothalamus of Senegalese sole (Solea senegalensis) and investigated their sensitivity to FA chain length and/or level of unsaturation. Stearate (SA, saturated FA), oleate (OA, monounsaturated FA of the same chain length), α-linolenate [ALA, a n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) of the same chain length], and eicosapentanoate (EPA, a n-3 PUFA of a larger chain length) were injected intraperitoneally. Parameters related to FA sensing and neuropeptide expression in the hypothalamus were assessed after 3 h and changes in accumulated food intake after 4, 24, and 48 h. Three FA sensing systems characterized in rainbow trout were also found in Senegalese sole and were activated by OA in a way similar to that previously characterized in rainbow trout and mammals. These hypothalamic FA sensing systems were also activated by ALA, differing from mammals, where n-3 PUFAs do not seem to activate FA sensors. This might suggest additional roles and highlights the importance of n-3 PUFA in fish diets, especially in marine species. The activation of FA sensing seems to be partially dependent on acyl chain length and degree of saturation, as no major changes were observed after treating fish with SA or EPA. The activation of FA sensing systems by OA and ALA, but not SA or EPA, is further reflected in the expression of hypothalamic neuropeptides involved in the control of food intake. Both OA and ALA enhanced anorexigenic capacity compatible with the activation of FA sensing systems.

  10. Hypothalamic fatty acid sensing in Senegalese sole (Solea senegalensis): response to long-chain saturated, monounsaturated, and polyunsaturated (n-3) fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Conde-Sieira, Marta; Bonacic, Kruno; Velasco, Cristina; Valente, Luisa M P; Morais, Sofia; Soengas, José L

    2015-12-15

    We assessed the presence of fatty acid (FA)-sensing mechanisms in hypothalamus of Senegalese sole (Solea senegalensis) and investigated their sensitivity to FA chain length and/or level of unsaturation. Stearate (SA, saturated FA), oleate (OA, monounsaturated FA of the same chain length), α-linolenate [ALA, a n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) of the same chain length], and eicosapentanoate (EPA, a n-3 PUFA of a larger chain length) were injected intraperitoneally. Parameters related to FA sensing and neuropeptide expression in the hypothalamus were assessed after 3 h and changes in accumulated food intake after 4, 24, and 48 h. Three FA sensing systems characterized in rainbow trout were also found in Senegalese sole and were activated by OA in a way similar to that previously characterized in rainbow trout and mammals. These hypothalamic FA sensing systems were also activated by ALA, differing from mammals, where n-3 PUFAs do not seem to activate FA sensors. This might suggest additional roles and highlights the importance of n-3 PUFA in fish diets, especially in marine species. The activation of FA sensing seems to be partially dependent on acyl chain length and degree of saturation, as no major changes were observed after treating fish with SA or EPA. The activation of FA sensing systems by OA and ALA, but not SA or EPA, is further reflected in the expression of hypothalamic neuropeptides involved in the control of food intake. Both OA and ALA enhanced anorexigenic capacity compatible with the activation of FA sensing systems. PMID:26468264

  11. Feeding infant piglets formula with long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids as triacylglycerols or phospholipids influences the distribution of these fatty acids in plasma lipoprotein fractions.

    PubMed

    Amate, L; Gil, A; Ramírez, M

    2001-04-01

    Several sources of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCP) are currently available for infant formula supplementation. These oils differ in their fatty acid composition, the chemical form of the fatty acid esters [triacylglycerols (TG) or phospholipids (PL)] and presence of other lipid components. These differences may affect LCP absorption, distribution and metabolic fate after ingestion. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the influence of different chemical forms of dietary LCP on the composition of plasma, plasma lipoproteins, liver and jejunum in infant piglets. Thirty pigs (5 d old) were bottle-fed different diets for 4 wk: a control diet (C), a diet containing LCP as TG from tuna and fungal oils (TF-TG) or a diet containing LCP as PL from egg yolk (E-PL). We measured lipid and fatty acid composition of plasma and lipoproteins, as well as lipid composition of liver and intestinal mucosa. The arachidonic and docosahexaenoic acids in HDL-PL were significantly higher in piglets fed the E-PL diet than in those fed the TF-TG diet. Opposite results were found in the LDL-PL diet. No significant differences were found between groups in TG or cholesterol concentrations of plasma or lipoproteins. Arachidonic acid in plasma PL and cholesteryl esters was significantly higher in the E-PL group than in the TF-TG group. The chemical form in which LCP esters are present in different dietary sources influences their distribution in plasma lipoproteins. This may be important for infant nutrition and suggests that not all LCP sources may be biologically equivalent. PMID:11285334

  12. Women who take n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid supplements during pregnancy and lactation meet the recommended intake.

    PubMed

    Jia, Xiaoming; Pakseresht, Mohammadreza; Wattar, Nour; Wildgrube, Jamie; Sontag, Stephanie; Andrews, Murphy; Subhan, Fatheema Begum; McCargar, Linda; Field, Catherine J

    2015-05-01

    The aim of the current study was to estimate total intake and dietary sources of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosapentanoic (DPA), and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and compare DHA intakes with the recommended intakes in a cohort of pregnant and lactating women. Twenty-four-hour dietary recalls and supplement intake questionnaires were collected from 600 women in the Alberta Pregnancy Outcomes and Nutrition (APrON) cohort at each trimester of pregnancy and 3 months postpartum. Dietary intake was estimated in 2 ways: by using a commercial software program and by using a database created for APrON. Only 27% of women during pregnancy and 25% at 3 months postpartum met the current European Union (EU) consensus recommendation for DHA. Seafood, fish, and seaweed products contributed to 79% of overall n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids intake from foods, with the majority from salmon. The estimated intake of DHA and EPA was similar between databases, but the estimated DPA intake was 20%-30% higher using the comprehensive database built for this study. Women who took a supplement containing DHA were 10.6 and 11.1 times more likely to meet the current EU consensus recommendation for pregnancy (95% confidence interval (CI): 6.952-16.07; P<0.001) and postpartum (95% CI: 6.803-18.14; P<0.001), respectively. Our results suggest that the majority of women in the cohort were not meeting the EU recommendation for DHA during pregnancy and lactation, but taking a supplement significantly improved the likelihood that they would meet recommendations. PMID:25804267

  13. Women who take n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid supplements during pregnancy and lactation meet the recommended intake.

    PubMed

    Jia, Xiaoming; Pakseresht, Mohammadreza; Wattar, Nour; Wildgrube, Jamie; Sontag, Stephanie; Andrews, Murphy; Subhan, Fatheema Begum; McCargar, Linda; Field, Catherine J

    2015-05-01

    The aim of the current study was to estimate total intake and dietary sources of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosapentanoic (DPA), and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and compare DHA intakes with the recommended intakes in a cohort of pregnant and lactating women. Twenty-four-hour dietary recalls and supplement intake questionnaires were collected from 600 women in the Alberta Pregnancy Outcomes and Nutrition (APrON) cohort at each trimester of pregnancy and 3 months postpartum. Dietary intake was estimated in 2 ways: by using a commercial software program and by using a database created for APrON. Only 27% of women during pregnancy and 25% at 3 months postpartum met the current European Union (EU) consensus recommendation for DHA. Seafood, fish, and seaweed products contributed to 79% of overall n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids intake from foods, with the majority from salmon. The estimated intake of DHA and EPA was similar between databases, but the estimated DPA intake was 20%-30% higher using the comprehensive database built for this study. Women who took a supplement containing DHA were 10.6 and 11.1 times more likely to meet the current EU consensus recommendation for pregnancy (95% confidence interval (CI): 6.952-16.07; P<0.001) and postpartum (95% CI: 6.803-18.14; P<0.001), respectively. Our results suggest that the majority of women in the cohort were not meeting the EU recommendation for DHA during pregnancy and lactation, but taking a supplement significantly improved the likelihood that they would meet recommendations.

  14. Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids in Children

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are the major components of brain and retina, and are the essential fatty acids with important physiologically active functions. Thus, PUFAs should be provided to children, and are very important in the brain growth and development for fetuses, newborn infants, and children. Omega-3 fatty acids decrease coronary artery disease and improve blood flow. PUFAs have been known to have anti-inflammatory action and improved the chronic inflammation such as auto-immune diseases or degenerative neurologic diseases. PUFAs are used for metabolic syndrome related with obesity or diabetes. However, there are several considerations related with intake of PUFAs. Obsession with the intake of unsaturated fatty acids could bring about the shortage of essential fatty acids that are crucial for our body, weaken the immune system, and increase the risk of heart disease, arrhythmia, and stroke. In this review, we discuss types, physiologic mechanism of action of PUFAs, intake of PUFAs for children, recommended intake of PUFAs, and considerations for the intake of PUFAs. PMID:24224148

  15. Towards the Industrial Production of Omega-3 Long Chain Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids from a Genetically Modified Diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, Mary L; Warwick, Joanna; Terry, Anya; Allen, Michael J; Napier, Johnathan A; Sayanova, Olga

    2015-01-01

    The marine diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum can accumulate up to 30% of the omega-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (LC-PUFA) eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and, as such, is considered a good source for the industrial production of EPA. However, P. tricornutum does not naturally accumulate significant levels of the more valuable omega-3 LC-PUFA docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). Previously, we have engineered P. tricornutum to accumulate elevated levels of DHA and docosapentaenoic acid (DPA) by overexpressing heterologous genes encoding enzyme activities of the LC-PUFA biosynthetic pathway. Here, the transgenic strain Pt_Elo5 has been investigated for the scalable production of EPA and DHA. Studies have been performed at the laboratory scale on the cultures growing in up to 1 L flasks a 3.5 L bubble column, a 550 L closed photobioreactor and a 1250 L raceway pond with artificial illumination. Detailed studies were carried out on the effect of different media, carbon sources and illumination on omega-3 LC-PUFAs production by transgenic strain Pt_Elo5 and wild type P. tricornutum grown in 3.5 L bubble columns. The highest content of DHA (7.5% of total fatty acids, TFA) in transgenic strain was achieved in cultures grown in seawater salts, Instant Ocean (IO), supplemented with F/2 nutrients (F2N) under continuous light. After identifying the optimal conditions for omega-3 LC-PUFA accumulation in the small-scale experiments we compared EPA and DHA levels of the transgenic strain grown in a larger fence-style tubular photobioreactor and a raceway pond. We observed a significant production of DHA over EPA, generating an EPA/DPA/DHA profile of 8.7%/4.5%/12.3% of TFA in cells grown in a photobioreactor, equivalent to 6.4 μg/mg dry weight DHA in a mid-exponentially growing algal culture. Omega-3 LC-PUFAs production in a raceway pond at ambient temperature but supplemented with artificial illumination (110 μmol photons m-2s-1) on a 16:8h light:dark cycle, in natural seawater

  16. Towards the Industrial Production of Omega-3 Long Chain Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids from a Genetically Modified Diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum

    PubMed Central

    Hamilton, Mary L.; Warwick, Joanna; Terry, Anya; Allen, Michael J.; Napier, Johnathan A.; Sayanova, Olga

    2015-01-01

    The marine diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum can accumulate up to 30% of the omega-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (LC-PUFA) eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and, as such, is considered a good source for the industrial production of EPA. However, P. tricornutum does not naturally accumulate significant levels of the more valuable omega-3 LC-PUFA docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). Previously, we have engineered P. tricornutum to accumulate elevated levels of DHA and docosapentaenoic acid (DPA) by overexpressing heterologous genes encoding enzyme activities of the LC-PUFA biosynthetic pathway. Here, the transgenic strain Pt_Elo5 has been investigated for the scalable production of EPA and DHA. Studies have been performed at the laboratory scale on the cultures growing in up to 1 L flasks a 3.5 L bubble column, a 550 L closed photobioreactor and a 1250 L raceway pond with artificial illumination. Detailed studies were carried out on the effect of different media, carbon sources and illumination on omega-3 LC-PUFAs production by transgenic strain Pt_Elo5 and wild type P. tricornutum grown in 3.5 L bubble columns. The highest content of DHA (7.5% of total fatty acids, TFA) in transgenic strain was achieved in cultures grown in seawater salts, Instant Ocean (IO), supplemented with F/2 nutrients (F2N) under continuous light. After identifying the optimal conditions for omega-3 LC-PUFA accumulation in the small-scale experiments we compared EPA and DHA levels of the transgenic strain grown in a larger fence-style tubular photobioreactor and a raceway pond. We observed a significant production of DHA over EPA, generating an EPA/DPA/DHA profile of 8.7%/4.5%/12.3% of TFA in cells grown in a photobioreactor, equivalent to 6.4 μg/mg dry weight DHA in a mid-exponentially growing algal culture. Omega-3 LC-PUFAs production in a raceway pond at ambient temperature but supplemented with artificial illumination (110 μmol photons m-2s-1) on a 16:8h light:dark cycle, in natural seawater

  17. Towards the Industrial Production of Omega-3 Long Chain Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids from a Genetically Modified Diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, Mary L; Warwick, Joanna; Terry, Anya; Allen, Michael J; Napier, Johnathan A; Sayanova, Olga

    2015-01-01

    The marine diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum can accumulate up to 30% of the omega-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (LC-PUFA) eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and, as such, is considered a good source for the industrial production of EPA. However, P. tricornutum does not naturally accumulate significant levels of the more valuable omega-3 LC-PUFA docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). Previously, we have engineered P. tricornutum to accumulate elevated levels of DHA and docosapentaenoic acid (DPA) by overexpressing heterologous genes encoding enzyme activities of the LC-PUFA biosynthetic pathway. Here, the transgenic strain Pt_Elo5 has been investigated for the scalable production of EPA and DHA. Studies have been performed at the laboratory scale on the cultures growing in up to 1 L flasks a 3.5 L bubble column, a 550 L closed photobioreactor and a 1250 L raceway pond with artificial illumination. Detailed studies were carried out on the effect of different media, carbon sources and illumination on omega-3 LC-PUFAs production by transgenic strain Pt_Elo5 and wild type P. tricornutum grown in 3.5 L bubble columns. The highest content of DHA (7.5% of total fatty acids, TFA) in transgenic strain was achieved in cultures grown in seawater salts, Instant Ocean (IO), supplemented with F/2 nutrients (F2N) under continuous light. After identifying the optimal conditions for omega-3 LC-PUFA accumulation in the small-scale experiments we compared EPA and DHA levels of the transgenic strain grown in a larger fence-style tubular photobioreactor and a raceway pond. We observed a significant production of DHA over EPA, generating an EPA/DPA/DHA profile of 8.7%/4.5%/12.3% of TFA in cells grown in a photobioreactor, equivalent to 6.4 μg/mg dry weight DHA in a mid-exponentially growing algal culture. Omega-3 LC-PUFAs production in a raceway pond at ambient temperature but supplemented with artificial illumination (110 μmol photons m-2s-1) on a 16:8h light:dark cycle, in natural seawater

  18. Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids and chemically induced diabetes mellitus. Effect of omega-3 fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Suresh, Y; Das, U N

    2003-03-01

    In a previous study, we showed that prior oral feeding of oils rich in omega-3 eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid and omega-6 gamma-linolenic acid and arachidonic acid prevent the development of alloxan-induced diabetes mellitus in experimental animals. We also observed that 99% pure omega-6 fatty acids gamma-linolenic acid and arachidonic acid protect against chemically induced diabetes mellitus. Here we report the results of our studies with omega-3 fatty acids. Alloxan-induced in vitro cytotoxicity and apoptosis in an insulin-secreting rat insulinoma cell line, RIN, was prevented by prior exposure of these cells to alpha-linolenic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid, and docosahexaenoic acid. Prior oral supplementation with alpha-linolenic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid, and docosahexaenoic acid prevented alloxan-induced diabetes mellitus. alpha-Linolenic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid, and docosahexaenoic acid not only attenuated chemical-induced diabetes mellitus but also restored the anti-oxidant status to normal range in various tissues. These results suggested that omega-3 fatty acids can abrogate chemically induced diabetes in experimental animals and attenuate the oxidant stress that occurs in diabetes mellitus.

  19. The role of Δ6-desaturase acyl-carrier specificity in the efficient synthesis of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in transgenic plants.

    PubMed

    Sayanova, Olga; Ruiz-Lopez, Noemi; Haslam, Richard P; Napier, Johnathan A

    2012-02-01

    The role of acyl-CoA-dependent Δ6-desaturation in the heterologous synthesis of omega-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids was systematically evaluated in transgenic yeast and Arabidopsis thaliana. The acyl-CoA Δ6-desaturase from the picoalga Ostreococcus tauri and orthologous activities from mouse (Mus musculus) and salmon (Salmo salar) were shown to generate substantial levels of Δ6-desaturated acyl-CoAs, in contrast to the phospholipid-dependent Δ6-desaturases from higher plants that failed to modify this metabolic pool. Transgenic plants expressing the acyl-CoA Δ6-desaturases from either O. tauri or salmon, in conjunction with the two additional activities required for the synthesis of C20 polyunsaturated fatty acids, contained higher levels of eicosapentaenoic acid compared with plants expressing the borage phospholipid-dependent Δ6-desaturase. The use of acyl-CoA-dependent Δ6-desaturases almost completely abolished the accumulation of unwanted biosynthetic intermediates such as γ-linolenic acid in total seed lipids. Expression of acyl-CoA Δ6-desaturases resulted in increased distribution of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in the polar lipids of transgenic plants, reflecting the larger substrate pool available for acylation by enzymes of the Kennedy pathway. Expression of the O. tauriΔ6-desaturase in transgenic Camelina sativa plants also resulted in the accumulation of high levels of Δ6-desaturated fatty acids. This study provides evidence for the efficacy of using acyl-CoA-dependent Δ6-desaturases in the efficient metabolic engineering of transgenic plants with high value traits such as the synthesis of omega-3 LC-PUFAs. PMID:21902798

  20. Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation had no effect on body weight but reduced energy intake in overweight and obese women.

    PubMed

    Harden, Charlotte J; Dible, Victoria A; Russell, Jean M; Garaiova, Iveta; Plummer, Sue F; Barker, Margo E; Corfe, Bernard M

    2014-01-01

    Longer-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids may have greater appetite-suppressing effects than shorter-chain, monosaturated, and saturated fatty acids. Because fish oils are predominantly composed of n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid and may assist in the treatment of obesity comorbidities, their effect on body weight and body mass index is of interest. We hypothesized that daily supplementation with docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)-rich oil would reduce energy intake and body weight in overweight and obese women compared with supplementation with oleic acid (OA) rich oil. A double-blinded, randomized, parallel intervention was conducted. Body mass index (in kilograms per meter squared), body weight (in kilograms), body fat (in percent), and lean tissue (in kilograms) were measured at baseline and 12 weeks after intervention with DHA or OA. Diet diaries were also completed at these time points for estimation of energy and macronutrient intake. Subjects reported significantly lower energy (P = .020), carbohydrate (g) (P = .037), and fat (g) (P = .045) intake after DHA compared with OA. Body mass or composition was not affected by treatment, although a fall in body weight in the DHA group approached statistical significance (P = .089). Daily ingestion of DHA over a 12-week period may reduce energy intake in overweight and obese females, but longer-term and adequately powered studies using subjects of both sexes are needed. Other factors that should be considered include the following: the choice of control, the body mass index category of subjects, and ways of improving the compliancy and accuracy of dietary assessment.

  1. Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation had no effect on body weight but reduced energy intake in overweight and obese women.

    PubMed

    Harden, Charlotte J; Dible, Victoria A; Russell, Jean M; Garaiova, Iveta; Plummer, Sue F; Barker, Margo E; Corfe, Bernard M

    2014-01-01

    Longer-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids may have greater appetite-suppressing effects than shorter-chain, monosaturated, and saturated fatty acids. Because fish oils are predominantly composed of n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid and may assist in the treatment of obesity comorbidities, their effect on body weight and body mass index is of interest. We hypothesized that daily supplementation with docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)-rich oil would reduce energy intake and body weight in overweight and obese women compared with supplementation with oleic acid (OA) rich oil. A double-blinded, randomized, parallel intervention was conducted. Body mass index (in kilograms per meter squared), body weight (in kilograms), body fat (in percent), and lean tissue (in kilograms) were measured at baseline and 12 weeks after intervention with DHA or OA. Diet diaries were also completed at these time points for estimation of energy and macronutrient intake. Subjects reported significantly lower energy (P = .020), carbohydrate (g) (P = .037), and fat (g) (P = .045) intake after DHA compared with OA. Body mass or composition was not affected by treatment, although a fall in body weight in the DHA group approached statistical significance (P = .089). Daily ingestion of DHA over a 12-week period may reduce energy intake in overweight and obese females, but longer-term and adequately powered studies using subjects of both sexes are needed. Other factors that should be considered include the following: the choice of control, the body mass index category of subjects, and ways of improving the compliancy and accuracy of dietary assessment. PMID:24418242

  2. Perturbation and age-related changes in the fatty acid pattern of soleus muscle phospholipids and triglycerides in rats depleted in long-chain polyunsaturated omega3 fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Malaisse, Willy J; Portois, Laurence; Sener, Abdullah; Carpentier, Yvon A

    2007-12-01

    Altered D-glucose metabolism prevails in the soleus muscle of rats depleted in long-chain polyunsaturated omega3 fatty acids (omega3). In these animals, the prior intravenous injection of an omega3-rich medium-chain triglyceride:fish oil emulsion (omega3-FO rats), as compared to that of an omega3-poor medium-chain triglyceride:olive oil emulsion (omega3-OO rats), may either correct or aggravate selected metabolic variables. This study deals with the fatty acid pattern of soleus phospholipids and triglycerides in control animals versus omega3-depleted rats not injected with any lipid emulsion (omega3-NI rats) and in omega3-OO versus omega3-FO rats. In each group of omega3-depleted rats, age-related changes were also monitored. The omega3-depleted rats displayed low long-chain polyunsaturated omega3 fatty acid content, facilitated metabolism of long-chain polyunsaturated omega6 fatty acids, and increased Delta9-desaturase activity. Both the age-related changes in lipid variables and those attributable to the prior intravenous injection of the omega3-rich lipid emulsion consisted either in a move towards normalization or in the opposite direction, i.e. towards aggravation of the defect found in the omega3-depleted rats. Emphasis is placed, therefore, on the unusual situation found in the soleus muscle of omega3-depleted rats, in which both lipid and metabolic variables may be either favourably or adversely affected by the same environmental factor(s). PMID:17982700

  3. High content of long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in red blood cells of Kenyan Maasai despite low dietary intake

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Increasing land restrictions and a reduced livestock-to-human ratio during the 20th century led the Maasai to lead a more sedentary, market-orientated lifestyle. Although plant-derived food nowadays contributes substantially to their diet, dairy products being high in saturated fatty acids (SFA) and low in polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) still are an important energy source. Since reliable data regarding the Maasai diet date back to the 1980s, the study objective was to document current diet practices in a Kenyan Maasai community and to investigate the fatty acid distribution in diet and red blood cells. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted among 26 Maasai (20 women, 6 men) from Loodokilani, Kajiado District, Kenya. Food intake was described by the subjects via 24-h recall, and both food and blood samples were analysed. Results Two main foods - milk and ugali - constituted the Maasai diet in this region. A total of 0.9 L of milk and 0.6 kg of ugali were consumed per person and day to yield an energy intake of 7.6 MJ/d per person. A major proportion of ingested food contributing 58.3% to the total dietary energy (en%) was plant-derived, followed by dairy products representing 41.1 en%. Fat consumed (30.5 en%) was high in SFA (63.8%) and low in PUFA (9.2%). Long-chain n-3 PUFA (EPA, DPA and DHA) made up only 0.15% of the ingested fatty acids, but 5.9% of red blood cell fatty acids. Conclusion The study indicates the Maasai diet is rich in SFA and low in PUFA. Nevertheless, red blood cells are composed of comparable proportions of long-chain n-3 PUFA to populations consuming higher amounts of this fatty acid group. PMID:21854590

  4. Supplementing long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in canned wild Pacific pink salmon with Alaska salmon oil

    PubMed Central

    Lapis, Trina J; Oliveira, Alexandra C M; Crapo, Charles A; Himelbloom, Brian; Bechtel, Peter J; Long, Kristy A

    2013-01-01

    Establishing n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid contents in canned wild Alaska pink salmon products is challenging due to ample natural variation found in lipid content of pink salmon muscle. This study investigated the effect of adding salmon oil (SO) to canned pink salmon produced from fish exhibiting two opposite degrees of skin watermarking, bright (B) and dark (D). Specific goals of the study were to evaluate the benefits of adding SO to canned pink salmon with regard to nutritional value of the product, sensory characteristics, and the oxidative and hydrolytic stability of the lipids over thermal processing. Six groups of canned pink salmon were produced with variable levels of SO, either using bright (with 0, 1, or 2% SO) or dark (with 0, 2, or 4% SO) pink salmon. Compositional analysis revealed highest (P < 0.05) lipid content in sample B2 (8.7%) and lowest (P < 0.05) lipid content in sample D0 (3.5%). Lipid content of samples B0, B1, D2, and D4 was not significantly different (P > 0.05) ranging from 5.7% to 6.8%. Consequently, addition of SO to canned pink salmon allowed for consistent lipid content between bright and dark fish. Addition of 1% or 2% SO to canned bright pink salmon was not detrimental to the sensory properties of the product. It is recommended that canned bright pink salmon be supplemented with at least 1% SO, while supplementation with 2% SO would guarantee a minimum quantity of 1.9 g of n-3 fatty acids per 100 g of product. Addition of 4% SO to canned dark pink salmon was detrimental to product texture and taste, while supplementation with 2% SO did not negatively affect sensorial properties of the product. Accordingly, canned dark pink salmon should be supplemented with 2% SO so that a minimum n-3 fatty acids content of 1.5 g per 100 g of product. PMID:24804010

  5. Three Randomized Controlled Trials of Early Long-Chain Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Supplementation on Means-End Problem Solving in Nine-Month Olds

    PubMed Central

    Drover, James R.; Hoffman, Dennis R.; Castañeda, Yolanda S.; Morale, Sarah E.; Birch, Eileen E.

    2009-01-01

    This study examines whether feeding infants formula supplemented with long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA) improves cognitive function of 9-month olds. Participants included 229 infants from 3, randomized controlled trials. Children received either formula supplemented with docosahexaenoic acid and arachidonic acid, or a control formula beginning at 1 to 5 d (12 month feeding study), or following 6 weeks (6-week weaning study) or 4 to 6 months of breastfeeding (4-to 6-month weaning study). Infants were assessed with a two-step problem solving task. In the 12-month feeding and 6-week weaning studies, supplemented children had more intentional solutions (successful task completions) and higher intention scores (goal-directed behaviors) than controls. These results suggest that LCPUFA-supplementation improves means-end problem solving. PMID:19765006

  6. The Relationship of Dietary ω-3 Long-Chain Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Intake With Incident Age-Related Macular Degeneration AREDS Report No. 23

    PubMed Central

    SanGiovanni, John Paul; Chew, Emily Y.; Agron, Elvira; Clemons, Traci E.; Ferris, Frederick L.; Gensler, Gary; Lindblad, Anne S.; Milton, Roy C.; Seddon, Johanna M.; Klein, Ronald; Sperduto, Robert D.

    2009-01-01

    Objective To examine the association of dietary ω-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid and fish intake with incident neovascular age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and central geographic atrophy (CGA). Methods Multicenter clinic-based prospective cohort study from a clinical trial including Age-Related Eye Disease Study (AREDS) participants with bilateral drusen at enrollment. Main outcome measures were incident neovascular AMD and CGA, ascertained from annual stereoscopic color fundus photographs (median follow-up, 6.3 years). We estimated nutrient and food intake from a validated food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) at baseline, with intake of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), combined EPA and DHA, and fish as primary exposures. Results After controlling for known covariates, we observed a reduced likelihood of progression from bilateral drusen to CGA among people who reported the highest levels of EPA (odds ratio [OR], 0.44; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.23-0.87) and EPA+DHA (OR, 0.45; 95% CI, 0.23-0.90) consumption. Levels of DHA were associated with CGA in age-, sex-, and calorie-adjusted models (OR, 0.51; 95% CI, 0.26-1.00); however, this statistical relationship did not persist in multivariable models. Conclusions Dietary lipid intake is a modifiable factor that may influence the likelihood of developing sight-threatening forms of AMD. Our findings suggest that dietary ω-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid intake is associated with a decreased risk of progression from bilateral drusen to CGA. PMID:18779490

  7. Continuous gradient temperature Raman spectroscopy of the long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids Docosapentaenoic (DPA, 22:5n-6) and Docosahexaenoic (DHA; 22:6n-3) from -100 to 20° C

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The structural, cognitive and visual development of the human brain and retina strictly require long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA). Excluding water, the mammalian brain is about 60% lipid. One of the great unanswered questions with respect to biological science in general is the absolu...

  8. Role of ω3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in reducing cardio-metabolic risk factors.

    PubMed

    Abeywardena, Mahinda Y; Patten, Glen S

    2011-09-01

    Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of mortality in many economically developed nations, and its incidence is increasing at a rapid rate in emerging economies. Diet and lifestyle issues are closely associated with a myriad of cardiovascular disease risk factors including abnormal plasma lipids, hypertension, insulin resistance, diabetes and obesity, suggesting that diet-based approaches may be of benefit. Omega-3 longchain-polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω3 LC-PUFA) are increasingly being used in the prevention and management of several cardiovascular risk factors. Both the ω3 and ω6 PUFA families are considered essential, as the human body is itself unable to synthesize them. The conversion of the two precursor fatty acids - linoleic acid (18:2ω6) and α-linoleic acid (α18:3ω3) - of these two pathways to longer (≥C(20)) PUFA is inefficient. Although there is an abundance of ω6 PUFA in the food supply; in many populations the relative intake of ω3 LC-PUFA is low with health authorities advocating increased consumption. Fish oil, rich in eicosapentaenoic (EPA, 20:5ω3) and docosahexaenoic (DHA, 22:6ω3) acids, has been found to cause a modest reduction in blood pressure at a dose level of >3g/d both in untreated and treated hypertensives. Whilst a multitude of mechanisms may contribute to the blood pressure lowering action of ω3 LC-PUFA, improved vascular endothelial cell function appears to play a central role. Recent studies which evaluated the potential benefits of fish oil in type-2 diabetes have helped to alleviate concerns raised in some previous studies which used relatively large dose (5-8 g/d) and reported a worsening of glycemic control. Several meta-analyses have confirmed that the most consistent action of ω3 LC-PUFA in insulin resistance and type-2 diabetes is the reduction in triglycerides. In some studies, fish oil has been found to cause a small rise in LDL-cholesterol, but a change in the LDL particle size, from the smaller more

  9. Metabolic engineering of long chain-polyunsaturated fatty acid biosynthetic pathway in oleaginous fungus for dihomo-gamma linolenic acid production.

    PubMed

    Chutrakul, Chanikul; Jeennor, Sukanya; Panchanawaporn, Sarocha; Cheawchanlertfa, Pattsarun; Suttiwattanakul, Sarinya; Veerana, Mayura; Laoteng, Kobkul

    2016-01-20

    Microbial lipids are promising alternative sources of long chain-polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFAs) for food, feed, nutraceutical and pharmaceutical sectors. Dihomo-γ-linolenic acid (C20:3Δ(8,11,14); DGLA) is an important LC-PUFAs with anti-inflammatory and anti-proliferative effects. To generate a DGLA-producing strain, fatty acid reconstitution in Aspergillus oryzae was performed by metabolic engineering through co-expression of codon-optimized Pythium Δ(6)-desaturase and Δ(6)-elongase, which had high conversion rates of substrates to respective products as compared to the native enzymes. The Δ(6)-desaturated and Δ(6)-elongated products, γ-linolenic acid (C18:3Δ(6,9,12); GLA) and DGLA, were accumulated in phospholipids rather than triacylglycerol. Interestingly, the manipulation of lipid quality in the oleaginous fungus did not affect growth and lipid phenotypes. This strategy might expand to development of the oleaginous fungal strain for producing other tailor-made oils with industrial applications. PMID:26686314

  10. Current evidence for the clinical use of long-chain polyunsaturated n-3 fatty acids to prevent age-related cognitive decline and Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Dacks, P A; Shineman, D W; Fillit, H M

    2013-03-01

    An NIH State of the Science Conference panel concluded in 2010 that insufficient evidence is available to recommend the use of any primary prevention therapy for Alzheimer's disease or cognitive decline with age. Despite the insufficient evidence, candidate therapies with varying levels of evidence for safety and efficacy are taken by the public and discussed in the media. One example is the long-chain n-3 (omega-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 LC-PUFA), DHA and EPA, found in some fish and dietary supplements. With this report, we seek to provide a practical overview and rating of the level and type of available evidence that n-3 LC-PUFA supplements are safe and protective against cognitive aging and Alzheimer's disease, with additional discussion of the evidence for effects on quality of life, vascular aging, and the rate of aging. We discuss available sources, dose, bioavailability, and variables that may impact the response to n-3 LC-PUFA treatment such as baseline n-3 LC-PUFA status, APOE ε4 genotype, depression, and background diet. Lastly, we list ongoing clinical trials and propose next research steps to validate these fatty acids for primary prevention of cognitive aging and dementia. Of particular relevance, epidemiology indicates a higher risk of cognitive decline in people in the lower quartile of n-3 LC-PUFA intake or blood levels but these populations have not been specifically targeted by RCTs. PMID:23459977

  11. Metabolic engineering of long chain-polyunsaturated fatty acid biosynthetic pathway in oleaginous fungus for dihomo-gamma linolenic acid production.

    PubMed

    Chutrakul, Chanikul; Jeennor, Sukanya; Panchanawaporn, Sarocha; Cheawchanlertfa, Pattsarun; Suttiwattanakul, Sarinya; Veerana, Mayura; Laoteng, Kobkul

    2016-01-20

    Microbial lipids are promising alternative sources of long chain-polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFAs) for food, feed, nutraceutical and pharmaceutical sectors. Dihomo-γ-linolenic acid (C20:3Δ(8,11,14); DGLA) is an important LC-PUFAs with anti-inflammatory and anti-proliferative effects. To generate a DGLA-producing strain, fatty acid reconstitution in Aspergillus oryzae was performed by metabolic engineering through co-expression of codon-optimized Pythium Δ(6)-desaturase and Δ(6)-elongase, which had high conversion rates of substrates to respective products as compared to the native enzymes. The Δ(6)-desaturated and Δ(6)-elongated products, γ-linolenic acid (C18:3Δ(6,9,12); GLA) and DGLA, were accumulated in phospholipids rather than triacylglycerol. Interestingly, the manipulation of lipid quality in the oleaginous fungus did not affect growth and lipid phenotypes. This strategy might expand to development of the oleaginous fungal strain for producing other tailor-made oils with industrial applications.

  12. Current evidence for the clinical use of long-chain polyunsaturated n-3 fatty acids to prevent age-related cognitive decline and Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Dacks, P A; Shineman, D W; Fillit, H M

    2013-03-01

    An NIH State of the Science Conference panel concluded in 2010 that insufficient evidence is available to recommend the use of any primary prevention therapy for Alzheimer's disease or cognitive decline with age. Despite the insufficient evidence, candidate therapies with varying levels of evidence for safety and efficacy are taken by the public and discussed in the media. One example is the long-chain n-3 (omega-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 LC-PUFA), DHA and EPA, found in some fish and dietary supplements. With this report, we seek to provide a practical overview and rating of the level and type of available evidence that n-3 LC-PUFA supplements are safe and protective against cognitive aging and Alzheimer's disease, with additional discussion of the evidence for effects on quality of life, vascular aging, and the rate of aging. We discuss available sources, dose, bioavailability, and variables that may impact the response to n-3 LC-PUFA treatment such as baseline n-3 LC-PUFA status, APOE ε4 genotype, depression, and background diet. Lastly, we list ongoing clinical trials and propose next research steps to validate these fatty acids for primary prevention of cognitive aging and dementia. Of particular relevance, epidemiology indicates a higher risk of cognitive decline in people in the lower quartile of n-3 LC-PUFA intake or blood levels but these populations have not been specifically targeted by RCTs.

  13. Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids in Lipid Bilayers and Tubules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirst, Linda S.; Yuan, Jing; Pramudya, Yohannes; Nguyen, Lam T.

    2007-03-01

    Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are found in a variety of biological membranes and have been implicated with lipid raft formation and possible function, typical molecules include DHA (Docosahexanoic Acid) and AA (Alphalinoleic Acid) which have been the focus of considerable attention in recent years. We are interested in the phase behavior of these molecules in the lipid bilayer. The addition of lipid molecules with polyunsaturated chains has a clear effect on the fluidity and curvature of the membrane and we investigate the effects the addition of polyunsaturated lipids on bilayer structure and tubule formation. Self-assembled cylindrical lipid tubules have attracted considerable attention because of their interesting structures and potential technological applications. Using x-ray diffraction techniques, Atomic Force Microscopy and confocal fluorescence imaging, both symmetric and mixed chain lipids were incorporated into model membranes and the effects on bilayer structure and tubule formation investigated.

  14. Current information and Asian perspectives on long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in pregnancy, lactation, and infancy: systematic review and practice recommendations from an early nutrition academy workshop.

    PubMed

    Koletzko, Berthold; Boey, Christopher C M; Campoy, Cristina; Carlson, Susan E; Chang, Namsoo; Guillermo-Tuazon, Maria Antonia; Joshi, Sadhana; Prell, Christine; Quak, Seng Hock; Sjarif, Damayanti Rusli; Su, Yixiang; Supapannachart, Sarayut; Yamashiro, Yuichiro; Osendarp, Saskia J M

    2014-01-01

    The Early Nutrition Academy supported a systematic review of human studies on the roles of pre- and postnatal long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA) published from 2008 to 2013 and an expert workshop that reviewed the information and developed recommendations, considering particularly Asian populations. An increased supply of n-3 LC-PUFA during pregnancy reduces the risk of preterm birth before 34 weeks of gestation. Pregnant women should achieve an additional supply ≥200 mg docosahexaenic acid (DHA)/day, usually achieving a total intake ≥300 mg DHA/day. Higher intakes (600-800 mg DHA/day) may provide greater protection against early preterm birth. Some studies indicate beneficial effects of pre- and postnatal DHA supply on child neurodevelopment and allergy risk. Breast-feeding is the best choice for infants. Breast-feeding women should get ≥200 mg DHA/day to achieve a human milk DHA content of ∼0.3% fatty acids. Infant formula for term infants should contain DHA and arachidonic acid (AA) to provide 100 mg DHA/day and 140 mg AA/day. A supply of 100 mg DHA/day should continue during the second half of infancy. We do not provide quantitative advice on AA levels in follow-on formula fed after the introduction of complimentary feeding due to a lack of sufficient data and considerable variation in the AA amounts provided by complimentary foods. Reasonable intakes for very-low-birth weight infants are 18-60 mg/kg/day DHA and 18-45 mg/kg/day AA, while higher intakes (55-60 mg/kg/day DHA, ∼1% fatty acids; 35-45 mg/kg/day AA, ∼0.6-0.75%) appear preferable. Research on the requirements and effects of LC-PUFA during pregnancy, lactation, and early childhood should continue. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel. PMID:25227906

  15. Dietary long chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids prevent impaired social behaviour and normalize brain dopamine levels in food allergic mice.

    PubMed

    de Theije, Caroline G M; van den Elsen, Lieke W J; Willemsen, Linette E M; Milosevic, Vanja; Korte-Bouws, Gerdien A H; Lopes da Silva, Sofia; Broersen, Laus M; Korte, S Mechiel; Olivier, Berend; Garssen, Johan; Kraneveld, Aletta D

    2015-03-01

    Allergy is suggested to exacerbate impaired behaviour in children with neurodevelopmental disorders. We have previously shown that food allergy impaired social behaviour in mice. Dietary fatty acid composition may affect both the immune and nervous system. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of n-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 LCPUFA) on food allergy-induced impaired social behaviour and associated deficits in prefrontal dopamine (DA) in mice. Mice were fed either control or n-3 LCPUFA-enriched diet before and during sensitization with whey. Social behaviour, acute allergic skin response and serum immunoglobulins were assessed. Monoamine levels were measured in brain and intestine and fatty acid content in brain. N-3 LCPUFA prevented impaired social behaviour of allergic mice. Moreover, n-3 LCPUFA supplementation increased docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) incorporation into the brain and restored reduced levels of prefrontal DA and its metabolites 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid, 3-methoxytyramine and homovanillic acid in allergic mice. In addition to these brain effects, n-3 LCPUFA supplementation reduced the allergic skin response and restored decreased intestinal levels of serotonin metabolite 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid in allergic mice. N-3 LCPUFA may have beneficial effects on food allergy-induced deficits in social behaviour, either indirectly by reducing the allergic response and restoring intestinal 5-HT signalling, or directly by DHA incorporation into neuronal membranes, affecting the DA system. Therefore, it is of interest to further investigate the relevance of food allergy-enhanced impairments in social behaviour in humans and the potential benefits of dietary n-3 LCPUFA supplementation. PMID:25445491

  16. Dietary long chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids prevent impaired social behaviour and normalize brain dopamine levels in food allergic mice.

    PubMed

    de Theije, Caroline G M; van den Elsen, Lieke W J; Willemsen, Linette E M; Milosevic, Vanja; Korte-Bouws, Gerdien A H; Lopes da Silva, Sofia; Broersen, Laus M; Korte, S Mechiel; Olivier, Berend; Garssen, Johan; Kraneveld, Aletta D

    2015-03-01

    Allergy is suggested to exacerbate impaired behaviour in children with neurodevelopmental disorders. We have previously shown that food allergy impaired social behaviour in mice. Dietary fatty acid composition may affect both the immune and nervous system. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of n-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 LCPUFA) on food allergy-induced impaired social behaviour and associated deficits in prefrontal dopamine (DA) in mice. Mice were fed either control or n-3 LCPUFA-enriched diet before and during sensitization with whey. Social behaviour, acute allergic skin response and serum immunoglobulins were assessed. Monoamine levels were measured in brain and intestine and fatty acid content in brain. N-3 LCPUFA prevented impaired social behaviour of allergic mice. Moreover, n-3 LCPUFA supplementation increased docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) incorporation into the brain and restored reduced levels of prefrontal DA and its metabolites 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid, 3-methoxytyramine and homovanillic acid in allergic mice. In addition to these brain effects, n-3 LCPUFA supplementation reduced the allergic skin response and restored decreased intestinal levels of serotonin metabolite 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid in allergic mice. N-3 LCPUFA may have beneficial effects on food allergy-induced deficits in social behaviour, either indirectly by reducing the allergic response and restoring intestinal 5-HT signalling, or directly by DHA incorporation into neuronal membranes, affecting the DA system. Therefore, it is of interest to further investigate the relevance of food allergy-enhanced impairments in social behaviour in humans and the potential benefits of dietary n-3 LCPUFA supplementation.

  17. Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in breast milk and early weight gain in breast-fed infants.

    PubMed

    Scholtens, Salome; Wijga, Alet H; Smit, Henriette A; Brunekreef, Bert; de Jongste, Johan C; Gerritsen, Jorrit; Seidell, Jaap C

    2009-01-01

    The long-chain PUFA (LCPUFA) content of an infant's diet might affect early weight gain. In early trials on supplementation of formula feeding n-3 LCPUFA affected weight gain adversely. n-6 LCPUFA are thought to promote adipose tissue development and might be associated with higher weight gain. We studied the association between the natural n-3 and n-6 LCPUFA content of breast milk of Dutch women and weight and BMI gain of their breast-fed infants in the first year of life. The children in this study were enrolled in the Prevention and Incidence of Asthma and Mite Allergy (PIAMA) birth cohort study and were born in 1996-1997 in The Netherlands. Parents reported their child's weight and length in a questionnaire. Of a subgroup of the total population breast-milk samples were collected (n 244). The fatty acid composition of breast milk was determined by GLC and expressed as weight percentages. Linear regression was used for data analysis. Mean gain in weight, length and BMI per week from birth to 1 year of age was 119.5 (SD 16.1) g, 0.48 (SD 0.05) cm and 0.06 (SD 0.03) kg/m2, respectively. The associations between n-6 and n-3 LCPUFA in breast milk, and infant weight, length and BMI gain were weak and inconsistent. The n-3 and n-6 LCPUFA content in breast milk did not affect weight or BMI gain in the first year of life in breast-fed term infants.

  18. Anorexia nervosa, seasonality, and polyunsaturated fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Scolnick, Barbara; Mostofsky, David I

    2015-09-01

    Anorexia nervosa is a serious neurobehavioral disorder marked by semistarvation, extreme fear of weight gain, frequently hyperactivity, and low body temperature. The etiology remains unknown. We present a speculation that a primary causative factor is that polyunsaturated fatty acids are skewed to prevent oxidative damage in phospholipid membranes. This causes a change in the trade off of oxidation protection vs homeoviscous adaptation to lower temperatures, which sets off a metabolic cascade that leads to the rogue state of anorexia nervosa.

  19. Long-Chain Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids Have Developmental Effects on the Crop Pest, the Cabbage White Butterfly Pieris rapae.

    PubMed

    Hixson, Stefanie M; Shukla, Kruti; Campbell, Lesley G; Hallett, Rebecca H; Smith, Sandy M; Packer, Laurence; Arts, Michael T

    2016-01-01

    Nutritional enhancement of crops using genetic engineering can potentially affect herbivorous pests. Recently, oilseed crops have been genetically engineered to produce the long-chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) at levels similar to that found in fish oil; to provide a more sustainable source of these compounds than is currently available from wild fish capture. We examined some of the growth and development impacts of adding EPA and DHA to an artificial diet of Pieris rapae, a common pest of Brassicaceae plants. We replaced 1% canola oil with EPA: DHA (11:7 ratio) in larval diets, and examined morphological traits and growth of larvae and ensuing adults across 5 dietary treatments. Diets containing increasing amounts of EPA and DHA did not affect developmental phenology, larval or pupal weight, food consumption, nor larval mortality. However, the addition of EPA and DHA in larval diets resulted in progressively heavier adults (F 4, 108 = 6.78; p = 0.011), with smaller wings (p < 0.05) and a higher frequency of wing deformities (R = 0.988; p = 0.001). We conclude that the presence of EPA and DHA in diets of larval P. rapae may alter adult mass and wing morphology; therefore, further research on the environmental impacts of EPA and DHA production on terrestrial biota is advisable.

  20. [Effect of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids on arachidonate and docosahexaeonic acid in healthy infants in the first four months of life].

    PubMed

    Decsi, T; Szász, M; Sárkány, I; Botykai, A; Berthold, K

    1996-09-22

    Fatty acid compositions of plasma phospholipids (PL), triglycerides (TG) and sterol esters (STE) were measured by high resolution capillary gas-liquid chromatography in formula fed healthy infants at the ages of 5 days and 1, 2, 3 and 4 months. The infants were randomly assigned to receive either conventional infant formula (F, n = 10) without long-chain polyunsaturates (LCP) or the same formula supplemented with LCP (LCP-F, n = 12) in amounts and ratios similar to those characteristic to human milk. From the age of 1 month onwards, percentage contributions of the principal omega-6 LCP, arachidonic acid were significantly higher in plasma lipids of infants fed LCP-F than in those receiving conventional formula without dietary LCP. Values of the principal omega-3 LCP, docosahexaenoic acid were also significantly lower in the infants fed conventional formula than in those receiving LCP-F throughout the study. The data obtained indicate that from the formula supplemented with LCP both arachidonic and docosahexaenoic acids were effectively absorbed and incorporated into infantile plasma lipids. Recent data of the literature suggest that supplementation of infant formula with LCP may beneficially influence visual and psychomotor development also in healthy, term infants.

  1. Long-Chain Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids Have Developmental Effects on the Crop Pest, the Cabbage White Butterfly Pieris rapae

    PubMed Central

    Hixson, Stefanie M.; Shukla, Kruti; Campbell, Lesley G.; Hallett, Rebecca H.; Smith, Sandy M.; Packer, Laurence; Arts, Michael T.

    2016-01-01

    Nutritional enhancement of crops using genetic engineering can potentially affect herbivorous pests. Recently, oilseed crops have been genetically engineered to produce the long-chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) at levels similar to that found in fish oil; to provide a more sustainable source of these compounds than is currently available from wild fish capture. We examined some of the growth and development impacts of adding EPA and DHA to an artificial diet of Pieris rapae, a common pest of Brassicaceae plants. We replaced 1% canola oil with EPA: DHA (11:7 ratio) in larval diets, and examined morphological traits and growth of larvae and ensuing adults across 5 dietary treatments. Diets containing increasing amounts of EPA and DHA did not affect developmental phenology, larval or pupal weight, food consumption, nor larval mortality. However, the addition of EPA and DHA in larval diets resulted in progressively heavier adults (F 4, 108 = 6.78; p = 0.011), with smaller wings (p < 0.05) and a higher frequency of wing deformities (R = 0.988; p = 0.001). We conclude that the presence of EPA and DHA in diets of larval P. rapae may alter adult mass and wing morphology; therefore, further research on the environmental impacts of EPA and DHA production on terrestrial biota is advisable. PMID:27011315

  2. Recent findings of long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCn-3 PUFAs) on atherosclerosis and coronary heart disease (CHD) contrasting studies in Western countries to Japan.

    PubMed

    Sekikawa, Akira; Doyle, Margaret F; Kuller, Lewis H

    2015-11-01

    Recent long-term randomized clinical trials (RCTs) of long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCn-3 PUFAs) on coronary heart disease (CHD) among high-risk patients conducted in Western countries all failed to show their clinical benefits. In striking contrast, an RCT of LCn-3 PUFAs on CHD conducted in Japan, which is a combination of secondary and primary prevention, showed a significant 19% reduction. Potential reasons for this discrepancy are large differences in doses of LCn-3 PUFAs administered (300-900 mg/day in Western countries vs. 1800 mg/day in Japan) and background dietary intake of LCn-3 PUFAs (<300 mg/day in Western countries vs. >1000 mg/day in Japan). These observations suggest that higher doses of LCn-3 PUFAs than examined in RCTs in Western countries may be cardio-protective. Atherosclerosis is the major underlying cause of CHD. Recent observational studies and an RCT of LCn-3 PUFAs on atherosclerosis in Japan show that LCn-3 PUFAs are anti-atherogenic. In this brief review, we focus on recent epidemiological and clinical findings of LCn-3 PUFAs on atherosclerosis and CHD, contrasting studies in Western countries to those in Japan. We also discuss mechanisms of high-dose LCn-3 PUFAs on atherosclerosis.

  3. Feeding laying hens stearidonic acid-enriched soybean oil, as compared to flaxseed oil, more efficiently enriches eggs with very long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Elkin, Robert G; Ying, Yun; Harvatine, Kevin J

    2015-03-18

    The desaturation of α-linolenic acid (ALA) to stearidonic acid (SDA) is considered to be rate-limiting for the hepatic conversion of ALA to eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in humans, rodents, and chickens. Thus, we hypothesized that feeding laying hens SDA, as a component of the oil derived from the genetic modification of the soybean, would bypass this inefficient metabolic step and result in the enrichment of eggs with EPA and DHA at amounts comparable to that achieved by direct supplementation of hens' diet with these very long-chain (VLC) n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs). In a 28-d study, laying hens incorporated 0.132 mg, 0.041 mg, or 0.075 mg of VLC n-3 PUFAs into egg yolk for each milligram of ingested dietary ALA derived primarily from conventional soybean oil (CON), dietary ALA derived primarily from flaxseed oil (FLAX), or dietary SDA derived from SDA-enriched soybean oil, respectively. Moreover, the amounts of total yolk VLC n-3 PUFAs in eggs from hens fed the CON (51 mg), FLAX (91 mg), or SDA (125 mg) oils were markedly less than the 305 mg found in eggs from fish oil-fed hens. Unexpectedly, SDA appeared to be more readily incorporated into adipose tissue than into egg yolk. Since egg yolk FAs typically reflect the hens' dietary pattern, these tissue-specific differences suggest the existence of an alternate pathway for the hepatic secretion and transport of SDA in the laying hen.

  4. Long-Chain Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids Have Developmental Effects on the Crop Pest, the Cabbage White Butterfly Pieris rapae.

    PubMed

    Hixson, Stefanie M; Shukla, Kruti; Campbell, Lesley G; Hallett, Rebecca H; Smith, Sandy M; Packer, Laurence; Arts, Michael T

    2016-01-01

    Nutritional enhancement of crops using genetic engineering can potentially affect herbivorous pests. Recently, oilseed crops have been genetically engineered to produce the long-chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) at levels similar to that found in fish oil; to provide a more sustainable source of these compounds than is currently available from wild fish capture. We examined some of the growth and development impacts of adding EPA and DHA to an artificial diet of Pieris rapae, a common pest of Brassicaceae plants. We replaced 1% canola oil with EPA: DHA (11:7 ratio) in larval diets, and examined morphological traits and growth of larvae and ensuing adults across 5 dietary treatments. Diets containing increasing amounts of EPA and DHA did not affect developmental phenology, larval or pupal weight, food consumption, nor larval mortality. However, the addition of EPA and DHA in larval diets resulted in progressively heavier adults (F 4, 108 = 6.78; p = 0.011), with smaller wings (p < 0.05) and a higher frequency of wing deformities (R = 0.988; p = 0.001). We conclude that the presence of EPA and DHA in diets of larval P. rapae may alter adult mass and wing morphology; therefore, further research on the environmental impacts of EPA and DHA production on terrestrial biota is advisable. PMID:27011315

  5. Long chain polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation in infancy increases length- and weight-for-age but not BMI to 6 years when controlling for effects of maternal smoking.

    PubMed

    Currie, L M; Tolley, E A; Thodosoff, J M; Kerling, E H; Sullivan, D K; Colombo, J; Carlson, S E

    2015-07-01

    Long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA) are added to infant formula but their effect on long-term growth of children is under studied. We evaluated the effects of feeding LCPUFA-supplemented formula (n = 54) compared to control formula (n = 15) throughout infancy on growth from birth-6 years. Growth was described using separate models developed with the MIXED procedure of SAS(®) that included maternal smoking history and gender. Compared to children fed control formula, children who consumed LCPUFA supplemented formula had higher length-/stature-/and weight-for-age percentiles but not body mass index (BMI) percentile from birth to 6 years. Maternal smoking predicted lower stature (2-6 years), higher weight-for-length (birth-18 months) and BMI percentile (2-6 years) independent of LCPUFA effects. Gender interacted with the effect of LCPUFA on stature, and the relationship between smoking and BMI, with a larger effect for boys. Energy intake did not explain growth differences. A relatively small control sample is a limitation. PMID:25936840

  6. Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA) from genesis to senescence: the influence of LCPUFA on neural development, aging, and neurodegeneration.

    PubMed

    Janssen, Carola I F; Kiliaan, Amanda J

    2014-01-01

    Many clinical and animal studies demonstrate the importance of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA) in neural development and neurodegeneration. This review will focus on involvement of LCPUFA from genesis to senescence. The LCPUFA docosahexaenoic acid and arachidonic acid are important components of neuronal membranes, while eicosapentaenoic acid, docosahexaenoic acid, and arachidonic acid also affect cardiovascular health and inflammation. In neural development, LCPUFA deficiency can lead to severe disorders like schizophrenia and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Perinatal LCPUFA supplementation demonstrated beneficial effects in neural development in humans and rodents resulting in improved cognition and sensorimotor integration. In normal aging, the effect of LCPUFA on prevention of cognitive impairment will be discussed. LCPUFA are important for neuronal membrane integrity and function, and also contribute in prevention of brain hypoperfusion. Cerebral perfusion can be compromised as result of obesity, cerebrovascular disease, hypertension, or diabetes mellitus type 2. Last, we will focus on the role of LCPUFA in most common neurodegenerative diseases like Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease. These disorders are characterized by impaired cognition and connectivity and both clinical and animal supplementation studies have shown the potential of LCPUFA to decrease neurodegeneration and inflammation. This review shows that LCPUFA are essential throughout life.

  7. Long chain polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation in infancy increases length- and weight-for-age but not BMI to 6 years when controlling for effects of maternal smoking.

    PubMed

    Currie, L M; Tolley, E A; Thodosoff, J M; Kerling, E H; Sullivan, D K; Colombo, J; Carlson, S E

    2015-07-01

    Long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA) are added to infant formula but their effect on long-term growth of children is under studied. We evaluated the effects of feeding LCPUFA-supplemented formula (n = 54) compared to control formula (n = 15) throughout infancy on growth from birth-6 years. Growth was described using separate models developed with the MIXED procedure of SAS(®) that included maternal smoking history and gender. Compared to children fed control formula, children who consumed LCPUFA supplemented formula had higher length-/stature-/and weight-for-age percentiles but not body mass index (BMI) percentile from birth to 6 years. Maternal smoking predicted lower stature (2-6 years), higher weight-for-length (birth-18 months) and BMI percentile (2-6 years) independent of LCPUFA effects. Gender interacted with the effect of LCPUFA on stature, and the relationship between smoking and BMI, with a larger effect for boys. Energy intake did not explain growth differences. A relatively small control sample is a limitation.

  8. Lipidomics of oxidized polyunsaturated fatty acids

    PubMed Central

    Massey, Karen A.; Nicolaou, Anna

    2013-01-01

    Lipid mediators are produced from the oxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acids through enzymatic and free radical-mediated reactions. When subject to oxygenation via cyclooxygenases, lipoxygenases, and cytochrome P450 monooxygenases, polyunsaturated fatty acids give rise to an array of metabolites including eicosanoids, docosanoids, and octadecanoids. These potent bioactive lipids are involved in many biochemical and signaling pathways, with inflammation being of particular importance. Moreover, because they are produced by more than one pathway and substrate, and are present in a variety of biological milieus, their analysis is not always possible with conventional assays. Liquid chromatography coupled to electrospray mass spectrometry offers a versatile and sensitive approach for the analysis of bioactive lipids, allowing specific and accurate quantitation of multiple species present in the same sample. Here we explain the principles of this approach to mediator lipidomics and present detailed protocols for the assay of enzymatically produced oxygenated metabolites of polyunsaturated fatty acids that can be tailored to answer biological questions or facilitate assessment of nutritional and pharmacological interventions. PMID:22940496

  9. Assessment of a land-locked Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) population as a potential genetic resource with a focus on long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Betancor, M B; Olsen, R E; Solstorm, D; Skulstad, O F; Tocher, D R

    2016-03-01

    The natural food for Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) in freshwater has relatively lower levels of omega-3 (n-3) long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA) than found in prey for post-smolt salmon in seawater. Land-locked salmon such as the Gullspång population feed exclusively on freshwater type lipids during its entire life cycle, a successful adaptation derived from divergent evolution. Studying land-locked populations may provide insights into the molecular and genetic control mechanisms that determine and regulate n-3 LC-PUFA biosynthesis and retention in Atlantic salmon. A two factorial study was performed comparing land-locked and farmed salmon parr fed diets formulated with fish or rapeseed oil for 8 weeks. The land-locked parr had higher capacity to synthesise n-3 LC-PUFA as indicated by higher expression and activity of desaturase and elongase enzymes. The data suggested that the land-locked salmon had reduced sensitivity to dietary fatty acid composition and that dietary docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) did not appear to suppress expression of LC-PUFA biosynthetic genes or activity of the biosynthesis pathway, probably an evolutionary adaptation to a natural diet lower in DHA. Increased biosynthetic activity did not translate to enhanced n-3 LC-PUFA contents in the flesh and diet was the only factor affecting this parameter. Additionally, high lipogenic and glycolytic potentials were found in land-locked salmon, together with decreased lipolysis which in turn could indicate increased use of carbohydrates as an energy source and a sparing of lipid. PMID:26732752

  10. Assessment of a land-locked Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) population as a potential genetic resource with a focus on long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Betancor, M B; Olsen, R E; Solstorm, D; Skulstad, O F; Tocher, D R

    2016-03-01

    The natural food for Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) in freshwater has relatively lower levels of omega-3 (n-3) long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA) than found in prey for post-smolt salmon in seawater. Land-locked salmon such as the Gullspång population feed exclusively on freshwater type lipids during its entire life cycle, a successful adaptation derived from divergent evolution. Studying land-locked populations may provide insights into the molecular and genetic control mechanisms that determine and regulate n-3 LC-PUFA biosynthesis and retention in Atlantic salmon. A two factorial study was performed comparing land-locked and farmed salmon parr fed diets formulated with fish or rapeseed oil for 8 weeks. The land-locked parr had higher capacity to synthesise n-3 LC-PUFA as indicated by higher expression and activity of desaturase and elongase enzymes. The data suggested that the land-locked salmon had reduced sensitivity to dietary fatty acid composition and that dietary docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) did not appear to suppress expression of LC-PUFA biosynthetic genes or activity of the biosynthesis pathway, probably an evolutionary adaptation to a natural diet lower in DHA. Increased biosynthetic activity did not translate to enhanced n-3 LC-PUFA contents in the flesh and diet was the only factor affecting this parameter. Additionally, high lipogenic and glycolytic potentials were found in land-locked salmon, together with decreased lipolysis which in turn could indicate increased use of carbohydrates as an energy source and a sparing of lipid.

  11. Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids and the preterm infant: a case study in developmentally sensitive nutrient needs in the United States.

    PubMed

    Brenna, J Thomas

    2016-02-01

    The vast majority of infant formulas in the United States contain the long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) docosahexaenoic acid (22:6n-3) and arachidonic acid (20:4n-6), which were first permitted by the US Food and Drug Administration in 2001. As a scientific case study, preclinical animal studies of these nutrients definitively influenced the design and interpretation of human clinical studies. Early studies were tied to the availability of test substances, and in hindsight suggest re-evaluation of the essential fatty acid concept in light of the totality of available evidence. Research in the 1950s established the essentiality of n-6 PUFAs for skin integrity; however, widespread recognition of the essentiality of n-3 PUFAs came decades later despite compelling evidence of their significance. Barriers to an understanding of the essentiality of n-3 PUFAs were as follows: 1) their role is in neural function, which is measured only with difficulty compared with skin lesions and growth faltering that are apparent for n-6 PUFAs; 2) the experimental use of vegetable oils as PUFA sources that contain the inefficiently used C18 PUFAs rather than the operative C20 and C22 PUFAs; 3) the shift from reliance on high-quality animal studies to define mechanisms that established the required nutrients in the first part of the 20th century to inherently challenging human studies. Advances in nutrition of premature infants require the best practices and opinions available, taking into account the totality of preclinical and clinical evidence. PMID:26791188

  12. N-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids and risk of all-cause mortality among general populations: a meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Guo-Chong; Yang, Jing; Eggersdorfer, Manfred; Zhang, Weiguo; Qin, Li-Qiang

    2016-01-01

    Prospective observational studies have shown inconsistent associations of dietary or circulating n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA) with risk of all-cause mortality. A meta-analysis was performed to evaluate the associations. Potentially eligible studies were identified by searching PubMed and EMBASE databases. The summary relative risks (RRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using the random-effects model. Eleven prospective studies involving 371 965 participants from general populations and 31 185 death events were included. The summary RR of all-cause mortality for high-versus-low n-3 LCPUFA intake was 0.91 (95% CI: 0.84–0.98). The summary RR for eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) intake was 0.83 (95% CI: 0.75–0.92) and 0.81 (95% CI: 0.74–0.95), respectively. In the dose-response analysis, each 0.3 g/d increment in n-3 LCPUFA intake was associated with 6% lower risk of all-cause mortality (RR = 0.94, 95% CI: 0.89–0.99); and each 1% increment in the proportions of circulating EPA and DHA in total fatty acids in blood was associated with 20% (RR = 0.80, 95% CI: 0.65–0.98) and 21% (RR = 0.79, 95% CI: 0.63–0.99) decreased risk of all-cause mortality, respectively. Moderate to high heterogeneity was observed across our anlayses. Our findings suggest that both dietary and circulating LCPUFA are inversely associated with all-cause mortality. PMID:27306836

  13. Evaluation of the impact of dietary petroselinic acid on the growth performance, fatty acid composition, and efficacy of long chain-polyunsaturated fatty acid biosynthesis of farmed Nile tilapia.

    PubMed

    Teoh, Chaiw-Yee; Ng, Wing-Keong

    2013-06-26

    The present study aimed to investigate the potential role of dietary petroselinic acid (PSA) in enhancing the n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (LC-PUFA) content in fish tissues. Three isolipidic casein-based diets were formulated to comprise graded levels of PSA (0, 10, or 20% of total fatty acid) with the incremented inclusion of coriander seed oil. Fish growth and nutrient digestibility were not significantly (P > 0.05) influenced by dietary PSA level. In general, dietary PSA affected the fatty acid composition of tilapia tissues and whole-body, which reflected dietary fatty acid ratios. Dietary PSA significantly (P < 0.05) increased β-oxidation, particularly on α-linolenic acid (18:3n-3) and linoleic acid (18:2n-6). This study provided evidence that PSA, a pseudoproduct mimicking the structure of 18:3n-6, did reduce Δ-6 desaturation on 18:2n-6 but, contrary to popular speculation, did not stimulate more Δ-6 desaturase activity on 18:3n-3. The overall Δ-6 desaturase enzyme activity may be suppressed at high dietary levels of PSA. Nevertheless, the n-3 and n-6 LC-PUFA biosynthesis was not significantly inhibited by dietary PSA, indicating that the bioconversion efficiency is not modulated only by Δ-6 desaturase. The deposition of n-3 LC-PUFA in liver and fillet lipids was higher in fish fed PSA-supplemented diets.

  14. Restoration of fillet n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid is improved by a modified fish oil finishing diet strategy for atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) smolts fed palm fatty acid distillate.

    PubMed

    Codabaccus, Mohamed B; Bridle, Andrew R; Nichols, Peter D; Carter, Chris G

    2012-01-11

    Reducing the lipid content in fish prior to feeding a fish oil finishing diet (FOFD) has the potential to improve n-3 long-chain (≥ C(20)) polyunsaturated fatty acid (LC-PUFA) restoration. This study had two main objectives: (1) determine whether feeding Atlantic salmon smolt a 75% palm fatty acid distillate diet (75PFAD) improves the apparent digestibility (AD) of saturated fatty acids (SFA) and (2) examine whether a food deprivation period after growth on 75PFAD leads to higher n-3 LC-PUFA restoration in the fillet when applying a FOFD. The AD of SFA was higher for 75PFAD compared to that of a fish oil (FO) diet. The relative level (as % total fatty acids (FA)) of n-3 LC-PUFA was higher in unfed fish compared to that in continuously fed fish after 21 and 28 day FOFD periods, respectively. Our results suggest that a food deprivation period prior to feeding a FOFD improves the efficiency of n-3 LC-PUFA restoration in the fillet of Atlantic salmon smolt.

  15. Bioconversion of α-Linolenic Acid into n-3 Long-Chain Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid in Hepatocytes and Ad Hoc Cell Culture Optimisation

    PubMed Central

    Alhazzaa, Ramez; Sinclair, Andrew J.; Turchini, Giovanni M.

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to establish optimal conditions for a cell culture system that would allow the measurement of 18∶3n-3 (ALA) bioconversion into n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (n-3 LC-PUFA), and to determine the overall pathway kinetics. Using rat hepatocytes (FaO) as model cells, it was established that a maximum 20∶5n-3 (EPA) production from 50 µM ALA initial concentration was achieved after 3 days of incubation. Next, it was established that a gradual increase in the ALA concentration from 0 up to 125µM lead to a proportional increase in EPA, without concomitant increase in further elongated or desaturated products, such as 22∶5n-3 (DPA) and 22∶6n-3 (DHA) in 3 day incubations. Of interest, ALA bioconversion products were observed in the culture medium. Therefore, in vitro experiments disregarding the medium fatty acid content are underestimating the metabolism efficiency. The novel application of the fatty acid mass balance (FAMB) method on cell culture system (cells with medium) enabled quantifying the apparent enzymatic activities for the biosynthesis of n-3 LC-PUFA. The activity of the key enzymes was estimated and showed that, under these conditions, 50% (Km) of the theoretical maximal (Vmax = 3654 µmol.g−1 of cell protein.hour−1) Fads2 activity on ALA can be achieved with 81 µM initial ALA. Interestingly, the apparent activity of Elovl2 (20∶5n-3 elongation) was the slowest amongst other biosynthesis steps. Therefore, the possible improvement of Elovl2 activity is suggested toward a more efficient DHA production from ALA. The present study proposed and described an ad hoc optimised cell culture conditions and methodology towards achieving a reliable experimental platform, using FAMB, to assist in studying the efficiency of ALA bioconversion into n-3 LC-PUFA in vitro. The FAMB proved to be a powerful and inexpensive method to generate a detailed description of the kinetics of n-3 LC-PUFA biosynthesis enzymes activities in vitro

  16. Elevation of the Yields of Very Long Chain Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids via Minimal Codon Optimization of Two Key Biosynthetic Enzymes

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Desong; Sun, Quanxi; Liu, Jiang; Li, Yaxiao; Hua, Jinping

    2016-01-01

    Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 20:5Δ5,8,11,14,17) and Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6Δ4,7,10,13,16,19) are nutritionally beneficial to human health. Transgenic production of EPA and DHA in oilseed crops by transferring genes originating from lower eukaryotes, such as microalgae and fungi, has been attempted in recent years. However, the low yield of EPA and DHA produced in these transgenic crops is a major hurdle for the commercialization of these transgenics. Many factors can negatively affect transgene expression, leading to a low level of converted fatty acid products. Among these the codon bias between the transgene donor and the host crop is one of the major contributing factors. Therefore, we carried out codon optimization of a fatty acid delta-6 desaturase gene PinD6 from the fungus Phytophthora infestans, and a delta-9 elongase gene, IgASE1 from the microalga Isochrysis galbana for expression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Arabidopsis respectively. These are the two key genes encoding enzymes for driving the first catalytic steps in the Δ6 desaturation/Δ6 elongation and the Δ9 elongation/Δ8 desaturation pathways for EPA/DHA biosynthesis. Hence expression levels of these two genes are important in determining the final yield of EPA/DHA. Via PCR-based mutagenesis we optimized the least preferred codons within the first 16 codons at their N-termini, as well as the most biased CGC codons (coding for arginine) within the entire sequences of both genes. An expression study showed that transgenic Arabidopsis plants harbouring the codon-optimized IgASE1 contained 64% more elongated fatty acid products than plants expressing the native IgASE1 sequence, whilst Saccharomyces cerevisiae expressing the codon optimized PinD6 yielded 20 times more desaturated products than yeast expressing wild-type (WT) PinD6. Thus the codon optimization strategy we developed here offers a simple, effective and low-cost alternative to whole gene synthesis for high expression of

  17. Elevation of the Yields of Very Long Chain Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids via Minimal Codon Optimization of Two Key Biosynthetic Enzymes.

    PubMed

    Xia, Fei; Li, Xueying; Li, Xinzheng; Zheng, Desong; Sun, Quanxi; Liu, Jiang; Li, Yaxiao; Hua, Jinping; Qi, Baoxiu

    2016-01-01

    Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 20:5Δ5,8,11,14,17) and Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6Δ4,7,10,13,16,19) are nutritionally beneficial to human health. Transgenic production of EPA and DHA in oilseed crops by transferring genes originating from lower eukaryotes, such as microalgae and fungi, has been attempted in recent years. However, the low yield of EPA and DHA produced in these transgenic crops is a major hurdle for the commercialization of these transgenics. Many factors can negatively affect transgene expression, leading to a low level of converted fatty acid products. Among these the codon bias between the transgene donor and the host crop is one of the major contributing factors. Therefore, we carried out codon optimization of a fatty acid delta-6 desaturase gene PinD6 from the fungus Phytophthora infestans, and a delta-9 elongase gene, IgASE1 from the microalga Isochrysis galbana for expression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Arabidopsis respectively. These are the two key genes encoding enzymes for driving the first catalytic steps in the Δ6 desaturation/Δ6 elongation and the Δ9 elongation/Δ8 desaturation pathways for EPA/DHA biosynthesis. Hence expression levels of these two genes are important in determining the final yield of EPA/DHA. Via PCR-based mutagenesis we optimized the least preferred codons within the first 16 codons at their N-termini, as well as the most biased CGC codons (coding for arginine) within the entire sequences of both genes. An expression study showed that transgenic Arabidopsis plants harbouring the codon-optimized IgASE1 contained 64% more elongated fatty acid products than plants expressing the native IgASE1 sequence, whilst Saccharomyces cerevisiae expressing the codon optimized PinD6 yielded 20 times more desaturated products than yeast expressing wild-type (WT) PinD6. Thus the codon optimization strategy we developed here offers a simple, effective and low-cost alternative to whole gene synthesis for high expression of

  18. Infants fed formula with added long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids have reduced incidence of respiratory illnesses and diarrhea during the first year of life

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFAs) may influence the immune system. Our objective was to compare the frequency of common illnesses in infants who received formula with or without added LCPUFAs. Methods In this observational, multi-center, prospective study, infants consumed formula with 17 mg DHA and 34 mg ARA/100 kcal (n = 233) or with no added DHA or ARA (n = 92). Pediatricians recorded respiratory illnesses, otitis media, eczema, and diarrhea through 1 year of age. Results Infants who consumed formula with DHA/ARA had lower incidence of bronchitis/bronchiolitis (P = 0.004), croup (P = 0.044), nasal congestion (P = 0.001), cough (P = 0.014), and diarrhea requiring medical attention (P = 0.034). The odds ratio (OR) of having at least one episode of bronchitis/bronchiolitis (0.41, 95% CI 0.24, 0.70; P = 0.001), croup (0.23, 95% CI 0.05, 0.97; P = 0.045), nasal congestion (0.37, 95% CI 0.20, 0.66; P = 0.001), cough (0.52, 95% CI 0.32, 0.86; P = 0.011), and diarrhea requiring medical attention (0.51, 95% CI 0.28, 0.92; P = 0.026) was lower in infants fed DHA/ARA. The OR of an increased number of episodes of bronchitis/bronchiolitis, croup, nasal congestion, cough, and diarrhea, as well as the hazard ratio for shorter time to first episode of bronchitis/bronchiolitis, nasal congestion, cough, and diarrhea were also significantly lower in the DHA/ARA group. Conclusions In healthy infants, formula with DHA/ARA was associated with lower incidence of common respiratory symptoms and illnesses, as well as diarrhea. PMID:24989353

  19. Cytochrome P450 2C8 ω3-Long-Chain Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Metabolites Increase Mouse Retinal Pathologic Neovascularization—Brief Report

    PubMed Central

    Shao, Zhuo; Fu, Zhongjie; Stahl, Andreas; Joyal, Jean-Sébastien; Hatton, Colman; Juan, Aimee; Hurst, Christian; Evans, Lucy; Cui, Zhenghao; Pei, Dorothy; Gong, Yan; Xu, Dan; Tian, Katherine; Bogardus, Hannah; Edin, Matthew L.; Lih, Fred; Sapieha, Przemyslaw; Chen, Jing; Panigrahy, Dipak; Hellstrom, Ann; Zeldin, Darryl C.; Smith, Lois E.H.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Regulation of angiogenesis is critical for many diseases. Specifically, pathological retinal neovascularization, a major cause of blindness, is suppressed with dietary ω3-long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω3LCPUFAs) through antiangiogenic metabolites of cyclooxygenase and lipoxygenase. Cytochrome P450 epoxygenases (CYP2C8) also metabolize LCPUFAs, producing bioactive epoxides, which are inactivated by soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) to transdihydrodiols. The effect of these enzymes and their metabolites on neovascularization is unknown. Approach and Results The mouse model of oxygen-induced retinopathy was used to investigate retinal neovascularization. We found that CYP2C (localized in wild-type monocytes/macrophages) is upregulated in oxygen-induced retinopathy, whereas sEH is suppressed, resulting in an increased retinal epoxide:diol ratio. With a ω3LCPUFA-enriched diet, retinal neovascularization increases in Tie2-driven human-CYP2C8–overexpressing mice (Tie2-CYP2C8-Tg), associated with increased plasma 19,20-epoxydocosapentaenoic acid and retinal epoxide:diol ratio. 19,20-Epoxydocosapentaenoic acids and the epoxide:diol ratio are decreased with overexpression of sEH (Tie2-sEH-Tg). Overexpression of CYP2C8 or sEH in mice does not change normal retinal vascular development compared with their wild-type littermate controls. The proangiogenic role in retina of CYP2C8 with both ω3LCPUFA and ω6LCPUFA and antiangiogenic role of sEH in ω3LCPUFA metabolism were corroborated in aortic ring assays. Conclusions Our results suggest that CYP2C ω3LCPUFA metabolites promote retinal pathological angiogenesis. CYP2C8 is part of a novel lipid metabolic pathway influencing retinal neovascularization. PMID:24458713

  20. Long Chain Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Levels in U.S. Donor Human Milk: Meeting the Needs of Premature Infants?

    PubMed Central

    Baack, Michelle L.; Norris, Andrew W.; Yao, Jianrong; Colaizy, Tarah

    2011-01-01

    Objective To determine fatty acid levels in the US donor milk supply. Study Design Donor human milk samples from Iowa (n=62), Texas (n=5), North Carolina (n=5), and California (n=5) were analyzed by gas chromatography. Levels in Iowa donor milk were compared before and after pasteurization using Student’s t-test. Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and arachidonic acid (ARA) levels were compared among all milk banks using ANOVA. Results ARA (0.4 pre, 0.4 post, p=0.18) and DHA (0.073 pre, 0.073 post, p=0.84) were not affected by pasteurization. DHA varied between banks (p <0.0001), whereas ARA did not (p = 0.3). DHA levels from all banks were lower than published values for maternal milk and infant formula (p<0.0001). Conclusion Pasteurization of breastmilk does not affect DHA or ARA levels. However, DHA content in US donor milk varies with bank location and may not meet the recommended provision for preterm infants. PMID:22323096

  1. Hepatic transcriptome analysis of inter-family variability in flesh n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid content in Atlantic salmon

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Genetic selection of Atlantic salmon families better adapted to alternative feed formulations containing high levels of vegetable ingredients has been suggested to ensure sustainable growth of aquaculture. The present study aimed to identify molecular pathways that could underlie phenotypic differences in flesh n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (LC-PUFA) levels when fish are fed vegetable oil diets. Liver transcriptome was analyzed and compared in four families presenting higher or lower n-3 LC-PUFA contents at two contrasting flesh total lipid levels. Results The main effect of n-3 LC-PUFA contents was in the expression of immune response genes (38% of all significantly affected genes), broadly implicated in the modulation of inflammatory processes and innate immune response. Although genetic evaluations of traits used in the breeding program revealed that the chosen families were not balanced for viral disease resistance, this did not fully explain the preponderance of immune response genes in the transcriptomic analysis. Employing stringent statistical analysis no lipid metabolism genes were detected as being significantly altered in liver when comparing families with high and low n-3 LC-PUFA flesh contents. However, relaxing the statistical analysis enabled identification of potentially relevant effects, further studied by RT-qPCR, in cholesterol biosynthesis, lipoprotein metabolism and lipid transport, as well as eicosanoid metabolism particularly affecting the lipoxygenase pathway. Total lipid level in flesh also showed an important effect on immune response and 8% of significantly affected genes related to lipid metabolism, including a fatty acyl elongase (elovl2), an acyl carrier protein and stearoyl-CoA desaturase. Conclusions Inter-family differences in n-3 LC-PUFA content could not be related to effects on lipid metabolism, including transcriptional modulation of the LC-PUFA biosynthesis pathway. An association was found between flesh

  2. Changes in piglet tissue composition at birth in response to increasing maternal intake of long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids are non-linear.

    PubMed

    Rooke, J A; Sinclair, A G; Ewen, M

    2001-10-01

    Addition of marine oils containing long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids to the diet of pregnant sows may reduce piglet mortality. In previous experiments, when marine oils have been fed to pregnant sows, improvements in piglet tissue 22 : 6n-3 status have been accompanied by potentially undesirable decreases in 20 : 4n-6. The objective of the present experiment was to establish an amount of dietary salmon oil which would enhance piglet 22 : 6n-3 status while minimising reductions in 20 : 4n-6. Twenty-four pregnant multiparous sows were used in the experiment which began on day 60 of pregnancy (gestation length 115 d). To give four diets, salmon oil was added in increasing amounts (0, 5, 10 and 20 g/kg diet) to a basal diet; the diets were made isoenergetic by adding palm oil to each diet to give a total of 20 g oil/kg diet. Diets were offered to the sows in fixed amounts (2.5 kg/d) until parturition. Piglet tissue samples (brain, liver and retina) were obtained at birth before consumption of colostrum. The greatest increase in piglet tissue 22 : 6n-3 proportions occurred between 0 and 5 g salmon oil/kg diet, with only small increases between 10 and 20 g salmon oil/kg diet. In contrast, tissue 20 : 4n-6 proportions declined progressively as the amount of salmon oil fed to the sow increased. In brain, the change in the value 22 : 6n-3/22 : 5n-6 was greatest between 0 and 5 g salmon oil/kg diet, whereas in liver the value increased linearly with added salmon oil. In addition, piglet brain weight (g/kg live weight) increased to a maximum at 10 g salmon oil/kg diet. The optimum amount of supplementary salmon oil in the current experiment, defined as that which gave the greatest response in brain 22 : 6n-3 proportions with minimum reduction in 20 : 4n-6,was 10 g salmon oil/kg diet. This corresponds to an intake of approximately 2.4 g 20 : 5n-3 plus 3.6 g 22 : 6n-3/d or 0.6 % digestible energy.

  3. Serum Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids and Endometriosis.

    PubMed

    Hopeman, Margaret M; Riley, Joan K; Frolova, Antonina I; Jiang, Hui; Jungheim, Emily S

    2015-09-01

    Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are fatty acids containing 2 or more double bonds, and they are classified by the location of the last double bond. Omega 3 (n-3) and omega 6 (n-6) PUFAs are obtained through food sources including fatty fish and seed/vegetable oils, respectively, and they are important to a number of physiologic processes including inflammation. Previous work demonstrates suppressive effects of n-3 PUFAs on endometriotic lesions in animal models and decreased risk of endometriosis among women with high n-3 PUFA intake. Thus, we sought to determine the relationship between circulating levels of PUFAs and endometriosis in women. To do this, we performed a cross-sectional study of serum PUFAs and clinical data from 205 women undergoing in vitro fertilization (IVF). Serum PUFAs were measured using liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectroscopy and included n-3 PUFAs such as α-linolenic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), and docosahexaenoic acid and n-6 PUFAs such as linoleic acid and arachidonic acid. Multivariable logistic regression was used to determine relationships between specific and total serum PUFAs and patient history of endometriosis. Women with high serum EPA levels were 82% less likely to have endometriosis compared to women with low EPA levels (odds ratio = 0.18, 95% confidence interval 0.04-0.78).

  4. Differential effect of maternal diet supplementation with α-Linolenic adcid or n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids on glial cell phosphatidylethanolamine and phosphatidylserine fatty acid profile in neonate rat brains

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Dietary long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA) are of crucial importance for the development of neural tissues. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of a dietary supplementation in n-3 fatty acids in female rats during gestation and lactation on fatty acid pattern in brain glial cells phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) and phosphatidylserine (PS) in the neonates. Methods Sprague-Dawley rats were fed during the whole gestation and lactation period with a diet containing either docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 0.55%) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 0.75% of total fatty acids) or α-linolenic acid (ALA, 2.90%). At two weeks of age, gastric content and brain glial cell PE and PS of rat neonates were analyzed for their fatty acid and dimethylacetal (DMA) profile. Data were analyzed by bivariate and multivariate statistics. Results In the neonates from the group fed with n-3 LC-PUFA, the DHA level in gastric content (+65%, P < 0.0001) and brain glial cell PE (+18%, P = 0.0001) and PS (+15%, P = 0.0009) were significantly increased compared to the ALA group. The filtered correlation analysis (P < 0.05) underlined that levels of dihomo-γ-linolenic acid (DGLA), DHA and n-3 docosapentaenoic acid (DPA) were negatively correlated with arachidonic acid (ARA) and n-6 DPA in PE of brain glial cells. No significant correlation between n-3 and n-6 LC-PUFA were found in the PS dataset. DMA level in PE was negatively correlated with n-6 DPA. DMA were found to occur in brain glial cell PS fraction; in this class DMA level was correlated negatively with DHA and positively with ARA. Conclusion The present study confirms that early supplementation of maternal diet with n-3 fatty acids supplied as LC-PUFA is more efficient in increasing n-3 in brain glial cell PE and PS in the neonate than ALA. Negative correlation between n-6 DPA, a conventional marker of DHA deficiency, and DMA in PE suggests n-6 DPA that potentially be considered as a marker of tissue

  5. Fatty Acid Desaturases, Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Regulation, and Biotechnological Advances

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Je Min; Lee, Hyungjae; Kang, SeokBeom; Park, Woo Jung

    2016-01-01

    Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are considered to be critical nutrients to regulate human health and development, and numerous fatty acid desaturases play key roles in synthesizing PUFAs. Given the lack of delta-12 and -15 desaturases and the low levels of conversion to PUFAs, humans must consume some omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids in their diet. Many studies on fatty acid desaturases as well as PUFAs have shown that fatty acid desaturase genes are closely related to different human physiological conditions. Since the first front-end desaturases from cyanobacteria were cloned, numerous desaturase genes have been identified and animals and plants have been genetically engineered to produce PUFAs such as eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid. Recently, a biotechnological approach has been used to develop clinical treatments for human physiological conditions, including cancers and neurogenetic disorders. Thus, understanding the functions and regulation of PUFAs associated with human health and development by using biotechnology may facilitate the engineering of more advanced PUFA production and provide new insights into the complexity of fatty acid metabolism. PMID:26742061

  6. Echium oil increased the expression of a Δ4 Fads2 fatty acyl desaturase and the deposition of n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid in comparison with linseed oil in striped snakehead (Channa striata) muscle.

    PubMed

    Jaya-Ram, Annette; Shu-Chien, Alexander Chong; Kuah, Meng-Kiat

    2016-08-01

    Despite the potential of vegetable oils as aquafeed ingredients, a major drawback associated with their utilization is the inferior level of beneficial n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA). Echium oil (EO), which is rich in stearidonic acid (SDA, 18:4n-3), could potentially improve the deposition of n-3 LC-PUFA as the biosynthesis of LC-PUFA is enhanced through bypassing the rate-limiting ∆6 desaturation step. We report for the first time an attempt to investigate whether the presence of a desaturase (Fads2) capable of ∆4 desaturation activities and an elongase (Elovl5) will leverage the provision of dietary SDA to produce a higher rate of LC-PUFA bioconversion. Experimental diets were designed containing fish oil (FO), EO or linseed oil (LO) (100FO, 100EO, 100LO), and diets which comprised equal mixtures of the designated oils (50EOFO and 50EOLO) were evaluated in a 12-week feeding trial involving striped snakeheads (Channa striata). There was no significant difference in growth and feed conversion efficiency. The hepatic fatty acid composition and higher expression of fads2 and elovl5 genes in fish fed EO-based diets indicate the utilization of dietary SDA for LC-PUFA biosynthesis. Collectively, this resulted in a higher deposition of muscle eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 20:5n-3) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n-3) compared to LO-based diets. Dietary EO improved the ratio of n-3 LC-PUFA to n-6 LC-PUFA in fish muscle, which is desirable for human populations with excessive consumption of n-6 PUFA. This study validates the contribution of SDA in improving the content of n-3 LC-PUFA and the ratio of EPA to arachidonic acid (ARA, 20:4n-6) in a freshwater carnivorous species.

  7. The capacity for long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid synthesis in a carnivorous vertebrate: Functional characterisation and nutritional regulation of a Fads2 fatty acyl desaturase with Δ4 activity and an Elovl5 elongase in striped snakehead (Channa striata).

    PubMed

    Kuah, Meng-Kiat; Jaya-Ram, Annette; Shu-Chien, Alexander Chong

    2015-03-01

    The endogenous production of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA) in carnivorous teleost species inhabiting freshwater environments is poorly understood. Although a predatory lifestyle could potentially supply sufficient LC-PUFA to satisfy the requirements of these species, the nutrient-poor characteristics of the freshwater food web could impede this advantage. In this study, we report the cloning and functional characterisation of an elongase enzyme in the LC-PUFA biosynthesis pathway from striped snakehead (Channa striata), which is a strict freshwater piscivore that shows high deposition of LC-PUFA in its flesh. We also functionally characterised a previously isolated fatty acyl desaturase cDNA from this species. Results showed that the striped snakehead desaturase is capable of Δ4 and Δ5 desaturation activities, while the elongase showed the characteristics of Elovl5 elongases. Collectively, these findings reveal that striped snakehead exhibits the genetic resources to synthesise docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; 22:6n-3) from eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA; 20:5n-3). Both genes are expressed at considerable levels in the brain and the liver. In liver, both genes were up-regulated by dietary C18 PUFA, although this increase did not correspond to a significant rise in the deposition of muscle LC-PUFA. Brain tissue of fish fed with plant oil diets showed higher expression of fads2 gene compared to fish fed with fish oil-based diet, which could ensure DHA levels remain constant under limited dietary DHA intake. This suggests the importance of DHA production from EPA via the ∆4 desaturation step in order to maintain an optimal reserve of DHA in the neuronal tissues of carnivores.

  8. Echium oil increased the expression of a Δ4 Fads2 fatty acyl desaturase and the deposition of n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid in comparison with linseed oil in striped snakehead (Channa striata) muscle.

    PubMed

    Jaya-Ram, Annette; Shu-Chien, Alexander Chong; Kuah, Meng-Kiat

    2016-08-01

    Despite the potential of vegetable oils as aquafeed ingredients, a major drawback associated with their utilization is the inferior level of beneficial n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA). Echium oil (EO), which is rich in stearidonic acid (SDA, 18:4n-3), could potentially improve the deposition of n-3 LC-PUFA as the biosynthesis of LC-PUFA is enhanced through bypassing the rate-limiting ∆6 desaturation step. We report for the first time an attempt to investigate whether the presence of a desaturase (Fads2) capable of ∆4 desaturation activities and an elongase (Elovl5) will leverage the provision of dietary SDA to produce a higher rate of LC-PUFA bioconversion. Experimental diets were designed containing fish oil (FO), EO or linseed oil (LO) (100FO, 100EO, 100LO), and diets which comprised equal mixtures of the designated oils (50EOFO and 50EOLO) were evaluated in a 12-week feeding trial involving striped snakeheads (Channa striata). There was no significant difference in growth and feed conversion efficiency. The hepatic fatty acid composition and higher expression of fads2 and elovl5 genes in fish fed EO-based diets indicate the utilization of dietary SDA for LC-PUFA biosynthesis. Collectively, this resulted in a higher deposition of muscle eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 20:5n-3) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n-3) compared to LO-based diets. Dietary EO improved the ratio of n-3 LC-PUFA to n-6 LC-PUFA in fish muscle, which is desirable for human populations with excessive consumption of n-6 PUFA. This study validates the contribution of SDA in improving the content of n-3 LC-PUFA and the ratio of EPA to arachidonic acid (ARA, 20:4n-6) in a freshwater carnivorous species. PMID:26842427

  9. The capacity for long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid synthesis in a carnivorous vertebrate: Functional characterisation and nutritional regulation of a Fads2 fatty acyl desaturase with Δ4 activity and an Elovl5 elongase in striped snakehead (Channa striata).

    PubMed

    Kuah, Meng-Kiat; Jaya-Ram, Annette; Shu-Chien, Alexander Chong

    2015-03-01

    The endogenous production of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA) in carnivorous teleost species inhabiting freshwater environments is poorly understood. Although a predatory lifestyle could potentially supply sufficient LC-PUFA to satisfy the requirements of these species, the nutrient-poor characteristics of the freshwater food web could impede this advantage. In this study, we report the cloning and functional characterisation of an elongase enzyme in the LC-PUFA biosynthesis pathway from striped snakehead (Channa striata), which is a strict freshwater piscivore that shows high deposition of LC-PUFA in its flesh. We also functionally characterised a previously isolated fatty acyl desaturase cDNA from this species. Results showed that the striped snakehead desaturase is capable of Δ4 and Δ5 desaturation activities, while the elongase showed the characteristics of Elovl5 elongases. Collectively, these findings reveal that striped snakehead exhibits the genetic resources to synthesise docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; 22:6n-3) from eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA; 20:5n-3). Both genes are expressed at considerable levels in the brain and the liver. In liver, both genes were up-regulated by dietary C18 PUFA, although this increase did not correspond to a significant rise in the deposition of muscle LC-PUFA. Brain tissue of fish fed with plant oil diets showed higher expression of fads2 gene compared to fish fed with fish oil-based diet, which could ensure DHA levels remain constant under limited dietary DHA intake. This suggests the importance of DHA production from EPA via the ∆4 desaturation step in order to maintain an optimal reserve of DHA in the neuronal tissues of carnivores. PMID:25542509

  10. A method for assessing dietary intakes of n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids and trans fatty acids in an Irish adult population.

    PubMed

    Leite, J Costa; Hearty, A P; Nugent, A P; Gibney, M J

    2010-09-01

    The present study aimed to quantify dietary intakes of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and trans fatty acids (trans FA) in Irish adults using the North/South Ireland Food Consumption Survey (NSIFCS). To update the NSIFCS database, specific approaches were necessary to select accurate data. Published references were the main data source used to update for EPA and DHA (21.7%), while the UK Nutrient Databank was most frequently used to update for trans FA (46.7%). Total EPA and DHA mean daily intake was 275 mg/day whilst trans FA mean daily intake was 0.72% food energy. Younger adults had significantly lower intakes of EPA and DHA than older adults. The present study shows that dietary EPA and DHA intakes in the Irish adult population are below recommendations, especially among the younger population. Conversely, trans FA intakes are within the recommended value of < 2% food energy.

  11. A randomised controlled trial investigating the effect of n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation on cognitive and retinal function in cognitively healthy older people: the Older People And n-3 Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (OPAL) study protocol [ISRCTN72331636

    PubMed Central

    Dangour, Alan D; Clemens, Felicity; Elbourne, Diana; Fasey, Nicky; Fletcher, Astrid E; Hardy, Pollyanna; Holder, Graham E; Huppert, Felicia A; Knight, Rosemary; Letley, Louise; Richards, Marcus; Truesdale, Ann; Vickers, Madge; Uauy, Ricardo

    2006-01-01

    The number of individuals with age-related cognitive impairment is rising dramatically in the UK and globally. There is considerable interest in the general hypothesis that improving the diet of older people may slow the progression of cognitive decline. To date, there has been little attention given to the possible protective role of n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 LCPs) most commonly found in oily fish, in age-related loss of cognitive function. The main research hypothesis of this study is that an increased dietary intake of n-3 LCPs will have a positive effect on cognitive performance in older people in the UK. To test this hypothesis, a double-blind randomised placebo-controlled trial will be carried out among adults aged 70–79 years in which the intervention arm will receive daily capsules containing n-3 LCP (0.5 g/day docosahexaenoic acid and 0.2 g/day eicosapentaenoic acid) while the placebo arm will receive daily capsules containing olive oil. The main outcome variable assessed at 24 months will be cognitive performance and a second major outcome variable will be retinal function. Retinal function tests are included as the retina is a specifically differentiated neural tissue and therefore represents an accessible window into the functioning of the brain. The overall purpose of this public-health research is to help define a simple and effective dietary intervention aimed at maintaining cognitive and retinal function in later life. This will be the first trial of its kind aiming to slow the decline of cognitive and retinal function in older people by increasing daily dietary intake of n-3 LCPs. The link between cognitive ability, visual function and quality of life among older people suggests that this novel line of research may have considerable public health importance. PMID:16945130

  12. Long Chain Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Supplementation Alleviates Doxorubicin-Induced Depressive-Like Behaviors and Neurotoxicity in Rats: Involvement of Oxidative Stress and Neuroinflammation.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yan-Qin; Dang, Rui-Li; Tang, Mi-Mi; Cai, Hua-Lin; Li, Huan-De; Liao, De-Hua; He, Xin; Cao, Ling-Juan; Xue, Ying; Jiang, Pei

    2016-04-23

    Doxorubicin (DOX) is a chemotherapeutic agent widely used in human malignancies. Its long-term use can cause neurobiological side-effects associated with depression. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω-3 PUFAs), the essential fatty acids found in fish oil, possess neuroprotecitve and antidepressant activities. Thus, the aim of this study was to explore the potential protective effects of ω-3 PUFAs against DOX-induced behavioral changes and neurotoxicity. ω-3 PUFAs were given daily by gavage (1.5 g/kg) over three weeks starting seven days before DOX administration (2.5 mg/kg). Open-field test (OFT) and forced swimming test (FST) were conducted to assess exploratory activity and despair behavior, respectively. Our data showed that ω-3 PUFAs supplementation significantly mitigated the behavioral changes induced by DOX. ω-3 PUFAs pretreatment also alleviated the DOX-induced neural apoptosis. Meanwhile, ω-3 PUFAs treatment ameliorated DOX-induced oxidative stress in the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus. Additionally, gene expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines, including IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α, and the protein levels of NF-κB and iNOS were significantly increased in brain tissues of DOX-treated group, whereas ω-3 PUFAs supplementation significantly attenuated DOX-induced neuroinflammation. In conclusion, ω-3 PUFAs can effectively protect against DOX-induced depressive-like behaviors, and the mechanisms underlying the neuroprotective effect are potentially associated with its anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-apoptotic properties.

  13. C19 odd-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUfas) are metabolized to C21-PUfas in a rat liver cell line, and curcumin, gallic acid, and their related compounds inhibit their desaturation.

    PubMed

    Nakano, N; Shirasaka, N; Koyama, H; Hino, M; Murakami, T; Shimizu, S; Yoshizumi, H

    2000-08-01

    It was demonstrated that the rat liver cell line BRL-3A converted exogenous C19 odd chain-polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) into the corresponding C21- and C23-PUFAs as follows: 21:3n-8, 21:4n-8, 23:3n-8, and 23:4n-8 (from 19:3n-8); 21:4n-5, 21:5n-5, 23:4n-5, and 23:5n-5 (from 19:4n-5); 21:5n-2, 21:6n-2, 23:5n-2, and 23:6n-2 (from 19:5n-2). It presumed that these C19 PUFAs were converted through the mimic route to docosahexaenoic acid (22:6n-3) from eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5n-3). In addition, the characterization of the change of fatty acid composition of cellular lipids in rat liver cells were examined, using 19:4n-5 and several fatty acid desaturation inhibitors. Curcumin related compounds, curcumin, capsaicin, isoeugenol, 4-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-3-buten-2-one, and gallic acid esters with near five carbon numbered alcohol had great changes of fatty acid composition of cellular lipids based on inhibition of the A6 desaturation of C24-PUFAs in rat liver cells.

  14. Use of manufactured foods enriched with fish oils as a means of increasing long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid intake.

    PubMed

    Lovegrove, J A; Brooks, C N; Murphy, M C; Gould, B J; Williams, C M

    1997-08-01

    The objectives of the present study were to determine the feasibility of using manufactured foods, enriched with eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) as a means of increasing the intake of these n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), and to determine the effect of the consumption of these foods on postprandial lipaemia and other metabolic responses to a high-fat mixed test meal. Nine healthy, normotriacylglycerolaemic, free-living male volunteers (aged 35-60 years) completed the randomized, controlled, single-blind, crossover study. The study consisted of two periods (each of 22 d) of dietary intervention, separated by a 5-month washout period. During these two periods the subjects were provided with the manufactured foods enriched with EPA and DHA (n-3 enriched) or identical but unenriched foods (control). A mixed test meal containing 82 g fat was given to the fasted subjects on day 22 of each dietary intervention period. Two fasting, and thereafter hourly, blood samples were collected from the subjects for an 8 h period postprandially. Plasma triacylglycerol, total and HDL-cholesterol, non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA), glucose and immunoreactive insulin levels, post-heparin lipoprotein lipase (EC 3.1.1.34) activity and the plasma free fatty acid and phospholipid fatty acid compositions were measured. A mean daily intake of 1.4 g EPA+DHA (0.9 g EPA, 0.5 g DHA) was ingested during the n-3-enriched dietary period, which was significantly higher than the intake during the habitual and control periods (P < 0.001) assessed by a 3 d weighed food intake. A significantly higher level of EPA+DHA enrichment of the plasma fatty acids and phospholipids (P < 0.001) after the n-3-enriched compared with the control intervention periods was also found. The energy intake on both of the dietary intervention periods was found to be significantly higher than on the habitual diet (P < 0.001), with an increase in body weight of the subjects, which reached

  15. Circulating B-Vitamins and Smoking Habits Are Associated with Serum Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids in Patients with Suspected Coronary Heart Disease: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Skeie, Eli; Strand, Elin; Pedersen, Eva R.; Bjørndal, Bodil; Bohov, Pavol; Berge, Rolf K.; Svingen, Gard F. T.; Seifert, Reinhard; Ueland, Per M.; Midttun, Øivind; Ulvik, Arve; Hustad, Steinar; Drevon, Christian A.; Gregory, Jesse F.; Nygård, Ottar

    2015-01-01

    The long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids are considered to be of major health importance, and recent studies indicate that their endogenous metabolism is influenced by B-vitamin status and smoking habits. We investigated the associations of circulating B-vitamins and smoking habits with serum polyunsaturated fatty acids among 1,366 patients who underwent coronary angiography due to suspected coronary heart disease at Haukeland University Hospital, Norway. Of these, 52% provided information on dietary habits by a food frequency questionnaire. Associations were assessed using partial correlation (Spearman’s rho). In the total population, the concentrations of most circulating B-vitamins were positively associated with serum n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, but negatively with serum n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids. However, the associations between B-vitamins and polyunsaturated fatty acids tended to be weaker in smokers. This could not be solely explained by differences in dietary intake. Furthermore, plasma cotinine, a marker of recent nicotine exposure, showed a negative relationship with serum n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, but a positive relationship with serum n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids. In conclusion, circulating B-vitamins are, in contrast to plasma cotinine, generally positively associated with serum n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and negatively with serum n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids in patients with suspected coronary heart disease. Further studies should investigate whether B-vitamin status and smoking habits may modify the clinical effects of polyunsaturated fatty acid intake. PMID:26039046

  16. Biosynthesis of polyunsaturated fatty acids in lower eukaryotes.

    PubMed

    Uttaro, Antonio D

    2006-10-01

    Polyunsaturated fatty acids have important structural roles in cell membranes. They are also intermediates in the synthesis of biologically active molecules such as eicosanoids, which mediate fever, inflammation, blood pressure and neurotransmission. Arachidonic and docosahexaenoic acids are essential components of brain tissues and, through their involvement in the development of neural and retinal functions, important dietary nutrients for neonatal babies. Lower eukaryotes are particularly rich in C20-22 polyunsaturated fatty acids. Fungi and marine microalgae are currently used to produce nutraceutic oils. Other protists and algae are being studied because of the variability in their enzymes involved in polyunsaturated fatty acid biosynthesis. Such enzymes could be used as source for the production of transgenic organisms able to synthesize designed oils for human diet or, in the case of parasitic protozoa, they might be identified as putative chemotherapeutic targets. Polyunsaturated fatty acids can be synthesized by two different pathways: an anaerobic one, by using polyketide synthase related enzymes, and an aerobic one, which involves the action of elongases and oxygen dependent desaturases. Desaturases can be classified into three main types, depending on which of the consecutive steps of polyunsaturated fatty acid synthesis they are involved with. The enzymes may be specialized to act on: saturated substrates (type I); mono- and di-unsaturated fatty acids by introducing additional double bonds at the methyl-end site of the existing double bonds (type II); or the carboxy half ('front-end') of polyunsaturated ones (type III). Type III desaturases require the alternating action of elongases. A description of the enzymes that have been isolated and functionally characterized is provided, in order to highlight the different pathways found in lower eukaryotes.

  17. Human requirement for N-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Simopoulos, A P

    2000-07-01

    The diet of our ancestors was less dense in calories, being higher in fiber, rich in fruits, vegetables, lean meat, and fish. As a result, the diet was lower in total fat and saturated fat, but contained equal amounts of n-6 and n-3 essential fatty acids. Linoleic acid (LA) is the major n-6 fatty acid, and alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) is the major n-3 fatty acid. In the body, LA is metabolized to arachidonic acid (AA), and ALA is metabolized to eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). The ratio of n-6 to n-3 essential fatty acids was 1 to 2:1 with higher levels of the longer-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), such as EPA, DHA, and AA, than today's diet. Today this ratio is about 10 to 1:20 to 25 to 1, indicating that Western diets are deficient in n-3 fatty acids compared with the diet on which humans evolved and their genetic patterns were established. The n-3 and n-6 EPA are not interconvertible in the human body and are important components of practically all cell membranes. The N-6 and n-3 fatty acids influence eicosanoid metabolism, gene expression, and intercellular cell-to-cell communication. The PUFA composition of cell membranes is, to a great extent, dependent on dietary intake. Therefore, appropriate amounts of dietary n-6 and n-3 fatty acids need to be considered in making dietary recommendations. These two classes of PUFA should be distinguished because they are metabolically and functionally distinct and have opposing physiological functions; their balance is important for homeostasis and normal development. Studies with nonhuman primates and human newborns indicate that DHA is essential for the normal functional development of the retina and brain, particularly in premature infants. A balanced n-6/n-3 ratio in the diet is essential for normal growth and development and should lead to decreases in cardiovascular disease and other chronic diseases and improve mental health. Although a recommended dietary allowance for essential

  18. Conversion of linoleic acid and alpha-linolenic acid to long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFAs), with a focus on pregnancy, lactation and the first 2 years of life.

    PubMed

    Gibson, Robert A; Muhlhausler, Bev; Makrides, Maria

    2011-04-01

    Over the past two decades, there has been a marked shift in the fatty acid composition of the diets of industrialized nations towards increased intake of the n-6 fatty acid linoleic acid (LA, 18:2n-6), largely as a result of the replacement of saturated fats with plant-based polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA). While health agencies internationally continue to advocate for high n-6 PUFA intake combined with increased intakes of preformed n-3 long-chain PUFAs (LCPUFA) docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n-3) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 20:5n-3) to reduce the incidence of cardiovascular disease (CVD), there are questions as to whether this is the best approach. LA competes with alpha-linolenic acid (18:3n-3) for endogenous conversion to the LC derivatives EPA and DHA, and LA also inhibits incorporation of DHA and EPA into tissues. Thus, high-LA levels in the diet generally result in low n-3 LCPUFA status. Pregnancy and infancy are developmental periods during which the fatty acid supply is particularly critical. The importance of an adequate supply of n-3 LCPUFA for ensuring optimal development of infant brain and visual systems is well established, and there is now evidence that the supply of n-3 LCPUFA also influences a range of growth, metabolic and immune outcomes in childhood. This review will re-evaluate the health benefits of modern Western diets and pose the question of whether the introduction of similar diets to nations with emerging economies is the most prudent public health strategy for improving health in these populations.

  19. Note on the chromatographic analyses of marine polyunsaturated fatty acids

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schultz, D.M.; Quinn, J.G.

    1977-01-01

    Gas-liquid chromatography was used to study the effects of saponification/methylation and thin-layer chromatographic isolation on the analyses of polyunsaturated fatty acids. Using selected procedures, the qualitative and quantitative distribution of these acids in marine organisms can be determined with a high degree of accuracy. ?? 1977 Springer-Verlag.

  20. Preservation of polyunsaturated fatty acyl glycerides via intramolecular antioxidant coupling

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ferulic acid and its esters are known to be effective antioxidants. Feruloyl di-gamma-linolenoylglycerol was assessed for its ability to serve as an antioxidant for preventing the oxidation of its gamma-linolenoyl polyunsaturated fatty acyl groups in model membrane phospholipid vesicles. The molec...

  1. Modifications of proteins by polyunsaturated fatty acid peroxidation products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Refsgaard, Hanne H. F.; Tsai, Lin; Stadtman, Earl R.

    2000-01-01

    The ability of unsaturated fatty acid methyl esters to modify amino acid residues in bovine serum albumin (BSA), glutamine synthetase, and insulin in the presence of a metal-catalyzed oxidation system [ascorbate/Fe(III)/O2] depends on the degree of unsaturation of the fatty acid. The fatty acid-dependent generation of carbonyl groups and loss of lysine residues increased in the order methyl linoleate < methyl linolenate < methyl arachidonate. The amounts of alkyl hydroperoxides, malondialdehyde, and a number of other aldehydes that accumulated when polyunsaturated fatty acids were oxidized in the presence of BSA were significantly lower than that observed in the absence of BSA. Direct treatment of proteins with various lipid hydroperoxides led to a slight increase in the formation of protein carbonyl derivatives, whereas treatment with the hydroperoxides together with Fe(II) led to a substantial increase in the formation of protein carbonyls. These results are consistent with the proposition that metal-catalyzed oxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acids can contribute to the generation of protein carbonyls by direct interaction of lipid oxidation products (α,β-unsaturated aldehydes) with lysine residues (Michael addition reactions) and also by interactions with alkoxyl radicals obtained by Fe(II) cleavage of lipid hydroperoxides that are formed. In addition, saturated aldehydes derived from the polyunsaturated fatty acids likely react with lysine residues to form Schiff base adducts.

  2. Modifications of proteins by polyunsaturated fatty acid peroxidation products

    PubMed Central

    Refsgaard, Hanne H. F.; Tsai, Lin; Stadtman, Earl R.

    2000-01-01

    The ability of unsaturated fatty acid methyl esters to modify amino acid residues in bovine serum albumin (BSA), glutamine synthetase, and insulin in the presence of a metal-catalyzed oxidation system [ascorbate/Fe(III)/O2] depends on the degree of unsaturation of the fatty acid. The fatty acid-dependent generation of carbonyl groups and loss of lysine residues increased in the order methyl linoleate < methyl linolenate < methyl arachidonate. The amounts of alkyl hydroperoxides, malondialdehyde, and a number of other aldehydes that accumulated when polyunsaturated fatty acids were oxidized in the presence of BSA were significantly lower than that observed in the absence of BSA. Direct treatment of proteins with various lipid hydroperoxides led to a slight increase in the formation of protein carbonyl derivatives, whereas treatment with the hydroperoxides together with Fe(II) led to a substantial increase in the formation of protein carbonyls. These results are consistent with the proposition that metal-catalyzed oxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acids can contribute to the generation of protein carbonyls by direct interaction of lipid oxidation products (α,β-unsaturated aldehydes) with lysine residues (Michael addition reactions) and also by interactions with alkoxyl radicals obtained by Fe(II) cleavage of lipid hydroperoxides that are formed. In addition, saturated aldehydes derived from the polyunsaturated fatty acids likely react with lysine residues to form Schiff base adducts. PMID:10639127

  3. Interaction between Marine-Derived n-3 Long Chain Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids and Uric Acid on Glucose Metabolism and Risk of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: A Case-Control Study.

    PubMed

    Li, Kelei; Wu, Kejian; Zhao, Yimin; Huang, Tao; Lou, Dajun; Yu, Xiaomei; Li, Duo

    2015-08-26

    The present case-control study explored the interaction between marine-derived n-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 LC PUFAs) and uric acid (UA) on glucose metabolism and risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Two hundred and eleven healthy subjects in control group and 268 T2DM subjects in case group were included. Plasma phospholipid (PL) fatty acids and biochemical parameters were detected by standard methods. Plasma PL C22:6n-3 was significantly lower in case group than in control group, and was negatively correlated with fasting glucose (r = -0.177, p < 0.001). Higher plasma PL C22:6n-3 was associated with lower risk of T2DM, and the OR was 0.32 (95% confidence interval (CI), 0.12 to 0.80; p = 0.016) for per unit increase of C22:6n-3. UA was significantly lower in case group than in control group. UA was positively correlated with fasting glucose in healthy subjects, but this correlation became negative in T2DM subjects. A significant interaction was observed between C22:6n-3 and UA on fasting glucose (p for interaction = 0.005): the lowering effect of C22:6n-3 was only significant in subjects with a lower level of UA. In conclusion, C22:6n-3 interacts with UA to modulate glucose metabolism.

  4. A low omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid (n-6 PUFA) diet increases omega-3 (n-3) long chain PUFA status in plasma phospholipids in humans.

    PubMed

    Wood, K E; Lau, A; Mantzioris, E; Gibson, R A; Ramsden, C E; Muhlhausler, B S

    2014-04-01

    This study aimed to determine the effect of reducing the dietary linoleic acid (LA) intake from ~5% to <2.5% energy (%E) on n-3 long chain PUFA (LCPUFA) status in humans. Thirty-six participants followed a <2.5%E LA diet for 4 weeks. Nutrient intakes were estimated from diet diaries and blood samples were collected for assessment of fatty acid composition in plasma and erythrocyte phospholipids. LA intakes were reduced from 4.6%E to 2%E during the low LA intervention (P<0.001) while n-3 LCPUFA intakes were unchanged. LA and total n-6 PUFA content of plasma and erythrocyte phospholipids were significantly reduced after the low LA diet phase (P<0.001). The n-3 LCPUFA content of plasma phospholipids was significantly increased after the low LA diet compared to baseline (6.22% vs. 5.53%, P<0.001). These data demonstrate that reducing LA intake for 4 weeks increases n-3 LCPUFA status in humans in the absence of increased n-3 LCPUFA intake.

  5. Polyunsaturated fatty acid status of Dutch vegans and omnivores.

    PubMed

    Fokkema, M R; Brouwer, D A; Hasperhoven, M B; Hettema, Y; Bemelmans, W J; Muskiet, F A

    2000-11-01

    We compared the polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) status of Dutch vegans and omnivores to investigate whether disparities can be explained by different diets and long chain PUFA (LCP) synthesis rates. Dietary intakes and fatty acid compositions of erythrocytes (RBC), platelets (PLT), plasma cholesterol esters (CE) and plasma triglycerides (TG) of 12 strict vegans and 15 age- and sex-matched omnivores were determined. Vegans had higher omega 6 (CE, TG), 18:2 omega 6 (RBC, CE, TG), 18:3 omega 6 (TG), 20:3 omega 6 (TG), 22:4 omega 6 (TG), 22:5 omega 3 (RBC, PLT), 22:5 omega 3/22:6 omega 3 (RBC, PLT) and 22:5 omega 6/22:6 omega 3 (RBC, PLT), and lower 22:4 omega 6 (RBC, PLT), 22:4 omega 6/22:5 omega 6 (RBC, PLT), omega 3 (CE), LCP omega 3 (CE, TG), 20:5 omega 3 (RBC, PLT, CE), 22:5 omega 3 (TG) and 22:6 omega 3 (all compartments). Vegans had lower 20:4 omega 6 (TG) after normalization of PUFA to 100%, and normalization of eicosanoid precursors to 100% revealed similar 20:4 omega 6 (all), higher 20:3 omega 6 (TG) and lower 20:5 omega 3 (all). High omega 6 (notably 18:2 omega 6) and low omega 3 (notably 20:5 omega 3, 22:6 omega 3) status in Dutch vegans derives from low dietary LCP omega 3 and 18:3 omega 3/18:2 omega 6 ratio. Higher 18:3 omega 6 and 20:3 omega 6 in their TG may reflect higher hepatic 20:4 omega 6 production rate, whereas higher 20:4 omega 6 and 22:4 omega 6 in omnivores indicates 20:4 omega 6 intake from meat.

  6. Continuous gradient temperature Raman spectroscopy of the long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids docosapentaenoic (DPA, 22:5n-6) and docosahexaenoic (DHA; 22:6n-3) from -100 to 20° C

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Broadhurst, C. Leigh; Schmidt, Walter F.; Kim, Moon S.; Nguyen, Julie K.; Qin, Jianwei; Chao, Kuanglin; Bauchan, Gary L.; Shelton, Daniel R.

    2016-05-01

    The structural, cognitive and visual development of the human brain and retina strictly require long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA). Excluding water, the mammalian brain is about 60% lipid. One of the great unanswered questions with respect to biological science in general is the absolute necessity of the LC-PUFA docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; 22:6n-3) in these fast signal processing tissues. A lipid of the same chain length with just one less diene group, docosapentaenoic acid (DPA; 22:5n-6) is fairly abundant in terrestrial food chains yet cannot substitute for DHA. Gradient Temperature Raman spectroscopy (GTRS) applies the temperature gradients utilized in differential scanning calorimetry to Raman spectroscopy, providing a straightforward technique to identify molecular rearrangements that occur near and at phase transitions. Herein we apply GTRS to DPA, and DHA from -100 to 20°C. 20 Mb three-dimensional data arrays with 1°C increments and first/second derivatives allows complete assignment of solid, liquid and transition state vibrational modes, including low intensity/frequency vibrations that cannot be readily analyzed with conventional Raman. DPA and DHA show significant spectral changes with premelting (-33 and -60°C, respectively) and melting (-27 and -44°C, respectively). The CH2-(HC=CH)-CH2 moieties are not identical in the second half of the DHA and DPA structures. The DHA molecule contains major CH2 twisting (1265 cm-1) with no noticeable CH2 bending, consistent with a flat helical structure with small pitch. Further modeling of neuronal membrane phospholipids must take into account this structure for DHA, which would be configured parallel to the hydrophilic head group line.

  7. Australians are not Meeting the Recommended Intakes for Omega-3 Long Chain Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids: Results of an Analysis from the 2011–2012 National Nutrition and Physical Activity Survey

    PubMed Central

    Meyer, Barbara J.

    2016-01-01

    Health benefits have been attributed to omega-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 LCPUFA). Therefore it is important to know if Australians are currently meeting the recommended intake for n-3 LCPUFA and if they have increased since the last National Nutrition Survey in 1995 (NNS 1995). Dietary intake data was obtained from the recent 2011–2012 National Nutrition and Physical Activity Survey (2011–2012 NNPAS). Linoleic acid (LA) intakes have decreased whilst alpha-linolenic acid (LNA) and n-3 LCPUFA intakes have increased primarily due to n-3 LCPUFA supplements. The median n-3 LCPUFA intakes are less than 50% of the mean n-3 LCPUFA intakes which highlights the highly-skewed n-3 LCPUFA intakes, which shows that there are some people consuming high amounts of n-3 LCPUFA, but the vast majority of the population are consuming much lower amounts. Only 20% of the population meets the recommended n-3 LCPUFA intakes and only 10% of women of childbearing age meet the recommended docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) intake. Fish and seafood is by far the richest source of n-3 LCPUFA including DHA. PMID:26927162

  8. Australians are not Meeting the Recommended Intakes for Omega-3 Long Chain Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids: Results of an Analysis from the 2011-2012 National Nutrition and Physical Activity Survey.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Barbara J

    2016-02-24

    Health benefits have been attributed to omega-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 LCPUFA). Therefore it is important to know if Australians are currently meeting the recommended intake for n-3 LCPUFA and if they have increased since the last National Nutrition Survey in 1995 (NNS 1995). Dietary intake data was obtained from the recent 2011-2012 National Nutrition and Physical Activity Survey (2011-2012 NNPAS). Linoleic acid (LA) intakes have decreased whilst alpha-linolenic acid (LNA) and n-3 LCPUFA intakes have increased primarily due to n-3 LCPUFA supplements. The median n-3 LCPUFA intakes are less than 50% of the mean n-3 LCPUFA intakes which highlights the highly-skewed n-3 LCPUFA intakes, which shows that there are some people consuming high amounts of n-3 LCPUFA, but the vast majority of the population are consuming much lower amounts. Only 20% of the population meets the recommended n-3 LCPUFA intakes and only 10% of women of childbearing age meet the recommended docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) intake. Fish and seafood is by far the richest source of n-3 LCPUFA including DHA.

  9. Are all n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids created equal?

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    N-3 Polyunsaturated fatty acids have been shown to have potential beneficial effects for chronic diseases including cancer, insulin resistance and cardiovascular disease. Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in particular have been studied extensively, whereas substantive evidence for a biological role for the precursor, alpha-linolenic acid (ALA), is lacking. It is not enough to assume that ALA exerts effects through conversion to EPA and DHA, as the process is highly inefficient in humans. Thus, clarification of ALA's involvement in health and disease is essential, as it is the principle n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid consumed in the North American diet and intakes of EPA and DHA are typically very low. There is evidence suggesting that ALA, EPA and DHA have specific and potentially independent effects on chronic disease. Therefore, this review will assess our current understanding of the differential effects of ALA, EPA and DHA on cancer, insulin resistance, and cardiovascular disease. Potential mechanisms of action will also be reviewed. Overall, a better understanding of the individual role for ALA, EPA and DHA is needed in order to make appropriate dietary recommendations regarding n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid consumption. PMID:19664246

  10. Maternal supplementation with n-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids during perinatal period alleviates the metabolic syndrome disturbances in adult hamster pups fed a high-fat diet after weaning.

    PubMed

    Kasbi-Chadli, Fatima; Boquien, Clair-Yves; Simard, Gilles; Ulmann, Lionel; Mimouni, Virginie; Leray, Véronique; Meynier, Anne; Ferchaud-Roucher, Véronique; Champ, Martine; Nguyen, Patrick; Ouguerram, Khadija

    2014-07-01

    Perinatal nutrition is thought to affect the long-term risk of the adult to develop metabolic syndrome. We hypothesized that maternal supplementation with eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid during pregnancy and lactation would protect offspring fed a high-fat diet from developing metabolic disturbances. Thus, two groups of female hamsters were fed a low-fat control diet, either alone (LC) or enriched with n-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA) (LO), through the gestational and lactation periods. After weaning, male pups were randomized to separate groups that received either a control low-fat diet (LC) or a high-fat diet (HC) for 16 weeks. Four groups of pups were defined (LC-LC, LC-HC, LO-LC and LO-HC), based on the combinations of maternal and weaned diets. Maternal n-3 LC-PUFA supplementation was associated with reduced levels of basal plasma glucose, hepatic triglycerides secretion and postprandial lipemia in the LO-HC group compared to the LC-HC group. Respiratory parameters were not affected by maternal supplementation. In contrast, n-3 LC-PUFA supplementation significantly enhanced the activities of citrate synthase, isocitrate dehydrogenase and α-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase compared to the offspring of unsupplemented mothers. Sterol regulatory element binding protein-1c, diacylglycerol O-acyltransferase 2, fatty acid synthase, stearoyl CoA desaturase 1 and tumor necrosis factor α expression levels were not affected by n-3 LC-PUFA supplementation. These results provide evidence for a beneficial effect of n-3 LC-PUFA maternal supplementation in hamsters on the subsequent risk of metabolic syndrome. Underlying mechanisms may include improved lipid metabolism and activation of the mitochondrial oxidative pathway.

  11. Long chain fatty acids and dietary fats in fetal nutrition

    PubMed Central

    Cetin, Irene; Alvino, Gioia; Cardellicchio, Manuela

    2009-01-01

    Long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids are essential nutrients for a healthy diet. The different kinds consumed by the mother during gestation and lactation may influence pregnancy, fetal and also neonatal outcome. The amount of fatty acids transferred from mother to fetus depends not only on maternal metabolism but also on placental function, i.e. by the uptake, metabolism and then transfer of fatty acids to the fetus. The third trimester of gestation is characterized by an increase of long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in the fetal circulation, in particular docosahexaenoic acid, especially to support brain growth and visual development. These mechanisms may be altered in pathological conditions, such as intrauterine growth restriction and diabetes, when maternal and fetal plasma levels of long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids undergo significant changes. The aim of this review is to describe the maternal and placental factors involved in determining fetal fatty acid availability and metabolism, focusing on the specific role of long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in normal and pathological pregnancies. PMID:19528253

  12. Hybrid striped bass feeds based on fish oil, beef tallow, and eicosapentaenoic acid/docosahexaenoic acid supplements: Insight regarding fish oil sparing and demand for -3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Bowzer, J; Jackson, C; Trushenski, J

    2016-03-01

    Previous research suggests that saturated (SFA) and monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA) rich lipids, including beef tallow, can make utilization or diet-to-tissue transfer of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA) more efficient. We hypothesized that using beef tallow as an alternative to fish oil may effectively reduce the LC-PUFA demand of hybrid striped bass × and allow for greater fish oil sparing. Accordingly, we evaluated growth performance and tissue fatty acid profiles of juvenile fish (23.7 ± 0.3 g) fed diets containing menhaden fish oil (considered an ideal source of LC-PUFA for this taxon), beef tallow (BEEF ONLY), or beef tallow amended with purified sources of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and/or docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) to achieve levels corresponding to 50 or 100% of those observed in the FISH ONLY feed. Diets were randomly assigned to quadruplicate tanks of fish ( = 4; 10 fish/tank), and fish were fed assigned diets to apparent satiation once daily for 10 wk. Survival (98-100%) was equivalent among treatments, but weight gain (117-180%), specific growth rate (1.1-1.5% BW/d), feed intake (1.4-1.8% BW/d), thermal growth coefficient (0.50-0.70), and feed conversion ratio (FCR; 1.1-1.4, DM basis) varied. Except for FCR, no differences were observed between the FISH ONLY and BEEF ONLY treatments, but performance was generally numerically superior among fish fed the diets containing beef tallow supplemented with DHA at the 100% or both EPA and DHA at the 50% or 100% level. Tissue fatty acid composition was significantly distorted in favor among fish fed the beef tallow-based feeds; however, profile distortion was most overt in peripheral tissues. Results suggest that beef tallow may be used as a primary lipid source in practical diets for hybrid striped bass, but performance may be improved by supplementation with LC-PUFA, particularly DHA. Furthermore, our results suggest that -3 LC-PUFA requirements reported for hybrid striped bass may not be

  13. Hybrid striped bass feeds based on fish oil, beef tallow, and eicosapentaenoic acid/docosahexaenoic acid supplements: Insight regarding fish oil sparing and demand for -3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Bowzer, J; Jackson, C; Trushenski, J

    2016-03-01

    Previous research suggests that saturated (SFA) and monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA) rich lipids, including beef tallow, can make utilization or diet-to-tissue transfer of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA) more efficient. We hypothesized that using beef tallow as an alternative to fish oil may effectively reduce the LC-PUFA demand of hybrid striped bass × and allow for greater fish oil sparing. Accordingly, we evaluated growth performance and tissue fatty acid profiles of juvenile fish (23.7 ± 0.3 g) fed diets containing menhaden fish oil (considered an ideal source of LC-PUFA for this taxon), beef tallow (BEEF ONLY), or beef tallow amended with purified sources of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and/or docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) to achieve levels corresponding to 50 or 100% of those observed in the FISH ONLY feed. Diets were randomly assigned to quadruplicate tanks of fish ( = 4; 10 fish/tank), and fish were fed assigned diets to apparent satiation once daily for 10 wk. Survival (98-100%) was equivalent among treatments, but weight gain (117-180%), specific growth rate (1.1-1.5% BW/d), feed intake (1.4-1.8% BW/d), thermal growth coefficient (0.50-0.70), and feed conversion ratio (FCR; 1.1-1.4, DM basis) varied. Except for FCR, no differences were observed between the FISH ONLY and BEEF ONLY treatments, but performance was generally numerically superior among fish fed the diets containing beef tallow supplemented with DHA at the 100% or both EPA and DHA at the 50% or 100% level. Tissue fatty acid composition was significantly distorted in favor among fish fed the beef tallow-based feeds; however, profile distortion was most overt in peripheral tissues. Results suggest that beef tallow may be used as a primary lipid source in practical diets for hybrid striped bass, but performance may be improved by supplementation with LC-PUFA, particularly DHA. Furthermore, our results suggest that -3 LC-PUFA requirements reported for hybrid striped bass may not be

  14. Conversion of α-linolenic acid to long-chain omega-3 fatty acid derivatives and alterations of HDL density subfractions and plasma lipids with dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids in Monk parrots (Myiopsitta monachus).

    PubMed

    Petzinger, C; Larner, C; Heatley, J J; Bailey, C A; MacFarlane, R D; Bauer, J E

    2014-04-01

    The effect of α-linolenic acid from a flaxseed (FLX)-enriched diet on plasma lipid and fatty acid metabolism and possible atherosclerosis risk factors was studied in Monk parrots (Myiopsitta monachus). Twenty-four Monk parrots were randomly assigned to diets containing either 10% ground SUNs or 10% ground FLXs. Feed intake was calculated daily. Blood samples, body condition scores and body weights were obtained at -5 weeks, day 0, 7, 14, 28, 42 and 70. Plasma samples were analysed for total cholesterol, free cholesterol, triacylglycerols and lipoproteins. Phospholipid subfraction fatty acid profiles were determined. By day 70, the FLX group had significantly higher plasma phospholipid fatty acids including 18:3n-3 (α-linolenic acid), 20:5n-3 (eicosapentaenoic acid) and 22:6n-3 (docosahexaenoic acid). The sunflower group had significantly higher plasma phospholipid levels of 20:4n-6 (arachidonic acid). By day 70, the high-density lipoprotein (HDL) peak shifted resulting in significantly different HDL peak densities between the two experimental groups (1.097 g/ml FLX group and 1.095 g/ml SUN group, p = 0.028). The plasma fatty acid results indicate that Monk parrots can readily convert α-linolenic acid to the long-chain omega-3 derivatives including docosahexaenoic acid and reduce 20:4n-6 accumulation in plasma phospholipids. The reason for a shift in the HDL peak density is unknown at this time. PMID:23600588

  15. Conversion of α-linolenic acid to long-chain omega-3 fatty acid derivatives and alterations of HDL density subfractions and plasma lipids with dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids in Monk parrots (Myiopsitta monachus).

    PubMed

    Petzinger, C; Larner, C; Heatley, J J; Bailey, C A; MacFarlane, R D; Bauer, J E

    2014-04-01

    The effect of α-linolenic acid from a flaxseed (FLX)-enriched diet on plasma lipid and fatty acid metabolism and possible atherosclerosis risk factors was studied in Monk parrots (Myiopsitta monachus). Twenty-four Monk parrots were randomly assigned to diets containing either 10% ground SUNs or 10% ground FLXs. Feed intake was calculated daily. Blood samples, body condition scores and body weights were obtained at -5 weeks, day 0, 7, 14, 28, 42 and 70. Plasma samples were analysed for total cholesterol, free cholesterol, triacylglycerols and lipoproteins. Phospholipid subfraction fatty acid profiles were determined. By day 70, the FLX group had significantly higher plasma phospholipid fatty acids including 18:3n-3 (α-linolenic acid), 20:5n-3 (eicosapentaenoic acid) and 22:6n-3 (docosahexaenoic acid). The sunflower group had significantly higher plasma phospholipid levels of 20:4n-6 (arachidonic acid). By day 70, the high-density lipoprotein (HDL) peak shifted resulting in significantly different HDL peak densities between the two experimental groups (1.097 g/ml FLX group and 1.095 g/ml SUN group, p = 0.028). The plasma fatty acid results indicate that Monk parrots can readily convert α-linolenic acid to the long-chain omega-3 derivatives including docosahexaenoic acid and reduce 20:4n-6 accumulation in plasma phospholipids. The reason for a shift in the HDL peak density is unknown at this time.

  16. Influence of dietary supplementation with long-chain n-3 or n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids on blood inflammatory cell populations and functions and on plasma soluble adhesion molecules in healthy adults.

    PubMed

    Thies, F; Miles, E A; Nebe-von-Caron, G; Powell, J R; Hurst, T L; Newsholme, E A; Calder, P C

    2001-11-01

    Greatly increasing the amounts of flaxseed oil [rich in alpha-linolenic acid (ALNA)] or fish oil (FO); [rich in eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)] in the diet can decrease inflammatory cell functions and so might impair host defense. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of dietary supplementation with moderate levels of ALNA, gamma-linolenic acid (GLA), arachidonic acid (ARA), DHA, or FO on inflammatory cell numbers and functions and on circulating levels of soluble adhesion molecules. Healthy subjects aged 55 to 75 yr consumed nine capsules per day for 12 wk. The capsules contained placebo oil (an 80:20 mix of palm and sunflowerseed oils) or blends of placebo oil with oils rich in ALNA, GLA, ARA, or DHA or FO. Subjects in these groups consumed 2 g ALNA; approximately 700 mg GLA, ARA, or DHA; or 1 g EPA plus DHA (720 mg EPA + 280 mg DHA) daily from the capsules. Total fat intake from the capsules was 4 g per day. None of the treatments affected inflammatory cell numbers in the bloodstream; neutrophil and monocyte phagocytosis or respiratory burst in response to E. coli; production of tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin-1beta, and interleukin-6 in response to bacterial lipopolysaccharide; or plasma concentrations of soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1. In contrast, the ALNA and FO treatments decreased the plasma concentrations of soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (16 and 28% decrease, respectively) and soluble E-selectin (23 and 17% decrease, respectively). It is concluded that, in contrast to previous reports using higher amounts of these fatty acids, a moderate increase in consumption of long-chain n-6 or n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids does not significantly affect inflammatory cell numbers or neutrophil and monocyte responses in humans and so would not be expected to cause immune impairment. Furthermore, we conclude that moderate levels of ALNA and FO, which could be incorporated into the diet, can

  17. Changes in cholesterol homeostasis modify the response of F1B hamsters to dietary very long chain n-3 and n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The plasma lipoprotein response of F1B Golden-Syrian hamsters fed diets high in very long chain (VLC) n-3 PUFA is paradoxical to that observed in humans. This anomaly is attributed, in part, to low lipoprotein lipase activity and dependent on cholesterol status. To further elucidate the mechanism(...

  18. Association of an ACSL1 gene variant with polyunsaturated fatty acids in bovine skeletal muscle

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The intramuscular fat deposition and the fatty acid profiles of beef affect meat quality. High proportions of unsaturated fatty acids are related to beef flavor and are beneficial for the nutritional value of meat. Moreover, a variety of clinical and epidemiologic studies showed that particularly long-chain omega-3 fatty acids from animal sources have a positive impact on human health and disease. Results To screen for genetic factors affecting fatty acid profiles in beef, we initially performed a microsatellite-based genome scan in a F2 Charolais × German Holstein resource population and identified a quantitative trait locus (QTL) for fatty acid composition in a region on bovine chromosome 27 where previously QTL affecting marbling score had been detected in beef cattle populations. The long-chain acyl-CoA synthetase 1 (ACSL1) gene was identified as the most plausible functional and positional candidate gene in the QTL interval due to its direct impact on fatty acid metabolism and its position in the QTL interval. ACSL1 is necessary for synthesis of long-chain acyl-CoA esters, fatty acid degradation and phospholipid remodeling. We validated the genomic annotation of the bovine ACSL1 gene by in silico comparative sequence analysis and experimental verification. Re-sequencing of the complete coding, exon-flanking intronic sequences, 3' untranslated region (3'UTR) and partial promoter region of the ACSL1 gene revealed three synonymous mutations in exons 6, 7, and 20, six noncoding intronic gene variants, six polymorphisms in the promoter region, and four variants in the 3' UTR region. The association analysis identified the gene variant in intron 5 of the ACSL1 gene (c.481-233A>G) to be significantly associated with the relative content of distinct fractions and ratios of fatty acids (e.g., n-3 fatty acids, polyunsaturated, n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids, trans vaccenic acid) in skeletal muscle. A tentative association of the ACSL1 gene

  19. The metabolic syndrome of fructose-fed rats: effects of long-chain polyunsaturated ω3 and ω6 fatty acids. V. Post-mortem findings.

    PubMed

    Mellouk, Zoheir; Louchami, Karim; Hupkens, Emeline; Sener, Abdullah; Ait Yahia, Dalila; Malaisse, Willy J

    2012-12-01

    The present study deals with the possible effects of dietary ω3 and ω6 fatty acids upon the metabolic syndrome found in rats exposed for 8 weeks to a diet containing 64% (w/w) D-fructose instead of starch. Fructose-fed rats were found to display a modest increase in plasma albumin and protein concentration and more pronounced increases in plasma urea, creatinine, phospholipids, triglycerides and cholesterol concentrations, glycated hemoglobin concentration and liver contents of cholesterol, triglycerides and phospholipids. The plasma concentrations of HDL-cholesterol, calcium and iron were decreased, however, in the fructose-fed rats. In general, the partial substitution of sunflower oil by either safflower oil or salmon oil opposed the metabolic perturbations otherwise associated with the fructose-induced metabolic syndrome in the fructose-fed rats, with salmon oil demonstrating particular efficacy. Consideration is given to the possible biological determinants of these perturbations and their attenuation in rats exposed to safflower or salmon oil. PMID:23007116

  20. Mouse models: the ketogenic diet and polyunsaturated fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Borges, Karin

    2008-11-01

    Literature on the anticonvulsant effects of the ketogenic diet (KD) in mouse seizure models is summarized. Recent data show that a KD balanced in vitamin, mineral, and antioxidant content is anticonvulsant in mice, confirming that the KD's effect in mice can be attributed to the composition of the diet and not other dietary factors. Given that the anticonvulsant mechanism of the KD is still unknown, the anticonvulsant profile of the diet in different seizure models may help to decipher this mechanism. The implications of the findings that the KD is anticonvulsant in electrical seizure models are indicated. Further, the potential involvement of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) in the KD's anticonvulsant mechanism is discussed.

  1. Independent and interactive effects of plant sterols and fish oil n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids on the plasma lipid profile of mildly hyperlipidaemic Indian adults.

    PubMed

    Khandelwal, Shweta; Demonty, Isabelle; Jeemon, Panniyammakal; Lakshmy, Ramakrishnan; Mukherjee, Rajat; Gupta, Ruby; Snehi, Uma; Niveditha, Devasenapathy; Singh, Yogendra; van der Knaap, Henk C M; Passi, Santosh J; Prabhakaran, Dorairaj; Reddy, K Srinath

    2009-09-01

    The present study was designed to evaluate the independent and interactive effects of a once-a-day yoghurt drink providing 2 g plant sterols/d and capsules providing 2 g fish oil n-3 long-chain (LC) PUFA/d on plasma lipids, apolipoproteins and LDL particle size. Following a 2-week run-in period, 200 mildly hypercholesterolaemic Indian adults aged 35-55 years were randomised into one of four groups of a 2 x 2 factorial, double-blind controlled trial. The 4-week treatments consisted of (1) control yoghurt drink and control capsules, (2) control yoghurt drink and fish oil capsules, (3) plant sterol-enriched yoghurt drink and control capsules, or (4) plant sterol-enriched yoghurt drink and fish oil capsules. Blood was drawn before and after the 4-week intervention. Changes in health status, lifestyle and dietary habits, and daily compliance were recorded. The main effects of plant sterols were a 4.5 % reduction in LDL-cholesterol and a 15 % reduction in TAG without a significant change in HDL-cholesterol. Overall, fish oil n-3 LC-PUFA did not significantly affect cholesterol concentrations but reduced TAG by 15 % and increased HDL-cholesterol by 5.4 %. The combination significantly lowered TAG by 15 % v. control. No significant interaction between plant sterols and n-3 LC-PUFA was observed on plasma cholesterol concentrations. In conclusion, once-a-day intake of 2 g plant sterols/d in a yoghurt drink, 2 g fish oil n-3 LC-PUFA/d in capsules, and their combination had beneficial effects on the lipid profile of mildly hypercholesterolaemic Indian adults. The potent hypotriacylglycerolaemic effect of plant sterols observed in the present study and this population warrants additional investigation. PMID:19296875

  2. ω-Alkynyl Lipid Surrogates for Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids: Free Radical and Enzymatic Oxidations

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Lipid and lipid metabolite profiling are important parameters in understanding the pathogenesis of many diseases. Alkynylated polyunsaturated fatty acids are potentially useful probes for tracking the fate of fatty acid metabolites. The nonenzymatic and enzymatic oxidations of ω-alkynyl linoleic acid and ω-alkynyl arachidonic acid were compared to that of linoleic and arachidonic acid. There was no detectable difference in the primary products of nonenzymatic oxidation, which comprised cis,trans-hydroxy fatty acids. Similar hydroxy fatty acid products were formed when ω-alkynyl linoleic acid and ω-alkynyl arachidonic acid were reacted with lipoxygenase enzymes that introduce oxygen at different positions in the carbon chains. The rates of oxidation of ω-alkynylated fatty acids were reduced compared to those of the natural fatty acids. Cyclooxygenase-1 and -2 did not oxidize alkynyl linoleic but efficiently oxidized alkynyl arachidonic acid. The products were identified as alkynyl 11-hydroxy-eicosatetraenoic acid, alkynyl 11-hydroxy-8,9-epoxy-eicosatrienoic acid, and alkynyl prostaglandins. This deviation from the metabolic profile of arachidonic acid may limit the utility of alkynyl arachidonic acid in the tracking of cyclooxygenase-based lipid oxidation. The formation of alkynyl 11-hydroxy-8,9-epoxy-eicosatrienoic acid compared to alkynyl prostaglandins suggests that the ω-alkyne group causes a conformational change in the fatty acid bound to the enzyme, which reduces the efficiency of cyclization of dioxalanyl intermediates to endoperoxide intermediates. Overall, ω-alkynyl linoleic acid and ω-alkynyl arachidonic acid appear to be metabolically competent surrogates for tracking the fate of polyunsaturated fatty acids when looking at models involving autoxidation and oxidation by lipoxygenases. PMID:25034362

  3. The Association between Marine n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Levels and Survival after Renal Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Jenssen, Trond; Hartmann, Anders; Diep, Lien M.; Dahle, Dag O.; Reisæter, Anna V.; Bjerve, Kristian S.; Christensen, Jeppe H.; Schmidt, Erik B.; Svensson, My

    2015-01-01

    Background and objectives Several studies have reported beneficial cardiovascular effects of marine n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids. To date, no large studies have investigated the potential benefits of marine n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in recipients of renal transplants. Design, setting, participants, & measurements In this observational cohort study of 1990 Norwegian recipients of renal transplants transplanted between 1999 and 2011, associations between marine n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid levels and mortality were investigated by stratified analysis and multivariable Cox proportional hazard regression analysis adjusting for traditional and transplant-specific mortality risk factors. Marine n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid levels in plasma phospholipids were measured by gas chromatography in a stable phase 10 weeks after transplantation. Results There were 406 deaths (20.4%) during a median follow-up period of 6.8 years. Mortality rates were lower in patients with high marine n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid levels (≥7.95 weight percentage) compared with low levels (<7.95 weight percentage) for all age categories (pooled mortality rate ratio estimate, 0.69; 95% confidence interval, 0.57 to 0.85). When divided into quartiles according to marine n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid levels, patients in the upper quartile compared with the lower quartile had a 56% lower risk of death (adjusted hazard ratio, 0.44; 95% confidence interval, 0.26 to 0.75) using multivariable Cox proportional hazard regression analysis. There was a lower hazard ratio for death from cardiovascular disease with high levels of marine n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid and a lower hazard ratio for death from infectious disease with high levels of the marine n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid eicosapentaenoic acid, whereas there was no association between total or individual marine n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid levels and cancer mortality. Conclusions Higher plasma phospholipid marine n-3

  4. Fish Oil-Derived Long-Chain n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids Reduce Expression of M1-Associated Macrophage Markers in an ex vivo Adipose Tissue Culture Model, in Part through Adiponectin.

    PubMed

    De Boer, Anna A; Monk, Jennifer M; Liddle, Danyelle M; Power, Krista A; Ma, David W L; Robinson, Lindsay E

    2015-01-01

    Adipose tissue (AT) macrophages (ATM) play a key role in obesity-associated pathologies, and their phenotype can be influenced by the local tissue microenvironment. Interestingly, long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC n-3 PUFA) and the LC n-3 PUFA-upregulated adipokine, adiponectin (Ad), may mitigate excessive ATM inflammatory M1-polarization responses. However, to what extent LC n-3 PUFA and Ad work in concert to affect macrophage phenotype has not been examined. Thus, we used an established ex vivo AT organ culture model using visceral AT from mice fed a control (CON; 10% w/w safflower oil) n-6 PUFA-rich diet or an isocaloric fish oil (FO; 3% w/w menhaden oil + 7% w/w safflower oil)-derived LC n-3 PUFA-rich diet to generate AT conditioned media (ACM). We then evaluated if CON or FO ACM affected macrophage polarization markers in a model designed to mimic acute [18 h ACM plus lipopolysaccharide (LPS) for the last 6 h] or chronic (macrophages treated with LPS-challenged CON or FO ACM for 24 h) inflammation ± Ad-neutralizing antibody and the LPS-neutralizing agent, polymyxin B. In the acute inflammation model, macrophages treated with FO ACM had decreased lipid uptake and mRNA expression of M1 markers (Nos2, Nfκb, Il6, Il18, Ccl2, and Ccl5) compared with CON ACM (p ≤ 0.05); however, these effects were largely attenuated when Ad was neutralized (p > 0.05). Furthermore, in the chronic inflammation model, macrophages treated with FO ACM had decreased mRNA expression of M1 markers (Nos2, Tnfα, Ccl2, and Il1β) and IL-6 and CCL2 secretion (p ≤ 0.05); however, some of these effects were lost when Ad was neutralized, and were further exacerbated when both Ad and LPS were neutralized. Taken together, this work shows that LC n-3 PUFA and Ad work in concert to suppress certain M1 macrophage responses. Thus, future strategies to modulate the ATM phenotype should consider the role of both LC n-3 PUFA and Ad in mitigating obese AT

  5. [Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in the prevention of atherosclerosis].

    PubMed

    Varga, Zsuzsa

    2008-04-01

    Cardioprotective action of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids such as eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acid in fish and alpha-linolenic acid in plants was demonstrated in primary and secondary clinical trials. Fish oil therapy causes a marked decrease in serum triacylglycerol and very low density lipoprotein levels and increases moderately high density lipoprotein levels without any adverse effects. Omega-3 fatty acids decrease slightly, but significantly blood pressure, enhance endothelial function, they have anti-aggregator, anti-thrombotic and anti-inflammatory effects as well. These beneficial effects are in connection with modification of gene transcription levels of some key molecules such as nuclear factor-kappaB and sterol element binding receptor protein-1c, which regulate for example expression of adhesion molecules or several receptors involved in triglyceride synthesis (hepatocyte X receptor, hepatocyte nuclear factor 4alpha, farnesol X receptor, and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors). On the basis of these observations, the supplementation of the diet with omega-3 fatty acids (fish, fish oil, linseed, and linseed oil or canola oil) is advisable in primary and secondary prevention. PMID:18375362

  6. Oxidative stability of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids enriched eggs.

    PubMed

    Ren, Yuan; Perez, Tulia I; Zuidhof, Martin J; Renema, Robert A; Wu, Jianping

    2013-11-27

    Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) enriched eggs have a growing market share in the egg industry. This study examined the stability of n-3 PUFA enriched eggs fortified with antioxidants (vitamin E or organic Selenium [Sel-Plex] or both) following cooking and storage. The total fat content was not affected by cooking or simulated retail storage conditions, whereas, n-3 fatty acids were reduced. The content of n-3 fatty acids in boiled eggs was higher than in fried eggs. Lipid oxidation was significantly affected by the different cooking methods. Fried eggs contained higher levels of malondialdehyde (MDA, 2.02 μg/kg) and cholesterol oxidation products (COPs, 13.58 μg/g) compared to boiled (1.44 and 10.15 μg/kg) and raw eggs (0.95 and 9.03 μg/kg, respectively, for MDA and COPs). Supplementation of antioxidants reduced the formation of MDA by 40% and COPs by 12% in fried eggs. Although the content of MDA was significantly increased after 28 days of storage, COPs were not affected by storage. Our study indicated that the n-3 PUFA in enriched eggs was relatively stable during storage and home cooking in the presence of antioxidants. PMID:24164329

  7. TRPA1 Is a Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Sensor in Mammals

    PubMed Central

    Motter, Arianne L.; Ahern, Gerard P.

    2012-01-01

    Fatty acids can act as important signaling molecules regulating diverse physiological processes. Our understanding, however, of fatty acid signaling mechanisms and receptor targets remains incomplete. Here we show that Transient Receptor Potential Ankyrin 1 (TRPA1), a cation channel expressed in sensory neurons and gut tissues, functions as a sensor of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) in vitro and in vivo. PUFAs, containing at least 18 carbon atoms and three unsaturated bonds, activate TRPA1 to excite primary sensory neurons and enteroendocrine cells. Moreover, behavioral aversion to PUFAs is absent in TRPA1-null mice. Further, sustained or repeated agonism with PUFAs leads to TRPA1 desensitization. PUFAs activate TRPA1 non-covalently and independently of known ligand binding domains located in the N-terminus and 5th transmembrane region. PUFA sensitivity is restricted to mammalian (rodent and human) TRPA1 channels, as the drosophila and zebrafish TRPA1 orthologs do not respond to DHA. We propose that PUFA-sensing by mammalian TRPA1 may regulate pain and gastrointestinal functions. PMID:22723860

  8. The Role of Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids in Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Bu, Jiyuan; Dou, Yang; Tian, Xiaodi; Wang, Zhong

    2016-01-01

    Stroke is the third commonest cause of death following cardiovascular diseases and cancer. In particular, in recent years, the morbidity and mortality of stroke keep remarkable growing. However, stroke still captures people attention far less than cardiovascular diseases and cancer. Past studies have shown that oxidative stress and inflammation play crucial roles in the progress of cerebral injury induced by stroke. Evidence is accumulating that the dietary supplementation of fish oil exhibits beneficial effects on several diseases, such as cardiovascular diseases, metabolic diseases, and cancer. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs), the major component of fish oil, have been found against oxidative stress and inflammation in cardiovascular diseases. And the potential of n-3 PUFAs in stroke treatment is attracting more and more attention. In this review, we will review the effects of n-3 PUFAs on stroke and mainly focus on the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects of n-3 PUFAs. PMID:27433289

  9. Cytochrome P450 epoxygenase pathway of polyunsaturated fatty acid metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Spector, Arthur A.; Kim, Hee-Yong

    2014-01-01

    Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) are oxidized by cytochrome P450 epoxygenases to PUFA epoxides which function as potent lipid mediators. The major metabolic pathways of PUFA epoxides are incorporation into phospholipids and hydrolysis to the corresponding PUFA diols by soluble epoxide hydrolase. Inhibitors of soluble epoxide hydrolase stabilize PUFA epoxides and potentiate their functional effects. The epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs) synthesized from arachidonic acid produce vasodilation, stimulate angiogenesis, have anti-inflammatory actions, and protect the heart against ischemia-reperfusion injury. EETs produce these functional effects by activating receptor-mediated signaling pathways and ion channels. The epoxyeicosatetraenoic acids synthesized from eicosapentaenoic acid and epoxydocosapentaenoic acids synthesized from docosahexaenoic acid are potent inhibitors of cardiac arrhythmias. Epoxydocosapentaenoic acids also inhibit angiogenesis, decrease inflammatory and neuropathic pain, and reduce tumor metastasis. These findings indicate that a number of the beneficial functions of PUFA may be due to their conversion to PUFA epoxides. PMID:25093613

  10. Content of essential polyunsaturated fatty acids in three canned fish species.

    PubMed

    Gladyshev, Michail I; Sushchik, Nadezhda N; Makhutova, Olesia N; Kalachova, Galina S

    2009-05-01

    Three canned fish species--Pacific saury (Cololabis saira), Pacific herring (Clupea harengus) and Baltic sprat (Sprattus sprattus)--most common and popular in Russia, were analyzed for fatty acids. Special attention was paid to long-chain essential polyunsaturated fatty acids: eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5omega3) and docosahexaenoic acid (22:6omega3). Sums of eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid in saury, herring and sprat were, on average, 2.42, 1.80 and 1.43 g/100 g product, respectively. Contents of these essential acids in all the canned fish species were found to be very high compared with many other fish reported in the available literature. All the canned fish appeared to be highly valuable products for human nutrition concerning the content of eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids. PMID:18608541

  11. Health Implications of High Dietary Omega-6 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids

    PubMed Central

    Patterson, E.; Wall, R.; Fitzgerald, G. F.; Ross, R. P.; Stanton, C.

    2012-01-01

    Omega-6 (n-6) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) (e.g., arachidonic acid (AA)) and omega-3 (n-3) PUFA (e.g., eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA)) are precursors to potent lipid mediator signalling molecules, termed “eicosanoids,” which have important roles in the regulation of inflammation. In general, eicosanoids derived from n-6 PUFA are proinflammatory while eicosanoids derived from n-3 PUFA are anti-inflammatory. Dietary changes over the past few decades in the intake of n-6 and n-3 PUFA show striking increases in the (n-6) to (n-3) ratio (~15 : 1), which are associated with greater metabolism of the n-6 PUFA compared with n-3 PUFA. Coinciding with this increase in the ratio of (n-6) : (n-3) PUFA are increases in chronic inflammatory diseases such as nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), cardiovascular disease, obesity, inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), rheumatoid arthritis, and Alzheimer's disease (AD). By increasing the ratio of (n-3) : (n-6) PUFA in the Western diet, reductions may be achieved in the incidence of these chronic inflammatory diseases. PMID:22570770

  12. Fatty acid-related phylogeny of myxobacteria as an approach to discover polyunsaturated omega-3/6 Fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Ronald; Pistorius, Dominik; Stadler, Marc; Müller, Rolf

    2011-04-01

    In an analysis of 47 aerobic myxobacterial strains, representing 19 genera in suborders Cystobacterineae, Nannocystineae, Sorangiineae, and a novel isolate, "Aetherobacter" SBSr008, an enormously diverse array of fatty acids (FAs) was found. The distribution of straight-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) and branched-chain fatty acids (BCFAs) supports the reported clustering of strains in the phylogenetic tree based on 16S rRNA genes. This finding additionally allows the prediction and assignment of the novel isolate SBSr008 into its corresponding taxon. Sorangiineae predominantly contains larger amounts of SCFA (57 to 84%) than BCFA. On the other hand, Cystobacterineae exhibit significant BCFA content (53 to 90%), with the exception of the genus Stigmatella. In Nannocystineae, the ratio of BCFA and SCFA seems dependent on the taxonomic clade. Myxobacteria could also be identified and classified by using their specific and predominant FAs as biomarkers. Nannocystineae is remarkably unique among the suborders for its absence of hydroxy FAs. After the identification of arachidonic (AA) FA in Phaselicystidaceae, eight additional polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) belonging to the omega-6 and omega-3 families were discovered. Here we present a comprehensive report of FAs found in aerobic myxobacteria. Gliding bacteria belonging to Flexibacter and Herpetosiphon were chosen for comparative analysis to determine their FA profiles in relation to the myxobacteria.

  13. Polyunsaturated fatty acid saturation by gut lactic acid bacteria affecting host lipid composition

    PubMed Central

    Kishino, Shigenobu; Takeuchi, Michiki; Park, Si-Bum; Hirata, Akiko; Kitamura, Nahoko; Kunisawa, Jun; Kiyono, Hiroshi; Iwamoto, Ryo; Isobe, Yosuke; Arita, Makoto; Arai, Hiroyuki; Ueda, Kazumitsu; Shima, Jun; Takahashi, Satomi; Yokozeki, Kenzo; Shimizu, Sakayu; Ogawa, Jun

    2013-01-01

    In the representative gut bacterium Lactobacillus plantarum, we identified genes encoding the enzymes involved in a saturation metabolism of polyunsaturated fatty acids and revealed in detail the metabolic pathway that generates hydroxy fatty acids, oxo fatty acids, conjugated fatty acids, and partially saturated trans-fatty acids as intermediates. Furthermore, we observed these intermediates, especially hydroxy fatty acids, in host organs. Levels of hydroxy fatty acids were much higher in specific pathogen-free mice than in germ-free mice, indicating that these fatty acids are generated through polyunsaturated fatty acids metabolism of gastrointestinal microorganisms. These findings suggested that lipid metabolism by gastrointestinal microbes affects the health of the host by modifying fatty acid composition. PMID:24127592

  14. Crystal structure of FAS thioesterase domain with polyunsaturated fatty acyl adduct and inhibition by dihomo-[gamma]-linolenic acid

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Wei; Chakravarty, Bornali; Zheng, Fei; Gu, Ziwei; Wu, Hongmei; Mao, Jianqiang; Wakil, Salih J.; Quiocho, Florante A.

    2012-05-29

    Human fatty acid synthase (hFAS) is a homodimeric multidomain enzyme that catalyzes a series of reactions leading to the de novo biosynthesis of long-chain fatty acids, mainly palmitate. The carboxy-terminal thioesterase (TE) domain determines the length of the fatty acyl chain and its ultimate release by hydrolysis. Because of the upregulation of hFAS in a variety of cancers, it is a target for antiproliferative agent development. Dietary long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) have been known to confer beneficial effects on many diseases and health conditions, including cancers, inflammations, diabetes, and heart diseases, but the precise molecular mechanisms involved have not been elucidated. We report the crystal structure of the hFAS TE domain covalently modified and inactivated by methyl {gamma}-linolenylfluorophosphonate. Whereas the structure confirmed the phosphorylation by the phosphonate head group of the active site serine, it also unexpectedly revealed the binding of the 18-carbon polyunsaturated {gamma}-linolenyl tail in a long groove-tunnel site, which itself is formed mainly by the emergence of an {alpha} helix (the 'helix flap'). We then found inhibition of the TE domain activity by the PUFA dihomo-{gamma}-linolenic acid; {gamma}- and {alpha}-linolenic acids, two popular dietary PUFAs, were less effective. Dihomo-{gamma}-linolenic acid also inhibited fatty acid biosynthesis in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes and selective human breast cancer cell lines, including SKBR3 and MDAMB231. In addition to revealing a novel mechanism for the molecular recognition of a polyunsaturated fatty acyl chain, our results offer a new framework for developing potent FAS inhibitors as therapeutics against cancers and other diseases.

  15. [Reconstitution of polyunsaturated fatty acid synthesis enzymes in mammalian cells to convert LA to DHA].

    PubMed

    Zhu, Guiming; Saleh, Abdulmomen Ali Mohammed; Bahwal, Said Ahmed; Qiu, Lihong; Sun, Jie; Shang, Yu; Jiang, Xudong; Ge, Tangdong; Zhang, Tao

    2015-02-01

    DHA (22:6n-3) is a Ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid with 22 carbon atoms and 6 double bonds, which has important biological functions in human body. Human and other mammals synthesize only limited amounts of DHA, more requirements must be satisfied from food resources. However, the natural resources of DHA (Mainly deep-sea fish and other marine products) are prone to depletion. New resources development is still insufficient to satisfy the growing market demand. Previous studies have revealed that the mammals can increase the synthesis of DHA and other long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids after transgenic procedures. In this study, mammalian cells were transfected with Δ6, Δ5 desaturase, Δ6, Δ5 elongase, Δ15 desaturase (Isolated from nematode Caenorhabditis elegans) and Δ4 desaturase (Isolated from Euglena gracilis), simultaneously. Results show that the expression or overexpression of these 6 enzymes is capable of conversion of the o-6 linoleic acid (LA, 18:2n-6) in DHA (22:6n-3). DHA content has increased from 16.74% in the control group to 25.3% in the experimental group. The strategy and related technology in our research provided important data for future production the valuable DHA (22:6n-3) by using genetically modified animals.

  16. The Molecular Basis of Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Interactions with the Shaker Voltage-Gated Potassium Channel

    PubMed Central

    Yazdi, Samira; Stein, Matthias; Elinder, Fredrik; Andersson, Magnus; Lindahl, Erik

    2016-01-01

    Voltage-gated potassium (KV) channels are membrane proteins that respond to changes in membrane potential by enabling K+ ion flux across the membrane. Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) induce channel opening by modulating the voltage-sensitivity, which can provide effective treatment against refractory epilepsy by means of a ketogenic diet. While PUFAs have been reported to influence the gating mechanism by electrostatic interactions to the voltage-sensor domain (VSD), the exact PUFA-protein interactions are still elusive. In this study, we report on the interactions between the Shaker KV channel in open and closed states and a PUFA-enriched lipid bilayer using microsecond molecular dynamics simulations. We determined a putative PUFA binding site in the open state of the channel located at the protein-lipid interface in the vicinity of the extracellular halves of the S3 and S4 helices of the VSD. In particular, the lipophilic PUFA tail covered a wide range of non-specific hydrophobic interactions in the hydrophobic central core of the protein-lipid interface, while the carboxylic head group displayed more specific interactions to polar/charged residues at the extracellular regions of the S3 and S4 helices, encompassing the S3-S4 linker. Moreover, by studying the interactions between saturated fatty acids (SFA) and the Shaker KV channel, our study confirmed an increased conformational flexibility in the polyunsaturated carbon tails compared to saturated carbon chains, which may explain the specificity of PUFA action on channel proteins. PMID:26751683

  17. Influence of dietary n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids on plasma lipemic effect of vitamin B6 deficiency.

    PubMed

    Bergami, R; Maranesi, M; Marchetti, M; Sangiorgi, Z; Tolomelli, B

    1999-09-01

    Since many connections exist between vitamin B6 and lipid metabolism, we aim to investigate the lipemic effect of different dietary intakes of polyunsaturated fatty acids in rats fed a vitamin B6 deficient diet. Diets were either vitamin B6 deficient (-B6) or vitamin B6 sufficient, pair-fed to the deficient group (PF) and ad libitum (N). The diets were combined with normal lipid (LC: soya bean-coconut-palm oils) and fish oil (FO: soya bean-fish oil). The fish oil diet with sufficient vitamin B6 content caused an increase in n-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids and a decrease in arachidonic acid. In the -B6 group fed a normal lipid diet, the arachidonic acid percentage decreased and the linoleic acid percentage increased; in the -B6 group fed fish oil these changes in fatty acid composition, already consequent upon dietary intake of n-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids, did not show further variations. In the dietary condition of vitamin B6 deficiency, plasma cholesterol content increased in rats fed a lipid control diet, whereas no hypocholesterolemic effect was observed in those fed a fish oil diet. Plasma triglyceride contents were not influenced by dietary lipid quality because, in all conditions, the lower food intake of the PF groups caused a decrease and vitamin B6 deficiency caused an elevation in triglyceride contents which reached those of the ad libitum groups. The study highlights the interaction between vitamin B6 and polyunsaturated fatty acids and the opportunity of dietary intake of fish oil to counterbalance some effects of vitamin B6 deficiency.

  18. N-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids and Autoimmune-Mediated Glomerulonephritis

    PubMed Central

    Pestka, James J.

    2010-01-01

    Consumption of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) found in fish oil suppresses inflammatory processes making these fatty acids attractive candidates for both the prevention and amelioration of several organ-specific and systemic autoimmune diseases. Both pre-clinical and clinical studies have been conducted to determine whether fish oils containing the n-3 PUFAs docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) can be used in the prevention and treatment of immunoglobulin A nephropathy (IgAN) and lupus nephritis. In a toxin-induced mouse model that mimics the early stages of IgAN, n-3 PUFA consumption suppresses aberrant interleukin (IL)-6-driven IgA production and mesangial IgA immune complex deposition by impairing phosphorylation of upstream kinases and activation of transcription factors essential for IL-6 gene transcription. n-3 PUFAs can also suppress production of anti-double-stranded DNA IgG antibodies and the resultant development of lupus nephritis in the NZBW F1 mouse and related models. These effects have been linked in part to impaired expression of proinflammatory cytokines and adhesion molecules as well as increases in antioxidant enzymes in kidney and immune organs. Several recent clinical trials have provided compelling evidence that n-3 PUFA supplementation could be useful in treatment of human IgAN and lupus nephritis, although some other studies suggest such supplementation might be without benefit. Future investigations employing genomics/proteomics and novel genetically altered mice should provide further insight into how n-3 PUFAs modulate these diseases as well help to identify clinically relevant biomarkers. The latter could be employed in future well-designed, long-term clinical studies that will resolve current controversies on n-3 PUFA efficacy in autoimmune-mediated glomerulonephritis. PMID:20189790

  19. Exacerbation of Alcohol-Induced Oxidative Stress in Rats by Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids and Iron Load

    PubMed Central

    Patere, S. N.; Majumdar, A. S.; Saraf, M. N.

    2011-01-01

    The hypothesis that excessive intake of vegetable oil containing polyunsaturated fatty acids and iron load precipitate alcohol-induced liver damage was investigated in a rat model. In order to elucidate the mechanism underlying this synergism, the serum levels of iron, total protein, serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase, liver thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, and activities of antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase, catalase in liver of rats treated with alcohol, polyunsaturated fatty acids and iron per se and in combination were examined. Alcohol was fed to the rats at a level of 10-30% (blood alcohol was maintained between 150-350 mg/dl by using head space gas chromatography), polyunsaturated fatty acids at a level of 15% of diet and carbonyl iron 1.5-2% of diet per se and in combination to different groups for 30 days. Hepatotoxicity was assessed by measuring serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase, which was elevated and serum total protein, which was decreased significantly in rats fed with a combination of alcohol, polyunsaturated fatty acids and iron. It was also associated with increased lipid peroxidation and disruption of antioxidant defense in combination fed rats as compared to rats fed with alcohol or polyunsaturated fatty acids or iron. The present study revealed significant exacerbation of the alcohol-induced oxidative stress in presence of polyunsaturated fatty acids and iron. PMID:22303057

  20. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and oxygenated metabolism in atherothrombosis.

    PubMed

    Guichardant, Michel; Calzada, Catherine; Bernoud-Hubac, Nathalie; Lagarde, Michel; Véricel, Evelyne

    2015-04-01

    Numerous epidemiological studies and clinical trials have reported the health benefits of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), including a lower risk of coronary heart diseases. This review mainly focuses on the effects of alpha-linolenic (ALA), eicosapentaenoic (EPA) and docosahexaenoic (DHA) acids on some risk factors associated with atherothrombosis, including platelet activation, plasma lipid concentrations and oxidative modification of low-density lipoproteins (LDL). Special focus is given to the effects of marine PUFA on the formation of eicosanoids and docosanoids, and to the bioactive properties of some oxygenated metabolites of omega-3 PUFA produced by cyclooxygenases and lipoxygenases. The antioxidant effects of marine omega-3 PUFA at low concentrations and the pro-oxidant effects of DHA at high concentrations on the redox status of platelets and LDL are highlighted. Non enzymatic peroxidation end-products deriving from omega-3 PUFA such as hydroxy-hexenals, neuroketals and EPA-derived isoprostanes are also considered in relation to atherosclerosis. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled "Oxygenated metabolism of PUFA: analysis and biological relevance". PMID:25263947

  1. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and oxygenated metabolism in atherothrombosis.

    PubMed

    Guichardant, Michel; Calzada, Catherine; Bernoud-Hubac, Nathalie; Lagarde, Michel; Véricel, Evelyne

    2015-04-01

    Numerous epidemiological studies and clinical trials have reported the health benefits of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), including a lower risk of coronary heart diseases. This review mainly focuses on the effects of alpha-linolenic (ALA), eicosapentaenoic (EPA) and docosahexaenoic (DHA) acids on some risk factors associated with atherothrombosis, including platelet activation, plasma lipid concentrations and oxidative modification of low-density lipoproteins (LDL). Special focus is given to the effects of marine PUFA on the formation of eicosanoids and docosanoids, and to the bioactive properties of some oxygenated metabolites of omega-3 PUFA produced by cyclooxygenases and lipoxygenases. The antioxidant effects of marine omega-3 PUFA at low concentrations and the pro-oxidant effects of DHA at high concentrations on the redox status of platelets and LDL are highlighted. Non enzymatic peroxidation end-products deriving from omega-3 PUFA such as hydroxy-hexenals, neuroketals and EPA-derived isoprostanes are also considered in relation to atherosclerosis. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled "Oxygenated metabolism of PUFA: analysis and biological relevance".

  2. Enhancement of cell viability after treatment with polyunsaturated fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Bartl, J; Walitza, S; Grünblatt, E

    2014-01-24

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is highly prevalent in children and adolescents and both environmental and genetic factors play major roles. Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are postulated to contribute to the development of the infant brain and an imbalance in these may increase the risk of ADHD. In recent clinical studies, supplementation with PUFAs improved symptoms of ADHD in some cases. Similarly, some beneficial effects were observed with PUFA treatment in neuronal cell cultures. Therefore, in this study, we hypothesized that a specific PUFA combination (available on the market as Equazen™ [Vifor Pharma, Switzerland]) along with iron, zinc, or vitamin B5 (vitB5) would produce an additive beneficial effect on the viability of rat pheochromocytoma-12 dopaminergic cells. The specific PUFA combination alone, as well as added to each of the three nutrients, was tested in a dose-response manner. The specific PUFAs significantly improved cell viability, starting at very low doses (100pM) from 60h up to 90h; while the combined treatment with vitB5 and minerals did not provide additional benefit. Our results confirmed the beneficial effect of the specific PUFAs on neuronal cell viability; although supplementation with minerals and vitB5 did not enhance this effect.

  3. Peroxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acids by lipoxygenases drives ferroptosis

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Wan Seok; Kim, Katherine J.; Gaschler, Michael M.; Patel, Milesh; Shchepinov, Mikhail S.

    2016-01-01

    Ferroptosis is form of regulated nonapoptotic cell death that is involved in diverse disease contexts. Small molecules that inhibit glutathione peroxidase 4 (GPX4), a phospholipid peroxidase, cause lethal accumulation of lipid peroxides and induce ferroptotic cell death. Although ferroptosis has been suggested to involve accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in lipid environments, the mediators and substrates of ROS generation and the pharmacological mechanism of GPX4 inhibition that generates ROS in lipid environments are unknown. We report here the mechanism of lipid peroxidation during ferroptosis, which involves phosphorylase kinase G2 (PHKG2) regulation of iron availability to lipoxygenase enzymes, which in turn drive ferroptosis through peroxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) at the bis-allylic position; indeed, pretreating cells with PUFAs containing the heavy hydrogen isotope deuterium at the site of peroxidation (D-PUFA) prevented PUFA oxidation and blocked ferroptosis. We further found that ferroptosis inducers inhibit GPX4 by covalently targeting the active site selenocysteine, leading to accumulation of PUFA hydroperoxides. In summary, we found that PUFA oxidation by lipoxygenases via a PHKG2-dependent iron pool is necessary for ferroptosis and that the covalent inhibition of the catalytic selenocysteine in Gpx4 prevents elimination of PUFA hydroperoxides; these findings suggest new strategies for controlling ferroptosis in diverse contexts. PMID:27506793

  4. Cardioprotective mechanism of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Endo, Jin; Arita, Makoto

    2016-01-01

    Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), such as eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid, are widely regarded as cardioprotective. Several large-scale, randomized clinical trials have shown that dietary intake of omega-3 PUFAs improves the prognosis of patients with symptomatic heart failure or recent myocardial infarction. Therefore, dietary consumption of omega-3 PUFA is recommended in international guidelines for the general population to prevent the occurrence of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). However, the precise mechanisms underlying the cardioprotective effects of omega-3 PUFAs are not fully understood. Omega-3 PUFAs can be incorporated into the phospholipid bilayer of cell membranes and can affect membrane fluidity, lipid microdomain formation, and signaling across membranes. Omega-3 PUFAs also modulate the function of membrane ion channels, such as Na and L-type Ca channels, to prevent lethal arrhythmias. Moreover, omega-3 PUFAs also prevent the conversion of arachidonic acid into pro-inflammatory eicosanoids by serving as an alternative substrate for cyclooxygenase or lipoxygenase, resulting in the production of less potent products. In addition, a number of enzymatically oxygenated metabolites derived from omega-3 PUFAs were recently identified as anti-inflammatory mediators. These omega-3 metabolites may contribute to the beneficial effects against CVDs that are attributed to omega-3 PUFAs.

  5. Peroxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acids by lipoxygenases drives ferroptosis.

    PubMed

    Yang, Wan Seok; Kim, Katherine J; Gaschler, Michael M; Patel, Milesh; Shchepinov, Mikhail S; Stockwell, Brent R

    2016-08-23

    Ferroptosis is form of regulated nonapoptotic cell death that is involved in diverse disease contexts. Small molecules that inhibit glutathione peroxidase 4 (GPX4), a phospholipid peroxidase, cause lethal accumulation of lipid peroxides and induce ferroptotic cell death. Although ferroptosis has been suggested to involve accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in lipid environments, the mediators and substrates of ROS generation and the pharmacological mechanism of GPX4 inhibition that generates ROS in lipid environments are unknown. We report here the mechanism of lipid peroxidation during ferroptosis, which involves phosphorylase kinase G2 (PHKG2) regulation of iron availability to lipoxygenase enzymes, which in turn drive ferroptosis through peroxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) at the bis-allylic position; indeed, pretreating cells with PUFAs containing the heavy hydrogen isotope deuterium at the site of peroxidation (D-PUFA) prevented PUFA oxidation and blocked ferroptosis. We further found that ferroptosis inducers inhibit GPX4 by covalently targeting the active site selenocysteine, leading to accumulation of PUFA hydroperoxides. In summary, we found that PUFA oxidation by lipoxygenases via a PHKG2-dependent iron pool is necessary for ferroptosis and that the covalent inhibition of the catalytic selenocysteine in Gpx4 prevents elimination of PUFA hydroperoxides; these findings suggest new strategies for controlling ferroptosis in diverse contexts. PMID:27506793

  6. n-3 Polyunsaturated fatty acids in animal models with neuroinflammation.

    PubMed

    Orr, Sarah K; Trépanier, Marc-Olivier; Bazinet, Richard P

    2013-01-01

    Neuroinflammation is present in the majority of acute and chronic neurological disorders. Excess or prolonged inflammation in the brain is thought to exacerbate neuronal damage and loss. Identifying modulators of neuroinflammation is an active area of study since it may lead to novel therapies. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) are anti-inflammatory in many non-neural tissues; their role in neuroinflammation is less studied. This review summarizes the relationship between n-3 PUFA and brain inflammation in animal models of brain injury and aging. Evidence by and large shows protective effects of n-3 PUFA in models of sickness behavior, stroke, aging, depression, Parkinson's disease, diabetes, and cytokine- and irradiation-induced cognitive impairments. However, rigorous studies that test the direct effects of n-3 PUFA in neuroinflammation in vivo are lacking. Future research in this area is necessary to determine if, and if so which, n-3 PUFA directly target brain inflammatory pathways. n-3 PUFA bioactive metabolites may provide novel therapeutic targets for neurological disorders with a neuroinflammatory component.

  7. Do we need 'new' omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids formulations?

    PubMed

    Cicero, Arrigo F G; Morbini, Martino; Borghi, Claudio

    2015-02-01

    The therapeutic value of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), mainly (but not only) found in fish oils, eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids (EPA and DHA, respectively), has been extensively studied in a wide variety of disease conditions, predominantly in cardiovascular disease. However, the significant difference in efficacy observed in various conditions with different dosages seems to be at least partly related to the large discrepancy in quality of the product and to the bioavailability of the omega-3 PUFA. The research of new sources (e.g., from arctic Krill oil) and pharmaceutical forms of omega-3 PUFA (e.g., omega-3 carboxylic acids) is needed in order to detect the one with the best bioavailability and efficacy, and with a parallel reduction in the production costs. There is also the need to understand if long-term PUFA supplementation could increase the efficacy of the already-available evidence-based therapies for cardiovascular disease prevention and for the management of the diseases where the use of PUFA could have a possible improving effect.

  8. Targeted lipidomics strategies for oxygenated metabolites of polyunsaturated fatty acids

    PubMed Central

    Astarita, Giuseppe; Kendall, Alexandra C.; Dennis, Edward A.; Nicolaou, Anna

    2014-01-01

    Oxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) through enzymatic or non-enzymatic free radical-mediated reactions can yield an array of lipid metabolites including eicosanoids, octadecanoids, docosanoids and related species. In mammals, these oxygenated PUFA mediators play prominent roles in the physiological and pathological regulation of many key biological processes in the cardiovascular, renal, reproductive and other systems including their pivotal contribution to inflammation. Mass spectrometry-based technology platforms have revolutionized our ability to analyze the complex mixture of lipid mediators found in biological samples, with increased numbers of metabolites that can be simultaneously quantified from a single sample in few analytical steps. The recent development of high-sensitivity and high-throughput analytical tools for lipid mediators affords a broader view of these oxygenated PUFA species, and facilitates research into their role in health and disease. In this review, we illustrate current analytical approaches for a high-throughput lipidomic analysis of eicosanoids and related mediators in biological samples. PMID:25486530

  9. Polyunsaturated fatty acids affect the localization and signaling of PIP3/AKT in prostate cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Gu, Zhennan; Wu, Jiansheng; Wang, Shihua; Suburu, Janel; Chen, Haiqin; Thomas, Michael J; Shi, Lihong; Edwards, Iris J; Berquin, Isabelle M; Chen, Yong Q

    2013-09-01

    AKT is a serine-threonine protein kinase that plays important roles in cell growth, proliferation and apoptosis. It is activated after binding to phosphatidylinositol phosphates (PIPs) with phosphate groups at positions 3,4 and 3,4,5 on the inositol ring. In spite of extensive research on AKT, one aspect has been largely overlooked, namely the role of the fatty acid chains on PIPs. PIPs are phospholipids composed of a glycerol backbone with fatty acids at the sn-1 and sn-2 position and inositol at the sn-3 position. Here, we show that polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) modify phospholipid content. Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), an ω3 PUFA, can replace the fatty acid at the sn-2 position of the glycerol backbone, thereby changing the species of phospholipids. DHA also inhibits AKT(T308) but not AKT(S473) phosphorylation, alters PI(3,4,5)P3 (PIP3) and phospho-AKT(S473) protein localization, decreases pPDPK1(S241)-AKT and AKT-BAD interaction and suppresses prostate tumor growth. Our study highlights a potential novel mechanism of cancer inhibition by ω3 PUFA through alteration of PIP3 and AKT localization and affecting the AKT signaling pathway.

  10. Occurrence of trans monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids in Colwellia psychrerythraea strain 34H.

    PubMed

    Hashimoto, Mikako; Orikasa, Yoshitake; Hayashi, Hidenori; Watanabe, Kentaro; Yoshida, Kiyohito; Okuyama, Hidetoshi

    2015-07-01

    Colwellia psychrerythraea strain 34H is an obligately psychrophilic bacterium that has been used as a model cold-adapted microorganism because of its psychrophilic growth profile, significant production of cold-active enzymes, and cryoprotectant extracellular polysaccharide substances. However, its fatty acid components, particularly trans unsaturated fatty acids and long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFAs), have not been fully investigated. In this study, we biochemically identified Δ9-trans hexadecenoic acid [16:1(9t)] and LC-PUFAs such as docosahexaenoic acid. These results are comparable with the fact that the strain 34H genome sequence includes pfa and cti genes that are responsible for the biosynthesis of LC-PUFAs and trans unsaturated fatty acids, respectively. Strain 34H cells grown under static conditions at 5 °C had higher levels of 16:1(9t) than those grown under shaken conditions, and this change was accompanied by an antiparallel decrease in the levels of Δ9-cis hexadecenoic acid [16:1(9c)], suggesting that the cis-to-trans isomerization reaction of 16:1(9c) is activated under static (microanaerobic) culture conditions, that is, the enzyme could be activated by the decreased dissolved oxygen concentration of cultures. On the other hand, the levels of LC-PUFAs were too low (less than 3% of the total), even for cells grown at 5 °C, to evaluate their cold-adaptive function in this bacterium.

  11. A New Insight to Bone Turnover: Role of ω-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids

    PubMed Central

    López-Frías, Magdalena; López-Aliaga, Inmaculada; Ochoa, Julio J.

    2013-01-01

    Background. Evidence has shown that long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA), especially the ω-3 fatty acids such as eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) are beneficial for bone health and turnover. Objectives. This review summarizes findings from both in vivo and in vitro studies and the effects of LC PUFA on bone metabolism, as well as the relationship with the oxidative stress, the inflammatory process, and obesity. Results. Some studies in humans indicate that LCPUFA can increase bone formation, affect peak bone mass in adolescents, and reduce bone loss. However, the cellular mechanisms of action of the LCPUFA are complex and involve modulation of fatty acid metabolites such as prostaglandins, resolvins and protectins, several signaling pathways, cytokines, and growth factors, although in certain aspects there is still some controversy. LCPUFA affect receptor activator of nuclear factor κβ (RANK), a receptor found on the osteoclast, causing bone resorption, which controls osteoclast formation. Conclusions. Since fatty acids are an endogenous source of reactive oxygen species, free radicals alter the process of bone turnover; however, although there are clinical evidences linking bone metabolism and dietary lipids, more clinical trials are necessary to prove whether ω-3 PUFA supplementation plays a major role in bone health. PMID:24302863

  12. Feeding long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids to obese leptin receptor-deficient JCR:LA- cp rats modifies immune function and lipid-raft fatty acid composition.

    PubMed

    Ruth, Megan R; Proctor, Spencer D; Field, Catherine J

    2009-05-01

    Dietary EPA and DHA modulate immunity and thereby may improve the aberrant immune function in obese states. To determine the effects of feeding fish oil (FO) containing EPA and DHA on splenocyte phospholipid (PL) and lipid-raft fatty acid composition, phenotypes and cytokine production, 14-week-old obese, leptin receptor-deficient JCR:LA-cp rats (cp/cp; n 10) were randomised to one of three nutritionally adequate diets for 3 weeks: control (Ctl, 0 % EPA+DHA); low FO (LFO, 0.8 % (w/w) EPA+DHA); high FO (HFO, 1.4 % (w/w) EPA+DHA). Lean JCR:LA-cp (+/ - or +/+) rats (n 5) were fed the Ctl diet. Obese Ctl rats had a higher proportion of n-3 PUFA in splenocyte PL than lean rats fed the same diet (P < 0.05). The lower n-6:n-3 PUFA ratio of splenocyte PL was consistent with the lower mitogen-stimulated interferon (IFN)-gamma and IL-1beta production by cells from obese rats (P < 0.05). Obese rats fed the FO diet had lower mitogen-stimulated Th1 (IFN-gamma) and Th2 (IL-4) cytokine responses, but IL-2 production (concanavalin A; ConA) did not differ (P < 0.05). The HFO diet was more effective in lowering IL-1beta and increasing IL-10 production (ConA, P < 0.05). This lower IL-1beta production was accompanied by a lower proportion of major histocompatability complex class II-positive cells and a higher incorporation of DHA into lipid rafts. This is the first study to demonstrate impaired responses to mitogen stimulation and altered fatty acid incorporation into the membrane PL of JCR:LA-cp rats. Feeding FO lowered the ex vivo inflammatory response, without altering IL-2 production from ConA-stimulated splenocytes which may occur independent of leptin signalling.

  13. Lipids rich in ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids from microalgae.

    PubMed

    Santos-Sánchez, N F; Valadez-Blanco, R; Hernández-Carlos, B; Torres-Ariño, A; Guadarrama-Mendoza, P C; Salas-Coronado, R

    2016-10-01

    Despite microalgae recently receiving enormous attention as a potential source of biodiesel, their use is still not feasible as an alternative to fossil fuels. Recently, interest in microalgae has focused on the production of bioactive compounds such as polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), which provide microalgae a high added value. Several considerations need to be assessed for optimizing PUFA production from microalgae. Firstly, a microalgae species that produces high PUFA concentrations should be selected, such as Nannochloropsis gaditana, Isochrysis galbana, Phaeodactylum tricornutum, and Crypthecodinium cohnii, with marine species gaining more attention than do freshwater species. Closed cultivation processes, e.g., photobioreactors, are the most appropriate since temperature, pH, and nutrients can be controlled. An airlift column with LEDs or optical fibers to distribute photons into the culture media can be used at small scale to produce inoculum, while tubular and flat panels are used at commercial scale. Depending on the microalgae, a temperature range from 15 to 28 °C and a pH from 7 to 8 can be employed. Relevant conditions for PUFA production are medium light irradiances (50-300 μmol photons m(-2) s(-1)), air enriched with (0-1 % (v/v) CO2, as well as nitrogen and phosphorous limitation. For research purposes, the most appropriate medium for PUFA production is Bold's Basal, whereas mixotrophic cultivation using sucrose or glucose as the carbon source has been reported for industrial processes. For cell harvesting, the use of tangential flow membrane filtration or disk stack centrifugation is advisable at commercial scale. Current researches on PUFA extraction have focused on the use of organic solvents assisted with ultrasound or microwaves, supercritical fluids, and electroporation or are enzyme assisted. Commercial-scale extraction involves mainly physical methods such as bead mills and expeller presses. All these factors should be taken into

  14. Lipids rich in ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids from microalgae.

    PubMed

    Santos-Sánchez, N F; Valadez-Blanco, R; Hernández-Carlos, B; Torres-Ariño, A; Guadarrama-Mendoza, P C; Salas-Coronado, R

    2016-10-01

    Despite microalgae recently receiving enormous attention as a potential source of biodiesel, their use is still not feasible as an alternative to fossil fuels. Recently, interest in microalgae has focused on the production of bioactive compounds such as polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), which provide microalgae a high added value. Several considerations need to be assessed for optimizing PUFA production from microalgae. Firstly, a microalgae species that produces high PUFA concentrations should be selected, such as Nannochloropsis gaditana, Isochrysis galbana, Phaeodactylum tricornutum, and Crypthecodinium cohnii, with marine species gaining more attention than do freshwater species. Closed cultivation processes, e.g., photobioreactors, are the most appropriate since temperature, pH, and nutrients can be controlled. An airlift column with LEDs or optical fibers to distribute photons into the culture media can be used at small scale to produce inoculum, while tubular and flat panels are used at commercial scale. Depending on the microalgae, a temperature range from 15 to 28 °C and a pH from 7 to 8 can be employed. Relevant conditions for PUFA production are medium light irradiances (50-300 μmol photons m(-2) s(-1)), air enriched with (0-1 % (v/v) CO2, as well as nitrogen and phosphorous limitation. For research purposes, the most appropriate medium for PUFA production is Bold's Basal, whereas mixotrophic cultivation using sucrose or glucose as the carbon source has been reported for industrial processes. For cell harvesting, the use of tangential flow membrane filtration or disk stack centrifugation is advisable at commercial scale. Current researches on PUFA extraction have focused on the use of organic solvents assisted with ultrasound or microwaves, supercritical fluids, and electroporation or are enzyme assisted. Commercial-scale extraction involves mainly physical methods such as bead mills and expeller presses. All these factors should be taken into

  15. Childrens' Learning and Behaviour and the Association with Cheek Cell Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirby, A.; Woodward, A.; Jackson, S.; Wang, Y.; Crawford, M. A.

    2010-01-01

    Increasing interest in the role of omega-3 fatty acids in relation to neurodevelopmental disorders (e.g. ADHD, dyslexia, autism) has occurred as a consequence of some international studies highlighting this link. In particular, some studies have shown that children with ADHD may have lower concentrations of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs),…

  16. Novel branched-chain fatty acids in certain fish oils.

    PubMed

    Ratnayake, W M; Olsson, B; Ackman, R G

    1989-07-01

    Methyl-branched fatty acids, which are usually minor components (equal or less than 0.1%) in fish oils, were concentrated in the non-urea-complexing fraction along with polyunsaturated fatty acids during the enrichment of omega-3 fatty acids from certain fish oils via the urea complexation process. The methyl-branched fatty acids in the omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid concentrates, which were prepared from three fish body oils, were characterized by gas chromatography and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Among the major branched-chain fatty acids expected and identified were the known isoprenoid acids--mainly 4,8,12-trimethyltridecanoic, pristanic, and phytanic--and the well-known iso and anteiso structures. Two novel phytol-derived multimethyl-branched fatty acids, 2,2,6,10,14-pentamethylpentadecanoic and 2,3,7,11,15-pentamethylhexadecanoic, were identified in redfish (Sebastes sp.) oil. These two fatty acids were absent in oils from menhaden (Brevoortia tyrannus) and Pacific salmon (mixed, but mostly from sockeye, Oncorhynchus nerka). The major branched-chain fatty acid in the salmon oil, 7-methyl-7-hexadecenoic acid, was also present to a moderate extent in menhaden oil. A novel vicinal dimethyl-branched fatty acid, 7,8-dimethyl-7-hexadecenoic was detected in all of the fish oils examined, but was most important in the salmon oil. Three monomethyl-branched fatty acids, 11-methyltetradecanoic acid, and 11- and 13-methylhexadecanoic, hitherto undescribed in fish lipids, were also detected in salmon, redfish and menhaden oils. PMID:2779367

  17. Long-chain n-3 fatty acids - New anabolic compounds improving protein metabolism

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Previous animal studies demonstrated that chronic feeding of long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCn-3PUFA) that modifies muscle membrane fatty acid composition promotes protein anabolism by blunting the age-associated deterioration in insulin sensitivity. The current study assessed, as a pr...

  18. Transcriptional and antioxidative responses to endogenous polyunsaturated fatty acid accumulation in yeast.

    PubMed

    Andrisic, Luka; Collinson, Emma J; Tehlivets, Oksana; Perak, Eleonora; Zarkovic, Tomislav; Dawes, Ian W; Zarkovic, Neven; Cipak Gasparovic, Ana

    2015-01-01

    Pathophysiology of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) is associated with aberrant lipid and oxygen metabolism. In particular, under oxidative stress, PUFAs are prone to autocatalytic degradation via peroxidation, leading to formation of reactive aldehydes with numerous potentially harmful effects. However, the pathological and compensatory mechanisms induced by lipid peroxidation are very complex and not sufficiently understood. In our study, we have used yeast capable of endogenous PUFA synthesis in order to understand the effects triggered by PUFA accumulation on cellular physiology of a eukaryotic organism. The mechanisms induced by PUFA accumulation in S. cerevisiae expressing Hevea brasiliensis Δ12-fatty acid desaturase include down-regulation of components of electron transport chain in mitochondria as well as up-regulation of pentose-phosphate pathway and fatty acid β-oxidation at the transcriptional level. Interestingly, while no changes were observed at the transcriptional level, activities of two important enzymatic antioxidants, catalase and glutathione-S-transferase, were altered in response to PUFA accumulation. Increased intracellular glutathione levels further suggest an endogenous oxidative stress and activation of antioxidative defense mechanisms under conditions of PUFA accumulation. Finally, our data suggest that PUFA in cell membrane causes metabolic changes which in turn lead to adaptation to endogenous oxidative stress. PMID:25280400

  19. Do polyunsaturated fatty acids behave like an endogenous "polypill"?

    PubMed

    Das, Undurti N

    2008-01-01

    Lowering plasma low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C), blood pressure, homocysteine, and preventing platelet aggregation using a combination of a statin, three blood pressure lowering drugs such as a thiazide, a beta blocker, and an angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor each at half standard dose; folic acid; and aspirin - called as polypill - was estimated to reduce cardiovascular events by approximately 80%. Essential fatty acids (EFAs) and their long-chain metabolites and other products prevent platelet aggregation, lower blood pressure, reduce LDL-C, and ameliorate the adverse actions of homocysteine. Thus, EFAs and their metabolites show all the actions expected of the "polypill". Unlike the proposed "polypill", EFAs are endogenous molecules, have no significant side effects, can be taken orally for long periods of time even by pregnant women, lactating mothers, and children; and have been shown to reduce the incidence cardiovascular diseases. I propose that a rational combination of omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids is as beneficial as that of the "polypill"; and may even show additional benefit in the prevention of depression, schizophrenia, Alzheimer's disease, and enhance cognitive function. PMID:17624683

  20. Astrocytes Release Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids by Lipopolysaccharide Stimuli.

    PubMed

    Aizawa, Fuka; Nishinaka, Takashi; Yamashita, Takuya; Nakamoto, Kazuo; Koyama, Yutaka; Kasuya, Fumiyo; Tokuyama, Shogo

    2016-01-01

    We previously reported that levels of long-chain fatty acids (FAs) including docosahexaenoic acids (DHA) increase in the hypothalamus of inflammatory pain model mice. However, the precise mechanisms underlying the increment of free fatty acids (FFAs) in the brain during inflammation remains unknown. In this study, we characterized FFAs released by inflammatory stimulation in rat primary cultured astrocytes, and tested the involvement of phospholipase A2 (PLA2) on these mechanisms. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulation significantly increased the levels of several FAs in the astrocytes. Under these conditions, mRNA expression of cytosolic PLA2 (cPLA2) and calcium-independent PLA2 (iPLA2) in LPS-treated group increased compared with the control group. Furthermore, in the culture media, the levels of DHA and arachidonic acid (ARA) significantly increased by LPS stimuli compared with those of a vehicle-treated control group whereas the levels of saturated FAs (SFAs), namely palmitic acid (PAM) and stearic acid (STA), did not change. In summary, our findings suggest that astrocytes specifically release DHA and ARA by inflammatory conditions. Therefore astrocytes might function as a regulatory factor of DHA and ARA in the brain. PMID:27374285

  1. Polyunsaturated fatty acids in the low-birth-weight infant.

    PubMed

    Friedman, Z

    1979-10-01

    The essentiality of certain PUFAs is related to their capability to be incorporated into lipids and to act as precursor in the formation of prostaglandins. Via phospholipids the EFA's influence the physico-chemical characteristics of biomembranes. EFAs are metabolized differently from nonessential PUFAs. While the nonessential fatty acids are metabolized rapidly, the organism tends to conserve the stores of EFAs. Inhibitions and competitions among the EFAs of the three series (oleic, linoleic, and alpha-linolenic) have been demonstrated. Apparently, for any given chain length the more unsaturated fatty acid has a greater affinity for the enzyme system responsible for further elongation and desaturation. EFAs are also necessary for the proper utilization of the saturated fatty acids. Vitamin E and pyridoxine seem to be involved in EFA metabolism. Normal growth of infants is dependent upon an adequate supply of EFA. The human fetus, like the adult, is unable to synthesize the EFAs, which must therefore be derived from the maternal circulation and pass through the placenta. In the fetus, increased concentration of the polyenoic fatty acids with advanced gestational age may result from increased activity of the fetomaternal unit by preferential transfer of these FAs. Enzymatic activity in the placenta or the fetus may also be responsible for desaturation and elongation of these EFAs. Several clinical manifestations have been ascribed in the human infant to prolonged EFA deficiency; however, none of these findings was noted in a group of sick newborn infants with very rapid onset of deficiency. Platelet dysfunction, decreased prostaglandin biosynthesis and turnover and altered pulmonary surfactant are among the effects of EFA deficiency on infants. Supplementation of the EFAs by the diet, parenterally or by the inunction of oil rich in linoleic acid, were reported to alleviate the symptoms of EFA deficiency. The minimal estimated requirement of linoleic acid is 1% of

  2. Interactions between prebiotics, probiotics, polyunsaturated fatty acids and polyphenols: diet or supplementation for metabolic syndrome prevention?

    PubMed

    Peluso, Ilaria; Romanelli, Luca; Palmery, Maura

    2014-05-01

    The metabolic syndrome can be prevented by the Mediterranean diet, characterized by fiber, omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and polyphenols. However, the composition of the Mediterranean diet, which can be viewed as a natural multiple supplement, is poorly controlled, and its beneficial effects poorly predictable. The metabolic syndrome is associated with intestinal dysbiosis and the gut microbioma seems to be the main target and player in the interactions occurring between probiotics, prebiotics, omega 3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, and polyphenols. From the reviewed evidence, it is reasonable to manage growth and metabolism of gut microflora with specific prebiotics and polyphenols. Even though the healthy properties of functional foods and nutraceuticals still need to be fully elucidated, available data suggest that well-designed supplements, containing the better ratio of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and antioxidants, specific probiotic strains, and selected polyphenols and prebiotics, could be useful in metabolic syndrome prevention and treatment.

  3. The Multifaceted Effects of Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids on the Hallmarks of Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Stephenson, J. A.; Al-Taan, O.; Arshad, A.; Morgan, B.; Metcalfe, M. S.; Dennison, A. R.

    2013-01-01

    Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, in particular eicosapentaenoic acid, and docosahexaenoic acid have been shown to have multiple beneficial antitumour actions that affect the essential alterations that dictate malignant growth. In this review we explore the putative mechanisms of action of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid in cancer protection in relation to self-sufficiency in growth signals, insensitivity to growth-inhibitory signals, apoptosis, limitless replicative potential, sustained angiogenesis, and tissue invasion, and how these will hopefully translate from bench to bedside. PMID:23762563

  4. Association of plasma n-6 and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids with synovitis in the knee: the MOST study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In osteoarthritis (OA) the synovium is often inflamed and inflammatory cytokines contribute to cartilage damage. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs) have anti-inflammatory effects whereas omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-6 PUFAs) have, on balance, proinflammatory effects. The goal ...

  5. Thermal properties of encapsulated polyunsaturated fatty acid esters

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Solid lipid particles were prepared to inhibit the degradation of polyunsaturated lipids used in food and feed formulations. Encapsulation with solid lipid particles can provide a physical barrier to limit the mass transfer of prooxidant compounds and by the appropriate selection of lipid particle c...

  6. The Role of n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids in the Prevention and Treatment of Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jiajie; Ma, David W. L.

    2014-01-01

    Breast cancer (BC) is the most common cancer among women worldwide. Dietary fatty acids, especially n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), are believed to play a role in reducing BC risk. Evidence has shown that fish consumption or intake of long-chain n-3 PUFA, such as eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), are beneficial for inhibiting mammary carcinogenesis. The evidence regarding α-linolenic acid (ALA), however, remains equivocal. It is essential to clarify the relation between ALA and cancer since ALA is the principal source of n-3 PUFA in the Western diet and the conversion of ALA to EPA and DHA is not efficient in humans. In addition, the specific anticancer roles of individual n-3 PUFA, alone, have not yet been identified. Therefore, the present review evaluates ALA, EPA and DHA consumed individually as well as in n-3 PUFA mixtures. Also, their role in the prevention of BC and potential anticancer mechanisms of action are examined. Overall, this review suggests that each n-3 PUFA has promising anticancer effects and warrants further research. PMID:25412153

  7. Role of Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids and Their Metabolites on Stem Cell Proliferation and Differentiation.

    PubMed

    Rashid, Mohammad Abdur; Haque, Mahmuda; Akbar, Mohammed

    2016-01-01

    The nervous system is highly enriched with long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs). Essential fatty acids, namely, ω-6 (n - 6) and ω-3 (n - 3) PUFA, and their metabolites are critical components of cell structure and function and could therefore influence stem cell fate. The available supporting experimental data reveal that n - 6 and n - 3 PUFA and their metabolites can act through multiple mechanisms to promote the proliferation and differentiation of various stem cell types. PUFAs and their mediators regulate several processes within the brain, such as neurotransmission, cell survival and neuroinflammation, and thereby mood and cognition. PUFA levels and the signaling pathways that they regulate are altered in various neurological disorders, including Alzheimer's disease and major depression. Therefore, elucidating the role of PUFAs and their metabolites in stem cell fate regulation is important for stem cell biology as well as stem cell therapy. PUFA-based interventions to generate a positive environment for stem cell proliferation or differentiation might be a promising and practical approach to controlling stem cell fate for clinical applications. PMID:27651264

  8. Omega-6 and omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and allergic diseases in infancy and childhood.

    PubMed

    Miles, Elizabeth A; Calder, Philip C

    2014-01-01

    There may be a causal relationship between intake of n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) and childhood allergic diseases. This can be explained by plausible biological mechanisms involving eicosanoid mediators produced from the n-6 PUFA arachidonic acid. Long chain n-3 PUFAs are found in fish and fish oils. These fatty acids act to oppose the actions of n-6 PUFAs. Thus, it is considered that n-3 PUFAs will lower the risk of developing allergic diseases. In support of this, protective associations have been reported between maternal fish intake during pregnancy and allergic outcomes in infants and children from those pregnancies. However, studies of fish intake during infancy and childhood and allergic outcomes in those infants or children are inconsistent, although some reported a protective association. Supplementing pregnant women with fish oil can induce immunologic changes in cord blood. This supplementation has been reported in some studies to decrease sensitisation to common food allergens and to lower the prevalence and severity of atopic dermatitis in the first year of life. The protective effect of maternal n-3 PUFAs may last until adolescence of the offspring. Fish oil supplementation in infancy may decrease the risk of developing some manifestations of allergic disease, although this benefit may not persist. Whether fish oil is a useful therapy in children with asthma receiving standard therapy is not clear from studies performed to date and this requires further exploration.

  9. Perfluoroalkyl acid contamination and polyunsaturated fatty acid composition of French freshwater and marine fishes.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Ami; Bemrah, Nawel; Veyrand, Bruno; Pollono, Charles; Merlo, Mathilde; Desvignes, Virginie; Sirot, Véronique; Oseredczuk, Marine; Marchand, Philippe; Cariou, Ronan; Antignac, Jean-Phillippe; Le Bizec, Bruno; Leblanc, Jean-Charles

    2014-07-30

    In this study, French marine and freshwater fish perfluoroalkyl acid (PFAA) contamination are presented along with their fatty acid (FA) composition to provide further elements for a risk/benefit balance of fish consumption to be assessed. The 29 most consumed marine fish species were collected in four metropolitan French coastal areas in 2004 to constitute composite samples. Geographical differences in terms of consumed species and contamination level were taken into account. Three hundred and eighty-seven composite samples corresponding to 16 freshwater fish species collected between 2008 and 2010 in the six major French rivers or their tributaries were selected among the French national agency for water and aquatic environments freshwater fish sample library. The raw edible parts were analyzed for FA composition and PFAA contamination. Results show that freshwater fishes are more contaminated by PFAAs than marine fishes and do not share the same contamination profile. Freshwater fish contamination is mostly driven by perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) (75%), whereas marine fish contamination is split between perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) (24%), PFOS (20%), perfluorohexanoic acid (PFHxA) (15%), perfluoropentanoic acid (PFHpA) (11%), and perfluorobutanoic acid (PFBA) (11%). Common carp, pike-perch, European perch, thicklip grey mullet, and common roach presented the most unfavorable balance profile due to their high level of PFAAs and low level of n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFAs). These data could be used, if needed, in an updated opinion on fish consumption that takes into account PFAA contamination.

  10. Biosynthesis of Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids in the Oleaginous Marine Diatom Fistulifera sp. Strain JPCC DA0580

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Yue; Maeda, Yoshiaki; Sunaga, Yoshihiko; Muto, Masaki; Matsumoto, Mitsufumi; Yoshino, Tomoko; Tanaka, Tsuyoshi

    2013-01-01

    Studies of polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) biosynthesis in microalgae are of great importance for many reasons, including the production of biofuel and variable omega 3-long chain PUFAs. The elucidation of the PUFA biosynthesis pathway is necessary for bioengineering to increase or decrease PUFA content in certain microalgae. In this study, we identified the PUFA synthesis pathway in the oleaginous marine diatom, Fistulifera sp. strain JPCC DA0580, a promising candidate for biodiesel production. The data revealed not only the presence of the desaturases and elongases involved in eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) synthesis, but also the unexpected localization of ω3-desaturase expression in the chloroplast. This suggests that this microalga might perform the final step of EPA synthesis in the chloroplast and not in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) like other diatoms. The detailed fatty acid profile suggests that the EPA was synthesized only through the ω6-pathway in this strain, which was also different from other diatoms. Finally, the transcriptome analysis demonstrated an overall down-regulation of desaturases and elongases over incubation time. These genetic features might explain the decrease of PUFA percentage over incubation time in this strain. The important insights into metabolite synthesis acquired here will be useful for future metabolic engineering to control PUFA content in this diatom. PMID:24335525

  11. The health benefits of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids: a review of the evidence.

    PubMed

    Ruxton, C H S; Reed, S C; Simpson, M J A; Millington, K J

    2004-10-01

    The UK dietary guidelines for cardiovascular disease acknowledge the importance of long-chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) - a component of fish oils - in reducing heart disease risk. At the time, it was recommended that the average n-3 PUFA intake should be increased from 0.1 to 0.2 g day(-1). However, since the publication of these guidelines, a plethora of evidence relating to the beneficial effects of n-3 PUFAs, in areas other than heart disease, has emerged. The majority of intervention studies, which found associations between various conditions and the intake of fish oils or their derivatives, used n-3 intakes well above the 0.2 g day(-1) recommended by Committee on Medical Aspects of Food Policy (COMA). Furthermore, in 2004, the Food Standards Agency changed its advice on oil-rich fish creating a discrepancy between the levels of n-3 PUFA implied by the new advice and the 1994 COMA guideline. This review will examine published evidence from observational and intervention studies relating to the health effects of n-3 PUFAs, and discuss whether the current UK recommendation for long-chain n-3 PUFA needs to be revisited.

  12. The Impact of Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids in Reducing Child Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Transler, Catherine; Eilander, Ans; Mitchell, Siobhan; van de Meer, Nelly

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: To review the impact of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) in reducing ADHD symptoms in children. Methods: Peer-reviewed experimental literature published from 1980 to Mai 2009 is consulted (Psychinfo, Medline, and resulting reference lists). Results: Placebo-controlled studies with ADHD or hyperactive children show no effects on…

  13. Reduced Triacylglycerol Mobilization during Seed Germination and Early Seedling Growth in Arabidopsis Containing Nutritionally Important Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids

    PubMed Central

    Shrestha, Pushkar; Callahan, Damien L.; Singh, Surinder P.; Petrie, James R.; Zhou, Xue-Rong

    2016-01-01

    There are now several examples of plant species engineered to synthesize and accumulate nutritionally important polyunsaturated fatty acids in their seed triacylglycerols (TAG). The utilization of TAG in germinating seeds of such transgenic plants was unknown. In this study, we examined the TAG utilization efficiency during seed germination in transgenic Arabidopsis seeds containing several examples of these fatty acids. Seed TAG species with native fatty acids had higher utilization rate than the TAG species containing transgenically produced polyunsaturated fatty acids. Conversely, quantification of the fatty acid components remaining in the total TAG after early stages of seed germination revealed that the undigested TAGs tended to contain elevated levels of the engineered polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA). LC-MS analysis further revealed asymmetrical mobilization rates for the individual TAG species. TAGs which contained multiple PUFA fatty acids were mobilized slower than the species containing single PUFA. The mobilized engineered fatty acids were used in de novo membrane lipid synthesis during seedling development. PMID:27725822

  14. A role for AMPK in the inhibition of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase by polyunsaturated fatty acids

    SciTech Connect

    Kohan, Alison B.; Talukdar, Indrani; Walsh, Callee M.; Salati, Lisa M.

    2009-10-09

    Both polyunsaturated fatty acids and AMPK promote energy partitioning away from energy consuming processes, such as fatty acid synthesis, towards energy generating processes, such as {beta}-oxidation. In this report, we demonstrate that arachidonic acid activates AMPK in primary rat hepatocytes, and that this effect is p38 MAPK-dependent. Activation of AMPK mimics the inhibition by arachidonic acid of the insulin-mediated induction of G6PD. Similar to intracellular signaling by arachidonic acid, AMPK decreases insulin signal transduction, increasing Ser{sup 307} phosphorylation of IRS-1 and a subsequent decrease in AKT phosphorylation. Overexpression of dominant-negative AMPK abolishes the effect of arachidonic acid on G6PD expression. These data suggest a role for AMPK in the inhibition of G6PD by polyunsaturated fatty acids.

  15. [Identification of the optimal requirement of growing animals for polyunsaturated fatty acids].

    PubMed

    Mostovaia, L A

    1976-01-01

    Data obtained from studying eight groups of animals of a growing age showed their food rations to ensure proper growth and development when they contain optimal amounts of all food ingredients, including polyunsaturated fatty acids. Therefore, the fatty component in the food rations of test animals should contain both animal and vegetable fats, the latter comprising quantitatively 15 to 25 per cent of diurnal fat allowance. Such an amount of vegetable oil fully provides the rattlings with polyunsaturated fatt acids in a proportion comprising 4.3-5.8 per cent of the diurnal calorific value of the ration. For this reason, in investigations involving animal tests, or experimental substantiation of various problems pertaining to baby alimentation the authors recommend to use in feeding rattlings rations balanced in all the ingredients, including also the fatty acids composition.

  16. Effect of Marine Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids on Biofilm Formation of Candida albicans and Candida dubliniensis

    PubMed Central

    Thibane, Vuyisile S.; Kock, Johan L. F.; Ells, Ruan; van Wyk, Pieter W. J.; Pohl, Carolina H.

    2010-01-01

    The effect of marine polyunsaturated fatty acids on biofilm formation by the human pathogens Candida albicans and Candida dubliniensis was investigated. It was found that stearidonic acid (18:4 n-3), eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5 n-3), docosapentaenoic acid (22:5 n-3) and docosahexaenoic acid (22:6 n-3) have an inhibitory effect on mitochondrial metabolism of both C. albicans and C. dubliniensis and that the production of biofilm biomass by C. dubliniensis was more susceptible to these fatty acids than C. albicans. Ultrastructural differences, which may be due to increased oxidative stress, were observed between treated and untreated cells of C. albicans and C. dubliniensis with formation of rough cell walls by both species and fibrillar structures in C. dubliniensis. These results indicate that marine polyunsaturated fatty acids may be useful in the treatment and/or prevention of biofilms formed by these pathogenic yeasts. PMID:21116408

  17. Diets Rich in Saturated and Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids Induce Morphological Alterations in the Rat Ventral Prostate

    PubMed Central

    Furriel, Angélica; Campos-Silva, Pamella; Silva, Paola Cariello Guedes Picarote; Costa, Waldemar Silva; Sampaio, Francisco José Barcellos; Gregório, Bianca Martins

    2014-01-01

    Aim To evaluate the influence of dietary lipid quality on the body mass, carbohydrate metabolism and morphology of the rat ventral prostate. Materials and Methods Wistar rats were divided into four groups: SC (standard chow), HF-S (high-fat diet rich in saturated fatty acids), HF-P (high-fat diet rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids) and HF-SP (high-fat diet rich in saturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids). We analyzed body mass, fat mass deposits, plasma blood, insulin resistance and the ventral prostate structure. Results Groups that received high-fat diets were heavier and presented larger fat deposits than SC group. The HF-S and HF-SP groups had higher glucose, insulin and total cholesterol serum levels and insulin resistance compared with the SC. The acinar area, epithelium height and area density of the lumen were higher in the HF-SP than in the other groups. The epithelium area density and epithelial cell proliferation were greater in the HF-P and HF-SP than in the SC group. All of the groups that received high-fat diets had greater area density of the stroma, area density of smooth muscle cells and stromal cell proliferation compared with the SC group. Conclusion Diets rich in saturated and/or polyunsaturated fatty acids induced overweight. Independently of insulin resistance, polyunsaturated fatty acids increased prostate stromal and epithelial cell proliferation. Saturated fatty acids influenced only stromal cellular proliferation. These structural and morphometric alterations may be considered risk factors for the development of adverse remodeling process in the rat ventral prostate. PMID:25029463

  18. Dietary polyunsaturated fatty acid regulation of gene transcription.

    PubMed

    Clarke, S D; Jump, D B

    1994-01-01

    We have known for nearly 30 years that dietary polyenoic (n-6) and (n-3) fatty acids potentially inhibit hepatic fatty acid biosynthesis. The teleological explanation for this unique action of PUFAs resides in their ability to suppress the synthesis of (n-9) fatty acids. By inhibiting fatty acid biosynthesis, dietary PUFAs reduce the availability of substrate for delta 9 desaturase (7, 22, 34, 36) and in turn reduce the availability of (n-9) fatty acids for incorporation into plasma membranes. In this way, essential biological processes dependent on essential fatty acids (e.g. reproduction and trans-dermal water loss) continue to operate normally. Therefore, if essential fatty acid intake did not regulate (n-9) fatty acid synthesis, the survival of the organism would be threatened. During the past 20 years, we have gradually elucidated the cellular and molecular mechanisms by which dietary PUFAs modulate fatty acid biosynthesis and (n-9) fatty acid availability. Central to this mechanism has been our ability to determine that dietary PUFAs regulate the transcription of genes coding for lipogenic enzymes (12, 40). The potential mechanisms by which PUFAs govern gene transcription are numerous, and it is unlikely that any one mechanism can fully elucidate the nuclear actions of PUFA. The difficulty in providing a unifying hypothesis at this time stems from: (a) the many metabolic routes taken by PUFAs upon entering the hepatocyte (Figure 1); and (b) the lack of identity of a specific PUFA-regulated trans-acting factor. However, the studies described above indicate that macronutrients, like PUFA, are not only utilized as fuel and structural components of cells, but also serve as important mediators of gene expression (12, 14, 40). As regulators of gene expression, PUFAs (or metabolites) are thought to affect the activity of transcription factors, which in turn target key cis-linked elements associated with specific genes. Whether this targeting involves DNA

  19. Upstream Treatment of Atrial Fibrillation with n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids: Myth or Reality?

    PubMed Central

    Orso, Francesco; Fabbri, Gianna; Maggioni, Aldo Pietro

    2015-01-01

    Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common sustained arrhythmia in adults and is associated with an increased risk of fatal and non-fatal events. Antiarrhythmic drugs provide limited protection against AF recurrence and have a poor safety profile. Several mechanisms have been proven to be involved in AF, e.g. inflammation, oxidative stress, fibrosis and ischaemia. Prevention of AF with interventions that target these mechanisms has emerged as a result of experimental studies suggesting the use of upstream therapies. Long chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) have multiple effects on cardiac electrophysiology, and epidemiological studies on fish oil suggest a possible use of n-3 PUFA in AF prevention. Several randomised clinical trials have been designed to evaluate the efficacy of n-3 PUFA in preventing AF. In this review, we report the conflicting results of these trials in two different clinical settings: recurrence in patients with history of AF and development of post-operative AF in patient undergoing cardiac surgery. PMID:26835119

  20. Biosynthesis of polyunsaturated fatty acids in marine invertebrates: recent advances in molecular mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Monroig, Óscar; Tocher, Douglas R; Navarro, Juan C

    2013-10-21

    Virtually all polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) originate from primary producers but can be modified by bioconversions as they pass up the food chain in a process termed trophic upgrading. Therefore, although the main primary producers of PUFA in the marine environment are microalgae, higher trophic levels have metabolic pathways that can produce novel and unique PUFA. However, little is known about the pathways of PUFA biosynthesis and metabolism in the levels between primary producers and fish that are largely filled by invertebrates. It has become increasingly apparent that, in addition to trophic upgrading, de novo synthesis of PUFA is possible in some lower animals. The unequivocal identification of PUFA biosynthetic pathways in many invertebrates is complicated by the presence of other organisms within them. These organisms include bacteria and algae with PUFA biosynthesis pathways, and range from intestinal flora to symbiotic relationships that can involve PUFA translocation to host organisms. This emphasizes the importance of studying biosynthetic pathways at a molecular level, and the continual expansion of genomic resources and advances in molecular analysis is facilitating this. The present paper highlights recent research into the molecular and biochemical mechanisms of PUFA biosynthesis in marine invertebrates, particularly focusing on cephalopod molluscs.

  1. Polyunsaturated fatty acids and membrane organization: The balance between immunotherapy and susceptibility to infection

    PubMed Central

    Shaikh, Saame Raza; Edidin, Michael

    2008-01-01

    Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), notably of the n-3 series, have immunosuppressive effects which make these molecules candidates for treating inflammatory symptoms associated with cardiovascular disease, obesity, arthritis, and asthma. However, immunosuppression by PUFAs could increase susceptibility to bacterial and viral infection. A detailed molecular picture is required in order to understand the balance between the benefits and risks of utilizing PUFAs as adjuvant immunosuppressants. Here we review evidence that incorporation of PUFAs into membrane lipids of antigen-presenting cells (APCs) downregulates APC function. We propose that PUFAs modulate antigen presentation by altering the organization of lipid and protein molecules of the plasma membrane and endomembranes; this alters recognition and responses by T cells. The foundation of our hypothesis is built on data from artificial bilayer experiments which provide the physical principles by which PUFA acyl chains affect membrane architecture. This review also reconciles conflicting results in the literature by discussing the advantages and disadvantages of differing methods of PUFA treatment of cells. We suggest that membrane modulation of immune cells may be an important and overlooked mechanism of immunomodulation. In addition, we propose that mechanistic studies with defined experimental protocols will speed the translation of laboratory studies on PUFAs to the clinic. PMID:18346461

  2. n-3 Polyunsaturated fatty acids exert immunomodulatory effects on lymphocytes by targeting plasma membrane molecular organization

    PubMed Central

    Shaikh, Saame Raza; Jolly, Christopher A.; Chapkin, Robert S.

    2011-01-01

    Fish oil, enriched in bioactive n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), has therapeutic value for the treatment of inflammation-associated disorders. The effects of n-3 PUFAs are pleiotropic and complex; hence, an understanding of their cellular targets and molecular mechanisms of action remains incomplete. Here we focus on recent data indicating n-3 PUFAs exert immunosuppressive effects on the function of effector and regulatory CD4+ T cells. In addition, we also present emerging evidence that n-3 PUFAs have immunomodulatory effects on B cells. We then focus on one multifaceted mechanism of n-3 PUFAs, which is the alteration of the biophysical and biochemical organization of the plasma membrane. This mechanism is central for downstream signaling, eicosanoid production, transcriptional regulation and cytokine secretion. We highlight recent work demonstrating n-3 PUFA acyl chains in the plasma membrane target the lateral organization of membrane signaling assemblies (i.e. lipid rafts or signaling networks) and de novo phospholipid biosynthesis. We conclude by proposing new functional and mechanistic questions in this area of research that will aid in the development of fish oil as adjuvant therapy for treating unresolved chronic inflammation. PMID:22020145

  3. Biosynthesis of Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids in Marine Invertebrates: Recent Advances in Molecular Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Monroig, Óscar; Tocher, Douglas R.; Navarro, Juan C.

    2013-01-01

    Virtually all polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) originate from primary producers but can be modified by bioconversions as they pass up the food chain in a process termed trophic upgrading. Therefore, although the main primary producers of PUFA in the marine environment are microalgae, higher trophic levels have metabolic pathways that can produce novel and unique PUFA. However, little is known about the pathways of PUFA biosynthesis and metabolism in the levels between primary producers and fish that are largely filled by invertebrates. It has become increasingly apparent that, in addition to trophic upgrading, de novo synthesis of PUFA is possible in some lower animals. The unequivocal identification of PUFA biosynthetic pathways in many invertebrates is complicated by the presence of other organisms within them. These organisms include bacteria and algae with PUFA biosynthesis pathways, and range from intestinal flora to symbiotic relationships that can involve PUFA translocation to host organisms. This emphasizes the importance of studying biosynthetic pathways at a molecular level, and the continual expansion of genomic resources and advances in molecular analysis is facilitating this. The present paper highlights recent research into the molecular and biochemical mechanisms of PUFA biosynthesis in marine invertebrates, particularly focusing on cephalopod molluscs. PMID:24152561

  4. Microplanktonic Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Markers: a Mesocosm Trial

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pond, D. W.; Bell, M. V.; Harris, R. P.; Sargent, J. R.

    1998-02-01

    The fatty acid composition of total lipid was determined in microplankton (<200 μm) from control, diatom-dominated and coccolithophore-dominated mesocosms. There was a good correlation between the abundances of chlorophyll aand total fatty acids in the three mesocosms. Analyses of fatty acid markers characteristic of diatoms (16:1n-7, 16:2n-3, 16:3n-3, 16:4n-1 and 20:5n-3) and of coccolithophores (18:5n-3 and 22:6n-3) established that in the diatom-dominated mesocosm, an increase in coccolithophore biomass, preceded the diatom bloom. Similarly, an increase in the levels of diatom fatty acids preceded the coccolithophore bloom in the coccolithophore-dominated mesocom. These transient increases in microplanktonic marker fatty acids levels were not evident from measures chlorophyll a, or estimated carbon contribution derived from cell counts. There was appreciable 22:6n-3 derived from coccolithophores in the diatom-dominated bloom suggesting that the amount of this key nutrient at the base of the marine food-web may often be underestimated, with important consequences for higher trophic levels.

  5. Five Decades with Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids: Chemical Synthesis, Enzymatic Formation, Lipid Peroxidation and Its Biological Effects

    PubMed Central

    Catalá, Angel

    2013-01-01

    I have been involved in research on polyunsaturated fatty acids since 1964 and this review is intended to cover some of the most important aspects of this work. Polyunsaturated fatty acids have followed me during my whole scientific career and I have published a number of studies concerned with different aspects of them such as chemical synthesis, enzymatic formation, metabolism, transport, physical, chemical, and catalytic properties of a reconstructed desaturase system in liposomes, lipid peroxidation, and their effects. The first project I became involved in was the organic synthesis of [1-14C] eicosa-11,14-dienoic acid, with the aim of demonstrating the participation of that compound as a possible intermediary in the biosynthesis of arachidonic acid “in vivo.” From 1966 to 1982, I was involved in several projects that study the metabolism of polyunsaturated fatty acids. In the eighties, we studied fatty acid binding protein. From 1990 up to now, our laboratory has been interested in the lipid peroxidation of biological membranes from various tissues and different species as well as liposomes prepared with phospholipids rich in PUFAs. We tested the effect of many antioxidants such as alpha tocopherol, vitamin A, melatonin and its structural analogues, and conjugated linoleic acid, among others. PMID:24490074

  6. Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid-Derived Lipid Mediators and T Cell Function

    PubMed Central

    Nicolaou, Anna; Mauro, Claudio; Urquhart, Paula; Marelli-Berg, Federica

    2014-01-01

    Fatty acids are involved in T cell biology both as nutrients important for energy production as well as signaling molecules. In particular, polyunsaturated fatty acids are known to exhibit a range of immunomodulatory properties that progress through T cell mediated events, although the molecular mechanisms of these actions have not yet been fully elucidated. Some of these immune activities are linked to polyunsaturated fatty acid-induced alteration of the composition of cellular membranes and the consequent changes in signaling pathways linked to membrane raft-associated proteins. However, significant aspects of the polyunsaturated fatty acid bioactivities are mediated through their transformation to specific lipid mediators, products of cyclooxygenase, lipoxygenase, or cytochrome P450 enzymatic reactions. Resulting bioactive metabolites including prostaglandins, leukotrienes, and endocannabinoids are produced by and/or act upon T leukocytes through cell surface receptors and have been shown to alter T cell activation and differentiation, proliferation, cytokine production, motility, and homing events. Detailed appreciation of the mode of action of these lipids presents opportunities for the design and development of therapeutic strategies aimed at regulating T cell function. PMID:24611066

  7. Identification of novel n-4 series polyunsaturated fatty acids in a deep-sea clam, Calyptogena phaseoliformis.

    PubMed

    Saito, Hiroaki

    2007-09-01

    Novel fatty acids originated from the cold-seep clam Calyptogena phaseoliformis, collected from hydrothermal vents in the Japan Trench at a depth of 6354-6367 m, were determined by using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis of the 4,4-dimethyloxazoline derivatives. The major fatty acids present in the C. phaseoliformis lipids belong to the n-4 family non-methylene interrupted polyunsaturated fatty acids (NMI-PUFA): 20:3n-4,7,15, 20:4n-1,4,7,15, and 21:3n-4,7,16, with significant levels of 20:2n-7,15 and 21:2n-7,16 as non-methylene interrupted n-7 dienes. Compared with the lipids of shallow-water clam Mactra chinensis, which contains photosynthetic n-3 PUFA, such as docosahexaenoic acid and icosapentaenoic acid, C. phaseoliformis might have an intrinsic mechanism in vivo so as to maintain the fluidity of the high-melting fatty acids in the membrane lipids by exogenous n-4 family PUFA adaptation as substitutes. Such special kinds of fatty acids are assimilated by the symbiotic chemosynthetic bacteria, which use geothermal energy and minerals from the cold-seep vents. Its unique fatty acid composition corresponding to the novel n-4 family NMI-PUFA markedly differs from those of the reported lipid compositions of other marine animals, which depend on the marine grazing food chain originating from phytoplankton. Thus, the present findings confirm a perfect and closed novel food chain in the cold-seep bivalve and in its symbionts, which is independent from the photosynthetic food chain.

  8. Biologic significance of polyunsaturated fatty acids in the skin.

    PubMed

    Ziboh, V A; Chapkin, R S

    1987-12-01

    Deficiency of essential fatty acid (EFA) containing linoleic acid (18:2n-6) in humans or animals induces morphologic changes characterized by severe scaly dermatosis, extensive percutaneous water loss, and hyperproliferation of the epidermis. Microscopically, the epidermis is characterized by hyperkeratosis and acanthosis. The refeeding of safflower oil containing linoleic acid or primrose oil (containing linoleic acid [18:2n-6] and gamma-linolenic acid [18:3n-6]) acids to EFA-deficient guinea pigs reverses the EFA-deficiency symptoms. In contrast, replacement of safflower oil with menhaden fish oil, (containing eicosapentaenoic acid [20:5n-3] and docosahexaenoic acid [22:6n-3]) did not reverse the symptoms of EFA deficiency. These results indicate: (1) that an understanding of the roles of vegetable or fish oil in skin must evolve from an understanding of the roles of each constituent n-6 or n-3 fatty acid, and (2) that the n-3 fatty acids may function to modulate the metabolism and function of the n-6 fatty acids in vivo.

  9. Stimulation of polyunsaturated fatty acid oxidation in myocytes by regulating its cellular uptake

    SciTech Connect

    Abdel-aleem, S.; Frangakis, C. ); Badr, M. )

    1991-01-01

    In order to investigate the regulation of polyunsaturated fatty acid oxidation in the heart, the effect of the phosphodiesterase inhibitor enoximone on the oxidation of (1-{sup 14}C) arachidonic acid, and (1-{sup 14}C) arachidonyl-CoA, were studied in adult rat myocytes, and isolated rat heart mitochondria. Enoximone stimulated arachidonate oxidation by 94%, at a concentration of 0.25 mM. The apparent Vmax value of archidonate oxidation in the presence of enoximone was approximately 75% higher than the value observed with the control in isolated myocytes. Also, enoximone stimulated arachidonate uptake by 27% at a concentration of 0.25 mM. On the other hand, enoximone had no effect on the oxidation of (1-{sup 14}C) arachidonyl-CoA in isolated rat heart mitochondria. These results suggest that the oxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acids in myocytes is regulated by the rate of uptake of these acids across sarcolemmal membranes.

  10. Fatty Acid-Related Phylogeny of Myxobacteria as an Approach to Discover Polyunsaturated Omega-3/6 Fatty Acids ▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Garcia, Ronald; Pistorius, Dominik; Stadler, Marc; Müller, Rolf

    2011-01-01

    In an analysis of 47 aerobic myxobacterial strains, representing 19 genera in suborders Cystobacterineae, Nannocystineae, Sorangiineae, and a novel isolate, “Aetherobacter” SBSr008, an enormously diverse array of fatty acids (FAs) was found. The distribution of straight-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) and branched-chain fatty acids (BCFAs) supports the reported clustering of strains in the phylogenetic tree based on 16S rRNA genes. This finding additionally allows the prediction and assignment of the novel isolate SBSr008 into its corresponding taxon. Sorangiineae predominantly contains larger amounts of SCFA (57 to 84%) than BCFA. On the other hand, Cystobacterineae exhibit significant BCFA content (53 to 90%), with the exception of the genus Stigmatella. In Nannocystineae, the ratio of BCFA and SCFA seems dependent on the taxonomic clade. Myxobacteria could also be identified and classified by using their specific and predominant FAs as biomarkers. Nannocystineae is remarkably unique among the suborders for its absence of hydroxy FAs. After the identification of arachidonic (AA) FA in Phaselicystidaceae, eight additional polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) belonging to the omega-6 and omega-3 families were discovered. Here we present a comprehensive report of FAs found in aerobic myxobacteria. Gliding bacteria belonging to Flexibacter and Herpetosiphon were chosen for comparative analysis to determine their FA profiles in relation to the myxobacteria. PMID:21317327

  11. beta-Hematin (hemozoin) mediated decompostion of polyunsaturated fatty acids to 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal.

    PubMed

    Miller, Crystal M; Carney, Clare Kenny; Schrimpe, Alexandra C; Wright, David W

    2005-04-01

    beta-Hematin is an important heme metabolite of malarial infection. Its role as an agent mediating the formation of the reactive electrophile 4-hydroxynonenal (HNE) from polyunsaturated fatty acids was investigated. In vitro formation of HNE was found to be facilitated by the presence of hemozoin in a concentration-dependent fashion. The reactivity of HNE derived from reaction with beta-hematin was confirmed through its ability to form protein adducts on myoglobin. PMID:15792445

  12. Pathways of Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Utilization: Implications for Brain Function in Neuropsychiatric Health and Disease

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Joanne J.; Green, Pnina; Mann, J. John; Rapoport, Stanley I.; Sublette, M. Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    Essential polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) have profound effects on brain development and function. Abnormalities of PUFA status have been implicated in neuropsychiatric diseases such as major depression, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, Alzheimer’s disease, and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Pathophysiologic mechanisms could involve not only suboptimal PUFA intake, but also metabolic and genetic abnormalities, defective hepatic metabolism, and problems with diffusion and transport. This article provides an overview of physiologic factors regulating PUFA utilization, highlighting their relevance to neuropsychiatric disease. PMID:25498862

  13. Pathways of polyunsaturated fatty acid utilization: implications for brain function in neuropsychiatric health and disease.

    PubMed

    Liu, Joanne J; Green, Pnina; John Mann, J; Rapoport, Stanley I; Sublette, M Elizabeth

    2015-02-01

    Essential polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) have profound effects on brain development and function. Abnormalities of PUFA status have been implicated in neuropsychiatric diseases such as major depression, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, Alzheimer's disease, and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Pathophysiologic mechanisms could involve not only suboptimal PUFA intake, but also metabolic and genetic abnormalities, defective hepatic metabolism, and problems with diffusion and transport. This article provides an overview of physiologic factors regulating PUFA utilization, highlighting their relevance to neuropsychiatric disease.

  14. Effect of polyunsaturated fatty acids and phospholipids on ( sup 3 H)-vitamin E incorporation into pulmonary artery endothelial cell membranes

    SciTech Connect

    Sekharam, K.M.; Patel, J.M.; Block, E.R. )

    1990-12-01

    Vitamin E, a dietary antioxidant, is presumed to be incorporated into the lipid bilayer of biological membranes to an extent proportional to the amount of polyunsaturated fatty acids or phospholipids in the membrane. In the present study we evaluated the distribution of incorporated polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) in various membranes of pulmonary artery endothelial cells. We also studied whether incorporation of PUFA or PE is responsible for increased incorporation of (3H)-vitamin E into the membranes of these cells. Following a 24-hr incubation with linoleic acid (18:2), 18:2 was increased by 6.9-, 9.2-, and 13.2-fold in plasma, mitochondrial, and microsomal membranes, respectively. Incorporation of 18:2 caused significant increases in the unsaturation indexes of mitochondrial and microsomal polyunsaturated fatty acyl chains (P less than .01 versus control in both membranes). Incubation with arachidonic acid (20:4) for 24 hr resulted in 1.5-, 2.3-, and 2.4-fold increases in 20:4 in plasma, mitochondrial, and microsomal membranes, respectively. The unsaturation indexes of polyunsaturated fatty acyl chains of mitochondrial and microsomal membranes also increased (P less than .01 versus control in both membranes). Although incubations with 18:2 or 20:4 resulted in several-fold increases in membrane 18:2 or 20:4 fatty acids, incorporation of (3H)-vitamin E into these membranes was similar to that in controls. Following a 24-hr incubation with PE, membrane PE content was significantly increased, and (3H)-vitamin E incorporation was also increased to a comparable degree, i.e., plasma membrane greater than mitochondria greater than microsomes. Endogenous vitamin E content of the cells was not altered because of increased incorporation of PE and (3H)-vitamin E.

  15. Protective effect of the ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids on the schistosomiasis liver fibrosis in mice.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yuan; Liang, Yu; Zhu, Yi; Gao, Yongqiang; Chen, Hu; Zhang, Yukuai; Yin, Weiguo; Li, Yingju; Wang, Kegeng; Xiao, Jianhua

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to observe the effect of ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids on initiation and elimination of the schistosomiasis inflammatory response and liver fibrosis. The mice infected with the cercariae of Schistosoma japonicum (20 ± cercarie per mice) were separated randomly into several groups. After 60 days, liver tissue samples of all mice were sectioned. Hematoxylin-eosin (HE) staining, Masson staining, the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and flow cytometry (FCM) were performed. Through HE and Masson staining, the size of egg (ovum) granuloma and the collagen deposited in mice's livers in ω-3 PUFAs and praziquantel mixed groups were less than that of model group and praziquantel treated group. The serum level of IL-13 and TNF-α were lower than that of model group and praziquantel treated group. The indicators of liver fibrosis, such as HA and LN in the group treated with ω-3 PUFAs and praziquantel before the release of soluble eggs antigen (SEA) into blood, were lower than that of model group and praziquantel treated group, respectively. The combined treatment of ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and praziquantel conducted before the release of soluble eggs antigens into the blood decreases liver ovum granulomatous inflammation and fibrosis degree in the schistosomiasis. The mechanism of the ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid may be related to the adjustment of the anti-inflammatory and immune responses.

  16. Vibrational structure of the polyunsaturated fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid and arachidonic acid studied by infrared spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiefer, Johannes; Noack, Kristina; Bartelmess, Juergen; Walter, Christian; Dörnenburg, Heike; Leipertz, Alfred

    2010-02-01

    The spectroscopic discrimination of the two structurally similar polyunsaturated C 20 fatty acids (PUFAs) 5,8,11,14,17-eicosapentaenoic acid and 5,8,11,14-eicosatetraenoic acid (arachidonic acid) is shown. For this purpose their vibrational structures are studied by means of attenuated total reflection (ATR) Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. The fingerprint regions of the recorded spectra are found to be almost identical, while the C-H stretching mode regions around 3000 cm -1 show such significant differences as results of electronic and molecular structure alterations based on the different degree of saturation that both fatty acids can be clearly distinguished from each other.

  17. Improvement of Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Production in Echium acanthocarpum Transformed Hairy Root Cultures by Application of Different Abiotic Stress Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Zárate, Rafael; Cequier-Sánchez, Elena; Rodríguez, Covadonga; Dorta-Guerra, Roberto; El Jaber-Vazdekis, Nabil; Ravelo, Ángel G.

    2013-01-01

    Fatty acids are of great nutritional, therapeutic, and physiological importance, especially the polyunsaturated n-3 fatty acids, possessing larger carbon chains and abundant double bonds or their immediate precursors. A few higher plant species are able to accumulate these compounds, like those belonging to the Echium genus. Here, the novel E. acanthocarpum hairy root system, which is able to accumulate many fatty acids, including stearidonic and α-linolenic acids, was optimized for a better production. The application of abiotic stress resulted in larger yields of stearidonic and α-linolenic acids, 60 and 35%, respectively, with a decrease in linoleic acid, when grown in a nutrient medium consisting of B5 basal salts, sucrose or glucose, and, more importantly, at a temperature of 15°C. The application of osmotic stress employing sorbitol showed no positive influence on the fatty acid yields; furthermore, the combination of a lower culture temperature and glucose did not show a cumulative boosting effect on the yield, although this carbon source was similarly attractive. The abiotic stress also influenced the lipid profile of the cultures, significantly increasing the phosphatidylglycerol fraction but not the total lipid neither their biomass, proving the appropriateness of applying various abiotic stress in this culture to achieve larger yields. PMID:25937970

  18. The cytochrome b5 reductase HPO-19 is required for biosynthesis of polyunsaturated fatty acids in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yuru; Wang, Haizhen; Zhang, Jingjing; Hu, Ying; Zhang, Linqiang; Wu, Xiaoyun; Su, Xiong; Li, Tingting; Zou, Xiaoju; Liang, Bin

    2016-04-01

    Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are fatty acids with backbones containing more than one double bond, which are introduced by a series of desaturases that insert double bonds at specific carbon atoms in the fatty acid chain. It has been established that desaturases need flavoprotein-NADH-dependent cytochrome b5 reductase (simplified as cytochrome b5 reductase) and cytochrome b5 to pass through electrons for activation. However, it has remained unclear how this multi-enzyme system works for distinct desaturases. The model organism Caenorhabditis elegans contains seven desaturases (FAT-1, -2, -3, -4, -5, -6, -7) for the biosynthesis of PUFAS, providing an excellent model in which to characterize different desaturation reactions. Here, we show that RNAi inactivation of predicted cytochrome b5 reductases hpo-19 and T05H4.4 led to increased levels of C18:1n-9 but decreased levels of PUFAs, small lipid droplets, decreased fat accumulation, reduced brood size and impaired development. Dietary supplementation with different fatty acids showed that HPO-19 and T05H4.4 likely affect the activity of FAT-1, FAT-2, FAT-3, and FAT-4 desaturases, suggesting that these four desaturases use the same cytochrome b5 reductase to function. Collectively, these findings indicate that cytochrome b5 reductase HPO-19/T05H4.4 is required for desaturation to biosynthesize PUFAs in C. elegans. PMID:26806391

  19. The cytochrome b5 reductase HPO-19 is required for biosynthesis of polyunsaturated fatty acids in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yuru; Wang, Haizhen; Zhang, Jingjing; Hu, Ying; Zhang, Linqiang; Wu, Xiaoyun; Su, Xiong; Li, Tingting; Zou, Xiaoju; Liang, Bin

    2016-04-01

    Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are fatty acids with backbones containing more than one double bond, which are introduced by a series of desaturases that insert double bonds at specific carbon atoms in the fatty acid chain. It has been established that desaturases need flavoprotein-NADH-dependent cytochrome b5 reductase (simplified as cytochrome b5 reductase) and cytochrome b5 to pass through electrons for activation. However, it has remained unclear how this multi-enzyme system works for distinct desaturases. The model organism Caenorhabditis elegans contains seven desaturases (FAT-1, -2, -3, -4, -5, -6, -7) for the biosynthesis of PUFAS, providing an excellent model in which to characterize different desaturation reactions. Here, we show that RNAi inactivation of predicted cytochrome b5 reductases hpo-19 and T05H4.4 led to increased levels of C18:1n-9 but decreased levels of PUFAs, small lipid droplets, decreased fat accumulation, reduced brood size and impaired development. Dietary supplementation with different fatty acids showed that HPO-19 and T05H4.4 likely affect the activity of FAT-1, FAT-2, FAT-3, and FAT-4 desaturases, suggesting that these four desaturases use the same cytochrome b5 reductase to function. Collectively, these findings indicate that cytochrome b5 reductase HPO-19/T05H4.4 is required for desaturation to biosynthesize PUFAs in C. elegans.

  20. Influence of n-6 versus n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in diets low in saturated fatty acids on plasma lipoproteins and hemostatic factors.

    PubMed

    Sanders, T A; Oakley, F R; Miller, G J; Mitropoulos, K A; Crook, D; Oliver, M F

    1997-12-01

    Modification of dietary fat composition may influence hemostatic variables, which are associated with increased risk of coronary heart disease (CHD). To address this question, we performed a controlled feeding study on 26 healthy male nonsmoking subjects with diets of differing fat composition. For the first 3 weeks, the subjects were given a diet calculated to supply 30% energy as total fat: 8% as monounsaturated, 4% as polyunsaturated, and 16% energy as saturated fatty acids, respectively (saturated diet). This was followed immediately by two diets taken in random order, each of 3-week duration and separated by an 8-week washout period on the subject's usual diet. Both diets were calculated to supply 30% of energy as fat: 14% monounsaturated, 6% as polyunsaturated, and 8% energy as saturated fatty acids. They both provided 5 g (approximately 1.7% energy) more of polyunsaturated fatty acids than the saturated fat diet; in one diet as long-chain n-3 fatty acids (n-3 diet) and in the other as linoleic acid (n-6 diet). Fasting plasma lipids, lipoproteins, and hemostatic factors were measured on the final 3 days of each dietary period. In a subset of 9 subjects the postprandial responses to a test meal were studied on the penultimate day of each period, each meal having the fat composition of its parent diet. On the n-3 diet compared with the n-6 diet, plasma triglyceride, HDL3 cholesterol, apoprotein AII, and fibrinogen concentrations were lower and HDL2 cholesterol concentration was higher (P = .0001, P = .003, P = .0001, P = .004, and P = .001, respectively). On both the n-3 and n-6 diets compared with the saturated diet, fasting plasma total and LDL cholesterol, apoprotein B, beta-thromboglobulin concentrations, and platelet counts were lower (P < .0001, P < .0001, P < .001, P < .01, and P < .05 respectively) and plasma Lp(a) and von Willebrand factor concentrations were higher (P = .02 and P < .01, respectively). Fasting factor VII coagulant activity (VIIc) was

  1. Brain and Liver Headspace Aldehyde Concentration Following Dietary Supplementation with n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids.

    PubMed

    Ross, Brian M; Babay, Slim; Malik, Imran

    2015-11-01

    Reactive oxygen species react with unsaturated fatty acids to form a variety of metabolites including aldehydes. Many aldehydes are volatile enough to be detected in headspace gases of blood or cultured cells and in exhaled breath, in particular propanal and hexanal which are derived from omega-3 and omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids, respectively. Aldehydes are therefore potential non-invasive biomarkers of oxidative stress and of various diseases in which oxidative stress is thought to play a role including cancer, cardiovascular disease and diabetes. It is unclear, however, how changes in the abundance of the fatty acid precursors, for example by altered dietary intake, affect aldehyde concentrations. We therefore fed male Wistar rats diets supplemented with either palm oil or a combination of palm oil plus an n-3 fatty acid (alpha-linolenic, eicosapentaenoic, or docosahexaenoic acids) for 4 weeks. Fatty acid analysis revealed large changes in the abundance of both n-3 and n-6 fatty acids in the liver with smaller changes observed in the brain. Despite the altered fatty acid abundance, headspace concentrations of C1-C8 aldehydes, and tissue concentrations of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, did not differ between the 4 dietary groups. Our data suggest that tissue aldehyde concentrations are independent of fatty acid abundance, and further support their use as volatile biomarkers of oxidative stress.

  2. Small amounts of isotope-reinforced polyunsaturated fatty acids suppress lipid autoxidation.

    PubMed

    Hill, Shauna; Lamberson, Connor R; Xu, Libin; To, Randy; Tsui, Hui S; Shmanai, Vadim V; Bekish, Andrei V; Awad, Agape M; Marbois, Beth N; Cantor, Charles R; Porter, Ned A; Clarke, Catherine F; Shchepinov, Mikhail S

    2012-08-15

    Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) undergo autoxidation and generate reactive carbonyl compounds that are toxic to cells and associated with apoptotic cell death, age-related neurodegenerative diseases, and atherosclerosis. PUFA autoxidation is initiated by the abstraction of bis-allylic hydrogen atoms. Replacement of the bis-allylic hydrogen atoms with deuterium atoms (termed site-specific isotope-reinforcement) arrests PUFA autoxidation due to the isotope effect. Kinetic competition experiments show that the kinetic isotope effect for the propagation rate constant of Lin autoxidation compared to that of 11,11-D(2)-Lin is 12.8 ± 0.6. We investigate the effects of different isotope-reinforced PUFAs and natural PUFAs on the viability of coenzyme Q-deficient Saccharomyces cerevisiae coq mutants and wild-type yeast subjected to copper stress. Cells treated with a C11-BODIPY fluorescent probe to monitor lipid oxidation products show that lipid peroxidation precedes the loss of viability due to H-PUFA toxicity. We show that replacement of just one bis-allylic hydrogen atom with deuterium is sufficient to arrest lipid autoxidation. In contrast, PUFAs reinforced with two deuterium atoms at mono-allylic sites remain susceptible to autoxidation. Surprisingly, yeast treated with a mixture of approximately 20%:80% isotope-reinforced D-PUFA:natural H-PUFA are protected from lipid autoxidation-mediated cell killing. The findings reported here show that inclusion of only a small fraction of PUFAs deuterated at the bis-allylic sites is sufficient to profoundly inhibit the chain reaction of nondeuterated PUFAs in yeast.

  3. Isotope-reinforced polyunsaturated fatty acids protect mitochondria from oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Andreyev, Alexander Y; Tsui, Hui S; Milne, Ginger L; Shmanai, Vadim V; Bekish, Andrei V; Fomich, Maksim A; Pham, Minhhan N; Nong, Yvonne; Murphy, Anne N; Clarke, Catherine F; Shchepinov, Mikhail S

    2015-05-01

    Polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) peroxidation is initiated by hydrogen atom abstraction at bis-allylic sites and sets in motion a chain reaction that generates multiple toxic products associated with numerous disorders. Replacement of bis-allylic hydrogens of PUFAs with deuterium atoms (D-PUFAs), termed site-specific isotope reinforcement, inhibits PUFA peroxidation and confers cell protection against oxidative stress. We demonstrate that structurally diverse deuterated PUFAs similarly protect against oxidative stress-induced injury in both yeast and mammalian (myoblast H9C2) cells. Cell protection occurs specifically at the lipid peroxidation step, as the formation of isoprostanes, immediate products of lipid peroxidation, is drastically suppressed by D-PUFAs. Mitochondrial bioenergetics function is a likely downstream target of oxidative stress and a subject of protection by D-PUFAs. Pretreatment of cells with D-PUFAs is shown to prevent inhibition of maximal uncoupler-stimulated respiration as well as increased mitochondrial uncoupling, in response to oxidative stress induced by agents with diverse mechanisms of action, including t-butylhydroperoxide, ethacrynic acid, or ferrous iron. Analysis of structure-activity relationships of PUFAs harboring deuterium at distinct sites suggests that there may be a mechanism supplementary to the kinetic isotope effect of deuterium abstraction off the bis-allylic sites that accounts for the protection rendered by deuteration of PUFAs. Paradoxically, PUFAs with partially deuterated bis-allylic positions that retain vulnerable hydrogen atoms (e.g., monodeuterated 11-D1-Lin) protect in a manner similar to that of PUFAs with completely deuterated bis-allylic positions (e.g., 11,11-D2-Lin). Moreover, inclusion of just a fraction of deuterated PUFAs (20-50%) in the total pool of PUFAs preserves mitochondrial respiratory function and confers cell protection. The results indicate that the therapeutic potential of D-PUFAs may derive

  4. Polyunsaturated fatty acids influence differential biosynthesis of oxylipids and other lipid mediators during bovine coliform mastitis.

    PubMed

    Mavangira, Vengai; Gandy, Jeffery C; Zhang, Chen; Ryman, Valerie E; Daniel Jones, A; Sordillo, Lorraine M

    2015-09-01

    Coliform mastitis is a severe and sometimes fatal disease characterized by an unregulated inflammatory response. The initiation, progression, and resolution of inflammatory responses are regulated, in part, by potent oxylipid metabolites derived from polyunsaturated fatty acids. The purpose of this study was to characterize the biosynthesis and diversity of oxylipid metabolites during acute bovine coliform mastitis. Eleven cows diagnosed with naturally occurring acute systemic coliform mastitis and 13 healthy control cows, matched for lactation number and days in milk, were selected for comparison of oxylipid and free fatty acid concentrations in both milk and plasma. Oxylipids and free fatty acids were quantified using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. All polyunsaturated fatty acids quantified in milk were elevated during coliform mastitis with linoleic acid being the most abundant. Oxylipids synthesized through the lipoxygenase and cytochrome P450 pathways accounted for the majority of the oxylipid biosynthesis. This study demonstrated a complex and diverse oxylipid network, most pronounced at the level of the mammary gland. Substrate availability, biosynthetic pathways, and degree of metabolism influence the biosynthesis of oxylipids during bovine coliform mastitis. Further studies are required to identify targets for novel interventions that modulate oxylipid biosynthesis during coliform mastitis to optimize inflammation.

  5. Polyunsaturated fatty acids in the blood of spontaneously or induced muricidal male Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Augier, S; Penes, M C; Debilly, G; Miachon, A S

    2003-04-15

    Serum levels of several n-6 and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids were compared in male Wistar muricidal (Mu) and non-Mu rats. The Mu behavior was either spontaneous or induced by long-term isolation, feeding with a starch-enriched polyunsaturated fatty acid diet (PUFA+S), water restriction, or adrenalectomy (ADX). Arachidonic acid (ARA) levels were lower in diet-induced (PUFA+S) Mu rats than in their non-Mu controls. Total n-6 fatty acid levels were also lower in spontaneously Mu rats than in spontaneously non-Mu rats. Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and total n-3 fatty acids levels were lower in rats with isolation-induced Mu behavior. The n-3/n-6 ratio was higher in spontaneously Mu rats than in spontaneously non-Mu rats. The changes in ARA levels were greater than those in DHA levels, possibly due to the higher blood-brain barrier passage of arachidonic acid. The results were analyzed in the light of recent results showing a role of PUFAs in human and animal behavior. PMID:12725904

  6. Impact of L-FABP and glucose on polyunsaturated fatty acid induction of PPARα-regulated β-oxidative enzymes.

    PubMed

    Petrescu, Anca D; Huang, Huan; Martin, Gregory G; McIntosh, Avery L; Storey, Stephen M; Landrock, Danilo; Kier, Ann B; Schroeder, Friedhelm

    2013-02-01

    Liver fatty acid binding protein (L-FABP) is the major soluble protein that binds very-long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs) in hepatocytes. However, nothing is known about L-FABP's role in n-3 PUFA-mediated peroxisome proliferator activated receptor-α (PPARα) transcription of proteins involved in long-chain fatty acid (LCFA) β-oxidation. This issue was addressed in cultured primary hepatocytes from wild-type, L-FABP-null, and PPARα-null mice with these major findings: 1) PUFA-mediated increase in the expression of PPARα-regulated LCFA β-oxidative enzymes, LCFA/LCFA-CoA binding proteins (L-FABP, ACBP), and PPARα itself was L-FABP dependent; 2) PPARα transcription, robustly potentiated by high glucose but not maltose, a sugar not taken up, correlated with higher protein levels of these LCFA β-oxidative enzymes and with increased LCFA β-oxidation; and 3) high glucose altered the potency of n-3 relative to n-6 PUFA. This was not due to a direct effect of glucose on PPARα transcriptional activity nor indirectly through de novo fatty acid synthesis from glucose. Synergism was also not due to glucose impacting other signaling pathways, since it was observed only in hepatocytes expressing both L-FABP and PPARα. Ablation of L-FABP or PPARα as well as treatment with MK886 (PPARα inhibitor) abolished/reduced PUFA-mediated PPARα transcription of these genes, especially at high glucose. Finally, the PUFA-enhanced L-FABP distribution into nuclei with high glucose augmentation of the L-FABP/PPARα interaction reveals not only the importance of L-FABP for PUFA induction of PPARα target genes in fatty acid β-oxidation but also the significance of a high glucose enhancement effect in diabetes.

  7. DNA Methylation Perturbations in Genes Involved in Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Biosynthesis Associated with Depression and Suicide Risk

    PubMed Central

    Haghighi, Fatemeh; Galfalvy, Hanga; Chen, Sean; Huang, Yung-yu; Cooper, Thomas B.; Burke, Ainsley K.; Oquendo, Maria A.; Mann, J. John; Sublette, M. Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) status has been associated with neuropsychiatric disorders, including depression and risk of suicide. Long-chain PUFAs (LC-PUFAs) are obtained in the diet or produced by sequential desaturation and elongation of shorter-chain precursor fatty acids linoleic acid (LA, 18:2n-6) and α-linolenic acid (ALA, 18:3n-3). We compared DNA methylation patterns in genes involved in LC-PUFA biosynthesis in major depressive disorder (MDD) with (n = 22) and without (n = 39) history of suicide attempt, and age- and sex-matched healthy volunteers (n = 59). Plasma levels of selected PUFAs along the LC-PUFA biosynthesis pathway were determined by transesterification and gas chromatography. CpG methylation levels for the main human LC-PUFA biosynthetic genes, fatty acid desaturases 1 (Fads1) and 2 (Fads2), and elongation of very long-chain fatty acids protein 5 (Elovl5), were assayed by bisulfite pyrosequencing. Associations between PUFA levels and diagnosis or suicide attempt status did not survive correction for multiple testing. However, MDD diagnosis and suicide attempts were significantly associated with DNA methylation in Elovl5 gene regulatory regions. Also the relative roles of PUFA levels and DNA methylation with respect to diagnostic and suicide attempt status were determined by least absolute shrinkage and selection operator logistic regression analyses. We found that PUFA associations with suicide attempt status were explained by effects of Elovl5 DNA methylation within the regulatory regions. The observed link between plasma PUFA levels, DNA methylation, and suicide risk may have implications for modulation of disease-associated epigenetic marks by nutritional intervention. PMID:25972837

  8. Biochemical and Genetic Engineering of Diatoms for Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Biosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    Li, Hong-Ye; Lu, Yang; Zheng, Jian-Wei; Yang, Wei-Dong; Liu, Jie-Sheng

    2014-01-01

    The role of diatoms as a source of bioactive compounds has been recently explored. Diatom cells store a high amount of fatty acids, especially certain polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs). However, many aspects of diatom metabolism and the production of PUFAs remain unclear. This review describes a number of technical strategies, such as modulation of environmental factors (temperature, light, chemical composition of culture medium) and culture methods, to influence the content of PUFAs in diatoms. Genetic engineering, a newly emerging field, also plays an important role in controlling the synthesis of fatty acids in marine microalgae. Several key points in the biosynthetic pathway of PUFAs in diatoms as well as recent progresses are also a critical part and are summarized here. PMID:24402175

  9. Bioactive dietary long chain fatty acids: Emerging mechanisms of action

    PubMed Central

    Chapkin, Robert S.; McMurray, David N.; Davidson, Laurie A.; Patil, Bhimanagouda S.; Fan, Yang-Yi; Lupton, Joanne R.

    2009-01-01

    The plasma membrane of all eukaryotic cells contain heterogeneous self organizing intrinsically unstable liquid ordered domains or lipid assemblies in which key signal transduction proteins are localized. These assemblies are classified as “lipid rafts” (10–200 nm), which are composed mostly of cholesterol and sphingolipid microdomains and therefore do not integrate well into the fluid phospholipid bilayers. In addition, caveolae represent a subtype of lipid raft macrodomain that form flask-shaped membrane invaginations containing structural proteins, i.e., caveolins. With respect to the diverse biological effects of long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), increasing evidence suggests that n-3 PUFA and perhaps conjugated fatty acids uniquely alter the basic properties of cell membranes. Because of its polyunsaturation, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and possibly conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) are sterically incompatible with sphingolipid and cholesterol and, therefore, appear to alter lipid raft behavior and protein function. This review examines the evidence indicating that dietary sources of n-3 PUFA can profoundly alter the biochemical make up of lipid rafts/caveolae microdomains, thereby influencing cell signaling, protein trafficking, and cell cytokinetics. PMID:18492298

  10. Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids Intake to Regulate Helicobacter pylori-Associated Gastric Diseases as Nonantimicrobial Dietary Approach

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jong-Min; Jeong, Migyeong; Kim, Eun-Hee; Han, Young-Min; Kwon, Sung Hun; Hahm, Ki-Baik

    2015-01-01

    Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs), commonly eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), have been acknowledged as essential long-chain fatty acids imposing either optimal health promotion or the rescuing from chronic inflammatory diseases such as atherosclerosis, fatty liver, and various inflammatory gastrointestinal diseases. Recent studies dealing with EPA and DHA have sparked highest interests because detailed molecular mechanisms had been documented with the identification of its receptor, G protein coupled receptor, and GPR120. In this review article, we have described clear evidences showing that n-3 PUFAs could reduce various Helicobacter pylori- (H. pylori-) associated gastric diseases and extended to play even cancer preventive outcomes including H. pylori-associated gastric cancer by influencing multiple targets, including proliferation, survival, angiogenesis, inflammation, and metastasis. Since our previous studies strongly concluded that nonantimicrobial dietary approach for reducing inflammation, for instance, application of phytoceuticals, probiotics, natural products including Korean red ginseng, and walnut plentiful of n-3 PUFAs, might be prerequisite step for preventing H. pylori-associated gastric cancer as well as facilitating the rejuvenation of precancerous atrophic gastritis, these beneficial lipids can restore or modify inflammation-associated lipid distortion and correction of altered lipid rafts to send right signaling to maintain healthy stomach even after chronic H. pylori infection. PMID:26339635

  11. FADS genetic variants and ω-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid metabolism in a homogeneous island population[S

    PubMed Central

    Mathias, Rasika A.; Vergara, Candelaria; Gao, Li; Rafaels, Nicholas; Hand, Tracey; Campbell, Monica; Bickel, Carol; Ivester, Priscilla; Sergeant, Susan; Barnes, Kathleen C.; Chilton, Floyd H.

    2010-01-01

    Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) orchestrate immunity and inflammation through their capacity to be converted to potent inflammatory mediators. We assessed associations of FADS gene cluster polymorphisms and fasting serum PUFA concentrations in a fully ascertained, geographically isolated founder population of European descent. Concentrations of 22 PUFAs were determined by gas chromatography, of which ten fatty acids and five ratios defining FADS1 and FADS2 activity were tested for genetic association against 16 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) in 224 individuals. A cluster of SNPs in tight linkage disequilibrium in the FADS1 gene (rs174537, rs174545, rs174546, rs174553, rs174556, rs174561, rs174568, and rs99780) were strongly associated with arachidonic acid (AA) (P = 5.8 × 10−7 – 1.7 × 10−8) among other PUFAs, but the strongest associations were with the ratio measuring FADS1 activity in the ω-6 series (P = 2.11 × 10−13 – 1.8 × 10−20). The minor allele across all SNPs was consistently associated with decreased ω-6 PUFAs, with the exception of dihomo-γ-linoleic acid (DHGLA), where the minor allele was consistently associated with increased levels. Our findings in a geographically isolated population with a homogenous dietary environment suggest that variants in the Δ-5 desaturase enzymatic step likely regulate the efficiency of conversion of medium-chain PUFAs to potentially inflammatory PUFAs, such as AA. PMID:20562440

  12. Pharmacology and therapeutics of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in chronic inflammatory disease.

    PubMed

    Yates, Clara M; Calder, Philip C; Ed Rainger, G

    2014-03-01

    Omega-3 (n-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs) have well documented anti-inflammatory properties, and consequently therapeutic potential in chronic inflammatory diseases. Here we discuss the effects of n-3 PUFAs on various inflammatory pathways and how this leads to alterations in the function of inflammatory cells, most importantly endothelial cells and leukocytes. Strong evidence indicates n-3 PUFAs are beneficial as a dietary supplement in certain diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis; however for other conditions such as asthma, the data are less robust. A clearer understanding of the pharmacology of n-3 PUFAs will help to establish targets to modulate chronic inflammatory diseases. PMID:24201219

  13. [Effects of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids on the cardiovascular system. Should their use be recommended?].

    PubMed

    Lahoz, C; Mata, P

    1993-10-01

    The effects of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (n-3 PFA) intake on lipoprotein metabolism, eicosanoid metabolism, coagulation and the fibrinolytic system, mediators of inflammation, and blood pressure are discussed. The possible role such effects may have on the process of atherogenesis is examined. Laboratory animal studies with n-3 PFA supplements are reviewed. Finally, a review of clinical and epidemiological studies in human subjects is made in order to evaluate whether the experimental findings have clinical relevance. The conclusion is that, at the present time, there is insufficient support for the use of n-3 PFA supplements either in prophylaxis or in treating ischemic cardiopathy.

  14. Contribution of polyunsaturated fatty acids to intestinal repair in protein-energy malnutrition.

    PubMed

    Nieto, Natalia; Mesa, María Dolores; López-Pedrosa, José María; Torres, M Isabel; Ríos, Antonio; Suárez, María Dolores; Gil, Angel

    2007-06-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effect of polyunsaturated fatty acids supplied in the diet on intestinal mucosa repair in a rat model of protein-energy malnutrition. Rats were fed either a standard semipurified diet or the same diet containing lactose as the only source of carbohydrate to cause protein-energy malnutrition. Diarrhea was induced within 24 h and was maintained for 2 weeks, after which both groups of rats were fed for 1 week either the standard diet or the standard diet supplemented with different sources of fatty acids, such as olive oil (OO), fish oil (FO), and purified phospholipids from pig brain (BPL). The lactose-enriched diet caused loss of enterocyte microvilli, lymphocyte infiltration, supranuclear cytoplasmic vesiculation, decreased number of goblet cells, low-density enlarged mitochondria, and less cristae. The FO diet improved the pathology score according to the histological and ultrastructural analysis, with an increased number of goblet cells, ratio of microvilli length to crypt depth, and percentage of intraepithelial lymphocytes compared to those found in rats with protein-energy malnutrition. We previously reported that chronic diarrhea depletes the antioxidant defense in rat intestine; we now show that both, the FO and the BPL diets, increase GSH levels in colon and that some antioxidant enzyme activities vary according to the source of fatty acids, with higher catalase and superoxide dismutase by the FO diet in jejunum, increased catalase by the BPL diet in jejunum, and elevated glutathione peroxidase by the OO diet in colon. The fatty acid profile of intestinal mucosa reflects the source of fat in the diet, with the lowest ratio of n-6/n-3 for rats fed the FO diet. These results suggest that dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids, particularly those in the n-3 series, may play an important role in intestinal repair in chronic diarrhea due to protein-energy malnutrition.

  15. Polyunsaturated fatty acids in various macroalgal species from north Atlantic and tropical seas

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background In this study the efficacy of using marine macroalgae as a source for polyunsaturated fatty acids, which are associated with the prevention of inflammation, cardiovascular diseases and mental disorders, was investigated. Methods The fatty acid (FA) composition in lipids from seven sea weed species from the North Sea (Ulva lactuca, Chondrus crispus, Laminaria hyperborea, Fucus serratus, Undaria pinnatifida, Palmaria palmata, Ascophyllum nodosum) and two from tropical seas (Caulerpa taxifolia, Sargassum natans) was determined using GCMS. Four independent replicates were taken from each seaweed species. Results Omega-3 (n-3) and omega-6 (n-6) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), were in the concentration range of 2-14 mg/g dry matter (DM), while total lipid content ranged from 7-45 mg/g DM. The n-9 FAs of the selected seaweeds accounted for 3%-56% of total FAs, n-6 FAs for 3%-32% and n-3 FAs for 8%-63%. Red and brown seaweeds contain arachidonic (C20:4, n-6) and/or eicosapentaenoic acids (EPA, C20:5, n-3), the latter being an important "fish" FA, as major PUFAs while in green seaweeds these values are low and mainly C16 FAs were found. A unique observation is the presence of another typical "fish" fatty acid, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, C22:6, n-3) at ≈ 1 mg/g DM in S. natans. The n-6: n-3 ratio is in the range of 0.05-2.75 and in most cases below 1.0. Environmental effects on lipid-bound FA composition in seaweed species are discussed. Conclusion Marine macroalgae form a good, durable and virtually inexhaustible source for polyunsaturated fatty acids with an (n-6) FA: (n-3) FA ratio of about 1.0. This ratio is recommended by the World Health Organization to be less than 10 in order to prevent inflammatory, cardiovascular and nervous system disorders. Some marine macroalgal species, like P. palmata, contain high proportions of the "fish fatty acid" eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, C20:5, n-3), while in S. natans also docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, C22:6, n-3) was

  16. Blood lipids profile in hyperlipidemic children undergoing different dietary long chain polyunsaturated supplementations: a preliminary clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Verduci, Elvira; Agostoni, Carlo; Radaelli, Giovanni; Banderali, Giuseppe; Riva, Enrica; Giovannini, Marcello

    2014-05-01

    The aim of this preliminary study was to explore the effect size of different dietary long chain polyunsaturated supplementations on blood lipid profile in children with primary hyperlipidemia. Thirty-six children (8-13 years) were recruited. After an 8-week stabilization period on the Step I diet, they were randomized to additionally receive for a 16-week period one capsule (500 mg) daily of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) alone or a DHA plus eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) mixture (45.6% DHA; 41.6% EPA) or wheat germ oil (control). An effect size (as percentage change from baseline) of +8%, -12% and -16% for high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), total cholesterol/HDL-C ratio and triglycerides was observed in children supplemented with DHA, compared to +2%, -8% and -12%, respectively, in children supplemented with DHA plus EPA. This preliminary study suggests powered trials appear feasible and are warranted to evaluate efficacy of n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid dietary supplementations on the blood lipid profile of children with primary hyperlipidemia.

  17. Unusually high levels of n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids in whale sharks and reef manta rays.

    PubMed

    Couturier, L I E; Rohner, C A; Richardson, A J; Pierce, S J; Marshall, A D; Jaine, F R A; Townsend, K A; Bennett, M B; Weeks, S J; Nichols, P D

    2013-10-01

    Fatty acid (FA) signature analysis has been increasingly used to assess dietary preferences and trophodynamics in marine animals. We investigated FA signatures of connective tissue of the whale shark Rhincodon typus and muscle tissue of the reef manta ray Manta alfredi. We found high levels of n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), dominated by arachidonic acid (20:4n-6; 12-17 % of total FA), and comparatively lower levels of the essential n-3 PUFA-eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5n-3; ~1 %) and docosahexaenoic acid (22:6n-3; 3-10 %). Whale sharks and reef manta rays are regularly observed feeding on surface aggregations of coastal crustacean zooplankton during the day, which generally have FA profiles dominated by n-3 PUFA. The high levels of n-6 PUFA in both giant elasmobranchs raise new questions about the origin of their main food source.

  18. Polyunsaturated fatty acids in the modulation of T-cell signalling.

    PubMed

    Akhtar Khan, Naim

    2010-01-01

    n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) have been shown to modulate immune responses. These agents, being considered as adjuvant immunosuppressants, have been used in the treatment of various inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. However, the molecular mechanisms of action of n-3 PUFA-induced immunosuppressive effects are not well-understood. Since exogenous n-3 PUFA, under in vitro and in vivo conditions, are efficiently incorporated into T-cell plasma membranes, a number of recent studies have demonstrated that these agents may modulate T-cell signalling. In this review, the interactions of n-3 PUFA with the second messenger cascade initiated during early and late events of T-cell activation are discussed. We particularly focus on how these fatty acids can modulate the production of diacylglycerol and the activation of protein kinase C, mitogen activated protein kinase, calcium signalling and translocation of transcriptional factors, implicated in the regulation of gene transcription in T-cells.

  19. Polyunsaturated fatty acids and their metabolites in brain function and disease.

    PubMed

    Bazinet, Richard P; Layé, Sophie

    2014-12-01

    The brain is highly enriched with fatty acids. These include the polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) arachidonic acid and docosahexaenoic acid, which are largely esterified to the phospholipid cell membrane. Once PUFAs are released from the membrane, they can participate in signal transduction, either directly or after enzymatic conversion to a variety of bioactive derivatives ('mediators'). PUFAs and their mediators regulate several processes within the brain, such as neurotransmission, cell survival and neuroinflammation, and thereby mood and cognition. PUFA levels and the signalling pathways that they regulate are altered in various neurological disorders, including Alzheimer's disease and major depression. Diet and drugs targeting PUFAs may lead to novel therapeutic approaches for the prevention and treatment of brain disorders.

  20. [Lipid peroxidation in cardiac mitochondrial fraction of rats exposed to different supplementation with polyunsaturated fatty acids].

    PubMed

    Ketsa, O V; Shmarakov, I O; Marchenko, M M

    2016-01-01

    The effect of diet supplementation with polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) used at different ratios of w-6/w-3 was studied on the content of primary (diene conjugates, DC; triene conjugates, TC), secondary (ketodienes, CD; coupled trienes, CT; TBA-active products) and terminal (Schiff bases) lipid peroxidation products (LPO) and generation of superoxide anion-radical in rat heart mitochondrial fraction. It was shown that diet supplementation with high doses of w-6 or w-3 PUFAs increased the content of primary, secondary and terminal LPO in rat heart mitochondrial fraction. Llipid peroxidation was accompanied by the intensification of superoxide anion-radical generation in rat heart mitochondrial fraction. During diet consumption with the PUFAs leading factor affecting the intensity of lipoperoxidation in rat heart mitochondria is fatty acid composition, rather than the level of their saturation.

  1. Periodontal disease: modulation of the inflammatory cascade by dietary n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Sculley, D V

    2014-06-01

    Periodontal disease, including gingivitis and periodontitis, is caused by the interaction between pathogenic bacteria and the host immune system. The ensuing oxidative stress and inflammatory cascade result in the destruction of gingival tissue, alveolar bone and periodontal ligament. This article reviews the underlying mechanisms and host-bacteria interactions responsible for periodontal disease and evidence that nutritional supplementation with fish oil may provide a protective effect. Historical investigations of diet and disease have highlighted an inverse relationship between ingestion of fish oil, which is high in n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, and the incidence of typical inflammatory diseases such as arthritis and coronary heart disease. Ingestion of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, such as docosahexaenoic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid, results in their incorporation into membrane phospholipids, which can alter eicosanoid production after stimulation during the immune response. These eicosanoids promote a reduction in chronic inflammation, which has led to the proposal that fish oil is a possible modulator of inflammation and may reduce the severity of periodontal diseases. Tentative animal and human studies have provided an indication of this effect. Further human investigation is needed to establish the protective effects of fish oil in relation to periodontal disease. PMID:23889472

  2. [Importance of long chain omega-3 fatty acids in prostate cancer].

    PubMed

    Küllenberg de Gaudry, D; Massing, U

    2014-11-01

    The benefits of long chain polyunsaturated omega-3 fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) from fish or administered as supplements remain controversial regarding prostate cancer (PCa). Based on the currently available evidence no clear benefit of n-3 PUFA intake to generally reduce PCa incidence has been found. On the other hand n-3 PUFAs have a clear influence on the development of already existing PCa. The intake of n-3-PUFAs considerably reduces the risk of metastasis and PCa-related mortality.

  3. Expression of dehydratase domains from a polyunsaturated fatty acid synthase increases the production of fatty acids in Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Oyola-Robles, Delise; Rullán-Lind, Carlos; Carballeira, Néstor M.; Baerga-Ortiz, Abel

    2014-01-01

    Increasing the production of fatty acids by microbial fermentation remains an important step towards the generation of biodiesel and other portable liquid fuels. In this work, we report an Escherichia coli strain engineered to overexpress a fragment consisting of four dehydratase domains from the polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) synthase enzyme complex from the deep-sea bacterium, Photobacterium profundum. The DH1-DH2-UMA enzyme fragment was excised from its natural context within a multi-enzyme PKS and expressed as a stand-alone protein. Fatty acids were extracted from the cell pellet, esterified with methanol and quantified by GC-MS analysis. Results show that the E. coli strain expressing the DH tetradomain fragment was capable of producing up to a 5-fold increase (80.31 mg total FA/L culture) in total fatty acids over the negative control strain lacking the recombinant enzyme. The enhancement in production was observed across the board for all the fatty acids that are typically made by E. coli. The overexpression of the DH tetradomain did not affect E. coli cell growth, thus showing that the observed enhancement in fatty acid production was not a result of effects associated with cell density. The observed enhancement was more pronounced at lower temperatures (3.8-fold at 16 °C, 3.5-fold at 22 °C and 1.5-fold at 30 °C) and supplementation of the media with 0.4% glycerol did not result in an increase in fatty acid production. All these results taken together suggest that either the dehydration of fatty acid intermediates are a limiting step in the E. coli fatty acid biosynthesis machinery, or that the recombinant dehydratase domains used in this study are also capable of catalyzing thioester hydrolysis of the final products. The enzyme in this report is a new tool which could be incorporated into other existing strategies aimed at improving fatty acid production in bacterial fermentations towards accessible biodiesel precursors. PMID:24411456

  4. Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids of Marine Macroalgae: Potential for Nutritional and Pharmaceutical Applications

    PubMed Central

    Pereira, Hugo; Barreira, Luísa; Figueiredo, Filipe; Custódio, Luísa; Vizetto-Duarte, Catarina; Polo, Cristina; Rešek, Eva; Engelen, Aschwin; Varela, João

    2012-01-01

    As mammals are unable to synthesize essential polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), these compounds need to be taken in through diet. Nowadays, obtaining essential PUFA in diet is becoming increasingly difficult; therefore this work investigated the suitability of using macroalgae as novel dietary sources of PUFA. Hence, 17 macroalgal species from three different phyla (Chlorophyta, Phaeophyta and Rhodophyta) were analyzed and their fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) profile was assessed. Each phylum presented a characteristic fatty acid signature as evidenced by clustering of PUFA profiles of algae belonging to the same phylum in a Principal Components Analysis. The major PUFA detected in all phyla were C18 and C20, namely linoleic, arachidonic and eicosapentaenoic acids. The obtained data showed that rhodophytes and phaeophytes have higher concentrations of PUFA, particularly from the n-3 series, thereby being a better source of these compounds. Moreover, rhodophytes and phaeophytes presented “healthier” ∑n-6/∑n-3 and PUFA/saturated fatty acid ratios than chlorophytes. Ulva was an exception within the Chlorophyta, as it presented high concentrations of n-3 PUFA, α-linolenic acid in particular. In conclusion, macroalgae can be considered as a potential source for large-scale production of essential PUFA with wide applications in the nutraceutical and pharmacological industries. PMID:23118712

  5. Biosynthesis of Essential Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids in Wheat Triggered by Expression of Artificial Gene.

    PubMed

    Mihálik, Daniel; Klčová, Lenka; Ondreičková, Katarína; Hudcovicová, Martina; Gubišová, Marcela; Klempová, Tatiana; Čertík, Milan; Pauk, János; Kraic, Ján

    2015-12-16

    The artificial gene D6D encoding the enzyme ∆⁶desaturase was designed and synthesized using the sequence of the same gene from the fungus Thamnidium elegans. The original start codon was replaced by the signal sequence derived from the wheat gene for high-molecular-weight glutenin subunit and the codon usage was completely changed for optimal expression in wheat. Synthesized artificial D6D gene was delivered into plants of the spring wheat line CY-45 and the gene itself, as well as transcribed D6D mRNA were confirmed in plants of T₀ and T₁ generations. The desired product of the wheat genetic modification by artificial D6D gene was the γ-linolenic acid. Its presence was confirmed in mature grains of transgenic wheat plants in the amount 0.04%-0.32% (v/v) of the total amount of fatty acids. Both newly synthesized γ-linolenic acid and stearidonic acid have been detected also in leaves, stems, roots, awns, paleas, rachillas, and immature grains of the T₁ generation as well as in immature and mature grains of the T₂ generation. Contents of γ-linolenic acid and stearidonic acid varied in range 0%-1.40% (v/v) and 0%-1.53% (v/v) from the total amount of fatty acids, respectively. This approach has opened the pathway of desaturation of fatty acids and production of essential polyunsaturated fatty acids in wheat.

  6. Biosynthesis of Essential Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids in Wheat Triggered by Expression of Artificial Gene

    PubMed Central

    Mihálik, Daniel; Klčová, Lenka; Ondreičková, Katarína; Hudcovicová, Martina; Gubišová, Marcela; Klempová, Tatiana; Čertík, Milan; Pauk, János; Kraic, Ján

    2015-01-01

    The artificial gene D6D encoding the enzyme ∆6desaturase was designed and synthesized using the sequence of the same gene from the fungus Thamnidium elegans. The original start codon was replaced by the signal sequence derived from the wheat gene for high-molecular-weight glutenin subunit and the codon usage was completely changed for optimal expression in wheat. Synthesized artificial D6D gene was delivered into plants of the spring wheat line CY-45 and the gene itself, as well as transcribed D6D mRNA were confirmed in plants of T0 and T1 generations. The desired product of the wheat genetic modification by artificial D6D gene was the γ-linolenic acid. Its presence was confirmed in mature grains of transgenic wheat plants in the amount 0.04%–0.32% (v/v) of the total amount of fatty acids. Both newly synthesized γ-linolenic acid and stearidonic acid have been detected also in leaves, stems, roots, awns, paleas, rachillas, and immature grains of the T1 generation as well as in immature and mature grains of the T2 generation. Contents of γ-linolenic acid and stearidonic acid varied in range 0%–1.40% (v/v) and 0%–1.53% (v/v) from the total amount of fatty acids, respectively. This approach has opened the pathway of desaturation of fatty acids and production of essential polyunsaturated fatty acids in wheat. PMID:26694368

  7. Unique odd-chain polyenoic phospholipid fatty acids present in chytrid fungi.

    PubMed

    Akinwole, Philips O; Lefevre, Emilie; Powell, Martha J; Findlay, Robert H

    2014-09-01

    Chytrid fungi are ubiquitous components of aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems yet they remain understudied. To investigate the use of phospholipid fatty acids as phenotypic characteristics in taxonomic studies and biomarkers for ecological studies, 18 chytrid fungi isolated from soil to freshwater samples were grown in defined media and their phospholipid fatty acid profile determined. Gas chromatographic/mass spectral analysis indicated the presence of fatty acids typically associated with fungi, such as 16:1(n-7), 16:0, 18:2(n-6), 18:3(n-3) 18:1(n-9), and 18:0, as well as, a number of odd-chain length fatty acids, including two polyunsaturated C-17 fatty acids. Conversion to their 3-pyridylcarbinol ester facilitated GC-MS determination of double-bond positions and these fatty acid were identified as 6,9-17:2 [17:2(n-8)] and 6,9,12-17:3 [17:3(n-5)]. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of polyunsaturated C-17 fatty acids isolated from the phospholipids of chytrid fungi. Cluster analysis of PLFA profiles showed sufficient correlation with chytrid phylogeny to warrant inclusion of lipid analysis in species descriptions and the presence of several phospholipid fatty acids of restricted phylogenetic distributions suggests their usefulness as biomarkers for ecological studies. PMID:25119485

  8. Astrocytes are mainly responsible for the polyunsaturated fatty acid enrichment in blood-brain barrier endothelial cells in vitro.

    PubMed

    Bernoud, N; Fenart, L; Bénistant, C; Pageaux, J F; Dehouck, M P; Molière, P; Lagarde, M; Cecchelli, R; Lecerf, J

    1998-09-01

    To determine the respective roles of endothelial cells from brain capillaries and astrocytes in the conversion of circulating 18:2n-6 and 18:3n-3 into 20:4n-6 and 22:6n-3, respectively, a coculture of the two cell types mimicking the in vivo blood-brain barrier was used. During the culture period, endothelial cells cultured on an insert were set above the medium of a Petri dish containing or not a stabilized culture of astrocytes. Five days after confluence, labeled 18:2n-6 and 18:3n-3 (10 microM each) were added to the endothelial cells and incubated for 48 h. Analogous experiments were also performed by using each cell type cultured alone in the culture device. The distribution of radioactivity in lipids and fatty acids was studied in all the compartments of the culture device. Endothelial cells cultured alone weakly converted the precursor fatty acids into 20:4n-6 and 22:6n-3. When endothelial cells were cocultured with astrocytes, their content of polyunsaturated fatty acids increased dramatically. This effect was associated with the uptake of polyunsaturated fatty acids from the lower medium (astrocyte medium). These fatty acids were released by astrocytes after they were synthesized from the precursor fatty acids that passed through the endothelial cell monolayer into the lower medium. Polyunsaturated fatty acids were released by astrocytes as unesterified fatty acids and as phospholipids (mainly phosphatidylcholine and lysophosphatidylcholine) even when the medium was devoid of serum. These results suggest that astrocytes could play a major role in the delivery of essential polyunsaturated fatty acids to the barrier itself and to the brain.

  9. Draft Genome Sequence of Cutaneotrichosporon curvatus DSM 101032 (Formerly Cryptococcus curvatus), an Oleaginous Yeast Producing Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids

    PubMed Central

    Hofmeyer, Thomas; Hackenschmidt, Silke; Nadler, Florian; Thürmer, Andrea; Daniel, Rolf

    2016-01-01

    Cutaneotrichosporon curvatus DSM 101032 is an oleaginous yeast that can be isolated from various habitats and is capable of producing substantial amounts of polyunsaturated fatty acids. Here, we present the first draft genome sequence of any C. curvatus species. PMID:27174275

  10. Effect of feeding system and breed on n-3 and n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid content of lamb muscles

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Katahdin (KK, n=6), Katahdin x Suffolk (KS, n=6), Suffolk x Katahdin (SK, n=6) and Suffolk (SS, n=6) wethers were used to evaluate omega-3 (n-3) and omega-6 (n-6) polyunsaturated fatty acid content, and the ratio of n-6 to n-3 in muscles of these lambs, raised on concentrate or forage diets. Lambs ...

  11. Polyunsaturated fatty acid analogs act antiarrhythmically on the cardiac IKs channel

    PubMed Central

    Liin, Sara I.; Silverå Ejneby, Malin; Barro-Soria, Rene; Skarsfeldt, Mark Alexander; Larsson, Johan E.; Starck Härlin, Frida; Parkkari, Teija; Bentzen, Bo Hjorth; Schmitt, Nicole; Larsson, H. Peter; Elinder, Fredrik

    2015-01-01

    Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) affect cardiac excitability. Kv7.1 and the β-subunit KCNE1 form the cardiac IKs channel that is central for cardiac repolarization. In this study, we explore the prospects of PUFAs as IKs channel modulators. We report that PUFAs open Kv7.1 via an electrostatic mechanism. Both the polyunsaturated acyl tail and the negatively charged carboxyl head group are required for PUFAs to open Kv7.1. We further show that KCNE1 coexpression abolishes the PUFA effect on Kv7.1 by promoting PUFA protonation. PUFA analogs with a decreased pKa value, to preserve their negative charge at neutral pH, restore the sensitivity to open IKs channels. PUFA analogs with a positively charged head group inhibit IKs channels. These different PUFA analogs could be developed into drugs to treat cardiac arrhythmias. In support of this possibility, we show that PUFA analogs act antiarrhythmically in embryonic rat cardiomyocytes and in isolated perfused hearts from guinea pig. PMID:25901329

  12. Six Tissue Transcriptomics Reveals Specific Immune Suppression in Spleen by Dietary Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids

    PubMed Central

    Gabrielsson, Britt G.; Peris, Eduard; Nookaew, Intawat; Grahnemo, Louise; Sandberg, Ann-Sofie; Wernstedt Asterholm, Ingrid; Jansson, John-Olov; Nielsen, Jens

    2016-01-01

    Dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) are suggested to modulate immune function, but the effects of dietary fatty acids composition on gene expression patterns in immune organs have not been fully characterized. In the current study we investigated how dietary fatty acids composition affects the total transcriptome profile, and especially, immune related genes in two immune organs, spleen (SPL) and bone marrow cells (BMC). Four tissues with metabolic function, skeletal muscle (SKM), white adipose tissue (WAT), brown adipose tissue (BAT), and liver (LIV), were investigated as a comparison. Following 8 weeks on low fat diet (LFD), high fat diet (HFD) rich in saturated fatty acids (HFD-S), or HFD rich in PUFA (HFD-P), tissue transcriptomics were analyzed by microarray and metabolic health assessed by fasting blood glucose level, HOMA-IR index, oral glucose tolerance test as well as quantification of crown-like structures in WAT. HFD-P corrected the metabolic phenotype induced by HFD-S. Interestingly, SKM and BMC were relatively inert to the diets, whereas the two adipose tissues (WAT and BAT) were mainly affected by HFD per se (both HFD-S and HFD-P). In particular, WAT gene expression was driven closer to that of the immune organs SPL and BMC by HFDs. The LIV exhibited different responses to both of the HFDs. Surprisingly, the spleen showed a major response to HFD-P (82 genes differed from LFD, mostly immune genes), while it was not affected at all by HFD-S (0 genes differed from LFD). In conclusion, the quantity and composition of dietary fatty acids affected the transcriptome in distinct manners in different organs. Remarkably, dietary PUFA, but not saturated fat, prompted a specific regulation of immune related genes in the spleen, opening the possibility that PUFA can regulate immune function by influencing gene expression in this organ. PMID:27166587

  13. Childrens' learning and behaviour and the association with cheek cell polyunsaturated fatty acid levels.

    PubMed

    Kirby, A; Woodward, A; Jackson, S; Wang, Y; Crawford, M A

    2010-01-01

    Increasing interest in the role of omega-3 fatty acids in relation to neurodevelopmental disorders (e.g. ADHD, dyslexia, autism) has occurred as a consequence of some international studies highlighting this link. In particular, some studies have shown that children with ADHD may have lower concentrations of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), particularly omega-3, in their red blood cells and plasma, and that supplementation with omega-3 fatty acids may alleviate behavioural symptoms in this population. However, in order to compare levels it seems appropriate to establish fatty acid levels in a mainstream school aged population and if levels relate to learning and behaviour. To date no study has established this. For this study, cheek cell samples from 411 typically developing school children were collected and analysed for PUFA content, in order to establish the range in this population. In addition, measures of general classroom attention and behaviour were assessed in these children by teachers and parents. Cognitive performance tests were also administered in order to explore whether an association between behaviour and/or cognitive performance and PUFA levels exists. Relationships between PUFA levels and socio-economic status were also explored. Measures of reading, spelling and intelligence did not show any association with PUFA levels, but some associations were noted with the level of omega-3 fatty acids and teacher and parental reports of behaviour, with some evidence that higher omega-3 levels were associated with decreased levels of inattention, hyperactivity, emotional and conduct difficulties and increased levels of prosocial behaviour. These findings are discussed in relation to previous findings from omega-3 supplementation studies with children. PMID:20172688

  14. Regulation of polyunsaturated fatty acid biosynthesis by seaweed fucoxanthin and its metabolite in cultured hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Aki, Tsunehiro; Yamamoto, Masaya; Takahashi, Toshiaki; Tomita, Kohki; Toyoura, Rieko; Iwashita, Kazuhiro; Kawamoto, Seiji; Hosokawa, Masashi; Miyashita, Kazuo; Ono, Kazuhisa

    2014-02-01

    The effects of a seaweed carotenoid, fucoxanthin, and its physiological metabolite, fucoxanthinol, on the biosynthesis of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) were investigated using cultured rat hepatoma BRL-3A. The metabolism of α-linolenic acid (18:3n-3) was suppressed by the addition of these carotenoids, resulting in a decrease in the content of eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5n-3), which suggested a down-regulation of metabolic enzymes such as fatty acid desaturase and elongase. An increase in the content of docosahexaenoic acid (22:6n-3), as observed in previous studies in vivo, might be a buffering action to maintain the membrane fluidity. The suppressive effect of fucoxanthinol on ∆6 fatty acid desaturase was not at the level of gene expression but due to specific modifications of the protein via a ubiquitin-proteasome system. A proteomic analysis revealed several factors such as phosphatidylethanolamine-binding protein that might be involved in the observed action of fucoxanthin. These findings will contribute to studies on the elucidation of the precise molecular mechanisms underlying the regulation of PUFA biosynthesis by fucoxanthin. PMID:24174374

  15. N-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids of Marine Origin and Multifocality in Human Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Ouldamer, Lobna; Goupille, Caroline; Vildé, Anne; Arbion, Flavie; Body, Gilles; Chevalier, Stephan; Cottier, Jean Philippe; Bougnoux, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    Objective The microenvironment of breast epithelial tissue may contribute to the clinical expression of breast cancer. Breast epithelial tissue, whether healthy or tumoral, is directly in contact with fat cells, which in turn could influence tumor multifocality. In this pilot study we investigated whether the fatty acid composition of breast adipose tissue differed according to breast cancer focality. Methods Twenty-three consecutive women presenting with non-metastatic breast cancer underwent breast-imaging procedures including Magnetic Resonance Imaging prior to treatment. Breast adipose tissue specimens were collected during breast surgery. We established a biochemical profile of adipose tissue fatty acids by gas chromatography. We assessed whether there were differences according to breast cancer focality. Results We found that decreased levels in breast adipose tissue of docosahexaenoic and eicosapentaenoic acids, the two main polyunsaturated n-3 fatty acids of marine origin, were associated with multifocality. Discussion These differences in lipid content may contribute to mechanisms through which peritumoral adipose tissue fuels breast cancer multifocality. PMID:26812254

  16. [Polyunsaturated omega-3 fatty acids and systemic lupus erythematosus: what do we know?].

    PubMed

    Borges, Mariane Curado; Santos, Fabiana de Miranda Moura; Telles, Rosa Weiss; Correia, Maria Isabel Toulson Davisson; Lanna, Cristina Costa Duarte

    2014-01-01

    Various studies have demonstrated the impact of omega-3 fatty acids on the concentration of C reactive protein (CRP), pro-inflammatory eicosanoids, cytokines, chemokines and other inflammatory mediators. Therefore, the supplementation of these types of lipids may represent additional option treatment for chronic systemic diseases, such as Systemic Lupus Erythematous and other rheumatic diseases. The role of these lipids has not been well established, yet. However, it seems there is a direct relationship between its intake and the decrease of the disease clinical manifestations as well as of the inflammatory status of the patients. Thus, the aim of this manuscript is to present a thorough review on the effects of omega-3 fatty acids in patients with SLE. Bibliographic data set as the Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System Online (MEDLINE) and Literatura Latino-Americana e do Caribe em Ciências da Saúde (LILACS) were searched using as key words: systemic lupus erythematous (SLE), polyunsaturated fatty acids omega-3, eicosapentanoic acid (EPA), docosahexanoic acid (DHA), antioxidants and diet. Manuscripts published up to September 2013 were included. There were 43 articles related to the topic, however only 15 pertained human studies, with three review articles and 12 clinical studies.

  17. Regulation of polyunsaturated fatty acid biosynthesis by seaweed fucoxanthin and its metabolite in cultured hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Aki, Tsunehiro; Yamamoto, Masaya; Takahashi, Toshiaki; Tomita, Kohki; Toyoura, Rieko; Iwashita, Kazuhiro; Kawamoto, Seiji; Hosokawa, Masashi; Miyashita, Kazuo; Ono, Kazuhisa

    2014-02-01

    The effects of a seaweed carotenoid, fucoxanthin, and its physiological metabolite, fucoxanthinol, on the biosynthesis of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) were investigated using cultured rat hepatoma BRL-3A. The metabolism of α-linolenic acid (18:3n-3) was suppressed by the addition of these carotenoids, resulting in a decrease in the content of eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5n-3), which suggested a down-regulation of metabolic enzymes such as fatty acid desaturase and elongase. An increase in the content of docosahexaenoic acid (22:6n-3), as observed in previous studies in vivo, might be a buffering action to maintain the membrane fluidity. The suppressive effect of fucoxanthinol on ∆6 fatty acid desaturase was not at the level of gene expression but due to specific modifications of the protein via a ubiquitin-proteasome system. A proteomic analysis revealed several factors such as phosphatidylethanolamine-binding protein that might be involved in the observed action of fucoxanthin. These findings will contribute to studies on the elucidation of the precise molecular mechanisms underlying the regulation of PUFA biosynthesis by fucoxanthin.

  18. Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Composition of Maternal Diet and Erythrocyte Phospholipid Status in Chilean Pregnant Women

    PubMed Central

    Bascuñán, Karla A.; Valenzuela, Rodrigo; Chamorro, Rodrigo; Valencia, Alejandra; Barrera, Cynthia; Puigrredon, Claudia; Sandoval, Jorge; Valenzuela, Alfonso

    2014-01-01

    Chilean diets are characterized by a low supply of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA), which are critical nutrients during pregnancy and lactation, because of their role in brain and visual development. DHA is the most relevant n-3 PUFA in this period. We evaluated the dietary n-3 PUFA intake and erythrocyte phospholipids n-3 PUFA in Chilean pregnant women. Eighty healthy pregnant women (20–36 years old) in the 3rd–6th month of pregnancy were included in the study. Dietary assessment was done applying a food frequency questionnaire, and data were analyzed through the Food Processor SQL® software. Fatty acids of erythrocyte phospholipids were assessed by gas-liquid chromatography. Diet composition was high in saturated fat, low in mono- and PUFA, high in n-6 PUFA (linoleic acid) and low in n-3 PUFA (alpha-linolenic acid and DHA), with imbalance in the n-6/n-3 PUFA ratio. Similar results were observed for fatty acids from erythrocyte phospholipids. The sample of Chilean pregnant women showed high consumption of saturated fat and low consumption of n-3 PUFA, which is reflected in the low DHA content of erythrocyte phospholipids. Imbalance between n-6/n-3 PUFA could negatively affect fetal development. New strategies are necessary to improve n-3 PUFA intake throughout pregnancy and breast feeding periods. Furthermore, it is necessary to develop dietary interventions to improve the quality of consumed foods with particular emphasis on n-3 PUFA. PMID:25386693

  19. Polyunsaturated fatty acyl-coenzyme As are inhibitors of cholesterol biosynthesis in zebrafish and mice

    PubMed Central

    Karanth, Santhosh; Tran, Vy My; Kuberan, Balagurunathan; Schlegel, Amnon

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY Lipid disorders pose therapeutic challenges. Previously we discovered that mutation of the hepatocyte β-hydroxybutyrate transporter Slc16a6a in zebrafish causes hepatic steatosis during fasting, marked by increased hepatic triacylglycerol, but not cholesterol. This selective diversion of trapped ketogenic carbon atoms is surprising because acetate and acetoacetate can exit mitochondria and can be incorporated into both fatty acids and cholesterol in normal hepatocytes. To elucidate the mechanism of this selective diversion of carbon atoms to fatty acids, we fed wild-type and slc16a6a mutant animals high-protein ketogenic diets. We find that slc16a6a mutants have decreased activity of the rate-limiting enzyme of cholesterol biosynthesis, 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase (Hmgcr), despite increased Hmgcr protein abundance and relative incorporation of mevalonate into cholesterol. These observations suggest the presence of an endogenous Hmgcr inhibitor. We took a candidate approach to identify such inhibitors. First, we found that mutant livers accumulate multiple polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) and PUFA-CoAs, and we showed that human HMGCR is inhibited by PUFA-CoAs in vitro. Second, we injected mice with an ethyl ester of the PUFA eicosapentaenoic acid and observed an acute decrease in hepatic Hmgcr activity, without alteration in Hmgcr protein abundance. These results elucidate a mechanism for PUFA-mediated cholesterol lowering through direct inhibition of Hmgcr. PMID:24057001

  20. [Effects of polyunsaturated fatty acids on Krebs cycle in the rat kidney in chronic phosphorus intoxication].

    PubMed

    Kulkybaev, G A; Merkusheva, N V

    1992-01-01

    The investigation of Krebs cycle state in kidney homogenates of August rats subjected to oral intoxication with oil solution of yellow phosphorus in a dose of 0.3 mg/kg, has shown that under conditions of balanced nutrition the activity of NAD-dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase, succinate dehydrogenase and accumulation of the substrate fund of the cycle decreased 3.5-fold as compared to the control. The addition of polyunsaturated fatty acids to the ration produced a positive effect on Krebs cycle state: dehydrogenase activity was not significantly changed, accumulation of Krebs cycle substrate was two-fold lower. However, this ration did not completely abolish the toxic action of yellow phosphorus on Krebs cycle.

  1. Role of n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids and Exercise in Breast Cancer Prevention: Identifying Common Targets

    PubMed Central

    Abdelmagid, Salma A.; MacKinnon, Jessica L.; Janssen, Sarah M.; Ma, David W.L.

    2016-01-01

    Diet and exercise are recognized as important lifestyle factors that significantly influence breast cancer risk. In particular, dietary n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) have been shown to play an important role in breast cancer prevention. Growing evidence also demonstrates a role for exercise in cancer and chronic disease prevention. However, the potential synergistic effect of n-3 PUFA intake and exercise is yet to be determined. This review explores targets for breast cancer prevention that are common between n-3 PUFA intake and exercise and that may be important study outcomes for future research investigating the combined effect of n-3 PUFA intake and exercise. These lines of evidence highlight potential new avenues for research and strategies for breast cancer prevention. PMID:27812288

  2. Polyunsaturated fatty acids and their relation with bone and muscle health in adults.

    PubMed

    Mangano, Kelsey M; Sahni, Shivani; Kerstetter, Jane E; Kenny, Anne M; Hannan, Marian T

    2013-09-01

    Age-related bone and muscle loss are major public health problems. Investigational therapies to reduce these losses include anti-inflammatory dietary supplementations, such as polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA). Surprisingly, this topic has received little attention in the osteoporosis community. Recent research highlights the role of PUFA in inflammatory regulation of bone remodeling via cellular pathways. Emerging research suggests significant roles for PUFA in reducing bone and muscle loss with aging; however, findings are conflicted for PUFA and fracture risk. Limited studies suggest a relation between higher omega-3 FA and better muscle/bone in older adults. This review highlights new research since 2008 and synthesizes our current understanding of PUFA in relation to bone and muscle. Across study designs, evidence indicates that PUFA has positive effects upon bone. As data are sparse, future clinical trials and prospective studies are important to determine the long term benefits of PUFA supplementation upon bone and muscle outcomes. PMID:23857286

  3. Nutritional enrichment of larval fish feed with thraustochytrid producing polyunsaturated fatty acids and xanthophylls.

    PubMed

    Yamasaki, Takashi; Aki, Tsunehiro; Mori, Yuhsuke; Yamamoto, Takeki; Shinozaki, Masami; Kawamoto, Seiji; Ono, Kazuhisa

    2007-09-01

    In marine aquaculture, rotifers and Artemia nauplii employed as larval fish feed are often nutritionally enriched with forage such as yeast and algal cells supplemented with polyunsaturated fatty acids and xanthophylls, which are required for normal growth and a high survival ratio of fish larvae. To reduce the enrichment steps, we propose here the use of a marine thraustochytrid strain, Schizochytrium sp. KH105, producing docosahexaenoic acid, docosapentaenoic acid, canthaxanthin, and astaxanthin. The KH105 cells prepared by cultivation under optimized conditions were successfully incorporated by rotifers and Artemia nauplii. The contents of docosahexaenoic acid surpassed the levels required in feed for fish larvae, and the enriched Artemia showed an increased body length. The results demonstrate that we have developed an improved method of increasing the dietary value of larval fish feed. PMID:17964484

  4. Membrane lipid raft organization is uniquely modified by n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids

    PubMed Central

    Turk, Harmony F.; Chapkin, Robert S.

    2012-01-01

    Fish oil, enriched in bioactive n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), has been shown to play a role in prevention of colon cancer. The effects of n-3 PUFA are pleiotropic and multifaceted, resulting in an incomplete understanding of their molecular mechanisms of action. Here, we focus on a highly conserved mechanism of n-3 PUFA, which is the alteration of the organization of the plasma membrane. We highlight recent work demonstrating that enrichment of n-3 PUFA in the plasma membrane alters the lateral organization of membrane signaling assemblies (i.e. lipid rafts). This mechanism is central for n-3 PUFA regulation of downstream signaling, T-cell activation, transcriptional activation, and cytokine secretion. We conclude that these studies provide strong evidence for a predominant mechanism by which n-3 PUFA function in colon cancer prevention. PMID:22515942

  5. Polyunsaturated fatty acids and their relation with bone and muscle health in adults

    PubMed Central

    Mangano, Kelsey M; Sahni, Shivani; Kerstetter, Jane E; Kenny, Anne M; Hannan, Marian T

    2013-01-01

    Age-related bone and muscle loss are major public health problems. Investigational therapies to reduce these losses include anti-inflammatory dietary supplementations, such as polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA). Surprisingly, this topic has received little attention in the osteoporosis community. Recent research highlights the role of PUFA in inflammatory regulation of bone remodeling via cellular pathways. Emerging research suggests significant roles for PUFA in reducing bone and muscle loss with aging; however, findings are conflicted for PUFA and fracture risk. Limited studies suggest a relation between higher omega-3 FA and better muscle/bone in older adults. This review highlights new research since 2008 and synthesizes our current understanding of PUFA in relation to bone and muscle. Across study designs, evidence indicates that PUFA has positive effects upon bone. As data are sparse, future clinical trials and prospective studies are important to determine the long term benefits of PUFA supplementation upon bone and muscle outcomes. PMID:23857286

  6. Incorporation of radioactive polyunsaturated fatty acids into liver and brain of developing rat.

    PubMed

    Sinclair, A J

    1975-03-01

    The incorporation of radioactivity from orally administered linoleic acid-1-14C, linolenic acid-1-14C, arachidonic acid-3H8, and docosahexaenoic acid-14C into the liver and brain lipids of suckling rats was studied. In both tissues, 22 hr after dosing, 2 distinct levels of incorporation were observed: a low uptake (from 18:2-1-14C and 18:3-1-14C) and a high uptake (from 20:4-3H8 and 22:6-14C). In adult rats, the incorporation of radioactivity into brain lipids from 18:2-1-14C and 20:4-3H was considerably lower than the incorporation into the brains of the young rats. In the livers of the suckling rats, the activity from the 18 carbon acids was associated mostly with the triglyceride fraction, whereas the activity from the 20:4-3H8 and 22:6-14C was concentrated in the phospholipid fraction. In the brain lipids, the activity from the different fatty apid fatty acids, some of the activity in the 18:2-1-14C and 18:3-1-14C experiments was associated with 20 and 22 carbon polyunsaturated fatty acids; however, radioactivity from orally administered 20:4-3H8 and 22:6-14C was incorporated intact into the tissue phospholipid to a much greater extent compared with the incorporation of radioactivity into 20:4 and 22:6 in the experiments where 18:2-1-14C and 18:3-1-14C, respectively, were administered. Possible reasons for these differences are discussed. Rat milk contains a wide spectrum of polyunsaturated fatty acids, including linoleate, linolenate, arachidonate, and docosahexaenoate. During the suckling period in the rat, there is a rapid deposition of 20:4 and 22:6 in the brain. The results of the present experiments suggested that dietary 20:4 and 22:6 were important sources of brain 20:4 and 22:6 in the developing rat.

  7. Echium acanthocarpum hairy root cultures, a suitable system for polyunsaturated fatty acid studies and production

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The therapeutic and health promoting role of highly unsaturated fatty acids (HUFAs) from fish, i.e. eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 20:5n-3) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n-3) are well known. These same benefits may however be shared by some of their precursors, the polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), such as stearidonic acid (SDA, 18:4 n-3). In order to obtain alternative sources for the large-scale production of PUFAs, new searches are being conducted focusing on higher plants oils which can contain these n-3 and n-6 C18 precursors, i.e. SDA and GLA (18:3n-6, γ-linolenic acid). Results The establishment of the novel Echium acanthocarpum hairy root cultures represents a powerful tool in order to research the accumulation and metabolism of fatty acids (FAs) in a plant particularly rich in GLA and SDA. Furthermore, this study constitutes the first example of a Boraginaceae species hairy root induction and establishment for FA studies and production. The dominant PUFAs, 18:2n-6 (LA, linoleic acid) and 18:3n-6 (GLA), accounted for about 50% of total FAs obtained, while the n-3 PUFAs, 18:3n-3 (ALA, α-linolenic acid) and 18:4n-3 (SDA), represented approximately 5% of the total. Production of FAs did not parallel hairy root growth, and the optimal productivity was always associated with the highest biomass density during the culture period. Assuming a compromise between FA production and hairy root biomass, it was determined that sampling times 4 and 5 gave the most useful FA yields. Total lipid amounts were in general comparable between the different hairy root lines (29.75 and 60.95 mg/g DW), with the major lipid classes being triacylglycerols. The FAs were chiefly stored in the hairy roots with very minute amounts being released into the liquid nutrient medium. Conclusions The novel results presented here show the utility and high potential of E. acanthocarpum hairy roots. They are capable of biosynthesizing and accumulating a large range of

  8. Combining nutrition, food science and engineering in developing solutions to Inflammatory bowel diseases--omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids as an example.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, Lynnette R; Smith, Bronwen G; James, Bryony J

    2010-10-01

    The Inflammatory bowel diseases, Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis, are debilitating conditions, characterised by lifelong sensitivity to certain foods, and often a need for surgery and life-long medication. The anti-inflammatory effects of long chain omega-3 polyunsaturated acids justify their inclusion in enteral nutrition formulas that have been associated with disease remission. However, there have been variable data in clinical trials to test supplementary omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in inducing or maintaining remission in these diseases. Although variability in trial design has been suggested as a major factor, we suggest that variability in processing and presentation of the products may be equally or more important. The nature of the source, and rapidity of getting the fish or other food source to processing or to market, will affect the percentage of the various fatty acids, possible presence of heavy metal contaminants and oxidation status of the various fatty acids. For dietary supplements or fortified foods, whether the product is encapsulated or not, whether storage is under nitrogen or not, and length of time between harvest, processing and marketing will again profoundly affect the properties of the final product. Clinical trials to test efficacy of these products in IBD to date have utilised the relevant skills of pharmacology and gastroenterology. We suggest that knowledge from food science, nutrition and engineering will be essential to establish the true role of this important group of compounds in these diseases.

  9. Identification of a novel C22-∆4-producing docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) specific polyunsaturated fatty acid desaturase gene from Isochrysis galbana and its expression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Shi, Tonglei; Yu, Aiqun; Li, Ming; Ou, Xiuyuan; Xing, Laijun; Li, Mingchun

    2012-12-01

    Isochrysis galbana, produces long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids including docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n-3). A novel gene (IgFAD4-2), encoding a C22-∆4 polyunsaturated fatty acid specific desaturase, has been isolated and characterized from I. galbana. A full-length cDNA of 1,302 bp was cloned by LA-PCR technique. The IgFAD4-2 encoded a protein of 433 amino acids that shares 78 % identity with a previously reported ∆4-desaturase (IgFAD4-1) from I. galbana. The function of IgFAD4-2 was deduced by its heterologous expression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, which then desaturated docosapentaenoic acid (DPA, 22:5n-3) to DHA. The conversion ratio of DPA to DHA was 34 %, which is higher than other ∆4-desaturases cloned from algae. However, IgFAD4-2 did not catalyze the desaturation or elongation reactions with other fatty acids. These results confirm that IgFAD4-2 has C22-∆4-PUFAs-specific desaturase activity.

  10. Combining nutrition, food science and engineering in developing solutions to Inflammatory bowel diseases--omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids as an example.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, Lynnette R; Smith, Bronwen G; James, Bryony J

    2010-10-01

    The Inflammatory bowel diseases, Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis, are debilitating conditions, characterised by lifelong sensitivity to certain foods, and often a need for surgery and life-long medication. The anti-inflammatory effects of long chain omega-3 polyunsaturated acids justify their inclusion in enteral nutrition formulas that have been associated with disease remission. However, there have been variable data in clinical trials to test supplementary omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in inducing or maintaining remission in these diseases. Although variability in trial design has been suggested as a major factor, we suggest that variability in processing and presentation of the products may be equally or more important. The nature of the source, and rapidity of getting the fish or other food source to processing or to market, will affect the percentage of the various fatty acids, possible presence of heavy metal contaminants and oxidation status of the various fatty acids. For dietary supplements or fortified foods, whether the product is encapsulated or not, whether storage is under nitrogen or not, and length of time between harvest, processing and marketing will again profoundly affect the properties of the final product. Clinical trials to test efficacy of these products in IBD to date have utilised the relevant skills of pharmacology and gastroenterology. We suggest that knowledge from food science, nutrition and engineering will be essential to establish the true role of this important group of compounds in these diseases. PMID:21776456

  11. The effect of dietary supplements of omega 3 polyunsaturated fatty acids on the fatty acid composition of platelets and plasma choline phosphoglycerides.

    PubMed

    Sanders, T A; Younger, K M

    1981-05-01

    1. The effects of dietary supplements of omega 3 polyunsaturated fatty acids on the fatty acid composition of platelets and plasma choline phosphoglycerides were studied in vegans and in omnivores. 2. A supplement of 18:3 omega 3 led to an increase in 20:5 omega 3 but was less effective than one of 20:5 omega 3 + 22:6 omega 3.

  12. Quantitative determination of fatty acid chain composition in pork meat products by high resolution 1H NMR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Siciliano, Carlo; Belsito, Emilia; De Marco, Rosaria; Di Gioia, Maria Luisa; Leggio, Antonella; Liguori, Angelo

    2013-01-15

    High resolution (1)H NMR spectroscopy was proposed for the determination of the fatty acid chain profile of lipids in pork meat products during ripening. Two typical Mediterranean PDO salami produced in Calabria, a region in the Southern Italy, were chosen as a case of study. Quantitative NMR analysis provided the fatty acid chain profiles of total lipid extracts. The transesterification of total lipid extracts furnished FAME mixtures that enabled quantitation of fatty acid acyl chains in the acylglycerol and FFA portions. In all cases, oleyl chains were predominant, and high amounts of polyunsaturated fatty acid chains were observed. The proposed spectroscopic method allowed also the estimation of the most important nutritional parameters of dry fermented meat products.

  13. Application of solid phase microextraction for quantitation of polyunsaturated fatty acids in biological fluids.

    PubMed

    Birjandi, Afsoon Pajand; Mirnaghi, Fatemeh Sadat; Bojko, Barbara; Wąsowicz, Marcin; Pawliszyn, Janusz

    2014-12-16

    Development of a straightforward strategy for simultaneous quantitative analysis of nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA) species in biofluids is a challenging task because of the extreme complexity of fatty acid distribution in biological matrices. In this study, we present a direct immersion solid phase microextraction method coupled to a liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry platform (DI-SPME- HPLC-ESI -MS) for determination of unconjugated fatty acids (FA) in fish and human plasma. The proposed method was fully validated according to bioanalytical method validation guidelines. The LOD and LOQ were in the range of 0.5-2 and 5-12 ng/mL, respectively, with a linear dynamic range of 100 fold for each compound. Absolute and relative matrix effects were comprehensively evaluated and found to be in the acceptable range of 91-116%. The affinity constant (Ka) of individual FAs to protein albumin was determined to be 9.2 × 10(4) to 4.3 × 10(5) M(-1). The plasma protein binding (PPB%) was calculated and found to be in the range of 98.0-99.7% for different polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs). The PUFAs under study were found at a high concentration range in fish plasma, whereas only a few were within quantification range in control human plasma. The method was successfully applied for monitoring PUFA changes during the operation in plasma samples obtained from patients undergoing cardiac surgery with the use of cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). The most significant contribution induced by surgery was noticed in the concentration level of α-linolenic acid (18:3, ALA), arachidonic acid (20:4, AA), and docosahexanoic acid (22:6, DHA) soon after administration of CPB in all cases. PMID:25403310

  14. Altered erythrocyte membrane fatty acid profile in typical Rett syndrome: effects of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation.

    PubMed

    Signorini, Cinzia; De Felice, Claudio; Leoncini, Silvia; Durand, Thierry; Galano, Jean-Marie; Cortelazzo, Alessio; Zollo, Gloria; Guerranti, Roberto; Gonnelli, Stefano; Caffarelli, Carla; Rossi, Marcello; Pecorelli, Alessandra; Valacchi, Giuseppe; Ciccoli, Lucia; Hayek, Joussef

    2014-11-01

    This study mainly aims at examining the erythrocyte membrane fatty acid (FAs) profile in Rett syndrome (RTT), a genetically determined neurodevelopmental disease. Early reports suggest a beneficial effects of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω-3 PUFAs) on disease severity in RTT. A total of 24 RTT patients were assigned to ω-3 PUFAs-containing fish oil for 12 months in a randomized controlled study (average DHA and EPA doses of 72.9, and 117.1mg/kgb.w./day, respectively). A distinctly altered FAs profile was detectable in RTT, with deficient ω-6 PUFAs, increased saturated FAs and reduced trans 20:4 FAs. FAs changes were found to be related to redox imbalance, subclinical inflammation, and decreased bone density. Supplementation with ω-3 PUFAs led to improved ω-6/ω-3 ratio and serum plasma lipid profile, decreased PUFAs peroxidation end-products, normalization of biochemical markers of inflammation, and reduction of bone hypodensity as compared to the untreated RTT group. Our data indicate that a significant FAs abnormality is detectable in the RTT erythrocyte membranes and is partially rescued by ω-3 PUFAs.

  15. Dietary n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Intakes Modify the Effect of Genetic Variation in Fatty Acid Desaturase 1 on Coronary Artery Disease

    PubMed Central

    Lv, Xiaofei; Ma, Jing

    2015-01-01

    Background Previous studies suggested that dietary fatty acids could affect blood lipids by interacting with genetic variations in fatty acid desaturase 1 (FADS1). However, little is known about their direct effects on coronary artery disease (CAD). The aim of this study was to evaluate whether dietary n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFAs) -eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) could modulate the effect of FADS1 rs174547 polymorphism on CAD. Methods FADS1 single-nucleotide polymorphisms rs174547 genotypes were measured in 440 CAD patients and 838 healthy controls. Dietary EPA and DHA intakes were assessed with a validated quantitative frequency food questionnaire. The association between FADS1 rs174547 and CAD was estimated using logistic regression under both dominant and additive genetic models. The interactions between rs174547 polymorphism and LCPUFAs were analyzed by using multiple logistic regression and the “genotype × n-3 LCPUFAs” interaction term was included into the model. Results We found that the minor T allele of FADS1 rs174547 increased CAD risk (OR = 1.36, 95%CIs 1.03-1.80), and observed significant interaction between rs174547 and dietary EPA intakes on CAD (P-interaction = 0.028). The T-allele was only associated with higher CAD risk among individuals with lower dietary EPA intakes, but not in those with higher EPA intakes. Similarly, significant interaction was also observed between rs174547 and dietary DHA intakes on CAD (P-interaction = 0.020). Conclusions Dietary n-3 LCPUFA intakes could modulate the association between FADS1 rs174547 polymorphism and CAD. High dietary n-3 LCPUFA intakes could negate the unfavorable effect of genetic variation in FADS1 on CAD in middle-aged and elderly Chinese population. PMID:25849351

  16. Development of Rabbit Meat Products Fortified With n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids

    PubMed Central

    Petracci, Massimiliano; Bianchi, Maurizio; Cavani, Claudio

    2009-01-01

    Rabbit meat is a highly digestible, tasty, low-calorie food, often recommended by nutritionists over other meats. Currently research in the rabbit sector is interested in developing feeding strategies aiming to further increase the nutritional value of rabbit meat as a “functional food” by including n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA), conjugated linoleic acid (CLA), vitamins and antioxidants in rabbit diets and assessing their effects on both raw and stored/processed meat quality properties. Our recent studies indicate that the dietary inclusion from 3 to 6% of linseed might be considered as a way to achieve the enrichment of the meat with α-linolenic acid and to guarantee satisfactory product stability during further processing and storage. Considering that 6% dietary linseed corresponds to a n-3 PUFA content of 8.5% of the total fatty acids and a lipid content of 4.7 g/100 g of leg meat, a content of 396 mg n-3 PUFA/100g meat can be estimated, which represents about 19% of the recommended daily allowance (RDA) for n-3 PUFA. PMID:22253971

  17. Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Regulation of Adipocyte FADS1 and FADS2 Expression and Function

    PubMed Central

    Ralston, Jessica C.; Matravadia, Sarthak; Gaudio, Nicholas; Holloway, Graham P.; Mutch, David M.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) regulate fatty acid desaturase (FADS1, FADS2) expression in the liver; however, it is unknown whether PUFAs regulate FADS in adipocytes. This is important to study considering reports that link altered desaturase activity with adipose tissue PUFA profiles, body weight, and whole-body glucose homeostasis. Therefore, the present study aimed to determine the direct effects of PUFAs on FADS expression in differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Methods Differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes were treated with either α-linolenic (ALA), linoleic (LA), eicosapentaenoic (EPA), or arachidonic acid (AA). Gene expression, protein abundance, and cellular PUFA content were analyzed by real-time RT-PCR, Western blotting, and gas chromatography, respectively. Results Fads1 and Fads2 gene expression was reduced by EPA and AA, but not ALA or LA. Reductions in gene expression were reflected in FADS2 protein levels, but not FADS1. Treating cells with ALA and LA led to significant increases in the cellular content of downstream PUFAs. Neither ALA nor EPA changed docosahexaenoic acid content. Conclusions Differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes have a functional FADS pathway that can be regulated by PUFA. Therefore, this common adipocyte model is suitable to study dietary regulation of the FADS pathway. PMID:25755223

  18. Trans, and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and vascular function-a yin yang situation?

    PubMed

    Dyerberg, Jørn; Christensen, Jeppe H; Eskesen, Dorte; Astrup, Arne; Stender, Steen

    2006-05-01

    Trans fatty acids (TFA) and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) have opposite effects on several biological functions. We report a study on the effects on risk markers for cardiovascular disease. Eighty-seven healthy males were randomly assigned to 8 weeks of daily intake of either 20 g of industrially produced TFA (IP-TFA), 4 g n-3 PUFA, or control fat, incorporated in bakery products as part of the daily food. High-density lipoprotein cholesterol decreased in the TFA-group, triglycerides and mean arterial blood pressure decreased in the n-3 group. Heart rate variability (HRV), arterial dilatory capacity, flow mediated vasodilation, compliance, and distensibility were unchanged. Post hoc, we did a subgroup analysis of the results from the subjects with normal initial HRV. In these, 24-h heart rate (HR) was significantly increased by approximately three beats/min in the TFA group, with a decrease of the same magnitude in the n-3 group. A high HR is associated to an increased mortality and vice versa. Our results thus support the notion that IP-TFA and n-3 PUFA affect risk for cardiovascular mortality via mechanisms not only related to changes in plasma concentrations of lipids and lipoproteins. PMID:16713391

  19. Formation of dopamine adducts derived from brain polyunsaturated fatty acids: mechanism for Parkinson disease.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xuebo; Yamada, Naruomi; Maruyama, Wakako; Osawa, Toshihiko

    2008-12-12

    Oxidative stress appears to be directly involved in the pathogenesis of the neurodegeneration of dopaminergic systems in Parkinson disease. In this study, we formed four dopamine modification adducts derived from docosahexaenoic acid (C22:6/omega-3) and arachidonic acid (C18:4/omega-6), which are known as the major polyunsaturated fatty acids in the brain. Upon incubation of dopamine with fatty acid hydroperoxides and an in vivo experiment using rat brain tissue, all four dopamine adducts were detected. Furthermore, hexanoyl dopamine (HED), an arachidonic acid-derived adduct, caused severe cytotoxicity in human dopaminergic neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells, whereas the other adducts were only slightly affected. The HED-induced cell death was found to include apoptosis, which also seems to be mediated by reactive oxygen species generation and mitochondrial abnormality. Additionally, the experiments using monoamine transporter inhibitor and mouse embryonic fibroblast NIH-3T3 cells that lack the monoamine transporter indicate that the HED-induced cytotoxicity might specially occur in the neuronal cells. These data suggest that the formation of the docosahexaenoic acid- and arachidonic acid-derived dopamine adducts in vitro and in vivo, and HED, the arachidonic acid-derived dopamine modification adduct, which caused selective cytotoxicity of neuronal cells, may indicate a novel mechanism responsible for the pathogenesis in Parkinson disease.

  20. Metabolism of omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids in women with dysmenorrhea.

    PubMed

    Wu, Chao-Chih; Huang, Mei-Yu; Kapoor, Rakesh; Chen, Chih-Hung; Huang, Yung-Sheng

    2008-01-01

    Menstrual pain (dysmenorrhea) is one of the main complaints in clinics for women. The pain is often accompanied by other symptoms such as headache, nausea, constipation or diarrhea, urinary frequency, and vomiting which often leave the patients incapacitated for work or school for a few days. Dietary supplementation with polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) has been shown to alleviate the menstrual pain. The purpose of the present study was to compare the effect of dietary supplementation with PUFA (sunflower seed oil, borage oil and fish oil concentrate) for three months on RBC membrane fatty acid composition in healthy and dysmenorrheica young women. Conversion of linoleic acid, via gamma-linolenic acid, to dihomo-gamma-linolenic acid (a precursor of anti-inflammatory prostaglandin E1) in dysmenorrheic subjects as compared to the controls was slower whereas the level of arachidonic acid (a precursor of pro-inflammatory PGE2) was not affected by the supplementation. Since there are no known side-effects associated with supplementation of these nutrients, management of dysmenorrhea through nutrition modulation should be an acceptable alternative to drug treatments. PMID:18296341

  1. Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids: The Way Forward in Times of Mixed Evidence

    PubMed Central

    Weylandt, Karsten H.; Serini, Simona; Chen, Yong Q.; Su, Hui-Min; Lim, Kyu; Cittadini, Achille; Calviello, Gabriella

    2015-01-01

    Almost forty years ago, it was first hypothesized that an increased dietary intake of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) from fish fat could exert protective effects against several pathologies. Decades of intense preclinical investigation have supported this hypothesis in a variety of model systems. Several clinical cardiovascular studies demonstrated the beneficial health effects of omega-3 PUFA, leading medical institutions worldwide to publish recommendations for their increased intake. However, particularly in recent years, contradictory results have been obtained in human studies focusing on cardiovascular disease and the clinical evidence in other diseases, particularly chronic inflammatory and neoplastic diseases, was never established to a degree that led to clear approval of treatment with omega-3 PUFA. Recent data not in line with the previous findings have sparked a debate on the health efficacy of omega-3 PUFA and the usefulness of increasing their intake for the prevention of a number of pathologies. In this review, we aim to examine the controversies on the possible use of these fatty acids as preventive/curative tools against the development of cardiovascular, metabolic, and inflammatory diseases, as well as several kinds of cancer. PMID:26301240

  2. Effect of the polyunsaturated fatty acid composition of beef muscle on the profile of aroma volatiles.

    PubMed

    Elmore, J S; Mottram, D S; Enser, M; Wood, J D

    1999-04-01

    The effect of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) in beef muscle on the composition of the aroma volatiles produced during cooking was measured. The meat was obtained from groups of steers fed different supplementary fats: (i) a palm-oil-based control; (ii) bruised whole linseed, which increased muscle levels of alpha-linolenic (C18:3 n-3) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, C20:5 n-3); (iii) fish oil, which increased EPA and docosahexaenoic acid (C22:6 n-3); (iv) equal quantities of linseed and fish oil. Higher levels of lipid oxidation products were found in the aroma extracts of all of the steaks with increased PUFA content, after cooking. In particular, n-alkanals, 2-alkenals, 1-alkanols, and alkylfurans were increased up to 4-fold. Most of these compounds were derived from the autoxidation of the more abundant mono- and di-unsaturated fatty acids during cooking, and such autoxidation appeared to be promoted by increased levels of PUFAs.

  3. Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids and Oxylipins in Neuroinflammation and Management of Alzheimer Disease.

    PubMed

    Devassy, Jessay Gopuran; Leng, Shan; Gabbs, Melissa; Monirujjaman, Md; Aukema, Harold M

    2016-09-01

    Alzheimer disease (AD) is becoming one of the most prevalent neurodegenerative conditions worldwide. Although the disease progression is becoming better understood, current medical interventions can only ameliorate some of the symptoms but cannot slow disease progression. Neuroinflammation plays an important role in the advancement of this disorder, and n-3 (ω-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are involved in both the reduction in and resolution of inflammation. These effects may be mediated by the anti-inflammatory and proresolving effects of bioactive lipid mediators (oxylipins) derived from n-3 PUFAs [eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)] in fish oil. Although interventions have generally used fish oil containing both EPA and DHA, several studies that used either EPA or DHA alone or specific oxylipins derived from these fatty acids indicate that they have distinct effects. Both DHA and EPA can reduce neuroinflammation and cognitive decline, but EPA positively influences mood disorders, whereas DHA maintains normal brain structure. Fewer studies with a plant-derived n-3 PUFA, α-linolenic acid, suggest that other n-3 PUFAs and their oxylipins also may positively affect AD. Further research identifying the unique anti-inflammatory and proresolving properties of oxylipins from individual n-3 PUFAs will enable the discovery of novel disease-management strategies in AD. PMID:27633106

  4. Endogenous n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids Attenuate T Cell-Mediated Hepatitis via Autophagy Activation.

    PubMed

    Li, Yanli; Tang, Yuan; Wang, Shoujie; Zhou, Jing; Zhou, Jia; Lu, Xiao; Bai, Xiaochun; Wang, Xiang-Yang; Chen, Zhengliang; Zuo, Daming

    2016-01-01

    Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs) exert anti-inflammatory effects in several liver disorders, including cirrhosis, acute liver failure, and fatty liver disease. To date, little is known about their role in immune-mediated liver diseases. In this study, we used fat-1 transgenic mice rich in endogenous n-3 PUFAs to examine the role of n-3 PUFAs in immune-mediated liver injury. Concanavalin A (Con A) was administered intravenously to wild-type (WT) and fat-1 transgenic mice to induce T cell-mediated hepatitis. Reduced liver damage was shown in Con A-administrated fat-1 transgenic mice, as evidenced by decreased mortality, attenuated hepatic necrosis, lessened serum alanine aminotransferase activity, and inhibited production of pro-inflammatory cytokines (e.g., TNF-α, IL-6, IL-17A, and IFN-γ). In vivo and in vitro studies demonstrated that n-3 PUFAs significantly inhibited the activation of hepatic T cells and the differentiation of Th1 cells after Con A challenge. Further studies showed that n-3 PUFAs markedly increased autophagy level in Con A-treated fat-1 T cells compared with the WT counterparts. Blocking hepatic autophagy activity with chloroquine diminished the differences in T cell activation and liver injury between Con A-injected WT and fat-1 transgenic mice. We conclude that n-3 PUFAs limit Con A-induced hepatitis via an autophagy-dependent mechanism and could be exploited as a new therapeutic approach for autoimmune hepatitis.

  5. Regulatory Activity of Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids in T-Cell Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Wooki; Khan, Naim A.; McMurray, David N.; Prior, Ian A.; Wang, Naisyin; Chapkin, Robert S.

    2010-01-01

    n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) are considered to be authentic immunosuppressors and appear to exert beneficial effects with respect to certain immune-mediated diseases. In addition to promoting T-helper 1 (Th1) cell to T-helper 2 (Th2) cell effector T-cell differentiation, n-3 PUFA may also exert anti-inflammatory actions by inducing apoptosis in Th1 cells. With respect to mechanisms of action, effects range from the modulation of membrane receptors to gene transcription via perturbation of a number of second messenger cascades. In this review, the putative targets of anti-inflammatory n-3 PUFA, activated during early and late events of T-cell activation will be discussed. Studies have demonstrated that these fatty acids alter plasma membrane micro-organization (lipid rafts) at the immunological synapse, the site where T-cells and antigen presenting cells (APC) form a physical contact for antigen initiated T-cell signaling. In addition, the production of diacylglycerol and the activation of different isoforms of protein kinase C (PKC), mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK), calcium signaling, and nuclear translocation/activation of transcriptional factors, can be modulated by n-3 PUFA. Advantages and limitations of diverse methodologies to study the membrane lipid raft hypothesis, as well as apparent contradictions regarding the effect of n-3 PUFA on lipid rafts will be critically presented. PMID:20176053

  6. Novel Simplified and Rapid Method for Screening and Isolation of Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids Producing Marine Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Tilay, Ashwini; Annapure, Uday

    2012-01-01

    Bacterial production of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) is a potential biotechnological approach for production of valuable nutraceuticals. Reliable method for screening of number of strains within short period of time is great need. Here, we report a novel simplified method for screening and isolation of PUFA-producing bacteria by direct visualization using the H2O2-plate assay. The oxidative stability of PUFAs in growing bacteria towards added H2O2 is a distinguishing characteristic between the PUFAs producers (no zone of inhibition) and non-PUFAs producers (zone of inhibition) by direct visualization. The confirmation of assay results was performed by injecting fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) produced by selected marine bacteria to Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GCMS). To date, this assay is the most effective, inexpensive, and specific method for bacteria producing PUFAs and shows drastically reduction in the number of samples thus saves the time, effort, and cost of screening and isolating strains of bacterial PUFAs producers. PMID:22934188

  7. A mechanism underlying the effects of polyunsaturated fatty acids on breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    ZHANG, HAO; ZHOU, LEI; SHI, WEI; SONG, NING; YU, KARU; GU, YUCHUN

    2012-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most frequent cancer in women. Evidence suggests that the polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) affect breast cancer proliferation, differentiation and prognosis. However, the mechanism still remains unclear. In this study, the expression of transient receptor potential canonical (TRPC)3 was detected throughout the cell cytoplasm and at the cell surface of MCF-7 cells. Ca2+ entry was induced in these cells via activated TRPC3 by either the diacylglycerol analogue (OAG) or by intracellular Ca2+ store depletion. TRPC-mediated Ca2+ entry was inhibited by PUFAs including arachidonic acid (AA) and linolenic acid (LA) but not saturated fatty acids. Overexpression of the PUFA degradation enzyme, cyclooxygenase 2 (COX2), enhanced capacitative Ca2+ entry. In addition, inhibition of COX2 reduced [Ca2+]i. Nevertheless, inhibition of TRPC reduced the cell cycle S phase and cell migration, implicating a functional role for TRP-mediated Ca2+ entry in cell proliferation and invasion. Exogenous PUFA as well as a TRPC3 antagonist consistently attenuated breast cancer cell proliferation and migration, suggesting a mechanism in which PUFA restrains the breast cancer partly via its inhibition of TRPC channels. Additionally, our results also suggest that TRPC3 appears as a new mediator of breast cancer cell migration/invasion and represents a potential target for a new class of anticancer agent. PMID:22692672

  8. Polyunsaturated fatty acids trigger apoptosis of colon cancer cells through a mitochondrial pathway

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Chengcheng; Yu, Haining; Shen, Yuzhen; Ni, Xiaofeng; Das, Undurti N.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Colorectal cancer is common in developed countries. Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) have been reported to possess tumoricidal action, but the exact mechanism of their action is not clear. Material and methods In the present study, we studied the effect of various n-6 and n-3 fatty acids on the survival of the colon cancer cells LoVo and RKO and evaluated the possible involvement of a mitochondrial pathway in their ability to induce apoptosis. Results It was observed that n-3 α-linolenic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid (ALA, EPA and DHA respectively) and n-6 linoleic acid, gamma-linolenic acid and arachidonic acid (LA, GLA and AA respectively) induced apoptosis of the colon cancer cells LoVo and RKO at concentrations above 120 μM (p < 0.01 compared to control). The semi-differentiated colon cancer cell line RKO was more sensitive to the cytotoxic action of PUFAs compared to the undifferentiated colon cancer cell line LoVo. PUFA-treated cells showed an increased number of lipid droplets in their cytoplasm. PUFA-induced apoptosis of LoVo and RKO cells is mediated through a mitochondria-mediated pathway as evidenced by loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, generation of ROS, accumulation of intracellular Ca2+, activation of caspase-9 and caspase-3, decreased ATP level and increase in the Bax/Bcl2 expression ratio. Conclusions PUFAs induced apoptosis of colon cancer cells through a mitochondrial dependent pathway. PMID:26528354

  9. Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids and Oxylipins in Neuroinflammation and Management of Alzheimer Disease.

    PubMed

    Devassy, Jessay Gopuran; Leng, Shan; Gabbs, Melissa; Monirujjaman, Md; Aukema, Harold M

    2016-09-01

    Alzheimer disease (AD) is becoming one of the most prevalent neurodegenerative conditions worldwide. Although the disease progression is becoming better understood, current medical interventions can only ameliorate some of the symptoms but cannot slow disease progression. Neuroinflammation plays an important role in the advancement of this disorder, and n-3 (ω-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are involved in both the reduction in and resolution of inflammation. These effects may be mediated by the anti-inflammatory and proresolving effects of bioactive lipid mediators (oxylipins) derived from n-3 PUFAs [eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)] in fish oil. Although interventions have generally used fish oil containing both EPA and DHA, several studies that used either EPA or DHA alone or specific oxylipins derived from these fatty acids indicate that they have distinct effects. Both DHA and EPA can reduce neuroinflammation and cognitive decline, but EPA positively influences mood disorders, whereas DHA maintains normal brain structure. Fewer studies with a plant-derived n-3 PUFA, α-linolenic acid, suggest that other n-3 PUFAs and their oxylipins also may positively affect AD. Further research identifying the unique anti-inflammatory and proresolving properties of oxylipins from individual n-3 PUFAs will enable the discovery of novel disease-management strategies in AD.

  10. Endogenous n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids Attenuate T Cell-Mediated Hepatitis via Autophagy Activation

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yanli; Tang, Yuan; Wang, Shoujie; Zhou, Jing; Zhou, Jia; Lu, Xiao; Bai, Xiaochun; Wang, Xiang-Yang; Chen, Zhengliang; Zuo, Daming

    2016-01-01

    Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs) exert anti-inflammatory effects in several liver disorders, including cirrhosis, acute liver failure, and fatty liver disease. To date, little is known about their role in immune-mediated liver diseases. In this study, we used fat-1 transgenic mice rich in endogenous n-3 PUFAs to examine the role of n-3 PUFAs in immune-mediated liver injury. Concanavalin A (Con A) was administered intravenously to wild-type (WT) and fat-1 transgenic mice to induce T cell-mediated hepatitis. Reduced liver damage was shown in Con A-administrated fat-1 transgenic mice, as evidenced by decreased mortality, attenuated hepatic necrosis, lessened serum alanine aminotransferase activity, and inhibited production of pro-inflammatory cytokines (e.g., TNF-α, IL-6, IL-17A, and IFN-γ). In vivo and in vitro studies demonstrated that n-3 PUFAs significantly inhibited the activation of hepatic T cells and the differentiation of Th1 cells after Con A challenge. Further studies showed that n-3 PUFAs markedly increased autophagy level in Con A-treated fat-1 T cells compared with the WT counterparts. Blocking hepatic autophagy activity with chloroquine diminished the differences in T cell activation and liver injury between Con A-injected WT and fat-1 transgenic mice. We conclude that n-3 PUFAs limit Con A-induced hepatitis via an autophagy-dependent mechanism and could be exploited as a new therapeutic approach for autoimmune hepatitis.

  11. Genome-wide meta-analyses identify novel loci associated with n-3 and n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid levels in Chinese and European-ancestry populations.

    PubMed

    Hu, Yao; Li, Huaixing; Lu, Ling; Manichaikul, Ani; Zhu, Jingwen; Chen, Yii-Der I; Sun, Liang; Liang, Shuang; Siscovick, David S; Steffen, Lyn M; Tsai, Michael Y; Rich, Stephen S; Lemaitre, Rozenn N; Lin, Xu

    2016-03-15

    Epidemiological studies suggest that levels of n-3 and n-6 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids are associated with risk of cardio-metabolic outcomes across different ethnic groups. Recent genome-wide association studies in populations of European ancestry have identified several loci associated with plasma and/or erythrocyte polyunsaturated fatty acids. To identify additional novel loci, we carried out a genome-wide association study in two population-based cohorts consisting of 3521 Chinese participants, followed by a trans-ethnic meta-analysis with meta-analysis results from 8962 participants of European ancestry. Four novel loci (MYB, AGPAT4, DGAT2 and PPT2) reached genome-wide significance in the trans-ethnic meta-analysis (log10(Bayes Factor) ≥ 6). Of them, associations of MYB and AGPAT4 with docosatetraenoic acid (log10(Bayes Factor) = 11.5 and 8.69, respectively) also reached genome-wide significance in the Chinese-specific genome-wide association analyses (P = 4.15 × 10(-14) and 4.30 × 10(-12), respectively), while associations of DGAT2 with gamma-linolenic acid (log10(Bayes Factor) = 6.16) and of PPT2 with docosapentaenoic acid (log10(Bayes Factor) = 6.24) were nominally significant in both Chinese- and European-specific genome-wide association analyses (P ≤ 0.003). We also confirmed previously reported loci including FADS1, NTAN1, NRBF2, ELOVL2 and GCKR. Different effect sizes in FADS1 and independent association signals in ELOVL2 were observed. These results provide novel insight into the genetic background of polyunsaturated fatty acids and their differences between Chinese and European populations.

  12. Polyunsaturated fatty acid biosynthesis is involved in phenylephrine-mediated calcium release in vascular smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Irvine, Nicola A; Lillycrop, Karen A; Fielding, Barbara; Torrens, Christopher; Hanson, Mark A; Burdge, Graham C

    2015-10-01

    Stimulation of vascular smooth muscle (VSM) α1-adrenoceptors induces myosin phosphorylation and vasoconstriction via mobilisation of intracellular calcium and production of specific eicosanoids. Polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) biosynthesis in VSM cells is involved, although the precise mechanism is not known. To address this, we characterised PUFA biosynthesis in VSM cells and determined its role in intracellular calcium release and eicosanoid production. Murine VSM cells converted 18:2n-6 to longer chain PUFA including 22:5n-6. Δ6 (D6d) and Δ5 (D5d) desaturase, and elongase (Elovl) 5 were expressed. Elovl2 was not detected in human, mouse or rat VSM cells, or in rat or mouse aortae, but tit was not associated with hypermethylation of its promoter. D6d or D5d inhibition reduced 18:3n-6 and 20:4n-6 synthesis, respectively, and induced concentration-related decrease in phenylephrine-mediated calcium release, and in PGE2 and PGF2α secretion. Together these findings suggest that PUFA biosynthesis in VSM cells is involved in calcium release associated with vasoconstriction.

  13. n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids and Mechanisms to Mitigate Inflammatory Paracrine Signaling in Obesity-Associated Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Monk, Jennifer M.; Turk, Harmony F.; Liddle, Danyelle M.; De Boer, Anna A.; Power, Krista A.; Ma, David W.L.; Robinson, Lindsay E.

    2014-01-01

    Globally, the prevalence of obesity is increasing which subsequently increases the risk of the development of obesity-related chronic diseases. Low-grade chronic inflammation and dysregulated adipose tissue inflammatory mediator/adipokine secretion are well-established in obesity, and these factors increase the risk of developing inflammation-associated cancer. Breast cancer is of particular interest given that increased inflammation within the subcutaneous mammary adipose tissue depot can alter the local tissue inflammatory microenvironment such that it resembles that of obese visceral adipose tissue. Therefore, in obese women with breast cancer, increased inflammatory mediators both locally and systemically can perpetuate inflammation-associated pro-carcinogenic signaling pathways, thereby increasing disease severity. Herein, we discuss some of these inflammation-associated pro-carcinogenic mechanisms of the combined obese breast cancer phenotype and offer evidence that dietary long chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) may have utility in mitigating the severity of obesity-associated inflammation and breast cancer. PMID:25360510

  14. A perspective on free radical autoxidation: the physical organic chemistry of polyunsaturated fatty acid and sterol peroxidation.

    PubMed

    Porter, Ned A

    2013-04-19

    This Perspective describes advances from the author's laboratory on the free radical reactions of organic compounds with molecular oxygen. Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) and sterols are particularly prone to undergo radical chain oxidation, and evidence suggests that this process, known as lipid peroxidation, occurs in vivo under a variety of conditions that are the result of an oxidative stress. Cyclic peroxides, hydroperoxides, and epoxy alcohols are major products formed from peroxidation, and the basic mechanisms of product formation are now reasonably well understood. These mechanisms include reversible addition of oxygen to carbon radicals, rearrangement and cyclization of allyl and pentadienyl peroxyl radicals, and homolytic substitution of carbon radicals on the peroxide bond. A physical organic approach to the problem of free radicals in biology and medicine is highlighted in this Perspective with stereochemical, kinetic, and extrathermodynamic probes applied to the study of mechanism. A radical clock permits the determination of free radical propagation rate constants, and 7-dehydrocholesterol, the immediate biosynthetic precursor of cholesterol, is found by this clock to be one of the most oxidizable lipids known. The consequences of the extreme reactivity of 7-dehydrocholesterol on human health is the focus of a current research theme in the author's laboratory.

  15. A Perspective on Free Radical Autoxidation: The Physical Organic Chemistry of Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid and Sterol Peroxidation

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    This Perspective describes advances from the author’s laboratory on the free radical reactions of organic compounds with molecular oxygen. Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) and sterols are particularly prone to undergo radical chain oxidation and evidence suggests that this process, known as lipid peroxidation, occurs in vivo under a variety of conditions that are the result of an oxidative stress. Cyclic peroxides, hydroperoxides, and epoxy-alcohols are major products formed from peroxidation and the basic mechanisms of product formation are now reasonably well understood. These mechanisms include reversible addition of oxygen to carbon radicals, rearrangement and cyclization of allyl and pentadienyl peroxyl radicals and homolytic substitution of carbon radicals on the peroxide bond. A physical organic approach to the problem of free radicals in biology and medicine is highlighted in this Perspective with stereochemical, kinetic and extrathermodynamic probes applied to the study of mechanism. A radical clock permits the determination of free radical propagation rate constants and 7-dehydrocholesterol, the immediate biosynthetic precursor of cholesterol, is found by this clock to be one of the most oxidizable lipids known. The consequences of the extreme reactivity of 7-dehydrocholesterol on human health is the focus of a current research theme in the author’s laboratory. PMID:23445181

  16. Polyunsaturated fatty acid biosynthesis is involved in phenylephrine-mediated calcium release in vascular smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Irvine, Nicola A; Lillycrop, Karen A; Fielding, Barbara; Torrens, Christopher; Hanson, Mark A; Burdge, Graham C

    2015-10-01

    Stimulation of vascular smooth muscle (VSM) α1-adrenoceptors induces myosin phosphorylation and vasoconstriction via mobilisation of intracellular calcium and production of specific eicosanoids. Polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) biosynthesis in VSM cells is involved, although the precise mechanism is not known. To address this, we characterised PUFA biosynthesis in VSM cells and determined its role in intracellular calcium release and eicosanoid production. Murine VSM cells converted 18:2n-6 to longer chain PUFA including 22:5n-6. Δ6 (D6d) and Δ5 (D5d) desaturase, and elongase (Elovl) 5 were expressed. Elovl2 was not detected in human, mouse or rat VSM cells, or in rat or mouse aortae, but tit was not associated with hypermethylation of its promoter. D6d or D5d inhibition reduced 18:3n-6 and 20:4n-6 synthesis, respectively, and induced concentration-related decrease in phenylephrine-mediated calcium release, and in PGE2 and PGF2α secretion. Together these findings suggest that PUFA biosynthesis in VSM cells is involved in calcium release associated with vasoconstriction. PMID:26324193

  17. Ketogenic Diet, but Not Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Diet, Reduces Spontaneous Seizures in Juvenile Rats with Kainic Acid-induced Epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Dustin, Simone M.; Stafstrom, Carl E.

    2016-01-01

    Background and Purpose: The high-fat, low-carbohydrate ketogenic diet (KD) is effective in many cases of drug-resistant epilepsy, particularly in children. In the classic KD, fats consist primarily of long-chain saturated triglycerides. Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), especially the n-3 type, decrease neuronal excitability and provide neuroprotection; pilot human studies have raised the possibility of using PUFAs to control seizures in patients. Methods: To determine the relative roles of the KD and PUFAs in an animal model, we induced epilepsy in juvenile rats (P29–35) using intraperitoneal kainic acid (KA). KA caused status epilepticus in all rats. Two days after KA, rats were randomized to one of 4 dietary groups: Control diet; PUFA diet; KD; or KD plus PUFA. All diets were administered isocalorically at 90% of the rat recommended daily calorie requirement. Spontaneous recurrent seizures (SRS) were assessed for 3 months after diet randomization. Results: Rats receiving the KD or KD-PUFA diet had significantly fewer SRS than those receiving the Control diet or PUFA diet. The PUFA diet did not reduce SRS compared to the Control diet. Conclusions: In the KA epilepsy model, the KD protects against SRS occurrence but dietary enhancement with PUFA does not afford additional protection against spontaneous seizures. PMID:27390673

  18. Cloning, expression and functional characterization of the polyunsaturated fatty acid elongase (ELOVL5) gene from sea cucumber (Apostichopus japonicus).

    PubMed

    Li, Wenxia; Feng, Zhengfu; Song, Xiaojun; Zhu, Wei; Hu, Yanjiang

    2016-11-15

    Long chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) are beneficial for maintaining the health, growth and development of an organism and could reduce the risk of some diseases. The ability to endogenously produce PUFA, especially in invertebrates, is largely unknown. To study the function of elongase genes in the PUFA biosynthesis of Apostichopus japonicus, we cloned an ELOVL5 homology gene from intestinal cDNA of A. japonicus (Aj-ELOVL5). The Aj-ELOVL5 gene encoded a 318 amino acid (AA) protein that exhibited all the characteristics of the ELOVL5 family, such as a histidine box motif and four putative transmembrane-spanning domains. The results of the tissue expression profile of Aj-ELOVL5 revealed that the body wall exhibited the highest expression level compared with other adult tissues. We also found that the Aj-ELOVL5 enzyme exhibited the ability to elongate γ-linolenic acid (18:3 n-6) and eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5 n-3) to dihomo-γ-linolenic acid (20:3 n-6) and docosapentaenoic acid (22:5 n-3), respectively. Our results indicated that the Aj-ELOVL5 enzyme had the capacity to biosynthesize PUFA from C18/C20 PUFA substrates.

  19. Cloning, expression and functional characterization of the polyunsaturated fatty acid elongase (ELOVL5) gene from sea cucumber (Apostichopus japonicus).

    PubMed

    Li, Wenxia; Feng, Zhengfu; Song, Xiaojun; Zhu, Wei; Hu, Yanjiang

    2016-11-15

    Long chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) are beneficial for maintaining the health, growth and development of an organism and could reduce the risk of some diseases. The ability to endogenously produce PUFA, especially in invertebrates, is largely unknown. To study the function of elongase genes in the PUFA biosynthesis of Apostichopus japonicus, we cloned an ELOVL5 homology gene from intestinal cDNA of A. japonicus (Aj-ELOVL5). The Aj-ELOVL5 gene encoded a 318 amino acid (AA) protein that exhibited all the characteristics of the ELOVL5 family, such as a histidine box motif and four putative transmembrane-spanning domains. The results of the tissue expression profile of Aj-ELOVL5 revealed that the body wall exhibited the highest expression level compared with other adult tissues. We also found that the Aj-ELOVL5 enzyme exhibited the ability to elongate γ-linolenic acid (18:3 n-6) and eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5 n-3) to dihomo-γ-linolenic acid (20:3 n-6) and docosapentaenoic acid (22:5 n-3), respectively. Our results indicated that the Aj-ELOVL5 enzyme had the capacity to biosynthesize PUFA from C18/C20 PUFA substrates. PMID:27538705

  20. [Research progression of short chain fatty acid].

    PubMed

    Wan, Xiao; Wang, Xinying; Li, Ning

    2015-09-01

    With the development of intestinal flora, short chain fatty acid(SCFA), produced by the intestinal microbiota, has been found to be important for the host. It also plays an important role in the part of the occurrence and development of some diseases. The relationship between SCFA produced by intestinal microbiota and the host body has become the research focus in recent years. The physiological function and clinical application of SCFA were reviewed in this article.

  1. Polyunsaturated fatty acids and protection of newborn rats from oxygen toxicity.

    PubMed

    Sosenko, I R; Innis, S M; Frank, L

    1988-04-01

    To test whether polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) might be associated with protection against oxygen toxicity in newborn experimental animals, we performed two series of experiments. In the first series, adult female rats were fed one of three diets--regular Rat Chow, a high-PUFA (safflower oil-based) diet, or a low-PUFA (palm oil-based) diet--for several weeks before and throughout pregnancy and lactation. Newborn offspring of the three diet groups had similar antioxidant enzyme activities and surfactant development. Offspring of dams fed the high-PUFA diet had total lung lipid fatty acids characterized by increased linoleic acid (18:2 omega 6) and arachidonic acid (20:4 omega 6) and a significantly increased PUFA/saturated fatty acid ratio, compared with offspring of dams fed the regular diet or low-PUFA diet; associated with this increased PUFA pattern was markedly superior survival (80 of 84 (95%) vs 56 of 84 (67%) for regular-diet offspring, P less than 0.01) after 7 days in greater than 95% oxygen. Conversely, offspring born to dams fed the low-PUFA diet had decreased lung PUFA content and inferior tolerance to prolonged high O2 exposure (survival 38 of 84 (45%)). In the second experimental series, the postnatal provision of high PUFA rat milk to offspring born to dams fed the low-PUFA diet (via "cross-nurturing" by high-PUFA diet dams) rapidly increased their lung lipid PUFA and improved their hyperoxic survival (44 of 50 vs 25 of 50 for low-PUFA diet newborn animals kept with their low-PUFA mother rats, P less than 0.01). These studies suggest that increasing lung lipid PUFA can confer a protective effect against the toxic effects of hyperoxia on the newborn animal lung. PMID:3351690

  2. The high-level accumulation of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in transgenic pigs harboring the n-3 fatty acid desaturase gene from Caenorhabditis briggsae.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yanrong; Lin, Yanli; Wu, Xiaojie; Feng, Chong; Long, Chuan; Xiong, Fuyin; Wang, Ning; Pan, Dengke; Chen, Hongxing

    2014-02-01

    Livestock meat is generally low in n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), which are beneficial to human health. An alternative approach to increasing the levels of n-3 PUFAs in meat is to generate transgenic livestock animals. In this study, we describe the generation of cloned pigs that express the cbr-fat-1 gene from Caenorhabditis briggsae, encoding an n-3 fatty acid desaturase. Analysis of fatty acids demonstrated that the cbr-fat-1 transgenic pigs produced high levels of n-3 fatty acids from n-6 analogs; consequently, a significantly reduced ratio of n-6/n-3 fatty acids was observed. We demonstrated that the n-3 desaturase gene from C. briggsae was functionally expressed, and had a significant effect on the fatty acid composition of the transgenic pigs, which may allow the production of pork enriched in n-3 PUFAs.

  3. Neuroinflammatory processes in cognitive disorders: Is there a role for flavonoids and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in counteracting their detrimental effects?

    PubMed

    Vauzour, David; Martinsen, Anneloes; Layé, Sophie

    2015-10-01

    Neuroinflammatory processes are known to contribute to the cascade of events culminating in the neuronal damage that underpins neurodegenerative disorders such as Parkinson's and Alzheimer's disease. With the ageing population and increased cases of neurodegenerative diseases, there is a crucial need for the development of new strategies capable to prevent, delay the onset or treat brain dysfunction and associated cognitive decline. Growing evidence sheds light on the use of dietary polyphenols and n-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids to improve cognitive performance and reduce the neuroinflammatory and oxidative stress responses occurring with age and neurodegenerative pathologies. This review will summarise the most recent information related to the impact and mechanisms underlying the neuroinflammatory processes in neurodegenerative disorders. We will also detail the current evidence indicating that flavonoids and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids are strong candidates in preventing neuroinflammation and modulating age-related memory decline, and we will describe the potential mechanisms of action underlying their neuroprotective effects. As such, these dietary bioactives represent important precursor molecules in the quest to develop a new generation of drugs capable of counteracting neuroinflammation and neurodegenerative diseases.

  4. Neuroinflammatory processes in cognitive disorders: Is there a role for flavonoids and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in counteracting their detrimental effects?

    PubMed

    Vauzour, David; Martinsen, Anneloes; Layé, Sophie

    2015-10-01

    Neuroinflammatory processes are known to contribute to the cascade of events culminating in the neuronal damage that underpins neurodegenerative disorders such as Parkinson's and Alzheimer's disease. With the ageing population and increased cases of neurodegenerative diseases, there is a crucial need for the development of new strategies capable to prevent, delay the onset or treat brain dysfunction and associated cognitive decline. Growing evidence sheds light on the use of dietary polyphenols and n-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids to improve cognitive performance and reduce the neuroinflammatory and oxidative stress responses occurring with age and neurodegenerative pathologies. This review will summarise the most recent information related to the impact and mechanisms underlying the neuroinflammatory processes in neurodegenerative disorders. We will also detail the current evidence indicating that flavonoids and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids are strong candidates in preventing neuroinflammation and modulating age-related memory decline, and we will describe the potential mechanisms of action underlying their neuroprotective effects. As such, these dietary bioactives represent important precursor molecules in the quest to develop a new generation of drugs capable of counteracting neuroinflammation and neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:26260547

  5. Testing the interactive effects of carotenoids and polyunsaturated fatty acids on ejaculate traits in the guppy Poecilia reticulata (Pisces: Poeciliidae).

    PubMed

    Rahman, M M; Gasparini, C; Turchini, G M; Evans, J P

    2015-05-01

    Using the polyandrous livebearing guppy Poecilia reticulata, this study revealed no main effects of carotenoids in the diet on ejaculate traits, but significant main effects of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) on sperm viability and weak but significant interacting effects of both nutrients on sperm length. Collectively, these findings not only add evidence that PUFAs are critical determinants of sperm quality, but also provide tentative evidence that for some traits these effects may be moderated by carotenoid intake.

  6. Dietary n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid deprivation increases docosahexaenoic acid metabolism in rat brain.

    PubMed

    Igarashi, Miki; Kim, Hyung-Wook; Chang, Lisa; Ma, Kaizong; Rapoport, Stanley I

    2012-03-01

    Dietary n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) deprivation in rodents reduces brain arachidonic acid (20:4n-6) concentration and 20:4n-6-preferring cytosolic phospholipase A(2) (cPLA(2) -IVA) and cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 expression, while increasing brain docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n-3) concentration and DHA-selective calcium-independent phospholipase A(2) (iPLA(2) )-VIA expression. We hypothesized that these changes are accompanied by up-regulated brain DHA metabolic rates. Using a fatty acid model, brain DHA concentrations and kinetics were measured in unanesthetized male rats fed, for 15 weeks post-weaning, an n-6 PUFA 'adequate' (31.4 wt% linoleic acid) or 'deficient' (2.7 wt% linoleic acid) diet, each lacking 20:4n-6 and DHA. [1-(14) C]DHA was infused intravenously, arterial blood was sampled, and the brain was microwaved at 5 min and analyzed. Rats fed the n-6 PUFA deficient compared with adequate diet had significantly reduced n-6 PUFA concentrations in brain phospholipids but increased eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 20:5n-3), docosapentaenoic acid n-3 (DPAn-3, 22:5n-3), and DHA (by 9.4%) concentrations, particularly in ethanolamine glycerophospholipid (EtnGpl). Incorporation rates of unesterified DHA from plasma, which represent DHA metabolic loss from brain, were increased 45% in brain phospholipids, as was DHA turnover. Increased DHA metabolism following dietary n-6 PUFA deprivation may increase brain concentrations of antiinflammatory DHA metabolites, which with a reduced brain n-6 PUFA content, likely promotes neuroprotection and alters neurotransmission.

  7. Fatty acid composition of membrane bilayers: importance of diet polyunsaturated fat balance.

    PubMed

    Abbott, Sarah K; Else, Paul L; Atkins, Taleitha A; Hulbert, A J

    2012-05-01

    In one of the most extensive analyses to date we show that the balance of diet n-3 and n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) is the most important determinant of membrane composition in the rat under 'normal' conditions. Young adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed one of twelve moderate-fat diets (25% of total energy) for 8weeks. Diets differed only in fatty acid (FA) profiles, with saturate (SFA) content ranging 8-88% of total FAs, monounsaturate (MUFA) 6-65%, total PUFA 4-81%, n-6 PUFA 3-70% and n-3 PUFA 1-70%. Diet PUFA included only essential FAs 18:2n-6 and 18:3n-3. Balance between n-3 and n-6 PUFA is defined as the PUFA balance (n-3 PUFA as % of total PUFA) and ranged 1-86% in the diets. FA composition was measured for brain, heart, liver, skeletal muscle, erythrocytes and plasma phospholipids, as well as adipose tissue and plasma triglycerides. The conformer-regulator model was used (slope=1 indicates membrane composition completely conforming to diet). Extensive changes in diet SFA, MUFA and PUFA had minimal effect on membranes (average slopes 0.01, 0.07, 0.07 respectively), but considerable influence on adipose tissue and plasma triglycerides (average slopes 0.27, 0.53, 0.47 respectively). Diet balance between n-3 and n-6 PUFA had a biphasic influence on membrane composition. When n-3 PUFA<10% of total PUFA, membrane composition completely conformed to diet (average slope 0.95), while diet PUFA balance>10% had little influence (average slope 0.19). The modern human diet has an average PUFA balance ~10% and this will likely have significant health implications.

  8. Endogenous n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids Attenuate T Cell-Mediated Hepatitis via Autophagy Activation.

    PubMed

    Li, Yanli; Tang, Yuan; Wang, Shoujie; Zhou, Jing; Zhou, Jia; Lu, Xiao; Bai, Xiaochun; Wang, Xiang-Yang; Chen, Zhengliang; Zuo, Daming

    2016-01-01

    Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs) exert anti-inflammatory effects in several liver disorders, including cirrhosis, acute liver failure, and fatty liver disease. To date, little is known about their role in immune-mediated liver diseases. In this study, we used fat-1 transgenic mice rich in endogenous n-3 PUFAs to examine the role of n-3 PUFAs in immune-mediated liver injury. Concanavalin A (Con A) was administered intravenously to wild-type (WT) and fat-1 transgenic mice to induce T cell-mediated hepatitis. Reduced liver damage was shown in Con A-administrated fat-1 transgenic mice, as evidenced by decreased mortality, attenuated hepatic necrosis, lessened serum alanine aminotransferase activity, and inhibited production of pro-inflammatory cytokines (e.g., TNF-α, IL-6, IL-17A, and IFN-γ). In vivo and in vitro studies demonstrated that n-3 PUFAs significantly inhibited the activation of hepatic T cells and the differentiation of Th1 cells after Con A challenge. Further studies showed that n-3 PUFAs markedly increased autophagy level in Con A-treated fat-1 T cells compared with the WT counterparts. Blocking hepatic autophagy activity with chloroquine diminished the differences in T cell activation and liver injury between Con A-injected WT and fat-1 transgenic mice. We conclude that n-3 PUFAs limit Con A-induced hepatitis via an autophagy-dependent mechanism and could be exploited as a new therapeutic approach for autoimmune hepatitis. PMID:27679638

  9. Metabolism of polyunsaturated fatty acids and their toxicity to the microflora of the rumen.

    PubMed

    Maia, Margarida R G; Chaudhary, Lal C; Figueres, Lauren; Wallace, R John

    2007-05-01

    Ruminal microorganisms hydrogenate polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) present in forages and thereby restrict the availability of health-promoting PUFA in meat and milk. The aim of this study was to investigate PUFA metabolism and the influence of PUFA on members of the ruminal microflora. Eleven of 26 predominant species of ruminal bacteria metabolised linoleic acid (LA; cis-9,cis-12-18:2) substantially. The most common product was vaccenic acid (trans-11-18:1), produced by species related to Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens. alpha-Linolenic acid (LNA; cis-9,cis-12,cis-15-18:3) was metabolised mostly by the same species. The fish oil fatty acids, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA; 20:5(n - 3)) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; 22:6(n - 3)) were not metabolised. Cellulolytic bacteria did not grow in the presence of any PUFA at 50 microg ml(-1), nor did some butyrate-producing bacteria, including the stearate producer Clostridium proteoclasticum, Butyrivibrio hungatei and Eubacterium ruminantium. Toxicity to growth was ranked EPA > DHA > LNA > LA. Cell integrity, as measured using propidium iodide, was damaged by LA in all 26 bacteria, but to different extents. Correlations between its effects on growth and apparent effects on cell integrity in different bacteria were low. Combined effects of LA and sodium lactate in E. ruminantium and C. proteoclasticum indicated that LA toxicity is linked to metabolism in butyrate-producing bacteria. PUFA also inhibited the growth of the cellulolytic ruminal fungi, with Neocallimastix frontalis producing small amounts of cis-9,trans-11-18:2 (CLA) from LA. Thus, while dietary PUFA might be useful in suppressing the numbers of biohydrogenating ruminal bacteria, particularly C. proteoclasticum, care should be taken to avoid unwanted effects in suppressing cellulolysis.

  10. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids enhance cerebral angiogenesis and provide long-term protection after stroke

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jiayin; Shi, Yejie; Zhang, Lili; Zhang, Feng; Hu, Xiaoming; Zhang, Wengting; Leak, Rehana K.; Gao, Yanqin; Chen, Ling; Chen, Jun

    2014-01-01

    Stroke is a devastating neurological disorder and one of the leading causes of death and serious disability. After cerebral ischemia, revascularization in the ischemic boundary zone provides nutritive blood flow as well as various growth factors to promote the survival and activity of neurons and neural progenitor cells. Enhancement of angiogenesis and the resulting improvement of cerebral microcirculation are key restorative mechanisms and represent an important therapeutic strategy for ischemic stroke. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that post-stroke angiogenesis would be enhanced by omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs), a major component of dietary fish oil. To this end, we found that transgenic fat-1 mice that overproduce n-3 PUFAs exhibited long-term behavioral and histological protection against transient focal cerebral ischemia (tFCI). Importantly, fat-1 transgenic mice also exhibited robust improvements in revascularization and angiogenesis compared to wild type littermates, suggesting a potential role for n-3 fatty acids in post-stroke cerebrovascular remodeling. Mechanistically, n-3 PUFAs induced upregulation of angiopoietin 2 (Ang 2) in astrocytes after tFCI and stimulated extracellular Ang 2 release from cultured astrocytes after oxygen and glucose deprivation. Ang 2 facilitated endothelial proliferation and barrier formation in vitro by potentiating the effects of VEGF on phospholipase Cγ1 and Src signaling. Consistent with these findings, blockade of Src activity in post-stroke fat-1 mice impaired n-3 PUFA-induced angiogenesis and exacerbated long-term neurological outcomes. Taken together, our findings strongly suggest that n-3 PUFA supplementation is a potential angiogenic treatment capable of augmenting brain repair and improving long-term functional recovery after cerebral ischemia. PMID:24794156

  11. Endogenous n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids Attenuate T Cell-Mediated Hepatitis via Autophagy Activation

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yanli; Tang, Yuan; Wang, Shoujie; Zhou, Jing; Zhou, Jia; Lu, Xiao; Bai, Xiaochun; Wang, Xiang-Yang; Chen, Zhengliang; Zuo, Daming

    2016-01-01

    Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs) exert anti-inflammatory effects in several liver disorders, including cirrhosis, acute liver failure, and fatty liver disease. To date, little is known about their role in immune-mediated liver diseases. In this study, we used fat-1 transgenic mice rich in endogenous n-3 PUFAs to examine the role of n-3 PUFAs in immune-mediated liver injury. Concanavalin A (Con A) was administered intravenously to wild-type (WT) and fat-1 transgenic mice to induce T cell-mediated hepatitis. Reduced liver damage was shown in Con A-administrated fat-1 transgenic mice, as evidenced by decreased mortality, attenuated hepatic necrosis, lessened serum alanine aminotransferase activity, and inhibited production of pro-inflammatory cytokines (e.g., TNF-α, IL-6, IL-17A, and IFN-γ). In vivo and in vitro studies demonstrated that n-3 PUFAs significantly inhibited the activation of hepatic T cells and the differentiation of Th1 cells after Con A challenge. Further studies showed that n-3 PUFAs markedly increased autophagy level in Con A-treated fat-1 T cells compared with the WT counterparts. Blocking hepatic autophagy activity with chloroquine diminished the differences in T cell activation and liver injury between Con A-injected WT and fat-1 transgenic mice. We conclude that n-3 PUFAs limit Con A-induced hepatitis via an autophagy-dependent mechanism and could be exploited as a new therapeutic approach for autoimmune hepatitis. PMID:27679638

  12. Maternal Malnutrition in the Etiopathogenesis of Psychiatric Diseases: Role of Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids.

    PubMed

    Morgese, Maria Grazia; Trabace, Luigia

    2016-01-01

    Evidence from human studies indicates that maternal metabolic state and malnutrition dramatically influence the risk for developing psychiatric complications in later adulthood. In this regard, the central role of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), and particularly n-3 PUFAs, is emerging considering that epidemiological evidences have established a negative correlation between n-3 PUFA consumption and development of mood disorders. These findings were supported by clinical studies indicating that low content of n-3 PUFAs in diet is linked to an increased susceptibility to psychiatric disorders. PUFAs regulate membrane fluidity and exert their central action by modulating synaptogenesis and neurotrophic factor expression, neurogenesis, and neurotransmission. Moreover, they are precursors of molecules implicated in modulating immune and inflammatory processes in the brain. Importantly, their tissue concentrations are closely related to diet intake, especially to maternal consumption during embryonal life, considering that their synthesis from essential precursors has been shown to be inefficient in mammals. The scope of this review is to highlight the possible mechanisms of PUFA functions in the brain during pre- and post-natal period and to evaluate their role in the pathogenesis of psychiatric diseases. PMID:27472366

  13. Enhanced production of polyunsaturated fatty acids by enzyme engineering of tandem acyl carrier proteins

    PubMed Central

    Hayashi, Shohei; Satoh, Yasuharu; Ujihara, Tetsuro; Takata, Yusuke; Dairi, Tohru

    2016-01-01

    In some microorganisms, polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are biosynthesized by PUFA synthases characterized by tandem acyl carrier proteins (ACPs) in subunit A. These ACPs were previously shown to be important for PUFA productivity. In this study, we examined their function in more detail. PUFA productivities increased depending on the number of ACPs without profile changes in each subunit A of eukaryotic and prokaryotic PUFA synthases. We also constructed derivative enzymes from subunit A with 5 × ACPs. Enzymes possessing one inactive ACP at any position produced ~30% PUFAs compared with the parental enzyme but unexpectedly had ~250% productivity compared with subunit A with 4 × ACPs. Enzymes constructed by replacing the 3rd ACP with an inactive ACP from another subunit A or ACP-unrelated sequences produced ~100% and ~3% PUFAs compared with the parental 3rd ACP-inactive enzyme, respectively. These results suggest that both the structure and number of ACP domains are important for PUFA productivity. PMID:27752094

  14. The effects of omega-3 polyunsaturated Fatty Acid consumption on mammary carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Witte, Theodore R; Hardman, W Elaine

    2015-05-01

    The consumption of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) is associated with a reduced risk of breast cancer. Studies in animals and in vitro have demonstrated mechanisms that could explain this apparent effect, but clinical and epidemiological studies have returned conflicting results on the practical benefits of dietary n-3 PUFA for prevention of breast cancer. Effects are often only significant within a population when comparing the highest n-3 PUFA consumption group to the lowest n-3 group or highest n-6 group. The beneficial effects of n-3 PUFA eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic on the risk of breast cancer are dose dependent and are negatively affected by total n-6 consumption. The majority of the world population, including the most highly developed regions, consumes insufficient n-3 PUFA to significantly reduce breast cancer risk. This review discusses the physiological and dietary context in which reduction of breast cancer risk may occur, some proposed mechanisms of action and meaningful recommendations for consumption of n-3 PUFA in the diet of developed regions.

  15. Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids in Prevention of Mood and Anxiety Disorders.

    PubMed

    Su, Kuan-Pin; Matsuoka, Yutaka; Pae, Chi-Un

    2015-08-31

    Psychiatric disorders in general, and major depression and anxiety disorders in particular, account for a large burden of disability, morbidity and premature mortality worldwide. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) have a range of neurobiological activities in modulation of neurotransmitters, anti-inflammation, anti-oxidation and neuroplasticity, which could contribute to psychotropic effects. Here we reviewed recent research on the benefits of omega-3 PUFA supplements in prevention against major depression, bipolar disorders, interferon-α-induced depression patients with chronic hepatitis C viral infection, and posttraumatic stress disorder. The biological mechanisms underlying omega-3 PUFAs'psychotropic effects are proposed and reviewed. Nutrition is a modifiable environmental factor that might be important in prevention medicine, which have been applied for many years in the secondary prevention of heart disease with omega-3 PUFAs. This review extends the notion that nutrition in psychiatry is a modifiable environmental factor and calls for more researches on prospective clinical studies to justify the preventive application of omega-3 PUFAs in daily practice.

  16. Mediterranean diet and cardioprotection: the role of nitrite, polyunsaturated fatty acids and polyphenols

    PubMed Central

    Nadtochiy, Sergiy M.; Redman, Emily K.

    2010-01-01

    The continually increasing rate of myocardial infarction (MI) in the Western world at least partly can be explained by a poor diet lacking in green vegetables, fruits, and fish, and enriched in food that contains saturated fat. In contrast, a number of epidemiological studies provide strong evidence highlighting the cardioprotective benefits of the Mediterranean diet enriched in green vegetables, fruits, fish and grape wine. Regular consumption of these products leads to an accumulation of nitrate/nitrite/NO•, polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), and polyphenolic compounds, such as resveratrol, in the human body. Studies have confirmed that these constituents are bioactive exogenous mediators, which induce strong protection against MI. The aim of this review is to provide a critical, in-depth analysis of the cardioprotective pathways mediated by nitrite/NO•, PUFA, and phenolic compounds of grape wines discovered in the recent years, including cross-talk between different mechanisms and compounds. Overall, these findings may facilitate the design and synthesis of novel therapeutic tools for the treatment of MI. PMID:21454053

  17. ω-6 Polyunsaturated fatty acids extend life span through the activation of autophagy

    PubMed Central

    O'Rourke, Eyleen J.; Kuballa, Petric; Xavier, Ramnik; Ruvkun, Gary

    2013-01-01

    Adaptation to nutrient scarcity depends on the activation of metabolic programs to efficiently use internal reserves of energy. Activation of these programs in abundant food regimens can extend life span. However, the common molecular and metabolic changes that promote adaptation to nutritional stress and extend life span are mostly unknown. Here we present a response to fasting, enrichment of ω-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), which promotes starvation resistance and extends Caenorhabditis elegans life span. Upon fasting, C. elegans induces the expression of a lipase, which in turn leads to an enrichment of ω-6 PUFAs. Supplementing C. elegans culture media with these ω-6 PUFAs increases their resistance to starvation and extends their life span in conditions of food abundance. Supplementation of C. elegans or human epithelial cells with these ω-6 PUFAs activates autophagy, a cell recycling mechanism that promotes starvation survival and slows aging. Inactivation of C. elegans autophagy components reverses the increase in life span conferred by supplementing the C. elegans diet with these fasting-enriched ω-6 PUFAs. We propose that the salubrious effects of dietary supplementation with ω-3/6 PUFAs (fish oils) that have emerged from epidemiological studies in humans may be due to a similar activation of autophagic programs. PMID:23392608

  18. ω-6 Polyunsaturated fatty acids extend life span through the activation of autophagy.

    PubMed

    O'Rourke, Eyleen J; Kuballa, Petric; Xavier, Ramnik; Ruvkun, Gary

    2013-02-15

    Adaptation to nutrient scarcity depends on the activation of metabolic programs to efficiently use internal reserves of energy. Activation of these programs in abundant food regimens can extend life span. However, the common molecular and metabolic changes that promote adaptation to nutritional stress and extend life span are mostly unknown. Here we present a response to fasting, enrichment of ω-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), which promotes starvation resistance and extends Caenorhabditis elegans life span. Upon fasting, C. elegans induces the expression of a lipase, which in turn leads to an enrichment of ω-6 PUFAs. Supplementing C. elegans culture media with these ω-6 PUFAs increases their resistance to starvation and extends their life span in conditions of food abundance. Supplementation of C. elegans or human epithelial cells with these ω-6 PUFAs activates autophagy, a cell recycling mechanism that promotes starvation survival and slows aging. Inactivation of C. elegans autophagy components reverses the increase in life span conferred by supplementing the C. elegans diet with these fasting-enriched ω-6 PUFAs. We propose that the salubrious effects of dietary supplementation with ω-3/6 PUFAs (fish oils) that have emerged from epidemiological studies in humans may be due to a similar activation of autophagic programs.

  19. Prokaryotes and the input of polyunsaturated fatty acids to the marine food web.

    PubMed

    Nichols, David S

    2003-02-14

    The investigation of prokaryotes in aquatic ecology is often limited to their role in nutrient cycling and the degradation of organic matter. While this aspect of the microbial loop is undoubtedly important, further aspects of bacterial roles in marine food webs exist which have not been fully considered in light of recent research in related fields. The concept of bacteria providing essential nutrients may derive importance from two aspects of their role in the marine environment; firstly as a primary food source for omnivorous, sestonivorous and filtering benthic animals and secondly as components of the commensal microbial communities of marine animals. Many marine organisms lack the de novo ability to produce n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and hence rely on a dietary supply of PUFA. The issue of PUFA origin in the marine food web is particularly salient in light of recent research demonstrating the influence of PUFA levels on the efficiency of energy transfer between trophic levels. The assumption that microalgae provide the bulk of de novo PUFA production for all marine food webs must be actively reviewed with respect to particular microbial niches such as sea ice, marine animals and abyssal communities.

  20. The effects of antioxidants on the content of polyunsaturated fatty acids in the hen's egg.

    PubMed

    Kassab, A; Abrams, J T; Sainsbury, D W

    1979-01-01

    In experiments to see whether, in the possible interests of human health, the polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) content of the chicken's egg can be increased by nutritional means, three strains of hen, light, medium, and heavy, each at the peak of lay, were first fed a basal, commercial, low-fat diet. The hens were then transferred to one of the following diets: basal + safflower oil (SO); basal + SO + butylated hydroxytoluene; or basal + SO + dl-a-toco-pheryl acetate. The diets were designated "Blank", "BHT", and "Vitamin E", respectively, the second and third containing the added antioxidants. The eggs produced were weighed, and their yolks weighed and analysed for lipid components. Additional of SO (7.5%) to the basal diet led to the PUFA content of the yolk lipids rising by 15.4% (linoleic acid, 14.1%), the magnitude of the increases being unaffected by the antioxidants. Diet "BHT" produced larger eggs and yolks than the other diets, but the proportion of yolk was the same on the three types of feed. The total cholesterol content of egg yolks was significantly affected neither by diet, nor by strain or age of hen. The implications of these results are discussed. PMID:468476

  1. Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids: Structural and Functional Effects on the Vascular Wall

    PubMed Central

    Zanetti, Michela; Grillo, Andrea; Losurdo, Pasquale; Panizon, Emiliano; Mearelli, Filippo; Cattin, Luigi; Barazzoni, Rocco; Carretta, Renzo

    2015-01-01

    Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) consumption is associated with reduced cardiovascular disease risk. Increasing evidence demonstrating a beneficial effect of n-3 PUFA on arterial wall properties is progressively emerging. We reviewed the recent available evidence for the cardiovascular effects of n-3 PUFA focusing on structural and functional properties of the vascular wall. In experimental studies and clinical trials n-3 PUFA have shown the ability to improve arterial hemodynamics by reducing arterial stiffness, thus explaining some of its cardioprotective properties. Recent studies suggest beneficial effects of n-3 PUFA on endothelial activation, which are likely to improve vascular function. Several molecular, cellular, and physiological pathways influenced by n-3 PUFA can affect arterial wall properties and therefore interfere with the atherosclerotic process. Although the relative weight of different physiological and molecular mechanisms and the dose-response on arterial wall properties have yet to be determined, n-3 PUFA have the potential to beneficially impact arterial wall remodeling and cardiovascular outcomes by targeting arterial wall stiffening and endothelial dysfunction. PMID:26301252

  2. Biopolymer nanoparticles designed for polyunsaturated fatty acid vehiculization: Protein-polysaccharide ratio study.

    PubMed

    Perez, Adrián A; Sponton, Osvaldo E; Andermatten, Romina B; Rubiolo, Amelia C; Santiago, Liliana G

    2015-12-01

    Information about the design of biopolymer nanoparticles (BNPs) for polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) vehiculization is provided. Linoleic acid (LA) was used as a model PUFA. The binding ability of LA to β-lactoglobulin (BLG) was applied for obtaining BLG-LA complexes. BLG-LA complex formation was monitored by fluorimetry and it was observed that a moderate heat treatment (60 °C, 10 min) enhanced BLG-LA complexation. Obtaining BNPs involved the electrostatic deposition of high methoxyl pectin (HMP) onto the BLG-LA complex surface. The phase behavior of biopolymer systems was discussed at different Prot:HMP ratio (RProt:HMP, wt.%) levels (1:1-6:1). Absorbance at 600 nm, particle size, and ζ potential were analyzed at pH 4.0. At 1:1-2:1 RProt:HMP, BNPs showed appreciable turbidity, a nanometric diameter (337-364 nm), and a negative ζ potential. Finally, intrinsic and extrinsic fluorimetry was used for examining the HMP protective role at the LA binding site. At 2:1 RProt:HMP, HMP cover could promote significant LA protection in BNPs. PMID:26041229

  3. Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids in Prevention of Mood and Anxiety Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Su, Kuan-Pin; Matsuoka, Yutaka; Pae, Chi-Un

    2015-01-01

    Psychiatric disorders in general, and major depression and anxiety disorders in particular, account for a large burden of disability, morbidity and premature mortality worldwide. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) have a range of neurobiological activities in modulation of neurotransmitters, anti-inflammation, anti-oxidation and neuroplasticity, which could contribute to psychotropic effects. Here we reviewed recent research on the benefits of omega-3 PUFA supplements in prevention against major depression, bipolar disorders, interferon-α-induced depression patients with chronic hepatitis C viral infection, and posttraumatic stress disorder. The biological mechanisms underlying omega-3 PUFAs’ psychotropic effects are proposed and reviewed. Nutrition is a modifiable environmental factor that might be important in prevention medicine, which have been applied for many years in the secondary prevention of heart disease with omega-3 PUFAs. This review extends the notion that nutrition in psychiatry is a modifiable environmental factor and calls for more researches on prospective clinical studies to justify the preventive application of omega-3 PUFAs in daily practice. PMID:26243838

  4. Maternal Malnutrition in the Etiopathogenesis of Psychiatric Diseases: Role of Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids

    PubMed Central

    Morgese, Maria Grazia; Trabace, Luigia

    2016-01-01

    Evidence from human studies indicates that maternal metabolic state and malnutrition dramatically influence the risk for developing psychiatric complications in later adulthood. In this regard, the central role of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), and particularly n-3 PUFAs, is emerging considering that epidemiological evidences have established a negative correlation between n-3 PUFA consumption and development of mood disorders. These findings were supported by clinical studies indicating that low content of n-3 PUFAs in diet is linked to an increased susceptibility to psychiatric disorders. PUFAs regulate membrane fluidity and exert their central action by modulating synaptogenesis and neurotrophic factor expression, neurogenesis, and neurotransmission. Moreover, they are precursors of molecules implicated in modulating immune and inflammatory processes in the brain. Importantly, their tissue concentrations are closely related to diet intake, especially to maternal consumption during embryonal life, considering that their synthesis from essential precursors has been shown to be inefficient in mammals. The scope of this review is to highlight the possible mechanisms of PUFA functions in the brain during pre- and post-natal period and to evaluate their role in the pathogenesis of psychiatric diseases. PMID:27472366

  5. A dietary polyunsaturated fatty acid improves consumer performance during challenge with an opportunistic bacterial pathogen.

    PubMed

    Schlotz, Nina; Pester, Michael; Freese, Heike M; Martin-Creuzburg, Dominik

    2014-11-01

    A dietary deficiency in polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) and/or sterols can severely constrain growth and reproduction of invertebrate consumers. Single nutrients are potentially assigned to different physiological processes, for example to support defence mechanisms; therefore, lipid requirements of healthy and pathogen-challenged consumers might differ. In an oral exposure experiment, we explored the effects of dietary PUFAs and cholesterol on growth, reproduction and survival of an aquatic key herbivore (Daphnia magna) exposed to an opportunistic pathogen (Pseudomonas sp.). We show that healthy and pathogen-challenged D. magna are strongly albeit differentially affected by the biochemical composition of their food sources. Supplementation of a C20 PUFA-deficient diet with arachidonic acid (ARA) resulted in increased survival and reproduction of pathogen-challenged D. magna. We propose that the observed benefit of consuming an ARA-rich diet during pathogen challenge is conveyed partially via ARA-derived eicosanoids. This study is one of the first to consider the importance of dietary PUFAs in modifying fitness parameters of pathogen-challenged invertebrate hosts. Our results suggest that dietary PUFA supply should receive increased attention in host-microorganisms interactions and invertebrate disease models to better understand and predict disease dynamics in natural populations. PMID:25098920

  6. Dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids from flaxseed affect immune responses of dairy sheep around parturition.

    PubMed

    Caroprese, Mariangela; Ciliberti, Maria Giovanna; Albenzio, Marzia; Annicchiarico, Giovanni; Sevi, Agostino

    2015-11-15

    The objective of the study was to characterize the immune profile of dairy ewes fed flaxseed, rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), around parturition. The hypothesis to be verified was that a physiological stressor, such as parturition, could be overcome with a nutritional manipulation in the diet of the animal in order to guarantee welfare of animals and to sustain their immune responses. Twenty Comisana ewes were divided in two groups (10 ewes/group), and fed a supplementation of whole flaxseed in the diet (FS group) or no supplementation (CON group). Blood samples were collected at parturition and then 7, 14, 21, 28, and 42 day post partum. Plasma samples were used to assess the humoral immune response after ovalbumin (OVA) immunization. At parturition, at 14 day, and 42 day post partum the level of plasma cytokines was assessed. The sheep showed a reduced responsiveness to OVA immunization. In FS ewes the IL-6 level remained unchanged until 14 day post partum and then significantly decreased from 14 day to 42 day post partum. IL-10 level was significantly higher in FS ewes than in CON ewes at 14 day. At parturition IL-1β level was significantly lower in FS ewes than in CON ewes and significantly decreased in both groups from parturition to 42 day. In conclusion, PUFA from flaxseed, as supplement in the diet of ewes around parturition can modulate sheep immune reactivity by influencing cytokine production.

  7. Resolvins and omega three polyunsaturated fatty acids: Clinical implications in inflammatory diseases and cancer

    PubMed Central

    Moro, Kazuki; Nagahashi, Masayuki; Ramanathan, Rajesh; Takabe, Kazuaki; Wakai, Toshifumi

    2016-01-01

    Inflammation is a central process in several disorders and contributes to cancer progression. Inflammation involves a complex cascade of pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory signaling events with protein and lipid mediators. Recent advances in lipid detection have revealed the importance of lipid mediators in inflammation. Omega three polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω-3 PUFA) are found naturally in fish oil and have been extensively studied in multiple inflammatory diseases with improved outcomes. Resolvins are thought to be the active metabolites of ω-3 PUFA, and are responsible for facilitating the resolving phase of acute inflammation. Clinically, resolvins have been associated with resolution of acute kidney injury and acute lung injury, micro and macro vascular response to injury, and inhibition of microglia-activated inflammation in neurodegenerative disorders. In addition to inflammatory diseases, ω-3 PUFA and resolvins appear to modulate cancer progression. ω-3 PUFA intake has been associated with reduced inflammation in colorectal cancer, and favorable phenotype in breast cancer. Resolvins offer promising therapeutic potential as they may modulate inflammation with minimal side-effects, in contrast to currently available anti-inflammatory medications. This review describes the roles of ω-3 PUFA and resolvins in the inflammatory cascade, various inflammatory diseases, and specific cancers. Additionally, it will discuss the clinical therapeutic potential of resolvins as targets in inflammatory diseases and cancers. PMID:27458590

  8. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and cancer: lessons learned from clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Nabavi, Seyed Fazel; Bilotto, Stefania; Russo, Gian Luigi; Orhan, Ilkay Erdogan; Habtemariam, Solomon; Daglia, Maria; Devi, Kasi Pandima; Loizzo, Monica Rosa; Tundis, Rosa; Nabavi, Seyed Mohammad

    2015-09-01

    Over the past decades, extensive studies have addressed the therapeutic effects of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (omega-3 FAs) against different human diseases such as cardiovascular and neurodegenerative diseases, cancer, etc. A growing body of scientific research shows the pharmacokinetic information and safety of these natural occurring substances. Moreover, during recent years, a plethora of studies has demonstrated that omega-3 FAs possess therapeutic role against certain types of cancer. It is also known that omega-3 FAs can improve efficacy and tolerability of chemotherapy. Previous reports showed that suppression of nuclear factor-κB, activation of AMPK/SIRT1, modulation of cyclooxygenase (COX) activity, and up-regulation of novel anti-inflammatory lipid mediators such as protectins, maresins, and resolvins, are the main mechanisms of antineoplastic effect of omega-3 FAs. In this review, we have collected the available clinical data on the therapeutic role of omega-3 FAs against breast cancer, colorectal cancer, leukemia, gastric cancer, pancreatic cancer, esophageal cancer, prostate cancer, lung cancer, head and neck cancer, as well as cancer cachexia. We also discussed the chemistry, dietary source, and bioavailability of omega-3 FAs, and the potential molecular mechanisms of anticancer and adverse effects.

  9. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and cancer: lessons learned from clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Nabavi, Seyed Fazel; Bilotto, Stefania; Russo, Gian Luigi; Orhan, Ilkay Erdogan; Habtemariam, Solomon; Daglia, Maria; Devi, Kasi Pandima; Loizzo, Monica Rosa; Tundis, Rosa; Nabavi, Seyed Mohammad

    2015-09-01

    Over the past decades, extensive studies have addressed the therapeutic effects of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (omega-3 FAs) against different human diseases such as cardiovascular and neurodegenerative diseases, cancer, etc. A growing body of scientific research shows the pharmacokinetic information and safety of these natural occurring substances. Moreover, during recent years, a plethora of studies has demonstrated that omega-3 FAs possess therapeutic role against certain types of cancer. It is also known that omega-3 FAs can improve efficacy and tolerability of chemotherapy. Previous reports showed that suppression of nuclear factor-κB, activation of AMPK/SIRT1, modulation of cyclooxygenase (COX) activity, and up-regulation of novel anti-inflammatory lipid mediators such as protectins, maresins, and resolvins, are the main mechanisms of antineoplastic effect of omega-3 FAs. In this review, we have collected the available clinical data on the therapeutic role of omega-3 FAs against breast cancer, colorectal cancer, leukemia, gastric cancer, pancreatic cancer, esophageal cancer, prostate cancer, lung cancer, head and neck cancer, as well as cancer cachexia. We also discussed the chemistry, dietary source, and bioavailability of omega-3 FAs, and the potential molecular mechanisms of anticancer and adverse effects. PMID:26227583

  10. Optimization on preparation condition of polyunsaturated fatty acids nanoliposome prepared by Mozafari method.

    PubMed

    Rasti, B; Jinap, S; Mozafari, M R; Abd-Manap, M Y

    2014-06-01

    This study presents the application of the response surface methodology (design) to develop an optimal preparation condition (independent variables) namely shear rate (600-1000 rpm), mixing time (30-60 min), and sonication time (10-20 min) for polyunsaturated fatty acids (docosahexaenoic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid) nanoliposomes. Fifteen lipid mixtures were generated by the Box-Behnken design and nanoliposomes were prepared by the Mozafari (direct hydration and without using organic solvents) method. Nanoliposomes were characterized with respect to entrapment efficiency (EE) and vesicle size as Y1 and Y2 dependent variables, respectively. The results were then applied to estimate the coefficients of response surface model and to find the optimal preparation conditions with maximum EE and minimum vesicle size. The response surface analysis exhibited that the significant (p < 0.05) second-order polynomial regression equations were successfully fitted for all dependent variables with no significant (p > 0.05) lack of fit for the reduced models. The response optimization of experiments was the shear rate: 795 rpm; mixing time: 60 min; and sonication time: 10 min. The optimal nanoliposome had an average diameter of 81.4 nm and EE of 100%. The experimental results of optimal nanoliposomes characterization confirmed an accurate fitness of the predicted values by reduced response surface models. PMID:24099144

  11. Levels of polyunsaturated fatty acids correlate with growth rate in plant cell cultures

    PubMed Central

    Meï, Coline; Michaud, Morgane; Cussac, Mathilde; Albrieux, Catherine; Gros, Valérie; Maréchal, Eric; Block, Maryse A.; Jouhet, Juliette; Rébeillé, Fabrice

    2015-01-01

    In higher plants, fatty acids (FAs) with 18 carbons (18C) represent about 70% of total FAs, the most abundant species being 18:2 and 18:3. These two polyunsaturated FAs (PUFAs) represent about 55% of total FAs in Arabidopsis cell suspension cultures, whereas 18:1 represents about 10%. The level of PUFAs may vary, depending on ill-defined factors. Here, we compared various sets of plant cell cultures and noticed a correlation between the growth rate of a cell population and the level of unsaturation of 18C FAs. These observations suggest that the final level of PUFAs might depend in part on the rate of cell division, and that FAD2 and FAD3 desaturases, which are respectively responsible for the formation of 18:2 and 18:3 on phospholipids, have limiting activities in fast-growing cultures. In plant cell culture, phosphate (Pi) deprivation is known to impair cell division and to trigger lipid remodeling. We observed that Pi starvation had no effect on the expression of FAD genes, and that the level of PUFAs in this situation was also correlated with the growth rate. Thus, the level of PUFAs appears as a hallmark in determining cell maturity and aging. PMID:26469123

  12. Associations of Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Intake with Bone Mineral Density in Postmenopausal Women

    PubMed Central

    Harris, Margaret; Farrell, Vanessa; Houtkooper, Linda; Going, Scott; Lohman, Timothy

    2015-01-01

    A secondary analysis of cross-sectional data was analyzed from 6 cohorts (Fall 1995–Fall 1997) of postmenopausal women (n = 266; 56.6 ± 4.7 years) participating in the Bone Estrogen Strength Training (BEST) study (a 12-month, block-randomized, clinical trial). Bone mineral density (BMD) was measured at femur neck and trochanter, lumbar spine (L2–L4), and total body BMD using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Mean dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) intakes were assessed using 8 days of diet records. Multiple linear regression was used to examine associations between dietary PUFAs and BMD. Covariates included in the models were total energy intake, body weight at year 1, years after menopause, exercise, use of hormone therapy (HT), total calcium, and total iron intakes. In the total sample, lumbar spine and total body BMD had significant negative associations with dietary PUFA intake at P < 0.05. In the non-HT group, no significant associations between dietary PUFA intake and BMD were seen. In the HT group, significant inverse associations with dietary PUFA intake were seen in the spine, total body, and Ward's triangle BMD, suggesting that HT may influence PUFA associations with BMD. This study is registered with clinicaltrials.gov, identifier: NCT00000399. PMID:25785226

  13. ω-6 Polyunsaturated fatty acids extend life span through the activation of autophagy.

    PubMed

    O'Rourke, Eyleen J; Kuballa, Petric; Xavier, Ramnik; Ruvkun, Gary

    2013-02-15

    Adaptation to nutrient scarcity depends on the activation of metabolic programs to efficiently use internal reserves of energy. Activation of these programs in abundant food regimens can extend life span. However, the common molecular and metabolic changes that promote adaptation to nutritional stress and extend life span are mostly unknown. Here we present a response to fasting, enrichment of ω-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), which promotes starvation resistance and extends Caenorhabditis elegans life span. Upon fasting, C. elegans induces the expression of a lipase, which in turn leads to an enrichment of ω-6 PUFAs. Supplementing C. elegans culture media with these ω-6 PUFAs increases their resistance to starvation and extends their life span in conditions of food abundance. Supplementation of C. elegans or human epithelial cells with these ω-6 PUFAs activates autophagy, a cell recycling mechanism that promotes starvation survival and slows aging. Inactivation of C. elegans autophagy components reverses the increase in life span conferred by supplementing the C. elegans diet with these fasting-enriched ω-6 PUFAs. We propose that the salubrious effects of dietary supplementation with ω-3/6 PUFAs (fish oils) that have emerged from epidemiological studies in humans may be due to a similar activation of autophagic programs. PMID:23392608

  14. N-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids and Inflammation in Obesity: Local Effect and Systemic Benefit

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yue; Huang, Feiruo

    2015-01-01

    Overwhelming consensus emerges among countless evidences that obesity is characterized by a chronic low-grade inflammation in the adipose tissue (AT), which subsequently develops into a systemic inflammatory state contributing to obesity-associated diseases. N-3 Polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA), known as important modulators participating in inflammatory process, turn out to be an effective mitigating strategy dealing with local and systemic inflammation observed in obesity. Some of the effects of n-3 PUFA are brought about by regulation of gene expression through interacting with nuclear receptors and transcription factors; other effects are elicited by modulation of the amount and type of mediator derived from PUFAs. The metabolic effects of n-3 PUFA mainly result from their interactions with several organ systems, not limited to AT. Notably, the attenuation of inflammation in hard-hit AT, in turn, contributes to reducing circulating concentrations of proinflammatory cytokines and detrimental metabolic derivatives, which is beneficial for the function of other involved organs. The present review highlights a bridging mechanism between n-3 PUFA-mediated inflammation relief in AT and systemic benefits. PMID:26339623

  15. Transgenic overproduction of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids provides neuroprotection and enhances endogenous neurogenesis after stroke.

    PubMed

    Hu, X; Zhang, F; Leak, R K; Zhang, W; Iwai, M; Stetler, R A; Dai, Y; Zhao, A; Gao, Y; Chen, J

    2013-11-01

    Strokes are devastating as there are no current therapies to prevent the long term neurological deficits that they cause. Soon after ischemic stroke, there is proliferation and differentiation of neural stem/progenitor cells as an important mechanism for neuronal restoration. However, endogenous neurogenesis by itself is insufficient for effective brain repair after stroke as most newborn neurons do not survive. One fascinating strategy for stroke treatment would thus be maintaining the survival and/or promoting the differentiation of endogenous neural stem/progenitor cells. Using transgenic (Tg) mice over-expressing the C. elegans fat-1 gene encoding an enzyme that converts endogenous omega-6 to omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs), we showed that fat-1 Tg mice with chronically elevated brain levels of n-3 PUFAs exhibited less brain damage and significantly improved long-term neurological performance compared to wild type littermates. Importantly, post-stroke neurogenesis occurred more robustly in fat-1 Tg mice after focal ischemia. This was manifested by enhanced neural stem cell proliferation/differentiation and increased migration of neuroblasts to the ischemic sites where neuroblasts matured into resident neurons. Moreover, these neurogenic effects were accompanied by significantly increased oligodendrogenesis. Our results suggest that n-3 PUFA supplementation is a potential neurogenic and oligodendrogenic treatment to naturally improve post-stroke brain repair and long-term functional recovery. PMID:23971733

  16. Membrane lipid modification by polyunsaturated fatty acids sensitizes oligodendroglial OLN-93 cells against oxidative stress and promotes up-regulation of heme oxygenase-1 (HSP32).

    PubMed

    Brand, Annette; Bauer, Nina G; Hallott, Amanda; Goldbaum, Olaf; Ghebremeskel, Kebreab; Reifen, Ram; Richter-Landsberg, Christiane

    2010-04-01

    Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) are highly abundant in brain tissue, and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) might protect cells from oxidative stress (OS) during inflammation and demyelinating disorders, but also might exert pro-oxidant effects. Here we investigated if PUFA supplements lead to heat shock protein induction, altered cell survival properties and stress responses to OS exerted by hydrogen peroxide in oligodendroglial OLN-93 cells. The data show that supplements of various fatty acids (FA) with 18-22 carbons chain length and 2-6 double bonds led to PUFA enrichment in cellular membranes. Depending on the degree of desaturation, FA-supplements caused the up-regulation of heme oxygenase-1 (HSP32), a stress protein inducible by OS, and an increase in sensitivity to hydrogen peroxide-treatment. DHA, with the highest number of double bonds, was most effective. Co-treatment with DHA and the lipophilic vitamin E analogue alpha-tocopherol, suppressed heme oxygenase-1 up-regulation and cell survival was restored. Analysis of the lipid profile demonstrates that alpha-tocopherol not only has antioxidant capacities, but also directly modified the PUFA profile in cell membranes. Enrichment with higher omega-3, -6 and -9 PUFA and an increase in the biosynthesis rate of very long chain fatty acids, mainly changed the FA profile of ethanolamine and serine phosphoglycerides.

  17. Stimulation of proliferation of an essential fatty acid-deficient fish cell line by C20 and C22 polyunsaturated fatty acids and effects on fatty acid composition.

    PubMed

    Tocher, D R; Dick, J R; Sargent, J R

    1996-11-01

    Recently we reported the development of a fish cell line, EPC-EFAD, derived from the carp (Cyprinus carpio) epithelial papilloma line, EPC, that could survive and proliferate in essential fatty acid-deficient (EFAD) medium. The EPC-EFAD cell line may be a useful model system in which to study the cellular biochemical effects of EFA deficiency and has advantages in studies of polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) and eicosanoid metabolism in fish in that the complications introduced by culture in relatively n-6 PUFA-rich mammalian sera are removed. In the present study, the effects on cell proliferation rate of supplementing EPC-EFAD cells with various n-3 and n-6 PUFA were investigated to determine the possible role(s) of PUFA in cell growth and division. The selectivity of incorporation of specific PUFA into individual glycerophospholipid classes and the feasibility of reproducing in vivo fatty acid compositions in vitro were also investigated. Proliferation of the EPC-EFAD cell line was stimulated by arachidonic (20:4 n-6), eicosapentaenoic (20:5 n-3) and docosahexaenoic (22:6 n-3) fatty acids but not by 18:2 n-6 or 18:3 n-3. The differential effects of PUFA on cellular proliferation may be related to the lack of significant delta 5 desaturase activity in the cells at 22 degrees C and may implicate a role for eicosanoids in the mechanism of stimulation of proliferation. PUFA supplementation increased the cytotoxic effects of longer term culture, an effect that was partly alleviated by inclusion of vitamin E in the culture medium. The cells could generally be supplemented with PUFA to produce cellular fatty acid compositions in vitro that were similar to in vivo compositions. PMID:8981632

  18. A More Desirable Balanced Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Composition Achieved by Heterologous Expression of Δ15/Δ4 Desaturases in Mammalian Cells

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Guiming; Ou, Qin; Zhang, Tao; Jiang, Xudong; Sun, Guozhi; Zhang, Ning; Wang, Kunfu; Fang, Heng; Wang, Mingfu; Sun, Jie; Ge, Tangdong

    2013-01-01

    Arachidonic (ARA), eicosapentaenoic (EPA) and docosahexaenoic (DHA) acids are the most biologically active polyunsaturated fatty acids, but their biosyntheses in mammals are very limited. The biosynthesis of DHA is the most difficult, because this undergoes the Sprecher pathway–a further elongation step from docosapentaenoic acid (DPA), a Δ6-desaturase acting on a C24 fatty acid substrate followed by a peroxisomal chain shortening step. This paper reports the successful heterologous expression of two non-mammalian genes (with modification of codon usage), coding for Euglena gracilis Δ4-desaturase and Siganus canaliculatus Δ4-desaturase respectively, in mammalian cells (HEK293 cell line). Both of the Δ4-desaturases can efficiently function, directly converting DPA into DHA. Moreover, the cooperation of the E. gracilis Δ4-desaturase with C. elegans Δ15-desaturase (able to convert a number of n-6 PUFAs to their corresponding n-3 PUFAs) in transgenic HEK293 cells made a more desirable fatty acid composition – a drastically reduced n-6/n-3 PUFAs ratio and a high level of DHA as well as EPA and ARA. Our findings provide a basis for potential applications of the gene constructs for expression of Δ15/Δ4-desaturases in transgenic livestock to produce such a fatty acid profile in the related products, which certainly will bring benefit to human health. PMID:24391980

  19. How selected tissues of lactating holstein cows respond to dietary polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation.

    PubMed

    Hiller, Beate; Angulo, Joaquin; Olivera, Martha; Nuernberg, Gerd; Nuernberg, Karin

    2013-04-01

    The effect of a 10-week supplementation with polyunsaturated fatty acids [via sunflower oil/DHA-rich algae (SUNA) or linseed oil/DHA-rich algae (LINA) enriched diets] versus saturated fatty acids (SAT) of lactating German Holstein dairy cows in mid-lactation on expression patterns of lipid metabolism-associated genes and gene products in hepatic, longissimus muscle and subcutaneous/perirenal/omental adipose tissue was assessed. Most pronounced transcriptomic responses to dietary PUFA were obtained in hepatic [down-regulated ACACA (FC = 0.83, SUNA; FC = 0.86, LINA), FADS1 (FC = 0.60, SUNA; FC = 0.72, LINA), FADS2 (FC = 0.64, SUNA; FC = 0.79, LINA), FASN (FC = 0.64, SUNA; FC = 0.72, LINA), SCD (FC = 0.37, SUNA; FC = 0.47, LINA) and SREBF1 (FC = 0.79, SUNA, LINA) expression] and omental adipose [up-regulated ACACA (FC = 1.58, SUNA; FC = 1.22, LINA), ADFP (FC = 1.33, SUNA; FC = 1.32, LINA), CEBPA (FC = 1.75, SUNA; FC = 1.40, LINA), FASN (FC = 1.57, SUNA; FC = 1.21, LINA), LPL (FC = 1.50, SUNA; FC = 1.20, LINA), PPARG (FC = 1.36, SUNA; FC = 1.12, LINA), SCD (FC = 1.41, SUNA; FC = 1.17, LINA) and SREBF1 (FC = 1.56, SUNA; FC = 1.18, LINA) expression] tissue. Interestingly, gene/gene product associations were comparatively low in hepatic and omental adipose tissue compared with longissimus muscle, perirenal adipose and subcutaneous adipose tissue, indicating matches only in regard to minor concentrations of SCD product 18:1c9, FADS1 product 20:4n-6 and FADS2 product 18:3n-6 in hepatic tissue, and higher concentrations of ACACA and FASN gene products 12:0 and 14:0 and SCD product 18:2c9,t11 in omental adipose tissue. Whereas all analyzed tissues accumulated dietary PUFA and their ruminally generated biohydrogenation products, tissue-divergent preferences for certain fatty acids were identified. This descriptive study reports tissue-divergent effects of dietary PUFA and outlines the significance of a PUFA intervention

  20. How selected tissues of lactating holstein cows respond to dietary polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation.

    PubMed

    Hiller, Beate; Angulo, Joaquin; Olivera, Martha; Nuernberg, Gerd; Nuernberg, Karin

    2013-04-01

    The effect of a 10-week supplementation with polyunsaturated fatty acids [via sunflower oil/DHA-rich algae (SUNA) or linseed oil/DHA-rich algae (LINA) enriched diets] versus saturated fatty acids (SAT) of lactating German Holstein dairy cows in mid-lactation on expression patterns of lipid metabolism-associated genes and gene products in hepatic, longissimus muscle and subcutaneous/perirenal/omental adipose tissue was assessed. Most pronounced transcriptomic responses to dietary PUFA were obtained in hepatic [down-regulated ACACA (FC = 0.83, SUNA; FC = 0.86, LINA), FADS1 (FC = 0.60, SUNA; FC = 0.72, LINA), FADS2 (FC = 0.64, SUNA; FC = 0.79, LINA), FASN (FC = 0.64, SUNA; FC = 0.72, LINA), SCD (FC = 0.37, SUNA; FC = 0.47, LINA) and SREBF1 (FC = 0.79, SUNA, LINA) expression] and omental adipose [up-regulated ACACA (FC = 1.58, SUNA; FC = 1.22, LINA), ADFP (FC = 1.33, SUNA; FC = 1.32, LINA), CEBPA (FC = 1.75, SUNA; FC = 1.40, LINA), FASN (FC = 1.57, SUNA; FC = 1.21, LINA), LPL (FC = 1.50, SUNA; FC = 1.20, LINA), PPARG (FC = 1.36, SUNA; FC = 1.12, LINA), SCD (FC = 1.41, SUNA; FC = 1.17, LINA) and SREBF1 (FC = 1.56, SUNA; FC = 1.18, LINA) expression] tissue. Interestingly, gene/gene product associations were comparatively low in hepatic and omental adipose tissue compared with longissimus muscle, perirenal adipose and subcutaneous adipose tissue, indicating matches only in regard to minor concentrations of SCD product 18:1c9, FADS1 product 20:4n-6 and FADS2 product 18:3n-6 in hepatic tissue, and higher concentrations of ACACA and FASN gene products 12:0 and 14:0 and SCD product 18:2c9,t11 in omental adipose tissue. Whereas all analyzed tissues accumulated dietary PUFA and their ruminally generated biohydrogenation products, tissue-divergent preferences for certain fatty acids were identified. This descriptive study reports tissue-divergent effects of dietary PUFA and outlines the significance of a PUFA intervention

  1. Effects of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids on human brain morphology and function: What is the evidence?

    PubMed

    Bos, Dienke J; van Montfort, Simone J T; Oranje, Bob; Durston, Sarah; Smeets, Paul A M

    2016-03-01

    Public opinion and media coverage suggest that there are benefits of long-chain ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (LC-PUFA) intake on brain functioning. However, it is an open question whether this is indeed the case. Therefore, we reviewed the evidence for effects of ω-3 LC-PUFA on human brain morphology and function. We included studies on (1) naturalistic long-term ω-3 LC-PUFA intake during life (2) the effects of short-term ω-3 LC-PUFA supplementation in healthy subjects and (3) the effects of ω-3 LC-PUFA supplementation as alternative or add-on treatment for psychiatric or neurological disorders. To date, 24 studies have been published on the effect of ω-3 LC-PUFA on brain function and structure. Findings from naturalistic studies and clinical trials in healthy individuals indicate that ω-3 LC-PUFA intake may be associated with increased functional activation of the prefrontal cortex in children, and greater gray matter volume and white matter integrity during aging. However, most naturalistic studies were cross-sectional or did not find any effect on cognition. As such, it is hard to estimate the magnitude of any beneficial effects. Furthermore, there is only limited evidence to support that ω-3 LC-PUFA supplementation is beneficial in brain disorders, such as Alzheimer's Disease, Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder, Major Depressive Disorder and schizophrenia. Overall, the literature suggests that sensitivity to supplementation may vary over development, and as a consequence of brain disorders. The biological mechanisms underlying any (beneficial) effects ω-3 LC-PUFAs on the brain are currently unknown and need to be investigated. PMID:26742901

  2. Effects of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids on human brain morphology and function: What is the evidence?

    PubMed

    Bos, Dienke J; van Montfort, Simone J T; Oranje, Bob; Durston, Sarah; Smeets, Paul A M

    2016-03-01

    Public opinion and media coverage suggest that there are benefits of long-chain ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (LC-PUFA) intake on brain functioning. However, it is an open question whether this is indeed the case. Therefore, we reviewed the evidence for effects of ω-3 LC-PUFA on human brain morphology and function. We included studies on (1) naturalistic long-term ω-3 LC-PUFA intake during life (2) the effects of short-term ω-3 LC-PUFA supplementation in healthy subjects and (3) the effects of ω-3 LC-PUFA supplementation as alternative or add-on treatment for psychiatric or neurological disorders. To date, 24 studies have been published on the effect of ω-3 LC-PUFA on brain function and structure. Findings from naturalistic studies and clinical trials in healthy individuals indicate that ω-3 LC-PUFA intake may be associated with increased functional activation of the prefrontal cortex in children, and greater gray matter volume and white matter integrity during aging. However, most naturalistic studies were cross-sectional or did not find any effect on cognition. As such, it is hard to estimate the magnitude of any beneficial effects. Furthermore, there is only limited evidence to support that ω-3 LC-PUFA supplementation is beneficial in brain disorders, such as Alzheimer's Disease, Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder, Major Depressive Disorder and schizophrenia. Overall, the literature suggests that sensitivity to supplementation may vary over development, and as a consequence of brain disorders. The biological mechanisms underlying any (beneficial) effects ω-3 LC-PUFAs on the brain are currently unknown and need to be investigated.

  3. Polyunsaturated fatty acid status in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, depression, and Alzheimer's disease: towards an omega-3 index for mental health?

    PubMed

    Milte, Catherine M; Sinn, Natalie; Howe, Peter R C

    2009-10-01

    Interest in the role of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), particularly long-chain (LC) omega-3 (n-3) PUFAs, in mental health is increasing. This review investigates whether n-3 PUFA levels are abnormal in people with three prevalent mental health problems - attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, depression, and dementia. Data sources included PubMed, Web of Science, and bibliographies of papers published in English that describe PUFA levels in the circulation of individuals who have these mental health conditions. Although abnormal blood PUFA levels were reported in a number of studies, weighted comparisons of PUFA status showed no significant differences overall between people with mental health problems and controls. Whether those with low n-3 PUFA status are likely to be more responsive to n-3 PUFA supplementation is not yet resolved. Further studies assessing PUFA levels and mental status with greater uniformity are required in order to clarify the relationship between LC n-3 PUFA status and mental health.

  4. Transgenic expression of delta-6 and delta-15 fatty acid desaturases enhances omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid accumulation in Synechocystis sp. PCC6803

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), which contain two or more double bonds in their backbone, are the focus of intensive global research, because of their nutritional value, medicinal applications, and potential use as biofuel. However, the ability to produce these economically important compounds is limited, because it is both expensive and technically challenging to separate omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω-3 PUFAs) from natural oils. Although the biosynthetic pathways of some plant and microalgal ω-3 PUFAs have been deciphered, current understanding of the correlation between fatty acid desaturase content and fatty acid synthesis in Synechocystis sp. PCC6803 is incomplete. Results We constructed a series of homologous vectors for the endogenous and exogenous expression of Δ6 and Δ15 fatty acid desaturases under the control of the photosynthesis psbA2 promoter in transgenic Synechocystis sp. PCC6803. We generated six homologous recombinants, harboring various fatty acid desaturase genes from Synechocystis sp. PCC6803, Gibberella fujikuroi and Mortierella alpina. These lines produced up to 8.9 mg/l of α-linolenic acid (ALA) and 4.1 mg/l of stearidonic acid (SDA), which are more than six times the corresponding wild-type levels, at 20°C and 30°C. Thus, transgenic expression of Δ6 and Δ15 fatty acid desaturases enhances the accumulation of specific ω-3 PUFAs in Synechocystis sp. PCC6803. Conclusions In the blue-green alga Synechocystis sp. PCC6803, overexpression of endogenous and exogenous genes encoding PUFA desaturases markedly increased accumulation of ALA and SDA and decreased accumulation of linoleic acid and γ-linolenic acid. This study lays the foundation for increasing the fatty acid content of cyanobacteria and, ultimately, for producing nutritional and medicinal products with high levels of essential ω-3 PUFAs. PMID:24581179

  5. Selective transfer of polyunsaturated fatty acids from phytoplankton to planktivorous fish in large boreal lakes.

    PubMed

    Strandberg, Ursula; Hiltunen, Minna; Jelkänen, Elli; Taipale, Sami J; Kainz, Martin J; Brett, Michael T; Kankaala, Paula

    2015-12-01

    Lake size influences various hydrological parameters, such as water retention time, circulation patterns and thermal stratification that can consequently affect the plankton community composition, benthic-pelagic coupling and the function of aquatic food webs. Although the socio-economical (particularly commercial fisheries) and ecological importance of large lakes has been widely acknowledged, little is known about the availability and trophic transfer of polyunsaturated fatty (PUFA) in large lakes. The objective of this study was to investigate trophic trajectories of PUFA in the pelagic food web (seston, zooplankton, and planktivorous fish) of six large boreal lakes in the Finnish Lake District. Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and α-linolenic acid (ALA) were the most abundant PUFA in pelagic organisms, particularly in the zooplanktivorous fish. Our results show that PUFA from the n-3 family (PUFAn-3), often associated with marine food webs, are also abundant in large lakes. The proportion of DHA increased from ~4±3% in seston to ~32±6% in vendace (Coregonus albula) and smelt (Osmerus eperlanus), whereas ALA showed the opposite trophic transfer pattern with the highest values observed in seston (~11±2%) and the lowest in the opossum shrimp (Mysis relicta) and fish (~2±1%). The dominance of diatoms and cryptophytes at the base of the food web in the study lakes accounted for the high amount of PUFAn-3 in the planktonic consumers. Furthermore, the abundance of copepods in the large lakes explains the effective transfer of DHA to planktivorous fish. The plankton community composition in these lakes supports a fishery resource (vendace) that is very high nutritional quality (in terms of EPA and DHA contents) to humans.

  6. Selective transfer of polyunsaturated fatty acids from phytoplankton to planktivorous fish in large boreal lakes.

    PubMed

    Strandberg, Ursula; Hiltunen, Minna; Jelkänen, Elli; Taipale, Sami J; Kainz, Martin J; Brett, Michael T; Kankaala, Paula

    2015-12-01

    Lake size influences various hydrological parameters, such as water retention time, circulation patterns and thermal stratification that can consequently affect the plankton community composition, benthic-pelagic coupling and the function of aquatic food webs. Although the socio-economical (particularly commercial fisheries) and ecological importance of large lakes has been widely acknowledged, little is known about the availability and trophic transfer of polyunsaturated fatty (PUFA) in large lakes. The objective of this study was to investigate trophic trajectories of PUFA in the pelagic food web (seston, zooplankton, and planktivorous fish) of six large boreal lakes in the Finnish Lake District. Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and α-linolenic acid (ALA) were the most abundant PUFA in pelagic organisms, particularly in the zooplanktivorous fish. Our results show that PUFA from the n-3 family (PUFAn-3), often associated with marine food webs, are also abundant in large lakes. The proportion of DHA increased from ~4±3% in seston to ~32±6% in vendace (Coregonus albula) and smelt (Osmerus eperlanus), whereas ALA showed the opposite trophic transfer pattern with the highest values observed in seston (~11±2%) and the lowest in the opossum shrimp (Mysis relicta) and fish (~2±1%). The dominance of diatoms and cryptophytes at the base of the food web in the study lakes accounted for the high amount of PUFAn-3 in the planktonic consumers. Furthermore, the abundance of copepods in the large lakes explains the effective transfer of DHA to planktivorous fish. The plankton community composition in these lakes supports a fishery resource (vendace) that is very high nutritional quality (in terms of EPA and DHA contents) to humans. PMID:26282609

  7. Vulnerability to dietary n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid deficiency after exposure to early stress in rats.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Charles Francisco; Bernardi, Juliana Rombaldi; Krolow, Rachel; Arcego, Danusa Mar; Fries, Gabriel Rodrigo; de Aguiar, Bianca Wollenhaupt; Senter, Gabrielle; Kapczinski, Flávio Pereira; Silveira, Patrícia Pelufo; Dalmaz, Carla

    2013-06-01

    The exposure to adverse events early in life may affect brain development. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (n-3 PUFA) deficiency has been linked to the development of mood and anxiety disorders. The aim of this study was to examine the interaction between variations in the early environment (handling or maternal separation) and the chronic exposure to a nutritional n-3 PUFA deficiency on locomotor activity, sucrose preference, forced swimming test and on serum and hippocampal brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels. Rats were randomized into Non-handled (NH), Neonatal Handled (H) and Maternal Separated (MS) groups. Pups were removed from their dams (incubator at 32°C on postnatal days (PND) 1-10) during 10 min/day (H) or 3h/day (MS). On PND 35, males were subdivided into diets adequate or deficient in n-3 PUFA for 15 weeks. H and MS gained weight differently, and animals receiving the n-3 PUFA deficient diet gained less weight. MS displayed a higher food consumption and higher consumption of sucrose solution during the second hour of exposure to the sucrose preference test. No differences were observed in the swimming test. H group had increased locomotion and showed a higher response to amfepramone. No significant effect was observed on serum BDNF levels. BDNF protein levels were decreased in animals receiving the n-3 PUFA deficient diet. We observed that early life environment and a mild n-3 PUFA deficiency are able to affect several behavioral aspects (food and sucrose consumption and locomotor response), and lead to a differential hippocampal BDNF metabolism in adult life.

  8. Metabolites derived from omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids are important for cardioprotection.

    PubMed

    Gilbert, Kim; Malick, Mandy; Madingou, Ness; Touchette, Charles; Bourque-Riel, Valérie; Tomaro, Leandro; Rousseau, Guy

    2015-12-15

    Although controversial, some data suggest that omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) are beneficial to cardiovascular diseases, and could reduce infarct size. In parallel, we have reported that the administration of Resolvin D1 (RvD1), a metabolite of docosahexaenoic acid, an omega-3 PUFA, can reduce infarct size. The present study was designed to determine if the inhibition of two important enzymes involved in the formation of RvD1 from omega-3 PUFA could reduce the cardioprotective effect of omega-3 PUFA. Sprague-Dawley rats were fed with a diet rich in omega-3 PUFA during 10 days before myocardial infarction (MI). Two days before MI, rats received a daily dose of Meloxicam, an inhibitor of cyclooxygenase-2, PD146176, an inhibitor of 15-lipoxygenase, both inhibitors or vehicle. MI was induced by the occlusion of the left coronary artery for 40min followed by reperfusion. Infarct size and neutrophil accumulation were evaluated after 24h of reperfusion while caspase-3, -8 and Akt activities were assessed at 30min of reperfusion. Rats receiving inhibitors, alone or in combination, showed a larger infarct size than those receiving omega-3 PUFA alone. Caspase-3 and -8 activities are higher in ischemic areas with inhibitors while Akt activity is diminished in groups treated with inhibitors. Moreover, the study showed that RvD1 restores cardioprotection when added to the inhibitors. Results from this study indicate that the inhibition of the metabolism of Omega-3 PUFA attenuate their cardioprotective properties. Then, resolvins seem to be an important mediator in the cardioprotection conferred by omega-3 PUFA in our experimental model of MI.

  9. Polyunsaturated fatty acid associations with dopaminergic indices in major depressive disorder.

    PubMed

    Sublette, M Elizabeth; Galfalvy, Hanga C; Hibbeln, Joseph R; Keilp, John G; Malone, Kevin M; Oquendo, Maria A; Mann, J John

    2014-03-01

    Dopaminergic function is thought to be altered in major depression and, in animal studies, is reduced in omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) deficiency states. Therefore we studied PUFAs and resting prolactin, a marker for dopaminergic tone, and cerebrospinal fluid homovanillic acid (HVA), the chief dopamine metabolite. In medication-free adults (n = 23) with DSM-IV major depressive disorder (MDD), we measured plasma phospholipid levels of omega-3 PUFAs docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), the omega-6 PUFA arachidonic acid (AA), and plasma prolactin levels before and after administration of dl-fenfluramine (FEN). In a subset of patients (n = 14), cerebrospinal fluid levels of HVA and the serotonin metabolite, 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA), were obtained through lumbar puncture. Baseline prolactin was negatively correlated with omega-3 PUFAs (logDHA, F(1,21) = 20.380, p < 0.001; logEPA, F(1,21) = 10.051, p = 0.005) and positively correlated with logAA:DHA (F(1,21) = 15.263, p = 0.001), a measure of omega-6/omega-3 balance. LogDHA was negatively correlated with CSF HVA (Spearman's ρ = -0.675, p = 0.008) but not 5-HIAA (Spearman's ρ = -0.143, p = 0.626) after controlling for sex and HVA - 5-HIAA correlation. PUFAs did not predict the magnitude of the FEN-stimulated change in prolactin, considered to be a serotonin effect. The robust relationship of omega-3 PUFAs with dopaminergic but not serotonergic indices suggests that omega-6:omega-3 balance may impact depression pathophysiology through effects on the dopaminergic system.

  10. Magnetoliposomes loaded with poly-unsaturated fatty acids as novel theranostic anti-inflammatory formulations.

    PubMed

    Calle, Daniel; Negri, Viviana; Ballesteros, Paloma; Cerdán, Sebastián

    2015-01-01

    We describe the preparation, physico-chemical characterization and anti-inflammatory properties of liposomes containing the superparamagnetic nanoparticle Nanotex, the fluorescent dye Rhodamine-100 and omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid ethyl ester (ω-3 PUFA-EE), as theranostic anti-inflammatory agents. Liposomes were prepared after drying chloroform suspensions of egg phosphatidylcholine, hydration of the lipid film with aqueous phases containing or not Nanotex, Rhodamine-100 dye or ω-3 PUFA-EE, and eleven extrusion steps through nanometric membrane filters. This resulted in uniform preparations of liposomes of approximately 200 nm diameter. Extraliposomal contents were removed from the preparation by gel filtration chromatography. High Resolution Magic Angle Spinning (1)H NMR Spectroscopy of the liposomal preparations containing ω-3 PUFA-EE revealed well resolved (1)H resonances from highly mobile ω-3 PUFA-EE, suggesting the formation of very small (ca. 10 nm) ω-3 PUFA-EE nanogoticules, tumbling fast in the NMR timescale. Chloroform extraction of the liposomal preparations revealed additionally the incorporation of ω-3 PUFA-EE within the membrane domain. Water diffusion weighted spectra, indicated that the goticules of ω-3 PUFA-EE or its insertion in the membrane did not affect the average translational diffusion coefficient of water, suggesting an intraliposomal localization, that was confirmed by ultrafiltration. The therapeutic efficacy of these preparations was tested in two different models of inflammatory disease as inflammatory colitis or the inflammatory component associated to glioma development. Results indicate that the magnetoliposomes loaded with ω-3 PUFA-EE allowed MRI visualization in vivo and improved the outcome of inflammatory disease in both animal models, decreasing significantly colonic inflammation and delaying, or even reversing, glioma development. Together, our results indicate that magnetoliposomes loaded with ω-3 PUFA-EE may

  11. Lack of Dietary Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids Causes Synapse Dysfunction in the Drosophila Visual System.

    PubMed

    Ziegler, Anna B; Ménagé, Cindy; Grégoire, Stéphane; Garcia, Thibault; Ferveur, Jean-François; Bretillon, Lionel; Grosjean, Yael

    2015-01-01

    Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are essential nutrients for animals and necessary for the normal functioning of the nervous system. A lack of PUFAs can result from the consumption of a deficient diet or genetic factors, which impact PUFA uptake and metabolism. Both can cause synaptic dysfunction, which is associated with numerous disorders. However, there is a knowledge gap linking these neuronal dysfunctions and their underlying molecular mechanisms. Because of its genetic manipulability and its easy, fast, and cheap breeding, Drosophila melanogaster has emerged as an excellent model organism for genetic screens, helping to identify the genetic bases of such events. As a first step towards the understanding of PUFA implications in Drosophila synaptic physiology we designed a breeding medium containing only very low amounts of PUFAs. We then used the fly's visual system, a well-established model for studying signal transmission and neurological disorders, to measure the effects of a PUFA deficiency on synaptic function. Using both visual performance and eye electrophysiology, we found that PUFA deficiency strongly affected synaptic transmission in the fly's visual system. These defects were rescued by diets containing omega-3 or omega-6 PUFAs alone or in combination. In summary, manipulating PUFA contents in the fly's diet was powerful to investigate the role of these nutrients on the fly´s visual synaptic function. This study aims at showing how the first visual synapse of Drosophila can serve as a simple model to study the effects of PUFAs on synapse function. A similar approach could be further used to screen for genetic factors underlying the molecular mechanisms of synaptic dysfunctions associated with altered PUFA levels.

  12. Magnetoliposomes Loaded with Poly-Unsaturated Fatty Acids as Novel Theranostic Anti-Inflammatory Formulations

    PubMed Central

    Calle, Daniel; Negri, Viviana; Ballesteros, Paloma; Cerdán, Sebastián

    2015-01-01

    We describe the preparation, physico-chemical characterization and anti-inflammatory properties of liposomes containing the superparamagnetic nanoparticle Nanotex, the fluorescent dye Rhodamine-100 and omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid ethyl ester (ω-3 PUFA-EE), as theranostic anti-inflammatory agents. Liposomes were prepared after drying chloroform suspensions of egg phosphatidylcholine, hydration of the lipid film with aqueous phases containing or not Nanotex, Rhodamine-100 dye or ω-3 PUFA-EE, and eleven extrusion steps through nanometric membrane filters. This resulted in uniform preparations of liposomes of approximately 200 nm diameter. Extraliposomal contents were removed from the preparation by gel filtration chromatography. High Resolution Magic Angle Spinning 1H NMR Spectroscopy of the liposomal preparations containing ω-3 PUFA-EE revealed well resolved 1H resonances from highly mobile ω-3 PUFA-EE, suggesting the formation of very small (ca. 10 nm) ω-3 PUFA-EE nanogoticules, tumbling fast in the NMR timescale. Chloroform extraction of the liposomal preparations revealed additionally the incorporation of ω-3 PUFA-EE within the membrane domain. Water diffusion weighted spectra, indicated that the goticules of ω-3 PUFA-EE or its insertion in the membrane did not affect the average translational diffusion coefficient of water, suggesting an intraliposomal localization, that was confirmed by ultrafiltration. The therapeutic efficacy of these preparations was tested in two different models of inflammatory disease as inflammatory colitis or the inflammatory component associated to glioma development. Results indicate that the magnetoliposomes loaded with ω-3 PUFA-EE allowed MRI visualization in vivo and improved the outcome of inflammatory disease in both animal models, decreasing significantly colonic inflammation and delaying, or even reversing, glioma development. Together, our results indicate that magnetoliposomes loaded with ω-3 PUFA-EE may become

  13. Lack of Dietary Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids Causes Synapse Dysfunction in the Drosophila Visual System

    PubMed Central

    Ziegler, Anna B.; Ménagé, Cindy; Grégoire, Stéphane; Garcia, Thibault; Ferveur, Jean-François; Bretillon, Lionel; Grosjean, Yael

    2015-01-01

    Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are essential nutrients for animals and necessary for the normal functioning of the nervous system. A lack of PUFAs can result from the consumption of a deficient diet or genetic factors, which impact PUFA uptake and metabolism. Both can cause synaptic dysfunction, which is associated with numerous disorders. However, there is a knowledge gap linking these neuronal dysfunctions and their underlying molecular mechanisms. Because of its genetic manipulability and its easy, fast, and cheap breeding, Drosophila melanogaster has emerged as an excellent model organism for genetic screens, helping to identify the genetic bases of such events. As a first step towards the understanding of PUFA implications in Drosophila synaptic physiology we designed a breeding medium containing only very low amounts of PUFAs. We then used the fly’s visual system, a well-established model for studying signal transmission and neurological disorders, to measure the effects of a PUFA deficiency on synaptic function. Using both visual performance and eye electrophysiology, we found that PUFA deficiency strongly affected synaptic transmission in the fly’s visual system. These defects were rescued by diets containing omega-3 or omega-6 PUFAs alone or in combination. In summary, manipulating PUFA contents in the fly’s diet was powerful to investigate the role of these nutrients on the fly´s visual synaptic function. This study aims at showing how the first visual synapse of Drosophila can serve as a simple model to study the effects of PUFAs on synapse function. A similar approach could be further used to screen for genetic factors underlying the molecular mechanisms of synaptic dysfunctions associated with altered PUFA levels. PMID:26308084

  14. Lack of Dietary Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids Causes Synapse Dysfunction in the Drosophila Visual System.

    PubMed

    Ziegler, Anna B; Ménagé, Cindy; Grégoire, Stéphane; Garcia, Thibault; Ferveur, Jean-François; Bretillon, Lionel; Grosjean, Yael

    2015-01-01

    Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are essential nutrients for animals and necessary for the normal functioning of the nervous system. A lack of PUFAs can result from the consumption of a deficient diet or genetic factors, which impact PUFA uptake and metabolism. Both can cause synaptic dysfunction, which is associated with numerous disorders. However, there is a knowledge gap linking these neuronal dysfunctions and their underlying molecular mechanisms. Because of its genetic manipulability and its easy, fast, and cheap breeding, Drosophila melanogaster has emerged as an excellent model organism for genetic screens, helping to identify the genetic bases of such events. As a first step towards the understanding of PUFA implications in Drosophila synaptic physiology we designed a breeding medium containing only very low amounts of PUFAs. We then used the fly's visual system, a well-established model for studying signal transmission and neurological disorders, to measure the effects of a PUFA deficiency on synaptic function. Using both visual performance and eye electrophysiology, we found that PUFA deficiency strongly affected synaptic transmission in the fly's visual system. These defects were rescued by diets containing omega-3 or omega-6 PUFAs alone or in combination. In summary, manipulating PUFA contents in the fly's diet was powerful to investigate the role of these nutrients on the fly´s visual synaptic function. This study aims at showing how the first visual synapse of Drosophila can serve as a simple model to study the effects of PUFAs on synapse function. A similar approach could be further used to screen for genetic factors underlying the molecular mechanisms of synaptic dysfunctions associated with altered PUFA levels. PMID:26308084

  15. Long-chain n-3 fatty acids enhance neonatal insulin-regulated protein metabolism in piglets by differentially altering muscle lipid composition

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study investigated the role of long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCn-3PUFAs) of muscle phospholipids in the regulation of neonatal metabolism. Twenty-eight piglets were weaned at 2 days of age and raised on one of two milk formulas that consisted of either a control formula supplying ...

  16. Comparison of polyunsaturated fatty acids content in filets of anadromous and landlocked sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka.

    PubMed

    Gladyshev, Michail I; Lepskaya, Ekaterina V; Sushchik, Nadezhda N; Makhutova, Olesia N; Kalachova, Galina S; Malyshevskaya, Kseniya K; Markevich, Grigory N

    2012-12-01

    Fatty acid composition and content of 2 forms of sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka from lakes in Kamchatka Peninsula (Russia) were compared. One form of sockeye salmon was anadromous ("marine"), that is, adult fish migrated in ocean to feed and grow and than return in the lake to breed. Fish of another form, kokanee, never migrate in the ocean. Per cent levels of the main indicators of nutritive value, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 20:5n-3), and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n-3), were significantly higher in the landlocked O. nerka. However, concentrations of EPA and DHA per wet weight of filets were higher in the marine form, because of the relatively higher content of sum of fatty acids in their muscle tissue. As concluded, fish fed in marine environment had higher contents of long-chain n-3 fatty acids per wet weight than fish of the same species, fed in fresh waters. In general, both the anadromous sockeye salmon and the landlocked kokanee salmon can be recommended for human diet as a valuable product concerning contents of EPA and DHA. PMID:23240970

  17. Microbial oils as food additives: recent approaches for improving microbial oil production and its polyunsaturated fatty acid content.

    PubMed

    Bellou, Stamatia; Triantaphyllidou, Irene-Eva; Aggeli, Dimitra; Elazzazy, Ahmed Mohammed; Baeshen, Mohammed Nabih; Aggelis, George

    2016-02-01

    In this short review, we summarize the latest research in the production of polyunsaturated microbial oils that are of interest in food technology. The current research targets the productivity of oleaginous microorganisms, as well as the biosynthesis of particular polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs). The most important efforts target the efficiency of the oleaginous machinery, via overexpression of key-enzymes involved in lipid biosynthesis, as well as the minimization of lipid degradation, by repressing genes involved in the β-oxidation pathway. The production of specific PUFAs is approached by homologous or heterologous expression of specific desaturases and elongases involved in PUFA biosynthesis in oleaginous microorganisms. New perspectives, such as the production of triacylglycerols of specific structure and the employment of adaptive experimental evolution for creating robust oleaginous strains able to produce PUFAs are also discussed.

  18. Biosynthesis of very long chain fatty acids in Trypanosoma cruzi.

    PubMed

    Livore, Verónica I; Uttaro, Antonio D

    2015-01-01

    Trypanosoma brucei and Trypanosoma cruzi showed similar fatty acid (FA) compositions, having a high proportion of unsaturated FAs, mainly 18:2Δ9,12 (23-39%) and 18:1Δ9 (11-17%). C22 polyunsaturated FAs are in significant amounts only in T. brucei (12-20%) but represent a mere 2% of total FAs in T. cruzi. Both species have also similar profiles of medium- and long-chain saturated FAs, from 14:0 to 20:0. Interestingly, procyclic and bloodstream forms of T. brucei lack very long chain FAs (VLCFAs), whereas epimastigotes and trypomastigotes of T. cruzi contain 22:0 (0.1-0.2%), 24:0 (1.5-2%), and 26:0 (0.1-0.2%). This is in agreement with the presence of an additional FA elongase gene (TcELO4) in T. cruzi. TcELO4 was expressed in a Saccharomyces cerevisiae mutant lacking the endogenous ScELO3, rescuing the synthesis of saturated and hydroxylated C26 FAs in the yeast. Expression of TcELO4 also rescued the synthetic lethality of a ScELO2, ScELO3 double mutation, and the VLCFA profile of the transformed yeast was similar to that found in T. cruzi. By identifying TcELO4 as the enzyme responsible for the elongation of FA from 16:0 and 18:0 up to 26:0, with 24:0 being the preferred product, this work completed the characterization of FA elongases in Trypanosoma spp. PMID:25339514

  19. Biosynthesis of very long chain fatty acids in Trypanosoma cruzi.

    PubMed

    Livore, Verónica I; Uttaro, Antonio D

    2015-01-01

    Trypanosoma brucei and Trypanosoma cruzi showed similar fatty acid (FA) compositions, having a high proportion of unsaturated FAs, mainly 18:2Δ9,12 (23-39%) and 18:1Δ9 (11-17%). C22 polyunsaturated FAs are in significant amounts only in T. brucei (12-20%) but represent a mere 2% of total FAs in T. cruzi. Both species have also similar profiles of medium- and long-chain saturated FAs, from 14:0 to 20:0. Interestingly, procyclic and bloodstream forms of T. brucei lack very long chain FAs (VLCFAs), whereas epimastigotes and trypomastigotes of T. cruzi contain 22:0 (0.1-0.2%), 24:0 (1.5-2%), and 26:0 (0.1-0.2%). This is in agreement with the presence of an additional FA elongase gene (TcELO4) in T. cruzi. TcELO4 was expressed in a Saccharomyces cerevisiae mutant lacking the endogenous ScELO3, rescuing the synthesis of saturated and hydroxylated C26 FAs in the yeast. Expression of TcELO4 also rescued the synthetic lethality of a ScELO2, ScELO3 double mutation, and the VLCFA profile of the transformed yeast was similar to that found in T. cruzi. By identifying TcELO4 as the enzyme responsible for the elongation of FA from 16:0 and 18:0 up to 26:0, with 24:0 being the preferred product, this work completed the characterization of FA elongases in Trypanosoma spp.

  20. Dietary n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids modify fatty acid composition in hepatic and abdominal adipose tissue of sucrose-induced obese rats.

    PubMed

    Alexander-Aguilera, Alfonso; Berruezo, Silvia; Hernández-Diaz, Guillermo; Angulo, Ofelia; Oliart-Ros, Rosamaria

    2011-12-01

    The fatty acid profile of hepatocytes and adipocytes is determined by the composition of the dietary lipids. It remains unclear which fatty acid components contribute to the development or reduction of insulin resistance. The present work examined the fatty acid composition of both tissues in sucrose-induced obese rats receiving fish oil to determine whether the effect of dietary (n-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) on the reversion of metabolic syndrome in these rats is associated to changes in the fatty acid composition of hepatocyte and adipocyte membrane lipids. Animals with metabolic syndrome were divided into a corn-canola oil diet group and a fish oil diet group, and tissues fatty acids composition were analyzed after 6 weeks of dietary treatment. Fatty acid profiles of the total membrane lipids were modified by the fatty acid composition of the diets fed to rats. N-3 PUFAs levels in animals receiving the fish oil diet plus sucrose in drinking water were significantly higher than in animals under corn-canola oil diets. It is concluded that in sucrose-induced obese rats, consumption of dietary fish oil had beneficial effects on the metabolic syndrome and that such effects would be conditioned by the changes in the n-3 PUFAs composition in hepatic and adipose tissues because they alter membrane properties and modify the type of substrates available for the production of active lipid metabolites acting on insulin resistance and obesity. PMID:21695545

  1. A review of nutritional effects on fat composition of animal products with special emphasis on n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Kouba, Maryline; Mourot, Jacques

    2011-01-01

    The fatty acid composition of animal products (eggs, milk and meat) is the reflect of both the tissue fatty acid biosynthesis and the fatty acid composition of ingested lipids. This relationship is stronger in monogastrics (pigs, poultry and rabbits) than in ruminants, where dietary fatty acids are hydrogenated in the rumen. There is an increasing recognition of the health benefits of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), because these fatty acids are essential for humans. In addition, the ratio n-6/n-3 fatty acids in the human diet is important. This ratio by far exceeds the recommended value of 5. Therefore, inclusion of fish meals, or n-3 PUFA rich oils, or linseed in animal diets is a valid means of meeting consumer demand for animal products that are nutritionally beneficial. The studies that are undertaken on animals mainly use diets supplemented with linseed, as a source of n-3 fatty acids. The use of linseed diets generally leads to an increased n-3 fatty acid content in animal products (egg, meat, milk) in ruminants and monogastrics. Recent studies have also demonstrated that neither the processing nor the cooking affects the PUFA content of pork meat or meat products. The ability of unsaturated fatty acids, especially those with more than two double bonds, to rapidly oxidise, is important in regulating the shelf life of animal products (rancidity and colour deterioration); however, a good way to avoid such problems is to use antioxidant products (such as vitamin E) in the diet. Some studies also show that it is not necessary to feed animals with linseed-supplemented diets for a long time to have the highest increase in PUFA content of the products. So, short-term diet manipulation can be a practical reality for industry. As the market for n-3 PUFA enriched products is today limited in most countries, other studies must be undertaken to develop this kind of production. PMID:20188790

  2. Enrichment of eggs in n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids by feeding hens with different amount of linseed oil in diet.

    PubMed

    Petrović, Marinko; Gačić, Milica; Karačić, Veseljko; Gottstein, Zeljko; Mazija, Hrvoje; Medić, Helga

    2012-12-01

    The production of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid enriched eggs by addition of linseed oil to the laying hens' diet has been evaluated in terms of production parameters and n-6/n-3 ratio. A total of 150 18weeks old Lohmann Brown laying hens were housed in cages and fed with basal diet and four experimental diets containing 1%, 2%, 3% or 4% of linseed oil added to the basal diet. The effect of the altered level of linseed oil on hens laying performance, fatty acid content and composition and cholesterol content in egg yolk has been evaluated during 13weeks of experiment. Egg weight, yolk fat content, yolk weight, yolk percentage and shape index were not influenced by dietary treatment. The ratio between n-6 and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in eggs decreased in first 5weeks and then remained stable until the end of the experiment for all experimental groups. Different contents of linseed oil in feed highly influenced the n-6/n-3 ratio (P<0.0001). Addition of linseed oil did not influence the cholesterol content in yolks (P=0.5200) while the only factor affecting the cholesterol content was the hens age (P<0.0001). PMID:22953894

  3. The endometrial expression of prostaglandin cascade components in lactating dairy cows fed different polyunsaturated fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Dirandeh, E; Towhidi, A; Pirsaraei, Z Ansari; Saberifar, T; Akhlaghi, A; Roodbari, A Rezaei

    2015-01-15

    Feeding n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) increases the endometrial percentages of linoleic and arachidonic acids (AA), enhances the synthesis of prostaglandin F2α (PGF2α), and improves uterine health. In contrary, the n-3 PUFA, eicosapentaenoic acid, and docosahexaenoic acid may play pivotal roles by suppressing the synthesis of uterine PGF2α, a component being centrally involved in the control of the bovine estrous cycle and in early embryo survival. The objectives of the present study were to determine the effect of feeding a diet enriched in either α-linolenic acid (n-3) or linolenic acid (n-6) on the uterine expression of genes related to prostaglandin cascade and uterine release of PGF2α (measured as 13, 14-dihydro-15-keto PGF2α [PGFM]). From calving to 60 days in milk, cows (n = 24) were fed isonitrogenous, isocaloric, and isolipidic diets that differed in the ratio of n-3/n-6 PUFA. Treatments including palm oil ([PLM]; saturated FA, n = 8), soybean whole roast ([SOY]; n-6, n = 8), and linseed extruded ([LIN]; n-3, n = 8). At 30 days in milk, the ovulatory cycles of cows were synchronized using 2 injections of PGF2α with a 14-day interval. On day 15 postovulation, cows were injected with oxytocin and blood samples were collected to monitor the uterine release of PGF2α (measured as PGFM) and uterine endometrial biopsies were prepared to evaluate the expression of genes related to prostaglandin cascade (prostaglandin F synthase [PGFS], prostaglandin E synthase [PGES], prostaglandin endoperoxide synthase-2 [PGHS-2]), phospholipase A2 (PLA2), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors [PPAR]). Results showed that uterine endometrial PPAR-δ genes were higher in cows fed LIN (3.17-fold) compared with cows fed PLM or SOY (P < 0.05). The messenger RNA (mRNA) level of PGES in the LIN group was threefold as high as those found in SOY and PLM diets (P < 0.05). The mean relative gene expression of PLA2 and PGFS was increased in animals fed the SOY diet (2

  4. Biosynthesis of odd-chain fatty alcohols in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Cao, Ying-Xiu; Xiao, Wen-Hai; Liu, Duo; Zhang, Jin-Lai; Ding, Ming-Zhu; Yuan, Ying-Jin

    2015-05-01

    Engineered microbes offer the opportunity to design and implement artificial molecular pathways for renewable production of tailored chemical commodities. Targeted biosynthesis of odd-chain fatty alcohols is very challenging in microbe, due to the specificity of fatty acids synthase for two-carbon unit elongation. Here, we developed a novel strategy to directly tailor carbon number in fatty aldehydes formation step by incorporating α-dioxygenase (αDOX) from Oryza sativa (rice) into Escherichia coli αDOX oxidizes Cn fatty acids (even-chain) to form Cn-1 fatty aldehydes (odd-chain). Through combining αDOX with fatty acyl-acyl carrier protein (-ACP) thioesterase (TE) and aldehyde reductase (AHR), the medium odd-chain fatty alcohols profile (C11, C13, C15) was firstly established in E. coli. Also, medium even-chain alkanes (C12, C14) were obtained by substitution of AHR to aldehyde decarbonylase (AD). The titer of odd-chain fatty alcohols was improved from 7.4mg/L to 101.5mg/L in tube cultivation by means of fine-tuning endogenous fatty acyl-ACP TE (TesA'), αDOX, AHRs and the genes involved in fatty acids metabolism pathway. Through high cell density fed-batch fermentation, a titer of 1.95g/L odd-chain fatty alcohols was achieved, which was the highest reported titer in E. coli. Our system has greatly expanded the current microbial fatty alcohols profile that provides a new brand solution for producing complex and desired molecules in microbes.

  5. Biosynthesis of odd-chain fatty alcohols in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Cao, Ying-Xiu; Xiao, Wen-Hai; Liu, Duo; Zhang, Jin-Lai; Ding, Ming-Zhu; Yuan, Ying-Jin

    2015-05-01

    Engineered microbes offer the opportunity to design and implement artificial molecular pathways for renewable production of tailored chemical commodities. Targeted biosynthesis of odd-chain fatty alcohols is very challenging in microbe, due to the specificity of fatty acids synthase for two-carbon unit elongation. Here, we developed a novel strategy to directly tailor carbon number in fatty aldehydes formation step by incorporating α-dioxygenase (αDOX) from Oryza sativa (rice) into Escherichia coli αDOX oxidizes Cn fatty acids (even-chain) to form Cn-1 fatty aldehydes (odd-chain). Through combining αDOX with fatty acyl-acyl carrier protein (-ACP) thioesterase (TE) and aldehyde reductase (AHR), the medium odd-chain fatty alcohols profile (C11, C13, C15) was firstly established in E. coli. Also, medium even-chain alkanes (C12, C14) were obtained by substitution of AHR to aldehyde decarbonylase (AD). The titer of odd-chain fatty alcohols was improved from 7.4mg/L to 101.5mg/L in tube cultivation by means of fine-tuning endogenous fatty acyl-ACP TE (TesA'), αDOX, AHRs and the genes involved in fatty acids metabolism pathway. Through high cell density fed-batch fermentation, a titer of 1.95g/L odd-chain fatty alcohols was achieved, which was the highest reported titer in E. coli. Our system has greatly expanded the current microbial fatty alcohols profile that provides a new brand solution for producing complex and desired molecules in microbes. PMID:25773521

  6. Effect of polyunsaturated fatty acids on the expression of transcription factor adipocyte determination and differentiation-dependent factor 1 and of lipogenic and fatty acid oxidation enzymes in porcine differentiating adipocytes.

    PubMed

    Hsu, J M; Ding, S T

    2003-09-01

    Polyunsaturated fatty acids (FA) regulate genes involved in lipid metabolism. The effects of polyunsaturated FA on the transcription factor adipocyte determination and differentiation-dependent factor (ADD) 1 and fatty acid synthase (FAS) mRNA in differentiating porcine adipocytes were measured using a stromal vascular cell culture system. Porcine stromal vascular cells were isolated from subcutaneous adipose tissues and plated in Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium (DMEM)-nutrient mixture F-12 Ham (F-12) plus fetal bovine serum (100 ml/l) for 24 h. Then cells were differentiated in DMEM-F12 plus insulin, hydrocortisone and transferrin without or with polyunsaturated FA at 6.25, 25.00 or 100.00 microM. The ADD1 mRNA was decreased by 100.00 microM-arachidonic acid, 6.25 to 100.00 microM-docosahexaenoic acid or cis-9,trans-11-conjugated linoleic acid. The polyunsaturated FA reduced the transcription rate of FAS, but not of ADD1. All three polyunsaturated FA accelerated degradation of ADD1 and FAS mRNA to reduce the abundance of ADD1 and FAS mRNA. Results also showed that polyunsaturated FA inhibit the ADD1 expression, not only of mRNA concentration, but also of mature ADD1 protein concentration, suggesting an overall reduction of ADD1 function by polyunsaturated FA. Our present experiments demonstrate that polyunsaturated FA regulate the gene expression of ADD1 and enzymes involved in lipid metabolism in porcine adipocytes.

  7. Dietary n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids alter the expression of genes involved in prostaglandin biosynthesis in the bovine uterus.

    PubMed

    Coyne, G S; Kenny, D A; Childs, S; Sreenan, J M; Waters, S M

    2008-09-15

    Nutrition plays a critical role in the regulation of cow fertility. There is emerging evidence that dietary long chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC n-3 PUFA) may act as specific regulators of some reproductive processes. In vitro studies suggest that the n-3 PUFAs, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) may play pivotal roles by suppressing the synthesis of uterine prostaglandin F(2alpha) (PGF(2alpha)) which is centrally involved in the control of the bovine oestrous cycle and in early embryo survival. The objective of the current study was to determine the effect of dietary inclusion of n-3 PUFA on uterine endometrial mRNA expression of key genes regulating PGF(2alpha) biosynthesis. Beef heifers were fed either a low (CON; n=10) or high (HIGH PUFA; n=10) n-3 PUFA diet for 45 days and endometrial tissues were harvested following slaughter. Following analysis, tissues within each dietary group were ranked on the basis of their PUFA concentrations and the highest (n=7) and lowest (n=7) within each of HIGH PUFA and CON, respectively, were used in gene expression studies. Endometrial n-3 PUFA concentrations were more than two-fold higher (P<0.05) and EPA concentrations alone more than seven-fold higher (P<0.01) in the HIGH PUFA than the CON group. Endometrial concentrations of arachidonic acid, were lower (P<0.001) in the tissues from HIGH PUFA than those from the CON group. Total RNA was isolated from all endometrial tissues and real-time reverse transcription (RT) PCR conducted to compare the relative expression of 11 genes with known involvement in uterine biosynthesis of 2-series prostaglandins. Expression of mRNA for prostaglandin E synthase (PGES) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors, PPAR alpha and delta was increased (P<0.05) while mRNA expression of phospholipase A(2) (PLA(2)) was decreased (P=0.06) in the HIGH PUFA endometrial tissues. Expression of genes coding for the oxytocin receptor (OTR), phospholipase C (PLC

  8. Tachikawa project for prevention of posttraumatic stress disorder with polyunsaturated fatty acid (TPOP): study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Preclinical and clinical studies suggest that supplementation with omega-3 fatty acids after trauma might reduce subsequent posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). To date, we have shown in an open trial that PTSD symptoms in critically injured patients can be reduced by taking omega-3 fatty acids, hypothesized to stimulate hippocampal neurogenesis. The primary aim of the present randomized controlled trial is to examine the efficacy of omega-3 fatty acid supplementation in the secondary prevention of PTSD following accidental injury, as compared with placebo. This paper describes the rationale and protocol of this trial. Methods/design The Tachikawa Project for Prevention of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder with Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid (TPOP) is a double-blinded, parallel group, randomized controlled trial to assess whether omega-3 fatty acid supplementation can prevent PTSD symptoms among accident-injured patients consecutively admitted to an intensive care unit. We plan to recruit accident-injured patients and follow them prospectively for 12 weeks. Enrolled patients will be randomized to either the omega-3 fatty acid supplement group (1,470 mg docosahexaenoic acid and 147 mg eicosapentaenoic acid daily) or placebo group. Primary outcome is score on the Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale (CAPS). We will need to randomize 140 injured patients to have 90% power to detect a 10-point difference in mean CAPS scores with omega-3 fatty acid supplementation compared with placebo. Secondary measures are diagnosis of PTSD and major depressive disorder, depressive symptoms, physiologic response in the experiment using script-driven imagery and acoustic stimulation, serum brain-derived neurotrophic factor, health-related quality of life, resilience, and aggression. Analyses will be by intent to treat. The trial was initiated on December 13 2008, with 104 subjects randomized by November 30 2012. Discussion This study promises to be the first trial to provide a novel

  9. Polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation during pregnancy alters neonatal behavior in sheep.

    PubMed

    Capper, Judith L; Wilkinson, Robert G; Mackenzie, Alexander M; Sinclair, Liam A

    2006-02-01

    The objectives of the study were to determine whether supplementation of pregnant ewes with long-chain (n-3) fatty acids present in fish oil, in combination with dietary vitamin E, would alter neonatal behavior in sheep. Twin- (n=36) and triplet- (n=12) bearing ewes were allocated at d 103 of gestation to 1 of 4 dietary treatments containing 1 of 2 fat sources [Megalac, a calcium soap of palm fatty acid distillate or a fish oil mixture, high in 20:5(n-3) and 22:6(n-3)] and 1 of 2 dietary vitamin E concentrations (50 or 500 mg/kg) in a 2 x 2 factorial design. Feeding fish oil increased gestation length by 2 d and increased the proportion of 22:6(n-3) within neonatal plasma by 5.1-fold and brain by 10%, whereas brain 20:5(n-3) was increased 5-fold. Supranutritional dietary vitamin E concentrations decreased the latency of lambs to stand in ewes fed fish oil but not Megalac, whereas latency to suckle was decreased from 43 to 34 min by fish oil supplementation. Supplementation with fish oil also substantially decreased the secretion rate (mL/h) of colostrum and the yield (g/h) of fat and protein. We conclude that supplementation of ewes with fish oil decreases the latency to suckle, increases gestation length and the 22:6(n-3):20:4(n-6) ratio in the neonatal brain, and may improve lamb survival rate. However, further work is required to determine how to mitigate the negative effects of fish oil on colostrum production.

  10. Stability of fatty acid composition after thermal, high pressure, and microwave processing of cow milk as affected by polyunsaturated fatty acid concentration.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Alcalá, L M; Alonso, L; Fontecha, J

    2014-12-01

    Interest has been increasing to enhance the contents of healthy polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) in milk. However, trans fatty acids and conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) can be altered after thermal processing and high pressures disrupt the milk fat globule membrane, exposing the lipid core and helping its oxidation. The objective of the present research was to study whether processing can alter the fatty acid composition of milk and if these changes are affected by PUFA concentration as previous studies suggest. Two cow milk batches (500 L each), one naturally enriched in PUFA, were processed to obtain pasteurized; high temperature, short time; UHT; high pressure; and microwave pasteurized samples. The detailed fatty acid composition was analyzed with special attention to trans fatty acids and CLA isomers. Results showed that after high temperature, short time processing, total CLA content increased in both milk batches, whereas sterilization resulted in a sigmatropic rearrangement of C18:2 cis-9,trans-11 to C18:2 trans-9,trans-11. The extent of these effects was greater in milks naturally enriched in PUFA.

  11. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid profiles and relationship with cardiometabolic risk factors in Cree (Eeyouch) of Northern Québec

    PubMed Central

    Proust, Françoise; Drescher, Olivia; Laouan-Sidi, Elhadji A.; Robinson, Elizabeth; Lucas, Michel; Dewailly, Éric

    2016-01-01

    Background n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFAs) from fish are known modulators of cardiometabolic risk factors. Objective To examine fatty acids (FAs) status and the relationship between n-3 LC-PUFA and cardiometabolic risk factors in Cree participants. Design We analyzed data from a cross-sectional study (n=829) conducted in Cree adults (aged 18–74 years) from 7 communities of the James Bay territory of Quebec (Canada) in 2005–2009. Sociodemographic, lifestyle, clinical and anthropometric data were collected. FAs were quantified in red blood cells (RBCs) under fasting conditions. Results A total of 89% of the participants were overweight (with 69% obesity), 33% had hypertriglyceridemia, 44% had low plasma HDL-c and 77% had fasting plasma insulin ≥90 pmol/l. Total n-3 PUFAs accounted for 6% of total FAs and were higher among older participants, while n-6 PUFAs accounted for 31% of total FAs and were higher among younger participants. According to the adjusted multiple linear regression models, n-3 LC-PUFA was associated (p<0.05) with higher total cholesterol, LDL-c and apo B-100, and was also associated (p<0.05) with lower blood glucose. Conclusion Overall, this study showed that n-3 LC-PUFA levels measured in the RBCs of the Cree adults are relatively low and tend towards lower levels among youth. These levels might be insufficient to offset the prevalence of cardiometabolic risk factors. PMID:27427488

  12. Studies on anti-inflammatory activity of spice principles and dietary n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids on carrageenan-induced inflammation in rats.

    PubMed

    Reddy, A C; Lokesh, B R

    1994-01-01

    The antioxidant spice principles curcumin and eugenol when given by gavage lowered the carrageenan-induced edema in the foot pads of rats. This lowering effect was dependent on the concentration, the time gap between the administration of spice principles and the induction of inflammation by carrageenan. Dietary lipids also influenced the extent of inflammation. Animals fed 10% cod liver oil [containing n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA)] for 10 weeks showed a significantly lower inflammation compared to that observed in animals fed diets supplemented with 10% groundnut oil (rich in n-6 PUFA) or 10% coconut oil (rich in medium-chain saturated fatty acids). Supplementation of diets with 1 weight% of curcumin did not affect the inflammatory responses of animals to carrageenan injection. However, supplementation of diets with 0.17 weight% eugenol further lowered inflammation by 16, 32 and 30% in animals fed coconut oil, groundnut oil and cod liver oil, respectively. Therefore, combinations of dietary lipids with spice principles like eugenol can help in lowering inflammation.

  13. Coenzyme Q Protects Against Age-Related Alveolar Bone Loss Associated to n-6 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Rich-Diets by Modulating Mitochondrial Mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Varela-Lopez, Alfonso; Bullon, Pedro; Battino, Maurizio; Ramirez-Tortosa, M Carmen; Ochoa, Julio J; Cordero, Mario D; Ramirez-Tortosa, César L; Rubini, Corrado; Zizzi, Antonio; Quiles, José L

    2016-05-01

    An age-dependent model of the periodontium was reproduced to evaluate the effect of life-long feeding on a low coenzyme Q10 dosage in n-6, n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid or monounsaturated fatty acid-based diets on periodontal tissues of young and old rats. Results shown that exacerbated age-related alveolar bone loss previously associated to n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid diet was attenuated by coenzyme Q10 Gene expression analysis suggests that involved mechanisms might be related to a restored capacity of mitochondria to adapt to aging in gingival cells from rats fed on n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid. In particular, this could be due to an age-related increase of the rate of mitochondrial biogenesis and a better oxidative and respiratory balance in these animals. From the nutritional and clinical point of view, it is noteworthy that supplementation with coenzyme Q10 could counteract the negative effects of n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid on alveolar bone loss (a major feature of periodontitis) associated to age.

  14. Immune response, productivity and quality of milk from grazing goats as affected by dietary polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation.

    PubMed

    Caroprese, Mariangela; Ciliberti, Maria Giovana; Santillo, Antonella; Marino, Rosaria; Sevi, Agostino; Albenzio, Marzia

    2016-04-01

    This study was undertaken to assess how diet supplemented with fish oil and linseed improve the immune profile, the production performance, and milk quality of grazing goats by a diet supplementation of fish oil or linseed. Twenty-four Garganica grazing goats were divided into three groups named control (CON), fish oil (FO) and linseed (LIN) according to the fat supplement received in their diet. In vivo immune responses were evaluated by monitoring cell-mediated and humoral immune responses in order to verify the effects of polyunsaturated fatty acids supplementation on goats' health status. Goat milk samples were analysed weekly to determine milk chemical composition, fatty acid profile, and somatic cell count. Diet based on linseed supplementation (LIN) significantly increased milk yield by 30%, milk fat yield by 67%, protein yield by 34%, and casein yield by 41% as compared with CON. Fat content increased by 30% in LIN milk as compared with CON milk, and by 12% as compared with FO milk. Linseed modified milk fatty acid profile; LIN milk showed lower SFA and higher PUFA than FO milk. The modified fatty acid composition of LIN milk resulted in lower AI and TI indexes than FO and CON milk. Linseed and fish oil administration can reduce humoral immunity of goats, but has no effect in their cellular immunity. Dietary linseed supplementation in grazing dairy goat supports feeding programs to improve milk composition and quality, and a modulation of their immune responses. PMID:27033938

  15. Role of n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids in Ameliorating the Obesity-Induced Metabolic Syndrome in Animal Models and Humans

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Chao-Wei; Chien, Yi-Shan; Chen, Yu-Jen; Ajuwon, Kolapo M.; Mersmann, Harry M.; Ding, Shih-Torng

    2016-01-01

    The incidence of obesity and its comorbidities, such as insulin resistance and type II diabetes, are increasing dramatically, perhaps caused by the change in the fatty acid composition of common human diets. Adipose tissue plays a role as the major energy reservoir in the body. An excess of adipose mass accumulation caused by chronic positive energy balance results in obesity. The n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA), DHA (docosahexaenoic acid) and EPA (eicosapentaenoic acid) exert numerous beneficial effects to maintain physiological homeostasis. In the current review, the physiology of n-3 PUFA effects in the body is delineated from studies conducted in both human and animal experiments. Although mechanistic studies in human are limited, numerous studies conducted in animals and models in vitro provide potential molecular mechanisms of the effects of these fatty acids. Three aspects of n-3 PUFA in adipocyte regulation are discussed: (1) lipid metabolism, including adipocyte differentiation, lipolysis and lipogenesis; (2) energy expenditure, such as mitochondrial and peroxisomal fatty acid β-oxidation; and (3) inflammation, including adipokines and specialized pro-resolving lipid mediators. Additionally, the mechanisms by which n-3 PUFA regulate gene expression are highlighted. The beneficial effects of n-3 PUFA may help to reduce the incidence of obesity and its comorbidities. PMID:27735847

  16. Lipoprotein lipase variants interact with polyunsaturated fatty acids for obesity traits in women: Replication in two populations

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Y.; Tucker, K.L.; Smith, C.E.; Lee, Y.C.; Huang, T.; Richardson, K.; Parnell, L.D.; Lai, C.Q.; Young, K.L.; Justice, A.E.; Shao, Y.; North, K.E.; Ordovás, J.M.

    2015-01-01

    Background and aims Lipoprotein lipase (LPL) is a candidate gene for obesity based on its role in triglyceride hydrolysis and the partitioning of fatty acids towards storage or oxidation. Whether dietary fatty acids modify LPL associated obesity risk is unknown. Methods and results We examined five single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) (rs320, rs2083637, rs17411031, rs13702, rs2197089) for potential interaction with dietary fatty acids for obesity traits in 1171 participants (333 men and 838 women, aged 45–75 y) of the Boston Puerto Rican Health Study (BPRHS). In women, SNP rs320 interacted with dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) for body mass index (BMI) (P = 0.002) and waist circumference (WC) (P = 0.001) respectively. Higher intake of PUFA was associated with lower BMI and WC in homozygotes of the major allele (TT) (P = 0.01 and 0.005) but not in minor allele carriers (TG and GG). These interactions were replicated in an independent population, African American women of the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) study (n = 1334). Conclusion Dietary PUFA modulated the association of LPL rs320 with obesity traits in two independent populations. These interactions may be relevant to the dietary management of obesity, particularly in women. PMID:25156894

  17. An alternative pathway for the effective production of the omega-3 long-chain polyunsaturates EPA and ETA in transgenic oilseeds.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Lopez, Noemi; Haslam, Richard P; Usher, Sarah; Napier, Johnathan A; Sayanova, Olga

    2015-12-01

    The synthesis and accumulation of omega-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in transgenic Camelina sativa is demonstrated using the so-called alternative pathway. This aerobic pathway is found in a small number of taxonomically unrelated unicellular organisms and utilizes a C18 Δ9-elongase to generate C20 PUFAs. Here, we evaluated four different combinations of seed-specific transgene-derived activities to systematically determine the potential of this pathway to direct the synthesis of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) in transgenic plants. The accumulation of EPA and the related omega-3 LC-PUFA eicosatetraenoic acid (ETA) was observed up to 26.4% of total seed fatty acids, of which ETA was 9.5%. Seed oils such as these not only represent an additional source of EPA, but also an entirely new source of the bona fide fish oil ETA. Detailed lipidomic analysis of the alternative pathway in Camelina revealed that the acyl-substrate preferences of the different activities in the pathway can still generate a substrate-dichotomy bottleneck, largely due to inefficient acyl-exchange from phospholipids into the acyl-CoA pool. However, significant levels of EPA and ETA were detected in the triacylglycerols of transgenic seeds, confirming the channelling of these fatty acids into this storage lipid.

  18. The Role of Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids in the Treatment of Patients with Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome: A Clinical Review

    PubMed Central

    García de Acilu, M.; Leal, S.; Caralt, B.; Roca, O.; Sabater, J.; Masclans, J. R.

    2015-01-01

    Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is defined as the acute onset of noncardiogenic edema and subsequent gas-exchange impairment due to a severe inflammatory process. Recent report on the prognostic value of eicosanoids in patients with ARDS suggests that modulating the inflammatory response through the use of polyunsaturated fatty acids may be a useful strategy for ARDS treatment. The use of enteral diets enriched with eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and gamma-linolenic acid (GLA) has reported promising results, showing an improvement in respiratory variables and haemodynamics. However, the interpretation of the studies is limited by their heterogeneity and methodology and the effect of ω-3 fatty acid-enriched lipid emulsion or enteral diets on patients with ARDS remains unclear. Therefore, the routine use of ω-3 fatty acid-enriched nutrition cannot be recommended and further large, homogeneous, and high-quality clinical trials need to be conducted to clarify the effectiveness of ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids. PMID:26339627

  19. Mitochondrial and Oxidative Stress Aspects in Hippocampus of Rats Submitted to Dietary n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Deficiency After Exposure to Early Stress.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Charles Francisco; Bernardi, Juliana Rombaldi; da Silva, Diego Carrilho; de Sá Couto-Pereira, Natividade; de Souza Mota, Carina; Krolow, Rachel; Weis, Simone Nardin; Pettenuzzo, Letícia; Kapczinski, Flávio; Silveira, Patrícia Pelufo; Dalmaz, Carla

    2015-09-01

    Chronic dietary long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) deficiency may lead to changes in cortex and hippocampus neuronal membrane phospholipids, and may be linked to impaired central nervous system function. Particularly docosahexaenoic acid deficiency appears to be involved in neuropsychiatric disorders. On the other hand, adverse events early in life may also profoundly affect brain development, leading to long-lasting effects on neurophysiology, neurobiology and behavior. This research assessed if neonatal stress and a dietary n-3 PUFAs deficiency could interact to produce hippocampal alterations related to mitochondrial functions in adult rats. There were no effects of diet, neonatal intervention or interactions on superoxide dismutase or catalase enzymatic activities, mitochondrial membrane potential and respiratory chain complexes. Rats fed n-3 PUFAs deficient diet displayed higher levels of glutathione peroxidase and catalase activity, higher free radicals production and higher thiol content compared to rats fed n-3 PUFAs adequate diet. There were interactions among diets and neonatal stress, since glutathione peroxidase, free radicals production and thiol content were increased in groups that were subjected to neonatal interventions fed n-3 PUFAs deficient diet. Additionally, reduced mitochondrial potential was observed in handled animals. Total thiol revealed a neonatal stress effect, since animals subjected to neonatal interventions displayed lower thiol content. In conclusion, we observed that a chronic treatment with deficient n-3 PUFAs diet, from the puberty period on, increased free radicals production and imbalanced antioxidant enzymes activities, and these increases were higher in animals subjected to neonatal interventions.

  20. Protection of polyunsaturated fatty acids against ruminal biohydrogenation: Pilot experiments for three approaches.

    PubMed

    Alvarado-Gilis, C A; Aperce, C C; Miller, K A; Van Bibber-Krueger, C L; Klamfoth, D; Drouillard, J S

    2015-06-01

    Three methods for protection of PUFA against biohydrogenation by ruminal microorganisms were evaluated. In method 1 a blend of ground flaxseed, calcium oxide, and molasses was processed through a dry extruder. In method 2, a blend of ground flaxseed, soybean meal, molasses, and baker's yeast was moistened and prewarmed, allowing enzymes from yeast to produce reducing sugars, and the mixture was subsequently processed through a dry extruder like in method 1. In method 3, ground flaxseed was embedded within a matrix of dolomitic lime hydrate (L-Flaxseed) as a protective barrier against biohydrogenation. Dolomitic lime was mixed with ground flaxseed, water was added, the mixture was blended in a high-speed turbulizer, and the resulting material was then dried to form a granular matrix. Methods 1 and 2 were tested in 1 study (study 1), and method 3 was tested in 2 studies (studies 2 and 3). In study 1, 60 crossbred yearling steers (BW = 475 ± 55 kg) were used in a randomized complete block design experiment. Steers were fed for 12 d with a diet consisting of 48.73% steam-flaked corn, 35% wet corn gluten feed, 12% corn silage, and 4.27% vitamins and minerals (Control). For the other 4 treatments, a portion of wet corn gluten feed was replaced with 5% of unprocessed or extruded mixtures as described for methods 1 and 2. Steers were weighed, and jugular blood samples were taken for analysis of long-chain fatty acids (LCFA) on d 0 and 12 of the study. Both methods failed to improve resistance of PUFA against biohydrogenation (P > 0.1). In study 2, in situ fatty acid disappearance was evaluated for ground flaxseed (Flaxseed) or L-Flaxseed using 6 ruminally fistulated Holstein steers. The proportion of α-linolenic acid (ALA) that was resistant to ruminal biohydrogenation was approximately 2-fold greater for L-Flaxseed than for Flaxseed (P < 0.05). In study 3, 45 steers (269 ± 19.5 kg initial BW) were used in a randomized complete block design. Steers were fed diets

  1. Protection of polyunsaturated fatty acids against ruminal biohydrogenation: Pilot experiments for three approaches.

    PubMed

    Alvarado-Gilis, C A; Aperce, C C; Miller, K A; Van Bibber-Krueger, C L; Klamfoth, D; Drouillard, J S

    2015-06-01

    Three methods for protection of PUFA against biohydrogenation by ruminal microorganisms were evaluated. In method 1 a blend of ground flaxseed, calcium oxide, and molasses was processed through a dry extruder. In method 2, a blend of ground flaxseed, soybean meal, molasses, and baker's yeast was moistened and prewarmed, allowing enzymes from yeast to produce reducing sugars, and the mixture was subsequently processed through a dry extruder like in method 1. In method 3, ground flaxseed was embedded within a matrix of dolomitic lime hydrate (L-Flaxseed) as a protective barrier against biohydrogenation. Dolomitic lime was mixed with ground flaxseed, water was added, the mixture was blended in a high-speed turbulizer, and the resulting material was then dried to form a granular matrix. Methods 1 and 2 were tested in 1 study (study 1), and method 3 was tested in 2 studies (studies 2 and 3). In study 1, 60 crossbred yearling steers (BW = 475 ± 55 kg) were used in a randomized complete block design experiment. Steers were fed for 12 d with a diet consisting of 48.73% steam-flaked corn, 35% wet corn gluten feed, 12% corn silage, and 4.27% vitamins and minerals (Control). For the other 4 treatments, a portion of wet corn gluten feed was replaced with 5% of unprocessed or extruded mixtures as described for methods 1 and 2. Steers were weighed, and jugular blood samples were taken for analysis of long-chain fatty acids (LCFA) on d 0 and 12 of the study. Both methods failed to improve resistance of PUFA against biohydrogenation (P > 0.1). In study 2, in situ fatty acid disappearance was evaluated for ground flaxseed (Flaxseed) or L-Flaxseed using 6 ruminally fistulated Holstein steers. The proportion of α-linolenic acid (ALA) that was resistant to ruminal biohydrogenation was approximately 2-fold greater for L-Flaxseed than for Flaxseed (P < 0.05). In study 3, 45 steers (269 ± 19.5 kg initial BW) were used in a randomized complete block design. Steers were fed diets

  2. N-3 and n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids differentially regulate adipose angiotensinogen and other inflammatory adipokines in part via NF-kB dependent mechanisms

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Excessive secretion of angiotensinogen (Agt) and other adipokines such as Interleukin-6 (IL-6) and Monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1) have been linked to obesity and associated metabolic disorders, with a common feature being inflammation. We have previously shown that n-3 polyunsaturated fatty ...

  3. Plasma phosphatidylcholine concentrations of polyunsaturated fatty acids are differentially associated with hop bone mineral density and hip fracture in older adults: The Framingham Osteoporosis Study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) may influence bone health. Our objective was to examine associations between plasma phosphatidylcholine (PC) PUFA concentrations and hip measures: 1) femoral neck bone mineral density (FN-BMD) (n=765); 2) 4-y change in FN-BMD (n=556); and 3) hip fracture risk (n=76...

  4. Alterations in Serum Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids and Eicosanoids in Patients with Mild to Moderate Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD)

    PubMed Central

    Titz, Bjoern; Luettich, Karsta; Leroy, Patrice; Boue, Stephanie; Vuillaume, Gregory; Vihervaara, Terhi; Ekroos, Kim; Martin, Florian; Peitsch, Manuel C.; Hoeng, Julia

    2016-01-01

    Smoking is a major risk factor for several diseases including chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). To better understand the systemic effects of cigarette smoke exposure and mild to moderate COPD—and to support future biomarker development—we profiled the serum lipidomes of healthy smokers, smokers with mild to moderate COPD (GOLD stages 1 and 2), former smokers, and never-smokers (n = 40 per group) (ClinicalTrials.gov registration: NCT01780298). Serum lipidome profiling was conducted with untargeted and targeted mass spectrometry-based lipidomics. Guided by weighted lipid co-expression network analysis, we identified three main trends comparing smokers, especially those with COPD, with non-smokers: a general increase in glycero(phospho)lipids, including triglycerols; changes in fatty acid desaturation (decrease in ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, and an increase in monounsaturated fatty acids); and an imbalance in eicosanoids (increase in 11,12- and 14,15-DHETs (dihydroxyeicosatrienoic acids), and a decrease in 9- and 13-HODEs (hydroxyoctadecadienoic acids)). The lipidome profiles supported classification of study subjects as smokers or non-smokers, but were not sufficient to distinguish between smokers with and without COPD. Overall, our study yielded further insights into the complex interplay between smoke exposure, lung disease, and systemic alterations in serum lipid profiles. PMID:27657052

  5. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation improves neurologic recovery and attenuates white matter injury after experimental traumatic brain injury

    PubMed Central

    Pu, Hongjian; Guo, Yanling; Zhang, Wenting; Huang, Lanting; Wang, Guohua; Liou, Anthony K; Zhang, Jia; Zhang, Pengyue; Leak, Rehana K; Wang, Yun; Chen, Jun; Gao, Yanqin

    2013-01-01

    Dietary supplementation with omega-3 (ω-3) fatty acids is a safe, economical mean of preventive medicine that has shown protection against several neurologic disorders. The present study tested the hypothesis that this method is protective against controlled cortical impact (CCI). Indeed, mice fed with ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA)-enriched diet for 2 months exhibited attenuated short and long-term behavioral deficits due to CCI. Although ω-3 PUFAs did not decrease cortical lesion volume, these fatty acids did protect against hippocampal neuronal loss after CCI and reduced pro-inflammatory response. Interestingly, ω-3 PUFAs prevented the loss of myelin basic protein (MPB), preserved the integrity of the myelin sheath, and maintained the nerve fiber conductivity in the CCI model. ω-3 PUFAs also directly protected oligodendrocyte cultures from excitotoxicity and blunted the microglial activation-induced death of oligodendrocytes in microglia/oligodendrocyte cocultures. In sum, ω-3 PUFAs elicit multifaceted protection against behavioral dysfunction, hippocampal neuronal loss, inflammation, and loss of myelination and impulse conductivity. The present report is the first demonstration that ω-3 PUFAs protect against white matter injury in vivo and in vitro. The protective impact of ω-3 PUFAs supports the clinical use of this dietary supplement as a prophylaxis against traumatic brain injury and other nervous system disorders. PMID:23801244

  6. Hepatic n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Depletion Promotes Steatosis and Insulin Resistance in Mice: Genomic Analysis of Cellular Targets

    PubMed Central

    Pachikian, Barbara D.; Essaghir, Ahmed; Demoulin, Jean-Baptiste; Neyrinck, Audrey M.; Catry, Emilie; De Backer, Fabienne C.; Dejeans, Nicolas; Dewulf, Evelyne M.; Sohet, Florence M.; Portois, Laurence; Deldicque, Louise; Molendi-Coste, Olivier; Leclercq, Isabelle A.; Francaux, Marc; Carpentier, Yvon A.; Foufelle, Fabienne; Muccioli, Giulio G.; Cani, Patrice D.; Delzenne, Nathalie M.

    2011-01-01

    Patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease are characterised by a decreased n-3/n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) ratio in hepatic phospholipids. The metabolic consequences of n-3 PUFA depletion in the liver are poorly understood. We have reproduced a drastic drop in n-3 PUFA among hepatic phospholipids by feeding C57Bl/6J mice for 3 months with an n-3 PUFA depleted diet (DEF) versus a control diet (CT), which only differed in the PUFA content. DEF mice exhibited hepatic insulin resistance (assessed by euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamp) and steatosis that was associated with a decrease in fatty acid oxidation and occurred despite a higher capacity for triglyceride secretion. Microarray and qPCR analysis of the liver tissue revealed higher expression of all the enzymes involved in lipogenesis in DEF mice compared to CT mice, as well as increased expression and activation of sterol regulatory element binding protein-1c (SREBP-1c). Our data suggest that the activation of the liver X receptor pathway is involved in the overexpression of SREBP-1c, and this phenomenon cannot be attributed to insulin or to endoplasmic reticulum stress responses. In conclusion, n-3 PUFA depletion in liver phospholipids leads to activation of SREBP-1c and lipogenesis, which contributes to hepatic steatosis. PMID:21853118

  7. Estrogen Enhances the Expression of the Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Elongase Elovl2 via ERα in Breast Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    González-Bengtsson, Amanda; Asadi, Abolfazl; Gao, Hui; Dahlman-Wright, Karin

    2016-01-01

    Endocrine therapy is the first-line targeted adjuvant therapy for hormone-sensitive breast cancer. In view of the potential anticancer property of the omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) together with chemotherapy in estrogen receptor alpha (ERα) positive mammary tumors, we have explored the regulation by estradiol of the fatty acid desaturation and elongation enzymes involved in DHA synthesis in the human breast cancer cell line MCF7, which expresses ERα but not ERβ. We demonstrate a robust up-regulation in the expression of the fatty acid elongases Elovl2 and Elovl5 upon estradiol stimulation in MCF7 cells, which was sustained for more than 24 hours. Exposure with the ER inhibitor tamoxifen abolished specifically the Elovl2 but not the Elovl5 expression. Similarly, knock-down of ERα eliminated almost fully the Elovl2 but not the Elovl5 expression. Furthermore, ERα binds to one specific ERE within the Elovl2 enhancer in a ligand dependent manner. The involvement of ERα in the control of especially Elovl2, which plays a crucial role in DHA synthesis, may have potential implications in the treatment of breast cancer. PMID:27788154

  8. N-acyl amines of docosahexaenoic acid and other n–3 polyunsatured fatty acids – from fishy endocannabinoids to potential leads

    PubMed Central

    Meijerink, Jocelijn; Balvers, Michiel; Witkamp, Renger

    2013-01-01

    N–3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (n–3 LC-PUFAs), in particular α-linolenic acid (18:3n-3), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA; 20:5n-3) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; 22:6n-3) are receiving much attention because of their presumed beneficial health effects. To explain these, a variety of mechanisms have been proposed, but their interactions with the endocannabinoid system have received relatively little attention so far. However, it has already been shown some time ago that consumption of n–3 LC-PUFAs not only affects the synthesis of prototypic endocannabinoids like anandamide but also stimulates the formation of specific n–3 LC-PUFA-derived conjugates with ethanolamine, dopamine, serotonin or other amines. Some of these fatty amides show overlapping biological activities with those of typical endocannabinoids, whereas others possess distinct and sometimes largely unknown receptor affinities and other properties. The ethanolamine and dopamine conjugates of DHA have been the most investigated thus far. These mediators may provide promising new leads to the field of inflammatory and neurological disorders and for other pharmacological applications, including their use as carrier molecules for neurotransmitters to target the brain. Furthermore, combinations of n–3 LC-PUFA-derived fatty acid amides, their precursors and FAAH inhibitors offer possibilities to optimise their effects in health and disease. Linked Articles This article is part of a themed section on Cannabinoids. To view the other articles in this section visit http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bph.2013.169.issue-4 & http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bph.2012.167.issue-8 PMID:23088259

  9. The effect of linoleic acid on the whole body synthesis rates of polyunsaturated fatty acids from α-linolenic acid and linoleic acid in free-living rats.

    PubMed

    Domenichiello, Anthony F; Kitson, Alex P; Chen, Chuck T; Trépanier, Marc-Olivier; Stavro, P Mark; Bazinet, Richard P

    2016-04-01

    Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is thought to be important for brain function. The main dietary source of DHA is fish, however, DHA can also be synthesized from precursor omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA), the most abundantly consumed being α-linolenic acid (ALA). The enzymes required to synthesize DHA from ALA are also used to synthesize longer chain omega-6 (n-6) PUFA from linoleic acid (LNA). The large increase in LNA consumption that has occurred over the last century has led to concern that LNA and other n-6 PUFA outcompete n-3 PUFA for enzymes involved in DHA synthesis, and therefore, decrease overall DHA synthesis. To assess this, rats were fed diets containing LNA at 53 (high LNA diet), 11 (medium LNA diet) or 1.5% (low LNA diet) of the fatty acids with ALA being constant across all diets (approximately 4% of the fatty acids). Rats were maintained on these diets from weaning for 8 weeks, at which point they were subjected to a steady-state infusion of labeled ALA and LNA to measure DHA and arachidonic acid (ARA) synthesis rates. DHA and ARA synthesis rates were generally highest in rats fed the medium and high LNA diets, while the plasma half-life of DHA was longer in rats fed the low LNA diet. Therefore, increasing dietary LNA, in rats, did not impair DHA synthesis; however, low dietary LNA led to a decrease in DHA synthesis with tissue concentrations of DHA possibly being maintained by a longer DHA half-life.

  10. Polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation: effects of seaweed Ascophyllum nodosum and flaxseed on milk production and fatty acid profile of lactating ewes during summer.

    PubMed

    Caroprese, Mariangela; Ciliberti, Maria Giovanna; Marino, Rosaria; Santillo, Antonella; Sevi, Agostino; Albenzio, Marzia

    2016-08-01

    The research reported in this Research Communication was undertaken to evaluate the effects of different sources of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) supplemented in the diet on milk production and milk fatty acid profile of lactating ewes exposed to long term heat stress. The experiment was conducted during summer, involved 32 ewes divided into 4 groups of 8 each, and lasted 6 weeks. The ewes in all groups were fed twice daily and received 1·8 kg/d of oat hay and 1 kg/d of concentrate. Flaxseed group (FS) was supplemented with 250 g/d of whole flaxseed, Ascophyllum nodosum group (AG) was supplemented with 25 g/d of seaweed Ascophyllum nodosum, and the combination group (FS + AG) received both flaxseed and Ascophyllum nodosum supplementation. The control group (CON) was fed with 1 kg/d of pelleted concentrate without PUFA supplementation. Milk samples were collected twice daily per week, and analysed for fat, total protein, casein, and lactose content. At the beginning and then at 2, 4 and 6 week of the experiment each milk sample was analysed for milk fatty acids. Temperature-humidity index (THI) was calculated daily. Supplementation of flaxseed and of the combination of flaxseed and Ascophyllum nodosum increased milk yield. The total content of saturated fatty acids (SFA) in milk decreased for ewes fed FS, followed by FS + AG. On the contrary, monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) increased for ewes fed FS and FS + AG. The total n-3 FA was found higher in FS and FS + AG than in AG and CON groups mainly because of the increase in C 18 : 3 n-3 in FS and FS + AG milk. Milk from FS + AG resulted in the highest n-3/n-6 ratio and decreases in atherogenic and thrombogenic indices. The combination of seaweed Ascophyllum nodosum and flaxseed can be suggested as an adequate supplementation to sustain milk production and milk fatty acid profile of sheep during summer season. PMID:27600962

  11. Polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation: effects of seaweed Ascophyllum nodosum and flaxseed on milk production and fatty acid profile of lactating ewes during summer.

    PubMed

    Caroprese, Mariangela; Ciliberti, Maria Giovanna; Marino, Rosaria; Santillo, Antonella; Sevi, Agostino; Albenzio, Marzia

    2016-08-01

    The research reported in this Research Communication was undertaken to evaluate the effects of different sources of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) supplemented in the diet on milk production and milk fatty acid profile of lactating ewes exposed to long term heat stress. The experiment was conducted during summer, involved 32 ewes divided into 4 groups of 8 each, and lasted 6 weeks. The ewes in all groups were fed twice daily and received 1·8 kg/d of oat hay and 1 kg/d of concentrate. Flaxseed group (FS) was supplemented with 250 g/d of whole flaxseed, Ascophyllum nodosum group (AG) was supplemented with 25 g/d of seaweed Ascophyllum nodosum, and the combination group (FS + AG) received both flaxseed and Ascophyllum nodosum supplementation. The control group (CON) was fed with 1 kg/d of pelleted concentrate without PUFA supplementation. Milk samples were collected twice daily per week, and analysed for fat, total protein, casein, and lactose content. At the beginning and then at 2, 4 and 6 week of the experiment each milk sample was analysed for milk fatty acids. Temperature-humidity index (THI) was calculated daily. Supplementation of flaxseed and of the combination of flaxseed and Ascophyllum nodosum increased milk yield. The total content of saturated fatty acids (SFA) in milk decreased for ewes fed FS, followed by FS + AG. On the contrary, monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) increased for ewes fed FS and FS + AG. The total n-3 FA was found higher in FS and FS + AG than in AG and CON groups mainly because of the increase in C 18 : 3 n-3 in FS and FS + AG milk. Milk from FS + AG resulted in the highest n-3/n-6 ratio and decreases in atherogenic and thrombogenic indices. The combination of seaweed Ascophyllum nodosum and flaxseed can be suggested as an adequate supplementation to sustain milk production and milk fatty acid profile of sheep during summer season.

  12. Deregulated balance of omega-6 and omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids following infection by the zoonotic pathogen Streptococcus suis.

    PubMed

    Lachance, Claude; Segura, Mariela; Dominguez-Punaro, Maria C; Wojewodka, Gabriella; De Sanctis, Juan B; Radzioch, Danuta; Gottschalk, Marcelo

    2014-05-01

    Streptococcus suis is an important swine pathogen and an emergent zoonotic pathogen. Excessive inflammation caused by S. suis is responsible for early high mortality in septic shock-like syndrome cases. Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) may contribute to regulating inflammatory processes. This study shows that mouse infection by S. suis is accompanied by an increase of arachidonic acid, a proinflammatory omega-6 (ω-6) PUFA, and by a decrease of docosahexaenoic acid, an anti-inflammatory ω-3 PUFA. Macrophages infected with S. suis showed activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways and cyclooxygenase-2 upregulation. Fenretinide, a synthetic vitamin A analog, reduced in vitro expression of inflammatory mediators. Pretreatment of mice with fenretinide significantly improved their survival by reducing systemic proinflammatory cytokines during the acute phase of an S. suis infection. These findings indicate a beneficial effect of fenretinide in diminishing the expression of inflammation and improving survival during an acute infection by a virulent S. suis strain.

  13. Enzymatic enrichment of polyunsaturated fatty acids using novel lipase preparations modified by combination of immobilization and fish oil treatment.

    PubMed

    Yan, Jinyong; Liu, Sanxiong; Hu, Jiang; Gui, Xiaohua; Wang, Guilong; Yan, Yunjun

    2011-07-01

    Novel modification methods for lipase biocatalysts effective in hydrolysis of fish oil for enrichment of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) were described. Based on conventional immobilization in single aqueous medium, immobilization of lipase in two phase medium composed of buffer and octane was employed. Furthermore, immobilization (in single aqueous or in two phase medium) coupled to fish oil treatment was integrated. Among these, lipase immobilized in two phase medium coupled to fish oil treatment (IMLAOF) had advantages over other modified lipases in initial reaction rate and hydrolysis degree. The hydrolysis degree increased from 12% with the free lipase to 40% with IMLAOF. Strong polar and hydrophobic solvents had negative impact on immobilization-fish oil treatment lipases, while low polar solvents were helpful to maintain the modification effect of immobilization-fish oil treatment. After five cycles of usage, the immobilization-fish oil treatment lipases still maintained more than 80% of relative hydrolysis degree.

  14. Balancing the benefits of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and the risks of methylmercury exposure from fish consumption

    PubMed Central

    Mahaffey, Kathryn R; Sunderland, Elsie M; Chan, Hing Man; Choi, Anna L; Grandjean, Philippe; Mariën, Koenraad; Oken, Emily; Sakamoto, Mineshi; Schoeny, Rita; Weihe, Pál; Yan, Chong-Huai; Yasutake, Akira

    2011-01-01

    Fish and shellfish are widely available foods that provide important nutrients, particularly n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs), to many populations globally. These nutrients, especially docosahexaenoic acid, confer benefits to brain and visual system development in infants and reduce risks of certain forms of heart disease in adults. However, fish and shellfish can also be a major source of methylmercury (MeHg), a known neurotoxicant that is particularly harmful to fetal brain development. This review documents the latest knowledge on the risks and benefits of seafood consumption for perinatal development of infants. It is possible to choose fish species that are both high in n-3 PUFAs and low in MeHg. A framework for providing dietary advice for women of childbearing age on how to maximize the dietary intake of n-3 PUFAs while minimizing MeHg exposures is suggested. PMID:21884130

  15. The Janus Face of Lipids in Human Breast Cancer: How Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids Affect Tumor Cell Hallmarks

    PubMed Central

    Chénais, Benoît; Blanckaert, Vincent

    2012-01-01

    For several years, lipids and especially n − 3 and n − 6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) receive much attention in human health. Epidemiological studies tend to correlate a PUFA-rich diet with a reduced incidence of cancer, including breast cancer. However, the molecular and cellular mechanisms supporting the effect of PUFAs in breast cancer cells remain relatively unknown. Here, we review some recent progress in understanding the impact that PUFA may have on breast cancer cell proliferation, apoptosis, migration, and invasion. While most of the results obtained with docosahexaenoic acid and/or eicosapentaenoic acid show a decrease of tumor cell proliferation and/or aggressivity, there is some evidence that other lipids, which accumulate in breast cancer tissues, such as arachidonic acid may have opposite effects. Finally, lipids and especially PUFAs appear as potential adjuvants to conventional cancer therapy. PMID:22811918

  16. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and chronic stress-induced modulations of glutamatergic neurotransmission in the hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Hennebelle, Marie; Champeil-Potokar, Gaëlle; Lavialle, Monique; Vancassel, Sylvie; Denis, Isabelle

    2014-02-01

    Chronic stress causes the release of glucocorticoids, which greatly influence cerebral function, especially glutamatergic transmission. These stress-induced changes in neurotransmission could be counteracted by increasing the dietary intake of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs). Numerous studies have described the capacity of n-3 PUFAs to help protect glutamatergic neurotransmission from damage induced by stress and glucocorticoids, possibly preventing the development of stress-related disorders such as depression or anxiety. The hippocampus contains glucocorticoid receptors and is involved in learning and memory. This makes it particularly sensitive to stress, which alters certain aspects of hippocampal function. In this review, the various ways in which n-3 PUFAs may prevent the harmful effects of chronic stress, particularly the alteration of glutamatergic synapses in the hippocampus, are summarized.

  17. Effects of Low Doses of Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids on the Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder of Children: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Grassmann, Viviane; Santos-Galduróz, Ruth Ferreira; Galduróz, José Carlos Fernandes

    2013-01-01

    Since attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) presents high prevalence among children, science has been researching alternative forms of treatment that do not involve medication. Objective: To evaluate the effects of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) on attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Methods: We reviewed the articles published between 1980 and 2012 indexed in the databases PubMed, APA psychNET, Scopus and Web of Knowledge. Results: Initially 231 articles were selected, out of which 12 met the inclusion criteria. The articles selected reported a modest cognitive and behavioral improvement of the patients after treatment with low doses of PUFAs. Those results might be associated with the evaluation methodology, the doses of PUFAs administered or the duration of treatment. PMID:23997753

  18. Lipoprotein lipase variants interact with polyunsaturated fatty acids to modulate obesity traits in Puerto Ricans

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Lipoprotein lipase (LPL) is a candidate gene for obesity based on its role in triglyceride hydrolysis and the partitioning of fatty acids towards storage or oxidation. Whether dietary fatty acids modify LPL associated obesity risk is unknown. We examined five single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) (...

  19. One-pot synthesis of polyunsaturated fatty acid amides with anti-proliferative properties.

    PubMed

    Tremblay, Hugo; St-Georges, Catherine; Legault, Marc-André; Morin, Caroline; Fortin, Samuel; Marsault, Eric

    2014-12-15

    A one-pot environmentally friendly transamidation of ω-3 fatty acid ethyl esters to amides and mono- or diacylglycerols was investigated via the use of a polymer-supported lipase. The method was used to synthesize a library of fatty acid monoglyceryl esters and amides. These new derivatives were found to have potent growth inhibition effects against A549 lung cancer cells.

  20. Radiolabeled dimethyl branched long chain fatty acid for heart imaging

    DOEpatents

    Knapp, Jr., Furn F.; Goodman, Mark M.; Kirsch, Gilbert

    1988-08-16

    A radiolabeled long chain fatty acid for heart imaging that has dimethyl branching at one of the carbons of the chain which inhibits the extent to which oxidation can occur. The closer to the carboxyl the branching is positioned, the more limited the oxidation, thereby resulting in prolonged retention of the radiolabeled compound in the heart.

  1. Effect of a diet enriched with monounsaturated or polyunsaturated fatty acids on levels of low-density and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol in healthy women and men.

    PubMed

    Mensink, R P; Katan, M B

    1989-08-17

    Polyunsaturated fatty acids are thought to lower the serum cholesterol level more effectively than monounsaturated fatty acids. It is unclear whether the difference--if any--is due to a lowering of the level of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) or low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol. We therefore placed 31 women and 27 men on a mixed natural diet rich in saturated fat (19.3 percent of their daily energy intake from saturated fat, 11.5 percent from monounsaturated fat, and 4.6 percent from polyunsaturated fat) for 17 days. For the next 36 days, they received a mixed diet with the same total fat content, but enriched with olive oil and sunflower oil ("monounsaturated-fat diet": 12.9 percent saturated fat, 15.1 percent monounsaturated fat, and 7.9 percent polyunsaturated fat) or with sunflower oil alone ("polyunsaturated-fat diet": 12.6 percent saturated fat, 10.8 percent monounsaturated fat, and 12.7 percent polyunsaturated fat). The serum LDL cholesterol level decreased by 17.9 percent in those on the monounsaturated-fat diet and by 12.9 percent in those on the polyunsaturated-fat diet (95 percent confidence interval for the difference between the effects of the two unsaturated-fat diets, -9.9 percent to 0.0 percent). In men, the HDL cholesterol level fell slightly but not significantly with both diets. In women, the HDL cholesterol level did not change with either. We conclude that a mixed diet rich in monounsaturated fat was as effective as a diet rich in (n-6)polyunsaturated fat in lowering LDL cholesterol. Both diets lowered the level of HDL cholesterol slightly in men but not in women.

  2. Establishment of the fatty acid profile of the brain of the king penguin (Aptenodytes patagonicus) at hatch: effects of a yolk that is naturally rich in n-3 polyunsaturates.

    PubMed

    Speake, Brian K; Decrock, Frederic; Surai, Peter F; Wood, Nicholas A R; Groscolas, René

    2003-01-01

    Because the yolk lipids of the king penguin (Aptenodytes patagonicus) contain the highest concentrations of long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids yet reported for an avian species, the consequences for the establishment of the brain's fatty acid profile in the embryo were investigated. To place the results in context, the fatty acid compositions of yolk lipid and brain phospholipid of the king penguin were compared with those from three other species of free-living birds. The proportions of docosahexaenoic acid (22:6n-3; DHA) in the total lipid of the initial yolks for the Canada goose (Branta canadensis), mallard (Anas platyrhynchos), moorhen (Gallinula chloropus), and king penguin were (% w/w of fatty acids) 1.0+/-0.1, 1.9+/-0.2, 3.3+/-0.1, and 5.9+/-0.2, respectively. The respective concentrations of DHA (% w/w of phospholipid fatty acids) in brains of the newly hatched chicks of these same species were 18.5+/-0.2, 19.6+/-0.7, 16.9+/-0.4, and 17.6+/-0.1. Thus, the natural interspecies diversity in yolk fatty acid profiles does not necessarily produce major differences in the DHA content of the developing brain. Only about 1% of the amount of DHA initially present in the yolk was recovered in the brain of the penguin at hatch. There was no preferential uptake of DHA from the yolk during development of the king penguin. PMID:12794672

  3. The Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids Arachidonic Acid and Docosahexaenoic Acid Induce Mouse Dendritic Cells Maturation but Reduce T-Cell Responses In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Carlsson, Johan A.; Wold, Agnes E.; Sandberg, Ann-Sofie; Östman, Sofia M.

    2015-01-01

    Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) might regulate T-cell activation and lineage commitment. Here, we measured the effects of omega-3 (n-3), n-6 and n-9 fatty acids on the interaction between dendritic cells (DCs) and naïve T cells. Spleen DCs from BALB/c mice were cultured in vitro with ovalbumin (OVA) with 50 μM fatty acids; α-linolenic acid, arachidonic acid (AA), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), linoleic acid or oleic acid and thereafter OVA-specific DO11.10 T cells were added to the cultures. Fatty acids were taken up by the DCs, as shown by gas chromatography analysis. After culture with arachidonic acid or DHA CD11c+ CD11b+ and CD11c+ CD11bneg DCs expressed more CD40, CD80, CD83, CD86 and PDL-1, while IAd remained unchanged. However, fewer T cells co-cultured with these DCs proliferated (CellTrace Violetlow) and expressed CD69 or CD25, while more were necrotic (7AAD+). We noted an increased proportion of T cells with a regulatory T cell (Treg) phenotype, i.e., when gating on CD4+ FoxP3+ CTLA-4+, CD4+ FoxP3+ Helios+ or CD4+ FoxP3+ PD-1+, in co-cultures with arachidonic acid- or DHA-primed DCs relative to control cultures. The proportion of putative Tregs was inversely correlated to T-cell proliferation, indicating a suppressive function of these cells. With arachidonic acid DCs produced higher levels of prostaglandin E2 while T cells produced lower amounts of IL-10 and IFNγ. In conclusion arachidonic acid and DHA induced up-regulation of activation markers on DCs. However arachidonic acid- and DHA-primed DCs reduced T-cell proliferation and increased the proportion of T cells expressing FoxP3, indicating that these fatty acids can promote induction of regulatory T cells. PMID:26619195

  4. Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) as a net producer of long-chain marine ω-3 fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Sanden, Monica; Stubhaug, Ingunn; Berntssen, Marc H G; Lie, Øyvind; Torstensen, Bente E

    2011-12-14

    The objective of the present study was to investigate the effects of replacing high levels of marine ingredients with vegetable raw materials and with emphasis on lipid metabolism and net production of long-chain polyunsaturated ω-3 fatty acids (EPA + DHA). Atlantic salmon were fed three different replacement vegetable diets and one control marine diet before sensory attributes, β-oxidation capacity, and fatty acid productive value (FAPV) of ingested fatty acids (FAs) were evaluated. Fish fed the high replacement diet had a net production of 0.8 g of DHA and a FAPV of 142%. Fish fed the marine diet had a net loss of DHA. The present work shows that Atlantic salmon can be a net producer of marine DHA when dietary fish oil is replaced by vegetable oil with minor effects on sensory attributes and lipid metabolism.

  5. Metabolism of saturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids by normal and Zellweger syndrome skin fibroblasts.

    PubMed Central

    Street, J M; Johnson, D W; Singh, H; Poulos, A

    1989-01-01

    The metabolism of 1-11C-labelled derivatives of palmitic (C16:0), arachidonic (C20:4,n-6) lignoceric (C21:0) and tetracosatetraenoic (C24:4,n-6) acids was studied in normal skin fibroblast cultures and in cultures of fibroblasts from peroxisome-deficient (Zellweger's syndrome) patients. Radiolabelled products of the fatty acids included carbon dioxide. C14-24 saturated and mono-unsaturated fatty acids formed from released acetate either by synthesis de novo or by elongation of endogenous fatty acids, fatty acids formed by 2-6-carbon elongation of added substrates, and a number of water-soluble compounds, some of which were tentatively identified as the amino acids glutamine, glutamic acid and asparagine. The labelled amino acids were found predominantly in the culture medium. Zellweger's syndrome fibroblasts showed a marked decrease in radiolabelled carbon dioxide and water-soluble-product formation from (I-14C)-labelled arachidonic, tetracosatetraenoic and lignoceric acids but not from [I-14C]palmitic acid, and the production of radiolabelled C14-18 fatty acids was also diminished. However, the elongation of individual fatty acids was either normal or above normal. Our data support the view that the oxidation of 20:4, 24:4 and 24:0 fatty acids in cultured skin fibroblasts takes place largely in peroxisomes, and further that the acetyl-CoA released by the beta-oxidation process is available for the synthesis of fatty acids and amino acids. We speculate that the generation of C2 units used for synthesis is a major peroxisomal function and that this function is absent or greatly impaired in Zellweger's syndrome cells. PMID:2504148

  6. Polyunsaturated fatty acids in human milk: an essential role in infant development.

    PubMed

    Innis, Sheila M

    2004-01-01

    The n-6 and n-3 fatty acids are essential dietary nutrients required for optimal growth and development, particularly of the brain and retina. Large amounts of the n-3 fatty acid docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is accumulated in the brain grey matter and the visual elements of the retina during development, and reduced DHA in these tissues can result in decreased visual and psychomotor development. Although the possible importance of differences in n-6 and n-3 fatty acids, particularly DHA, between human milk and infant formulas has been the subject of intense clinical research, the variability in the essential fatty acid content of milk within and among different populations of women and implications of this to infant growth and development have received much less attention. Considerable research has shown that the DHA content of the maternal diet is the most important determinant of the amount of DHA secreted in milk, and thus the dietary intake of the breastfed infant. The DHA content of human milk varies over 10-fold, being lowest in women with no intake of DHA and highest in women with high intakes of DHA, which is found predominantly in fatty fish. The requirement for n-3 fatty acids, and the balance of n-6 and n-3 fatty acids for optimal growth and development of the brain and retina, and long-term minimization of risk of chronic disease remains as one of the most important questions in infant nutrition. Dietary recommendations to modifying dietary fat with the aim of reducing risk of chronic disease, including obesity and cardiovascular disease in adults, need to consider that when followed by pregnant women, these recommendations can have a marked effect on the amount and balance of n-6 and n-3 fatty acids secreted in milk.

  7. Comparative effects of curcumin and its analog on alcohol- and polyunsaturated fatty acid-induced alterations in circulatory lipid profiles.

    PubMed

    Rukkumani, Rajagopalan; Aruna, Kode; Varma, Penumathsa Suresh; Rajasekaran, Kallikat Narayanan; Menon, Venugopal P

    2005-01-01

    Excessive alcohol intake induces hyperlipidemia. Studies suggest that natural principles and their analogs are known to possess anti-hyperlipidemic properties. In the present work we tested the effect of curcumin, an active principle of turmeric (Curcuma longa), and a curcumin analog on alcohol- and thermally oxidized polyunsaturated fatty acid (deltaPUFA)- induced hyperlipidemia. Male albino Wistar rats were used for the experimental study. Anti-hyperlipidemic activity of curcumin and curcumin analog was evaluated by analyzing the levels of cholesterol, triglycerides (TGs), phospholipids (PLs), and free fatty acids (FFAs). The results showed that the levels of cholesterol, TGs, PLs, and FFAs were increased significantly in alcohol-, deltaPUFA-, and alcohol + deltaPUFA-treated groups, which were brought down significantly on treatment with either of the curcuminoids. Curcumin analog treatment was found to be more effective than curcumin treatment. From the results obtained, we conclude that both curcumin and its analog effectively protect the system against alcohol- and deltaPUFA-induced hyperlipidemia and are possible candidates for the treatment of hyperlipidemia.

  8. Beneficial Effects of Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids in Gestational Diabetes: Consequences in Macrosomia and Adulthood Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Yessoufou, Akadiri; Nekoua, Magloire P.; Gbankoto, Adam; Moutairou, Kabirou

    2015-01-01

    Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are increasingly being used to prevent cardiovascular diseases, including diabetes and obesity. In this paper, we report data on the observed effects of omega-3 PUFA on major metabolic disorders and immune system disruption during gestational diabetes and their consequences on macrosomia. While controversies still exist about omega-3 PUFA effects on antioxidant status regarding the level of omega-3 PUFA in diet supplementation, their lipid-lowering effects are unanimously recognized by researchers. Animal studies have shown that omega-3 PUFA contributes to the maintenance of the immune defense system by promoting the differentiation of T helper (Th) cell to a Th2 phenotype in diabetic pregnancy and by shifting the Th1/Th2 ratio from a deleterious proinflammatory Th1 phenotype to a protective anti-inflammatory Th2 phenotype in macrosomia and in adulthood obesity that results from macrosomia at birth. Based on the available evidence, international nutritional and food agencies recommend administration of omega-3 PUFA as triglyceride-lowering agents, for the prevention of cardiovascular disease risk and during human pregnancy and lactation. Furthermore, studies targeting humans are still required to explore application of the fatty acids as supplement in the management of gestational diabetes and inflammatory and immune diseases. PMID:25961055

  9. Immobilized MAS1 lipase showed high esterification activity in the production of triacylglycerols with n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiumei; Li, Daoming; Qu, Man; Durrani, Rabia; Yang, Bo; Wang, Yonghua

    2017-02-01

    Immobilization of lipase MAS1 from marine Streptomyces sp. strain W007 and its application in catalyzing esterification of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) with glycerol were investigated. The resin XAD1180 was selected as a suitable support for the immobilization of lipase MAS1, and its absorption ability was 75mg/g (lipase/resin ratio) with initial buffer pH value of 8.0. The thermal stability of immobilized MAS1 was improved significantly compared with that of the free lipase. Immobilized MAS1 had no regiospecificity in the hydrolysis of triolein. The highest esterification degree (99.31%) and TAG content (92.26%) by immobilized MAS1-catalyzed esterification were achieved under the optimized conditions, which were significantly better than those (82.16% and 47.26%, respectively) by Novozym 435. More than 92% n-3 PUFA was incorporated into TAG that had similar fatty acids composition to the substrate (n-3 PUFA). The immobilized MAS1 exhibited 50% of its initial activity after being used for five cycles. PMID:27596418

  10. Does sow reproduction and piglet performance benefit from the addition of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids to the maternal diet?

    PubMed

    Tanghe, Sofie; De Smet, Stefaan

    2013-09-01

    Good sow reproductive performance and piglet survival are essential for the profitability of the pig industry. Based on basic research of fatty acid and endocrine metabolism, it has been suggested that dietary supplementation with n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) could enhance reproductive outcome. However, proper requirements for these nutrients in sow diets have not been established. This review examines the literature on the effect of n-3 PUFA in the maternal diet on sow reproduction and piglet performance. Few reported studies have included biochemical analyses, e.g. eicosanoid concentrations or gene expression data, which could help elucidate any link between dietary n-3 PUFA supplementation and reproduction. Additionally, most studies used relatively low numbers of pigs, limiting the validity of the conclusions which can be drawn. In pregnant pigs, supplementing with n-3 PUFA has not been shown to increase significantly the number of embryos (in gilts) or (in most studies) the total number of piglets born (live and/or stillborn), but may prolong gestation, although the literature is not consistent. Most studies found no effect of n-3 PUFA on piglet birth weight, although positive effects on piglet vitality and pre- and post-weaning growth have been reported. In contrast to the impact during pregnancy, low amounts of n-3 PUFA in the lactation diet may increase litter size in the subsequent gestation.

  11. Metabonomics Reveals Drastic Changes in Anti-Inflammatory/Pro-Resolving Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids-Derived Lipid Mediators in Leprosy Disease

    PubMed Central

    Amaral, Julio J.; Antunes, Luis Caetano M.; de Macedo, Cristiana S.; Mattos, Katherine A.; Han, Jun; Pan, Jingxi; Candéa, André L. P.; Henriques, Maria das Graças M. O.; Ribeiro-Alves, Marcelo; Borchers, Christoph H.; Sarno, Euzenir N.; Bozza, Patrícia T.; Finlay, B. Brett; Pessolani, Maria Cristina V.

    2013-01-01

    Despite considerable efforts over the last decades, our understanding of leprosy pathogenesis remains limited. The complex interplay between pathogens and hosts has profound effects on host metabolism. To explore the metabolic perturbations associated with leprosy, we analyzed the serum metabolome of leprosy patients. Samples collected from lepromatous and tuberculoid patients before and immediately after the conclusion of multidrug therapy (MDT) were subjected to high-throughput metabolic profiling. Our results show marked metabolic alterations during leprosy that subside at the conclusion of MDT. Pathways showing the highest modulation were related to polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) metabolism, with emphasis on anti-inflammatory, pro-resolving omega-3 fatty acids. These results were confirmed by eicosanoid measurements through enzyme-linked immunoassays. Corroborating the repertoire of metabolites altered in sera, metabonomic analysis of skin specimens revealed alterations in the levels of lipids derived from lipase activity, including PUFAs, suggesting a high lipid turnover in highly-infected lesions. Our data suggest that omega-6 and omega-3, PUFA-derived, pro-resolving lipid mediators contribute to reduced tissue damage irrespectively of pathogen burden during leprosy disease. Our results demonstrate the utility of a comprehensive metabonomic approach for identifying potential contributors to disease pathology that may facilitate the development of more targeted treatments for leprosy and other inflammatory diseases. PMID:23967366

  12. Effect of Mechanism of Action of Different ω-6/ω-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids Ratio on the Growth of Endometrial Carcinoma Mice.

    PubMed

    Lu, Xiaoyuan; Ding, Xuan; Jing, Li

    2015-04-01

    To explore the effect and mechanism of action of different ω-6/ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) ratio on the expression of AKT and mTOR in mice bearing endometrial carcinoma. Once the human endometrial carcinoma xenograft models were successfully established, 40 BALB/C mice were randomized into five groups: group A (ω-6 PUFAs), group B (10:1 ω-6/ω-3 PUFAs), group C (control group), group D (1:1 ω-6/ω-3 PUFAs), and group E (ω-3 PUFAs). Six weeks post-treatment, mice were sacrificed and the xenograft tissues were harvested for immunohistochemical SP analysis of AKT and mTOR expression. AKT and mTOR mRNA expression was determined by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. Group A and group B had the highest positive expression of AKT and mTOR, with increased mRNA expression. Group D and group E had the lowest positive expression of AKT and mTOR, with decreased mRNA expression. There was a positive correlation between the expression of AKT and that of mTOR (r = 0.92). Thus, ω-6/ω-3 PUFAs in different proportions are associated with the mRNA expression of AKT and mTOR in the tissues of mouse xenograft model of human endometrial cancer.

  13. Enzyme-assisted acidolysis of borage (Borago officinalis L.) and evening primrose (Oenothera biennis L.) oils: incorporation of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Senanayake, S P; Shahidi, F

    1999-08-01

    Lipase-catalyzed acidolysis of borage (Borago officinalis L.) and evening primrose (Oenothera biennisL.) oils with long-chain omega3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), namely, eicosapentaenoic (EPA) and docosahexaenoic (DHA) acids, was carried out in hexane, and the products were analyzed using gas chromatography. The most effective lipase for incorporation of omega3 PUFA into these oils was Pseudomonas sp. as compared to lipases from Mucor miehei and Candida antarctica. Response surface methodology was used to obtain a maximum yield of EPA+DHA incorporation while using the minimum amount of enzyme possible. The process variables studied were the amount of enzyme (150-350 units), reaction temperature (30-60 degrees C), and reaction time (6-30 h). All experiments were carried out according to a face-centered cube design. Under optimum conditions, incorporation of EPA+DHA was 35.5% in borage oil and 33. 6% in evening primrose oil. The modified borage and evening primrose oils containing gamma-linolenic acid, EPA, and DHA were successfully produced and may have potential health benefits.

  14. How fatty acids of different chain length enter and leave cells by free diffusion.

    PubMed

    Kamp, Frits; Hamilton, James A

    2006-09-01

    Opposing views exist as to how unesterified fatty acids (FA) enter and leave cells. It is commonly believed that for short- and medium-chain FA free diffusion suffices whereas it is questioned whether proteins are required to facilitate transport of long-chain fatty acid (LCFA). Furthermore, it is unclear whether these proteins facilitate binding to the plasma membrane, trans-membrane movement, dissociation into the cytosol and/or transport in the cytosol. In this mini-review we approach the controversy from a different point of view by focusing on the membrane permeability constant (P) of FA with different chain length. We compare experimentally derived values of the P of short and medium-chain FA with values of apparent permeability coefficients for LCFA calculated from their dissociation rate constant (k(off)), flip-flop rate constant (k(flip)) and partition coefficient (Kp) in phospholipid bilayers. It was found that Overton's rule is valid as long as k(flip)chain length, the permeability increases according to increasing Kp and reaches a maximum for LCFA with chain length of 18 carbons or longer. For fast flip-flop (e.g. k(flip)=15s(-1)), the apparent permeability constant for palmitic acid is very high (P(app)=1.61 cm/s). Even for a slow flip-flop rate constant (e.g. k(flip)=0.3s(-1)), the permeability constant of LCFA is still several orders of magnitude larger than the P of water and other small non-electrolytes. Since polyunsaturated FA have basically the same physico-chemical properties as LCFA, they have similar membrane permeabilities. The implications for theories involving proteins to facilitate uptake of FA are discussed. PMID:16829065

  15. Skin surface lipids and skin and hair coat condition in dogs fed increased total fat diets containing polyunsaturated fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Kirby, N A; Hester, S L; Rees, C A; Kennis, R A; Zoran, D L; Bauer, J E

    2009-08-01

    It is generally believed that diets containing increased amounts of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) result in improved canine skin and hair coat (SHC). However, the extent to which dietary fat amount and type play a role remains to be systematically investigated. The objective of this study was to investigate the role of both increased dietary fat amount and type on SHC assessments of dogs. Improvements of SHC conditions were investigated after feeding three diets containing increased total dietary fat (i.e. 13% total fat) for 12 weeks in relation to a lower fat acclimation diet (i.e. 9% total fat). The higher fat diets varied in polyunsaturated and saturated fat types and amounts but total fat was kept constant. Skin and hair coat assessments were performed at selected intervals by a trained group of veterinarians and graduate students. In addition, hair lipids were fractionated by thin layer chromatography after extraction of plucked hair samples. Significant improvements were found in hair coat glossiness and softness in all dogs fed the higher fat diets in relation to the acclimation diet. Improvements as a result of fat type were also seen but only at 12 weeks. A parallel finding was a marked increase in hair cholesteryl ester content determined at the end of the study at which time SHC scores were significantly improved. Skin and hair coat condition improvements may thus be related to increased cholesteryl ester deposited on the hair shaft surface when high fat diets are fed. Whereas this finding is preliminary, hair lipid analysis may be a useful, non-invasive technique with which to help assess dietary effects on canine SHC.

  16. A case-control pilot study on n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid as a negative risk factor for myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Oda, Eiji; Hatada, Katsuharu; Katoh, Kiminori; Kodama, Makoto; Nakamura, Yuichi; Aizawa, Yoshifusa

    2005-07-01

    The relation between n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) and nonfatal myocardial infarction is still controversial. A multicenter case-control pilot study on n-3 PUFA as a negative risk factor for myocardial infarction was performed in Niigata prefecture. Seventy-three patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and age and gender matched controls (n = 84) were recruited. Serum leptin levels were significantly higher in patients with AMI than the controls (8.1 +/- 6.7 ng/mL versus 5.8 +/- 3.7 ng/mL, P < 0.01), and serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDLc) levels were significantly lower in patients with AMI than the controls (46 +/- 10.5 mg/dL versus 60 +/- 15 mg/dL, P < 0.00001). Statistically significant differences were preserved in leptin and HDLc when the data were analyzed separately by gender. Serum levels (%weight) of linolenic acid (C18:3:n3), eicosapentaenoic acid (C20:5:n3), docosapentaenoic acid (C22:5:n3), and total n-3 PUFA were significantly lower in patients with AMI than the control group (P < 0.000001, < 0.05, < 0.05, < 0.05, respectively). The serum n-3 PUFA/saturated fatty acid (SF) ratio and n-3 PUFA/n-9 monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA) ratio were significantly lower in patients with AMI than the controls (P < 0.05 and < 0.01, respectively). When the subjects were separated into two categories according to an n-3/n-6 PUFA ratio below 0.3 or above 0.3, patients with AMI were more frequently in the former while the controls were more frequently in the latter (P < 0.05). N-3 PUFA may be a negative risk factor for AMI. The results suggest leptin is a risk factor for AMI irrespective of ethnicity and gender. PMID:16157949

  17. AMP-activated Protein Kinase α2 Subunit Is Required for the Preservation of Hepatic Insulin Sensitivity by n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids

    PubMed Central

    Jelenik, Tomas; Rossmeisl, Martin; Kuda, Ondrej; Jilkova, Zuzana Macek; Medrikova, Dasa; Kus, Vladimir; Hensler, Michal; Janovska, Petra; Miksik, Ivan; Baranowski, Marcin; Gorski, Jan; Hébrard, Sophie; Jensen, Thomas E.; Flachs, Pavel; Hawley, Simon; Viollet, Benoit; Kopecky, Jan

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE The induction of obesity, dyslipidemia, and insulin resistance by high-fat diet in rodents can be prevented by n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFAs). We tested a hypothesis whether AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) has a role in the beneficial effects of n-3 LC-PUFAs. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Mice with a whole-body deletion of the α2 catalytic subunit of AMPK (AMPKα2−/−) and their wild-type littermates were fed on either a low-fat chow, or a corn oil-based high-fat diet (cHF), or a cHF diet with 15% lipids replaced by n-3 LC-PUFA concentrate (cHF+F). RESULTS Feeding a cHF diet induced obesity, dyslipidemia, hepatic steatosis, and whole-body insulin resistance in mice of both genotypes. Although cHF+F feeding increased hepatic AMPKα2 activity, the body weight gain, dyslipidemia, and the accumulation of hepatic triglycerides were prevented by the cHF+F diet to a similar degree in both AMPKα2−/− and wild-type mice in ad libitum-fed state. However, preservation of hepatic insulin sensitivity by n-3 LC-PUFAs required functional AMPKα2 and correlated with the induction of adiponectin and reduction in liver diacylglycerol content. Under hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic conditions, AMPKα2 was essential for preserving low levels of both hepatic and plasma triglycerides, as well as plasma free fatty acids, in response to the n-3 LC-PUFA treatment. CONCLUSIONS Our results show that n-3 LC-PUFAs prevent hepatic insulin resistance in an AMPKα2-dependent manner and support the role of adiponectin and hepatic diacylglycerols in the regulation of insulin sensitivity. AMPKα2 is also essential for hypolipidemic and antisteatotic effects of n-3 LC-PUFA under insulin-stimulated conditions. PMID:20693347

  18. Effects of microalgal polyunsaturated fatty acid oil on body weight and lipid accumulation in the liver of C57BL/6 mice fed a high fat diet.

    PubMed

    Go, Ryeo-Eun; Hwang, Kyung-A; Park, Geon-Tae; Lee, Hae-Miru; Lee, Geum-A; Kim, Cho-Won; Jeon, So-Ye; Seo, Jeong-Woo; Hong, Won-Kyung; Choi, Kyung-Chul

    2016-05-01

    Dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), which are abundant in marine fish oils, have recently received global attention for their prominent anti-obesogenic effects. Among PUFAs, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA; 20:5n-3) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; 22:6n-3), which are n-3 long-chain PUFAs widely referred to as omega-3 oils, were reported to prevent the development of obesity in rodents and humans. In the present study, we evaluated the anti-obesity effects of microalgal oil on high-fat induced obese C57BL/6 mice, compared with commercial omega-3 fish oil and vegetable corn oil. Microalgal oil is an inherent mixture of several PUFAs, including EPA, DHA and other fatty acids produced from a marine microalgal strain of Thraustochytriidae sp. derived mutant. It was found to contain more PUFAs (>80%) and more omega-3 oils than commercial omega-3 fish oil (PUFAs >31%) and corn oil (PUFAs 59%). All three types of oils induced weight loss in high-fat-induced obese mice, with the loss induced by microalgal oil being most significant at 9 weeks (10% reduction). However, the oils tested did not improve blood lipid levels, although microalgal oil showed an apparent inhibitory effect on lipid accumulation in the liver. These findings may be attributed to the higher PUFA content, including omega-3 oils of microalgal oil than other oils. Collectively, these findings suggest that microalgal oil, derived from Thraustochytriidae sp. derived mutant, is a prominent candidate for replacement of omega-3 fish oils based on its apparent anti-obesity effect in vivo.

  19. Effects of microalgal polyunsaturated fatty acid oil on body weight and lipid accumulation in the liver of C57BL/6 mice fed a high fat diet

    PubMed Central

    Go, Ryeo-Eun; Hwang, Kyung-A; Park, Geon-Tae; Lee, Hae-Miru; Lee, Geum-A; Kim, Cho-Won; Jeon, So-Ye; Seo, Jeong-Woo; Hong, Won-Kyung; Choi, Kyung-Chul

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), which are abundant in marine fish oils, have recently received global attention for their prominent anti-obesogenic effects. Among PUFAs, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA; 20:5n-3) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; 22:6n-3), which are n-3 long-chain PUFAs widely referred to as omega-3 oils, were reported to prevent the development of obesity in rodents and humans. In the present study, we evaluated the anti-obesity effects of microalgal oil on high-fat induced obese C57BL/6 mice, compared with commercial omega-3 fish oil and vegetable corn oil. Microalgal oil is an inherent mixture of several PUFAs, including EPA, DHA and other fatty acids produced from a marine microalgal strain of Thraustochytriidae sp. derived mutant. It was found to contain more PUFAs (>80%) and more omega-3 oils than commercial omega-3 fish oil (PUFAs >31%) and corn oil (PUFAs 59%). All three types of oils induced weight loss in high-fat-induced obese mice, with the loss induced by microalgal oil being most significant at 9 weeks (10% reduction). However, the oils tested did not improve blood lipid levels, although microalgal oil showed an apparent inhibitory effect on lipid accumulation in the liver. These findings may be attributed to the higher PUFA content, including omega-3 oils of microalgal oil than other oils. Collectively, these findings suggest that microalgal oil, derived from Thraustochytriidae sp. derived mutant, is a prominent candidate for replacement of omega-3 fish oils based on its apparent anti-obesity effect in vivo. PMID:27533934

  20. Effects of microalgal polyunsaturated fatty acid oil on body weight and lipid accumulation in the liver of C57BL/6 mice fed a high fat diet.

    PubMed

    Go, Ryeo-Eun; Hwang, Kyung-A; Park, Geon-Tae; Lee, Hae-Miru; Lee, Geum-A; Kim, Cho-Won; Jeon, So-Ye; Seo, Jeong-Woo; Hong, Won-Kyung; Choi, Kyung-Chul

    2016-05-01

    Dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), which are abundant in marine fish oils, have recently received global attention for their prominent anti-obesogenic effects. Among PUFAs, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA; 20:5n-3) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; 22:6n-3), which are n-3 long-chain PUFAs widely referred to as omega-3 oils, were reported to prevent the development of obesity in rodents and humans. In the present study, we evaluated the anti-obesity effects of microalgal oil on high-fat induced obese C57BL/6 mice, compared with commercial omega-3 fish oil and vegetable corn oil. Microalgal oil is an inherent mixture of several PUFAs, including EPA, DHA and other fatty acids produced from a marine microalgal strain of Thraustochytriidae sp. derived mutant. It was found to contain more PUFAs (>80%) and more omega-3 oils than commercial omega-3 fish oil (PUFAs >31%) and corn oil (PUFAs 59%). All three types of oils induced weight loss in high-fat-induced obese mice, with the loss induced by microalgal oil being most significant at 9 weeks (10% reduction). However, the oils tested did not improve blood lipid levels, although microalgal oil showed an apparent inhibitory effect on lipid accumulation in the liver. These findings may be attributed to the higher PUFA content, including omega-3 oils of microalgal oil than other oils. Collectively, these findings suggest that microalgal oil, derived from Thraustochytriidae sp. derived mutant, is a prominent candidate for replacement of omega-3 fish oils based on its apparent anti-obesity effect in vivo. PMID:27533934

  1. Long-chain omega-3 fatty acids regulate bovine whole-body protein metabolism by promoting muscle insulin signalling to the Akt-mTOR-S6K1 pathway and insulin sensitivity.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The ability of the skeletal musculature to use amino acids to build or renew constitutive proteins is gradually lost with age and this is partly due to a decline in skeletal muscle insulin sensitivity. Since long-chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC"n"-3PUFA) from fish oil are known to impr...

  2. Decreased Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Content Contributes to Increased Survival in Human Colon Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Oraldi, Manuela; Trombetta, Antonella; Biasi, Fiorella; Canuto, Rosa A.; Maggiora, Marina; Muzio, Giuliana

    2009-01-01

    Among diet components, some fatty acids are known to affect several stages of colon carcinogenesis, whereas others are probably helpful in preventing tumors. In light of this, our aim was to determine the composition of fatty acids and the possible correlation with apoptosis in human colon carcinoma specimens at different Duke's stages and to evaluate the effect of enriching human colon cancer cell line with the possible reduced fatty acid(s). Specimens of carcinoma were compared with the corresponding non-neoplastic mucosa: a significant decrease of arachidonic acid, PPARα, Bad, and Bax and a significant increase of COX-2, Bcl-2, and pBad were found. The importance of arachidonic acid in apoptosis was demonstrated by enriching a Caco-2 cell line with this fatty acid. It induced apoptosis in a dose- and time-dependent manner via induction of PPARα that, in turn, decreased COX-2. In conclusion, the reduced content of arachidonic acid is likely related to carcinogenic process decreasing the susceptibility of cancer cells to apoptosis. PMID:19841681

  3. Bioconversion of omega-six to omega-three polyunsaturated fatty acids in Artemia

    SciTech Connect

    Omara-Alwala, T.R.

    1986-01-01

    A study was conducted to provide conclusive evidence for the bioconversion of 18:2W6 to 20:5W3 in Artemia and to establish a possible biosynthetic pathway responsible for the bioconversion. Except for fatty acid profile, the diet was considered complete in its nutritional quality. It was deficient in 20:5W3, an essential fatty acid for marine fish, but adequate in 18:3W3, an essential fatty acid for freshwater fish. The Artemia raised on the diet showed a high level of 20:5W3 with little accumulation of 18:3W3, making them the marine type. There were no mortalities throughout the 7-day feeding period. Two-day-old Artemia were fed for 7 days on either control diet or treatment diet with (1-/sup 14/C) 18:2W6, along with various unlabeled fatty acids. Data confirmed that Artemia were able to bioconvert 18:2W6 to 20:5W3. The following biosynthetic sequence was proposed for the bioconversion: 18:2W6 - 18:3W3 - 20:3W3 - 20:4W3 - 20:5W3. All possible multistep pathways for the synthesis of 20:5W3 from 18:2W6 were worked out for any feeding experiments using dietary 18:2W6.

  4. Polyunsaturated fatty acid content is increased in the milk of women with pregnancy associated breast cancer

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: Pregnancy associated breast cancer (PABC) is aggressive and difficult to diagnose. High intake of most types of dietary fat is thought to increase breast cancer risk, however results in humans supporting this premise remain equivocal. Fatty acid (FA) concentrations in the body comprise b...

  5. Beyond blood lipids: phytosterols, statins and omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid therapy for hyperlipidemia.

    PubMed

    Micallef, Michelle A; Garg, Manohar L

    2009-12-01

    Phytosterols and omega-3 fatty acids are natural compounds with potential cardiovascular benefits. Phytosterols inhibit cholesterol absorption, thereby reducing total- and LDL cholesterol. A number of clinical trials have established that the consumption of 1.5-2.0 g/day of phytosterols can result in a 10-15% reduction in LDL cholesterol in as short as a 3-week period in hyperlipidemic populations. Added benefits of phytosterol consumption have been demonstrated in people who are already on lipid-lowering medications (statin drugs). On the other hand, omega-3 fatty acid supplementation has been associated with significant hypotriglyceridemic effects with concurrent modifications of other risk factors associated with cardiovascular disease, including platelet function and pro-inflammatory mediators. Recent studies have provided evidence that the combination of phytosterols and omega-3 fatty acids may reduce cardiovascular risk in a complementary and synergistic way. This article reviews the health benefits of phytosterols and omega-3 fatty acids, alone or in combination with statins, for the treatment/management of hyperlipidemia, with particular emphasis on the mechanisms involved.

  6. Branched Chain Fatty Acid (BCFA) Content of Foods and Estimated Intake in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Bae, SangEun; Lawrence, Peter; Wang, Dong Hao

    2015-01-01

    Branched chain fatty acids (BCFA) are bioactive food components that constitute about 2% of fatty acids in cow’s milk fat. Little systematic information on the BCFA content of other foods is available to estimate dietary intakes. We report BCFA distribution and content of fresh and processed foods representing the major foods of Americans and estimate BCFA intake. BCFA are primarily components of dairy and ruminant foods, and were absent from chicken, pork, and salmon. Dairy and beef delivered most of the 500 mg per day mean intake; in comparison, intake of the widely studied long chain polyunsaturates eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is estimated to average 100 mg per day. Common adjustments in diet can double BCFA daily intake. The fermented foods sauerkraut and miso had appreciable fractions of BCFA but overall are low fat foods providing very small amounts in the diet, and other fermented foods did not contain BCFA as might have been expected from microbial exposure. These data support the quantitative importance of BCFA delivered primarily from dairy and beef and highlight the need for research into their health effects. PMID:24830474

  7. Fatty Acid Composition and Levels of Selected Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids in Four Commercial Important Freshwater Fish Species from Lake Victoria, Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Robert, Agnes; Mfilinge, Prosper; Limbu, Samwel M.; Mwita, Chacha J.

    2014-01-01

    Fatty acids (FAs) particularly ω3 and ω6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) play important role in human health. This study aimed to investigate the composition and levels of selected ω3 PUFAs in four commercial fish species, Nile perch (Lates niloticus), Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus), Tilapia zillii, and dagaa (Rastrineobola argentea) from Mwanza Gulf in Lake Victoria. The results indicated that 36 types of FAs with different saturation levels were detected. These FAs were dominated by docosahexaenoic (DHA), eicosapentaenoic (EPA), docosapentaenoic (DPA), and eicosatetraenoic acids. O. niloticus had the highest composition of FAs (34) compared to L. niloticus (27), T. zillii (26), and R. argentea (21). The levels of EPA differed significantly among the four commercial fish species (F = 6.19,  P = 0.001). The highest EPA levels were found in R. argentea followed by L. niloticus and O. niloticus and the lowest in T. zillii. The DPA levels showed no significant difference among the four fish species studied (F = 0.652,  P = 0.583). The study concluded that all four commercial species collected from Mwanza Gulf are good for human health, but R. argentea is the best for consumption because it contains higher levels of ω3 FAs, mainly EPA. PMID:25610654

  8. Fatty acyl specificity of the receptor-mediated release of polyunsaturated fatty acids from vascular endothelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenthal, M.D.

    1987-05-01

    Histamine and bradykinin appear to exhibit the same fatty acid specificity as thrombin. Incubation of human umbilical vein endothelial cells with 10 ..mu..M histamine for 10 min in buffered saline containing 50 ..mu..M fat-free albumin stimulates the release of previously incorporated (/sup 14/C)arachidonate but not (/sup 14/C)22:4(n-6) or (/sup 14/C)20:3(n-6). Similarly calf pulmonary artery endothelial cells release (/sup 14/C)arachidonate but not (/sup 14/C)22:4(n-6) in response to either bradykinin (1 /sup +/g/ml) or histamine (10..mu..M). In both types of endothelial cells, the calcium ionophore A23187 (10 ..mu..M) exhibits the same pattern of fatty acyl specificity as the receptor-mediated agonists. By contrast, mellitin (2-4 ..mu..g/ml) stimulates the release of free 22:4(n-6) and oleate in addition to arachidonate; release of 22:4(n-6) is 30-70% that of arachidonate. These results suggest that histamine, bradykinin and thrombin stimulate a common calcium-dependent fatty acyl-specific phospholipase activity.

  9. Endogenously elevated n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids alleviate acute ethanol-induced liver steatosis.

    PubMed

    Huang, Wei; Wang, Bin; Li, Xiangyong; Kang, Jing X

    2015-01-01

    Effective means for the prevention of alcohol-induced liver disease, a global health problem, have yet to be developed. We evaluated whether the high endogenous levels of omega-3 polyunsaturated acids (n-3 PUFA) in fat-1 transgenic mice could protect them against acute ethanol-induced liver steatosis. We induced alcoholic liver steatosis in 9-week-old male heterozygous fat-1 mice and their wild-type (WT) male littermates through three oral gavages of 60% ethanol at 4.7 g/kg body weight. Hepatic lipid accumulation was significantly increased in both alcohol treatment groups, but by much less in the fat-1 group compared with the WT group. Fat-1 mice exhibited significantly lower levels of total hepatic/plasma TG and plasma alanine aminotransferase activity. Accordingly, hepatic expression of lipogenesis-related genes (e.g., SREBP-1c, FAS, and SCD-1) and plasma levels of inflammatory cytokines (e.g., IL-6, TNF-α, and MCP-1) were reduced in the fat-1 mice. Furthermore, decreased hepatic expression of cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1) and increased hepatic levels of PPAR-α and HO-1 were observed in the fat-1 mice, compared to the WT mice. These findings show that elevated tissue n-3 PUFA protect against acute ethanol-induced liver steatosis in fat-1 mice, possibly through the down-regulation of hepatic lipogenesis, inflammatory response, and oxidative stress.

  10. Effect of lipid supplementation on milk odd- and branched-chain fatty acids in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Baumann, E; Chouinard, P Y; Lebeuf, Y; Rico, D E; Gervais, R

    2016-08-01

    Eight ruminally fistulated, multiparous Holstein cows were arranged in a double 4×4 Latin square with 14-d periods to investigate the effects of lipid supplementation on performance, rumen parameters, the milk odd- and branched-chain fatty acid (OBCFA) profile, and the relationships between milk OBCFA and rumen parameters. Lipid supplementation is known to inhibit microbial growth in the rumen, decrease de novo microbial fatty acid synthesis, and increase the uptake of circulating fatty acids by the mammary gland; treatments were selected to isolate these effects on the milk OBCFA profile. The 4 treatments were (1) a lipid-free emulsion medium infused in the rumen (CTL), (2) soybean oil as a source of polyunsaturated fatty acids infused in the rumen (RSO), (3) saturated fatty acids (38% 16:0, 40% 18:0) infused in the rumen (RSF), and (4) saturated fatty acids infused in the abomasum (ASF). Fat supplements were provided continuously as emulsions at a rate of 450g/d. Preplanned contrasts compared CTL to RSO, RSO to RSF, and RSF to ASF. Infusing RSO slightly decreased ruminal pH, but did not affect volatile fatty acids profile and milk fat concentration as compared with CTL. The yields of energy-corrected milk, fat, and protein were greater with RSF compared with RSO. The concentration of odd-chain fatty acids was decreased by RSO, whereas even-chain iso fatty acids were not affected. Milk fat concentration of 17:0 + cis-9 17:1 was higher for RSF than for RSO, due to the saturated fatty acids supplement containing 2% 17:0 + cis-9 17:1. Limited differences were observed in the milk OBCFA profile between RSF and ASF. A multiple regression analysis yielded the following equation for predicting rumen pH based on milk fatty acids: pH=6.24 - (0.56×4:0) + (1.67 × iso 14:0) + (4.22 × iso 15:0) + (9.41×22:0). Rumen propionate concentration was negatively correlated with milk fat concentration of iso 14:0 and positively correlated with milk 15:0, whereas the acetate

  11. The role of essential fatty acids in development

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fatty acids are aliphatic monocarboxylic acids. They are classified as saturated, monounsaturated, or polyunsaturated fatty acids depending upon the number of double bonds in the carbon chain. Saturated fatty acids have no double bonds, monounsaturated fatty acids have 1 double bond, and polyunsat...

  12. In-house SIRAS phasing of the polyunsaturated fatty-acid isomerase from Propionibacterium acnes

    SciTech Connect

    Liavonchanka, Alena; Hornung, Ellen; Feussner, Ivo; Rudolph, Markus

    2006-02-01

    Low iodide concentrations were sufficient to allow SAD and SIRAS phasing of cubic crystals of a novel fatty acid isomerase using Cu Kα radiation. The polyenoic fatty-acid isomerase from Propionibacterium acnes (PAI) catalyzes the double-bond isomerization of linoleic acid to conjugated linoleic acid, which is a dairy- or meat-derived fatty acid in the human diet. PAI was overproduced in Escherichia coli and purified to homogeneity as a yellow-coloured protein. The nature of the bound cofactor was analyzed by absorption and fluorescence spectroscopy. Single crystals of PAI were obtained in two crystal forms. Cubic shaped crystals belong to space group I2{sub 1}3, with a unit-cell parameter of 160.4 Å, and plate-like crystals belong to the monoclinic space group C2, with unit-cell parameters a = 133.7, b = 60.8, c = 72.2 Å, β = 115.8°. Both crystal forms contain one molecule per asymmetric unit and diffract to a resolution of better than 2.0 Å. Initial phases were obtained by SIRAS from in-house data from a cubic crystal that was soaked with an unusually low KI concentration of 0.25 M.

  13. Polymorphisms in Fatty Acid Desaturase (FADS) Gene Cluster: Effects on Glycemic Controls Following an Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids (PUFA) Supplementation

    PubMed Central

    Cormier, Hubert; Rudkowska, Iwona; Thifault, Elisabeth; Lemieux, Simone; Couture, Patrick; Vohl, Marie-Claude

    2013-01-01

    Changes in desaturase activity are associated with insulin sensitivity and may be associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Polymorphisms (SNPs) in the fatty acid desaturase (FADS) gene cluster have been associated with the homeostasis model assessment of insulin sensitivity (HOMA-IS) and serum fatty acid composition. Objective: To investigate whether common genetic variations in the FADS gene cluster influence fasting glucose (FG) and fasting insulin (FI) responses following a 6-week n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) supplementation. Methods: 210 subjects completed a 2-week run-in period followed by a 6-week supplementation with 5 g/d of fish oil (providing 1.9 g–2.2 g of EPA + 1.1 g of DHA). Genotyping of 18 SNPs of the FADS gene cluster covering 90% of all common genetic variations (minor allele frequency ≥ 0.03) was performed. Results: Carriers of the minor allele for rs482548 (FADS2) had increased plasma FG levels after the n-3 PUFA supplementation in a model adjusted for FG levels at baseline, age, sex, and BMI. A significant genotype*supplementation interaction effect on FG levels was observed for rs482548 (p = 0.008). For FI levels, a genotype effect was observed with one SNP (rs174456). For HOMA-IS, several genotype*supplementation interaction effects were observed for rs7394871, rs174602, rs174570, rs7482316 and rs482548 (p = 0.03, p = 0.01, p = 0.03, p = 0.05 and p = 0.07; respectively). Conclusion: Results suggest that SNPs in the FADS gene cluster may modulate plasma FG, FI and HOMA-IS levels in response to n-3 PUFA supplementation. PMID:24705214

  14. Distribution of omega-6 and omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in the whole rat body and 25 compartments.

    PubMed

    Salem, N M; Lin, Y H; Moriguchi, T; Lim, S Y; Salem, N; Hibbeln, J R

    2015-09-01

    The steady state compositions of omega-6 and omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) throughout the various viscera and tissues within the whole body of rats have not previously been described in a comprehensive manner. Dams consumed diets containing 10wt% fat (15% linoleate and 3% α-linolenate). Male offspring (n=9) at 7-week of age were euthanized and dissected into 25 compartments. Total lipid fatty acids for each compartment were quantified by GC/FID and summed for the rat whole body; total n-6 PUFA was 12wt% and total n-3 PUFA was 2.1% of total fatty acids. 18:2n-6 accounted for 84% of the total n-6 PUFA, 20:4n-6 was 12%, 18:3n-3 was 59% of the total n-3 PUFA, 20:5n-3 was 2.1%, and 22:6n-3 was 32%. The white adipose tissue contained the greatest amounts of 18:2n-6 (1.5g) and 18:3n-3 (0.2g). 20:4n-6 was highest in muscle (60mg) and liver (57mg), while 22:6n-3 was greatest in muscle (46mg), followed by liver (27mg) and carcass (20mg). In terms of fatty acid composition expressed as a percentage, 18:2n-6 was the highest in the heart (13wt%), while 18:3n-3 was about 1.3wt% for skin, white adipose tissue and fur. 20:4n-6 was highest (21-25wt%) in the circulation, kidney, and spleen, while 22:6n-3 was highest in the brain (12wt%), followed by the heart (7.9wt%), liver (5.9wt%), and spinal cord (5.1wt%). Selectivity was greatest when comparing 22:6n-3 in brain (12%) to white adipose (0.08%) (68-fold) and 22:5n-6 in testes (15.6%) compared to white adipose (0.02%), 780-fold.

  15. Distribution of omega-6 and omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in the whole rat body and 25 compartments.

    PubMed

    Salem, N M; Lin, Y H; Moriguchi, T; Lim, S Y; Salem, N; Hibbeln, J R

    2015-09-01

    The steady state compositions of omega-6 and omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) throughout the various viscera and tissues within the whole body of rats have not previously been described in a comprehensive manner. Dams consumed diets containing 10wt% fat (15% linoleate and 3% α-linolenate). Male offspring (n=9) at 7-week of age were euthanized and dissected into 25 compartments. Total lipid fatty acids for each compartment were quantified by GC/FID and summed for the rat whole body; total n-6 PUFA was 12wt% and total n-3 PUFA was 2.1% of total fatty acids. 18:2n-6 accounted for 84% of the total n-6 PUFA, 20:4n-6 was 12%, 18:3n-3 was 59% of the total n-3 PUFA, 20:5n-3 was 2.1%, and 22:6n-3 was 32%. The white adipose tissue contained the greatest amounts of 18:2n-6 (1.5g) and 18:3n-3 (0.2g). 20:4n-6 was highest in muscle (60mg) and liver (57mg), while 22:6n-3 was greatest in muscle (46mg), followed by liver (27mg) and carcass (20mg). In terms of fatty acid composition expressed as a percentage, 18:2n-6 was the highest in the heart (13wt%), while 18:3n-3 was about 1.3wt% for skin, white adipose tissue and fur. 20:4n-6 was highest (21-25wt%) in the circulation, kidney, and spleen, while 22:6n-3 was highest in the brain (12wt%), followed by the heart (7.9wt%), liver (5.9wt%), and spinal cord (5.1wt%). Selectivity was greatest when comparing 22:6n-3 in brain (12%) to white adipose (0.08%) (68-fold) and 22:5n-6 in testes (15.6%) compared to white adipose (0.02%), 780-fold. PMID:26120061

  16. Distribution of Omega-6 and Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids in the Whole Rat Body and 25 Compartments

    PubMed Central

    Salem, N.M.; Lin, Y.H.; Moriguchi, T.; Lim, S.Y.; Salem, N.; Hibbeln, J. R.

    2015-01-01

    The steady state compositions of omega-6 and omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) throughout the various viscera and tissues within the whole body of rats have not previously been described in a comprehensive manner. Dams consumed diets containing 10 wt% fat (15% linoleate and 3% α-linolenate). Male offspring (n=9) at 7-wks of age were euthanized and dissected into 25 compartments. Total lipid fatty acids for each compartment were quantified by GC/FID and summed for the rat whole body; total n-6 PUFA was 12 wt% and total n-3 PUFA was 2.1% of total fatty acids. 18:2n-6 accounted for 84% of the total n-6 PUFA, 20:4n-6 was 12%, 18:3n-3 was 59% of the total n-3 PUFA, 20:5n-3 was 2.1%, and 22:6n-3 was 32%. The white adipose tissue contained the greatest amounts of 18:2n-6 (1.5 g) and 18:3n-3 (0.2 g). 20:4n-6 was highest in muscle (60 mg) and liver (57 mg), while 22:6n-3 was greatest in muscle (46 mg), followed by liver (27 mg) and carcass (20 mg). In terms of fatty acid composition expressed as a percentage, 18:2n-6 was the highest in the heart (13 wt%), while 18:3n-3 was about 1.3 wt% for skin, white adipose tissue and fur. 20:4n-6 was highest (21–25 wt%) in the circulation, kidney, and spleen, while 22:6n-3 was highest in the brain (12 wt%), followed by the heart (7.9 wt%), liver (5.9 wt%), and spinal cord (5.1 wt%). Selectivity was greatest when comparing 22:6n-3 in brain (12%) to white adipose (0.08%) (68-fold) and 22:5n-6 in testes (15.6%) compared to white adipose (0.02%), 780-fold. PMID:26120061

  17. 1,4-Dihydroxy fatty acids: Artifacts by reduction of di- and polyunsaturated fatty acids with sodium borohydride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thiemt, Simone; Spiteller, Gerhard

    1997-01-01

    In an effort to detect lipid peroxidation products in human blood plasma, samples were treated with NaBH4 to reduce the reactive hydroperoxides to hydroxy compounds. After saponification of the lipids, the free fatty acid fraction obtained by extraction was methylated and separated by TLC. The fractions containing polar compounds were trimethylsilylated and subjected to gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Mass spectra allowed us to detect previously unknown 1,4-dihydroxy fatty acids due to their typical fragmentation pattern. If the reduction was carried out with NaBD4 instead of NaBH4, incorporation of two deuterium atoms was observed (appropriate mass shift). The two oxygen atoms of the hydroxyl groups were incorporated from air as shown by an experiment in 18O2 atmosphere. The reaction required the presence of free acids, indicating that BH3 was liberated, added to a 1,4-pentadiene system, and finally produced 1,4-diols by air oxidation.

  18. Enriched endogenous n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids alleviate cognitive and behavioral deficits in a mice model of Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Wu, Kefeng; Gao, Xiang; Shi, Baoyan; Chen, Shiyu; Zhou, Xin; Li, Zhidong; Gan, Yuhong; Cui, Liao; Kang, Jing Xuan; Li, Wende; Huang, Ren

    2016-10-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder that accompanied by memory deficits and neuropsychiatric dysfunction. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs) have seemly therapeutic potential in AD, but the benefit of n-3 PUFAs is still in debates. Here, we employed a transgenic mice carry fat-1 gene to encode n-3 desaturase from Caenorhabditis elegans, which increase endogenous n-3 PUFAs by converting n-6 PUFAs to n-3 PUFAs crossed with amyloid precursor protein (APP) Tg mice to evaluate the protective effects of endogenous n-3 PUFAs on cognitive and behavioral deficits of APP Tg mice. We fed APP, APP/fat-1 and fat-1 mice with n-6 PUFAs rich diet. Brain tissues were collected at 3, 9 and 12 months for fatty acid and gene expression analysis, histology and protein assays. Morris Water Maze Test, open field test and elevated plus maze test were performed to measure the behavior capability. From the results, the expression of fat-1 transgene increased cortical n-3: n-6 PUFAs ratio and n-3 PUFAs concentrations, and sensorimotor dysfunction and cognitive deficits in AD were significantly less severe in APP/fat-1 mice with endogenous n-3 PUFAs than in APP mice controls. The protection against disturbance of spontaneous motor activity and cognitive deficits in AD was strongly correlated with increased n-3: n-6 PUFAs ratio and endogenous n-3 PUFAs, reduced APP generation, inhibited amyloid β peptide aggregation, suppressed nuclear factor-kappa B and astroglia activation, and reduced death of neurons in the cortex of APP/fat-1 mice compared with APP mice controls. In conclusion, our study demonstrates that an available medication with the maintenance of enriched n-3 PUFAs in the brain could slow down cognitive decline and prevent neuropsychological disorder in AD. PMID:27474225

  19. Chemopreventive n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids Reprogram Genetic Signatures during Colon Cancer Initiation and Progression in the Rat

    PubMed Central

    Davidson, Laurie A.; Nguyen, Danh V.; Hokanson, Regina M.; Callaway, Evelyn S.; Isett, Robert B.; Turner, Nancy D.; Dougherty, Edward R.; Wang, Naisyin; Lupton, Joanne R.; Carroll, Raymond J.; Chapkin, Robert S.

    2015-01-01

    The mechanisms by which n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) decrease colon tumor formation have not been fully elucidated. Examination of genes up- or down-regulated at various stages of tumor development via the monitoring of gene expression relationships will help to determine the biological processes ultimately responsible for the protective effects of n-3 PUFA. Therefore, using a 3 × × × 2 factorial design, we used Codelink DNA microarrays containing ∼9000 genes to help decipher the global changes in colonocyte gene expression profiles in carcinogen-injected Sprague Dawley rats. Animals were assigned to three dietary treatments differing only in the type of fat (corn oil/n-6 PUFA, fish oil/n-3 PUFA, or olive oil/n-9 monounsaturated fatty acid), two treatments (injection with the carcinogen azoxymethane or with saline), and two time points (12 hours and 10 weeks after first injection). Only the consumption of n-3 PUFA exerted a protective effect at the initiation (DNA adduct formation) and promotional (aberrant crypt foci) stages. Importantly, microarray analysis of colonocyte gene expression profiles discerned fundamental differences among animals treated with n-3 PUFA at both the 12 hours and 10-week time points. Thus, in addition to demonstrating that dietary fat composition alters the molecular portrait of gene expression profiles in the colonic epithelium at both the initiation and promotional stages of tumor development, these findings indicate that the chemopreventive effect of fish oil is due to the direct action of n-3 PUFA and not to a reduction in the content of n-6 PUFA. PMID:15374999

  20. Group X Secreted Phospholipase A2 Releases ω3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids, Suppresses Colitis, and Promotes Sperm Fertility.

    PubMed

    Murase, Remi; Sato, Hiroyasu; Yamamoto, Kei; Ushida, Ayako; Nishito, Yasumasa; Ikeda, Kazutaka; Kobayashi, Tetsuyuki; Yamamoto, Toshinori; Taketomi, Yoshitaka; Murakami, Makoto

    2016-03-25

    Within the secreted phospholipase A2(sPLA2) family, group X sPLA2(sPLA2-X) has the highest capacity to hydrolyze cellular membranes and has long been thought to promote inflammation by releasing arachidonic acid, a precursor of pro-inflammatory eicosanoids. Unexpectedly, we found that transgenic mice globally overexpressing human sPLA2-X (PLA2G10-Tg) displayed striking immunosuppressive and lean phenotypes with lymphopenia and increased M2-like macrophages, accompanied by marked elevation of free ω3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) and their metabolites. Studies usingPla2g10-deficient mice revealed that endogenous sPLA2-X, which is highly expressed in the colon epithelium and spermatozoa, mobilized ω3 PUFAs or their metabolites to protect against dextran sulfate-induced colitis and to promote fertilization, respectively. In colitis, sPLA2-X deficiency increased colorectal expression of Th17 cytokines, and ω3 PUFAs attenuated their production by lamina propria cells partly through the fatty acid receptor GPR120. In comparison, cytosolic phospholipase A2(cPLA2α) protects from colitis by mobilizing ω6 arachidonic acid metabolites, including prostaglandin E2 Thus, our results underscore a previously unrecognized role of sPLA2-X as an ω3 PUFA mobilizerin vivo, segregated mobilization of ω3 and ω6 PUFA metabolites by sPLA2-X and cPLA2α, respectively, in protection against colitis, and the novel role of a particular sPLA2-X-driven PUFA in fertilization.

  1. Role of CYP1A1 in modulating the vascular and blood pressure benefits of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Agbor, Larry N; Wiest, Elani F; Rothe, Michael; Schunck, Wolf-Hagen; Walker, Mary K

    2014-12-01

    The mechanisms that mediate the cardiovascular protective effects of omega 3 (n-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) have not been fully elucidated. Cytochrome P450 1A1 efficiently metabolizes n-3 PUFAs to potent vasodilators. Thus, we hypothesized that dietary n-3 PUFAs increase nitric oxide (NO)-dependent blood pressure regulation and vasodilation in a CYP1A1-dependent manner. CYP1A1 wild-type (WT) and knockout (KO) mice were fed an n-3 or n-6 PUFA-enriched diet for 8 weeks and were analyzed for tissue fatty acids and metabolites, NO-dependent blood pressure regulation, NO-dependent vasodilation of acetylcholine (ACh) in mesenteric resistance arterioles, and endothelial NO synthase (eNOS) and phospho-Ser1177-eNOS expression in the aorta. All mice fed the n-3 PUFA diet showed significantly higher levels of n-3 PUFAs and their metabolites, and significantly lower levels of n-6 PUFAs and their metabolites. In addition, KO mice on the n-3 PUFA diet accumulated significantly higher levels of n-3 PUFAs in the aorta and kidney without a parallel increase in the levels of their metabolites. Moreover, KO mice exhibited significantly less NO-dependent regulation of blood pressure on the n-3 PUFA diet and significantly less NO-dependent, ACh-mediated vasodilation in mesenteric arterioles on both diets. Finally, the n-3 PUFA diet significantly increased aortic phospho-Ser1177-eNOS/eNOS ratio in the WT compared with KO mice. These data demonstrate that CYP1A1 contributes to eNOS activation, NO bioavailability, and NO-dependent blood pressure regulation mediated by dietary n-3 PUFAs.

  2. Plasma n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid and cardiovascular disease risk factors in Japanese, Korean and Mongolian workers.

    PubMed

    Nogi, Akiko; Yang, Jianjun; Li, Limei; Yamasaki, Masayuki; Watanabe, Mamiko; Watanabe, Minako; Hashimoto, Michio; Shiwaku, Kuninori

    2007-05-01

    The favorable role of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) in cardiovascular disease (CVD) has been demonstrated in animal experiments and in humans in Western countries, but its effect remains controversial in Asian populations. An observational study of Japanese, Koreans and Mongolians with extended histories of remarkably different frequencies of fish intake was conducted to examine whether differences in plasma n-3 PUFA affects CVD risk factors. We conducted a cross-sectional study in workplace settings and determined body mass index (BMI), blood pressure, total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, triglyceride (TG), glucose, insulin, homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and fatty acid composition in plasma. A total of 411 Japanese, 418 Korean and 252 Mongolian workers aged 30-60 yr participated in this study. The Japanese ate fish more frequently and had remarkably higher values of eicosapentaenoic acid, docosahexaenoic acid and n-3 PUFA, and lower values of BMI and HOMA-IR, followed by the Koreans, and then the Mongolians. In age groups, the Japanese and Koreans showed a similar tendency of increase in n-3 PUFA with increasing age. General linear measurement multivariate analysis after adjustment for gender, age, smoking, drinking, exercise habits and BMI showed n-3 PUFA was associated with HDL-C and TG in the Japanese, while it was associated with systolic blood pressure in the Koreans, and TG in the Mongolians. In conclusion, an increase in n-3 PUFA was associated with HDL-C and TG in the Japanese and Mongolians, but these beneficial effects were not constant across the three Asian ethnic groups.

  3. Lower ω-6/ω-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Ratios Decrease Fat Deposition by Inhibiting Fat Synthesis in Gosling.

    PubMed

    Yu, Lihuai; Wang, Shunan; Ding, Luoyang; Liang, Xianghuan; Wang, Mengzhi; Dong, Li; Wang, Hongrong

    2016-10-01

    The objective of the current study was to investigate the effects of dietary ω-6/ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) ratios on lipid metabolism in goslings. One hundred and sixty 21-day-old Yangzhou geese of similar weight were randomly divided into 4 groups. They were fed different PUFA-supplemented diets (the 4 diets had ω-6/ω-3 PUFA ratios of 12:1, 9:1, 6:1, or 3:1). The geese were slaughtered and samples of liver and muscle were collected at day 70. The activities and the gene expression of enzymes involved in lipid metabolism were measured. The results show that the activities of acetyl coenzyme A carboxylase (ACC), malic enzyme (ME), and fatty acid synthase (FAS) were lower (p<0.05), but the activities of hepatic lipase (HL) and lipoprotein lipase (LPL) were higher (p<0.05), in the liver and the muscle from the 3:1 and 6:1 groups compared with those in the 9:1 and 12:1 groups. Expression of the genes for FAS (p<0.01), ME (p<0.01) and ACC (p<0.05) were higher in the muscle of groups fed diets with higher ω-6/ω-3 PUFA ratios. Additionally, in situ hybridization tests showed that the expression intensities of the high density lipoprotein (HDL-R) gene in the 12:1 and 9:1 groups were significantly lower (p<0.01) than that of the 3:1 group in the muscle of goslings. In conclusion, diets containing lower ω-6/ω-3 PUFA ratios (3:1 or 6:1) could decrease fat deposition by inhibiting fat synthesis in goslings. PMID:27189638

  4. Lower ω-6/ω-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Ratios Decrease Fat Deposition by Inhibiting Fat Synthesis in Gosling.

    PubMed

    Yu, Lihuai; Wang, Shunan; Ding, Luoyang; Liang, Xianghuan; Wang, Mengzhi; Dong, Li; Wang, Hongrong

    2016-10-01

    The objective of the current study was to investigate the effects of dietary ω-6/ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) ratios on lipid metabolism in goslings. One hundred and sixty 21-day-old Yangzhou geese of similar weight were randomly divided into 4 groups. They were fed different PUFA-supplemented diets (the 4 diets had ω-6/ω-3 PUFA ratios of 12:1, 9:1, 6:1, or 3:1). The geese were slaughtered and samples of liver and muscle were collected at day 70. The activities and the gene expression of enzymes involved in lipid metabolism were measured. The results show that the activities of acetyl coenzyme A carboxylase (ACC), malic enzyme (ME), and fatty acid synthase (FAS) were lower (p<0.05), but the activities of hepatic lipase (HL) and lipoprotein lipase (LPL) were higher (p<0.05), in the liver and the muscle from the 3:1 and 6:1 groups compared with those in the 9:1 and 12:1 groups. Expression of the genes for FAS (p<0.01), ME (p<0.01) and ACC (p<0.05) were higher in the muscle of groups fed diets with higher ω-6/ω-3 PUFA ratios. Additionally, in situ hybridization tests showed that the expression intensities of the high density lipoprotein (HDL-R) gene in the 12:1 and 9:1 groups were significantly lower (p<0.01) than that of the 3:1 group in the muscle of goslings. In conclusion, diets containing lower ω-6/ω-3 PUFA ratios (3:1 or 6:1) could decrease fat deposition by inhibiting fat synthesis in goslings.

  5. Consumption of different sources of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids by growing female rats affects long bone mass and microarchitecture.

    PubMed

    Lukas, Robin; Gigliotti, Joseph C; Smith, Brenda J; Altman, Stephanie; Tou, Janet C

    2011-09-01

    Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω-3 PUFAs) consumption has been reported to improve bone health. However, sources of ω-3 PUFAs differ in the type of fatty acids and structural form. The study objective was to determine the effect of various ω-3 PUFAs sources on bone during growth. Young (age 28d) female Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned (n=10/group) to a high fat 12% (wt) diet consisting of either corn oil (CO) or ω-3 PUFA rich, flaxseed (FO), krill (KO), menhaden (MO), salmon (SO) or tuna (TO) for 8 weeks. Bone mass was assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and bone microarchitecture by micro-computed tomography (μCT). Bone turnover markers were measured by enzyme immunoassay. Lipid peroxidation was measured by calorimetric assays. Results showed that rats fed TO, rich in docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6ω-3) had higher (P<0.009) tibial bone mineral density (BMD) and bone mineral content (BMC) and lower (P=0.05) lipid peroxidation compared to the CO-fed rats. Reduced lipid peroxidation was associated with increased tibial BMD (r2=0.08, P=0.02) and BMC (r2=0.71, P=0.01). On the other hand, rats fed FO or MO, rich in alpha-linolenic acid (ALA, 18:3ω-3), improved bone microarchitecture compared to rats fed CO or SO. Serum osteocalcin was higher (P=0.03) in rats fed FO compared to rats fed SO. Serum osteocalcin was associated with improved trabecular bone microarchitecture. The animal study results suggest consuming a variety of ω-3 PUFA sources to promote bone health during the growth stage.

  6. Effects of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) on circulating adiponectin and leptin in subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Stirban, A; Nandrean, S; Götting, C; Stratmann, B; Tschoepe, D

    2014-06-01

    Recent evidence suggests that omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids [n-3 PUFAs: eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)], improve insulin sensitivity in humans. In a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized, crossover study, we investigated the effects of EPA/DHA on paraoxonase-1 activity as well as fasting and postprandial levels of circulating adiponectin and leptin in 34 subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus who received daily for 6 weeks either 2 g purified EPA/DHA or olive oil (placebo), separated by a 6 weeks washout. At the end of each treatment, measurements were performed in fasting state and 2, 4, and 6 h following a standardized high-fat meal (600 kcal). No significant differences in fasting and postprandial circulating adiponectin, leptin, and paraoxonase-1 activity were seen between n-3 PUFAs and placebo. Our data do not support an insulin sensitizing effect of n-3 PUFAs by means of influencing circulating adipocytokines in this population. Clinical Trial Register Number: NCT00328536.

  7. Effect of n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids on Regression of Coronary Atherosclerosis in Statin Treated Patients Undergoing Percutaneous Coronary Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Ahn, Jinhee; Park, Seo Kwang; Park, Tae Sik; Kim, Jin Hee; Yun, Eunyoung; Kim, Sang-Pil; Lee, Hye Won; Oh, Jun-Hyok; Choi, Jung Hyun; Cha, Kwang Soo; Hong, Taek Jong; Lee, Sang Yeoup

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objectives Statins remain the mainstay of secondary coronary artery disease (CAD) prevention, but n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω-3 PUFA) display biological effects that may also reduce the risk of atherosclerosis and CAD. However, data on the possible antiatherosclerotic benefits of adding ω-3 PUFA to statin therapy are limited. This study aimed to investigate the potential additive effects of ω-3 PUFA on regression of atherosclerosis in CAD patients receiving statin therapy and stent implantation. Subjects and Methods Seventy-four CAD patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) with stent implantation were enrolled, prescribed statins, and randomly assigned to two groups: n-3 group (ω-3 PUFA 3 g/day, n=38) or placebo group (placebo, n=36). All patients completed the study follow-up consisting of an intravascular ultrasound at baseline and at 12 months. Results There was no difference in the baseline characteristics and distribution of other medications. No significant differences were observed in primary endpoints, including changes in atheroma volume index (−12.65% vs. −8.51%, p=0.768) and percent atheroma volume (−4.36% vs. −9.98%, p=0.526), and in secondary endpoints including a change in neointimal volume index (7.84 vs. 4.94 mm3/mm, p=0.087). Conclusion ω-3 PUFA had no definite additional effect on the regression of coronary atherosclerosis when added to statin in CAD patients undergoing PCI. PMID:27482256

  8. Effect on the immune system of germ-free piglets of probiotics potentiated with polyunsaturated fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Kastel, Rudolf; Bomba, Alojz; Herich, Robert; Vasko, Ladislav; Svedova, Martina

    2007-01-01

    The present study investigated the influence of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) on the immune system of germ-free piglets. Oil with increased content of omega-3 PUFA was administered to piglets from the experimental group (EG) for four weeks. Piglets from the control group (CG) received identical volumes of saline solution. At the age of 21 days both groups of germ-free piglets were inoculated perorally with Lactobacillus casei subsp. casei at a dose of 2 ml (1x10(8) mli). At the age of 28 days, i.e. after one-week colonisation of germ-free piglets with Lactobacillus casei subsp. casei, significant differences were recorded in phagocytic activity of neutrophils (PANe) and phagocytic activity of potentially phagocytizing cells (PA) (P < 0.05). Between EG and CG there have been observed no significant differences in absolute numbers of CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocytes and numbers of IgM cells and in additional investigated parameters - number of CD2+ T lymphocytes, index of phagocytic activity of neutrophils (IPANe) and index of phagocytic activity (IPA). The total number of leukocytes (Le) in EG was also higher. Of the parameters determined in blood serum we observed a significant increase in concentration of alpha linolenic, eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids and a parallel decrease in the level of arachidonic acid.

  9. Formation of volatile compounds in kefir made of goat and sheep milk with high polyunsaturated fatty acid content.

    PubMed

    Cais-Sokolińska, D; Wójtowski, J; Pikul, J; Danków, R; Majcher, M; Teichert, J; Bagnicka, E

    2015-10-01

    This article explored the formation of volatile compounds during the production of kefir from goat and sheep milks with high polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) as a result of feeding animals forage supplemented with maize dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS). The increased PUFA content of the goat and sheep milks resulted in significant changes to the fermentation process. In particular, apart from an increase in the time taken to ferment sheep milk, fermentation yielded less 2,3-butanedione. The highest quantities of this compound were assayed in kefir produced from goat milk with an increased content of PUFA. An increase of PUFA significantly elevated ethanal synthesis during lactose-alcohol fermentation of sheep milk. Neither the origin of milk (sheep or goat) nor the level of PUFA had any statistical effect on the amount of ethanal assayed during the fermentation of milk and within the finished product. The proportion of l(+)-lactic acid was higher in kefirs produced using goat milk compared with sheep milk and did not depend on the content of PUFA in milk fat. The content of PUFA had a significant effect on the aroma profile of the resulting kefirs. An increase in PUFA content resulted in the loss of whey aroma in goat milk kefirs and the animal odor in sheep milk kefirs, and a creamy aroma became more prevalent in kefirs made from sheep milk. PMID:26277315

  10. Production and concentration of monoacylglycerols rich in omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids by enzymatic glycerolysis and molecular distillation.

    PubMed

    Solaesa, Ángela García; Sanz, María Teresa; Falkeborg, Mia; Beltrán, Sagrario; Guo, Zheng

    2016-01-01

    Production of monoacylglycerols (MAGs) rich in ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs) was conducted through short path distillation (SPD) of an acylglycerol mixture (containing 67% MAGs) produced by enzymatic glycerolysis of sardine oil with glycerol. A stepwise SPD process in a UIC KDL 5 system (vacuum 10(-3)mbar, feeding flow 1.0 mL/min) was proceeded: the first distillation performed at evaporator temperature (TE) of 110 °C to remove glycerol completely and most of FFAs; and the second distillation at optimized TE 155 °C; resulting in a stream distillate with 91% purity and 94% overall recovery of MAGs. This work also demonstrated that SPD is able to concentrate n-3 PUFAs in MAG form by distilling at proper TE e.g. 125 °C, where n-3 PUFAs are concentrated in the residues. Moreover, this work mapped out a complete processing diagram for scalable production of n-3 PUFAs enriched MAGs as potential food emulsifier and ingredient.

  11. A novel processing system of sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1c regulated by polyunsaturated fatty acid.

    PubMed

    Nakakuki, Masanori; Kawano, Hiroyuki; Notsu, Tatsuto; Imada, Kazunori; Mizuguchi, Kiyoshi; Shimano, Hitoshi

    2014-05-01

    The proteolytic cascade is the key step in transactivation of sterol regulatory element-binding proteins (SREBPs), a transcriptional factor of lipid synthesis. Proteolysis of SREBP-2 is strictly regulated by sterols, but that of SREBP-1c was not strongly sterol-regulated, but inhibited by polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs). In this study, the proteolytic processing of SREBP-1 and -2 was examined by transfection studies of cDNA-encoding mutants in which all the known cleavage sites were disrupted. In cultured cells, sterol-regulated SREBP-2 processing was completely eliminated by mutation of cleavage sites. In contrast, the corresponding SREBP-1c mutants as well as wild type exhibited large amounts of cleaved products in the nuclear extracts from culture cells and murine liver in vivo. The nuclear form of the mutant SREBP-1c was induced by delipidated condition and suppressed by eicosapentaenoic acid, an n-3 PUFA, but not by sterols. This novel processing mechanism was affected by neither SREBP cleavage-activating protein (SCAP) nor insulin-induced gene (Insig)-1, unlike SREBP-2, but abolished by a serine protease inhibitor. Through analysis of deletion mutant, a site-2 protease recognition sequence (DRSR) was identified to be involved in this novel processing. These findings suggest that SREBP-1c cleavage could be subjected to a novel PUFA-regulated cleavage system in addition to the sterol-regulatory SCAP/Insig system.

  12. Nutrition and Inflammation in Older Individuals: Focus on Vitamin D, n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids and Whey Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Ticinesi, Andrea; Meschi, Tiziana; Lauretani, Fulvio; Felis, Giovanna; Franchi, Fabrizio; Pedrolli, Carlo; Barichella, Michela; Benati, Giuseppe; Di Nuzzo, Sergio; Ceda, Gian Paolo; Maggio, Marcello

    2016-01-01

    Chronic activation of the inflammatory response, defined as inflammaging, is the key physio-pathological substrate for anabolic resistance, sarcopenia and frailty in older individuals. Nutrients can theoretically modulate this phenomenon. The underlying molecular mechanisms reducing the synthesis of pro-inflammatory mediators have been elucidated, particularly for vitamin D, n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and whey proteins. In this paper, we review the current evidence emerging from observational and intervention studies, performed in older individuals, either community-dwelling or hospitalized with acute disease, and evaluating the effects of intake of vitamin D, n-3 PUFA and whey proteins on inflammatory markers, such as C-Reactive Protein (CRP), interleukin-1 (IL-1), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α). After the analysis, we conclude that there is sufficient evidence for an anti-inflammatory effect in aging only for n-3 PUFA intake, while the few existing intervention studies do not support a similar activity for vitamin D and whey supplements. There is need in the future of large, high-quality studies testing the effects of combined dietary interventions including the above mentioned nutrients on inflammation and health-related outcomes. PMID:27043616

  13. Production and concentration of monoacylglycerols rich in omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids by enzymatic glycerolysis and molecular distillation.

    PubMed

    Solaesa, Ángela García; Sanz, María Teresa; Falkeborg, Mia; Beltrán, Sagrario; Guo, Zheng

    2016-01-01

    Production of monoacylglycerols (MAGs) rich in ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs) was conducted through short path distillation (SPD) of an acylglycerol mixture (containing 67% MAGs) produced by enzymatic glycerolysis of sardine oil with glycerol. A stepwise SPD process in a UIC KDL 5 system (vacuum 10(-3)mbar, feeding flow 1.0 mL/min) was proceeded: the first distillation performed at evaporator temperature (TE) of 110 °C to remove glycerol completely and most of FFAs; and the second distillation at optimized TE 155 °C; resulting in a stream distillate with 91% purity and 94% overall recovery of MAGs. This work also demonstrated that SPD is able to concentrate n-3 PUFAs in MAG form by distilling at proper TE e.g. 125 °C, where n-3 PUFAs are concentrated in the residues. Moreover, this work mapped out a complete processing diagram for scalable production of n-3 PUFAs enriched MAGs as potential food emulsifier and ingredient. PMID:26213062

  14. Nutrition and Inflammation in Older Individuals: Focus on Vitamin D, n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids and Whey Proteins.

    PubMed

    Ticinesi, Andrea; Meschi, Tiziana; Lauretani, Fulvio; Felis, Giovanna; Franchi, Fabrizio; Pedrolli, Carlo; Barichella, Michela; Benati, Giuseppe; Di Nuzzo, Sergio; Ceda, Gian Paolo; Maggio, Marcello

    2016-01-01

    Chronic activation of the inflammatory response, defined as inflammaging, is the key physio-pathological substrate for anabolic resistance, sarcopenia and frailty in older individuals. Nutrients can theoretically modulate this phenomenon. The underlying molecular mechanisms reducing the synthesis of pro-inflammatory mediators have been elucidated, particularly for vitamin D, n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and whey proteins. In this paper, we review the current evidence emerging from observational and intervention studies, performed in older individuals, either community-dwelling or hospitalized with acute disease, and evaluating the effects of intake of vitamin D, n-3 PUFA and whey proteins on inflammatory markers, such as C-Reactive Protein (CRP), interleukin-1 (IL-1), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α). After the analysis, we conclude that there is sufficient evidence for an anti-inflammatory effect in aging only for n-3 PUFA intake, while the few existing intervention studies do not support a similar activity for vitamin D and whey supplements. There is need in the future of large, high-quality studies testing the effects of combined dietary interventions including the above mentioned nutrients on inflammation and health-related outcomes. PMID:27043616

  15. Citrus Pulp as a Dietary Source of Antioxidants for Lactating Holstein Cows Fed Highly Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Diets

    PubMed Central

    Santos, G. T.; Lima, L. S.; Schogor, A. L. B.; Romero, J. V.; De Marchi, F. E.; Grande, P. A.; Santos, N. W.; Santos, F. S.; Kazama, R.

    2014-01-01

    The effects of feeding pelleted citrus pulp (PCP) as a natural antioxidant source on the performance and milk quality of dairy cows fed highly polyunsaturated fatty acid (FA) diets were evaluated. Four lactating Holstein cows were assigned to a 4×4 Latin-square. Treatments, on a dry matter (DM) basis, were i) control diet; ii) 3% soybean oil; iii) 3% soybean oil and 9% PCP and; iv) 3% soybean oil and 18% PCP. When cows fed on citrus pulp, the DM intake tended to decrease. The total tract apparent digestibility of DM and ether extract decreased when cows fed on the control diet compared to other diets. Cows fed PCP had higher polyphenols and flavonoids content and higher total ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) in milk compared to those fed no pelleted citrus pulp. Cows fed 18% PCP showed higher monounsaturated FA and lower saturated FA in milk fat compared with cows fed the other diets. The lowest n-6 FA proportion was in milk fat from cows fed control. The present study suggests that pelleted citrus pulp added to 9% to 18% DM increases total polyphenols and flavonoids concentration, and the FRAP in milk. PMID:25083104

  16. Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids Attenuate Diet Induced Obesity and Insulin Resistance, Modulating Mitochondrial Respiratory Uncoupling in Rat Skeletal Muscle

    PubMed Central

    Bergamo, Paolo; De Filippo, Chiara; Mattace Raso, Giuseppina; Gifuni, Giorgio; Putti, Rosalba; Moni, Bottu Heleena; Canani, Roberto Berni; Meli, Rosaria; Mollica, Maria Pina

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Omega (ω)-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) are dietary compounds able to attenuate insulin resistance. Anyway, the precise actions of ω-3PUFAs in skeletal muscle are overlooked. We hypothesized that PUFAs, modulating mitochondrial function and efficiency, would ameliorate pro-inflammatory and pro-oxidant signs of nutritionally induced obesity. Study Design To this aim, rats were fed a control diet (CD) or isocaloric high fat diets containing either ω-3 PUFA (FD) or lard (LD) for 6 weeks. Results FD rats showed lower weight, lipid gain and energy efficiency compared to LD-fed animals, showing higher energy expenditure and O2 consumption/CO2 production. Serum lipid profile and pro-inflammatory parameters in FD-fed animals were reduced compared to LD. Accordingly, FD rats exhibited a higher glucose tolerance revealed by an improved glucose and insulin tolerance tests compared to LD, accompanied by a restoration of insulin signalling in skeletal muscle. PUFAs increased lipid oxidation and reduced energy efficiency in subsarcolemmal mitochondria, and increase AMPK activation, reducing both endoplasmic reticulum and oxidative stress. Increased mitochondrial respiration was related to an increased mitochondriogenesis in FD skeletal muscle, as shown by the increase in PGC1-α and -β. Conclusions our data strengthened the association of high dietary ω3-PUFA intake with reduced mitochondrial energy efficiency in the skeletal muscle. PMID:26901315

  17. Site-specific influence of polyunsaturated fatty acids on atherosclerosis in immune incompetent LDL receptor deficient mice.

    PubMed

    Reardon, Catherine A; Blachowicz, Lydia; Gupta, Gaorav; Lukens, John; Nissenbaum, Michael; Getz, Godfrey S

    2006-08-01

    Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) are thought to influence plasma lipid levels, atherosclerosis, and the immune system. In this study, we fed male LDL receptor deficient (LDLR(-/-)) mice and immune incompetent LDLR(-/-) RAG2(-/-) mice diets containing predominantly saturated fats (milk fat) or PUFA (safflower oil) to determine if the response to diet was influenced by immune status. Relative to milk fat diet, plasma lipid and VLDL levels in both the LDLR(-/-) and LDLR(-/-) RAG2(-/-) mice fed safflower oil diet were lower, suggesting that the primary effect of PUFA on plasma lipids was not due to its inhibition of the immune system. Neither diet nor immune status influenced hepatic triglyceride production and post-heparin lipase activity, suggesting that the differences in triglyceride levels are due to differences in rates of catabolism of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins. While both diets promoted atherogenesis, both aortic root and innominate artery atherosclerosis in LDLR(-/-) mice was less in safflower oil fed animals. In contrast, a site-specific effect of PUFA was observed in the immune incompetent LDLR(-/-) RAG2(-/-). In these mice, aortic root atherosclerosis, but not innominate artery atherosclerosis, was less in PUFA fed animal. These results suggest that PUFA and the immune system may influence innominate artery atherosclerosis by some overlapping mechanisms.

  18. Inhibition of the HER2 pathway by n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids prevents breast cancer in fat-1 transgenic mice

    PubMed Central

    Zou, Zuquan; Bellenger, Sandrine; Massey, Karen A.; Nicolaou, Anna; Geissler, Audrey; Bidu, Célia; Bonnotte, Bernard; Pierre, Anne-Sophie; Minville-Walz, Mélaine; Rialland, Michaël; Seubert, John; Kang, Jing X.; Lagrost, Laurent; Narce, Michel; Bellenger, Jérôme

    2013-01-01

    Overexpression of the tyrosine kinase receptor, ErbB2/HER2/Neu, occurs in 25–30% of invasive breast cancer (BC) with poor patient prognosis. Due to confounding factors, inconsistencies still remain regarding the protective effects of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) on BC. We therefore evaluated whether fat-1 transgenic mice, endogenously synthesizing n-3 PUFAs from n-6 PUFAs, were protected against BC development, and we then aimed to study in vivo a mechanism potentially involved in such protection. E0771 BC cells were implanted into fat-1 and wild-type (WT) mice. After tumorigenesis examination, we analyzed the expression of proteins involved in the HER2 signaling pathway and lipidomic analyses were performed in tumor tissues and plasma. Our results showed that tumors totally disappeared by day 15 in fat-1 mice but continued to grow in WT mice. This prevention can be related in part to significant repression of the HER2/β-catenin signaling pathway and formation of significant levels of n-3 PUFA-derived bioactive mediators (particularly 15-hydroxyeicosapentaenoic acid, 17-hydroxydocosahexaenoic acid, and prostaglandin E3) in the tumors of fat-1 mice compared with WT mice. All together these data demonstrate an anti-BC effect of n-3 PUFAs through, at least in part, HER2 signaling pathway downregulation, and highlight the importance of gene-diet interactions in BC. PMID:24052576

  19. FTIR microspectroscopy for rapid screening and monitoring of polyunsaturated fatty acid production in commercially valuable marine yeasts and protists.

    PubMed

    Vongsvivut, Jitraporn; Heraud, Philip; Gupta, Adarsha; Puri, Munish; McNaughton, Don; Barrow, Colin J

    2013-10-21

    The increase in polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) consumption has prompted research into alternative resources other than fish oil. In this study, a new approach based on focal-plane-array Fourier transform infrared (FPA-FTIR) microspectroscopy and multivariate data analysis was developed for the characterisation of some marine microorganisms. Cell and lipid compositions in lipid-rich marine yeasts collected from the Australian coast were characterised in comparison to a commercially available PUFA-producing marine fungoid protist, thraustochytrid. Multivariate classification methods provided good discriminative accuracy evidenced from (i) separation of the yeasts from thraustochytrids and distinct spectral clusters among the yeasts that conformed well to their biological identities, and (ii) correct classification of yeasts from a totally independent set using cross-validation testing. The findings further indicated additional capability of the developed FPA-FTIR methodology, when combined with partial least squares regression (PLSR) analysis, for rapid monitoring of lipid production in one of the yeasts during the growth period, which was achieved at a high accuracy compared to the results obtained from the traditional lipid analysis based on gas chromatography. The developed FTIR-based approach when coupled to programmable withdrawal devices and a cytocentrifugation module would have strong potential as a novel online monitoring technology suited for bioprocessing applications and large-scale production.

  20. Catecholaminergic and cholinergic systems of mouse brain are modulated by LMN diet, rich in theobromine, polyphenols and polyunsaturated fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Fernández, Laura; Esteban, Gerard; Giralt, Mercedes; Valente, Tony; Bolea, Irene; Solé, Montse; Sun, Ping; Benítez, Susana; Morelló, José Ramón; Reguant, Jordi; Ramírez, Bartolomé; Hidalgo, Juan; Unzeta, Mercedes

    2015-04-01

    The possible modulatory effect of the functional LMN diet, rich in theobromine, polyphenols and polyunsaturated fatty acids, on the catecholaminergic and cholinergic neurotransmission, affecting cognition decline during aging has been studied. 129S1/SvlmJ mice were fed for 10, 20, 30 and 40 days with either LMN or control diets. The enzymes involved in catecholaminergic and cholinergic metabolism were determined by both immunohistological and western blot analyses. Noradrenalin, dopamine and other metabolites were quantified by HPLC analysis. Theobromine, present in cocoa, the main LMN diet component, was analysed in parallel using SH-SY5Y and PC12 cell lines. An enhanced modulatory effect on both cholinergic and catecholaminergic transmissions was observed on 20 day fed mice. Similar effect was observed with theobromine, besides its antioxidant capacity inducing SOD-1 and GPx expression. The enhancing effect of the LMN diet and theobromine on the levels of acetylcholine-related enzymes, dopamine and specially noradrenalin confirms the beneficial role of this diet on the "cognitive reserve" and hence a possible reducing effect on cognitive decline underlying aging and Alzheimer's disease. PMID:25756794

  1. Formation of volatile compounds in kefir made of goat and sheep milk with high polyunsaturated fatty acid content.

    PubMed

    Cais-Sokolińska, D; Wójtowski, J; Pikul, J; Danków, R; Majcher, M; Teichert, J; Bagnicka, E

    2015-10-01

    This article explored the formation of volatile compounds during the production of kefir from goat and sheep milks with high polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) as a result of feeding animals forage supplemented with maize dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS). The increased PUFA content of the goat and sheep milks resulted in significant changes to the fermentation process. In particular, apart from an increase in the time taken to ferment sheep milk, fermentation yielded less 2,3-butanedione. The highest quantities of this compound were assayed in kefir produced from goat milk with an increased content of PUFA. An increase of PUFA significantly elevated ethanal synthesis during lactose-alcohol fermentation of sheep milk. Neither the origin of milk (sheep or goat) nor the level of PUFA had any statistical effect on the amount of ethanal assayed during the fermentation of milk and within the finished product. The proportion of l(+)-lactic acid was higher in kefirs produced using goat milk compared with sheep milk and did not depend on the content of PUFA in milk fat. The content of PUFA had a significant effect on the aroma profile of the resulting kefirs. An increase in PUFA content resulted in the loss of whey aroma in goat milk kefirs and the animal odor in sheep milk kefirs, and a creamy aroma became more prevalent in kefirs made from sheep milk.

  2. Effect of ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids on the growth of IEC-6 cells injured by heavy metals

    PubMed Central

    ZHANG, FENG; YU, HAINING; NI, XIAOFENG; ZHU, JING; WANG, SHANSHAN; SHEN, SHENGRONG

    2016-01-01

    Environmental pollution is a current area of focus worldwide, particularly heavy metal pollution. Feasible prevention or therapeutic strategies are required. Exploration of the correlation between ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω-3 PUFAs) and intestinal epithelial cells injured by heavy metals may be of significance for intestinal health. In the present study, the effects of ω-3 PUFAs on the rat intestinal crypt cell line (IEC-6) injured by heavy metals and its mechanisms were determined according to the evaluation of cell viability and expression levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS), epidermal growth factor (EGF) and interleukin-6 (IL-6). The results demonstrated that ω-3 PUFAs can improve the viability of IEC-6 cells injured by heavy metals and the expression level of ROS was correlated with oxidative damage; the increased expression level of inflammatory factors is associated with cell apoptosis. In the present study, ω-3 PUFAs significantly decreased the expression levels of ROS, EGF and IL-6. This indicates that the protective action of ω-3 PUFAs was associated with a decrease of oxidative damage and pro-inflammatory cytokine expression against the damage of heavy metals. PMID:27123260

  3. Autism as a disorder of deficiency of brain-derived neurotrophic factor and altered metabolism of polyunsaturated fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Das, Undurti N

    2013-10-01

    Autism has a strong genetic and environmental basis in which inflammatory markers and factors concerned with synapse formation, nerve transmission, and information processing such as brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs): arachidonic (AA), eicosapentaenoic (EPA), and docosahexaenoic acids (DHA) and their products and neurotransmitters: dopamine, serotonin, acetylcholine, γ-aminobutyric acid, and catecholamines and cytokines are altered. Antioxidants, vitamins, minerals, and trace elements are needed for the normal metabolism of neurotrophic factors, eicosanoids, and neurotransmitters, supporting reports of their alterations in autism. But, the exact relationship among these factors and their interaction with genes and proteins concerned with brain development and growth is not clear. It is suggested that maternal infections and inflammation and adverse events during intrauterine growth of the fetus could lead to alterations in the gene expression profile and proteomics that results in dysfunction of the neuronal function and neurotransmitters, alteration(s) in the metabolism of PUFAs and their metabolites resulting in excess production of proinflammatory eicosanoids and cytokines and a deficiency of anti-inflammatory cytokines and bioactive lipids that ultimately results in the development of autism. Based on these evidences, it is proposed that selective delivery of BDNF and methods designed to augment the production of anti-inflammatory cytokines and eicosanoids and PUFAs may prevent, arrest, or reverse the autism disease process.

  4. Effect of heat treatment on the n-3/n-6 ratio and content of polyunsaturated fatty acids in fish tissues.

    PubMed

    Schneedorferová, Ivana; Tomčala, Aleš; Valterová, Irena

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the effect of different heat treatments (pan-frying, oven-baking, and grilling) on the contents of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) in fish tissue. Four fish species were examined: pike, carp, cod, and herring. High performance liquid chromatography, coupled with electrospray ionization and mass spectrometric detection (HPLC/ESI/MS), was employed for determination of intact lipid molecules containing n-3 and n-6 PUFAs. Although mostly non-polar lipids (triacylglycerols, TGs) were present in the fish tissue, the PUFAs were present preferentially in the phospholipid fraction. Omnivorous fish species (carp, herring) contained more TGs than did predatory ones (pike, cod). Higher amounts of PUFAs were detected in the marine species than in the freshwater ones. The impact of heat treatments on the lipid composition in the fish tissue seems to be species-specific, as indicated by multivariate data analysis. Herring tissue is most heat-stable, and the mildest heat treatment for PUFA preservation was oven-baking.

  5. Association of Plasma Phospholipid n-3 and n-6 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids with Type 2 Diabetes: The EPIC-InterAct Case-Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Forouhi, Nita G.; Schulze, Matthias B.; Zheng, Jusheng; Ye, Zheng; Kröger, Janine; Wang, Laura Yun; Summerhill, Keith; Griffin, Julian L.; Feskens, Edith J. M.; Affret, Aurélie; Amiano, Pilar; Boeing, Heiner; Dow, Courtney; Fagherazzi, Guy; Franks, Paul W.; Gonzalez, Carlos; Kaaks, Rudolf; Key, Timothy J.; Khaw, Kay Tee; Kühn, Tilman; Mortensen, Lotte Maxild; Nilsson, Peter M.; Overvad, Kim; Pala, Valeria; Palli, Domenico; Panico, Salvatore; Quirós, J. Ramón; Rolandsson, Olov; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Scalbert, Augustin; Slimani, Nadia; Spijkerman, Annemieke M. W.; Tjonneland, Anne; Tumino, Rosario; van der A, Daphne L.; Riboli, Elio

    2016-01-01

    Background Whether and how n-3 and n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are related to type 2 diabetes (T2D) is debated. Objectively measured plasma PUFAs can help to clarify these associations. Methods and Findings Plasma phospholipid PUFAs were measured by gas chromatography among 12,132 incident T2D cases and 15,919 subcohort participants in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)-InterAct study across eight European countries. Country-specific hazard ratios (HRs) were estimated using Prentice-weighted Cox regression and pooled by random-effects meta-analysis. We also systematically reviewed published prospective studies on circulating PUFAs and T2D risk and pooled the quantitative evidence for comparison with results from EPIC-InterAct. In EPIC-InterAct, among long-chain n-3 PUFAs, α-linolenic acid (ALA) was inversely associated with T2D (HR per standard deviation [SD] 0.93; 95% CI 0.88–0.98), but eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) were not significantly associated. Among n-6 PUFAs, linoleic acid (LA) (0.80; 95% CI 0.77–0.83) and eicosadienoic acid (EDA) (0.89; 95% CI 0.85–0.94) were inversely related, and arachidonic acid (AA) was not significantly associated, while significant positive associations were observed with γ-linolenic acid (GLA), dihomo-GLA, docosatetraenoic acid (DTA), and docosapentaenoic acid (n6-DPA), with HRs between 1.13 to 1.46 per SD. These findings from EPIC-InterAct were broadly similar to comparative findings from summary estimates from up to nine studies including between 71 to 2,499 T2D cases. Limitations included potential residual confounding and the inability to distinguish between dietary and metabolic influences on plasma phospholipid PUFAs. Conclusions These large-scale findings suggest an important inverse association of circulating plant-origin n-3 PUFA (ALA) but no convincing association of marine-derived n3 PUFAs (EPA and DHA) with T2D. Moreover, they