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Sample records for chain reaction pcr

  1. The polymerase chain reaction (PCR): general methods.

    PubMed

    Waters, Daniel L E; Shapter, Frances M

    2014-01-01

    The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) converts very low quantities of DNA into very high quantities and is the foundation of many specialized techniques of molecular biology. PCR utilizes components of the cellular machinery of mitotic cell division in vitro which respond predictably to user inputs. This chapter introduces the principles of PCR and discusses practical considerations from target sequence definition through to optimization and application.

  2. Buoyancy-Driven Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) Devices

    SciTech Connect

    Ness, K D; Wheeler, E K; Benett, W; Stratton, P; Christian, A; Chen, A; Ortega, J; Weisgraber, T H; Goodson, K E

    2004-09-28

    Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) facilitates DNA detection by significantly increasing the concentration of specific DNA segments. A new class of PCR instruments uses a buoyancy-driven re-circulating flow to thermally cycle the DNA sample and benefits from reduced cycle times, low sample volumes, a miniaturized format, and low power consumption. This paper analyzes a specific buoyancy PCR device in a micro-channel ''race-track'' geometry to determine key parameters about PCR cycle times and other figures of merit as functions of device dimensions. The 1-D model balances the buoyancy driving force with frictional losses. A hydrostatic pressure imbalance concept is used between the left and right sides of the fluid loop to calculate the buoyancy driving force. Velocity and temperature distributions within the channels are determined from two-dimensional analysis of the channel section, with developing region effects included empirically through scaled values of the local Nusselt number. Good agreement between four independent verification steps validate the 1-D simulation approach: (1) analytical expressions for the thermal entrance length are compared against, (2) comparison with a full 3-D finite element simulation, (3) comparison with an experimental flow field characterization, and (4) calculation of the minimum PCR runtime required to get a positive PCR signal from the buoyancy-driven PCR device. The 1-D approach closely models an actual buoyancy-driven PCR device and can further be used as a rapid design tool to simulate buoyancy PCR flows and perform detailed design optimizations studies.

  3. Nanogold-assisted multi-round polymerase chain reaction (PCR).

    PubMed

    Pan, Jiakui; Li, Haikuo; Cao, Xueyan; Huang, Jiehuan; Zhang, Xiaodong; Fan, Chunhai; Hu, Jun

    2007-12-01

    We have previously demonstrated that nanogold effectively enhances the specificity and yield of error-prone two-round polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Here we reported that, with the assistance of nanogold, we could perform multi-round PCR. In the presence of appropriate amount of 10 nm nanogold, we could obtain the target product even after six rounds of PCR, as manifested by a single bright band in gel electrophoresis (1% agarose). In fact, we could still observe the target band even at the 7th round of PCR, which nevertheless was accompanied by smearing bands (non-specific amplification). In contrast, in the absence of nanogold, the target band was completely lost only after four rounds of amplification. This marked difference in the performance of multi-round PCR clearly showed that nanogold was a powerful enhancer for PCR. More importantly, with this nanogold-assisted multi-round PCR, it might be possible to produce a large amount of target DNA, or to amply very low copies of genomic DNA from rare sources.

  4. Monitoring infection: from blood culture to polymerase chain reaction (PCR).

    PubMed

    Book, Malte; Lehmann, Lutz Eric; Zhang, XiangHong; Stüber, Frank

    2013-06-01

    In patients with sepsis, diagnosis of blood stream infection (BSI) is a key concern to the therapist. Direct verification of pathogens in the blood stream executed by blood cultures (BC) still is regarded as the gold standard up to date. The quickest possible initiation of an appropriate antimicrobial therapy is a cornerstone of an effective therapy. Moreover, in this view BC can also serve to identify antimicrobial agents to target the pathogen. However, when employing BC the time needed until microbiological results are available ranges from 24 up to 72 h. Moreover, infections caused by multiple pathogens often remain undetected and concurrent antibiotic therapy may lower the overall sensitivity. Alternative pathogen characterization can be performed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) based amplification methods. Results using PCR can be obtained within 6-8 h. Therefore, the time delay until an appropriate therapy can be reduced enormously. Moreover, these methods have the potential to enhance the sensitivity in the diagnosis of blood stream infections. Therefore, PCR based methods might be a valuable adjunct to present procedures of diagnosing bacteraemia.

  5. Identifying of meat species using polymerase chain reaction (PCR)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foong, Chow Ming; Sani, Norrakiah Abdullah

    2013-11-01

    Meat has been widely consumed as an important protein source in daily life of human. Furthermore, with busy and intense urban lifestyle, processed food is now one of the main protein sources of one's diet. Consumers rely on the food labeling to decide if the meat product purchased is safe and reliable. Therefore, it is important to ensure the food labeling is done in a correct manner to avoid consumer fraud. More consumers are now concern about the food quality and safety as compared to before. This study described the meat species identification and detection method using Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) in 8 types of meats (cattle, buffalo, goat, sheep, chicken, duck, pork and horse). The objective of this study is to decide on the specificity of oligonucleotide sequences obtained from previous study. There were 5 proposed oligonucleotide primer in this study. The main important finding in this work is the specificity of oligonucleotide primers to raw meats. It if found that the oligonucleotide primers proposed were not specific to the local raw meat species. Therefore, further study is needed to obtain a species-specific oligonucletide primers for PCR, in order to be applied in food product testing.

  6. Identifying of meat species using polymerase chain reaction (PCR)

    SciTech Connect

    Foong, Chow Ming; Sani, Norrakiah Abdullah

    2013-11-27

    Meat has been widely consumed as an important protein source in daily life of human. Furthermore, with busy and intense urban lifestyle, processed food is now one of the main protein sources of one’s diet. Consumers rely on the food labeling to decide if the meat product purchased is safe and reliable. Therefore, it is important to ensure the food labeling is done in a correct manner to avoid consumer fraud. More consumers are now concern about the food quality and safety as compared to before. This study described the meat species identification and detection method using Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) in 8 types of meats (cattle, buffalo, goat, sheep, chicken, duck, pork and horse). The objective of this study is to decide on the specificity of oligonucleotide sequences obtained from previous study. There were 5 proposed oligonucleotide primer in this study. The main important finding in this work is the specificity of oligonucleotide primers to raw meats. It if found that the oligonucleotide primers proposed were not specific to the local raw meat species. Therefore, further study is needed to obtain a species-specific oligonucletide primers for PCR, in order to be applied in food product testing.

  7. [Detection of bacterial DNA using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR)].

    PubMed

    Höfler, G

    1994-01-01

    Enzymatic amplification of DNA using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is a very sensitive and rapid way of detecting specific DNA sequences. Bacterial DNA can be detected in a wide variety of samples provided at least partial sequence information is available. For a great number of bacteria PCR detection methods have been published. Most important for the pathologist are mycobacteriae (M. tuberculosis, avium, etc.). Borellia burgdorferi, Listeria monozytogenes and chlamydiae (Ce. trachomatis, C. psittaci). Fresh or fixed paraffin embedded tissues, exfoliated cells, whole blood, serum, sputum, urine, ascites or pleural fluid etc. can be analyzed. The time needed to perform the analysis varies between 5 hours and 2 days mostly depending on the DNA extraction method. Several potential pitfalls have to be avoided. The most common problem is contamination of reagents with target DNA. Amplification of DNA from biological samples may be prevented by enzyme inhibitors (salts, proteins). This problem can at least partially be avoided by changing the DNA purification method. Several additional problems may arise if bacterial DNA has to be amplified. Bacterial walls may have to be disrupted using heat or detergent for accessibility of target DNA. Positive results have to be judged carefully. Unlike the situation in retroviral infections with the virus sometimes present in the absence of disease, in the majority of bacterial infections the presence of bacteria signals manifest disease. A possible exception may be the finding of mycobacterial DNA in sarcoidosis patients who can be treated with steroids without provoking tuberculosis. PCR is especially useful in situations where rapid results are necessary or only fixed tissue is available.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7533972

  8. Designing Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) Primer Multiplexes in the Forensic Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elkins, Kelly M.

    2011-01-01

    The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is a common experiment in upper-level undergraduate biochemistry, molecular biology, and forensic laboratory courses as reagents and thermocyclers have become more affordable for institutions. Typically, instructors design PCR primers to amplify the region of interest and the students prepare their samples for…

  9. Detection of hepatopancreatic parvovirus (HPV) in wild shrimp from India by nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR).

    PubMed

    Manjanaik, B; Umesha, K R; Karunasagar, Indrani; Karunasagar, Iddya

    2005-02-28

    The prevalence of hepatopancreatic parvovirus (HPV) in wild penaeid shrimp samples from India was studied by nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using primers designed in our laboratory. The virus could be detected in 9 out of 119 samples by non-nested PCR. However, by nested PCR 69 out of 119 samples were positive. The PCR results were confirmed by hybridization with digoxigenin-labelled DNA probe. Shrimp species positive by non-nested PCR included Penaeus monodon, Penaeus indicus and Penaeus semisulcatus and by nested PCR Parapenaeopsis stylifera, Penaeus japonicus, Metapenaeus monoceros, M. affinis, M. elegans, M. dobsoni, M. ensis and Solenocera choprai. This is the first report on the prevalence of HPV in captured wild shrimp from India. PMID:15819441

  10. Is real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) more useful than a conventional PCR for the clinical management of leishmaniasis?

    PubMed

    Antinori, Spinello; Calattini, Sara; Piolini, Roberta; Longhi, Erika; Bestetti, Giovanna; Cascio, Antonio; Parravicini, Carlo; Corbellino, Mario

    2009-07-01

    It is currently unknown if the use of a real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) adds value to the diagnosis and follow-up prognosis of patients affected by leishmaniasis. We performed a study using a real-time PCR directed against the alpha-polymerase gene and a semiquantitative PCR that target the SSU ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene as control for the diagnosis and quantification of parasites in patients with visceral (VL) and cutaneous (CL) leishmaniasis. Our single copy real-time PCR missed one diagnosis of VL compared with the conventional PCR, whereas both PCR methods were able to detect Leishmania parasites in CL. Under anti-leishmania treatment the kinetics of parasitemia were comparable with the two methods. The real-time PCR directed against alpha-polymerase of Leishmania despite being able to make a more accurate quantification of parasites does not add to the decision-making management compared with a semiquantitative PCR, and it is comparatively expensive.

  11. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for detection of aquatic animal pathogens in a diagnostic laboratory setting

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Purcell, Maureen K.; Getchell, Rodman G.; McClure, Carol A.; Weber, S.E.; Garver, Kyle A.

    2011-01-01

    Real-time, or quantitative, polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) is quickly supplanting other molecular methods for detecting the nucleic acids of human and other animal pathogens owing to the speed and robustness of the technology. As the aquatic animal health community moves toward implementing national diagnostic testing schemes, it will need to evaluate how qPCR technology should be employed. This review outlines the basic principles of qPCR technology, considerations for assay development, standards and controls, assay performance, diagnostic validation, implementation in the diagnostic laboratory, and quality assurance and control measures. These factors are fundamental for ensuring the validity of qPCR assay results obtained in the diagnostic laboratory setting.

  12. Ultra sensitive detection of Listeria monocytogenes in milk by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR).

    PubMed

    Starbuck, M A; Hill, P J; Stewart, G S

    1992-12-01

    The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) has been used to detect Listeria monocytogenes in whole milk at a level of 0.1 cfu per 30 ml. This high degree of sensitivity has been achieved following enzymatic digestion, polysulphonone membrane filtration and amplification of a nucleotide sequence within the promoter region of hlyA. Key elements of the procedure are the absence of enrichment culture and a complete solubilization of the membrane filter, ensuring total nucleic acid recovery. The simplicity of the protocol coupled with high sample volumes and exquisite sensitivity extends the relevance of PCR within food and environmental microbiology. PMID:1368996

  13. A survey of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification studies of unicellular protists using single-cell PCR.

    PubMed

    Lynn, Denis H; Pinheiro, Marcel

    2009-01-01

    We surveyed a variety of studies that have used single-cell polymerase chain reaction (SC-PCR) to examine the gene sequences of a diversity of unicellular protists. Representatives of all the Super-Groups of eukaryotes have been subjected to SC-PCR with ciliates and dinoflagellates being most commonly examined. The SC-PCR was carried out either by directly amplifying a single lysed cell or by first extracting DNA and following this with amplification of the DNA extract. Cell lysis methods included heating, freezing, mechanical rupture, and enzyme digestion. Cells fixed or preserved with ethanol, methanol, and Lugol's have also been used successfully. Heminested or seminested PCR might follow the initial PCR, whose products were then directly sequenced or cloned and then sequenced. The methods are not complicated. This should encourage protistologists to use SC-PCR in the description of new or revised taxa, especially rare and unculturable forms, and it should also enable the probing of gene expression in relation to life history stages.

  14. Polymerase chain reaction and real-time PCR for diagnosing of Leishmania infantum chagasi in dogs.

    PubMed

    Ramos, Rafael Antonio do Nascimento; Ramos, Carlos Alberto do Nascimento; Jusi, Márcia Mariza Gomes; de Araújo, Flábio Ribeiro; Machado, Rosangela Zacarias; Faustino, Maria Aparecida da Glória; Alves, Leucio Câmara

    2012-01-01

    The importance of dogs as a reservoir for Leishmania infantumchagasi in urban environments has stimulated numerous studies assessing diagnostic techniques. When performed properly, such procedures are an important step in preventing leishmaniasis in humans. Molecular methods have become prominent for this purpose. The aim of the present study was to determine the performance of the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and real-time PCR (qPCR) for diagnosing of canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL) using different biological samples. For this, 35 dogs from an area endemic for CVL were used. Bone marrow aspirate and lymph node and spleen fragments from these dogs were used for the molecular diagnosis. In the present study, qPCR was able to detect a greater number of positive animals than seen with PCR. Among the different biological samples used, there was no significant difference in L. infantumchagasi DNA detection between PCR and qPCR. However, considering that lymph nodes are easy to acquire, these can be considered to be the best samples for making molecular diagnoses of L. infantum chagasi infection.

  15. Biofunctionalization of Polyoxometalates with DNA Primers, Their Use in the Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) and Electrochemical Detection of PCR Products.

    PubMed

    Debela, Ahmed M; Ortiz, Mayreli; Beni, Valerio; Thorimbert, Serge; Lesage, Denis; Cole, Richard B; O'Sullivan, Ciara K; Hasenknopf, Bernold

    2015-12-01

    The bioconjugation of polyoxometalates (POMs), which are inorganic metal oxido clusters, to DNA strands to obtain functional labeled DNA primers and their potential use in electrochemical detection have been investigated. Activated monooxoacylated polyoxotungstates [SiW11 O39 {Sn(CH2 )2 CO}](8-) and [P2 W17 O61 {Sn(CH2 )2 CO}](6-) have been used to link to a 5'-NH2 terminated 21-mer DNA forward primer through amide coupling. The functionalized primer was characterized by using a battery of techniques, including electrophoresis, mass spectrometry, as well as IR and Raman spectroscopy. The functionality of the POM-labeled primers was demonstrated through hybridization with a surface-immobilized probe. Finally, the labeled primers were successfully used in the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and the PCR products were characterized by using electrophoresis.

  16. On-chip isothermal, chemical cycling polymerase chain reaction (ccPCR)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Persat, Alexandre; Santiago, Juan

    2008-11-01

    We demonstrate a novel ccPCR technique for microfluidic DNA amplification where temperature is held constant in space and time. The polymerase chain reaction is a platform of choice for biological assays and typically based on a three-step thermal cycling: DNA denaturation, primers annealing and extension by an enzyme. We here demonstrate a novel technique where high concentration chemical denaturants (solvents) denature DNA. We leverage the high electrophoretic mobility of DNA and the electrical neutrality of denaturants to achieve chemical cycling. We focus DNA with isotachophoresis (ITP); a robust electrophoretic preconcentration technique which generates strong electric field gradients and protects the sample from dispersion. We apply a pressure-driven flow to balance electromigration velocity and keep the DNA sample stationary in a microchannel. We drive the DNA through a series of high denaturant concentration zones. DNA denatures at high denaturant concentration. At low denaturant concentration, the enzyme creates complementary strands. DNA reaction kinetics are slower than buffer reactions involved in ITP. We demonstrate successful ccPCR amplification for detection of E. Coli. The ccPCR has the potential for simpler chemistry than traditional PCR.

  17. Confirmation of presumptive Salmonella colonies contaminated with Proteus swarming using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method.

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez Rojo, Rosalba; Torres Chavolla, Edith

    2007-01-01

    In Mexico, zero tolerance regulation is practiced regarding Salmonella in food products. the presence of which is verified by the procedure described in NOM 114-SSA-1994. During the period between August 2002 and March 2003, 245 food samples were tested using this procedure in the Central Laboratories of the Department of Health for the State of Jalisco (CEESLAB). Of these 245 samples, 35 showed presumptive colonies contaminated with Proteus swarm cells even after selective isolation. These swarm cells make Salmonella recovery and biochemical identification difficult due to the occurance of atypical biochemical profiles which generally correspond to that of Proteus. Out of the 35 samples contaminated with Proteus, 65 presumptive colonies were isolated. These colonies were analyzed using both normative microbiological method and Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR). The PCR method detected two positive samples while normative microbiological method was not able to identify. In order to determine the extent of interference of Proteus swarming on the Salmonella-specific PCR band amplification, Salmonella ser. Typhimurium was grown in the presence of Proteus swarming. These results show that Proteus swarming did not interfere with Salmonella PCR-amplification, although the appearance of Sanlmonella was altered such that the black precipitate was no observed in the presence of Proteus swarming. Ours result indicate that the PCR method used in this study may be successfully applied to confirm presumptive Salmnonella colonies contaminated with Proteus swarming.

  18. Confirmation of presumptive Salmonella colonies contaminated with Proteus swarming using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method.

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez Rojo, Rosalba; Torres Chavolla, Edith

    2007-01-01

    In Mexico, zero tolerance regulation is practiced regarding Salmonella in food products. the presence of which is verified by the procedure described in NOM 114-SSA-1994. During the period between August 2002 and March 2003, 245 food samples were tested using this procedure in the Central Laboratories of the Department of Health for the State of Jalisco (CEESLAB). Of these 245 samples, 35 showed presumptive colonies contaminated with Proteus swarm cells even after selective isolation. These swarm cells make Salmonella recovery and biochemical identification difficult due to the occurance of atypical biochemical profiles which generally correspond to that of Proteus. Out of the 35 samples contaminated with Proteus, 65 presumptive colonies were isolated. These colonies were analyzed using both normative microbiological method and Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR). The PCR method detected two positive samples while normative microbiological method was not able to identify. In order to determine the extent of interference of Proteus swarming on the Salmonella-specific PCR band amplification, Salmonella ser. Typhimurium was grown in the presence of Proteus swarming. These results show that Proteus swarming did not interfere with Salmonella PCR-amplification, although the appearance of Sanlmonella was altered such that the black precipitate was no observed in the presence of Proteus swarming. Ours result indicate that the PCR method used in this study may be successfully applied to confirm presumptive Salmnonella colonies contaminated with Proteus swarming. PMID:18693548

  19. Molecular sexing of birds: A comparative review of polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based methods.

    PubMed

    Morinha, F; Cabral, J A; Bastos, E

    2012-09-01

    Accurate identification of sex in birds is important for the management and conservation of avian wildlife in several ways, namely in the development of population, behavioral and ecological studies, as well as in the improvement of ex situ captive breeding programs. In general, nestlings, juveniles and adult birds of a wide number of sexually monomorphic species cannot be sexed based on phenotypic traits. The development of molecular methodologies for avian sexing overcame these difficulties, allowing a reliable gender differentiation for these species. The polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based methods have been widely applied in molecular sexing of birds, using a large diversity of sex-linked markers. During the last 15 yrs, there was a continuous improvement in the PCR-based protocols for bird sexing, increasing the accuracy, speed and high-throughput applicability of these techniques. The recent advances in real-time PCR platforms and whole genome analysis methods provided new resources for the detection and analysis of novel specific markers and protocols. This review presents a comparative guide of classical and recent advances in PCR-based methods for avian molecular sexing, highlighting its strengths and limitations. Future research opportunities in this field are also addressed.

  20. Monitoring Acidophilic Microbes with Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) Assays

    SciTech Connect

    Frank F. Roberto

    2008-08-01

    Many techniques that are used to characterize and monitor microbial populations associated with sulfide mineral bioleaching require the cultivation of the organisms on solid or liquid media. Chemolithotrophic species, such as Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans and Leptospirillum ferrooxidans, or thermophilic chemolithotrophs, such as Acidianus brierleyi and Sulfolobus solfataricus can grow quite slowly, requiring weeks to complete efforts to identify and quantify these microbes associated with bioleach samples. Real-time PCR (polymerase chain reaction) assays in which DNA targets are amplified in the presence of fluorescent oligonucleotide primers, allowing the monitoring and quantification of the amplification reactions as they progress, provide a means of rapidly detecting the presence of microbial species of interest, and their relative abundance in a sample. This presentation will describe the design and use of such assays to monitor acidophilic microbes in the environment and in bioleaching operations. These assays provide results within 2-3 hours, and can detect less than 100 individual microbial cells.

  1. Amplification of Chloroplast DNA Using the Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR): A Practical Activity for Secondary School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamilton, Kenny; Barfoot, Jan; Crawford, Kathleen E.; Simpson, Craig G.; Beaumont, Paul C.; Bownes, Mary

    2006-01-01

    We describe a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) protocol suitable for use in secondary schools and colleges. This PCR protocol can be used to investigate genetic variation between plants. The protocol makes use of primers which are complementary to sequences of nucleotides that are highly conserved across different plant genera. The regions of…

  2. Nanoscale superstructures assembled by polymerase chain reaction (PCR): programmable construction, structural diversity, and emerging applications.

    PubMed

    Kuang, Hua; Ma, Wei; Xu, Liguang; Wang, Libing; Xu, Chuanlai

    2013-11-19

    Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is an essential tool in biotechnology laboratories and is becoming increasingly important in other areas of research. Extensive data obtained over the last 12 years has shown that the combination of PCR with nanoscale dispersions can resolve issues in the preparation DNA-based materials that include both inorganic and organic nanoscale components. Unlike conventional DNA hybridization and antibody-antigen complexes, PCR provides a new, effective assembly platform that both increases the yield of DNA-based nanomaterials and allows researchers to program and control assembly with predesigned parameters including those assisted and automated by computers. As a result, this method allows researchers to optimize to the combinatorial selection of the DNA strands for their nanoparticle conjugates. We have developed a PCR approach for producing various nanoscale assemblies including organic motifs such as small molecules, macromolecules, and inorganic building blocks, such as nanorods (NRs), metal, semiconductor, and magnetic nanoparticles (NPs). We start with a nanoscale primer and then modify that building block using the automated steps of PCR-based assembly including initialization, denaturation, annealing, extension, final elongation, and final hold. The intermediate steps of denaturation, annealing, and extension are cyclic, and we use computer control so that the assembled superstructures reach their predetermined complexity. The structures assembled using a small number of PCR cycles show a lower polydispersity than similar discrete structures obtained by direct hybridization between the nanoscale building blocks. Using different building blocks, we assembled the following structural motifs by PCR: (1) discrete nanostructures (NP dimers, NP multimers including trimers, pyramids, tetramers or hexamers, etc.), (2) branched NP superstructures and heterochains, (3) NP satellite-like superstructures, (4) Y-shaped nanostructures and DNA

  3. Droplet digital polymerase chain reaction (PCR) outperforms real-time PCR in the detection of environmental DNA from an invasive fish species.

    PubMed

    Doi, Hideyuki; Takahara, Teruhiko; Minamoto, Toshifumi; Matsuhashi, Saeko; Uchii, Kimiko; Yamanaka, Hiroki

    2015-05-01

    Environmental DNA (eDNA) has been used to investigate species distributions in aquatic ecosystems. Most of these studies use real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to detect eDNA in water; however, PCR amplification is often inhibited by the presence of organic and inorganic matter. In droplet digital PCR (ddPCR), the sample is partitioned into thousands of nanoliter droplets, and PCR inhibition may be reduced by the detection of the end-point of PCR amplification in each droplet, independent of the amplification efficiency. In addition, real-time PCR reagents can affect PCR amplification and consequently alter detection rates. We compared the effectiveness of ddPCR and real-time PCR using two different PCR reagents for the detection of the eDNA from invasive bluegill sunfish, Lepomis macrochirus, in ponds. We found that ddPCR had higher detection rates of bluegill eDNA in pond water than real-time PCR with either of the PCR reagents, especially at low DNA concentrations. Limits of DNA detection, which were tested by spiking the bluegill DNA to DNA extracts from the ponds containing natural inhibitors, found that ddPCR had higher detection rate than real-time PCR. Our results suggest that ddPCR is more resistant to the presence of PCR inhibitors in field samples than real-time PCR. Thus, ddPCR outperforms real-time PCR methods for detecting eDNA to document species distributions in natural habitats, especially in habitats with high concentrations of PCR inhibitors.

  4. A simple procedure for optimising the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using modified Taguchi methods.

    PubMed Central

    Cobb, B D; Clarkson, J M

    1994-01-01

    Taguchi methods are used widely as the basis for development trials during industrial process design. Here, we describe their suitability for optimisation of the PCR. Unlike conventional strategies, these arrays revealed the effects and interactions of specific reaction components simultaneously using just a few reactions, negating the need for extensive experimental investigation. Reaction components which effected product yield were easily determined. In addition, this technique was applied to the qualitative investigation of RAPD-PCR profiles, where optimisation of the size and distribution of a number of products was determined. Images PMID:7937094

  5. Effect of reference database on frequency estimates of polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based DNA profiles.

    PubMed

    Monson, K L; Budowle, B

    1998-05-01

    A variety of general, regional, ancestral and ethnic databases is available for the polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based loci LDLR, GYPA, HBGG, D7S8, Gc, DQA1, and D1S80. Generally, we observed greater differences in frequency estimations of DNA profiles between racial groups than between ethnic or geographic subgroups. Analysis revealed few forensically significant differences within ethnic subgroups, particularly within general United States groups, and multi-locus frequency estimates typically differ by less than a factor of ten. Using a database different from the one to which a target profile belongs tends to overestimate rarity. Implementation of the general correction of homozygote frequencies for a population substructure, advised by the 1996 National Research Council report, The Evaluation of Forensic DNA Evidence, has a minimal effect on profile frequencies. Even when it is known that both the suspect and all possible perpetrators must belong to the same isolated population, the special correction for inbreeding, which was proposed by the 1996 National Research Council report for this special case, has a relatively modest effect, typically a factor of two or less for 1% inbreeding. The effect becomes more substantial (exceeding a factor of ten) for inbreeding of 3% or more in multi-locus profiles rarer than about one in a million. PMID:9608687

  6. Expression profiling by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR).

    PubMed

    Lech, Maciej; Anders, Hans-Joachim

    2014-01-01

    Real-time quantitative PCR is a variation of the standard PCR technique that is commonly used to quantify nucleic acid. However, in this technique the amount of amplified specific sequence can be quantified at each stage of the PCR cycle. If investigated sequence is present in large number of copies in particular sample, amplification product is detected already in earlier cycles; if the sequence is rare, amplification is observed in later cycles. Quantification of amplified product is acquired using fluorescent probes or fluorescent DNA-binding dyes. Accumulation of fluorescent signal can be measured by real-time PCR instruments during each of 35-45 cycwwles of the PCR reaction, which simplify the procedure by eliminating the visualization of the amplified products using gel electrophoresis. Real-time-PCR allows quantifying the amount of product already during the PCR reaction as soon as it is detectable. Correctly performed, this method may be used for precise gene expression analysis in life science, medicine, and diagnostics and has become the standard method of choice for the quantification of mRNA. However in the past few years it became obvious that real-time PCR is complex and variability of RNA templates, assay designs, inappropriate data normalization, and data interpretation may cause diverse analytical problems.

  7. A-T linker adapter polymerase chain reaction for determining flanking sequences by rescuing inverse PCR or thermal asymmetric interlaced PCR products.

    PubMed

    Trinh, Quoclinh; Zhu, Pengyu; Shi, Hui; Xu, Wentao; Hao, Junran; Luo, Yunbo; Huang, Kunlun

    2014-12-01

    The polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based genome walking method has been extensively used to isolate unknown flanking sequences, whereas nonspecific products are always inevitable. To resolve these problems, we developed a new strategy to isolate the unknown flanking sequences by combining A-T linker adapter PCR with inverse PCR (I-PCR) or thermal asymmetric interlaced PCR (TAIL-PCR). The result showed that this method can be efficiently achieved with the flanking sequence from the Arabidopsis mutant and papain gene. Our study provides researchers with an additional method for determining genomic DNA flanking sequences to identify the target band from bulk of bands and to eliminate the cloning step for sequencing.

  8. Tandem competitive polymerase chain reaction (TC-PCR): a method for determining ratios of RNA and DNA templates.

    PubMed

    Virdi, A S; Krishna, S; Sykes, B C

    1992-10-01

    A sensitive and accurate method for determining the ratios of RNA and DNA templates by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is presented. A common competitor containing tandemly arranged internal standards differing from the target template by the presence of different restriction enzyme sites is coamplified with the target templates under identical conditions. Products from each template and internal standard are identified by the band pattern after digestion with the restriction enzyme. As the amount of the common competitor is kept constant for all target templates, the ratio of PCR products from the templates reflects their ratio in the reaction mix before amplification. The method was used to study the relative abundance of mRNA for the pro-alpha1 and pro-alpha2 chains of type I collagen and for estimating disturbances of normal ratio in the inherited bone disorder, osteogenesis imperfecta.

  9. Escherichia coli Vertebral Osteomyelitis Diagnosed According to Broad-range 16S rRNA Gene Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR).

    PubMed

    Shibata, Satoshi; Tanizaki, Ryutaro; Watanabe, Koji; Makabe, Kenta; Shoda, Naoki; Kutsuna, Satoshi; Nagamatsu, Maki; Oka, Shinichi; Ohmagari, Norio

    2015-01-01

    Identifying the causative agent of pyogenic osteomyelitis is often challenging, especially when antibiotics are administered before a biopsy. We herein present a case of osteomyelitis in the cervical vertebrae presenting with progressive paralytic symptoms, in which we successfully identified Escherichia coli from a biopsy specimen using broad-range 16S rRNA gene polymerase chain reaction (PCR) even though sensitive antibiotics had been used for more than 50 days before the biopsy. Broad-range 16S rRNA gene PCR is a useful diagnostic method, especially when prebiopsy antibiotics are unavoidably used for a clinically unstable state.

  10. Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) Versus Bacterial Culture in Detection of Organisms in Otitis Media with Effusion (OME) in Children.

    PubMed

    Aly, Balegh H; Hamad, Mostafa S; Mohey, Mervat; Amen, Sameh

    2012-03-01

    The aim of this study was to compare between polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and bacterial culture in detection of Streptococcus Pneumonia and M. Catarrhalis in otitis media with effusion (OME) in children. Fifty patients having OME were included in this study between 2003 and 2008. Myringotomy and tympanostomy tube insertion were done in every patient and the middle ear effusion samples were aspirated. The samples were subjected to bacteriological study in the form of culture and molecular study in the form of PCR using JM201/202-204 primer probe set for both S. pneumonia and M. catarrhalis. The results of Bacterial cultures are as follows: five cases (10%) were culture positive for S. pneumonia. Six cases (12%) were culture positive for M. catarrhalis. Only one case (2%) showed positively for both S. pneumonia and M. catarrhalis. Polymerase chain reaction test shows that 18 cases (36%) were positive for S. pneumonia, 22 cases (44%) were positive for M. catarrhalis, 6 cases (12%) were positive for both organism and 4 cases (8%) were negative. The difference between the proportion of culture positive and PCR positive specimens for both organisms individually and collectively was significant (P < 0.001). From our study we can conclude that PCR is more accurate than bacterial culture in detection of organisms in middle ear fluid in OME and that M. catarrhalis plays a significant rule in OME as it is the sole organism identified more than the other one by PCR.

  11. Rapid method demonstration project at four New Jersey marine beaches using real time quantitative Polymerase Chain Reaction (qPCR).

    PubMed

    Ferretti, James A; Tran, Hiep V; Peterson, Sarah J; Loftin, Virginia

    2013-06-15

    Real time quantitative Polymerase Chain Reaction (qPCR) was used at four marine bathing beaches in New Jersey as part of a demonstration project to evaluate the potential for use of qPCR as part of a routine beach monitoring program. Split sample analyses for Enterococcus spp. using membrane filtration (MF) and qPCR were performed for 11weeks during the summer of 2011 using swimming advisories based on qPCR results. Comparison of qPCR and MF results from split samples indicated that there was an 82% overall agreement rate between the two methods. Results from the qPCR tests were available by noon the same day of sample collection and swimming advisories were posted on a dedicated website. The qPCR method can be more labor intensive and requires a higher level of training to perform, however, qPCR was able to assess beach water quality in a timelier manner compared to conventional MF techniques. PMID:23623653

  12. Bordetella pertussis detection by spectrofluorometry using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and a molecular beacon probe.

    PubMed

    Poddar, S K; Le, C T

    2001-06-01

    Bordetella pertussis was detected by spectrofluorometry following PCR incorporating a molecular beacon probe in the reaction. A DNA fragment from the tandem repeat sequence region (IS 481) of the genome of B. pertussis was amplified in presence of the probe complementary to an internal segment of the amplified DNA fragment. Fluorescein (FAM) and DABCYL were used as the fluorophore and quencher in the probe. The probe was characterized for its signal to noise ratio by homogeneous solution hybridization with a complementary oligonucleotide. Measurement of fluorescent signal at the emission maxima of FAM, immediately after a PCR was used to detect the B. pertussis target, with no additional steps. Presence of B. pertussis in a sample was also examined by agarose gel electrophoresis of the PCR product. A serial diluted stock of B. pertussis (ATCC strain #9797) and fourteen clinical isolates of B. pertussis were examined. The sensitivity of detection by fluorescent measurement was found to be at least in the range of 0.01-0.1 CFU per 10 microl of the sample and was equal to or better than that detected by agarose gel analysis.

  13. Development of a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test for the detection of virulent forms of Vibrio parahaemolyticus.

    PubMed

    Kadhim, H M; Miah, A; Munn, C B; Gilpin, M L

    2012-04-01

    Vibrio parahaemolyticus is a marine bacterium and some strains cause gastroenteritis in humans. Clinical isolates are thought to possess virulence factors that are absent from the majority of environmental isolates. Use of randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD)-PCR produced a unique 600 bp amplicon (band Y) in the majority of clinical isolates and rarely in environmental isolates tested. The DNA from band Y was cloned and sequenced and found to code for an outer membrane protein (OMP). Two polymerase chain reaction (PCR) primers were designed to specifically amplify a 200 bp unique sequence from presumptive virulent strains (PCR-OMP). The virulence of 23 clinical and 32 environmental isolates was assessed in cytotoxicity tests by treatment of Caco-2 cells with extracellular products (ECPs). All but two of the clinical isolates (91%) were positive for the 200 bp PCR-OMP and their ECPs produced a significantly higher (p < 0.05) lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release (mean 72.88%) than the ECPs of environmental isolates (mean 15.3%) with the exception of one environmental isolate that produced the 200 bp amplicon. A positive 200 bp PCR-OMP is strongly correlated with virulence, as determined by the cytotoxicity assay, and identified virulent forms better than current PCR tests for tdh, trh or T3SS2.

  14. Haplotyping using a combination of polymerase chain reaction-single-strand conformational polymorphism analysis and haplotype-specific PCR amplification.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Huitong; Li, Shaobin; Liu, Xiu; Wang, Jiqing; Luo, Yuzhu; Hickford, Jon G H

    2014-12-01

    A single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) may have an impact on phenotype, but it may also be influenced by multiple SNPs within a gene; hence, the haplotype or phase of multiple SNPs needs to be known. Various methods for haplotyping SNPs have been proposed, but a simple and cost-effective method is currently unavailable. Here we describe a haplotyping approach using two simple techniques: polymerase chain reaction-single-strand conformational polymorphism (PCR-SSCP) and haplotype-specific PCR. In this approach, individual regions of a gene are analyzed by PCR-SSCP to identify variation that defines sub-haplotypes, and then extended haplotypes are assembled from the sub-haplotypes either directly or with the additional use of haplotype-specific PCR amplification. We demonstrate the utility of this approach by haplotyping ovine FABP4 across two variable regions that contain seven SNPs and one indel. The simplicity of this approach makes it suitable for large-scale studies and/or diagnostic screening.

  15. Detection of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) targets using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and paper surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) chromatography.

    PubMed

    Hoppmann, Eric P; Yu, Wei W; White, Ian M

    2014-01-01

    Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) enables multiplex detection of analytes using simple, portable equipment consisting of a single excitation source and detector. Thus, in theory, SERS is ideally suited to replace fluorescence in assays that screen for numerous deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) targets, but in practice, SERS-based assays have suffered from complexity and elaborate processing steps. Here, we report an assay in which a simple inkjet-fabricated plasmonic paper device enables SERS-based detection of multiple DNA targets within a single polymerase chain reaction (PCR). In prior work, we demonstrated the principles of chromatographic separation and SERS-based detection on inkjet-fabricated plasmonic paper. The present work extends that capability for post-PCR gene sequence detection. In this design, hydrolysis DNA probes with 5' Raman labels are utilized; if the target is present, the probe is hydrolyzed during PCR, freeing the reporter. After applying the PCR sample to a paper SERS device, an on-device chromatographic separation and concentration is conducted to discriminate between hydrolyzed and intact probes. SERS is then used to detect the reporter released by the hydrolyzed probes. This simple separation and detection on paper eliminates the need for complex sample processing steps. In this work, we simultaneously detect the methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus genes mecA and femB to illustrate the concept. We envision that this approach could contribute to the development of multiplex DNA diagnostic tests enabling screening for several target sequences within a single reaction, which is necessary for cases in which sample volume and resources are limited.

  16. Detection and serogroup determination of Neisseria meningitidis in CSF by polymerase chain reaction (PCR).

    PubMed

    Porritt, R J; Mercer, J L; Munro, R

    2000-02-01

    A PCR protocol for the detection and serogroup determination of Neisseria meningitidis in CSF from 85 cases of suspected meningitis was evaluated. Screening assays for both IS1106 and the ctrA gene were used to detect meningococcal DNA, and a further two assays using the siaD gene were performed to determine the serogroup. PCR results were compared with results of bacteriological culture and discrepant results resolved by analysis of clinical data and further laboratory test results. The resolved sensitivity and specificity of the PCR screening assay were 89 and 100%, and those of bacteriological culture were 37 and 100%, respectively. The siaD B/C PCR assay was able to determine a serogroup in 85% of cases positive by the PCR screening assay compared with 50% of cases where a serogroup was determined by traditional methods. PCR is a useful tool for diagnosis of meningococcal meningitis when Gram stain and culture tests are negative, a situation that may arise when antibiotic treatment has commenced prior to lumbar puncture.

  17. Comparison of bacterial culture and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for the detection of F. tularensis subsp. holarctica in wild animals.

    PubMed

    Sting, Reinhard; Runge, Martin; Eisenberg, Tobias; Braune, Silke; Müller, Wolfgang; Otto, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Detection of the zoonotic pathogen Francisella tularensis subsp. holarctica (EF tularensis) in wild animals with culture techniques as well as polymerase chain reaction were compared and discussed on the basis of the investigation of 60 animals. The samples originated from 55 European brown hares (Lepus europaeus), two red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) and one each from a wild rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus), a European beaver (Castor fiber), and a lemur (Lemur catta). When comparing the growth of 28 F. tularensis isolates on the cysteine blood agar and the modified Martin-Lewis-agar used in this study, cultivation was successful for 26 isolates on both media, but for two isolates only on the cysteine blood agar. Out of 43 carcasses 19 tested positive in bacteriological culture and PCR. Two culture positive samples of tonsils originating from foxes could not be confirmed by PCR, although PCR was positive in 22 samples that missed growth of F. tularensis. Comparative studies on cultural detection of E. tularensis were performed on samples of 16 hares from lung, spleen, liver and gut and in one case with a peritoneal swab. In at least one of these localizations cultivation of the pathogen was successful. Detection rate was reduced to 94% (15 of 16 hares) considering only the results of the cultures of the lungs and spleens. For a sensitive and rapid detection of F. tularensis subsp. holarctica, the PCR is a suitable method thereby avoiding hazardous multiplying of the pathogen. However, cultivation of F. tularensis is often a prerequisite for further studies on antibiotic resistance patterns of the pathogen, molecular epidemiological and pathological analyses of tularaemia.

  18. Quantification of mRNA Levels Using Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR).

    PubMed

    Li, Yiyi; Wang, Kai; Chen, Longhua; Zhu, Xiaoxia; Zhou, Jie

    2016-01-01

    Real-time quantitative reverse transcription PCR technique has advanced greatly over the past 20 years. Messenger RNA (mRNA) levels in cells or tissues can be quantified by this approach. It is well known that changes in mRNA expression in disease, and correlation of mRNA expression profiles with clinical parameters, serve as clinically relevant biomarkers. Hence, accurate determination of the mRNA levels is critically important in describing the biological, pathological, and clinical roles of genes in health and disease. This chapter describes a real-time PCR approach to detect and quantify mRNA expression levels, which can be used for both laboratorial and clinical studies in breast cancer research.

  19. Detection of human tumor cells by amplicon fusion site polymerase chain reaction (AFS-PCR)

    PubMed Central

    Weber, Axel; Taube, Sylvia; Starke, Sven; Bergmann, Eckhard; Christiansen, Nina Merete; Christiansen, Holger

    2011-01-01

    Reliable diagnostic strategies for individuals with cancer demand practical methods for highly sensitive and specific detection of tumor cells. Amplification of genomic regions that include putative oncogenes is common in tumor cells of various types. Genomic array platforms offer the opportunity to identify and precisely map amplified genomic regions (ampGRs). The stable existence of these tumor cell–specific genomic aberrations during and after therapy, in theory, make ampGRs optimal targets for cancer diagnostics. In this study, we mapped ampGRs around the proto-oncogene MYCN of human neuroblastomas using a high-resolution tiling array (HR-TA). Based on the HR-TA data, we were able to precisely describe the telomeric and centromeric borders of the ampGRs and deduce virtual fusion sites of the joined ampGRs (amplicon fusion sites [AFSs]). These AFSs served as blueprints for the subsequent design of AFS bridging PCR assays (AFS-PCRs). Strikingly, these assays were absolutely tumor cell specific and capable of detecting 1 tumor cell in 1 × 106 to 8 × 106 control cells. We successfully proved the in vivo practicability of AFS-PCR by detecting and quantifying the specific AFS DNA of human MYCN-amplified neuroblastomas in the patients’ corresponding peripheral blood and bone marrow samples. Thus, we believe AFS-PCR could become a powerful and nevertheless feasible personalized diagnostic tool applicable to a large number of cancer patients, including children with MYCN-amplified neuroblastomas. PMID:21293059

  20. Detection of human tumor cells by amplicon fusion site polymerase chain reaction (AFS-PCR).

    PubMed

    Weber, Axel; Taube, Sylvia; Starke, Sven; Bergmann, Eckhard; Christiansen, Nina Merete; Christiansen, Holger

    2011-02-01

    Reliable diagnostic strategies for individuals with cancer demand practical methods for highly sensitive and specific detection of tumor cells. Amplification of genomic regions that include putative oncogenes is common in tumor cells of various types. Genomic array platforms offer the opportunity to identify and precisely map amplified genomic regions (ampGRs). The stable existence of these tumor cell–specific genomic aberrations during and after therapy, in theory, make ampGRs optimal targets for cancer diagnostics. In this study, we mapped ampGRs around the proto-oncogene MYCN of human neuroblastomas using a high-resolution tiling array (HR-TA). Based on the HR-TA data, we were able to precisely describe the telomeric and centromeric borders of the ampGRs and deduce virtual fusion sites of the joined ampGRs (amplicon fusion sites [AFSs]). These AFSs served as blueprints for the subsequent design of AFS bridging PCR assays (AFS-PCRs). Strikingly, these assays were absolutely tumor cell specific and capable of detecting 1 tumor cell in 1 × 10(6) to 8 × 10(6) control cells. We successfully proved the in vivo practicability of AFS-PCR by detecting and quantifying the specific AFS DNA of human MYCN-amplified neuroblastomas in the patients’ corresponding peripheral blood and bone marrow samples. Thus, we believe AFS-PCR could become a powerful and nevertheless feasible personalized diagnostic tool applicable to a large number of cancer patients, including children with MYCN-amplified neuroblastomas.

  1. Identification of roots of woody species using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis

    PubMed

    Bobowski; Hole; Wolf; Bryant

    1999-03-01

    Within the last two decades, substantial progress has been made in understanding seed-bank dynamics and the contribution of the soil seed bank to a postdisturbance plant community. There has been relatively little progress, however, in understanding perennial bud-bank dynamics and the contribution of the soil bud bank to secondary succession. This lack of information is due primarily to the inability to reliably identify roots, rhizomes and lignotubers that lie dormant beneath the soil surface. This investigation addressed the issue of identification of below-ground woody structures. The first objective was to develop a method that used molecular tools to identify woody plant species from subsoil tissue samples. The second objective was to develop a key in which molecular markers served as criteria for the identification and differentiation of selected tree and shrub species common to the mountains of northeast Oregon and southeast Washington. Application of restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis of polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-amplified rbcL appears to be a reliable method to identify and differentiate 15 plants to the genus level. Two restriction enzymes, DpnII and HhaI, provided restriction site polymorphisms in the PCR product. The fragment number and length were used to develop an identification key. However, plants not analysed in this 'exploratory key' might share the same banding patterns, resulting in a false identification of unknowns. PMID:10199009

  2. Molecular typing among beef isolates of Escherichia coli using consensus repetitive intergenic enterobacteria-polymerase chain reaction (ERIC-PCR)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zoolkifli, Nurliyana Wan; Mutalib, Sahilah Abd

    2013-11-01

    Genomic DNA of Escherichia coli were characterized by enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus-Polymerase chain reaction (ERIC-PCR) and the presence of Shiga toxin gene-I (Stx1) and Shiga toxin gene-2 (Stx2). These isolates were originated from imported raw beef which are come from two countries namely Australia and India. The isolation of E. coli was conducted by using Eosin Methylene Blue Agar (EMBA). A total of 94 strains had been isolated from 30 samples of imported raw beefand 42 strains had been detected positively E. coli by doing biochemical tests. All strains had been tested and the results of biochemical tests showed that 3 strains were from Australia samples while the other 39 strains were from India samples. The biochemical tests used are Indole test, Methyl Red test, Voges-Proskauer test and Citrate test. All the 42 strains were examined for Shiga toxin (stx1 and stx2) gene detection by two pair primers which are stx2F (5'-TTCTTCGGTATCCTATTCCC-3'), stx2R (5'-ATGCATCTCTGGTCATTGTA-3'), stx1F (5'-CAGTTAATGTGGTGGCGAAG-3'), and stx1R (5'-CTGTCACAGTAACAACCGT-3'). The results showed that none of the strains are positive for Shiga toxin gene. Application of ERIC-PCR method towards E. coli had successfully shown the high diversity polymorphism in 21 different genome types of DNA with primers ERIC1R (5'- CACTTAGGGGTCCTCGAATGTA- 3') and ERIC2R (5'- AAGTAAGTGACTGGGGTGACGC- 3').

  3. Polymerase chain reaction

    SciTech Connect

    Arnhelm, N. ); Levenson, C.H. )

    1990-10-01

    This paper discusses the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) an in-vitro method of amplifying DNA sequences. Beginning with DNA of any origin- bacterial, viral, plant, or animal- PCR can increase the amount of a DNA sequence hundreds of millions to billions of times. The procedure can amplify a targeted sequence even when it makes up less than one part in a million of the total initial sample. PCR is an enzymatic process that is carried out in discrete cycles of amplification, each of which can double the amount of target DNA in the sample. Thus, n cycles can produce 2{sup n} times as much target as was present to begin with. This paper discusses how PCR has had an impact on molecular biology, human genetics, infectious and genetic disease diagnosis, forensic science, and evolutionary biology.

  4. Differentiating Entamoeba histolytica, Entamoeba dispar and Entamoeba moshkovskii using nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in rural communities in Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background In this study, a total of 426 human faecal samples were examined for the presence of Entamoeba histolytica, Entamoeba dispar, Entamoeba moshkovskii infection via a combination of microscopic examination and nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) targeting 16S ribosomal RNA of Entamoeba species. Methods Faecal sample were collected from 426 participants in five rural villages in Peninsular Malaysia. The faecal samples were processed by direct wet smear and formalin ethyl acetate concentration technique followed by iodine staining and examined via microscopy for the presence of Entamoeba species and other intestinal parasites. Microscopically positive samples for Entamoeba species cysts were further characterized using a Nested Polymerase Chain Reaction (Nested-PCR) targeting 16S-like ribosomal RNA gene. The data entry and analysis was carried out using the SPSS software (Statistical Package for the Social Sciences) program for Windows version 17 (SPSS, Chicago, IL, USA). Results Based on single faecal examination, overall prevalence of Entamoeba infection was 17.6% (75/426). Females (19.1%) were more commonly infected compared to males (15.9%). Comparison by age groups showed that adults (23.9%) had higher infection rates than children (15.3%). The PCR results showed that 52 out of 75 microscopy positive samples successfully generated species-specific amplicons. The infection with E. histolytica (75.0%; 39/52) was the most common, followed by E. dispar (30.8%; 18/52) and E. moshkovskii (5.8%; 3/52). Of these, 33 (63.5%) were shown to contain only E. histolytica, 10 (19.2%) contained E. dispar and 3 (5.8%) contained only E. moshkovskii. Mixed infection with E. histolytica and E. dispar was found in 6 (11.5%) samples. Conclusions The present study essentially emphasized the benefit of molecular techniques in discriminating the pathogenic Entamoeba species from the non-pathogenic for accurate diagnosis and better management of amoebiasis. The presence of E

  5. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays for a bacterial thiaminase I gene and the thiaminase-producing bacterium Paenibacillus thiaminolyticus.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Richter, C.A.; Wright-Osment, Maureen K.; Zajicek, J.L.; Honeyfield, D.C.; Tillitt, D.E.

    2009-01-01

    The thiaminase I enzyme produced by the gram-positive bacterium Paenibacillus thiaminolyticus isolated from the viscera of Lake Michigan alewives Alosa pseudoharengus is currently the only defined source of the thiaminase activity linked to thiamine (vitamin B1) deficiency in early mortality syndrome (EMS) in the larvae of Great Lakes salmonines. Diets of alewife or isolated strains of P. thiaminolyticus mixed in a semipurified diet and fed to lake trout Salvelinus namaycush have been shown to produce EMS in fry. We utilized quantitative polymerase chain reaction (Q-PCR) to aid in studies of the sources of P. thiaminolyticus and thiaminase I. Quantitative PCR assays were established to detect the thiaminase I gene of P. thiaminolyticus, the 16S rRNA gene from most species of bacteria, and the 16S rRNA gene specifically from P. thiaminolyticus and a few closely related taxa. The Q-PCR assays are linear over at least six orders of magnitude and can detect the thiaminase I gene of P. thiaminolyticus from as few as 1,000 P. thiaminolyticus cells/g of sample or the Paenibacillus 16S rRNA gene from as few as 100 P. thiaminolyticus cells/g of sample. The initial results from alewife viscera samples with high thiaminase activity yielded unexpectedly low densities of P. thiaminolyticus cells; Paenibacillus thiaminolyticus was detectable in 2 of 6 alewife viscera tested at densities on the order of 100 cells/g out of 100,000,000 total bacterial cells/g. The low numbers of P. thiaminolyticus detected suggest that alewives contain additional non-P. thiaminolyticus sources of thiaminase activity.

  6. DATA COLLECTION CONSTRAINTS FOR THE USE OF LENGTH HETEROGENEITY POLYMERASE CHAIN REACTION (LH-PCR) AS AN INDICATOR OF STREAM SANITARY AND ECOLOGICAL CONDITION

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study is part of a larger project for the development of bacterial indicators of stream sanitary and ecological condition. Here we report preliminary research on the use of Length Heterogeneity Polymerase Chain Reaction (LH-PCR), which discriminates among 16S rRNA genes bas...

  7. Comparison of Enterococcus quantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis results from midwest U.S. river samples using EPA Method 1611 and Method 1609 PCR reagents

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has provided recommended beach advisory values in its 2012 recreational water quality criteria (RWQC) for states wishing to use quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) for the monitoring of Enterococcus fecal indicator bacteria...

  8. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) identification of rodent blood meals confirms host sharing by flea vectors of plague.

    PubMed

    Franklin, Heather A; Stapp, Paul; Cohen, Amybeth

    2010-12-01

    Elucidating feeding relationships between hosts and parasites remains a significant challenge in studies of the ecology of infectious diseases, especially those involving small or cryptic vectors. Black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus) are a species of conservation importance in the North American Great Plains whose populations are extirpated by plague, a flea-vectored, bacterial disease. Using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays, we determined that fleas (Oropsylla hirsuta) associated with prairie dogs feed upon northern grasshopper mice (Onychomys leucogaster), a rodent that has been implicated in the transmission and maintenance of plague in prairie-dog colonies. Our results definitively show that grasshopper mice not only share fleas with prairie dogs during plague epizootics, but also provide them with blood meals, offering a mechanism by which the pathogen, Yersinia pestis, may be transmitted between host species and maintained between epizootics. The lack of identifiable host DNA in a significant fraction of engorged Oropsylla hirsuta collected from animals (47%) and prairie-dog burrows (100%) suggests a rapid rate of digestion and feeding that may facilitate disease transmission during epizootics but also complicate efforts to detect feeding on alternative hosts. Combined with other analytical approaches, e.g., stable isotope analysis, molecular genetic techniques can provide novel insights into host-parasite feeding relationships and improve our understanding of the role of alternative hosts in the transmission and maintenance of disease. PMID:21175944

  9. Loop mediated isothermal amplification assay using hydroxy naphthol blue, conventional polymerase chain reaction and real-time PCR in the diagnosis of intraocular tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Balne, P K; Basu, S; Rath, S; Barik, M R; Sharma, S

    2015-01-01

    This study is a comparative evaluation (Chi-square test) of a closed tube loop mediated isothermal amplification assay using hydroxy naphthol blue dye (HNB-LAMP), real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and conventional PCR in the diagnosis of intraocular tuberculosis. Considering clinical presentation as the gold standard in 33 patients, the sensitivity of HNB-LAMP assay (75.8%) was higher (not significant, P value 0.2) than conventional PCR (57.6%) and lower than real-time PCR (90.9%). Specificity was 100% by all three methods. No amplification was observed in negative controls (n = 20) by all three methods. The cost of the HNB-LAMP assay was Rs. 500.00 and it does not require thermocycler, therefore, it can be used as an alternative to conventional PCR in resource-poor settings.

  10. Heminested reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (hnRT-PCR) as a tool for rabies virus detection in stored and decomposed samples

    PubMed Central

    Araújo, Danielle B; Langoni, Helio; Almeida, Marilene F; Megid, Jane

    2008-01-01

    Background The use of methods, both sensitive and specific, for rabies diagnosis are important tools for the control and prophylaxis of the disease. Reverse-Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR) has been used in rabies diagnosis with good results, even in decomposed materials. Additionally, molecular techniques have been used for epidemiological studies and to gain a better knowledge of viral epidemiology. Findings The aim of this work was to evaluate the RT-PCR and hnRT-PCR for rabies virus detection in original tissues stored at -20°C for different periods considering their use for rabies virus detection in stored and decomposed samples. RT-PCR and hnRT-PCR were evaluated in 151 brain samples from different animal species, thawed and left at room temperature for 72 hours for decomposition. The RT-PCR and hnRT-PCR results were compared with previous results from Direct Fluorescent Antibody Test and Mouse Inoculation Test. From the 50 positive fresh samples, 26 (52%) were positive for RT-PCR and 45 (90%) for hnRT-PCR. From the 48 positive decomposed samples, 17 (34, 3%) were positive for RT-PCR and 36 (75%) for hnRT-PCR. No false-positives results were found in the negatives samples evaluated to the molecular techniques. Conclusion These results show that the hnRT-PCR was more sensitive than RT-PCR, and both techniques presented lower sensibility in decomposed samples. The hnRT-PCR demonstrated efficacy in rabies virus detection in stored and decomposed materials suggesting it's application for rabies virus retrospective epidemiological studies. PMID:18710536

  11. Polymerase Chain Reaction for Educational Settings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garrison, Stephen J.; dePamphillis, Claude

    1994-01-01

    Suggests the incorporation of the Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) technique into high school and college biology laboratories. Discusses the following sections: (1) current PCR applications; (2) PCR technique; (3) Manual and Machine PCR; (4) Manual PCR Preparations and Procedure; (5) Materials, Supplies, and Recipes; (6) Primer Selection; and (7)…

  12. A Rapid and Sensitive Detection of Aflatoxin-producing Fungus Using an Optimized Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR)

    PubMed Central

    Bintvihok, Anong; Treebonmuang, Supitchaya; Srisakwattana, Kitiya; Nuanchun, Wisut; Patthanachai, Koranis; Usawang, Sungworn

    2016-01-01

    Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) is produced by Aspergillus flavus growing in feedstuffs. Early detection of maize contamination by aflatoxigenic fungi is advantageous since aflatoxins exert adverse health effects. In this study, we report the development of an optimized conventional PCR for AFB1 detection and a rapid, sensitive and simple screening Real-time PCR (qPCR) with SYBR Green and two pairs of primers targeting the aflR genes which involved aflatoxin biosynthesis. AFB1 contaminated maize samples were divided into three groups by the toxin concentration. Genomic DNA was extracted from those samples. The target genes for A. flavus were tested by conventional PCR and the PCR products were analyzed by electrophoresis. A conventional PCR was carried out as nested PCR to verify the gene amplicon sizes. PCR-RFLP patterns, obtained with Hinc II and Pvu II enzyme analysis showed the differences to distinguish aflatoxin-producing fungi. However, they are not quantitative and need a separation of the products on gel and their visualization under UV light. On the other hand, qPCR facilitates the monitoring of the reaction as it progresses. It does not require post-PCR handling, which reduces the risk of cross-contamination and handling errors. It results in a much faster throughout. We found that the optimal primer annealing temperature was 65°C. The optimized template and primer concentration were 1.5 μL (50 ng/μL) and 3 μL (10 μM/μL) respectively. SYBR Green qPCR of four genes demonstrated amplification curves and melting peaks for tub1, afIM, afIR, and afID genes are at 88.0°C, 87.5°C, 83.5°C, and 89.5°C respectively. Consequently, it was found that the four primers had elevated annealing temperatures, nevertheless it is desirable since it enhances the DNA binding specificity of the dye. New qPCR protocol could be employed for the determination of aflatoxin content in feedstuff samples. PMID:26977262

  13. A Rapid and Sensitive Detection of Aflatoxin-producing Fungus Using an Optimized Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR).

    PubMed

    Bintvihok, Anong; Treebonmuang, Supitchaya; Srisakwattana, Kitiya; Nuanchun, Wisut; Patthanachai, Koranis; Usawang, Sungworn

    2016-01-01

    Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) is produced by Aspergillus flavus growing in feedstuffs. Early detection of maize contamination by aflatoxigenic fungi is advantageous since aflatoxins exert adverse health effects. In this study, we report the development of an optimized conventional PCR for AFB1 detection and a rapid, sensitive and simple screening Real-time PCR (qPCR) with SYBR Green and two pairs of primers targeting the aflR genes which involved aflatoxin biosynthesis. AFB1 contaminated maize samples were divided into three groups by the toxin concentration. Genomic DNA was extracted from those samples. The target genes for A. flavus were tested by conventional PCR and the PCR products were analyzed by electrophoresis. A conventional PCR was carried out as nested PCR to verify the gene amplicon sizes. PCR-RFLP patterns, obtained with Hinc II and Pvu II enzyme analysis showed the differences to distinguish aflatoxin-producing fungi. However, they are not quantitative and need a separation of the products on gel and their visualization under UV light. On the other hand, qPCR facilitates the monitoring of the reaction as it progresses. It does not require post-PCR handling, which reduces the risk of cross-contamination and handling errors. It results in a much faster throughout. We found that the optimal primer annealing temperature was 65°C. The optimized template and primer concentration were 1.5 μL (50 ng/μL) and 3 μL (10 μM/μL) respectively. SYBR Green qPCR of four genes demonstrated amplification curves and melting peaks for tub1, afIM, afIR, and afID genes are at 88.0°C, 87.5°C, 83.5°C, and 89.5°C respectively. Consequently, it was found that the four primers had elevated annealing temperatures, nevertheless it is desirable since it enhances the DNA binding specificity of the dye. New qPCR protocol could be employed for the determination of aflatoxin content in feedstuff samples.

  14. Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR)-based methods for detection and identification of mycotoxigenic Penicillium species using conserved genes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Polymerase chain reaction amplification of conserved genes and sequence analysis provides a very powerful tool for the identification of toxigenic as well as non-toxigenic Penicillium species. Sequences are obtained by amplification of the gene fragment, sequencing via capillary electrophoresis of d...

  15. Apparent Polyploidization after Gamma Irradiation: Pitfalls in the Use of Quantitative Polymerase Chain Reaction (qPCR) for the Estimation of Mitochondrial and Nuclear DNA Gene Copy Numbers

    PubMed Central

    Kam, Winnie W. Y.; Lake, Vanessa; Banos, Connie; Davies, Justin; Banati, Richard

    2013-01-01

    Quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) has been widely used to quantify changes in gene copy numbers after radiation exposure. Here, we show that gamma irradiation ranging from 10 to 100 Gy of cells and cell-free DNA samples significantly affects the measured qPCR yield, due to radiation-induced fragmentation of the DNA template and, therefore, introduces errors into the estimation of gene copy numbers. The radiation-induced DNA fragmentation and, thus, measured qPCR yield varies with temperature not only in living cells, but also in isolated DNA irradiated under cell-free conditions. In summary, the variability in measured qPCR yield from irradiated samples introduces a significant error into the estimation of both mitochondrial and nuclear gene copy numbers and may give spurious evidence for polyploidization. PMID:23722662

  16. Giardia and Cryptosporidium spp. dissemination during wastewater treatment and comparative detection via immunofluorescence assay (IFA), nested polymerase chain reaction (nested PCR) and loop mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP).

    PubMed

    Gallas-Lindemann, Carmen; Sotiriadou, Isaia; Plutzer, Judit; Noack, Michael J; Mahmoudi, Mohammad Reza; Karanis, Panagiotis

    2016-06-01

    Environmental water samples from the Lower Rhine area in Germany were investigated via immunofluorescence assays (IFAs), nested polymerase chain reaction (nested PCR) and loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) to detect the presence of Giardia spp. (n=185) and Cryptosporidium spp. (n=227). The samples were concentrated through filtration or flocculation, and oocysts were purified via centrifugation through a sucrose density gradient. For all samples, IFA was performed first, followed by DNA extraction for the nested PCR and LAMP assays. Giardia cysts were detected in 105 samples (56.8%) by IFA, 62 samples (33.5%) by nested PCR and 79 samples (42.7%) by LAMP. Cryptosporidium spp. were detected in 69 samples (30.4%) by IFA, 95 samples (41.9%) by nested PCR and 99 samples (43.6%) by LAMP. According to these results, the three detection methods are complementary for monitoring Giardia and Cryptosporidium in environmental waters.

  17. Nested reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) for typing ruminant pestiviruses: bovine viral diarrhea viruses and border disease virus.

    PubMed Central

    Fulton, R W; d'Offay, J M; Saliki, J T; Burge, L J; Helman, R G; Confer, A W; Bolin, S R; Ridpath, J F

    1999-01-01

    A nested reverse transcription (RT) polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay was evaluated for differentiating reference bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) strains, BVDV from diagnostic accessions, modified-live virus (MLV) BVDV strains in bovine viral vaccines, and a reference border disease virus (BDV). The detection level of this assay was compared to viral infection in cell culture. The PCR assay was used to distinguish 3 ruminant pestiviruses, types 1 and 2 BVDV, and type 3 BDV. The consensus (first) PCR assay detected all 3 ruminant pestiviruses, a result of the shared sequence homology. The consensus PCR product was subjected to a second (nested) PCR which used type-specific primers. The nested PCR was able to differentiate the 3 ruminant pestiviruses. Viral stocks of BVDV were diluted 10-fold and processed for the 2-step PCR assay. The sensitivity of this 2-step PCR assay was compared to viral infectivity in cell culture based on identical volumes of the system tested (cell culture assay and processing for RNA). The RT-PCR type-specific assay differentiated BVDV laboratory reference strains (12), diagnostic laboratory isolates (15), 2 MLV BVDV vaccine strains, and a BDV strain. The 30 ruminant pestiviruses typed included: (1) 27 reference strains and diagnostic laboratory isolates; 18 cytopathic (CP) type 1 strains, 3 CP type 2 strains, 3 noncytopathic (NCP) type 1 strains, and 3 NCP type 2 strains; (2) 2 MLV strains, type 1; and (3) 1 CP BDV type 3. The PCR assay had a detection limit of 10 TCID50/0.025 mL of virus when 3 separate BVDV were tested. This 2 step RT-PCR assay would be useful for the typing of ruminant pestiviruses, particularly BVDV isolates from the diagnostic laboratory. Images Figure 1. Figure 2. Figure 3. PMID:10534007

  18. Use of duplex polymerase chain reaction (duplex-PCR) technique to identify bovine and water buffalo milk used in making mozzarella cheese.

    PubMed

    Rea, S; Chikuni, K; Branciari, R; Sangamayya, R S; Ranucci, D; Avellini, P

    2001-11-01

    Molecular biology techniques have been used for species identification in food of animal origin in relatively recent years. A polymerase chain reaction (PCR) based method, the multiplex PCR, was recently applied to species identification in meat and meat products. It allows co-amplification of separate regions of a single gene or specific fragments, each typical of a different animal species in a single PCR reaction, using different pairs of primers in the same reaction mix. In the present paper, the duplex-PCR technique is proposed to identify bovine and water buffalo DNA in a single PCR assay in milk and mozzarella cheese (a typical Italian cheese, originally made from pure water buffalo milk). Because of its lower cost, undeclared bovine milk is added to water buffalo milk for making different kinds of mozzarella cheese. The results of this experiment indicate the applicability of this method, which showed an absolute specificity for the two species and a high sensitivity even down to low DNA concentrations (1 pg). In bovine and water buffalo mixtures of both milk and mozzarella cheese, the minimum concentration tested was 1% of bovine in water buffalo milk and water buffalo in bovine milk. The importance of the somatic cell content in raw milk is also discussed with special reference to the evaluation of mixtures (milk or cheese) of the two species.

  19. Antibiotic resistance and molecular typing among cockle (Anadara granosa) strains of Vibrio parahaemolyticus by polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based analysis.

    PubMed

    Sahilah, A M; Laila, R A S; Sallehuddin, H Mohd; Osman, H; Aminah, A; Ahmad Azuhairi, A

    2014-02-01

    Genomic DNA of Vibrio parahaemolyticus were characterized by antibiotic resistance, enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus-polymerase chain reaction (ERIC-PCR) and random amplified polymorphic DNA-polymerase chain reaction (RAPD-PCR) analysis. These isolates originated from 3 distantly locations of Selangor, Negeri Sembilan and Melaka (East coastal areas), Malaysia. A total of 44 (n = 44) of tentatively V. parahaemolyticus were also examined for the presence of toxR, tdh and trh gene. Of 44 isolates, 37 were positive towards toxR gene; while, none were positive to tdh and trh gene. Antibiotic resistance analysis showed the V. parahaemolyticus isolates were highly resistant to bacitracin (92%, 34/37) and penicillin (89%, 33/37) followed by resistance towards ampicillin (68%, 25/37), cefuroxime (38%, 14/37), amikacin (6%, 2/37) and ceftazidime (14%, 5/37). None of the V. parahaemolyticus isolates were resistant towards chloramphenicol, ciprofloxacin, ceftriaxone, enrofloxacin, norfloxacin, streptomycin and vancomycin. Antibiogram patterns exhibited, 9 patterns and phenotypically less heterogenous when compared to PCR-based techniques using ERIC- and RAPD-PCR. The results of the ERIC- and RAPD-PCR were analyzed using GelCompare software. ERIC-PCR with primers ERIC1R and ERIC2 discriminated the V. parahaemolyticus isolates into 6 clusters and 21 single isolates at a similarity level of 80%. While, RAPD-PCR with primer Gen8 discriminated the V. parahaemolyticus isolates into 11 clusters and 10 single isolates and Gen9 into 8 clusters and 16 single isolates at the same similarity level examined. Results in the presence study demonstrated combination of phenotypically and genotypically methods show a wide heterogeneity among cockle isolates of V. parahaemolyticus.

  20. Antibiotic resistance and molecular typing among cockle (Anadara granosa) strains of Vibrio parahaemolyticus by polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based analysis.

    PubMed

    Sahilah, A M; Laila, R A S; Sallehuddin, H Mohd; Osman, H; Aminah, A; Ahmad Azuhairi, A

    2014-02-01

    Genomic DNA of Vibrio parahaemolyticus were characterized by antibiotic resistance, enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus-polymerase chain reaction (ERIC-PCR) and random amplified polymorphic DNA-polymerase chain reaction (RAPD-PCR) analysis. These isolates originated from 3 distantly locations of Selangor, Negeri Sembilan and Melaka (East coastal areas), Malaysia. A total of 44 (n = 44) of tentatively V. parahaemolyticus were also examined for the presence of toxR, tdh and trh gene. Of 44 isolates, 37 were positive towards toxR gene; while, none were positive to tdh and trh gene. Antibiotic resistance analysis showed the V. parahaemolyticus isolates were highly resistant to bacitracin (92%, 34/37) and penicillin (89%, 33/37) followed by resistance towards ampicillin (68%, 25/37), cefuroxime (38%, 14/37), amikacin (6%, 2/37) and ceftazidime (14%, 5/37). None of the V. parahaemolyticus isolates were resistant towards chloramphenicol, ciprofloxacin, ceftriaxone, enrofloxacin, norfloxacin, streptomycin and vancomycin. Antibiogram patterns exhibited, 9 patterns and phenotypically less heterogenous when compared to PCR-based techniques using ERIC- and RAPD-PCR. The results of the ERIC- and RAPD-PCR were analyzed using GelCompare software. ERIC-PCR with primers ERIC1R and ERIC2 discriminated the V. parahaemolyticus isolates into 6 clusters and 21 single isolates at a similarity level of 80%. While, RAPD-PCR with primer Gen8 discriminated the V. parahaemolyticus isolates into 11 clusters and 10 single isolates and Gen9 into 8 clusters and 16 single isolates at the same similarity level examined. Results in the presence study demonstrated combination of phenotypically and genotypically methods show a wide heterogeneity among cockle isolates of V. parahaemolyticus. PMID:24068534

  1. A temperature control method for shortening thermal cycling time to achieve rapid polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in a disposable polymer microfluidic device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bu, Minqiang; Perch-Nielsen, Ivan R.; Sørensen, Karen S.; Skov, Julia; Sun, Yi; Duong Bang, Dang; Pedersen, Michael E.; Hansen, Mikkel F.; Wolff, Anders

    2013-07-01

    We present a temperature control method capable of effectively shortening the thermal cycling time of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in a disposable polymer microfluidic device with an external heater and a temperature sensor. The method employs optimized temperature overshooting and undershooting steps to achieve a rapid ramping between the temperature steps for DNA denaturation, annealing and extension. The temperature dynamics within the microfluidic PCR chamber was characterized and the overshooting and undershooting parameters were optimized using the temperature-dependent fluorescence signal from Rhodamine B. The method was validated with the PCR amplification of mecA gene (162 bp) from methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus bacterium (MRSA), where the time for 30 cycles was reduced from 50 min (without over- and undershooting) to 20 min.

  2. Thermally multiplexed polymerase chain reaction.

    PubMed

    Phaneuf, Christopher R; Pak, Nikita; Saunders, D Curtis; Holst, Gregory L; Birjiniuk, Joav; Nagpal, Nikita; Culpepper, Stephen; Popler, Emily; Shane, Andi L; Jerris, Robert; Forest, Craig R

    2015-07-01

    Amplification of multiple unique genetic targets using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is commonly required in molecular biology laboratories. Such reactions are typically performed either serially or by multiplex PCR. Serial reactions are time consuming, and multiplex PCR, while powerful and widely used, can be prone to amplification bias, PCR drift, and primer-primer interactions. We present a new thermocycling method, termed thermal multiplexing, in which a single heat source is uniformly distributed and selectively modulated for independent temperature control of an array of PCR reactions. Thermal multiplexing allows amplification of multiple targets simultaneously-each reaction segregated and performed at optimal conditions. We demonstrate the method using a microfluidic system consisting of an infrared laser thermocycler, a polymer microchip featuring 1 μl, oil-encapsulated reactions, and closed-loop pulse-width modulation control. Heat transfer modeling is used to characterize thermal performance limitations of the system. We validate the model and perform two reactions simultaneously with widely varying annealing temperatures (48 °C and 68 °C), demonstrating excellent amplification. In addition, to demonstrate microfluidic infrared PCR using clinical specimens, we successfully amplified and detected both influenza A and B from human nasopharyngeal swabs. Thermal multiplexing is scalable and applicable to challenges such as pathogen detection where patients presenting non-specific symptoms need to be efficiently screened across a viral or bacterial panel. PMID:26339317

  3. Thermally multiplexed polymerase chain reaction

    PubMed Central

    Phaneuf, Christopher R.; Pak, Nikita; Saunders, D. Curtis; Holst, Gregory L.; Birjiniuk, Joav; Nagpal, Nikita; Culpepper, Stephen; Popler, Emily; Shane, Andi L.; Jerris, Robert; Forest, Craig R.

    2015-01-01

    Amplification of multiple unique genetic targets using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is commonly required in molecular biology laboratories. Such reactions are typically performed either serially or by multiplex PCR. Serial reactions are time consuming, and multiplex PCR, while powerful and widely used, can be prone to amplification bias, PCR drift, and primer-primer interactions. We present a new thermocycling method, termed thermal multiplexing, in which a single heat source is uniformly distributed and selectively modulated for independent temperature control of an array of PCR reactions. Thermal multiplexing allows amplification of multiple targets simultaneously—each reaction segregated and performed at optimal conditions. We demonstrate the method using a microfluidic system consisting of an infrared laser thermocycler, a polymer microchip featuring 1 μl, oil-encapsulated reactions, and closed-loop pulse-width modulation control. Heat transfer modeling is used to characterize thermal performance limitations of the system. We validate the model and perform two reactions simultaneously with widely varying annealing temperatures (48 °C and 68 °C), demonstrating excellent amplification. In addition, to demonstrate microfluidic infrared PCR using clinical specimens, we successfully amplified and detected both influenza A and B from human nasopharyngeal swabs. Thermal multiplexing is scalable and applicable to challenges such as pathogen detection where patients presenting non-specific symptoms need to be efficiently screened across a viral or bacterial panel. PMID:26339317

  4. The importance of fixation procedures on DNA template and its suitability for solution-phase polymerase chain reaction and PCR in situ hybridization.

    PubMed

    O'Leary, J J; Browne, G; Landers, R J; Crowley, M; Healy, I B; Street, J T; Pollock, A M; Murphy, J; Johnson, M I; Lewis, F A

    1994-04-01

    Conventional solution-phase polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and in situ PCR/PCR in situ hybridization are powerful tools for retrospective analysis of fixed paraffin wax-embedded material. Amplification failure using these techniques is now encountered in some centres using archival fixed tissues. Such 'failures' may not only be due to absent target DNA sequences in the tissues, but may be a direct effect of the type of fixative, fixation time and/or fixation temperature used. The type of nucleic acid extraction procedure applied will also influence amplification results. This is particularly true with in situ PCR/PCR in situ hybridization. To examine these effects in solution-phase PCR, beta-globin gene was amplified in 100 mg pieces of tonsillar tissue fixed in Formal saline, 10% formalin, neutral buffered formaldehyde, Carnoy's Bouin's, buffered formaldehyde sublimate, Zenker's, Helly's and glutaraldehyde at 0 to 4 degrees C, room temperature and 37 degrees C fixation temperatures and for fixation periods of 6, 24, 48 and 72 hours and 1 week. DNA extraction procedures used were simple boiling and 5 days' proteinase K digestion at 37 degrees C. Amplified product was visible primarily yet variably from tissue fixed in neutral buffered formaldehyde and Carnoy's, whereas fixation in mercuric chloride-based fixatives produced consistently negative results. Room temperature and 37 degrees C fixation temperature appeared most conducive to yielding amplifiable DNA template. Fixation times of 24 and 48 hours in neutral buffered formaldehyde and Carnoy's again favoured amplification.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  5. Systematic use of universal 16S rRNA gene polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and sequencing for processing pleural effusions improves conventional culture techniques.

    PubMed

    Insa, Rosario; Marín, Mercedes; Martín, Adoración; Martín-Rabadán, Pablo; Alcalá, Luís; Cercenado, Emilia; Calatayud, Laura; Liñares, Josefina; Bouza, Emilio

    2012-03-01

    Conventional culture of pleural fluid samples frequently provides false-negative results. Universal polymerase chain reaction (PCR) of the 16S ribosomal ribonucleic acid (rRNA) gene (16S PCR) has proven useful in the diagnosis of various bacterial infections. We conducted a prospective study to assess the value of 16S PCR in the etiologic diagnosis of pleural effusion. All pleural fluid samples received for culture were also studied using 16S PCR. Positive samples were sequenced for identification. Clinical records and conventional culture results were analyzed to classify pleural fluid samples as infected or not infected. We studied 723 samples. We excluded 188 samples because they were obtained from a long-term chest tube, there was a diagnosis of mycobacterial infection, or there were insufficient data to classify the episode. Finally, 535 pleural fluid samples were analyzed. According to our criteria, 82 (15.3%) were infected and 453 (84.7%) were not infected. In the infected samples, 16S PCR was positive in 67 samples (81.7%) while conventional culture was positive in 45 (54.9%). There were 4 false positives with 16S PCR (0.9%) and 12 with culture (2.6%). The values for the etiologic diagnosis of bacterial pleural effusion of conventional culture compared with 16S PCR were as follows: sensitivity, 54.9%/81.7%; specificity, 97.4%/99.1%; positive predictive value, 76.3%/94.4%; negative predictive value, 92.6%/96.8%; and accuracy, 90.8%/96.5%.When compared with conventional culture, 16S PCR plus sequencing substantially improves the etiologic diagnosis of infectious pleural effusion. In our opinion, this technique should be added to the routine diagnostic armamentarium of clinical microbiology laboratories.

  6. Determination of gene dosage by a quantitative adaptation of the polymerase chain reaction (gd-PCR): Rapid detection of deletions and duplications of gene sequences

    SciTech Connect

    Celi, F.S.; Roth, J.; Schuldiner, A.R. Johns Hopkins Univ. School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD ); Cohen, M.M. ); Antonarakis, S.E. ); Wertheimer, E. )

    1994-05-15

    Screening methods based on the polymerase chain reaction (PCR), such as denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis, single-stranded conformational polymorphism, and heteroduplex analysis, are powerful tools for the detection of point mutations as well as small deletions and insertions, but are unable to detect heterozygous deletions or duplications of exons, genes, or chromosomes. The authors now report a PCR-based approach, designated gene dosage-PCR (gd-PCR), that allows rapid screening for heterozygous deletions and duplications of genes or exons. Gene dosage-PCR is a quantitative method in which two in vitro-synthesized DNA internal standards are coamplified with the genomic DNA sample, one corresponding to the gene of interest (test sequence) and the other to a reference (disomic) gene (reference sequence). Both internal standards are designed to be amplified with the same primer pairs and with efficiencies similar to those of their genomic DNA counterparts, yielding PCR products slightly smaller than those derived from genomic DNA. Amplification of approximately equimolar amounts of the two internal standards and genomic DNA, in the presence of [[sup 32]P]dCTP, results in four radiolabeled PCR products; after electrophoresis and quantification of the products, gene dosage is easily calculated. For validation, genomic DNA from 56 subjects, 28 with cytogenetically documented Down syndrome (trisomy 21) and 28 controls that were disomic for chromosome 21, was assayed. Using the [beta]-amyloid precursor protein gene (APP: Chromosome 21q21) as the test sequence, control subjects had an adjusted mean gene dose of 2.00 [+-] 0.29, while subjects with Down syndrome had a mean gene dose of 3.05 [+-] 0.27. There was a clear separation of all of the samples between the two groups. The authors also successfully used gd-PCR to detect allelic deletions by screening pertinent regions of the insulin receptor gene. 48 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  7. Development of a TaqMan Probe-Based Insulated Isothermal Polymerase Chain Reaction (iiPCR) Assay for Detection of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense Race 4.

    PubMed

    Lin, Ying-Hong; Lin, Yi-Jia; Chang, Tsai-De; Hong, Li-Ling; Chen, Tzu-Yu; Chang, Pi-Fang Linda

    2016-01-01

    This study developed a novel and inexpensive detection method based on a TaqMan probe-based insulated isothermal polymerase chain reaction (iiPCR) method for the rapid detection of Panama disease caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense (Foc) race 4, which is currently among the most serious fungal vascular diseases worldwide. By using the portable POCKIT™ device with the novel primer set iiFoc-1/iiFoc-2, the Foc race 4 iiPCR assay (including DNA amplification and signal monitoring) could be completed within one hour. The developed Foc race 4 iiPCR assay is thus a user-friendly and efficient platform designed specifically for the detection of Foc race 4. The detection limit of this optimized Foc iiPCR system was estimated to be 1 copy of the target standard DNA as well as 1 fg of the Foc genomic DNA. This approach can serve as a rapid detection method for in planta detection of Foc race 4 in field-infected banana. It was concluded that this molecular detection procedure based on iiPCR has good potential for use as an efficient detection method. PMID:27448242

  8. Development of a TaqMan Probe-Based Insulated Isothermal Polymerase Chain Reaction (iiPCR) Assay for Detection of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense Race 4

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Yi-Jia; Chang, Tsai-De; Hong, Li-Ling; Chen, Tzu-Yu; Chang, Pi-Fang Linda

    2016-01-01

    This study developed a novel and inexpensive detection method based on a TaqMan probe-based insulated isothermal polymerase chain reaction (iiPCR) method for the rapid detection of Panama disease caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense (Foc) race 4, which is currently among the most serious fungal vascular diseases worldwide. By using the portable POCKIT™ device with the novel primer set iiFoc-1/iiFoc-2, the Foc race 4 iiPCR assay (including DNA amplification and signal monitoring) could be completed within one hour. The developed Foc race 4 iiPCR assay is thus a user-friendly and efficient platform designed specifically for the detection of Foc race 4. The detection limit of this optimized Foc iiPCR system was estimated to be 1 copy of the target standard DNA as well as 1 fg of the Foc genomic DNA. This approach can serve as a rapid detection method for in planta detection of Foc race 4 in field-infected banana. It was concluded that this molecular detection procedure based on iiPCR has good potential for use as an efficient detection method. PMID:27448242

  9. The first identification of a blood-sucking abomasal nematode Ashworthius sidemi in cattle (Bos taurus) using simple polymerase chain reaction (PCR).

    PubMed

    Moskwa, Bożena; Bień, Justyna; Cybulska, Aleksandra; Kornacka, Aleksandra; Krzysiak, Michał; Cencek, Tomasz; Cabaj, Władysław

    2015-06-30

    A simple polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test was used to identify Ashworthius sidemi, a blood-sucking gastrointestinal nematode that commonly infects bison, red and roe deer, and moose in Poland. The present study uses this technique to confirm the possibility of transmission of A. sidemi infection from wildlife to domestic animals, such as cattle and sheep, grazing on the same natural pastures. A 406 bp fragment of genomic A. sidemi DNA was actually detected in DNA isolated from larval cultures derived from feces from cattle. A. sidemi DNA has been detected in cattle which represent a new host for this parasite. This is the first evidence of A. sidemi in cattle. The results reveal that a PCR test based on DNA from L3 larvae can be used for in vivo detection of A. sidemi invasions in breeding animals. In conclusion, the transfer of A. sidemi infection from wildlife to the farm animals sharing the same pastures appears possible.

  10. The first identification of a blood-sucking abomasal nematode Ashworthius sidemi in cattle (Bos taurus) using simple polymerase chain reaction (PCR).

    PubMed

    Moskwa, Bożena; Bień, Justyna; Cybulska, Aleksandra; Kornacka, Aleksandra; Krzysiak, Michał; Cencek, Tomasz; Cabaj, Władysław

    2015-06-30

    A simple polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test was used to identify Ashworthius sidemi, a blood-sucking gastrointestinal nematode that commonly infects bison, red and roe deer, and moose in Poland. The present study uses this technique to confirm the possibility of transmission of A. sidemi infection from wildlife to domestic animals, such as cattle and sheep, grazing on the same natural pastures. A 406 bp fragment of genomic A. sidemi DNA was actually detected in DNA isolated from larval cultures derived from feces from cattle. A. sidemi DNA has been detected in cattle which represent a new host for this parasite. This is the first evidence of A. sidemi in cattle. The results reveal that a PCR test based on DNA from L3 larvae can be used for in vivo detection of A. sidemi invasions in breeding animals. In conclusion, the transfer of A. sidemi infection from wildlife to the farm animals sharing the same pastures appears possible. PMID:25981105

  11. Examination of meat components in commercial dog and cat feed by using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphisms (PCR-RFLPs) technique.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hsien-Chi; Lee, Shu-Hwae; Chang, Tien-Jye; Wong, Min-Liang

    2004-07-01

    It has been shown that certain slow neurological diseases such as bovine spongiform encephalopathy (also known as "mad cow" disease) could be transmitted through contaminated food intake by animals; therefore, the examination of meat components in commercial feeds is important for the control of the disease in public health. The combination of polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphisms (PCR-RFLPs) technique was applied to examine the meat components in dog and cat commercial feeds. The partial nucleotide sequence (359 bp) of animal mitochondrial cytochrome b (cytb, CYT) gene was amplified by PCR and then digested with restriction enzyme Alu I or Mbo I. In this work, eight brands of commercial dog and cat feeds available in Taiwan were examined. All brands of dog feeds that were tested contained meat from four different animals (cattle, pig, goat and chicken). In cat feeds, the chicken meat was found in five out of eight brands. PMID:15297759

  12. Examination of meat components in commercial dog and cat feed by using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphisms (PCR-RFLPs) technique.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hsien-Chi; Lee, Shu-Hwae; Chang, Tien-Jye; Wong, Min-Liang

    2004-07-01

    It has been shown that certain slow neurological diseases such as bovine spongiform encephalopathy (also known as "mad cow" disease) could be transmitted through contaminated food intake by animals; therefore, the examination of meat components in commercial feeds is important for the control of the disease in public health. The combination of polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphisms (PCR-RFLPs) technique was applied to examine the meat components in dog and cat commercial feeds. The partial nucleotide sequence (359 bp) of animal mitochondrial cytochrome b (cytb, CYT) gene was amplified by PCR and then digested with restriction enzyme Alu I or Mbo I. In this work, eight brands of commercial dog and cat feeds available in Taiwan were examined. All brands of dog feeds that were tested contained meat from four different animals (cattle, pig, goat and chicken). In cat feeds, the chicken meat was found in five out of eight brands.

  13. Isolation of Coxiella burnetii by a centrifugation shell-vial assay from ticks collected in Cyprus: detection by nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and by PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism analyses.

    PubMed

    Spyridaki, Ioanna; Psaroulaki, Anna; Loukaides, Fidias; Antoniou, Maria; Hadjichristodolou, Christos; Tselentis, Yannis

    2002-01-01

    Ticks are the principal vectors and reservoirs of Coxiella burnetii. The identification of isolates is necessary for understanding the clinical diversity of Q fever in different geographic areas. This is the first report of isolation of C. burnetii from ticks by the shell-vial assay and by nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay for the detection of this pathogen in ticks. Of 141 ticks collected in Cyprus (Rhipicephalus sanguineus and Hyalloma spp.), 10% were found to be infected with C. burnetii. Three ticks were positive by hemolymph test, and 11 triturated ticks were positive by nested PCR. Three isolates were obtained by the centrifugation shell-vial technique. Analysis by PCR, then restriction fragment length polymorphism showed that the 3 Cyprus isolates had identical restriction profiles to reference strains Nine Mile and Q212. The methods described are useful in studying the epidemiology and ecology of C. burnetii. PMID:12135275

  14. Identification of Pork Contamination in Meatballs of Indonesia Local Market Using Polymerase Chain Reaction-Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) Analysis.

    PubMed

    Erwanto, Yuny; Abidin, Mohammad Zainal; Sugiyono, Eko Yasin Prasetyo Muslim; Rohman, Abdul

    2014-10-01

    This research applied and evaluated a polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) using cytochrome b gene to detect pork contamination in meatballs from local markets in Surabaya and Yogyakarta regions, Indonesia. To confirm the effectiveness and specificity of this fragment, thirty nine DNA samples from different meatball shops were isolated and amplified, and then the PCR amplicon was digested by BseDI restriction enzyme to detect the presence of pork in meatballs. BseDI restriction enzyme was able to cleave porcine cytochrome b gene into two fragments (131 bp and 228 bp). Testing the meatballs from the local market showed that nine of twenty meatball shops in Yogyakarta region were detected to have pork contamination, but there was no pork contamination in meatball shops in Surabaya region. In conclusion, specific PCR amplification of cytochrome b gen and cleaved by BseDI restriction enzymes seems to be a powerful technique for the identification of pork presence in meatball because of its simplicity, specificity and sensitivity. Furthermore, pork contamination intended for commercial products of sausage, nugget, steak and meat burger can be checked. The procedure is also much cheaper than other methods based on PCR, immunodiffusion and other techniques that need expensive equipment.

  15. Determination of mini-short tandem repeat (miniSTR) loci by using the combination of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and microchip electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Lin, Xuexia; Wu, Jing; Li, Haifang; Wang, Zhihua; Lin, Jin-Ming

    2013-09-30

    In this work, a simple and convenient method for the detection of mini-short tandem repeat (miniSTR) loci has been developed by the combination of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and microchip electrophoresis (MCE). Degraded or inhibitor DNA greatly limited STR loci analysis. Therefore, The proper primers was designed as close as possible to the STRs region to produce smaller size STRs, and made the assay suitable for the destroyed samples. Two annealing temperatures were applied in one PCR procedure and the corresponding cycle numbers were studied to improve the sensitivity of PCR reaction. Under optimal conditions, 0.001 ng DNA templates were enough to generate miniSTRs. The relative standard deviations (n=3) of the size fifteen miniSTRs from DNA9947A ranged from 0.49% to 4.41%. The RSDs of concentrations were between 0.94% and 4.95%. Fifteen miniSTRs were also well produced from human hair, indicating that the method has great potential application in criminal identification and paternity testing.

  16. Chain Reaction Polymerization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGrath, James E.

    1981-01-01

    The salient features and importance of chain-reaction polymerization are discussed, including such topics as the thermodynamics of polymerization, free-radical polymerization kinetics, radical polymerization processes, copolymers, and free-radical chain, anionic, cationic, coordination, and ring-opening polymerizations. (JN)

  17. Quantitation of Bt-176 maize genomic sequences by surface plasmon resonance-based biospecific interaction analysis of multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR).

    PubMed

    Feriotto, Giordana; Gardenghi, Sara; Bianchi, Nicoletta; Gambari, Roberto

    2003-07-30

    Surface plasmon resonance (SPR) based biosensors have been described for the identification of genetically modified organisms (GMO) by biospecific interaction analysis (BIA). This paper describes the design and testing of an SPR-based BIA protocol for quantitative determinations of GMOs. Biotinylated multiplex Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) products from nontransgenic maize as well as maize powders containing 0.5 and 2% genetically modified Bt-176 sequences were immobilized on different flow cells of a sensor chip. After immobilization, different oligonucleotide probes recognizing maize zein and Bt-176 sequences were injected. The results obtained were compared with Southern blot analysis and with quantitative real-time PCR assays. It was demonstrated that sequential injections of Bt-176 and zein probes to sensor chip flow cells containing multiplex PCR products allow discrimination between PCR performed using maize genomic DNA containing 0.5% Bt-176 sequences and that performed using maize genomic DNA containing 2% Bt-176 sequences. The efficiency of SPR-based BIA in discriminating material containing different amounts of Bt-176 maize is comparable to real-time quantitative PCR and much more reliable than Southern blotting, which in the past has been used for semiquantitative purposes. Furthermore, the approach allows the BIA assay to be repeated several times on the same multiplex PCR product immobilized on the sensor chip, after washing and regeneration of the flow cell. Finally, it is emphasized that the presented strategy to quantify GMOs could be proposed for all of the SPR-based, commercially available biosensors. Some of these optical SPR-based biosensors use, instead of flow-based sensor chips, stirred microcuvettes, reducing the costs of the experimentation.

  18. Comparative evaluation of a competitive polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and a SYBR Green-based real-time PCR to quantify Porcine circovirus-2 DNA in swine tissue samples.

    PubMed

    Dezen, Diogenes; Rijsewijk, Franciscus A M; Teixeira, Thais F; Holz, Carine L; Varela, Ana P; Cibulski, Samuel P; Gregianini, Tatiane Shäffer; Batista, Helena B C R; Franco, Ana C; Roehe, Paulo M

    2011-11-01

    Porcine circovirus-2 (PCV-2) is considered the major etiological agent of post-weaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS) in pigs. The clinical manifestations of the disease are correlated with moderate to high amounts of PCV-2 DNA in biological samples of affected pigs. A threshold of 10(7) DNA copies/ml is suggested as the trigger factor for symptoms. A comparative study was conducted to determine which quantitative method would be more suitable to estimate the PCV-2 DNA load. Two polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays were developed: a competitive PCR (cPCR) and a SYBR Green-based real-time PCR. The assays were compared for their capacity to detect PCV-2 in DNA samples extracted from liver, lung, spleen, mesenteric lymph nodes, and kidney of PMWS-affected (n = 23) or non-PMWS-affected pigs (n = 9). Both assays could successfully quantify PCV-2 DNA in all tissue samples and were able to detect significant differences between the numbers of PCV-2 DNA copies found in tissues of PMWS-affected and non-PMWS-affected pigs (≥ 10(2.5)). The highest mean viral loads were detected by the SYBR Green real-time PCR, up to 10(7.0 ± 1.5) copies/100 ng of total DNA sample, while the cPCR detected up to 10(4.8 ± 1.5). A mean difference of 10(1.8) was found between the amounts of PCV-2 DNA detected, using the SYBR Green real-time PCR and the cPCR, suggesting that the viral load threshold for PMWS should be determined for each particular assay.

  19. Use of length heterogeneity polymerase chain reaction (LH-PCR) as non-invasive approach for dietary analysis of Svalbard reindeer, Rangifer tarandus platyrhynchus.

    PubMed

    Joo, Sungbae; Han, Donguk; Lee, Eun Ju; Park, Sangkyu

    2014-01-01

    To efficiently investigate the forage preference of Svalbard reindeer (Rangifer tarandus platyrhynchus), we applied length-heterogeneity polymerase chain reaction (LH-PCR) based on length differences of internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions of ribosomal RNA (rRNA) to fecal samples from R. tarandus platyrhynchus. A length-heterogeneity (LH) database was constructed using both collected potential food sources of Svalbard reindeer and fecal samples, followed by PCR, cloning and sequencing. In total, eighteen fecal samples were collected between 2011 and 2012 from 2 geographic regions and 15 samples were successfully amplified by PCR. The LH-PCR analysis detected abundant peaks, 18.6 peaks on an average per sample, ranging from 100 to 500 bp in size and showing distinct patterns associated with both regions and years of sample collection. Principal component analysis (PCA) resulted in clustering of 15 fecal samples into 3 groups by the year of collection and region with a statistically significant difference at 99.9% level. The first 2 principal components (PCs) explained 71.1% of the total variation among the samples. Through comparison with LH database and identification by cloning and sequencing, lichens (Stereocaulon sp. and Ochrolechia sp.) and plant species (Salix polaris and Saxifraga oppositifolia) were detected as the food sources that contributed most to the Svalbard reindeer diet. Our results suggest that the use of LH-PCR analysis would be a non-invasive and efficient monitoring tool for characterizing the foraging strategy of Svalbard reindeer. Additionally, combining sequence information would increase its resolving power in identification of foraged diet components.

  20. Comparative quantitative analysis of BCR-ABL transcripts with the T315I mutant clone by polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-Invader method.

    PubMed

    Tadokoro, Kenichi; Ishikawa, Maho; Suzuki, Makoto; Saito, Tomoyoshi; Suzuki, Yoshie; Yamaguchi, Toshikazu; Yagasaki, Fumiharu

    2011-09-01

    Drug resistance is a serious complication in the treatment of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML). The most common and best-characterized mechanism of secondary imatinib resistance in CML is the development of kinase domain mutations in the BCR-ABL gene. Second-generation tyrosine kinase inhibitors, such as dasatinib or nilotinib, overcome most of these mutations, but they are not effective against the T315I mutant. To determine whether these mutations contribute to clinical resistance, it is necessary to monitor the ratio of the mutant and wild-type forms. Here, we developed a polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-Invader assay for comparative quantitative analysis (qPI assay) of BCR-ABL transcripts with the T315I mutant clone. T315I ratios were calculated for the wild-type and mutant fold-over-zero (FOZ) values. In examination with 2 kinds of plasmids containing wild-type or T315I mutant PCR amplicons, mutant FOZ values were detected down to 1% of the total. The results of 12 serial samples from 2 patients (case A: Philadelphia-positive acute lymphoblastic leukemia and case B: CML) with the T315I mutant clone were compared with those of direct sequencing or 2 kinds of allele-specific oligonucleotide (ASO)-PCR. All samples showed the T315I mutation by qPI assay and ASO-PCR, and 10 samples showed it by direct sequencing. Significant correlation (correlation coefficient; r2 = 0.951) was noted between the qPI assay and quantitative ASO-PCR to analyze T315I mutant ratios. Thus, the qPI assay is a useful method for evaluating the T315I mutant clone in BCR-ABL transcripts.

  1. Comparative quantitative analysis of BCR-ABL transcripts with the T315I mutant clone by polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-Invader method.

    PubMed

    Tadokoro, Kenichi; Ishikawa, Maho; Suzuki, Makoto; Saito, Tomoyoshi; Suzuki, Yoshie; Yamaguchi, Toshikazu; Yagasaki, Fumiharu

    2011-09-01

    Drug resistance is a serious complication in the treatment of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML). The most common and best-characterized mechanism of secondary imatinib resistance in CML is the development of kinase domain mutations in the BCR-ABL gene. Second-generation tyrosine kinase inhibitors, such as dasatinib or nilotinib, overcome most of these mutations, but they are not effective against the T315I mutant. To determine whether these mutations contribute to clinical resistance, it is necessary to monitor the ratio of the mutant and wild-type forms. Here, we developed a polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-Invader assay for comparative quantitative analysis (qPI assay) of BCR-ABL transcripts with the T315I mutant clone. T315I ratios were calculated for the wild-type and mutant fold-over-zero (FOZ) values. In examination with 2 kinds of plasmids containing wild-type or T315I mutant PCR amplicons, mutant FOZ values were detected down to 1% of the total. The results of 12 serial samples from 2 patients (case A: Philadelphia-positive acute lymphoblastic leukemia and case B: CML) with the T315I mutant clone were compared with those of direct sequencing or 2 kinds of allele-specific oligonucleotide (ASO)-PCR. All samples showed the T315I mutation by qPI assay and ASO-PCR, and 10 samples showed it by direct sequencing. Significant correlation (correlation coefficient; r2 = 0.951) was noted between the qPI assay and quantitative ASO-PCR to analyze T315I mutant ratios. Thus, the qPI assay is a useful method for evaluating the T315I mutant clone in BCR-ABL transcripts. PMID:21867983

  2. Evaluation of Real-Time Quantitative Polymerase Chain Reaction (qPCR) to Determine Escherichia coli Concentrations at Two Lake Erie Beaches

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kephart, Christopher M.; Bushon, Rebecca N.

    2009-01-01

    During the recreational seasons of 2006 and 2007, the quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) method was used to determine Escherichia coli (E. coli) concentrations in samples from two Lake Erie beaches. Results from the qPCR method were compared to those obtained by traditional culturing on modified mTEC agar. Regression analysis showed strong, statistically significant correlations between results from the two methods for both years. Correlation coefficients at Edgewater and Villa Angela Beaches were 0.626 and 0.789 for 2006 and 0.667 and 0.829 for 2007, respectively. Linear regression analyses were done to determine how well E. coli concentrations could have been predicted from qPCR results. These hypothetical predictions were compared to the current practice of determining recreational water quality from E. coli concentrations determined for samples collected on the previous day. The qPCR method resulted in a greater percentage of correct predictions of water-quality exceedances than the current method for both beaches and both years. However, because regression equations differed somewhat between both sites and both years, the study did not result in any single relation reliable enough to use for actual real-time prediction of water-quality exceedances for either beach; therefore, a posterior analysis of data was done. Additional years of data may be needed to develop such a relation. Results from this study support the continued development and testing of a qPCR method for providing rapid and accurate estimates of E. coli concentrations for monitoring recreational water quality.

  3. Use of Length Heterogeneity Polymerase Chain Reaction (LH-PCR) as Non-Invasive Approach for Dietary Analysis of Svalbard Reindeer, Rangifer tarandus platyrhynchus

    PubMed Central

    Joo, Sungbae; Han, Donguk; Lee, Eun Ju; Park, Sangkyu

    2014-01-01

    To efficiently investigate the forage preference of Svalbard reindeer (Rangifer tarandus platyrhynchus), we applied length-heterogeneity polymerase chain reaction (LH-PCR) based on length differences of internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions of ribosomal RNA (rRNA) to fecal samples from R. tarandus platyrhynchus. A length-heterogeneity (LH) database was constructed using both collected potential food sources of Svalbard reindeer and fecal samples, followed by PCR, cloning and sequencing. In total, eighteen fecal samples were collected between 2011 and 2012 from 2 geographic regions and 15 samples were successfully amplified by PCR. The LH-PCR analysis detected abundant peaks, 18.6 peaks on an average per sample, ranging from 100 to 500 bp in size and showing distinct patterns associated with both regions and years of sample collection. Principal component analysis (PCA) resulted in clustering of 15 fecal samples into 3 groups by the year of collection and region with a statistically significant difference at 99.9% level. The first 2 principal components (PCs) explained 71.1% of the total variation among the samples. Through comparison with LH database and identification by cloning and sequencing, lichens (Stereocaulon sp. and Ochrolechia sp.) and plant species (Salix polaris and Saxifraga oppositifolia) were detected as the food sources that contributed most to the Svalbard reindeer diet. Our results suggest that the use of LH-PCR analysis would be a non-invasive and efficient monitoring tool for characterizing the foraging strategy of Svalbard reindeer. Additionally, combining sequence information would increase its resolving power in identification of foraged diet components. PMID:24618847

  4. Market surveillance on non-halal additives incorporated in surimi based products using polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-southern hybridization analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aravindran, S.; Sahilah, A. M.; Aminah, A.

    2014-09-01

    Halal surveillance on halal ingredients incorporated in surimi based products were studied using polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-southern hybridization on chip analysis. The primers used in this technique were targeted on mitochondria DNA (mtDNA) of cytochrome b (cyt b) gene sequence which able to differentiate 7 type (beef, chicken, duck, goat, buffalo, lamb and pork) of species on a single chip. 17 (n = 17*3) different brands of surimi-based product were purchased randomly from Selangor local market in January 2013. Of 17 brands, 3 (n = 3*3) brands were positive for chicken DNA, 1 (n = 1*3) brand was positive for goat DNA, and the remainder 13 brands (n = 13*3) have no DNA species detected. The sensitivity of PCR-southern hybridization primers to detect each meat species was 0.1 ng. In the present study, it is evidence that PCR-Southern Hybridization analysis offered a reliable result due to its highly specific and sensitive properties in detecting non-halal additive such as plasma protein incorporation in surimi-based product.

  5. Real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) quantitative detection of Brassica napus using a locked nucleic acid TaqMan probe.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Anna-Mary; Rott, Michael E

    2006-02-22

    Several countries have introduced mandatory labeling requirements on foods derived from genetically modified organisms. Real-time quantitative Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) has quickly become the method of choice in support of these regulations and requires the development of separate PCR assays targeting the transgenic sequence as well as a specific endogenous gene sequence. To develop a Brassica napus-specific PCR assay, partial sequences of the acetyl-CoA carboxylase BnACCg8 gene from B. napus and the closely related Brassica rapa were determined and compared, and a region of unique nucleotide sequence was identified. Universal amplification primers were designed to either side of this region, and a locked nucleic acid TaqMan probe was designed to the B. napus-specific sequence. Evaluation of this primer/probe combination indicated a high level of specificity to B. napus: no amplification signal was observed with any other species tested, including five closely related Brassica species. The method was assayed with 14 different B. napus cultivars, and comparable amplification curves were consistently obtained for all. The assay was highly sensitive, with a limit of detection between 1 and 10 haploid copies. Practically, the method was demonstrated to be effective for the detection of processed food samples and for the quantification of Roundup Ready canola content in mixed samples.

  6. Selection of internal reference genes for normalization of quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) analysis in the canine brain and other organs.

    PubMed

    Park, Sang-Je; Huh, Jae-Won; Kim, Young-Hyun; Lee, Sang-Rae; Kim, Sang-Hyun; Kim, Sun-Uk; Kim, Heui-Soo; Kim, Min Kyu; Chang, Kyu-Tae

    2013-05-01

    Quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) is a specific and sensitive technique for quantifying gene expression. To analyze qRT-PCR data accurately, suitable reference genes that show consistent expression patterns across different tissues and experimental conditions should be selected. The objective of this study was to obtain the most stable reference genes in dogs, using samples from 13 different brain tissues and 10 other organs. 16 well-known candidate reference genes were analyzed by the geNorm, NormFinder, and BestKeeper programs. Brain tissues were derived from several different anatomical regions, including the forebrain, cerebrum, diencephalon, hindbrain, and metencephalon, and grouped accordingly. Combination of the three different analyses clearly indicated that the ideal reference genes are ribosomal protien S5 (RPS5) in whole brain, RPL8 and RPS5 in whole body tissues, RPS5 and RPS19 in the forebrain and cerebrum, RPL32 and RPS19 in the diencephalon, GAPDH and RPS19 in the hindbrain, and MRPS7 and RPL13A in the metencephalon. These genes were identified as ideal for the normalization of qRT-PCR results in the respective tissues. These findings indicate more suitable and stable reference genes for future studies of canine gene expression.

  7. Evaluation of the paternity probability on an application of minisatellite variant repeat mapping using polymerase chain reaction (MVR-PCR) to paternity testing.

    PubMed

    Huang, X L; Tamaki, K; Yamamoto, T; Yoshimoto, T; Mizutani, M; Leong, Y K; Tanaka, M; Nozawa, H; Uchihi, R; Katsumata, Y

    1999-09-01

    Minisatellite variant repeat (MVR) mapping using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was applied to a practical case of paternity testing to evaluate the paternity probability. In order to obtain single allele mapping by allele-specific MVR-PCR, three flanking polymorphic sites for each of the MS31A and MS32 loci were investigated and all three individuals were typed as heterozygous for at least one flanking polymorphic site at each locus. Allele-specific MVR-PCR was then performed using genomic DNA. It was confirmed that one allele in the child was identical to that from the mother and the other one in the child was identical to that from the alleged father. Mapped allele codes were also compared with those in the database by dot-matrix analysis, and no identical allele was found although some motifs were shared with Japanese alleles. The paternity index and the probability of paternity exclusion in the case at these two MVR loci were calculated using the presumed values of the allele frequencies. These studies seem to illustrate the practical value of MVR mapping of MS31A and MS32 loci in paternity testing.

  8. Colony Polymerase Chain Reaction with Schizosaccharomyces pombe.

    PubMed

    Murray, Johanne M; Watson, Adam T; Carr, Antony M

    2016-01-01

    When screening a large number of individual Schizosaccharomyces pombe strains by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), a rapid "colony PCR" approach may be used. Numerous colony PCR protocols are available, and fundamental to them all is that the colony must be fresh (grown overnight) and that as few cells as possible are used. In this protocol, we present three reliable methods for preparing S. pombe cells for colony PCR.

  9. Characterization and evaluation of an arbitrary primed Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) product for the specific detection of Brucella species.

    PubMed

    Qasem, Jafar A; AlMomin, Sabah; Al-Mouqati, Salwa A; Kumar, Vinod

    2015-03-01

    Laboratory detection of Brucella is based largely on bacterial isolation and phenotypic characterization. These methods are lengthy and labor-intensive and have been associated with a heightened risk of laboratory-acquired infection. Antibody based indirect detection methods also suffer from limitations in proper diagnosis of the organism. To overcome these problems, nucleic acid amplification has been explored for rapid detection and confirmation of the presence of Brucella spp. PCR-based diagnostics is useful for screening large populations of livestock to identify infected individuals and confirms the presence of the pathogen. Random Amplification of Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) was performed and identified a 1.3 kb PCR fragment specifically amplifiable from DNA isolated from Brucella. A BLAST search revealed no significant homology with the reported sequences from species other than the members of Brucella. The isolated fragment seems to be a part of d-alanine-d-alanine ligase gene in Brucella sp. Translational BLAST revealed certain degree of homology of this sequence with orthologs of this gene reported from other microbial species at the deduced amino acid level. The sequence information was used to develop PCR based assays to detect Brucella sp. from various samples. The minimum detection limit of Brucella from blood and milk samples spiked with Brucella DNA was found to be 1 ng/ml and 10 ng/ml, respectively. In conclusion, we demonstrated that the PCR based detection protocol was successfully used for the detection of Brucella from various organs and spiked samples of diseased sheep. Diagnosis of Brucellosis by PCR based method reported in this study is relatively rapid, specific and simple.

  10. Characterization and evaluation of an arbitrary primed Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) product for the specific detection of Brucella species

    PubMed Central

    Qasem, Jafar A.; AlMomin, Sabah; Al-Mouqati, Salwa A.; Kumar, Vinod

    2014-01-01

    Laboratory detection of Brucella is based largely on bacterial isolation and phenotypic characterization. These methods are lengthy and labor-intensive and have been associated with a heightened risk of laboratory-acquired infection. Antibody based indirect detection methods also suffer from limitations in proper diagnosis of the organism. To overcome these problems, nucleic acid amplification has been explored for rapid detection and confirmation of the presence of Brucella spp. PCR-based diagnostics is useful for screening large populations of livestock to identify infected individuals and confirms the presence of the pathogen. Random Amplification of Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) was performed and identified a 1.3 kb PCR fragment specifically amplifiable from DNA isolated from Brucella. A BLAST search revealed no significant homology with the reported sequences from species other than the members of Brucella. The isolated fragment seems to be a part of d-alanine–d-alanine ligase gene in Brucella sp. Translational BLAST revealed certain degree of homology of this sequence with orthologs of this gene reported from other microbial species at the deduced amino acid level. The sequence information was used to develop PCR based assays to detect Brucella sp. from various samples. The minimum detection limit of Brucella from blood and milk samples spiked with Brucella DNA was found to be 1 ng/ml and 10 ng/ml, respectively. In conclusion, we demonstrated that the PCR based detection protocol was successfully used for the detection of Brucella from various organs and spiked samples of diseased sheep. Diagnosis of Brucellosis by PCR based method reported in this study is relatively rapid, specific and simple. PMID:25737656

  11. Quantitation of viable Coxiella burnetii in milk using an integrated cell culture-polymerase chain reaction (ICC-PCR) assay.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Diana; Shieh, Y-Carol; Tortorello, Mary; Kukreja, Ankush; Shazer, Arlette; Schlesser, Joseph

    2015-11-01

    The obligate intracellular pathogen Coxiella burnetii has long been considered the most heat resistant pathogen in raw milk, making it the reference pathogen for determining pasteurisation conditions for milk products. New milk formulations and novel non-thermal processes require validation of effectiveness which requires a more practical method for analysis than using the currently used animal model for assessing Coxiella survival. Also, there is an interest in better characterising thermal inactivation of Coxiella in various milk formulations. To avoid the use of the guinea pig model for evaluating Coxiella survival, an Integrated Cell Culture-PCR (ICC-PCR) method was developed for determining Coxiella viability in milk. Vero cell cultures were directly infected from Coxiella-contaminated milk in duplicate 24-well plates. Viability of the Coxiella in milk was shown by a ≥ 0.5 log genome equivalent (ge)/ml increase in the quantity of IS111a gene from the baseline post-infection (day 0) level after 9-11 d propagation. Coxiella in skim, 2%, and whole milk, and half and half successfully infected Vero cells and increased in number by at least 2 logs using a 48-h infection period followed by 9-d propagation time. As few as 125 Coxiella ge/ml in whole milk was shown to infect and propagate at least 2 logs in the optimised ICC-PCR assay, though variable confirmation of propagation was shown for as low as 25 Coxiella ge/ml. Applicability of the ICC-PCR method was further proven in an MPN format to quantitate the number of viable Coxiella remaining in whole milk after 60 °C thermal treatment at 0, 20, 40, 60 and 90 min.

  12. 9 CFR 147.30 - Laboratory procedure recommended for the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test for Mycoplasma...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... and re-suspend the pellet in 25-50 μl of 0.1 percent DEP (Diethyl Pyrocarbonate; Sigma) water. Boil at... μl taq-polymerase (5 U), 32 μl DEP water. (ii) 18 μl water, 25 μl PCR mix (Promega), 1 μl Reverse... Agriculture or an endorsement over other products not mentioned. Temperature ( °C) Duration Cycles 94...

  13. Rapid Identification of Mycobacterium Species with the Aid of Multiplex Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) From Clinical Isolates

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Siddhartha; Bandyopadhyay, Debasis; Paine, Suman Kalyan; Gupta, Soma; Banerjee, Surajita; Bhattacharya, Sujata; Gachhui, Ratan; Bhattacharya, Basudev

    2010-01-01

    Mycobacteria are aerobic, nonspore forming, non-motile,single-cell bacteria.Of more than 40 currently recognized species of mycobacteria, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the causative agent of human TB is the commonest pathogen for pulmonary and extra pulmonary tuberculosis cases. The other members of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTC) or the nontubercular mycobacterium (NTM) produces similar diseases which cannot be differentiated from tuberculosis by clinical symptoms and signs. But this differentiation is important as the chemotherapy varies widely according to the strain of mycobacterium. The burden of morbidity and mortality of tuberculosis is rapidly growing worldwide, particularly with the HIV/AIDS epidemic. The strain identification of Mycobacterium remains a cumbersome, labor intensive and expensive procedure, which requires 3 to 12 weeks of time. The conventional methods of strain identification lack proper standardization and precise diagnosis. The prime objective of this study is to overcome these problems. A multiplex PCR using 3 amplicons of 165,365, and 541 base pair target sequences was done with a total number of 165 clinical isolates of suspected Koch’s patients. Strain identification was compared both by conventional methods and multiplex PCR. The results of the study show that this multiplex PCR is supposed to be less complicated, less time consuming, cost-effective and superior to the conventional methods. It is also applicable for culture negative samples where strain identification is not possible by conventional approach. PMID:21258579

  14. [Staphylococcus aureus enterotoxin A detection using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and its correlation with coagulase and thermonuclease tests].

    PubMed

    Suarez, María José; Arias, María Laura; del Mar Gamboa, María

    2008-03-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a pathogenic bacterium, widely distributed on nature and associated to general infection and food borne outbreaks. The relationship between this bacterium and food borne outbreaks has been done, historically, using several tests, including coagulase, thermonuclease and actually, PCR for the genes codifying for the enterotoxin responsible of clinical symptoms. The objective of this work is to detect enterotoxin A codifying gene through PCR in a group of S. aureus strains isolated from food samples, and also to correlate the presence of this gene with the production of coagulase and thermonuclease enzymes. A total of 69 staphylococcal strains were analyzed, 58 obtained from non pasteurized milk samples from the Estación Experimental Alfredo Volio Mata and 11 from the Food and Water Microbiology Laboratory collection, Universidad de Costa Rica. Coagulase, thermonuclease and enterotoxin A were analyzed in all the strains, and a statistical correlation was performed in order to verify possible associations. Results show that there is no correlation between the three variables, nevertheless, all coagulase positive strains were thermonuclease positive, and all enterotoxin positive strains were coagulase and thermonuclease positive, but not inversely. These results show that the use of presumptive or indirect tests for establishing entorotoxigenity of S. aureus strains is not truthful, more sensible and specific analysis, as PCR, shall be performed.

  15. Polymerase chain reaction system

    DOEpatents

    Benett, William J.; Richards, James B.; Stratton, Paul L.; Hadley, Dean R.; Milanovich, Fred P.; Belgrader, Phil; Meyer, Peter L.

    2004-03-02

    A portable polymerase chain reaction DNA amplification and detection system includes one or more chamber modules. Each module supports a duplex assay of a biological sample. Each module has two parallel interrogation ports with a linear optical system. The system is capable of being handheld.

  16. [Ligase chain reaction (LCR)].

    PubMed

    Yamanishi, K; Yasuno, H

    1993-06-01

    Ligase chain reaction (LCR) is a ligation-mediated amplification technique of a target DNA sequence using oligonucleotides and thermostable ligase. LCR is useful for the detection of known DNA sequences and point mutations in a limited amount of DNA. We introduce the principle, development, and protocol of this simple and convenient technique for DNA analysis.

  17. Mathematics analysis of polymerase chain reaction kinetic curves.

    PubMed

    Sochivko, D G; Fedorov, A A; Varlamov, D A; Kurochkin, V E; Petrov, R V

    2016-01-01

    The paper reviews different approaches to the mathematical analysis of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) kinetic curves. The basic principles of PCR mathematical analysis are presented. Approximation of PCR kinetic curves and PCR efficiency curves by various functions is described. Several PCR models based on chemical kinetics equations are suggested. Decision criteria for an optimal function to describe PCR efficiency are proposed.

  18. Molecular Identification of Clinical Isolates of Mycobacterium fortuitum by Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) Polymerase Chain Reaction and ERIC PCR

    PubMed Central

    Khosravi, Azar Dokht; Farahani, Abbas; Jamali, Hooshang

    2015-01-01

    Backgrounds Non tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) are of importance now-a-days due to their increasing virulence outbreaks and emerging antibiotic resistance. Since the most common NTM in Iran is reportedly Mycobacterium fortuitum, the present study was designed with the aim of molecular identification of clinical isolates of M. foruitum to analyse their heterogeneity. Materials and Methods A total of 81 isolates of NTM isolated from various samples were collected. The clinical isolates were assigned to species M. fortuitum by using conventional and molecular methods. The DNA banding patterns of ERIC- PCR and RAPD- PCR were analysed by using Bionumeric 7.5 software. Results Out of 81 tested NTM, 36 strains of M. fortuitum were identified. 33 isolates were selected for molecular typing in this study. Based on RAPD and ERIC analysis, M. fortuitum isolates were divided into 3 and 6 clusters, respectively. Most of the isolates were distributed into types of II RAPD (20 members/ 60.6 %) and V (14 members/ 42.4% with sub cluster I & II) of ERIC. In RAPD analysis, the major fragments were 300 bp, followed by fragment 1000. In ERIC analysis, the major fragments were 280 bp followed by fragment 1200 bp. Conclusion In conclusion, though the results from this study represented higher discriminatory power of ERIC, however the combination of RAPD and ERIC analysis were able to sufficiently discriminate the genotypic diversity, infection control, and gain useful epidemiological information regarding M. fortuitum isolates. PMID:26816886

  19. A simple real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based assay for authentication of the Chinese Panax ginseng cultivar Damaya from a local ginseng population.

    PubMed

    Wang, H; Wang, J; Li, G

    2016-06-27

    Panax ginseng is one of the most important medicinal plants in the Orient. Owing to its increasing demand in the world market, cultivated ginseng has become the main source of medicinal material. Among the Chinese ginseng cultivars, Damaya commands higher prices and is grown in significant proportions among the local ginseng population. Due to the lack of rapid and accurate authentication methods, Damaya is distributed among different cultivars in the local ginseng population in China. Here, we identified a unique, Damaya-specific single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) site present in the second intron of mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 2 (cox2). Based on this SNP, a Damaya cultivar-specific primer was designed and an allele-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was optimized for the effective molecular authentication of Damaya. We designed a method by combining a simple DNA isolation method with real-time allele-specific PCR using SYBR Green I fluorescent dye, and proved its efficacy in clearly discriminated Damaya cultivar from other Chinese ginseng cultivars according to the allelic discrimination analysis. Hence, this study provides a simple and rapid assay for the differentiation and conservation of Damaya from the local Chinese ginseng population.

  20. Use of reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) in molecular screening of Newcastle disease virus in poultry and free-living bird populations.

    PubMed

    Carrasco, Adriano de Oliveira Torres; Rodrigues, Juliana Nogueira Martins; Seki, Meire Christina; de Moraes, Fabricio Edgar; Silva, Jaqueline Raymondi; Durigon, Edison Luis; Pinto, Aramis Augusto

    2013-02-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate a simple molecular method of reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) to differentiate Newcastle disease virus strains according to their pathogenicity, in order to use it in molecular screening of Newcastle disease virus in poultry and free-living bird populations. Specific primers were developed to differentiate LaSota--LS--(vaccine strain) and Sao Joao do Meriti--SJM--strain (highly pathogenic strain). Chickens and pigeons were experimentally vaccinated/infected for an in vivo study to determine virus shedding in feces. Validation of sensitivity and specificity of the primers (SJM and LS) by experimental models used in the present study and results obtained in the molecular analysis of the primers by BLAST made it possible to generalize results. The development of primers that differentiate the level of pathogenicity of NDV stains is very important, mainly in countries where real-time RT-PCR is still not used as a routine test. These primers were able to determine the presence of the agent and to differentiate it according to its pathogenicity.

  1. A simple real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based assay for authentication of the Chinese Panax ginseng cultivar Damaya from a local ginseng population.

    PubMed

    Wang, H; Wang, J; Li, G

    2016-01-01

    Panax ginseng is one of the most important medicinal plants in the Orient. Owing to its increasing demand in the world market, cultivated ginseng has become the main source of medicinal material. Among the Chinese ginseng cultivars, Damaya commands higher prices and is grown in significant proportions among the local ginseng population. Due to the lack of rapid and accurate authentication methods, Damaya is distributed among different cultivars in the local ginseng population in China. Here, we identified a unique, Damaya-specific single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) site present in the second intron of mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 2 (cox2). Based on this SNP, a Damaya cultivar-specific primer was designed and an allele-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was optimized for the effective molecular authentication of Damaya. We designed a method by combining a simple DNA isolation method with real-time allele-specific PCR using SYBR Green I fluorescent dye, and proved its efficacy in clearly discriminated Damaya cultivar from other Chinese ginseng cultivars according to the allelic discrimination analysis. Hence, this study provides a simple and rapid assay for the differentiation and conservation of Damaya from the local Chinese ginseng population. PMID:27420983

  2. Authentication of anglerfish species (Lophius spp) by means of polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) and forensically informative nucleotide sequencing (FINS) methodologies.

    PubMed

    Espiñeira, Montserrat; González-Lavín, Nerea; Vieites, Juan M; Santaclara, Francisco J

    2008-11-26

    Lophius represents the most important genus of the family Lophiidae from a commercial point of view. The main marketing formats of the species included in this genus are tails and cheeks, making impossible the species identification on the basis of their morphological characters. In the present study, two methods based on the polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) and phylogenetic analysis of DNA sequences [forensically informative nucleotide sequencing (FINS)] were developed to differentiate the seven species contained in the genus Lophius. In both cases, the molecular marker studied was the cytochrome oxidase subunit I gene (COI). The RFLP analysis of the PCR products digested with the endonuclease Mbo I generated species-specific restriction profiles, and the phylogenetic analysis showing a neighbor-joining tree with independent nodes was strongly supported for all of the studied species. These methods were applied to 40 commercial samples, allowing us to detect the samples incorrectly labeled. The fraudulent labeling ratio was higher in processed products (68.75%) than whole fish (31.25%). The species subjected to mislabeling were L. budegassa (68.75%), L. vomerinus (18.75%), and L. piscatorius (12.5%). Therefore, both methodologies can be independently used to authenticate the species belonging to the genus Lophius, being useful to check the fulfillment of labeling regulations of seafood products and to verify the correct traceability of commercial trade and the control of fisheries. PMID:18975961

  3. Authentication of anglerfish species (Lophius spp) by means of polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) and forensically informative nucleotide sequencing (FINS) methodologies.

    PubMed

    Espiñeira, Montserrat; González-Lavín, Nerea; Vieites, Juan M; Santaclara, Francisco J

    2008-11-26

    Lophius represents the most important genus of the family Lophiidae from a commercial point of view. The main marketing formats of the species included in this genus are tails and cheeks, making impossible the species identification on the basis of their morphological characters. In the present study, two methods based on the polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) and phylogenetic analysis of DNA sequences [forensically informative nucleotide sequencing (FINS)] were developed to differentiate the seven species contained in the genus Lophius. In both cases, the molecular marker studied was the cytochrome oxidase subunit I gene (COI). The RFLP analysis of the PCR products digested with the endonuclease Mbo I generated species-specific restriction profiles, and the phylogenetic analysis showing a neighbor-joining tree with independent nodes was strongly supported for all of the studied species. These methods were applied to 40 commercial samples, allowing us to detect the samples incorrectly labeled. The fraudulent labeling ratio was higher in processed products (68.75%) than whole fish (31.25%). The species subjected to mislabeling were L. budegassa (68.75%), L. vomerinus (18.75%), and L. piscatorius (12.5%). Therefore, both methodologies can be independently used to authenticate the species belonging to the genus Lophius, being useful to check the fulfillment of labeling regulations of seafood products and to verify the correct traceability of commercial trade and the control of fisheries.

  4. Determining Annealing Temperatures for Polymerase Chain Reaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Porta, Angela R.; Enners, Edward

    2012-01-01

    The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is a common technique used in high school and undergraduate science teaching. Students often do not fully comprehend the underlying principles of the technique and how optimization of the protocol affects the outcome and analysis. In this molecular biology laboratory, students learn the steps of PCR with an…

  5. Characterization and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) detection of an Alu deletion polymorphism in total linkage disequilibrium with myotonic dystrophy

    SciTech Connect

    Mahadevan, M.S. ); Foitzik, M.A. ); Surh, L.C.; Korneluk, R.G. Univ. of Ottawa )

    1993-02-01

    The mutation causing myotonic dystrophy has been identified as an unstable trinucleotide CRG repeat located in the 3[prime] untranslated region of a gene putatively encoding a serine-threonine protein kinase. The mutation has been reported to be in total linkage disequilibrium with an insertion/deletion polymorphism located within the kinase gene. To determine the nature of this polymorphism, we have sequenced this genomic fragment and have found that the sequence of this region consists of five consecutive Alu repeats. Further analysis suggests that the smaller of two alleles is actually due to a proposed deletion event that resulted in the loss of an equivalent of three Alu repeats. We have developed a PCR-based assay to detect this polymorphism, the closest, distal marker to the DM mutation. 12 refs., 2 figs.

  6. Intracellular alkaline proteases produced by thermoacidophiles: detection of protease heterogeneity by gelatin zymography and polymerase chain reaction (PCR).

    PubMed

    Kocabiyik, Semra; Erdem, Bilge

    2002-08-01

    In this study 24 thermoacidophilic archeal and bacterial strains isolated from hot-springs and hot-soils were screened for their ability to produce intracellular alkaline proteases. The protease activities of the strains, based on azocasein hydrolysis, showed a variation from 0.6 to 5.1 U. The cell extracts of three most potent producers were further examined and it was found that their proteases exhibited maximum activity at 60-70 degrees C and showed a pH optimum over a range of pH 7.0-8.5. Gelatin zymography revealed that two of the selected archeal strains produced multiple active SDS-resistant proteases. On the other hand, PCR amplification of alkaline serine protease gene sequences of total DNA from all isolates yielded four distinct amplification fragments of 650, 450, 400 and 300 bp, which might have been derived from different serine protease genes.

  7. Interlaboratory comparison of three microbial source tracking quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) assays from fecal-source and environmental samples

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stelzer, Erin A.; Strickler, Kriston M.; Schill, William B.

    2012-01-01

    During summer and early fall 2010, 15 river samples and 6 fecal-source samples were collected in West Virginia. These samples were analyzed by three laboratories for three microbial source tracking (MST) markers: AllBac, a general fecal indicator; BacHum, a human-associated fecal indicator; and BoBac, a ruminant-associated fecal indicator. MST markers were analyzed by means of the quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) method. The aim was to assess interlaboratory precision when the three laboratories used the same MST marker and shared deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) extracts of the samples, but different equipment, reagents, and analyst experience levels. The term assay refers to both the markers and the procedure differences listed above. Interlaboratory precision was best for all three MST assays when using the geometric mean absolute relative percent difference (ARPD) and Friedman's statistical test as a measure of interlaboratory precision. Adjustment factors (one for each MST assay) were calculated using results from fecal-source samples analyzed by all three laboratories and applied retrospectively to sample concentrations to account for differences in qPCR results among labs using different standards and procedures. Following the application of adjustment factors to qPCR results, ARPDs were lower; however, statistically significant differences between labs were still observed for the BacHum and BoBac assays. This was a small study and two of the MST assays had 52 percent of samples with concentrations at or below the limit of accurate quantification; hence, more testing could be done to determine if the adjustment factors would work better if the majority of sample concentrations were above the quantification limit.

  8. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) method for monitoring highly conserved transgene expression during gene therapy.

    PubMed

    Bruzzone, Carol M; Belcher, John D; Schuld, Nathan J; Newman, Kristal A; Vineyard, Julie; Nguyen, Julia; Chen, Chunsheng; Beckman, Joan D; Steer, Clifford J; Vercellotti, Gregory M

    2008-12-01

    Evaluation of the transfer efficiency of a rat heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) transgene into mice requires differentiation of rat and mouse HO-1. However, rat and mouse HO-1 have 94% homology; antibodies and enzyme activity cannot adequately distinguish HO-1. We designed a quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) method to monitor HO-1 transcription relative to a housekeeping gene, GAPDH. The ratio of rat and mouse HO-1 mRNA could be estimated through restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis of the PCR products. In vitro, murine AML12 hepatocytes were transfected with rat HO-1. After 40 h, the total HO-1 mRNA was enriched 2-fold relative to control cells, and rat HO-1 comprised 84% of HO-1 cDNA. In vivo, the rat HO-1 transgene was cloned into a Sleeping Beauty transposase (SB-Tn) construct and was injected hydrodynamically into a mouse model of sickle cell disease (SCD). After 21 days, there was a 32% enrichment of HO-1 mRNA relative to control mice and the rat transgene comprised 88% of HO-1 cDNA. After 21 days, HO-1 protein expression in liver was increased 2.5-fold. In summary, qRT-PCR RFLP is a useful and reliable method to differentiate the transgene from host gene transcription, especially when the host and transgene protein are identical or highly homologous. This method has translational applications to the design, delivery, and monitoring of gene-therapy vectors. PMID:19059164

  9. Multiplex Amplification Refractory Mutation System Polymerase Chain Reaction (ARMS-PCR) for diagnosis of natural infection with canine distemper virus

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Canine distemper virus (CDV) is present worldwide and produces a lethal systemic infection of wild and domestic Canidae. Pre-existing antibodies acquired from vaccination or previous CDV infection might interfere the interpretation of a serologic diagnosis method. In addition, due to the high similarity of nucleic acid sequences between wild-type CDV and the new vaccine strain, current PCR derived methods cannot be applied for the definite confirmation of CD infection. Hence, it is worthy of developing a simple and rapid nucleotide-based assay for differentiation of wild-type CDV which is a cause of disease from attenuated CDVs after vaccination. High frequency variations have been found in the region spanning from the 3'-untranslated region (UTR) of the matrix (M) gene to the fusion (F) gene (designated M-F UTR) in a few CDV strains. To establish a differential diagnosis assay, an amplification refractory mutation analysis was established based on the highly variable region on M-F UTR and F regions. Results Sequences of frequent polymorphisms were found scattered throughout the M-F UTR region; the identity of nucleic acid between local strains and vaccine strains ranged from 82.5% to 93.8%. A track of AAA residue located 35 nucleotides downstream from F gene start codon highly conserved in three vaccine strains were replaced with TGC in the local strains; that severed as target sequences for deign of discrimination primers. The method established in the present study successfully differentiated seven Taiwanese CDV field isolates, all belonging to the Asia-1 lineage, from vaccine strains. Conclusions The method described herein would be useful for several clinical applications, such as confirmation of nature CDV infection, evaluation of vaccination status and verification of the circulating viral genotypes. PMID:20534175

  10. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and sequence specific oligonucleotide probes (SSOP) genotyping assay for detection of genes associated with rheumatoid arthritis and multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Nikolaou, Konstantina; Kalatzis, Fanis G; Giannakeas, Nikolaos; Markoula, Sofia; Chatzikyriakidou, Anthi; Georgiou, Ioannis; Fotiadis, Dimitrios I

    2010-01-01

    In this paper an assay for the detection of genes associated with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and multiple sclerosis, using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and sequence specific oligonucleotide probes (SSOP) is presented, in order to be further applied in a portable Lab-On-Chip (LOC) device. A substantial part of these reagents were based on the literature (11th International Histocompatibility Workshop, IHW), bearing the advantage of proven successful implementation in genotyping, while others were designed for this study. More precisely, our methodology discriminates HLA-DRB1 as DRB1*01, *04 and *10, which include shared epitope (SE) alleles associated with RA and additionally DRB1*15 allele, including DRB1*1501 associated with MS (broad genotyping method). To further present the basic elements of the assay for high resolution genotyping of SE DRB1 alleles, we provide as an example the case of HLA-DRB1*10 alleles (HLADRB1* 100101, *100102, *100103, *1002 and *1003). Regarding the methodology for developing a detection assay, for SNPs associated with RA or MS the basic steps are presented. DNA sequence data are obtained from IMGT/HLA and SNP database. Online software tools are used to define hybridization specificity of primers and probes towards human DNA, leading to hybridization patterns that uniquely designate a target allele and evaluate parameters influencing PCR efficiency. Respecting current technological limitations of autonomous molecular-based LOC systems the approach of broad genotyping of HLA-DRB1*01/*04/*10/*15 genes, is intended to be initially used, leaving, high resolution genotyping of SE alleles for future implementations. This method is easy to be updated and extended to detect additional associated loci with RA or MS.

  11. Ring test evaluation of the detection of influenza A virus in swine oral fluids by real-time, reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR) and virus isolation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The probability of detecting influenza A virus (IAV) in oral fluid (OF) specimens was calculated for each of 13 real-time, reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR) and 7 virus isolation (VI) assays. To conduct the study, OF was inoculated with H1N1 or H3N2 IAV and serially 10-fold d...

  12. Effects of Holding Time, Storage, and the Preservation of Samples on Sample Integrity for the Detection of Fecal Indicator Bacteria by Quantitative Polymerase Chain Reaction (qPCR)-based assays.

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of this project was to answer questions related to storage of samples to be analyzed by the quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR)-based assays for fecal indicator bacteria. The project was divided into two parts. The first part was to determine if filters th...

  13. A Multiplex Allele Specific Polymerase Chain Reaction (MAS-PCR) for the Detection of Factor V Leiden and Prothrombin G20210A

    PubMed Central

    Bagheri, Morteza; Rad, Isa Abdi

    2011-01-01

    ABSTRACT Introduction: In order to determine the frequencies of factor V Leiden and prothrombin G20210A point mutations in the Iranian population with Azeri Turkish origin. Material and methods: 120 unrelated individuals from general population randomly selected and were examined for factor V Leiden and prothrombin G20210A mutations using a multiplex allele specific polymerase chain reaction (MAS-PCR) assay Outcomes: The frequency of prothrombin G20210A mutation was 2.08%, which means 5 chromosomes out of 240 chromosomes had prothrombin G20210A mutation. The distribution of prothrombin 20210 GG, GA, AA genotypes and prothrombin 20210A allele were 37(92.5%), 3(7.5%), 0(0%) and 3(3.75%) in males and 78(97.5%), 2(2.5%), 0(0%) and 2(1.25%) in females, respectively. Factor V Leiden was not found in our tested group (zero chromosomes out of 240 chromosomes). Analysis of the observed frequencies in the studied groups indicates that there is no statistically significant difference between females and males, regarding prothrombin G20210A mutation (p value>0.05). Conclusions: This is the first study in its own kind in this population and implies that the frequency of Factor V Leiden G1691A (R506Q, FV-Leiden) allele is extremely low but the prothrombin G20210A mutation is more frequent in the tested group. PMID:21977183

  14. Relative quantification of HLA-DRA1 and -DQA1 expression by real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR).

    PubMed

    Fernandez, S; Wassmuth, R; Knerr, I; Frank, C; Haas, J P

    2003-04-01

    Polymorphism in the upstream regulatory region (URR) of the MHC class II DQA1 gene defines 10 different alleles named QAP (DQA1 promoter). In vitro studies have suggested that allelic polymorphism in the HLA-DQA promoter region may result in differences in HLA-DQA1 gene expression. In the present study, we used real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) to quantify differences in HLA-DQA1 gene expression. After the isolation of total mRNA, reverse transcription into cDNA was carried out using random hexamer priming and moloney murine leukaemia virus (MMLV) reverse transcriptase. Quantification of DQA1 mRNA species using a set of six group-specific primer pairs for the detection of HLA-DQA1*01, *02, *03, *04, *05 and *06 was carried out on an ABI PRISM GeneAmp 7700 Sequence Detection System (Perkin Elmer, Foster City, CA) with real-time detection and quantification taking advantage of the fluorescence TaqMan technology (Perkin Elmer, Foster City, CA). Normalization of cDNA templates was achieved by glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) quantification. In addition, the total amount of mRNA produced by HLA-DQA1 and HLA-DRA1 expression was quantified for comparison. Subsequently, this approach was validated using Raji and HUT-78 cell lines and tested with peripheral mononuclear cells (PBMC) of 45 samples taken from healthy volunteers. The sensitivity was determined with > or = 10(2) copies. Comparison of the allele-specific DQA1 expression with the total expression of DQA1 and DRA1 mRNA indicated that DQA1*04 expression was increased compared with the expression of other alleles of the DQA1 gene. Thus, allele-specific quantification of DQA1 gene products could be achieved by real-time RT-PCR suitable for the analysis of differential expression of DQA1 mRNAs in homozygote and heterozygote combinations.

  15. [Cervix uteri lesions and human papiloma virus infection (HPV): detection and characterization of DNA/HPV using PCR (polymerase chain reaction].

    PubMed

    Serra, H; Pista, A; Figueiredo, P; Urbano, A; Avilez, F; De Oliveira, C F

    2000-01-01

    The prevalence of human papillomavirus (HPV) genotypes was estimated by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR), in archival paraffin was embedded tissues. The case group consisted of 84 women aged 21-67 years (mean, 40 years) who were referred to the Department of Gynaecology (Oncology Centre, Coimbra) with citopathologically abnormal smears. This group was selected from a population of women who had undergone a screening programme (1990/94) in Central Region of Portugal. All these patients (n = 84) had a colposcopic directed cervical biopsy. HPV detection and typing was performed by the PCR method in the Department of Virology (National Health Care Institute, Lisbon). The prevalence of DNA/HPV found, concerning all epithelial cervical lesions studied and classified as squamous intra-epithelial lesions (SIL) and cervical cancer was 97.8%. On the basis of the data presented in this study, it was estimated that there was a statistically significant prevalence of low risk HPV types (HPV 6/11) in low grade SIL, 83.3%, and a statistically significant prevalence of high risk HPV types (HPV 16,18,31,33,51) in high grade SIL, 58.4%, as well as cervical cancer lesions in 100%. We conclude that there was a statistically significant difference between women with low and high grade SIL for HPV infection, with low and high risk HPV types, respectively. The risk factors for cervical cancer investigated (age at first sexual intercourse, multiple sexual partners, parity, use of oral contraceptives) were not associated to statistically significant differences concerning low grade SIL and high grade SIL. The clinical and therapeutic procedures were evaluated for the same five years (1990/94). It may be concluded that there would be no significant difference in clinical procedure for high grade lesions and cervical cancer, in which the treatment had been frequently radical (cone biopsies, simple or radical hysterectomy) and in which the HPV infection persisted frequently and was

  16. Direct RNA detection without nucleic acid purification and PCR: Combining sandwich hybridization with signal amplification based on branched hybridization chain reaction.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yao; Zheng, Zhi

    2016-05-15

    We have developed a convenient, robust and low-cost RNA detection system suitable for high-throughput applications. This system uses a highly specific sandwich hybridization to capture target RNA directly onto solid support, followed by on-site signal amplification via 2-dimensional, branched hybridizing chain polymerization through toehold-mediated strand displacement reaction. The assay uses SYBR Green to detect targets at concentrations as low as 1 pM, without involving nucleic acid purification or any enzymatic reaction, using ordinary oligonucleotides without modification or labeling. The system was demonstrated in the detection of malaria RNA in blood and GAPDH gene expression in cell lysate.

  17. Analysis of the pan genome of Campylobacter jejuni isolates recovered from poultry by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, multilocus sequence typing (MLST), and repetitive sequence polymerase chain reaction (rep-PCR) reveals different discriminatory capabilities.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Melissa K; Lane, Alison B; Law, Bibiana F; Miller, William G; Joens, Lynn A; Konkel, Michael E; White, Bryan A

    2009-11-01

    Campylobacter jejuni is one of the leading bacterial causes of food-borne illness in the USA. Molecular typing methods are often used in food safety for identifying sources of infection and pathways of transmission. Moreover, the identification of genetically related isolates (i.e., clades) may facilitate the development of intervention strategies for control and prevention of food-borne diseases. We analyzed the pan genome (i.e., core and variable genes) of 63 C. jejuni isolates recovered from chickens raised in conventional, organic, and free-range poultry flocks to gain insight into the genetic diversity of C. jejuni isolates recovered from different environments. We assessed the discriminatory power of three genotyping methods [i.e., pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), multilocus sequence typing (MLST), and repetitive extragenic palindromic polymerase chain reaction (rep-PCR)]. The rep-PCR fingerprint was generated by determining the presence of repetitive sequences that are interspersed throughout the genome via repetitive extragenic palindromic PCR, enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus sequence PCR (ERIC-PCR), and BOX element PCR (BOX-PCR) and combining the data to form a composite fingerprint. The genetic fingerprints were subjected to computer-assisted pattern analysis. Comparison of the three genotypic methods revealed that repREB-PCR showed greater discriminatory power than PFGE and MLST. ERIC-PCR and BOX-PCR yielded the highest number of PCR products and greatest reproducibility. Regardless of the genotyping method, C. jejuni isolates recovered from chickens reared in conventional, organic, and free-range environments all exhibit a high level of genotypic diversity.

  18. Genetic structure of soil population of fungus Fusarium oxysporum Schlechtend.: Fr.: Molecular reidentification of the species and genetic differentiation of isolates using polymerase chain reaction technique with universal primers (UP-PCR)

    SciTech Connect

    Bulat, S.A.; Mironenko, N.V.; Zholkevich, Yu.G.

    1995-07-01

    The genetic structure of three soil populations of fungus Fusarium oxysporum was analyzed using polymerase chain reaction with universal primers (UP-PCR). Distinct UP-PCR variants revealed by means of cross-dot hybridization of amplified DNA and restriction analysis of nuclear ribosomal DNA represent subspecies or sibling species of F. oxysporum. The remaining isolates of F. oxysporum showed moderate UP-PCR polymorphism characterized by numerous types, whose relatedness was analyzed by computer treatment of the UP-PCR patterns. The genetic distance trees based on the UP-PCR patterns, which were obtained with different universal primers, demonstrated similar topology. This suggests that evolutionarily important genome rearrangements correlatively occur within the entire genome. Isolates representing different UP-PCR polymorphisms were encountered in all populations, being distributed asymmetrically in two of these. In general, soil populations of F. oxysporum were represented by numerous genetically isolated groups with a similar genome structure. The genetic heterogeneity of the isolates within these groups is likely to be caused by the parasexual process. The usefulness of the UP-PCR technique for population studies of F. oxysporum was demonstrated. 39 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  19. Integrated polymerase chain reaction/electrophoresis instrument

    DOEpatents

    Andresen, Brian D.

    2000-01-01

    A new approach and instrument for field identification of micro-organisms and DNA fragments using a small and disposable device containing integrated polymerase chain reaction (PCR) enzymatic reaction wells, attached capillary electrophoresis (CE) channels, detectors, and read-out all on/in a small hand-held package. The analysis instrument may be made inexpensively, for example, of plastic, and thus is disposable, which minimizes cross contamination and the potential for false positive identification between samples. In addition, it is designed for multiple users with individual applications. The integrated PCR/CE is manufactured by the PCR well and CE channels are "stamped" into plastic depressions where conductive coatings are made in the wells and ends of the CE microchannels to carry voltage and current to heat the PCR reaction mixtures and simultaneously draw DNA bands up the CE channels. Light is transmitted through the instrument at appropriate points and detects PCR bands and identifies DNA fragments by size (retention time) and quantifies each by the amount of light generated as each phototransistor positioned below each CE channel detects a passing band. The instrument is so compact that at least 100 PCR/CE reactions/analyses can be performed easily on one detection device.

  20. Real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) for measurement of cytokine and growth factor mRNA expression with fluorogenic probes or SYBR Green I.

    PubMed

    Yin, J L; Shackel, N A; Zekry, A; McGuinness, P H; Richards, C; Putten, K V; McCaughan, G W; Eris, J M; Bishop, G A

    2001-06-01

    Real-time quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) is the method of choice for rapid and reproducible measurements of cytokine or growth factor expression in small samples. Fluorescence detection methods for monitoring real-time PCR include fluorogenic probes labelled with reporter and quencher dyes, such as Taqman probes or Molecular Beacons and the dsDNA-binding dye SYBR Green I. Fluorogenic (Taqman) probes for a range of human and rat cytokines and growth factors were tested for sensitivity and compared with an assay for SYBR Green I quantification using real-time fluorescence monitoring (PE Applied Biosystems Model 7700 sequence detector). SYBR Green I detection involved analysis of the melting temperature of the PCR product and measurement of fluorescence at the optimum temperature. Fluorogenic probes provided sensitive and reproducible detection of targets that ranged from low (<10 copies/reaction) to high (>107 copies/ reaction) expression. SYBR Green I gave reproducible quantification when the target gene was expressed at moderate to high levels (> or =1000 copies/reaction), but did not give consistently reproducible quantification when the target gene was expressed at low levels. Although optimization of melting temperature improved the specificity of SYBR Green I detection, in our hands it did not equal the reproducible sensitivity and specificity of fluorogenic probes. The latter method is the first choice for measurement of low-level gene expression, although SYBR Green I is a simple and reproducible means to quantify genes that are expressed at moderate to high levels.

  1. A Practical Polymerase Chain Reaction Laboratory for Introductory Biology Classes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowlus, R. David; Grether, Susan C.

    1996-01-01

    Presents a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) laboratory exercise that can be performed by introductory biology students in 1 45- to 55-minute class period. Includes a general description of the polymerase chain reaction, materials needed, procedure, and details of interest to teachers. (JRH)

  2. Assessing HER2 amplification by IHC, FISH, and real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis (real-time PCR) following LCM in formalin-fixed paraffin embedded tissue from 40 women with ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Hillig, Thore; Thode, Jørgen; Breinholt, Marie F; Franzmann, Maria-Benedicte; Pedersen, Carsten; Lund, Flemming; Mygind, Henrik; Sölétormos, György; Rudnicki, Martin

    2012-12-01

    We compare HER2 receptor amplification analysis by immunohistochemistry (IHC), fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), and real-time polymerase chain reaction (real-time PCR) DNA copy-number assay following laser capture microdissection (LCM) in formalin-fixed paraffin embedded tissue from 40 women with verified ovarian cancer. We speculate that LCM should result in a more accurate assessment of HER2 amplification in our real-time PCR assay compared with IHC and FISH. HER2 overexpression measured by IHC, FISH, or real-time PCR was found in 5.0%, 5.0%, and 22.5%, respectively. HER2 negative results measured by IHC, FISH, or real-time PCR were found in 95%, 92.5%, and 60.0%, respectively. Analysis failed for IHC, FISH, or real-time PCR in 0%, 2.5%, or 17.5% of cases. Concordance between IHC and FISH, IHC and real-time PCR, or FISH and real-time PCR were 89.7%, 72.7%, or 78.1%, respectively. Only few ovarian cancer patients were HER2 overexpressed measured by IHC or FISH and thus could be eligible for antibody-based therapy with trastuzumab (Herceptin). Interestingly, we find an increased number of HER2 positive patients by real-time PCR analysis on microdissected cancer cells, suggesting a number of HER2 positive patients not detected by current methods. Thus, the concept of quantitative measurement of HER2 on microdissected cancer cells should be explored further.

  3. Rapid and efficient identification of the mouse leptin receptor mutation (C57BL/KsJ-db/db) by tetra-primer amplification refractory mutation system-polymerase chain reaction (ARMS-PCR) analysis.

    PubMed

    Jung, Harry; Nam, Hajin; Suh, Jun-Gyo

    2016-03-01

    The C57BLKS/J-Lepr(db) mouse has a point mutation in the leptin receptor gene and is one of the most useful animal model for non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus in human. Since the homozygote of C57BLKS/J-Lepr(db) mouse is infertile, detection of point mutation in the leptin receptor gene is important for efficient maintaining strains as well as mass production of homozygotes. To develop a rapid and efficient genotyping method for C57BLKS/J-Lepr(db) mouse, the tetra-primer amplification-refractory mutation system polymerase chain reaction (ARMS-PCR) was used. The 407 and 199 bp PCR products were amplified from normal (+/+) mice; while the 407 and 268 bp PCR products were amplified from homozygotes (db/db) mice; and the 407, 268, and 199 bp PCR products were amplified from heterozygotes (db/+) mice. This result showed that the tetra-primer ARMS-PCR analysis by us is suitable to detect point mutation of the leptin receptor gene. Taken together, our method will dramatically reduce animal use for maintenance of strains as well as production of homozygote in the C57BLKS/J-Lepr(db) strains. PMID:27051445

  4. Rapid and efficient identification of the mouse leptin receptor mutation (C57BL/KsJ-db/db) by tetra-primer amplification refractory mutation system-polymerase chain reaction (ARMS-PCR) analysis.

    PubMed

    Jung, Harry; Nam, Hajin; Suh, Jun-Gyo

    2016-03-01

    The C57BLKS/J-Lepr(db) mouse has a point mutation in the leptin receptor gene and is one of the most useful animal model for non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus in human. Since the homozygote of C57BLKS/J-Lepr(db) mouse is infertile, detection of point mutation in the leptin receptor gene is important for efficient maintaining strains as well as mass production of homozygotes. To develop a rapid and efficient genotyping method for C57BLKS/J-Lepr(db) mouse, the tetra-primer amplification-refractory mutation system polymerase chain reaction (ARMS-PCR) was used. The 407 and 199 bp PCR products were amplified from normal (+/+) mice; while the 407 and 268 bp PCR products were amplified from homozygotes (db/db) mice; and the 407, 268, and 199 bp PCR products were amplified from heterozygotes (db/+) mice. This result showed that the tetra-primer ARMS-PCR analysis by us is suitable to detect point mutation of the leptin receptor gene. Taken together, our method will dramatically reduce animal use for maintenance of strains as well as production of homozygote in the C57BLKS/J-Lepr(db) strains.

  5. Rapid and efficient identification of the mouse leptin receptor mutation (C57BL/KsJ-db/db) by tetra-primer amplification refractory mutation system-polymerase chain reaction (ARMS-PCR) analysis

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Harry; Nam, Hajin

    2016-01-01

    The C57BLKS/J-Leprdb mouse has a point mutation in the leptin receptor gene and is one of the most useful animal model for non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus in human. Since the homozygote of C57BLKS/J-Leprdb mouse is infertile, detection of point mutation in the leptin receptor gene is important for efficient maintaining strains as well as mass production of homozygotes. To develop a rapid and efficient genotyping method for C57BLKS/J-Leprdb mouse, the tetra-primer amplification-refractory mutation system polymerase chain reaction (ARMS-PCR) was used. The 407 and 199 bp PCR products were amplified from normal (+/+) mice; while the 407 and 268 bp PCR products were amplified from homozygotes (db/db) mice; and the 407, 268, and 199 bp PCR products were amplified from heterozygotes (db/+) mice. This result showed that the tetra-primer ARMS-PCR analysis by us is suitable to detect point mutation of the leptin receptor gene. Taken together, our method will dramatically reduce animal use for maintenance of strains as well as production of homozygote in the C57BLKS/J-Leprdb strains. PMID:27051445

  6. Primary A (H1N1) pdm09 Influenza Pneumonia Diagnosed on Reverse Transcription-polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR) of Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid but not Rapid Tests with Nasopharyngeal Swabs.

    PubMed

    Ohkura, Noriyuki; Tani, Mayuko; Nishitsuji, Masaru; Nishi, Koichi

    2015-01-01

    A 47-year-old man with a fever was highly suspected of having influenza A infection since his wife and son who lived with him had been diagnosed with influenza A. Although repeated rapid tests with a nasopharyngeal swab showed negative findings, the patient developed bilateral pneumonia and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for A (H1N1) pdm09 virus in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid was positive. We therefore diagnosed him with primary influenza pneumonia and initiated treatment with peramivir plus corticosteroids, which rapidly improved his condition. During the influenza season, sample collection from the lower airway and PCR should be considered for the definitive diagnosis of primary influenza viral pneumonia.

  7. Polymerase Chain Reaction on a Viral Nanoparticle.

    PubMed

    Carr-Smith, James; Pacheco-Gómez, Raúl; Little, Haydn A; Hicks, Matthew R; Sandhu, Sandeep; Steinke, Nadja; Smith, David J; Rodger, Alison; Goodchild, Sarah A; Lukaszewski, Roman A; Tucker, James H R; Dafforn, Timothy R

    2015-12-18

    The field of synthetic biology includes studies that aim to develop new materials and devices from biomolecules. In recent years, much work has been carried out using a range of biomolecular chassis including α-helical coiled coils, β-sheet amyloids and even viral particles. In this work, we show how hybrid bionanoparticles can be produced from a viral M13 bacteriophage scaffold through conjugation with DNA primers that can template a polymerase chain reaction (PCR). This unprecedented example of a PCR on a virus particle has been studied by flow aligned linear dichroism spectroscopy, which gives information on the structure of the product as well as a new protototype methodology for DNA detection. We propose that this demonstration of PCR on the surface of a bionanoparticle is a useful addition to ways in which hybrid assemblies may be constructed using synthetic biology.

  8. The use of a one-step real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR) for the surveillance of viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) in Minnesota.

    PubMed

    Phelps, Nicholas B D; Patnayak, Devi P; Jiang, Yin; Goyal, Sagar M

    2012-12-01

    Viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) is a highly contagious and pathogenic virus of fish. The virus infects more than 70 fish species worldwide, in both fresh and salt water. A new viral strain (VHSV-IVb) has proven both virulent and persistent, spreading throughout the Great Lakes of North America and to inland water bodies in the region. To better understand the geographic distribution of the virus, we used a modified real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR) assay for high-throughput testing of fish for VHSV. The assay was shown to be twice as sensitive as the gold standard, virus isolation, and did not cross react with other viruses found in fish. In addition, the diagnostic turnaround time was reduced from 28 to 30 d for virus isolation to 2-4 d for rRT-PCR. To demonstrate the usefulness of the rRT-PCR assay, 115 high-priority water bodies in Minnesota were tested by both methods from April 2010 to June 2011. All survey sites tested negative for VHSV by both methods. The survey results have informed fisheries managers on the absence of VHSV in Minnesota and have better prepared them for the eventual arrival of the disease. In addition, the results demonstrate the value of this rRT-PCR as a surveillance tool to rapidly identify an outbreak so that it can be controlled in a timely manner.

  9. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification demonstrates the absence of human T-cell lymphotrophic virus (HTLV)-I specific pol sequences in peripheral T-cell lymphomas.

    PubMed

    Henni, T; Divine, M; Gaulard, P; Haioun, C; Duc Dodon, M; Gourdin, M F; Desforges, L; Goossens, M; Reyes, F; Farcet, J P

    1990-09-01

    HTLV-I seronegative patients in nonendemic areas have been described with T-cell proliferations the DNA of which contains specific HTLV-I viral sequences. We have looked for the presence of HTLV-I DNA sequences in 27 HTLV-I seronegative patients with peripheral T-cell lymphomas, distinct from adult T-cell leukemia (ATL), and four HTLV-I seropositive patients, three with an ATL and one with a tropical spastic paraparesis. Using HTLV-I pol specific primers, the genomic DNA from peripheral blood mononuclear cells and lymph nodes massively infiltrated by tumor cells was analyzed by the enzymatic gene amplification procedure. In contrast to the peripheral blood lymphocytes from the four HTLV-I seropositive patients, the peripheral T-cell lymphoma samples did not harbor HTLV-I pol sequences. The data show that the detection of HTLV-I nucleotide sequences by the polymerase chain reaction correlates with serologic analysis in this series. PMID:2266151

  10. Cykotine mRNA expression in mouse retina after laser injury by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schuschereba, Steven T.; Bowman, Phillip D.; Ujimore, Veronica; Hoxie, Stephen W.; Pizarro, Jose M.; Cross, Michael E.; Lund, David J.

    1996-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify cytokines produced by the retina after laser injury. With the aid of a scanning laser ophthalmoscope (SLO), right eyes of mice received lesions from a continuous wave argon laser. Left eyes served as unirradiated controls. At 2, 4, 6, 12, 24, and 48 hr after laser irradiation groups of 3 mice were euthanized and retinas fixed for histology or isolated for RNA. Messenger RNA (mRNA) was reverse-transcribed into complementary DNA (cDNA) and subjected to polymerase chain reaction for the following cytokines: tumor necrosis factor-(alpha) (TNF-(alpha) ), interleukin-1(alpha) /(Beta) (IL- 1(alpha) /(Beta) ), interleukin-6 (IL-6), transforming growth factor-(Beta) 1 (TGF- (Beta) 1), macrophage colony stimulating factor (M-CSF), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), and glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (G3PDH). Histologically, lesions were confined to the photoreceptors, retinal pigment epithelium, and choroid. In laser-injured retinas, mRNA levels were elevated for IL-1(alpha) , TGF-(Beta) 1, iNOS, and G3PDH, but not TNF-(alpha) , IL-1(Beta) , or IL-6. It appears that the retina, in response to laser injury, upregulates a select number of cytokines in a time-course dependent fashion.

  11. Evaluation of a broad range real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay for the diagnosis of septic synovitis in horses

    PubMed Central

    Elmas, Colette R.; Koenig, Judith B.; Bienzle, Dorothee; Cribb, Nicola C.; Cernicchiaro, Natalia; Coté, Nathalie M.; Weese, J. Scott

    2013-01-01

    Septic synovitis is a potentially debilitating and life-threatening disorder in horses. We hypothesized that a universal bacterial real-time PCR (RT-PCR) assay would have improved sensitivity and decreased turn-around time for detection of bacteria in synovial fluid (SF) samples. Forty-eight SF samples were collected from 36 horses that presented to two referral institutions with suspected septic synovitis. Universal RT-PCR, bacterial culture and SF analysis were performed on all samples, and an interpretation on the sample being septic or not was derived by three board certified specialists from the history, clinical assessment and SF characteristics. RT-PCR results were compared to a composite standard comprised of positive culture and interpretation by all three specialists of samples as “septic”. For 41 of 48 samples (85%), culture and RT-PCR results were concordant. Compared to the composite standard, 83% of samples were correctly classified by RT-PCR (turn-around time of approximately 4 hours). Relative sensitivity and specificity of RT-PCR were 87% and 72% respectively, and 56% and 86% for culture. Hence, universal RT-PCR was a rapid and highly sensitive test, which may accelerate diagnosis and improve outcome for horses with septic synovitis. PMID:24101798

  12. Evaluation of a broad range real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay for the diagnosis of septic synovitis in horses.

    PubMed

    Elmas, Colette R; Koenig, Judith B; Bienzle, Dorothee; Cribb, Nicola C; Cernicchiaro, Natalia; Coté, Nathalie M; Weese, J Scott

    2013-07-01

    Septic synovitis is a potentially debilitating and life-threatening disorder in horses. We hypothesized that a universal bacterial real-time PCR (RT-PCR) assay would have improved sensitivity and decreased turn-around time for detection of bacteria in synovial fluid (SF) samples. Forty-eight SF samples were collected from 36 horses that presented to two referral institutions with suspected septic synovitis. Universal RT-PCR, bacterial culture and SF analysis were performed on all samples, and an interpretation on the sample being septic or not was derived by three board certified specialists from the history, clinical assessment and SF characteristics. RT-PCR results were compared to a composite standard comprised of positive culture and interpretation by all three specialists of samples as "septic". For 41 of 48 samples (85%), culture and RT-PCR results were concordant. Compared to the composite standard, 83% of samples were correctly classified by RT-PCR (turn-around time of approximately 4 hours). Relative sensitivity and specificity of RT-PCR were 87% and 72% respectively, and 56% and 86% for culture. Hence, universal RT-PCR was a rapid and highly sensitive test, which may accelerate diagnosis and improve outcome for horses with septic synovitis.

  13. Use of Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in diagnosis of Marek’s disease and reticuloendotheliosis in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tumorous tissues

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    PCR was used in diagnosis of Marek’s disease (MD) and reticuloendotheliosis (RE) in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tumorous tissues that have been stored for periods varied from 5-244 months. In another experiment, PCR was also used in diagnosis of MD in tumorous tissues that have been onl...

  14. Polymerase Chain Reaction for Detection of Systemic Plant Pathogens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This chapter outlines the advances and application of the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) since its development in 1984 and its enhancements and applications to detection of viruses, viroids and phytoplasma in pome and stone fruits. PCR is probably the most rapidly and widely adopted technology eve...

  15. Tissue Microdissection and Degenerate Oligonucleotide Primed-Polymerase Chain Reaction (DOP-PCR) Is an Effective Method to Analyze Genetic Aberrations in Invasive Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Hirose, Yuichi; Aldape, Kenneth; Takahashi, Michelle; Berger, Mitchel S.; Feuerstein, Burt G.

    2001-01-01

    We amplified various amounts of DNA derived from frozen SF210 and U251NCI human glioblastoma cells, carried out comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) using degenerate oligonucleotide primed-PCR (DOP-PCR) products as test probes, and compared results to analyses performed with probes prepared by standard nick translation. Next we extracted DNA from hematoxylin-eosin (HE)- and methyl green (MG)-stained, microdissected sections of formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded U251NCI cells, amplified and labeled it by DOP-PCR, and subjected it to CGH. Finally, we used the same methods in multiple samples from a single human mixed glioma tissue. DOP-PCR products from 50 pg to 250 ng of DNA were equally effective in generating the same CGH profiles as the standard method. DOP-PCR products from microdissected pieces of MG-stained cells were effective probes for CGH, but HE-stained samples were not desirable. As the proportion of HE-stained sample increased, CGH profiles deteriorated. DOP-PCR products from microdissected pieces of MG-stained paraffin sections of glioma tissue produced CGH profiles compatible with their histological features. CGH performed with DOP-PCR products from microdissected paraffin blocks allows for the accurate investigation of the cytogenetic characteristics from invasive tumors and of cytogenetic heterogeneity within neoplastic tissue. PMID:11333301

  16. Quantification of minimal residual disease (MRD) in acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) using amplicon-fusion-site polymerase chain reaction (AFS-PCR)

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    The amplification of putative oncogenes is a common finding within the genome of various cancer types. Identification and further targeting of specific junction sites within the sequence of genomic amplicons (amplicon fusion sites, AFS) by PCR (AFS-PCR) is suitable for quantification of minimal residual disease (MRD). This approach has recently been developed and described for MYCN amplified neuroblastomas. To compare AFS-PCR directly to routinely used MRD diagnostic strategies, we mapped the amplified genomic regions (ampGR) of an iAMP21-amplicon in high resolution of a patient with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). Successfully, we established AFS-PCR covering junction sites between ampGR within the iAMP21-amplicon. Quantification of MRD by AFS-PCR was directly comparable to IgH/TCR based real time quantitative PCR and fluorescence activated cell sorting (FACS) analysis in consecutive bone marrow (BM) specimens. Our data give an additional proof of concept of AFS-PCR for quantification of MRD. The method could be taken into account for ALL patients with genomic amplifications as alternative MRD diagnostic, if no or qualitatively poor Ig/TCR-PCRs are available. PMID:23210797

  17. Primer design for PCR reactions in forensic biology.

    PubMed

    Elkins, Kelly M

    2015-01-01

    The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is a popular method to copy DNA in vitro. Its invention revolutionized fields ranging from clinical medicine to anthropology, molecular biology, and forensic biology. The method employs one of many available heat-stable DNA polymerases in a reaction that is repeated many times in situ. The DNA polymerase reads a template DNA strand and using the components of the reaction mix, catalyzes the addition of free 2'-deoxynucleotide triphosphate nitrogenous bases to short segment of DNA that forms a complement with the template via Watson-Crick base pairing. This short segment of DNA is referred to as a PCR primer and it is essential to the success of the reaction. The most widely used application of PCR in forensic labs is the amplification of short tandem repeat (STR) loci used in DNA typing. The STRs are routinely evaluated in concert with 16 or more reactions, a multiplex, run in one test tube simultaneously. In a multiplex, it is essential that the primers work specifically and accurately on the intended reactions without hindering the other reactions. The primers, which are very specific, also can be used to probe single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in a DNA sequence of interest by single base extension. Primers are often designed using one of many available automated software packages. Here the process of manually designing PCR primers for forensic biology using no-cost software is described.

  18. Use of Quantitative Fluorescent Polymerase Chain Reaction (QF PCR) in Prenatal Diagnostic of Fetal Aneuploidies in a 17 Month Period in Parallel with Karyotyping

    PubMed Central

    Konjhodzic, Rijad; Dervovic, Edina; Kurtovic-Basic, Ilvana; Stomornjak-Vukadin, Meliha; Muhic, Adis; Baljevic, Sumeja; Pirnat-Gegic, Aida; Basic, Ejub; Bilalovic, Nurija

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: QF PCR has recently entered diagnostic practice as a possible way to bypass culturing of the fetal cells, as well as to provide a rapid response following amniocentesis. Material and methods: The effective value of the QF PCR remains a much debated issue, positions ranging from that it makes classic kayotyping obsolete except in special occasions, to that it is no more than a guideline for a mandatory karyotype. Current practices of the gynecology specialists generates samples in such fashion that kariotyping of samples quickly falls behind to the point of obsoleteness, because, by the time a karyotype has been finished, a window of opportunity for termination of pregnancy has closed. Results: QF PCR provides a rapid response alternative, but it is necessary to establish its reproducibility, as well as an algorithm of its use along classic kariotyping. This study contains samples processed in a period from August 1, 2012 to December 31 2013 in both QF PCR and classic karyotype. Object of this study was compare results obtained by two methods, and establish confidence interval of the QF PCR testing. Overall, 661 amniotic fluid samples were processed and typed with QF PCR, out of which 221 were done in parallel with karyiotyping, as an confirmation of results. PMID:24825930

  19. Detection of Listeria monocytogenes with a nonisotopic polymerase chain reaction-coupled ligase chain reaction assay.

    PubMed Central

    Wiedmann, M; Barany, F; Batt, C A

    1993-01-01

    A polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-coupled ligase chain reaction (LCR) assay for the specific detection of Listeria monocytogenes (M. Wiedmann, J. Czajka, F. Barany, and C. A. Batt, Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 58:3443-3447, 1992) has been modified for detection of the LCR products with a nonisotopic readout. When a chemiluminescent or a colorimetric substrate for the nonisotopic detection of the LCR products was used, the PCR-coupled LCR gave a sensitivity of 10 CFU of L. monocytogenes. The detection method with the chemiluminescent substrate Lumi-Phos 530 permitted detection of the LCR products in less than 3 h, so that the whole assay can be completed within 10 h. Images PMID:8368859

  20. Universal primer-multiplex-polymerase chain reaction (UP-M-PCR) and capillary electrophoresis-laser-induced fluorescence analysis for the simultaneous detection of six genetically modified maize lines.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chunjiao; Xu, Wentao; Zhai, Zhifang; Luo, Yunbo; Yan, Xinghua; Zhang, Nan; Huang, Kunlun

    2011-05-25

    To meet the labeling and traceability requirement of genetically modified (GM) maize and their products for trade and regulation, it is essential to develop a specific detection method for monitoring the presence of GM content. In this work, six GM maize lines, including GA21, Bt11, NK603, Bt176, Mir604, and Mon810, were simultaneously detected by universal primer-multiplex-polymerase chain reaction (UP-M-PCR), and the amplicons for the six event-specific genes as well as the endogenous Ivr gene were successfully separated by the method of capillary electrophoresis-laser-induced fluorescence (CE-LIF). The UP-M-PCR method overcame the disadvantages in conventional M-PCR, such as complex manipulation, lower sensitivity, amplification disparity resulting from different primers, etc., and in combination with CE-LIF, it obtained a high sensitivity of 0.1 ng for both single and mixed DNA samples. The established method can be widely used for the qualitative identification of the GM maize lines.

  1. Dual phase multiplex polymerase chain reaction

    DOEpatents

    Pemov, Alexander; Bavykin, Sergei

    2008-10-07

    Highly specific and sensitive methods were developed for multiplex amplification of nucleic acids on supports such as microarrays. Based on a specific primer design, methods include five types of amplification that proceed in a reaction chamber simultaneously. These relate to four types of multiplex amplification of a target DNA on a solid support, directed by forward and reverse complex primers immobilized to the support and a fifth type--pseudo-monoplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) of multiple targets in solution, directed by a single pair of unbound universal primers. The addition of the universal primers in the reaction mixture increases the yield over the traditional "bridge" amplification on a solid support by approximately ten times. Methods that provide multitarget amplification and detection of as little as 0.45-4.5.times.10.sup.-12 g (equivalent to 10.sup.2-10.sup.3 genomes) of a bacterial genomic DNA are disclosed.

  2. Polymerase chain reaction with phase change as intrinsic thermal control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsieh, Yi-Fan; Yonezawa, Eri; Kuo, Long-Sheng; Yeh, Shiou-Hwei; Chen, Pei-Jer; Chen, Ping-Hei

    2013-04-01

    This research demonstrated that without any external temperature controller, the capillary convective polymerase chain reaction (ccPCR) powered by a candle can operate with the help of phase change. The candle ccPCR system productively amplified hepatitis B virus 122 base-pairs DNA fragment. The detection sensitivity can achieve at an initial DNA concentration to 5 copies per reaction. The results also show that the candle ccPCR system can operate functionally even the ambient temperature varies from 7 °C to 45 °C. These features imply that the candle ccPCR system can provide robust medical detection services.

  3. Multiplex PCR (polymerase chain reaction) assay for detection of E. coli O157:H7, Salmonella sp., Vibrio cholerae and Vibrio parahaemolyticus in spiked shrimps (Penaeus monodon).

    PubMed

    Fakruddin, M D; Sultana, Mahmuda; Ahmed, Monzur Morshed; Chowdhury, Abhijit; Choudhury, Naiyyum

    2013-03-15

    The coastal aquaculture mainly shrimps constitute major export sector in Bangladesh and is increasingly shaped by international trade conditions and by national responses to those stringent quality and safety standards. PCR based validated methods for detection of major bacterial pathogens in shrimp might be very useful tool for ensuring quality and safety standards of exportable shrimps. The objective of this study was to evaluate overall performance (sensitivity and specificity) of the multiplex PCR assay for detection of Vibrio cholerae, Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Salmonella sp. and Escherichia coli O157:H7 from spiked shrimp samples. The targeted genes were ompW for V. cholerae, tdh for V. parahaemolyticus, sefA for Salmonella spp. and hlyEHEC for E. coli O157:H7. The genomic DNA was extracted by using standard method and amplified accordingly. Sensitivity of the assay was tested by inoculating the shrimp homogenate with viable cells of laboratory references strains (target pathogens). The genes were amplified individually both from culture homogenate and spiked samples. Twenty different uniplex and multiplex PCR assay were performed; the results showed that the sensitivity and specificity of multiplex PCR are comparable to that of the results of uniplex PCR for the samples. DNA extracted from shrimp samples spiked with non-target pathogen (Bacillus cereus, Shigella flexneri and Staphylococcus aureus) yielded negative results. PMID:24498789

  4. A novel nested multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay for differential detection of Entamoeba histolytica, E. moshkovskii and E. dispar DNA in stool samples

    PubMed Central

    Khairnar, Krishna; Parija, Subhash C

    2007-01-01

    Background E. histolytica, a pathogenic amoeba, is indistinguishable in its cyst and trophozoite stages from those of non-pathogenic E. moshkovskii and E. dispar by light microscopy. We have developed a nested multiplex PCR targeting a 16S-like rRNA gene for differential detection of all the three morphologically similar forms of E. histolytica, E. moshkovskii and E. dispar simultaneously in stool samples. Results The species specific product size for E. histolytica, E. moshkovskii and E. dispar was 439, 553 and 174 bp respectively, which was clearly different for all the three Entamoeba species. The nested multiplex PCR showed a sensitivity of 94% and specificity of 100% for the demonstration of E. histolytica, E. moshkovskii and E. dispar DNA in stool samples. The PCR was positive for E. histolytica, E. moshkovskii and E. dispar in a total of 190 out of 202 stool specimens (94% sensitive) that were positive for E. histolytica/E. dispar/E. moshkovskii by examination of stool by microscopy and/or culture. All the 35 negative control stool samples that were negative for E. histolytica/E. dispar/E. moshkovskii by microscopy and culture were also found negative by the nested multiplex PCR (100% specific). The result from the study shows that only 34.6% of the patient stool samples that were positive for E. histolytica/E. dispar/E. moshkovskii by examination of stool by microscopy and/or culture, were actually positive for pathogenic E. histolytica and the remaining majority of the stool samples were positive for non-pathogenic E. dispar or E. moshkovskii as demonstrated by the use of nested multiplex PCR. Conclusion The present study reports a new nested multiplex PCR strategy for species specific detection and differentiation of E. histolytica, E. dispar and E. moshkovskii DNA in stool specimens. The test is highly specific, sensitive and also rapid, providing the results within 12 hours of receiving stool specimens. PMID:17524135

  5. LENGTH-HETEROGENEITY POLYMERASE CHAIN REACTION (LH-PCR) AS AN INDICATOR OF STREAM SANITARY AND ECOLOGICAL CONDITION: OPTIMAL SAMPLE SIZE AND HOLDING CONDITIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The use of coliform plate count data to assess stream sanitary and ecological condition is limited by the need to store samples at 4oC and analyze them within a 24-hour period. We are testing LH-PCR as an alternative tool to assess the bacterial load of streams, offering a cost ...

  6. In vivo quantification of formulated and chemically modified small interfering RNA by heating-in-Triton quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (HIT qRT-PCR)

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background While increasing numbers of small interfering RNA (siRNA) therapeutics enter into clinical trials, the quantification of siRNA from clinical samples for pharmacokinetic studies remains a challenge. This challenge is even more acute for the quantification of chemically modified and formulated siRNAs such as those typically required for systemic delivery. Results Here, we describe a novel method, heating-in-Triton quantitative reverse transcription PCR (HIT qRT-PCR) that improves upon the stem-loop RT-PCR technique for the detection of formulated and chemically modified siRNAs from plasma and tissue. The broad dynamic range of this assay spans five orders of magnitude and can detect as little as 70 pg duplex in 1 g of liver or in 1 ml of plasma. We have used this assay to quantify intravenously administrated siRNA in rodents and have reliably correlated target reduction with tissue drug concentrations. We were able to detect siRNA in rat liver for at least 10 days post injection and determined that for a modified factor VII (FVII) siRNA, on average, approximately 500 siRNA molecules per cell are required to achieve a 50% target reduction. Conclusions HIT qRT-PCR is a novel approach that simplifies the in vivo quantification of siRNA and provides a highly sensitive and reproducible tool to measure the silencing efficiency of chemically modified and formulated siRNAs. PMID:20731861

  7. Selective amplification of cDNA sequence from total RNA by cassette-ligation mediated polymerase chain reaction (PCR): application to sequencing 6.5 kb genome segment of hantavirus strain B-1.

    PubMed

    Isegawa, Y; Sheng, J; Sokawa, Y; Yamanishi, K; Nakagomi, O; Ueda, S

    1992-12-01

    A method, referred to as cassette-ligation mediated polymerase chain reaction (PCR), has been developed to permit selective and specific amplification of cDNA sequence from total cellular RNA. This technique comprises (i) digestion of cDNA with multiple restriction enzymes, (ii) ligation of cleavage products to double-stranded DNA cassettes possessing a corresponding restriction site and (iii) amplification of cassette-ligated restriction fragments containing a short, known sequence (but not all the other ligation products) by PCR using the specific and cassette primers; the specific primer is designed to prime synthesis from the known sequence of the cDNA whereas the cassette primer anneals to one strand of the cassette. Sequencing from the cassette primer provides information to design a new primer for the next walking step. The amplified cDNA fragments are often larger than the maximum DNA fragments (500-600 bp) that can be sequenced without the need of synthesizing internal sequencing primer. Each of such large cDNA fragments is dissected into smaller DNA fragments by repeating cassette-ligation mediated PCR exploiting different restriction sites and different sets of cassette primers. This dissection process reduces the number of specific primers to a minimum, thereby increasing the speed of sequencing and minimizing the overall cost. We have successfully applied this cDNA walking and sequencing by the cassette-ligation mediated PCR to the sequencing of an entire 6.5 kb genome segment of hantavirus strain B-1.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  8. Development and validation of a real time quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) assay for investigation of wild poliovirus type 1-South Asian (SOAS) strain reintroduced into Israel, 2013 to 2014.

    PubMed

    Hindiyeh, M Y; Moran-Gilad, J; Manor, Y; Ram, D; Shulman, L M; Sofer, D; Mendelson, E

    2014-02-20

    In February 2013, wild poliovirus type 1 (WPV1) was reintroduced into southern Israel and resulted in continuous silent circulation in the highly immune population. As a part of the public health emergency response, a novel real time quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) assay was developed, to allow for the sensitive and specific detection of the circulatingWPV1-South Asian (SOAS) strain. Specific primers and probes derived from the VP-1 region were designed, based on sequenced sewage isolates, and used to simultaneously amplify this WPV1-SOAS sequence together with bacteriophage MS-2 as internal control. High titre WPV1-SOAS stock virus was used for assay optimisation and 50 processed sewage samples collected from southern Israel and tested by reference culture based methods were used for analytical validation of the assay’s performance. The limit of detection of the multiplex qRT-PCR (SOAS/MS-2) assay was 0.1 plaque-forming unit (pfu)/reaction (20 pfu/mL) for WPV1-SOAS RNA with 100% sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values when compared to the culture based method. The turnaround time was rapid, providing results for environmental samples within 24 to 48 hours from completion of sewage processing, instead of five to seven days by culture-based analysis. Direct sewage testing by qRT-PCR assay proved to be a useful tool for rapid detection and environmental surveillance of WPV1-SOAS circulating strain during emergency response. Application of the approach for detection of WPV1-SOAS in stool samples obtained during acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) surveillance or field surveys should be further evaluated.

  9. Methylation-sensitive polymerase chain reaction.

    PubMed

    Moore, Hannah R; Meehan, Richard R; Young, Lorraine E

    2006-01-01

    Here, we describe a robust and reproducible methylation-sensitive polymerase chain reaction (MS-PCR) method to detect the percentage methylation in repeat sequences of individual pre-implantation ovine embryos produced by different embryo technologies. This method allows the comparison of embryos produced by nuclear transfer with other production and embryo culture methods, accounting for the heterogeneity between embryos within a single treatment. DNA extracted from single embryos is digested with a methylation-sensitive restriction enzyme to determine the percentage methylation after PCR amplification in comparison with an undigested control. The undigested control represents 100% methylation because methylation-sensitive enzymes do not cut methylated DNA, allowing the entire sample to be amplified by PCR. Image analysis quantification of the digested subsample PCR product on an ethidium bromide-stained agarose gel is proportional to the amount of methylated DNA in each embryo. By comparing quadruplicate values obtained for each embryo against a standard curve, we are able to ensure the validity of our results for each individual embryo. Compared with bisulphite sequencing methods, the method described is rapid, inexpensive, and relatively high-throughput. PMID:16761730

  10. Comparison of a quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) with conventional PCR, bacterial culture and ELISA for detection of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis infection in sheep showing pathology of Johne's disease.

    PubMed

    Sonawane, Ganesh G; Tripathi, Bhupendra N

    2013-12-01

    A quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) assay employing IS900 gene specific primers of Mycobacterium avium subsp. parartuberculosis (MAP) was compared with conventional PCR, bacterial culture and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in 38 sheep showing granulomatous enteritis and lymphadenitis with and without demonstration of acid-fast bacilli (AFB). The lesions were classified as multibacillary (MB) (n = 23), which had diffuse granulomatous lesions with abundant AFB, and paucibacillary (PB) (n = 15), which had focal or multifocal granulomatous lesions with few or no AFB. In the multibacillary group (MB), IS900 PCR detected 19 (82.6%), and qPCR detected all 23 (100%) sheep positive for MAP in the intestine and lymph node tissues. In the paucibacillary group (PB), IS900 PCR detected 2 (13.3%), and qPCR detected all 15 (100%) sheep positive for MAP in tissues. When results of both groups were taken together, IS900 PCR detected 21(55.2%), and qPCR detected all 38 (100%) animals positive for MAP genome either in the intestine or lymph node tissues. On Herrold egg yolk medium, tissues of 14 (60.9%) MB and 5 (33.3%) PB sheep were found to be positive for MAP. Out of 27 sheep (PB = 8, MB = 19) tested by an ELISA, 21 (77.7%) were found to be positive for MAP antibody, of which 25% (2/8) and 100% (19/19) sheep were from PB and MB sheep, respectively. Based on the results of the present study, it was concluded that qPCR was a highly sensitive test in comparison to conventional PCR, ELISA and bacterial culture for the diagnosis of paratuberculosis on infected tissues especially from paucibacillary sheep.

  11. Sensitive quantitative detection of Ralstonia solanacearum in soil by the most probable number-polymerase chain reaction (MPN-PCR) method.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Yasuhiro; Nakaho, Kazuhiro

    2014-05-01

    We developed a sensitive quantitative assay for detecting Ralstonia solanacearum in soil by most probable number (MPN) analysis based on bio-PCR results. For development of the detection method, we optimized an elution buffer containing 5 g/L skim milk for extracting bacteria from soil and reducing contamination of polymerase inhibitors in soil extracts. Because R. solanacearum can grow in water without any added nutrients, we used a cultivation buffer in the culture step of the bio-PCR that contained only the buffer and antibiotics to suppress the growth of other soil microorganisms. To quantify the bacterial population in soil, the elution buffer was added to 10 g soil on a dry weight basis so that the combined weight of buffer, soil, and soil-water was 50 g; 5 mL of soil extract was assumed to originate from 1 g of soil. The soil extract was divided into triplicate aliquots each of 5 mL and 500, 50, and 5 μL. Each aliquot was diluted with the cultivation buffer and incubated at 35 °C for about 24 h. After incubation, 5 μL of culture was directly used for nested PCR. The number of aliquots showing positive results was collectively checked against the MPN table. The method could quantify bacterial populations in soil down to 3 cfu/10 g dried soil and was successfully applied to several types of soil. We applied the method for the quantitative detection of R. solanacearum in horticultural soils, which could quantitatively detect small populations (9.3 cfu/g), but the semiselective media were not able to detect the bacteria.

  12. Pressure-driven one-step solid phase-based on-chip sample preparation on a microfabricated plastic device and integration with flow-through polymerase chain reaction (PCR).

    PubMed

    Tran, Hong Hanh; Trinh, Kieu The Loan; Lee, Nae Yoon

    2013-10-01

    In this study, we fabricate a monolithic poly(methylmethacrylate) (PMMA) microdevice on which solid phase-based DNA preparation and flow-through polymerase chain reaction (PCR) units were functionally integrated for one-step sample preparation and amplification operated by pressure. Chelex resin, which is used as a solid support for DNA preparation, can capture denatured proteins but releases DNA, and the purified DNA can then be used as a template in a subsequent amplification process. Using the PMMA microdevices, DNA was successfully purified from both Escherichia coli and human hair sample, and the plasmid vector inserted in E. coli and the D1S80 locus in human genomic DNA were successfully amplified from on-chip purified E. coli and human hair samples. Furthermore, the integration potential of the proposed sample preparation and flow-through PCR units was successfully demonstrate on a monolithic PMMA microdevice with a seamless flow, which could pave the way for a pressure-driven, simple one-step sample preparation and amplification with greatly decreased manufacture cost and enhanced device disposability.

  13. New methods as alternative or corrective measures for the pitfalls and artifacts of reverse transcription and polymerase chain reactions (RT-PCR) in cloning chimeric or antisense-accompanied RNA.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Chengfu; Liu, Yongming; Yang, Min; Liao, D Joshua

    2013-06-01

    We established new methods for cloning cDNA ends that start with reverse transcription (RT) and soon proceed with the synthesis of the second cDNA strand, avoiding manipulations of fragile RNA. Our 3'-end cloning method does not involve poly-dT primers and polymerase chain reactions (PCR), is low in efficiency but high in fidelity and can clone those RNAs without a poly-A tail. We also established a cDNA protection assay to supersede RNA protection assay. The protected cDNA can be amplified, cloned and sequenced, enhancing sensitivity and fidelity. We report that RT product using gene-specific primer (GSP) cannot be gene- or strand-specific because RNA sample contains endogenous random primers (ERP). The gene-specificity may be improved by adding a linker sequence at the 5'-end of the GSP to prime RT and using the linker as a primer in the ensuing PCR. The strand-specificity may be improved by using strand-specific DNA oligos in our protection assay. The CDK4 mRNA and TSPAN31 mRNA are transcribed from the opposite DNA strands and overlap at their 3' ends. Using this relationship as a model, we found that the overlapped sequence might serve as a primer with its antisense as the template to create a wrong-template extension in RT or PCR. We infer that two unrelated RNAs or cDNAs overlapping at the 5'- or 3'-end might create a spurious chimera in this way, and many chimeras with a homologous sequence may be such artifacts. The ERP and overlapping antisense together set complex pitfalls, which one should be aware of.

  14. Convective polymerase chain reaction around micro immersion heater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hennig, Martin; Braun, Dieter

    2005-10-01

    Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is performed in the thermal convection created by a micro immersion heater. Instead of repetitive heating and cooling, the temperature gradient induces thermal convection which drives the reaction liquid between hot and cold parts of the chamber. The convection triggers DNA amplification as the DNA melts into two single strands in the hot region and replicates with the use of proteins into twice the amount in the cold region. The constant heater is simply dipped into the reaction solution. Compared to previous experiments, we demonstrate that convective PCR is possible in a robotically accessible open vessel. Our approach compares well with fast PCR cyclers and replicates DNA 500 000 fold within 20minutes. We reduce the necessary components for PCR to cheap, single-use components and therefore increasing the prospects of bringing PCR to point of care applications—even in third world countries.

  15. Quantification of vitellogenin mRNA induction in mosquitofish (Gambusia affinis) by reverse transcription real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR).

    PubMed

    Leusch, F D L; Van den Heuvel, M R; Laurie, A D; Chapman, H F; Gooneratne, S Ravi; Tremblay, L A

    2005-01-01

    A method to quantify induction of vitellogenin (Vtg) mRNA in adult male mosquitofish was developed. Male mosquitofish were exposed to 0, 1, 20 and 250 ng l(-1) 17beta-oestradiol (E(2)) for 4 and 8 days in static exposures, and liver Vtg mRNA and 18S rRNA expression were quantified in duplex RT-PCR. Liver 18S rRNA expression was very consistent among individuals, and there was a highly significant increase in Vtg mRNA expression after exposure of mosquitofish for just 4 days at 250 ng l(-1) E(2). Lower doses did not induce Vtg mRNA expression even at 4 or 8 days. This method could be used as a rapid test to detect exposure of mosquitofish to oestrogenic chemicals. Further work is needed to determine if increased Vtg mRNA levels in male mosquitofish induce Vtg synthesis, and to determine the usefulness of the method in field sampling.

  16. The prevalence of Ehrlichia canis, Anaplasma platys and Babesia spp. in dogs in Nueva Ecija, Philippines based on multiplex polymerase chain reaction (mPCR) assay.

    PubMed

    Corales, Joyce Marielle I; Viloria, Victoria V; Venturina, Virginia M; Mingala, Claro N

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence of Ehrlichia canis, Anaplasma platys and Babesia spp. in dogs. It describes the practice of veterinarians in detecting tick-borne diseases in Nueva Ecija, Philippines. Seventy blood samples were collected and were subjected to multiplex PCR for the detection of E. canis, Babesia spp. and A. platys. The prevalence of babesiosis is the highest in Cabanatuan City (2/10), while a 10% prevalence (1/10) was observed in Science City of Muñoz, Talavera and Sta. Rosa. E. canis were only detected in Cabanatuan City. However, no anaplasmosis was detected in any area. The prevalence of babesiosis and ehrlichiosis in Nueva Ecija is 7.14% (5/70) and 2.85% (2/70) respectively. In addition, 70% (7/10) of the Nueva Ecija veterinary practitioners encountered cases of suspected ehrlichiosis in their practice. The diagnosis of ehrlichiosis is based primarily on presented clinical signs and complete blood counts, which include a platelet count. Of the 10 respondents, half utilized test kits while 90% interpreted blood samples. Meanwhile, only 60% of the respondents used an ELISA test kit for ehrlichiosis. For some practitioners, the main reason for not utilizing a kit is the high cost. None of the respondents had previously attended cases of suspected anaplasmosis. Only one respondent diagnosed a case of babesiosis by blood smear microscopy. PMID:25706424

  17. Polymerization as a Model Chain Reaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morton, Maurice

    1973-01-01

    Describes the features of the free radical, anionic, and cationic mechanisms of chain addition polymerization. Indicates that the nature of chain reactions can be best taught through the study of macromolecules. (CC)

  18. Platelet chimerism by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) utilizing variable number of tandem repeats (VNTR) in allogeneic stem cell transplant in children: a new novel approach to full chimerism analysis.

    PubMed

    Chou, P M; Olszewski, M; Huang, W; Silva, M; Kletzel, M

    2003-10-01

    Evaluation of chimerism following allogeneic transplantation has been performed traditionally focusing on two cellular compartments, namely lymphoid and myeloid. However, none has been described so far to evaluate platelet chimerism. In order to achieve full chimerism in all three cellular compartments, we prospectively obtained 138 samples of peripheral blood in 55 patients at different post transplant periods following allogeneic hematopoietic transplantation. Evaluation of chimerism was performed utilizing tests of variable number of tandem repeat (VNTR) and sex determination by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Tests for platelet chimerism using platelet-rich plasma were simultaneously analyzed with samples for T-cell lymphoid and myeloid compartments. Complete donor chimerism was noted in 49 of 55 patients (89%), while the remaining six have split chimerism ranging from 34 to 98%. There is significant difference (P=0.0004) between the percentages of donor DNA in all three cellular compartments comparing the means+/-s.e.m. (myeloid 95.60+/-0.9, T-cell lymphocytes 87.6+/-1.9, and the platelets 90.8+/-1.5); however, comparison between the medians is not statistically significant. This study represents an additional step towards achieving full chimerism and the observation may help reduce the number of unnecessary platelet transfusions once chimerism is noted in that cellular compartment.

  19. Microbial characterization of a JP-4 fuel-contaminated site using a combined lipid biomarker/polymerase chain reaction--denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE)-based approach.

    PubMed

    Stephen, J R; Chang, Y J; Gan, Y D; Peacock, A; Pfiffner, S M; Barcelona, M J; White, D C; Macnaughton, S J

    1999-06-01

    The impact of pollution on soil microbial communities and subsequent bioremediation can be measured quantitatively in situ using direct, non-culture-dependent techniques. Such techniques have advantages over culture-based methods, which often account for less than 1% of the extant microbial community. In 1988, a JP-4 fuel spill contaminated the glacio-fluvial aquifer at Wurtsmith Air Force Base, Michigan, USA. In this study, lipid biomarker characterization of the bacterial and eukaryotic communities was combined with polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) analysis of the eubacterial community to evaluate correlation between contaminant (JP-4 fuel) concentration and community structure shifts. Vadose, capillary fringe and saturated zone samples were taken from cores within and up- and down-gradient from the contaminant plume. Lipid biomarker analysis indicated that samples from within the plume contained increased biomass, with large proportions of typically gram-negative bacteria. Outside the plume, lipid profiles indicated low-biomass microbial communities compared with those within the initial spill site. 16S rDNA sequences derived from DGGE profiles from within the initial spill site suggested dominance of the eubacterial community by a limited number of phylogenetically diverse organisms. Used in tandem with pollutant quantification, these molecular techniques should facilitate significant improvements over current assessment procedures for the determination of remediation end-points.

  20. Polymerase chain reaction: A molecular diagnostic tool in periodontology.

    PubMed

    Maheaswari, Rajendran; Kshirsagar, Jaishree Tukaram; Lavanya, Nallasivam

    2016-01-01

    This review discusses the principles of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and its application as a diagnostic tool in periodontology. The relevant MEDLINE and PubMed indexed journals were searched manually and electronically by typing PCR, applications of PCR, PCR in periodontics, polymorphism studies in periodontitis, and molecular techniques in periodontology. The searches were limited to articles in English language and the articles describing PCR process and its relation to periodontology were collected and used to prepare a concise review. PCR has now become a standard diagnostic and research tool in periodontology. Various studies reveal that its sensitivity and specificity allow it as a rapid, efficient method of detecting, identifying, and quantifying organism. Different immune and inflammatory markers can be identified at the mRNA expression level, and also the determination of genetic polymorphisms, thus providing the deeper insight into the mechanisms underlying the periodontal disease.

  1. Polymerase chain reaction: A molecular diagnostic tool in periodontology

    PubMed Central

    Maheaswari, Rajendran; Kshirsagar, Jaishree Tukaram; Lavanya, Nallasivam

    2016-01-01

    This review discusses the principles of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and its application as a diagnostic tool in periodontology. The relevant MEDLINE and PubMed indexed journals were searched manually and electronically by typing PCR, applications of PCR, PCR in periodontics, polymorphism studies in periodontitis, and molecular techniques in periodontology. The searches were limited to articles in English language and the articles describing PCR process and its relation to periodontology were collected and used to prepare a concise review. PCR has now become a standard diagnostic and research tool in periodontology. Various studies reveal that its sensitivity and specificity allow it as a rapid, efficient method of detecting, identifying, and quantifying organism. Different immune and inflammatory markers can be identified at the mRNA expression level, and also the determination of genetic polymorphisms, thus providing the deeper insight into the mechanisms underlying the periodontal disease. PMID:27143822

  2. Use of polymerase chain reaction for detection of Chlamydia trachomatis.

    PubMed

    Ostergaard, L; Birkelund, S; Christiansen, G

    1990-06-01

    A polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay was developed for detection of Chlamydia trachomatis DNA. From the published sequence of the common C. trachomatis plasmid, two primer sets were selected. Detection of amplified sequences was done by agarose gel electrophoresis of cleaved or uncleaved amplified sequences, Southern hybridization, or dot blot analysis. The PCR assay was optimized and, after 40 cycles of amplification with primer set II, demonstrated a sensitivity of 10(-17) g of DNA, which corresponds to the detection of one copy of the plasmid. Because of the high sensitivity, we developed a closed system in which airborne contamination was minimized. Analysis of 228 clinical samples tested by cell culture, IDEIA enzyme immunosorbent assay (Medico-Nobel, Boots-Celltech Ltd., Berkshire, United Kingdom), and PCR showed a sensitivity of 100%, a specificity of 93% when PCR was compared with cell culture, and a corrected specificity of 99% when PCR was compared with cell culture or IDEIA.

  3. A molecular survey of S. mutans and P. gingivalis oral microbial burden in human saliva using Relative Endpoint Polymerase Chain Reaction (RE-PCR) within the population of a Nevada dental school revealed disparities among minorities

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The University of Nevada, Las Vegas School of Dental Medicine recently opened an orthodontic treatment clinic to address the needs of the racially and ethnically diverse population of Southern Nevada, primarily focusing on the treatment and care of low-income and minority patients. Although orthodontic treatment and therapy has been shown to induce changes in the oral cavity, much of this evidence was collected from traditional White, teenage orthodontic clinic populations. The primary goal of this study was to describe the microbial burden of the cariogenic and periodontal pathogens, Streptococcus mutans and Porphyromonas gingivalis within the UNLV-SDM patient population. Methods Representative saliva samples were collected from healthy adult patients for DNA isolation. Relative endpoint polymerase chain reaction (RE-PCR) was performed to ascertain the presence and relative microbial burden of these oral pathogens. Results Nearly one quarter (13/56) or 23.3% of these patients had elevated levels of S. mutans, while (10/56) and 17.8% of these samples were found to have elevated levels of P. gingivalis, - with (90%) of P. gingivalis-positive samples from minority patients (X2 = 17.921, d.f. = 1; p < 0.0001). Conclusions These findings of elevated P. gingivalis levels, primarily among minority patients, may suggest underlying oral health practices contributing to adverse oral health conditions within this population. Oral health knowledge and practices among minority patients may be strongly influenced by other factors, including education and socioeconomic status, suggesting additional research may be needed to accurately determine the most appropriate standards for care and oral health education within this patient population. PMID:22925755

  4. Nuclear chain reaction: forty years later

    SciTech Connect

    Sachs, R.G.

    1984-01-01

    The proceedings from a 1982 symposium 40 years after the first controlled nuclear chain reaction took place in Chicago covers four sessions and public discussion. The session covered the history of the chain reaction; peaceful uses in technology, medicine, and biological science; peaceful uses in power generation; and nuclear weapons control. Among the speakers were Eugene Wigner, Glenn Seaborg, Alvin Weinberg, and others who participated in the first chain reaction experiments. The proceedings reflect differences of opinion among the scientists as well as the general public. References, slides, and tables used to illustrate the individual talks are included with the papers.

  5. Predictors of Pertussis Polymerase Chain Reaction Positive Results in Minnesota, 2005-2009.

    PubMed

    McMahon, Melissa; Kulasingam, Shalini; Kenyon, Cynthia; Miller, Claudia; Ehresmann, Kristen

    2015-11-01

    Predictors of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) positivity for pertussis were assessed using Minnesota active surveillance data. Report of an exposure to pertussis and testing within the optimal time frame of ≤2 weeks were significantly associated with testing PCR positive, emphasizing the importance of asking about epidemiological factors when assessing patients for pertussis, and timely PCR testing.

  6. Supplement to Theory of Neutron Chain Reactions

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Weinberg, Alvin M.; Noderer, L. C.

    1952-05-26

    General discussions are given of the theory of neutron chain reactions. These include observations on exponential experiments, the general reactor with resonance fission, microscopic pile theory, and homogeneous slow neutron reactors. (B.J.H.)

  7. Taylor dispersion in polymerase chain reaction in a microchannel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jinkee; Kulla, Elejdis; Chauhan, Anuj; Tripathi, Anubhav

    2008-09-01

    Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is commonly used for a wide range of DNA applications such as disease detection, genetic fingerprinting, and paternity testing. The importance of PCR has led to an increased interest in performing PCR in a microfluidic platform with a high throughput while using very small DNA quantities. In this paper we solve convection-diffusion equations for the DNA and deoxynucleoside triphosphate (dNTP) under conditions suitable for PCR operation in a microchip. These include pressure driven flow accompanied by temporal temperature changes that lead to an amplification reaction, which is modeled as a first order reaction. The convection-diffusion-reaction equations are solved by using the method of multiple time scales to yield average equations that can be solved to obtain the long time evolution of the concentration profiles. The results obtained by solving the averaged equations agree well with full numerical solutions. The averaged equations are also solved to simulate the PCR to illustrate some interesting aspects of this operation in a microfluidic device. It is shown that insufficient nucleotide concentrations can lead to complete depletion of NTP at certain axial locations, which leads to termination of DNA amplification at these locations, resulting in formation of a plateau in DNA concentration.

  8. The Future of Digital Polymerase Chain Reaction in Virology.

    PubMed

    Vynck, Matthijs; Trypsteen, Wim; Thas, Olivier; Vandekerckhove, Linos; De Spiegelaere, Ward

    2016-10-01

    Driven by its potential benefits over currently available methods, and the recent development of commercial platforms, digital polymerase chain reaction (dPCR) has received increasing attention in virology research and diagnostics as a tool for the quantification of nucleic acids. The current technologies are more precise and accurate, but may not be much more sensitive, compared with quantitative PCR (qPCR) applications. The most promising applications with the current technology are the analysis of mutated sequences, such as emerging drug-resistant mutations. Guided by the recent literature, this review focuses on three aspects that demonstrate the potential of dPCR for virology researchers and clinicians: the applications of dPCR within both virology research and clinical virology, the benefits of the technique over the currently used real-time qPCR, and the importance and availability of specific data analysis approaches for dPCR. Comments are provided on current drawbacks and often overlooked pitfalls that need further attention to allow widespread implementation of dPCR as an accurate and precise tool within the field of virology.

  9. Detection of Francisella tularensis by the polymerase chain reaction.

    PubMed

    Junhui, Z; Ruifu, Y; Jianchun, L; Songle, Z; Meiling, C; Fengxiang, C; Hong, C

    1996-12-01

    Francisella tularensis is the causative agent of tularaemia. Effective antibiotic treatment of tularaemia is now available, but the early diagnosis of tularaemia remains a problem. Four primers (three pairs) were designed to detect F. tularensis by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR), based on the previously published nucleotide sequence of T-cell epitopes of a F. tularensis membrane protein. Amplification of purified F. tularensis chromosomal DNA with the three pairs of primers resulted in three different products with sizes consistent with those predicted from sequence data (211 bp, 347 bp and 568 bp). The specificity of the PCR was confirmed as no amplification was detected with a range of other bacteria. The sensitivity of the PCR was determined with limiting dilution PCR and viable counts. The preliminary application of the PCR to the detection of F. tularensis in aerosols and experimentally infected mice was investigated. Comparison of the results with those from traditional culture indicated that PCR was more sensitive. The animal challenge test showed that, 24 h after inoculation with 15 cfu of F. tularensis, 38 (82.6%) of 46 blood samples were positive by PCR, whereas only 22 (47.8%) were positive by culture. The results showed that PCR is a helpful tool for the detection of F. tularensis in blood, liver and spleen which should enable the rapid confirmation of clinical diagnoses of tularaemia. PMID:8958253

  10. Polymerase chain reaction: basic protocol plus troubleshooting and optimization strategies.

    PubMed

    Lorenz, Todd C

    2012-01-01

    In the biological sciences there have been technological advances that catapult the discipline into golden ages of discovery. For example, the field of microbiology was transformed with the advent of Anton van Leeuwenhoek's microscope, which allowed scientists to visualize prokaryotes for the first time. The development of the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is one of those innovations that changed the course of molecular science with its impact spanning countless subdisciplines in biology. The theoretical process was outlined by Keppe and coworkers in 1971; however, it was another 14 years until the complete PCR procedure was described and experimentally applied by Kary Mullis while at Cetus Corporation in 1985. Automation and refinement of this technique progressed with the introduction of a thermal stable DNA polymerase from the bacterium Thermus aquaticus, consequently the name Taq DNA polymerase. PCR is a powerful amplification technique that can generate an ample supply of a specific segment of DNA (i.e., an amplicon) from only a small amount of starting material (i.e., DNA template or target sequence). While straightforward and generally trouble-free, there are pitfalls that complicate the reaction producing spurious results. When PCR fails it can lead to many non-specific DNA products of varying sizes that appear as a ladder or smear of bands on agarose gels. Sometimes no products form at all. Another potential problem occurs when mutations are unintentionally introduced in the amplicons, resulting in a heterogeneous population of PCR products. PCR failures can become frustrating unless patience and careful troubleshooting are employed to sort out and solve the problem(s). This protocol outlines the basic principles of PCR, provides a methodology that will result in amplification of most target sequences, and presents strategies for optimizing a reaction. By following this PCR guide, students should be able to: • Set up reactions and thermal cycling

  11. Polymerase chain reaction: basic protocol plus troubleshooting and optimization strategies.

    PubMed

    Lorenz, Todd C

    2012-05-22

    In the biological sciences there have been technological advances that catapult the discipline into golden ages of discovery. For example, the field of microbiology was transformed with the advent of Anton van Leeuwenhoek's microscope, which allowed scientists to visualize prokaryotes for the first time. The development of the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is one of those innovations that changed the course of molecular science with its impact spanning countless subdisciplines in biology. The theoretical process was outlined by Keppe and coworkers in 1971; however, it was another 14 years until the complete PCR procedure was described and experimentally applied by Kary Mullis while at Cetus Corporation in 1985. Automation and refinement of this technique progressed with the introduction of a thermal stable DNA polymerase from the bacterium Thermus aquaticus, consequently the name Taq DNA polymerase. PCR is a powerful amplification technique that can generate an ample supply of a specific segment of DNA (i.e., an amplicon) from only a small amount of starting material (i.e., DNA template or target sequence). While straightforward and generally trouble-free, there are pitfalls that complicate the reaction producing spurious results. When PCR fails it can lead to many non-specific DNA products of varying sizes that appear as a ladder or smear of bands on agarose gels. Sometimes no products form at all. Another potential problem occurs when mutations are unintentionally introduced in the amplicons, resulting in a heterogeneous population of PCR products. PCR failures can become frustrating unless patience and careful troubleshooting are employed to sort out and solve the problem(s). This protocol outlines the basic principles of PCR, provides a methodology that will result in amplification of most target sequences, and presents strategies for optimizing a reaction. By following this PCR guide, students should be able to: • Set up reactions and thermal cycling

  12. qPCR (quantitative polymerase chain reaction) for the quantification of bacteriophages in stream water samples to investigate hydrological processes: a proof-of-concept study in the Huewelerbach experimental catchment (Luxembourg)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antonelli, Marta; Narayanan Balasubramanian, Mukundh; Ogorzaly, Leslie; Pfister, Laurent

    2016-04-01

    Albeit recent technological developments (e.g. field deployable instruments operating at high temporal frequencies), experimental hydrology is a discipline that remains measurement limited. From this perspective, trans-disciplinary approaches may create valuable opportunities to enlarge the amount of tools available for investigating hydrological processes. Bacteriophages have been widely used in hydrology as biological tracer for investigating colloid transport and contamination of ground water systems. However, there are only a few studies focusing on the employability of bacteriophages as surface water tracers (i.e. phage transport, system functioning). Here, we present a proof-of-concept study carried out in the Huewelerbach catchment in Luxembourg in December 2015. The aim of this study was to investigate how viral particles can be used to detect hydrological connectivity between the riparian zone/river bank and the stream during rainfall events. Moreover, this study is one of the first attempts for applying the qPCR (quantitative polymerase chain reaction) technique for the quantification of bacteriophages in stream water samples to investigate hydrological processes. This technique is very sensitive and has a large dynamic range - enhancing ease and speed of phage detection. We used two different male-specific coliphages (GA phage, genogroup II and SP phage, genogroup IV). Two litres of GA phage were injected directly in the stream as a slug injection and two litres of SP phage were poured next to the river bank (alluvial deposition) close to the injection point. We also added NaCl (200 g) to both phage suspensions. We collected stream water samples 100 m and 500 m downstream (i.e. catchment outlet) of the injection point for one week. Phages were concentrated through ultracentrifugation of 100 ml of water sample followed by quantification via qPCR. Conductivity in stream water was monitored for the entire duration of the experiment. Discharge was monitored

  13. Detection of flaviviruses by reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction.

    PubMed

    Eldadah, Z A; Asher, D M; Godec, M S; Pomeroy, K L; Goldfarb, L G; Feinstone, S M; Levitan, H; Gibbs, C J; Gajdusek, D C

    1991-04-01

    RNA sequences of five flaviviruses were detected by a modified polymerase chain reaction (PCR) that incorporated a reverse transcriptase and RNase inhibitor. Oligonucleotide primer pairs were synthesized to amplify sequences from St. Louis encephalitis (SLE), Japanese encephalitis (JBE), yellow fever (YF), dengue 2 (DEN-2), and dengue 4 (DEN-4) viruses. The amplified products were visualized as bands of appropriate size on ethidium bromide-stained agarose gels. The identity of these products was confirmed by restriction endonuclease cleavage to generate fragments of predicted lengths. The reverse-transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR) successfully amplified flavivirus sequences from cell cultures, frozen brain tissue, and formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded brain tissue. The reactions were highly specific, and the method compared favorably to two conventional assays of viral infectivity. RT-PCR followed by PCR with nesting primers (N-PCR) was 1,000-fold more sensitive in detecting virus than classical infectivity titration by intracerebral inoculation of suckling mice and nearly 1,000-fold more sensitive than amplification of virus in cell culture followed by inoculation of mice.

  14. Detection and genotyping of herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2 by polymerase chain reaction.

    PubMed

    Lucotte, G; Bathelier, C; Lespiaux, V; Bali, C; Champenois, T

    1995-10-01

    A simple and rapid polymerase chain reaction (PCR) procedure was developed for simultaneous detection and typing of herpes simplex virus (HSV) types 1 and 2. It was possible to detect and type HSV using two primers pairs in a simultaneous double PCR reaction, where the type of HSV present was determined on the basis of an ethidium-bromide-stained band after agarose gel electrophoresis. This PCR assay was tested on about 500 clinical specimens.

  15. Analysis of human cytomegalovirus using the polymerase chain reaction.

    PubMed

    Mendelson, M

    2000-01-01

    As with numerous other branches of science, the study of human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infection has been revolutionized by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method first devised by Mullis and Faloona (1). PCR allows the in vitro amplification of HCMV DNA sequences by the simultaneous primer extension of complementary DNA strands. Similarly, reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) allows the study of targeted gene expression, by reverse transcription of RNA to complementary DNA (cDNA), followed by amplification of target DNA using predetermined primers. The PCR method is used in the clinical diagnosis of HCMV infection, particularly in the setting of transplantation medicine and in those patients infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). In addition, the advent of PCR and RT-PCR has transformed our understanding of the pathogenesis of HCMV infection, central to which is the definition of the sites of latency, the degree and type of gene expression within the latently infected cell, and the factors influencing both the maintenance of latency and reactivation of the virus during immunosuppression.

  16. Quantification of chicken anaemia virus by competitive polymerase chain reaction.

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, S; Kaji, N; Munang'andu, H M; Kojima, C; Mase, M; Tsukamoto, K

    2000-08-01

    A quantitative method for chicken anaemia virus (CAV) was developed using competitive polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Competitive template was constructed by deletion of 33 nucleotides from a wildtype DNA clone of CAV. Quantification of CAV DNA molecules by the competitive PCR was rapid and highly reproducible when compared with conventional infectivity titration methods. The ratios of the viral DNA molecules and infectivity titres in MDCC-MSB1 cells varied between 1.3 and 3.55 log(10) among several isolates, suggesting the existence of different infection efficiencies to MDCC-MSB1 cells by isolates. The competitive PCR will be useful for studying CAV infection in vivo and/or in vitro.

  17. Rapid electrochemiluminescence assays of polymerase chain reaction products.

    PubMed

    Kenten, J H; Casadei, J; Link, J; Lupold, S; Willey, J; Powell, M; Rees, A; Massey, R

    1991-09-01

    We demonstrate the first use of an electrochemiluminescent (ECL) label, [4-(N-succimidyloxycarbonylpropyl)-4'-methyl-2,2'- bipyridine]ruthenium(II) dihexafluorophosphate (Origen label; IGEN Inc.), in DNA probe assays. This label allows rapid (less than 25 min) quantification and detection of polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-amplified products from oncogenes, viruses, and cloned genes. For the PCR, we used labeled oligonucleotide primers complementary to human papiloma virus and the Ha-ras oncogene. These samples were followed by ECL analysis or hybridization with specific, Origen-labeled oligonucleotide probes. These studies demonstrate the speed, specificity, and effectiveness of the new ECL labels, compared with 32P, for nucleic acid probe applications. We describe formats involving conventional methodologies and a new format that requires no wash step, allowing simple and rapid sample analysis. These rapid assays also reduce PCR contamination, by requiring less sample handling. Improvements in ECL detectability are currently under investigation for use in DNA probe assays without amplification.

  18. Circulating polymerase chain reaction chips utilizing multiple-membrane activation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Chih-Hao; Chen, Yi-Yu; Liao, Chia-Sheng; Hsieh, Tsung-Min; Luo, Ching-Hsing; Wu, Jiunn-Jong; Lee, Huei-Huang; Lee, Gwo-Bin

    2007-02-01

    This paper reports a new micromachined, circulating, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) chip for nucleic acid amplification. The PCR chip is comprised of a microthermal control module and a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS)-based microfluidic control module. The microthermal control modules are formed with three individual heating and temperature-sensing sections, each modulating a specific set temperature for denaturation, annealing and extension processes, respectively. Micro-pneumatic valves and multiple-membrane activations are used to form the microfluidic control module to transport sample fluids through three reaction regions. Compared with other PCR chips, the new chip is more compact in size, requires less time for heating and cooling processes, and has the capability to randomly adjust time ratios and cycle numbers depending on the PCR process. Experimental results showed that detection genes for two pathogens, Streptococcus pyogenes (S. pyogenes, 777 bps) and Streptococcus pneumoniae (S. pneumoniae, 273 bps), can be successfully amplified using the new circulating PCR chip. The minimum number of thermal cycles to amplify the DNA-based S. pyogenes for slab gel electrophoresis is 20 cycles with an initial concentration of 42.5 pg µl-1. Experimental data also revealed that a high reproducibility up to 98% could be achieved if the initial template concentration of the S. pyogenes was higher than 4 pg µl-1. The preliminary results of the current paper were presented at the 19th IEEE International Conference on Micro Electro Mechanical Systems (IEEE MEMS 2006), Istanbul, Turkey, 22-26 January, 2006.

  19. A circular ferrofluid driven microchip for rapid polymerase chain reaction.

    PubMed

    Sun, Y; Kwok, Y C; Nguyen, N T

    2007-08-01

    In the past few years, much attention has been paid to the development of miniaturized polymerase chain reaction (PCR) devices. After a continuous flow (CF) PCR chip was introduced, several CFPCR systems employing various pumping mechanisms were reported. However, the use of pumps increases cost and imposes a high requirement on microchip bonding integrity due to the application of high pressure. Other significant limitations of CFPCR devices include the large footprint of the microchip and the fixed cycle number which is dictated by the channel layout. In this paper, we present a novel circular close-loop ferrofluid driven microchip for rapid PCR. A small ferrofluid plug, containing sub-domain magnetic particles in a liquid carrier, is driven by an external magnet along the circular microchannel, which in turn propels the PCR mixture through three temperature zones. Amplification of a 500 bp lambda DNA fragment has been demonstrated on the polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) PCR microchip fabricated by CO(2) laser ablation and bonded by a low pressure, high temperature technique. Successful PCR was achieved in less than 4 min. Effects of cycle number and cycle time on PCR products were investigated. Using a magnet as the actuator eliminates the need for expensive pumps and provides advantages of low cost, small power consumption, low requirement on bonding strength and flexible number of PCR cycles. Furthermore, the microchip has a much simpler design and smaller footprint compared to the rectangular serpentine CFPCR devices. To demonstrate its application in forensics, a 16-loci short tandem repeat (STR) sample was successfully amplified using the PCR microchip.

  20. A Specific Qualitative Detection Method for Peanut (Arachis Hypogaea) in Foods Using Polymerase Chain Reaction

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We developed a qualitative detection method for peanuts in foods using polymerase chain reaction (PCR). We designed a universal primer pair CP 03-5’/ CP 03-3’ to confirm the validity of the DNAs for PCR. The plant specific amplified fragments were detected from 13 kinds of plants using the universal...

  1. Simultaneous Removal of Multiple DNA Segments by Polymerase Chain Reactions.

    PubMed

    Krishnamurthy, Vishnu; Zhang, Kai

    2017-01-01

    Precise DNA manipulation is a key enabling technology for synthetic biology. Approaches based on restriction digestion are often limited by the presence of certain restriction enzyme recognition sites. Recent development of restriction-free cloning approaches has greatly enhanced the flexibility and speed of molecular cloning. Most restriction-free cloning methods focus on DNA assembly. Much less work has been dedicated towards DNA removal. Here we introduce a protocol that allows simultaneous removal of multiple DNA segments from a plasmid using polymerase chain reactions (PCR). Our approach will be beneficial to applications in multiple sites mutagenesis, DNA library construction, genetic and protein engineering, and synthetic biology. PMID:27671942

  2. Studying the effect of graphene-ZnO nanocomposites on polymerase chain reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Vinay; Rajaura, Rajveer; Sharma, Preetam Kumar; Srivastava, Rishabh Ronin; Sharma, Shyam Sundar; Agrawal, Kailash

    2016-05-01

    An emerging area of research is improving the efficiency of the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) by using nanoparticles. With graphene nano-flakes showing promising results, in this paper we report the effect of Graphene-ZnO nanocomposites on Polymerase Chain reaction (PCR) efficiency. G-ZnO nanocomposites were efficiently synthesized via in situ chemical method. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) image confirms the formation of nanocomposites. ZnO nanoparticles of size range ~20-30 nm are uniformly attached on the graphene sheets. No amplification during PCR indicates inhibitory activity of G-ZnO nanocomposites which points the fingers at ZnO moiety of the G-ZnO composite for no amplification during our PCR reaction. Further work should concentrate on finding out the main inhibitory mechanism involved in inhibition of PCR using G-ZnO composites.

  3. Urine Nested Polymerase Chain Reaction in Neonatal Septicemia.

    PubMed

    Das, B K; Suri, Shipra; Nath, Gopal; Prasad, Rajniti

    2015-08-01

    This cross-sectional study was done to evaluate diagnostic efficacy of urine nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using broad-range 16SrDNA PCR-based amplification, followed by restriction analysis and sequencing in neonatal septicemia. The study included 50 babies; 48% had vaginal delivery, 46% were preterm, 20% had a history of prolonged rupture of membranes and 56% were low birth weight (≤2500 g). Clinical presentations were lethargy (96%), respiratory distress (80%) and bleeding diathesis (16%). Absolute neutrophil count <1800/mm(3) was observed in 60%, and positive C-reactive protein in 46%. Thirty neonates had positive blood culture, and Klebsiella pneumoniae (22%) was the predominant organism. Nested urine PCR was positive in 38 (76%) and detected bacterial DNA in 8 neonates with negative blood cultures. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value and accuracy of nested PCR were 100, 60, 78.9, 100 and 84%, respectively, compared with blood culture. Nested PCR can detect most bacteria in single assay and identify unusual and unexpected causal agents.

  4. Diagnosis of duck plague in waterfowl by polymerase chain reaction

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hansen, W.R.; Nashold, S.W.; Docherty, D.E.; Brown, S.E.; Knudson, D.L.

    2000-01-01

    A recently developed polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay was used for diagnosis of duck plague in waterfowl tissues from past and current cases of waterfowl mortality and to identify duck plague virus in combined cloacal/oral-pharyngeal swab samples from healthy mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) after a disease outbreak. The PCR was able to detect viral DNA from all the individual or pooled tissues assayed from 10 waterfowl, including liver and spleen samples from three Muscovy ducks (Cairina moschata domesticus) that did not yield virus isolates. The strong staining intensity of the PCR products from the waterfowl tissues indicated that large amounts of virus were present, even when virus was not isolated. Duck plague DNA was also detected in a cloacal swab sample from a wood duck (Aix sponsa) carcass submitted for diagnosis. The PCR assay identified duck plague DNA in 13 swab samples that produced virus isolates from carrier mallards sampled in 1981 after a duck plague die-off. The duck plague PCR clearly demonstrated the ability to quickly diagnose duck plague in suspect mortality cases and to detect virus shed by carrier waterfowl.

  5. Identification of duck plague virus by polymerase chain reaction.

    PubMed

    Hansen, W R; Brown, S E; Nashold, S W; Knudson, D L

    1999-01-01

    A polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay was developed for detecting duck plague virus. A 765-bp EcoRI fragment cloned from the genome of the duck plague vaccine (DP-VAC) virus was sequenced for PCR primer development. The fragment sequence was found by GenBank alignment searches to be similar to the 3' ends of an undefined open reading frame and the gene for DNA polymerase protein in other herpesviruses. Three of four primers sets were found to be specific for the DP-VAC virus and 100% (7/7) of field isolates but did not amplify DNA from inclusion body disease of cranes virus. The specificity of one primer set was tested with genome templates from other avian herpesviruses, including those from a golden eagle, bald eagle, great horned owl, snowy owl, peregrine falcon, prairie falcon, pigeon, psittacine, and chicken (infectious laryngotracheitis), but amplicons were not produced. Hence, this PCR test is highly specific for duck plague virus DNA. Two primer sets were able to detect 1 fg of DNA from the duck plague vaccine strain, equivalent to five genome copies. In addition, the ratio of tissue culture infectious doses to genome copies of duck plague vaccine virus from infected duck embryo cells was determined to be 1:100, making the PCR assay 20 times more sensitive than tissue culture for detecting duck plague virus. The speed, sensitivity, and specificity of this PCR provide a greatly improved diagnostic and research tool for studying the epizootiology of duck plague. PMID:10216766

  6. MEANS FOR PRODUCING PLUTONIUM CHAIN REACTIONS

    DOEpatents

    Wigner, E.P.; Weinberg, A.M.

    1961-01-24

    A neutronic reactor is described with an active portion capable of operating at an energy level of 0.5 to 1000 ev comprising discrete bodies of Pu/ sup 239/ disposed in a body of water which contains not more than 5 molecules of water to one atom of plutonium, the total amount of Pu/sup 239/ being sufficient to sustain a chain reaction. (auth)

  7. High-speed droplet-allele-specific polymerase chain reaction for genotyping of single nucleotide polymorphisms.

    PubMed

    Matsuda, Kazuyuki; Honda, Takayuki

    2015-01-01

    Single nucleotide alternations such as single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) or single nucleotide mutations are useful genetic markers for molecular diagnosis, prognosis, drug response, and predisposition to diseases. Rapid identification of SNPs or mutations is clinically important, especially for determining drug responses and selection of molecular-targeted therapy. Here, we describe a rapid genotyping assay based on the allele-specific polymerase chain reaction (AS-PCR) by using our droplet-PCR machine (droplet-AS-PCR).

  8. Designing Polymerase Chain Reaction Primers Using Primer3Plus.

    PubMed

    Hung, Jui-Hung; Weng, Zhiping

    2016-01-01

    Designing oligonucleotide primers is a crucial step for successful molecular biology experiments that require the use of the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). PCR involves cycles of three steps: denaturation, annealing, and extension. During denaturation, double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) molecules (templates) are separated into single strands. During annealing, a pair of primers is annealed to the complementary regions of the single-stranded molecules. In the extension step, DNA polymerase extends the primers to produce DNA molecules that correspond to the region bracketed by the primers (the amplicons). All of these steps are temperature sensitive, and the common choice of temperatures is 94°C, 60°C, and 70°C, respectively. Poorly designed primers may lead to no amplification product or additional undesired amplified fragments. The goals of primer design include good primer specificity, high annealing efficiency, appropriate melting temperature, proper GC content, and the prevention of primer hairpins or primer dimers. PMID:27574202

  9. Methods in molecular cardiology: the polymerase chain reaction

    PubMed Central

    Sonnemans, D.G.P.; de Windt, L.J.; de Muinck, E.D.; Doevendans, P.A.

    2002-01-01

    Several polymerase chain reaction (PCR) techniques are described in this review to give insight into the potential applications for cardiovascular research. Although PCR can be performed in several ways, all applications are based on the same general principle, the amplification of DNA or RNA by the enzyme polymerase. This amplification provides the opportunity to detect, identify and multiply a single copy of DNA or RNA, in or outside the cell. This powerful technique can be used in several directions of DNA and RNA research resulting in the ability to specifically detect the presence and activity of genes. The use of these techniques in cardiovascular research is discussed here. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 4Figure 5Figure 6Figure 7Figure 8Figure 9 PMID:25696037

  10. Separation-Type Multiplex Polymerase Chain Reaction Chip for Detecting Male Infertility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ha, Seung-Mo; Ju, Jin-Kyoung; Ahn, Yoomin; Hwang, Seung Young

    2008-06-01

    A novel polymerase chain reaction (PCR) biochip is presented in this paper. In this PCR chip, the glass substrate integrated with the microheater and microsensor is separable from the reaction chamber where the sample is injected, which now makes repeated reuse of the glass substrate possible. The heat transfer efficiency and target gene amplification of the proposed separable PCR chip was compared with that of the conventional united PCR chip. The results showed that the sex-determining Y chromosome (SRY) gene PCR for detecting male infertility was successfully performed in the separable chip. However, repeated multiplex PCR was successful for only two genes, SPGY1 and SRY, but not for gene SY586. Future work is needed for a multiplex PCR with more than three genes.

  11. Cloning and sequencing hybrid striped bass (Morone saxatilis x M. chrysops) transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta), and development of a reverse transcription quantitative competitive polymerase chain reaction (RT-qcPCR) assay to measure TGF-beta mRNA of teleost fish.

    PubMed

    Harms, C A; Kennedy-Stoskopf, S; Horne, W A; Fuller, F J; Tompkins, W A

    2000-01-01

    A transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta was isolated and cloned from hybrid striped bass (Morone saxatilis x M. chrysops) anterior kidney mononuclear cells. This isolate (Genbank accession number AF140363) contains an open reading frame of 1146 bases coding for a 382 amino acid protein most similar to rainbow trout TGF-beta (57.3 and 78.6% identity with precursor and active protein, respectively) and rat TGF-beta 1 (41.1 and 68.8% identity with precursor and active protein, respectively). Consensus primers were demonstrated to amplify specifically by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), a TGF-beta segment from 14 species of teleost fish comprising 10 taxonomic families in 7 orders. A reverse transcription quantitative competitive polymerase chain reaction (RT-qcPCR) assay was devised to measure TGF-beta mRNA expression in teleost fish. Higher levels of TGF-beta mRNA expression were detected in mononuclear cells of peripheral blood than from spleen or anterior kidney.

  12. Preparation of samples for polymerase chain reaction in situ.

    PubMed

    Nuovo, G J

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to describe the key variables in sample and reagent preparation needed for successful polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in situ. Tissue or cell preparations should be fixed in a cross linking fixative, such as 10% buffered formalin, preferably from 15 to 48 hours. Tissues should be embedded in paraffin; cell preparations can be fixed when near confluence, then physically removed and processed. When possible three samples (4 microM tissue sections or 1-5000 cells) should be placed on silane coated glass slides. Digestion in pepsin (2 mg/ml) for 30 min is adequate for DNA detection by PCR in situ hybridization whereas optimal protease digestion time is variable and related to formalin fixation time for reverse transcriptase (RT) in situ PCR. RT in situ PCR requires an overnight digestion with DNase. The amplifying solution should contain 4.5 mM MgCl2, 0.05% bovine serum albumin, and, for RNA analysis, the reporter nucleotide. A false positive signal would be evident with incorporation of the reporter nucleotide for DNA targets due to DNA repair; this can be avoided with frozen, fixed tissues and the hot start maneuver. Otherwise, one needs to use a labeled probe and a hybridization step to detect amplified DNA targets in paraffin embedded tissues.

  13. Fluorescence-based temperature control for polymerase chain reaction.

    PubMed

    Sanford, Lindsay N; Wittwer, Carl T

    2014-03-01

    The ability to accurately monitor solution temperature is important for the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Robust amplification during PCR is contingent on the solution reaching denaturation and annealing temperatures. By correlating temperature to the fluorescence of a passive dye, noninvasive monitoring of solution temperatures is possible. The temperature sensitivity of 22 fluorescent dyes was assessed. Emission spectra were monitored and the change in fluorescence between 45 and 95°C was quantified. Seven dyes decreased in intensity as the temperature increased, and 15 were variable depending on the excitation wavelength. Sulforhodamine B (monosodium salt) exhibited a fold change in fluorescence of 2.85. Faster PCR minimizes cycling times and improves turnaround time, throughput, and specificity. If temperature measurements are accurate, no holding period is required even at rapid speeds. A custom instrument using fluorescence-based temperature monitoring with dynamic feedback control for temperature cycling amplified a fragment surrounding rs917118 from genomic DNA in 3min and 45s using 35 cycles, allowing subsequent genotyping by high-resolution melting analysis. Gold-standard thermocouple readings and fluorescence-based temperature differences were 0.29±0.17 and 0.96±0.26°C at annealing and denaturation, respectively. This new method for temperature cycling may allow faster speeds for PCR than currently considered possible.

  14. Comparison of Nested Polymerase Chain Reaction and Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction with Parasitological Methods for Detection of Strongyloides stercoralis in Human Fecal Samples.

    PubMed

    Sharifdini, Meysam; Mirhendi, Hossein; Ashrafi, Keyhan; Hosseini, Mostafa; Mohebali, Mehdi; Khodadadi, Hossein; Kia, Eshrat Beigom

    2015-12-01

    This study was performed to evaluate nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and real-time PCR methods for detection of Strongyloides stercoralis in fecal samples compared with parasitological methods. A total of 466 stool samples were examined by conventional parasitological methods (formalin ether concentration [FEC] and agar plate culture [APC]). DNA was extracted using an in-house method, and mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 and 18S ribosomal genes were amplified by nested PCR and real-time PCR, respectively. Among 466 samples, 12.7% and 18.2% were found infected with S. stercoralis by FEC and APC, respectively. DNA of S. stercoralis was detected in 18.9% and 25.1% of samples by real-time PCR and nested PCR, respectively. Considering parasitological methods as the diagnostic gold standard, the sensitivity and specificity of nested PCR were 100% and 91.6%, respectively, and that of real-time PCR were 84.7% and 95.8%, respectively. However, considering sequence analyzes of the selected nested PCR products, the specificity of nested PCR is increased. In general, molecular methods were superior to parasitological methods. They were more sensitive and more reliable in detection of S. stercoralis in comparison with parasitological methods. Between the two molecular methods, the sensitivity of nested PCR was higher than real-time PCR.

  15. Polymerase chain reaction assay for detection of sheep and goat meats.

    PubMed

    K Chikuni; T Tabata; M Kosugiyama; M Monma; M Saito

    1994-01-01

    Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) was applied to a qualitative differentiation between sheep, goat and bovine meats. Oligonucleotide primers were designed for the amplification of sheep satellite I DNA sequence. The PCR amplified 374 bp fragments from sheep and goat DNA, but no fragment from bovine, water buffalo, sika deer, pig, horse, rabbit and chicken DNA. Sheep DNA (10 pg) was detected by 4% agarose gel electrophoresis following PCR amplification. Althoug cooking of the sample meats reduced the PCR products, sheep DNA was detected in the meat heated at 120°C. In order to differentiate between sheep and goat meats, nucleotide sequences of the PCR products were determined directly by cycle sequencing. The sequence of PCR products showed 92% of homology between sheep and goat. They were differentiated by ApaI digestion of the PCR products because sheep had one ApaI site and goat had no site in the PCR products.

  16. Fluorochrome-functionalized magnetic nanoparticles for high-sensitivity monitoring of the polymerase chain reaction by magnetic resonance.

    PubMed

    Alcantara, David; Guo, Yanyan; Yuan, Hushan; Goergen, Craig J; Chen, Howard H; Cho, Hoonsung; Sosnovik, David E; Josephson, Lee

    2012-07-01

    Easy to find: magnetic nanoparticles bearing fluorochromes (red) that intercalate with DNA (green) form microaggregates with DNA generated by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). These aggregates can be detected at low cycle numbers by magnetic resonance (MR).

  17. Detection of Chlamydia pneumoniae by polymerase chain reaction.

    PubMed

    Campbell, L A; Perez Melgosa, M; Hamilton, D J; Kuo, C C; Grayston, J T

    1992-02-01

    While criteria for serodiagnosis of Chlamydia pneumoniae infection are well established, isolation of the organism is often difficult. To increase detection of this organism, C. pneumoniae-specific sequences were identified to permit amplification of C. pneumoniae by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). A cloned C. pneumoniae 474-bp PstI fragment was shown by dot blot and Southern hybridization to differentiate C. pneumoniae from the other Chlamydia spp., react with all C. pneumoniae isolates tested, and not recognize DNA from normal throat flora or common respiratory tract agents. This cloned fragment was sequenced and primers for use in PCR were chosen on the bases of GenBank analysis, G + C ratio, and absence of secondary structure. All C. pneumoniae isolates tested were amplified by the HL-1-HR-1 primer pair or the HM-1-HR-1 primer pair, producing the expected 437- and 229-bp amplification products, respectively. None of the Chlamydia trachomatis serovars (B/TW-5/OT, C/TW-3/OT, D/UW-3/Cx, E/UW-5/Cx, F/UW-6/Cx, H/UW-4/Cx, I/UW-12/Ur, and L2/434/Bu), Chlamydia psittaci strains (Mn, 6BC, GPIC, FP, and OA), HeLa cells, or other organisms tested were amplified. Reaction conditions including MgCl2, oligonucleotides, and primer concentrations and temperature were optimized before application to clinical samples. Clinical specimens from patients from whom C. pneumoniae was isolated were also positive by PCR, while samples from patients with known C. trachomatis or C. psittaci infection were not amplified by PCR.

  18. Detection of influenza B virus in throat swabs using the polymerase chain reaction.

    PubMed

    Yamada, A; Imanishi, J

    1992-05-01

    An assay protocol based on exploiting the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for the direct detection of influenza B virus in throat swabs is described. By the use of PCR with nested primers, it was possible to detect the virus in throat swabs. Dilution experiments showed that as little as 1 plaque forming unit of virus was sufficient for detecting the HA gene by the PCR. All throat swab samples from which influenza B virus had been isolated by conventional methods were also positive by the PCR method.

  19. Digital polymerase chain reaction in an array of femtoliter polydimethylsiloxane microreactors.

    PubMed

    Men, Yongfan; Fu, Yusi; Chen, Zitian; Sims, Peter A; Greenleaf, William J; Huang, Yanyi

    2012-05-15

    We developed a simple, compact microfluidic device to perform high dynamic-range digital polymerase chain reaction (dPCR) in an array of isolated 36-femtoliter microreactors. The density of the microreactors exceeded 20000/mm(2). This device, made from polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), allows the samples to be loaded into all microreactors simultaneously. The microreactors are completely sealed through the deformation of a PDMS membrane. The small volume of the microreactors ensures a compact device with high reaction efficiency and low reagent and sample consumption. Future potential applications of this platform include multicolor dPCR and massively parallel dPCR for next generation sequencing library preparation. PMID:22482776

  20. Diagnosis of equine influenza by the polymerase chain reaction.

    PubMed

    Donofrio, J C; Coonrod, J D; Chambers, T M

    1994-01-01

    Influenza A is a common respiratory infection of horses, and rapid diagnosis is important for its detection and control. Sensitive detection of influenza currently requires viral culture and is not always feasible. The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used to detect DNA produced by reverse transcription of equine influenza in stored nasal secretions, vaccines, and allantoic fluids. Primers directed at a target of 212 bp on conserved segment 7 (matrix gene) of human influenza A/Bangkok/1/79(H3N2) produced amplification products of appropriate size with influenza A/Equine/Prague/1/56 (H7N7), A/Equine/Miami/63 (H3N8), A/Equine/Kentucky/79 (H3N8), and A/Equine/Kentucky/2/91 (H3N8) in infected frozen allantoic fluids and in frozen extracts of nasal swabs of 2 horses with naturally acquired influenza. The products bound a 32P-labeled hybridization probe to an inner region of the target. Control samples, including nasal secretions from a horse infected with herpesvirus, were negative. In a prospective study, 2 ponies inhaled aerosols of influenza A/Equine/Kentucky/2/91 (H3N8), and thereafter supernatants of nasal swabs in transport medium were obtained daily for 10 days for culture and PCR. Amplification products were evaluated by size and binding of a 32P-labeled probe and also by dot-blotting and binding of a biotin-labeled probe. Culture detected influenza more consistently than did PCR in the first 2 days of infection, but PCR detected virus more often later in infection. Gels were the most sensitive, but radiometric and biotin-labeled probes gave specific results and were consistently positive from days 3-6. PCR is suitable for detection of equine influenza in clinical samples. PMID:8011780

  1. Rapid retrovirus titration using competitive polymerase chain reaction.

    PubMed

    Tafuro, S; Zentilin, L; Falaschi, A; Giacca, M

    1996-08-01

    A quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) procedure has been developed for rapid retrovirus titration. This procedure, which is based on the simultaneous amplification of the sample with known amounts of a competitor DNA fragment (competitive PCR), was used for the quantification of viral RNA genomes in retrovirus-producing cell clone supernatants and of proviral DNA molecules formed at 24 h after infection of different reference cell lines. The results obtained from the analysis of several samples indicated that proviral DNA quantification is in complete agreement with the number of selectable colonies in a standard colony assay. Conversely, the number of viral RNA genomes in the producer cell clone supernatants is a poor predictor of the actual efficiency of infection. Repeated competitive PCR experiments for provirus copy number determination at different times after transduction indicated that the number of proviral DNA molecules remains stable over time, suggesting stable integration into the host genome. The developed procedure is rapid and simple, is applicable to retroviral constructs not containing a selectable gene and can be used to directly measure the efficiency of infection of any target cell type, thus overcoming the problem of the dependency of retroviral titer determination on the rate of expression of a selectable gene and on the efficiency of colony formation of a reference cell line.

  2. Identification of toxigenic Clostridium difficile by the polymerase chain reaction.

    PubMed Central

    Kato, N; Ou, C Y; Kato, H; Bartley, S L; Brown, V K; Dowell, V R; Ueno, K

    1991-01-01

    Toxigenic strains of Clostridium difficile are causative agents of pseudomembranous colitis and antimicrobial agent-associated diarrhea and colitis. The toxigenicity is routinely assayed by using highly sensitive cell cultures. We used a simple and rapid polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay to differentiate toxigenic and nontoxigenic strains of C. difficile. Two sets of oligonucleotide primer pairs derived from nonrepeating sequences of the toxin A gene were used to amplify 546- and 252-bp DNA fragments. A primer pair derived from repeating sequences of the toxin A gene was used to amplify a 1,266-bp DNA product. Amplified products were visualized by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis followed by ethidium bromide staining. All 35 cytotoxic strains of C. difficile tested generated the expected amplified DNA. In contrast, none of the 26 noncytotoxic strains tested gave positive results. Although the toxins of C. difficile have been demonstrated to cross-react serologically with the toxins of Clostridium sordellii, we did not detect any amplified DNA in two cytotoxic strains or seven noncytotoxic strains of C. sordellii. PCR was negative in all 30 strains of 20 other Clostridium species. Southern hybridization of HindIII-digested genomic DNA by use of subgenomic probes showed a single hybridization band in toxigenic strains but not in nontoxigenic strains. PCR appears to be a sensitive and specific assay for the rapid identification of toxigenic C. difficile. Nontoxigenic C. difficile appeared to lack the C. difficile toxin A gene. Images PMID:1993763

  3. Principles and applications of polymerase chain reaction in medical diagnostic fields: a review

    PubMed Central

    Valones, Marcela Agne Alves; Guimarães, Rafael Lima; Brandão, Lucas André Cavalcanti; de Souza, Paulo Roberto Eleutério; de Albuquerque Tavares Carvalho, Alessandra; Crovela, Sergio

    2009-01-01

    Recent developments in molecular methods have revolutionized the detection and characterization of microorganisms in a broad range of medical diagnostic fields, including virology, mycology, parasitology, microbiology and dentistry. Among these methods, Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) has generated great benefits and allowed scientific advancements. PCR is an excellent technique for the rapid detection of pathogens, including those difficult to culture. Along with conventional PCR techniques, Real-Time PCR has emerged as a technological innovation and is playing an ever-increasing role in clinical diagnostics and research laboratories. Due to its capacity to generate both qualitative and quantitative results, Real-Time PCR is considered a fast and accurate platform. The aim of the present literature review is to explore the clinical usefulness and potential of both conventional PCR and Real-Time PCR assays in diverse medical fields, addressing its main uses and advances. PMID:24031310

  4. Identification of Erwinia stewartii by a ligase chain reaction assay.

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, W J; Wiedmann, M; Dillard, H R; Batt, C A

    1994-01-01

    A PCR-coupled ligase chain reaction (LCR) assay was developed to distinguish the plant pathogenic bacterium Erwinia stewartii from other erwiniae. This new technique allows discrimination to the species level on the basis of a single-base-pair difference in the 16S rRNA gene which is unique to E. stewartii. Portions of the 16S rRNA genes of E. stewartii and the closely related Erwinia herbicola were sequenced. From comparison of the two 16S rRNA gene regions, two primer pairs were constructed such that only E. stewartii DNA gave a product in the LCR assay. The ligated product was separated from the radioactively labelled primers by denaturing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and visualized by autoradiography. Twenty-four different Erwinia species and strains were tested by PCR-coupled LCR to verify the specificity of the assay, and only E. stewartii strains gave a positive reaction. In addition, infected and healthy plant material was also assayed. E. stewartii was detected in infected plant material, even when large populations of epiphytic bacteria were present. No enrichment was necessary for detection of the pathogen in corn leaves. This assay has potential as a diagnostic technique for the detection of E. stewartii in infected plant and vector material. Images PMID:7509585

  5. Marzipan: polymerase chain reaction-driven methods for authenticity control.

    PubMed

    Brüning, Philipp; Haase, Ilka; Matissek, Reinhard; Fischer, Markus

    2011-11-23

    According to German food guidelines, almonds are the only oilseed ingredient allowed for the production of marzipan. Persipan is a marzipan surrogate in which the almonds are replaced by apricot or peach kernels. Cross-contamination of marzipan products with persipan may occur if both products are produced using the same production line. Adulterations or dilutions, respectively, of marzipan with other plant-derived products, for example, lupine or pea, have also been found. Almond and apricot plants are closely related. Consequently, classical analytical methods for the identification/differentiation often fail or are not sensitive enough to quantify apricot concentrations below 1%. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based methods have been shown to enable the differentiation of closely related plant species in the past. These methods are characterized by high specificity and low detection limits. Isolation methods were developed and evaluated especially with respect to the matrix marzipan in terms of yield, purity, integrity, and amplificability of the isolated DNA. For the reliable detection of apricot, peach, pea, bean, lupine, soy, cashew, pistachio, and chickpea, qualitative standard and duplex PCR methods were developed and established. The applicability of these methods was tested by cross-reaction studies and analysis of spiked raw pastes. Contaminations at the level of 0.1% could be detected.

  6. Determination of toxinotypes of environmental Clostridium perfringens by Polymerase Chain Reaction.

    PubMed

    Florence L, C H; Hakim, S L; Kamaluddin, M A; Thong, K L

    2011-04-01

    Toxinotype of Clostridium perfringens (CP) isolates collected from the Bernam River, Selangor River and Tengi Canal between April 2007 and January 2008 were determined by Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) using published primers. All the 147 isolates were toxinotype Type A, harbouring the alpha toxin gene. In addition, 5 of the isolates also had the enterotoxin (CPE) gene.

  7. INTERNAL AMPLIFICATION CONTROL FOR USE IN QUANTITATIVE POLYMERASE CHAIN REACTION FECAL INDICATOR BACTERIA ASSAYS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Quantitative polymerase chain reaction (QPCR) can be used as a rapid method for detecting fecal indicator bacteria. Because false negative results can be caused by PCR inhibitors that co-extract with the DNA samples, an internal amplification control (IAC) should be run with eac...

  8. A Specific Qualitative Detection Method for Peanut (Arachis Hypogagea) in Foods Using Polymerase Chain Reaction

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A qualitative method for detection of peanuts in foods using polymerase chain reaction was developed. A universal primer pair CP 03-5 /CP 03-3 was designed to confirm the validity of the DNAs for PCR. The plant-specific amplified fragments were detected from 13 kinds of plants using the universal pr...

  9. A new and improved method based on polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) for the determination of A1298C mutation in the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene.

    PubMed

    Machnik, Grzegorz; Zapala, Malgorzata; Pelc, Ewa; Gasecka-Czapla, Monika; Kaczmarczyk, Grzegorz; Okopien, Boguslaw

    2013-01-01

    Intracellular folate homeostasis and metabolism is regulated by numerous genes. Among them, 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) is of special interest because of its involvement in regulation of the homocysteine level in the body as a result of folate metabolism. Moreover, some studies demonstrated that the homocysteine plasma level in individuals may be influenced by polymorphisms present in the MTHFR gene. Two common, clinically relevant mutations have been described: MTHFR C677T and MTHFR A1298C. Although several laboratory techniques allow genotyping of both polymorphisms, PCR-RFLP analysis is simple to perform, relatively cheap, and thus one of the most utilized. In the case of A1298C, the PCR-RFLP technique that utilizes MboII endonuclease class II requires an acrylamide gel electrophoresis, since agarose gel electrophoresis is unable to resolve short deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) fragments after restriction digestion. Agarose gel electrophoresis is commonly preferred over that of acrylamide. To resolve this inconvenience, a novel PCR-RFLP, AjuI-based method to genotype A1298C alleles has been developed that can be performed on standard agarose gel.

  10. Polymerase chain reaction in natural convection systems: A convection-diffusion-reaction model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yariv, E.; Ben-Dov, G.; Dorfman, K. D.

    2005-09-01

    We present a rational scheme for modeling natural convection-driven polymerase chain reaction (PCR), where many copies of a DNA template are made by cycling between hot and cold regions via a circulatory, buoyancy-driven flow. This process is described here in the framework of multiple-species formulation, using evolution equations which govern the concentrations of the various DNA species in the carrying solution. In the intermediate asymptotic limit, where a stationary amplification rate is achieved, these equations provide an eigenvalue problem for computing the exponential amplification rate of double-stranded DNA. The scheme is demonstrated using a simplified model of a Rayleigh-Bénard cell. In contrast to what may have been anticipated, diffusion tends to enhance the growth rate. The present model, intended to be used as a template for more device-specific analyses, provides a starting point for understanding the effects of the competing mechanisms (reaction, convection and diffusion) upon the amplification efficiency.

  11. How appropriate are cerebrospinal fluid polymerase chain reaction requests for suspected central nervous system infections?

    PubMed

    Mamoojee, Yaasir; Chadwick, David

    2011-12-01

    Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays have become the main diagnostic tests for central nervous system viral infections in recent years. Previous studies have suggested algorithms based on CSF leukocyte count and total protein levels to determine when CSF PCR assays are indicated. Based on these criteria, 1,469 CSF PCR tests requested over a two-year period were reviewed. A proportion of positive PCR results were found in children with normal CSF, unlike in adults where such occurrences were extremely rare. The results suggest that applying a strategy of screening CSF specimens using leukocyte count, glucose and protein, at least in adults, may have avoided more than half of CSF PCR requests with little detriment to patient care and considerable cost savings. Larger prospective studies are needed to determine whether algorithms using standard CSF parameters and clinical information can optimise the use of CSF PCR assays in clinical practice. PMID:22268308

  12. Molecular beacon polymerase chain reaction detection of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in milk.

    PubMed

    McKillip, J L; Drake, M

    2000-07-01

    A fluorescently labeled oligonucleotide probe (molecular beacon) was applied to detect Escherichia coli O157:H7 in artificially contaminated skim milk during polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification of extracted DNA. The probe was designed to hybridize with a region of the slt-II gene coding for the A subunit and to fluoresce when the hairpin-stem conformation was linearized upon hybridization to the target sequence. The molecular beacon was incorporated into PCR reactions containing DNA extracted from artificially contaminated skim milk. The degree of fluorescence was monitored in PCR reactions containing 10(3), 10(5), and 10(7) CFU of E. coli O157:H7 per ml and was found to correlate with the amount of template in each reaction. Fluorescence significantly increased above background levels by cycle 8, 14, or 14 in reactions containing DNA from the 10(7)-, 10(5)-, or 10(3)-CFU/ml template, respectively (P < 0.05). Molecular beacon PCR demonstrated positive results more rapidly than traditional agarose gel electrophoresis analysis of PCR products. Use of molecular beacons allows real-time monitoring of PCR reactions, and the closed-tube format allows simultaneous detection and confirmation of target amplicons without the need for agarose gel electrophoresis and/or Southern blotting. This is the first report of a stem-and-loop molecular beacon being applied for direct detection of a pathogen in food.

  13. Integrated reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction systems for virus detection.

    PubMed

    Lien, Kang-Yi; Lee, Wan-Chi; Lei, Huan-Yao; Lee, Gwo-Bin

    2007-03-15

    The current study reports on an integrated microreverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) system for molecular diagnosis of microorganisms automatically. By using antibodies-conjugated superparamagnetic beads, the developed system can detect viruses with higher sensitivity and specificity when compared with traditional biological diagnosis methods using a ribonucleic acid (RNA) extraction kit. The target viruses were first captured by the conjugated antibodies on the magnetic beads, and were enriched using a magnetic field generated by micro-electromagnets or permanent magnets. With this approach, the virus can be purified and concentrated first, then the virus RNA was extracted and transcripted to complementary deoxyribonucleic acid (cDNA), followed by a nucleic acid amplification process using a micro-RT-PCR module. The integrated microfluidic chip can perform the whole process automatically with the aid of integrated micropumps and microvalves. This study successfully performs the specific detection of two different types of viruses, Dengue virus serotype 2 and enterovirus (EV) 71 using this developed integrated system. Comparable to a large-scale apparatus, the integrated microsystem can perform mixing, incubation, purification, transportation, and nucleic acid amplification of virus, possibly making it a crucial platform for future diagnosis applications.

  14. Prompt detection of influenza A and B viruses using the BD Veritor™ System Flu A+B, Quidel® Sofia® Influenza A+B FIA, and Alere BinaxNOW® Influenza A&B compared to real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR).

    PubMed

    Dunn, Jim; Obuekwe, Joy; Baun, Traci; Rogers, Justin; Patel, Twinkle; Snow, Linda

    2014-05-01

    The performance characteristics of rapid influenza diagnostic tests vary widely. This study evaluated the BD Veritor™ System Flu A+B (Veritor; BD Diagnostics, Sparks, MD, USA), Quidel® Sofia® Influenza A+B FIA (Sofia; Quidel Corp., San Diego, CA, USA), and Alere BinaxNOW® Influenza A&B (Binax; Alere Scarborough, Inc., Scarborough, ME, USA) compared to reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) for detection of influenza viruses in nasal wash specimens from 240 pediatric patients. Positive percent agreements for influenza A and B virus detection were 93.8% and 94.2%, 95.8% and 98.1%, and 79.2% and 80.8% for Veritor, Sofia, and Binax, respectively. The Veritor and Binax tests demonstrated negative percent agreements >97.9% for detection of both influenza viruses, but the negative percent agreement of the Sofia test was 91.1% for influenza A and 70.7% for influenza B virus. Overall, the Veritor and Sofia tests were nearly as sensitive as RT-PCR and considerably more sensitive than Binax for detection of influenza viruses. However, the accuracy of the Sofia test was significantly lower than either Veritor or Binax.

  15. Profound inhibition of the PCR step of CF V3 multiplex PCR/OLA assay by the use of UV-irradiated plastic reaction tubes.

    PubMed

    Fox, David H; Huang, Chih-Kang; Du, Juan; Chang, Tylis Y; Pan, Qiulu

    2007-06-01

    Supplies, such as bags of plastic reaction tubes, are sometimes left in the laminar flow hoods unintentionally while the ultraviolet (UV) lamp is illuminated overnight. In addition, UV irradiation is used for sterilization and amplicon inactivation to avoid contamination. The oligonucleotide ligation assay (OLA) is a unique approach to mutation detection of point mutations, small deletions, and small insertions. Recently, we encountered problems with this assay and peak heights were much lower or disappeared. After going through systemic trouble-shooting, we found that profound inhibition of the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) step of CF V3 multiplex PCR/OLA assay by the use of UV-irradiated plastic reaction tubes. When UV-irradiated tubes used throughout the assay, tubes exposed for 8 weeks at 0.7 m from the UV source gave a reduction of 60% and 67% in the assay products on the basis of sum of peak heights. Tubes exposed for 3 weeks at 0.1 m from the UV source totally eliminated assay product yielding no peaks. Further experiments showed that the inhibition happened mostly in the PCR step. Burgess and Hall had reported that inhibition of PCR of human glyceraldehydes-3-phosphate dehydrogenase transcripts after UV irradiating the tubes. This showed that the inhibition was not assay-specific. The reason that the inhibition of PCR was more profound could be due to a multiplex PCR assay and small reaction volume. The mechanism of PCR inhibition by UV irradiation is not clear. In conclusion, plastic reaction tubes intended for PCR/OLA assays should not be exposed to UV.

  16. Multiplex polymerase chain reaction tests for detection of pathogens associated with gastroenteritis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hongwei; Morrison, Scott; Tang, Yi-Wei

    2015-06-01

    A wide range of enteric pathogens can cause infectious gastroenteritis. Conventional diagnostic algorithms are time-consuming and often lack sensitivity and specificity. Advances in molecular technology have provided new clinical diagnostic tools. Multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based testing has been used in gastroenterology diagnostics in recent years. This article presents a review of recent laboratory-developed multiplex PCR tests and current commercial multiplex gastrointestinal pathogen tests. It focuses on two commercial syndromic multiplex tests: Luminex xTAG Gastrointestinal Pathogen Panel and BioFire FilmArray gastrointestinal test. Multiplex PCR tests have shown superior sensitivity to conventional methods for detection of most pathogens.

  17. A polymerase chain reaction protocol for the detection of various geographical isolates of white spot virus.

    PubMed

    Tapay, L M; Nadala, E C; Loh, P C

    1999-09-01

    Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) primers were designed based on the sequence of a cloned fragment of the white spot virus (WSV) genome and were used to detect at least four geographic isolates of WSV from both experimentally- and naturally-infected shrimp. In addition to high specificity, the one-step and two-step PCR protocols were determined to have sensitivities of 10-100 pg and 100 femtograms respectively. The two-step PCR protocol is recommended as a very sensitive and specific alternative protocol to Western blot assay for the detection of WSV.

  18. Advantage of a rapid extraction method of HIV1 DNA suitable for polymerase chain reaction.

    PubMed

    Vignoli, C; de Lamballerie, X; Zandotti, C; Tamalet, C; de Micco, P

    1995-01-01

    We describe a new protocol for extraction of DNA suitable for HIV1 gene amplification from clinical samples using "Chelex-100" chelating resin. Comparison was made with the classic proteinase K extraction method; 154 specimens were extracted with both methods and subjected to PCR (polymerase chain reaction). The Chelex-100 procedure optimized the yield of DNA recovery and minimized contamination due to sample manipulation. It decreased false negative results due to PCR inhibitors. A DNA sample suitable for use in PCR was obtained in 30 minutes. Chelex-100 treatment is a simple, rapid and low-cost method for DNA extraction in clinical laboratories.

  19. Polymerase Chain Reaction in the Diagnosis of Visceral Leishmaniasis Recurrence in the Setting of Negative Splenic Smears.

    PubMed

    Hasnain, Golam; Basher, Ariful; Nath, Proggananda; Ghosh, Prakash; Hossain, Faria; Hossain, Shakhawat; Mondal, Dinesh

    2016-01-01

    This report presents two cases of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) recurrence where the microscopy of the splenic smear failed in diagnosis. However, a strong clinical suspicion compelled further evaluation by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), which validated the etiology. This short report highlights the usefulness of PCR in diagnosing cases of suspected smear-negative VL recurrence.

  20. Evaluation of a multiplex real-time polymerase chain reaction assay for the detection of influenza and respiratory syncytial viruses.

    PubMed

    Esposito, Susanna; Scala, Alessia; Tagliabue, Claudia; Zampiero, Alberto; Bianchini, Sonia; Principi, Nicola

    2016-01-01

    Nasopharyngeal swabs from 424 children were used to compare the performances of the new multiplex real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) RIDA®GENE Flu & RSV kit and monospecific RT-PCR assays in detecting respiratory syncytial and influenza viruses. The easy-to-use kit was highly sensitive and specific and is recommended for routine practice.

  1. Submicroscopic malaria parasite carriage: how reproducible are polymerase chain reaction-based methods?

    PubMed

    Costa, Daniela Camargos; Madureira, Ana Paula; Amaral, Lara Cotta; Sanchez, Bruno Antônio Marinho; Gomes, Luciano Teixeira; Fontes, Cor Jésus Fernandes; Limongi, Jean Ezequiel; Brito, Cristiana Ferreira Alves de; Carvalho, Luzia Helena

    2014-02-01

    The polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based methods for the diagnosis of malaria infection are expected to accurately identify submicroscopic parasite carriers. Although a significant number of PCR protocols have been described, few studies have addressed the performance of PCR amplification in cases of field samples with submicroscopic malaria infection. Here, the reproducibility of two well-established PCR protocols (nested-PCR and real-time PCR for the Plasmodium 18 small subunit rRNA gene) were evaluated in a panel of 34 blood field samples from individuals that are potential reservoirs of malaria infection, but were negative for malaria by optical microscopy. Regardless of the PCR protocol, a large variation between the PCR replicates was observed, leading to alternating positive and negative results in 38% (13 out of 34) of the samples. These findings were quite different from those obtained from the microscopy-positive patients or the unexposed individuals; the diagnosis of these individuals could be confirmed based on the high reproducibility and specificity of the PCR-based protocols. The limitation of PCR amplification was restricted to the field samples with very low levels of parasitaemia because titrations of the DNA templates were able to detect < 3 parasites/µL in the blood. In conclusion, conventional PCR protocols require careful interpretation in cases of submicroscopic malaria infection, as inconsistent and false-negative results can occur.

  2. Selection of primers for polymerase chain reaction.

    PubMed

    Rychlik, W

    1995-04-01

    One of the most important factors affecting the quality of PCR is the choice of primers. In general, the longer the PCR product the more difficult it is to select efficient primers and set appropriate designing primers, and in general, the more DNA sequence information is available, the better the chance of finding an optimal primer pair. Efficient primers can be designed by avoiding the following flaws: primer-dimer formation, self-complementarity, too low Tm of the primers, and/or their incorrect internal stability profile. Tips on subcloning PCR products, calculating duplex stability (predicting dimer formation strength), and designing degenerate primers are given.

  3. Analysis of myosin heavy chain mRNA expression by RT-PCR

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wright, C.; Haddad, F.; Qin, A. X.; Baldwin, K. M.

    1997-01-01

    An assay was developed for rapid and sensitive analysis of myosin heavy chain (MHC) mRNA expression in rodent skeletal muscle. Only 2 microg of total RNA were necessary for the simultaneous analysis of relative mRNA expression of six different MHC genes. We designed synthetic DNA fragments as internal standards, which contained the relevant primer sequences for the adult MHC mRNAs type I, IIa, IIx, IIb as well as the embryonic and neonatal MHC mRNAs. A known amount of the synthetic fragment was added to each polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and yielded a product of different size than the amplified MHC mRNA fragment. The ratio of amplified MHC fragment to synthetic fragment allowed us to calculate percentages of the gene expression of the different MHC genes in a given muscle sample. Comparison with the traditional Northern blot analysis demonstrated that our reverse transcriptase-PCR-based assay was reliable, fast, and quantitative over a wide range of relative MHC mRNA expression in a spectrum of adult and neonatal rat skeletal muscles. Furthermore, the high sensitivity of the assay made it very useful when only small quantities of tissue were available. Statistical analysis of the signals for each MHC isoform across the analyzed samples showed a highly significant correlation between the PCR and the Northern signals as Pearson correlation coefficients ranged between 0.77 and 0.96 (P < 0.005). This assay has potential use in analyzing small muscle samples such as biopsies and samples from pre- and/or neonatal stages of development.

  4. Colorimetric detection of lagomorphs' calicivirus genomic sequences by polymerase chain reaction incorporating digoxigenin dUTP.

    PubMed

    Psikal, I; Smíd, B; Kubalíková, R; Valícek, L; Rodák, L; Kosinová, E

    1997-06-30

    A method of reverse transcription followed by polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) has been implemented for the demonstration of the rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV) genome in organ suspensions, leukocytes and excretions of infected rabbits. RT-PCR has been tested with 10 RHDV strains isolated at various geographic sites and times using a pair of primers coming from the gene region coding for the capsid protein VP60. The same primers were effective in the amplification of 4 of 5 European brown hare syndrome (EBHS) virus isolates. Non-radioactive labelling of PCR products with digoxigenin during the amplification and a system of colorimetric assessment of hybridization reactions between a biotin-labelled RHDV capture probe and the chains of labelled amplicons (PCR ELISA) were used for specific analyses of nucleic acid synthesis. The sensitivity of the alternative procedure of analysis of the dig-labelled PCR products with PCR ELISA was two logs10 higher than that of conventional electrophoresis in agarose gel stained with ethidium bromide. The results of the hybridization reactions, carried out under various stringency conditions, have confirmed the presumption that the genomic similarity between the amplified and the probed areas of the capsid protein VP60 gene was not uniform within all the tested caliciviruses. A higher degree of heterogeneity was observed between the isolates of EBHSV and RHDV.

  5. Chain-reaction crash on a highway in high visibility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagatani, Takashi

    2016-05-01

    We study the chain-reaction crash (multiple-vehicle collision) in high-visibility condition on a highway. In the traffic situation, drivers control their vehicles by both gear-changing and braking. Drivers change the gears according to the headway and brake according to taillights of the forward vehicle. We investigate whether or not the first collision induces the chain-reaction crash numerically. It is shown that dynamic transitions occur from no collisions, through a single collision, to multiple collisions with decreasing the headway. Also, we find that the dynamic transition occurs from the finite chain reaction to the infinite chain reaction when the headway is less than the critical value. We compare the multiple-vehicle collisions in high-visibility with that in low-visibility. We derive the transition points and the region maps for the chain-reaction crash in high visibility.

  6. Chain-reaction crash in traffic flow controlled by taillights

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagatani, Takashi

    2015-02-01

    We study the chain-reaction crash (multiple-vehicle collision) in low-visibility condition on a road. In the traffic situation, drivers brake according to taillights of the forward vehicle. The first crash may induce more collisions. We investigate whether or not the first collision induces the chain-reaction crash, numerically and analytically. The dynamic transitions occur from no collisions through a single collision, double collisions and triple collisions, to multiple collisions with decreasing the headway. Also, we find that the dynamic transition occurs from the finite chain reaction to the infinite chain reaction when the headway is less than the critical value. We derive, analytically, the transition points and the region maps for the chain-reaction crash in traffic flow controlled by taillights.

  7. Detection of BCR-ABL using one step reverse transcriptase- polymerase chain reaction and microchip electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Lin, Xuexia; Wu, Jing; Liu, Wu; Li, Haifang; Wang, Zhihua; Lin, Jin-Ming

    2013-12-15

    One-step reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) coupled with microchip electrophoresis (MCE) was established to analyze BCR-ABL fusion gene. The use of one-step RT-PCR could simplify the RT-PCR procedure and thus reduced the risk of contamination and sample consumption. This method also enhanced the sensitivity for amplified target DNA and dramatically shorted the analysis time. Moreover, this assay can simultaneously identify b2a2 and b3a2. Orthogonal array design, which can investigated mutual effects of PCR parameters, was used to optimize the reaction system. This approach was highly effective, reproducible and sensitive, and would be suitable for the determination of BCR-ABL in clinic diagnosis.

  8. Design and optimization of molecular beacon real-time polymerase chain reaction assays.

    PubMed

    Vet, Jacqueline A M; Marras, Salvatore A E

    2005-01-01

    During the last few years, several innovative technologies have become available for performing sensitive and accurate genetic analyses. These techniques use fluorescent detection strategies in combination with nucleic acid amplification protocols. Most commonly used is the real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). To achieve the maximum potential of a real-time PCR assay, several parameters must be evaluated and optimized independently. This chapter describes the different steps necessary for establishing a molecular beacon real-time PCR assay: (1) target design, (2) primer design, (3) optimization of the amplification reaction conditions using SYBR Green, (4) molecular beacon design, and (5) molecular beacon synthesis and characterization. The last section provides an example of a multiplex quantitative real-time PCR.

  9. IDENTIFICATION OF MOSQUITO AVIAN-DERIVED BLOOD MEALS BY POLYMERASE CHAIN REACTION-HETERODUPLEX ANALYSIS

    PubMed Central

    LEE, JOON HAK; HASSAN, HASSAN; HILL, GEOFF; CUPP, EDDIE W.; HIGAZI, TARIG B.; MITCHELL, CARL J.; GODSEY, MARVIN S.; UNNASCH, THOMAS R.

    2008-01-01

    A polymerase chain reaction (PCR) heteroduplex assay (HDA) was developed to identify avian derived mosquito blood meals to the species level. The assay used primers amplifying a fragment of the cytochrome B gene from vertebrate but not invertebrate species. In Culex tarsalis fed on quail, PCR products derived from the quail cytochrome B gene were detected seven days post-engorgement. In an analysis of wild-caught mosquitoes, 85% of blood-fed mosquitoes produced detectable PCR products. Heteroduplex patterns obtained from bird-derived PCR products were found to permit the unambiguous identification of all species examined. No intraspecific variation in HDA patterns was found. The PCR-HDA was used to characterize blood meals in wild caught Cx. tarsalis. Of the 67 blood meals analyzed, 60% were derived from avian sources. Of the avian blood meals, 65% were derived from a single host, the common grackle. PMID:12201598

  10. Event-specific qualitative and quantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis for genetically modified canola T45.

    PubMed

    Yang, Litao; Pan, Aihu; Zhang, Haibo; Guo, Jinchao; Yin, Changsong; Zhang, Dabing

    2006-12-27

    Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) methods have been the main technical support for the detection of genetically modified organisms (GMOs). To date, GMO-specific PCR detection strategies have been developed basically at four different levels, such as screening-, gene-, construct-, and event-specific detection methods. Event-specific PCR detection method is the primary trend in GMO detection because of its high specificity based on the flanking sequence of exogenous integrant. GM canola, event T45, with tolerance to glufosinate ammonium is one of the commercial genetically modified (GM) canola events approved in China. In this study, the 5'-integration junction sequence between host plant DNA and the integrated gene construct of T45 canola was cloned and revealed by means of TAIL-PCR. Specific PCR primers and TaqMan probes were designed based upon the revealed sequence, and qualitative and quantitative TaqMan real-time PCR detection assays employing these primers and probe were developed. In qualitative PCR, the limit of detection (LOD) was 0.1% for T45 canola in 100 ng of genomic DNA. The quantitative PCR assay showed limits of detection and quantification (LOD and LOQ) of 5 and 50 haploid genome copies, respectively. In addition, three mixed canola samples with known GM contents were detected employing the developed real-time PCR assay, and expected results were obtained. These results indicated that the developed event-specific PCR methods can be used for identification and quantification of T45 canola and its derivates.

  11. A Universal Polymerase Chain Reaction Developer.

    PubMed

    Valentini, Paola; Pompa, Pier Paolo

    2016-02-01

    The versatility of PCR, the gold standard for amplification of DNA targets, is hampered by the laborious, multi-step detection based on gel electrophoresis. We propose a one-step, one-tube method for the rapid (5 min) naked-eye detection of PCR products, based on controlled aggregation of gold nanoparticles. Our method is universal, instrument-free, and ultra-sensitive, as it could detect as low as 0.01 zeptomoles of HIV template DNA in an excess of interfering human genomic DNA.

  12. Ribosomal RNA-based panbacterial polymerase chain reaction for rapid diagnosis of septicaemia in Intensive Care Unit patients.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Mahua Das; Kaur, Harsimran; Ray, Pallab; Gautam, Vikas; Puri, G D

    2016-01-01

    Early diagnosis and treatment of sepsis by appropriate antibiotics is of utmost importance. Therefore, we evaluated 16S rRNA panbacterial polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for rapid diagnosis of sepsis in 49 adult patients in Intensive Care Units (ICUs) and compared it with an automated blood culture. 8 ml of 10 ml blood collected was inoculated into BACTEC® aerobic bottle and the remaining 2 ml was used for DNA extraction and PCR. 109 of 115 (93%) episodes of suspected sepsis showed concordant results between automated culture and PCR. Six episodes were positive by PCR only. Panbacterial PCR reduces turnaround time with rapid differentiation between systemic inflammatory response syndrome and sepsis. PMID:27080778

  13. Detection of enteroviruses in shellfish by fluorogenic polymerase chain reaction integrated with 96-well microplate scanning.

    PubMed

    Shieh, Y Carol; Baric, Ralph S

    2002-01-01

    A one-step procedure was developed to confirm viral targets by using a fluorometric 96-well microplate scanner following polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The fluorogenic PCR, integrated with fluorometric scanning, measured the end point fluorescence of viral PCR amplicon/probe hybrids and permitted the use of nonfluorogenic PCR conditions with addition of a Cy3 fluorophore-labeled linear probe for viruses. This linear probe generated higher ratios of viral signal-to-noise than a comparative beacon probe. Detection efficiency with a Cy3/quencher linear probe was comparable with Southern analysis at the level > or = 0.27 plaque-forming units (PFU) of poliovirus/PCR. For the reaction containing < 0.27 PFU, the fluorometric measurements of the first-round PCR viral amplicon were not as sensitive as Southern analysis; however, equivalent sensitivities were achieved with fluorogenic nested PCR. Concentrates of 11 oyster samples exposed to municipal sewage were tested for enteroviruses; the fluorogenic detection correlated 100% with Southern analysis. This method using fluorometric scanning of viral amplicon is simple; it requires neither continuously monitoring equipment nor redesigning PCR primers; and it accurately detects enteroviruses in oyster sample concentrates in less time than classic spectrophotometry or Southern analysis.

  14. Optimization of 6-carboxy-X-rhodamine concentration for real-time polymerase chain reaction using molecular beacon chemistry.

    PubMed

    Wang, Gehua; Becker, Erin; Mesa, Christine

    2007-03-01

    The optimal 6-carboxy-X-rhodamine (ROX) concentration, which is used as a passive reference dye for real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with molecular beacon chemistry, was determined with the Mx4000 Multiplex Quantitative PCR System. Additionally, the effects of changing ROX concentrations on PCR reproducibility, Ct values, and efficiency were investigated with this system by using the PCR data obtained from amplification of the Escherichia coli shiga toxin 2 (stx2) gene and the Campylobacter jejuni luxS gene. This study indicated that different ROX concentrations influence many aspects of the real-time PCR reaction. ROX concentration variation could have consequences in the analysis of quantitative data and may lead to erroneous results. This study further indicated that the optimal ROX concentration is 60 nmol/L for real-time PCR, using molecular beacon chemistry for PCR assay of luxS and stx2 genes.

  15. Direct polymerase chain reaction amplification of formalin-fixed, paraffin-wax-embedded tissue after automated sequential laser microdissection and pressure catapulting.

    PubMed

    O'Kane, S L; Garimella, V; Sivarajasingham, N; Drew, P J; Cawkwell, L

    2007-02-01

    A robust method to facilitate rapid laser microdissection and pressure catapulting (LMPC) coupled with direct polymerase chain reaction (dPCR) to eliminate the need for extraction of DNA before a PCR-based assay is described. This sequential LMPC-dPCR method is rapid and decreases the number of processing steps, reducing the chance of tissue loss and contamination.

  16. Effect of vehicular size on chain-reaction crash

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagatani, Takashi

    2015-11-01

    We present the dynamic model of the chain-reaction crash to take account of the vehicular size. Drivers brake according to taillights of the forward vehicle. We investigate the effect of the vehicular size on the chain-reaction crash (multiple-vehicle collision) in the traffic flow controlled by taillights. In the multiple-vehicle collision, the first crash induces more collisions. We investigate how the first collision induces the chain-reaction crash numerically. We derive, analytically, the transition points and the region maps for the chain-reaction crash in the traffic flow of vehicles with finite sizes. We clarify the effect of the vehicular size on the multiple-vehicle collision.

  17. Comparison of culture with the polymerase chain reaction for detection of Ureaplasma urealyticum in endotracheal aspirates of preterm infants.

    PubMed

    Cunliffe, N A; Fergusson, S; Davidson, F; Lyon, A; Ross, P W

    1996-07-01

    Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification of the urease genes of Ureaplasma urealyticum was compared with culture for detection of the organism in 100 endotracheal aspirates from 54 ventilated preterm infants. Ninety specimens gave negative results by both culture and PCR and three specimens gave positive results by both culture and PCR. Six specimens were negative by culture but positive by PCR. The one specimen positive by culture and negative by PCR was interpreted as a false-positive culture result. Overall agreement between results obtained by culture and PCR was 93%. PCR is a sensitive and reliable method for the detection of U. urealyticum in neonatal endotracheal secretions. Detection by PCR (1-2 days) is more rapid than culture (2-5 days) and this will be important if early therapeutic intervention is shown to be effective.

  18. Amplification refractory mutation system polymerase chain reaction versus optimized polymerase chain reaction restriction-fragment length polymorphism for apolipoprotein E genotyping of majorly depressed patients.

    PubMed

    You, Hongmin; Chen, Jin; Zhou, Jingjing; Huang, Hua; Pan, Junxi; Wang, Ziye; Lv, Lin; Zhang, Lujun; Li, Juan; Qin, Bin; Yang, Yongtao; Xie, Peng

    2015-11-01

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a prevalent, debilitating mood disorder that has been associated with several genetic polymorphisms. One such polymorphism, namely that of apolipoprotein E (APOE), has three allelic forms (ε2, ε3 and ε4) that encode for six unique isoforms of the APOE protein. A growing number of techniques have been developed for APOE genotyping; however, not all polymerase chain reaction (PCR)‑based genotyping techniques are equally accurate or cost‑effective. In order to find a more accurate and cost‑effective APOE genotyping method for MDD screening in large populations, the present study comparatively evaluated two genotyping methods, amplification refractory mutation system PCR (ARMS‑PCR) and optimized PCR restriction‑fragment length polymorphism (PCR‑RFLP), in blood samples taken from a population of 708 MDD patients. Although either of the two methods were able to detect all six unique APOE genotypes, comparisons of the two methods with Sanger sequencing demonstrated that ARMS‑PCR (94%) was significantly more accurate than optimized PCR‑RFLP (82%). ARMS‑PCR should prove useful in quickly verifying ambiguous results obtained by other APOE genotyping methods and can be cost-effectively performed in the setting of a small laboratory or a population-based screening program.

  19. POLYMERASE CHAIN REACTION (PCR) TECHNOLOGY IN VISUAL BEACH

    EPA Science Inventory

    In 2000, the US Congress passed the Beaches Environmental Assessment and Coastal Health Act under which the EPA has the mandate to manage all significant public beaches by 2008. As a result, EPA, USGS and NOAA are developing the Visual Beach program which consists of software eq...

  20. A diagnostic polymerase chain reaction assay for Zika virus.

    PubMed

    Balm, Michelle N D; Lee, Chun Kiat; Lee, Hong Kai; Chiu, Lily; Koay, Evelyn S C; Tang, Julian W

    2012-09-01

    Zika virus (ZIKV) is a mosquito-borne flavivirus. Infection results in a dengue-like illness with fever, headache, malaise, and a maculopapular rash. Nearly all cases are mild and self-limiting but in 2007, a large outbreak of ZIKV was reported from the island of Yap (in Micronesia, northwest of Indonesia). Singapore is already endemic for dengue, and its impact on public health and economic burden is significant. Other dengue-like infections (e.g., Chikungunya virus) are present. Yet only 10% of reported dengue cases have laboratory confirmation. The identification and control of other dengue-like, mosquito-transmitted infections is thus important for the health of Singapore's population, as well as its economy. Given that ZIKV shares the same Aedes mosquito vector with both dengue and Chikungunya, it is possible that this virus is present in Singapore and causing some of the mild dengue-like illness. A specific and sensitive one-step, reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) with an internal control (IC) was designed and tested on 88 archived samples of dengue-negative, Chikungunya-negative sera from patients presenting to our hospital with a dengue-like illness, to determine the presence of ZIKV in Singapore. The assay was specific for detection of ZIKV and displayed a lower limit of detection (LoD) of 140 copies viral RNA/reaction when tested on synthetic RNA standards prepared using pooled negative patient plasma. Of the 88 samples tested, none were positive for ZIKV RNA, however, the vast majority of these were from patients admitted to hospital and further study may be warranted in community-based environments.

  1. Real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction: technical considerations for gene expression analysis.

    PubMed

    Doak, Shareen H; Zaïr, Zoulikha M

    2012-01-01

    The reverse transcription - polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) is a sensitive technique for the quantification of steady-state mRNA levels, particularly in samples with limited quantities of extracted RNA, or for analysis of low level transcripts. The procedure amplifies defined mRNA transcripts by taking advantage of retroviral enzymes with reverse transcriptase (RT) activity, coupled to PCR. The resultant PCR product concentration is directly proportional to the initial starting quantity of mRNA, therefore allowing quantification of gene expression by incorporation of a fluorescence detector for the appropriate amplicons. In this chapter, we describe a number of the most popular techniques for performing RT-PCR and detail the subsequent analysis methodologies required to interpret the resultant data in either a relative manner or through absolute quantification of gene expression levels.

  2. Magnetic hydrophilic methacrylate-based polymer microspheres designed for polymerase chain reactions applications.

    PubMed

    Spanová, Alena; Horák, Daniel; Soudková, Eva; Rittich, Bohuslav

    2004-02-01

    Magnetic hydrophilic non-porous P(HEMA-co-EDMA), P(HEMA-co-GMA) and PGMA microspheres were prepared by dispersion (co)polymerization of 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA) and ethylene dimethacrylate (EDMA) or glycidyl methacrylate (GMA) in the presence of several kinds of magnetite. It was found that some components used in the preparation of magnetic carriers interfered with polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Influence of non-magnetic and magnetic microspheres, including magnetite nanoparticles and various components used in their synthesis, on the PCR course was thus investigated. DNA isolated from bacterial cells of Bifidobacterium longum was used in PCR evaluation of non-interfering magnetic microspheres. The method enabled verification of the incorporation of magnetite nanoparticles in the particular methacrylate-based polymer microspheres and evaluation of suitability of their application in PCR. Preferably, electrostatically stabilized colloidal magnetite (ferrofluid) should be used in the design of new magnetic methacrylate-based microspheres by dispersion polymerization. PMID:14698232

  3. Rapid polymerase chain reaction diagnosis of white-nose syndrome in bats

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lorch, J.M.; Gargas, A.; Meteyer, C.U.; Berlowski-Zier, B. M.; Green, D.E.; Shearn-Bochsler, V.; Thomas, N.J.; Blehert, D.S.

    2010-01-01

    A newly developed polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based method to rapidly and specifically detect Geomyces destructans on the wings of infected bats from small quantities (1-2 mg) of tissue is described in the current study (methods for culturing and isolating G. destructans from bat skin are also described). The lower limits of detection for PCR were 5 fg of purified fungal DNA or 100 conidia per 2 mg of wing tissue. By using histology as the standard, the PCR had a diagnostic specificity of 100% and a diagnostic sensitivity of 96%, whereas the diagnostic sensitivity of culture techniques was only 54%. The accuracy and fast turnaround time of PCR provides field biologists with valuable information on infection status more rapidly than traditional methods, and the small amount of tissue required for the test would allow diagnosis of white-nose syndrome in live animals.

  4. Single primer-mediated circular polymerase chain reaction for hairpin DNA cloning and plasmid editing.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jiansheng; Khan, Inamullah; Liu, Rui; Yang, Yan; Zhu, Naishuo

    2016-05-01

    We developed and validated a universal polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method, single primer circular (SPC)-PCR, using single primer to simultaneously insert and amplify a short hairpin sequence into a vector with a high success rate. In this method, the hairpin structure is divided into two parts and fused into a vector by PCR. Then, a single primer is used to cyclize the chimera into a mature short hairpin RNA (shRNA) expression vector. It is not biased by loop length or palindromic structures. Six hairpin DNAs with short 4-nucleotide loops were successfully cloned. Moreover, SPC-PCR was also applied to plasmid editing within 3 h with a success rate higher than 95%.

  5. Preparation of 13C/15N-labeled oligomers using the polymerase chain reaction

    DOEpatents

    Chen, Xian; Gupta, Goutam; Bradbury, E. Morton

    2001-01-01

    Preparation of .sup.13 C/.sup.15 N-labeled DNA oligomers using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). A PCR based method for uniform (.sup.13 C/.sup.15 N)-labeling of DNA duplexes is described. Multiple copies of a blunt-ended duplex are cloned into a plasmid, each copy containing the sequence of interest and restriction Hinc II sequences at both the 5' and 3' ends. PCR using bi-directional primers and uniformly .sup.13 C/.sup.15 N-labeled dNTP precursors generates labeled DNA duplexes containing multiple copies of the sequence of interest. Twenty-four cycles of PCR, followed by restriction and purification, gave the uniformly .sup.13 C/.sup.15 N-labeled duplex sequence with a 30% yield. Such labeled duplexes find significant applications in multinuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy.

  6. Single primer-mediated circular polymerase chain reaction for hairpin DNA cloning and plasmid editing.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jiansheng; Khan, Inamullah; Liu, Rui; Yang, Yan; Zhu, Naishuo

    2016-05-01

    We developed and validated a universal polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method, single primer circular (SPC)-PCR, using single primer to simultaneously insert and amplify a short hairpin sequence into a vector with a high success rate. In this method, the hairpin structure is divided into two parts and fused into a vector by PCR. Then, a single primer is used to cyclize the chimera into a mature short hairpin RNA (shRNA) expression vector. It is not biased by loop length or palindromic structures. Six hairpin DNAs with short 4-nucleotide loops were successfully cloned. Moreover, SPC-PCR was also applied to plasmid editing within 3 h with a success rate higher than 95%. PMID:26792375

  7. G-quadruplex-generating polymerase chain reaction for visual colorimetric detection of amplicons.

    PubMed

    Bhadra, Sanchita; Codrea, Vlad; Ellington, Andrew D

    2014-01-15

    We have developed a self-reporting polymerase chain reaction (PCR) system for visual colorimetric gene detection and distinction of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Amplification is performed using target-specific primers modified with a 5'-end tail that is complementary to a G-quadruplex deoxyribozyme-forming sequence. At end-point, G-quadruplexes are forced to fold from PCR-generated duplex DNA and then are used to colorimetrically report the successful occurrence of PCR by assaying their peroxidase activity using a chromogenic substrate. Furthermore, primer design considerations for the G-quadruplex-generating PCR system have allowed us to visually distinguish SNPs associated with Mycobacterium tuberculosis drug resistance alleles. PMID:24135653

  8. Detection of influenza viruses in throat swab by using polymerase chain reaction.

    PubMed

    Yamada, A; Imanishi, J; Nakajima, E; Nakajima, K; Nakajima, S

    1991-01-01

    An assay protocol based on exploiting the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for the direct detection of influenza virus in throat swab is described. By use of the mixture of H1 and H3 primers, it was possible to determine the subtype of the influenza A viruses simultaneously. No visible band was detected after PCR of influenza B or A (H2N2) viruses with a pair of H1 or H3 primers. The dilution experiment showed that the influenza viruses, as few as 1.3-6 plaque-forming units, were sufficient for detecting the HA gene by PCR. All throat swab samples from which influenza viruses had been isolated by conventional method were also positively detected by PCR method.

  9. Real-Time Reverse Transcription–Polymerase Chain Reaction Assay for SARS-associated Coronavirus

    PubMed Central

    Emery, Shannon L.; Bowen, Michael D.; Newton, Bruce R.; Winchell, Jonas M.; Meyer, Richard F.; Tong, Suxiang; Cook, Byron T.; Holloway, Brian P.; McCaustland, Karen A.; Rota, Paul A.; Bankamp, Bettina; Lowe, Luis E.; Ksiazek, Tom G.; Bellini, William J.; Anderson, Larry J.

    2004-01-01

    A real-time reverse transcription–polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay was developed to rapidly detect the severe acute respiratory syndrome–associated coronavirus (SARS-CoV). The assay, based on multiple primer and probe sets located in different regions of the SARS-CoV genome, could discriminate SARS-CoV from other human and animal coronaviruses with a potential detection limit of <10 genomic copies per reaction. The real-time RT-PCR assay was more sensitive than a conventional RT-PCR assay or culture isolation and proved suitable to detect SARS-CoV in clinical specimens. Application of this assay will aid in diagnosing SARS-CoV infection. PMID:15030703

  10. Preparative isolation of polymerase chain reaction products using mixed-mode chromatography.

    PubMed

    Matos, T; Silva, G; Queiroz, J A; Bülow, L

    2015-11-15

    The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) has become one of the most useful techniques in molecular biology laboratories around the world. The purification of the target DNA product is often challenging, however, and most users are restricted to employing available commercial kits. The recent developments in mixed-mode chromatography have shown higher selectivity for a variety of nucleic acid-containing samples. Capto Adhere is a mixed-mode chromatography resin that offers a high-selectivity ligand and is here applied for the purification of amplified DNAs from PCR mixtures in a 10-min single step, with yields above 95%, high linearity, and high precision for different concentrations.

  11. [Identification of human pathogenic variola and monkeypox viruses by real-time polymerase chain reaction].

    PubMed

    Kostina, E V; Gavrilova, E V; Riabinin, V A; Shchelkunov, S N; Siniakov, A N

    2009-01-01

    A kit of specific oligonucleotide primers and hybridization probes has been proposed to detect orthopoxviruses (OPV) and to discriminate human pathogenic viruses, such as variola virus and monkey virus by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). For real-time PCR, the following pairs of fluorophore and a fluorescence quencher were used: TAMRA-BHQ2 for genus-specific probes and FAM-BHQ1 for species-specific ones (variola virus, monkeypox virus, ectomelia virus). The specificity of this assay was tested on 38 strains of 6 OPV species and it was 100%.

  12. [Real-time polymerase chain reaction in the diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis].

    PubMed

    Salina, T Iu; Morozova, T I

    2008-01-01

    To enhance the efficiency of diagnosis of oligo- and abacillar pulmonary tuberculosis and its differential diagnosis with other lung diseases, the authors studied the informative value of real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) used in 62 patients with different clinical forms of tuberculosis and 108 differentially diagnostic patients. Real-time PCR has been ascertained to be a significantly more sensitive and highly specific tool in tuberculosis diagnosis, which considerably improves the specific recognition of the etiology of a pathogenetic process in oligo- and abacillar patients. Particularly encouraging results have been obtained when examining differentially diagnostic patients with the rounded shadows being formed in the lung. PMID:18710048

  13. Comparison of proteases in DNA extraction via quantitative polymerase chain reaction.

    PubMed

    Eychner, Alison M; Lebo, Roberta J; Elkins, Kelly M

    2015-06-01

    We compared four proteases in the QIAamp DNA Investigator Kit (Qiagen) to extract DNA for use in multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays. The aim was to evaluate alternate proteases for improved DNA recovery as compared with proteinase K for forensic, biochemical research, genetic paternity and immigration, and molecular diagnostic purposes. The Quantifiler Kit TaqMan quantitative PCR assay was used to measure the recovery of DNA from human blood, semen, buccal cells, breastmilk, and earwax in addition to low-template samples, including diluted samples, computer keyboard swabs, chewing gum, and cigarette butts. All methods yielded amplifiable DNA from all samples.

  14. [Detection of leptospirosis reservoirs in Madagascar using the polymerase chain reaction technique].

    PubMed

    Ralaiarijaona, R L; Bellenger, E; Chanteau, S; Roger, F; Pérolat, P; Rasolofo Razanamparany, V

    2001-01-01

    A polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique was used for detection of the Leptospira interrogans rrs gene in kidney tissue from 115 rats, 50 zebu cattles and 13 pigs in an attempt to identify a possible animal reservoir of leptospirosis in Madagascar. In addition, serological testing of 105 individuals in close contact with animals was carried out. The PCR analysis was negative for all the samples tested and only one person was found seropositive at a low titer. The findings suggest that leptospirosis, if prevalent in Madagascar, is likely rare.

  15. Detection of Enterococcus faecalis in Necrotic Teeth Root Canals by Culture and Polymerase Chain Reaction Methods

    PubMed Central

    Cogulu, Dilsah; Uzel, Atac; Oncag, Ozant; Aksoy, Semiha C.; Eronat, Cemal

    2007-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of Enterococcus faecalis in endodontic infections in both deciduous and permanent teeth by culture and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) methods. Methods A total of 145 children aged 5–13 years old were involved in this study. The presence of E. faecalis in necrotic deciduous and permanent teeth root canals was studied using culture and polymerase chain reaction methods. Results Among 145 molar teeth, 57% (n=83) presented necrotic asymptomatic pulp tissues and were included in this study. Culture and PCR methods detected the test species in 18 and 22 of 83 teeth involved, respectively. E. faecalis was cultured from 8 (18%) of 45 necrotic deciduous teeth and from 10 (26%) of 38 necrotic permanent teeth. PCR detection identified the target species in 10 (22%) and 12 (32%) of necrotic deciduous and permanent teeth respectively. Statistically significant difference in the presence of E. faecalis in deciduous and permanent teeth was found by culture and PCR methods (P=0.03 and 0.02, respectively). The difference in the presence of E. faecalis between two different methods was not statistically significant (P>.05). Conclusions The results of the present study confirm that both culture and PCR methods are sensitive to detect E. faecalis in root canals. PMID:19212470

  16. Diagnosis of Fusarium keratitis in an animal model using the polymerase chain reaction

    PubMed Central

    Alexandrakis, G.; Jalali, S.; Gloor, P.

    1998-01-01

    AIMS/BACKGROUND—The purpose of this study was apply the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to develop a sensitive, specific, and rapid test to diagnose Fusarium keratitis. Fusarium is the most common cause of fungal corneal infection in some parts of the world. It is often difficult to establish that a keratitis is due to fungal infection.
METHODS—Fusarium solani keratitis was induced in three eyes of three rabbits by injection of a suspension of the fungus into the anterior corneal stroma. In one rabbit the contralateral eye served as a control. From four to 28 days after inoculation, the corneas were scraped for culture, then scraped and swabbed for PCR analysis. The PCR was performed with primers directed against a portion of the Fusarium cutinase gene, and the presence or absence of this amplified target sequence was determined by agarose gel.
RESULTS—The amplified DNA sequence was detected in 25 of 28 samples from the corneas infected with Fusarium, for a sensitivity of 89%. Only three of the 14 samples from these eyes with Fusarium keratitis were positive by culture, for a sensitivity of 21%. Seven of eight control samples were negative by the PCR based test, for a specificity of 88%.
CONCLUSION—This PCR based test holds promise of being an effective method of diagnosing Fusarium keratitis as well as Fusarium infections at other sites.

 Keywords: keratitis; Fusarium; ulcer; cornea; polymerase chain reaction PMID:9602631

  17. Reverse transcription and polymerase chain reaction amplification of rRNA for detection of Helicobacter species.

    PubMed

    Engstrand, L; Nguyen, A M; Graham, D Y; el-Zaatari, F A

    1992-09-01

    Sequence data on Helicobacter pylori 16S rRNA were used to select two 22-base oligonucleotide primers for use in a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for detection of H. pylori. H. pylori cells were treated with lysis buffer, boiled, and chloroform extracted. Reverse transcription of rRNA was followed by PCR amplification (RT-PCR) of the synthesized cDNA and 16S rRNA gene. The amplified PCR products were analyzed by agarose gel electrophoresis and Southern blotting. Using ethidium bromide-stained agarose gels, we were able to detect the expected 500-bp DNA fragment from as few as two H. pylori organisms per reaction. The specificity of the RT-PCR assay was tested with 27 clinical isolates and related reference strains; although the number of bacterial cells used per reaction was 10(5)-fold greater than the number of H. pylori organisms used, amplification was detected only with bacteria in the same genus, H. cinaedi and H. mustelae. Ten H. pylori organisms per biopsy specimen were detected on agarose gels when organisms were added to samples prepared from a processed colon biopsy sample. RT-PCR results were consistent with urea breath test and culture results in 14 of 15 gastric biopsy specimens; the specificity was 100%. RT-PCR of rRNA from H. pylori increased the sensitivity of pathogen detection at least 25- to 50-fold compared with that of previous PCR assays. This low level of detection by RT-PCR assay may prove to be well suited for verifying eradication following therapy. PMID:1383268

  18. Use of polymerase chain reaction in human African trypanosomiasis stage determination and follow-up.

    PubMed Central

    Truc, P.; Jamonneau, V.; Cuny, G.; Frézil, J. L.

    1999-01-01

    Stage determination of human African trypanosomiasis is based on the detection of parasites and measurements of biological changes in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) (concentration of white blood cells > 5 cells per mm3 and increased total protein levels). The patient is treated accordingly. Demonstration of the absence or presence of trypanosomes by the double centrifugation technique is still the only test available to clinicians for assessing treatment success. In this study, however, we evaluate the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) as a tool for assessing the disease stage of trypanosomiasis and for determining whether treatment has been successful. All 15 study patients considered to be in the advanced stage of the disease were PCR positive; however, trypanosomes were demonstrated by double centrifugation in only 11 patients. Of the five remaining patients, who were considered to be in the early stage, PCR and double centrifugation were negative. Following treatment, 13 of the 15 second-stage patients were found to be negative for the disease in at least two samples by PCR and double centrifugation. Two others were still positive by PCR immediately and one month after the treatment. Trypanosome DNA detection using PCR suggested that the two positive patients were not cured but that their possible relapse could not be identified by a search for parasites using the double centrifugation technique. Further evaluation of the PCR method is required, in particular to determine whether PCR assays could be used in studies on patients who fail to respond to melarsoprol, as observed in several foci. PMID:10534898

  19. Molecular diagnosis of dengue by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction.

    PubMed

    Vaughan, H E; George, A; Morris-Glasgow, V; Campione-Piccardo, J

    1999-09-01

    The techniques of reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and subsequent PCR were employed in the analysis of serum samples from a range of patients from the Caribbean Epidemiology Centre (CAREC) member countries. Results were compared with those from viral isolation and immunofluorescence. In the second part of the study, ten serum samples were stored for one week under four sets of conditions: -20 degrees C, 4 degrees C, 25 degrees C, and thawed (20 degrees C) and frozen (-20 degrees C) daily. After one week of each treatment the samples were analysed by RT-PCR and PCR. 90.4% of results from PCR agreed with results from viral isolation (VI) and fluorescent antibody (FA) detection. All PCR positive samples originated from sera collected within five days of the date of onset of fever. Frozen, refrigerated and repeat freeze-thawed samples gave consistent positive results by RT-PCR. After storage at 25 degrees C, however, half the dengue-positive samples were negative by RT-PCR. The results indicate the sensitivity and reliability of this rapid technique and its applicability in the Caribbean. It provides a preliminary assessment of its advantages and limitations under certain conditions of serum collection and storage.

  20. [Polymerase chain reaction for rapid detection and serotyping of dengue virus in clinical samples].

    PubMed

    Rosario, D; Alvarez, M; Díaz, J; Contreras, R; Rodríguez, R; Vázquez, S; Guzmán, M G

    1998-07-01

    This study describes the benefits of using reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) for the rapid detection and typing of dengue virus in clinical samples. Twenty-seven serum specimens from patients with dengue fever and dengue hemorrhagic fever in Colombia, Nicaragua, and Panama were directly subjected to RT-PCR for the detection of dengue virus. The resulting double-stranded DNA product was typed by a second round of PCR amplification (nested PCR) with type-specific primers, viral culture/indirect immunofluorescence (IIF), and enzyme-linked electroimmunoassay for IgM anti-dengue antibodies. The amplified virus genome was detected and typed within 8 hours. Nested RT-PCR, using viral culture and IIF as the gold standard, showed 100% sensitivity; 78% specificity; 69% positive predictive value, and 100% negative predictive value. It is noteworthy that two of the specimens whose results were positive with nested RT-PCR and negative with viral culture showed specific IgM antibodies. The results of the RT-PCR were in close agreement with those obtained through viral culture. This suggests PCR can greatly facilitate the rapid and early diagnosis of dengue infection.

  1. Immunohistochemistry and Polymerase Chain Reaction for Detection Human Papilloma Virus in Warts: A Comparative Study

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hong Sun; Lee, Ji Hyun; Choo, Ji Yoon; Byun, Hee Jin; Jun, Jin Hyun

    2016-01-01

    Background Immunohistochemistry and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) are the most widely used methods for the detection of viruses. PCR is known to be a more sensitive and specific method than the immunohistochemical method at this time, but PCR has the disadvantages of high cost and skilled work to use widely. With the progress of technology, the immunohistochemical methods used in these days has come to be highly sensitive and actively used in the diagnostic fields. Objective To evaluate and compare the usefulness of immunohistochemistry and PCR for detection human papilloma virus (HPV) in wart lesions. Methods Nine biopsy samples of verruca vulgaris and 10 of condyloma accuminatum were examined. Immunohistochemical staining using monoclonal antibody to HPV L1 capsid protein and PCR were done for the samples. DNA sequencing of the PCR products and HPV genotyping were also done. Results HPV detection rate was 78.9% (88.9% in verruca vulgaris, 70.0% in condyloma accuminatum) on immunohistochemistry and 100.0% for PCR. HPV-6 genotype showed a lower positivity rate on immunohistochemistry (50.0%) as compared to that of the other HPV genotypes. Conclusion Immunohistochemistry for HPV L1 capsid protein showed comparable sensitivity for detection HPV. Considering the high cost and great effort needed for the PCR methods, we can use immunohistochemistry for HPV L1 capsid protein with the advantage of lower cost and simple methods for HPV detection. PMID:27489431

  2. A noncontact temperature measurement method in polymerase chain reaction reactors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sochivko, D. G.; Varlamov, D. A.; Fedorov, A. A.; Kurochkin, V. E.

    2016-04-01

    A new noncontact method for measuring temperatures of liquids, which is based on the fluorescent probes, is proposed. The method is intended for measuring temperatures of reaction media in reactors of devices for polymerase chain reactions in real time and can be used for determining dynamic temperature parameters.

  3. Optimization of competitively differentiated polymerase chain reaction in detection of HBV basal core promoter mutation

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Xiao-Mou; Gu, Lin; Chen, Xue-Juan; Li, Jian-Guo; Huang, Yang-Su; Gao, Zhi-Liang

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To improve competitively differentiated polymerase chain reaction (CD-PCR) in detection of HBV basal core promoter mutation. METHODS: Recombinant plasmid of double point mutation A1762T/G1764A in basal core promoter of HBV constructed by site-directed mutagenesis was used as mutant control. To reveal the deficiency mechanism of CD-PCR, relationship between the circle number of PCR and the increased speed of products of each competitive primer was comparatively studied. Diversified amount of dNTPs and mutual primer of the competitive primers were tried to optimize CD-PCR. Optimized CD-PCR was evaluated by detecting A1762T/G1764A mutation in recombinant plasmids and clinical sera from patients with HBV infection. RESULTS: The deficiency mechanism of CD-PCR was that the products of mismatched competitive primer grew fast when the amplification of matched primer entered into plateau stage, which led to decrease in or disappearance of the difference in the amount of their products. This phenomenon could be eliminated by reducing dNTPs to 10 μmol/L and mutual primer to about 100 nmol/L. Optimized CD-PCR could detect both mutant and wild strain indepe-ndent of the amount of templates and the number of PCR cycles. Its detection limit was 103 copies/mL, about 50 copies/reaction. About 10% of mutant DNAs among wild type DNAs could be detected. A1762T/G1764A mutant was detected in 41.8% (51/122) of patients with HBV infection, but not detected in controls with negative HBsAg. CONCLUSION: Optimized CD-PCR can detect mutation independent of the amount of initial templates and the number of PCR cycles. PMID:15962387

  4. Identification of duck plague virus by polymerase chain reaction

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hansen, W.R.; Brown, Sean E.; Nashold, S.W.; Knudson, D.L.

    1999-01-01

    A polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay was developed for detecting duck plague virus. A 765-bp EcoRI fragment cloned from the genome of the duck plague vaccine (DP-VAC) virus was sequenced for PCR primer development. The fragment sequence was found by GenBank alignment searches to be similar to the 3a?? ends of an undefined open reading frame and the gene for DNA polymerase protein in other herpesviruses. Three of four primer sets were found to be specific for the DP-VAC virus and 100% (7/7) of field isolates but did not amplify DNA from inclusion body disease of cranes virus. The specificity of one primer set was tested with genome templates from other avian herpesviruses, including those from a golden eagle, bald eagle, great horned owl, snowy owl, peregrine falcon, prairie falcon, pigeon, psittacine, and chicken (infectious laryngotracheitis), but amplicons were not produced. Hence, this PCR test is highly specific for duck plague virus DNA. Two primer sets were able to detect 1 fg of DNA from the duck plague vaccine strain, equivalent to five genome copies. In addition, the ratio of tissue culture infectious doses to genome copies of duck plague vaccine virus from infected duck embryo cells was determined to be 1:100, making the PCR assay 20 times more sensitive than tissue culture for detecting duck plague virus. The speed, sensitivity, and specificity of this PCR provide a greatly improved diagnostic and research tool for studying the epizootiology of duck plague. /// Se desarroll?? una prueba de reacci??n en cadena por la polimerasa para detectar el virus de la peste del pato. Un fragmento EcoRI de 765 pares de bases clonado del genoma del virus vacunal de la peste del pato fue secuenciado para la obtenci??n de los iniciadores de la prueba de la reacci??n en cadena por la polimerasa. En investigaciones de alineaci??n en el banco de genes ('GenBank') se encontr?? que la secuencia del fragmento era similar a los extremos 3a?? de un marco de lectura abierto

  5. A METHOD TO REMOVE ENVIRONMENTAL INHIBITORS PRIOR TO THE DETECTION OF WATERBORNE ENTERIC VIRUSES BY REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION-POLYMERASE CHAIN REACTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    A method was developed to remove environmental inhibitors from sample concentrates prior to detection of human enteric viruses using the reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR).Environmental inhibitors, concentrated along with viruses during water sample processi...

  6. Immunomagnetic separation combined with polymerase chain reaction for the detection of Alicyclobacillus acidoterrestris in apple juice.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhouli; Wang, Jun; Yue, Tianli; Yuan, Yahong; Cai, Rui; Niu, Chen

    2013-01-01

    A combination of immunomagnetic separation (IMS) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used to detect Alicyclobacillus acidoterrestris (A. acidoterrestris) in apple juice. The optimum technological parameters of the IMS system were investigated. The results indicated that the immunocapture reactions could be finished in 60 min and the quantity of IMPs used for IMS was 2.5 mg/mL. Then the combined IMS-PCR procedure was assessed by detecting A. acidoterrestris in apple juice samples. The agarose gel electrophoresis results of 20 different strains showed that the IMS-PCR procedure presented high specificity to the A. acidoterrestris. The sensitivity of the IMS-PCR was 2×10(1) CFU/mL and the total detection time was 3 to 4 h. Of the 78 naturally contaminated apple juice samples examined, the sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of IMS-PCR compared with the standardized pour plate method were 90.9%, 97.0% and 96.2%, respectively. The results exhibited that the developed IMS-PCR method will be a valuable tool for detecting A. acidoterrestris and improving food quality in juice samples.

  7. Micromachined polymerase chain reaction system for multiple DNA amplification of upper respiratory tract infectious diseases.

    PubMed

    Liao, Chia-Sheng; Lee, Gwo-Bin; Wu, Jiunn-Jong; Chang, Chih-Ching; Hsieh, Tsung-Min; Huang, Fu-Chun; Luo, Ching-Hsing

    2005-01-15

    This paper presents a micro polymerase chain reaction (PCR) chip for the DNA-based diagnosis of microorganism genes and the detection of their corresponding antibiotic-resistant genes. The micro PCR chip comprises cheap biocompatible soda-lime glass substrates with integrated thin-film platinum resistors as heating/sensing elements, and is fabricated using micro-electro-mechanical-system (MEMS) techniques in a reliable batch-fabrication process. The heating and temperature sensing elements are made of the same material and are located inside the reaction chamber in order to ensure a uniform temperature distribution. This study performs the detection of several genes associated with upper respiratory tract infection microorganisms, i.e. Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemopilus influenze, Staphylococcu aureus, Streptococcus pyogenes, and Neisseria meningitides, together with their corresponding antibiotic-resistant genes. The lower thermal inertia of the proposed micro PCR chip relative to conventional bench-top PCR systems enables a more rapid detection operation with reduced sample and reagent consumption. The experimental data reveal that the high heating and cooling rates of the system (20 and 10 degrees C/s, respectively) permit successful DNA amplification within 15 min. The micro PCR chip is also capable of performing multiple DNA amplification, i.e. the simultaneous duplication of multiple genes under different conditions in separate reaction wells. Compared with the large-scale PCR system, it is greatly advantageous for fast diagnosis of multiple infectious diseases. Multiplex PCR amplification of two DNA segments in the same well is also feasible using the proposed micro device. The developed micro PCR chip provides a crucial tool for genetic analysis, molecular biology, infectious disease detection, and many other biomedical applications. PMID:15590288

  8. Novel vectors for the expression of antibody molecules using variable regions generated by polymerase chain reaction.

    PubMed

    Coloma, M J; Hastings, A; Wims, L A; Morrison, S L

    1992-07-31

    A new family of vectors has been produced which facilitates the cloning and expression of immunoglobulin variable regions cloned by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The vectors are designed to express the cloned variable regions joined to human constant regions and take advantage of priming in the leader sequence so that no amino acid changes will be introduced into the mature antibody molecule. Both the heavy chain and light chain vectors utilize a murine VH promoter provided with an EcoRV restriction site so that the amplified variable regions can be directly cloned into a functional promoter. For the heavy chain an NheI restriction site has been generated at the first two amino acids of CH1 and the cloned leader and variable region are fused directly to the CH1 domain of the constant region. When the leader and variable regions of the light chain were fused directly to C kappa, no expression was observed. Therefore the light chain expression vector was designed with a SalI restriction site for cloning into a splice junction 3' of the variable region; VL then is joined to C kappa by splicing. Both vectors direct the expression of functional, fully assembled immunoglobulin molecules with the expected molecular weight. Use of redundant oligomers to prime the PCR permits the cloning and expression of recombinant antibodies without any prior information as to their sequence and makes it possible to rapidly generate recombinant antibodies from any monoclonal antibody producing cell line.

  9. Plasmid Copy Number Determination by Quantitative Polymerase Chain Reaction.

    PubMed

    Anindyajati; Artarini, A Anita; Riani, Catur; Retnoningrum, Debbie S

    2016-01-01

    Recombinant therapeutic proteins are biopharmaceutical products that develop rapidly for years. Recombinant protein production in certain hosts requires vector expression harboring the gene encoding the corresponding protein. Escherichia coli is the prokaryote organism mostly used in recombinant protein production, commonly using a plasmid as the expression vector. Recombinant protein production is affected by plasmid copy number harboring the encoded gene, hence the determination of plasmid copy number also plays an important role in establishing a recombinant protein production system. On the industrial scale, a low copy number of plasmids are more suitable due to their better stability. In the previous study we constructed pCAD, a plasmid derived from the low copy number pBR322 plasmid. This study was aimed to confirm pCAD's copy number by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). Plasmid copy number was determined by comparing the quantification signal from the plasmid to those from the chromosome. Copy number was then calculated by using a known copy number plasmid as a standard. Two pairs of primers, called tdk and ori, were designed for targeting a single gene tdk in the chromosome and a conserved domain in the plasmid's ori, respectively. Primer quality was analyzed in silico using PrimerSelect DNASTAR and PraTo software prior to in vitro evaluation on primer specificity and efficiency as well as optimization of qPCR conditions. Plasmid copy number determination was conducted on E. coli lysates harboring each plasmid, with the number of cells ranging from 10(2)-10(5) cells/μL. Cells were lysed by incubation at 95ºC for 10 minutes, followed by immediate freezing at -4°C. pBR322 plasmid with the copy number of ~19 copies/cell was used as the standard, while pJExpress414-sod plasmid possessing the high copy number pUC ori was also determined to test the method being used. In silico analysis based on primer-primer and primer-template interactions showed

  10. Humic substances cause fluorescence inhibition in real-time polymerase chain reaction.

    PubMed

    Sidstedt, Maja; Jansson, Linda; Nilsson, Elin; Noppa, Laila; Forsman, Mats; Rådström, Peter; Hedman, Johannes

    2015-10-15

    Real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) is the cornerstone of DNA analysis, enabling detection and quantification of minute nucleic acid amounts. However, PCR-based analysis is limited, in part, by the presence of inhibitors in the samples. PCR inhibition has been viewed solely as failure to efficiently generate amplicons, that is, amplification inhibition. Humic substances (HS) are well-known inhibitors of PCR amplification. Here we show that HS from environmental samples, specifically humic acid (HA), are very potent detection inhibitors, that is, quench the fluorescence signal of double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) binding dyes. HA quenched the fluorescence of the commonly used qPCR dyes EvaGreen, ResoLight, SYBR Green I, and SYTO 82, generating lowered amplification plots, although amplicon production was unaffected. For EvaGreen, 500 ng of HA quenched nearly all fluorescence, whereas 1000 ng of HA completely inhibited amplification when applying Immolase DNA polymerase with bovine serum albumin (BSA). Fluorescence spectroscopy measurements showed that HA quenching was either static or collisional and indicated that HA bound directly to the dye. Fulvic acid did not act as a qPCR detection inhibitor but inhibited amplification similarly to HA. Hydrolysis probe fluorescence was not quenched by HA. Detection inhibition is an overlooked phenomenon that needs to be considered to allow for development of optimal qPCR assays.

  11. Identification of Entamoeba histolytica and E. dispar cysts in stool by polymerase chain reaction.

    PubMed

    Sanuki, J; Asai, T; Okuzawa, E; Kobayashi, S; Takeuchi, T

    1997-01-01

    An attempt to identify cysts of Entamoeba histolytica and E. dispar in human stool was conducted by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using two sets of primers (p11 plus p12 and p13 plus p14) specific for either species of ameba. The cysts in stool specimens obtained from 12 infected individuals were concentrated, freeze-thawed, and treated with Triton X-100 before their examination by PCR. The results of PCR on the cysts were generally consistent with data obtained by PCR on ameba trophozoites hatched from the cysts, by zymodeme analysis, and by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and with clinical findings. This PCR was negative for the stool containing large numbers of cysts of either E. coli, E. hartmanni, or Giardia lamblia as well as for the stool specimens obtained from uninfected individuals. The ameba cyst in stool processed using the present method was effective for the PCR analysis even after 1 month of storage at 4 degrees C. The present PCR was sensitive enough to detect ten cysts of either of the amebae. PMID:9000244

  12. Analysis of adult otitis media: polymerase chain reaction versus culture for bacteria and viruses.

    PubMed

    Liederman, E M; Post, J C; Aul, J J; Sirko, D A; White, G J; Buchman, C A; Ehrlich, G D

    1998-01-01

    Recent studies using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) have identified bacterial and viral genomic sequences in culture-negative pediatric middle ear effusions. To evaluate this technique in adults, 19 effusions were analyzed to compare bacterial and viral culture and PCR detection of Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, Moraxella catarrhalis, and adenovirus. Effusions from 4 subjects positive for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) were analyzed by PCR for HIV virus. Three of 19 effusions were culture-positive for bacteria, and 0 of 19 for viruses. Fifteen of 19 effusions were PCR-positive for bacterial genomic sequences, and 0 of 19 for adenovirus. Thirteen of 15 PCR-positive specimens demonstrated S pneumoniae, 5 of 15 H influenzae, and 0 of 13 M catarrhalis. All 4 effusions from HIV-positive subjects were PCR-positive for HIV. No effusion was culture-positive and PCR-negative. These results confirm that culture-negative middle ear effusions contain genomic sequences from bacterial pathogens. Finding of HIV RNA and DNA in effusion from HIV-positives suggests replicating virus in this fluid.

  13. Clinical application of a polymerase chain reaction assay in the diagnosis of pneumonia caused by Rhodococcus equi in a horse.

    PubMed

    Vivrette, S L; Sellon, D C; Gibbons, D S

    2000-11-01

    Diagnosis of pneumonia caused by Rhodococcus equi can be made more rapidly by use of a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay than by use of conventional bacteriologic culture techniques. Use of a PCR assay aids in the differentiation between virulent and avirulent strains of R equi, and the assay may be used to identify R equi in feces and soil of breeding farms. PMID:11061388

  14. Predictive role of polymerase chain reaction in the early diagnosis of congenital Trypanosoma cruzi infection.

    PubMed

    Velázquez, Elsa B; Rivero, Rocío; De Rissio, Ana María; Malagrino, Nora; Esteva, Mónica I; Riarte, Adelina Rosa; Ruiz, Andrés Mariano

    2014-09-01

    The efficacy of specific chemotherapy in congenital Chagas disease before the first year of life ranges between 90 and 100%. Between this age and 15 years of age, the efficacy decreases to around 60%. Therefore, early infection detection is a priority in vertical transmission. The aim of this work was to assess whether polymerase chain reaction (PCR) plays a predictive role in the diagnosis of congenital Chagas disease as compared to conventional parasitological and serological methods. To this end, we studied a total of 468 children born to Trypanosoma cruzi seroreactive mothers came from Argentina, Bolivia and Paraguay, who lived in the city of Buenos Aires and suburban areas (Argentina), a non-endemic area of this country. These children were assessed by PCR from 2004 to 2009 with the specific primers Tcz1 and Tcz2, and 121 and 122. PCR allowed detecting 49 T. cruzi-positive children. Eight of these 49 children were excluded from the analysis: six because they did not complete follow-up and two because the first control was performed after 12 months of age. Parasitological methods allowed detecting 25 positive children, 7 of whom had been earlier diagnosed by PCR (1.53±2.00 vs. 6.71±1.46 months; p=0.0002). Serological methods allowed detecting 16 positive children, 12 of whom had been earlier diagnosed by PCR (1.46±1.48 vs. 11.77±4.40 months; p<0.0001). None of the children negative by PCR was positive by serological or parasitological methods. This study shows that PCR allows early diagnosis in congenital Chagas disease. At present, an early positive PCR is not indicative for treatment. However, a positive PCR would alert the health system to search only those infected infants diagnosed by early PCR and thus generate greater efficiency in the diagnosis and treatment of congenital T. cruzi infection.

  15. Use of pooled samples for the detection of Salmonella in feces by polymerase chain reaction.

    PubMed

    Singer, Randall S; Cooke, Cara L; Maddox, Carol W; Isaacson, Richard E; Wallace, Richard L

    2006-07-01

    Many epidemiological studies of Salmonella rely on conventional bacteriological culture methods to detect Salmonella in fecal samples. These culture-based methods are inefficient for epidemiological studies in populations with a low prevalence of Salmonella. The objective of this study was to optimize a protocol that uses pooled Salmonella enrichment broth cultures of bovine feces and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for the detection of the invA gene of Salmonella in feces. In one field trial, 196 animals were sampled, and all samples were tested by culture, invA PCR on individual samples, invA PCR on pools of 5 samples, and BAX PCR on individual samples. All assays showed a high agreement on individual samples (kappa > or = 0.75). The invA PCR was run on each of 40 pools and detected 19 of 22 culture-positive pools. In another field trial, 152 samples were taken from 4 dairies, and the invA PCR was performed on pools of 5 samples in addition to bacteriological culture of individual samples. Salmonella was detected in 5 of the 32 pools (7 total positive samples) by both PCR and culture. One pool was PCR-positive but culture-negative. Pooling did not dramatically affect the performance of the invA PCR; most of the culture-positive samples were detected, including all of the samples when there were 4 or more Salmonella colonies on the agar plate. Based on these field trials, invA PCR on pooled samples appears to be an efficient method of Salmonella detection as long as Salmonella loads are not extremely low.

  16. Decapitation improves detection of Wolbachia pipientis (Rickettsiales: Anaplasmataceae) in Culex pipiens (Diptera: Culicidae) mosquitoes by the polymerase chain reaction.

    PubMed

    Beckmann, J F; Fallon, A M

    2012-09-01

    Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is often used to detect microorganisms, pathogens, or both, including the reproductive parasite Wolbachia pipientis (Rickettsiales: Anaplasmataceae), in mosquitoes. Natural populations of Culex pipiens L. (Diptera: Culicidae) mosquitoes are infected with one or more strains of W. pipientis, and crosses between mosquitoes harboring different Wolbachia strains provide one of the best-known examples of cytoplasmic incompatibililty (CI). When we used PCR to monitor Wolbachia in the Buckeye strain of Culex pipiens, and in a Wolbachia-cured sister colony obtained by tetracycline treatment, we noted false negative PCR reactions with DNA samples from infected mosquitoes; these results were inconsistent with direct microscopic observation of Wolbachia-like particles in gonads dissected from mosquitoes in the same population. Assays with diluted template often improved detection of positive samples, suggesting that DNA prepared from whole mosquitoes contained an inhibitor of the PCR reaction. We reconciled discrepancies between PCR and microscopy by systematic measurement of the PCR reaction in the presence of an internal standard. Mosquito decapitation before DNA extraction restored the reliability of the PCR reaction, allowing accurate determination of Wolbachia infection status in infected and tetracycline-cured mosquito populations, consistent with microscopic examination. Using PCR primers based on the Tr1 gene, we confirmed that the Wolbachia infection in the Buckeye strain of Culex pipiens belongs to the genotype designated wPip1. Finally, to explore more widely the distribution of PCR inhibitors, we demonstrated that DNA isolated from the cricket, Acheta domesticus (L.); the beetle, Tenebrio molitor L.; the honey bee, Apis mellifera L.; and the mosquito, Anopheles punctipennis Say also contained PCR inhibitors. These results underscore the importance of measuring the presence of inhibitors in PCR templates by using a known positive

  17. Culture-negative endocarditis diagnosed using 16S DNA polymerase chain reaction.

    PubMed

    Duffett, Stephen; Missaghi, Bayan; Daley, Peter

    2012-01-01

    16S DNA polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is a molecular amplification technique that can be used to identify bacterial pathogens in culture-negative endocarditis. Bacterial DNA can be isolated from surgically excised valve tissue or from blood collected in EDTA vials. Use of this technique is particularly helpful in identifying the bacterial pathogen in cases of culture-negative endocarditis. A case involving a 48-year-old man who presented with severe aortic regurgitation and a four-month prodrome of low-grade fever is reported. Blood and valve tissue cultures following valve replacement were negative. A valve tissue sample was sent for investigation with 16S DNA PCR, which successfully identified Streptococcus salivarius and was interpreted as the true diagnosis. A review of the literature suggests that 16S DNA PCR from valve tissue is a more sensitive diagnostic test than culture. It is also extremely specific, based on a sequence match of at least 500 base pairs.

  18. DNA fragment length polymorphism analysis of Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates by arbitrarily primed polymerase chain reaction.

    PubMed

    Palittapongarnpim, P; Chomyc, S; Fanning, A; Kunimoto, D

    1993-04-01

    Strain identification of Mycobacterium tuberculosis would prove whether transmission had occurred between individuals. A method to characterize strains of M. tuberculosis has been developed utilizing polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Purified chromosomal DNA of cultured clinical samples of M. tuberculosis were subjected to PCR using short (10-12 nucleotide) oligonucleotide primers. PCR products visualized after agarose gel electrophoresis and ethidium bromide staining demonstrated that different strains of M. tuberculosis give different banding patterns. This technique was used to confirm the relationship between cases of tuberculosis in several clusters, prove the lack of relationship between 2 isolates with the same antibiotic-resistance pattern, confirm a suspected mislabeling event, and suggest the source of infection in a case of tuberculous meningitis. This method is rapid and simple and does not require radioactive probes.

  19. Detection of human astrovirus serotype 1 by the polymerase chain reaction.

    PubMed

    Jonassen, T O; Kjeldsberg, E; Grinde, B

    1993-09-01

    Astroviruses are small, plus-strand RNA viruses associated with diarrhoea, mostly in children. The diagnostic method commonly used is electron microscopy. We have designed a nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) based on the recently reported nucleotide sequence of the 3' end of the genome of a human astrovirus serotype 1, the most common form. The PCR was positive for the ten serotype 1 samples tested, while being negative for all other viruses tested, including astrovirus type 2, 3, 4 and 5, calicivirus, rotavirus and picornaviruses. Fecal extracts from patients with diarrhoea were analysed directly or after isolation of RNA, the former method being at least as sensitive. Titration of fecal extracts by PCR indicated the presence of up to 10(11) viral particles per ml in feces.

  20. [Use of the nested polymerase chain reaction in the differential diagnosis of human herpes simplex virus].

    PubMed

    Glukhov, A I; Gordeev, S A; Al'tshuler, M L; Severin, S E

    2003-02-01

    Herpes is one of the most widespread human viral pathologies. The article depicts a special modification of polymerized chain reaction--(PCR)--(referred to as "nested"), which has a higher sensitivity, specificity and reliability as compared to the ordinary PCR, and which is designed to detect the herpes viruses. The method was initially tested at purified preparation of viral DNA, and later--at clinical materials obtained from patients and healthy donors. Secretions from the urogenital tract (smears), scrapes from the urogenital tracts and urinal cellular samples were examined in patients. Herpes simplex was detected in all cases. As for the healthy people, the identical examinations produced in them mainly the negative findings. Therefore, the nested PCR is a simple, sensitive and effective instrument in the diagnostics and prevention of herpes; it can be recommended for a comprehensive usage in medical practice.

  1. Specific Polymerase Chain Reaction Primers for the Detection of Plasmodiophora brassicae in Soil and Water.

    PubMed

    Faggian, R; Bulman, S R; Lawrie, A C; Porter, I J

    1999-05-01

    ABSTRACT The development of specific oligonucleotide primers for Plasmodiophora brassicae has led to a nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) detection method for P. brassicae in soil and water. Initially, the PCR was used to amplify a section of the rDNA repeat. The PCR products were sequenced and the data used to design primers that were directed at the ribosomal RNA genes and internal transcribed spacer regions. Specificity was tested against more than 40 common soil organisms, host plants, and spore suspension contaminants, as well as P. brassicae isolates from around Australia and the world. Sensitivity was determined to be 0.1 fentograms (fg; 10(-15) g) for pure template and as low as 1,000 spores per g of potting mix. In soil, P. brassicae was detected in all soils where the inoculum was sufficient to result in clubroot symptoms. Also outlined is a simple method of DNA extraction from soil. PMID:18944752

  2. The use of the polymerase chain reaction for the detection of human papillomavirus type 13.

    PubMed

    Williamson, A L; Dennis, S J

    1991-01-01

    Human papillomavirus type 13 (HPV-13) is associated with oral focal epithelial hyperplasia (FEH). The purpose of this study was to establish conditions for the application of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to the specific detection and amplification of HPV-13 DNA. To design primers for HPV-13 a part of the HPV-13 genome was sequenced first: the smallest BamHI fragment (597 bp) of HPV-13 was subcloned and sequenced. The sequence was found to be part of a large open reading frame and had significant homology with the L1 gene of other HPVs. HPV-13 specific primers were designed to amplify a 240 bp fragment from the L1 gene by PCR. Conditions for PCR were standardized for this set of primers.

  3. Frequency of Borrelia in Morphea Lesion by Polymerase Chain Reaction in Northeast of Iran

    PubMed Central

    Yazdanpanah, Mohhamad Javad; Sharifi, Norieh; Khooei, Alireza; Banihashemi, Mahnaz; Khaje-Daluee, Mohammad; Shamsi, Azadeh; Ghazvini, Kiarash

    2015-01-01

    Background: The etiology of morphea is still unknown. Borrelia spp. as a causative agent of morphea has been discussed since 1985, but the relationship remains uncertain. Objectives: We aimed to find the frequency of Borrelia in morphea lesions by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in northeast of Iran. Patients and Methods: Sixty six patients with morphea were prospectively included in the present study. For each patient, formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue blocks of skin lesion biopsies were examined for Borrelia spp. DNA using PCR. Results: No Borrelia DNA was detected by PCR in skin lesions of patients with morphea. Conclusions: The result of this study showed no relationship between Borrelia infection and morphea lesions and in other word indicated that morphea, at least in Iran, is not caused by Borrelia spp. PMID:26468360

  4. Tissue extraction of DNA and RNA and analysis by the polymerase chain reaction.

    PubMed

    Jackson, D P; Lewis, F A; Taylor, G R; Boylston, A W; Quirke, P

    1990-06-01

    Several DNA extraction techniques were quantitatively and qualitatively compared using both fresh and paraffin wax embedded tissue and their suitability investigated for providing DNA and RNA for the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). A one hour incubation with proteinase K was the most efficient DNA extraction procedure for fresh tissue. For paraffin wax embedded tissue a five day incubation with proteinase K was required to produce good yields of DNA. Incubation with sodium dodecyl sulphate produced very poor yields, while boiling produced 20% as much DNA as long enzyme digestion. DNA extracted by these methods was suitable for the PCR amplification of a single copy gene. Proteinase K digestion also produced considerable amounts of RNA which has previously been shown to be suitable for PCR analysis. A delay before fixation had no effect on the amount of DNA obtained while fixation in Carnoy's reagent results in a much better preservation of DNA than formalin fixation, allowing greater yields to be extracted.

  5. Specific and sensitive detection of Trichomonas tenax by the polymerase chain reaction.

    PubMed

    Kikuta, N; Yamamoto, A; Fukura, K; Goto, N

    1997-03-01

    A polymerase chain reaction (PCR) protocol was developed for specific detection of Trichomonas tenax by using a pair of primers designed for its 18S rRNA gene. The detection was specific for T. tenax, since no amplification was detected with DNAs from Trichomonas vaginalis, which belongs to the same genus as T. tenax, in addition to various species of oral protists, fungi and bacteria, and human leukocytes. This method had a detection limit of 100 fg for T. tenax genomic DNA and could detect T. tenax cells in dental plaque at a concentration of as low as 5 cells per PCR mixture. Direct detection from clinical dental plaque samples was also possible; therefore, the present PCR procedure could provide a simple and rapid detection method of T. tenax in dental plaque.

  6. Tangled nonlinear driven chain reactions of all optical singularities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasil'ev, V. I.; Soskin, M. S.

    2012-03-01

    Dynamics of polarization optical singularities chain reactions in generic elliptically polarized speckle fields created in photorefractive crystal LiNbO3 was investigated in details Induced speckle field develops in the tens of minutes scale due to photorefractive 'optical damage effect' induced by incident beam of He-Ne laser. It was shown that polarization singularities develop through topological chain reactions of developing speckle fields driven by photorefractive nonlinearities induced by incident laser beam. All optical singularities (C points, optical vortices, optical diabolos,) are defined by instantaneous topological structure of the output wavefront and are tangled by singular optics lows. Therefore, they have develop in tangled way by six topological chain reactions driven by nonlinear processes in used nonlinear medium (photorefractive LiNbO3:Fe in our case): C-points and optical diabolos for right (left) polarized components domains with orthogonally left (right) polarized optical vortices underlying them. All elements of chain reactions consist from loop and chain links when nucleated singularities annihilated directly or with alien singularities in 1:9 ratio. The topological reason of statistics was established by low probability of far enough separation of born singularities pair from existing neighbor singularities during loop trajectories. Topology of developing speckle field was measured and analyzed by dynamic stokes polarimetry with few seconds' resolution. The hierarchy of singularities govern scenario of tangled chain reactions was defined. The useful space-time data about peculiarities of optical damage evolution were obtained from existence and parameters of 'islands of stability' in developing speckle fields.

  7. Comparison of a Ligase Chain Reaction-Based Assay and Cell Culture for Detection of Pharyngeal Carriage of Chlamydia trachomatis

    PubMed Central

    Winter, Andrew J.; Gilleran, Gerry; Eastick, Kirstine; Ross, Jonathan D. C.

    2000-01-01

    In 264 genitourinary medicine clinic attenders reporting recent fellatio, the prevalence of pharyngeal Chlamydia trachomatis determined by an expanded standard including cell culture and two in-house PCR tests was 1.5% in 194 women and zero in 70 men. The ligase chain reaction (Abbott LCx) had a specificity of 99.2% and a positive predictive value of 60%. PMID:10970416

  8. A serotype-specific polymerase chain reaction for identification of Pasteurella multocida serotype 1

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rocke, Tonie E.; Smith, Susan R.; Miyamoto, Amy; Shadduck, Daniel J.

    2002-01-01

    A serotype-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay was developed for detection and identification of Pasteurella multocida serotype 1, the causative agent of avian cholera in wild waterfowl. Arbitrarily primed PCR was used to detect DNA fragments that distinguish serotype 1 from the other 15 serotypes of P. multocida (with the exception of serotype 14). Oligonucleotide primers were constructed from these sequences, and a PCR assay was optimized and evaluated. PCR reactions consistently resulted in amplification products with reference strains 1 and 14 and all other serotype 1 strains tested, with cell numbers as low as 2.3 cells/ml. No amplification products were produced with other P. multocida serotypes or any other bacterial species tested. To compare the sensitivity and further test the specificity of this PCR assay with traditional culturing and serotyping techniques, tissue samples from 84 Pekin ducks inoculated with field strains of P. multocida and 54 wild lesser snow geese collected during an avian cholera outbreak were provided by other investigators working on avian cholera. PCR was as sensitive (58/64) as routine isolation (52/64) in detecting and identifying P. multocida serotype 1 from the livers of inoculated Pekins that became sick or died from avian cholera. No product was amplified from tissues of 20 other Pekin ducks that received serotypes other than type 1 (serotype 3, 12 × 3, or 10) or 12 control birds. Of the 54 snow geese necropsied and tested for P. multocida, our PCR detected and identified the bacteria from 44 compared with 45 by direct isolation. The serotype-specific PCR we developed was much faster and less labor intensive than traditional culturing and serotyping procedures and could result in diagnosis of serotype 1 pasteurellosis within 24 hr of specimen submission.

  9. A serotype-specific polymerase chain reaction for identification of Pasteurella multocida serotype 1

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rocke, T.E.; Smith, S.R.; Miyamoto, A.; Shadduck, D.J.

    2002-01-01

    A serotype-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay was developed for detection and identification of Pasteurella multocida serotype 1, the causative agent of avian cholera in wild waterfowl. Arbitrarily primed PCR was used to detect DNA fragments that distinguish serotype 1 from the other 15 serotypes of P. multocida (with the exception of serotype 14). Oligonucleotide primers were constructed from these sequences, and a PCR assay was optimized and evaluated. PCR reactions consistently resulted in amplification products with reference strains 1 and 14 and all other serotype 1 strains tested, with cell numbers as low as 2.3 cells/ml. No amplification products were produced with other P. multocida serotypes or any other bacterial species tested. To compare the sensitivity and further test the specificity of this PCR assay with traditional culturing and serotyping techniques, tissue samples from 84 Pekin ducks inoculated with field strains of P. multocida and 54 wild lesser snow geese collected during an avian cholera outbreak were provided by other investigators working on avian cholera. PCR was as sensitive (58/64) as routine isolation (52/64) in detecting and identifying P. multocida serotype 1 from the livers of inoculated Pekins that became sick or died from avian cholera. No product was amplified from tissues of 20 other Pekin ducks that received serotypes other than type 1 (serotype 3, 12 ?? 3, or 10) or 12 control birds. Of the 54 snow geese necropsied and tested for P. multocida, our PCR detected and identified the bacteria from 44 compared with 45 by direct isolation. The serotype-specific PCR we developed was much faster and less labor intensive than traditional culturing and serotyping procedures and could result in diagnosis of serotype 1 pasteurellosis within 24 hr of specimen submission.

  10. A serotype-specific polymerase chain reaction for identification of Pasteurella multocida serotype 1.

    PubMed

    Rocke, Tonie E; Smith, Susan R; Miyamoto, Amy; Shadduck, Daniel J

    2002-01-01

    A serotype-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay was developed for detection and identification of Pasteurella multocida serotype 1, the causative agent of avian cholera in wild waterfowl. Arbitrarily primed PCR was used to detect DNA fragments that distinguish serotype 1 from the other 15 serotypes of P. multocida (with the exception of serotype 14). Oligonucleotide primers were constructed from these sequences, and a PCR assay was optimized and evaluated. PCR reactions consistently resulted in amplification products with reference strains 1 and 14 and all other serotype 1 strains tested, with cell numbers as low as 2.3 cells/ml. No amplification products were produced with other P. multocida serotypes or any other bacterial species tested. To compare the sensitivity and further test the specificity of this PCR assay with traditional culturing and serotyping techniques, tissue samples from 84 Pekin ducks inoculated with field strains of P. multocida and 54 wild lesser snow geese collected during an avian cholera outbreak were provided by other investigators working on avian cholera. PCR was as sensitive (58/64) as routine isolation (52/64) in detecting and identifying P. multocida serotype 1 from the livers of inoculated Pekins that became sick or died from avian cholera. No product was amplified from tissues of 20 other Pekin ducks that received serotypes other than type 1 (serotype 3, 12 x 3, or 10) or 12 control birds. Of the 54 snow geese necropsied and tested for P. multocida, our PCR detected and identified the bacteria from 44 compared with 45 by direct isolation. The serotype-specific PCR we developed was much faster and less labor intensive than traditional culturing and serotyping procedures and could result in diagnosis of serotype 1 pasteurellosis within 24 hr of specimen submission. PMID:12061646

  11. MAMMALIAN DNA IN PCR REAGENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ancient DNA analysis is becoming widespread. These studies use polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to amplify minute quantities of heavily damaged template. Unusual steps are taken to achieve the sensitivity necessary to detect ancient DNA, including high- cycle PCR amplification t...

  12. A disposable, continuous-flow polymerase chain reaction device: design, fabrication and evaluation.

    PubMed

    Ragsdale, Victoria; Li, Huizhong; Sant, Himanshu; Ameel, Tim; Gale, Bruce K

    2016-08-01

    Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) is used to amplify a specific segment of DNA through a thermal cycling protocol. The PCR industry is shifting its focus away from macro-scale systems and towards micro-scale devices because: micro-scale sample sizes require less blood from patients, total reaction times are on the order of minutes opposed to hours, and there are cost advantages as many microfluidic devices are manufactured from inexpensive polymers. Some of the fastest PCR devices use continuous flow, but they have all been built of silicon or glass to allow sufficient heat transfer. This article presents a disposable polycarbonate (PC) device that is capable of achieving real-time, continuous flow PCR in a completely disposable polymer device in less than 13 minutes by thermally cycling the sample through an established temperature gradient in a serpentine channel. The desired temperature gradient was determined through simulations and validated by experiments which showed that PCR was achieved. Practical demonstration included amplification of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) derived cDNA. PMID:27393216

  13. Detection of hog cholera virus and differentiation from other pestiviruses by polymerase chain reaction.

    PubMed

    Wirz, B; Tratschin, J D; Müller, H K; Mitchell, D B

    1993-05-01

    Reverse transcription coupled with the polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was used for the detection and differentiation of pestiviruses. For this purpose, one primer pair was selected from a highly conserved region of the genome of pestiviruses. Using these primers (PEST 1-PEST 2), DNA fragments of between 72 and 74 bp could be amplified from all pestivirus isolates tested. In order to differentiate hog cholera virus (HCV) from bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) and border disease virus (BDV), we selected a primer pair from a conserved region in the genome of HCV strains that differed from that sequenced in the genome of BVDV strains. By using these primers (HCV 1-HCV 2), a DNA fragment of 478 bp could be specifically amplified from HCV isolates. By these means, viral RNA was detected in extracts of lymph node, spleen, tonsil, and lung. Such extracts were used directly for RT-PCR without prior RNA isolation. We also performed multiplex PCR by using both the PEST 1-PEST 2 and HCV 1-HCV 2 primer pairs in a single reaction. This allowed the differentiation of HCV from BVDV and BDV in one step. To assess the sensitivity of the method, RT-PCR was compared with virus propagation in tissue culture and subsequent detection by immunofluorescence staining. The results show that RT-PCR is useful for the rapid detection and differentiation of pestiviruses. PMID:8388887

  14. A simple RNA probe system for analysis of Listeria monocytogenes polymerase chain reaction products.

    PubMed Central

    Blais, B W; Phillippe, L M

    1993-01-01

    The synthesis of an RNA probe specific for the hlyA gene of Listeria monocytogenes by in vitro transcription from a polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-generated template incorporating bacteriophage T7 promoter sequences is described. This simple method produced a high yield of RNA which hybridized specifically with hlyA PCR products on a membrane, resulting in RNA-DNA hybrids which were detected by an immunoenzymatic assay with an anti-RNA-DNA hybrid antibody. The RNA probe hybridization system was more sensitive in the analysis of the PCR products than was the conventional agarose gel electrophoresis method. When applied to the analysis of PCR samples from cultures of various Listeria and non-Listeria organisms, the RNA probe was reactive in the assay of 62 different L. monocytogenes isolates but not other Listeria species. Among the non-Listeria organisms tested, only Enterococcus faecalis gave a weak positive reaction with more than 10(9) cells per ml. This reactivity disappeared at lower cell densities. This strategy for the synthesis and application of RNA probes should facilitate the analysis of PCR products in the detection of L. monocytogenes and possibly other food pathogens. Images PMID:8215354

  15. Assembling long heteroduplexes by asymmetric polymerase chain reaction and annealing the resulting single-stranded DNAs.

    PubMed

    Wang, Mugui; Wei, Chuchu; Ye, Xiufen; Liu, Jianping; Zhang, Cuicui; Chen, Hao; Zhang, Xiaobo; Tu, Jumin

    2015-04-15

    We developed an effective protocol for generating high-purity heteroduplexes via annealing single-stranded DNAs (ssDNAs) derived from plasmid DNA by asymmetric polymerase chain reaction (A-PCR). With the addition of dimethyl sulfoxide, a one-step A-PCR procedure can generate ssDNAs stably at a range of reaction temperatures. Several annealing buffers can anneal two ssDNAs into heteroduplexes effectively. We further developed a simple strategy to create d(GATC) hemimethylated heteroduplexes by annealing fully methylated homoduplexes in the presence of excessive unmethylated ssDNAs. The constructed heteroduplexes have been well tested as substrates for mismatch repair in Escherichia coli and, thus, can be used in various biotechnology applications. PMID:25575760

  16. [The contamination under polymerase chain reaction studies: problems and solutions].

    PubMed

    Titov, V N; Ameliushkina, V A; Rozhkova, T A

    2015-01-01

    The study was carried out to determine risk factors of false positive and false negative results under polymerase chain reaction-analysis of clinical material. The samples with high viral load can be the source of false positive results. The contamination with nucleic acids can occur at any section of polymerase chain reaction analysis. The study data permitted to establish that the most sensitive stage is isolation and purification of nucleic acids especially under manual mode of operation. The detection of positive signal in most samples of one setting indicates total contamination. The cases when only several samples are polluted are special challenge. The presence of sample with high concentration of viral nucleic acid and several samples with low concentration in one setting means necessity of repeated analysis beginning with stage of isolation of nucleic acid. The analysis of curves of accumulation of products of amplification, their forms and positioning on chart is the obligatory stage of polymerase chain reaction study in real time regimen. These actions permit to exclude the readouts of false negative testing results to departments. The study conclusions are equipotent for polymerase chain reaction testing of any nucleic acid targets.

  17. Detection of Listeria monocytogenes by using the polymerase chain reaction

    SciTech Connect

    Bessesen, M.T.; Luo, Q.; Blaser, M.J.; Ellison, R.T. III.; Rotbart. H.A. )

    1990-09-01

    A method was developed for detection of Listeria monocytogens by polymerase chain reaction amplification followed by agarose gel electrophoresis or dot blot analysis with {sup 32}P-labeled internal probe. The technique identified 95 of 95 L. monocytogenes strains, 0 of 12 Listeria strains of other species, and 0 of 12 non-Listeria strains.

  18. Problem-Solving Test: Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szeberenyi, Jozsef

    2009-01-01

    Terms to be familiar with before you start to solve the test: polymerase chain reaction, DNA amplification, electrophoresis, breast cancer, "HER2" gene, genomic DNA, "in vitro" DNA synthesis, template, primer, Taq polymerase, 5[prime][right arrow]3[prime] elongation activity, 5[prime][right arrow]3[prime] exonuclease activity, deoxyribonucleoside…

  19. Ion-Mediated Polymerase Chain Reactions Performed with an Electronically Driven Microfluidic Device.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yi; Li, Qian; Guo, Linjie; Huang, Qing; Shi, Jiye; Yang, Yang; Liu, Dongsheng; Fan, Chunhai

    2016-09-26

    The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is a powerful method for exponentially amplifying very low amounts of target DNA from genetic, clinical, and forensic samples. However, the heating and cooling steps in PCR largely hamper the miniaturization of thermocyclers for on-site detection of pathogens and point-of-care tests. Herein, we devise an ion-mediated PCR (IM-PCR) strategy by exploiting ion-induced DNA denaturation/renaturation cycles. DNA duplexes are effectively denatured in alkaline solutions; whereas, the denatured single-stranded DNA strands readily reform duplexes at neutral pH. By using an integrated microchip that can programmably control the solution pH simply switching the potential in a range of several hundred millivolts, we can trigger IM-PCR at a constant temperature. Analogously to thermal cycling, 30 cycles of pH-induced denaturation/renaturation were used to amplify protein DNA fragments as confirmed by DNA sequencing. We anticipate that this portable, low-cost, and scalable IM-PCR holds great promise for widespread biological, clinical, and environmental applications. PMID:27611873

  20. Standardisation of polymerase chain reaction for the detection of Salmonella typhi in typhoid fever.

    PubMed Central

    Chaudhry, R; Laxmi, B V; Nisar, N; Ray, K; Kumar, D

    1997-01-01

    To improve the diagnosis of Salmonella typhi infection, a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay was developed for the amplification of the dH flagellin gene of S typhi. Primers were designed from dH flagellin gene sequence which will give an amplification product of 486 base pairs. In tests to study the specificity of the assay, no amplification was seen in non-salmonella strains or salmonella strains with flagellar gene other than "d". Sensitivity tests determined that 28 pg of S typhi target DNA or 3 x 10(2) target bacteria could be detected by the PCR assay. Subsequently, the PCR technique was used for detection of S typhi in blood or clot cultures from 84 patients clinically suspected of having typhoid fever, and from 20 healthy control subjects. Twenty five of 84 samples from clinically suspected cases were positive by PCR; four of which were culture negative. No amplification was seen in samples from patients who were culture positive for organisms other than S typhi or from controls. The time taken for each sample for PCR analysis was less than 48 hours compared with three to five days for blood or clot culture. PCR appeared to be a promising diagnostic test for typhoid fever. Images PMID:9215131

  1. Detection of Salmonella invA gene in shrimp enrichment culture by polymerase chain reaction.

    PubMed

    Upadhyay, Bishnu Prasad; Utrarachkij, Fuangfa; Thongshoob, Jarinee; Mahakunkijcharoen, Yuvadee; Wongchinda, Niracha; Suthienkul, Orasa; Khusmith, Srisin

    2010-03-01

    Contamination of seafood with salmonellae is a major public health concern. Detection of Salmonella by standard culture methods is time consuming. In this study, an enrichment culture step prior to polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was applied to detect 284 bp fragment of Salmonella invA in comparison with the conventional culture method in 100 shrimp samples collected from four different shrimp farms and fresh food markets around Bangkok. Samples were pre-enriched in non-selective lactose broth (LB) and selective tetrathionate broth (TTB). PCR detection limit was 10 pg and 10(4) cfu/ml of viable salmonellae with 100% specificity. PCR assay detected 19 different Salmonella serovars belonging to 8 serogroups (B, C1, C2-C3, D1, E1, E4 and K) commonly found in clinical and environmental samples in Thailand. The detection rate of PCR following TTB enrichment (24%) was higher than conventional culture method (19%). PCR following TTB, but not in LB enrichment allowed salmonella detection with 84% sensitivity, 90% specificity and 89% accuracy. Shrimp samples collected from fresh food markets had higher levels of contaminated salmonellae than those from shrimp farms. The results indicated that incorporation of an enrichment step prior to PCR has the potential to be applied for detection of naturally contaminated salmonellae in food, environment and clinical samples.

  2. Trends and advances in food analysis by real-time polymerase chain reaction.

    PubMed

    Salihah, Nur Thaqifah; Hossain, Mohammad Mosharraf; Lubis, Hamadah; Ahmed, Minhaz Uddin

    2016-05-01

    Analyses to ensure food safety and quality are more relevant now because of rapid changes in the quantity, diversity and mobility of food. Food-contamination must be determined to maintain health and up-hold laws, as well as for ethical and cultural concerns. Real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), a rapid and inexpensive quantitative method to detect the presence of targeted DNA-segments in samples, helps in determining both accidental and intentional adulterations of foods by biological contaminants. This review presents recent developments in theory, techniques, and applications of RT-PCR in food analyses, RT-PCR addresses the limitations of traditional food analyses in terms of sensitivity, range of analytes, multiplexing ability, cost, time, and point-of-care applications. A range of targets, including species of plants or animals which are used as food ingredients, food-borne bacteria or viruses, genetically modified organisms, and allergens, even in highly processed foods can be identified by RT-PCR, even at very low concentrations. Microfluidic RT-PCR eliminates the separate sample-processing step to create opportunities for point-of-care analyses. We also cover the challenges related to using RT-PCR for food analyses, such as the need to further improve sample handling.

  3. Trends and advances in food analysis by real-time polymerase chain reaction.

    PubMed

    Salihah, Nur Thaqifah; Hossain, Mohammad Mosharraf; Lubis, Hamadah; Ahmed, Minhaz Uddin

    2016-05-01

    Analyses to ensure food safety and quality are more relevant now because of rapid changes in the quantity, diversity and mobility of food. Food-contamination must be determined to maintain health and up-hold laws, as well as for ethical and cultural concerns. Real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), a rapid and inexpensive quantitative method to detect the presence of targeted DNA-segments in samples, helps in determining both accidental and intentional adulterations of foods by biological contaminants. This review presents recent developments in theory, techniques, and applications of RT-PCR in food analyses, RT-PCR addresses the limitations of traditional food analyses in terms of sensitivity, range of analytes, multiplexing ability, cost, time, and point-of-care applications. A range of targets, including species of plants or animals which are used as food ingredients, food-borne bacteria or viruses, genetically modified organisms, and allergens, even in highly processed foods can be identified by RT-PCR, even at very low concentrations. Microfluidic RT-PCR eliminates the separate sample-processing step to create opportunities for point-of-care analyses. We also cover the challenges related to using RT-PCR for food analyses, such as the need to further improve sample handling. PMID:27407185

  4. Nested reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction for the detection of group A rotaviruses.

    PubMed

    Elschner, M; Prudlo, J; Hotzel, H; Otto, P; Sachse, K

    2002-03-01

    Rotaviruses are important pathogens associated with diarrhoeal diseases in almost all species of mammals. In the present study, a nested reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) for the detection of group A rotaviruses was developed, which is based on a target region in gene segment 6. Rotavirus strains of human, bovine, porcine, canine, feline, equine, and ovine origin were examined. Furthermore several faecal specimens, in which rotavirus had already been detected using other methods than PCR, were included in the study. A nested RT-PCR product was formed with all strains and faecal samples tested. The detection limit for virus-containing cell culture supernatant was 3 x 10(-2) [50% tissue culture infective dose (TCID50)] by RT-PCR and 3 x 10(-3) TCID50) by nested amplification. In order to examine the influence of the sample matrix on sensitivity, a rotavirus-negative faecal specimen was spiked with virus-containing cell culture suspension of the porcine rotavirus OSU. The detection limit of the present PCR procedure was approximately 1.6 x 10(2) TCID50 per g faeces and could be increased by one order of magnitude using nested PCR. The present method for detection and identification of group A rotaviruses represents a powerful diagnostic tool and was shown to be applicable to rotaviruses of different origin, including human sources. PMID:12002423

  5. Absolute quantification of genetically modified MON810 maize (Zea mays L.) by digital polymerase chain reaction.

    PubMed

    Corbisier, Philippe; Bhat, Somanath; Partis, Lina; Xie, Vicki Rui Dan; Emslie, Kerry R

    2010-03-01

    Quantitative analysis of genetically modified (GM) foods requires estimation of the amount of the transgenic event relative to an endogenous gene. Regulatory authorities in the European Union (EU) have defined the labelling threshold for GM food on the copy number ratio between the transgenic event and an endogenous gene. Real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is currently being used for quantification of GM organisms (GMOs). Limitations in real-time PCR applications to detect very low number of DNA targets has led to new developments such as the digital PCR (dPCR) which allows accurate measurement of DNA copies without the need for a reference calibrator. In this paper, the amount of maize MON810 and hmg copies present in a DNA extract from seed powders certified for their mass content and for their copy number ratio was measured by dPCR. The ratio of these absolute copy numbers determined by dPCR was found to be identical to the ratios measured by real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) using a plasmid DNA calibrator. These results indicate that both methods could be applied to determine the copy number ratio in MON810. The reported values were in agreement with estimations from a model elaborated to convert mass fractions into copy number fractions in MON810 varieties. This model was challenged on two MON810 varieties used for the production of MON810 certified reference materials (CRMs) which differ in the parental origin of the introduced GM trait. We conclude that dPCR has a high metrological quality and can be used for certifying GM CRMs in terms of DNA copy number ratio.

  6. Aseptic meningitis caused by Leptospira spp diagnosed by polymerase chain reaction.

    PubMed

    Romero, Eliete Caló; Blanco, Roberta Morozetti; Yasuda, Paulo Hideki

    2010-12-01

    Leptospirosis is a zoonotic disease caused by the pathogenic Leptospira spp. The clinical presentations are diverse, ranging from undifferentiated fever to fulminant disease including meningeal forms. The neurological leptospirosis forms are usually neglected. The aim of this study was to investigate leptospirosis as the cause of aseptic meningitis using different diagnostic techniques including the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Thirty-nine cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples from patients presenting with meningeal abnormalities, predominance of lymphocytes and negative results by traditional microbiological tests were processed by leptospiral culture, anti-leptospiral antibody response and PCR. Leptospira spp DNA was detected in 23 (58.97%) of the CSF samples. Anti-leptospiral antibodies were found in 13 (33.33%) CSF samples. Twelve CSF samples were positive by PCR assay and negative by microscopic agglutination test (MAT) assay. Two CSF samples were positive by MAT and negative by PCR. The positive and negative agreement between both tests was 11 and 14, respectively. CSF samples from six cases of unknown diagnosis were positive by PCR assay. Eight cases showed positive results using PCR and MAT. Leptospirosis could be detected by PCR assay from the 3rd-26th day after illness onset. The sensitivity of the PCR was assessed with confirmed cases of leptospirosis (by MAT) and found to be 89.5%. All CSFs were negative by culture. PCR was found to be a powerful tool for diagnosing meningitis cases of leptospirosis. We recommend that it may be used as a supplementary diagnostic tool, especially in the early stages of the disease, when other diagnostic techniques such as serology are not sensitive.

  7. Characteristics of a chain thermal explosion as a function of the kinetic properties of reaction chains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azatyan, V. V.; Piloyan, A. A.; Saikova, G. R.; Smirnov, N. N.

    2016-03-01

    Study of the combustion and explosion of hydrogen‒carbon oxide‒air mixtures shows that the sharpness of a chain thermal explosion depends on the frequency of branching in a given branch of a reaction chain. It is established that varying the CO: H2 concentration allows us to observe and eliminate the degeneration of an explosion while maintaining the regimes of ignition and deflagration.

  8. Optimized nested polymerase chain reaction for antemortem detection of Mycobacteria in Amazon parrots (Amazona aestiva) and orange-winged Amazons (Amazona amazonica).

    PubMed

    Baquião, Arianne Costa; Luna, Janaina Oliveira; Medina, Aziz Orro; Sanfilippo, Luiz Francisco; de Faria, Maria Jacinta; dos Santos, Manuel Armando Azevedo

    2014-03-01

    The objectives of this study were to optimize nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for Mycobacterium avium complex and Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex and apply them on samples from parrots. Results were negative for the presence of these Mycobacterium in the samples, and nested PCR was specific, faster, and more sensitive than other tests, thereby justifying its use in antemortem diagnosis.

  9. Improved method for preparation of samples for the polymerase chain reaction for detection of Coxiella burnetii in milk using immunomagnetic separation.

    PubMed

    Muramatsu, Y; Maruyama, M; Yanase, T; Ueno, H; Morita, C

    1996-07-01

    Immunomagnetic separation (IMS) improved the detection of Coxiella burnetii in cow's milk by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). IMS represents a novel approach to the isolation of microorganism from milk. The combination of IMS and PCR analysis has an adequate sensitivity for detection of C. burnetii.

  10. Use of polymerase chain reaction in the quantitation of mdr-1 gene expression

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, L.D.; Herzog, C.E.; Rudick, J.B.; Fojo, A.T.; Bates, S.E. )

    1990-11-01

    The ability of the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to quantitate expression of mRNA was examined in the present study. The model chosen was expression of the multidrug resistance gene mdr-1/Pgp in two colon carcinoma cell lines which express mdr-1/Pgp at levels comparable to those found in many clinical samples. PCR was utilized to evaluate differences in mdr-1/Pgp expression in the two cell lines after modulation by sodium butyrate. Thus, comparisons were made across a range of mdr-1/Pgp expression as well as comparisons of small differences. The PCR was found to be both sensitive and quantitative. Accurate quantitation requires demonstration of an exponential range which varies among samples. The exponential range can be determined by carrying out the PCR for a fixed number of cycles on serial dilutions of the RNA reverse transcription product, or by performing the reaction with a varying number of cycles on a fixed quantity of cDNA. By quantitation of the difference in PCR product derived from a given amount of RNA from the sodium butyrate treated and untreated cells, the difference in mRNA expression between samples can be determined. Normalization of the results can be achieved by independent amplification of a control gene, such as {beta}{sub 2}-microglobulin, when the latter is also evaluated in the exponential range. Simultaneous amplification of the control and target genes results in lower levels of PCR products due to competition, which varies from sample to sample. The PCR is thus a labor-intensive but sensitive method of quantitating gene expression in small samples of RNA.

  11. Incidence of enteroviruses in Mamala Bay, Hawaii using cell culture and direct polymerase chain reaction methodologies.

    PubMed

    Reynolds, K A; Roll, K; Fujioka, R S; Gerba, C P; Pepper, I L

    1998-06-01

    The consequence of point and nonpoint pollution sources, discharged into marine waters, on public recreational beaches in Mamala Bay, Hawaii was evaluated using virus cell culture and direct reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Twelve sites, nine marine, two freshwater (one stream and one canal), and one sewage, were assessed either quarterly or monthly for 1 year to detect the presence of human enteric viruses. Water samples were concentrated from initial volumes of 400 L to final volumes of 30 mL using Filterite electronegative cartridge filters and a modified beef extract elution procedure. Cell culture was applied using the Buffalo Green Monkey kidney cell line to analyze samples for enteroviruses. Positive samples were also evaluated by RT-PCR, using enterovirus-specific primers. Levels of RT-PCR inhibition varied with each concentrated sample. Resin column purification increased PCR detection sensitivity by at least one order of magnitude in a variety of sewage outfall and recreational marine water samples but not in the freshwater canal samples. Using cell culture, viable enteroviruses were found in 50 and 17% of all outfall and canal samples, respectively. Samples were positive at beaches 8% of the time. These data illustrate the potential public health hazard associated with recreational waters. Using direct PCR, viruses were detected at the outfall but were not found in any beach or canal samples, in part, owing to substances that inhibit PCR. Therefore, conventional cell culture is the most effective means of detecting low levels of infectious enteroviruses in environmental waters, whereas direct RT-PCR is rendered less effective by inhibitory compounds and low equivalent reaction volumes. PMID:9734309

  12. Incidence of enteroviruses in Mamala Bay, Hawaii using cell culture and direct polymerase chain reaction methodologies.

    PubMed

    Reynolds, K A; Roll, K; Fujioka, R S; Gerba, C P; Pepper, I L

    1998-06-01

    The consequence of point and nonpoint pollution sources, discharged into marine waters, on public recreational beaches in Mamala Bay, Hawaii was evaluated using virus cell culture and direct reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Twelve sites, nine marine, two freshwater (one stream and one canal), and one sewage, were assessed either quarterly or monthly for 1 year to detect the presence of human enteric viruses. Water samples were concentrated from initial volumes of 400 L to final volumes of 30 mL using Filterite electronegative cartridge filters and a modified beef extract elution procedure. Cell culture was applied using the Buffalo Green Monkey kidney cell line to analyze samples for enteroviruses. Positive samples were also evaluated by RT-PCR, using enterovirus-specific primers. Levels of RT-PCR inhibition varied with each concentrated sample. Resin column purification increased PCR detection sensitivity by at least one order of magnitude in a variety of sewage outfall and recreational marine water samples but not in the freshwater canal samples. Using cell culture, viable enteroviruses were found in 50 and 17% of all outfall and canal samples, respectively. Samples were positive at beaches 8% of the time. These data illustrate the potential public health hazard associated with recreational waters. Using direct PCR, viruses were detected at the outfall but were not found in any beach or canal samples, in part, owing to substances that inhibit PCR. Therefore, conventional cell culture is the most effective means of detecting low levels of infectious enteroviruses in environmental waters, whereas direct RT-PCR is rendered less effective by inhibitory compounds and low equivalent reaction volumes.

  13. Chain Copolymerization Reactions: An Algorithm to Predict the Reaction Evolution with Conversion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallardo, Alberto; Aguilar, Maria Rosa; Abraham, Gustavo A.; Roman, Julio San

    2004-01-01

    An algorithm is developed to study and understand the behavior of chain copolymerization reactions. When a binary copolymerization reaction follows the terminal model, Conversion is able to predict the evolution of different parameters, such as instantaneous and cumulative copolymer molar fractions, or molar fractions of any sequence with the…

  14. Potential of polymerase chain reaction and galactomannan for the diagnosis of invasive aspergillosis in patients with febrile neutropenia.

    PubMed

    Aslan, Muge; Oz, Yasemin; Aksit, Filiz; Akay, Olga M

    2015-06-01

    The incidence of invasive aspergillosis (IA) has increased over the last years, especially in immuncompromised patients with high mortality rates. Because of difficulties about the diagnosis; serological methods [galactomannan (GM) antigen test] and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) developed in recent years. MycAssay Aspergillus PCR performance in the diagnosis of IA was evaluated and compared with the GM and in-house PCR. This study was conducted with 358 serum samples obtained from 99 patient with febrile neutropenic episodes who were followed in haematology and bone marrow transplantation units. Patients were classified by the European Organization for the Research and Treatment of Cancer/Mycoses Study Group criteria, 18 of them is proven and probable IA. GM antigen test and two different real-time PCR; one of them is fist commercial PCR for IA; Mycassay Aspergillus and the other one is in-house real-time PCR performed. Sensitivity values were Mycassay Aspergillus PCR, in-house PCR, and GM 65.38%, 11.53% and 23.07%, respectively. The high sensitivity obtained from Mycassay Aspergillus PCR and sensitivity is increased by using a combination of diagnostic methods. GM antigen test and real-time PCR could be beneficial for early diagnosis and treatment of IA. For routine usage of PCR as diagnostic assay more studies needed in future.

  15. Enhancement in the efficiency of polymerase chain reaction by TiO2 nanoparticles: crucial role of enhanced thermal conductivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khaliq R, Abdul; Sonawane, Parshuram J.; Sasi, Binu K.; Sahu, Bhavani S.; Pradeep, T.; Das, Sarit K.; Mahapatra, Nitish R.

    2010-06-01

    Improvement of the specificity and efficiency of the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) by nanoparticles is an emerging area of research. We observed that TiO2 nanoparticles of ~ 25 nm diameter caused significant enhancement of PCR efficiency for various types of templates (namely plasmid DNA, genomic DNA and complementary DNA). By a series of experiments, the optimal TiO2 concentration was determined to be 0.4 nM, which resulted in up to a seven-fold increase in the amount of PCR product. As much as 50% reduction in overall reaction time (by reduction of the number of cycles and the time periods of cycles) was also achieved by utilizing TiO2 nanoparticles without compromising the PCR yield. Investigations of the mechanism of such PCR enhancement by simulations using the 'Fluent K epsilon turbulent model' provided evidence of faster heat transfer in the presence of TiO2 nanoparticles. Consistent with these findings, TiO2 nanoparticles were observed to augment the denaturation of genomic DNA, indicating more efficient thermal conductivity through the reaction buffer. TiO2 nanoparticle-assisted PCR may be useful for profound reduction of the overall PCR reaction period and for enhanced amplification of DNA amplicons from a variety of samples, including GC-rich templates that are often observed to yield unsatisfactory results.

  16. Investigation of polymerase chain reaction assays to improve detection of bacterial involvement in bovine respiratory disease.

    PubMed

    Bell, Colin J; Blackburn, Paul; Elliott, Mark; Patterson, Tony I A P; Ellison, Sean; Lahuerta-Marin, Angela; Ball, Hywel J

    2014-09-01

    Bovine respiratory disease (BRD) causes severe economic losses to the cattle farming industry worldwide. The major bacterial organisms contributing to the BRD complex are Mannheimia haemolytica, Histophilus somni, Mycoplasma bovis, Pasteurella multocida, and Trueperella pyogenes. The postmortem detection of these organisms in pneumonic lung tissue is generally conducted using standard culture-based techniques where the presence of therapeutic antibiotics in the tissue can inhibit bacterial isolation. In the current study, conventional and real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays were used to assess the prevalence of these 5 organisms in grossly pneumonic lung samples from 150 animals submitted for postmortem examination, and the results were compared with those obtained using culture techniques. Mannheimia haemolytica was detected in 51 cases (34%) by PCR and in 33 cases (22%) by culture, H. somni was detected in 35 cases (23.3%) by PCR and in 6 cases (4%) by culture, Myc. bovis was detected in 53 cases (35.3%) by PCR and in 29 cases (19.3%) by culture, P. multocida was detected in 50 cases (33.3%) by PCR and in 31 cases (20.7%) by culture, and T. pyogenes was detected in 42 cases (28%) by PCR and in 31 cases (20.7%) by culture, with all differences being statistically significant. The PCR assays indicated positive results for 111 cases (74%) whereas 82 cases (54.6%) were culture positive. The PCR assays have demonstrated a significantly higher rate of detection of all 5 organisms in cases of pneumonia in cattle in Northern Ireland than was detected by current standard procedures.

  17. A novel mechanism for direct real-time polymerase chain reaction that does not require DNA isolation from prokaryotic cells.

    PubMed

    Soejima, Takashi; Xiao, Jin-Zhong; Abe, Fumiaki

    2016-06-23

    Typically, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is performed after DNA isolation. Real-time PCR (qPCR), also known as direct qPCR in mammalian cells with weak membranes, is a common technique using crude samples subjected to preliminary boiling to elute DNA. However, applying this methodology to prokaryotic cells, which have solid cell walls, in contrast to mammalian cells which immediately burst in water, can result in poor detection. We successfully achieved PCR elongation with the addition of 1.3 cfu of Cronobacter muytjensii to a newly developed direct qPCR master mix without performing any crude DNA extraction (detection limit of 1.6 × 10(0) cfu/ml for the test sample compared with a detection limit of 1.6 × 10(3) cfu/ml primarily for crude (boiling) or classical DNA isolation). We revealed that the chromosomal DNA retained in prokaryotic cells can function as a PCR template, similarly to the mechanism in in situ PCR. Elucidating this reaction mechanism may contribute to the development of an innovative master mix for direct qPCR to detect genes in a single bacterium with solid cell walls and might lead to numerous novel findings in prokaryotic genomics research.

  18. A novel mechanism for direct real-time polymerase chain reaction that does not require DNA isolation from prokaryotic cells.

    PubMed

    Soejima, Takashi; Xiao, Jin-Zhong; Abe, Fumiaki

    2016-01-01

    Typically, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is performed after DNA isolation. Real-time PCR (qPCR), also known as direct qPCR in mammalian cells with weak membranes, is a common technique using crude samples subjected to preliminary boiling to elute DNA. However, applying this methodology to prokaryotic cells, which have solid cell walls, in contrast to mammalian cells which immediately burst in water, can result in poor detection. We successfully achieved PCR elongation with the addition of 1.3 cfu of Cronobacter muytjensii to a newly developed direct qPCR master mix without performing any crude DNA extraction (detection limit of 1.6 × 10(0) cfu/ml for the test sample compared with a detection limit of 1.6 × 10(3) cfu/ml primarily for crude (boiling) or classical DNA isolation). We revealed that the chromosomal DNA retained in prokaryotic cells can function as a PCR template, similarly to the mechanism in in situ PCR. Elucidating this reaction mechanism may contribute to the development of an innovative master mix for direct qPCR to detect genes in a single bacterium with solid cell walls and might lead to numerous novel findings in prokaryotic genomics research. PMID:27334801

  19. A novel mechanism for direct real-time polymerase chain reaction that does not require DNA isolation from prokaryotic cells

    PubMed Central

    Soejima, Takashi; Xiao, Jin-zhong; Abe, Fumiaki

    2016-01-01

    Typically, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is performed after DNA isolation. Real-time PCR (qPCR), also known as direct qPCR in mammalian cells with weak membranes, is a common technique using crude samples subjected to preliminary boiling to elute DNA. However, applying this methodology to prokaryotic cells, which have solid cell walls, in contrast to mammalian cells which immediately burst in water, can result in poor detection. We successfully achieved PCR elongation with the addition of 1.3 cfu of Cronobacter muytjensii to a newly developed direct qPCR master mix without performing any crude DNA extraction (detection limit of 1.6 × 100 cfu/ml for the test sample compared with a detection limit of 1.6 × 103 cfu/ml primarily for crude (boiling) or classical DNA isolation). We revealed that the chromosomal DNA retained in prokaryotic cells can function as a PCR template, similarly to the mechanism in in situ PCR. Elucidating this reaction mechanism may contribute to the development of an innovative master mix for direct qPCR to detect genes in a single bacterium with solid cell walls and might lead to numerous novel findings in prokaryotic genomics research. PMID:27334801

  20. A comprehensive collection of experimentally validated primers for Polymerase Chain Reaction quantitation of murine transcript abundance

    PubMed Central

    Spandidos, Athanasia; Wang, Xiaowei; Wang, Huajun; Dragnev, Stefan; Thurber, Tara; Seed, Brian

    2008-01-01

    Background Quantitative polymerase chain reaction (QPCR) is a widely applied analytical method for the accurate determination of transcript abundance. Primers for QPCR have been designed on a genomic scale but non-specific amplification of non-target genes has frequently been a problem. Although several online databases have been created for the storage and retrieval of experimentally validated primers, only a few thousand primer pairs are currently present in existing databases and the primers are not designed for use under a common PCR thermal profile. Results We previously reported the implementation of an algorithm to predict PCR primers for most known human and mouse genes. We now report the use of that resource to identify 17483 pairs of primers that have been experimentally verified to amplify unique sequences corresponding to distinct murine transcripts. The primer pairs have been validated by gel electrophoresis, DNA sequence analysis and thermal denaturation profile. In addition to the validation studies, we have determined the uniformity of amplification using the primers and the technical reproducibility of the QPCR reaction using the popular and inexpensive SYBR Green I detection method. Conclusion We have identified an experimentally validated collection of murine primer pairs for PCR and QPCR which can be used under a common PCR thermal profile, allowing the evaluation of transcript abundance of a large number of genes in parallel. This feature is increasingly attractive for confirming and/or making more precise data trends observed from experiments performed with DNA microarrays. PMID:19108745

  1. A power-efficient thermocycler based on induction heating for DNA amplification by polymerase chain reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pal, Debjani; Venkataraman, V.; Mohan, K. Naga; Chandra, H. Sharat; Natarajan, Vasant

    2004-09-01

    We have built a thermocycler based on the principles of induction heating for polymerase chain reaction (PCR) of target sequences in DNA samples of interest. The cycler has an average heating rate of ˜0.8 °C/s and a cooling rate of ˜0.5 °C/s, and typically takes ˜4 h to complete a 40-cycle PCR protocol. It is power-efficient (˜6 W per reaction tube), micro-processor controlled, and can be adapted for battery operation. Using this instrument, we have successfully amplified a 350 bp segment from a plasmid and SRY, the human sex determining gene, which occurs as a single-copy sequence in genomic DNA of human males. The PCR products from this thermocycler are comparable to those obtained by the use of commercially available machines. Its easy front-end operation, low-power design, portability and low cost makes it suitable for diagnostic field applications of PCR.

  2. Series DNA Amplification Using the Continuous-Flow Polymerase Chain Reaction Chip

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joung, Seung-Ryong; Kang, Chi Jung; Kim, Yong-Sang

    2008-02-01

    We proposed a continuous-flow polymerase chain reaction (PCR) chip that can be used for series DNA amplification. The continuous-flow PCR chip has several advantages such as fast thermal cycling, series of amplifications, cost-effective fabrication, portability, and fluorescence detection. The continuous-flow PCR chip is composed of two parts namely poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) microchannel for sample injection and indium-tin-oxide (ITO) heater/glass chip for thermal cycling. The fabricated microchannel width and depth are 250 and 200 µm, respectively. Also, the total working length of the PDMS microchannel is 1340 mm which is equivalent for 20 cycles of amplification. A 2:2:3 microchannel length ratio for three different temperature zones namely denaturation, annealing, and extension was assigned, respectively. Upon the operation of the fabricated continuous-flow PCR chip, the amplification of plasmid DNA pKS-GFP with 720 base pairs and PG-noswsi with 300 base pairs were found successfully with a total reaction time of 15 min.

  3. Absolute quantification of mRNA using real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction assays.

    PubMed

    Bustin, S A

    2000-10-01

    The reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) is the most sensitive method for the detection of low-abundance mRNA, often obtained from limited tissue samples. However, it is a complex technique, there are substantial problems associated with its true sensitivity, reproducibility and specificity and, as a quantitative method, it suffers from the problems inherent in PCR. The recent introduction of fluorescence-based kinetic RT-PCR procedures significantly simplifies the process of producing reproducible quantification of mRNAs and promises to overcome these limitations. Nevertheless, their successful application depends on a clear understanding of the practical problems, and careful experimental design, application and validation remain essential for accurate quantitative measurements of transcription. This review discusses the technical aspects involved, contrasts conventional and kinetic RT-PCR methods for quantitating gene expression and compares the different kinetic RT-PCR systems. It illustrates the usefulness of these assays by demonstrating the significantly different levels of transcription between individuals of the housekeeping gene family, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate-dehydrogenase (GAPDH).

  4. Detection and quantification of Citrobacter freundii and C. braakii by 5'-nuclease polymerase chain reaction.

    PubMed

    Kaclíková, Eva; Krascsenicsová, Klára; Pangallo, Domenico; Kuchta, Tomás

    2005-10-01

    A new 5'-nuclease polymerase chain reaction (PCR) system for the detection and quantification of Citrobacter freundii and C. braakii was developed with primers and the probe oriented to a specific region of the cfa gene encoding a cyclopropane fatty acid synthase. The qualitative variant of the method consisted of a conventional PCR with end-point fluorimetry or agarose gel electrophoresis, and the quantitative variant used kinetic real-time PCR measurement. The PCR system was specific for C. freundii and C. braakii, detecting neither other Citrobacter spp. nor other enteric bacteria (Escherichia coli, Salmonella enterica, and others). The detection limit of the qualitative variant of the method was 10(3) cfu/mL when the amplification was followed by fluorimetry and 10(4) cfu/mL when the amplification was followed by gel electrophoresis. The real-time PCR variant of the method facilitated quantification over a range of concentrations from 10(2) to 10(8) cfu/mL, with Escherichia coli (10(6) cfu/mL) and Salmonella enterica (10(6) cfu/mL) having no effect on the quantification.

  5. Mechanisms of Propidium Monoazide Inhibition of Polymerase Chain Reaction and implications for Propidium Monoazide Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, C. M.; Darrach, H.; Ponce, A.; McFarland, E.; Laymon, C.; Fingland, N. K.

    2015-12-01

    PMA-qPCR is a laboratory technique that can be used to identify viable microbes by employing the use of propidium monoazide (PMA), a DNA-intercalating dye, and quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). The current model of PMA-qPCR operates under the assumption that PMA is only capable of entering membrane-compromised cells, where it irreversibly cross-links to DNA and makes it unavailable for amplification via qPCR. However, the exact mechanism behind PMA's entry into the cell and its interaction with genetic material is not well understood. To better understand PMA's capabilities, we have examined the effect PMA has on enzyme binding and processivity using endonucleases and exonucleases. Our results suggest that the current model behind PMA-qPCR inhibition is incomplete, in that rather than precipitating the entirety of the DNA, PMA also inhibits enzyme binding and/or processivity in soluble DNA. These results have important implications for studying the viable community of microorganisms in various applications, such as environmental monitoring, planetary protection and bioburden assessment, and biohazard detection.

  6. An evaluation of serotyping of Avibacterium paragallinarum by use of a multiplex polymerase chain reaction.

    PubMed

    Morales-Erasto, Vladimir; Posadas-Quintana, José de Jesús; Fernández-Díaz, Manolo; Saravia, Luis E; Martínez-Castañeda, José Simón; Blackall, Patrick J; Soriano-Vargas, Edgardo

    2014-03-01

    In the present study, the ability of a recently proposed multiplex polymerase chain reaction (mPCR) to determine the serogroups (A, B, and C) of Avibacterium paragallinarum was evaluated. A total of 12 reference strains and 69 field isolates of Av. paragallinarum from Ecuador, Mexico, Panama, and Peru were included in the study. With some exceptions (which were serotyped in the current study), all of the isolates and strains had been previously examined by 2 serotyping schemes (Page and Kume) or were the formal reference strains for the schemes. Three of 6 (50%) reference strains of serogroup A, 2 (100%) of serogroup B, and 1 of 4 (25%) reference strains of serogroup C were correctly serotyped by the mPCR. With the field isolates, the mPCR correctly recognized 16 of the 17 serogroup A isolates, 10 of the 12 serogroup B isolates, and 18 of the 37 serogroup C isolates. Overall, the specificity and sensitivity of the PCR test was as follows: 82.6% and 87.3% (serogroup A), 85.7% and 71.9% (serogroup B), and 46.3% and 100% (serogroup C). The poor performance of the mPCR in terms of recognition of serogroup C isolates (low sensitivity of 46.3%) and the relatively high level of uncertainty about the accuracy of the serogroup A and B results (specificity of 87.3% and 71.9%, respectively) means that the assay cannot be recommended as a replacement for conventional serotyping. PMID:24590665

  7. Use of polymerase chain reaction to detect Brucella abortus biovar 1 in infected goats.

    PubMed

    Leal-Klevezas, D S; Martínez-Vázquez, I O; García-Cantú, J; López-Merino, A; Martínez-Soriano, J P

    2000-07-01

    The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used to diagnose goat brucellosis and compare its sensitivity against some of the most commonly used serological and bacteriological techniques. Twenty two female and one male out of 300 clinically healthy, mixed-breed goats were randomly chosen from a ranch located at Marín, Nuevo León, Mexico. Milk and blood samples were taken from each animal and used to obtain both microbiological cultures and DNA of the pathogen, and sera was tested against Rose Bengal antigen (RBT). Results showed that 86% of the blood samples were positive on the PCR test, while 60% were positive on the serological test. The pathogen was isolated from only one blood culture. Sixty four percent of the milk samples were positive on PCR tests, but failed to yield bacteria in culture. Biochemical and PCR specific assay demonstrated that Brucella abortus biovar 1 was associated with the infection. This study demonstrates the higher sensitivity of PCR over RBT and blood culture and its potential towards a rapid identification of Brucella strains.

  8. Polymerase chain reaction-based screening for the ceftriaxone-resistant Neisseria gonorrhoeae F89 strain.

    PubMed

    Goire, N; Lahra, M M; Ohnishi, M; Hogan, T; Liminios, A E; Nissen, M D; Sloots, T P; Whiley, D M

    2013-04-04

    Emergence and spread of Neisseria gonorrhoeae resistant to extended spectrum cephalosporins is a major problem threatening treatment of gonorrhoea and is further highlighted by the recent report of a second ceftriaxone-resistant N. gonorrhoeae strain (F89) in Europe, initially observed in France and subsequently identified in Spain. N. gonorrhoeae antimicrobial resistance (AMR) surveillance has acquired new importance and molecular tools have the potential to enhance bacterial culture-based methods. In this study, we established a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) protocol for direct detection of the F89 strain. A key component of this screening protocol was the development of a hybridisation probe-based melting curve analysis assay (mosaic501-hybPCR) to detect the presence of an A501P substitution on the N. gonorrhoeae mosaic penicillin binding protein 2 (PBP2) sequence, an important characteristic of the F89 strain. The mosaic501-hybPCR was evaluated using plasmid-derived positive controls (n=3) and characterised gonococcal (n=33) and non-gonococcal (n=58) isolates. The protocol was then applied to 159 clinical specimens from Sydney, Australia, collected during the first half of the year 2012 that were N. gonorrhoeae PCR-positive. Overall, the results indicate that the PCR-based protocol is suitable for direct detection of the N. gonorrhoeae F89 strain in non-cultured clinical samples. It therefore provides an additional tool to aid investigations into the potential spread of F89 strain throughout Europe and elsewhere.

  9. Quantitative analysis of periodontal pathogens by ELISA and real-time polymerase chain reaction.

    PubMed

    Hamlet, Stephen M

    2010-01-01

    The development of analytical methods enabling the accurate identification and enumeration of bacterial species colonizing the oral cavity has led to the identification of a small number of bacterial pathogens that are major factors in the etiology of periodontal disease. Further, these methods also underpin more recent epidemiological analyses of the impact of periodontal disease on general health. Given the complex milieu of over 700 species of microorganisms known to exist within the complex biofilms found in the oral cavity, the identification and enumeration of oral periodontopathogens has not been an easy task. In recent years however, some of the intrinsic limitations of the more traditional microbiological analyses previously used have been overcome with the advent of immunological and molecular analytical methods. Of the plethora of methodologies reported in the literature, the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), which combines the specificity of antibody with the sensitivity of simple enzyme assays and the polymerase chain reaction (PCR), has been widely utilized in both laboratory and clinical applications. Although conventional PCR does not allow quantitation of the target organism, real-time PCR (rtPCR) has the ability to detect amplicons as they accumulate in "real time" allowing subsequent quantitation. These methods enable the accurate quantitation of as few as 10(2) (using rtPCR) to 10(4) (using ELISA) periodontopathogens in dental plaque samples.

  10. Genotyping by multiplex polymerase chain reaction for detection of endemic hepatitis B virus transmission.

    PubMed Central

    Repp, R; Rhiel, S; Heermann, K H; Schaefer, S; Keller, C; Ndumbe, P; Lampert, F; Gerlich, W H

    1993-01-01

    A nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) protocol was developed for rapid genotyping of hepatitis B virus (HBV). During the first PCR round, a universal HBV primer pair was used to amplify the entire pre-S region of the HBV genome. Within the pre-S region, many nucleotide exchanges are observed. These are partly correlated to the serological hepatitis B surface antigen subtypes. Five additional subtype-specific primers were selected from that region which, together with two universal non-group-specific primers, generated specific combinations of two to four DNA fragments of defined sizes. By this approach, 55 hepatitis B surface antigen-positive patients from a pediatric oncology unit in Germany were analyzed. Fifty-four patients who had been infected within 2 years had an identical pattern in the multiplex PCR, suggesting a common source of infection and person-to-person transmission within the unit. One child who was infected 5 years later had a different PCR pattern and, therefore, must have been infected from a different source. Furthermore, 109 serum samples taken from pregnant Cameroonian women and 25 serum samples from their babies taken 6 months after birth were analyzed. In one case, mother-to-infant transmission of the virus was demonstrated. Apart from its role in epidemiological studies on HBV, multiplex PCR may also be a useful tool for rapid genetic analysis in other fields if there is a moderate degree of sequence variation which enables the design of specific primers. Images PMID:8501209

  11. Improvement of Temperature Uniformity for Polymerase Chain Reaction Chip with Heat Spreader

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Rong-Sheng; Mao, Chao-Yang; Chen, Yung-Shieng

    2007-11-01

    For polymerase chain reaction (PCR) applications, a uniform temperature field in the microreactor is crucial. In this paper, we report on the electrothermal and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations performed with the aim of optimizing the temperature distribution by heat spreaders for PCR application. Firstly, the equivalent resistivity of the microresistor heater is evaluated, and a conformable result is then verified by comparing with the experimental result using a prototype PCR chip. Secondly, the temperature distribution at 94 °C in the PCR chip is investigated. Furthermore, a heat spreader is inserted into the PCR chip to reduce the temperature difference in the DNA sample and thus improve the temperature uniformity effectively. The results demonstrated that the effective volume percentage and the energy consumption in the chamber are positively related to the thickness of the heat spreader, while the temperature difference is inversely related to the thickness of the heat spreader. Finally, the (b)-design is better than the (a)-design in terms of both the increase in effective volume percentage of the DNA sample and the decrease in energy consumption. In other words, the (b)-design is recognized as having better temperature uniformity.

  12. Ultra-rapid flow-through polymerase chain reaction microfluidics using vapor pressure.

    PubMed

    Fuchiwaki, Yusuke; Nagai, Hidenori; Saito, Masato; Tamiya, Eiichi

    2011-09-15

    A novel flow-through polymerase chain reaction (PCR) microfluidic system using vapor pressure was developed that can achieve ultra-rapid, small-volume DNA amplification on a chip. The 40-cycle amplification can be completed in as little as 120 s, making this device the fastest PCR system in the world. The chip device is made of a pressure-sensitive polyolefin (PSP) film and cyclo-olefin polymer (COP) substrate which was processed by cutting-work to fabricate the microchannel. The enclosed structure of the microchannel was fabricated solely by weighing the PSP film on the COP substrate, resulting in superior practical application. The vapor pressure in the denaturation zone of the destabilizing flow source was applied to the flow force, and ultra-rapid, efficient amplification was accomplished with a minimal amount of PCR reagents for detection. The flowing rhythm created by vapor pressure minimized the residual PCR products, leading to highly efficient amplification. For field test analysis, airborne dust was collected from a public place and tested for the presence of anthrax. The PCR chip had sufficient sensitivity for anthrax identification. The fastest time from aerosol sampling to detection was theoretically estimated as 8 min.

  13. Novel multi-targeted polymerase chain reaction for diagnosis of presumed tubercular uveitis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The objective of this study was to report the use of multi-targeted polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in the diagnosis of presumed tubercular uveitis. Multi-targeted PCR using three targets specific for Mycobacterium tuberculosis, i.e., IS6110, MPB64, and protein b, was performed on intraocular fluid samples of 25 subjects. Nine had presumed tubercular uveitis, six had intraocular inflammation secondary to a nontubercular etiology (disease controls), and ten had no evidence of intraocular inflammation (normal controls). As described previously, response to antitubercular therapy was considered as the gold standard. Results Multi-targeted PCR was positive in seven out of nine patients with presumed tubercular uveitis and negative in all normal and disease controls. The sensitivity and specificity were 77.77% and 100%, respectively. For the diagnosis of presumed tubercular uveitis, multi-targeted PCR had a positive predictive value of 100% and a negative predictive value of 88.88%. Conclusion Multi-targeted PCR can be a valuable tool for diagnosing presumed tubercular uveitis. PMID:23514226

  14. Ultra-rapid flow-through polymerase chain reaction microfluidics using vapor pressure.

    PubMed

    Fuchiwaki, Yusuke; Nagai, Hidenori; Saito, Masato; Tamiya, Eiichi

    2011-09-15

    A novel flow-through polymerase chain reaction (PCR) microfluidic system using vapor pressure was developed that can achieve ultra-rapid, small-volume DNA amplification on a chip. The 40-cycle amplification can be completed in as little as 120 s, making this device the fastest PCR system in the world. The chip device is made of a pressure-sensitive polyolefin (PSP) film and cyclo-olefin polymer (COP) substrate which was processed by cutting-work to fabricate the microchannel. The enclosed structure of the microchannel was fabricated solely by weighing the PSP film on the COP substrate, resulting in superior practical application. The vapor pressure in the denaturation zone of the destabilizing flow source was applied to the flow force, and ultra-rapid, efficient amplification was accomplished with a minimal amount of PCR reagents for detection. The flowing rhythm created by vapor pressure minimized the residual PCR products, leading to highly efficient amplification. For field test analysis, airborne dust was collected from a public place and tested for the presence of anthrax. The PCR chip had sufficient sensitivity for anthrax identification. The fastest time from aerosol sampling to detection was theoretically estimated as 8 min. PMID:21778045

  15. A chain reaction approach to modelling gene pathways

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Gary C.; Chen, Dung-Tsa; Chen, James J.; Soong, Seng-jaw; Lamartiniere, Coral; Barnes, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    Background Of great interest in cancer prevention is how nutrient components affect gene pathways associated with the physiological events of puberty. Nutrient-gene interactions may cause changes in breast or prostate cells and, therefore, may result in cancer risk later in life. Analysis of gene pathways can lead to insights about nutrient-gene interactions and the development of more effective prevention approaches to reduce cancer risk. To date, researchers have relied heavily upon experimental assays (such as microarray analysis, etc.) to identify genes and their associated pathways that are affected by nutrient and diets. However, the vast number of genes and combinations of gene pathways, coupled with the expense of the experimental analyses, has delayed the progress of gene-pathway research. The development of an analytical approach based on available test data could greatly benefit the evaluation of gene pathways, and thus advance the study of nutrient-gene interactions in cancer prevention. In the present study, we have proposed a chain reaction model to simulate gene pathways, in which the gene expression changes through the pathway are represented by the species undergoing a set of chemical reactions. We have also developed a numerical tool to solve for the species changes due to the chain reactions over time. Through this approach we can examine the impact of nutrient-containing diets on the gene pathway; moreover, transformation of genes over time with a nutrient treatment can be observed numerically, which is very difficult to achieve experimentally. We apply this approach to microarray analysis data from an experiment which involved the effects of three polyphenols (nutrient treatments), epigallo-catechin-3-O-gallate (EGCG), genistein, and resveratrol, in a study of nutrient-gene interaction in the estrogen synthesis pathway during puberty. Results In this preliminary study, the estrogen synthesis pathway was simulated by a chain reaction model. By

  16. Explanatory chapter: PCR primer design.

    PubMed

    Álvarez-Fernández, Rubén

    2013-01-01

    This chapter is intended as a guide on polymerase chain reaction (PCR) primer design (for information on PCR, see General PCR and Explanatory Chapter: Troubleshooting PCR). In the next section, general guidelines will be provided, followed by a discussion on primer design for specific applications. A list of recommended software tools is shown at the end.

  17. Use of polymerase chain reaction for rapid diagnosis of tuberculosis.

    PubMed Central

    Cousins, D V; Wilton, S D; Francis, B R; Gow, B L

    1992-01-01

    A DNA amplification assay using the polymerase chain reaction technique designed for the rapid identification of Mycobacterium bovis organisms was used to test 211 human mycobacterial isolates and 177 clinical specimens previously submitted for routine mycobacterial culture. The procedures described could be used by routine or specialist laboratories for identification of M. tuberculosis complex organisms in 4 h and/or as a rapid screening method for the direct detection of M. tuberculosis complex organisms in specimens. Images PMID:1734065

  18. Detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis with nested polymerase chain reaction analysis in enucleated eye ball in Eales' disease.

    PubMed

    Verma, Aditya; Biswas, Jyotirmay; Dhanurekha, L; Gayathri, R; Lily Therese, K

    2016-06-01

    Nested polymerase chain reaction (nPCR) was performed on enucleated eyeball for detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tb) genome in a patient with Eales' disease. PCR analysis in all previous studies has been done mainly using aqueous, vitreous and epiretinal membranes from these patients. Paraffin wax embedded tissue section of the enucleated eyeball was analyzed by histopathology and nPCR targeting MPB64 gene and IS6110 region of M. tb genome. Lymphocytic infiltration was seen in the vitreous, iris and the retinal tissue. Ziehl Neelsen stain was negative for acid fast bacilli. Caseation necrosis was not seen in any section. Agarose gel electrophoretogram showed positive results with 200 bp specific amplified product targeting MPB64 gene, whereas nPCR targeting IS6110 region was negative. Since biopsy proven M. tb is extremely difficult in ocular tissues due to extensive necrosis, the nPCR technique aided in the diagnosis.

  19. Detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis with nested polymerase chain reaction analysis in enucleated eye ball in Eales' disease.

    PubMed

    Verma, Aditya; Biswas, Jyotirmay; Dhanurekha, L; Gayathri, R; Lily Therese, K

    2016-06-01

    Nested polymerase chain reaction (nPCR) was performed on enucleated eyeball for detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tb) genome in a patient with Eales' disease. PCR analysis in all previous studies has been done mainly using aqueous, vitreous and epiretinal membranes from these patients. Paraffin wax embedded tissue section of the enucleated eyeball was analyzed by histopathology and nPCR targeting MPB64 gene and IS6110 region of M. tb genome. Lymphocytic infiltration was seen in the vitreous, iris and the retinal tissue. Ziehl Neelsen stain was negative for acid fast bacilli. Caseation necrosis was not seen in any section. Agarose gel electrophoretogram showed positive results with 200 bp specific amplified product targeting MPB64 gene, whereas nPCR targeting IS6110 region was negative. Since biopsy proven M. tb is extremely difficult in ocular tissues due to extensive necrosis, the nPCR technique aided in the diagnosis. PMID:26499903

  20. The sensitivity and specificity of a reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction assay for the avian pneumovirus (Colorado strain).

    PubMed

    Pedersen, J C; Reynolds, D L; Ali, A

    2000-01-01

    A reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay for the detection of avian pneumovirus (APV), Colorado strain (US/CO), was evaluated for sensitivity and specificity. The single-tube RT-PCR assay utilized primers developed from the matrix (M) gene sequence of the US/CO APV. The RT-PCR amplified the US/CO APV but did not amplify other pneumoviruses, including the avian pneumoviruses subgroups A and B. The RT-PCR was capable of detecting between 10(0.25) mean tissue culture infective dose (TCID50) and 10(-0.44) TCID50 of the US/CO APV. These results have demonstrated that the single-tube RT-PCR assay is a specific and sensitive assay for the detection of US/CO APV.

  1. Short report: application of a polymerase chain reaction to detect Burkholderia pseudomallei in clinical specimens from patients with suspected melioidosis.

    PubMed

    Gal, Daniel; Mayo, Mark; Spencer, Emma; Cheng, Allen C; Currie, Bart J

    2005-12-01

    The diagnostic potential of a Burkholderia pseudomallei type three secretion system (TTS1) polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was examined on clinical specimens from 27 patients with sepsis in the Northern Territory of Australia, a region endemic for melioidosis. The TTS1 PCR was conducted on DNA extracted from a range of clinical specimens (blood, sputum, urine, joint, pericardial and pleural fluid, and swabs from skin lesions, throat, nose, and rectum). The PCR sensitivity in culture-positive clinical specimens from the nine confirmed patients with melioidosis was 65% and the specificity was 100%, with no PCR-positive results in specimens from 18 patients without melioidosis. The PCR based on the B. pseudomallei TTS1 has the potential to substantially improve the timeliness of diagnosis of melioidosis.

  2. Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction Detection of Angiostrongylus cantonensis DNA in Cerebrospinal Fluid from Patients with Eosinophilic Meningitis.

    PubMed

    Qvarnstrom, Yvonne; Xayavong, Maniphet; da Silva, Ana Cristina Aramburu; Park, Sarah Y; Whelen, A Christian; Calimlim, Precilia S; Sciulli, Rebecca H; Honda, Stacey A A; Higa, Karen; Kitsutani, Paul; Chea, Nora; Heng, Seng; Johnson, Stuart; Graeff-Teixeira, Carlos; Fox, LeAnne M; da Silva, Alexandre J

    2016-01-01

    Angiostrongylus cantonensis is the most common infectious cause of eosinophilic meningitis. Timely diagnosis of these infections is difficult, partly because reliable laboratory diagnostic methods are unavailable. The aim of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of a real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay for the detection of A. cantonensis DNA in human cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) specimens. A total of 49 CSF specimens from 33 patients with eosinophilic meningitis were included: A. cantonensis DNA was detected in 32 CSF specimens, from 22 patients. Four patients had intermittently positive and negative real-time PCR results on subsequent samples, indicating that the level of A. cantonensis DNA present in CSF may fluctuate during the course of the illness. Immunodiagnosis and/or supplemental PCR testing supported the real-time PCR findings for 30 patients. On the basis of these observations, this real-time PCR assay can be useful to detect A. cantonensis in the CSF from patients with eosinophilic meningitis.

  3. Reaction chain modeling of denitrification reactions during a push-pull test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boisson, A.; de Anna, P.; Bour, O.; Le Borgne, T.; Labasque, T.; Aquilina, L.

    2013-05-01

    Field quantitative estimation of reaction kinetics is required to enhance our understanding of biogeochemical reactions in aquifers. We extended the analytical solution developed by Haggerty et al. (1998) to model an entire 1st order reaction chain and estimate the kinetic parameters for each reaction step of the denitrification process. We then assessed the ability of this reaction chain to model biogeochemical reactions by comparing it with experimental results from a push-pull test in a fractured crystalline aquifer (Ploemeur, French Brittany). Nitrates were used as the reactive tracer, since denitrification involves the sequential reduction of nitrates to nitrogen gas through a chain reaction (NO3- → NO2- → NO → N2O → N2) under anaerobic conditions. The kinetics of nitrate consumption and by-product formation (NO2-, N2O) during autotrophic denitrification were quantified by using a reactive tracer (NO3-) and a non-reactive tracer (Br-). The formation of reaction by-products (NO2-, N2O, N2) has not been previously considered using a reaction chain approach. Comparison of Br- and NO3- breakthrough curves showed that 10% of the injected NO3- molar mass was transformed during the 12 h experiment (2% into NO2-, 1% into N2O and the rest into N2 and NO). Similar results, but with slower kinetics, were obtained from laboratory experiments in reactors. The good agreement between the model and the field data shows that the complete denitrification process can be efficiently modeled as a sequence of first order reactions. The 1st order kinetics coefficients obtained through modeling were as follows: k1 = 0.023 h- 1, k2 = 0.59 h- 1, k3 = 16 h- 1, and k4 = 5.5 h- 1. A next step will be to assess the variability of field reactivity using the methodology developed for modeling push-pull tracer tests.

  4. Development of a set of multiplex standard polymerase chain reaction assays for the identification of infectious agents from aborted bovine clinical samples.

    PubMed

    Tramuta, Clara; Lacerenza, Daniela; Zoppi, Simona; Goria, Mariella; Dondo, Alessandro; Ferroglio, Ezio; Nebbia, Patrizia; Rosati, Sergio

    2011-07-01

    The current study describes the development of a set of 5 multiplex polymerase chain reaction (mPCR) assays for the simultaneous detection of abortive infection agents in bovine fetal tissues, including Brucella spp., Leptospira spp., and Campylobacter fetus (mPCR1); Hammondia heydorni, Neospora caninum, and Toxoplasma gondii (mPCR2); Coxiella burnetii and Chlamydophila psittaci (mPCR3); Mycoplasma bovis, Mycoplasma bovigenitalium, and Ureaplasma diversum (mPCR4); and Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) and Bovine herpesvirus-1 (BoHV-1; mPCR5). The protocol was tested on different tissue samples collected from 50 aborted bovine fetuses, and it showed that out of the 50 fetuses, 7 (14%, mPCR2) were PCR-positive for N. caninum, 4 (8%, mPCR5) were PCR-positive for BVDV, and 2 (4%, mPCR4) were PCR-positive for U. diversum. The results obtained by using each multiplex PCR were 100% concordant with those obtained by using the respective PCR assays targeting single genes on the same specimens. Moreover, all multiplex PCR assays on clinical samples were compared with reference methods, obtaining a perfect accordance in all samples and confirming the validity of the set of multiplex PCR assays. The proposed set of multiplex PCR assays is, therefore, suitable for the simultaneous detection of the main infectious agents responsible for bovine abortion.

  5. Epidemiological investigation of Salmonella tilene by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and polymerase chain reaction

    PubMed Central

    Anand, Chandar M; Fonseca, Kevin; Longmore, Ken; Rennie, Robert; Chui, Linda; Lingley, Mike; Woodward, David

    1997-01-01

    Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and DNA fingerprinting by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) were performed on 11 isolates of Salmonella tilene. Five strains were from a cluster of human patients, six from sugar gliders and pygmy hedgehogs kept as family pets or from local pet retailers, and one isolate from the first North American case of S tilene described in Washington State in 1994. The PFGE restriction patterns showed all isolates to be similar. However, PCR using primers to the 16S and 23S rRNA genes of Escherichia coli demonstrated that the Washington State isolate differed from the rest of the other isolates, which were all similar based upon their DNA fingerprint. This study indicates that reliance on one technique alone may be insufficient to show nuances between strains that are, in many respects, closely related. PMID:22346526

  6. Genotypic study of verocytotoxic Escherichia coli isolates from deer by multiplex polymerase chain reaction

    PubMed Central

    Mishra, Raghavendra Prasad; Jain, Udit; Singh, Rakesh Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Aim: This study was planned to study the genotypes of verocytotoxigenic Escherichia coli (VTEC) in fecal samples of deer due to its public health significance. Materials and Methods: A total of 160 fecal samples of deer were taken from Mathura district and Kanpur Zoo and screened for VTEC genes by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Results: All fecal samples were positive for E. coli. All the E. coli isolates were screened by PCR to detect virulence genes stx1, stx2, eaeA, and hlyA. Of these, 15 isolates were found positive for VTEC having one or more genes in different combinations. Conclusion: Genes such as stx1, stx2, eaeA, and hlyA were prevalent in VTEC isolates from feces of deer. The presence of VTEC isolates having virulent genes may pose a threat to public health.

  7. Midtrimester fetal herpes simplex-2 diagnosis by serology, culture and quantitative polymerase chain reaction.

    PubMed

    Curtin, William M; Menegus, Marilyn A; Patru, Maria-Magdalena; Peterson, C Jeanne; Metlay, Leon A; Mooney, Robert A; Stanwood, Nancy L; Scheible, Amy L; Dorgan, Angela

    2013-01-01

    The acquisition of herpes simplex virus (HSV) in utero comprises a minority of neonatal herpes infections. Prenatal diagnosis is rare. We describe a midtrimester diagnosis of fetal HSV-2 infection. Ultrasound at 20 weeks for elevated maternal serum α-fetoprotein (MSAFP) showed lagging fetal growth, echogenic bowel, echogenic myocardium, and liver with a mottled pattern of echogenicity. Amniocentesis demonstrated normal karyotype, elevated AFP and positive acetylcholinesterase. Culture isolated HSV-2 with an aberrant growth pattern. Maternal serology was positive for HSV-2. Quantitative DNA polymerase chain reaction (PCR) showed 59 million copies/ml. Fetal autopsy demonstrated widespread tissue necrosis but only sparse HSV-2 inclusions. Fetal HSV-2 infection can be suspected when an elevated MSAFP accompanies ultrasound findings suggesting perinatal infection. Maternal HSV serology, amniotic fluid culture and quantitative PCR are recommended for diagnostic certainty and counseling.

  8. Polymerase Chain Reaction Diagnosis of Leishmaniasis: A Species-Specific Approach.

    PubMed

    González-Marcano, Eglys; Kato, Hirotomo; Concepción, Juan Luis; Márquez, María Elizabeth; Mondolfi, Alberto Paniz

    2016-01-01

    Leishmaniasis is an infectious disease caused by protozoan parasites of the genus Leishmania which are transmitted to humans through bites of infected sand flies. The variable clinical manifestations and the evolution of the disease are determined by the infecting species. Recognition at a species level is of utmost importance since this greatly impacts therapy decision making as well as predicts outcome for the disease. This chapter describes the application of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in the detection of Leishmania parasites across the disease spectrum, including protocols for sample collection and transportation, genomic material extraction, and target amplification methods with special emphasis on PCR amplification of the cytochrome b gene for Leishmania spp. species identification.

  9. Detection of flaviviruses by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction with the universal primer set.

    PubMed

    Meiyu, F; Huosheng, C; Cuihua, C; Xiaodong, T; Lianhua, J; Yifei, P; Weijun, C; Huiyu, G

    1997-01-01

    Using a universal primer set designed to match the sequence of the NS1 gene of flaviviruses, the virus RNA of dengue (DEN), Japanese encephalitis (JEV), powassan and langat of Flaviviridae were successfully amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) via cDNA; and with different internal primers, the serotypes of the dengue viruses were identified. Of the 78 clinically diagnosed dengue fever patients, 18 patients were positive for DEN 1, 48 patients for DEN 2 and 8 patients concurrently infected with DEN 4. Of the 52 patients admitted with Japanese encephalitis (JE), 45 were determined to be JEV infections. By nested PCR, we completed the identification of flaviviruses within 2 days. The results show that seven primers have a potential value for rapid clinical diagnosis of flavivirus infections.

  10. Genotypic study of verocytotoxic Escherichia coli isolates from deer by multiplex polymerase chain reaction

    PubMed Central

    Mishra, Raghavendra Prasad; Jain, Udit; Singh, Rakesh Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Aim: This study was planned to study the genotypes of verocytotoxigenic Escherichia coli (VTEC) in fecal samples of deer due to its public health significance. Materials and Methods: A total of 160 fecal samples of deer were taken from Mathura district and Kanpur Zoo and screened for VTEC genes by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Results: All fecal samples were positive for E. coli. All the E. coli isolates were screened by PCR to detect virulence genes stx1, stx2, eaeA, and hlyA. Of these, 15 isolates were found positive for VTEC having one or more genes in different combinations. Conclusion: Genes such as stx1, stx2, eaeA, and hlyA were prevalent in VTEC isolates from feces of deer. The presence of VTEC isolates having virulent genes may pose a threat to public health. PMID:27651685

  11. Detection and quantification of Renibacterium salmoninarum DNA in salmonid tissues by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chase, D.M.; Elliott, D.G.; Pascho, R.J.

    2006-01-01

    Renibacterium salmoninarum is an important salmonid pathogen that is difficult to culture. We developed and assessed a real-time, quantitative, polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) assay for the detection and enumeration of R. salmoninarum. The qPCR is based on TaqMan technology and amplifies a 69-base pair (bp) region of the gene encoding the major soluble antigen (MSA) of R. salmoninarum. The qPCR assay consistently detected as few as 5 R. salmoninarum cells per reaction in kidney tissue. The specificity of the qPCR was confirmed by testing the DNA extracts from a panel of microorganisms that were either common fish pathogens or reported to cause false-positive reactions in the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Kidney samples from 38 juvenile Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) in a naturally infected population were examined by real-time qPCR, a nested PCR, and ELISA, and prevalences of R. salmoninarum detected were 71, 66, and 71%, respectively. The qPCR should be a valuable tool for evaluating the R. salmoninarum infection status of salmonids.

  12. Polymerase chain reaction system using magnetic beads for analyzing a sample that includes nucleic acid

    DOEpatents

    Nasarabadi, Shanavaz

    2011-01-11

    A polymerase chain reaction system for analyzing a sample containing nucleic acid includes providing magnetic beads; providing a flow channel having a polymerase chain reaction chamber, a pre polymerase chain reaction magnet position adjacent the polymerase chain reaction chamber, and a post pre polymerase magnet position adjacent the polymerase chain reaction chamber. The nucleic acid is bound to the magnetic beads. The magnetic beads with the nucleic acid flow to the pre polymerase chain reaction magnet position in the flow channel. The magnetic beads and the nucleic acid are washed with ethanol. The nucleic acid in the polymerase chain reaction chamber is amplified. The magnetic beads and the nucleic acid are separated into a waste stream containing the magnetic beads and a post polymerase chain reaction mix containing the nucleic acid. The reaction mix containing the nucleic acid flows to an analysis unit in the channel for analysis.

  13. A novel strategy for human papillomavirus detection and genotyping with SybrGreen and molecular beacon polymerase chain reaction.

    PubMed

    Szuhai, K; Sandhaus, E; Kolkman-Uljee, S M; Lemaître, M; Truffert, J C; Dirks, R W; Tanke, H J; Fleuren, G J; Schuuring, E; Raap, A K

    2001-11-01

    Human papillomaviruses (HPVs) play an important role in the pathogenesis of cervical cancer. For identification of the large number of different HPV types found in (pre)malignant lesions, a robust methodology is needed that combines general HPV detection with HPV genotyping. We have developed for formaldehyde-fixed samples a strategy that, in a homogeneous, real-time fluorescence polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based assay, accomplishes general HPV detection by SybrGreen reporting of HPV-DNA amplicons, and genotyping of seven prevalent HPV types (HPV-6, -11, -16, -18, -31, -33, -45) by real-time molecular beacon PCR. The false-positive rate of the HPV SybrGreen-PCR was 4%, making it well suited as a prescreening, general HPV detection technology. The type specificity of the seven selected HPV molecular beacons was 100% and double infections were readily identified. The multiplexing capacity of the HPV molecular beacon PCR was analyzed and up to three differently labeled molecular beacons could be used in one PCR reaction without observing cross talk. The inherent quantitation capacities of real-time fluorescence PCR allowed the determination of average HPV copy number per cell. We conclude that the HPV SybrGreen-PCR in combination with the HPV molecular beacon PCR provides a robust, sensitive, and quantitative general HPV detection and genotyping methodology.

  14. Detection of Staphylococcus aureus by polymerase chain reaction amplification of the nuc gene.

    PubMed

    Brakstad, O G; Aasbakk, K; Maeland, J A

    1992-07-01

    Synthetic oligonucleotide primers of 21 and 24 bases, respectively, were used in the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to amplify a sequence of the nuc gene, which encodes the thermostable nuclease of Staphylococcus aureus. A DNA fragment of approximately 270 bp was amplified from lysed S. aureus cells or isolated DNA. The PCR product was detected by agarose gel electrophoresis or Southern blot analysis by using a 33-mer internal nuc gene hybridization probe. With S. aureus cells the lower detection limit was less than 10 CFU, and with the isolated target the lower detection limit was 0.69 pg of DNA. The primers recognized 90 of 90 reference or clinical S. aureus strains. Amplification was not recorded when 80 strains representing 16 other staphylococcal species were tested or when 20 strains representing 9 different nonstaphylococcal species were tested. Some of the non-S. aureus staphylococci produced thermostable nucleases but were PCR negative. The PCR product was generated when in vitro-cultured S. aureus was used to prepare simulated clinical specimens of blood, urine, cerebrospinal fluid, or synovial fluid. No PCR product was generated when the sterile body fluids were tested. However, the sensitivity of the PCR was reduced when S. aureus in blood or urine was tested in comparison with that when bacteria in saline were tested. With the bacteria in blood, the detection limit of the PCR was 10(3) CFU. A positive PCR result was recorded when a limited number of clinical samples from wounds verified to be infected with S. aureus were tested, while the PCR product was not detected in materials from infections caused by other bacteria. Generation of PCR products was not affected by exposure of S. aureus to bactericidal agents, including cloxacillin and gentamicin, prior to testing, but was affected by exposure to UV radiation. The PCR for amplification of the nuc gene has potential for the rapid diagnosis of S. aureus infections by direct testing of clinical

  15. Progress curve analysis of qRT-PCR reactions using the logistic growth equation.

    PubMed

    Liu, Meile; Udhe-Stone, Claudia; Goudar, Chetan T

    2011-01-01

    We present an alternate approach for analyzing data from real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) experiments by fitting individual fluorescence vs. cycle number (F vs. C) curves to the logistic growth equation. The best fit parameters determined by nonlinear least squares were used to compute the second derivative of the logistic equation and the cycle threshold, C(t), was determined from the maximum value of the second derivative. This C(t) value was subsequently used to determine ΔΔC(t) and the amplification efficiency, E(n), thereby completing the analysis on a qRT-PCR data set. The robustness of the logistic approach was verified by testing ~600 F vs. C curves using both new and previously published data sets. In most cases, comparisons were made between the logistic estimates and those from the standard curve and comparative C(t) methods. Deviations between the logistic and standard curve method ranged between 3-10% for C(t) estimates, 2-10% for ΔΔC(t) estimates, and 1-11% for E(n) estimates. The correlations between C(t) estimates from the logistic and standard curve methods were very high, often >0.95. When compared with five other established methods of qRT-PCR data analysis to predict initial concentrations of two genes encompassing a total of 500 F vs. C curves, the logistic estimates were of comparable accuracy. This reliable performance of the logistic approach comes without the need to construct standard curves which can be a laborious undertaking. Also, no a priori assumptions for E(n) are necessary while some other methods assume equal E(n) values for the reference and target genes, an assumption that is not universally valid. In addition, by accurately describing the data in the plateau region of the F vs. C curve, the logistic method overcomes the limitations of the sigmoidal curve fitting method. The streamlined nature of the logistic approach makes it ideal for complete automation on a variety of computing

  16. Quantitation of viral load by real-time PCR-monitoring Invader reaction.

    PubMed

    Tadokoro, Kenichi; Yamaguchi, Toshikazu; Egashira, Toru; Hara, Takashi

    2009-02-01

    With its broad effective range for fluorescence detection, real-time PCR is one of the most valuable techniques for quantitation in molecular biology. A modified real-time PCR assay is described for determining viral load. The assay uses fluorescence to measure the number of PCR amplicons by monitoring the Invader reaction in four steps in the thermal cycle. The Invader reaction with its cleavase was performed at moderate temperature after the amplicon was denatured at a high temperature. The method was as effective as real-time PCR with a TaqMan probe in determining the quantity of virus in samples of human papillomavirus type 16. Importantly, the assay allows the use of a common probe for multiple reactions. Thus, this method is a rapid inexpensive assay with a common fluorescence probe that does not depend on the conformation of the target DNAs. PMID:19014973

  17. Detection of Avian bornavirus in multiple tissues of infected psittacine birds using real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction.

    PubMed

    Delnatte, Pauline; Mak, Matthew; Ojkic, Davor; Raghav, Raj; DeLay, Josepha; Smith, Dale A

    2014-03-01

    Avian bornavirus (ABV), the cause of proventricular dilation disease in psittacine birds, has been detected in multiple tissues of infected birds using immunohistochemical staining (IHC) and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). In the current study, real-time RT-PCR, using primers targeting the ABV matrix gene, was used to detect ABV in 146 tissues from 7 ABV-infected psittacine birds. Eighty-six percent of the samples tested positive, with crossing point values ranging from 13.82 to 37.82 and a mean of 22.3. These results were compared to the findings of a previous study using gel-based RT-PCR and IHC on the same samples. The agreement between the 2 RT-PCR techniques was 91%; when tests disagreed it was because samples were negative using gel-based RT-PCR but positive on real-time RT-PCR. Agreement with IHC was 77%; 16 out of 74 samples were negative using IHC but positive on real-time RT-PCR. The results suggest that real-time RT-PCR is a more sensitive technique than gel-based RT-PCR and IHC to detect ABV in tissues. The tissues that were ranked most frequently as having a high amount of viral RNA were proventriculus, kidney, colon, cerebrum, and cerebellum. Skeletal muscle, on the other hand, was found to have a consistently low amount of viral RNA.

  18. Rapid detection of mecA and nuc genes in staphylococci by real-time multiplex polymerase chain reaction.

    PubMed

    Costa, Anna-Maria; Kay, Ian; Palladino, Silvano

    2005-01-01

    A multiplex real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) targeting the mecA and nuc genes was developed for the detection of methicillin resistance and identification of Staphylococcus aureus. Novel mecA and nuc primers and fluorescence resonance energy transfer hybridization probes specific for the mecA and nuc genes were evaluated. The assay was performed using the LightCycler system (Roche Molecular Biochemicals, Mannheim, Germany) and evaluated against the traditional gel-based multiplex PCR (PCR-gel) method currently used at Royal Perth Hospital. Clinical isolates (n = 222) and isolates from a culture collection library (n = 206) were tested by both assays in parallel. The RT-PCR assay was 100% sensitive and specific for the detection of methicillin resistance and for the identification of S. aureus when compared with the PCR-gel assay. Results from the RT-PCR assay showed 5 isolates with lower efficiency fluorescence curves for the nuc gene PCR fragment. DNA sequencing showed mutations within the region of the probe-binding sites compared with the reference strain. The results of the RT-PCR assay were available within 2 h. This rapid mecA/nuc RT-PCR assay is a suitable and practical tool for the routine detection of methicillin resistance and identification of S. aureus, which can be easily incorporated into the diagnostic molecular microbiology laboratory work flow.

  19. Development of a rapid and sensitive polymerase chain reaction assay for detection of bovine herpesvirus type 1 in bovine semen.

    PubMed Central

    van Engelenburg, F A; Maes, R K; van Oirschot, J T; Rijsewijk, F A

    1993-01-01

    We developed a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay to detect bovine herpesvirus type 1 (BHV-1) in bovine semen. Since bovine semen contains components that inhibit PCR amplification, a protocol was developed to purify BHV-1 DNA from bovine semen. To identify failures of PCR amplification, we used an internal control template that was coamplified by the same PCR primers. When separated fractions of BHV-1-contaminated semen were analyzed by the PCR, we found that more than 90% of the BHV-1 DNA was present in a pooled fraction consisting of seminal fluid, nonsperm cells, and virus adsorbed to spermatozoa. By using this fraction, three to five molecules of BHV-1 DNA in 50 microliters of bovine semen could be detected. A pilot study to compare this PCR assay with the routinely used virus isolation method showed that this PCR assay is 2- to 100-fold more sensitive. In addition, the results of the PCR assay are available in 1 day, whereas the virus isolation method takes 7 days. Therefore, the PCR assay may be a good alternative to the virus isolation method. Images PMID:8308103

  20. Massively parallel single-molecule and single-cell emulsion reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction using agarose droplet microfluidics.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Huifa; Jenkins, Gareth; Zou, Yuan; Zhu, Zhi; Yang, Chaoyong James

    2012-04-17

    A microfluidic device for performing single copy, emulsion Reverse Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR) within agarose droplets is presented. A two-aqueous-inlet emulsion droplet generator was designed and fabricated to produce highly uniform monodisperse picoliter agarose emulsion droplets with RT-PCR reagents in carrier oil. Template RNA or cells were delivered from one inlet with RT-PCR reagents/cell lysis buffer delivered separately from the other. Efficient RNA/cell encapsulation and RT-PCR at the single copy level was achieved in agarose-in-oil droplets, which, after amplification, can be solidified into agarose beads for further analysis. A simple and efficient method to graft primer to the polymer matrix using 5'-acrydite primer was developed to ensure highly efficient trapping of RT-PCR products in agarose. High-throughput single RNA molecule/cell RT-PCR was demonstrated in stochastically diluted solutions. Our results indicate that single-molecule RT-PCR can be efficiently carried out in agarose matrix. Single-cell RT-PCR was successfully performed which showed a clear difference in gene expression level of EpCAM, a cancer biomarker gene, at the single-cell level between different types of cancer cells. This work clearly demonstrates for the first time, single-copy RT-PCR in agarose droplets. We believe this will open up new possibilities for viral RNA detection and single-cell transcription analysis.

  1. Semi-quantitative digital analysis of polymerase chain reaction-electrophoresis gel: Potential applications in low-income veterinary laboratories

    PubMed Central

    Antiabong, John F.; Ngoepe, Mafora G.; Abechi, Adakole S.

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The interpretation of conventional polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay results is often limited to either positive or negative (non-detectable). The more robust quantitative PCR (qPCR) method is mostly reserved for quantitation studies and not a readily accessible technology in laboratories across developing nations. The aim of this study was to evaluate a semi-quantitative method for conventional PCR amplicons using digital image analysis of electrophoretic gel. The potential applications are also discussed. Materials and Methods: This study describes standard conditions for the digital image analysis of PCR amplicons using the freely available ImageJ software and confirmed using the qPCR assay. Results and Conclusion: Comparison of ImageJ analysis of PCR-electrophoresis gel and qPCR methods showed similar trends in the Fusobacterium necrophorum DNA concentration associated with healthy and periodontal disease infected wallabies (p≤0.03). Based on these empirical data, this study adds descriptive attributes (“more” or “less”) to the interpretation of conventional PCR results. The potential applications in low-income veterinary laboratories are suggested, and guidelines for the adoption of the method are also highlighted. PMID:27733792

  2. Rapid detection of sacbrood virus in honeybee using ultra-rapid real-time polymerase chain reaction.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Mi-Sun; Thi, Kim Cuc Nguyen; Van Nguyen, Phu; Han, Sang-Hoon; Kwon, Soon-Hwan; Yoon, Byoung-Su

    2012-01-01

    A real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) assay was developed for the fast and highly sensitive detection of the sacbrood virus (SBV) genome and applied to honeybee samples. Using plasmid DNA containing a partial SBV genome and diluted serially, as few as 1×10(2)copies/μl (correlation co-efficiency >0.99) were detected by the qRT-PCR assay, whereas 1×10(3)copies/μl were detected by the conventional RT-PCR assay. As a rapid detection method, ultra-rapid real-time PCR (URRT-PCR) was carried out with a GenSpector TMC-1000 silicon-glass chip-based thermal cycler, which has a 6μl micro-chamber volume and a fast outstandingly heating/cooling rate. Using this method, 10(3)copies of pBX-SBV3.8 clone were detected within 17 min after 40 PCR cycles, including melting point analysis. To reduce the detection time for SBV, synthesis of the cDNA of the SBV genome from a honeybee sample was attempted for different reaction times and the cDNA was used as the template for URRT-PCR assays. The results indicated that a 5 min reaction time was sufficient to synthesize cDNA as the template for the SBV URRT-PCR assay. This study described a novel PCR-based method that is able to detect an RNA virus in environmental samples within 22 min, including reverse transcription, PCR detection and melting point analysis in real-time. PMID:22079620

  3. Detection of Salmonella typhi in the blood of patients with typhoid fever by polymerase chain reaction.

    PubMed Central

    Song, J H; Cho, H; Park, M Y; Na, D S; Moon, H B; Pai, C H

    1993-01-01

    A polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based test was developed for the detection of Salmonella typhi in the blood specimens from patients with typhoid fever. Two pairs of oligonucleotide primers were designed to amplify a 343-bp fragment of the flagellin gene of S. typhi. Amplified products were analyzed by agarose gel electrophoresis and Southern blot hybridization by using a 32P-labeled 40-base probe internal to the amplified DNA. The nested PCR with two pairs of primers could detect 10 organisms of S. typhi as determined by serial dilutions of DNA from S. typhi. The peripheral mononuclear cells from 11 of 12 patients with typhoid fever confirmed by blood culture were positive for DNA fragment of the flagellin gene of S. typhi, whereas 10 blood specimens of patients with other febrile diseases were negative. With the nested PCR, S. typhi DNAs were detected from blood specimens of four patients with suspected typhoid fever on the basis of clinical features but with negative cultures. We suggest that the PCR technique could be used as a novel diagnostic method of typhoid fever, particularly in culture-negative cases. Images PMID:8314983

  4. Diagnosis of whooping cough in Switzerland: differentiating Bordetella pertussis from Bordetella holmesii by polymerase chain reaction.

    PubMed

    Pittet, Laure F; Emonet, Stéphane; François, Patrice; Bonetti, Eve-Julie; Schrenzel, Jacques; Hug, Melanie; Altwegg, Martin; Siegrist, Claire-Anne; Posfay-Barbe, Klara M

    2014-01-01

    Bordetella holmesii, an emerging pathogen, can be misidentified as Bordetella pertussis by routine polymerase chain reaction (PCR). In some reports, up to 29% of the patients diagnosed with pertussis have in fact B. holmesii infection and invasive, non-respiratory B. holmesii infections have been reported worldwide. This misdiagnosis undermines the knowledge of pertussis' epidemiology, and may lead to misconceptions on pertussis vaccine's efficacy. Recently, the number of whooping cough cases has increased significantly in several countries. The aim of this retrospective study was to determine whether B. holmesii was contributing to the increase in laboratory-confirmed cases of B. pertussis in Switzerland. A multiplex species-specific quantitative PCR assay was performed on 196 nasopharyngeal samples from Swiss patients with PCR-confirmed Bordetella infection (median age: 6 years-old, minimum 21 days-old, maximum 86 years-old), formerly diagnosed as Bordetella pertussis (IS481+). No B. holmesii (IS481+, IS1001-, hIS1001+) was identified. We discuss whether laboratories should implement specific PCR to recognize different Bordetella species. We conclude that in Switzerland B. holmesii seems to be circulating less than in neighboring countries and that specific diagnostic procedures are not necessary routinely. However, as the epidemiological situation may change rapidly, periodic reevaluation is suggested.

  5. Application of polymerase chain reaction for detection of Legionella pneumophila in serum samples.

    PubMed

    Alexiou-Daniel, S.; Stylianakis, A.; Papoutsi, A.; Zorbas, I.; Papa, A.; Lambropoulos, A.F.; Antoniadis, A.

    1998-03-01

    OBJECTIVE: To apply the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to serum samples for the rapid diagnosis of Legionnaire's disease using the L5SL9 and L5SR93 primers designed to generate a 104-base-pair (bp) fragment from the 5S RNA gene of Legionella spp. The amplified product was detected by electrophoresis and by hybridization with the L5S-1-specific probe. METHODS: Single specimens of serum obtained from 24 patients with confirmed legionellosis, at different stages of their disease, were tested by PCR. Additionally, 10 serum samples from patients with no clinical symptoms of pneumonia and 10 samples from patients suffering from pneumonia caused by Mycoplasma pneumoniae, Coxiella burnetii or Chlamydia psittaci were also tested as controls in order to determine the specificity of the method. RESULTS: Of the 24 examined serum samples, the amplified products from 12 hybridized with the L5S-1 probe (sensitivity 50%). None of the negative controls was positive after PCR. No correlation was found between the day of illness and the positivity in the test. CONCLUSIONS: The PCR technique could be applied as a diagnostic tool for the rapid diagnosis of legionellosis in serum samples after modification, mainly to improve its sensitivity. PMID:11864308

  6. Polymerase chain reaction-based analysis to detect terrestrial animal protein in fish meal.

    PubMed

    Bellagamba, Federica; Valfrè, Franco; Panseri, Sara; Moretti, Vittorio M

    2003-04-01

    The recent European bovine spongiform encephalopathy crisis has focused attention on the importance of adopting stringent control measures to avoid the risk of the diffusion of mad cow disease through meat meal-based animal feedstuffs. Potential adulteration of such feedstuffs with bone particles from terrestrial animals is determined by microscopic examination by law before the release of these feedstuffs for free circulation in the European Community. This study describes a DNA monitoring method to examine fish meal for contamination with mammalian and poultry products. A polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method based on the nucleotide sequence variation in the 12S ribosomal RNA gene of mitochondrial DNA was developed and evaluated. Three species-specific primer pairs were designed for the identification of ruminant, pig, and poultry DNA. The specificity of the primers used in the PCR was tested by comparison with DNA samples for several vertebrate species and confirmed. The PCR specifically detected mammalian and poultry adulteration in fish meals containing 0.125% beef, 0.125% sheep, 0.125% pig, 0.125% chicken, and 0.5% goat. A multiplex PCR assay for ruminant and pig adulteration was optimized and had a detection limit of 0.25%. PMID:12696697

  7. Determination of Sperm Sex Ratio in Bovine Semen Using Multiplex Real-time Polymerase Chain Reaction.

    PubMed

    Khamlor, Trisadee; Pongpiachan, Petai; Sangsritavong, Siwat; Chokesajjawatee, Nipa

    2014-10-01

    Gender selection is important in livestock industries; for example, female calves are required in the dairy industry. Sex-sorted semen is commonly used for the production of calves of the desired gender. However, assessment of the sex ratio of the sorted semen is tedious and expensive. In this study, a rapid, cost effective and reliable method for determining the sex ratio was developed using a multiplex real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay. In this assay, the X and Y chromosome-specific markers, i.e., bovine proteolipid protein (PLP) gene and sex-determining region Y (SRY) were simultaneously quantified in a single tube. The multiplex real-time PCR assay was shown to have high amplification efficiencies (97% to 99%) comparable to the separated-tube simplex real-time PCR assay. The results obtained from both assays were not significantly different (p>0.05). The multiplex assay was validated using reference DNA of known X ratio (10%, 50%, and 90%) as templates. The measured %X in semen samples were the same within 95% confidence intervals as the expected values, i.e., >90% in X-sorted semen, <10% in Y-sorted semen and close to 50% in the unsorted semen. The multiplex real-time PCR assay as shown in this study can thus be used to assess purity of sex-sorted semen. PMID:25178292

  8. Molecular probes and the polymerase chain reaction for detection and typing of Leishmania species in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Monroy-Ostria, Amalia; Sanchez-Tejeda, Gustavo

    2002-04-01

    Leishmaniasis in Mexico is a public health problem because all the clinical forms have been recorded in most Mexican states. We studied patients showing clinical symptoms of any form of leishmaniasis, from several endemic areas. Bone marrow samples, aspirates or skin biopsies were taken and deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) was extracted and amplified by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with universal primers AJS1 and DeB8, specific for the Leishmania subgenus Leishmania. The PCR products were then hybridized by dot- or Southern blotting and probed with probe 9.2, specific for the L. mexicana complex. If hybridization did not occur, the DNA was amplified with primers D1 and D2, specific for members of the L. donovani complex, and PCR products were hybridized with probe B4Rsa, also specific for the L. donovani complex. DNA was also amplified with primers B1 and B2, specific for the subgenus Viannia, and the PCR products were hybridized with probe B18, specific for the L. braziliensis complex. It was found that in Tabasco and Veracruz, Mexico, localized cutaneous leishmaniasis (LCL) is caused by infection with members of the L. mexicana complex, whereas in the states of Nayarit and Campeche it was due to infection with the L. mexicana and/or L. braziliensis complexes. Visceral leishmaniasis was caused by L. (L.) chagasi, mainly in the states of Chiapas and Guerrero, and by L. (L.) mexicana in one immunocompromised patient from Tabasco.

  9. Evaluation of Immunomagnetic Separation for the Detection of Salmonella in Surface Waters by Polymerase Chain Reaction

    PubMed Central

    Hsu, Chao-Yu; Hsu, Bing-Mu; Chang, Tien-Yu; Hsu, Tsui-Kang; Shen, Shu-Min; Chiu, Yi-Chou; Wang, Hung-Jen; Ji, Wen-Tsai; Fan, Cheng-Wei; Chen, Jyh-Larng

    2014-01-01

    Salmonella spp. is associated with fecal pollution and capable of surviving for long periods in aquatic environments. Instead of the traditional, time-consuming biochemical detection, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) allows rapid identification of Salmonella directly concentrated from water samples. However, prevalence of Salmonella may be underestimated because of the vulnerability of PCR to various environmental chemicals like humic acid, compounded by the fact that various DNA polymerases have different susceptibility to humic acid. Because immunomagnetic separation (IMS) theoretically could isolate Salmonella from other microbes and facilitate removal of aquatic PCR inhibitors of different sizes, this study aims to compare the efficiency of conventional PCR combined with immunomagnetic separation (IMS) for Salmonella detection within a moderately polluted watershed. In our study, the positive rate was increased from 17.6% to 47% with nearly ten-fold improvement in the detection limit. These results suggest the sensitivity of Salmonella detection could be enhanced by IMS, particularly in low quality surface waters. Due to its effects on clearance of aquatic pollutants, IMS may be suitable for most DNA polymerases for Salmonella detection. PMID:25243887

  10. Classification of mutations at the HLA-A locus by use of the polymerase chain reaction

    SciTech Connect

    Joseph, G.; Grist, S.; Firgaira, F.; Turner, D.; Morley, A. )

    1993-01-01

    The authors investigated whether the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) could be used to determine the mechanism of mutation in lymphocyte clones mutated at the HLA-A locus. Three polymorphisms, at Factor XIIIA, D6S109, and intron 3 of the HLA-A gene, were used to study a series of clones previously characterized by Southern blotting (SB) at multiple loci on chromosome 6. For detection of loss of heterozygosity, the results of PCR and SB were concordant in 140 of 141 clones when polymorphism in the Factor XIIIA region was studied and in 144 of 145 clones when polymorphism in the HLA-A gene was studied. For classification of the mechanism of mutation, PCR and SB gave the same result in 88 of 92 clones (96%) when a combination of the HLA-A and Factor XIIIA polymorphisms was used and in 46 of 47 clones (98%) when a combination of the HLA-A and D6S109 polymorphisms was used. The results indicate that PCR provides a simple and reliable method for categorizing mutations at the HLA-A locus as arising from mitotic recombination, deletion, or from presumptive minor changes within the gene. Rare events such as gene conversion, nondisjunction, or large deletions extending to the telomere will be misclassified. However, such events are rare for mutations at this locus. 9 refs., 2 figs., 5 tabs.

  11. Utility of Quantitative Polymerase Chain Reaction in Leptospirosis Diagnosis: Association of Level of Leptospiremia and Clinical Manifestations in Sri Lanka

    PubMed Central

    Agampodi, Suneth B.; Matthias, Michael A.; Moreno, Angelo C.

    2012-01-01

    (See the Editorial Commentary by Katz, on pages 1256–8.) Background. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR), despite cost and logistical challenges, has the potential to provide accurate and timely diagnosis for leptospirosis at the point-of-care in endemic areas. We studied optimal sample types for qPCR, timing of sampling, and clinical manifestations in relation to quantitative leptospiremia. Methods. A new qPCR assay using pathogenic Leptospira-specific 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene Taqman primers and an optimized temperature stepdown protocol was used to analyze patient blood samples. Serum was compared with whole blood as sample source. Quantitative leptospiremia was compared with clinical manifestations of leptospirosis and outcome. Results. The diagnostic sensitivity of qPCR of whole blood and serum was 18.4% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 9.97%–31.4%) and 51.0% (95% CI: 37.5%–64.4%) respectively. The qPCR on suspected cases confirmed infection in 58 of 381 cases (15.2%). Of these, 6 cases confirmed by nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and sequencing were serologically negative using a standard but not regionally optimized microscopic agglutination test panel. The bacterial load in serum/blood ranged from 102 to 106 Leptospira/mL. Median leptospiral load for uncomplicated, renal failure, myocarditis, and multi-organ failure patients were 8616, 11007, 36100, and 15882 Leptospira/mL respectively. The qPCR window of positivity ranged from day 2 to day 15; sensitivity of qPCR was not affected by the length of the interval between the onset of symptoms and sample collection (P = .328). Conclusions. Quantitative PCR shows potential as a valid diagnostic test with a wider window of positivity than previously thought. Quantitative leptospiremia in serum/whole blood samples did not directly correlate with clinical manifestations of outcome in this patient population. PMID:22354922

  12. Automated polymerase chain reaction in capillary tubes with hot air.

    PubMed

    Wittwer, C T; Fillmore, G C; Hillyard, D R

    1989-06-12

    We describe a simple, compact, inexpensive thermal cycler that can be used for the polymerase chain reaction. Based on heat transfer with air to samples in sealed capillary tubes, the apparatus resembles a recirculating hair dryer. The temperature is regulated via thermocouple input to a programmable set-point process controller that provides proportional output to a solid state relay controlling a heating coil. For efficient cooling after the denaturation step, the controller activates a solenoid that opens a door to vent hot air and allows cool air to enter. Temperature-time profiles and amplification results approximate those obtained using water baths and microfuge tubes.

  13. A chain reaction approach to modelling gene pathways.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Gary C; Chen, Dung-Tsa; Chen, James J; Soong, Seng-Jaw; Lamartiniere, Coral; Barnes, Stephen

    2012-08-01

    BACKGROUND: Of great interest in cancer prevention is how nutrient components affect gene pathways associated with the physiological events of puberty. Nutrient-gene interactions may cause changes in breast or prostate cells and, therefore, may result in cancer risk later in life. Analysis of gene pathways can lead to insights about nutrient-gene interactions and the development of more effective prevention approaches to reduce cancer risk. To date, researchers have relied heavily upon experimental assays (such as microarray analysis, etc.) to identify genes and their associated pathways that are affected by nutrient and diets. However, the vast number of genes and combinations of gene pathways, coupled with the expense of the experimental analyses, has delayed the progress of gene-pathway research. The development of an analytical approach based on available test data could greatly benefit the evaluation of gene pathways, and thus advance the study of nutrient-gene interactions in cancer prevention. In the present study, we have proposed a chain reaction model to simulate gene pathways, in which the gene expression changes through the pathway are represented by the species undergoing a set of chemical reactions. We have also developed a numerical tool to solve for the species changes due to the chain reactions over time. Through this approach we can examine the impact of nutrient-containing diets on the gene pathway; moreover, transformation of genes over time with a nutrient treatment can be observed numerically, which is very difficult to achieve experimentally. We apply this approach to microarray analysis data from an experiment which involved the effects of three polyphenols (nutrient treatments), epigallo-catechin-3-O-gallate (EGCG), genistein, and resveratrol, in a study of nutrient-gene interaction in the estrogen synthesis pathway during puberty. RESULTS: In this preliminary study, the estrogen synthesis pathway was simulated by a chain reaction model. By

  14. Hepatitis C virus-polymerase chain reaction of routinely processed liver biopsies.

    PubMed

    el-Batanony, M H; Savage, K; Jacobs, R; el-Refaie, A O; Squadrito, G G; Brown, D; Saleh, S M; Raouf, A A; Amer, K M; Dusheiko, G M

    1994-08-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the specificity and sensitivity of detection of hepatitis C virus (HCV)-RNA in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) liver biopsies by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Routinely processed FFPE diagnostic needle liver biopsies as well as stored serum samples from 43 patients with liver disease were tested for HCV-RNA by reverse transcription-nested PCR using the same sets of primers and following strict anticontamination measures. Twenty-nine cases were positive and 14 were negative for serum HCV-RNA. Tissue HCV-RNA was detected in 17 out of the 29 serum HCV-RNA-positive cases but not in any of the 14 serum HCV-RNA-negative cases. Compared to serum-PCR, tissue-PCR was 100% specific, 58.6% sensitive, and 72% efficient. HCV-RNA was detected more frequently in biopsies stored for less than 1 year, than in those stored for more than 1 year (P = 0.046). In biopsies stored for up to 1 year detection of HCV-RNA by PCR was 81.8% sensitive and 90.9% efficient. Short (< 0.5 cm) liver biopsies were as sufficient for nucleic acid extraction and amplification as long (> 0.5 cm) ones. It is concluded that following strict anticontamination measures, HCV-RNA detection by PCR in routinely fixed, processed, and stored diagnostic liver biopsies provides a valuable adjunct to diagnosis of HCV infection. In this study, this option was free from contamination problems, even though routine batch histological processing schedules were used.

  15. Analysis of gene amplification in archival tissue by differential polymerase chain reaction.

    PubMed

    Neubauer, A; Neubauer, B; He, M; Effert, P; Iglehart, D; Frye, R A; Liu, E

    1992-05-01

    Oncogene amplification is found in many human tumors, and its detection may have important prognostic value. However, analysis of gene amplification may be hampered by inadequate tissue or poor DNA quality. We have previously described a polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based procedure called differential PCR that can detect variations in gene dosage using miniscule amounts of tumor DNA [Frye, R.A., Benz, C.C. & Liu, E. (1989). Oncogene, 4, 1153-1157]. We now report the optimization of this technique for the analysis of oncogene amplification in paraffin-embedded archival tissues. We find that differential PCR is able to detect amplification of the HER2 (c-erbB-2) and the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) genes and can be used to arrive at a semiquantitative estimate of gene dosage. Furthermore, our approach can determine gene amplification in samples in which the DNA is significantly degraded. Using differential PCR on paraffin-embedded tissues from cases previously investigated by standard DNA extraction and dot-blot procedures, good correlation between the two methods was found. Approaches are described to overcome technical problems posed by factors that affect the differential PCR, including the method of DNA extraction and extreme fragmentation of the DNA (less than 200 base pairs). Furthermore, the resulting analytical algorithm reported herein has proved effective in detecting oncogene amplification in archival breast cancer specimens from standard pathology laboratories. Thus, differential PCR will be particularly helpful in the analysis of tumor specimens that are archived, small in size or rare in occurrence.

  16. Hepatitis C virus-polymerase chain reaction of routinely processed liver biopsies.

    PubMed

    el-Batanony, M H; Savage, K; Jacobs, R; el-Refaie, A O; Squadrito, G G; Brown, D; Saleh, S M; Raouf, A A; Amer, K M; Dusheiko, G M

    1994-08-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the specificity and sensitivity of detection of hepatitis C virus (HCV)-RNA in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) liver biopsies by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Routinely processed FFPE diagnostic needle liver biopsies as well as stored serum samples from 43 patients with liver disease were tested for HCV-RNA by reverse transcription-nested PCR using the same sets of primers and following strict anticontamination measures. Twenty-nine cases were positive and 14 were negative for serum HCV-RNA. Tissue HCV-RNA was detected in 17 out of the 29 serum HCV-RNA-positive cases but not in any of the 14 serum HCV-RNA-negative cases. Compared to serum-PCR, tissue-PCR was 100% specific, 58.6% sensitive, and 72% efficient. HCV-RNA was detected more frequently in biopsies stored for less than 1 year, than in those stored for more than 1 year (P = 0.046). In biopsies stored for up to 1 year detection of HCV-RNA by PCR was 81.8% sensitive and 90.9% efficient. Short (< 0.5 cm) liver biopsies were as sufficient for nucleic acid extraction and amplification as long (> 0.5 cm) ones. It is concluded that following strict anticontamination measures, HCV-RNA detection by PCR in routinely fixed, processed, and stored diagnostic liver biopsies provides a valuable adjunct to diagnosis of HCV infection. In this study, this option was free from contamination problems, even though routine batch histological processing schedules were used. PMID:7964648

  17. Fabrication of Polymerase Chain Reaction Plastic Lab-on-a-Chip Device for Rapid Molecular Diagnoses

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: We aim to fabricate a thermoplastic poly(methylmethacrylate) (PMMA) Lab-on-a-Chip device to perform continuous- flow polymerase chain reactions (PCRs) for rapid molecular detection of foodborne pathogen bacteria. Methods: A miniaturized plastic device was fabricated by utilizing PMMA substrates mediated by poly(dimethylsiloxane) interfacial coating, enabling bonding under mild conditions, and thus avoiding the deformation or collapse of microchannels. Surface characterizations were carried out and bond strength was measured. The feasibility of the Lab-on-a-Chip device for performing on-chip PCR utilizing a lab-made, portable dual heater was evaluated. The results were compared with those obtained using a commercially available thermal cycler. Results: A PMMA Lab-on-a-Chip device was designed and fabricated for conducting PCR using foodborne pathogens as sample targets. A robust bond was established between the PMMA substrates, which is essential for performing miniaturized PCR on plastic. The feasibility of on-chip PCR was evaluated using Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Cronobacter condimenti, two worldwide foodborne pathogens, and the target amplicons were successfully amplified within 25 minutes. Conclusions: In this study, we present a novel design of a low-cost and high-throughput thermoplastic PMMA Lab-on-a-Chip device for conducting microscale PCR, and we enable rapid molecular diagnoses of two important foodborne pathogens in minute resolution using this device. In this regard, the introduced highly portable system design has the potential to enable PCR investigations of many diseases quickly and accurately. PMID:27230459

  18. [Value of polymerase chain reaction in serum for the diagnosis of enteroviral meningitis].

    PubMed

    Marque Juillet, S; Lion, M; Pilmis, B; Tomini, E; Dommergues, M-A; Laporte, S; Foucaud, P

    2013-06-01

    Enteroviruses (EV) are a common cause of aseptic meningitis in children. Virological diagnosis of EV meningitis is currently based on the detection of the viral genome in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). This study attempted to determine the correlation and the temporality of the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay in serum and CSF and to evaluate the possibility of diagnosing EV infection only on the serum PCR. The EV genome was sought by RT real-time PCR (Smart Cycler EV Primer and Probe Set(®), Cepheid) in CSF and serum, collected at the same time, for all children who underwent a lumbar puncture for suspected meningitis, between 1 June and 31 July 2010 at the Versailles Hospital. Forty-four patients were included in the study. EV infection was documented for 22 of them. In 10 patients, the EV genome was detected in CSF only; in 3 patients in serum only, and in 9 patients in both. Among patients with acute EV neurological infection, viremic children were significantly younger (1.6 months versus 5.8 years; P<0.001). Viremia was detected when the serum was sampled within 30 h after the beginning of symptoms. These results confirm previous reports of early and transient viremia in young children. This preliminary study shows the limits and added value of EV PCR in serum. It suggests that in some children and under certain conditions (age >3 months, clinical and biological compatibility with a viral infection, no previous antibiotic therapy, time from symptom onset to blood sampling <30 h, PCR in serum analyzed within 3h), PCR in serum, when positive, is a possible alternative. Therefore, it may be possible to diagnose EV infection without performing a lumbar puncture in a limited number of young children (11.4% of our suspected cases). This study needs to be reinforced by a multicenter study with a broader panel of patients.

  19. Detection of trypanosomes in suspected sleeping sickness patients in Uganda using the polymerase chain reaction.

    PubMed Central

    Kyambadde, J. W.; Enyaru, J. C.; Matovu, E.; Odiit, M.; Carasco, J. F.

    2000-01-01

    Diagnosis of sleeping sickness (trypanosomiasis) is difficult because of the fluctuating levels of parasitaemia encountered in patients. In the present study we found that the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) demonstrated trypanosome infection in 20 out of 35 (57.1%) blood samples and in 21 out of 34 (61.7%) cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples collected from an area endemic for sleeping sickness in north-west Uganda. A total of 14 blood samples and 13 CSF samples that were positive for trypanosomes by double centrifugation were also positive by PCR, demonstrating good concordance between the two methods. However, 6 (28.6%) of the 21 blood samples that were parasitologically negative were positive by PCR, while 8 (38.0%) out of 21 CSF samples that were negative by double centrifugation were positive by PCR. These 14 negative samples could therefore be from sleeping sickness cases even though a positive PCR test is not evidence for the presence of trypanosomes. Furthermore, of these 8 CSF samples, 4 had been designated as early cases, based on the absence of trypanosomes and on a count of < or = 5 white blood cells (WBC) per microliter. This suggests that some late-stage cases could potentially be missed according to the present criteria, and it is therefore important to perform clinical trials to determine whether these cases could be treated successfully with the first-stage drug alone. The remaining four CSF samples had been classified as late-stage cases, based on a count of > 6 WBC per microliter, even though trypanosomes could not be detected in these samples by either double centrifugation or PCR. A cut-off point of 5 WBC per microliter, which is used as a rule of thumb to stage sleeping sickness patients, seems to leave some late-stage cases undetected since trypanosomes were detected in four CSF samples from suspected cases with < 5 WBC per microliter. PMID:10686746

  20. High-throughput double quantitative competitive polymerase chain reaction for determination of genetically modified organisms.

    PubMed

    Mavropoulou, Anastasia K; Koraki, Theodora; Ioannou, Penelope C; Christopoulos, Theodore K

    2005-08-01

    Quantitative competitive polymerase chain reaction (PCR), especially the double competitive PCR methods (DC-PCR), have evolved as reliable approaches to quantification of genetically modified organisms (GMO) in food. However, DC-PCR is a low-throughput method because it requires titration of each sample with various amounts of a competitive internal standard, a protocol that involves several PCRs per sample followed by electrophoresis and densitometry. To address this drawback, we have developed a new method for GMO quantification, namely, a high-throughput double quantitative competitive PCR (HT-DCPCR). In HT-DCPCR, electrophoresis and densitometry are replaced by a rapid, microtiter well-based bioluminometric hybridization assay and there is no need for titration of each sample. The determination of GM soya was chosen as a model. We have constructed internal standards (DNA competitors) both for the 35S promoter sequence and for a plant-specific reference gene (lectin). The competitors have identical size and share the same primer binding sites with the target sequences but differ in a 24-bp internal segment. Each target sequence (35S and lectin) is coamplified with a constant amount (1000 copies) of the respective competitor. The four amplified fragments are hybridized with specific probes and captured on a universal solid phase to achieve simplicity and high throughput. The hybrids are determined by using streptavidin conjugated to the photoprotein aequorin. The ratio of the luminescence values obtained for the target and the competitor is linearly related to the starting amount of target DNA. The limit of quantification for the 35S promoter is 24 copies. The proposed method was evaluated by determining the GMO content of soybean powder certified reference materials. Also HT-DCPCR was compared to real-time PCR in a variety of real samples.

  1. One-heater flow-through polymerase chain reaction device by heat pipes cooling

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jyh Jian; Liao, Ming Huei; Li, Kun Tze; Shen, Chia Ming

    2015-01-01

    This study describes a novel microfluidic reactor capable of flow-through polymerase chain reactions (PCR). For one-heater PCR devices in previous studies, comprehensive simulations and experiments for the chip geometry and the heater arrangement were usually needed before the fabrication of the device. In order to improve the flexibility of the one-heater PCR device, two heat pipes with one fan are used to create the requisite temperature regions in our device. With the integration of one heater onto the chip, the high temperature required for the denaturation stage can be generated at the chip center. By arranging the heat pipes on the opposite sides of the chip, the low temperature needed for the annealing stage is easy to regulate. Numerical calculations and thermal measurements have shown that the temperature distribution in the five-temperature-region PCR chip would be suitable for DNA amplification. In order to ensure temperature uniformity at specific reaction regions, the Re of the sample flow is less than 1. When the microchannel width increases and then decreases gradually between the denaturation and annealing regions, the extension region located in the enlarged part of the channel can be observed numerically and experimentally. From the simulations, the residence time at the extension region with the enlarged channel is 4.25 times longer than that without an enlarged channel at a flow rate of 2 μl/min. The treated surfaces of the flow-through microchannel are characterized using the water contact angle, while the effects of the hydrophilicity of the treated polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) microchannels on PCR efficiency are determined using gel electrophoresis. By increasing the hydrophilicity of the channel surface after immersing the PDMS substrates into Tween 20 (20%) or BSA (1 mg/ml) solutions, efficient amplifications of DNA segments were proved to occur in our chip device. To our knowledge, our group is the first to introduce heat pipes into

  2. Allele-specific duplex polymerase chain reaction to differentiate Mycobacterium abscessus subspecies and to detect highly clarithromycin-resistant isolates.

    PubMed

    Kim, H Y; Lee, S Y; Kim, B J; Kook, Y H

    2016-01-01

    On the basis of the structural differences of erm, we used a duplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to differentiate Mycobacterium abscessus subsp. abscessus and subsp. massiliense isolates and to detect the point mutations of 23S rRNA gene that confer a high level of resistance to clarithromycin. Subsp. massiliense strains occupying almost half of the clinical isolates can be simply identified, and their clarithromycin susceptibility can be rapidly determined. PMID:27514964

  3. Development of a screening method for genetically modified soybean by plasmid-based quantitative competitive polymerase chain reaction.

    PubMed

    Shimizu, Eri; Kato, Hisashi; Nakagawa, Yuki; Kodama, Takashi; Futo, Satoshi; Minegishi, Yasutaka; Watanabe, Takahiro; Akiyama, Hiroshi; Teshima, Reiko; Furui, Satoshi; Hino, Akihiro; Kitta, Kazumi

    2008-07-23

    A novel type of quantitative competitive polymerase chain reaction (QC-PCR) system for the detection and quantification of the Roundup Ready soybean (RRS) was developed. This system was designed based on the advantage of a fully validated real-time PCR method used for the quantification of RRS in Japan. A plasmid was constructed as a competitor plasmid for the detection and quantification of genetically modified soy, RRS. The plasmid contained the construct-specific sequence of RRS and the taxon-specific sequence of lectin1 (Le1), and both had 21 bp oligonucleotide insertion in the sequences. The plasmid DNA was used as a reference molecule instead of ground seeds, which enabled us to precisely and stably adjust the copy number of targets. The present study demonstrated that the novel plasmid-based QC-PCR method could be a simple and feasible alternative to the real-time PCR method used for the quantification of genetically modified organism contents.

  4. Extraction of DNA from exfoliative cytology specimens and its suitability for analysis by the polymerase chain reaction.

    PubMed

    Jackson, D P; Payne, J; Bell, S; Lewis, F A; Taylor, G R; Peel, K R; Sutton, J; Quirke, P

    1990-01-01

    The extraction of DNA from archival exfoliative cytology samples would allow the molecular biological analysis of this readily available material using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). We have quantitatively and qualitatively studied the extraction of DNA from a variety of cytological preparations. For both fresh and archival cervical smears, overnight incubation with proteinase K produces high yields of high molecular weight DNA, but simply boiling the samples produces DNA suitable for PCR amplification of a single copy gene. Increasing the proteinase K incubation to several days allows the extraction of DNA from fixed and stained archival cytology slides from a variety of sites. The extracted DNA was again suitable for PCR analysis. Fresh and archival cytological material can be utilized for molecular biological study of disease processes using PCR. Archival cytological material is probably the best source of DNA and RNA after stored frozen tissue.

  5. Histoplasmosis diagnosis using a polymerase chain reaction method. Application on human samples in French Guiana, South America.

    PubMed

    Maubon, Danièle; Simon, Stéphane; Aznar, Christine

    2007-08-01

    Untreated histoplasmosis is life threatening, especially in immunosuppressed patients. In French Guiana, South America, it is one of the most common opportunistic infections in AIDS patients. Twenty-one cases of disseminated histoplasmosis were diagnosed in 2004 in the mycology laboratory of Cayenne hospital. Culture samples for histoplasmosis diagnosis is simple, sensitive, and specific, but it is a lengthy process. Management of the disease is then dangerously delayed. In this work, we tested a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method on 40 samples from patients with suspected disseminated histoplasmosis. The recently described Hcp100 nested PCR method was used to detect Histoplasma capsulatum DNA in these samples. All of the positive cultures for H. capsulatum were also positive with PCR method. Tested on other fungi or negative culture, it also showed high specificity. Furthermore, it allows treating patients more rapidly. Culture remains necessary, but histoplasmosis PCR offers great prospects, on a clinical point of view. PMID:17509796

  6. Evaluation of a commercial real-time polymerase chain reaction assay for detection of environmental contamination with Clostridium difficile.

    PubMed

    Deshpande, A; Kundrapu, S; Sunkesula, V C K; Cadnum, J L; Fertelli, D; Donskey, C J

    2013-09-01

    Contaminated environmental surfaces are an important source for transmission of Clostridium difficile. However, there are no efficient and easy methods to assess contamination. The performance of a commercial real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay was evaluated for detection of environmental toxigenic C. difficile in comparison with anaerobic culture followed by toxin testing of isolates. For 66 sites sampled, PCR had a sensitivity of 17.39%, specificity 100%, positive predictive value 100% and negative predictive value 69.35%. Increasing the PCR cycle threshold (CT) value to 45 increased sensitivity to 52% without decreasing specificity. The commercial PCR assay is not sufficiently sensitive for environmental monitoring, but improved sensitivity might be possible through CT value modification.

  7. Histoplasmosis diagnosis using a polymerase chain reaction method. Application on human samples in French Guiana, South America.

    PubMed

    Maubon, Danièle; Simon, Stéphane; Aznar, Christine

    2007-08-01

    Untreated histoplasmosis is life threatening, especially in immunosuppressed patients. In French Guiana, South America, it is one of the most common opportunistic infections in AIDS patients. Twenty-one cases of disseminated histoplasmosis were diagnosed in 2004 in the mycology laboratory of Cayenne hospital. Culture samples for histoplasmosis diagnosis is simple, sensitive, and specific, but it is a lengthy process. Management of the disease is then dangerously delayed. In this work, we tested a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method on 40 samples from patients with suspected disseminated histoplasmosis. The recently described Hcp100 nested PCR method was used to detect Histoplasma capsulatum DNA in these samples. All of the positive cultures for H. capsulatum were also positive with PCR method. Tested on other fungi or negative culture, it also showed high specificity. Furthermore, it allows treating patients more rapidly. Culture remains necessary, but histoplasmosis PCR offers great prospects, on a clinical point of view.

  8. Rapid and specific identification of nitrile hydratase (NHase)-encoding genes in soil samples by polymerase chain reaction.

    PubMed

    Precigou, S; Goulas, P; Duran, R

    2001-10-16

    A polymerase chain reaction (PCR) protocol was developed for the specific detection of genes coding nitrile hydratase (NHase). Primer design was based on the highly conserved sequences found in the coding region of the alpha-subunit gene corresponding to the metal-binding site. Purified genomic DNA from bacterial strains or directly from soil can serve as the target for the PCR, thus affording a simple and rapid method for screening NHase genes. The primer pairs, NHCo1/NHCo2 and NHFe1/NHFe2 yield PCR products corresponding to a partial coding sequence of cobalt and iron NHase genes, respectively. Using the PCR method, both types of iron- and cobalt-NHase-encoding genes were detected in DNA from pure cultures and soil samples. Furthermore consensus primers allowed rapid cloning and expression of novel NHases in Escherichia coli.

  9. Multiplex-polymerase chain reaction assay for the authentication of the mackerel Scomber colias in commercial canned products.

    PubMed

    Infante, Carlos; Manchado, Manuel

    2006-01-01

    A multiplex-polymerase chain reaction (PCR) system was developed for the authentication of the mackerel Scomber colias in commercial canned products. This novel method consists of an S. colias-specific fragment [159 base pairs (bp)] located in the nontranscribed spacer (NTS) sequence, and a Scomber genus-specific PCR product in the 5S rRNA gene (196-201 bp) as a positive amplification control. The system was assayed using 18 different canned products labeled as S. colias. A positive identification was made in all but one sample, revealing this methodology as a potential molecular tool for direct application in the authentication of S. colias canned products. PMID:16792069

  10. Plague in a Pediatric Patient: Case Report and Use of Polymerase Chain Reaction as a Diagnostic Aid.

    PubMed

    Drummond, Wendi K; Nelson, Christina A; Fowler, Joe; Epson, Erin E; Mead, Paul S; Lawaczeck, Elisabeth W

    2014-12-01

    We report a case of bubonic plaque in a 7-year-old patient who presented with a core temperature of 107°F, seizures, vomiting, altered mental status, and septic shock. This case highlights the utility of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) as a diagnostic aid for rapid presumptive identification of Yersinia pestis as well as the importance of correlating PCR results with clinical data. We discuss the various manifestations of plague as they relate to infection control, postexposure prophylaxis, antimicrobial therapy, and treatment duration.

  11. Multiplexed miRNA northern blots via hybridization chain reaction

    PubMed Central

    Schwarzkopf, Maayan; Pierce, Niles A.

    2016-01-01

    Northern blots enable detection of a target RNA of interest in a biological sample using standard benchtop equipment. miRNAs are the most challenging targets as they must be detected with a single short nucleic acid probe. With existing approaches, it is cumbersome to perform multiplexed blots in which several RNAs are detected simultaneously, impeding the study of interacting regulatory elements. Here, we address this shortcoming by demonstrating multiplexed northern blotting based on the mechanism of hybridization chain reaction (HCR). With this approach, nucleic acid probes complementary to RNA targets trigger chain reactions in which fluorophore-labeled DNA hairpins self-assemble into tethered fluorescent amplification polymers. The programmability of HCR allows multiple amplifiers to operate simultaneously and independently within a blot, enabling straightforward multiplexing. We demonstrate simultaneous detection of three endogenous miRNAs in total RNA extracted from 293T and HeLa cells. For a given target, HCR signal scales linearly with target abundance, enabling relative and absolute quantitation. Using non-radioactive HCR, sensitive and selective miRNA detection is achieved using 2′OMe-RNA probes. The HCR northern blot protocol takes ∼1.5 days independent of the number of target RNAs. PMID:27270083

  12. Multiplexed miRNA northern blots via hybridization chain reaction.

    PubMed

    Schwarzkopf, Maayan; Pierce, Niles A

    2016-09-01

    Northern blots enable detection of a target RNA of interest in a biological sample using standard benchtop equipment. miRNAs are the most challenging targets as they must be detected with a single short nucleic acid probe. With existing approaches, it is cumbersome to perform multiplexed blots in which several RNAs are detected simultaneously, impeding the study of interacting regulatory elements. Here, we address this shortcoming by demonstrating multiplexed northern blotting based on the mechanism of hybridization chain reaction (HCR). With this approach, nucleic acid probes complementary to RNA targets trigger chain reactions in which fluorophore-labeled DNA hairpins self-assemble into tethered fluorescent amplification polymers. The programmability of HCR allows multiple amplifiers to operate simultaneously and independently within a blot, enabling straightforward multiplexing. We demonstrate simultaneous detection of three endogenous miRNAs in total RNA extracted from 293T and HeLa cells. For a given target, HCR signal scales linearly with target abundance, enabling relative and absolute quantitation. Using non-radioactive HCR, sensitive and selective miRNA detection is achieved using 2'OMe-RNA probes. The HCR northern blot protocol takes ∼1.5 days independent of the number of target RNAs. PMID:27270083

  13. Designing and Applying Proximity-Dependent Hybridization Chain Reaction.

    PubMed

    Koos, Björn; Söderberg, Ola

    2016-01-01

    Proximity-dependent hybridization chain reaction (proxHCR) is a novel technique for detection of protein interaction, post-translational modifications (PTMs), or protein expression. The method is based upon antibodies targeting the proteins of interest that are covalently conjugated to DNA oligonucleotides, which enables the induction of a hybridization chain reaction (HCR) to generate a fluorescent signal visible under a microscope. In contrast to the in situ proximity ligation assay (in situ PLA), which is another method that utilizes antibody-DNA conjugates to detect protein interactions, proxHCR does not require enzymatic steps. This makes proxHCR an inexpensive alternative to in situ PLA. Another potential advantage might be that proxHCR could more readily be adapted for use in automated staining procedures and in point-of-care devices, as all reagents can be stored at room temperature. This unit describes how the oligonucleotide system for proxHCR can be designed and a protocol for how to perform proxHCR is presented. © 2016 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  14. Copy number ratios determined by two digital polymerase chain reaction systems in genetically modified grains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pérez Urquiza, M.; Acatzi Silva, A. I.

    2014-02-01

    Three certified reference materials produced from powdered seeds to measure the copy number ratio sequences of p35S/hmgA in maize containing MON 810 event, p35S/Le1 in soybeans containing GTS 40-3-2 event and DREB1A/acc1 in wheat were produced according to the ISO Guides 34 and 35. In this paper, we report digital polymerase chain reaction (dPCR) protocols, performance parameters and results of copy number ratio content of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) in these materials using two new dPCR systems to detect and quantify molecular deoxyribonucleic acid: the BioMark® (Fluidigm) and the OpenArray® (Life Technologies) systems. These technologies were implemented at the National Institute of Metrology in Mexico (CENAM) and in the Reference Center for GMO Detection from the Ministry of Agriculture (CNRDOGM), respectively. The main advantage of this technique against the more-used quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) is that it generates an absolute number of target molecules in the sample, without reference to standards or an endogenous control, which is very useful when not much information is available for new developments or there are no standard reference materials in the market as in the wheat case presented, or when it was not possible to test the purity of seeds as in the maize case presented here. Both systems reported enhanced productivity, increased reliability and reduced instrument footprint. In this paper, the performance parameters and uncertainty of measurement obtained with both systems are presented and compared.

  15. Enhancing the specificity and efficiency of polymerase chain reaction using polyethyleneimine-based derivatives and hybrid nanocomposites

    PubMed Central

    Tong, Weiwei; Cao, Xueyan; Wen, Shihui; Guo, Rui; Shen, Mingwu; Wang, Jianhua; Shi, Xiangyang

    2012-01-01

    There is a general necessity to improve the specificity and efficiency of the polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and exploring the PCR-enhancing mechanism still remains a great challenge. In this paper we report the use of branched polyethyleneimine (PEI)-based derivatives and hybrid nanocomposites as a novel class of enhancers to improve the specificity and efficiency of a nonspecific PCR system. We show that the surface-charge polarity of PEI and PEI derivatives plays a major role in their effectiveness to enhance the PCR. Positively charged amine-terminated pristine PEI, partially (50%) acetylated PEI (PEI-Ac50), and completely acetylated PEI (PEI-Ac) are able to improve PCR efficiency and specificity with an optimum concentration order of PEI < PEI-Ac50 < PEI-Ac, whereas negatively charged carboxyl-terminated PEI (PEI-SAH; SAH denotes succinamic acid groups) and neutralized PEI modified with both polyethylene glycol (PEG) and acetyl (Ac) groups (PEI-PEG-Ac) are unable to improve PCR specificity and efficiency even at concentrations three orders of magnitude higher than that of PEI. Our data clearly suggests that the PCR-enhancing effect is primarily based on the interaction between the PCR components and the PEI derivatives, where electrostatic interaction plays a major role in concentrating the PCR components locally on the backbones of the branched PEI. In addition, multiwalled carbon nanotubes modified with PEI and PEI-stabilized gold nanoparticles are also able to improve the PCR specificity and efficiency with an optimum PEI concentration less than that of the PEI alone, indicating that the inorganic component of the nanocomposites may help improve the interaction between PEI and the PCR components. The developed PEI-based derivatives or nanocomposites may be used as efficient additives to enhance other PCR systems for different biomedical applications. PMID:22393296

  16. Detection of congenital cytomegalovirus infection by real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis of saliva or urine specimens.

    PubMed

    Ross, Shannon A; Ahmed, Amina; Palmer, April L; Michaels, Marian G; Sánchez, Pablo J; Bernstein, David I; Tolan, Robert W; Novak, Zdenek; Chowdhury, Nazma; Fowler, Karen B; Boppana, Suresh B

    2014-11-01

    Viral culture of urine or saliva has been the gold standard technique for the diagnosis of congenital cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection. Results of rapid culture and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis of urine and saliva specimens from 80 children were compared to determine the clinical utility of a real-time PCR assay for diagnosis of congenital CMV infection. Results of urine PCR were positive in 98.8% of specimens. Three PCR-positive urine samples were culture negative. Results of saliva PCR and culture were concordant in 78 specimens (97.5%). Two PCR-positive saliva samples were culture negative. These findings demonstrate that PCR performs as well as rapid culture of urine or saliva specimens for diagnosing congenital CMV infection and saliva specimens are easier to collect. Because PCR also offers more rapid turnaround, is unlikely to be affected by storage and transport conditions, has lower cost, and may be adapted to high-throughput situations, it is well suited for targeted testing and large-scale screening for CMV.

  17. Evaluation of quantitative polymerase chain reaction-based approaches for determining gene copy and gene transcript numbers in environmental samples.

    PubMed

    Smith, Cindy J; Nedwell, David B; Dong, Liang F; Osborn, A Mark

    2006-05-01

    Quantitative polymerase chain reaction (Q-PCR) amplification is widely applied for determining gene and transcript numbers within environmental samples. This research evaluated Q-PCR reproducibility via TaqMan assays quantifying 16S rRNA gene and transcript numbers in sediments, within and between replicate Q-PCR assays. Intra-assay variation in 16S rRNA gene numbers in replicate DNA samples was low (coefficients of variation; CV from 3.2 to 5.2%). However, variability increased using replicated standard curves within separate Q-PCR assays (CV from 11.2% to 26%), indicating absolute comparison of gene numbers between Q-PCR assays was less reliable. 16S rRNA transcript quantification was evaluated using standard curves of diluted RNA or cDNA (before, or following, reverse transcription). These standard curves were statistically different with cDNA-derived curves giving higher r(2) values and Q-PCR efficiencies. Template concentrations used in Q-PCR also affected 16S rRNA gene and transcript numbers. For DNA, 10(-3) dilutions yielded higher gene numbers than 10(-1) and 10(-2) dilutions. Conversely, RNA template dilution reduced numbers of transcripts detected. Finally, different nucleic acid isolation methods also resulted in gene and transcript number variability. This research demonstrates Q-PCR determination of absolute numbers of genes and transcripts using environmental nucleic acids should be treated cautiously.

  18. Detection and Typing of Human Papilloma Viruses by Nested Multiplex Polymerase Chain Reaction Assay in Cervical Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Jalal Kiani, Seyed; Shatizadeh Malekshahi, Somayeh; Yousefi Ghalejoogh, Zohreh; Ghavvami, Nastaran; Shafiei Jandaghi, Nazanin Zahra; Shahsiah, Reza; Jahanzad, Isa; Yavarian, Jila

    2015-01-01

    Background: Cervical cancer is the leading cause of death from cancer in under-developed countries. Human papilloma virus (HPV) 16 and 18 are the most prevalent types associated with carcinogenesis in the cervix. Conventional Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR), type-specific and consensus primer-based PCR followed by sequencing, Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (RFLP) or hybridization by specific probes are common methods for HPV detection and typing. In addition, some researchers have developed a multiplex PCR for simultaneous detection and typing of different HPVs. Objectives: The aim of the present study was to investigate the prevalence of HPV infection and its types in cervical Squamous Cell Carcinoma (SCC) using the Nested Multiplex PCR (NMPCR) assay. Patients and Methods: Sixty-six samples with histologically confirmed SCC were evaluated. Total DNA was isolated by phenol–chloroform extraction and ethanol precipitation. Nested multiplex PCR was performed with first-round PCR by GP-E6/E7 consensus primers for amplification of the genomic DNA of all known mucosal HPV genotypes and second-round PCR by type-specific multiplex PCR primer cocktails. Results: Human papilloma virus infection was detected in 78.8% of samples, with the highest prevalence of HPV 16 (60.6%) while concurrent infections with two types was detected in 10.6%. Conclusions: The NMPCR assay is more convenient and easy for analysis of results, which is important for fast diagnosis and patient management, in a type-specific manner. PMID:26865940

  19. Polymerase chain reaction-mediated characterization of molds belonging to the Aspergillus flavus group and detection of Aspergillus parasiticus in peanut kernels by a multiplex polymerase chain reaction.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ruey-Shyang; Tsay, Jwu-Guh; Huang, Yu-Fen; Chiou, Robin Y Y

    2002-05-01

    The Aspergillus flavus group covers species of A. flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus as aflatoxin producers and Aspergillus oryzae and Aspergillus sojae as koji molds. Genetic similarity among these species is high, and aflatoxin production of a culture may be affected by cultivation conditions and substrate composition. Therefore, a polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-mediated method of detecting the aflatoxin-synthesizing genes to indicate the degree of risk a genotype has of being a phenotypic producer was demonstrated. In this study, 19 strains of the A. flavus group, including A. flavus, A. parasiticus, A. oryzae, A. sojae, and one Aspergillus niger, were subjected to PCR testing in an attempt to detect four genes, encoding for norsolorinic acid reductase (nor-1), versicolorin A dehydrogenase (ver-1), sterigmatocystin O-methyltransferase (omt-1), and a regulatory protein (apa-2), involved in aflatoxin biosynthesis. Concurrently, the strains were cultivated in yeast-malt (YM) broth for aflatoxin detection. Fifteen strains were shown to possess the four target DNA fragments. With regard to aflatoxigenicity, all seven aflatoxigenic strains possessed the four DNA fragments, and five strains bearing less than the four DNA fragments did not produce aflatoxin. When peanut kernels were artificially contaminated with A. parasiticus and A. niger for 7 days, the contaminant DNA was extractable from a piece of cotyledon (ca. 100 mg), and when subjected to multiplex PCR testing using the four pairs of primers coding for the above genes, they were successfully detected. The target DNA fragments were detected in the kernels infected with A. parasiticus, and none was detected in the sound (uninoculated) kernels or in the kernels infected with A. niger.

  20. Field application of polymerase chain reaction diagnosis and strain typing of Trypanosoma cruzi in Bolivian triatomines.

    PubMed

    Breniere, S F; Bosseno, M F; Telleria, J; Carrasco, R; Vargas, F; Yaksic, N; Noireau, F

    1995-08-01

    A new approach for direct identification and characterization of Trypanosoma cruzi stocks in biological samples was tested for field applicability on an extensive sample of feces collected from triatomine vectors from four different species found in Bolivia. The first step of the technique is polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification of the hypervariable region of kinetoplast DNA minicircles of T. cruzi parasites. In this report, 345 fecal samples were analyzed and the PCR results were compared with microscopic examination. For Triatoma infestans, the principal Bolivian vector, both techniques were in concordance 85.3% of the time. For the three other species, Rhodnius pictipes, Eratyrus mucronatus, and Triatoma sordida, the fecal samples were all negative by microscopic examination whereas PCR results showed several T. cruzi-infected insects in each species. The second step of the procedure is the characterization of the T. cruzi clones by means of hybridization of the PCR products with clone-specific probes generated by the PCR. We used two probes corresponding to major clones circulating in high frequency in Bolivia (as shown by previous population genetic studies using isoenzyme characterization). We obtained four primary results: 1) we confirm the importance of two major clones in Bolivia in two distinct regions; 2) we report high rates of mixed infections (multiple clones in a single vector) in Triatoma infestans, up to 22% and 35% in Cochabamba and La Paz departments, respectively; 3) the results favor the absence of interaction between different clones; and 4) we find, for the first time, evidence of the major clones circulating in three species of triatomines that are known as mainly sylvatic species.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7677221

  1. Use of polymerase chain reaction in the diagnosis of Whipple's disease.

    PubMed

    Kono, Masanori; Yamamoto, Kei; Nagamatsu, Maki; Kutsuna, Satoshi

    2015-12-01

    Whipple's disease, a systemic, chronic infectious disease caused by Tropheryma whipplei, is extremely rare in Asian populations. A correct diagnosis is necessary due to its high mortality rate. Unfortunately, patients are apt to be misdiagnosed with connective tissue diseases since they typically present with arthritis or arthralgia. There are three diagnostic tools for Whipple's disease using intestinal tissues: 1) periodic acid-Schiff (PAS)-positive macrophages; 2) electron microscopic observation; and 3) polymerase chain reaction (PCR). It is challenging to diagnose this disease in the absence of histological findings, especially in Japan, where the clinical protocol currently used to make the diagnosis needs improvement, although symptomology and PCR results may be sufficient. Herein, we investigated a 24-year-old Japanese woman who had suffered from intermittent fever, migratory arthralgia, and watery diarrhea for several months. Her biopsied intestinal tissue was negative for foamy macrophages and PAS-positive cells, and electron microscopy did not provide diagnostic insight. PCR amplification of the specimens, however, successfully revealed T. whipplei. Whipple's disease was diagnosed based on a positive PCR result and strong clinical suspicion. The patient was treated parenterally with ceftriaxone (2 g daily) for two weeks, followed by oral treatment with 160 mg trimethoprim and 800 mg sulfamethoxazole twice per day. After one month of treatment, her symptoms disappeared and inflammatory markers returned to normal levels. This case illustrates the practicality and effectiveness of a PCR-based diagnostic test in combination with clinical suspicion to correctly diagnose Whipple's disease, especially in cases when a histological examination does not provide insight.

  2. Identification of fungemia agents using the polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis.

    PubMed

    Santos, M S; Souza, E S; S Junior, R M; Talhari, S; Souza, J V B

    2010-08-01

    Prompt and specific identification of fungemia agents is important in order to define clinical treatment. However, in most cases conventional culture identification can be considered to be time-consuming and not without errors. The aim of the present study was to identify the following fungemia agents: Candida albicans, Candida parapsilosis, Candida tropicalis, Candida glabrata, Cryptococcus neoformans, Cryptococcus gattii, and Histoplasma capsulatum using the polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis (PCR/RFLP). More specifically: a) to evaluate 3 different amplification regions, b) to investigate 3 different restriction enzymes, and c) to use the best PCR/RFLP procedure to indentify 60 fungemia agents from a culture collection. All 3 pairs of primers (ITS1/ITS4, NL4/ITS5 and Primer1/Primer2) were able to amplify DNA from the reference strains. However, the size of these PCR products did not permit the identification of all the species studied. Three restriction enzymes were used to digest the PCR products: HaeIII, Ddel and Bfal. Among the combinations of pairs of primers and restriction enzymes, only one (primer pair NL4/ITS5 and restriction enzyme Ddel) produced a specific RFLP pattern for each microorganism studied. Sixty cultures of fungemia agents (selected from the culture collection of Fundação de Medicina Tropical do Amazonas--FMTAM) were correctly identified by PCR/RFLP using the prime pair NL4/ITS5 and Ddel. We conclude that the method proved to be both simple and reproducible, and may offer potential advantages over phenotyping methods.

  3. Relevance of semen polymerase chain reaction positive for tuberculosis in asymptomatic men undergoing infertility evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Regmi, Subodh Kumar; Singh, Urvashi B.; Sharma, Jai Bhagwan; Kumar, Rajeev

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Male partners of infertile women with genital tuberculosis (TB) are often screened for genital TB. We aimed to evaluate the clinical significance of a positive screening semen polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for Mycobacterium tuberculosis test (TB-PCR) in asymptomatic men undergoing infertility evaluation and determine the need for a detailed investigation and treatment for TB. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Between March 2012 and January 2013, male partners of 15 infertile women with a diagnosis of genitourinary TB (GUTB) as the cause of infertility, tested positive either on semen PCR for TB (13 cases), or Mycobacterium Growth Indicator Tube-960 test (2 cases). These asymptomatic men underwent infertility evaluation along with evaluation for GUTB. Diagnosis of GUTB was based on standard clinical criteria, which included a high index of suspicion along with clinical, laboratory, and/or radiological evidence of GUTB. Men who had no clinical evidence of GUTB were followed up with clinical evaluation, semen analysis, and repeat semen PCR for TB after 6 months. RESULTS: Fourteen subjects consented for inclusion in the study. One had a history of pulmonary TB 20 years earlier. Another patient was found to have mediastinal lymphadenopathy (tubercular). All except one had a normal semen analysis. None of the patients met the standard clinical criteria for GUTB diagnosis. 8 patients followed up at 6 months with repeat semen analysis, which was similar to the baseline values and no clinical evidence of TB. INTERPRETATION AND CONCLUSIONS: Asymptomatic men with positive screening semen PCR for TB do not have clinical evidence of TB. Male partners of women with infertility and GUTB should not be screened if they have no symptoms. PMID:26538860

  4. Identification of fungemia agents using the polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis.

    PubMed

    Santos, M S; Souza, E S; S Junior, R M; Talhari, S; Souza, J V B

    2010-08-01

    Prompt and specific identification of fungemia agents is important in order to define clinical treatment. However, in most cases conventional culture identification can be considered to be time-consuming and not without errors. The aim of the present study was to identify the following fungemia agents: Candida albicans, Candida parapsilosis, Candida tropicalis, Candida glabrata, Cryptococcus neoformans, Cryptococcus gattii, and Histoplasma capsulatum using the polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis (PCR/RFLP). More specifically: a) to evaluate 3 different amplification regions, b) to investigate 3 different restriction enzymes, and c) to use the best PCR/RFLP procedure to indentify 60 fungemia agents from a culture collection. All 3 pairs of primers (ITS1/ITS4, NL4/ITS5 and Primer1/Primer2) were able to amplify DNA from the reference strains. However, the size of these PCR products did not permit the identification of all the species studied. Three restriction enzymes were used to digest the PCR products: HaeIII, Ddel and Bfal. Among the combinations of pairs of primers and restriction enzymes, only one (primer pair NL4/ITS5 and restriction enzyme Ddel) produced a specific RFLP pattern for each microorganism studied. Sixty cultures of fungemia agents (selected from the culture collection of Fundação de Medicina Tropical do Amazonas--FMTAM) were correctly identified by PCR/RFLP using the prime pair NL4/ITS5 and Ddel. We conclude that the method proved to be both simple and reproducible, and may offer potential advantages over phenotyping methods. PMID:20640387

  5. Infrared temperature control system for a completely noncontact polymerase chain reaction in microfluidic chips.

    PubMed

    Roper, Michael G; Easley, Christopher J; Legendre, Lindsay A; Humphrey, Joseph A C; Landers, James P

    2007-02-15

    A completely noncontact temperature system is described for amplification of DNA via the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in glass microfluidic chips. An infrared (IR)-sensitive pyrometer was calibrated against a thermocouple inserted into a 550-nL PCR chamber and used to monitor the temperature of the glass surface above the PCR chamber during heating and cooling induced by a tungsten lamp and convective air source, respectively. A time lag of less than 1 s was observed between maximum heating rates of the solution and surface, indicating that thermal equilibrium was attained rapidly. Moreover, the time lag was corroborated using a one-dimensional heat-transfer model, which provided insight into the characteristics of the device and environment that caused the time lag. This knowledge will, in turn, allow for future tailoring of the devices to specific applications. To alleviate the need for calibrating the pyrometer with a thermocouple, the on-chip calibration of pyrometer was accomplished by sensing the boiling of two solutions, water and an azeotrope, and comparing the pyrometer output voltage against the known boiling points of these solutions. The "boiling point calibration" was successful as indicated by the subsequent chip-based IR-PCR amplification of a 211-bp fragment of the B. anthracis genome in a chamber reduced beyond the dimensions of a thermocouple. To improve the heating rates, a parabolic gold mirror was positioned above the microfluidic chip, which expedited PCR amplification to 18.8 min for a 30-cycle, three-temperature protocol. PMID:17297927

  6. Early detection of Brucella canis via quantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis.

    PubMed

    Kauffman, L K; Bjork, J K; Gallup, J M; Boggiatto, P M; Bellaire, B H; Petersen, C A

    2014-02-01

    Canine brucellosis is a reportable zoonotic disease that can lead to canine reproductive losses and human infection through contact with infected urine or other genitourinary secretions. Although many locations require testing and euthanasia of positive dogs, current diagnosis is limited by the time required for seroconversion, for example, presence of B. canis-specific antibodies. The goal of this study was to determine the diagnostic ability of Brucella canis-specific quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) assay to detect B. canis in field samples prior to serological positivity for faster diagnosis and prevention of transmission within kennels or in households. Two kennels, one of which was located in the owner's home, were sampled following observation of suggestive clinical signs and positive serology of at least one dog. Specimens obtained were comparatively analysed via serology and qPCR analysis. 107 dogs were analysed for B. canis infection via qPCR: 105 via whole-blood samples, 65 via vaginal swab, six via urine and seven via genitourinary tract tissue taken at necropsy. Forty-five dogs were found to be infected with canine brucellosis via qPCR, of which 22 (48.89%) were seropositive. A statistically significant number (P = 0.0228) of qPCR-positive dogs, 5/25 (20.00%), seroconverted within a 30-day interval after initial serologic testing. As compared to serology, qPCR analysis of DNA from vaginal swabs had a sensitivity of 92.31% and specificity of 51.92%, and qPCR analysis of DNA from whole-blood samples had a sensitivity of 16.67% and specificity of 100%. B. canis outer membrane protein 25 DNA qPCR from non-invasive vaginal swab and urine samples provided early detection of B. canis infection in dogs prior to detection of antibodies. This assay provides a critical tool to decrease zoonotic spread of canine brucellosis, its associated clinical presentation(s), and emotional and economic repercussions.

  7. Refinement of the BCL2/immunoglobulin heavy chain fusion gene in t(14;18)(q32;q21) by polymerase chain reaction amplification for long targets.

    PubMed

    Akasaka, T; Akasaka, H; Yonetani, N; Ohno, H; Yamabe, H; Fukuhara, S; Okuma, M

    1998-01-01

    The t(14;18)(q32;q21) translocation, involving the BCL2 gene and junctional segments (JH) of the immunoglobulin heavy chain gene (IGH), constitutes the most common chromosomal translocation in non-Hodgkin's lymphoma of B-cell type. Although the breakpoints in BCL2 are largely clustered within the major breakpoint region (MBR) and minor cluster region (mcr), it is known that some breakpoints map away from these regions, resulting in negative amplification of the junctional sequence by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for < 1 kb targets. To circumvent this problem, we applied a novel PCR technology for long DNA targets, long-distance (LD-) PCR, to the detection of t(14;18) in clinical materials. Oligonucleotide primers were designed to be quite distant from the two known cluster regions in BCL2, and those for the corresponding IGH were complementary to the enhancer and constant regions. In all 52 cases identified as carrying BCL2/JH fusion by conventional Southern blot analysis, LD-PCR successfully amplified fragments encompassing the junctions, which were readily identifiable on ethidium bromide-stained gel. The size of the LD-PCR products ranged from 3.9 kb to 10.7 kb in MBR/IGH fusion and 1.9 kb to 16 kb in mcr/IGH fusion. Furthermore, we established an LD-PCR protocol for > 20 kb targets, which covered the intervening region between the MBR and mcr. Restriction analysis of the LD-PCR products revealed that breakpoints in 33 cases fell within the 150 bp-MBR region, and in 3 cases were within the mcr determined previously by others. In contrast, the breakpoints of the remaining 16 cases were distributed over a large region from the MBR through mcr. Nucleotide sequence analysis of a potential cluster region revealed the presence of an Alu repeat sequence. Restriction analysis of LD-PCR products with BstEII demonstrated a predominant usage of the JH6 segment (71%) at the BCL2/JH junctions. LD-PCR using primers for the constant region genes showed that class switch

  8. Real time polymerase chain reaction to diagnose Anaplasma marginale in cattle and deer (Ozotoceros bezoarticus leucogaster) of the Brazilian Pantanal.

    PubMed

    Picoloto, Graziela; Lima, Renileide Ferreira de; Olegário, Lílian Andressa Oliveira; Carvalho, Cristiano Miranda Espínola; Lacerda, Ana Crystina Reis; Tomás, Walfrido Moraes; Borges, Paulo André Lima; Pellegrin, Aiesca Oliveira; Madruga, Cláudio Roberto

    2010-01-01

    Epizootiological study of Anaplasma marginale in regions that contain various reservoir hosts, co-existence of rickettsia pathogens, and common vectors is a complicated task. To achieve diagnosis of this rickettsia in cattle and campeiro deer of Brazilian Pantanal, a comparison was made between a real time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) with intercalating Sybr Green fluorochrome and primers based on msp5 gene of A. marginale; a conventional PCR (C-PCR); and parasitological examination using thin blood smear stained with Giemsa-MayGrunwald. Both PCRs showed good performance in the diagnosis of A. marginale in cattle, and were superior to the parasitological exam. The RT-PCR detected seven positive campeiro deer (16.3%). This rate was significantly higher compared to C-PCR, which identified one animal as positive (2.3%), and also compared to parasitological diagnosis, which did not find any positive animals. The dissociation temperature average of positive reactions in cattle (81.72 °C ± 0.20) was identical to dissociation temperature found in the cervids (81.72 °C ± 0.12), suggesting that both animal species were infected with A. marginale. We concluded that RT-PCR can be used for A. marginale diagnosis and in epizootiological studies of cattle and cervids; in spite of the small number of campeiro deer samples, the results indicated that this wildlife species has importance in the Anaplasma epizootiology in the Brazilian Pantanal.

  9. Automated Microfluidic Platform for Serial Polymerase Chain Reaction and High-Resolution Melting Analysis.

    PubMed

    Cao, Weidong; Bean, Brian; Corey, Scott; Coursey, Johnathan S; Hasson, Kenton C; Inoue, Hiroshi; Isano, Taisuke; Kanderian, Sami; Lane, Ben; Liang, Hongye; Murphy, Brian; Owen, Greg; Shinoda, Nobuhiko; Zeng, Shulin; Knight, Ivor T

    2016-06-01

    We report the development of an automated genetic analyzer for human sample testing based on microfluidic rapid polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with high-resolution melting analysis (HRMA). The integrated DNA microfluidic cartridge was used on a platform designed with a robotic pipettor system that works by sequentially picking up different test solutions from a 384-well plate, mixing them in the tips, and delivering mixed fluids to the DNA cartridge. A novel image feedback flow control system based on a Canon 5D Mark II digital camera was developed for controlling fluid movement through a complex microfluidic branching network without the use of valves. The same camera was used for measuring the high-resolution melt curve of DNA amplicons that were generated in the microfluidic chip. Owing to fast heating and cooling as well as sensitive temperature measurement in the microfluidic channels, the time frame for PCR and HRMA was dramatically reduced from hours to minutes. Preliminary testing results demonstrated that rapid serial PCR and HRMA are possible while still achieving high data quality that is suitable for human sample testing. PMID:25827436

  10. Rapid and sensitive detection of peste des petits ruminants virus by a polymerase chain reaction assay.

    PubMed

    Couacy-Hymann, E; Roger, F; Hurard, C; Guillou, J P; Libeau, G; Diallo, A

    2002-02-01

    A rapid and specific test was developed for the diagnosis of peste des petits ruminants disease. This assay is based on the rapid purification of RNA on glass beads followed by the reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). To that effect, a set of primers (NP3/NP4) was used to amplify specifically a fragment of about 350 bp in the 3' end of the RNA messenger that encodes the nucleocapsid protein of the peste des petits ruminants virus. The PCR-product was detected by UV illumination after electrophoresis on agarose gel or by hybridisation with a digoxigenin-11-dUTP labelled oligonucleotide probe after a blot transfer. In comparison with the conventional titration technique on Vero cells, this RT-PCR assay was 1000-fold more sensitive. Compared with the popular Chomczynski and Sacchi's method [Anal. Biochem. 162 (1987) 156], the purification of the RNA on the glass beads offers the advantage of being more rapid and also avoiding the use of solvents.

  11. Automated Microfluidic Platform for Serial Polymerase Chain Reaction and High-Resolution Melting Analysis.

    PubMed

    Cao, Weidong; Bean, Brian; Corey, Scott; Coursey, Johnathan S; Hasson, Kenton C; Inoue, Hiroshi; Isano, Taisuke; Kanderian, Sami; Lane, Ben; Liang, Hongye; Murphy, Brian; Owen, Greg; Shinoda, Nobuhiko; Zeng, Shulin; Knight, Ivor T

    2016-06-01

    We report the development of an automated genetic analyzer for human sample testing based on microfluidic rapid polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with high-resolution melting analysis (HRMA). The integrated DNA microfluidic cartridge was used on a platform designed with a robotic pipettor system that works by sequentially picking up different test solutions from a 384-well plate, mixing them in the tips, and delivering mixed fluids to the DNA cartridge. A novel image feedback flow control system based on a Canon 5D Mark II digital camera was developed for controlling fluid movement through a complex microfluidic branching network without the use of valves. The same camera was used for measuring the high-resolution melt curve of DNA amplicons that were generated in the microfluidic chip. Owing to fast heating and cooling as well as sensitive temperature measurement in the microfluidic channels, the time frame for PCR and HRMA was dramatically reduced from hours to minutes. Preliminary testing results demonstrated that rapid serial PCR and HRMA are possible while still achieving high data quality that is suitable for human sample testing.

  12. A quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction assay for the seagrass pathogen Labyrinthula zosterae.

    PubMed

    Bergmann, Nina; Fricke, Birgit; Schmidt, Martina C; Tams, Verena; Beining, Katrin; Schwitte, Hildegard; Boettcher, Anne A; Martin, Daniel L; Bockelmann, Anna-Christina; Reusch, Thorsten B H; Rauch, Gisep

    2011-11-01

    The protist Labyrinthula zosterae (Phylum Bigyra, sensu Tsui et al. 2009) has been identified as a causative agent of wasting disease in eelgrass (Zostera marina), of which the most intense outbreak led to the destruction of 90% of eelgrass beds in eastern North America and western Europe in the 1930s. Outbreaks still occur today, albeit at a smaller scale. Traditionally, L. zosterae has been quantified by measuring the necrotic area of Z. marina leaf tissue. This indirect method can however only lead to a very rough estimate of pathogen load. Here, we present a quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) approach to directly detect and quantify L. zosterae in eelgrass tissue. Based on the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequences of rRNA genes, species-specific primers were designed. Using our qPCR, we were able to quantify accurately and specifically L. zosterae load both from culture and eelgrass leaves using material from Europe and North America. Our detection limit was less than one L. zosterae cell. Our results demonstrate the potential of this qPCR assay to provide rapid, accurate and sensitive molecular identification and quantification of L. zosterae. In view of declining seagrass populations worldwide, this method will provide a valuable tool for seagrass ecologists and conservation projects. PMID:21777400

  13. Polymerase chain reaction analysis of aqueous humour samples in necrotising retinitis

    PubMed Central

    Tran, T H C; Rozenberg, F; Cassoux, N; Rao, N A; LeHoang, P; Bodaghi, B

    2003-01-01

    Aim: To evaluate the diagnostic value of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) performed on aqueous humour for the detection of viral DNA in patients with necrotising herpetic retinitis. Methods: The clinical features and laboratory results of 22 patients (29 eyes) presenting with necrotising herpetic retinitis between March 1999 and June 2001 were reviewed retrospectively. Aqueous humour was obtained after anterior chamber paracentesis and PCR was performed in all cases. Results: Viral DNA was detected in the aqueous humour of 19 patients (86.4%). Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) seroconversion was evidenced in one additional patient. In the acute retinal necrosis (ARN) group (n = 19), varicella zoster virus (VZV) DNA was identified in six patients, herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) DNA in two patients, herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2) DNA in four patients, and cytomegalovirus (CMV) genome in four patients. In the progressive outer retinal necrosis (PORN) group (n = 3), VZV DNA was detected in all patients. No sample was positive for more than one virus. Conclusions: PCR analysis of aqueous humour in patients with clinical features of necrotising viral retinitis can provide specific aetiological orientation and the method appears to be safe and highly sensitive. PMID:12488268

  14. Genital infection caused by Entamoeba histolytica confirmed by polymerase chain reaction analyses.

    PubMed

    Asano, Hiroshi; Kaneuchi, Masanori; Furuta, Itsuko; Yamaya, Yukie; Hatanaka, Kanako C; Takeda, Mahito; Matsuno, Yoshihiro; Sakuragi, Noriaki

    2014-05-01

    Entamoeba histolytica is estimated to infect approximately 1% of the global population. In Japan, the prevalence of amebic dysentery has been increasing, with more than 800 patients newly diagnosed annually. However, genital infection with E. histolytica is uncommon even in endemic areas. We present a case of vaginitis caused by E. histolytica. A 50-year-old Japanese woman without history of overseas travel presented to a nearby clinic with increased vaginal discharge. She had hemorrhagic erosion at the uterine cervix with yellowish vaginal discharge, and was referred to our hospital for exclusion of malignancy. Cervical cytology revealed periodic acid-Schiff-positive protozoa not aggregating around squamous cells, and thus amebic vaginitis was suspected. We performed polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analyses and identified E. histolytica. The vaginitis was treated with metronidazole, and the disappearance of amebic protozoa was confirmed by cytology and PCR. Therefore, it may be important to obtain early diagnosis by cervical cytology and PCR.

  15. Design, construction, and validation of a modular library of sequence diversity standards for polymerase chain reaction.

    PubMed

    Baum, Paul D; Young, Jennifer J; Zhang, Qianjun; Kasakow, Zeljka; McCune, Joseph M

    2011-04-01

    Methods to measure the sequence diversity of polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-amplified DNA lack standards for use as assay calibrators and controls. Here we present a general and economical method for developing customizable DNA standards of known sequence diversity. Standards ranging from 1 to 25,000 sequences were generated by directional ligation of oligonucleotide "words" of standard length and GC content and then amplified by PCR. The sequence accuracy and diversity of the library were validated using AmpliCot analysis (DNA hybridization kinetics) and Illumina sequencing. The library has the following features: (i) pools containing tens of thousands of sequences can be generated from the ligation of relatively few commercially synthesized short oligonucleotides; (ii) each sequence differs from all others in the library at a minimum of three nucleotide positions, permitting discrimination between different sequences by either sequencing or hybridization; (iii) all sequences have identical length, GC content, and melting temperature; (iv) the identity of each standard can be verified by restriction digestion; and (v) once made, the ends of the library may be cleaved and replaced with sequences to match any PCR primer pair. These standards should greatly improve the accuracy and reproducibility of sequence diversity measurements.

  16. Solar thermal polymerase chain reaction for smartphone-assisted molecular diagnostics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Li; Mancuso, Matthew; Lu, Zhengda; Akar, Gunkut; Cesarman, Ethel; Erickson, David

    2014-02-01

    Nucleic acid-based diagnostic techniques such as polymerase chain reaction (PCR) are used extensively in medical diagnostics due to their high sensitivity, specificity and quantification capability. In settings with limited infrastructure and unreliable electricity, however, access to such devices is often limited due to the highly specialized and energy-intensive nature of the thermal cycling process required for nucleic acid amplification. Here we integrate solar heating with microfluidics to eliminate thermal cycling power requirements as well as create a simple device infrastructure for PCR. Tests are completed in less than 30 min, and power consumption is reduced to 80 mW, enabling a standard 5.5 Wh iPhone battery to provide 70 h of power to this system. Additionally, we demonstrate a complete sample-to-answer diagnostic strategy by analyzing human skin biopsies infected with Kaposi's Sarcoma herpesvirus (KSHV/HHV-8) through the combination of solar thermal PCR, HotSHOT DNA extraction and smartphone-based fluorescence detection. We believe that exploiting the ubiquity of solar thermal energy as demonstrated here could facilitate broad availability of nucleic acid-based diagnostics in resource-limited areas.

  17. Detection of Coxiella burnetti by DNA amplification using polymerase chain reaction.

    PubMed Central

    Stein, A; Raoult, D

    1992-01-01

    The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used for the detection of Coxiella burnetti, an obligate intracellular bacterium and the etiologic agent of Q fever. A pair of primers derived from the C. burnetii superoxide dismutase gene served to amplify a targeted 257-bp fragment of genomic DNA. These primers were chosen on the basis of GenBank analysis, G + C ratio, and absence of secondary structure. This technique allowed the detection of as few as 10 C. burnetii organisms. C. burnetti was detected in tissue culture and in specimens from patients (heart valves). In all, 8 reference isolates and 22 new isolates of C. burnetii from France were successfully amplified. No amplification products were found when PCR was performed with 25 bacterial species that had been isolated in a clinical laboratory from patients with clinically similar infections. Amplification products of C. burnetii were confirmed by restriction enzyme digestion and dot blot hybridization. The method used here, a combination of PCR and restriction analysis, is a faster and more sensitive assay for C. burnetii than standard culture techniques. Images PMID:1401016

  18. A quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction assay for the seagrass pathogen Labyrinthula zosterae.

    PubMed

    Bergmann, Nina; Fricke, Birgit; Schmidt, Martina C; Tams, Verena; Beining, Katrin; Schwitte, Hildegard; Boettcher, Anne A; Martin, Daniel L; Bockelmann, Anna-Christina; Reusch, Thorsten B H; Rauch, Gisep

    2011-11-01

    The protist Labyrinthula zosterae (Phylum Bigyra, sensu Tsui et al. 2009) has been identified as a causative agent of wasting disease in eelgrass (Zostera marina), of which the most intense outbreak led to the destruction of 90% of eelgrass beds in eastern North America and western Europe in the 1930s. Outbreaks still occur today, albeit at a smaller scale. Traditionally, L. zosterae has been quantified by measuring the necrotic area of Z. marina leaf tissue. This indirect method can however only lead to a very rough estimate of pathogen load. Here, we present a quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) approach to directly detect and quantify L. zosterae in eelgrass tissue. Based on the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequences of rRNA genes, species-specific primers were designed. Using our qPCR, we were able to quantify accurately and specifically L. zosterae load both from culture and eelgrass leaves using material from Europe and North America. Our detection limit was less than one L. zosterae cell. Our results demonstrate the potential of this qPCR assay to provide rapid, accurate and sensitive molecular identification and quantification of L. zosterae. In view of declining seagrass populations worldwide, this method will provide a valuable tool for seagrass ecologists and conservation projects.

  19. Solar thermal polymerase chain reaction for smartphone-assisted molecular diagnostics.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Li; Mancuso, Matthew; Lu, Zhengda; Akar, Gunkut; Cesarman, Ethel; Erickson, David

    2014-02-20

    Nucleic acid-based diagnostic techniques such as polymerase chain reaction (PCR) are used extensively in medical diagnostics due to their high sensitivity, specificity and quantification capability. In settings with limited infrastructure and unreliable electricity, however, access to such devices is often limited due to the highly specialized and energy-intensive nature of the thermal cycling process required for nucleic acid amplification. Here we integrate solar heating with microfluidics to eliminate thermal cycling power requirements as well as create a simple device infrastructure for PCR. Tests are completed in less than 30 min, and power consumption is reduced to 80 mW, enabling a standard 5.5 Wh iPhone battery to provide 70 h of power to this system. Additionally, we demonstrate a complete sample-to-answer diagnostic strategy by analyzing human skin biopsies infected with Kaposi's Sarcoma herpesvirus (KSHV/HHV-8) through the combination of solar thermal PCR, HotSHOT DNA extraction and smartphone-based fluorescence detection. We believe that exploiting the ubiquity of solar thermal energy as demonstrated here could facilitate broad availability of nucleic acid-based diagnostics in resource-limited areas.

  20. Multiplex polymerase chain reaction assay developed to diagnose adult bacterial meningitis in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chi-Tsung; Hsiao, Kuang-Ming; Chen, Jin-Cherng; Su, Cheng-Chuan

    2015-11-01

    Acute bacterial meningitis causes high morbidity and mortality; the associated clinical symptoms often are insensitive or non-specific; and the pathogenic bacteria are geographically diverse. Clinical diagnosis requires a rapid and accurate methodology. This study aimed to develop a new multiplex polymerase chain reaction (mPCR) assay to detect simultaneously six major bacteria that cause adult bacterial meningitis in Taiwan: Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, and Acinetobacter baumannii. Species-specific primers for the six bacteria were developed using reference strains. The specificities of the mPCRs for these bacteria were validated, and the sensitivities were evaluated via serial dilutions. The mPCR assay specifically detected all of the six pathogens, particularly with sensitivities of 12 colony forming units (CFU)/mL, 90 CFU/mL, and 390 CFU/mL for E. coli, S. pneumoniae, and K. pneumoniae, respectively. This mPCR assay is a rapid and specific tool to detect the six major bacterial pathogens that cause acute adult meningitis in Taiwan, particularly sensitive for detecting E. coli, S. pneumoniae, and K. pneumoniae. The assay may facilitate early diagnosis and guidance for antimicrobial therapy for adult patients with this deadly disease in Taiwan. PMID:26332098

  1. Multiplex nested reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction for respiratory viruses in acute otitis media.

    PubMed

    Ishibashi, Toshio; Monobe, Hiroko; Nomura, Yuka; Shinogami, Masanobu; Yano, Jun

    2003-03-01

    Because respiratory viruses play an important role in the causation and pathogenesis of acute otitis media (AOM), determining which virus has infected a child is important with respect to vaccines and antiviral drugs. In some instances, this information might be used to prevent the occurrence of AOM. We used a rapid, economical, and sensitive diagnostic system involving a multiplex nested reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay to detect various respiratory viruses in clinical specimens of middle ear fluid (MEF) from children with AOM in our hospital. Multiplex RT-PCR was completed on 40 MEF samples from 28 infants and children less than 6 years old with AOM. Viral RNA was detected in 17 MEF samples (43%). Respiratory syncytial virus type A was present in 12 samples, adenovirus in 3, rhinovirus in 2, and influenza A (H3N2) in 1. The multiplex RT-PCR assay is recommended to clinical laboratories that are considering adoption of a molecular technique for viral diagnosis.

  2. Gene-expression analysis of single cells-nested polymerase chain reaction after laser microdissection

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Xin; Kleeff, JÖrg; Zhu, Zhao-Wen; Schmied, Bruno; Tang, Wen-Hao; Zimmermann, Arthur; BÜchler, Markus W.; Friess, Helmut

    2003-01-01

    AIM: The structural and functional characteristics of cells are dependent on the specific gene expression profile. The ability to study and compare gene expression at the cellular level will therefore provide valuable insights into cell physiology and pathophysiology. METHODS: Individual cells were isolated from frozen colon tissue sections using laser microdissection. DNA as well as RNA were extracted, and total RNA was reversely transcribed to complementary DNA (cDNA). Both DNA and cDNA were analyzed by nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The quality of isolated DNA and RNA was satisfactory. RESULTS: Single cells were successfully microdissected using an ultraviolet laser micromanipulator. Nested PCR amplification products of DNA and cDNA of single cells could clearly be visualized by agarose gel electrophoresis. CONCLUSION: The combined use of laser microdissection and nested-PCR provides an opportunity to analyze gene expression in single cells. This method allows the analysis and identification of specific genes which are involved in physiological and pathophysiological processes in a complex of variable cell phenotypes. PMID:12800252

  3. Accuracy of mucocutaneous leishmaniasis diagnosis using polymerase chain reaction: systematic literature review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Gomes, Ciro Martins; Mazin, Suleimy Cristina; dos Santos, Elisa Raphael; Cesetti, Mariana Vicente; Bächtold, Guilherme Albergaria Brízida; Cordeiro, João Henrique de Freitas; Theodoro, Fabrício Claudino Estrela Terra; Damasco, Fabiana dos Santos; Carranza, Sebastián Andrés Vernal; Santos, Adriana de Oliveira; Roselino, Ana Maria; Sampaio, Raimunda Nonata Ribeiro

    2015-01-01

    The diagnosis of mucocutaneous leishmaniasis (MCL) is hampered by the absence of a gold standard. An accurate diagnosis is essential because of the high toxicity of the medications for the disease. This study aimed to assess the ability of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to identify MCL and to compare these results with clinical research recently published by the authors. A systematic literature review based on the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses: the PRISMA Statement was performed using comprehensive search criteria and communication with the authors. A meta-analysis considering the estimates of the univariate and bivariate models was performed. Specificity near 100% was common among the papers. The primary reason for accuracy differences was sensitivity. The meta-analysis, which was only possible for PCR samples of lesion fragments, revealed a sensitivity of 71% [95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.59; 0.81] and a specificity of 93% (95% CI = 0.83; 0.98) in the bivariate model. The search for measures that could increase the sensitivity of PCR should be encouraged. The quality of the collected material and the optimisation of the amplification of genetic material should be prioritised. PMID:25946238

  4. Solar thermal polymerase chain reaction for smartphone-assisted molecular diagnostics

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Li; Mancuso, Matthew; Lu, Zhengda; Akar, Gunkut; Cesarman, Ethel; Erickson, David

    2014-01-01

    Nucleic acid-based diagnostic techniques such as polymerase chain reaction (PCR) are used extensively in medical diagnostics due to their high sensitivity, specificity and quantification capability. In settings with limited infrastructure and unreliable electricity, however, access to such devices is often limited due to the highly specialized and energy-intensive nature of the thermal cycling process required for nucleic acid amplification. Here we integrate solar heating with microfluidics to eliminate thermal cycling power requirements as well as create a simple device infrastructure for PCR. Tests are completed in less than 30 min, and power consumption is reduced to 80 mW, enabling a standard 5.5 Wh iPhone battery to provide 70 h of power to this system. Additionally, we demonstrate a complete sample-to-answer diagnostic strategy by analyzing human skin biopsies infected with Kaposi's Sarcoma herpesvirus (KSHV/HHV-8) through the combination of solar thermal PCR, HotSHOT DNA extraction and smartphone-based fluorescence detection. We believe that exploiting the ubiquity of solar thermal energy as demonstrated here could facilitate broad availability of nucleic acid-based diagnostics in resource-limited areas. PMID:24553130

  5. Detection of human immunodeficiency virus DNA and RNA in semen by the polymerase chain reaction.

    PubMed

    Mermin, J H; Holodniy, M; Katzenstein, D A; Merigan, T C

    1991-10-01

    Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) and semen of 23 men infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) were examined for the presence of HIV DNA and RNA using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and a nonisotopic detection assay. None of the men was receiving antiretroviral therapy at the time of collection. Semen samples were separated into cell-free seminal fluid, nonspermatozoal mononuclear cells (NSMC), and spermatozoa. All of the PBMC samples, 17 (74%) of 23 NSMC samples, and none of the spermatozoal samples were positive for HIV gag gene DNA. Of 23 cell-free seminal fluid samples, 15 (65%) were positive for HIV gag gene RNA by PCR. Cell-free HIV RNA was more likely to be present in the semen of men with less than 400 than in those with greater than or equal to 400 cells/mm3 (P less than .04) and was present in all patient with p24 antigen in serum. The presence of HIV DNA in NSMC samples was not related to CD4 cell count, disease status, or the presence of p24 antigen in the serum. This study shows that HIV nucleic acid can be detected by PCR in either the cell-free seminal fluid or NSMC of 87% of semen samples but not in the DNA of spermatozoa from HIV-infected men.

  6. Real-time polymerase chain reaction for the diagnosis of necrotizing herpes stromal keratitis

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Jun-Xin; Wang, Lin-Nong; Zhou, Ru-Xia; Yu, Yang; Du, Tong-Xin

    2016-01-01

    AIM To design, optimize and validate a rapid, internally controlled real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) test for herpes simplex virus (HSV) in the diagnosis of necrotizing herpes stromal keratitis. METHODS Tears alone or together with corneal epithelium scrapings from 30 patients (30 eyes) suspected of necrotizing herpes stromal keratitis were tested for HSV DNA by RT-PCR. The samples were collected during the first visit and then on the subsequent 7, 14, 28, 42, and 56d. The symptoms of the patients were scored before treatment to determine the correlation between HSV concentration in the corneal epithelium scrapings and clinical scores. RESULTS The positive rate (46.4%) in the corneal epithelium group before the therapy was significantly higher than that (13.3%) in the tears group (P=0.006). There were 13 positive HSV patients before the therapy, the concentration of HSV DNA in corneal epithelium scrapings group was significantly higher than that in the tears group (paired t-test, P=0.0397). Multilevel mixed-effects model analysis showed that the difference between the corneal epithelium scrapings group and the tears group was statistically significant (P=0.0049). The Spearman rank correlation analysis indicated a positive correlation between the HSV concentration in the corneal epithelium scrapings and clinical scores before the treatment (r=0.844, P<0.0001). CONCLUSION RT-PCR appears to be a powerful molecular tool for the diagnosis of necrotizing herpes stromal keratitis. PMID:27275421

  7. Rapid detection of genetically modified organisms on a continuous-flow polymerase chain reaction microfluidics.

    PubMed

    Li, Yuyuan; Xing, Da; Zhang, Chunsun

    2009-02-01

    The ability to perform DNA amplification on a microfluidic device is very appealing. In this study, a compact continuous-flow polymerase chain reaction (PCR) microfluidics was developed for rapid analysis of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) in genetically modified soybeans. The device consists of three pieces of copper and a transparent polytetrafluoroethylene capillary tube embedded in the spiral channel fabricated on the copper. On this device, the P35S and Tnos sequences were successfully amplified within 9min, and the limit of detection of the DNA sample was estimated to be 0.005 ng microl(-1). Furthermore, a duplex continuous-flow PCR was also reported for the detection of the P35S and Tnos sequences in GMOs simultaneously. This method was coupled with the intercalating dye SYBR Green I and the melting curve analysis of the amplified products. Using this method, temperature differences were identified by the specific melting temperature values of two sequences, and the limit of detection of the DNA sample was assessed to be 0.01 ng microl(-1). Therefore, our results demonstrated that the continuous-flow PCR assay could discriminate the GMOs in a cost-saving and less time-consuming way.

  8. Optimization of the elution buffer and concentration method for detecting hepatitis E virus in swine liver using a nested reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction.

    PubMed

    Son, Na Ry; Seo, Dong Joo; Lee, Min Hwa; Seo, Sheungwoo; Wang, Xiaoyu; Lee, Bog-Hieu; Lee, Jeong-Su; Joo, In-Sun; Hwang, In-Gyun; Choi, Changsun

    2014-09-01

    The aim of this study was to develop an optimal technique for detecting hepatitis E virus (HEV) in swine livers. Here, three elution buffers and two concentration methods were compared with respect to enhancing recovery of HEV from swine liver samples. Real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and nested RT-PCR were performed to detect HEV RNA. When phosphate-buffered saline (PBS, pH 7.4) was used to concentrate HEV in swine liver samples using ultrafiltration, real-time RT-PCR detected HEV in 6 of the 26 samples. When threonine buffer was used to concentrate HEV using polyethylene glycol (PEG) precipitation and ultrafiltration, real-time RT-PCR detected HEV in 1 and 3 of the 26 samples, respectively. When glycine buffer was used to concentrate HEV using ultrafiltration and PEG precipitation, real-time RT-PCR detected HEV in 1 and 3 samples of the 26 samples, respectively. When nested RT-PCR was used to detect HEV, all samples tested negative regardless of the type of elution buffer or concentration method used. Therefore, the combination of real-time RT-PCR and ultrafiltration with PBS buffer was the most sensitive and reliable method for detecting HEV in swine livers.

  9. Clinical utility of panfungal polymerase chain reaction for the diagnosis of invasive fungal disease: a single center experience.

    PubMed

    Trubiano, J A; Dennison, A M; Morrissey, C O; Chua, K Y; Halliday, C L; Chen, S C-A; Spelman, D

    2016-02-01

    The role of panfungal polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays for diagnosis of invasive fungal disease (IFD) is inadequately defined. We describe the use of an internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS-1) region-directed panfungal PCR in this context at a tertiary referral transplant center. A retrospective review of patients at Alfred Health, Melbourne, Australia (2009-2014) who had clinical samples referred for panfungal PCR testing was conducted. Baseline patient characteristics, antifungal drug history, fungal culture/histopathology, and radiology results were recorded. For bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid samples, identification of a fungus other than a Candida spp. was defined as a potential pathogen.Of 138 panfungal PCR tests (108 patients), 41 (30%) were positive for a fungal product. Ninety-seven percent (134/138) of specimens were from immunocompromised hosts. Thirteen percent (19/138) of panfungal PCR positive results were for potential pathogens and potential pathogens were detected more frequently in tissue as compared with BAL (12/13 vs. 6/26; P = .0001). No positive panfungal PCR results were obtained from CSF specimens. If histopathology examination was negative, panfungal PCR identified a potential pathogen in only 12% (11/94) of specimens. For the 20 culture negative/histopathology positive specimens, diagnosis of IFD to causative species level by panfungal PCR occurred in 35% (6/20).Sterile site specimens, in particular tissue, were more frequently panfungal PCR positive for potential pathogens than BAL. The utility of panfungal PCR appears greatest in tissue specimens, as an adjunct to histopathology to improve diagnostic sensitivity and specificity. Based on the results of this study we are now only testing tissue specimens by panfungal PCR.

  10. Sex determination by polymerase chain reaction on mummies discovered at Taklamakan desert in 1912.

    PubMed

    Lin, Z; Kondo, T; Minamino, T; Ohtsuji, M; Nishigami, J; Takayasu, T; Sun, R; Ohshima, T

    1995-10-30

    Sex determination was performed by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) on eight adult mummies and one child mummy which were discovered at Taklamakan desert in 1912 and now belong to the Lüshun Museum in China. Archaeologically, these mummies were humans living in the seventh century, that is, more than 1300 years ago. Putative sex determination was performed based on external morphology for six of the eight adults, but it was impossible for the other two adults and one child mummy due to marked destruction on the external morphology. Hair, muscle and skin samples were then collected from each adult mummy, and skin and rib samples from the child mummy. Forty PCR cycles were performed as follows: denaturation at 94 degrees C for 40 s, annealing at 55 degrees C for 30 s and extension at 72 degrees C for 1 min. The primer and PCR reaction mixture were prepared according to the report by Witt and Erickson (M. Witt and R. P. Erikson, A rapid method for detection of Y-chromosomal DNA from dried blood specimens by the polymerase chain reaction. Hum. Genet., 82 (1989) 271-274)). Two different pairs of primer were used. One was X1, X2 (X1: 5'-AATCATCAAATGGAGATTTG-3'; X2: 5'-GTTCAGCTCTGTGAGTGAAA-3') to flanking the 170 bp fragment of the alphoid repeats on the human X chromosome, and the other was Y11, Y22 (Y11: 5'-ATGATAGAAACGGAAATATG-3'; Y22: 5'-AGTAGAATGCAAAGGGCTC-3') to flanking the 130 bp fragment of the alphoid repeats on the human Y chromosome. Extracted DNA solutions from mummy samples was purified using a spin column (T. Yoshii, K. Tamura, T. Taniguchi, K. Akiyama and I. Ishiyama, Water-soluble eumelanin as a PCR-inhibitor and a simple method for its removal. Jpn. J. Legal Med., 47 (1993) 323-329 (in Japanese with English abstract) for removing PCR-inhibitors, and bovine serum albumin (BSA) was employed to inhibit the remaining impurities even after the purification with the column. In six adult cases where the putative sex was determined from external morphology

  11. Nested methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction cancer detection method

    DOEpatents

    Belinsky, Steven A.; Palmisano, William A.

    2007-05-08

    A molecular marker-based method for monitoring and detecting cancer in humans. Aberrant methylation of gene promoters is a marker for cancer risk in humans. A two-stage, or "nested" polymerase chain reaction method is disclosed for detecting methylated DNA sequences at sufficiently high levels of sensitivity to permit cancer screening in biological fluid samples, such as sputum, obtained non-invasively. The method is for detecting the aberrant methylation of the p16 gene, O 6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase gene, Death-associated protein kinase gene, RAS-associated family 1 gene, or other gene promoters. The method offers a potentially powerful approach to population-based screening for the detection of lung and other cancers.

  12. Detection of HLA-DRB1 microchimerism using nested polymerase chain reaction and single-strand conformation polymorphism analysis.

    PubMed

    Song, Eun Young; Chung, Hye Yoon; Joo, Shin Young; Roh, Eun Youn; Seong, Moon-Woo; Shin, Yunsu; Park, Myoung Hee

    2012-03-01

    For the detection of microchimerism, molecular methods detecting donor-specific HLA-DRB1 alleles in the recipient are most commonly used. Nested polymerase chain reaction sequence specific primer (nested PCR-SSP) methods widely used to increase the sensitivity of detection have been reported to give frequent false-positive reactions. We have developed a new method combining nested PCR with single-strand conformation polymorphism analysis (nested PCR-SSCP) and tested the 1 to 0.00001% level of microchimerism for 27 different HLA-DRB1 alleles. For most (26/27) of the HLA-DRB1 alleles tested, this method could detect 0.01 to 0.001% of microchimerism and its sensitivity was equal to or better than that of nested PCR-SSP tested in parallel. Its specificity was verified by visualizing particular DRB1-specific SSCP bands under test. Nested PCR-SSP indicated frequent false-positive reactions, mainly caused by nonspecific amplification of DRB3/B4/B5 alleles present in the major (recipient) DNAs. We have compared a real-time quantitative PCR for non-human leukocyte antigen (HLA) target (insertion/deletion marker) using a commercial kit (AlleleSEQR Chimerism assay), and its microchimerism detection sensitivity (around 0.1%) was 1 step (10 times) lower than that of nested PCR-SSP or -SSCP methods for HLA-DRB1 alleles. We validated that the newly designed nested PCR-SSCP affords good sensitivity and specificity and may be useful for studying microchimerism in clinical settings.

  13. Dual Combined Real-Time Reverse Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction Assay for the Diagnosis of Lyssavirus Infection.

    PubMed

    Dacheux, Laurent; Larrous, Florence; Lavenir, Rachel; Lepelletier, Anthony; Faouzi, Abdellah; Troupin, Cécile; Nourlil, Jalal; Buchy, Philippe; Bourhy, Herve

    2016-07-01

    The definitive diagnosis of lyssavirus infection (including rabies) in animals and humans is based on laboratory confirmation. The reference techniques for post-mortem rabies diagnosis are still based on direct immunofluorescence and virus isolation, but molecular techniques, such as polymerase chain reaction (PCR) based methods, are increasingly being used and now constitute the principal tools for diagnosing rabies in humans and for epidemiological analyses. However, it remains a key challenge to obtain relevant specificity and sensitivity with these techniques while ensuring that the genetic diversity of lyssaviruses does not compromise detection. We developed a dual combined real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (combo RT-qPCR) method for pan-lyssavirus detection. This method is based on two complementary technologies: a probe-based (TaqMan) RT-qPCR for detecting the RABV species (pan-RABV RT-qPCR) and a second reaction using an intercalating dye (SYBR Green) to detect other lyssavirus species (pan-lyssa RT-qPCR). The performance parameters of this combined assay were evaluated with a large panel of primary animal samples covering almost all the genetic variability encountered at the viral species level, and they extended to almost all lyssavirus species characterized to date. This method was also evaluated for the diagnosis of human rabies on 211 biological samples (positive n = 76 and negative n = 135) including saliva, skin and brain biopsies. It detected all 41 human cases of rabies tested and confirmed the sensitivity and the interest of skin biopsy (91.5%) and saliva (54%) samples for intra-vitam diagnosis of human rabies. Finally, this method was successfully implemented in two rabies reference laboratories in enzootic countries (Cambodia and Morocco). This combined RT-qPCR method constitutes a relevant, useful, validated tool for the diagnosis of rabies in both humans and animals, and represents a promising tool for lyssavirus

  14. Dual Combined Real-Time Reverse Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction Assay for the Diagnosis of Lyssavirus Infection.

    PubMed

    Dacheux, Laurent; Larrous, Florence; Lavenir, Rachel; Lepelletier, Anthony; Faouzi, Abdellah; Troupin, Cécile; Nourlil, Jalal; Buchy, Philippe; Bourhy, Herve

    2016-07-01

    The definitive diagnosis of lyssavirus infection (including rabies) in animals and humans is based on laboratory confirmation. The reference techniques for post-mortem rabies diagnosis are still based on direct immunofluorescence and virus isolation, but molecular techniques, such as polymerase chain reaction (PCR) based methods, are increasingly being used and now constitute the principal tools for diagnosing rabies in humans and for epidemiological analyses. However, it remains a key challenge to obtain relevant specificity and sensitivity with these techniques while ensuring that the genetic diversity of lyssaviruses does not compromise detection. We developed a dual combined real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (combo RT-qPCR) method for pan-lyssavirus detection. This method is based on two complementary technologies: a probe-based (TaqMan) RT-qPCR for detecting the RABV species (pan-RABV RT-qPCR) and a second reaction using an intercalating dye (SYBR Green) to detect other lyssavirus species (pan-lyssa RT-qPCR). The performance parameters of this combined assay were evaluated with a large panel of primary animal samples covering almost all the genetic variability encountered at the viral species level, and they extended to almost all lyssavirus species characterized to date. This method was also evaluated for the diagnosis of human rabies on 211 biological samples (positive n = 76 and negative n = 135) including saliva, skin and brain biopsies. It detected all 41 human cases of rabies tested and confirmed the sensitivity and the interest of skin biopsy (91.5%) and saliva (54%) samples for intra-vitam diagnosis of human rabies. Finally, this method was successfully implemented in two rabies reference laboratories in enzootic countries (Cambodia and Morocco). This combined RT-qPCR method constitutes a relevant, useful, validated tool for the diagnosis of rabies in both humans and animals, and represents a promising tool for lyssavirus

  15. Dual Combined Real-Time Reverse Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction Assay for the Diagnosis of Lyssavirus Infection

    PubMed Central

    Lavenir, Rachel; Lepelletier, Anthony; Faouzi, Abdellah; Troupin, Cécile; Nourlil, Jalal; Buchy, Philippe; Bourhy, Herve

    2016-01-01

    The definitive diagnosis of lyssavirus infection (including rabies) in animals and humans is based on laboratory confirmation. The reference techniques for post-mortem rabies diagnosis are still based on direct immunofluorescence and virus isolation, but molecular techniques, such as polymerase chain reaction (PCR) based methods, are increasingly being used and now constitute the principal tools for diagnosing rabies in humans and for epidemiological analyses. However, it remains a key challenge to obtain relevant specificity and sensitivity with these techniques while ensuring that the genetic diversity of lyssaviruses does not compromise detection. We developed a dual combined real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (combo RT-qPCR) method for pan-lyssavirus detection. This method is based on two complementary technologies: a probe-based (TaqMan) RT-qPCR for detecting the RABV species (pan-RABV RT-qPCR) and a second reaction using an intercalating dye (SYBR Green) to detect other lyssavirus species (pan-lyssa RT-qPCR). The performance parameters of this combined assay were evaluated with a large panel of primary animal samples covering almost all the genetic variability encountered at the viral species level, and they extended to almost all lyssavirus species characterized to date. This method was also evaluated for the diagnosis of human rabies on 211 biological samples (positive n = 76 and negative n = 135) including saliva, skin and brain biopsies. It detected all 41 human cases of rabies tested and confirmed the sensitivity and the interest of skin biopsy (91.5%) and saliva (54%) samples for intra-vitam diagnosis of human rabies. Finally, this method was successfully implemented in two rabies reference laboratories in enzootic countries (Cambodia and Morocco). This combined RT-qPCR method constitutes a relevant, useful, validated tool for the diagnosis of rabies in both humans and animals, and represents a promising tool for lyssavirus

  16. A simple procedure eliminating multiple optimization steps required in developing multiplex PCR reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Grondin, V.; Roskey, M.; Klinger, K.; Shuber, T.

    1994-09-01

    The PCR technique is one of the most powerful tools in modern molecular genetics and has achieved widespread use in the analysis of genetic diseases. Typically, a region of interest is amplified from genomic DNA or cDNA and examined by various methods of analysis for mutations or polymorphisms. In cases of small genes and transcripts, amplification of single, small regions of DNA are sufficient for analysis. However, when analyzing large genes and transcripts, multiple PCRs may be required to identify the specific mutation or polymorphism of interest. Ever since it has been shown that PCR could simultaneously amplify multiple loci in the human dystrophin gene, multiplex PCR has been established as a general technique. The properities of multiplex PCR make it a useful tool and preferable to simultaneous uniplex PCR in many instances. However, the steps for developing a multiplex PCR can be laborious, with significant difficulty in achieving equimolar amounts of several different amplicons. We have developed a simple method of primer design that has enabled us to eliminate a number of the standard optimization steps required in developing a multiplex PCR. Sequence-specific oligonucleotide pairs were synthesized for the simultaneous amplification of multiple exons within the CFTR gene. A common non-complementary 20 nucleotide sequence was attached to each primer, thus creating a mixture of primer pairs all containing a universal primer sequence. Multiplex PCR reactions were carried out containing target DNA, a mixture of several chimeric primer pairs and primers complementary to only the universal portion of the chimeric primers. Following optimization of conditions for the universal primer, limited optimization was needed for successful multiplex PCR. In contrast, significant optimization of the PCR conditions were needed when pairs of sequence specific primers were used together without the universal sequence.

  17. The genotyping of infectious bronchitis virus in Taiwan by a multiplex amplification refractory mutation system reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction.

    PubMed

    Huang, Shr-Wei; Ho, Chia-Fang; Chan, Kun-Wei; Cheng, Min-Chung; Shien, Jui-Hung; Liu, Hung-Jen; Wang, Chi-Young

    2014-11-01

    Infectious bronchitis virus (IBV; Avian coronavirus) causes acute respiratory and reproductive and urogenital diseases in chickens. Following sequence alignment of IBV strains, a combination of selective primer sets was designed to individually amplify the IBV wild-type and vaccine strains using a multiplex amplification refractory mutation system reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (ARMS RT-PCR) approach. This system was shown to discriminate the IBV wild-type and vaccine strains. Moreover, an ARMS real-time RT-PCR (ARMS qRT-PCR) was combined with a high-resolution analysis (HRMA) to establish a melt curve analysis program. The specificity of the ARMS RT-PCR and the ARMS qRT-PCR was verified using unrelated avian viruses. Different melting temperatures and distinct normalized and shifted melting curve patterns for the IBV Mass, IBV H120, IBV TW-I, and IBV TW-II strains were detected. The new assays were used on samples of lung and trachea as well as virus from allantoic fluid and cell culture. In addition to being able to detect the presence of IBV vaccine and wild-type strains by ARMS RT-PCR, the IBV Mass, IBV H120, IBV TW-I, and IBV TW-II strains were distinguished using ARMS qRT-PCR by their melting temperatures and by HRMA. These approaches have acceptable sensitivities and specificities and therefore should be able to serve as options when carrying out differential diagnosis of IBV in Taiwan and China.

  18. Detection and Enumeration of Streptococcus agalactiae from Bovine Milk Samples by Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction.

    PubMed

    de Carvalho, Nara Ladeira; Gonçalves, Juliano Leonel; Botaro, Bruno Garcia; Silva, Luis Felipe de Prada E; dos Santos, Marcos Veiga

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) combined with DNA extraction directly from composite milk and bulk tank samples for detection and enumeration of Streptococcus agalactiae (SAG) causing subclinical mastitis. Dilutions of sterile reconstituted skim milk inoculated with SAG ATCC 13813 were used to establish a standard curve (cfu/mL) for the qPCR assay targeting SAG. The analytical sensitivity and repeatability of the qPCR assay were determined. Bulk tank (BTM; n = 38) and composite milk samples (CM; n = 26) collected from lactating cows with positive isolation of SAG were submitted to the qPCR protocol and SAG plate counting, with results from both methods compared. Amplification of DNA was not possible in two out of 64 samples, indicating that qPCR was able to detect SAG in 96 and 97% of BTM and CM samples, respectively. The inter-assay coefficient of variation was <5%, showing that the technique had adequate repeatability. The qPCR protocol can be a high-throughput and rapid diagnostic assay to accurately detect SAG from BTM and CM samples compared with conventional microbiological culture method. However, the evaluated qPCR protocol is not accurate for enumerating SAG in milk samples, probably due to quantification of DNA of non-viable cells.

  19. Detection of Haemophilus influenzae in respiratory secretions from pneumonia patients by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction.

    PubMed

    Abdeldaim, Guma M K; Strålin, Kristoffer; Kirsebom, Leif A; Olcén, Per; Blomberg, Jonas; Herrmann, Björn

    2009-08-01

    A quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) based on the omp P6 gene was developed to detect Haemophilus influenzae. Its specificity was determined by analysis of 29 strains of 11 different Haemophilus spp. and was compared with PCR assays having other target genes: rnpB, 16S rRNA, and bexA. The method was evaluated on nasopharyngeal aspirates from 166 adult patients with community-acquired pneumonia. When 10(4) DNA copies/mL was used as cutoff limit for the method, P6 PCR had a sensitivity of 97.5% and a specificity of 96.0% compared with the culture. Of 20 culture-negative but P6 PCR-positive cases, 18 were confirmed by fucK PCR as H. influenzae. Five (5.9%) of 84 nasopharyngeal aspirates from adult controls tested PCR positive. We conclude that the P6 real-time PCR is both sensitive and specific for identification of H. influenzae in respiratory secretions. Quantification facilitates discrimination between disease-causing H. influenzae strains and commensal colonization. PMID:19446978

  20. A multiplex reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction assay for Newcastle disease virus and avian pneumovirus (Colorado strain).

    PubMed

    Ali, A; Reynolds, D L

    2000-01-01

    Newcastle disease virus (NDV) and avian pneumovirus (APV) cause Newcastle disease and rhinotracheitis respectively, in turkeys. Both of these viruses infect the respiratory system. A one-tube, multiplex, reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay for the detection of both NDV and Colorado strain of APV (APV-Col) was developed and evaluated. The primers, specific for each virus, were designed from the matrix protein gene of APV-Col and the fusion protein gene of NDV to amplify products of 631 and 309 nucleotides, respectively. The multiplex RT-PCR assay, for detecting both viruses simultaneously, was compared with the single-virus RT-PCR assays for its sensitivity and specificity. The specific primers amplified products of predicted size from each virus in the multiplex as well as the single-virus RT-PCR assays. The multiplex RT-PCR assay was determined to be equivalent to the single-virus RT-PCR assays for detecting both NDV and APV-Col. This multiplex RT-PCR assay proved to be a sensitive method for the simultaneous and rapid detection of NDV and APV-Col. This assay has the potential for clinical diagnostic applications.

  1. Rapid discrimination of rabies viruses isolated from various host species in Brazil by multiplex reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction.

    PubMed

    Sato, Go; Tanabe, Hitomi; Shoji, Youko; Itou, Takuya; Ito, Fumio H; Sato, Tetsuo; Sakai, Takeo

    2005-08-01

    Rabies is carried mainly by mammalian carnivores and vampire bats in Latin America. However, rabies virus (RV) has been isolated in recent years from not only vampire bats in rural areas but also from several non-vampire bat species in urban areas, respectively. Therefore, rapid molecular screening is necessary for efficient epidemiology of these RVs. In this study, we investigated the usefulness of multiplex reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) for determining the origins of 54 RV isolates from various host species in Brazil. And to evaluate the multiplex RT-PCR as a potential diagnostic tool, we investigated the sensitivity of this method. In addition, we compared the results with a phylogenetic tree developed from sequences of the RV glycoprotein (G protein) gene. Multiplex RT-PCR products showed five different sizes of products, whereas the phylogenic tree showed six groups. Of these six groups, four corresponded with the four sizes of the multiplex RT-PCR products. The other two groups showed correspondance with another one size of the multiplex RT-PCR products, indicating that multiplex RT-PCR results reflected the lineage of the 54 isolates. This study also showed that this method can detect trace amounts of RNA. In conclusion, this multiplex RT-PCR method allows the rapid, specific, and simultaneous detection of RVs isolated from various host species in Brazil. PMID:16036175

  2. Detection and Enumeration of Streptococcus agalactiae from Bovine Milk Samples by Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction.

    PubMed

    de Carvalho, Nara Ladeira; Gonçalves, Juliano Leonel; Botaro, Bruno Garcia; Silva, Luis Felipe de Prada E; dos Santos, Marcos Veiga

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) combined with DNA extraction directly from composite milk and bulk tank samples for detection and enumeration of Streptococcus agalactiae (SAG) causing subclinical mastitis. Dilutions of sterile reconstituted skim milk inoculated with SAG ATCC 13813 were used to establish a standard curve (cfu/mL) for the qPCR assay targeting SAG. The analytical sensitivity and repeatability of the qPCR assay were determined. Bulk tank (BTM; n = 38) and composite milk samples (CM; n = 26) collected from lactating cows with positive isolation of SAG were submitted to the qPCR protocol and SAG plate counting, with results from both methods compared. Amplification of DNA was not possible in two out of 64 samples, indicating that qPCR was able to detect SAG in 96 and 97% of BTM and CM samples, respectively. The inter-assay coefficient of variation was <5%, showing that the technique had adequate repeatability. The qPCR protocol can be a high-throughput and rapid diagnostic assay to accurately detect SAG from BTM and CM samples compared with conventional microbiological culture method. However, the evaluated qPCR protocol is not accurate for enumerating SAG in milk samples, probably due to quantification of DNA of non-viable cells. PMID:26134534

  3. PCR thermocycler

    DOEpatents

    Benett, William J.; Richards, James B.

    2005-05-17

    A sleeve-type silicon polymerase chain reaction (PCR) chamber or thermocycler having improved thermal performance. The silicon sleeve reaction chamber is improved in thermal performance by etched features therein that reduce thermal mass and increase the surface area of the sleeve for cooling. This improved thermal performance of the thermocycler enables an increase in speed and efficiency of the reaction chamber. The improvement is accomplished by providing grooves in the faces of the sleeve and a series of grooves on the interior surfaces that connect with grooves on the faces of the sleeve. The grooves can be anisotropically etched in the silicon sleeve simultaneously with formation of the chamber.

  4. PCR thermocycler

    DOEpatents

    Benett, William J.; Richards, James B.

    2003-01-01

    A sleeve-type silicon polymerase chain reaction (PCR) chamber or thermocycler having improved thermal performance. The silicon sleeve reaction chamber is improved in thermal performance by etched features therein that reduce thermal mass and increase the surface area of the sleeve for cooling. This improved thermal performance of the thermocycler enables an increase in speed and efficiency of the reaction chamber. The improvement is accomplished by providing grooves in the faces of the sleeve and a series of grooves on the interior surfaces that connect with grooves on the faces of the sleeve. The grooves can be anisotropically etched in the silicon sleeve simultaneously with formation of the chamber.

  5. Real-time polymerase chain reaction for diagnosing infectious mononucleosis in pediatric patients: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Sha-Yi; Yang, Jing-Wei; Shao, Jing-Bo; Liao, Xue-Lian; Lu, Zheng-Hua; Jiang, Hui

    2016-05-01

    In this meta-analysis, we evaluated the diagnostic role of Epstein-Barr virus deoxyribonucleic acid detection and quantitation in the serum of pediatric and young adult patients with infectious mononucleosis. The primary outcome of this meta-analysis was the sensitivity and specificity of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) detection and quantitation using polymerase chain reaction (PCR). A systematic review and meta-analysis was performed by searching for articles that were published through September 24, 2014 in the following databases: Medline, Cochrane, EMBASE, and Google Scholar. The following keywords were used for the search: "Epstein-Barr virus," "infectious mononucleosis," "children/young adults/infant/pediatric," and "polymerase chain reaction or PCR." Three were included in this analysis. We found that for detection by PCR, the pooled sensitivity for detecting EBV DNA was 77% (95%CI, 66-86%) and the pooled specificity for was 98% (95%CI, 93-100%). Our findings indicate that this PCR-based assay has high specificity and good sensitivity for detecting of EBV DNA, indicating it may useful for identifying patients with infectious mononucleosis. This assay may also be helpful to identify young athletic patients or highly physically active pediatric patients who are at risk for a splenic rupture due to acute infectious mononucleosis.

  6. Utility of a single nasal polymerase chain reaction assay in predicting absence of skin and environmental contamination in hospitalized patients with past methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    Guerrero, Dubert M; Wagner, Matthew; Carson, Grace; Hanish, Christine; Thompson, Jody; Orr, Megan; Roth, Felix; Carson, Paul J

    2016-06-01

    We evaluated hospitalized patients with a history of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) for persistent colonization and need for contact precautions. Up to 3 daily cultures of nares, skin, and any present wounds were compared with a single nasal polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay. Most patients (76.2%) were no longer colonized with MRSA. A single PCR assay was sufficient to exclude persistent colonization and environmental contamination and remove the contact precautions.

  7. Prenatal diagnosis of alpha-thalassemia by polymerase chain reaction and dual restriction enzyme analysis.

    PubMed

    Lebo, R V; Saiki, R K; Swanson, K; Montano, M A; Erlich, H A; Golbus, M S

    1990-08-01

    Asian couples at risk for a fetus with homozygous alpha-thalassemia (hydrops fetalis) are often identified by their low erythrocyte mean corpuscular volume (MCV) and normal hemoglobin electrophoresis when little time remains to test their genotypes by restriction enzyme analysis. DNA analysis is performed directly on chorionic villi or amniocytes remaining after an aliquot is used to establish a backup cell culture. The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) protocol quickly determines whether the fetus has hydrops fetalis without waiting for cultured cells to grow. Previously, growing cultured fetal cells to obtain more fetal material to establish unambiguously the fetal genotype with two independent restriction enzyme digests absorbed a significant portion of the time remaining to complete prenatal diagnosis. A dual restriction enzyme digestion protocol was development using a 3' zeta-globin probe to clearly distinguish the most common alpha-thalassemia deletions that represent nearly all the alpha-thalassemia haplotypes in Southeast Asia.

  8. Single Quantum Dot Analysis Enables Multiplexed Point Mutation Detection by Gap Ligase Chain Reaction

    PubMed Central

    Song, Yunke; Zhang, Yi; Wang, Tza-Huei

    2014-01-01

    Gene point mutations present important biomarkers for genetic diseases. However, existing point mutation detection methods suffer from low sensitivity, specificity, and tedious assay processes. In this report, we propose an assay technology which combines the outstanding specificity of gap ligase chain reaction (Gap-LCR), the high sensitivity of single molecule coincidence detection and superior optical properties of quantum dots (QDs) for multiplexed detection of point mutations in genomic DNA. Mutant-specific ligation products are generated by Gap-LCR and subsequently captured by QDs to form DNA-QD nanocomplexes that are detected by single molecule spectroscopy (SMS) through multi-color fluorescence burst coincidence analysis, allowing for multiplexed mutation detection in a separation-free format. The proposed assay is capable of detecting zeptomoles of KRAS codon 12 mutation variants with near 100% specificity. Its high sensitivity allows direct detection of KRAS mutation in crude genomic DNA without PCR pre-amplification. PMID:23239594

  9. Diagnostic challenges of tuberculous lymphadenitis using polymerase chain reaction analysis: a case study.

    PubMed

    Taniguchi, Hirokazu; Nakamura, Masahiko; Shimokawa, Kazuki; Kamiseki, Fumi; Ishizawa, Shin; Abo, Hitoshi; Furuse, Hideaki; Tsuda, Takeshi; Masaki, Yasuaki; Suzuki, Kensuke

    2015-01-01

    This report presents a case of tuberculous lymphadenitis that was difficult to diagnose using polymerase chain reaction analysis. An 80-year-old Japanese female was hospitalized due to swollen cervical lymph nodes. Her lymph node tests revealed paradoxical polymerase chain reaction results. Polymerase chain reaction analysis of two biopsy tissues using the Cobas TaqMan revealed a positive result for Mycobacterium avium and a negative result for Mycobacterium tuberculosis. However, polymerase chain reaction analysis of a cultured colony of acid-fast bacteria from biopsy tissue using the Cobas TaqMan and an alternative polymerase chain reaction analysis of biopsy tissue yielded discordant results. The patient was diagnosed as having tuberculous lymphadenitis. She was treated with antitubercular drugs and subsequently had a reduction in cervical lymph node swelling. Polymerase chain reaction analysis is not 100% accurate; hence, its use as a diagnostic tool for mycobacterial infection requires increased attention.

  10. Detection of Xanthomonas campestris pv. citri by the polymerase chain reaction method.

    PubMed Central

    Hartung, J S; Daniel, J F; Pruvost, O P

    1993-01-01

    pFL1 is a pUC9 derivative that contains a 572-bp EcoRI insert cloned from plasmid DNA of Xanthomonas campestris pv. citri XC62. The nucleotide sequence of pFL1 was determined, and the sequence information was used to design primers for application of the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to the detection of X. campestris pv. citri, the causal agent of citrus bacterial canker disease. Seven 18-bp oligonucleotide primers were designed and tested with DNA from X. campestris pv. citri strains and other strains of X. campestris associated with Citrus spp. as templates in the PCR. Four primer pairs directed the amplification of target DNA from X. campestris pv. citri strains but not from strains of X. campestris associated with a different disease, citrus bacterial spot. Primer pair 2-3 directed the specific amplification of target DNA from pathotype A but not other pathotypes of X. campestris pv. citri. A pH 9.0 buffer that contained 1% Triton X-100 and 0.1% gelatin was absolutely required for the successful amplification of the target DNA, which was 61% G+C. Limits of detection after amplification and gel electrophoresis were 25 pg of purified target DNA and about 10 cells when Southern blots were made after gel electrophoresis and probed with biotinylated pFL1. This level of detection represents an increase in sensitivity of about 100-fold over that of dot blotting with the same hybridization probe. PCR products of the expected sizes were amplified from DNA extracted from 7-month-old lesions from which viable bacteria could not be isolated. These products were confirmed to be specific for X. campestris pv. citri by Southern blotting. This PCR-based detection protocol will be a useful addition to current methods of detection of this pathogen, which is currently the target of international quarantine measures. Images PMID:8476288

  11. National Malaria Prevalence in Cambodia: Microscopy Versus Polymerase Chain Reaction Estimates.

    PubMed

    Lek, Dysoley; Popovici, Jean; Ariey, Frederic; Vinjamuri, Seshu Babu; Meek, Sylvia; Bruce, Jan; Taylor, Walter R J; Socheat, Duong; Menard, Didier; Rogers, William O

    2016-09-01

    Accurate information regarding malaria prevalence at national level is required to design and assess malaria control/elimination efforts. Although many comparisons of microscopy and polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based methods have been conducted, there is little published literature covering such comparisons in southeast Asia especially at the national level. Both microscopic examination and PCR detection were performed on blood films and dried blood spots samples collected from 8,067 individuals enrolled in a nationwide, stratified, multistage, cluster sampling malaria prevalence survey conducted in Cambodia in 2007. The overall malaria prevalence and prevalence rates of Plasmodium falciparum, Plasmodium vivax, and Plasmodium malariae infections estimated by microscopy (N = 8,067) were 2.74% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.39-3.12%), 1.81% (95% CI: 1.53-2.13%), 1.14% (95% CI: 0.92-1.40%), and 0.01% (95% CI: 0.003-0.07%), respectively. The overall malaria prevalence based on PCR detection (N = 7,718) was almost 2.5-fold higher (6.31%, 95% CI: 5.76-6.89%, P < 0.00001). This difference was significantly more pronounced for P. falciparum (4.40%, 95% CI: 3.95-4.90%, P < 0.00001) compared with P. vivax (1.89%, 95% CI: 1.60-2.22%, P < 0.001) and P. malariae infections (0.22%, 95% CI: 0.13-0.35%, P < 0.0001). The significant proportion of microscopy-negative but PCR-positive individuals (289/7,491, 3.85%) suggest microscopic examination frequently underestimated malaria infections and that active case detection based on microscopy may miss a significant reservoir of infection, especially in low-transmission settings. PMID:27402511

  12. Detection of Listeria monocytogenes in ready-to-eat food by Step One real-time polymerase chain reaction.

    PubMed

    Pochop, Jaroslav; Kačániová, Miroslava; Hleba, Lukáš; Lopasovský, L'ubomír; Bobková, Alica; Zeleňáková, Lucia; Stričík, Michal

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to follow contamination of ready-to-eat food with Listeria monocytogenes by using the Step One real time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). We used the PrepSEQ Rapid Spin Sample Preparation Kit for isolation of DNA and MicroSEQ® Listeria monocytogenes Detection Kit for the real-time PCR performance. In 30 samples of ready-to-eat milk and meat products without incubation we detected strains of Listeria monocytogenes in five samples (swabs). Internal positive control (IPC) was positive in all samples. Our results indicated that the real-time PCR assay developed in this study could sensitively detect Listeria monocytogenes in ready-to-eat food without incubation.

  13. A rapid, efficient, and economical inverse polymerase chain reaction-based method for generating a site saturation mutant library.

    PubMed

    Jain, Pankaj C; Varadarajan, Raghavan

    2014-03-15

    With the development of deep sequencing methodologies, it has become important to construct site saturation mutant (SSM) libraries in which every nucleotide/codon in a gene is individually randomized. We describe methodologies for the rapid, efficient, and economical construction of such libraries using inverse polymerase chain reaction (PCR). We show that if the degenerate codon is in the middle of the mutagenic primer, there is an inherent PCR bias due to the thermodynamic mismatch penalty, which decreases the proportion of unique mutants. Introducing a nucleotide bias in the primer can alleviate the problem. Alternatively, if the degenerate codon is placed at the 5' end, there is no PCR bias, which results in a higher proportion of unique mutants. This also facilitates detection of deletion mutants resulting from errors during primer synthesis. This method can be used to rapidly generate SSM libraries for any gene or nucleotide sequence, which can subsequently be screened and analyzed by deep sequencing.

  14. Absence of measles viral genomic sequence in intestinal tissues from Crohn's disease by nested polymerase chain reaction.

    PubMed Central

    Haga, Y; Funakoshi, O; Kuroe, K; Kanazawa, K; Nakajima, H; Saito, H; Murata, Y; Munakata, A; Yoshida, Y

    1996-01-01

    The aetiology of Crohn's disease remains unknown, although evidence for a viral cause has long been sought. Recent studies have shown inflammation of the submucosal microvascular endothelium and granulomata, and endothelial cell cytoplasmic inclusions, consistent with paramyxovirus, were identified by electron microscopy suggesting a persistent measles virus infection in Crohn's disease. Measles, mumps, and rubella viruses were tested for Crohn's disease by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). RNA was extracted from resected intestinal specimens from 15 patients with Crohn's disease, 14 with ulcerative colitis, and 14 controls without inflammatory bowel disease. This was used to perform nested PCR after reverse transcription (RT) of the RNA to cDNA with primer pairs directed against two regions in the genome of the measles virus and one region in the mumps and rubella viral genomes. Despite enhanced sensitivity of nested RT-PCR, measles, mumps, and rubella viral genomic sequences were not found in any intestinal specimen. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:8801199

  15. Simultaneous detection of seven sexually transmitted agents in human immunodeficiency virus-infected Brazilian women by multiplex polymerase chain reaction.

    PubMed

    Souza, Raquel P; de Abreu, André L P; Ferreira, Érika C; Rocha-Brischiliari, Sheila C; de B Carvalho, Maria D; Pelloso, Sandra M; Bonini, Marcelo G; Gimenes, Fabrícia; Consolaro, Marcia E L

    2013-12-01

    We determined the prevalence of seven clinically important pathogens that cause sexually transmitted infections (STIs) (Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Mycoplasma genitalium, Trichomonas vaginalis, herpes simplex virus 1 [HSV-1], HSV-2, and Treponema pallidum), by using a multiplex polymerase chain reaction (M-PCR) in samples from Brazilian woman infected with human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1) and uninfected Brazilian women (controls). The M-PCR assay identified all STIs tested for and surprisingly, occurred association between the control and STIs. This association was probably caused by excellent HIV infection control and regular monitoring in these women established by public health strategies in Brazil to combat HIV/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Studies using this M-PCR in different populations may help to better elucidate the roles of STIs in several conditions.

  16. Simultaneous detection of seven sexually transmitted agents in human immunodeficiency virus-infected Brazilian women by multiplex polymerase chain reaction.

    PubMed

    Souza, Raquel P; de Abreu, André L P; Ferreira, Érika C; Rocha-Brischiliari, Sheila C; de B Carvalho, Maria D; Pelloso, Sandra M; Bonini, Marcelo G; Gimenes, Fabrícia; Consolaro, Marcia E L

    2013-12-01

    We determined the prevalence of seven clinically important pathogens that cause sexually transmitted infections (STIs) (Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Mycoplasma genitalium, Trichomonas vaginalis, herpes simplex virus 1 [HSV-1], HSV-2, and Treponema pallidum), by using a multiplex polymerase chain reaction (M-PCR) in samples from Brazilian woman infected with human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1) and uninfected Brazilian women (controls). The M-PCR assay identified all STIs tested for and surprisingly, occurred association between the control and STIs. This association was probably caused by excellent HIV infection control and regular monitoring in these women established by public health strategies in Brazil to combat HIV/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Studies using this M-PCR in different populations may help to better elucidate the roles of STIs in several conditions. PMID:24080632

  17. Comparison of automated BAX polymerase chain reaction and standard culture methods for detection of Listeria monocyogenes in blue crab meat (Callinectus sapidus) and blue crab processing plants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study compared the BAX Polymerase Chain Reaction method (BAX PCR) with the Standard Culture Method (SCM) for detection of L. monocytogenes in blue crab meat and crab processing plants. The aim of this study was to address this data gap. Raw crabs, finished products and environmental sponge samp...

  18. Use of polymerase chain reaction in detection of Marek’s disease and reticuloendotheliosis viruses in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tumorous tissues

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A simple polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method was developed for the diagnosis of Marek’s disease (MD) and reticuloendotheliosis (RE) in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissues; and for the diagnosis of MD in tissues only preserved in 10% neutral buffered formalin. MD virus (MDV) and RE vi...

  19. Detection of Newcastle disease virus RNA by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction using formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue and comparison with immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The usefulness of reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) from formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissues was examined and compared to the immunohistochemistry (IHC) and in situ hybridization (ISH) assays for detection of Newcastle disease virus (NDV). Spleen and lung tissues...

  20. Effect of surface charge of PDDA-protected gold nanoparticles on the specificity and efficiency of DNA polymerase chain reaction.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Longfei; He, Yujian

    2013-01-21

    The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) has become an indispensable technique in molecular biology, however, it suffers from low efficiency and specificity problems. Developing suitable additives to effectively avoid nonspecific PCR reactions and explore the mechanism for PCR enhancing is a significant challenge. In this paper, we report three different modified gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) with different surface charge polarities and poly (diallyl dimethylammonium) chloride (PDDA) for use as novel PCR enhancers to improve the efficiency and specificity. These AuNPs included the positively charged PDDA protected AuNPs (PDDA-AuNPs), the neutral PDDA-AuNPs modified with excess chloride ion (PDDA.C-AuNPs), and the negatively charged sodium citrate (Na(3)Ct) protected AuNPs (Na(3)Ct-AuNPs). Our data clearly suggests that the positively charged PDDA-AuNPs with an optimum concentration as low as 1.54 pM could significantly enhance the specificity and efficiency of PCR, however, the optimum concentration of the negatively charged Na(3)Ct-AuNPs (2.02 nM) was more than 3 orders of magnitude higher than that of positively charged PDDA-AuNPs. The PCR specificity and efficiency are also improved by the neutral PDDA.C-AuNPs with an optimum concentration, much more than that of the PDDA-AuNPs. This suggests that there should be an electrostatic interaction between the positively charged PDDA-AuNPs and the negatively charged PCR components, and the surface charge polarities of PDDA-AuNPs may play an important role in improving the PCR specificity and efficiency. PMID:23170311

  1. Sensitivity of polymerase chain reaction for detection of bovine viral diarrhea virus in pooled serum samples and use of pooled polymerase chain reaction to determine prevalence of bovine viral diarrhea virus in auction market cattle.

    PubMed

    Smith, Rebecca L; Sanderson, Michael W; Walz, Paul H; Givens, M Daniel

    2008-01-01

    Two reverse transcription-nested polymerase chain reaction tests, 1 quantitative (qRT-nPCR) and 1 standard (RT-nPCR), were evaluated to assess sensitivity for detection of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) of a single positive serum sample in a pool of 30. The RT-nPCR and qRT-nPCR each detected 95 of 100 known positives. The RT-nPCR was used to estimate the prevalence of BVDV in adult beef cows. Serum samples were obtained from the US Department of Agriculture brucellosis testing laboratories in 3 Midwestern states. Samples originated from auction markets and private treaty sales throughout the 3 states. A total of 2,990 serum samples were collected and randomly pooled into 100 pools for testing. Two of the 100 pools of field samples were positive, and each positive pool had a single positive individual sample upon confirmation. The estimate of BVDV prevalence in adult cows in this study was 0.07%. This study estimates the diagnostic sensitivity of RT-nPCR for BVDV and confirms that it is a useful diagnostic tool for pools of 30 serum samples and that prevalence of BVDV in adult cattle from auction markets is low.

  2. Simultaneous quantification of alternatively spliced transcripts in a single droplet digital PCR reaction.

    PubMed

    Sun, Bing; Tao, Lian; Zheng, Yun-Ling

    2014-06-01

    Human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) is an essential component required for telomerase activity and telomere maintenance. Several alternatively spliced forms of hTERT mRNA have been reported in human primary and tumor cells. Currently, however, there is no sensitive and accurate method for the simultaneous quantification of multiple alternatively spliced RNA transcripts, such as in the case of hTERT. Here we show droplet digital PCR (ddPCR) provides sensitive, simultaneous digital quantification in a single reaction of two alternatively spliced single deletion hTERT transcripts (α-/β+ and α+/β-) as well as the opportunity to manually quantify non-deletion (α+/β+) and double deletion (α-/β-) transcripts. Our ddPCR method enables direct comparison among four alternatively spliced mRNAs without the need for internal standards or multiple primer pairs specific for each variant as real-time PCR (qPCR) requires, thus eliminating potential variation due to differences in PCR amplification efficiency.

  3. Development and use of a real-time polymerase chain reaction assay for the detection of Ophidiomyces ophiodiicola in snakes.

    PubMed

    Allender, Matthew C; Bunick, David; Dzhaman, Elena; Burrus, Lucienne; Maddox, Carol

    2015-03-01

    Fungal pathogens threatening the conservation of wildlife are becoming increasingly common. Since 2008, free-ranging snakes across North America have been experiencing a marked increase in the prevalence of snake fungal disease associated with Ophidiomyces ophiodiicola. Diagnosis has historically relied on histology, microbiology, and conventional polymerase chain reaction (PCR). More sensitive methods are needed to adequately characterize the epidemiology. The current study describes the development of a real-time PCR (qPCR) assay for detecting a segment of the internal transcribed spacer 1 region between the 18S and 5.8S ribosomal RNA gene. The assay was able to detect as few as 1.05 × 10(1) gene copies per reaction. An additional 4 positive cases were detected when comparing a conventional PCR (n = 3) and the qPCR (n = 7) when used on swab samples from 47 eastern massasauga rattlesnakes. The newly developed assay is a sensitive and specific tool for surveillance and monitoring in the conservation of free-ranging snakes.

  4. Identification of Listeria Spp. Strains Isolated from Meat Products and Meat Production Plants by Multiplex Polymerase Chain Reaction

    PubMed Central

    Mazza, Roberta; Ladu, Daniela; Putzolu, Miriam; Consolati, Simonetta Gianna; Mazzette, Rina

    2015-01-01

    Listeriosis is a foodborne disease caused by Listeria monocytogenes and is considered as a serious health problem, due to the severity of symptoms and the high mortality rate. Recently, other Listeria species have been associated with disease in human and animals. The aim of this study was to develop a multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in order to simultaneously detect six Listeria species (L. grayi, L. welshimeri, L. ivanovii, L. monocytogenes, L. seeligeri, L. innocua) in a single reaction. One hundred eighteen Listeria spp. strains, isolated from meat products (sausages) and processing plants (surfaces in contact and not in contact with meat), were included in the study. All the strains were submitted to biochemical identification using the API Listeria system. A multiplex PCR was developed with the aim to identify the six species of Listeria. PCR allowed to uniquely identify strains that had expressed a doubtful profile with API Listeria The results suggest that the multiplex PCR could represent a rapid and sensitive screening test, a reliable method for the detection of all Listeria species, both in contaminated food and in clinical samples, and also a tool that could be used for epidemiological purposes in food-borne outbreaks. A further application could be the development of a PCR that can be directly applied to the pre-enrichment broth. PMID:27800422

  5. Detection of cashew nut DNA in spiked baked goods using a real-time polymerase chain reaction method.

    PubMed

    Brzezinski, Jennifer L

    2006-01-01

    The detection of potentially allergenic foods, such as tree nuts, in food products is a major concern for the food processing industry. A real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method was designed to determine the presence of cashew DNA in food products. The PCR amplifies a 67 bp fragment of the cashew 2S albumin gene, which is detected with a cashew-specific, dual-labeled TaqMan probe. This reaction will not amplify DNA derived from other tree nut species, such as almond, Brazil nut, hazelnut, and walnut, as well as 4 varieties of peanut. This assay was sensitive enough to detect 5 pg purified cashew DNA as well as cashew DNA in a spiked chocolate cookie sample containing 0.01% (100 mg/kg) cashew.

  6. Development of melting temperature-based SYBR Green I polymerase chain reaction methods for multiplex genetically modified organism detection.

    PubMed

    Hernández, Marta; Rodríguez-Lázaro, David; Esteve, Teresa; Prat, Salomé; Pla, Maria

    2003-12-15

    Commercialization of several genetically modified crops has been approved worldwide to date. Uniplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based methods to identify these different insertion events have been developed, but their use in the analysis of all commercially available genetically modified organisms (GMOs) is becoming progressively insufficient. These methods require a large number of assays to detect all possible GMOs present in the sample and thereby the development of multiplex PCR systems using combined probes and primers targeted to sequences specific to various GMOs is needed for detection of this increasing number of GMOs. Here we report on the development of a multiplex real-time PCR suitable for multiple GMO identification, based on the intercalating dye SYBR Green I and the analysis of the melting curves of the amplified products. Using this method, different amplification products specific for Maximizer 176, Bt11, MON810, and GA21 maize and for GTS 40-3-2 soybean were obtained and identified by their specific Tm. We have combined amplification of these products in a number of multiplex reactions and show the suitability of the methods for identification of GMOs with a sensitivity of 0.1% in duplex reactions. The described methods offer an economic and simple alternative to real-time PCR systems based on sequence-specific probes (i.e., TaqMan chemistry). These methods can be used as selection tests and further optimized for uniplex GMO quantification.

  7. Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction as a Tool for Evaluation of Magnetic Poly(Glycidyl methacrylate)-Based Microspheres in Molecular Diagnostics.

    PubMed

    Trachtová, Stepánka; Spanová, Alena; Horák, Daniel; Kozáková, Hana; Rittich, Bohuslav

    2016-01-01

    DNA amplification by real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was used for the evaluation of efficiency of polymer coating of magnetic hydrophilic poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate-co-glycidyl methacrylate) (P(HEMA-co-GMA)) and poly(glycidyl methacrylate) (PGMA) microspheres with/without carboxyl groups. The inhibition effect of magnetic microspheres on real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) course was evaluated by regression analysis after the addition of different concentrations of tested microspheres to PCR mixtures. Microspheres mostly did not interfere in RT-PCR till the concentration 50 µg/25 µl PCR mixture. No relationship between Fe content (and microsphere diameter) and inhibition effect was found. Microspheres containing carboxyl groups extinguished the fluorescence at lower concentrations (10-20 µg/25 µl PCR mixture) without inhibition of DNA amplification as PCR products were detected using agarose gel electrophoresis. Negative effect of maghemite on PCR course was partially reduced by coating of magnetic core by silica or polymers. Two inhibition mechanisms of DNA amplification were discussed in this work.

  8. Polymerase chain reaction preparation of template for massively parallel pyrosequencing.

    PubMed

    Whetten, Ross W; Sofía, Valenzuela A; Frampton, John

    2009-04-01

    Massively parallel pyrosequencing of DNA fragments immobilized on beads has been applied to genome survey sequencing and transcriptome analysis of a variety of eukaryotic organisms, including laboratory model species, agricultural crops and livestock, and species of interest to population biologists and ecologists. Preparation of sufficient high-quality template for sequencing has been an obstacle to sequence analysis of nucleic acids from tissues or cell types available in limited quantities. We report that the use of a biotinylated primer for polymerase chain reaction amplification allows removal of excess primer and poly(A) tract fragments from the sequencing templates, providing much higher yields of useful sequence information from pyrosequencing of amplified templates. This advance allows deep sequencing analysis of nucleic acids isolated from very small tissue samples. Massively parallel pyrosequencing is particularly useful for preliminary investigations of species that have not yet been the subject of significant genomic research, as genomic survey sequences and catalogs of expressed genes provide a means of linking the biology of less intensively studied species to that of more intensively studied model organisms. We obtained over 220 Mb of transcript DNA sequences from Abies fraseri (Pursh) Poir., a conifer species native to the southern Appalachian Mountains of eastern North America. Comparison of the resulting assembled putative transcripts with similar data obtained by other sequencing methods from other conifers demonstrates the utility of the improved sequencing template preparation. PMID:19503624

  9. Quantitative fucK gene polymerase chain reaction on sputum and nasopharyngeal secretions to detect Haemophilus influenzae pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Abdeldaim, Guma M K; Strålin, Kristoffer; Olcén, Per; Blomberg, Jonas; Mölling, Paula; Herrmann, Björn

    2013-06-01

    A quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for the fucK gene was developed for specific detection of Haemophilus influenzae. The method was tested on sputum and nasopharyngeal aspirate (NPA) from 78 patients with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). With a reference standard of sputum culture and/or serology against the patient's own nasopharyngeal isolate, H. influenzae etiology was detected in 20 patients. Compared with the reference standard, fucK PCR (using the detection limit 10(5) DNA copies/mL) on sputum and NPA showed a sensitivity of 95.0% (19/20) in both cases, and specificities of 87.9% (51/58) and 89.5% (52/58), respectively. In a receiver operating characteristic curve analysis, sputum fucK PCR was found to be significantly superior to sputum P6 PCR for detection of H. influenzae CAP. NPA fucK PCR was positive in 3 of 54 adult controls without respiratory symptoms. In conclusion, quantitative fucK real-time PCR provides a sensitive and specific identification of H. influenzae in respiratory secretions. PMID:23541117

  10. Comparison of procedures for the detection of enteroviruses in murine heart samples by in situ polymerase chain reaction.

    PubMed

    Berger, M M; See, D M; Redl, B; Aymard, M; Lina, B

    1997-01-01

    A protocol for the in situ polymerase chain reaction (IS-PCR) detection of viral nucleic acid in the heart tissue of four-to-five-week-old CD1 mice infected with coxsackievirus B3 (CBV3) Nancy strain is described. To compare the effects of formalin concentration on the IS-PCR process, two different concentrations (10 and 37%) were employed. Using 37% formalin, 25 PCR cycles were sufficient and a permeabilization step could be omitted. However, postfixation of tissues with 4% paraformaldehyde and 100% ethanol after the deparaffinization, reverse transcriptase and amplification steps was required in order to minimize artefacts. When the tissues were fixed in 10% formalin, postfixation with 4% paraformaldehyde was not required, but a permeabilization step had to be employed and 40 cycles of PCR amplification were needed. To detect the PCR product in the 10% formalin-fixed samples, incubation with 0.3 U/ml of an anti-digoxigenin antibody conjugated to alkaline phosphatase was performed for 90 min. When 37% formalin-fixed samples were used, the concentration of the antibody conjugate had to be increased to 3 U/ml and the exposure time was decreased to 30 min. Enterovirus (EV) nucleic acid was detected in the cytoplasm of myocytes. Thus, IS-PCR was successful in localizing EV nucleic acid in the cytoplasm of myocytes in mice infected with a cardiotropic strain of CBV3. Using this technique, 10% formalin-fixed tissues gave better results than 37% formalin-fixed tissues.

  11. [Adaptation of a sensitive DNA extraction method for detection of Entamoeba histolytica by real-time polymerase chain reaction].

    PubMed

    Pınar, Ahmet; Akyön, Yakut; Alp, Alpaslan; Ergüven, Sibel

    2010-07-01

    This study was aimed to adapt a sensitive DNA extraction protocol in stool samples for real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) detection of Entamoeba histolytica which causes important morbidity and mortality worldwide. Stool extraction is a problematic step and has direct effects on PCR sensitivity. In order to improve the sensitivity of E.histolytica detection by real-time PCR, "QIAamp DNA stool minikit (Qiagen, Germany)" was modified by adding an overnight incubation step with proteinase K and sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) in this study. Three different extraction methods [(1) original method, (2) cetyltrimethyl-ammonium bromide (CTAB) method, (3) modified method] were evaluated for effects on sensitivity in real-time quantitative PCR (Artus RealArt TM E.histolytica RG PCR Kit, Qiagen Diagnostics, Germany). For this purpose, several concentrations of standard E.histolytica DNA were spiked in parasite-free stool samples and three different extraction protocols were performed. Detection sensitivities of "QIAamp DNA stool minikit" was found 5000 copies/ml and of CTAB method was found 500 copies/ml. Detection sensitivity of the extraction was improved to 5 copies/mL by modified "QIAamp DNA stool minikit" protocol. Since detection sensitivities of nucleic acid extraction protocols from stool samples directly affect the sensitivity of PCR amplification, different extraction protocols for different microorganisms should be evaluated.

  12. Processing of long-stored archival cervical smears for human papillomavirus detection by the polymerase chain reaction.

    PubMed

    de Roda Husman, A M; Snijders, P J; Stel, H V; van den Brule, A J; Meijer, C J; Walboomers, J M

    1995-08-01

    The efficiency of a freeze-thaw method, a proteinase K/Tween 20 lysis method and a guanidinium isothiocyanate/silica beads method for DNA extraction from fixed and Papanicolaou-stained cells from the cervical cancer cell line Siha was measured by beta-globin polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The GTC/silica beads method, which appeared superior, revealed a human papillomavirus (HPV) general primer-mediated PCR sensitivity of 50-500 copies of HPV 16 per sample using dilutions of fixed and stained Siha cells. Application to archival cervical smears (n = 116) revealed that the yield and size of amplifiable DNA decreases with storage time. The longer the storage time, the more repetitions of the whole procedure, including the lysis step, were required to extract sufficient amplifiable DNA. In this way, an overall beta-globin PCR positivity for 98% of the smears was reached. Further analysis revealed that a maximum size of 200 bp could be amplified from smears stored for up to 9 years. The method was validated by demonstrating by PCR the same HPV types in archival smears and corresponding cervical biopsies of cervical cancer patients. In conclusion, the GTC/silica beads method appears suitable to process archival cervical smears for HPV detection by PCR. provided that stepwise adjustments are made until beta-globin PCR positivity is obtained and primers are chosen which amplify a maximum of about 200 bp.

  13. A simple and rapid method for detection of Trypanosoma evansi in the dromedary camel using a nested polymerase chain reaction

    PubMed Central

    Aradaib, Imadeldin E; Majid, Ali A

    2006-01-01

    A nested polymerase chain reaction (nPCR)-based assay, was developed and evaluated for rapid detection of Trypanosoma evansi in experimentally infected mice and naturally infected camels (Camelus dromedarius). Four oligonucleotide primers (TE1, TE2, TE3 and TE4), selected from nuclear repetitive gene of T. evansi, were designed and used for PCR amplifications. The first amplification, using a pair of outer primers TE1 and TE2, produced a 821-bp primary PCR product from T. evansi DNA. The second amplification, using nested (internal) pair of primers TE3 and TE4, produced a 270-bp PCR product. T. evansi DNAs extracted from blood samples of experimentally infected mice and naturally infected Sudanese breed of dromedary camels were detected by this nested PCR-based assay. The nested primers TE3 and TE4 increased the sensitivity of the PCR assay and as little as 10 fg of T. evansi DNA (equivalent to a single copy of the putative gene of the parasite) was amplified and visualized onto ethidium bromide-stained agarose gels. Amplification products were not detected when the PCR-based assay was applied to DNA from other blood parasites including Thieleria annulata, Babesia bigemina or nucleic acid free samples. Application of this nPCR-based assay to clinical samples resulted in direct detection of T. evansi from a variety of tissue samples collected from experimentally infected mice and blood from naturally infected camels. The described nPCR-based assay provides a valuable tool to study the epidemiology of T. evansi infection in camels and other susceptible animal populations. PMID:16712737

  14. Comparison of different methods of RNA isolation for plum pox virus detection by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction.

    PubMed

    Faggioli, F; Pasquini, G; Barba, M

    1998-09-01

    The diagnosis of plum pox virus (PPV) is still considered one of the most important aspects of the "sharka" problem. In fact, different studies demonstrated an uneven distribution of the virus in infected trees due to a high variability in virus concentration. These aspects complicate the PPV diagnosis. To date, biological, serological and molecular assays have been successively developed in order to obtain sensitive and efficient PPV detection techniques. In particular, the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique seems to be promising and can be considered the most sensitive and reliable one. Preparation of viral RNA is still a fundamental step in reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) technique, especially when applied to large scale testing, i.e., for certification purposes. In order to find the most rapid and efficient procedure, we have compared three different procedures of extraction of viral RNA to be processed RT-PCR. Their common characteristics is their capacity to extract the RNA from a small amount of plant tissue without organic solvents in the extraction fluid. The procedures were as follows: an immuno-capture (IC) method using a specific antiserum, a silica-capture (SC) method using a non-specific matrix, and a simple and rapid RNA extraction (RE) method. They all were followed by one-tube RT-PCR. The obtained results show that all the three techniques allowed a successful amplification and detection of PPV in tested samples except the SC-PCR method which proved less effective. In fact, the IC-PCR and RE-PCR methods amplified and detected PPV in all isolates tested, while the SC-PCR method was able to reveal the presence of the virus in apricot and infected control samples only.

  15. Detection of T-cell receptor gamma chain V gene rearrangements using the polymerase chain reaction: application to the study of clonal disease cells in acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Taylor, J J; Rowe, D; Williamson, I K; Christmas, S E; Proctor, S J; Middleton, P G

    1991-05-01

    This report describes the development and characterization of a method for the amplification of rearranged V-J segments of the human T-cell receptor gamma chain (TCRG) locus using an adaptation of the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique. The technique uses a single pair of 'consensus' primers to amplify rearrangements involving the V gamma I subgroup genes, which are common in malignant cells from acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) patients. Using this method we were able to detect rearrangements in the TCRG locus in disease cells from patients with T-cell ALL (12 of 12), common ALL (10 of 14), and Null cell ALL (2 of 2) at presentation. Monoallelic and biallelic rearrangements involving V gamma I subgroup genes were identified by restriction analysis of PCR products from DNA samples from a T-cell leukemic cell line, T-cell clones, and disease cells from patients with ALL of T-and B-cell lineage at presentation. These results confirmed the presence of cell clones within the presentation samples and, in one case, confirmed the persistence of the original malignant cell clone at relapse. This is a rapid and specific method for the detection and characterization of rearrangements of the TCRG locus without recourse to Southern blotting. Therefore, the PCR technique described herein can provide the basis for the study of clonal evolution and minimal residual disease on a high proportion of patients with ALL.

  16. Detecting and Number Counting of Single Engineered Nanoparticles by Digital Particle Polymerase Chain Reaction.

    PubMed

    Paunescu, Daniela; Mora, Carlos A; Querci, Lorenzo; Heckel, Reinhard; Puddu, Michela; Hattendorf, Bodo; Günther, Detlef; Grass, Robert N

    2015-10-27

    The concentrations of nanoparticles present in colloidal dispersions are usually measured and given in mass concentration (e.g. mg/mL), and number concentrations can only be obtained by making assumptions about nanoparticle size and morphology. Additionally traditional nanoparticle concentration measures are not very sensitive, and only the presence/absence of millions/billions of particles occurring together can be obtained. Here, we describe a method, which not only intrinsically results in number concentrations, but is also sensitive enough to count individual nanoparticles, one by one. To make this possible, the sensitivity of the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was combined with a binary (=0/1, yes/no) measurement arrangement, binomial statistics and DNA comprising monodisperse silica nanoparticles. With this method, individual tagged particles in the range of 60-250 nm could be detected and counted in drinking water in absolute number, utilizing a standard qPCR device within 1.5 h of measurement time. For comparison, the method was validated with single particle inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (sp-ICPMS).

  17. Genome fingerprinting by simple sequence repeat (SSR)-anchored polymerase chain reaction amplification

    SciTech Connect

    Zietkiewicz, E.; Labuda, D. ); Rafalski, A. )

    1994-03-15

    Simple sequence repeats (SSR), or microsatellites, are ubiquitous in eukaryotic genomes. Here the authors demonstrate the utility of microsatellite-directed DNA fingerprinting by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification of the interrepeat region. No sequencing is required to design the oligonucleotide primers. They tested primers anchored at 3[prime] or 5[prime] termini of the (A)[sub n] repeats, extended into the flanking sequence by 2 to 4 nucleotide residues [3[prime]-anchored primers: (CA)[sub 8]RG, (CA)[sub 8]RY, and (CA)[sub 7]RTCY; and 5[prime]-anchored primers: BDB(CA)[sub 7]C, DBDA(CA)[sub 7], VHVG(TG)[sub 7] and HVH(TG)[sub 7]T]. Radioactively labeled amplification products were analyzed by electrophoresis, revealing information on multiple genomic loci in a single gel lane. Complex, species-specific patterns were obtained from a variety of eukaryotic taxa. Intraspecies polymorphisms were also observed and shown to segregate as Mendelian markers. Inter-SSR PCR provides a novel fingerprinting approach applicable for taxonomic and phylogenetic comparisons and as a mapping tool in a wide range of organisms. This application of (CA)[sub n] repeats may be extended to different microsatellites and other common dispersed elements. 24 refs., 6 figs.

  18. Elimination of false-positive polymerase chain reaction results resulting from hole punch carryover contamination.

    PubMed

    Bonne, Nicolai; Clark, Phillip; Shearer, Patrick; Raidal, Shane

    2008-01-01

    The collection of biological material (e.g., blood) directly onto filter paper for subsequent use in laboratory assays such as polymerase chain reaction (PCR), has become a common practice. Dried cells or fluid on the paper can be readily rehydrated and retrieved into a standard volume of an appropriate elution buffer but introduces a dilution factor to the sample. The use of a common cutting instrument for excising a standard-sized piece of paper that contains the material also introduces the potential for transferring biological material from one sample to subsequent samples, causing false-positive results by PCR. In the present study, filter-paper-collected blood that contained beak and feather disease virus was used to determine if viral DNA could be transferred between samples by a hole punch used to excise sequential filter papers. It was determined that false-positive results could be obtained at least 13 times after a positive sample. Subsequently, the efficacy of 4 methods of hole punch disinfection, flaming, VirkonS, bleach, and a bleach-ethanol combination, was assessed. The only effective and practical method to destroy DNA was a method where the hole punch was agitated in commercial bleach, rinsed in water, the water was displaced with 100% ethanol and air-dried. This method was simple, cheap, and relatively rapid, and allowed for the use of a single hole punch for a series of samples, without carryover contamination and consequent false-positive results.

  19. High sensitivity detection of active botulinum neurotoxin by glyco-quantitative polymerase chain-reaction.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Seok Joon; Jeong, Eun Ji; Yoo, Yung Choon; Cai, Chao; Yang, Gi-Hyeok; Lee, Jae Chul; Dordick, Jonathan S; Linhardt, Robert J; Lee, Kyung Bok

    2014-03-01

    The sensitive detection of highly toxic botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT) from Clostridium botulinum is of critical importance because it causes human illnesses if foodborne or introduced in wounds and as an iatrogenic substance. Moreover, it has been recently considered a possible biological warfare agent. Over the past decade, significant progress has been made in BoNT detection technologies, including mouse lethality assays, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays, and endopeptidase assays and by mass spectrometry. Critical assay requirements, including rapid assay, active toxin detection, sensitive and accurate detection, still remain challenging. Here, we present a novel method to detect active BoNTs using a Glyco-quantitative polymerase chain-reaction (qPCR) approach. Sialyllactose, which interacts with the binding-domain of BoNTs, is incorporated into a sialyllactose-DNA conjugate as a binding-probe for active BoNT and recovered through BoNT-immunoprecipitation. Glyco-qPCR analysis of the bound sialyllactose-DNA is then used to detect low attomolar concentrations of BoNT and attomolar to femtomolar concentrations of BoNT in honey, the most common foodborne source of infant botulism.

  20. Detection of Trypanosoma congolense and Trypanosoma brucei subspecies by DNA amplification using the polymerase chain reaction.

    PubMed

    Moser, D R; Cook, G A; Ochs, D E; Bailey, C P; McKane, M R; Donelson, J E

    1989-08-01

    The nuclear DNA of Trypanosoma congolense contains a family of highly conserved 369 base pair (bp) repeats. The sequences of three cloned copies of these repeats were determined. An unrelated family of 177 bp repeats has previously been shown to occur in the nuclear DNA of Trypanosoma brucei brucei (Sloof et al. 1983a). Oligonucleotides were synthesized which prime the specific amplification of each of these repetitive DNAs by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Amplification of 10% of the DNA in a single parasite of T. congolense or T. brucei spp. produced sufficient amplified product to be visible as a band in an agarose gel stained with ethidium bromide. This level of detection, which does not depend on the use of radioactivity, is about 100 times more sensitive than previous detection methods based on radioactive DNA probes. The oligonucleotides did not prime the amplification of DNA sequences in other trypanosome species nor in Leishmania, mouse or human DNAs. Amplification of DNA from the blood of animals infected with T. congolense and/or T. brucei spp. permitted the identification of parasite levels far below that detectable by microscopic inspection. Since PCR amplification can be conducted on a large number of samples simultaneously, it is ideally suited for large-scale studies on the prevalence of African trypanosomes in both mammalian blood and insect vectors.

  1. Nested polymerase chain reaction assay for detection of Mycobacterium shottsii and M. pseudoshottsii in striped bass.

    PubMed

    Gauthier, D T; Vogelbein, W K; Rhodes, M W; Reece, K S

    2008-12-01

    Wild striped bass Morone saxatilis in Chesapeake Bay are experiencing a high prevalence of mycobacteriosis, which produces granulomatous lesions of the skin and visceral organs. Culture-based studies have indicated that the newly described species Mycobacterium shottsii and M. pseudoshottsii are the dominant isolates from diseased fish. The classical fish pathogen M. marinum is also found, albeit at much lower frequencies. Both M. shottsii and M. pseudoshottsii are extremely slow-growing on standard selective media, and up to 12 months may be required for isolation and characterization. Epidemiological studies of mycobacteriosis in Chesapeake Bay would therefore benefit from rapid molecular assays with which to detect these species in fish. In this paper, we describe the development of polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) assays capable of detecting M. shottsii, M. pseudoshottsii, and, in most instances, coinfections thereof in striped bass tissues. In addition, PCR-RFLP assays were designed to detect M. marinum and other as-yet-undescribed Mycobacterium spp. present in Chesapeake Bay striped bass. Comparison of these molecular assays with culture-based techniques using splenic tissue from wild striped bass yielded generally concordant results and demonstrated the applicability of these techniques to the study of wild fish.

  2. A real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction for detection and quantification of Vesiculovirus

    PubMed Central

    Tolardo, Aline Lavado; de Souza, William Marciel; Romeiro, Marilia Farignoli; Vieira, Luiz Carlos; Luna, Luciano Kleber de Souza; Henriques, Dyana Alves; de Araujo, Jansen; Siqueira, Carlos Eduardo Hassegawa; Colombo, Tatiana Elias; Aquino, Victor Hugo; da Fonseca, Benedito Antonio Lopes; Bronzoni, Roberta Vieira de Morais; Nogueira, Maurício Lacerda; Durigon, Edison Luiz; Figueiredo, Luiz Tadeu Moraes

    2016-01-01

    Vesiculoviruses (VSV) are zoonotic viruses that cause vesicular stomatitis disease in cattle, horses and pigs, as well as sporadic human cases of acute febrile illness. Therefore, diagnosis of VSV infections by reliable laboratory techniques is important to allow a proper case management and implementation of strategies for the containment of virus spread. We show here a sensitive and reproducible real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) for detection and quantification of VSV. The assay was evaluated with arthropods and serum samples obtained from horses, cattle and patients with acute febrile disease. The real-time RT-PCR amplified the Piry, Carajas, Alagoas and Indiana Vesiculovirus at a melting temperature 81.02 ± 0.8ºC, and the sensitivity of assay was estimated in 10 RNA copies/mL to the Piry Vesiculovirus. The viral genome has been detected in samples of horses and cattle, but not detected in human sera or arthropods. Thus, this assay allows a preliminary differential diagnosis of VSV infections. PMID:27276185

  3. Gene Profiling Studies in Skeletal Muscle by Quantitative Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction Assay

    PubMed Central

    Bhatnagar, Shephali; Panguluri, Siva K.; Kumar, Ashok

    2012-01-01

    Summary Gene profiling is an excellent tool to identify the genetic mechanisms, networks, and molecular pathways involved in skeletal muscle development and muscular disorders. Oligonucleotide or cDNA microarray can be the first step to identify the global gene expression in the study of interest. As microarray techniques provide a large set of differentially expressed genes in a given comparison, the expression profile can be narrowed down by taking various parameters into consideration such as fold values, p-values, and their relevance to the study. Every technique has its own limitations. Therefore, further validation of the results with a different technique is always necessary. Quantitative real-time reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) is the most common technique to validate microarray data and to study the relative expression of specific genes in any experimental set-up. Here, we describe, the qRT-PCR technique, in detail, for -successful gene expression studies in skeletal muscle cells and tissues. PMID:22130845

  4. Use of neuropathological tissue for molecular genetic studies: parameters affecting DNA extraction and polymerase chain reaction.

    PubMed

    Kösel, S; Graeber, M B

    1994-01-01

    Nuclear and mitochondrial DNA were extracted from gray matter of human cerebral cortex which had either been formalin-fixed and embedded into paraffin or stored in formalin for up to 26 years. Extraction conditions were optimized for proteinase K digestion, i.e., enzyme concentration, digestion temperature and incubation time. Using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR), DNA was successfully amplified from archival material and sequenced employing a direct nonradioactive cycle sequencing protocol. In general, tissue embedded into paraffin following brief fixation in formalin gave good quantitative results, i.e., up to 1 microgram DNA/mg tissue were extracted. This yield was at least one order of magnitude higher than that obtained with tissue stored in formalin. However, paraffin-embedded neuropathological material was found to contain an as-yet-unidentified PCR inhibitor, and a deleterious effect of long-term fixation in unbuffered low-grade formalin was clearly detectable. Importantly, both paraffin-embedded tissue blocks and human brain that had been stored in formalin for many years yielded DNA sufficient for qualitative analysis. The implications of these findings for the use of neuropathological material in molecular genetic studies are discussed.

  5. Combination of immunosensor detection with viability testing and confirmation using the polymerase chain reaction and culture.

    PubMed

    Johnson-White, Brandy; Lin, Baochuan; Ligler, Frances S

    2007-01-01

    Rapid and accurate differential determination of viable versus nonviable microbes is critical for formulation of an appropriate response after pathogen detection. Sensors for rapid bacterial identification can be used for applications ranging from environmental monitoring and homeland defense to food process monitoring, but few provide viability information. This study combines the rapid screening capability of the array biosensor using an immunoassay format with methods for determination of viability. Additionally, cells captured by the immobilized antibodies can be cultured following fluorescence imaging to further confirm viability and for cell population expansion for further characterization, e.g., strain identification or antibiotic susceptibility testing. Finally, we demonstrate analysis of captured bacteria using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). PCR results for waveguide-captured cells were 3 orders of magnitude more sensitive than the fluorescence immunoassay and can also provide additional genetic information on the captured microbes. These approaches can be used to rapidly detect and distinguish viable versus nonviable and pathogenic versus nonpathogenic captured organisms, provide culture materials for further analysis on a shorter time scale, and assess the efficacy of decontamination or sterilization procedures. PMID:17194131

  6. Mutagenicity Assessment of Organophosphates using Polymerase Chain Reaction-Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism Assay

    PubMed Central

    Bhinder, Preety; Chaudhry, Asha

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: In this study we have evaluated the mutagenicity of organophosphate pesticides acephate, chlorpyrifos, and profenofos using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) assay with the mosquito Culex quinquefasciatus taken as an experimental model. Materials and Methods: Second instar larvae were treated with LC20 of each pesticide for 24 h and mutations induced in the sequence of mitochondrial COII gene (690bp) were studied from restriction patterns generated with AluI, PacI, and PsiI restriction endonucleases. Results: Variations in the number and size of digested fragments were recorded from treated individuals compared with controls showing that the restriction enzymes created a cut at different locations. In addition, sequences of COII gene from control and treated individuals were also used to confirm the RFLP patterns. From the sequence alignment data, it was found that mutations caused the destruction and generation of restriction sites in the gene sequence of treated individuals. Conclusion: This study indicates that all the three pesticides had potential to induce mutations in the normal sequence of COII gene and also advocates the use of PCR-RFLP assay as an efficient, rapid, and sensitive technique to detect mutagenicity of pesticides. PMID:24403735

  7. Petri dish PCR: laser-heated reactions in nanoliter droplet arrays.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hanyoup; Vishniakou, Siarhei; Faris, Gregory W

    2009-05-01

    We report high-speed real-time PCR performed on an unmodified disposable polystyrene Petri dish. The reaction cycle relies solely on an infrared laser for heating; no conventional heater is required. Nanoliter droplets of PCR mixture as water-in-oil emulsions printed in an array format served as individual PCR microreactors. A simple contact printing technique was developed to generate a large array of uniform sized nanoliter droplets using disposable pipette tips. Printed droplets showed variation of less than 10% in volume and the oil/water/polystyrene interface formed a compact droplet microreactor approximately spherical in shape. The uniform droplet array was used to optimize the laser power required for the two heating steps of PCR, annealing/extension and melting, while the ambient conditions were at room temperature. The optical heating allows for an extremely fast heating rate due to the selective absorption of the infrared laser by PCR buffer only and not the oil or polystyrene Petri dish, allowing completion of 40 amplification cycles in approximately 6 minutes. The quantitative assay capability of the system is also presented and discussed.

  8. Increase in the sensitivity of dengue diagnosis by combination of reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and passage on cell cultures.

    PubMed

    Yamada, K; Takasaki, T; Nawa, M; Kurane, I

    2001-09-01

    We passaged 52 serum samples from dengue patients on C6/36 cells for 7 days and checked the culture fluids by RT-PCR. Two serum samples, which were negative by direct RT-PCR, became positive. One sample was collected on fever day 1 and the other on fever day 2. Results indicate that combination of reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) with passage of serum samples on C6/36 cells increases the sensitivity of dengue diagnosis.

  9. [Detection of the genetically modified organisms in genetically modified soybean and maize by polymerase chain reaction method].

    PubMed

    Mao, Deqian; Mu, Weipeng; Yang, Xiaoguang

    2002-06-01

    A method for the detection of the (genetically modified organism GMOs) in genetically modified soybean (Round-up Ready soybean, RR soybean) and maize(Bt-176 maize) is described. The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method is discussed with the genetically modified soybean and maize whose contents are known. The detection limit can be 0.1%, that is to say, we can detect the GMO in the food whose content is only 0.1%, the detection method is just a screening method. The procedure includes: (1) extraction of genomic DNA of maize and soybean, (2) amplification of the inserted genes, CaMV35S promoter and the NOS terminator inserted by means of the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method, (3) amplification of the specific genes of maize and soybean in order to determine that the samples are maize and soybean, (4) characterization and confirmation of the PCR products by restriction enzyme analysis and the electrophoresis on agarose gel. The RR soybean contains CaMV35S promoter and NOS terminator, and the Bt-176 maize contains only CaMV35S promoter. Due to the high content of the starch in maize, the effect of the electrophororesis is not so good as of the soybean's.

  10. Polymerase chain reaction-based serotyping of pathogenic bacteria in food.

    PubMed

    Salazar, Joelle K; Wang, Yun; Yu, Shuijing; Wang, Hui; Zhang, Wei

    2015-03-01

    Serotyping analysis of bacterial pathogens in food products is important for foodborne disease surveillance and outbreak investigations. Traditional immunological techniques are labor-intensive and time-consuming, whereas polymerase chain r eaction (PCR)-based techniques are more robust, consistent and rapid. PCR-based methods also provide easier standardization and better reproducibility. Here, we summarize some recent developments and applications of PCR-based serotyping for common foodborne pathogens, and provide a list of available bioinformatics tools for developing PCR-based serotyping assays.

  11. Lab-on-a-Chip-Based PCR-RFLP Assay for the Detection of Malayan Box Turtle (Cuora amboinensis) in the Food Chain and Traditional Chinese Medicines

    PubMed Central

    Asing; Ali, Md. Eaqub; Abd Hamid, Sharifah Bee; Hossain, M. A. Motalib; Mustafa, Shuhaimi; Kader, Md. Abdul; Zaidul, I. S. M.

    2016-01-01

    The Malayan box turtle (Cuora amboinensis) (MBT) is a vulnerable and protected turtle species, but it is a lucrative item in the illegal wildlife trade because of its great appeal as an exotic food item and in traditional medicine. Although several polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays to identify MBT by various routes have been documented, their applicability for forensic authentication remains inconclusive due to the long length of the amplicon targets, which are easily broken down by natural decomposition, environmental stresses or physiochemical treatments during food processing. To address this research gap, we developed, for the first time, a species-specific PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) assay with a very short target length (120 bp) to detect MBT in the food chain; this authentication ensured better security and reliability through molecular fingerprints. The PCR-amplified product was digested with Bfa1 endonuclease, and distinctive restriction fingerprints (72, 43 and 5 bp) for MBT were found upon separation in a microfluidic chip-based automated electrophoresis system, which enhances the resolution of short oligos. The chances of any false negative identifications were eliminated through the use of a universal endogenous control for eukaryotes, and the limit of detection was 0.0001 ng DNA or 0.01% of the meat under admixed states. Finally, the optimized PCR-RFLP assay was validated for the screening of raw and processed commercial meatballs, burgers and frankfurters, which are very popular in most countries. The optimized PCR-RFLP assay was further used to screen MBT materials in 153 traditional Chinese medicines of 17 different brands and 62 of them were found MBT positive; wherein the ingredients were not declared in product labels. Overall, the novel assay demonstrated sufficient merit for use in any forensic and/or archaeological authentication of MBT, even under a state of decomposition. PMID:27716792

  12. Real-Time PCR (qPCR) Primer Design Using Free Online Software

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thornton, Brenda; Basu, Chhandak

    2011-01-01

    Real-time PCR (quantitative PCR or qPCR) has become the preferred method for validating results obtained from assays which measure gene expression profiles. The process uses reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), coupled with fluorescent chemistry, to measure variations in transcriptome levels between samples. The four most…

  13. Detection of Copy Number Imbalance in Canine Urothelial Carcinoma With Droplet Digital Polymerase Chain Reaction.

    PubMed

    Mochizuki, H; Shapiro, S G; Breen, M

    2016-07-01

    Urothelial carcinoma (UC) is the most common neoplasm of the canine urinary tract. Clinical presentation of UC is shared with several other, more common urinary tract disorders, and this often delays diagnosis of the UC. Definitive diagnosis of UC requires histopathologic examination of a biopsy specimen, but the cost and invasiveness for these diagnostic tests often result in most diagnoses being made on the basis of clinical findings, diagnostic imaging, and cytologic examination of urine sediment. Regardless of the diagnostic process used, most UCs currently are not diagnosed until they are at an advanced clinical stage and so are associated with poor prognosis. Improved methods for earlier and less invasive detection are needed. In a previous study, the authors demonstrated the presence of highly recurrent DNA copy number aberrations (CNAs) in canine UC and hypothesized that detection of these CNAs in tumor cells can be used as a molecular diagnostic for UC. In this study, a multiplexed droplet digital polymerase chain reaction (ddPCR) assay was detected to detect and quantify CNAs of specific regions of canine chromosomes 8, 13, 19, and 36. The assay was effective at differentiating 31 neoplastic and 25 nonneoplastic bladder tissues based on copy number, with 100% sensitivity and specificity in tissue samples. CNAs were also detected by ddPCR in 67% (12 of 18) of urine DNA specimens derived from UC patients. The findings show that ddPCR is a useful molecular